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Sample records for invasive harlequin ladybirds

  1. Behavioral and Immunological Features Promoting the Invasive Performance of the Harlequin Ladybird Harmonia axyridis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François J. Verheggen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis is now established as a model to test hypotheses explaining why some species become successfully invasive, while others, even closely related ones, do not. In this review, we evaluate behavioral and immunological features that may play a role in the invasive performance of this model species. We discuss the behavioral traits and associated semiochemicals that promote the invasive success of H. axyridis. In particular, we consider (1 the aggregative behavior and the particular role of long-chain hydrocarbons; (2 the importance of sex pheromones and non-volatile chemicals in mate location and selection; (3 the use of allelochemicals for prey location; and (4 the nature of chemicals that protect against natural enemies. We also highlight the superior immune system of H. axyridis, which encompasses a broader spectrum of antimicrobial peptides (and higher inducible expression levels compared with native ladybird beetles such as Adalia bipunctata and Coccinella septempunctata. The chemical defense compound harmonine and the antimicrobial peptides are thought to confer resistance against the abundant microsporidia carried by H. axyridis. These parasites can infect and kill native ladybird species feeding on H. axyridis eggs or larvae, supporting the hypothesis that intraguild predation plays a role in the ability of H. axyridis to outcompete native ladybird species in newly-colonized areas.

  2. Increase in male reproductive success and female reproductive investment in invasive populations of the harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume J M Laugier

    Full Text Available Reproductive strategy affects population dynamics and genetic parameters that can, in turn, affect evolutionary processes during the course of biological invasion. Life-history traits associated with reproductive strategy are therefore potentially good candidates for rapid evolutionary shifts during invasions. In a series of mating trials, we examined mixed groups of four males from invasive and native populations of the harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis mating freely during 48 hours with one female of either type. We recorded the identity of the first male to copulate and after the 48 h-period, we examined female fecundity and share of paternity, using molecular markers. We found that invasive populations have a different profile of male and female reproductive output. Males from invasive populations are more likely to mate first and gain a higher proportion of offspring with both invasive and native females. Females from invasive populations reproduce sooner, lay more eggs, and have offspring sired by a larger number of fathers than females from native populations. We found no evidence of direct inbreeding avoidance behaviour in both invasive and native females. This study highlights the importance of investigating evolutionary changes in reproductive strategy and associated traits during biological invasions.

  3. Cannibalism in invasive, native and biocontrol populations of the harlequin ladybird

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Cannibalism is widespread in both vertebrates and invertebrates but its extent is variable between and within species. Cannibalism depends on population density and nutritional conditions, and could be beneficial during colonisation of new environments. Empirical studies are needed to determine whether this trait might facilitate invasion of a new area in natural systems. We investigated whether the propensity for cannibalism in H. axyridis differs both between native and invasive populations and between invasive populations from the core and from the front of the invasive area in Western Europe. We also compared the propensity for cannibalism of these natural populations with that of laboratory-reared biocontrol populations. We measured the cannibalism rates of eggs by first instar larvae and adult females at two different individual densities of ladybirds from three types of population (invasive, native and biocontrol), in laboratory-controlled conditions. Results Cannibalism was significantly greater in larvae from invasive populations compared to native or biocontrol populations, but there was no difference in cannibalism rates between populations from the core or front of the invaded range. Cannibalism was significantly lower in larvae from biocontrol populations compared to wild (invasive and native) populations. No differences in cannibalism rates of adult females were found between any populations. While high population density significantly increased cannibalism in both larvae and adults, the norm of reaction of cannibalism to individual density did not change significantly during the invasion and/or laboratory rearing processes. Conclusion This study is the first to provide evidence for a higher propensity for cannibalism in invasive populations compared to native ones. Our experiments also shed light on the difference in cannibalism evolution with respect to life stages. However, we are still at an early stage in understanding the underlying

  4. Investigating the genetic load of an emblematic invasive species: the case of the invasive harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis.

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    Tayeh, A; Estoup, A; Hufbauer, R A; Ravigne, V; Goryacheva, I; Zakharov, I A; Lombaert, E; Facon, B

    2013-04-01

    Introduction events can lead to admixture between genetically differentiated populations and bottlenecks in population size. These processes can alter the adaptive potential of invasive species by shaping genetic variation, but more importantly, they can also directly affect mean population fitness either increasing it or decreasing it. Which outcome is observed depends on the structure of the genetic load of the species. The ladybird Harmonia axyridis is a good example of invasive species where introduced populations have gone through admixture and bottleneck events. We used laboratory experiments to manipulate the relatedness among H. axyridis parental individuals to assess the possibility for heterosis or outbreeding depression in F1 generation offspring for two traits related to fitness (lifetime performance and generation time). We found that inter-populations crosses had no major impact on the lifetime performance of the offspring produced by individuals from either native or invasive populations. Significant outbreeding depression was observed only for crosses between native populations for generation time. The absence of observed heterosis is indicative of a low occurrence of fixed deleterious mutations within both the native and invasive populations of H. axyridis. The observed deterioration of fitness in native inter-population crosses most likely results from genetic incompatibilities between native genomic backgrounds. We discuss the implications of these results for the structure of genetic load in H. axyridis in the light of the available information regarding the introduction history of this species.

  5. Entomopathogenic fungi recorded from the harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, Tove; Harding, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi were recorded from field samples of the harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis, an invasive coccinellid that has recently arrived in Denmark. Larvae, pupae and adults were found to be infected by Isaria farinosa, Beauveria bassiana and species of Lecanicillium. This is the fi...

  6. The harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roy, Helen E.; Brown, Peter M.J.; Adriaens, Tim

    2016-01-01

    The harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), is native to Asia but has been intentionally introduced to many countries as a biological control agent of pest insects. In numerous countries, however, it has been introduced unintentionally. The dramatic spread of H...

  7. The invasion history, distribution and colour pattern forms of the harlequin ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pall.) (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) in Slovakia, Central Europe.

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    Panigaj, Lubomír; Zach, Peter; Honěk, Alois; Nedvěd, Oldřich; Kulfan, Ján; Martinková, Zdenka; Selyemová, Diana; Viglášová, Sandra; Roy, Helen E

    2014-01-01

    The harlequin ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) has invaded and established in Slovakia. Following unintentional introduction in 2008, the spread of the alien coccinellid was very fast. By the end of 2009, it was recorded across the whole country, and by the end of 2012 it was widely distributed and common in various habitats, particularly gardens, orchards and urban areas, where it was most frequent on trees. The rate of eastward spread was approximately 200 km year(-1), similar to the overall rate of spread in Europe. Between 2008 and 2012, the coccinellid was recorded in a total of 153 localities, in altitudes ranging from 98 to 1,250 m. Most records of this species were made in lowlands, hilly areas and valleys separating mountain ridges. However, it was only rarely documented in areas above 700 m a.s.l. The non-melanic colour form (f. succinea) was dominant along a longitudinal transect including eight urban areas across Slovakia, with the frequency of melanic forms (f. spectabilis and f. conspicua together) between 6.3 and 19.2% and a median equal to 10.5%. The invasion history and distribution of H. axyridis in Slovakia are discussed with regard to the time sequence of records, rate of spread, altitudinal distribution, anthropogenic dispersal, effective recording, proportion of melanic forms and other relevant aspects associated with the spread of this successful invader.

  8. The invasion history, distribution and colour pattern forms of the harlequin ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pall. (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae in Slovakia, Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomír Panigaj

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The harlequin ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae has invaded and established in Slovakia. Following unintentional introduction in 2008, the spread of the alien coccinellid was very fast. By the end of 2009, it was recorded across the whole country, and by the end of 2012 it was widely distributed and common in various habitats, particularly gardens, orchards and urban areas, where it was most frequent on trees. The rate of eastward spread was approximately 200 km year-1, similar to the overall rate of spread in Europe. Between 2008 and 2012, the coccinellid was recorded in a total of 153 localities, in altitudes ranging from 98 to 1,250 m. Most records of this species were made in lowlands, hilly areas and valleys separating mountain ridges. However, it was only rarely documented in areas above 700 m a.s.l. The non-melanic colour form (f. succinea was dominant along alongitudinal transect including eight urban areas across Slovakia, with the frequency of melanic forms (f. spectabilis and f. conspicua together between 6.3 and 19.2% and a median equal to 10.5%. The invasion history and distribution of H. axyridis in Slovakia are discussed with regard to the time sequence of records, rate of spread, altitudinal distribution, anthropogenic dispersal, effective recording, proportion of melanic forms and other relevant aspects associated with the spread of this successful invader.

  9. Life history of the Harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis; a global meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raak-van den Berg, C.L.; Hemerik, A.; Werf, van der W.; Jong, de P.W.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2017-01-01

    Data collected en used for a meta analysis on life history data of H. axyridis. And the resulting 20 best models for each life history characteristic. Published in the paper: Life history of the Harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis; a global meta-analysis.

  10. Predicting the potential geographical distribution of the harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis, using the CLIMEX model - BioControl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poutsma, J.; Loomans, A.; Aukema, B.; Heijerman, Th.

    2008-01-01

    Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is a ladybird beetle native to temperate and subtropical parts of Asia. Since 1916 populations of this species have been introduced throughout the world, either deliberately, or by accident through international transport. Harmonia

  11. The harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis: global perspectives on invasion history and ecology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roy, H. E.; Brown, P. M. J.; Adriaens, T.; Berkvens, N.; Borges, I.; Clusella-Trullas, S.; Comont, R. F.; De Clercq, P.; Eschen, R.; Estoup, A.; Evans, E.W.; Facon, B.; Gardiner, M. M.; Gil, A.; Grez, A. A.; Guillemaud, T.; Haelewaters, D.; Herz, A.; Honěk, A.; Howe, A. G.; Hui, C.; Hutchison, W. D.; Kenis, M.; Koch, R. L.; Kulfan, J.; Handley, L. L.; Lombaert, E.; Loomans, A.; Losey, J.; Lukashuk, A. O.; Maes, A.; Magro, A.; Murray, K. M.; Martin, G. S.; Martínková, Z.; Minnaar, I. A.; Nedvěd, Oldřich; Orlova-Bienkowskaja, M. J.; Osawa, N.; Rabitsch, W.; Ravn, H. P.; Rondoni, G.; Rorke, S. L.; Ryndevich, S. K.; Saethre, M.-G.; Sloggett, J. J.; Soares, A. O.; Stals, R.; Tinsley, M. C.; Vandereycken, A.; van Wielink, P.; Viglášová, S.; Zach, P.; Zakharov, I. A.; Zaviezo, T.; Zhao, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 4 (2016), s. 997-1044 ISSN 1387-3547 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Coccinellidae * biocontrol * species trait Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.473, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10530-016-1077-6

  12. Potential for exploitative competition, not intraguild predation, between invasive harlequin ladybirds and flowerbugs in urban parks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howe, Andrew Gordon; Ravn, Hans Peter; Pipper, Christian Bressen

    2016-01-01

    positive for aphid DNA. Incorporating insect densities revealed that the density of H. axyridis larvae had a strong negative effect on the likelihood of detecting aphid DNA in A. nemoralis. Prey overlap for E. tiliae was widespread in space (2–13 m height in tree crowns) and time (May–October 2011) which...

  13. Invasive alien predator causes rapid declines of native European ladybirds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roy, Helen E.; Adriaens, Tim; Isaac, Nick J.B.

    2012-01-01

    Aim Invasive alien species (IAS) are recognized as major drivers of biodiversity loss, but few causal relationships between IAS and species declines have been documented. In this study, we compare the distribution (Belgium and Britain) and abundance (Belgium, Britain and Switzerland) of formerly...

  14. Spread of the invasive ladybird Harmonia axyridis in the Czech Republic and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedved, Oldrich; Steenberg, Tove; Harding, Susanne

    2008-01-01

    Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University OF Aarhus, Skovbrynet 14, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark 4 Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Bülowsvej 13, DK - 1870 Frederiksberg C, Denmark nedved@prf.jcu.cz Introduction: Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is an invasive alien......Spread of the invasive ladybird Harmonia axyridis in the Czech Republic and Denmark Oldřich Nedvěd1,2 and Tove Steenberg3 and SUSANNE HARDING4 1Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia, and 2Institute of Entomology, Biology Centre; Branišovská 31, CZ370 05 České Budějovice, Czech Republic. 3...... that H. axyridis will continue to spread rapidly in Europe, particularly northwards and eastwards. Although there may consequently be a reduction in pest insects, our records support that this species may have significant detrimental impact. The records of the axyridis colour morph in the Czech Republic...

  15. Invasive alien predator causes rapid declines of native European ladybirds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roy, H. E.; Adriaens, T.; Isaac, N. J. B.; Kenis, M.; Onkelinx, T.; San Martin, G.; Brown, P. M. J.; Hautier, L.; Poland, R.; Roy, D. B.; Comont, R.; Eschen, R.; Frost, R.; Zindel, R.; Van Vlaenderen, J.; Nedvěd, Oldřich; Ravn, H. P.; Grégoire, J.-C.; de Biseau, J.-C.; Maes, D.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 7 (2012), s. 717-725 ISSN 1366-9516 Grant - others:MZe ČR(CZ) QH82047; Swiss Federal Office for the Environment(SE) F232-0377; project ALARM(BE) GOCE-CT-2003-506675 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : biological control * biological invasions * citizen science Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 6.122, year: 2012 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1472-4642.2012.00883.x/pdf

  16. Record of the invasive alien ladybird Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) from Kenya

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nedvěd, Oldřich; Háva, J.; Kulíková, D.

    -, č. 106 (2011), s. 77-81 ISSN 1313-2989 Grant - others:Ministry of Agriculture of Czech Republic(CZ) QH82047 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : multicolored Asian ladybird * distribution * new record Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.879, year: 2011

  17. Harlequin fetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, N.A.; Ghauri, A. Q.

    2004-01-01

    We report a case of harlequin fetus born to the consanguineous parents, She had the typical skin manifestations of thick armour like scales with fissures, complete ectropion and eclabium, atrophic and crumpled ears and swollen extremities with gangrenous digits, Supportive treatment was given but the neonate died on the 4th day. (author)

  18. Harlequin Ichthyosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashemzadeh Ahmad

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available It is an autosomal recessive, and occasionally autosomal dominant mutant extremely rare disorder with only 100 reported case in literature. This fatal disorder occur in both sexes and all races. In most circumstances the newborn die soon after birth Also it is known as harlequin fetus, alligator baby or keratosis diffusa fatalis."nBecause of its rarity, we report 2 cases of this disorder, here.

  19. Harlequin ichthyosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhdari, Nadia; Ouladsiad, Mohamed; Aboussad, Abdelmounaim; Amal, Said

    2010-01-01

    A 2-hour-old newborn boy hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit was examined for unusual cutaneous lesions. He had firm plaques covering his body, with fissures especially in flexural areas. Other remarkable findings included edematous hands and feet, ectropion, eclabium, and contractures (Figure). Topical emollients and etretinate were advised, but the newborn died a few hours later. The parents were first-degree relatives. There was no family history of similar lesions. On the basis of clinical features, the diagnosis of harlequin ichthyosis was made.

  20. Genetics Home Reference: harlequin ichthyosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Harlequin ichthyosis Harlequin ichthyosis Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Harlequin ichthyosis is a severe genetic disorder that mainly affects ...

  1. Body size and the rate of spread of invasive ladybird beetles in North America

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hemptinne, J. L.; Magro, A.; Evans, E.W.; Dixon, Anthony F. G.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 3 (2012), s. 595-605 ISSN 1387-3547 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Invasiveness * Body size * Reproductive rate * Coccinella septempunctata * Harmonia axyridis Subject RIV: EH - Ecology , Behaviour Impact factor: 2.509, year: 2012

  2. The invasion history, distribution and colour pattern forms of the harlequin ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pall.) (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) in Slovakia, Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Panigaj, L.; Zach, P.; Honěk, A.; Nedvěd, Oldřich; Kulfan, J.; Martínková, Z.; Selyemová, D.; Viglášová, S.; Roy, H. E.

    -, č. 412 (2014), s. 89-102 ISSN 1313-2989 Grant - others:Slovak Research and Development Agency(SK) APVV 0200/11; Grant Agency of Ministry of Education and SAS(SK) 1/1025/12; Grant Agency of Ministry of Education and SAS(SK) 2/0035/13; Grant Agency of Ministry of Education and SAS(SK) 2/0157/11; Mze ČR(CZ) QH82047; MŠMT ČR(CZ) 7AMB12SK141; EU COST(CZ) TD1209 Program:FA Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : alien * altitude * colour morphs Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.933, year: 2014 http://europepmc.org/articles/PMC4042697;jsessionid=aEQnuIZkqJpBc2xpenqy.0

  3. Interspecific Interactions between the Invasive Beetle Harmonia axyridis, Native Anthocorids and Entomopathogenic Fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howe, Andrew Gordon

    The Earth’s biodiversity encompasses dynamic arrangements of ecosystems, species and their inherent genetic diversity. Biodiversity is an integral component underlying functional ecosystems. Human well-being is dependent on a variety of services provided by ecosystems, e.g. climate regulation, pest....... The harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was introduced to North America from Asia in the early 20th century as a biological control agent against insect agricultural pests. In the late 20th century a specific population in eastern North America became invasive. Invasive H...... light on the role of insect behaviour in biological invasions, a supplementary dataset compared behavioural 8 traits (tendency to fly/mate and activity) relevant to successful invasion between five native/invasive H. axyridis populations. Findings from laboratory assays strongly suggested interspecific...

  4. Spatial and taxonomical overlap of fungi on phylloplanes and invasive alien ladybirds with fungal infections in tree crowns of urban green spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howe, Andrew Gordon; Ravn, Hans Peter; Jensen, Annette Bruun

    2016-01-01

    Occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi on phylloplanes in Tilia x europaea crowns between 1 - 13m was assessed in urban parks. Prevalence of fungal infections in ladybirds (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) collected from T. x europaea was assessed to determine whether fungi found on phylloplanes also occ...

  5. Spatial and taxonomical overlap of fungi on phylloplanes and invasive alien ladybirds with fungal infections in tree crowns of urban green spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Andy G; Ravn, Hans Peter; Jensen, Annette B; Meyling, Nicolai V

    2016-09-01

    Occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi on phylloplanes in Tilia × europaea crowns between 1 and 13 m was assessed in urban parks. Prevalence of fungal infections in ladybirds (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) collected from Tilia × europaea was assessed to determine whether fungi found on phylloplanes also occurred as infections in ladybirds. Isaria spp. was most abundant on phylloplanes (mean colony forming units (CFU) per leaf ± SE, 0.33 ± 0.03) followed by Beauveria spp. (0.22 ± 0.02 CFU per leaf) and Lecanicillium spp. (0.19 ± 0.02 CFU per leaf). Densities of inoculum were higher in inner crowns and decreased with height, although Lecanicillium spp. peaked at 5-7 m. Upper phylloplane surfaces harboured higher densities of Isaria spp. and Beauveria spp. than lower surfaces, whereas Lecanicillium spp. was equally distributed. Most prevalent on ladybirds were Isaria spp. (20.6% Harmonia axyridis; 4.8% natives), Lecanicillium spp. (13.6% H. axyridis; 4.8% natives), with fewer Beauveria spp. infections (2.6% H. axyridis). Molecular identification revealed Beauveria bassiana, B. pseudobassiana, Isaria farinosa and Lecanicillium muscarium among isolates of both tree and ladybird origin. Tilia × europaea phylloplanes support a diverse assemblage of entomopathogenic fungal species with a different prevalence in coccinellids compared to their relative abundance in this habitat. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Spread of the invasive ladybird Harmonia axyridis in the Czech Republic and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedved, Oldrich; Steenberg, Tove; Harding, Susanne

    Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University OF Aarhus, Skovbrynet 14, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark 4 Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Bülowsvej 13, DK - 1870 Frederiksberg C, Denmark nedved@prf.jcu.cz Introduction: Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is an invasive alien...

  7. Ecological effects of invasive alien species on native communities, with particular emphasis on the interactions between aphids and ladybirds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kindlmann, Pavel; Ameixa, Olga; Dixon, Anthony F. G.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 4 (2011), s. 469-476 ISSN 1386-6141 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : invasive alien species * predators * insect pest s * ecological effects * intraguild predation Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.927, year: 2011

  8. Behavioural and physiological responses to prey-related cues reflect higher competitiveness of invasive vs. native ladybirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondoni, Gabriele; Ielo, Fulvio; Ricci, Carlo; Conti, Eric

    2017-06-16

    Understanding the traits that might be linked with biological invasions represents a great challenge for preventing non-target effects on local biodiversity. In predatory insects, the ability to exploit habitats for oviposition and the physiological response to prey availability differs between species. Those species that respond more readily to environmental changes may confer to their offspring a competitive advantage over other species. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the invasive Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) makes better use of information from a plant-prey (Vicia faba - Aphis fabae) system compared to the native Oenopia conglobata. Y-tube olfactometer bioassays revealed that both species used olfactory cues from the system, but H. axyridis exhibited a more complete response. This species was also attracted by plants previously infested by aphids, indicating the capacity to exploit volatile synomones induced in plants by aphid attack. Oocyte resorption was investigated when different olfactory stimuli were provided under prey shortage and the readiness of new oogenesis was measured when prey was available again. H. axyridis exhibited higher plasticity in oogenesis related to the presence/absence of plant-aphid volatiles. Our results support the hypothesis that H. axyridis is more reactive than O. conglobata to olfactory cues from the plant-prey system.

  9. Expecting the most unexpected – a harlequin baby! A case report and literature analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundaramoorthy M. Srinivasan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Twenty eight years old primi gave birth to an amazing live baby by vaginal delivery – a Harlequin. The child was born with massive, diamond-shaped scales which limit the child’s movements. The term harlequin comes from the baby’s facial expression and diamond-shaped pattern of the scales like the 17th century entertainers, harlequins. As the skin cracks at places of movement the protective function of the skin is lost. Till now the prenatal diagnosis was based on biopsy of fetal skin carried out in an advanced stage of pregnancy. The most important indication of fetal cutaneous biopsy is the diagnosis of genodermatosis and hereditary diseases including Harlequin ichthyosis. It is predictable that for Harlequin Ichthyosis the prenatal test based on DNA will replace the fetal biopsy made before tenth week of gestation by chorionic villus sampling, or even before, with non-invasive analysis of the DNA of fetal cells in maternal circulation. Advances in neonatal intensive care along with scaling being made easier by the use of systemic retinoids has led to improved survival and the use of the name “Harlequin baby” to “Harlequin fetus”, “World’s Largest Baby” or “World’s Smallest Baby”. The mortality rate for harlequin ichthyosis is high. With neonatal intensive care and the advent of retinoid therapy, some babies have survived the newborn period. They are still at risk of dying from systemic infection. It’s the world’s most unconquired medical challenge.

  10. Species assemblages of ladybirds including the harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis: a comparison at large spatial scale in urban habitats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Viglášová, S.; Nedvěd, Oldřich; Zach, P.; Kulfan, J.; Parák, M.; Honěk, A.; Martinková, Z.; Roy, H. E.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 3 (2017), s. 409-421 ISSN 1386-6141 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14SK016 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Aphids * Coleoptera * community Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 1.918, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10526-017-9793-0

  11. A Transcriptome Survey Spanning Life Stages and Sexes of the Harlequin Bug, Murgantia histrionica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Michael E; Rhoades, Joshua H; Nelson, David R; Kuhar, Daniel; Lancaster, Jason; Lehner, Bryan; Tholl, Dorothea; Weber, Donald C; Gundersen-Rindal, Dawn E

    2017-05-25

    The harlequin bug, Murgantia histrionica (Hahn), is an agricultural pest in the continental United States, particularly in southern states. Reliable gene sequence data are especially useful to the development of species-specific, environmentally friendly molecular biopesticides and effective biolures for this insect. Here, mRNAs were sampled from whole insects at the 2nd and 4th nymphal instars, as well as sexed adults, and sequenced using Illumina RNA-Seq technology. A global assembly of these data identified 72,540 putative unique transcripts bearing high levels of similarity to transcripts identified in other taxa, with over 99% of conserved single-copy orthologs among insects being detected. Gene ontology and protein family analyses were conducted to explore the functional potential of the harlequin bug's gene repertoire, and phylogenetic analyses were conducted on gene families germane to xenobiotic detoxification, including glutathione S-transferases, carboxylesterases and cytochrome P450s. Genic content in harlequin bug was compared with that of the closely related invasive pest, the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål). Quantitative analyses of harlequin bug gene expression levels, experimentally validated using quantitative real-time PCR, identified genes differentially expressed between life stages and/or sexes.

  12. A Transcriptome Survey Spanning Life Stages and Sexes of the Harlequin Bug, Murgantia histrionica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Sparks

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The harlequin bug, Murgantia histrionica (Hahn, is an agricultural pest in the continental United States, particularly in southern states. Reliable gene sequence data are especially useful to the development of species-specific, environmentally friendly molecular biopesticides and effective biolures for this insect. Here, mRNAs were sampled from whole insects at the 2nd and 4th nymphal instars, as well as sexed adults, and sequenced using Illumina RNA-Seq technology. A global assembly of these data identified 72,540 putative unique transcripts bearing high levels of similarity to transcripts identified in other taxa, with over 99% of conserved single-copy orthologs among insects being detected. Gene ontology and protein family analyses were conducted to explore the functional potential of the harlequin bug’s gene repertoire, and phylogenetic analyses were conducted on gene families germane to xenobiotic detoxification, including glutathione S-transferases, carboxylesterases and cytochrome P450s. Genic content in harlequin bug was compared with that of the closely related invasive pest, the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål. Quantitative analyses of harlequin bug gene expression levels, experimentally validated using quantitative real-time PCR, identified genes differentially expressed between life stages and/or sexes.

  13. Idiopathic Harlequin syndrome – case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelina Grochowiec

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Harlequin syndrome is a very rare neurological condition characterized by redness and excessive sweating of one half of the face in response to exercise and emotions. In most cases this disorder is not life-threatening. Objective. To present diagnostic difficulties of Harlequin syndrome in dermatological practice. Case report. We present a case of a 30-year-old man with redness and excessive sweating of the right half of the face as a result of exercise that was observed during the diagnosis of chronic urticaria at the Department of Dermatology. The patient was examined ophthalmologically and neurologically, had a CT scan of the head, and the Minor test performed. Idiopathic Harlequin syndrome was diagnosed based on case history and workup results. Conclusions . Harlequin syndrome occurs most often in the form of an idiopathic condition, but neurologic and ophthalmologic assessment should be performed since some diseases, such as brainstem infarction and schwannoma of the upper chest, may initially appear as Harlequin syndrome.

  14. HARLEQUIN ICTHYOSIS: A RARE CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradipprava Paria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Harlequin ichthyosis is the most severe form of congenital ichthyosis. It is a rare autosomal recessive disorder (1:300,000. The vast majority of affected individuals are due to mutation in the ABCA12 gene, which cause a deficiency of the epidermal lipid transporter, resulting in hyperkeratosis and abnormal barrier function of skin. Infants are very susceptible to metabolic abnormalitites and infections. They usually do not survive for very long. we report here a case of a new born with harlequin ichthyosis of consaguinious parentage who had a history of similar birth previously.

  15. Harlequin Syndrome Following Resection of Mediastinal Ganglioneuroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong Jeong Jeon

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Harlequin syndrome is a rare disorder of the sympathetic nervous system characterized by unilateral facial flushing and sweating. Although its etiology is unknown, this syndrome appears to be a dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system. To the best of our knowledge, thus far, very few reports on perioperative Harlequin syndrome after thoracic surgery have been published in the thoracic surgical literature. Here, we present the case of a 6-year-old patient who developed this unusual syndrome following the resection of a posterior mediastinal mass.

  16. Parasitylenchus sp. (Tylenchomorpha: Allantonematidae) parasitizing field populations of Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harding, Susanne; Poinar, George O. Jr.; Dimitrova, Desislava V.

    2011-01-01

    Adults of the invasive harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), were found to be parasitized by nematodes (Tylenchomorpha: Allantonematidae) in Denmark. The nematodes were identified as Parasitylenchus sp. Major morphological characters of the nematodes did not differ...

  17. Harlequin Ichthyosis – A Case Report

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ugezu, C H

    2017-07-01

    Harlequin Ichthyosis is a very rare genetic disorder affecting mainly the skin with severe morbidity and mortality. It affects both sexes with incidence of about 1 in 300,000 live births. Autosomal recessive inheritance has been inferred with mutation in ABCA 12 gene identified. Hence, genetic counseling and mutation screening of this gene should be considered in at-risk patients. Death usually occurred in the first 3 months of life due to sepsis, feeding problems and respiratory distress. With improved neonatal care and early introduction of retinoids, its survival rate has increased.

  18. Predation of Ladybird Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) by Amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloggett, John J

    2012-07-18

    Studies of predation of ladybird beetles (Coccinellidae) have focused on a limited number of predator taxa, such as birds and ants, while other potential predators have received limited attention. I here consider amphibians as predators of ladybirds. Published amphibian gut analyses show that ladybirds are quite often eaten by frogs and toads (Anura), with recorded frequencies reaching up to 15% of dietary items. Salamanders (Caudata) eat ladybirds less frequently, probably as their habits less often bring them into contact with the beetles. Amphibians do not appear to be deleteriously affected by the potentially toxic alkaloids that ladybirds possess. Amphibians, especially frogs and toads, use primarily prey movement as a release cue to attack their food; it is thus likely that their ability to discriminate against ladybirds and other chemically defended prey is limited. Because of this poor discriminatory power, amphibians have apparently evolved non-specific resistance to prey defensive chemicals, including ladybird alkaloids. Although amphibian-related ladybird mortality is limited, in certain habitats it could outweigh mortality from more frequently studied predators, notably birds. The gut analyses from the herpetological literature used in this study, suggest that in studying predation of insects, entomologists should consider specialized literature on other animal groups.

  19. Identification of conditions for successful aphid control by ladybirds in greenhouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of my research on the mass production and augmentative release of ladybirds, I reviewed the primary research literature to test the prediction that ladybirds are effective aphid predators in greenhouses. Aphid population reduction exceeded 50% in most studies and ladybird release rates usual...

  20. Harlequin ichthyosis: four cases from Sudan | Bashier | Sudanese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Harlequin icthyosis (HI) is inherited as autosomal recessive gene. Many cases are sporadic, but others occur in consanguineous families, in which than one may be affected child. Sud. j. dermatol Vol.2(1) 2004: 34-38. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  1. Harlequin color change in preterm infant | Hamida | Pan African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Harlequin phenomenon is a rare event that consists of sudden and transient episodes of demarcated erythema forming on the dependent half of the body of newborns, with pallor of the uppermost half. The infant appears as if a line was drawn on the midline dividing two hemibodies. It occurs preferentially in lateral position.

  2. A case of ecological specialization in ladybirds: Iberorhyzobius rondensis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), potential biocontrol agent of Matsucoccus feytaudi (Hemiptera: Matsucoccidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, C; Jactel, H; van Halder, I; Mendel, Z; Branco, M

    2014-06-01

    Specialization is an important attribute of a biological control agent. The maritime pine bast scale, Matsucoccus feytaudi Ducasse (Hemiptera Matsucoccidae), is an invasive species in Southeast France and the North of Italy. Iberorhyzobius rondensis Eizaguirre (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), is a recently described ladybird species. Both adults and larvae are predaceous, feeding on egg masses of M. feytaudi, and are strongly attracted to M. feytaudi's sex pheromone. To evaluate the potential of I. rondensis as a biocontrol agent of the scale, we studied its niche breadth and prey range with emphasis on pine forests and hemipterans as tested prey. In this study, I. rondensis was found to achieve complete development only when fed on M. feytaudi egg masses (92.9% survival) and an artificial prey: eggs of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (27.6% survival). From the 2nd instar onwards, complete development could be achieved using other prey species, although larvae had significantly higher mortality and slower development. In choice tests, M. feytaudi was the preferred prey. Surveys of the ladybird populations in the Iberian Peninsula revealed that it was found exclusively on Pinus pinaster Aiton, the sole host of M. feytaudi. The unusual specialization of I. rondensis, among other predaceous ladybirds, makes it an appropriate candidate for classical biological control of M. feytaudi.

  3. Harlequin duck (Histrionicus histrionicus) perspective: Harlequin duck population recovery following the Exxon Valdez oil spill: Progress, process, and constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esler, Daniel N.; Bowman, Timothy D.; Trust, Kimberly A.; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Dean, Thomas A.; Jewett, Stephen C.; O'Clair, Charles E.; Holland-Bartels, Leslie E.

    2002-01-01

    Following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, we studied the status of recovery of harlequin duck (Histrionicus histrionicus) populations during 1995-1998. We evaluated potential constraints to full recovery, including (1) exposure to residual oil, (2) food limitation, and (3) intrinsic demographic limitations on population growth rates. In this paper, we synthesize the findings from our work and incorporate information from other harlequin duck research and monitoring programs to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the response of this species to the Exxon Valdez oil spill. We conclude that harlequin duck populations had not fully recovered by 1998. Furthermore, adverse effects continued as many as 9 years after the oil spill, in contrast to the conventional paradigm that oil spill effects on bird populations are short-lived. These conclusions are based on the findings that (1) elevated cytochrome P450 induction on oiled areas indicated continued exposure to oil in 1998, (2) adult female winter survival was lower on oiled than unoiled areas during 1995-1998, (3) fall population surveys by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game indicated numerical declines in oiled areas during 1995-1997, and (4) densities on oiled areas in 1996 and 1997 were lower than expected using models that accounted for effects of habitat attributes. Based on hypothesized links between oil contamination and demography, we suggest that harlequin duck population recovery was constrained primarily by continued oil exposure. Full population recovery also will be delayed by the time necessary for intrinsic population growth to allow return to pre-spill numbers following cessation of residual oil spill effects. Although not all wildlife species were affected by the Exxon Valdez oil spill, and some others may have recovered quickly from any effects, harlequin duck life history characteristics and benthic, nearshore feeding habits make them susceptible to both initial

  4. Spatial and temporal changes in the abundance and compostion of ladybird (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honek, Alois; Dixon, Anthony Fg; Soares, Antonio O; Skuhrovec, Jiri; Martinkova, Zdenka

    2017-04-01

    Because of their services to agriculture most ladybirds (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) are intensively studied predators of mainly phytophagous pests. The study of the long-term variation in the composition of their communities was stimulated by recent dramatic changes in the abundance of some species. We review and evaluate possible effects of the main causes cited in the literature. Agricultural and habitat changes (particularly urbanization) affect coccinellid abundance, both negatively and positively. In the temperate zone dominant species occur most frequently associated with abundant prey populations on crops, weeds and planted stands of trees resulting from human activity. Invasive non-native species of coccinellids may endanger native species through intraguild predation or competition for resources, but their supposed serious negative effects on native species can differ considerably. Climatic change may influence coccinellid species in several ways, including indirect effects through lower trophic levels and desynchronisation of the phenologies of host plants, prey and coccinellid populations. In the near future we do not expect climate warming to have important effects on ladybird diversity globally, but local changes in the composition of coccinellid communities and abundance of particular species could occur. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Predator efficiency reconsidered for a ladybird-aphid system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kindlmann, Pavel; Yasuda, H.; Kajita, Y.; Sato, S.; Dixon, Anthony F. G.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 3, mar (2015), s. 27 ISSN 2296-701X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA ČR GB14-36098G Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : biological control * generation time ratio * population dynamics * predator-prey systems * ladybirds * aphids Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  6. Shaping leg muscles in Drosophila: role of ladybird, a conserved regulator of appendicular myogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Maqbool

    Full Text Available Legs are locomotor appendages used by a variety of evolutionarily distant vertebrates and invertebrates. The primary biological leg function, locomotion, requires the formation of a specialised appendicular musculature. Here we report evidence that ladybird, an orthologue of the Lbx1 gene recognised as a hallmark of appendicular myogenesis in vertebrates, is expressed in leg myoblasts, and regulates the shape, ultrastructure and functional properties of leg muscles in Drosophila. Ladybird expression is progressively activated in myoblasts associated with the imaginal leg disc and precedes that of the founder cell marker dumbfounded. The RNAi-mediated attenuation of ladybird expression alters properties of developing myotubes, impairing their ability to grow and interact with the internal tendons and epithelial attachment sites. It also affects sarcomeric ultrastructure, resulting in reduced leg muscle performance and impaired mobility in surviving flies. The over-expression of ladybird also results in an abnormal pattern of dorsally located leg muscles, indicating different requirements for ladybird in dorsal versus ventral muscles. This differential effect is consistent with the higher level of Ladybird in ventrally located myoblasts and with positive ladybird regulation by extrinsic Wingless signalling from the ventral epithelium. In addition, ladybird expression correlates with that of FGF receptor Heartless and the read-out of FGF signalling downstream of FGF. FGF signals regulate the number of leg disc associated myoblasts and are able to accelerate myogenic differentiation by activating ladybird, leading to ectopic muscle fibre formation. A key role for ladybird in leg myogenesis is further supported by its capacity to repress vestigial and to down-regulate the vestigial-governed flight muscle developmental programme. Thus in Drosophila like in vertebrates, appendicular muscles develop from a specialised pool of myoblasts expressing

  7. Shaping leg muscles in Drosophila: role of ladybird, a conserved regulator of appendicular myogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqbool, Tariq; Soler, Cedric; Jagla, Teresa; Daczewska, Malgorzata; Lodha, Neha; Palliyil, Sudhir; VijayRaghavan, K; Jagla, Krzysztof

    2006-12-27

    Legs are locomotor appendages used by a variety of evolutionarily distant vertebrates and invertebrates. The primary biological leg function, locomotion, requires the formation of a specialised appendicular musculature. Here we report evidence that ladybird, an orthologue of the Lbx1 gene recognised as a hallmark of appendicular myogenesis in vertebrates, is expressed in leg myoblasts, and regulates the shape, ultrastructure and functional properties of leg muscles in Drosophila. Ladybird expression is progressively activated in myoblasts associated with the imaginal leg disc and precedes that of the founder cell marker dumbfounded. The RNAi-mediated attenuation of ladybird expression alters properties of developing myotubes, impairing their ability to grow and interact with the internal tendons and epithelial attachment sites. It also affects sarcomeric ultrastructure, resulting in reduced leg muscle performance and impaired mobility in surviving flies. The over-expression of ladybird also results in an abnormal pattern of dorsally located leg muscles, indicating different requirements for ladybird in dorsal versus ventral muscles. This differential effect is consistent with the higher level of Ladybird in ventrally located myoblasts and with positive ladybird regulation by extrinsic Wingless signalling from the ventral epithelium. In addition, ladybird expression correlates with that of FGF receptor Heartless and the read-out of FGF signalling downstream of FGF. FGF signals regulate the number of leg disc associated myoblasts and are able to accelerate myogenic differentiation by activating ladybird, leading to ectopic muscle fibre formation. A key role for ladybird in leg myogenesis is further supported by its capacity to repress vestigial and to down-regulate the vestigial-governed flight muscle developmental programme. Thus in Drosophila like in vertebrates, appendicular muscles develop from a specialised pool of myoblasts expressing ladybird/Lbx1. The

  8. Evolution of slow and fast development in predatory ladybirds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dixon, Anthony F. G.; Sato, S.; Kindlmann, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 140, 1-2 (2016), s. 103-114 ISSN 0931-2048 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA ČR GB14-36098G Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : aphid consumption * growth polymorphism * ladybirds * optimum growth rate * rate of development * survival Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.641, year: 2016

  9. Harlequin duck capture and EROD activity data from Prince William Sound, Alaska, 2011, 2013, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — This data set includes capture information and ethoxyresorufin­O­deethylase (EROD) activity results for harlequin ducks sampled during March 2011, 2013, and 2014 in...

  10. A transcriptome survey spanning life stages and sexes of the Harlequin bug, Murgantia histrionica

    Science.gov (United States)

    The harlequin bug, Murgantia histrionica (Hahn), is an agricultural pest in the continental United States, particularly in southern states. Reliable gene sequence data are especially useful to the development of species-specific, environmentally friendly molecular biopesticides and effective biolure...

  11. Differences in the predatory behaviour of male and female ladybird beetles (Coccinellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Šipoš

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the response of males and females of ladybirds to different densities of aphids. This was studied using Coccinella septempunctata as the predator and Rhopalosiphum padi as the prey. Interactions between this ladybird and prey were observed on barley (Hordeum vulgare. We established aphid colonies on barley at three different densities, 16, 32 and 84 aphids per pot. Adult ladybirds placed in these colonies were then observed for 10 minutes or until they flew away. We hypothesized that females should consume more aphids than males per unit time. The results of this experiment revealed that the risk of aphid mortality per plant depended on the sex of the ladybird beetle. Female ladybirds consumed significantly more aphids than males per unit time. In addition the turning rate and time spent resting differed between the sexes.

  12. Phylogeny of ladybirds (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae): are the subfamilies monophyletic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magro, A; Lecompte, E; Magné, F; Hemptinne, J-L; Crouau-Roy, B

    2010-03-01

    The Coccinellidae (ladybirds) is a highly speciose family of the Coleoptera. Ladybirds are well known because of their use as biocontrol agents, and are the subject of many ecological studies. However, little is known about phylogenetic relationships of the Coccinellidae, and a precise evolutionary framework is needed for the family. This paper provides the first phylogenetic reconstruction of the relationships within the Coccinellidae based on analysis of five genes: the 18S and 28S rRNA nuclear genes and the mitochondrial 12S, 16S rRNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) genes. The phylogenetic relationships of 67 terminal taxa, representative of all the subfamilies of the Coccinellidae (61 species, 37 genera), and relevant outgroups, were reconstructed using multiple approaches, including Bayesian inference with partitioning strategies. The recovered phylogenies are congruent and show that the Coccinellinae is monophyletic but the Coccidulinae, Epilachninae, Scymninae and Chilocorinae are paraphyletic. The tribe Chilocorini is identified as the sister-group of the Coccinellinae for the first time. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Parasites of Harmonia axyridis: current research and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    The harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) has been introduced widely for biological control of agricultural pests. Populations of H. axyridis have established in four continents outside of its native range in Asia and it is considered an invasive alien species (IAS). Despi...

  14. Fine structure of the ladybird spermatozoa (Insecta, Coleoptera, Coccinellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallai, Romano; Lino-Neto, José; Dias, Glenda; Nere, Pedro H A; Mercati, David; Lupetti, Pietro

    2018-04-07

    The sperm structure of several ladybird species belonging to different subfamilies of Coccinellidae was studied. Three main sperm types were clearly recognized, and were characterized by differences in acrosomal length, the presence of a dense coat around the acrosome, the length of the basal body, the amount of the centriole adjunct material, and the diameter of the mitochondrial derivatives. However, the whole group shares a pattern of the posterior sperm region uncommon for insects, in which the axoneme and other flagellar components are running parallel with the nucleus. As a general conclusion, this study has revealed an inconsistency between the sperm structure and the systematics of the group, indicating that the generic concepts within the group do not reflect a natural classification, a statement also shared by molecular studies. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Harlequin ichthyosis in an infant born to a father with eczema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Saba; Rafiq, Ali; Majid, Zain

    2015-04-01

    Harlequin ichthyosis is characterized by thickening of the layer of the skin which contains keratin. Eczema is a chronic relapsing skin disorder which is also associated with disrupted epidermal barrier. We report the case of a 6-hour-old male patient who was brought to the neonatal intensive care unit of our hospital with crusting skin lesions all over the body, presence of a severe ectropion and deranged electrolytes. A diagnosis of harlequin ichthyosis was made, and the neonate was managed accordingly. However, the infant eventually expired on the seventh day of life. The infant's father was a patient of eczema with a chronic relapsing course and was on oral steroid therapy. As per our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an infant with harlequin ichthyosis born to a father suffering from eczema. The similarities in the pathogenesis of the two diseases and the genetic mutation of filaggrin might suggest an association between the two conditions. Harlequin ichthyosis can hence be looked out for in infants born of parents with eczema. © The Author [2014]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Egg Predation Risk Trigger Adult Hoverfly (Diptera: Syrphidae to Avoid Laying Eggs in Patches Attended by Ladybird Larvae (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugroho Susetya Putra

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Oviposition preference of a predatory hoverfly, Episyrphus balteatus on the presence of its potential predators, the ladybird larvae which are inflicted serious impacts on its eggs was examined in a non-choice test. Our results revealed that the biggest and the most aggressive species of ladybird, Harmonia axyridis caused the worst impact on hoverfly eggs by attacking and feeding on. The species and developmental stages of ladybird were attributed to the level of predation risk. We correlated the oviposition site selection by hoverfly females to the egg predation risk level inflicted by ladybird larvae. Hoverfly females laid the least number of eggs on the patches attended by the strongest competitor, the larva of H. axyridis, and tended to lay the highest number of eggs on colonies attended by the weakest competitor, the larva of Scymnus posticalis. In addition, the impact of the fourth instar larva of ladybirds was stronger than of the first instar larva.

  17. PCB exposure in sea otters and harlequin ducks in relation to history of contamination by the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricca, Mark A; Keith Miles, A; Ballachey, Brenda E; Bodkin, James L; Esler, Daniel; Trust, Kimberly A

    2010-06-01

    Exposure to contaminants other than petroleum hydrocarbons could confound interpretation of Exxon Valdez oil spill effects on biota at Prince William Sound, Alaska. Hence, we investigated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in blood of sea otters and harlequin ducks sampled during 1998. PCB concentrations characterized by lower chlorinated congeners were highest in sea otters from the unoiled area, whereas concentrations were similar among harlequin ducks from the oiled and unoiled area. Blood enzymes often elevated by xenobiotics were not related to PCB concentrations in sea otters. Only sea otters from the unoiled area had estimated risk from PCBs, and PCB composition or concentrations did not correspond to reported lower measures of population performance in sea otters or harlequin ducks from the oiled area. PCBs probably did not influence limited sea otter or harlequin duck recovery in the oiled area a decade after the spill.

  18. PCB exposure in sea otters and harlequin ducks in relation to history of contamination by the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricca, Mark A.; Miles, A. Keith; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Bodkin, James L.; Esler, Daniel; Trust, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to contaminants other than petroleum hydrocarbons could confound interpretation of Exxon Valdez oil spill effects on biota at Prince William Sound, Alaska. Hence, we investigated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in blood of sea otters and harlequin ducks sampled during 1998. PCB concentrations characterized by lower chlorinated congeners were highest in sea otters from the unoiled area, whereas concentrations were similar among harlequin ducks from the oiled and unoiled area. Blood enzymes often elevated by xenobiotics were not related to PCB concentrations in sea otters. Only sea otters from the unoiled area had estimated risk from PCBs, and PCB composition or concentrations did not correspond to reported lower measures of population performance in sea otters or harlequin ducks from the oiled area. PCBs probably did not influence limited sea otter or harlequin duck recovery in the oiled area a decade after the spill.

  19. Seven-Spot Ladybird Optimization: A Novel and Efficient Metaheuristic Algorithm for Numerical Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel biologically inspired metaheuristic algorithm called seven-spot ladybird optimization (SLO. The SLO is inspired by recent discoveries on the foraging behavior of a seven-spot ladybird. In this paper, the performance of the SLO is compared with that of the genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization, and artificial bee colony algorithms by using five numerical benchmark functions with multimodality. The results show that SLO has the ability to find the best solution with a comparatively small population size and is suitable for solving optimization problems with lower dimensions.

  20. Proteomic research on diapause-related proteins in the female ladybird, Coccinella septempunctata L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, X Y; Zhang, L S; Han, Y H; An, T; Liu, Y; Li, Y Y; Chen, H Y

    2016-04-01

    In the experiments reported here, we used the female ladybird Coccinella septempunctata L. as a model to identify diapause-associated proteins using proteomics technology. Our results indicated that protein expression patterns of diapausing and nondiapausing individuals were highly differentiated. A total of 58 spots showed significant differences in abundance (Ratio > 2 and P unknown and conserved hypothetical protein) and phosphoglyceromutase (partial). By contrast, isocitrate dehydrogenase (RH49423p), fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (AGAP001942-PA), and a putative medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase were downregulated. These results contribute to the understanding of diapause mechanisms of the ladybird C. septempunctata and may suggest methods for improving the application of this natural enemy insect.

  1. Seven-spot ladybird optimization: a novel and efficient metaheuristic algorithm for numerical optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Zhu, Zhouquan; Huang, Shuai

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel biologically inspired metaheuristic algorithm called seven-spot ladybird optimization (SLO). The SLO is inspired by recent discoveries on the foraging behavior of a seven-spot ladybird. In this paper, the performance of the SLO is compared with that of the genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization, and artificial bee colony algorithms by using five numerical benchmark functions with multimodality. The results show that SLO has the ability to find the best solution with a comparatively small population size and is suitable for solving optimization problems with lower dimensions.

  2. Invasive alien species under attack: natural enemies of Harmonia axyridis in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raak-van den Berg, C.L.; Wielink, van P.; Jong, de P.W.; Gort, G.; Haelewaters, D.; Helder, J.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2014-01-01

    The aphid predator Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is an invasive alien species in Europe and North America with negative effects on non-target species (including a decline of native ladybird populations), as well as fruit production, and human health. It is, therefore,

  3. Speaking through the flesh: Affective encounters, gazes and desire in Harlequin romances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Hirdman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the wake of the affective turn, emotion and embodiment have emerged as key terms in cultural studies in order to acknowledge the affective dimension of media texts (Gibbs, 2002; Gregg & Seigworth, 2010. Drawing from the cross-disciplinary field of affect theory, the article examines the writing of desire in Harlequin romances through the delineation of gendered encounters. Against the backdrop of earlier feminist critiques of romance fiction, it argues that Harlequin’s intense focus on corporeal sensations and gazes encompasses a looking relationship that differs significantly from the visual mediation of gender and desire. With its use of an extended literary transvestism, a double narrator perspective, and the appropriation of a female gaze, Harlequin offers readers an affective imaginary space in which the significance of the gendered body is re-made, re-versed, and the male body is stripped of its unique position.

  4. Harlequin-Inspired Story-Based Learning: An Educational Innovation for Pediatric Nursing Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Alison; Lind, Candace; Ewashen, Carol

    2017-05-01

    Effective communication with patients and families is essential for quality care in the pediatric environment. Despite this, the current structure and content of undergraduate nursing education often contributes to novice RNs feeling unprepared to manage complex pediatric communication situations. By merging the characteristics of the Harlequin persona with the structure of story-based learning, undergraduate students can be introduced to increasingly advanced pediatric communication scenarios in the classroom. Although story-based learning encourages students to identify and address the contextual and emotional elements of a story, the Harlequin encourages educators to challenge assumptions and upset the status quo. Nursing students can develop advanced communication abilities and learn to identify and cope with the emotions and complexities inherent in pediatric practice and communication. Harlequin-inspired story-based learning can enable nurse educators to create interesting, realistic, and challenging pediatric nursing stories designed to push students outside their comfort zones and enhance their advanced pediatric communication abilities. [J Nurs Educ. 2017;56(5):300-303.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. New record of predatory ladybird beetle (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae feeding on extrafloral nectaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia M. Almeida

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available New record of predatory ladybird beetle (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae feeding on extrafloral nectaries. Feeding by Exoplectra miniata (Germar on extrafloral nectaries of Inga edulis Mart. was observed in Nova Friburgo, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This is the first record of this behavior for Exoplectrini.

  6. Exploring and exploiting natural variation in the wings of a predatory ladybird beetle for biological control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lommen, S.T.E.

    2013-01-01

    The central theme of this PhD thesis is natural variation in the wing length of the predatory two-spot ladybird beetle, Adalia bipunctata. ‘Wingless’ individuals of this species occur occasionally. They possess truncated wing covers and flight wings and cannot fly, but the extent of the reduction is

  7. Genetic linkage between melanism and winglessness in the ladybird beetle Adalia bipunctata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lommen, S.T.E.; Jong, de P.W.; Koops, K.G.; Brakefield, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of genetic linkage between the two major loci underlying different wing traits in the two-spot ladybird beetle, Adalia bipunctata (L.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae): melanism and winglessness. The loci are estimated to be 38.8 cM apart on one of the nine autosomes. This linkage is

  8. Fecundity and fertility of ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis after prolonged cold storage

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Awad, Mona; Kalushkov, P.; Nedvědová, T.; Nedvěd, Oldřich

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 5 (2013), s. 657-666 ISSN 1386-6141 Grant - others:MZe ČR(CZ) QH82047 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : ladybird * hatching rate * overwintering Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.253, year: 2013 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10526-013-9512-4#

  9. Phenotypic plasticity of elytron length in wingless two-spot ladybird beetles Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lommen, S.T.E.; Jong, de P.W.; Brakefield, P.M.

    2005-01-01

    Winglessness in the two-spot ladybird beetle Adalia bipunctata (L.) is determined by a single locus with the wingless allele recessive to the winged wildtype allele. The expression of the wingless trait is highly variable, with individuals missing a variable part of elytra and flight wings; the

  10. Habitat or prey specialization in predatory ladybird beetles: a case study of two closely related species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ferrer, A.; Dixon, Anthony F. G.; Hemptinne, J. L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 140, č. 3 (2016), s. 199-208 ISSN 0931-2048 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : aphids * habitat * ladybirds * prey * reproductive investment * specialization Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.641, year: 2016

  11. Invasive Egg Predators and Food Availability Interactively Affect Maternal Investment in Egg Chemical Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah C. Paul

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive species commonly predate the offspring of native species and eggs are the life stage most vulnerable to this predation. In many species with no maternal care, females can alter the phenotype of eggs to protect them, for instance through chemical defense. In ladybirds egg alkaloids deter predators, including invasive predatory species of ladybirds, but conversely may attract cannibals who benefit from the consumption of eggs with higher alkaloid levels. Invasive predators tend to be more abundant where resources are also abundant, but in high resource environments the maternal fitness benefits of sibling cannibalism are low. Consequently this presents a conflict for female ladybirds between the different factors that influence egg alkaloid level, as protecting her eggs from predators might come with the cost of inadvertently encouraging within-clutch cannibalism under circumstances where it is not beneficial. We investigated how the ladybird Adalia bipunctata addresses this trade-off experimentally, by measuring the quantity of alkaloids in eggs laid by ladybirds in environments that differed in levels of resource availability and perceived predation risk from an invasive predator Harmonia axyridis. Females did lay eggs with higher egg alkaloid levels under poor resource conditions, but only when predator cues were absent. The resulting negative correlation between egg number and egg alkaloid level under poor resource conditions indicates a trade-off between these two attributes of maternal investment, mediated by female response to offspring predation risk. This implies that selection pressures on mothers to adaptively adjust the risk of siblicide may outweigh the need to protect offspring from interspecific predation. Our results demonstrate that maternal effects are an important aspect of species' responses to invasive predators, and highlight the value of studying maternal effects in the context of the multifaceted environments in

  12. Ten years of invasion: Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Helen E; Brown, Peter M J

    2015-01-01

    1. Harmonia axyridis was first recorded in Britain in 2004. Two subsequent earlier records were received from 2003. 2. The UK Ladybird Survey, a citizen science initiative involving online recording, was launched in 2005 to encourage people across Britain to track the spread of H. axyridis. Tens of thousands of people have provided records of H. axyridis and other species of ladybirds, creating an invaluable dataset for large-scale and long-term research. Declines in the distribution of seven (of eight assessed) native species of ladybird have been demonstrated, and correlated with the arrival of H. axyridis, using the records collated through the UK Ladybird Survey. 3. Experimental research and field surveys have also contributed to our understanding of the ecology of H. axyridis and particularly the process of invasion. Harmonia axyridis arrived in Britain through dispersal and introduction events from regions in which it was deliberately released as a biological control agent. The rapid spread of this species has been attributed to its high natural dispersal capability by means of both flight and anthropogenic transport. A number of factors have contributed to the successful establishment and indeed dominance of this polymorphic species within aphidophagous guilds, including high reproductive capacity, intra-guild predation, eurytopic nature, high resistance to natural enemies within the invaded range, and potentially phenotypic plasticity. 4. The global invasion by H. axyridis and subsequent research on this species has contributed to the general understanding of biological invasions. PMID:26435571

  13. Geographic and temporal patterns of variation in total mercury concentrations in blood of harlequin ducks and blue mussels from Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoy, Lucas; Flint, Paul; Zwiefelhofer, Denny; Brant, Heather; Perkins, Christopher; Taylor, Robert; Lane, Oksana; Hall, Jeff; Evers, David; Schamber, Jason

    2017-04-15

    We compared total mercury (Hg) concentrations in whole blood of harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) sampled within and among two geographically distinct locations and across three years in southwest Alaska. Blue mussels were collected to assess correlation between Hg concentrations in locally available forage and birds. Mercury concentrations in harlequin duck blood were significantly higher at Unalaska Island (0.31±0.19 mean±SD, μg/g blood) than Kodiak Island (0.04±0.02 mean±SD, μg/g blood). We found no evidence for annual variation in blood Hg concentration between years at Unalaska Island. However, blood Hg concentration did vary among specific sampling locations (i.e., bays) at Unalaska Island. Findings from this study demonstrate harlequin ducks are exposed to environmental sources of Hg, and whole blood Hg concentrations are associated with their local food source. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Molecular phylogeny reveals food plasticity in the evolution of true ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae: Coccinellini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalona, Hermes E; Zwick, Andreas; Li, Hao-Sen; Li, Jiahui; Wang, Xingmin; Pang, Hong; Hartley, Diana; Jermiin, Lars S; Nedvěd, Oldřich; Misof, Bernhard; Niehuis, Oliver; Ślipiński, Adam; Tomaszewska, Wioletta

    2017-06-26

    The tribe Coccinellini is a group of relatively large ladybird beetles that exhibits remarkable morphological and biological diversity. Many species are aphidophagous, feeding as larvae and adults on aphids, but some species also feed on other hemipterous insects (i.e., heteropterans, psyllids, whiteflies), beetle and moth larvae, pollen, fungal spores, and even plant tissue. Several species are biological control agents or widespread invasive species (e.g., Harmonia axyridis (Pallas)). Despite the ecological importance of this tribe, relatively little is known about the phylogenetic relationships within it. The generic concepts within the tribe Coccinellini are unstable and do not reflect a natural classification, being largely based on regional revisions. This impedes the phylogenetic study of important traits of Coccinellidae at a global scale (e.g. the evolution of food preferences and biogeography). We present the most comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of Coccinellini to date, based on three nuclear and one mitochondrial gene sequences of 38 taxa, which represent all major Coccinellini lineages. The phylogenetic reconstruction supports the monophyly of Coccinellini and its sister group relationship to Chilocorini. Within Coccinellini, three major clades were recovered that do not correspond to any previously recognised divisions, questioning the traditional differentiation between Halyziini, Discotomini, Tytthaspidini, and Singhikaliini. Ancestral state reconstructions of food preferences and morphological characters support the idea of aphidophagy being the ancestral state in Coccinellini. This indicates a transition from putative obligate scale feeders, as seen in the closely related Chilocorini, to more agile general predators. Our results suggest that the classification of Coccinellini has been misled by convergence in morphological traits. The evolutionary history of Coccinellini has been very dynamic in respect to changes in host preferences, involving

  15. Feeding behavior of Harlequin Shrimp Hymenocera picta Dana, 1852 (Hymenoceridae on Sea Star Linckia laevigata (Ophidiasteridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Prakash

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Caridean shrimps did not display any selective feeding regimes. However, the shrimp belongs the genus Hymenocera (Caridea: Hymenoceridae exclusively feeds on starfish, causes potential crisis to the hobbyists those wish to accommodate them in reef aquaria. The present observation deals with the documentation about the feeding behavior of Harlequin Shrimp Hymenocera picta Dana feeds on its favorite prey Blue Star Linckia laevigata (Ophidiasteridae in captivity. The upliftment continues for 30-60 minutes and feeding was initiated by removing the ambulacral feet and gonadal tissues of the Starfish.

  16. Alien Coccinellidae (Ladybirds in Sochi National Park and its vicinity, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Ja. Orlova-Bienkowskaja

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available About 20 alien species of Coccinellidae were released for biological control of pests in the Caucasus. Some of them were reported to be established, but no monitoring of their populations was conducted. So the current state of the populations is unknown. In particular, it was unknown what alien ladybirds occur in Sochi National Park. Survey of Coccinellidae in Sochi National Park and the city of Sochi in 2013, 2016 and 2017 has revealed that the following alien ladybirds occur in the region: Harmonia axyridis, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri, Serangium montazerii and Lindorus lophantae. Harmonia axyridis is an Asian species, which has recently become a global invader. It is a top-predator which has caused a decline of ladybirds in many regions of the world. In 2012 the first established population of this species was found in the Caucasus, namely in Sochi. Now H. axyridis has spread along the whole Black Sea coast of the Caucasus and has become abundant in the region. It is abundant not only in the city of Sochi, but also in the mountain forests of Sochi National Park. It could potentially have a serious impact on native ecosystems, especially on ladybirds. Probably the current population of H. axyridis in the Caucasus has appeared as a result of spread from Western Europe and releases of specimens for biocontrol. Cryptolaemus montrouzieri and Lindorus lophantae introduced from Australia and Serangium montazerii introduced from India have been found only in the city of Sochi and are not abundant. Probably they do not affect the ecosystems of Sochi National Park now. But the monitoring of populations of these alien species is necessary, since established populations exist in the region.

  17. Atomic force microscopy study of nano-physiological response of ladybird beetles to photostimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia V Guz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insects are of interest not only as the most numerous and diverse group of animals but also as highly efficient bio-machines varying greatly in size. They are the main human competitors for crop, can transmit various diseases, etc. However, little study of insects with modern nanotechnology tools has been done. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we applied an atomic force microscopy (AFM method to study stimulation of ladybird beetles with light. This method allows for measuring of the internal physiological responses of insects by recording surface oscillations in different parts of the insect at sub-nanometer amplitude level and sub-millisecond time. Specifically, we studied the sensitivity of ladybird beetles to light of different wavelengths. We demonstrated previously unknown blindness of ladybird beetles to emerald color (∼500nm light, while being able to see UV-blue and green light. Furthermore, we showed how one could study the speed of the beetle adaptation to repetitive flashing light and its relaxation back to the initial stage. CONCLUSIONS: The results show the potential of the method in studying insects. We see this research as a part of what might be a new emerging area of "nanophysiology" of insects.

  18. DNA barcoding evaluation and implications for phylogenetic relationships in ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng-Liang; Wang, Tian-Zhao; Zhu, Hang-Feng; Wang, Zi-Ye; Yu, Xiao-Ping

    2018-03-08

    Ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), with broad morphological diversity, wide geographic distribution and substantial agricultural significance, are a challenging group for taxonomists and phylogenetics. As a promising tool to identify and discover new species, DNA barcoding might offer significant potential for identification, taxonomy and phylogeny of ladybird beetles. In the present study, a total of 1364 COI (cytochrome C oxidase subunit I) sequences representing 128 species from 52 genera of ladybird beetles were screened for barcoding evaluation and phylogenetic analysis. Our results from the barcoding analysis revealed that COI displays a similar level of species identification efficiency (nearly 90%) either based on Kimura two-parameter (K2P) distances calculation or on simplified neighbour-joining (NJ) tree construction. The phylogenetic relationships within the family Coccinellidae was analyzed by Bayesian-inference (BI) method. The phylogenetic results confirmed the monophyly of the subfamilies Microweisinae and Coccinellinae sensu Ślipiński (2007), and suggested that the subfamilies Coccidulinae, Chilocorinae and Scymninae are paraphyletic. However, the phylogenetic relationships among different subfamilies are not clearly defined and thus remain to be thoroughly studied. Overall, our study confirmed the usefulness of DNA barcoding for coccinellid species identification and phylogenetic inference.

  19. 75 FR 21568 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List the Harlequin...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ...; Division of Policy and Directives Management; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; 4401 N. Fairfax Drive, Suite... found, and (3) Whether any of these features may require special management considerations or protection... habitat of the harlequin butterfly is currently threatened by the construction of residential and tourist...

  20. Mitochondrial DNA polymorphism in invasive and native populations of Harmonia axyridis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya A. Zakharov

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Asian ladybird beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae, is one of the most invasive insects in the world. Originally introduced into the USA and Europe for the biological control of pest insects, it has recently gained the status of an invasive species. There is little data on the differences between invasive and non-invasive populations at the genetic level. In this research mtDNA sequences of the COI gene from specimens of native and non-native populations were compared. The results indicate that individuals from invasive populations are similar to those from Far Eastern native populations.

  1. Long-term changes in communities of native coccinellids: population fluctuations and the effect of competition from an invasive non-native species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Honěk, A.; Martínková, Z.; Dixon, Anthony F. G.; Roy, H. E.; Pekárek, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 3 (2016), s. 202-209 ISSN 1752-458X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-26561S; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : ladybird harmonia-axyridis * coleoptera-coccinellidae * intraguild predation * habitat preferences * central-europe * spread * ladybeetle * beetles * history * decline * Adalia * Anatis * Calvia * Coccinella * Halyzia * Harmonia * intraguild predation * invasive alien species * ladybird beetles * Propylea Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.840, year: 2016

  2. Spreading of alien species and diversity of communities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kindlmann, Pavel; Honěk, A.; Martinková, Z.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 3 (2017), s. 397-407 ISSN 1386-6141 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-26561S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : pallas coleoptera-coccinellidae * lady beetle coleoptera * harmonia-axyridis * harlequin ladybird * intraguild predation * geographical-distribution * generalist predators * biological-control * invasion history * native range * Alien species * Native species * Ladybirds * Aphid predators * Simulation model * Community Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Biodiversity conservation Impact factor: 1.918, year: 2016

  3. Winter survival of adult female harlequin ducks in relation to history of contamination by the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esler, Daniel; Schmutz, J.A.; Jarvis, R.L.; Mulcahy, D.M.

    2000-01-01

    Harlequin duck (Histrionicus histrionicus) life-history characteristics make their populations particularly vulnerable to perturbations during nonbreeding periods. The 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill was a major perturbation to nonbreeding habitats of harlequin ducks in Prince William Sound, Alaska, which resulted in population injury. To assess the status of population recovery from the oil spill and to evaluate factors potentially constraining full recovery, we used radiotelemetry to examine survival of adult female harlequin ducks during winters of 1995-96, 1996-97, and 1997-98. We implanted 294 harlequin ducks (154 and 140 in oiled and unoiled areas, respectively) with transmitters and tracked their signals from aircraft during October through March. We examined variation in survival rates relative to area and season (early, mid, and late winter) through comparisons of models using Akaike's information criterion (AIC(c)) values. The 3 models best supported by the data indicated that survival of birds in oiled areas was lower than in unoiled areas. Inclusion of standardized body mass during wing molt in the 3 best models did not improve their fit, indicating that body mass during wing molt did not affect subsequent winter survival. In the model that best fit our data, survival was high in early winter for both areas, lower during mid and late winter seasons, and lowest in oiled areas during mid winter. Cumulative winter survival estimated from this model was 78.0% (SE = 3.3%) in oiled areas and 83.7% (SE = 2.9%) in unoiled areas. We determined that area differences in survival were more likely related to oiling history than intrinsic geographic differences. Based on a demographic model, area differences in survival offer a likely mechanism for observed declines in populations on oiled areas. Concurrent studies indicated that harlequin ducks continued to be exposed to residual Exxon Valdez oil as much as 9 years after the spill. We suggest that oil exposure

  4. Cessation of oil exposure in harlequin ducks after the Exxon Valdez oil spill: Cytochrome P4501A biomarker evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esler, Daniel; Ballachey, Brenda E; Bowen, Lizabeth; Miles, A Keith; Dickson, Rian D; Henderson, John D

    2017-05-01

    The authors quantified hepatic hydrocarbon-inducible cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) expression, as ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, in wintering harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) captured in Prince William Sound, Alaska (USA), during 2011, 2013, and 2014 (22-25 yr following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill). Average EROD activity was compared between birds from areas oiled by the spill and those from nearby unoiled areas. The present study replicated studies conducted from 1998 to 2009 demonstrating that harlequin ducks using areas oiled in 1989 had elevated EROD activity, indicative of oil exposure, up to 2 decades post spill. In the present study, it was found that average EROD activity during March 2011 was significantly higher in wintering harlequin ducks captured in oiled areas relative to unoiled areas, which the authors interpret to indicate that harlequin ducks continued to be exposed to residual Exxon Valdez oil up to 22 yr after the original spill. However, the 2011 results also indicated reductions in exposure relative to previous years. Average EROD activity in birds from oiled areas was approximately 2 times that in birds from unoiled areas in 2011, compared with observations from 2005 to 2009, in which EROD activity was 3 to 5 times higher in oiled areas. It was also found that average EROD activity during March 2013 and March 2014 was not elevated in wintering harlequin ducks from oiled areas. The authors interpret these findings to indicate that exposure of harlequin ducks to residual Exxon Valdez oil abated within 24 yr after the original spill. The present study finalizes a timeline of exposure, extending over 2 decades, for a bird species thought to be particularly vulnerable to oil contamination in marine environments. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1294-1300. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America

  5. Harlequin ichthyosis: a novel compound mutation of ABCA12 with prenatal diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, H; Xie, Y; Peng, R; Li, L; Zhu, Y; Guo, J

    2016-08-01

    Harlequin ichthyosis (HI) is the most severe form of recessive congenital ichthyosis, and is frequently lethal. We describe a family with prenatal diagnosis of HI in two siblings. We applied genomic capture and massively parallel sequencing to detect all mutations in 20 genes, including ABCA12, with inherited mutations that predispose to congenital ichthyosis. Sequence analysis of the ABCA12 gene identified two mutations, c.5232 G>A (p.Trp1744*) in exon 34 and c.6443 C>A (p.Pro2148Gln) in exon 44, each in a heterozygous state. Sanger sequencing confirmed that each parent was a heterozygous carrier for one of the variants. The spectrum of mutations identified in this study and previous studies reveals a novel compound mutation of ABCA12. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  6. When a repellent becomes an attractant: harmful saponins are kairomones attracting the symbiotic Harlequin crab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulier, Guillaume; Flammang, Patrick; Gerbaux, Pascal; Eeckhaut, Igor

    2013-01-01

    Marine organisms have developed a high diversity of chemical defences in order to avoid predators and parasites. In sea cucumbers, saponins function as repellents and many species produce these cytotoxic secondary metabolites. Nonetheless, they are colonized by numerous symbiotic organisms amongst which the Harlequin crab, Lissocarcinus orbicularis, is one of the most familiar in the Indo-Pacific Ocean. We here identify for the first time the nature of the molecules secreted by sea cucumbers and attracting the symbionts: saponins are the kairomones recognized by the crabs and insuring the symbiosis. The success of this symbiosis would be due to the ability that crabs showed during evolution to bypass the sea cucumber chemical defences, their repellents becoming powerful attractants. This study therefore highlights the complexity of chemical communication in the marine environment.

  7. Harlequin Duck recovery from the Exxon Valdez oil spill: A population genetics perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanctot, R.; Goatcher, B.; Scribner, K.; Talbot, S.; Pierson, B.; Esler, Daniel; Zwiefelhofer, D.

    1999-01-01

    Concerns about Harlequin Duck (Histrionicus histrionicus) population recovery following the Exxon Valdez oil spill led biologists to ask whether birds located in different molting and wintering areas belong to genetically distinct and, thus, demographically independent populations. Owing to the lack of direct observations of movements among marine areas, three classes of genetic markers that differed in mode of inheritance were used to evaluate the degree of genetic differentiation among wintering areas within Prince William Sound (PWS) and the Alaska Peninsula and Kodiak Archipelago (APKA). We could not reject the null hypothesis that the wintering aggregations within each region are composed of a single genetically panmictic population. Differences in genotype frequencies among wintering locations within PWS and APKA were low and nonsignificant for all three classes of markers. Furthermore, we saw no evidence for deviations in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium or gametic disequilibrium between loci within a winter collection site as would be expected if these locales were composed of individuals from reproductively isolated (and genetically distinct) breeding locales. Finally, no evidence for significant structuring was noted between PWS and APKA. Lack of spatial genetic structuring could be due to the cumulative effects of low levels of gene flow over long time periods, low levels of gene flow by immature birds moving between marine habitats, or to episodic dispersal caused by habitat alteration (e.g. volcanic eruptions). Harlequin Ducks are likely to recolonize or enhance populations in areas recovering from environmental damage via emigration of birds from non-affected areas. Demographic studies suggest, however, that levels of movements are low, and that population recovery by emigration is a long-term process.

  8. Harlequin Duck population injury and recovery dynamics following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Samuel A; Esler, Daniel

    2010-10-01

    The 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill caused significant injury to wildlife populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA. Harlequin Ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) were particularly vulnerable to the spill and have been studied extensively since, leading to one of the most thorough considerations of the consequences of a major oil spill ever undertaken. We compiled demographic and survey data collected since the spill to evaluate the timing and extent of mortality using a population model. During the immediate aftermath of the spill, we estimated a 25% decrease in Harlequin Duck numbers in oiled areas. Survival rates remained depressed in oiled areas 6-9 years after the spill and did not equal those from unoiled areas until at least 11-14 years later. Despite a high degree of site fidelity to wintering sites, immigration was important for recovery dynamics, as the relatively large number of birds from habitats outside the spill zone provided a pool of individuals to facilitate numerical increases. On the basis of these model inputs and assumptions about fecundity rates for the species, we projected a timeline to recovery of 24 years under the most-likely combination of variables, with a range of 16 to 32 years for the best-case and worst-case scenarios, respectively. Our results corroborate assertions from other studies that the effects of spilled oil on wildlife can be expressed over much longer time frames than previously assumed and that the cumulative mortality associated with chronic exposure to residual oil may actually exceed acute mortality, which has been the primary concern following most oil spills.

  9. Influence of ambient humidity on the attachment ability of ladybird beetles (Coccinella septempunctata)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heepe, L.; Wolff, J. O.; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2016-01-01

    the attachment ability of the seven-spotted ladybird beetle (Coccinella septempunctata) at different humidities by horizontal traction experiments. We found that both low (15%) and high (99%) relative humidities lead to a decrease of attachment ability. The significantly highest attachment forces were revealed...... at 60% humidity. This relationship was found both in female and male beetles, despite of a deviating structure of adhesive setae and a significant difference in forces between sexes. These findings demonstrate that not only dry adhesive setae are affected by ambient humidity, but also setae that stick...

  10. A steep cline in ladybird melanism has decayed over 25 years: a genetic response to climate change?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakefield, P.M.; Jong, de P.W.

    2011-01-01

    A cline in the frequency of melanic morphs of the two-spot ladybird, Adalia bipunctata, was first surveyed in 1980 along a transect extending inland from the coast in the Netherlands. At that time, the frequency of melanics increased over some 40 km from 10% near the coast to nearly 60% inland.

  11. Biotransfer of Cd along a soil-plant- mealybug-ladybird food chain: A comparison with host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingmin; Zhang, Can; Qiu, Baoli; Ashraf, Umair; Azad, Rashid; Wu, Jianhui; Ali, Shaukat

    2017-02-01

    Agro-ecosystem contamination by the heavy metals present in different agricultural products is a serious challenge faced by the living organisms. This study explains the cadmium (Cd) transfer from soils contaminated with different cadmium concentrations through a plant (eggplant and tomato) - mealybug (Dysmicoccus neobrevipes) - predator (Cryptolaemus-montrouzieri) food chain. The soils were amended with Cd at the rates of 0, 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg (w/w). Our findings showed that considerably higher Cd transfer through tomato plant. Cadmium was biomagnified during soil-root transfer while bio-minimization of Cd was observed for shoot-mealybug - ladybird transfer. Our results further showed sequestration of Cd during the metamorphosis of ladybird beetle whilst transfer of Cd through soil-plant-mealybug-ladybird multi-trophic food chain increased in a dose dependent manner. Our results emphasize the need of further studies to elaborate possible mechanisms of Cd bio-minimization by plants, mealybugs and ladybirds observed during this study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessment of patch quality by aphidophagous ladybirds: laboratory study on the minimum density of aphids required for oviposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. Das

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Many studies indicate that there is a density of aphids below which ladybirds are unlikely to lay eggs. This is adaptive as theory indicates that a certain minimum population density of aphids is required if hatchling larvae are to survive. The responses of gravid females of the two spot ladybird, Adalia bipunctata (L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae, recorded over a period of an hour, to colonies of 5 and 50 pea aphids on bean plants and similar plants each previously infested with the same number of aphids for 48 hours were determined. Proportionally more of the ladybirds on plants with 50 aphids or that were previously infested with the same number of aphids for 48 hours laid eggs and larger clusters of eggs, and were less active than those on plants that were infested with or had previously been infested with five aphids. That is, gravid females showed similar oviposition and activity responses to aphid abundance and different levels of honeydew contamination. This indicates that honeydew contamination may be an important cue used by ladybirds when locating and assessing the abundance of prey in aphid colonies.

  13. Effects of bioflavonoids on oviposition behavior in the pink-spotted ladybird beetle Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    One goal of our current research is to mass produce ladybird beetles for biological control of plant pests in greenhouses and other protective structures. Cost-effective mass production involves the use of alternative prey/foods or artificial diets (rather than natural prey, e.g., aphids). One chall...

  14. Intergenomic arms races: detection of a nuclear rescue gene of male-killing in a ladybird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamsin M O Majerus

    Full Text Available Many species of arthropod are infected by deleterious inherited micro-organisms. Typically these micro-organisms are inherited maternally. Consequently, some, particularly bacteria of the genus Wolbachia, employ a variety of strategies that favour female over male hosts. These strategies include feminisation, induction of parthenogenesis and male-killing. These strategies result in female biased sex ratios in host populations, which lead to selection for host factors that promote male production. In addition, the intra-genomic conflict produced by the difference in transmission of these cytoplasmic endosymbionts and nuclear factors will impose a pressure favouring nuclear factors that suppress the effects of the symbiont. During investigations of the diversity of male-killing bacteria in ladybirds (Coccinellidae, unexpected patterns of vertical transmission of a newly discovered male-killing taxon were observed in the ladybird Cheilomenes sexmaculata. Initial analysis suggested that the expression of the bacterial male-killing trait varies according to the male(s a female has mated with. By swapping males between females, a male influence on the expression of the male-killing trait was confirmed. Experiments were then performed to determine the nature of the interaction. These studies showed that a single dominant allele, which rescues male progeny of infected females from the pathological effect of the male-killer, exists in this species. The gene shows typical Mendelian autosomal inheritance and is expressed irrespective of the parent from which it is inherited. Presence of the rescue gene in either parent does not significantly affect the inheritance of the symbiont. We conclude that C. sexmaculata is host to a male-killing gamma-proteobacterium. Further, this beetle is polymorphic for a nuclear gene, the dominant allele of which rescues infected males from the pathogenic effects of the male-killing agent. These findings represent the first

  15. Epidemiology, medical genetics, diagnosis and treatment of harlequin ichthyosis in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Akitaka; Akiyama, Masashi

    2015-08-01

    Ichthyoses are a group of disorders marked by whitish, brown or dark-brown scales on the skin of almost the whole body. Harlequin ichthyosis (HI) is the most severe form. Neonatal death from HI was once common. Due to intensive neonatal care and, probably, to the early introduction of oral retinoids, HI outcome has improved. For definitive diagnosis and the exclusion of other disorders, such as lamellar ichthyosis, which also shows a collodion baby phenotype, it is helpful to refer to electron microscopy of abnormal or absent lamellar granules and a heavy accumulation of lipid droplets in the keratinocytes. ATP-binding cassette transporter A12 (ABCA12) is known as the causative gene of HI. Severe ABCA12 deficiency results in malformation of intercellular lipid layers in the cornified layers and leads to epidermal lipid barrier disruption. In HI patients, at least one mutation on each allele must be a truncation or deletion mutation to cause serious loss of ABCA12 function. Identification of the gene underlying HI has enabled DNA-based prenatal diagnosis for HI at the earlier stages of pregnancy with low risk. There are no curative treatments for HI. Abca12-deficient mice were created as a model of HI. Treatment of the model mice with retinoid or steroid has not been successful. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  16. A mouse model of harlequin ichthyosis delineates a key role for Abca12 in lipid homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Smyth

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Harlequin Ichthyosis (HI is a severe and often lethal hyperkeratotic skin disease caused by mutations in the ABCA12 transport protein. In keratinocytes, ABCA12 is thought to regulate the transfer of lipids into small intracellular trafficking vesicles known as lamellar bodies. However, the nature and scope of this regulation remains unclear. As part of an original recessive mouse ENU mutagenesis screen, we have identified and characterised an animal model of HI and showed that it displays many of the hallmarks of the disease including hyperkeratosis, loss of barrier function, and defects in lipid homeostasis. We have used this model to follow disease progression in utero and present evidence that loss of Abca12 function leads to premature differentiation of basal keratinocytes. A comprehensive analysis of lipid levels in mutant epidermis demonstrated profound defects in lipid homeostasis, illustrating for the first time the extent to which Abca12 plays a pivotal role in maintaining lipid balance in the skin. To further investigate the scope of Abca12's activity, we have utilised cells from the mutant mouse to ascribe direct transport functions to the protein and, in doing so, we demonstrate activities independent of its role in lamellar body function. These cells have severely impaired lipid efflux leading to intracellular accumulation of neutral lipids. Furthermore, we identify Abca12 as a mediator of Abca1-regulated cellular cholesterol efflux, a finding that may have significant implications for other diseases of lipid metabolism and homeostasis, including atherosclerosis.

  17. Olfactory cues from plants infected by powdery mildew guide foraging by a mycophagous ladybird beetle.

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    Jun Tabata

    Full Text Available Powdery mildews (Erysiphales are economically important plant pathogens that attack many agricultural crops. Conventional management strategies involving fungicide application face challenges, including the evolution of resistance and concerns over impacts on non-target organisms, that call for investigation of more sustainable alternatives. Mycophagous ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae feed on powdery mildew and have considerable potential as biological control agents; however, the foraging ecology and behavior of these beetles is not well understood. Here we document the olfactory cues presented by squash plants (Cucurbita moschata infected by powdery mildew (Podosphaera sp. and the behavioral responses of twenty-spotted ladybird beetles (Psyllobora vigintimaculata to these cues. Volatile analyses through gas chromatography revealed a number of volatile compounds characteristic of infected plants, including 3-octanol and its analogues 1-octen-3-ol and 3-octanone. These compounds are typical "moldy" odorants previously reported in volatiles collected from other fungi. In addition, infected plants exhibited elevated emissions of several compounds also observed in collections from healthy leaves, including linalool and benzyl alcohol, which are reported to have anti-fungal properties. In Y-tube choice assays, P. vigintimaculata beetles displayed a significant preference for the odors of infected plants compared to those of healthy plants. Moreover, beetles exhibited strong attraction to one individual compound, 1-octen-3-ol, which was the most abundant of the characteristic fungal compounds identified. These results enhance our understanding of the olfactory cues that guide foraging by mycophagous insects and may facilitate the development of integrated disease-management strategies informed by an understanding of underlying ecological mechanisms.

  18. Olfactory cues from plants infected by powdery mildew guide foraging by a mycophagous ladybird beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Jun; De Moraes, Consuelo M; Mescher, Mark C

    2011-01-01

    Powdery mildews (Erysiphales) are economically important plant pathogens that attack many agricultural crops. Conventional management strategies involving fungicide application face challenges, including the evolution of resistance and concerns over impacts on non-target organisms, that call for investigation of more sustainable alternatives. Mycophagous ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) feed on powdery mildew and have considerable potential as biological control agents; however, the foraging ecology and behavior of these beetles is not well understood. Here we document the olfactory cues presented by squash plants (Cucurbita moschata) infected by powdery mildew (Podosphaera sp.) and the behavioral responses of twenty-spotted ladybird beetles (Psyllobora vigintimaculata) to these cues. Volatile analyses through gas chromatography revealed a number of volatile compounds characteristic of infected plants, including 3-octanol and its analogues 1-octen-3-ol and 3-octanone. These compounds are typical "moldy" odorants previously reported in volatiles collected from other fungi. In addition, infected plants exhibited elevated emissions of several compounds also observed in collections from healthy leaves, including linalool and benzyl alcohol, which are reported to have anti-fungal properties. In Y-tube choice assays, P. vigintimaculata beetles displayed a significant preference for the odors of infected plants compared to those of healthy plants. Moreover, beetles exhibited strong attraction to one individual compound, 1-octen-3-ol, which was the most abundant of the characteristic fungal compounds identified. These results enhance our understanding of the olfactory cues that guide foraging by mycophagous insects and may facilitate the development of integrated disease-management strategies informed by an understanding of underlying ecological mechanisms.

  19. Complementarity of statstical treatments to reconstruct worldwide routes of invasion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lombaert, Eric; Guillemaud, Thomas; Lundgren, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Inferences about introduction histories of invasive species remain challenging because of the stochastic demographic processes involved. Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) can help to overcome these problems, but such method requires a prior understanding of population structure over the study...... area, necessitating the use of alternative methods and an intense sampling design. In this study, we made inferences about the worldwide invasion history of the ladybird Harmonia axyridis by various population genetics statistical methods, using a large set of sampling sites distributed over most...... of the species’ native and invaded areas. We evaluated the complementarity of the statistical methods and the consequences of using different sets of site samples for ABC inferences. We found that the H. axyridis invasion has involved two bridgehead invasive populations in North America, which have served...

  20. Transfer of lead (Pb) in the soil-plant-mealybug-ladybird beetle food chain, a comparison between two host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Can; Wang, Xingmin; Ashraf, Umair; Qiu, Baoli; Ali, Shaukat

    2017-09-01

    Contamination of soil with heavy metals has become an issue of concern on global scale. This study investigates the translocation of lead (Pb) along the soil - plant (eggplant and tomato) - mealybug (Dysmicoccus neobrevipes) - ladybird beetle (Cryptolaemus montrouzieri) food chain. Soil amendments used for this study were adjusted to 0, 25, 50 and 100mg/kg of Pb (w/w). The results revealed significantly higher transfer of Pb in tomato when compared to eggplant. Bio-magnification of Pb (2-4 times) was observed for soil - root transfer whereas Pb was bio-minimized in later part of food chain (shoot - mealybug - ladybird transfer). A dose dependent increase in transfer of Pb across the multi-trophic food chain was observed for both host plants. A decrease in coefficients of Pb transfer (from root - shoot and shoot - mealybug) was observed with increase in Pb concentrations. Our results also showed removal of Pb from the bodies of ladybird beetle during metamorphosis. Further studies are required to explain the mechanisms or physiological pathways involved in the bio-minimization of Pb across the food chain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Rearing Density on Survival, Growth, and Development of the Ladybird Coleomegilla maculata in Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric W. Riddick

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Our research focuses on developing techniques to rear ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae. We evaluated the effects of rearing density on survival, growth, and development of Coleomegilla maculata. The hypothesis that a low to moderate rearing density has limited or no effects on survival and development was tested. C. maculata first instars were reared to pupae at a density of 1, 5, 10, 15, or 20 individuals per arena (2.5 cm high, 9.0 cm diameter, and 159 cm3 volume and fed powdered brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana eggs. More larvae survived at the 1 and 5 densities, but no differences were detected between the 10, 15, or 20 densities. Median survival rate was at least 90% for larvae and 100% for pupae at the 10, 15, and 20 densities. Development time, body weight, and sex ratio were unaffected by rearing density. Overall, this study suggests that C. maculata larvae can be reared successfully at a density of 20 larvae/159 cm3 (≈ 0.126 larvae/cm3 in containers provisioned with powdered A. franciscana eggs. Scaling-up the size of containers, and C. maculata density in these containers, should be possible.

  2. The direct effects of male killer infection on fitness of ladybird hosts (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnagdy, S; Majerus, M E N; Gardener, M; Lawson Handley, L-J

    2013-08-01

    Male killing bacteria are common in insects and are thought to persist in host populations primarily by indirect fitness benefits to infected females, whereas direct fitness effects are generally assumed to be neutral or deleterious. Here, we estimated the effect of male killer infection on direct fitness (number of eggs laid, as a measure of fecundity, together with survival) and other life-history traits (development time and body size) in seven ladybird host/male killer combinations. Effects of male killers on fecundity ranged, as expected, from costly to neutral; however, we found evidence of reduced development time and increased survival and body size in infected strains. Greater body size in Spiroplasma-infected Harmonia axyridis corresponded to greater ovariole number and therefore higher potential fecundity. To our knowledge, this is the first report of direct benefits of male killer infection after explicitly controlling for indirect fitness effects. Neutral or deleterious fitness effects of male killer infection should not therefore be automatically assumed. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  3. Molecular cytogenetic studies in the ladybird beetle Henosepilachnaargus Geoffroy, 1762 (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae, Epilachninae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Pablo; Vela, Jesús; Sanllorente, Olivia; Palomeque, Teresa; Lorite, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    The ladybird Henosepilachnaargus Geoffroy, 1762 has been cytogenetically studied. In addition we have conducted a review of chromosome numbers and the chromosomal system of sex determination available in the literature in species belonging to the genus Henosepilachna and in its closely related genus Epilachna. Chromosome number of Henosepilachnaargus was 2n=18, including the sex chromosome pair, a common diploid chromosome number within the tribe Epilachnini. The study of prophase I meiotic chromosomes showed the typical Xyp "parachute" bivalent as in the majority of species of Coccinellidae. C-banding and fluorescent staining with AT-specific DAPI fluorochrome dye have been carried out for the first time in H. argus. C-banding technique revealed that heterochromatic blocks are pericentromerically located and DAPI staining showed that this heterochromatin is AT rich. Fluorescence in situ hybridizations using rDNA and the telomeric TTAGG sequence as probes have been carried out. FISH using rDNA showed that the nucleolar organizing region is located on the short arm of the X chromosome. FISH with the telomeric sequence revealed that in this species telomeres of chromosomes are composed of the pentanucleotide TTAGG repeats. This is the first study on the telomeric sequences in Coccinellidae.

  4. Extreme costs of mating for male two-spot ladybird beetles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C Perry

    Full Text Available Male costs of mating are now thought to be widespread. The two-spot ladybird beetle (Adalia bipunctata has been the focus of many studies of mating and sexual selection, yet the costs of mating for males are unknown. The mating system of A. bipunctata involves a spermatophore nuptial gift ingested by females after copulation. In this study, we investigate the cost to males of mating and of transferring spermatophores in terms of lifespan, ejaculate production and depletion of nutritional reserves. We found that males faced a strong trade-off between mating and survival, with males that were randomly assigned to mate a single time experiencing a 53% reduction in post-mating lifespan compared to non-mating males. This is among the most severe survival costs of a single mating yet reported. However, spermatophore transfer did not impact male survival. Instead, the costs associated with spermatophores appeared as a reduced ability to transfer spermatophores in successive matings. Furthermore, males ingested more food following spermatophore transfer than after matings without spermatophores, suggesting that spermatophore transfer depletes male nutritional reserves. This is to our knowledge the first report of an effect of variation in copulatory behaviour on male foraging behaviour. Overall, our study highlights the advantages of assessing mating costs using multiple currencies, and suggests that male A. bipunctata should exhibit mate choice.

  5. Molecular cytogenetic studies in the ladybird beetle Henosepilachna argus Geoffroy, 1762 (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae, Epilachninae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Mora

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The ladybird Henosepilachna argus Geoffroy, 1762 has been cytogenetically studied. In addition we have conducted a review of chromosome numbers and the chromosomal system of sex determination available in the literature in species belonging to the genus Henosepilachna and in its closely related genus Epilachna. Chromosome number of H. argus was 2n=18, including the sex chromosome pair, a common diploid chromosome number within the tribe Epilachnini. The study of prophase I meiotic chromosomes showed the typical Xyp “parachute” bivalent as in the majority of species of Coccinellidae. C-banding and fluorescent staining with AT-specific DAPI fluorochrome dye have been carried out for the first time in H. argus. C-banding technique revealed that heterochromatic blocks are pericentromerically located and DAPI staining showed that this heterochromatin is AT rich. Fluorescence in situ hybridizations using rDNA and the telomeric TTAGG sequence as probes have been carried out. FISH using rDNA showed that the nucleolar organizing region is located on the short arm of the X chromosome. FISH with the telomeric sequence revealed that in this species telomeres of chromosomes are composed of the pentanucleotide TTAGG repeats. This is the first study on the telomeric sequences in Coccinellidae.

  6. Suppression of leaf feeding and oviposition of phytophagous ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) by chitinase gene-transformed phylloplane bacteria and their specific bacteriophages entrapped in alginate gel beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsu, Yasunari; Mori, Hirofumi; Komuta, Kenji; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Nogawa, Souta; Matsuda, Yoshinori; Nonomura, Teruo; Sakuratani, Yasuyuki; Tosa, Yukio; Mayama, Shigeyuki; Toyoda, Hideyoshi

    2003-06-01

    The chitinase gene-transformed strain KPM-007E/chi of Enterobacter cloacae was vitally entrapped in sodium alginate gel beads with its specific virulent bacteriophage EcP-01 to provide a new method for microbially digesting chitinous peritrophic membranes of phytophagous ladybird beetles Epilachna vigintioctopunctata. First, chitinase SH1 from a gram-positive bacterium Kurthia zopfii was overproduced by Escherichia coli cells and purified by affinity column chromatography. The purified enzyme effectively digested peritrophic membranes dissected from the ladybird beetles to expose epithelial tissues beneath the peritrophic membrane, and the beetles that had ingested chitinase after submergence in chitinase solution had considerably reduced their feeding on tomato leaves. KPM-007E/chi, entrapped in the alginate beads, released the chitinase. More chitinase was released when KPM-007E/chi was present with their specific virulent bacteriophage EcP-01 in the beads because of lysis of bacterial cells infected with the bacteriophages. This chitinase release from the microbial beads (containing KPM-007E/chi and EcP-01) was sufficient to digest the peritrophic membrane as well as to suppress feeding of bead-sprayed tomato leaves by the ladybird beetles. A daily supply of tomato leaves treated with the microbial beads considerably suppressed leaf feeding and oviposition by the ladybird beetles, suggesting a possible application of chitinase-secreting bacteria for suppressing herbivorous insect pests.

  7. Influence of temperature on reproductive biology and phenotype of a ladybird, Menochilus sexmaculatus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, A; Omkar; Mishra, G

    2016-05-01

    Body melanisation in insects is polygenic, resulting from genetic polymorphism or phenotypic plasticity, with diverse implications ranging from thermal budgeting to reproductive success. In this study, we assessed the, mate choice, reproductive success, and offspring colouration of typical (T) and melanic (M) morphs of the ladybird Menochilus sexmaculatus paired at three temperatures 15°C, 25°C and 35°C. Mating success of the two morphs and the consequences for offspring fitness and offspring phenotype under these temperature regimes were evaluated. Melanic adults of both sexes achieved significantly higher mating success at 15°C and 25°C, but at 35°C no influence of adult morph on mate selection was observed. Melanic females were more fecund than typical females at all temperatures. Offspring of melanic parents developed faster than those of typicals at 15°C and 25°C, but not at 35°C. Evidence was also found of phenotypic plasticity in colour form at 15°C and 35°C. At 25°C the parents of pure (T) and (M) morphs produced offspring of the same morph. However, low temperature induced partial melanisation among the offspring of typical parents (T). Whereas at 35°C the offspring of (T) parents became paler in colour with very fine zigzag lines on elytra, i.e. they decrease the degree of melanisation. Pure melanics (M) compensated for elevated temperature stress by producing offspring that were either pure melanic but small or large with reduced melanisation. Our results on offspring phenotype variation indicate that the degree of melanism in morphs is a result of environmentally regulated expression of the parental genotype. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Predator-prey interactions in selected slow and fast developing females of a ladybird, Propylea dissecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Arshi; Omkar; Mishra, Geetanjali

    2015-10-14

    Development rate polymorphism describes the scenario in which individuals exhibit distinct differences in their rate of development resulting in slow and fast developers even from the same clutch of eggs. Previously we showed that in ladybird, Propylea dissecta fast developers have higher foraging and predation rates than slow developers. But correlation between foraging efficacies with reproductive output of female remains unexplored. We selected slow and fast developmental rate for 15 generations in a P. dissecta and assessed female functional response and numerical response by using varying prey biomasses (A. pisum). We evaluated predatory parameters: prey consumption, attack rate, handling time, and the reproductive measures: number of eggs laid, egg, and body biomass conversion efficiencies. Overall, both group of P. dissecta showed increased prey biomasses curvilinear for consumption rate demonstrating the physiological capacity of foraging for food are mutually exclusive behaviors (i.e., Holling's Type-II functional response). Consumption rate and proportion of prey consumed was higher, and prey handling time was shorter, in experimental fast developers. However, prey attack rate was higher in experimental slow developers. The functional response of experimental fast developers got elevated whereas got depressed for control slow-fast developers. Our results suggest that slow developers may perform better at low prey biomass than fast developers due to their high attack rate whereas high density prey may favour fast developers due to their shorter prey handling time and higher consumption rates. This study is first attempt to evaluate predatory responses of experimentally selected lines of slow and fast developers. J. Exp. Zool. 9999A:XX-XX, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Long-term monitoring program: Evaluating chronic exposure of harlequin ducks and sea otters to lingering Exxon Valdez Oil in Western Prince William Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esler, Daniel N.; Bowen, Lizabeth; Miles, A. Keith; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Bodkin, James L.

    2015-01-01

    We found that average cytochrome P4501A induction (as measured by EROD activity) during March 2014 was not elevated in wintering harlequin ducks captured in areas of Prince William Sound oiled by the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, relative to those captured in unoiled areas. This result is consistent with findings from March 2013. We interpret these findings to indicate that exposure of harlequin ducks to residual Exxon Valdez oil abated within 24 years after the original spill. Results from preceding sampling in 2011 indicated that EROD activity was elevated in harlequin ducks in oiled relative to unoiled areas, although the magnitude of elevation was lower than in previous years (1998-2009), suggesting that the rate or intensity of exposure was diminishing by 2011. The data presented in this report add to a growing body of literature indicating that persistence of oil in the environment, and exposure of wildlife to that oil, can occur over much longer time frames than previously assumed.

  10. Discovery and identification of a male-killing agent in the Japanese ladybird Propylea japonica (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majerus Michael EN

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endosymbionts that manipulate the reproduction of their hosts have been reported widely in invertebrates. One such group of endosymbionts is the male-killers. To date all male-killers reported are bacterial in nature, but comprise a diverse group. Ladybirds have been described as a model system for the study of male-killing, which has been reported in multiple species from widespread geographic locations. Whilst criteria of low egg hatch-rate and female-biased progenic sex ratio have been used to identify female hosts of male-killers, variation in vertical transmission efficiency and host genetic factors may result in variation in these phenotypic indicators of male-killer presence. Molecular identification of bacteria and screening for bacterial presence provide us with a more accurate method than breeding data alone to link the presence of the bacteria to the male-killing phenotype. In addition, by identifying the bacteria responsible we may find evidence for horizontal transfer between endosymbiont hosts and can gain insight into the evolutionary origins of male-killing. Phylogenetic placement of male-killing bacteria will allow us to address the question of whether male-killing is a potential strategy for only some, or all, maternally inherited bacteria. Together, phenotypic and molecular characterisation of male-killers will allow a deeper insight into the interactions between host and endosymbiont, which ultimately may lead to an understanding of how male-killers identify and kill male-hosts. Results A male-killer was detected in the Japanese coccinellid, Propylea japonica (Thunberg a species not previously known to harbour male-killers. Families produced by female P. japonica showed significantly female-biased sex ratios. One female produced only daughters. This male-killer trait was maternally inherited and antibiotic treatment produced a full, heritable cure. Molecular analysis identified Rickettsia to be associated

  11. Aphids and ladybird beetle’s abundance and diversity in alfalfa fields of Yasouj, southwestern of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mirfakhraie

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. is the oldest and the most important forage legume. It has been cultivated for forage longer than any other crop. Diversity indices provide information about community composition. Diversity indices are measured by species richness and species evenness therefore, it could give us more ecological information rather than a simple species list in the fields. During 2015-2016, aphids and ladybird beetle’s abundance and diversity were monitored in alfalfa fields of Yasouj. Samplings were conducted with 150 plants in the alfalfa fields from mid-May to mid-November. Species richness was measured using Shannon and Simpson indices. In this study, six aphids and five coccinellid species were collected and identified. Among the collected aphid species, Aphis fabae (Scopoli, 1763 and Therioaphis maculata (Buckton, 1899 were most abundant in the fields. For coccinellids, Coccinella septempunctata L. was the most abundant species. Highest aphid species diversity was observed on 17 May 2016.

  12. Effect of photoperiod on slow and fast developing individuals in aphidophagous ladybirds, Menochilus sexmaculatus and Propylea dissecta (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neha; Mishra, Geetanjali; Omkar

    2016-02-01

    The effects of environmental parameters on insect development have been studied extensively. But the reasons for 2 differential developmental rates within same cohort under varying environmental factors have not been explored. For the purpose, in this study the existence and stability of slow and fast development under 5 photoperiods (i.e., 8L: 16D, 10L : 14D, 12L : 12D, 14L : 10D and 16L : 8D; light and dark hours per day) and its effect on body mass and reproductive attributes in 2 aphidophagous ladybirds, Menochilus sexmaculatus (Fabricius) and Propylea dissecta (Mulsant) was examined on Aphis craccivora Koch at 27 ± 1 °C temperature. A clear bimodal (2 peaks, where the first peak represented the fast developing and the 2nd peak slow developing individuals) pattern of distribution at each photoperiod was found. The proportion of slow and fast developing individuals in a cohort differed with photoperiods. The slow developing individuals were more in numbers at 8L : 16D, in equal numbers at 14L : 10D and in less numbers at 16L: 8D, indicating that the variation in emergence was owing to exogenous cues influenced differential rates of mortality. Slow developing individuals had female biased sex ratio, higher longevity and lower body mass than fast developing individuals. Fast developing females laid higher numbers of eggs with higher egg viability than slow developing females. Study of such variations in development at different photoperiods is helpful to understand its role in the development of insects particularly ladybirds and permits the selection of fast developing bioagents for their use in biocontrol of pest species. © 2014 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  13. Quantitative Assessment of Current Risks to Harlequin Ducks in Prince William Sound, Alaska, from the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwell, Mark A.; Gentile, John H.; Parker, Keith R.; Murphy, Stephen M.; Day, Robert H.; Bence, A. Edward; Neff, Jerry M.; Wiens, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Harlequin Ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) were adversely affected by the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, and some have suggested effects continue two decades later. We present an ecological risk assessment evaluating quantitatively whether PWS seaducks continue to be at-risk from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in residual Exxon Valdez oil. Potential pathways for PAH exposures are identified for initially oiled and never-oiled reference sites. Some potential pathways are implausible (e.g., a seaduck excavating subsurface oil residues), whereas other pathways warrant quantification. We used data on PAH concentrations in PWS prey species, sediments, and seawater collected during 2001–2008 to develop a stochastic individual-based model projecting assimilated doses to seaducks. We simulated exposures to 500,000 individuals in each of eight age/gender classes, capturing the variability within a population of seaducks living in PWS. Doses to the maximum-exposed individuals are ∼400–4,000 times lower than chronic toxicity reference values established using USEPA protocols for seaducks. These exposures are so low that no individual-level effects are plausible, even within a simulated population that is orders-of-magnitude larger than exists in PWS. We conclude that toxicological risks to PWS seaducks from residual Exxon Valdez oil two decades later are essentially non-existent. PMID:23723680

  14. Surgical and immediate postrelease mortality of harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) implanted with abdominal radio transmitters with percutaneous antennae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, Daniel M.; Esler, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    Radiotelemetry is an essential tool in the study of free-ranging bird populations, and a variety of transmitter-attachment methods have been developed. A promising new method is abdominal implantation of a transmitter with a percutaneous antenna. Researchers using this technique should be concerned about and aware of mortality during surgery and during the immediate postrelease period (the 14-day period following surgery). Of 307 radio-implant surgeries performed between 1995 and 1997 in harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus), 7 (2.3%) deaths were documented during surgery or anesthetic recovery. Of 295 birds released with implanted radios, 10 (3.4%) died during the immediate postrelease period. Modifications to anesthetic procedures used in the 204 surgeries performed in 1996 and 1997 reduced mortality to 1.5% during surgery and 1.5% during the immediate postrelease period. Anesthetic modifications included intubation of all birds, placement of birds on an elevated platform that allowed the head to rest at a level lower than the body during surgery, placement of a heated water blanket under the birds during surgery, monitoring of body temperature, and use of electrocardiogram and Doppler ultrasound to monitor heart rates and arrhythmias. Low levels of mortality associated with abdominal implantation of radio transmitters may be unavoidable, but mortality can be minimized with adjustments to anesthetic technique.

  15. Role of social and individual experience in interaction of the meadow ant Formica pratensis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) with ladybird imagines and hoverfly larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novgorodova, Tatiana A

    2015-03-01

    The ability to recognize aphidophages is one of the key points in the protection ants provide aphids against their natural enemies. Behavior of honeydew collectors from nature ("field," control) and laboratory reared "naive" ants of Formica pratensis Retzius, which had never met either "mature" workers or aphids and aphidophages, was observed during their pairwise interactions with ladybird imagines and hoverfly larvae. The majority of the "naive" ants perceived ladybirds as an enemy at their first encounter attacking them immediately without any prior antennation. Ants seem to have a certain innate "enemy image" that lets them react very quickly to protect aphids. Hoverfly larvae were rarely attacked by both "field" and "naive" ants (>15%). During tests with ladybirds ants from nature attacked them and also demonstrated the most aggressive reactions (series of bites and "death grip") less frequently than the "naive" ants. The percentage of ants avoiding aphidophages after a contact with their chemical defense (reflex bleeding and glue-like saliva) was significantly higher in the control group. Whereas the "naive" ants did not learn to avoid danger, foragers from nature usually tried to avoid negative experience and used tactics of "short bites." Overall, experience has been proved to be unimportant for displaying key behavioral reactions underlying ant-ladybird interaction. However, accumulation of experience has been assumed to play an important role in the formation of behavioral strategy that allows honeydew collectors to drive aphidophages away with lower energy costs and avoid or minimize negative consequences of aphidophages' chemical defense. © 2014 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  16. Cytochrome P4501A biomarker indication of oil exposure in harlequin ducks up to 20 years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esler, Daniel; Trust, Kimberly A.; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Iverson, Samuel A.; Lewis, Tyler L.; Rizzolo, Daniel; Mulcahy, Daniel M.; Miles, A. Keith; Woodin, Bruce R.; Stegeman, John J.; Henderson, John D.; Wilson, Barry W.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrocarbon-inducible cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) expression was measured, as ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, in livers of wintering harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) captured in areas of Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA, oiled by the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill and in birds from nearby unoiled areas, during 2005 to 2009 (up to 20 years following the spill). The present work repeated studies conducted in 1998 that demonstrated that in harlequin ducks using areas that received Exxon Valdez oil, EROD activity was elevated nearly a decade after the spill. The present findings strongly supported the conclusion that average levels of hepatic EROD activity were higher in ducks from oiled areas than those from unoiled areas during 2005 to 2009. This result was consistent across four sampling periods; furthermore, results generated from two independent laboratories using paired liver samples from one of the sampling periods were similar. The EROD activity did not vary in relation to age, sex, or body mass of individuals, nor did it vary strongly by season in birds collected early and late in the winter of 2006 to 2007, indicating that these factors did not confound inferences about observed differences between oiled and unoiled areas. We interpret these results to indicate that harlequin ducks continued to be exposed to residual Exxon Valdez oil up to 20 years after the original spill. This adds to a growing body of literature suggesting that oil spills have the potential to affect wildlife for much longer time frames than previously assumed.

  17. Cytochrome P4501A biomarker indication of oil exposure in harlequin ducks up to 20 years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esler, Daniel; Trust, Kimberly A; Ballachey, Brenda E; Iverson, Samuel A; Lewis, Tyler L; Rizzolo, Daniel J; Mulcahy, Daniel M; Miles, A Keith; Woodin, Bruce R; Stegeman, John J; Henderson, John D; Wilson, Barry W

    2010-05-01

    Hydrocarbon-inducible cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) expression was measured, as ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, in livers of wintering harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) captured in areas of Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA, oiled by the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill and in birds from nearby unoiled areas, during 2005 to 2009 (up to 20 years following the spill). The present work repeated studies conducted in 1998 that demonstrated that in harlequin ducks using areas that received Exxon Valdez oil, EROD activity was elevated nearly a decade after the spill. The present findings strongly supported the conclusion that average levels of hepatic EROD activity were higher in ducks from oiled areas than those from unoiled areas during 2005 to 2009. This result was consistent across four sampling periods; furthermore, results generated from two independent laboratories using paired liver samples from one of the sampling periods were similar. The EROD activity did not vary in relation to age, sex, or body mass of individuals, nor did it vary strongly by season in birds collected early and late in the winter of 2006 to 2007, indicating that these factors did not confound inferences about observed differences between oiled and unoiled areas. We interpret these results to indicate that harlequin ducks continued to be exposed to residual Exxon Valdez oil up to 20 years after the original spill. This adds to a growing body of literature suggesting that oil spills have the potential to affect wildlife for much longer time frames than previously assumed. Copyright (c) 2010 SETAC.

  18. Exposure of sea otters and harlequin ducks in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA, to shoreline oil residues 20 years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Jerry M; Page, David S; Boehm, Paul D

    2011-03-01

    We assessed whether sea otters and harlequin ducks in an area of western Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA (PWS), oiled by the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS), are exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from oil residues 20 years after the spill. Spilled oil has persisted in PWS for two decades as surface oil residues (SOR) and subsurface oil residues (SSOR) on the shore. The rare SOR are located primarily on the upper shore as inert, nonhazardous asphaltic deposits, and SSOR are confined to widely scattered locations as small patches under a boulder/cobble veneer, primarily on the middle and upper shore, in forms and locations that preclude physical contact by wildlife and diminish bioavailability. Sea otters and harlequin ducks consume benthic invertebrates that they collect by diving to the bottom in the intertidal and subtidal zones. Sea otters also dig intertidal and subtidal pits in search of clams. The three plausible exposure pathways are through the water, in oil-contaminated prey, or by direct contact with SSOR during foraging. Concentrations of PAH in near-shore water off oiled shores in 2002 to 2005 were at background levels (<0.05 ng/L). Median concentrations of PAH in five intertidal prey species on oiled shores in 2002 to 2008 range from 4.0 to 34 ng/g dry weight, indistinguishable from background concentrations. Subsurface oil residues are restricted to locations on the shore and substrate types, where large clams do not occur and where sea otters do not dig foraging pits. Therefore, that sea otters and harlequin ducks continue to be exposed to environmentally significant amounts of PAH from EVOS 20 years after the spill is not plausible. Copyright © 2010 SETAC.

  19. A deficiency of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF in Harlequin mouse heart mitochondria paradoxically reduces ROS generation during ischemia-reperfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun eChen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: AIF (apoptosis inducing factor is a flavin and NADH containing protein located within mitochondria required for optimal function of the respiratory chain. AIF may function as an antioxidant within mitochondria, yet when released from mitochondria it activates caspase-independent cell death. The Harlequin (Hq mouse has a markedly reduced content of AIF, providing an experimental model to query if the main role of AIF in the exacerbation of cell death is enhanced mitochondrial generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS or the activation of cell death programs. We asked if the ROS generation is altered in Hq heart mitochondria at baseline or following ischemia-reperfusion (IR.Methods: Buffer perfused mouse hearts underwent 30 min ischemia and 30 min reperfusion. Mitochondrial function including oxidative phosphorylation and H2O2 generation was measured. Immunoblotting was used to determine the contents of AIF and PAR [poly(ADP-ribose] in cell fractions.Results: There were no differences in the release of H2O2 between wild type (WT and Hq heart mitochondria at baseline. IR increased H2O2 generation from WT but not from Hq mitochondria compared to corresponding time controls. The complex I activity was decreased in WT but not in Hq mice following IR. The relocation of AIF from mitochondria to nucleus was increased in WT but not in Hq mice. IR activated PARP-1 only in WT mice. Cell injury was decreased in Hq mouse heart following in vitro IR.Conclusion: A deficiency of AIF within mitochondria does not increase ROS production during IR, indicating that AIF functions less as an antioxidant within mitochondria. The decreased cardiac injury in Hq mouse heart accompanied by less AIF translocation to the nucleus suggests that AIF relocation, rather than the AIF content within mitochondria, contributes to cardiac injury during IR.

  20. Defects in Stratum Corneum Desquamation Are the Predominant Effect of Impaired ABCA12 Function in a Novel Mouse Model of Harlequin Ichthyosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    Full Text Available Harlequin Ichthyosis is a severe skin disease caused by mutations in the human gene encoding ABCA12. Here, we characterize a novel mutation in intron 29 of the mouse Abca12 gene that leads to the loss of a 5' splice donor site and truncation of the Abca12 RNA transcript. Homozygous mutants of this smooth skin or smsk allele die perinatally with shiny translucent skin, typical of animal models of Harlequin Ichthyosis. Characterization of smsk mutant skin showed that the delivery of glucosylceramides and CORNEODESMOSIN was defective, while ultrastructural analysis revealed abnormal lamellar bodies and the absence of lipid lamellae in smsk epidermis. Unexpectedly, mutant stratum corneum remained intact when subjected to harsh chemical dissociation procedures. Moreover, both KALLIKREIN 5 and -7 were drastically decreased, with retention of desmoplakin in mutant SC. In cultured wild type keratinocytes, both KALLIKREIN 5 and -7 colocalized with ceramide metabolites following calcium-induced differentiation. Reducing the intracellular levels of glucosylceramide with a glucosylceramide synthase inhibitor resulted in decreased secretion of KALLIKREIN proteases by wild type keratinocytes, but not by smsk mutant keratinocytes. Together, these findings suggest an essential role for ABCA12 in transferring not only lipids, which are required for the formation of multilamellar structures in the stratum corneum, but also proteolytic enzymes that are required for normal desquamation. Smsk mutant mice recapitulate many of the pathological features of HI and can be used to explore novel topical therapies against a potentially lethal and debilitating neonatal disease.

  1. Barcode haplotype variation in North American agroecosystem ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae

    Science.gov (United States)

    DNA barcodes have proven invaluable in identifying and distinguishing insect pests, for example for determining the provenance of exotic invasives, but relatively few insect natural enemies have been barcoded. We used Folmer et al.’s universal invertebrate primers (1994), and those designed by Heber...

  2. Improving the artificial diet for adult of seven spotted ladybird beetle Coccinella septempunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) with orthogonal design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Y; Zhi, J R; Li, F L; Li, W H; Zhou, Y H

    2017-09-19

    In this study, an orthogonal array design with 16 factors at two levels (216) was performed to develop an artificial diet rearing the adults of seven spotted ladybird beetle Coccinella septempunctata. The parameters of weight gain and survival rate of adults, preoviposition period, fecundity and hatching rate of diet-fed adults were monitored. The 16 factors were included: pork liver, infant formula, sucrose, olive oil, yolk, corn oil, yeast powder, cholesterol, casein, casein hydrolysate, vitamin powder, 65% juvenile hormone III, protein powder, vitamin E, honey and pumpkin. Results indicated that pork liver, sucrose, yolk, yeast powder, juvenile hormone, pumpkin and honey were the main ingredients of the artificial diet contributing to weight gain and survival rate of adults, preoviposition period, fecundity and hatching rate. A follow-up fed with a selection of improved formulas confirmed the validity of the optimization as predicted by the orthogonal array analysis, indicating the usefulness of this method for selecting artificial diets for C. septempunctata. The weight gain and fecundity of adults reared on the improved artificial diet were 87.46 and 62.70% of those reared on Aphis craccivora; the survival rate and hatch rate were similar between the diet-fed and aphid-fed, while the preoviposition period was significantly shorter for C. septempunctata fed on the diet than on A. craccivora. The latter formula was superior to any formerly developed formulas and may thus have potential for the improved artificial diet mass rearing of C. septempunctata.

  3. Phylogeny, classification and evolution of ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) based on simultaneous analysis of molecular and morphological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seago, Ainsley E; Giorgi, Jose Adriano; Li, Jiahui; Slipiński, Adam

    2011-07-01

    Ladybird beetles (family Coccinellidae) are a species-rich, ecologically diverse group of substantial agricultural significance, yet have been consistently problematic to classify, with evolutionary relationships poorly understood. In order to identify major clades within Coccinellidae, evaluate the current classification system, and identify likely drivers of diversification in this polyphagous group, we conducted the first simultaneous Bayesian analysis of morphological and multi-locus molecular data for any beetle family. Addition of morphological data significantly improved phylogenetic resolution and support for early diverging lineages, thereby better resolving evolutionary relationships than either data type alone. On the basis of these results, we formally recognize the subfamilies Microweisinae and Coccinellinae sensuŚlipiński (2007). No significant support was found for the subfamilies Coccidulinae, Scymninae, Sticholotidinae, or Ortaliinae. Our phylogenetic results suggest that the evolutionary success of Coccinellidae is in large part attributable to the exploitation of ant-tended sternorrhynchan insects as a food source, enabled by the key innovation of unusual defense mechanisms in larvae. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Introgression and Habitat Segregation in a Pair of Ladybird Beetle Species in the Genus Propylea (Coccinellidae, Coccinellinae) in Northern Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suga, Hiromu; Hirano, Wataru; Katoh, Toru; Matsubayashi, Kei W; Katakura, Haruo

    2016-12-01

    The ladybird beetles Propylea quatuordecimpunctata and P. japonica have largely overlapping distributions in northern Japan, and in the laboratory produce fertile hybrids. In this study, we surveyed the distribution and morphological differentiation of these species and the hybrids in natural populations, with a focus on western Hokkaido, northern Japan. Phenotypic analyses were conducted for 987 individuals collected at 90 localities. In addition, the nuclear internal transcribed spacer-II (ITS2) region (549 bp) and part of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene (700 bp) were sequenced for 620 individuals from 53 localities. Analyses of both phenotypic and genotypic features discriminated two distinct entities assignable to P. quatuordecimpunctata and P. japonica. However, individuals with intermediate phenotypes and/or genotypes also occurred extensively, indicating natural hybridization. Putative P. quatuordecimpunctata individuals were collected across a wide range of altitudes (30-600 m), whereas those of P. japonica were found mostly lower than 300 m alt. In addition, P. quatuordecimpunctata was dominant in semi-open habitats shaded by canopy foliage, whereas P. japonica was frequent in more open habitats. The perceived altitudinal difference in the distributions may thus in part be a consequence of this different habitat preference, as open habitats are more common at lower altitudes in the study area.

  5. Sexual behavior in ladybird beetles: Sex with lights on and a twist for Tenuisvalvae notata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Elisabete A Dos; Silva-Torres, Christian S A; Barbosa, Paulo R R; Torres, Jorge B; Blassioli-Moraes, Maria C

    2017-11-01

    The ladybird beetle Tenuisvalvae notata is an important predator of mealybugs (Pseudococcidae); however, little is known about its reproductive behavior. Thus, in order to improve methods of its rearing, this work studied several aspects regarding the sexual behavior of T. notata. We investigated its sexual activity period, age of the first copulation, mating frequency over 24h, and oviposition during a 30-day interval. Sexual activity of T. notata is diurnal with peak between 1100h and 1500h. Males need about 4days to first copulation, whereas females can mate at emergence. Adults mate 1.17±0.16-1.91±0.29 times over 24h with an average duration of 84±19.70s (ranging from 27 to 130s) per mating. Females produced an average of 54±6.42-64±7.08 offspring over 30days. An ethogram was also constructed to depict the events that occurred during copulation as follows: the male mounts the female, inserts the aedeagus, touches its back with palps and mandibles, and attempts to hold it simultaneously. The female can walk while copulating or remains motionless; the male retracts its aedeagus and twists on the females' back before moving apart. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Does a Change from Whole to Powdered Food (Artemia franciscana eggs Increase Oviposition in the Ladybird Coleomegilla maculata?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric W. Riddick

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The limited availability of alternative foods to replace natural prey hinders cost-effective mass production of ladybird beetles for augmentative biological control. We compared the effects of powdered vs. whole Artemia franciscana (A. franciscana (brine shrimp eggs with or without a dietary supplement on development and reproduction of Coleomegilla maculata (C. maculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae. We tested the hypotheses that (1 powdered A. franciscana eggs are more suitable than whole eggs; and (2 palmitic acid, a common fatty acid in natural prey, i.e., aphids, is an effective dietary supplement. Development time, pre-imaginal survival, sex ratio, and body weight of adults did not differ significantly amongst individuals fed powdered vs. whole eggs, with or without 5% palmitic acid. Significantly more oviposition occurred when females were fed powdered eggs than whole eggs and powdered eggs with 5% palmitic acid than whole eggs with or without 5% palmitic acid. A weak functional relationship was found between pre-oviposition time and total oviposition by females fed powdered eggs with 5% palmitic acid; pre-oviposition time decreased as oviposition increased. Food treatments had no significant differential effect on progeny (egg hatch rate. In conclusion, a simple change in A. franciscana egg texture and particle size (i.e., blending whole eggs into a dust-like powder increases oviposition in C. maculata. Supplementing powdered eggs with 5% palmitic acid might accelerate oogenesis (egg maturation in some females.

  7. Incidence of Male-Killing Rickettsia spp. (α-Proteobacteria) in the Ten-Spot Ladybird Beetle Adalia decempunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Schulenburg, J. Hinrich Graf; Habig, Michael; Sloggett, John J.; Webberley, K. Mary; Bertrand, Dominique; Hurst, Gregory D. D.; Majerus, Michael E. N.

    2001-01-01

    The diversity of endosymbiotic bacteria that kill male host offspring during embryogenesis and their frequencies in certain groups of host taxa suggest that the evolution of male killing and the subsequent spread of male-killing symbionts are primarily determined by host life history characteristics. We studied the 10-spot ladybird beetle, Adalia decempunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), in which male killing has not been recorded previously, to test this hypothesis, and we also assessed the evolution of the male killer identified by DNA sequence analysis. Our results show that A. decempunctata harbors male-killing Rickettsia (α-proteobacteria). Male-killing bacteria belonging to the genus Rickettsia have previously been reported only for the congeneric two-spot ladybird beetle, Adalia bipunctata L. Phylogenetic analysis of Rickettsia DNA sequences isolated from different populations of the two host species revealed a single origin of male killing in the genus Rickettsia. The data also indicated possible horizontal transfer of symbionts between host species. In addition, A. bipunctata is known to bear at least four different male-killing symbionts in its geographic range two of which coexist in the two locations from which A. decempunctata specimens were obtained for the present study. Since only a single male-killing taxon was found in A. decempunctata, we assume that the two closely related ladybird beetle species must differ in the number and/or geographic distribution of male killers. We discuss the importance of these findings to our understanding of the evolution and dynamics of symbiotic associations between male-killing bacteria and their insect hosts. PMID:11133455

  8. The homeodomain protein ladybird late regulates synthesis of milk proteins during pregnancy in the tsetse fly (Glossina morsitans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey M Attardo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of tissue and development specific gene expression patterns underlies the functional specialization of organs in multi-cellular organisms. In the viviparous tsetse fly (Glossina, the female accessory gland is specialized to generate nutrients in the form of a milk-like secretion to support growth of intrauterine larva. Multiple milk protein genes are expressed specifically in the female accessory gland and are tightly linked with larval development. Disruption of milk protein synthesis deprives developing larvae of nutrients and results in extended larval development and/or in abortion. The ability to cause such a disruption could be utilized as a tsetse control strategy. Here we identify and delineate the regulatory sequence of a major milk protein gene (milk gland protein 1:mgp1 by utilizing a combination of molecular techniques in tsetse, Drosophila transgenics, transcriptomics and in silico sequence analyses. The function of this promoter is conserved between tsetse and Drosophila. In transgenic Drosophila the mgp1 promoter directs reporter gene expression in a tissue and stage specific manner orthologous to that of Glossina. Analysis of the minimal required regulatory region of mgp1, and the regulatory regions of other Glossina milk proteins identified putative homeodomain protein binding sites as the sole common feature. Annotation and expression analysis of Glossina homeodomain proteins identified ladybird late (lbl as being accessory gland/fat body specific and differentially expressed between lactating/non-lactating flies. Knockdown of lbl in tsetse resulted in a significant reduction in transcript abundance of multiple milk protein genes and in a significant loss of fecundity. The role of Lbl in adult reproductive physiology is previously unknown. These results suggest that Lbl is part of a conserved reproductive regulatory system that could have implications beyond tsetse to other vector insects such as mosquitoes. This

  9. Invasive Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive species have significantly changed the Great Lakes ecosystem. An invasive species is a plant or animal that is not native to an ecosystem, and whose introduction is likely to cause economic, human health, or environmental damage.

  10. Alien vs. Predator - the native lacewing Chrysoperla carnea is the superior intraguild predator in trials against the invasive ladybird Harmonia axyridis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nedvěd, Oldřich; Fois, X.; Ungerová, D.; Kalushkov, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 1 (2013), s. 73-78 ISSN 1721-8861 Grant - others:Mze ČR(CZ) QH82047 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Coccinellidae * Chrysopidae * Syrphidae Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.722, year: 2013 http://www.bulletinofinsectology.org/pdfarticles/vol66-2013-073-078nedved.pdf

  11. Heart tissue of harlequin (hq)/Big Blue mice has elevated reactive oxygen species without significant impact on the frequency and nature of point mutations in nuclear DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crabbe, Rory A. [Department of Biology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, N6A 5B7 (Canada); Hill, Kathleen A., E-mail: khill22@uwo.ca [Department of Biology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, N6A 5B7 (Canada)

    2010-09-10

    Age is a major risk factor for heart disease, and cardiac aging is characterized by elevated mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) with compromised mitochondrial and nuclear DNA integrity. To assess links between increased ROS levels and mutations, we examined in situ levels of ROS and cII mutation frequency, pattern and spectrum in the heart of harlequin (hq)/Big Blue mice. The hq mouse is a model of premature aging with mitochondrial dysfunction and increased risk of oxidative stress-induced heart disease with the means for in vivo mutation detection. The hq mutation produces a significant downregulation in the X-linked apoptosis-inducing factor gene (Aif) impairing both the antioxidant and oxidative phosphorylation functions of AIF. Brain and skin of hq disease mice have elevated frequencies of point mutations in nuclear DNA and histopathology characterized by cell loss. Reports of associated elevations in ROS in brain and skin have mixed results. Herein, heart in situ ROS levels were elevated in hq disease compared to AIF-proficient mice (p < 0.0001) yet, mutation frequency and pattern were similar in hq disease, hq carrier and AIF-proficient mice. Heart cII mutations were also assessed 15 days following an acute exposure to an exogenous ROS inducer (10 mg paraquat/kg). Acute paraquat exposure with a short mutant manifestation period was insufficient to elevate mutation frequency or alter mutation pattern in the post-mitotic heart tissue of AIF-proficient mice. Paraquat induction of ROS requires mitochondrial complex I and thus is likely compromised in hq mice. Results of this preliminary survey and the context of recent literature suggest that determining causal links between AIF deficiency and the premature aging phenotypes of specific tissues is better addressed with assay of mitochondrial ROS and large-scale changes in mitochondrial DNA in specific cell types.

  12. Heart tissue of harlequin (hq)/Big Blue mice has elevated reactive oxygen species without significant impact on the frequency and nature of point mutations in nuclear DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crabbe, Rory A.; Hill, Kathleen A.

    2010-01-01

    Age is a major risk factor for heart disease, and cardiac aging is characterized by elevated mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) with compromised mitochondrial and nuclear DNA integrity. To assess links between increased ROS levels and mutations, we examined in situ levels of ROS and cII mutation frequency, pattern and spectrum in the heart of harlequin (hq)/Big Blue mice. The hq mouse is a model of premature aging with mitochondrial dysfunction and increased risk of oxidative stress-induced heart disease with the means for in vivo mutation detection. The hq mutation produces a significant downregulation in the X-linked apoptosis-inducing factor gene (Aif) impairing both the antioxidant and oxidative phosphorylation functions of AIF. Brain and skin of hq disease mice have elevated frequencies of point mutations in nuclear DNA and histopathology characterized by cell loss. Reports of associated elevations in ROS in brain and skin have mixed results. Herein, heart in situ ROS levels were elevated in hq disease compared to AIF-proficient mice (p < 0.0001) yet, mutation frequency and pattern were similar in hq disease, hq carrier and AIF-proficient mice. Heart cII mutations were also assessed 15 days following an acute exposure to an exogenous ROS inducer (10 mg paraquat/kg). Acute paraquat exposure with a short mutant manifestation period was insufficient to elevate mutation frequency or alter mutation pattern in the post-mitotic heart tissue of AIF-proficient mice. Paraquat induction of ROS requires mitochondrial complex I and thus is likely compromised in hq mice. Results of this preliminary survey and the context of recent literature suggest that determining causal links between AIF deficiency and the premature aging phenotypes of specific tissues is better addressed with assay of mitochondrial ROS and large-scale changes in mitochondrial DNA in specific cell types.

  13. Uncharismatic Invasives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark, Jonathan L.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Although philosophers have examined the ethics of invasive species management, there has been little research approaching this topic from a descriptive, ethnographic perspective. In this article I examine how invasive species managers think about the moral status of the animals they seek to manage. I do so through a case study of Oregon’s efforts to manage the invasive species that are rafting across the Pacific attached to tsunami debris in the wake of the Japanese tsunami of 2011. Focusing on the state’s response to a dock that washed ashore on Agate Beach with various marine invertebrates attached to it, I argue that these animals’ position on two intersecting scales of moral worth—the sociozoologic scale and the phylogenetic scale—rendered them unworthy of moral consideration.

  14. Invasive amebiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecu, F; Bulgariu, Teodora; Blanaru, Oana; Dragomir, C; Lunca, Claudia; Stratan, I; Manciuc, Carmen; Luca, V

    2006-01-01

    Digestive amoebiasis with his invasive form is an unusual pathology encountered in the temperate zone. This could lead to a life threatening complication: systemic amoebiasis. A 55-year-old male was treated successfully of systemic amoebiasis in a third referral hospital. The diagnosis was established based on epidemiology data and microscopical identification of trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica. The amoebicidal, antibiotic and supportive treatments was firstly administrated. The clinical picture of intestinal amoebiasis raised from dysenteric syndrome to necrotizing enteritis. The bowel perforation with localized peritonitis was followed by chronic enteric fistula. Amoebic liver abscess, as the most frequent extraintestinal complication, was concomitantly diagnosed and treated. Urinary amoebiasis was considered as complication in the context of systemic dissemination: any other location could become a site of an amoebic abscess. Multidisciplinary approach was the successful key in the management of the patient, including antiparasitic therapy and antibiotic prophylaxis, intensive care and multiple surgical approaches. The diagnosis of digestive amoebiasis and systemic complication may be delayed in nonendemic areas, leading to advanced and complicated stages of the disease. The surgical approach is most efficiently to treat a large liver amoebic abscess and intraperitoneal collections.

  15. "Repent, Harlequin!" Said the Ticktockman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Harlan

    1973-01-01

    Topic 8, Our Contemporary World: Problems and Issues, in a theme issue on Teaching World History Through Science Fiction, presents this short story to motivate discussion on dehumanization, resulting in a society where the single driving force is order and unity and promptness and clocklike precision. (JB)

  16. National invasive species program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna Rinick

    2007-01-01

    The structure and function of the National Invasive Species Council was presented below. The names and contact information for the USDA Invasive Species coordinators as of February 2006 were presented on the next page.

  17. Ecology of forest insect invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.G. Brockerhoff; A.M. Liebhold

    2017-01-01

    Forests in virtually all regions of the world are being affected by invasions of non-native insects. We conducted an in-depth review of the traits of successful invasive forest insects and the ecological processes involved in insect invasions across the universal invasion phases (transport and arrival, establishment, spread and impacts). Most forest insect invasions...

  18. Cryptic invasions: a review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Morais, Pedro Miguel; Reichard, Martin

    613-614, February (2018), s. 1438-1448 ISSN 0048-9697 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-05872S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Conspecific invader * Biological invasions * Bibliometric * Invasiveness Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Environmental science s (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 4.900, year: 2016

  19. Invasion biology of thrips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Joseph G; Hoddle, Mark S

    2006-01-01

    Thrips are among the stealthiest of insect invaders due to their small size and cryptic habits. Many invasive thrips are notorious for causing extensive crop damage, vectoring viral diseases, and permanently destabilizing IPM systems owing to irruptive outbreaks that require remediation with insecticides, leading to the development of insecticide resistance. Several challenges surface when attempting to manage incursive thrips species. Foremost among these is early recognition, followed by rapid and accurate identification of emergent pest species, elucidation of the region of origin, development of a management program, and the closing of conduits for global movement of thrips. In this review, we examine factors facilitating invasion by thrips, damage caused by these insects, pre- and post-invasion management tactics, and challenges looming on the horizon posed by invasive Thysanoptera, which continually challenge the development of sustainable management practices.

  20. Fates of Rare Species under Siege from Invasion: Persistence of Coccinella novemnotata Herbst in Western North America alongside an Invasive Congener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward W. Evans

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Species invading new geographic regions may threaten continued existence of similar, indigenous relatives, particularly those species whose rarity may reflect an already tenuous existence. The spectacular colonization of North America in recent decades by Coccinella septempunctata L. has generated widespread concern over potentially adverse effects on population viability of native species of ladybird beetles (Coccinellidae. Coccinella novemnotata Herbst in particular has been hypothesized to be at great risk, as this species apparently dwindled in numbers across much of North America during the twentieth century. Here results of sampling diverse habitats over three decades are examined to address the fate of C. novemnotata in the intermountain region of western North America following the establishment of C. septempunctata during the 1990s. Alfalfa fields have served as a major habitat for C. novemnotata in the intermountain west. Sweep sampling in the late 1980s and early 1990s demonstated that C. novemnotata and C. septempunctata were both rare members of the alfalfa lady beetle community. Subsequent sampling in alfalfa over the next two decades revealed that populations of C. septempunctata increased greatly, while populations of C. novemnotata remained low but persistent. Similarly, modest numbers of C. novemnotata were found continuing to persist, often alongside large numbers of C. septempunctata, in a variety of other habitats, including sagebrush steppe and weed-infested rangeland and riparian sites. Morphological comparison of these individuals of C. novemnotata with museum specimens collected throughout the twentieth century revealed no significant difference in mean body size between these recently and previously collected individuals, nor any significant long-term decrease in body size following the arrival of C. septempunctata, as might reflect increasing food limitation for larval C. novemnotata. Collectively these results

  1. Emergent Minimally Invasive Esophagogastrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Fabian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Esophageal perforation in the setting of a malignancy carries a high morbidity and mortality. We describe our management of such a patient using minimally invasive approach. Methods. An 83-year-old female presented with an iatrogenic esophageal perforation during the workup of dysphagia. She was referred for surgical evaluation immediately after the event which occurred in the endoscopy suite. Minimally invasive esophagectomy was chosen to provide definitive treatment for both her malignancy and esophageal perforation. Results. Following an uncomplicated operative course, she was eventually discharged to extended care for rehabilitation and remains alive four years after her resection. Conclusion. Although traditional open techniques are the accepted gold standard of treatment for esophageal perforation, minimally invasive esophagectomy plays an important role in experienced hands and may be offered to such patients.

  2. Over-invasion by functionally equivalent invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, James C; Sataruddin, Nurul S; Heard, Allison D

    2014-08-01

    Multiple invasive species have now established at most locations around the world, and the rate of new species invasions and records of new invasive species continue to grow. Multiple invasive species interact in complex and unpredictable ways, altering their invasion success and impacts on biodiversity. Incumbent invasive species can be replaced by functionally similar invading species through competitive processes; however the generalized circumstances leading to such competitive displacement have not been well investigated. The likelihood of competitive displacement is a function of the incumbent advantage of the resident invasive species and the propagule pressure of the colonizing invasive species. We modeled interactions between populations of two functionally similar invasive species and indicated the circumstances under which dominance can be through propagule pressure and incumbent advantage. Under certain circumstances, a normally subordinate species can be incumbent and reject a colonizing dominant species, or successfully colonize in competition with a dominant species during simultaneous invasion. Our theoretical results are supported by empirical studies of the invasion of islands by three invasive Rattus species. Competitive displacement is prominent in invasive rats and explains the replacement of R. exulans on islands subsequently invaded by European populations of R. rattus and R. norvegicus. These competition outcomes between invasive species can be found in a broad range of taxa and biomes, and are likely to become more common. Conservation management must consider that removing an incumbent invasive species may facilitate invasion by another invasive species. Under very restricted circumstances of dominant competitive ability but lesser impact, competitive displacement may provide a novel method of biological control.

  3. New record of the invasive ladybeetle Harmonia axyridis in Afrotropical Region: Tanzania, Zanzibar

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nedvěd, Oldřich; Háva, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 1 (2016), s. 247-249 ISSN 1021-3589 Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 159/2013/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : ladybird beetle * South-Africa * Coccinellidae Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.813, year: 2016 http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.4001/003.024.0247

  4. Exotic invasive plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolyn Hull Sieg; Barbara G. Phillips; Laura P. Moser

    2003-01-01

    Ecosystems worldwide are threatened by nonnative plant invasions that can cause undesirable, irreversible changes. They can displace native plants and animals, out-cross with native flora, alter nutrient cycling and other ecosystem functions, and even change an ecosystem's flammability (Walker and Smith 1997). After habitat loss, the spread of exotic species is...

  5. Mechanisms Regulating Glioma Invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paw, Ivy; Carpenter, Richard C.; Watabe, Kounosuke; Debinski, Waldemar; Lo, Hui-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive, deadliest, and most common brain malignancy in adults. Despite the advances made in surgical techniques, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, the median survival for GBM patients has remained at a mere 14 months. GBM poses several unique challenges to currently available treatments for the disease. For example, GBM cells have the propensity to aggressively infiltrate/invade into the normal brain tissues and along the vascular tracks, which prevents complete resection of all malignant cells and limits the effect of localized radiotherapy while sparing normal tissue. Although anti-angiogenic treatment exerts anti-edematic effect in GBM, unfortunately, tumors progress with acquired increased invasiveness. Therefore, it is an important task to gain a deeper understanding of the intrinsic and post-treatment invasive phenotypes of GBM in hopes that the gained knowledge would lead to novel GBM treatments that are more effective and less toxic. This review will give an overview of some of the signaling pathways that have been shown to positively and negatively regulate GBM invasion, including, the PI3K/Akt, Wnt, sonic hedgehog-GLI1, and microRNAs. The review will also discuss several approaches to cancer therapies potentially altering GBM invasiveness. PMID:25796440

  6. Minimally invasive distal pancreatectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Røsok, Bård I.; de Rooij, Thijs; van Hilst, Jony; Diener, Markus K.; Allen, Peter J.; Vollmer, Charles M.; Kooby, David A.; Shrikhande, Shailesh V.; Asbun, Horacio J.; Barkun, Jeffrey; Besselink, Marc G.; Boggi, Ugo; Conlon, Kevin; Han, Ho Seong; Hansen, Paul; Kendrick, Michael L.; Kooby, David; Montagnini, Andre L.; Palanivelu, Chinnasamy; Wakabayashi, Go; Zeh, Herbert J.

    2017-01-01

    The first International conference on Minimally Invasive Pancreas Resection was arranged in conjunction with the annual meeting of the International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association (IHPBA), in Sao Paulo, Brazil on April 19th 2016. The presented evidence and outcomes resulting from the session

  7. Management of invasive species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jesper Sølver; Jensen, Frank

    In this paper, we conduct a number of cost-benefit analyses to clarify whether the establishment of invasive species should be prevented or the damage of such species should be mitigated after introduction. We use the potential establishment of ragweed in Denmark as an empirical case. The main...... of information externalities, altruistic preferences, possible catastrophic events and ethical considerations....

  8. Invasive Plants -- A Horticultural Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Niemiera, Alexander Xavier, 1951-; Von Holle, Betsy

    2009-01-01

    This publication explains how nonnative invasive plants are harmful and why you should care, how to predict the invasive potential of a plant, and how gardeners and landscape professionals can make informed choices when choosing plants.

  9. Minimally Invasive Abdominal Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, William S.; Carter, Kristine M.; Fuhrman, George M.; Bolton, John S.; Bowen, John C.

    2000-01-01

    In the last decade, laparoscopy has been the most innovative surgical movement in general surgery. Minimally invasive surgery performed through a few small incisions, laparoscopy is the standard of care for the treatment of gallbladder disease and the gold standard for the treatment of reflux disease. The indications for a laparoscopic approach to abdominal disease continue to increase, and many diseases may be treated with laparoscopic techniques. At Ochsner, laparoscopic techniques have dem...

  10. Plant invasions: Merging the concepts of species invasiveness and community invasibility

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Richardson, D. M.; Pyšek, Petr

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 3 (2006), s. 409-431 ISSN 0309-1333 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : plant invasions * species invasiveness * community invasibility Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.278, year: 2006

  11. Minimally Invasive Parathyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee F. Starker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP is an operative approach for the treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT. Currently, routine use of improved preoperative localization studies, cervical block anesthesia in the conscious patient, and intraoperative parathyroid hormone analyses aid in guiding surgical therapy. MIP requires less surgical dissection causing decreased trauma to tissues, can be performed safely in the ambulatory setting, and is at least as effective as standard cervical exploration. This paper reviews advances in preoperative localization, anesthetic techniques, and intraoperative management of patients undergoing MIP for the treatment of pHPT.

  12. Cell invasion through basement membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Morrissey, Meghan A; Hagedorn, Elliott J; Sherwood, David R

    2013-01-01

    Cell invasion through basement membrane is an essential part of normal development and physiology, and occurs during the pathological progression of human inflammatory diseases and cancer. F-actin-rich membrane protrusions, called invadopodia, have been hypothesized to be the “drill bits” of invasive cells, mediating invasion through the dense, highly cross-linked basement membrane matrix. Though studied in vitro for over 30 y, invadopodia function in vivo has remained elusive. We have recent...

  13. A comparison of non-invasive versus invasive methods of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Puneet Khanna

    for Hb estimation from the laboratory [total haemoglobin mass (tHb)] and arterial blood gas (ABG) machine (aHb), using ... A comparison of non-invasive versus invasive methods of haemoglobin estimation in patients undergoing intracranial surgery. 161 .... making decisions for blood transfusions based on these results.

  14. Invasive v. non-invasive blood pressure measurements the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A reasonable correlation exists between invasive and noninvasive methods of measuring systemic blood pressure. However, there are frequent individual differences between these methods and these variations have often caused the validity of the non-invasive measurement to be questioned. The hypothesis that certain ...

  15. Dietary Flexibility Aids Asian Earthworm Invasion in North American Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    On a local scale, invasiveness of introduced species and invasibility of habitats together determine invasion success. A key issue in invasion ecology has been how to quantify the contribution of species invasiveness and habitat invasibility separately. Conventional approaches, s...

  16. Klebsiella pneumoniae Invasive Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasco Evangelista

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Klebsiella pneumoniae invasive syndrome (KPIS is a rare clinical condition characterized by primary liver abscess associated with metastatic infection. Most case reports are from Southeast Asia, with only one case described in Portugal. The Authors present the case of a 44-year-old man with a history of fever, dry cough and cervicalgia. A thoracic computed tomography (CT scan showed multiple pulmonary and hepatic nodules, suggestive of metastatic malignancy. Both blood cultures and bronchoalveolar lavage were positive for Klebsiella pneumoniae. Imaging studies were repeated during his hospital stay, showing a reduction in both number and volume of identified lesions, thus revealing their infectious nature. This case illustrates how much this entity can mimic other illnesses.

  17. Microbial ecology of biological invasions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putten, van der W.H.; Klironomos, J.N.; Wardle, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Invasive microbes, plants and animals are a major threat to the composition and functioning of ecosystems; however, the mechanistic basis of why exotic species can be so abundant and disruptive is not well understood. Most studies have focused on invasive plants and animals, although few have

  18. Prioritizing invasive plant management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive plants are seriously impacting rangelands by displacing desirable species. Management of these species is expensive and careful allocation of scarce dollars is necessary. Ecologically-based invasive plant management (EBIPM) has the potential to provide an improved decision-making process ...

  19. Cell invasion through basement membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Meghan A; Hagedorn, Elliott J; Sherwood, David R

    2013-01-01

    Cell invasion through basement membrane is an essential part of normal development and physiology, and occurs during the pathological progression of human inflammatory diseases and cancer. F-actin-rich membrane protrusions, called invadopodia, have been hypothesized to be the “drill bits” of invasive cells, mediating invasion through the dense, highly cross-linked basement membrane matrix. Though studied in vitro for over 30 y, invadopodia function in vivo has remained elusive. We have recently discovered that invadopodia breach basement membrane during anchor cell invasion in C. elegans, a genetically and visually tractable in vivo invasion event. Further, we found that the netrin receptor DCC localizes to the initial site of basement membrane breach and directs invasion through a single gap in the matrix. In this commentary, we examine how the dynamics and structure of AC-invadopodia compare with in vitro invadopodia and how the netrin receptor guides invasion through a single basement membrane breach. We end with a discussion of our surprising result that the anchor cell pushes the basement membrane aside, instead of completely dissolving it through proteolysis, and provide some ideas for how proteases and physical displacement may work together to ensure efficient and robust invasion. PMID:24778942

  20. Interstitial guidance of cancer invasion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gritsenko, P.G.; Ilina, O.; Friedl, P.H.

    2012-01-01

    Cancer cell invasion into healthy tissues develops preferentially along pre-existing tracks of least resistance, followed by secondary tissue remodelling and destruction. The tissue scaffolds supporting or preventing guidance of invasion vary in structure and molecular composition between organs. In

  1. Earthworm invasions in the tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grizelle Gonzalez; Ching Yu Huang; Xiaoming Zou; Carlos Rodriguez

    2006-01-01

    The effects and implications of invasive species in belowground terrestrial ecosystems are not well known in comparison with aboveground terrestrial and marine environments. The study of earthworm invasions in the tropics is limited by a lack of taxonomic knowledge and the potential for loss of species in native habitats due to anthropogenic land use change. Alteration...

  2. Invasive tightly coupled processor arrays

    CERN Document Server

    LARI, VAHID

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces new massively parallel computer (MPSoC) architectures called invasive tightly coupled processor arrays. It proposes strategies, architecture designs, and programming interfaces for invasive TCPAs that allow invading and subsequently executing loop programs with strict requirements or guarantees of non-functional execution qualities such as performance, power consumption, and reliability. For the first time, such a configurable processor array architecture consisting of locally interconnected VLIW processing elements can be claimed by programs, either in full or in part, using the principle of invasive computing. Invasive TCPAs provide unprecedented energy efficiency for the parallel execution of nested loop programs by avoiding any global memory access such as GPUs and may even support loops with complex dependencies such as loop-carried dependencies that are not amenable to parallel execution on GPUs. For this purpose, the book proposes different invasion strategies for claiming a desire...

  3. Molecular analysis of the gut contents of Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) as a method for detecting intra-guild predation by this species on aphidophagous predators other than coccinellids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingels, B.; Aebi, A.; Hautier, L.; Van Leeuwen, T.; De Clercq, P.

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that the invasive ladybird Harmonia axyridis is a strong intra-guild predator of native species of ladybird. Laboratory studies have shown that H. axyridis can be an intra-guild predator of aphid predators other than coccinellids, including the hoverfly Episyrphus

  4. Invasive meningococcal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa L. Strelow

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD is a major public health and continues to cause substantial mortality and morbidity. Serotype C is the most frequent in Brazil. The clinical spectrum of IMD is broad (meningitis, meningococcemia or both and the clinical evolution may be unpredictable. Main features associated with mortality are: age higher than 50 years old, seizures, shock, and meningococcemia without meningitis. Blood cultures should be obtained immediately. Lumbar puncture can be performed without previous computed tomography scan (CT in most cases. Clinical features can be useful to predic patients where an abnormal CT scan is likely. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF culture and Gram stain should always be required. Latex agglutination sensitivity is highly variable. Polymerase chain reaction is specially useful when other methods are negative or delayed. Usually ceftriaxone should not be delayed while awaiting CSF study or CT. Dexamethasone can be used in meningococcal meningitis. Early suspicion of IMD and antibiotic in primary care before hospitalization, rapid transportation to a hospital, and stabilization in an intensive-care unit has substantially reduced the case-fatality rate. Vaccines against serotypes A, C, W-135, and Y are available while vaccines against serotype B are expected.

  5. Non-invasive hemoglobin monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Bellal; Haider, Ansab; Rhee, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Technology has transformed the practice of medicine and surgery in particular over the last several decades. This change in practice has allowed diagnostic and therapeutic tests to be performed less invasively. Hemoglobin monitoring remains one of the most commonly performed diagnostic tests in the United States. Recently, non-invasive hemoglobin monitoring technology has gained popularity. The aim of this article is to review the principles of how this technology works, pros and cons, and the implications of non-invasive hemoglobin technology particularly in trauma surgery. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The mathematics behind biological invasions

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Mark A; Potts, Jonathan R

    2016-01-01

    This book investigates the mathematical analysis of biological invasions. Unlike purely qualitative treatments of ecology, it draws on mathematical theory and methods, equipping the reader with sharp tools and rigorous methodology. Subjects include invasion dynamics, species interactions, population spread, long-distance dispersal, stochastic effects, risk analysis, and optimal responses to invaders. While based on the theory of dynamical systems, including partial differential equations and integrodifference equations, the book also draws on information theory, machine learning, Monte Carlo methods, optimal control, statistics, and stochastic processes. Applications to real biological invasions are included throughout. Ultimately, the book imparts a powerful principle: that by bringing ecology and mathematics together, researchers can uncover new understanding of, and effective response strategies to, biological invasions. It is suitable for graduate students and established researchers in mathematical ecolo...

  7. Cheatgrass invasion and wildlife habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    The introduction and subsequent invasion of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) has altered native plant communities and the wildlife species that depend on these communities. Cheatgrass has truncated secondary succession by outcompeting native plant species for limited resources, thus building persistent...

  8. Invasive Meningococcal Men Y Disease

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-18

    Dr. Leonard Mayer, a public health microbiologist at CDC, discusses invasive meningococcal disease.  Created: 4/18/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/23/2012.

  9. Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Ekici, Cemal

    2015-01-01

    The rate of newborns with trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) who have been referred to our pediatric newborn clinic is very high. This shows that prenatal screening in the region is not carried out well. Prenatal diagnosis and screening methods include invasive prenatal diagnosis methods (amniocentesis, chorionic villus sampling (CVS), and cordocentesis) and non-invasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPT) which cell free fetal DNA (cffDNA) screening of maternal blood samples. After the discovery of the signs ...

  10. Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing

    OpenAIRE

    McGillivray, Barbara C.

    1988-01-01

    The rate of newborns with trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) who have been referred to our pediatric newborn clinic is very high. This shows that prenatal screening in the region is not carried out well. Prenatal diagnosis and screening methods include invasive prenatal diagnosis methods (amniocentesis, chorionic villus sampling (CVS), and cordocentesis) and non-invasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPT) which cell free fetal DNA (cffDNA) screening of maternal blood samples. After the discovery of the signs ...

  11. Quantifying the invasiveness of species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Colautti, R. I.; Parker, J. D.; Cadotte, M. W.; Pyšek, Petr; Brown, C. S.; Sax, D. F.; Richardson, D. M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 1 (2014), s. 7-27 ISSN 1619-0033 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/11/1112; GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/1028 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1002 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : biological invasions * biogeographical comparison * invasiveness Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  12. 75 FR 69698 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory... of meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee (ISAC). Comprised of 30 nonfederal invasive...

  13. 76 FR 68776 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory... of meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee (ISAC). Comprised of 29 nonfederal invasive...

  14. 77 FR 23740 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Public Meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory... of meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee (ISAC). Comprised of 30 nonfederal invasive...

  15. Parasitylenchus bifurcatus n. sp. (Tylenchida: Allantonematidae parasitizing Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poinar George O

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae is native to central and eastern Asia and was purposely introduced into Europe to control aphids. While it proved to be a good biological control agent, its rapid spread and buildup of large populations made it a nuisance, since it overwinters in homes, emits unpleasant odors, stains fabrics, occasionally bites humans and feeds on apples, pears and grapes. Aside from the above, the ravenous appetite of H. axyridis results in their consumption of harmless native insects, including even other ladybird beetles. A study of the natural enemies of H. axyridis in Denmark revealed the presence of nematodes. The present study describes this nematode parasite and discusses aspects of its development and ecology. Methods Adult harlequin ladybird beetles were collected from March to November from four localities in Copenhagen on different plant species. In addition, groups of last-instar larvae and pupae (n = 50 were examined for the presence of nematodes. Living and recently dead nematodes were removed from adult H. axyridis in 0.5% saline solution, the nematodes were then heat killed (at 75C, fixed in 5% formalin and transferred to glycerin on slides for further examination and measurements. Results A new species of Allantonematidae (Tylenchida, Parasitylenchus bifurcatus n. sp., is described from adults of the harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis in Denmark. The new species is characterized by a straight stylet lacking basal thickenings, a bursa and a forked tail tip in the vermiform (infective females and juvenile males. The new species is compared with P. coccinellinae previously described from ladybird beetles in France. Parasitism resulted in depletion of the fat body and partial or complete atrophy of the reproductive organs of the beetles. Infections occurred throughout the year with rates of parasitism reaching up to 35%. The rate increased to 60

  16. Parasitylenchus bifurcatus n. sp. (Tylenchida: Allantonematidae) parasitizing Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is native to central and eastern Asia and was purposely introduced into Europe to control aphids. While it proved to be a good biological control agent, its rapid spread and buildup of large populations made it a nuisance, since it overwinters in homes, emits unpleasant odors, stains fabrics, occasionally bites humans and feeds on apples, pears and grapes. Aside from the above, the ravenous appetite of H. axyridis results in their consumption of harmless native insects, including even other ladybird beetles. A study of the natural enemies of H. axyridis in Denmark revealed the presence of nematodes. The present study describes this nematode parasite and discusses aspects of its development and ecology. Methods Adult harlequin ladybird beetles were collected from March to November from four localities in Copenhagen on different plant species. In addition, groups of last-instar larvae and pupae (n = 50) were examined for the presence of nematodes. Living and recently dead nematodes were removed from adult H. axyridis in 0.5% saline solution, the nematodes were then heat killed (at 75C), fixed in 5% formalin and transferred to glycerin on slides for further examination and measurements. Results A new species of Allantonematidae (Tylenchida), Parasitylenchus bifurcatus n. sp., is described from adults of the harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis in Denmark. The new species is characterized by a straight stylet lacking basal thickenings, a bursa and a forked tail tip in the vermiform (infective) females and juvenile males. The new species is compared with P. coccinellinae previously described from ladybird beetles in France. Parasitism resulted in depletion of the fat body and partial or complete atrophy of the reproductive organs of the beetles. Infections occurred throughout the year with rates of parasitism reaching up to 35%. The rate increased to 60% when field

  17. Invasive amphibians in southern Africa: A review of invasion pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Measey

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globally, invasive amphibians are known for their environmental and social impacts that range from poisoning of local fauna and human populations to direct predation on other amphibians. Although several countries on most continents have had multiple introductions of many species, southern Africa appears to have escaped allochthonous introductions. Instead, it has a small number of domestic exotic species that have rapidly expanded their ranges and established invasive populations within South Africa. Objectives & methods: We used the literature to provide a historical overview of dispersal by some of the world’s major invasive amphibians, give examples of species that are commonly moved as stowaways and discuss historical and current amphibian trade in the region. In addition, we give an overview of new South African legislation and how this is applied to amphibian invasions, as well as providing updates on the introduced populations of three domestic exotics: Hyperolius marmoratus, Sclerophrys gutturalis and Xenopus laevis. Results: We show that frogs are mainly moved around southern Africa through ‘jump’ dispersal, although there are a number of records of ‘cultivation’, ‘leading-edge’ and ‘extreme long-distance’ dispersal types. Important pathways include trade in fruit and vegetables, horticultural products and shipping containers. Conclusion: We suggest that southern Africa is becoming more vulnerable to amphibian invasions because of an increase in trade, agricultural and domestic impoundments as well as global climate change. Increasing propagule pressure suggests that preventing new introductions will become a key challenge for the future. Currently, trade in amphibians in the region is practically non-existent, suggesting potential for best practice to prevent importation of species with high invasion potential and to stop the spread of disease.

  18. Anesthesia for minimally invasive neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, Hemanshu; Mahajan, Charu; Kapoor, Indu

    2017-10-01

    With an ultimate aim of improving patients overall outcome and satisfaction, minimally invasive surgical approach is becoming more of a norm. The related anesthetic evidence has not expanded at the same rate as surgical and technological advancement. This article reviews the recent evidence on anesthesia and perioperative concerns for patients undergoing minimally invasive neurosurgery. Minimally invasive cranial and spinal surgeries have been made possible only by vast technological development. Points of surgical interest can be precisely located with the help of stereotaxy and neuronavigation and special endoscopes which decrease the tissue trauma. The principles of neuroanethesia remain the same, but few concerns are specific for each technique. Dexmedetomidine has a favorable profile for procedures carried out under sedation technique. As the new surgical techniques are coming up, lesser known anesthetic concerns may also come into light. Over the last year, little new information has been added to existing literature regarding anesthesia for minimally invasive neurosurgeries. Neuroanesthesia goals remain the same and less invasive surgical techniques do not translate into safe anesthesia. Specific concerns for each procedure should be taken into consideration.

  19. Interstitial guidance of cancer invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsenko, Pavlo G; Ilina, Olga; Friedl, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Cancer cell invasion into healthy tissues develops preferentially along pre-existing tracks of least resistance, followed by secondary tissue remodelling and destruction. The tissue scaffolds supporting or preventing guidance of invasion vary in structure and molecular composition between organs. In the brain, the guidance is provided by myelinated axons, astrocyte processes, and blood vessels which are used as invasion routes by glioma cells. In the human breast, containing interstitial collagen-rich connective tissue, disseminating breast cancer cells preferentially invade along bundled collagen fibrils and the surface of adipocytes. In both invasion types, physical guidance prompted by interfaces and space is complemented by molecular guidance. Generic mechanisms shared by most, if not all, tissues include (i) guidance by integrins towards fibrillar interstitial collagen and/or laminins and type IV collagen in basement membranes decorating vessels and adipocytes, and, likely, CD44 engaging with hyaluronan; (ii) haptotactic guidance by chemokines and growth factors; and likely (iii) physical pushing mechanisms. Tissue-specific, resticted guidance cues include ECM proteins with restricted expression (tenascins, lecticans), cell-cell interfaces, and newly secreted matrix molecules decorating ECM fibres (laminin-332, thrombospondin-1, osteopontin, periostin). We here review physical and molecular guidance mechanisms in interstitial tissue and brain parenchyma and explore shared principles and organ-specific differences, and their implications for experimental model design and therapeutic targeting of tumour cell invasion. Copyright © 2011 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Optic nerve invasion of uveal melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Jens; Isager, Peter; Prause, Jan Ulrik

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the histopathological characteristics associated with the invasion of the optic nerve of uveal melanoma and to evaluate the association between invasion of the optic nerve and survival. In order to achieve this, all uveal melanomas with optic nerve invasion...... in Denmark between 1942 and 2001 were reviewed (n=157). Histopathological characteristics and depth of optic nerve invasion were recorded. The material was compared with a control material from the same period consisting of 85 cases randomly drawn from all choroidal/ciliary body melanomas without optic nerve...... invasion. Prelaminar/laminar optic nerve invasion was in multivariate analysis associated with focal retinal invasion, neovascularization of the chamber angle, and scleral invasion. Postlaminar invasion was further associated with non-spindle cell type and rupture of the inner limiting membrane...

  1. Invasive exotic plants suffer less herbivory than non-invasive exotic plants

    OpenAIRE

    Cappuccino, Naomi; Carpenter, David

    2005-01-01

    We surveyed naturally occurring leaf herbivory in nine invasive and nine non-invasive exotic plant species sampled in natural areas in Ontario, New York and Massachusetts, and found that invasive plants experienced, on average, 96% less leaf damage than non-invasive species. Invasive plants were also more taxonomically isolated than non-invasive plants, belonging to families with 75% fewer native North American genera. However, the relationship between taxonomic isolation at the family level ...

  2. Non-invasive mechanical ventilation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nicky

    failure may benefit from a trial of NIV. Increased work of breathing, as noted by use of accessory breathing. SAJCC. 10. July 2005, V ol. 21, No. 1. University of Manitoba and Manitoba Institute of Child Health, Winnipeg, Canada. B Louise Giles, MD, FRCPC. Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is a modality of providing airway and ...

  3. Vaccines against invasive Salmonella disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLennan, Calman A; Martin, Laura B; Micoli, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Though primarily enteric pathogens, Salmonellae are responsible for a considerable yet under-appreciated global burden of invasive disease. In South and South-East Asia, this manifests as enteric fever caused by serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A. In sub-Saharan Africa, a similar disease burden results from invasive nontyphoidal Salmonellae, principally serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis. The existing Ty21a live-attenuated and Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccines target S. Typhi and are not effective in young children where the burden of invasive Salmonella disease is highest. After years of lack of investment in new Salmonella vaccines, recent times have seen increased interest in the area led by emerging-market manufacturers, global health vaccine institutes and academic partners. New glycoconjugate vaccines against S. Typhi are becoming available with similar vaccines against other invasive serovars in development. With other new vaccines under investigation, including live-attenuated, protein-based and GMMA vaccines, now is an exciting time for the Salmonella vaccine field. PMID:24804797

  4. Invasive cranial mycosis our experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapas Kumbhkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi can cause serious cranial infections in immunocompromised and diabetic patients. Common pathogens mainly include Aspergillus and Mucor. These organisms cause tissue invasion and destruction of adjacent structures (e.g. orbit, ethmoid, sphenoid, maxillary & cavernous sinuses. Mortality and morbidity rate is high despite combined surgical, antifungal and antidiabetic treatment. We present our experience of six cases with such infection.

  5. Biological invasions in forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew M. Liebhold; Eckehard G. Brockerhoff; Susan Kalisz; Martin A. Nuñez; David A. Wardle; Michael J. Wingfield

    2017-01-01

    Forests play critical roles in global ecosystem processes and provide numerous services to society. But forests are increasingly affected by a variety of human influences, especially those resulting from biological invasions. Species invading forests include woody and herbaceous plants, many animal species including mammals and invertebrates, as well as a variety of...

  6. Approaching invasive species in Madagascar | Kull | Madagascar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    invasive', the topic of invasive species has until recently received less attention here than in other island contexts. Some species, often alien to Madagascar and introduced by humans, have expanded their range rapidly and have had both ...

  7. Invasive thymoma: CT diagnosis and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Zhonghua; Yu Hong; Liu Hengshun; Yan Hongzhen; Zhang Shurong

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To study the CT manifestation of invasive thymoma for staging and treatment planning. Materials and methods: The authors reviewed and analyzed the CT scans of 26 patients with invasive thymoma confirmed by surgery and pathology with emphasis on lesion density, invasion of adjacent mediastinal structures, pleural seeding mediastinal nodes and extra-mediastinal metastases. Results: In 26 cases of invasive thymoma, all CT scans demonstrated the soft tissue mass in anterior mediastinum, with heterogeneous density in 16 patients. Irregular invasion to adjacent organs was found in 24 patients. The main findings were mediastinal pleura invasion in 7, lung invasion 9, pleural implants 3, cardiovascular involvement in 20, and cardiophrenic and abdominal invasion in 3. CT is especially effective in detecting the involvement of pleura, pericardium and lung. Conclusion: Computed tomography provides the most reliable assessment of the extent of the disease. Conventional CT scan allows accurate staging and treatment planning

  8. Invasive plant species in hardwood tree plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochelle R. Beasley; Paula M. Pijut

    2010-01-01

    Invasive plants are species that can grow and spread aggressively, mature quickly, and invade an ecosystem causing economic and environmental damage. Invasive plants usually invade disturbed areas, but can also colonize small areas quickly, and may spread and dominate large areas in a few short years. Invasive plant species displace native or desirable forest...

  9. Invasive plants in 21st Century landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerie. Rapp

    2005-01-01

    A plant species is defined as invasive if it is nonnative to the ecosystem under consideration, and if it causes or is likely to cause economic or environmental harm or harm to human health. Nonnative plant invasions are generally considered to have reached the Pacific Northwest in the mid-1800s with the arrival of European-American settlers. Invasive species such as...

  10. Invasive Species Science Update (No. 9)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin Runyon

    2017-01-01

    This newsletter is designed to keep managers and other users up-to-date with recently completed and ongoing research by RMRS scientists, as well as to highlight breaking news related to invasive species issues. The newsletter is produced by the RMRS Invasive Species Working Group (ISWG), a core group of scientists who volunteer to disseminate RMRS invasive species...

  11. Do invasive plant species alter soil health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive species may alter soil characteristics or interact with the soil microbial community to yield a competitive advantage. Our objectives were to determine: if invasive plant species alter soil properties important to soil health; and the long-term effects of invasive plant species on soil pro...

  12. 78 FR 70317 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee AGENCY..., notice is hereby given of meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee. The purpose of the Advisory Committee is to provide advice to the National Invasive Species Council, as authorized by...

  13. Invasive species and climate change (Chapter 7)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin B. Runyon; Jack L. Butler; Megan M. Friggens; Susan E. Meyer; Sharlene E. Sing

    2012-01-01

    Invasive species present one of the greatest threats to the health and sustainability of ecosystems worldwide. Invasive plants, animals, and diseases are known to have significant negative effects on biological diversity and the ecological structure and functions of native ecosystems. Moreover, the economic cost imposed by invasive species is enormous—the damage...

  14. Invasive Species Science Update (No. 4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ned B. Klopfenstein; Brian W. Geils

    2010-01-01

    The fourth issue of Invasive Species Science Update has finally arrived. This newsletter has no set publication schedule, but our intent is to deliver invasive species information on a timely basis. The RMRS Invasive Species Working Group (ISWG) has been reorganized and recharged. General information on the ISWG is presented in a publication by Butler and others (2009...

  15. Invasive Species Science Update (No. 7)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean Pearson; Yvette Ortega; Jack Butler

    2014-01-01

    Invasive Species Science Updates are designed to keep managers and other users up-to-date with recently completed and ongoing research by RMRS scientists, as well as highlight breaking news related to invasive species issues. The newsletter is produced by the RMRS Invasive Species Working Group (ISWG), which is a core group of scientists who volunteer to coordinate...

  16. Invasive Species Science Update (No. 5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean Pearson; Yvette Ortega

    2011-01-01

    Welcome to the fifth issue of the Rocky Mountain Research Station's (RMRS) Invasive Species Science Update. The newsletter is produced by the RMRS Invasive Species Working Group (ISWG), which is a core group of scientists who volunteer to coordinate outreach of RMRS invasive species science to managers and the public. After publishing the past four newsletters, we...

  17. 78 FR 11899 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee AGENCY... notice of public meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee. The document contained incorrect..., March 6, 2013; 9 a.m. to 1:45 p.m. Meeting of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee (OPEN): Thursday...

  18. Invasive Species Science Update (No. 8)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean Pearson; Yvette Ortega; Jack Butler

    2015-01-01

    Invasive Species Science Updates are designed to keep managers and other users up-to-date with recently completed and ongoing research by RMRS scientists, as well as highlight breaking news related to invasive species issues. The newsletter is produced by the RMRS Invasive Species Working Group (ISWG), which is a core group of scientists who volunteer to coordinate...

  19. Terrestrial animals as invasive species and as species at risk from invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Dean Pearson; Joseph Wunderle; Wayne Arendt

    2010-01-01

    Including terrestrial animal species in the invasive species strategy plan is an important step in invasive species management. Invasions by nonindigenous species threaten nearly 50 percent of imperiled native species in the United States and are the Nation's second leading cause of species endangerment. Invasion and conversion of native habitats by exotic species...

  20. The risk of establishment of aquatic invasive species: joining invasibility and propagule pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Brian; Mandrak, Nicholas E

    2007-10-22

    Invasive species are increasingly becoming a policy priority. This has spurred researchers and managers to try to estimate the risk of invasion. Conceptually, invasions are dependent both on the receiving environment (invasibility) and on the ability to reach these new areas (propagule pressure). However, analyses of risk typically examine only one or the other. Here, we develop and apply a joint model of invasion risk that simultaneously incorporates invasibility and propagule pressure. We present arguments that the behaviour of these two elements of risk differs substantially--propagule pressure is a function of time, whereas invasibility is not--and therefore have different management implications. Further, we use the well-studied zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) to contrast predictions made using the joint model to those made by separate invasibility and propagule pressure models. We show that predictions of invasion progress as well as of the long-term invasion pattern are strongly affected by using a joint model.

  1. Invasive procedures with questionable indications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei V. Jargin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient coordination of medical research and partial isolation from the international scientific community can result in application of invasive methods without sufficient indications. Here is presented an overview of renal and pancreatic biopsy studies performed in the course of the operations of pancreatic blood shunting into the systemic blood flow in type 1 diabetic patients. Furthermore a surgical procedure of lung denervation as a treatment method of asthma as well as the use of bronchoscopy for research in asthmatics are discussed here. Today, the upturn in Russian economy enables acquisition of modern equipment; and medical research is on the increase. Under these circumstances, the purpose of this letter was to remind that, performing surgical or other invasive procedures, the risk-to-benefit ratio should be kept as low as possible.

  2. Radiologic aspects in invasive aspergillosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feger, C.; Kerviler, E. de; Zagdanski, A.M.; Attal, P.; Cyna-Gorse, F.; Frija, J.; Laval-Jeantet, M.

    1994-01-01

    Invasive aspergillosis is a life-threatening illness, whose diagnosis is difficult: clinical signs are indeed not specific, and biological and mycological exams are not always conclusive. Radiological exams are essential for the diagnosis of this disease allowing to start an early intensive appropriate therapy. According to the literature and to their own experience the authors report the main radiological patterns with emphasis on the pulmonary and cerebral affections. (authors). 26 refs., 5 figs

  3. Non-invasive extending prosthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Meswania, Jayantilal Mohanlal

    2006-01-01

    Most sarcomas of the bone occur in patients of a relatively young age including skeletally immature patients. Approximately 50 child sarcomas are treated with limb salvage surgery per year in the United Kingdom. These children need an extendible implant that can be lengthened periodically to keep pace with the growth in the opposite limb. Surgically, invasive devices have been used for the past thirty years with intrinsic problems of infection and long-term recurrent trauma to the patient. To...

  4. Biological invasions, ecological resilience and adaptive governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Brian C.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Angeler, David G.; Herrmann, Dustin L.; Stow, Craig A.; Nystrom, Magnus; Sendzimir, Jan; Hopton, Matthew E.; Kolasa, Jurek; Allen, Craig R.

    2016-01-01

    In a world of increasing interconnections in global trade as well as rapid change in climate and land cover, the accelerating introduction and spread of invasive species is a critical concern due to associated negative social and ecological impacts, both real and perceived. Much of the societal response to invasive species to date has been associated with negative economic consequences of invasions. This response has shaped a war-like approach to addressing invasions, one with an agenda of eradications and intense ecological restoration efforts towards prior or more desirable ecological regimes. This trajectory often ignores the concept of ecological resilience and associated approaches of resilience-based governance. We argue that the relationship between ecological resilience and invasive species has been understudied to the detriment of attempts to govern invasions, and that most management actions fail, primarily because they do not incorporate adaptive, learning-based approaches. Invasive species can decrease resilience by reducing the biodiversity that underpins ecological functions and processes, making ecosystems more prone to regime shifts. However, invasions do not always result in a shift to an alternative regime; invasions can also increase resilience by introducing novelty, replacing lost ecological functions or adding redundancy that strengthens already existing structures and processes in an ecosystem. This paper examines the potential impacts of species invasions on the resilience of ecosystems and suggests that resilience-based approaches can inform policy by linking the governance of biological invasions to the negotiation of tradeoffs between ecosystem services.

  5. Invasive predators and global biodiversity loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Tim S; Glen, Alistair S; Nimmo, Dale G; Ritchie, Euan G; Dickman, Chris R

    2016-10-04

    Invasive species threaten biodiversity globally, and invasive mammalian predators are particularly damaging, having contributed to considerable species decline and extinction. We provide a global metaanalysis of these impacts and reveal their full extent. Invasive predators are implicated in 87 bird, 45 mammal, and 10 reptile species extinctions-58% of these groups' contemporary extinctions worldwide. These figures are likely underestimated because 23 critically endangered species that we assessed are classed as "possibly extinct." Invasive mammalian predators endanger a further 596 species at risk of extinction, with cats, rodents, dogs, and pigs threatening the most species overall. Species most at risk from predators have high evolutionary distinctiveness and inhabit insular environments. Invasive mammalian predators are therefore important drivers of irreversible loss of phylogenetic diversity worldwide. That most impacted species are insular indicates that management of invasive predators on islands should be a global conservation priority. Understanding and mitigating the impact of invasive mammalian predators is essential for reducing the rate of global biodiversity loss.

  6. Will climate change promote future invasions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellard, Celine; Thuiller, Wilfried; Leroy, Boris; Genovesi, Piero; Bakkenes, Michel; Courchamp, Franck

    2013-12-01

    Biological invasion is increasingly recognized as one of the greatest threats to biodiversity. Using ensemble forecasts from species distribution models to project future suitable areas of the 100 of the world's worst invasive species defined by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature, we show that both climate and land use changes will likely cause drastic species range shifts. Looking at potential spatial aggregation of invasive species, we identify three future hotspots of invasion in Europe, northeastern North America, and Oceania. We also emphasize that some regions could lose a significant number of invasive alien species, creating opportunities for ecosystem restoration. From the list of 100, scenarios of potential range distributions show a consistent shrinking for invasive amphibians and birds, while for aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates distributions are projected to substantially increase in most cases. Given the harmful impacts these invasive species currently have on ecosystems, these species will likely dramatically influence the future of biodiversity. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. 3D-CRT, Proton, or Brachytherapy APBI in Treating Patients With Invasive and Non-invasive Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-29

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Estrogen Receptor Positive; Grade 1 Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Grade 2 Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Grade 3 Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Ductal and Lobular Carcinoma In Situ; Mucinous Breast Carcinoma; Tubular Breast Carcinoma

  8. The valve of CT in diagnosing the invasive and non-invasive thymoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Wenyan; Jiang Kuiming; Song Ting; Lin Wenjian; Chen Zhanhang

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To Study CT features of thymoma and its value in differentiating the invasive from non-invasive thymoma. Methods: CT findings of 17 cases with thymoma (11 non-invasive and 6 invasive) confirmed by surgery and pathology were analyzed retrospectively. Results: 11 cases were non-invasive thymoma. On CT, the tumors were round or oval in 6 cases, lobulate in 4 cases, and irregular in 1 case. The lesions showed homogeneous density and mild enhancement in 9 cases. 10 of them showed complete capsules without invasion. The mass-cardiovascular interface was: convex type in 5 cases, flat type in 3 cases and concave type in 2 cases. 6 cases were invasive thymoma, tumors were irregular and heterogeneous in 5 cases. Significant and inhomogeneous enhancement on post contrast CT was found. Conclusion: The CT features of thymoma was specific, and CT is of great value in differentiating the invasive from non-invasive thymoma. (authors)

  9. A subcontinental view of forest plant invasions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Oswalt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, considerable attention has focused on small-scale studies of invasive plants and invaded systems. Unfortunately, small scale studies rarely provide comprehensive insight into the complexities of biological invasions at macroscales. Systematic and repeated monitoring of biological invasions at broad scales are rare. In this report, we highlight a unique invasive plant database from the national Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA program of the United States Forest Service. We demonstrate the importance and capability of this subcontinental-wide database by showcasing several critical macroscale invasion patterns that have emerged from its initial analysis: (1 large portion of the forests systems (39% in the United States are impacted by invasive plants, (2 forests in the eastern United States harbor more invasive species than the western regions, (3 human land-use legacies at regional to national scales may drive large-scale invasion patterns. This accumulated dataset, which continues to grow in temporal richness with repeated measurements, will allow the understanding of invasion patterns and processes at multi-spatial and temporal scales. Such insights are not possible from smaller-scale studies, illustrating the benefit that can be gained by investing in the development of regional to continental-wide invasion monitoring programs elsewhere.

  10. Secretome signature of invasive glioblastoma multiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formolo, Catherine A; Williams, Russell; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; MacDonald, Tobey J; Lee, Norman H; Hathout, Yetrib

    2011-07-01

    The incurability of malignant glioblastomas is mainly attributed to their highly invasive nature coupled with resistance to chemo- and radiation therapy. Because invasiveness is partially dictated by the proteins these tumors secrete we used SILAC to characterize the secretomes of four glioblastoma cell lines (LN18, T98, U118 and U87). Although U87 and U118 cells both secreted high levels of well-known invasion promoting proteins, a Matrigel invasion assay showed U87 cells to be eight times more invasive than U118 cells, suggesting that additional proteins secreted by U87 cells may contribute to the highly invasive phenotype. Indeed, we identified a number of proteins highly or exclusively expressed by U87 cells as compared to the less invasive cell lines. The most striking of these include ADAM9, ADAM10, cathepsin B, cathepsin L1, osteopontin, neuropilin-1, semaphorin-7A, suprabasin, and chitinase-3-like protein 1. U87 cells also expressed significantly low levels of some cell adhesion proteins such as periostin and EMILIN-1. Correlation of secretome profiles with relative levels of invasiveness using Pavlidis template matching further indicated potential roles for these proteins in U87 glioblastoma invasion. Antibody inhibition of CH3L1 reduced U87 cell invasiveness by 30%.

  11. Invasive ductal carcinoma vs. invasive lobular carcinoma; mammographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Chun; Do, Young Soo; Oh, Hoon Il; Han, Yoon Hee; Kim, Ki Soo; Chin, Soo Yil [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate mammographic findings of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and invasive lobular carcinoma(ILC) and to find differential points between the two. 239 patients, who underwent mammography prior to surgery and were proved to have IDC(patients) or ILC(15 patients) pathologically, were analized retrospectively. On mammogram, presence of mass and microcalcification were analized. When there was a mass on mammogram, lesion opacity was classified into high, equal, or low opacity and border of the mass was classified into spiculated, poorly marginated, and well-marginated. When there was no definite mass, mammographic findings were classifie into asymmetric opacity and no mass. Masses were observed in 168 patients(75%) of IDC and 12 patients(80%) of ILC. Border of the masses were spiculated(n=50, 22.3%), poorly marginated(n=112, 50%), or well-marginated(n=6, 2.7%) in patients with IDC. Spiculated and poorly marginated borders were observed in 8 patients(53.3%) and 4 patients(26.7%) respectively, in patients with ILC. Microcalcifications were seen in 88 patients(17.3%) of IDC and patients(33.3%) of ILC. Although equal or low opacities were observed more frequently in ILC and microcalcifications were noted more frequently in IDC, it was difficult to differentiate the two diseases based on mammographic findings.

  12. Invasive ductal carcinoma vs. invasive lobular carcinoma; mammographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Chun; Do, Young Soo; Oh, Hoon Il; Han, Yoon Hee; Kim, Ki Soo; Chin, Soo Yil

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate mammographic findings of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and invasive lobular carcinoma(ILC) and to find differential points between the two. 239 patients, who underwent mammography prior to surgery and were proved to have IDC(patients) or ILC(15 patients) pathologically, were analized retrospectively. On mammogram, presence of mass and microcalcification were analized. When there was a mass on mammogram, lesion opacity was classified into high, equal, or low opacity and border of the mass was classified into spiculated, poorly marginated, and well-marginated. When there was no definite mass, mammographic findings were classifie into asymmetric opacity and no mass. Masses were observed in 168 patients(75%) of IDC and 12 patients(80%) of ILC. Border of the masses were spiculated(n=50, 22.3%), poorly marginated(n=112, 50%), or well-marginated(n=6, 2.7%) in patients with IDC. Spiculated and poorly marginated borders were observed in 8 patients(53.3%) and 4 patients(26.7%) respectively, in patients with ILC. Microcalcifications were seen in 88 patients(17.3%) of IDC and patients(33.3%) of ILC. Although equal or low opacities were observed more frequently in ILC and microcalcifications were noted more frequently in IDC, it was difficult to differentiate the two diseases based on mammographic findings

  13. The Invasive Species Forecasting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnase, John; Most, Neal; Gill, Roger; Ma, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The Invasive Species Forecasting System (ISFS) provides computational support for the generic work processes found in many regional-scale ecosystem modeling applications. Decision support tools built using ISFS allow a user to load point occurrence field sample data for a plant species of interest and quickly generate habitat suitability maps for geographic regions of management concern, such as a national park, monument, forest, or refuge. This type of decision product helps resource managers plan invasive species protection, monitoring, and control strategies for the lands they manage. Until now, scientists and resource managers have lacked the data-assembly and computing capabilities to produce these maps quickly and cost efficiently. ISFS focuses on regional-scale habitat suitability modeling for invasive terrestrial plants. ISFS s component architecture emphasizes simplicity and adaptability. Its core services can be easily adapted to produce model-based decision support tools tailored to particular parks, monuments, forests, refuges, and related management units. ISFS can be used to build standalone run-time tools that require no connection to the Internet, as well as fully Internet-based decision support applications. ISFS provides the core data structures, operating system interfaces, network interfaces, and inter-component constraints comprising the canonical workflow for habitat suitability modeling. The predictors, analysis methods, and geographic extents involved in any particular model run are elements of the user space and arbitrarily configurable by the user. ISFS provides small, lightweight, readily hardened core components of general utility. These components can be adapted to unanticipated uses, are tailorable, and require at most a loosely coupled, nonproprietary connection to the Web. Users can invoke capabilities from a command line; programmers can integrate ISFS's core components into more complex systems and services. Taken together, these

  14. Non-invasive neural stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, William J.; Sanguinetti, Joseph L.; Fini, Maria; Hool, Nicholas

    2017-05-01

    Neurotechnologies for non-invasively interfacing with neural circuits have been evolving from those capable of sensing neural activity to those capable of restoring and enhancing human brain function. Generally referred to as non-invasive neural stimulation (NINS) methods, these neuromodulation approaches rely on electrical, magnetic, photonic, and acoustic or ultrasonic energy to influence nervous system activity, brain function, and behavior. Evidence that has been surmounting for decades shows that advanced neural engineering of NINS technologies will indeed transform the way humans treat diseases, interact with information, communicate, and learn. The physics underlying the ability of various NINS methods to modulate nervous system activity can be quite different from one another depending on the energy modality used as we briefly discuss. For members of commercial and defense industry sectors that have not traditionally engaged in neuroscience research and development, the science, engineering and technology required to advance NINS methods beyond the state-of-the-art presents tremendous opportunities. Within the past few years alone there have been large increases in global investments made by federal agencies, foundations, private investors and multinational corporations to develop advanced applications of NINS technologies. Driven by these efforts NINS methods and devices have recently been introduced to mass markets via the consumer electronics industry. Further, NINS continues to be explored in a growing number of defense applications focused on enhancing human dimensions. The present paper provides a brief introduction to the field of non-invasive neural stimulation by highlighting some of the more common methods in use or under current development today.

  15. [Minimally invasive approach for cervical spondylotic radiculopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Liang; Sun, Taicun; Huang, Yonghui

    2010-01-01

    To summarize the recent minimally invasive approach for cervical spondylotic radiculopathy (CSR). The recent literature at home and abroad concerning minimally invasive approach for CSR was reviewed and summarized. There were two techniques of minimally invasive approach for CSR at present: percutaneous puncture techniques and endoscopic techniques. The degenerate intervertebral disc was resected or nucleolysis by percutaneous puncture technique if CSR was caused by mild or moderate intervertebral disc herniations. The cervical microendoscopic discectomy and foraminotomy was an effective minimally invasive approach which could provide a clear view. The endoscopy techniques were suitable to treat CSR caused by foraminal osteophytes, lateral disc herniations, local ligamentum flavum thickening and spondylotic foraminal stenosis. The minimally invasive procedure has the advantages of simple handling, minimally invasive and low incidence of complications. But the scope of indications is relatively narrow at present.

  16. [Interactions between invasive plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yan-fang; Guo, Shao-xia; Li, Min

    2011-09-01

    The invasion of invasive plants changes the biological community structure in their invaded lands, leading to the biodiversity loss. As an important component of soil microorganisms in terrestrial ecosystem, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can affect the growth performance of invasive plants. This kind of specific relations between AM fungi and invasive plants also implies that AM fungi can affect plant invasion. On the other hand, the invasion of invasive plants can affect the community structure and function of AM fungi. This paper summarized the species and harms of invasive plants in China, and discussed the relationships between AM fungi and invasive plants invasion, including the roles of AM fungi in the processes of invasive plants invasion, the effects of the invasion on AM fungi, and the interactive mechanisms between the invasion and AM fungi.

  17. Fraunhofer Institut fuer Molekularbiologie und Angewandte Oekologie (IME). Annual report 2014/2015; Fraunhofer Institut fuer Molekularbiologie und Angewandte Oekologie (IME). Jahresbericht 2014/2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    The Annual report 2014/2015 of the Fraunhofer Institute for molecular biology and applied ecology includes the following contributions: (A) Molecular Biology: TheraSECOURE - Novel immunotherapeutics for targeted cancer therapy; ''MultiNaBel ''- Automated diagnosis of leukemia; Breeding potato for optimized specialty starches; NGS-based zygosity detection in transgenic maize; High-throughput screen ing system for cellulases based on microfluidic devices; Filter aids reduce production costs for plant-derived biopharmaceuticals; Transient expression of recombinant proteins in packed plant cells; ERA-NET Biodiversa EXOTIC project on the invasive harlequin ladybird; AIM-Biotech supported by the Fraunhofer-Max Planck Cooperation program; Metabolic control analysis of the MEP pathway; Metabolic engineering of Clostridium spp. by genomic integration; The Fraunhofer Future Foundation malaria project; Autoantibodies to type 11 collagen as biomarkers of rheumatoid arthritis; Development of a new drug for the treatment of sepsis; Databionic drug research; Structure-based drug design; Neu{sup 2}: competence consortium for multiple sclerosis drug development; Natural compounds from marine fungi for the treatment of cancer; FCR Center for Systems Biotechnology (CSB): Two selected projects; Development and implementation of a plant-derived vaccine against yellow fever. (B) Applied Ecology: Comparison and improvement of laboratory water/sediment test systems; Inter-laboratory comparison of Hyalella Azteca exposure tests lasting 10-42 days; Substance- and matrix-related environmental monitoring of biocides; GERDA-geobased runoff, erosion and drainage risk assessment; The minimum detectable difference and reliability of mesocosm studies; Mechanistic effect models for the ecological risk assessment of pesticides; Molecular biology test for the online analysis of spontaneously-fermented wines; Coupling two test systems to determine the effect of wastewater

  18. Fraunhofer Institut fuer Molekularbiologie und Angewandte Oekologie (IME). Annual report 2014/2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The Annual report 2014/2015 of the Fraunhofer Institute for molecular biology and applied ecology includes the following contributions: (A) Molecular Biology: TheraSECOURE - Novel immunotherapeutics for targeted cancer therapy; ''MultiNaBel ''- Automated diagnosis of leukemia; Breeding potato for optimized specialty starches; NGS-based zygosity detection in transgenic maize; High-throughput screen ing system for cellulases based on microfluidic devices; Filter aids reduce production costs for plant-derived biopharmaceuticals; Transient expression of recombinant proteins in packed plant cells; ERA-NET Biodiversa EXOTIC project on the invasive harlequin ladybird; AIM-Biotech supported by the Fraunhofer-Max Planck Cooperation program; Metabolic control analysis of the MEP pathway; Metabolic engineering of Clostridium spp. by genomic integration; The Fraunhofer Future Foundation malaria project; Autoantibodies to type 11 collagen as biomarkers of rheumatoid arthritis; Development of a new drug for the treatment of sepsis; Databionic drug research; Structure-based drug design; Neu 2 : competence consortium for multiple sclerosis drug development; Natural compounds from marine fungi for the treatment of cancer; FCR Center for Systems Biotechnology (CSB): Two selected projects; Development and implementation of a plant-derived vaccine against yellow fever. (B) Applied Ecology: Comparison and improvement of laboratory water/sediment test systems; Inter-laboratory comparison of Hyalella Azteca exposure tests lasting 10-42 days; Substance- and matrix-related environmental monitoring of biocides; GERDA-geobased runoff, erosion and drainage risk assessment; The minimum detectable difference and reliability of mesocosm studies; Mechanistic effect models for the ecological risk assessment of pesticides; Molecular biology test for the online analysis of spontaneously-fermented wines; Coupling two test systems to determine the effect of wastewater

  19. Invasive plants have broader physiological niches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Steven I; Richardson, David M

    2014-07-22

    Invasive species cost the global economy billions of dollars each year, but ecologists have struggled to predict the risk of an introduced species naturalizing and invading. Although carefully designed experiments are needed to fully elucidate what makes some species invasive, much can be learned from unintentional experiments involving the introduction of species beyond their native ranges. Here, we assess invasion risk by linking a physiologically based species distribution model with data on the invasive success of 749 Australian acacia and eucalypt tree species that have, over more than a century, been introduced around the world. The model correctly predicts 92% of occurrences observed outside of Australia from an independent dataset. We found that invasiveness is positively associated with the projection of physiological niche volume in geographic space, thereby illustrating that species tolerant of a broader range of environmental conditions are more likely to be invasive. Species achieve this broader tolerance in different ways, meaning that the traits that define invasive success are context-specific. Hence, our study reconciles studies that have failed to identify the traits that define invasive success with the urgent and pragmatic need to predict invasive success.

  20. Secretome Signature of Invasive Glioblastoma Multiforme

    OpenAIRE

    Formolo, Catherine A.; Williams, Russell; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; MacDonald, Tobey J.; Lee, Norman H.; Hathout, Yetrib

    2011-01-01

    The incurability of malignant glioblastomas is mainly attributed to their highly invasive nature coupled with resistance to chemo- and radiation therapy. Because invasiveness is partially dictated by the proteins these tumors secrete we used SILAC to characterize the secretomes of four glioblastoma cell lines (LN18, T98, U118 and U87). Although U87 and U118 cells both secreted high levels of well-known invasion promoting proteins, a Matrigel invasion assay showed U87 cells to be eight times m...

  1. Intraspecies differenes in phenotypic plasticity: Invasive versus non-invasive populations of Ceratophyllum demersum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgaard, Benita; Brix, Hans

    2012-01-01

    High phenotypic plasticity has been hypothesized to affect the invasiveness of plants, as high plasticity may enlarge the breath of environments in which the plants can survive and reproduce. Here we compare the phenotypic plasticity of invasive and non-invasive populations of the same species...... in response to growth temperature. Populations of the submerged macrophyte Ceratophyllum demersum from New Zealand, where the species is introduced and invasive, and from Denmark, where the species is native and non-invasive, were grown in a common garden setup at temperatures of 12, 18, 25 and 35 ◦C. We...... hypothesized that the phenotypic plasticity in fitness-related traits like growth and photosynthesis were higher in the invasive than in the non-invasive population. The invasive population acclimated to elevated temperatures through increased rates of photosynthesis (range: Pamb: 8–452 mol O2 g−1 DM h−1...

  2. Comparison of the Invasion of Crete and the Proposed Invasion in Malta

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kavanaugh, Stephen L

    2006-01-01

    .... The invasion of Crete was executed from 20 May to 1 June 1941 with heavy German losses. The invasion of Malta never took place even though the senior military leaders in the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (OKW...

  3. Alabama invasive plant council: list of invasive plants by cultural use categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    James H. Miller; Nancy J. Loewenstein; Curtis J. Hansen

    2006-01-01

    Shortly after formation of the Alabama Invasive Plant Council (ALIPC) in 2003, a committee dedicated to assessment and listing of invasive plants was convened – the ALIPC Invasive Plant Listing Committee. Committee members were drawn from the wide diversity of expertise of the Council, which welcomes participation by all land-use and water-use managers, owners,...

  4. Comparative anatomy of invasive and non-invasive species in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The foliar and stem micromorphological study of the invasive and non-invasive species were undertaken using Light Microscope (LM). The occurrence of vessels in the pillar of the abundant sclerenchyma tissues are important component of the skeletal system in the invasive species. The prominent tiles of parenchymatous ...

  5. Invasion of a mined landscape: what habitat characteristics are influencing the occurrence of invasive plants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Lemke; I.A. Tazisong; Y. Wang; J.A. Brown

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the world, the invasion of alien plants is an increasing threat to native biodiversity. Invasion is especially prevalent in areas affected by land transformation and anthropogenic disturbance. Surface mines are a major disturbance, and thus may promote the establishment and expansion of invasive plant communities. Environmental and habitat factors that may...

  6. Unconventional gas development facilitates plant invasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Kathryn M; Mortensen, David A; Drohan, Patrick J; Averill, Kristine M

    2017-11-01

    Vegetation removal and soil disturbance from natural resource development, combined with invasive plant propagule pressure, can increase vulnerability to plant invasions. Unconventional oil and gas development produces surface disturbance by way of well pad, road, and pipeline construction, and increased traffic. Little is known about the resulting impacts on plant community assembly, including the spread of invasive plants. Our work was conducted in Pennsylvania forests that overlay the Marcellus and Utica shale formations to determine if invasive plants have spread to edge habitat created by unconventional gas development and to investigate factors associated with their presence. A piecewise structural equation model was used to determine the direct and indirect factors associated with invasive plant establishment on well pads. The model included the following measured or calculated variables: current propagule pressure on local access roads, the spatial extent of the pre-development road network (potential source of invasive propagules), the number of wells per pad (indicator of traffic density), and pad age. Sixty-one percent of the 127 well pads surveyed had at least one invasive plant species present. Invasive plant presence on well pads was positively correlated with local propagule pressure on access roads and indirectly with road density pre-development, the number of wells, and age of the well pad. The vast reserves of unconventional oil and gas are in the early stages of development in the US. Continued development of this underground resource must be paired with careful monitoring and management of surface ecological impacts, including the spread of invasive plants. Prioritizing invasive plant monitoring in unconventional oil and gas development areas with existing roads and multi-well pads could improve early detection and control of invasive plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. E-commerce trade in invasive plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humair, Franziska; Humair, Luc; Kuhn, Fabian; Kueffer, Christoph

    2015-12-01

    Biological invasions are a major concern in conservation, especially because global transport of species is still increasing rapidly. Conservationists hope to anticipate and thus prevent future invasions by identifying and regulating potentially invasive species through species risk assessments and international trade regulations. Among many introduction pathways of non-native species, horticulture is a particularly important driver of plant invasions. In recent decades, the horticultural industry expanded globally and changed structurally through the emergence of new distribution channels, including internet trade (e-commerce). Using an automated search algorithm, we surveyed, on a daily basis, e-commerce trade on 10 major online auction sites (including eBay) of approximately three-fifths of the world's spermatophyte flora. Many recognized invasive plant species (>500 species) (i.e., species associated with ecological or socio-economic problems) were traded daily worldwide on the internet. A markedly higher proportion of invasive than non-invasive species were available online. Typically, for a particular plant family, 30-80% of recognized invasive species were detected on an auction site, but only a few percentages of all species in the plant family were detected on a site. Families that were more traded had a higher proportion of invasive species than families that were less traded. For woody species, there was a significant positive relationship between the number of regions where a species was sold and the number of regions where it was invasive. Our results indicate that biosecurity is not effectively regulating online plant trade. In the future, automated monitoring of e-commerce may help prevent the spread of invasive species, provide information on emerging trade connectivity across national borders, and be used in horizon scanning exercises for early detection of new species and their geographic source areas in international trade. © 2015 Society for

  8. Benefits of non invasive ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, D; Kirpalani, H

    2004-10-01

    Mechanical ventilation of the newborn infant has increased neonatal survival. However, this increased survival has come at the expense of increased morbidity, in the form of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and at the cost of an expensive technology. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is accepted as conferring clinical benefit in supporting the recently extubated preterm infant and in the management of apnea of prematurity. Attention is now being drawn to physiologic and clinical evidence to support CPAP use, with or without early surfactant, as a primary treatment of hyaline membrane disease. The purpose of this review is to explore these proposed benefits of non invasive ventilation and place them in the context of current clinical evidence.

  9. Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foghsgaard, Signe; Schmidt, Thomas Andersen; Kjaergard, Henrik K

    2009-01-01

    In this descriptive prospective study, we evaluate the outcomes of surgery in 98 patients who were scheduled to undergo minimally invasive aortic valve replacement. These patients were compared with a group of 50 patients who underwent scheduled aortic valve replacement through a full sternotomy...... operations were completed as mini-sternotomies, 4 died later of noncardiac causes. The aortic cross-clamp and perfusion times were significantly different across all groups (P replacement...... is an excellent operation in selected patients, but its true advantages over conventional aortic valve replacement (other than a smaller scar) await evaluation by means of randomized clinical trial. The "extended mini-aortic valve replacement" operation, on the other hand, is a risky procedure that should...

  10. Invasive alien birds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Anthony David; Heldbjerg, Henning; Nyegaard, Timme

    2015-01-01

    Avian Introduced Alien Species (IAS) constitute a threat to the integrity of native biodiversity, the economy and human health, so here we briefly review some of the problems posed by such species around the world in relation to such bird species in Denmark. A new European Union Regulation...... on Invasive Alien Species implemented in January 2015 establishes a framework for actions to combat alien species, which requires Member States to prevent the spread of alien species, provide early warning and rapid responses to their presence and management of established alien species where they occur. We...... show the importance of mechanisms such as DOF’s (Dansk Ornitologisk Forening, BirdLife Denmark) Atlas project, Common Bird Census (breeding and wintering species) and DOFbasen to contribute data on the current geographical and numerical distribution of the few serious alien avian species already...

  11. Invasive alien birds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyegaard, Timme; Heldbjerg, Henning; Fox, Anthony David

    Avian Introduced Alien Species (IAS) constitute a threat to the integrity of native biodiversity, the economy and human health, so here we briefly review some of the problems posed by such species around the world in relation to bird species in Denmark. A new European Union Regulation on Invasive...... Alien Species implemented in January 2015 requires a framework for actions to combat alien species, which requires Member States to prevent the spread of alien species, provide early warning and rapid responses to their presence and management of established alien species where they occur. We show...... the importance of mechanisms such as DOFs (Danish Ornithological Society, BirdLife Denmark) Atlas project, Common Bird Monitoring (breeding and wintering species) and DOFbasen to contribute data on the current geographical and numerical distribution of the few serious alien avian species already present...

  12. Chapter 8: Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggal, Praveen; Wise, Sarah K

    2013-01-01

    Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (IFRS) is a disease of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity that typically affects immunocompromised patients in the acute fulminant form. Early symptoms can often mimic rhinosinusitis, while late symptoms can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Swelling and mucosal thickening can quickly progress to pale or necrotic tissue in the nasal cavity and sinuses, and the disease can rapidly spread and invade the palate, orbit, cavernous sinus, cranial nerves, skull base, carotid artery, and brain. IFRS can be life threatening if left undiagnosed or untreated. While the acute fulminant form of IFRS is the most rapidly progressive and destructive, granulomatous and chronic forms also exist. Diagnosis of IFRS often mandates imaging studies in conjunction with clinical, endoscopic, and histopathological examination. Treatment of IFRS consists of reversing the underlying immunosuppression, antifungal therapy, and aggressive surgical debridement. With early diagnosis and treatment, IFRS can be treated and increase patient survival.

  13. A minimally invasive smile enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Fred H

    2014-01-01

    Minimally invasive dentistry refers to a wide variety of dental treatments. On the restorative aspect of dental procedures, direct resin bonding can be a very conservative treatment option for the patient. When tooth structure does not need to be removed, the patient benefits. Proper treatment planning is essential to determine how conservative the restorative treatment will be. This article describes the diagnosis, treatment options, and procedural techniques in the restoration of 4 maxillary anterior teeth with direct composite resin. The procedural steps are reviewed with regard to placing the composite and the variety of colors needed to ensure a natural result. Finishing and polishing of the composite are critical to ending with a natural looking dentition that the patient will be pleased with for many years.

  14. Chapter 8: Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggal, Praveen; Wise, Sarah K

    2013-05-01

    Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (IFRS) is a disease of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity that typically affects immunocompromised patients in the acute fulminant form. Early symptoms can often mimic rhinosinusitis, while late symptoms can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Swelling and mucosal thickening can quickly progress to pale or necrotic tissue in the nasal cavity and sinuses, and the disease can rapidly spread and invade the palate, orbit, cavernous sinus, cranial nerves, skull base, carotid artery, and brain. IFRS can be life threatening if left undiagnosed or untreated. While the acute fulminant form of IFRS is the most rapidly progressive and destructive, granulomatous and chronic forms also exist. Diagnosis of IFRS often mandates imaging studies in conjunction with clinical, endoscopic, and histopathological examination. Treatment of IFRS consists of reversing the underlying immunosuppression, antifungal therapy, and aggressive surgical debridement. With early diagnosis and treatment, IFRS can be treated and increase patient survival.

  15. Understanding macroscale invasion patterns and processes with FIA data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songlin Fei; Basil V. Iannone III; Christopher M. Oswalt; Qinfeng Guo; Kevin M. Potter; Sonja N. Oswalt; Bryan C. Pijanowski; Gabriela C. Nunez-Mir

    2015-01-01

    Using empirical data from FIA, we modeled invasion richness and invasion prevalence as functions of 22 factors reflective of propagule pressure and/or habitat invasibility across the continental US. Our statistical models suggest that both propagule pressure and habitat invasibility contribute to macroscale patterns of forest plant invasions. Our investigation provides...

  16. The Invasive Plant Species Education Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Kevin; James, Krista; Carlson, Kitrina; D'Angelo, Jean

    2010-01-01

    To help high school students gain a solid understanding of invasive plant species, university faculty and students from the University of Wisconsin-Stout (UW-Stout) and a local high school teacher worked together to develop the Invasive Plant Species (IPS) Education Guide. The IPS Education Guide includes nine lessons that give students an…

  17. Liver injury in invasive aspergillus. Echographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otero Fernandez, R.; Garcia Revillo, J.; Paez Moreno, J.; Zurera Tendero, L.J.

    1994-01-01

    Aspergillus is the second most common mycoses in immuno compromised patients. The invasive form is associated with a mortality of approximately 100%. We present a case of invasive aspergillus in a heart transplant recipient in whom ultrasound disclosed the presence of liver injury which was later confirmed by necropsy. We review the available literature. (Author) 15 refs

  18. A proposed unified framework for biological invasions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blackburn, T. M.; Pyšek, Petr; Bacher, S.; Carlton, J. T.; Duncan, R. P.; Jarošík, Vojtěch; Wilson, J. R. U.; Richardson, D. M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 7 (2011), s. 333-339 ISSN 0169-5347 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0563; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : biological invasions * invasion process * general framework Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 15.748, year: 2011

  19. Principles for ecologically based invasive plant management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy J. James; Brenda S. Smith; Edward A. Vasquez; Roger L. Sheley

    2010-01-01

    Land managers have long identified a critical need for a practical and effective framework for designing restoration strategies, especially where invasive plants dominate. A holistic, ecologically based, invasive plant management (EBIPM) framework that integrates ecosystem health assessment, knowledge of ecological processes, and adaptive management into a successional...

  20. Invasive Species Science Update (No. 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee-Sook Kim; Jack Butler

    2008-01-01

    This electronic newsletter (Invasive Species Science Update) is published by the Rocky Mountain Research Station (RMRS) Cross-Program, Interdisciplinary Project team on Invasive Species. This newsletter will be published 3 times per year and is intended to enhance communication among RMRS scientists, wildland managers, other partners, stakeholders, and customers about...

  1. Invasive Species Science Update (No. 6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula Fornwalt

    2013-01-01

    The sixth issue of the Rocky Mountain Research Station's (RMRS) Invasive Species Science Update is now complete. Published approximately once per year, this newsletter keeps managers and other users up-to-date with recently completed and ongoing research by RMRS scientists, and covers breaking news related to invasive species issues. The newsletter is produced by...

  2. Book review: Encyclopedia of biological invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qinfeng Guo

    2011-01-01

    Species introductions and consequent biotic invasions and homogenization are major components of global change that are drawing increasing concern and various levels of actions and reactions around the world. Invasion ecology has advanced rapidly during the last few decades, and the discipline is now increasingly integrated with the social and economic sciences. A...

  3. Invasion of erythrocytes by Babesia bovis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaffar, Fasila Razzia

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis we investigated the invasion of erythrocytes taking place during the asexual erythrocytic blood stage of the apicomplexan parasites Babesia bovis parasite. Host cell invasion by apicomplexan parasites is a complex process requiring multiple receptor-ligand interactions, involving

  4. Allelopathic effects of invasive Eucalyptus camaldulensis on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. (red river gum; Myrtaceae) is an invasive tree in riparian habitats of the Western Cape, South Africa, where it replaces indigenous vegetation and affects ecosystem functioning. These invasions lead to changes in river geomorphology and reduction in stream flow. The mechanisms that ...

  5. Economic Analysis of Biological Invasions in Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas P. Holmes; Julian Aukema; Jeffrey Englin; Robert G. Haight; Kent Kovacs; Brian Leung

    2014-01-01

    Biological invasions of native forests by nonnative pests result from complex stochastic processes that are difficult to predict. Although economic optimization models describe efficient controls across the stages of an invasion, the ability to calibrate such models is constrained by lack of information on pest population dynamics and consequent economic damages. Here...

  6. Domestic exotics and the perception of invasibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qinfeng Guo; Robert Ricklefs

    2010-01-01

    Susceptibility of an area to invasion by exotic species is often judged by the fraction of introduced species in the local biota. However, the degree of invasion, particularly in mainland areas, has often been underestimated because of the exclusion of ‘domestic exotics’ (those introduced to internal units from within the national border) in calculations. Because all...

  7. Impact of the invasive parasitic copepod

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedknegt, M.A.; Bedolfe; Drent, J.; van der Meer, J.; Thieltges, D.W.

    2018-01-01

    Invasive species can indirectly affect native species by modifying parasite–host dynamics and disease occurrence. This scenario applies to European coastal waters where the invasive Pacific oyster (Magallana gigas) co-introduced the parasitic copepod Mytilicola orientalis that spills

  8. 76 FR 30955 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... broad array of issues related to preventing the introduction of invasive species and providing for their... primarily on invaders in the intermountain West. The meeting will focus on adapting management of invasive... ecology, climate change, land development, introduction pathways, and new invaders. ISAC will also consult...

  9. Invasive behaviour and depolarization effect of Pseudomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of a constitutive calcium dependent NOS and that of an inducible NOS activated by LPS. Ours results also suggest that P. fluorescens cytotoxicity and invasion are not mutually exclusive events. Key Words: Cytotoxicity, Lipopolysaccharide, Patch-clamp, Invasion, Pseudomonas fluorescens. Afr. J. Clin. Exper. Microbiol.

  10. The evolution of invasiveness in garden ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cremer, Sylvia; Ugelvig, Line Vej; Drijfhout, Falko P

    2008-01-01

    It is unclear why some species become successful invaders whilst others fail, and whether invasive success depends on pre-adaptations already present in the native range or on characters evolving de-novo after introduction. Ants are among the worst invasive pests, with Lasius neglectus and its...... rapid spread through Europe and Asia as the most recent example of a pest ant that may become a global problem. Here, we present the first integrated study on behavior, morphology, population genetics, chemical recognition and parasite load of L. neglectus and its non-invasive sister species L. turcicus....... We find that L. neglectus expresses the same supercolonial syndrome as other invasive ants, a social system that is characterized by mating without dispersal and large networks of cooperating nests rather than smaller mutually hostile colonies. We conclude that the invasive success of L. neglectus...

  11. A human breast cell model of pre-invasive to invasive transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissell, Mina J; Rizki, Aylin; Weaver, Valerie M.; Lee, Sun-Young; Rozenberg, Gabriela I.; Chin, Koei; Myers, Connie A.; Bascom, Jamie L.; Mott, Joni D.; Semeiks, Jeremy R.; Grate, Leslie R.; Mian, I. Saira; Borowsky, Alexander D.; Jensen, Roy A.; Idowu, Michael O.; Chen, Fanqing; Chen, David J.; Petersen, Ole W.; Gray, Joe W.; Bissell, Mina J.

    2008-03-10

    A crucial step in human breast cancer progression is the acquisition of invasiveness. There is a distinct lack of human cell culture models to study the transition from pre-invasive to invasive phenotype as it may occur 'spontaneously' in vivo. To delineate molecular alterations important for this transition, we isolated human breast epithelial cell lines that showed partial loss of tissue polarity in three-dimensional reconstituted-basement membrane cultures. These cells remained non-invasive; however, unlike their non-malignant counterparts, they exhibited a high propensity to acquire invasiveness through basement membrane in culture. The genomic aberrations and gene expression profiles of the cells in this model showed a high degree of similarity to primary breast tumor profiles. The xenograft tumors formed by the cell lines in three different microenvironments in nude mice displayed metaplastic phenotypes, including squamous and basal characteristics, with invasive cells exhibiting features of higher grade tumors. To find functionally significant changes in transition from pre-invasive to invasive phenotype, we performed attribute profile clustering analysis on the list of genes differentially expressed between pre-invasive and invasive cells. We found integral membrane proteins, transcription factors, kinases, transport molecules, and chemokines to be highly represented. In addition, expression of matrix metalloproteinases MMP-9,-13,-15,-17 was up regulated in the invasive cells. Using siRNA based approaches, we found these MMPs to be required for the invasive phenotype. This model provides a new tool for dissection of mechanisms by which pre-invasive breast cells could acquire invasiveness in a metaplastic context.

  12. What makes the plant invasion possible? Paradigm of invasion mechanisms, theories and attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhat Kumar Rai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant invasion is the second most severe threat to biodiversity after habitat fragmentation. Invasive species are alien species whose introduction and spread threatens ecosystems, habitats or species with socio-cultural, economic and/or environmental harm, and harm to human health. Present review precisely describes the global problems of invasion in different ecosystems, continents and its multifaceted impacts. Plant invasion is now increasingly being recognized as global problem and various continents are adversely affected, although to a differential scale. Quest for the ecological mechanism lying behind the success of invasive species over native species has drawn the attention of researches worldwide particularly in context of diversity-stability relationship. Transport, colonization, establishment and landscape spread may be different steps in success of invasive plants and each and every step is checked through several ecological attributes. Further, several ecological attribute and hypothesis (enemy release, novel weapon, empty niche, evolution of increased competitive ability etc. were proposed pertaining to success of invasive plant species. However, single theory will not be able to account for invasion success among all environments as it may vary spatially and temporally. Therefore, in order to formulate a sustainable management plan for invasive plants, it is necessary to develop a synoptic view of the dynamic processes involved in the invasion process. Moreover, invasive species can act synergistically with other elements of global change, including land-use change, climate change, increased concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide and nitrogen deposition. Henceforth, a unified framework for biological invasions that reconciles and integrates the key features of the most commonly used invasion frame-works into a single conceptual model that can be applied to all human-mediated invasions.

  13. Invasive aspergillosis in two patients with Pearson syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warris, A.; Verweij, P.E.; Barton, R.C.; Crabbe, D.C.G.; Evans, E.G.V.; Meis, J.F.G.M.

    1999-01-01

    Invasive aspergillosis is a serious opportunistic infection in the immunocompromised host. In the pediatric population invasive aspergillosis is seen predominantly in patients with hematologic malignancie, chronic granullamotous disease (CGD) and AIDS. Invasive aspergillosis carries a high case

  14. Invasive cancer cells and metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierke, Claudia Tanja

    2013-12-01

    The physics of cancer is a relatively new emerging field of cancer research. In the last decade it has become a focus of biophysical research as well as becoming a novel focus for classical cancer research. This special section of Physical Biology focusing on invasive cancer cells and metastasis (physical oncology) will give greater insight into the different subfields where physical approaches are being applied to cancer research. This focus on the physical aspects of cancer is necessary because novel approaches in the field of genomics and proteomics have not altered the field of cancer research dramatically, due to the fact that few breakthroughs have been made. It is still not understood why some primary tumors metastasize and thus have a worse outcome compared to others that do not metastasize. As biophysicists, we and others suggest that the mechanical properties of the cancer cells, which possess the ability to transmigrate, are quite different compared to non-metastatic and non-invasive cancer cells. Furthermore, we hypothesize that these cancer cells undergo a selection process within the primary tumor that enables them to weaken their cell-cell adhesions and to alter their cell-matrix adhesions in order to be able to cross the outermost boundary of the primary tumor, as well as the surrounding basement membrane, and to invade the connective tissue. This prerequisite may also help the cancer cells to enter blood or lymph vessels, get transported with the vessel flow and form secondary tumors either within the vessel, directly on the endothelium, or in a different organ after crossing the endothelial lining a second time. This special section begins with a paper by Mark F Coughlin and Jeffrey J Fredberg on the changes in cytoskeletal dynamics and nonlinear rheology due to the metastatic capability of cancer cells from different cancer tissue types such as skin, bladder, prostate and kidney [1]. The hypothesis was that the metastatic outcome is impacted by

  15. Global threat to agriculture from invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paini, Dean R; Sheppard, Andy W; Cook, David C; De Barro, Paul J; Worner, Susan P; Thomas, Matthew B

    2016-07-05

    Invasive species present significant threats to global agriculture, although how the magnitude and distribution of the threats vary between countries and regions remains unclear. Here, we present an analysis of almost 1,300 known invasive insect pests and pathogens, calculating the total potential cost of these species invading each of 124 countries of the world, as well as determining which countries present the greatest threat to the rest of the world given their trading partners and incumbent pool of invasive species. We find that countries vary in terms of potential threat from invasive species and also their role as potential sources, with apparently similar countries sometimes varying markedly depending on specifics of agricultural commodities and trade patterns. Overall, the biggest agricultural producers (China and the United States) could experience the greatest absolute cost from further species invasions. However, developing countries, in particular, Sub-Saharan African countries, appear most vulnerable in relative terms. Furthermore, China and the United States represent the greatest potential sources of invasive species for the rest of the world. The analysis reveals considerable scope for ongoing redistribution of known invasive pests and highlights the need for international cooperation to slow their spread.

  16. Assessing biofuel crop invasiveness: a case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Evan Buddenhagen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is widespread interest in biofuel crops as a solution to the world's energy needs, particularly in light of concerns over greenhouse-gas emissions. Despite reservations about their adverse environmental impacts, no attempt has been made to quantify actual, relative or potential invasiveness of terrestrial biofuel crops at an appropriate regional or international scale, and their planting continues to be largely unregulated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a widely accepted weed risk assessment system, we analyzed a comprehensive list of regionally suitable biofuel crops to show that seventy percent have a high risk of becoming invasive versus one-quarter of non-biofuel plant species and are two to four times more likely to establish wild populations locally or be invasive in Hawaii or in other locations with a similar climate. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Because of climatic and ecological similarities, predictions of biofuel crop invasiveness in Hawaii are applicable to other vulnerable island and subtropical ecosystems worldwide. We demonstrate the utility of an accessible and scientifically proven risk assessment protocol that allows users to predict if introduced species will become invasive in their region of interest. Other evidence supports the contention that propagule pressure created by extensive plantings will exacerbate invasions, a scenario expected with large-scale biofuel crop cultivation. Proactive measures, such as risk assessments, should be employed to predict invasion risks, which could then be mitigated via implementation of appropriate planting policies and adoption of the "polluter-pays" principle.

  17. Non invasive wearable sensor for indirect glucometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilberstein, Gleb; Zilberstein, Roman; Maor, Uriel; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    2018-04-02

    A non-invasive mini-sensor for blood glucose concentration assessment has been developed. The monitoring is performed by gently pressing a wrist or fingertip onto the chemochromic mixture coating a thin glass or polymer film positioned on the back panel of a smart watch with PPG/HRM (photoplethysmographic/heart rate monitoring sensor). The various chemochromic components measure the absolute values of the following metabolites present in the sweat: acetone, acetone beta-hydroxybutirate, aceto acetate, water, carbon dioxide, lactate anion, pyruvic acid, Na and K salts. Taken together, all these parameters give information about blood glucose concentration, calculated via multivariate analysis based on neural network algorithms built into the sensor. The Clarke Error Grid shows an excellent correlation between data measured by the standard invasive glucose analyser and the present non-invasive sensor, with all points aligned along a 45 degree diagonal and contained almost exclusively in sector A. Graphs measuring glucose levels five times a day (prior, during and after breakfast and prior, during and after lunch), for different individuals (male and female) show a good correlation between the two curves of conventional, invasive meters vs. the non-invasive sensor, with an error of ±15%. This novel, non-invasive sensor for indirect glucometry is fully miniaturized, easy to use and operate and could represent a valid alternative in clinical settings and for individual, personal users, to current, invasive tools. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Study of melanoma invasion by FTIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Sulé-Suso, J.; Sockalingum, G. D.

    2008-02-01

    Compared to other forms of skin cancer, a malignant melanoma has a high risk of spreading to other parts of the body. Melanoma invasion is a complex process involving changes in cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interaction and cell-cell interactions. To fully understand the factors which control the invasion process, a human skin model system was reconstructed. HBL (a commercially available cell line) melanoma cells were seeded on a skin model with and without the presence of keratinocytes and/or fibroblasts. After 14 days culture, the skin specimens were fixed, parafin embedded and cut into 7 µm sections. The de-parafinised sections were investigated by synchrotron Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy to study skin cell invasion behaviour. The advantage of using FTIR is its ability to obtain the fingerprint information of the invading cells in terms of protein secondary structure in comparison to non-invading cells and the concentration of the enzyme (matrix-metalloproteinase) which digests protein matrix, near the invading cells. With aid of the spectral mapping images, it is possible to pinpoint the cells in non-invasion and invasion area and analyse the respective spectra. It has been observed that the protein bands in cells and matrix shifted between non-invasive and invasive cells in the reconstructed skin model. We hypothesise that by careful analysis of the FTIR data and validation by other models, FTIR studies can reveal information on which type of cells and proteins are involved in melanoma invasion. Thus, it is possible to trace the cell invasion path by mapping the spectra along the interface of cell layer and matrix body by FTIR spectroscopy.

  19. Invasion exponents in biological networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetrius, Lloyd; Gundlach, Volker Matthias; Ochs, Gunter

    2009-03-01

    This article is concerned with the characterization of invasion exponents in biological networks defined by a population of replicating elements: molecules, cells, higher organisms. We show that the outcome of competition between an invader and a resident population is a stochastic process, determined by the rate at which a population returns to its steady state after a random perturbation in the parameters that characterize the replicating elements. This return rate is defined by the macroscopic parameter evolutionary entropy, a measure of the diversity of the interaction between the individuals in the population. We also show that the evolutionary stability of a population, that is the invulnerability of a resident to the introduction of an invader competing for the available resources, are given by extremal states of entropy. These results which pertain to networks of interacting molecules, cells and higher organisms, are generalizations of results established for demographic networks, that is populations of replicating organisms parametrized by the ages at which they reproduce and die.

  20. Robotic assisted minimally invasive surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palep Jaydeep

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The term "robot" was coined by the Czech playright Karel Capek in 1921 in his play Rossom′s Universal Robots. The word "robot" is from the check word robota which means forced labor.The era of robots in surgery commenced in 1994 when the first AESOP (voice controlled camera holder prototype robot was used clinically in 1993 and then marketed as the first surgical robot ever in 1994 by the US FDA. Since then many robot prototypes like the Endoassist (Armstrong Healthcare Ltd., High Wycombe, Buck, UK, FIPS endoarm (Karlsruhe Research Center, Karlsruhe, Germany have been developed to add to the functions of the robot and try and increase its utility. Integrated Surgical Systems (now Intuitive Surgery, Inc. redesigned the SRI Green Telepresence Surgery system and created the daVinci Surgical System ® classified as a master-slave surgical system. It uses true 3-D visualization and EndoWrist ® . It was approved by FDA in July 2000 for general laparoscopic surgery, in November 2002 for mitral valve repair surgery. The da Vinci robot is currently being used in various fields such as urology, general surgery, gynecology, cardio-thoracic, pediatric and ENT surgery. It provides several advantages to conventional laparoscopy such as 3D vision, motion scaling, intuitive movements, visual immersion and tremor filtration. The advent of robotics has increased the use of minimally invasive surgery among laparoscopically naοve surgeons and expanded the repertoire of experienced surgeons to include more advanced and complex reconstructions.

  1. Invasive clonal plant species have a greater root-foraging plasticity than non-invasive ones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keser, Lidewij H; Dawson, Wayne; Song, Yao-Bin; Yu, Fei-Hai; Fischer, Markus; Dong, Ming; van Kleunen, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Clonality is frequently positively correlated with plant invasiveness, but which aspects of clonality make some clonal species more invasive than others is not known. Due to their spreading growth form, clonal plants are likely to experience spatial heterogeneity in nutrient availability. Plasticity in allocation of biomass to clonal growth organs and roots may allow these plants to forage for high-nutrient patches. We investigated whether this foraging response is stronger in species that have become invasive than in species that have not. We used six confamilial pairs of native European clonal plant species differing in invasion success in the USA. We grew all species in large pots under homogeneous or heterogeneous nutrient conditions in a greenhouse, and compared their nutrient-foraging response and performance. Neither invasive nor non-invasive species showed significant foraging responses to heterogeneity in clonal growth organ biomass or in aboveground biomass of clonal offspring. Invasive species had, however, a greater positive foraging response in terms of root and belowground biomass than non-invasive species. Invasive species also produced more total biomass. Our results suggest that the ability for strong root foraging is among the characteristics promoting invasiveness in clonal plants.

  2. Excluding access to invasion hubs can contain the spread of an invasive vertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florance, Daniel; Webb, Jonathan K; Dempster, Tim; Kearney, Michael R; Worthing, Alex; Letnic, Mike

    2011-10-07

    Many biological invasions do not occur as a gradual expansion along a continuous front, but result from the expansion of satellite populations that become established at 'invasion hubs'. Although theoretical studies indicate that targeting control efforts at invasion hubs can effectively contain the spread of invasions, few studies have demonstrated this in practice. In arid landscapes worldwide, humans have increased the availability of surface water by creating artificial water points (AWPs) such as troughs and dams for livestock. By experimentally excluding invasive cane toads (Bufo marinus) from AWP, we show that AWP provide a resource subsidy for non-arid-adapted toads and serve as dry season refuges and thus invasion hubs for cane toads in arid Australia. Using data on the distribution of permanent water in arid Australia and the dispersal potential of toads, we predict that systematically excluding toads from AWP would reduce the area of arid Australia across which toads are predicted to disperse and colonize under average climatic conditions by 38 per cent from 2,242,000 to 1,385,000 km(2). Our study shows how human modification of hydrological regimes can create a network of invasion hubs that facilitates a biological invasion, and confirms that targeted control at invasion hubs can reduce landscape connectivity to contain the spread of an invasive vertebrate.

  3. Fort Collins Science Center: Invasive Species Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Invasive, non-native species of plants, animals, and disease organisms adversely affect the ecosystems they enter. Like "biological wildfires," they can quickly spread, and they affect nearly all terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Invasive species have become the greatest environmental challenge of the 21st century in terms of economic, environmental, and human health costs, with an estimated impact in the U.S. of over $138 billion per year. Managers of Department of the Interior and other public and private lands and waters rank invasive species as their top resource management problem.

  4. Candida albicans hyphal invasion: thigmotropism or chemotropism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, J M; Stacey, A J; Gilligan, C A

    1999-02-15

    Hyphae of the human pathogenic fungus Candida albicans exhibit thigmotropic behaviour in vitro, in common with phytopathogenic and saprotrophic fungi. An examination of the literature on C. albicans hyphal penetration of epithelial and endothelial membranes does not support the premise that hyphal thigmotropism plays a major role in tissue invasion. Further experimentation is now required to assess thigmotropic behaviour on host membranes and vaginal epithelial cells are suggested as a test model. It is proposed that while thigmotropism may and invasion of tissue invaginations, chemotropism can explain C. albicans hyphal invasion patterns of both endothelium and epithelium.

  5. Aquatic invasive species: Lessons from cancer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Adam; Ray, Andrew; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Gross, Jackson A.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic invasive species are disrupting ecosystems with increasing frequency. Successful control of these invasions has been rare: Biologists and managers have few tools for fighting aquatic invaders. In contrast, the medical community has long worked to develop tools for preventing and fighting cancer. Its successes are marked by a coordinated research approach with multiple steps: prevention, early detection, diagnosis, treatment options and rehabilitation. The authors discuss how these steps can be applied to aquatic invasive species, such as the American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus), in the Northern Rocky Mountain region of the United States, to expedite tool development and implementation along with achievement of biodiversity conservation goals.

  6. Harlequin, Holberg and the (in)visible masks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bent

    1998-01-01

    A reading of Holberg's harquinades "Ulysses Von Itacia" and "The Invisibles" placed in a context of European grotesque theatre with a specific regard to the texts relation to respectively older and newer French-Italian masque theatre. The analysis suggeststhat the first text is in perfect...

  7. HARLEQUIN ICHTHYOSIS IN AN AFRICAN CHILD: CASE REPORT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-09-09

    Sep 9, 2010 ... Child Health,College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P. O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. Request for reprints to: Dr. A. N. ... The cardiovascular saystem was essentialy normal with a heart rate of 120 per .... lipids across cell membranes against a concentration gradient (5). Along with lipids ...

  8. Harlequin color change in preterm infant | Hamida | Pan African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pan African Medical Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 22, No 1 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should ...

  9. Harlequin, Holberg and the (in)visible masks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bent

    1998-01-01

    A reading of Holberg's harquinades "Ulysses Von Itacia" and "The Invisibles" placed in a context of European grotesque theatre with a specific regard to the texts relation to respectively older and newer French-Italian masque theatre. The analysis suggeststhat the first text is in perfect accorda...

  10. How can phytochemists benefit from invasive plants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Peihong; Marston, Andrew

    2009-10-01

    The phenomenon of invasive alien species has become one of the greatest threats to the biological diversity of the planet, placing major constraints on development. In order to provide the tools needed to address this pervasive issue, the current knowledge on invasive species must be further developed with a cross-sectoral and multi-disciplinary approach. Recent theories of invasion propose that exotic plants probably produce secondary metabolites which can be allelopathic, anti-herbivore, anti-microbial and which are either unique or underrepresented in the plants' new range. This review attempts to attract the attention of phytochemists to study either the mechanisms of plant invasion or to use this widespread plant resource for humans.

  11. The social dimensions of invasive plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Lesley

    2017-06-06

    Invasive plants pose a major environmental management issue. Research into the social dimensions of this issue has flourished over the past decade, as part of the critical examination of relations between human and nonhuman worlds. The social sciences and humanities have made substantial contributions to conceptualizing invasiveness and nativeness; understanding the perceptions, attitudes and values of diverse stakeholders; and analysing the politics and practices of invasive plant management. Cultural analysis allows areas of conflict and commonality to be identified. Social complexity must be added to ecological complexity to understand the causal relationships underlying invasions; and linear understandings of science-policy relationships are too simplistic. Productive connections have been established between recent social and natural science approaches in the context of rapid environmental change and unpredictable futures. Nonetheless, the prevalence of human exceptionalism in the ecological sciences constitutes a major point of divergence between social and natural science perspectives.

  12. Invasive aspergillosis in near drowning nonneutropenic patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munta, Kartik; Gopal, Palepu B N; Vigg, Ajit

    2015-12-01

    Invasive aspergillosis in immunosuppressed people has been well documented, but to diagnose and treat in an immunocompetent individual after near drowning, it requires early suspicion and proper empirical treatment. We report a case diagnosed to have invasive aspergillosis with systemic dissemination of the infection to the brain, gluteal muscles, and kidneys after a fall in a chemical tank of a paper manufacturing company. He was ventilated for acute respiratory distress syndrome and managed with antibiotics and vasopressors. Due to nonresolving pneumonia and positive serum galactomannan, trans-tracheal biopsy was performed which confirmed invasive aspergillosis and was treated with antifungals. With the availability of galactomannan assay and better radiological investigative modalities, occurrence of such invasive fungal infections in cases of drowning patients should be considered early in such patients and treated with appropriate antifungals.

  13. Heart bypass surgery - minimally invasive - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... invasive direct coronary artery bypass - discharge; MIDCAB - discharge; Robot assisted coronary artery bypass - discharge; RACAB - discharge; Keyhole ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  14. NNDSS - Table II. Invasive Pneumococcal to Legionellosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Invasive Pneumococcal to Legionellosis - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected†notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during...

  15. NNDSS - Table II. Invasive Pneumococcal to Legionellosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Invasive Pneumococcal to Legionellosis - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  16. [Invasive yeast infections in neutropenic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Camps, Isabel; Jarque, Isidro

    2016-01-01

    Invasive fungal diseases caused by yeasts still play an important role in the morbidity and mortality in neutropenic patients with haematological malignancies. Although the overall incidence of invasive candidiasis has decreased due to widespread use of antifungal prophylaxis, the incidence of non-Candida albicans Candida species is increasing compared with that of C.albicans, and mortality of invasive candidiasis continues to be high. In addition, there has been an increase in invasive infections caused by an array of uncommon yeasts, including species of the genus Malassezia, Rhodotorula, Trichosporon and Saprochaete, characterised by their resistance to echinocandins and poor prognosis. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Robot-assisted minimally invasive esophagectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hillegersberg, R.; Seesing, M. F. J.; Brenkman, H. J. F.; Ruurda, J. P.

    Esophagolymphadenectomy is the cornerstone of multimodality treatment for resectable esophageal cancer. The preferred surgical approach is transthoracic, with a two-field lymph node dissection and gastric conduit reconstruction. A minimally invasive approach has been shown to reduce postoperative

  18. NNDSS - Table II. Invasive Pneumococcal to Legionellosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Invasive Pneumococcal to Legionellosis - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  19. NNDSS - Table II. Invasive Pneumococcal to Legionellosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Invasive Pneumococcal to Legionellosis - 2014.In this Table, all conditions with a 5-year average annual national total of more than or equals...

  20. NNDSS - Table II. Invasive Pneumococcal to Legionellosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Invasive Pneumococcal to Legionellosis - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected† notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  1. 75 FR 29359 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ..., opportunities for green jobs creation within invasive species efforts, ballast water related issues, and the..., 2010. ADDRESSES: The Argonaut Hotel, 495 Jefferson Street at Hyde, San Francisco, California 94109-1314...

  2. An Evolutionary Modelling Approach To Understanding The Factors Behind Plant Invasiveness And Community Susceptibility To Invasion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warren, John; Topping, Christopher John; James, Penri

    2011-01-01

    Ecologists have had limited success in understanding which introduced species may become invasive. An evolutionary model is used to investigate which traits are associated with invasiveness. Translocation experiments were simulated in which species were moved into similar but evolutionary younger...... observed to be species and community combination specific. This evolutionary study represents a novel in silico attempt to tackle invasiveness in an experimental framework, and may provide a new methodology for tackling these issues....

  3. Soil modification by invasive plants: Effects on native and invasive species of mixed-grass prairies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, N.R.; Larson, D.L.; Huerd, S.C.

    2008-01-01

    Invasive plants are capable of modifying attributes of soil to facilitate further invasion by conspecifics and other invasive species. We assessed this capability in three important plant invaders of grasslands in the Great Plains region of North America: leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula), smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum). In a glasshouse, these three invasives or a group of native species were grown separately through three cycles of growth and soil conditioning in both steam-pasteurized and non-pasteurized soils, after which we assessed seedling growth in these soils. Two of the three invasive species, Bromus and Agropyron, exhibited significant self-facilitation via soil modification. Bromus and Agropyron also had significant facilitative effects on other invasives via soil modification, while Euphorbia had significant antagonistic effects on the other invasives. Both Agropyron and Euphorbia consistently suppressed growth of two of three native forbs, while three native grasses were generally less affected. Almost all intra- and interspecific effects of invasive soil conditioning were dependent upon presence of soil biota from field sites where these species were successful invaders. Overall, these results suggest that that invasive modification of soil microbiota can facilitate plant invasion directly or via 'cross-facilitation' of other invasive species, and moreover has potential to impede restoration of native communities after removal of an invasive species. However, certain native species that are relatively insensitive to altered soil biota (as we observed in the case of the forb Linum lewisii and the native grasses), may be valuable as 'nurse'species in restoration efforts. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  4. The evolution of invasiveness in garden ants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Cremer

    Full Text Available It is unclear why some species become successful invaders whilst others fail, and whether invasive success depends on pre-adaptations already present in the native range or on characters evolving de-novo after introduction. Ants are among the worst invasive pests, with Lasius neglectus and its rapid spread through Europe and Asia as the most recent example of a pest ant that may become a global problem. Here, we present the first integrated study on behavior, morphology, population genetics, chemical recognition and parasite load of L. neglectus and its non-invasive sister species L. turcicus. We find that L. neglectus expresses the same supercolonial syndrome as other invasive ants, a social system that is characterized by mating without dispersal and large networks of cooperating nests rather than smaller mutually hostile colonies. We conclude that the invasive success of L. neglectus relies on a combination of parasite-release following introduction and pre-adaptations in mating system, body-size, queen number and recognition efficiency that evolved long before introduction. Our results challenge the notion that supercolonial organization is an inevitable consequence of low genetic variation for chemical recognition cues in small invasive founder populations. We infer that low variation and limited volatility in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles already existed in the native range in combination with low dispersal and a highly viscous population structure. Human transport to relatively disturbed urban areas thus became the decisive factor to induce parasite release, a well established general promoter of invasiveness in non-social animals and plants, but understudied in invasive social insects.

  5. Effects of invasive plants on arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Andrea R; Cord, Erin E; Fulbright, Timothy E; Schuster, Greta L

    2014-12-01

    Non-native plants have invaded nearly all ecosystems and represent a major component of global ecological change. Plant invasions frequently change the composition and structure of vegetation communities, which can alter animal communities and ecosystem processes. We reviewed 87 articles published in the peer-reviewed literature to evaluate responses of arthropod communities and functional groups to non-native invasive plants. Total abundance of arthropods decreased in 62% of studies and increased in 15%. Taxonomic richness decreased in 48% of studies and increased in 13%. Herbivorous arthropods decreased in response to plant invasions in 48% of studies and increased in 17%, likely due to direct effects of decreased plant diversity. Predaceous arthropods decreased in response to invasive plants in 44% of studies, which may reflect indirect effects due to reductions in prey. Twenty-two percent of studies documented increases in predators, which may reflect changes in vegetation structure that improved mobility, survival, or web-building for these species. Detritivores increased in 67% of studies, likely in response to increased litter and decaying vegetation; no studies documented decreased abundance in this functional group. Although many researchers have examined effects of plant invasions on arthropods, sizeable information gaps remain, specifically regarding how invasive plants influence habitat and dietary requirements. Beyond this, the ability to predict changes in arthropod populations and communities associated with plant invasions could be improved by adopting a more functional and mechanistic approach. Understanding responses of arthropods to invasive plants will critically inform conservation of virtually all biodiversity and ecological processes because so many organisms depend on arthropods as prey or for their functional roles, including pollination, seed dispersal, and decomposition. Given their short generation times and ability to respond rapidly to

  6. Perspectives on invasive amphibians in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Rodriguez Forti

    Full Text Available Introduced species have the potential to become invasive and jeopardize entire ecosystems. The success of species establishing viable populations outside their original extent depends primarily on favorable climatic conditions in the invasive ranges. Species distribution modeling (SDM can thus be used to estimate potential habitat suitability for populations of invasive species. Here we review the status of six amphibian species with invasive populations in Brazil (four domestic species and two imported species. We (i modeled the current habitat suitability and future potential distribution of these six focal species, (ii reported on the disease status of Eleutherodactylus johnstonei and Phyllodytes luteolus, and (iii quantified the acoustic overlap of P. luteolus and Leptodactylus labyrinthicus with three co-occurring native species. Our models indicated that all six invasive species could potentially expand their ranges in Brazil within the next few decades. In addition, our SDMs predicted important expansions in available habitat for 2 out of 6 invasive species under future (2100 climatic conditions. We detected high acoustic niche overlap between invasive and native amphibian species, underscoring that acoustic interference might reduce mating success in local frogs. Despite the American bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus being recognized as a potential reservoir for the frog-killing fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd in Brazil, we did not detect Bd in the recently introduced population of E. johnstonei and P. luteolus in the State of São Paulo. We emphasize that the number of invasive amphibian species in Brazil is increasing exponentially, highlighting the urgent need to monitor and control these populations and decrease potential impacts on the locally biodiverse wildlife.

  7. Invasive crayfish in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Christopher A.; McCreary, Brome; Adams, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Invasive species directly threaten freshwater biodiversity, particularly in regions of high aquatic richness like the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Crayfish are among the most impactful of aquatic invasive species. Invasive crayfish are considered ecosystem engineers due to their ability to alter basic wetland properties, such as reducing vegetation and bank integrity and increasing turbidity. In areas where invasion is advanced, crayfish pose major economic and ecological problems. Crayfish have been widely introduced for aquaculture and can become established in a wide range of habitat conditions. They also may be spread by anglers who use them as bait. Several non-native crayfish are established in the PNW, but the extent of their invasion is not well known. At least two groups are known from scattered sites in the PNW, and both have proven problematic for native species in other parts of the world: Red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) and several members of the genus Orconectes. Both groups are native to areas of the eastern United States. Both are identified globally as invasives of high concern and appear on the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife's "10 Most Unwanted" and the U.S. Forest Service's "Primary Species of Concern" lists for stream systems in the PNW. Despite the presence of introduced crayfish in the PNW and their high potential for negative effects, the scope of their invasion and effects on aquatic systems are not well known. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), along with local groups and state agencies, is working to clarify crayfish distribution and to outline which basins may not yet be invaded. Other goals are to improve understanding of habitat associations of invasive crayfish and their potential effects on native crayfish.

  8. The Evolution of Invasiveness in Garden Ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Sylvia; Ugelvig, Line V.; Drijfhout, Falko P.; Schlick-Steiner, Birgit C.; Steiner, Florian M.; Seifert, Bernhard; Hughes, David P.; Schulz, Andreas; Petersen, Klaus S.; Konrad, Heino; Stauffer, Christian; Kiran, Kadri; Espadaler, Xavier; d'Ettorre, Patrizia; Aktaç, Nihat; Eilenberg, Jørgen; Jones, Graeme R.; Nash, David R.; Pedersen, Jes S.; Boomsma, Jacobus J.

    2008-01-01

    It is unclear why some species become successful invaders whilst others fail, and whether invasive success depends on pre-adaptations already present in the native range or on characters evolving de-novo after introduction. Ants are among the worst invasive pests, with Lasius neglectus and its rapid spread through Europe and Asia as the most recent example of a pest ant that may become a global problem. Here, we present the first integrated study on behavior, morphology, population genetics, chemical recognition and parasite load of L. neglectus and its non-invasive sister species L. turcicus. We find that L. neglectus expresses the same supercolonial syndrome as other invasive ants, a social system that is characterized by mating without dispersal and large networks of cooperating nests rather than smaller mutually hostile colonies. We conclude that the invasive success of L. neglectus relies on a combination of parasite-release following introduction and pre-adaptations in mating system, body-size, queen number and recognition efficiency that evolved long before introduction. Our results challenge the notion that supercolonial organization is an inevitable consequence of low genetic variation for chemical recognition cues in small invasive founder populations. We infer that low variation and limited volatility in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles already existed in the native range in combination with low dispersal and a highly viscous population structure. Human transport to relatively disturbed urban areas thus became the decisive factor to induce parasite release, a well established general promoter of invasiveness in non-social animals and plants, but understudied in invasive social insects. PMID:19050762

  9. The radiological diagnosis of invasive thymomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewes, W.; Schrappe-Baecher, M.; Focke-Wenzel, E.K.; Schmitz-Draeger, H.G.; Staedtische Krankenanstalten Koeln-Merheim

    1986-01-01

    Between January 1981 and September 1985, invasive thymomas were diagnosed in 13 patients attending the municipal hospital at Koeln-Merheim. All these patients were examined radiologically and the tumour removed at thoracotomy, and irradiated in our Radiotherapy Clinic. Invasive thymomas appear as space-occupying lesions on chest radiographs taken in two planes, or on computed tomography. Infiltration by the thymoma in stages III and IV can be demonstrated by computed tomography. (orig.) [de

  10. Dynamics of cancerous tissue correlates with invasiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Ann-Katrine Vransø; Wullkopf, Lena; Christensen, Amalie; Leijnse, Natascha; Tarp, Jens Magelund; Mathiesen, Joachim; Erler, Janine Terra; Oddershede, Lene Broeng

    2017-03-01

    Two of the classical hallmarks of cancer are uncontrolled cell division and tissue invasion, which turn the disease into a systemic, life-threatening condition. Although both processes are studied, a clear correlation between cell division and motility of cancer cells has not been described previously. Here, we experimentally characterize the dynamics of invasive and non-invasive breast cancer tissues using human and murine model systems. The intrinsic tissue velocities, as well as the divergence and vorticity around a dividing cell correlate strongly with the invasive potential of the tissue, thus showing a distinct correlation between tissue dynamics and aggressiveness. We formulate a model which treats the tissue as a visco-elastic continuum. This model provides a valid reproduction of the cancerous tissue dynamics, thus, biological signaling is not needed to explain the observed tissue dynamics. The model returns the characteristic force exerted by an invading cell and reveals a strong correlation between force and invasiveness of breast cancer cells, thus pinpointing the importance of mechanics for cancer invasion.

  11. Non-invasive ventilation for cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Fidelma; Bradley, Judy M; Piper, Amanda J

    2017-02-20

    Non-invasive ventilation may be a means to temporarily reverse or slow the progression of respiratory failure in cystic fibrosis by providing ventilatory support and avoiding tracheal intubation. Using non-invasive ventilation, in the appropriate situation or individuals, can improve lung mechanics through increasing airflow and gas exchange and decreasing the work of breathing. Non-invasive ventilation thus acts as an external respiratory muscle. This is an update of a previously published review. To compare the effect of non-invasive ventilation versus no non-invasive ventilation in people with cystic fibrosis for airway clearance, during sleep and during exercise. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches, handsearching relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. We searched the reference lists of each trial for additional publications possibly containing other trials.Most recent search: 08 August 2016. Randomised controlled trials comparing a form of pressure preset or volume preset non-invasive ventilation to no non-invasive ventilation used for airway clearance or during sleep or exercise in people with acute or chronic respiratory failure in cystic fibrosis. Three reviewers independently assessed trials for inclusion criteria and methodological quality, and extracted data. Ten trials met the inclusion criteria with a total of 191 participants. Seven trials evaluated single treatment sessions, one evaluated a two-week intervention, one evaluated a six-week intervention and one a three-month intervention. It is only possible to blind trials of airway clearance and overnight ventilatory support to the outcome assessors. In most of the trials we judged there was an unclear risk of bias with regards to blinding due to inadequate descriptions. The six-week trial was the only one judged to have a low risk of bias for all

  12. Invasion and predation in aquatic ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith S. WEIS

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews biological invasions in which predation (or its absence plays a major role in the success of the invader. Examples are described in which the invader out-competes native species for the same food, and cases in which the invader consumes valued native species. In many instances, better predator avoidance by the invasive species or the absence of predators in the new habitat contributes to the success of the invaders; in other cases native or introduced predators appear to be able to keep the invasive species in check. A relatively new management approach in the US is the idea of adding another trophic level – to have humans act as the predators and consume the invasive species. This approach is being utilized in Florida and throughout the Caribbean against the lionfish, but could be extended to other fishes, as well as to various invasive crustaceans and mollusks. This idea is controversial, and current regulations prohibiting the possession of individuals of the invasive species (e.g., mitten crabs or snakefish would preclude the development of a fishery for them [Current Zoology 57 (5: 613–624, 2011].

  13. Worldwide Alien Invasion: A Methodological Approach to Forecast the Potential Spread of a Highly Invasive Pollinator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, André L; Giannini, Tereza C; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera L; Saraiva, Antonio M

    2016-01-01

    The ecological impacts of alien species invasion are a major threat to global biodiversity. The increasing number of invasion events by alien species and the high cost and difficulty of eradicating invasive species once established require the development of new methods and tools for predicting the most susceptible areas to invasion. Invasive pollinators pose serious threats to biodiversity and human activity due to their close relationship with many plants (including crop species) and high potential competitiveness for resources with native pollinators. Although at an early stage of expansion, the bumblebee species Bombus terrestris is becoming a representative case of pollinator invasion at a global scale, particularly given its high velocity of invasive spread and the increasing number of reports of its impacts on native bees and crops in many countries. We present here a methodological framework of habitat suitability modeling that integrates new approaches for detecting habitats that are susceptible to Bombus terrestris invasion at a global scale. Our approach did not include reported invaded locations in the modeling procedure; instead, those locations were used exclusively to evaluate the accuracy of the models in predicting suitability over regions already invaded. Moreover, a new and more intuitive approach was developed to select the models and evaluate different algorithms based on their performance and predictive convergence. Finally, we present a comprehensive global map of susceptibility to Bombus terrestris invasion that highlights priority areas for monitoring.

  14. Invasive Insects Differ from Non-Invasive in Their Thermal Requirements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtěch Jarošík

    Full Text Available We tested whether two basic thermal requirements for insect development, lower developmental thresholds, i.e. temperatures at which development ceases, and sums of effective temperatures, i.e. numbers of day degrees above the lower developmental thresholds necessary to complete development, differ among insect species that proved to be successful invaders in regions outside their native range and those that did not. Focusing on species traits underlying invasiveness that are related to temperature provides insights into the mechanisms of insect invasions. The screening of thermal requirements thus could improve risk-assessment schemes by incorporating these traits in predictions of potentially invasive insect species. We compared 100 pairs of taxonomically-related species originating from the same continent, one invasive and the other not reported as invasive. Invasive species have higher lower developmental thresholds than those never recorded outside their native ranges. Invasive species also have a lower sum of effective temperatures, though not significantly. However, the differences between invasive and non-invasive species in the two physiological measures were significantly inversely correlated. This result suggests that many species are currently prevented from invading by low temperatures in some parts of the world. Those species that will overcome current climatic constraints in regions outside their native distribution due to climate change could become even more serious future invaders than present-day species, due to their potentially faster development.

  15. Worldwide Alien Invasion: A Methodological Approach to Forecast the Potential Spread of a Highly Invasive Pollinator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André L Acosta

    Full Text Available The ecological impacts of alien species invasion are a major threat to global biodiversity. The increasing number of invasion events by alien species and the high cost and difficulty of eradicating invasive species once established require the development of new methods and tools for predicting the most susceptible areas to invasion. Invasive pollinators pose serious threats to biodiversity and human activity due to their close relationship with many plants (including crop species and high potential competitiveness for resources with native pollinators. Although at an early stage of expansion, the bumblebee species Bombus terrestris is becoming a representative case of pollinator invasion at a global scale, particularly given its high velocity of invasive spread and the increasing number of reports of its impacts on native bees and crops in many countries. We present here a methodological framework of habitat suitability modeling that integrates new approaches for detecting habitats that are susceptible to Bombus terrestris invasion at a global scale. Our approach did not include reported invaded locations in the modeling procedure; instead, those locations were used exclusively to evaluate the accuracy of the models in predicting suitability over regions already invaded. Moreover, a new and more intuitive approach was developed to select the models and evaluate different algorithms based on their performance and predictive convergence. Finally, we present a comprehensive global map of susceptibility to Bombus terrestris invasion that highlights priority areas for monitoring.

  16. Adaptive invasive species distribution models: A framework for modeling incipient invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uden, Daniel R.; Allen, Craig R.; Angeler, David G.; Corral, Lucia; Fricke, Kent A.

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of species distribution model(s) (SDM) for approximating, explaining, and predicting changes in species’ geographic locations is increasingly promoted for proactive ecological management. Although frameworks for modeling non-invasive species distributions are relatively well developed, their counterparts for invasive species—which may not be at equilibrium within recipient environments and often exhibit rapid transformations—are lacking. Additionally, adaptive ecological management strategies address the causes and effects of biological invasions and other complex issues in social-ecological systems. We conducted a review of biological invasions, species distribution models, and adaptive practices in ecological management, and developed a framework for adaptive, niche-based, invasive species distribution model (iSDM) development and utilization. This iterative, 10-step framework promotes consistency and transparency in iSDM development, allows for changes in invasive drivers and filters, integrates mechanistic and correlative modeling techniques, balances the avoidance of type 1 and type 2 errors in predictions, encourages the linking of monitoring and management actions, and facilitates incremental improvements in models and management across space, time, and institutional boundaries. These improvements are useful for advancing coordinated invasive species modeling, management and monitoring from local scales to the regional, continental and global scales at which biological invasions occur and harm native ecosystems and economies, as well as for anticipating and responding to biological invasions under continuing global change.

  17. Galactomannan detection for invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeflang, Mariska M. G.; Debets-Ossenkopp, Yvette J.; Wang, Junfeng; Visser, Caroline E.; Scholten, Rob J. P. M.; Hooft, Lotty; Bijlmer, Henk A.; Reitsma, Johannes B.; Zhang, Mingming; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive aspergillosis is the most common life-threatening opportunistic invasive mycosis in immunocompromised patients. A test for invasive aspergillosis should neither be too invasive nor too great a burden for the already weakened patient. The serum galactomannan enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

  18. Positive feedback between mycorrhizal fungi and plants influences plant invasion success and resistance to invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Yang, Ruyi; Tang, Jianjun; Yang, Haishui; Hu, Shuijin; Chen, Xin

    2010-08-24

    Negative or positive feedback between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and host plants can contribute to plant species interactions, but how this feedback affects plant invasion or resistance to invasion is not well known. Here we tested how alterations in AMF community induced by an invasive plant species generate feedback to the invasive plant itself and affect subsequent interactions between the invasive species and its native neighbors. We first examined the effects of the invasive forb Solidago canadensis L. on AMF communities comprising five different AMF species. We then examined the effects of the altered AMF community on mutualisms formed with the native legume forb species Kummerowia striata (Thunb.) Schindl. and on the interaction between the invasive and native plants. The host preferences of the five AMF were also assessed to test whether the AMF form preferred mutualistic relations with the invasive and/or the native species. We found that S. canadensis altered AMF spore composition by increasing one AMF species (Glomus geosporum) while reducing Glomus mosseae, which is the dominant species in the field. The host preference test showed that S. canadensis had promoted the abundance of AMF species (G. geosporum) that most promoted its own growth. As a consequence, the altered AMF community enhanced the competitiveness of invasive S. canadensis at the expense of K. striata. Our results demonstrate that the invasive S. canadensis alters soil AMF community composition because of fungal-host preference. This change in the composition of the AMF community generates positive feedback to the invasive S. canadensis itself and decreases AM associations with native K. striata, thereby making the native K. striata less dominant.

  19. Positive feedback between mycorrhizal fungi and plants influences plant invasion success and resistance to invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zhang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Negative or positive feedback between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and host plants can contribute to plant species interactions, but how this feedback affects plant invasion or resistance to invasion is not well known. Here we tested how alterations in AMF community induced by an invasive plant species generate feedback to the invasive plant itself and affect subsequent interactions between the invasive species and its native neighbors. We first examined the effects of the invasive forb Solidago canadensis L. on AMF communities comprising five different AMF species. We then examined the effects of the altered AMF community on mutualisms formed with the native legume forb species Kummerowia striata (Thunb. Schindl. and on the interaction between the invasive and native plants. The host preferences of the five AMF were also assessed to test whether the AMF form preferred mutualistic relations with the invasive and/or the native species. We found that S. canadensis altered AMF spore composition by increasing one AMF species (Glomus geosporum while reducing Glomus mosseae, which is the dominant species in the field. The host preference test showed that S. canadensis had promoted the abundance of AMF species (G. geosporum that most promoted its own growth. As a consequence, the altered AMF community enhanced the competitiveness of invasive S. canadensis at the expense of K. striata. Our results demonstrate that the invasive S. canadensis alters soil AMF community composition because of fungal-host preference. This change in the composition of the AMF community generates positive feedback to the invasive S. canadensis itself and decreases AM associations with native K. striata, thereby making the native K. striata less dominant.

  20. Effective radiation doses associated with non-invasive versus invasive assessment of coronary anatomy and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, G G; Ntalianis, A; Ntarladimas, Y; de Booij, M; De Winter, O; Barbato, E; Pilet, B; Van Mieghem, C; Wijns, W; De Bruyne, B

    2015-06-01

    To compare the effective radiation dose (ERD) needed to obtain information on coronary anatomy and physiology by a non-invasive versus an invasive diagnostic strategy. Knowledge of anatomy and physiology is needed for management of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). There is, however, a growing concern about detrimental long-term effects of radiation associated with diagnostic procedures. In a total of 671 patients with suspected CAD, we compared the ERD needed to obtain anatomical and physiological information through a non-invasive strategy or an invasive strategy. The non-invasive strategy consisted of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The invasive strategy included coronary angiography (CA) and fractional flow reserve (FFR) measurement. In 464 patients, the data were acquired in Period 2009 and in 207 the data were acquired in Period 2011 (after each period, the CCTA- and the CA-equipment had been upgraded). For the Period 2009 total ERD of the non-invasive approach was significantly larger compared to the invasive approach (28.45 ± 5.37 mSv versus 15.79 ± 7.95 mSv, respectively; P < 0.0001). For Period 2011, despite the significant decrease in ERD for both groups (P<0.0001 for both), the ERD remained higher for the non-invasive approach compared to the invasive approach (16.67 ± 10.45 mSv vs. 10.36 ± 5.87 mSv, respectively; P < 0.0001). Simulation of various diagnostic scenarios showed cumulative radiation dose is the lowest when a first positive test is followed by an invasive strategy. To obtain anatomic and physiologic information in patients with suspected CAD, the combination of CA and FFR is associated with lower ERD than the combination of CCTA and SPECT. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Minimal Invasive Urologic Surgery and Postoperative Ileus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad Aoun

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative ileus (POI is the most common cause of prolonged length of hospital stays (LOS and associated healthcare costs. The advent of minimal invasive technique was a major breakthrough in the urologic landscape with great potential to progress in the future. In the field of gastrointestinal surgery, several studies had reported lower incidence rates for POI following minimal invasive surgery compared to conventional open procedures. In contrast, little is known about the effect of minimal invasive approach on the recovery of bowel motility after urologic surgery. We performed an overview of the potential benefit of minimal invasive approach on POI for urologic procedures. The mechanisms and risk factors responsible for the onset of POI are discussed with emphasis on the advantages of minimal invasive approach. In the urologic field, POI is the main complication following radical cystectomy but it is rarely of clinical significance for other minimal invasive interventions. Laparoscopy or robotic assisted laparoscopic techniques when studied individually may reduce to their own the duration and prevent the onset of POI in a subset of procedures. The potential influence of age and urinary diversion type on postoperative ileus is contradictory in the literature. There is some evidence suggesting that BMI, blood loss, urinary extravasation, existence of a major complication, bowel resection, operative time and transperitoneal approach are independent risk factors for POI. Treatment of POI remains elusive. One of the most important and effective management strategies for patients undergoing radical cystectomy has been the development and use of enhanced recovery programs. An optimal rational strategy to shorten the duration of POI should incorporate minimal invasive approach when appropriate into multimodal fast track programs designed to reduce POI and shorten LOS.

  2. The impact of invasive fish and invasive riparian plants on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Invasive fish and plants are widespread in the rivers and riparian zones of the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa and represent potential threats to the highly endemic freshwater fauna. We investigated the impact of invasive smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) and black wattle (Acacia mearnsii) on assemblages of ...

  3. Spillover but no spillback of two invasive parasitic copepods from invasive Pacific oysters (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedknegt, M.A.; Schuster, A.-K.; Buschbaum, C.; Gergs, R.; Jung, A.; Luttikhuizen, P.C.; Van der Meer, J.; Troost, K.; Wegner, K.M.; Thieltges, D.W.

    2017-01-01

    Invasive species can cause indirect effects on native biota by modifying parasite-host interactions and disease occurrence in native species. This study investigated the role of the invasive Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) in potential spillover (co-introduced parasites infect native hosts) and

  4. Leaf litter variation influences invasion dynamics in the invasive wetland grass Phalaris arundinacea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaproth, M.A.; Eppinga, M.B.; Molofsky, J.

    High litter mass is hypothesized to produce an invader-directed invasion by changing ecosystem properties such as nutrient cycling rates and light availability. An invasive plant species that stimulates litter accumulation may induce a positive feedback when it benefits from high litter

  5. Plant invasions in China: an emerging hot topic in invasion science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Liu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available China has shown a rapid economic development in recent decades, and several drivers of this change are known to enhance biological invasions, a major cause of biodiversity loss. Here we review the current state of research on plant invasions in China by analyzing papers referenced in the ISI Web of Knowledge. Since 2001, the number of papers has increased exponentially, indicating that plant invasions in China are an emerging hot topic in invasion science. The analyzed papers cover a broad range of methodological approaches and research topics. While more that 250 invasive plant species with negative impacts have been reported from China, only a few species have been considered in more than a handful of papers (in order of decreasing number of references: Spartina alterniflora, Ageratina adenophora, Mikania micrantha, Alternanthera philoxeroides, Solidago canadensis, Eichhornia crassipes. Yet this selection might rather reflect the location of research teams than the most invasive plant species in China. Considering the previous achievements in China found in our analysis research in plant invasions could be expanded by (1 compiling comprehensive lists of non-native plant species at the provincial and national scales and to include species that are native to one part of China but non-native to others in these lists; (2 strengthening pathways studies (primary introduction to the country, secondary releases within the country to enhance prevention and management; and (3 assessing impacts of invasive species at different spatial scales (habitats, regions and in relation to conservation resources.

  6. Cortactin is associated with perineural invasion in the deep invasive front area of laryngeal carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambrosio, Eliane Papa; Rosa, Fabíola Encinas; Domingues, Maria Aparecida Custódio

    2011-01-01

    The cortactin gene, mapped at 11q13, has been associated with an aggressive clinical course in many cancers because of its function of invasiveness. This study evaluated CTTN protein and its prognostic value in the deep invasive front and superficial areas of laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas. T...

  7. Minimally invasive surgical therapies for benign prostatic hypertrophy: The rise in minimally invasive surgical therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Christidis

    2017-06-01

    The role of minimally invasive surgical therapies in the treatment of BPH is still yet to be strongly defined. Given the experimental nature of many of the modalities, further study is required prior to their recommendation as alternatives to invasive surgical therapy. More mature evidence is required for the analysis of durability of effect of these therapies to make robust conclusions of their effectiveness.

  8. blood pressure influence of the the Invasive v. non-invasive

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-02-02

    Feb 2, 1991 ... thesis that large differences between the invasive and non- invasive measurements could be predicted by an .... Washington, USA) and the resultant pressure trace and digital systolic, mean and diastolic pressures as well as the ..... Publishing, 1978; 49-82. 8. Ladin Z, Trautman E, Teplick R. Contribution of ...

  9. The relation between invasive and non-invasive tear break-up time ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tear stability normal to Nigerians with consideration of gender and age has not been reported. Tear stability in young adults was measured using invasive and non-invasive tear break-up time (TBUT and NIBUT). Forty –five subjects aged 20 to 30 years were selected from among the students of University of. Benin, Edo ...

  10. Secondary invasion and re-invasion after Russian-olive removal and revegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russian olive is a nitrogen-fixing tree invading riparian corridors in the Northern Great Plains. Native species establishment can be hampered by invasive plant soil legacies that may be particularly likely in the case of Russian olive, and understory species that survive the invasion may be only a ...

  11. Earthworm invasion in North America: Food resource competition affects native millipede survival and invasive earthworm reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce Snyder; Mac Callaham; Christopher Lowe; Paul Hendrix

    2013-01-01

    The invasive non-native earthworm Amynthas agrestis (Goto and Hatai, 1899) has recently been documented invading forests of the Appalachian Mountains in the southeastern United States. This epigeic earthworm decreases the depth of organic soil horizons, and this may play a role in the decrease of millipede richness and abundance associated with A. agrestis invasion. To...

  12. Synchronous lobular carcinoma in situ and invasive lobular cancer: marker or precursor for invasive lobular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, A S; Xiang, D; Hockman, L; Arya, M; Jeffress, J; Wang, Z; Dale, P S

    2014-10-01

    Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) is a known risk factor for invasive breast carcinoma, but there is increasing data indicating a possible precursor relationship. This study investigates the incidence of lobular carcinoma in situ that occurs with invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC). Women diagnosed with ILC or LCIS from 2000 to 2010 were retrospectively identified and reviewed after institutional review board approval. This group was divided into two cohorts: ILC alone, and LCIS and ILC (ILC/LCIS). Patient demographics, disease characteristics, and treatment modalities were captured. p invasive ductal carcinoma at ∼40%. The association of pre-invasive and invasive lobular lesions should be further studied in a large scale prospective study to assess for a precursor relationship. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Invasive cervical carcinoma (Stages IB-IIB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sironi, S.; Zanello, A.; Rodighiero, M.G.; Vanzulli, A.; Del Maschio, A.; Taccagni, G.L.; Belloni, C.

    1991-01-01

    In the patients with invasive cervical carcinoma, the accurate assessment of parametrial invasion greatly affects the therapeutic choice between surgery and radiation therapy. As a matter of fact, surgery is usually performed only in the patients with carcinoma confined to the cervix, whereas those with parametrial involvement, or more advanced stages, are treated with radiation therapy. This prospective study was aimed at investigating the comparative adequecy of CT and MR imaging in assessing parametrial status in the patients with invasive cervical cancer. Twenty-one consecutive patients, with histologic diagnosis of cervical carcinoma, were investigated. All of them were clinically considered as having invasive cervical cancer (FIGO stage IB-IIB) and subsequently underwent surgery. In all cases, detailed histology of the parametrium was obtained. Pathological data were compared with CT and MR findings in all cases. As for assessing parametrial involvement by cancer, CT had 62% accuracy, 63% sensitivity, and 60% specificity, versus MR imaging 81% accuracy, 69% sensitivity, and 80% specificify. Therefore, MR imaging appears to be superior to CT in assessing the parametrial status of patients with invasive cervical carcinoma; the method yields valuable information for treatment planning

  14. Minimally invasive surgery for Achilles tendon pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Maffulli

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Nicola Maffulli1, Umile Giuseppe Longo2, Filippo Spiezia2, Vincenzo Denaro21Centre for Sports and Exercise Medicine, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, England; 2Department of Orthopedic and Trauma Surgery, Campus Bio-Medico University, Rome, ItalyAbstract: Minimally invasive trauma and orthopedic surgery is increasingly common, though technically demanding. Its use for pathologies of the Achilles tendon (AT hold the promise to allow faster recovery times, shorter hospital stays, and improved functional outcomes when compared to traditional open procedures, which can lead to difficulty with wound healing because of the tenuous blood supply and increased chance of wound breakdown and infection. We present the recent advances in the field of minimally invasive AT surgery for tendinopathy, acute ruptures, chronic tears, and chronic avulsions of the AT. In our hands, minimally invasive surgery has provided similar results to those obtained with open surgery, with decreased perioperative morbidity, decreased duration of hospital stay, and reduced costs. So far, the studies on minimally invasive orthopedic techniques are of moderate scientific quality with short follow-up periods. Multicenter studies with longer follow-up are needed to justify the long-term advantages of these techniques over traditional ones.Keywords: tendinopathy, rupture, percutanous repair, less invasive

  15. Current research in perineural invasion of cholangiocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Xi-Yun

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Perineural invasion is a common path for cholangiocarcinoma (CCA metastasis, and it is highly correlated with postoperative recurrence and poor prognosis. It is often an early event in a disease that is commonly diagnosed in advanced stages, and thus it could offer a timely therapeutic and diagnostic target if better understood. This article systematically reviews the progress of CCA neural invasion-related molecules. Methods Studies were identified by searching MEDLINE and PubMed databases for articles from January 1990 to December 2009, using the keywords "cholangiocarcinoma," "perineural invasion," "nerve growth factor"(NGF, "neural cell adhesion molecule" (NCAM, "matrix metalloproteinase"(MMP, "neurotransmitter," "acetylcholine" (Ach, and "transforming growth factor" (TGF." Additional papers and book chapters were identified by a manual search of references from the key articles. Results From above we found that the molecules NGF, NCAM, MMP, Ach and TGF may have prognostic significance in, and offer clues to the mechanism of CCA neural invasion. Conclusions Cholangiocarcinoma's increasing worldwide incidence is especially poignant in view of both the lacking effective therapies, and the fact that it is commonly diagnosed in advanced stages. As CCA neural invasion often appears early, more complete characterization of its molecular pathology could lead to the identification of targets for the diagnosis and therapy of this devastating malignancy.

  16. The Role of Hypoxia in Glioblastoma Invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rita Monteiro

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, a grade IV astrocytoma, is the most common and deadly type of primary malignant brain tumor, with a patient’s median survival rate ranging from 15 to 17 months. The current treatment for GBM involves tumor resection surgery based on MRI image analysis, followed by radiotherapy and treatment with temozolomide. However, the gradual development of tumor resistance to temozolomide is frequent in GBM patients leading to subsequent tumor regrowth/relapse. For this reason, the development of more effective therapeutic approaches for GBM is of critical importance. Low tumor oxygenation, also known as hypoxia, constitutes a major concern for GBM patients, since it promotes cancer cell spreading (invasion into the healthy brain tissue in order to evade this adverse microenvironment. Tumor invasion not only constitutes a major obstacle to surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, but it is also the main cause of death in GBM patients. Understanding how hypoxia triggers the GBM cells to become invasive is paramount to developing novel and more effective therapies against this devastating disease. In this review, we will present a comprehensive examination of the available literature focused on investigating how GBM hypoxia triggers an invasive cancer cell phenotype and the role of these invasive proteins in GBM progression.

  17. Biological invasions, climate change and genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chown, Steven L; Hodgins, Kathryn A; Griffin, Philippa C; Oakeshott, John G; Byrne, Margaret; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2015-01-01

    The rate of biological invasions is expected to increase as the effects of climate change on biological communities become widespread. Climate change enhances habitat disturbance which facilitates the establishment of invasive species, which in turn provides opportunities for hybridization and introgression. These effects influence local biodiversity that can be tracked through genetic and genomic approaches. Metabarcoding and metagenomic approaches provide a way of monitoring some types of communities under climate change for the appearance of invasives. Introgression and hybridization can be followed by the analysis of entire genomes so that rapidly changing areas of the genome are identified and instances of genetic pollution monitored. Genomic markers enable accurate tracking of invasive species' geographic origin well beyond what was previously possible. New genomic tools are promoting fresh insights into classic questions about invading organisms under climate change, such as the role of genetic variation, local adaptation and climate pre-adaptation in successful invasions. These tools are providing managers with often more effective means to identify potential threats, improve surveillance and assess impacts on communities. We provide a framework for the application of genomic techniques within a management context and also indicate some important limitations in what can be achieved.

  18. Cancer stem cell contribution to glioblastoma invasiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortensi, Barbara; Setti, Matteo; Osti, Daniela; Pelicci, Giuliana

    2013-02-28

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive and lethal brain tumor in adults. Its invasive nature currently represents the most challenging hurdle to surgical resection. The mechanism adopted by GBM cells to carry out their invasive strategy is an intricate program that recalls what takes place in embryonic cells during development and in carcinoma cells during metastasis formation, the so-called epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. GBM cells undergo a series of molecular and conformational changes shifting the tumor toward mesenchymal traits, including extracellular matrix remodeling, cytoskeletal re-patterning, and stem-like trait acquisition. A deeper understanding of the mechanisms driving the whole infiltrative process represents the first step toward successful treatment of this pathology. Here, we review recent findings demonstrating the invasive nature of GBM cancer stem cells, together with novel candidate molecules associated with both cancer stem cell biology and GBM invasion, like doublecortin and microRNAs. These findings may affect the design of effective therapies currently not considered for GBM invasive progression.

  19. Genomic comparison of invasive and rare non-invasive strains reveals Porphyromonas gingivalis genetic polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Dolgilevich

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Porphyromonas gingivalis strains are shown to invade human cells in vitro with different invasion efficiencies, varying by up to three orders of magnitude.We tested the hypothesis that invasion-associated interstrain genomic polymorphisms are present in P. gingivalis and that putative invasion-associated genes can contribute to P. gingivalis invasion.Using an invasive (W83 and the only available non-invasive P. gingivalis strain (AJW4 and whole genome microarrays followed by two separate software tools, we carried out comparative genomic hybridization (CGH analysis.We identified 68 annotated and 51 hypothetical open reading frames (ORFs that are polymorphic between these strains. Among these are surface proteins, lipoproteins, capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis enzymes, regulatory and immunoreactive proteins, integrases, and transposases often with abnormal GC content and clustered on the chromosome. Amplification of selected ORFs was used to validate the approach and the selection. Eleven clinical strains were investigated for the presence of selected ORFs. The putative invasion-associated ORFs were present in 10 of the isolates. The invasion ability of three isogenic mutants, carrying deletions in PG0185, PG0186, and PG0982 was tested. The PG0185 (ragA and PG0186 (ragB mutants had 5.1×103-fold and 3.6×103-fold decreased in vitro invasion ability, respectively.The annotation of divergent ORFs suggests deficiency in multiple genes as a basis for P. gingivalis non-invasive phenotype. Access the supplementary material to this article: Supplement, table (see Supplementary files under Reading Tools online.

  20. Postoperative radiation therapy for completely resected invasive thymoma. Prognostic value of pleural invasion for intrathoracic control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Kazuhiko; Toita, Takafumi; Kakinohana, Yasumasa; Kamata, Minoru; Koja, Kageharu [Ryukyus Univ., Uehara, Okinawa (Japan). School of Medicine; Genga, Keiichiro

    1999-10-01

    Optimal management of postoperative radiation therapy for completely resected invasive thymoma remains controversial. This study was conducted to assess the efficacy of postoperative mediastinal irradiation in patients with completely resected invasive thymoma. Between 1981 and 1996, 21 patients with completely resected invasive thymoma were referred for postoperative mediastinal irradiation. The distribution of Masaoka stages was stage II in 14 patients and stage III in seven patients. Nine patients had pleural invasion by the tumor. Thirteen patients were treated with a localized field and eight were treated with the whole mediastinal field with boost. The total dose to the primary tumor was 40-61 Gy (median: 52 Gy). The median follow-up time of the 16 living patients was 67 months (range: 29-202 months). The 5- and 10-year actuarial overall survival rates in all patients were both 77%. Relapses were observed in five patients, in all of whom the sites of the first relapse involved pleural dissemination. There were no relapses within the irradiated field in any of the 21 cases. Five of nine (56%) patients with pleural invasion had relapse of pleural dissemination, while 0 of 12 (0%) patients without pleural invasion had relapse. In univariate analysis, pleural invasion had a statistically significant impact on intrathoracic control (P=0.01). The results indicated that pleural invasion might be predictive of pleural-based relapse for completely resected invasive thymoma. In patients with pleural invasion, mediastinal irradiation alone might be insufficient to avoid pleural-based relapse even after complete resection. (author)

  1. Pollination of a native plant changes with distance and density of invasive plants in a simulated biological invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckman, Daniela; Campbell, Diane R

    2016-08-01

    Effects of an exotic plant on pollination may change as the invasive increases in density. Quantity of pollinator visits to a native may increase, decrease, or change nonlinearly, while visit quality is likely to decrease with greater interspecific pollen movement. How visit quantity and quality contribute to the effect on reproductive success at each invasion stage has not been measured. We simulated four stages of invasion by Brassica nigra by manipulating the neighborhood of potted plants of the native Phacelia parryi in a field experiment. Stages were far from the invasion, near the invasion, intermixed with the invasive at low density, and intermixed at high density. We measured pollinator visitation, conspecific and invasive pollen deposition, and seed set for P. parryi at each stage. Native individuals near invasive plants and within areas of low invasive density showed greatest seed production, as expected from concurrent changes in conspecific and invasive pollen deposition. Those plants experienced facilitation of visits and received more conspecific pollen relative to plants farther from invasives. Native individuals within high invasive density also received frequent visits by many pollinators (although not honeybees), but the larger receipt of invasive pollen predicted interference with pollen tubes that matched patterns in seed set. Pollinator visitation was highest when exotic plants were nearby. Detrimental effects of heterospecific pollen deposition were highest at high exotic density. Our study quantified how reproduction benefits from near proximity to a showy invasive, but is still vulnerable when the invasive reaches high density. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  2. Modeling tumor invasion and metastasis in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne O. Miles

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Conservation of major signaling pathways between humans and flies has made Drosophila a useful model organism for cancer research. Our understanding of the mechanisms regulating cell growth, differentiation and development has been considerably advanced by studies in Drosophila. Several recent high profile studies have examined the processes constraining the metastatic growth of tumor cells in fruit fly models. Cell invasion can be studied in the context of an in vivo setting in flies, enabling the genetic requirements of the microenvironment of tumor cells undergoing metastasis to be analyzed. This Perspective discusses the strengths and limitations of Drosophila models of cancer invasion and the unique tools that have enabled these studies. It also highlights several recent reports that together make a strong case for Drosophila as a system with the potential for both testing novel concepts in tumor progression and cell invasion, and for uncovering players in metastasis.

  3. Invasive aspergillosis: results of multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Klimko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of a multicenter study of 445 patients with “proven” and “probable” invasive aspergillosis (EORTC/MSG, 2008. Invasive aspergillosis usually occurs in patients with hematological malignancies (88 %, main underlying diseases were acute myeloid and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The risk factors: prolonged agranulocytosis (64 %, cytostatic chemotherapy (57 %, corticosteroid treatment (45 %, and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells transplantation (29 %. The pathogens – A. fumigatus (42 %, A. niger (33 %, and A. flavus (21 %. The main site of infection were lungs (86 %. 12 week overall survival was 83 %. Bronchoscopy use for the early diagnosis (p = 0.01, adequatetherapy with voriconazole (p = 0.002 and secondary antifungal prophylaxis (p = 0.0003 were positive prognostic factors for survival of patients with invasive aspergillosis.

  4. [Lobular neoplasms and invasive lobular breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinn, H-P; Helmchen, B; Heil, J; Aulmann, S

    2014-02-01

    The term lobular neoplasia (LN) comprises both atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH), and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) and thus a spectrum of morphologically heterogeneous but clinically and biologically related lesions. LN is regarded as a nonobligatory precursor lesion of invasive breast cancer and at the same time as an indicator lesion for ipsilateral and contralateral breast cancer risk of the patient. Rare pleomorphic or florid variants of LCIS must be differentiated from classical LCIS. The classical type of invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) can be distinguished from the non-special type of invasive breast cancer (NST) by E-cadherin inactivation, loss of E-cadherin related cell adhesion and the subsequent discohesive growth pattern. Variant forms of ILC may show different molecular features, and solid and pleomorphic differentiation patterns in cases of high grade variants. Important parameters for the prognostic assessment of ILC are tumor grading and the recognition of morphological variants.

  5. [Minimally invasive operations in vascular surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stádler, Petr; Sedivý, Petr; Dvorácek, Libor; Slais, Marek; Vitásek, Petr; El Samman, Khaled; Matous, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery provides an attractive alternative compared with conventional surgical approaches and is popular with patients, particularly because of its favourable cosmetic results. Vascular surgery has taken its inspiration from general surgery and, over the past few years, has also been reducing the invasiveness of its operating methods. In addition to traditional laparoscopic techniques, we most frequently encounter the endovascular treatment of aneurysms of the thoracic and abdominal aorta and, most recently, robot-assisted surgery in the area of the abdominal aorta and pelvic arteries. Minimally invasive surgical interventions also have other advantages, including less operative trauma, a reduction in post-operative pain, shorter periods spent in the intensive care unit and overall hospitalization times, an earlier return to normal life and, finally, a reduction in total treatment costs.

  6. Mechatronic Feasibility of Minimally Invasive, Atraumatic Cochleostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Williamson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Robotic assistance in the context of lateral skull base surgery, particularly during cochlear implantation procedures, has been the subject of considerable research over the last decade. The use of robotics during these procedures has the potential to provide significant benefits to the patient by reducing invasiveness when gaining access to the cochlea, as well as reducing intracochlear trauma when performing a cochleostomy. Presented herein is preliminary work on the combination of two robotic systems for reducing invasiveness and trauma in cochlear implantation procedures. A robotic system for minimally invasive inner ear access was combined with a smart drilling tool for robust and safe cochleostomy; evaluation was completed on a single human cadaver specimen. Access to the middle ear was successfully achieved through the facial recess without damage to surrounding anatomical structures; cochleostomy was completed at the planned position with the endosteum remaining intact after drilling as confirmed by microscope evaluation.

  7. Climate change and invasive species: double jeopardy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainka, Susan A; Howard, Geoffrey W

    2010-06-01

    Two of the key drivers of biodiversity loss today are climate change and invasive species. Climate change is already having a measurable impact on species distributions, reproduction and behavior, and all evidence suggests that things will get worse even if we act tomorrow to mitigate any future increases in greenhouse gas emissions: temperature will increase, precipitation will change, sea level will rise and ocean chemistry will change. At the same time, biological invasions remain an important threat to biodiversity, causing species loss, changes in distribution and habitat degradation. Acting together, the impacts of each of these drivers of change are compounded and interactions between these two threats present even greater challenges to field conservationists as well as policymakers. Similarly, the social and economic impacts of climate change and invasive species, already substantial, will be magnified. Awareness of the links between the two should underpin all biodiversity management planning and policy. © 2010 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.

  8. Invasive species unchecked by climate - response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burrows, Michael T.; Schoeman, David S.; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2012-01-01

    Hulme points out that observed rates of range expansion by invasive alien species are higher than the median speed of isotherm movement over the past 50 years, which in turn has outpaced the rates of climate-associated range changes of marine and terrestrial species. This is not surprising, given...... the many ecological and anthropogenic processes that combine to facilitate the translocation of invasive species and the subsequent expansion of their populations. Successful alien species have been observed to rapidly expand their ranges until some limit, typically climate-imposed, is reached. Comparisons...... of climate-change-induced range shifts between native and alien species are meaningful only after the initial invasive spread has reached a stable range boundary. A focus on regions with high velocities of climate change, and on regions such as the tropics where novel thermal niches are being created, should...

  9. Spontaneous regression of an invasive thymoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yutaka, Yojiro; Omasa, Mitsugu; Shikuma, Kei; Okuda, Masato; Taki, Toshihiko

    2009-05-01

    Although there are many reports of spontaneous regression of noninvasive thymoma, there are no reports of spontaneous regression of an invasive thymoma. Moreover, the mechanism of the spontaneous regression is still unknown. The present case concerns a 47-year-old man who presented with chest pain. Computed tomography (CT) showed a large anterior mediastinal mass with left pleural effusion that occluded the innominate vein. The tissue obtained by video-assisted thoracic surgery suggested a diagnosis of invasive thymic carcinoma. One month later CT showed prominent regression of the tumor, and the tumor was completely resected. On pathology, the diagnosis was thymoma type B3.

  10. Biosensors and invasive monitoring in clinical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Córcoles, Emma P

    2013-01-01

    This volume examines the advances of invasive monitoring by means of biosensors and microdialysis. Physical and physiological parameters are commonly monitored in clinical settings using invasive techniques due to their positive outcome in patients’ diagnosis and treatment. Biochemical parameters, however, still rely on off-line measurements and require large pieces of equipment. Biosensing and sampling devices present excellent capabilities for their use in continuous monitoring of patients’ biochemical parameters. However, certain issues remain to be solved in order to ensure a more widespread use of these techniques in today’s medical practices.

  11. The complexity underlying invasiveness precludes the identification of invasive traits: A comparative study of invasive and noninvasive heterocarpic Atriplex congeners

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doudová, J.; Douda, J.; Mandák, Bohumil

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 4 (2017), s. 1-16, č. článku e017645. E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Atriplex * heterocarpy * invasiveness Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  12. Intracranial Pressure Monitoring: Invasive versus Non-Invasive Methods—A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raboel, P. H.; Bartek, J.; Andresen, M.; Bellander, B. M.; Romner, B.

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring of intracranial pressure (ICP) has been used for decades in the fields of neurosurgery and neurology. There are multiple techniques: invasive as well as noninvasive. This paper aims to provide an overview of the advantages and disadvantages of the most common and well-known methods as well as assess whether noninvasive techniques (transcranial Doppler, tympanic membrane displacement, optic nerve sheath diameter, CT scan/MRI and fundoscopy) can be used as reliable alternatives to the invasive techniques (ventriculostomy and microtransducers). Ventriculostomy is considered the gold standard in terms of accurate measurement of pressure, although microtransducers generally are just as accurate. Both invasive techniques are associated with a minor risk of complications such as hemorrhage and infection. Furthermore, zero drift is a problem with selected microtransducers. The non-invasive techniques are without the invasive methods' risk of complication, but fail to measure ICP accurately enough to be used as routine alternatives to invasive measurement. We conclude that invasive measurement is currently the only option for accurate measurement of ICP. PMID:22720148

  13. Invasive species information networks: Collaboration at multiple scales for prevention, early detection, and rapid response to invasive alien species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Annie; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Madsen, John; Westbrooks, Randy G.; Fournier, Christine; Mehrhoff, Les; Browne, Michael; Graham, Jim; Sellers, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    Accurate analysis of present distributions and effective modeling of future distributions of invasive alien species (IAS) are both highly dependent on the availability and accessibility of occurrence data and natural history information about the species. Invasive alien species monitoring and detection networks (such as the Invasive Plant Atlas of New England and the Invasive Plant Atlas of the MidSouth) generate occurrence data at local and regional levels within the United States, which are shared through the US National Institute of Invasive Species Science. The Inter-American Biodiversity Information Network's Invasives Information Network (I3N), facilitates cooperation on sharing invasive species occurrence data throughout the Western Hemisphere. The I3N and other national and regional networks expose their data globally via the Global Invasive Species Information Network (GISIN). International and interdisciplinary cooperation on data sharing strengthens cooperation on strategies and responses to invasions. However, limitations to effective collaboration among invasive species networks leading to successful early detection and rapid response to invasive species include: lack of interoperability; data accessibility; funding; and technical expertise. This paper proposes various solutions to these obstacles at different geographic levels and briefly describes success stories from the invasive species information networks mentioned above. Using biological informatics to facilitate global information sharing is especially critical in invasive species science, as research has shown that one of the best indicators of the invasiveness of a species is whether it has been invasive elsewhere. Data must also be shared across disciplines because natural history information (e.g. diet, predators, habitat requirements, etc.) about a species in its native range is vital for effective prevention, detection, and rapid response to an invasion. Finally, it has been our

  14. A standardized response to biological invasions. Response

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hulme, P. E.; Nentwig, W.; Pyšek, Petr; Vila, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 325, č. 5937 (2009), s. 146-147 ISSN 0036-8075 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : biological invasions * strategy * global scope Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 29.747, year: 2009

  15. Voriconazole salvage treatment of invasive candidiasis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ostrosky-Zeichner, L.; Oude Lashof, A.M.L.; Kullberg, B.J.; Rex, J.H.

    2003-01-01

    Data on the salvage treatment of invasive candidiasis with voriconazole in 52 patients intolerant of other antifungal agents or with infection refractory to other antifungal agents were analyzed. Patients had received a mean of two previous antifungal agents (range, 1-4 agents), and 83% had received

  16. Exotic invasive plants in southeastern forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    James H. Miller

    1998-01-01

    Invasive exotic plants usurp forest productivity, hinder forest-use activities, and limit diversity on millions of acres of forest land in the Southeast Infestations of these plants and their range are constantly expanding, This paper examines the various aspects of the problem. Outlined are the biology, origin, range, uses, and herbicide control for 14 of the most...

  17. Economic savings from invasive plant prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevention programs are often assumed to be the most cost-effective method for managing invasive plants. However, there is very little information about economic and biological factors that determine the forage benefits resulting from prevention programs. We developed a simple economic model to asse...

  18. Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmström, Per-Uno; Agrawal, Sachin; Bläckberg, Mats

    2017-01-01

    The management of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) has evolved from the first reports on bladder endoscopy and transurethral resection to the introduction of adjuvant intravesical treatment. However, disease recurrence and progression remain an ongoing risk, placing a heavy burden on he...

  19. Sonomammographic characteristics of invasive lobular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Damshety O

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Osama R Kombar,1,3 Dalia M Fahmy,1 Mary V Brown,3 Omar Farouk,2 Osama El-Damshety21Diagnostic Radiology Department, 2Surgical Oncology Department, Oncology Center, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt; 3Diagnostic Radiology Department, Al-Amiri Hospital, Safat, KuwaitObjective: The objective of our study was to identify characteristic features of invasive lobular carcinoma on mammography and ultrasound examinationsMaterials and methods: This is a retrospective multicenter study of women with biopsy-proven invasive lobular carcinoma. All patients had undergone diagnostic sonomammography. The imaging findings were identified by experienced breast imagers. Final surgical pathology results were used as the reference standard.Results: Thirty-two women ranging in age from 42 to 63 years old (mean age, 53 years, All had biopsy-proven invasive lobular carcinomas. Common features on mammogram included dense mass followed by architectural distortion; three cases showed breast asymmetry and one case was reported as normal. On ultrasound, common features included solid mass with spiculated margins, posterior shadowing, and perpendicular to the skin.Conclusion: Although no specific features could be linked to invasive lobular carcinoma, care should be directed to subtle signs such as architectural distortion and breast asymmetry in order not to miss any lesions. The combination of mammographic and sonographic helps to decrease the relatively high false negative diagnosis of this type of breast cancer.Keywords: mammography, ultrasound, cancer, breast

  20. Invasive species overarching priorities to 2029

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly Burnett; Susan J. Frankel; Melody Keena; Mee-Sook Kim; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Michael E. Ostry; Carolyn Hull Sieg

    2010-01-01

    Invasive species are one of the greatest threats to forest, range, aquatic, and urban forest ecosystem health. They contribute to the endangerment of native species and may lead to other severe ecological and financial consequences in our Nation’s wildlands and urban forests. Costs the public pays for damage, losses, and control efforts are estimated at more than $138...

  1. Alien plant invasions in European woodlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, Viktoria; Chytrý, Milan; Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Pergl, Jan; Hennekens, Stephan; Biurrun, Idoia; Knollová, Ilona; Berg, Christian; Vassilev, Kiril; Rodwell, John S.; Škvorc, Željko; Jandt, Ute; Ewald, Jörg; Jansen, Florian; Tsiripidis, Ioannis; Botta-Dukát, Zoltán; Casella, Laura; Attorre, Fabio; Rašomavičius, Valerijus; Ćušterevska, Renata; Schaminée, Joop H.J.; Brunet, Jörg; Lenoir, Jonathan; Svenning, Jens Christian; Kącki, Zygmunt; Petrášová-Šibíková, Mária; Šilc, Urban; García-Mijangos, Itziar; Campos, Juan Antonio; Fernández-González, Federico; Wohlgemuth, Thomas; Onyshchenko, Viktor; Pyšek, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Woodlands make up a third of European territory and carry out important ecosystem functions, yet a comprehensive overview of their invasion by alien plants has never been undertaken across this continent. Location: Europe. Methods: We extracted data from 251,740 vegetation plots stored in the

  2. Invasive plants affect prairie soil biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-native or exotic plants often cause ecological and environmental damage in ecosystems where they invade and become established. These invasive plants may be the most serious threat to plant diversity in prairies, especially those in scattered remnants, which may be particularly vulnerable to rap...

  3. Uprooting and burial of invasive alien plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kollmann, Johannes Christian; Brink-Jensen, Kasper; Frandsen, Sally I.

    2011-01-01

    Invasive alien plants are a problem for conservation management, and control of these species can be combined with habitat restoration. Subsoil burial of uprooted plants is a new method of mechanical control, which might be suitable in disturbed habitats. The method was tested in Rosa rugosa...

  4. Biochemical mechanisms of tumor invasion and metastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liotta, L A; Wewer, U; Rao, N C

    1988-01-01

    Cancer invasion and metastases is a complex multistep process. In order for a tumor cell to successfully traverse all the steps of this process and initiate a metastatic colony, it must express the right combination of gene products. Such gene products may include proteins which regulate cell...

  5. Biological invasions: benefits versus risks. Response

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hulme, P. E.; Nentwig, W.; Pyšek, Petr; Vila, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 324, č. 5930 (2009), s. 1015-1016 ISSN 0036-8075 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : biological invasions * economic benefits and costs * precautionary approach Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 29.747, year: 2009

  6. Controlling strawberry guava’s invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.T. Johnson

    2008-01-01

    Green mountains wrapped in clouds are a reassuring sight on islands across the Pacific. These forested highlands catch the water that humans depend on, and can preserve a rich diversity of life. Sadly, although green, many island forests are far from healthy. Among the greatest threats to native forests in Hawaii is the invasive tree, strawberry guava.

  7. Socioeconomic legacy yields an invasion debt

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Essl, F.; Dullinger, S.; Rabitsch, W.; Hulme, P. E.; Hülber, K.; Jarošík, Vojtěch; Kleinbauer, I.; Krausmann, F.; Kuhn, H.; Nentwig, W.; Vila, M.; Genovesi, P.; Gherardi, F.; Desprez-Loustau, M.-L.; Roques, A.; Pyšek, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 108, č. 1 (2011), s. 203-207 ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : biological invasions * Europe * economy Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 9.681, year: 2011

  8. Control of invasive weeds with prescribed burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiTomaso, Joseph M.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Allen, Edith B.; Minnich, Ralph; Rice, Peter M.; Kyser, Guy B.

    2006-01-01

    Prescribed burning has primarily been used as a tool for the control of invasive late-season annual broadleaf and grass species, particularly yellow starthistle, medusahead, barb goatgrass, and several bromes. However, timely burning of a few invasive biennial broadleaves (e.g., sweetclover and garlic mustard), perennial grasses (e.g., bluegrasses and smooth brome), and woody species (e.g., brooms and Chinese tallow tree) also has been successful. In many cases, the effectiveness of prescribed burning can be enhanced when incorporated into an integrated vegetation management program. Although there are some excellent examples of successful use of prescribed burning for the control of invasive species, a limited number of species have been evaluated. In addition, few studies have measured the impact of prescribed burning on the long-term changes in plant communities, impacts to endangered plant species, effects on wildlife and insect populations, and alterations in soil biology, including nutrition, mycorrhizae, and hydrology. In this review, we evaluate the current state of knowledge on prescribed burning as a tool for invasive weed management.

  9. Minimally invasive treatments of uterine fibroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis assesses clinical results and technical developments of two minimally invasive treatments for symptomatic uterine fibroids: uterine artery embolization (UAE) and magnetic resonance-guided high intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU). Part I: Uterine artery embolization The results of a

  10. Invasive species in southern Nevada [Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew L. Brooks; Steven M. Ostoja; Jeanne C. Chambers

    2013-01-01

    Southern Nevada contains a wide range of topographies, elevations, and climatic zones emblematic of its position at the ecotone between the Mojave Desert, Great Basin, and Colorado Plateau ecoregions. These varied environmental conditions support a high degree of biological diversity (Chapter 1), but they also provide opportunities for a wide range of invasive species...

  11. Invasive plants often emanate from southern gardens

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.H. Miller; A. Miller

    2009-01-01

    Did you know that heavenly bamboo, thorny olive, English ivy, Boston fern, privets and many garden favorites are invading forests to their and thus our detriment? Garden clubs should band together to protect our natural vegetation against invasive plants that take over the habitat of the native flora. Often called non-native, exotic, or noxious weeds, they...

  12. Severe invasive listeriosis--case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodor, Andra; Teodor, D; Miftode, Egidia; Prisăcaru, D; Leca, Daniela; Petrovici, Cristina; Dorneanu, Olivia; Dorobăt, Carmen-Mihaela

    2012-01-01

    Listeriosis is a rare food borne infection which, in the invasive form, presents as bloodstream infection, central nervous system infection, materno-fetal infection, or focal infection. Certain immunosuppressive conditions have been identified as risk factors for severe invasive disease. The invasive forms of listeriosis are associated with a high case fatality rate. We present the case of a 62-year-old male with an unremarkable medical history admitted to the Iasi Infectious Diseases Hospital for fever. headache, ataxia, and diplopia. Physical examination revealed high temperature, confusion, relative bradycardia, and signs of meningeal irritation. Laboratory test showed leukocyt osis with neutrophilia. pathological CSF findings (high WBC count with predominance of neutrophils, low glucose and high protein levels), increased liver enzymes (ALAT, ASAT, AP, gammaGT), and important renal impairment (normal levels at presentation). No abnormalities at chest x-ray, cranial CT and abdominal ultrasound. CSF and blood cultures were positive for Listeria monocytogenes. Under antibiotics (ampicillin and ciprofloxacin), the course was marked by respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation, coma, hypotension, tachycardia. and death 12 days after admission. The particularity of this case consists in the association of the two classical forms of invasive listeriosis, meningitis and bacteriemia, with a focal infection. acute hepatitis, and a course marked by multiple organ dysfunction syndromes and exitus in a previously apparently healthy individual.

  13. Seed bank dynamics of invasive swallowworts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pale swallowwort (SW) (Vincetoxicum rossicum) and black swallowwort (V. nigrum; Apocynaceae, subfamily Asclepiadoideae) are European viny milkweeds that have become invasive in many habitats in the northeastern U.S.A. and southeastern Canada. A multi-year seed bank study was initiated in fall 2011 t...

  14. Photosynthetic performance of invasive Vincetoxicum species (Apocynaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincetoxicum rossicum and V. nigrum are perennial invasive vines impacting several ecosystems in the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada, including old-fields and forest understories. The integrity of these ecosystems is threatened by these two Vincetoxicum species. In order to bett...

  15. Biological invasions, ecological resilience and adaptive governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a world of increasing interconnections in global trade as well as rapid change in climate and land cover, the accelerating introduction and spread of invasive species is a critical concern due to associated negative social and ecological impacts, both real and perceived. Much...

  16. Invasive Bacterial Pathogens and their Antibiotic Susceptibility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The isolates showed high rates of resistance to most antibiotics tested. The range of resistance for gram positive bacteria were 0% to 85.7%, and for gram negative from 0% to 100%. None of the isolates were resistance to ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone. CONCLUSION: Our study result showed the presence of invasive ...

  17. Invasive pests—insects and diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald A. Duerr; Paul A. Mistretta

    2013-01-01

    Key FindingsNonnative pest species have increasing impacts in the South regardless of climate change, patterns of land ownership, or changes in the composition of vegetation.“New” nonnative invasive insects and diseases will have serious impacts on southern forests over the next 50 years. Some species such as emerald ash borer...

  18. American invasion of Iraq : causes and consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Hinnebusch, Raymond

    2007-01-01

    Examines the causes of the US invasion n terms of US global grand strategy, the US strategic position in the Middle East and the interests of the ruling coalition. Focuses on the consequences: the destruction of Iraq; radical empowerment in the Middle East and the expenditure of US soft power and legitmacy as a hegemon globally and in the region Publisher PDF Peer reviewed

  19. Invasive thymoma; Radiologic evaluation by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Choon Sik; Choe, Kyu Ok

    1985-01-01

    In 6 cases of invasive thymoma proved histologically from 1981 to 1984 in Yonsei University Medical Center, the CT findings and pattern were analysed. The results were as follows; 1. Of 6 cases, 4 were males and 2 were females. All cases were between 40-64 years and the average was 51 year old. 2. Of 6 cases, 2 female patients were associated with myasthenia gravis. 3. By the histological examination, 2 were confirmed as mixed cell type, 2 spindle cell type, 1 lymphocytic type and 1 epithelial cell type. 4. CT findings of invasive thymoma were 1) A discrete but lobulated and irregular marginated soft tissue mass in the superoanterior mediastinum replacing the normal mediastinal fat tissue. 2) Usually irregular low density areas within the mass suggesting central necrosis or calcification in 1 of 6 cases was noted. 3) Local invasiveness of the mass shown as obliteration of the normal fat plans surrounding great vessels, irregular thickening or nodular shadows of the pleura, diagphragm and pericardium and irregular and ragged tumor-lung interfaces if the tumor invade to the structures. 4) Frequent extension of tumor to middle and post. mediastinum along pericardium or mediastinal pleura with resultant extrinsic indentation and/or invasion of the hilar region. 5). Extensive tumor infiltration to middle and post. mediastinum in 1 case, indistinguishable from lymphoma. 6) Low attenuation numbered area of brain in another 1 case, but not confirmed histologically

  20. A systematic review of context bias in invasion biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Robert J; King, Joshua R; Tarsa, Charlene; Haas, Brian; Henderson, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    The language that scientists use to frame biological invasions may reveal inherent bias-including how data are interpreted. A frequent critique of invasion biology is the use of value-laden language that may indicate context bias. Here we use a systematic study of language and interpretation in papers drawn from invasion biology to evaluate whether there is a link between the framing of papers and the interpretation of results. We also examine any trends in context bias in biological invasion research. We examined 651 peer-reviewed invasive species competition studies and implemented a rigorous systematic review to examine bias in the presentation and interpretation of native and invasive competition in invasion biology. We predicted that bias in the presentation of invasive species is increasing, as suggested by several authors, and that bias against invasive species would result in misinterpreting their competitive dominance in correlational observational studies compared to causative experimental studies. We indeed found evidence of bias in the presentation and interpretation of invasive species research; authors often introduced research with invasive species in a negative context and study results were interpreted against invasive species more in correlational studies. However, we also found a distinct decrease in those biases since the mid-2000s. Given that there have been several waves of criticism from scientists both inside and outside invasion biology, our evidence suggests that the subdiscipline has somewhat self-corrected apparent biases.

  1. Diagnostic criteria in invasive pituitary adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moldovan Ioana-Maria

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenomas are benign pituitary primary tumors, the most frequent type of tumor in the pituitary fossa. An important part, around 1/3 of the pituitary adenomas manifests an aggressive behavior, growing faster and invading into parasellar areas (cavernous sinus, neural tissues and bones. Objectives: the first aim of this paper is to review the last findings about invasiveness diagnostic criteria, imagistic and biomarkers, which can be used in the classification of pituitary tumors and also to predict the probability of invasiveness, tumor recurrence and suspicion of malignancy. The second aim is to highlight the morphological and clinic types of invasive pituitary adenomas. Materials and methods: we performed a systematic review and analysis of the published articles, searching PubMed between January 1985 and December 2015. There were selected articles published in English, reviews and abstracts. During the advanced search type in PubMed, combinations of the following keywords were used: “pituitary adenoma”, “invasive”, “aggressive”, “biomarkers”, “classification”, “histological subtypes”, ‘”immunohistochemical markers”. Results: 215 articles were selected, regarding diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic aspects. There were some histological subtypes of pituitary adenomas known as having an aggressive clinical behavior. Several biomarkers were identified as being associated with the invasive feature: proliferation markers (Ki-67 index, number of mitoses, p53 & p27 expression, microvascularization density, telomerase, topoisomerase 2 Alpha, matrix metalloproteinases, protein kinase C, cyclooxygenase-2, E-cadherin, transcription Factors, genetic alterations (PTTG gene, Galectin-3 protein/ LGALS3 gene, apoptosis markers. Based on their invasion and proliferation characteristics, pituitary tumors are proposed to be classified into five grades (1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, 3, the grade 2b tumor with high risk of recurrence

  2. Paternity following multiple mating in ladybird Harmonia axyridis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Awad, Mona; Piálek, L.; Krejčí, Alena; Laugier, G. J. M.; Nedvěd, Oldřich

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 3 (2017), s. 297-307 ISSN 1386-6141 Grant - others:MZe ČR(CZ) QH82047 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Coccinellidae * microsatellites * fertility Subject RIV: ED - Physiology OBOR OECD: Reproductive biology (medical aspects to be 3) Impact factor: 1.918, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10526-017-9806-z

  3. Physiological mechanism governing slow and fast development in predatory ladybirds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dixon, Anthony F. G.; Honěk, A.; Jarošík, Vojtěch

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 1 (2013), s. 26-32 ISSN 0307-6962 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0563; GA MŠk LC06073; GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 ; RVO:67985939 Keywords : Coccinellidae * food quality * geographical distribution Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour; EH - Ecology, Behaviour (UEK-B) Impact factor: 1.434, year: 2013

  4. Economics of Harmful Invasive Species: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Marbuah

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to review theoretical and empirical findings in economics with respect to the challenging question of how to manage invasive species. The review revealed a relatively large body of literature on the assessment of damage costs of invasive species; single species and groups of species at different geographical scales. However, the estimated damage costs show large variation, from less than 1 million USD to costs corresponding to 12% of gross domestic product, depending on the methods employed, geographical scale, and scope with respect to inclusion of different species. Decisions regarding optimal management strategies, when to act in the invasion chain and which policy to choose, have received much less attention in earlier years, but have been subject to increasing research during the last decade. More difficult, but also more relevant policy issues have been raised, which concern the targeting in time and space of strategies under conditions of uncertainty. In particular, the weighting of costs and benefits from early detection and mitigation against the uncertain avoidance of damage with later control, when the precision in targeting species is typically greater is identified as a key challenge. The role of improved monitoring for detecting species and their spread and damage has been emphasized, but questions remain on how to achieve this in practice. This is in contrast to the relatively large body of literature on policies for mitigating dispersal by trade, which is regarded as one of the most important vectors for the spread of invasive species. On the other hand, the literature on how to mitigate established species, by control or adaptation, is much more scant. Studies evaluating causes for success or failure of policies against invasive in practice are in principal non-existing.

  5. Caspofungin therapy of neonates with invasive candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odio, Carla M; Araya, Roberto; Pinto, Luis E; Castro, Carlos E; Vasquez, Sergio; Alfaro, Braulio; Sàenz, Alberto; Herrera, Marco L; Walsh, Thomas J

    2004-12-01

    Invasive candidiasis is an increasing problem in neonatal intensive care units worldwide and is an important cause of morbidity, mortality and prolongation of hospital stay. Despite administration of amphotericin B, invasive candidiasis in neonates is sometimes complicated by persistent fungemia and refractory invasive candidiasis. The problem has been augmented by the increasing prevalence of non-albicans species that often are resistant to fluconazole and to amphotericin B. The population consisted of 1 term and 9 premature neonates with invasive candidiasis caused by Candida albicans (n = 4), Candida parapsilosis (n = 3), Candida tropicalis (n = 2) and Candida glabrata (n = 1). Despite initial therapy with deoxycholate amphotericin B, blood cultures remained positive in all patients for 13-49 days. Invasive candidiasis progressed to meningitis and enlarging renal Candida bezoars in the kidney of one patient and an enlarging atrial vegetation in another. Another patient developed severe hypokalemia refractory to potassium supplementation. Two of the C. albicans and all of the non-albicans Candida isolates were resistant to fluconazole; the C. glabrata isolate was resistant to amphotericin B. Amphotericin B was discontinued and caspofungin initiated in all patients in a dosage of 1 mg/kg/d for 2 days followed by 2 mg/kg/d. All positive blood cultures cleared between 3 and 7 days after initiation of caspofungin, the atrial vegetation resolved and the renal Candida bezoars disappeared. Renal and hepatic function tests did not show any values above normal throughout caspofungin therapy. There were no attributable clinical adverse events during the administration of caspofungin in any of the patients. Caspofungin was effective, safe and well-tolerated as an alternative therapy for persistent and progressive candidiasis in those neonates who were unresponsive to or intolerant of deoxycholate amphotericin B.

  6. Comparison of the Invasion of Crete and the Proposed Invasion in Malta

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kavanaugh, Stephen L

    2006-01-01

    .... A year later, while the North Africa campaign was being conducted, another invasion was planned for Malta, but within a few weeks of executing the plan it too was postponed and eventually cancelled...

  7. Reproductive characteristics of neophytes in the Czech Republic: traits of invasive and non-invasive species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravcová, Lenka; Pyšek, Petr; Jarošík, Vojtěch; Havlíčková, Vendula; Zákravský, Petr

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 4 (2010), s. 365-390 ISSN 0032-7786 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073; GA ČR GA206/09/0563; GA ČR GA206/05/0323 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : plant invasions * reproductive traits * invasiveness Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.792, year: 2010

  8. Minimally invasive surgical therapies for benign prostatic hypertrophy: The rise in minimally invasive surgical therapies

    OpenAIRE

    Christidis, Daniel; McGrath, Shannon; Perera, Marlon; Manning, Todd; Bolton, Damien; Lawrentschuk, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) causing bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms increases with our ageing population. Treatment of BPH traditionally begins with medical therapy and surgical intervention is then considered for those whose symptoms progress despite treatment. Minimally invasive surgical therapies have been developed as an intermediary in the treatment of BPH with the aim of decreasing the invasiveness of interventions. These therapies also aim to reduce mor...

  9. Workshop: Economic Impacts of Aquatic Invasive Species Workshop (2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's National Center for Environmental Economics and Office of Water jointly hosted the Economic Impacts of Aquatic Invasive Species Workshop on July 20-21, 2005 in DC. Goal to examine conceptual frameworks and tools to value invasive species impacts.

  10. Lake Superior Aquatic Invasive Species Complete Prevention Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Lake Superior Aquatic Invasive Species Complete Prevention Plan is an expression of the best professional judgment of the members of the Lake Superior Task Force as to what is necessary to protect Lake Superior from new aquatic invasive species.

  11. Invasive versus Non Invasive Methods Applied to Mummy Research: Will This Controversy Ever Be Solved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moissidou, Despina; Day, Jasmine; Shin, Dong Hoon; Bianucci, Raffaella

    2015-01-01

    Advances in the application of non invasive techniques to mummified remains have shed new light on past diseases. The virtual inspection of a corpse, which has almost completely replaced classical autopsy, has proven to be important especially when dealing with valuable museum specimens. In spite of some very rewarding results, there are still many open questions. Non invasive techniques provide information on hard and soft tissue pathologies and allow information to be gleaned concerning mummification practices (e.g., ancient Egyptian artificial mummification). Nevertheless, there are other fields of mummy studies in which the results provided by non invasive techniques are not always self-explanatory. Reliance exclusively upon virtual diagnoses can sometimes lead to inconclusive and misleading interpretations. On the other hand, several types of investigation (e.g., histology, paleomicrobiology, and biochemistry), although minimally invasive, require direct contact with the bodies and, for this reason, are often avoided, particularly by museum curators. Here we present an overview of the non invasive and invasive techniques currently used in mummy studies and propose an approach that might solve these conflicts.

  12. Structure and biomechanics of the endothelial transcellular circumferential invasion array in tumor invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constadina Arvanitis

    Full Text Available Cancer cells breach the endothelium not only through cell-cell junctions but also via individual endothelial cells (ECs, or transcellular invasion. The underlying EC forms a circular structure around the transcellular invasion pore that is dependent on myosin light chain kinase (MLCK and myosin II regulatory light chain (RLC phosphorylation. Here we offer mechanistic insights into transcellular invasive array formation amid persistent tensile force from activated EC myosin. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP experiments, sarcomeric distance measurements using super-resolution microscopy and electron microscopy provide details about the nature of the myosin II invasion array. To probe the relationship between biomechanical forces and the tension required to maintain the curvature of contractile filaments, we targeted individual actin-myosin fibers at the invasion site for photoablation. We showed that adjacent filaments rapidly replace the ablat11ed structures. We propose that the transcellular circumferential invasion array (TCIA provides the necessary constraint within the EC to blunt the radial compression from the invading cancer cell.

  13. Comparison of invasive and non-invasive blood pressure monitoring during clinical anaesthesia in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarlane, Paul D; Grint, Nicola; Dugdale, Alexandra

    2010-03-01

    Monitoring blood pressure during anaesthesia is widely recommended in man and animals. The accuracy of any device used to measure blood pressure is an important consideration when selecting monitoring equipment, the ANSI/AAMI SP10 standard is widely cited in this respect in recent veterinary publications. Blood pressure was monitored using invasive and non-invasive techniques during clinical anaesthesia in 19 dogs. The results were compared using Bland-Altman analysis. The bias (and limits of agreement) between invasive and non-invasive measurement was 7.1 mmHg (+/-34.7) for systolic blood pressure, -1.8 mmHg (+/-27.4) for mean blood pressure and 6.9 mmHg (+/-27.5) for diastolic blood pressure. In a clinical setting the bias between invasive and non-invasive measurement techniques was similar or smaller than laboratory reports, however the limits of agreement were considerably wider suggesting that care should be exercised when interpreting NIBP values.

  14. Revealing historic invasion patterns and potential invasion sites for two non-native plant species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob N Barney

    Full Text Available The historical spatio-temporal distribution of invasive species is rarely documented, hampering efforts to understand invasion dynamics, especially at regional scales. Reconstructing historical invasions through use of herbarium records combined with spatial trend analysis and modeling can elucidate spreading patterns and identify susceptible habitats before invasion occurs. Two perennial species were chosen to contrast historic and potential phytogeographies: Japanese knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum, introduced intentionally across the US; and mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris, introduced largely accidentally to coastal areas. Spatial analysis revealed that early in the invasion, both species have a stochastic distribution across the contiguous US, but east of the 90(th meridian, which approximates the Mississippi River, quickly spread to adjacent counties in subsequent decades. In contrast, in locations west of the 90(th meridian, many populations never spread outside the founding county, probably a result of encountering unfavorable environmental conditions. Regression analysis using variables categorized as environmental or anthropogenic accounted for 24% (Japanese knotweed and 30% (mugwort of the variation in the current distribution of each species. Results show very few counties with high habitat suitability (>/=80% remain un-invaded (5 for Japanese knotweed and 6 for mugwort, suggesting these perennials are reaching the limits of large-scale expansion. Despite differences in initial introduction loci and pathways, Japanese knotweed and mugwort demonstrate similar historic patterns of spread and show declining rates of regional expansion. Invasion mitigation efforts should be concentrated on areas identified as highly susceptible that border invaded regions, as both species demonstrate secondary expansion from introduction loci.

  15. HPV genotypes in invasive cervical cancer in Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, Benny; Junge, Jette; Holl, Katsiaryna

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution in invasive cervical cancers may differ by geographic region. The primary objective of this study was to estimate HPV-genotype distribution in Danish women with a diagnosis of invasive cervical cancer.......Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution in invasive cervical cancers may differ by geographic region. The primary objective of this study was to estimate HPV-genotype distribution in Danish women with a diagnosis of invasive cervical cancer....

  16. Invasive American bullfrogs and African clawed frogs in South America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbosa, Fabiana G.; Both, Camila; Bastos, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Invasion of protected areas by non-native species is currently one of the main threats to global biodiversity. Using an ensemble of bioclimatic envelope models we quantify the degree of exposure of South American protected areas to invasion by two invasive amphibian species. We focus on protected.......5%). Conservation plans for these regions should, therefore, consider latent threats from multiple sources including invasion by highly competitive non-native species such as the ones modeled in our study....

  17. Species pool, human population, and global versus regional invasion patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qinfeng Guo; Basil V. Iannone III; Gabriela C. Nunez-Mir; Kevin M. Potter; Christopher M. Oswalt; Songlin Fei

    2017-01-01

    Context Biological invasions are among the greatest global and regional threats to biomes in the Anthropocene. Islands, in particular, have been perceived to have higher vulnerability to invasions. Because of the dynamic nature of ongoing invasions, distinguishing regional patterns from global patterns and their underlying determinants remains a challenge. Objectives...

  18. The potential role of podoplanin in tumour invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicki, A; Christofori, G

    2006-01-01

    Podoplanin is a small mucin-like transmembrane protein, widely expressed in various specialised cell types throughout the body. Here, we revisit the mechanism of podoplanin-mediated tumour invasion. We compare molecular pathways leading to single and collective cell invasion and discuss novel distinct concepts of tumour cell invasion. PMID:17179989

  19. Geospatial assessment of invasive plants on reclaimed mines in Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Lemke; C.J. Schweitzer; W. Tadesse; Y. Wang; J.A. Brown

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the world, the invasion of nonnative plants is an increasing threat to native biodiversity and ecosystem sustainability. Invasion is especially prevalent in areas affected by land transformation and disturbance. Surface mines are a major land transformation, and thus may promote the establishment and persistence of invasive plant communities. Using the Shale...

  20. Tamarix (Tamaricaceae) hybrids: most dominant invasive genotype in southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybridization can potentially enhance invasiveness. Tamarix (Tamaricaceae) hybrids appear to be the dominant genotypes in their invasions. Exotic Tamarix are declared invasive in South Africa and the exotic T. chinensis and T. ramosissima are known to hybridize between themselves, and with the nativ...

  1. 78 FR 14351 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee; Meeting Cancellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee; Meeting... meeting of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee (ISAC) scheduled for Thursday, March 7, 2013 and Friday... invasive species experts and stakeholders from across the nation. The purpose of the Advisory Committee is...

  2. Rocky Mountain Research Station invasive species visionary white paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. E. Pearson; M. Kim; J. Butler

    2011-01-01

    Invasive species represent one of the single greatest threats to natural ecosystems and the services they provide. Effectively addressing the invasive species problem requires management that is based on sound research. We provide an overview of recent and ongoing invasive species research conducted by Rocky Mountain Research Station scientists in the Intermountain...

  3. 78 FR 9724 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee; Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee; Meetings AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meetings of the Invasive Species... hereby given of meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee (ISAC). Comprised of 31 nonfederal...

  4. Factors Determining Awareness and Knowledge of Aquatic Invasive Species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eiswerth, M.E.; Yen, S.T.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2011-01-01

    Public perceptions of invasive species may influence policies and programs initiated by public and private stakeholders. We investigate the determinants of the public's awareness and knowledge of invasive species as few studies have examined this relationship. We focus on aquatic invasive species

  5. 49 CFR 801.56 - Unwarranted invasion of personal privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. 801.56... Unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(6), any personal, medical, or similar... a clearly unwarranted invasion of the person's personal privacy. ...

  6. Invasive plant species and the Joint Fire Science Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather E. Erickson; Rachel White

    2007-01-01

    Invasive nonnative plants may be responsible for serious, long-term ecological impacts, including altering fire behavior and fire regimes. Therefore, knowing how to successfully manage invasive plants and their impacts on natural resources is crucial. We present a summary of research on invasive plants and fire that has been generated through the Joint Fire Science...

  7. Galactomannan detection for invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromized patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeflang, Mariska M.; Debets-Ossenkopp, Yvette J.; Visser, Caroline E.; Scholten, Rob J. P. M.; Hooft, Lotty; Bijlmer, Henk A.; Reitsma, Johannes B.; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M.

    2008-01-01

    Background Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is the most common life-threatening opportunistic invasive mycosis in immunocompromized patients. A test for IA needs to be not too invasive and not too big a burden for the already weakened patient. The serum galactomannan ELISA seems to have potential for

  8. Invasion of exotic earthworms into ecosystems inhabited by native earthworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. F. Hendrix; G. H. Baker; M. A. Callaham Jr; G. A. Damoff; Fragoso C.; G. Gonzalez; S. W. James; S. L. Lachnicht; T. Winsome; X. Zou

    2006-01-01

    The most conspicuous biological invasions in terrestrial ecosystems have been by exotic plants, insects and vertebrates. Invasions by exotic earthworms, although not as well studied, may be increasing with global commerce in agriculture, waste management and bioremediation. A number of cases has documented where invasive earthworms have caused significant changes in...

  9. Invasive ductal carcinoma with lobular features: a comparison study to invasive ductal and invasive lobular carcinomas of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arps, David P; Healy, Patrick; Zhao, Lili; Kleer, Celina G; Pang, Judy C

    2013-04-01

    Invasive ductal carcinoma with lobular features (IDC-L) is not recognized as a distinct subtype of breast cancer, and its clinicopathologic features and outcomes are unknown. In this retrospective study, we focused on characterization of clinicopathologic features and outcomes of IDC-L and compared them to invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC). 183 cases of IDC-L from 1996 to 2011 were compared with 1,499 cases of IDC and 375 cases of ILC. Available slides of IDC-L (n = 150) were reviewed to quantify the lobular component (≤ 20, 21-50, 51-80, >80 %), defined as small cells individually dispersed, arranged in linear cords, or in loose aggregates without the formation of tubules or cohesive nests. E-cadherin immunostain was performed to confirm ductal origin. Compared to IDC, IDC-L was more likely to have lower histologic grade (p lobular component in IDC-L had no impact on the size, nodal status, stage, or outcome. Our data suggest that although IDC-L may be a variant of IDC, with >90 % of cases being E-cadherin positive, the clinical and biological characteristics are more similar to that of ILC.

  10. Invasive Crabs in the Barents Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Brooks; Fernandez, Linda; Kourantidou, Melina

    compare differences in the ecology and economics of the two species to enhance understanding of the trade-offs inherent in managing these economically profitable yet risky invaders. We then expand the application by using these ongoing invasions to illustrate the anticipated disruptions (with potentially......The recent invasions of the red king crab (RKC) and the snow crab (SC) in the Barents Sea represent the sorts of integrated ecological and economic shifts we may expect as climate change affects arctic seas. Economic incentives and ecological unknowns have combined to change the current...... both positive and negative impacts) from other introductions or range expansions of commercial species and the management steps that should be taken at earlier stages, including monitoring and preventive measures, in the changing ecological processes to minimize negative impacts....

  11. Innovations in minimally invasive facial treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, José Roberto Parisi; Lima, Leila Freire Rego; Olivetti, Isabela Peixoto; Arroyo, Helena Hotz; de Oliveira, Ingrid Helena Lopes

    2013-06-01

    Patients are seeking healthier lives, and at the same time their concern about having a beautiful face and maintaining a youthful appearance over time has increased. Traditionally, surgeries based on tissue resection and resurfacing were the focus in facial rejuvenation. Over the last decade, minimally invasive procedures have expanded exponentially because of the variety of cosmetic products available on the market and because patients are looking for a better appearance with nonincision methods. The understanding of the aging process, facial anatomy, and ideal proportions is extremely important for successful rejuvenation procedures. Also, neuromodulators, chemical peels, filler properties, correct indications, and effectiveness must be well known by the injector for favorable results. Therefore, knowledge of all facial cosmetic options and an adequate facial analysis are essential for a better performance. In this article, the authors review some different product options and show cases of minimally invasive cosmetic procedures for the face currently used. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  12. Is the osmorespiratory compromise limiting invasive species?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Patricia Gomes; Flavio, Hugo; Hacking, Harry

    , we examined variation in two important MO2 measures, standard metabolic rate (SMR) and maximum metabolic rate (MMR) when N. melanostomus is exposed to increasing water salinities. Fish with an initially higher MMR (at the control salinity - 0ppt) are likely to be more challenged by environmental...... habitats and the physiological mechanisms potentially constraining the invasion into this environment are largely unknown. The gills play major roles in gas exchange and ionic regulation and it has been hypothesized that an osmorespiratory compromise impacts performance of each process. The tradeoff...... of the large gill exchange capacity ideal for gas exchange is greater passive ion fluxes. High ionic waters would result in greater passive ion uptake that would require greater active ion excretion. This osmoregulatory disturbance may interfere with fish invasion by disrupting the regular activity...

  13. Percutaneous & Mini Invasive Achilles tendon repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmont Michael R

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rupture of the Achilles tendon is a considerable cause of morbidity with reduced function following injury. Recent studies have shown little difference in outcome between the techniques of open and non-operative treatment using an early active rehabilitation programme. Meta-analyses have shown that non-operative management has increased risk of re-rupture whereas surgical intervention has risks of complications related to the wound and iatrogenic nerve injury. Minimally invasive surgery has been adopted as a way of reducing infections rates and wound breakdown however avoiding iatrogenic nerve injury must be considered. We discuss the techniques and outcomes of percutaneous and minimally invasive repairs of the Achilles tendon.

  14. Lattice models for invasions through patchy environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Daniel; Méndez, Vicenç; Ortega-Cejas, Vicente

    2008-10-01

    We analyze traveling front solutions for a class of reaction-transport Lattice Models (LMs) in order to claim their interest on the description of biological invasions. As lattice models are spatially discrete models, we address here the problem of invasions trough patchy habitats, where every node in the lattice represents a different patch. Distributed generation times for the individuals are considered, so that different temporal patterns can be studied. Specifically, we explore some examples of seasonal and nonseasonal patterns which may be of ecological interest. The main advantage of the LMs described here is that a direct correspondence between these discrete models and a mesoscopic description of Continuous-Time Random Walks (CTRW) can be found. This point is of great importance, since many times one needs analytical expressions to support or validate numerical results, or vice versa. Finally, that correspondence allows us to provide a discussion about some general aspects of reaction-dispersal models.

  15. Combustion characteristics of north-eastern USA vegetation tested in the cone calorimeter: invasive versus non-invasive plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alison C. Dibble; Robert H. White; Patricia K. Lebow

    2007-01-01

    In the north-eastern United States, invasive plants alter forest fuels, but their combustion characteristics are largely unknown. We assessed unground samples of foliage and twigs in the cone calorimeter for 21 non-invasive, native species, paired with 21 invasive species (18 non-native). Variables included sustained ignition, peak heat release rate, total heat release...

  16. DNA barcoding of invasive plants in China: A resource for identifying invasive plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Song-Zhi; Li, Zhen-Yu; Jin, Xiao-Hua

    2018-01-01

    Invasive plants have aroused attention globally for causing ecological damage and having a negative impact on the economy and human health. However, it can be extremely challenging to rapidly and accurately identify invasive plants based on morphology because they are an assemblage of many different families and many plant materials lack sufficient diagnostic characteristics during border inspections. It is therefore urgent to evaluate candidate loci and build a reliable genetic library to prevent invasive plants from entering China. In this study, five common single markers (ITS, ITS2, matK, rbcL and trnH-psbA) were evaluated using 634 species (including 469 invasive plant species in China, 10 new records to China, 16 potentially invasive plant species around the world but not introduced into China yet and 139 plant species native to China) based on three different methods. Our results indicated that ITS2 displayed largest intra- and interspecific divergence (1.72% and 91.46%). Based on NJ tree method, ITS2, ITS, matK, rbcL and trnH-psbA provided 76.84%, 76.5%, 63.21%, 52.86% and 50.68% discrimination rates, respectively. The combination of ITS + matK performed best and provided 91.03% discriminatory power, followed by ITS2 + matK (85.78%). For identifying unknown individuals, ITS + matK had 100% correct identification rate based on our database, followed by ITS/ITS2 (both 93.33%) and ITS2 + matK (91.67%). Thus, we propose ITS/ITS2 + matK as the most suitable barcode for invasive plants in China. This study also demonstrated that DNA barcoding is an efficient tool for identifying invasive species. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Genomic abnormalities in invasive endocervical adenocarcinoma correlate with pattern of invasion: biologic and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Anjelica; Amemiya, Yutaka; Seth, Arun; Cesari, Matthew; Djordjevic, Bojana; Parra-Herran, Carlos

    2017-11-01

    The pattern-based classification system for HPV-related endocervical adenocarcinoma, which classifies tumors based on the destructiveness of stromal invasion, is predictive of the risk of nodal metastases and adverse outcome. Previous studies have demonstrated clinically important molecular alterations in endocervical adenocarcinoma, including KRAS and PIK3CA mutations; however, correlation between the molecular landscape and pathological variables including pattern of invasion has not been thoroughly explored. In this study, 20 endocervical adenocarcinomas were classified using the pattern-based classification system and were subjected to targeted sequencing using the Ion AmpliSeq Cancer Hotspot Panel v2 (ThermoFisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA) that surveys hotspot regions of 50 oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms were correlated with clinical and pathologic variables including pattern of invasion. Five (25%), six (30%), and nine (45%) cases were classified as patterns A, B, and C respectively. Lymph node metastases, advanced stage at presentation and mortality from disease were exclusively seen in destructively invasive tumors (patterns B or C). Prevalent mutations in the cohort involved PIK3CA (30%), KRAS (30%), MET (15%), and RB1 (10%). Most (94%) relevant genomic alterations were present in destructively invasive tumors with PIK3CA, KRAS, and RB1 mutations seen exclusively in pattern B or C subgroups. KRAS mutations correlated with advanced stage at presentation (FIGO stage II or higher). Our findings indicate that the pattern of stromal invasion correlates with genomic abnormalities detected by next-generation sequencing, suggesting that tumors without destructive growth (pattern A) are biologically distinct from those with destructive invasion (patterns B and C), and that pattern B endocervical adenocarcinoma is more closely related to its pattern C counterpart. The pattern-based classification may be used as a triage

  18. Discordant non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartwig, Tanja Schlaikjaer; Ambye, Louise; Sørensen, Steen

    2017-01-01

    With a high sensitivity and specificity, non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) is an incomparable screening test for fetal aneuploidy. However, the method is rather newly introduced, and experiences with discordant results are few. We did a systematic review of literature reporting details of false...... suggest a systematic recording of discordant NIPT results, as well as a quality assurance by external quality control and accreditation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  19. Minimally invasive aesthetic procedures in young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Wollina, Uwe; Goldman, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Uwe Wollina1, Alberto Goldman21Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Academic Teaching Hospital Dresden-Friedrichstadt, Dresden, Germany; 2Clinica Goldman, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande du Sul, BrazilAbstract: Age is a significant factor in modifying specific needs when it comes to medical aesthetic procedures. In this review we will focus on young adults in their third decade of life and review minimally invasive aesthetic procedures other than cosmetics and cosmeceuticals. Correction of asy...

  20. Bacterial endophytes enhance competition by invasive plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Marnie E; Chrzanowski, Thomas H; Westlie, Tara K; DeLuca, Thomas H; Callaway, Ragan M; Holben, William E

    2013-09-01

    Invasive plants can alter soil microbial communities and profoundly alter ecosystem processes. In the invasive grass Sorghum halepense, these disruptions are consequences of rhizome-associated bacterial endophytes. We describe the effects of N2-fixing bacterial strains from S. halepense (Rout and Chrzanowski, 2009) on plant growth and show that bacteria interact with the plant to alter soil nutrient cycles, enabling persistence of the invasive. • We assessed fluxes in soil nutrients for ∼4 yr across a site invaded by S. halepense. We assayed the N2-fixing bacteria in vitro for phosphate solubilization, iron chelation, and production of the plant-growth hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). We assessed the plant's ability to recruit bacterial partners from substrates and vertically transmit endophytes to seeds and used an antibiotic approach to inhibit bacterial activity in planta and assess microbial contributions to plant growth. • We found persistent alterations to eight biogeochemical cycles (including nitrogen, phosphorus, and iron) in soils invaded by S. halepense. In this context, three bacterial isolates solubilized phosphate, and all produced iron siderophores and IAA in vitro. In growth chamber experiments, bacteria were transmitted vertically, and molecular analysis of bacterial community fingerprints from rhizomes indicated that endophytes are also horizontally recruited. Inhibiting bacterial activity with antibiotics resulted in significant declines in plant growth rate and biomass, with pronounced rhizome reductions. • This work suggests a major role of endophytes on growth and resource allocation of an invasive plant. Indeed, bacterial isolate physiology is correlated with invader effects on biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen, phosphate, and iron.

  1. Sonomammographic characteristics of invasive lobular carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Fahmy, Dalia Monir; Kombar,; Farouk,Omar; El-damshety,; Brown,

    2012-01-01

    Osama R Kombar,1,3 Dalia M Fahmy,1 Mary V Brown,3 Omar Farouk,2 Osama El-Damshety21Diagnostic Radiology Department, 2Surgical Oncology Department, Oncology Center, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt; 3Diagnostic Radiology Department, Al-Amiri Hospital, Safat, KuwaitObjective: The objective of our study was to identify characteristic features of invasive lobular carcinoma on mammography and ultrasound examinationsMaterials and methods: This is a retrospective multicenter study of women with ...

  2. Procedures minimally invasive image-guided

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora Guevara, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    A literature review focused on minimally invasive procedures, has been performed at the Department of Radiology at the Hospital Calderon Guardia. A multidisciplinary team has been raised for decision making. The materials, possible complications and the available imaging technique such as ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, have been determined according to the procedure to be performed. The revision has supported medical interventions didactically enjoying the best materials, resources and conditions for a successful implementation of procedures and results [es

  3. Screening and Invasive Testing in Twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Monni

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal screening and testing for trisomy 21 in twin pregnancies poses a number of challenges: the exact estimate of the a priori risk of trisomy 21, the choice of prenatal screening test and/or invasive techniques to employ for the diagnosis and the impact of the result on the options of treatment in case of discordant results within a twin pair or among multiples. These different aspects are discussed below while recognizing that many issues remain unresolved.

  4. Apoptosis and Tumor Invasion in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-08-01

    while down- regulating the synthesis of at least one inhibitor S~ < of the matrix metalloproteases (TIMP-1) and f / / ,,"* , cystatin C . We are...UNCLASSIFIED AD Award Number: DAMD17-97-1-7268 TITLE: Apoptosis and Tumor Invasion in Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Martin Tenniswood, Ph.D...preparing the same or similar computer software, or ( c ) used by a party other than the Government, except that the Government may release or disclose

  5. Minimally Invasive Osteotomies of the Calcaneus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, Gregory P

    2016-09-01

    Osteotomies of the calcaneus are powerful surgical tools, representing a critical component of the surgical reconstruction of pes planus and pes cavus deformity. Modern minimally invasive calcaneal osteotomies can be performed safely with a burr through a lateral incision. Although greater kerf is generated with the burr, the effect is modest, can be minimized, and is compatible with many fixation techniques. A hinged jig renders the procedure more reproducible and accessible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Alien plant invasions in European woodlands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wagner, V.; Chytrý, M.; Jiménez-Alfaro, B.; Pergl, Jan; Hennekens, S. M.; Biurrun, I.; Knollová, I.; Berg, C.; Vassilev, K.; Rodwell, J. S.; Škvorc, Ž.; Jandt, U.; Ewald, J.; Jansen, F.; Tsiripidis, I.; Botta-Dukát, Z.; Casella, L.; Attorre, F.; Rašomavičius, V.; Ćušterevska, R.; Schaminée, J.H.J.; Brunet, J.; Lenoir, J.; Svenning, J.-C.; Kacki, Z.; Petrášová-Šibíková, M.; Šilc, U.; García-Mijangos, I.; Campos, J. A.; Fernández-González, F.; Wohlgemuth, T.; Onyshchenko, V.; Pyšek, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 9 (2017), s. 969-981 ISSN 1366-9516 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1002 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : neophyte * non-native * invasive plants * EUNIS * forests Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Biodiversity conservation Impact factor: 4.391, year: 2016

  7. Intratumoral oxygen gradients mediate sarcoma cell invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Daniel M.; Park, Kyung Min; Tang, Vitor; Xu, Yu; Pak, Koreana; Eisinger-Mathason, T. S. Karin; Simon, M. Celeste; Gerecht, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia is a critical factor in the progression and metastasis of many cancers, including soft tissue sarcomas. Frequently, oxygen (O2) gradients develop in tumors as they grow beyond their vascular supply, leading to heterogeneous areas of O2 depletion. Here, we report the impact of hypoxic O2 gradients on sarcoma cell invasion and migration. O2 gradient measurements showed that large sarcoma mouse tumors (>300 mm3) contain a severely hypoxic core [≤0.1% partial pressure of O2 (pO2)] whereas smaller tumors possessed hypoxic gradients throughout the tumor mass (0.1–6% pO2). To analyze tumor invasion, we used O2-controllable hydrogels to recreate the physiopathological O2 levels in vitro. Small tumor grafts encapsulated in the hydrogels revealed increased invasion that was both faster and extended over a longer distance in the hypoxic hydrogels compared with nonhypoxic hydrogels. To model the effect of the O2 gradient accurately, we examined individual sarcoma cells embedded in the O2-controllable hydrogel. We observed that hypoxic gradients guide sarcoma cell motility and matrix remodeling through hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) activation. We further found that in the hypoxic gradient, individual cells migrate more quickly, across longer distances, and in the direction of increasing O2 tension. Treatment with minoxidil, an inhibitor of hypoxia-induced sarcoma metastasis, abrogated cell migration and matrix remodeling in the hypoxic gradient. Overall, we show that O2 acts as a 3D physicotactic agent during sarcoma tumor invasion and propose the O2-controllable hydrogels as a predictive system to study early stages of the metastatic process and therapeutic targets. PMID:27486245

  8. Minimally Invasive Surgery in Thymic Malignances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentao FANG

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Surgery is the most important therapy for thymic malignances. The last decade has seen increasing adoption of minimally invasive surgery (MIS for thymectomy. MIS for early stage thymoma patients has been shown to yield similar oncological results while being helpful in minimize surgical trauma, improving postoperative recovery, and reduce incisional pain. Meanwhile, With the advance in surgical techniques, the patients with locally advanced thymic tumors, preoperative induction therapies or recurrent diseases, may also benefit from MIS in selected cases.

  9. Intensive care unit audit: invasive procedure surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariama Amaral Michels

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationale and objective: currently, Healthcare-associated Infections (HAIs constitute a serious public health problem. It is estimated that for every ten hospitalized patients, one will have infection after admission, generating high costs resulting from increased length of hospitalization, additional diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. The intensive care unit (ICU, due to its characteristics, is one of the most complex units of the hospital environment, a result of the equipment, the available technology, the severity of inpatients and the invasive procedures the latter are submitted to. The aim of the study was to evaluate the adherence to specifi c HAI prevention measures in invasive ICU procedures. Methods: This study had a quantitative, descriptive and exploratory approach. Among the risk factors for HAIs are the presence of central venous access, indwelling vesical catheter and mechanical ventilation, and, therefore, the indicators were calculated for patients undergoing these invasive procedures, through a questionnaire standardized by the Hospital Infection Control Commission (HICC. Results: For every 1,000 patients, 15 had catheter-related bloodstream infection, 6.85 had urinary tract infection associated with indwelling catheter in the fi rst half of 2010. Conclusion: most HAIs cannot be prevented, for reasons inherent to invasive procedures and the patients. However, their incidence can be reduced and controlled. The implementation of preventive measures based on scientifi c evidence can reduce HAIs signifi cantly and sustainably, resulting in safer health care services and reduced costs. The main means of prevention include the cleaning of hands, use of epidemiological block measures, when necessary, and specifi c care for each infection site. KEYWORDS Nosocomial infection. Intensive care units.

  10. A Landscape Approach to Invasive Species Management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Lurgi

    Full Text Available Biological invasions are not only a major threat to biodiversity, they also have major impacts on local economies and agricultural production systems. Once established, the connection of local populations into metapopulation networks facilitates dispersal at landscape scales, generating spatial dynamics that can impact the outcome of pest-management actions. Much planning goes into landscape-scale invasive species management. However, effective management requires knowledge on the interplay between metapopulation network topology and management actions. We address this knowledge gap using simulation models to explore the effectiveness of two common management strategies, applied across different extents and according to different rules for selecting target localities in metapopulations with different network topologies. These management actions are: (i general population reduction, and (ii reduction of an obligate resource. The reduction of an obligate resource was generally more efficient than population reduction for depleting populations at landscape scales. However, the way in which local populations are selected for management is important when the topology of the metapopulation is heterogeneous in terms of the distribution of connections among local populations. We tested these broad findings using real-world scenarios of European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus infesting agricultural landscapes in Western Australia. Although management strategies targeting central populations were more effective in simulated heterogeneous metapopulation structures, no difference was observed in real-world metapopulation structures that are highly homogeneous. In large metapopulations with high proximity and connectivity of neighbouring populations, different spatial management strategies yield similar outcomes. Directly considering spatial attributes in pest-management actions will be most important for metapopulation networks with heterogeneously

  11. Readability of Invasive Procedure Consent Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltorai, Adam E M; Naqvi, Syed S; Ghanian, Soha; Eberson, Craig P; Weiss, Arnold-Peter C; Born, Christopher T; Daniels, Alan H

    2015-12-01

    Informed consent is a pillar of ethical medicine which requires patients to fully comprehend relevant issues including the risks, benefits, and alternatives of an intervention. Given the average reading skill of US adults is at the 8th grade level, the American Medical Association (AMA) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) recommend patient information materials should not exceed a 6th grade reading level. We hypothesized that text provided in invasive procedure consent forms would exceed recommended readability guidelines for medical information. To test this hypothesis, we gathered procedure consent forms from all surgical inpatient hospitals in the state of Rhode Island. For each consent form, readability analysis was measured with the following measures: Flesch Reading Ease Formula, Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, Fog Scale, SMOG Index, Coleman-Liau Index, Automated Readability Index, and Linsear Write Formula. These readability scores were used to calculate a composite Text Readability Consensus Grade Level. Invasive procedure consent forms were found to be written at an average of 15th grade level (i.e., third year of college), which is significantly higher than the average US adult reading level of 8th grade (p < 0.0001) and the AMA/NIH recommended readability guidelines for patient materials of 6th grade (p < 0.0001). Invasive procedure consent forms have readability levels which makes comprehension difficult or impossible for many patients. Efforts to improve the readability of procedural consent forms should improve patient understanding regarding their healthcare decisions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Orbital exenteration for invasive skin tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyers, A G

    2006-10-01

    Orbital exenteration aims at local control of disease invading the orbit that is potentially fatal or relentlessly progressive. Of all exenterations presenting to ophthalmologists, 40-50% are required for tumours in the eyelid or periocular skin. 99% of these are basal cell carcinomas and 4-6% each are squamous cell carcinomas or sebaceous gland carcinomas. Orbital invasion results in progressive fixation of the tumour to bone and reduced ocular motility. Perineural invasion of branches of the trigeminal nerve leads to numbness or pain, and that the facial nerve, to weakness. Biopsy identifies the cell type and the presence of perineural invasion. CT and MRI scanning help in the assessment of tumour spread within the orbit. Management should be in collaboration with an oncologist. Exenteration may be total-the removal of all orbital contents-or lid-sparing if the tumour is placed posteriorly. The socket may be allowed to heal by granulation or lined with a split skin graft or local flap. Complications may be seen following 20-25% of exenterations and include fistulae, tissue necrosis, exposed bone, and infection. Incomplete clearance of tumours occurs in about 38% of total exenterations and 17% of subtotal. The overall 5-year survival is 55-65%, but significantly worse if there was perineural spread. Facial prostheses may be mounted on glasses or secured with tissue glue or osseointegrated implants. Excellent cosmetic results can be achieved but many patients prefer to wear a patch.

  13. Invasive aquarium fish transform ecosystem nutrient dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Krista A.; Flecker, Alexander S.

    2013-01-01

    Trade of ornamental aquatic species is a multi-billion dollar industry responsible for the introduction of myriad fishes into novel ecosystems. Although aquarium invaders have the potential to alter ecosystem function, regulation of the trade is minimal and little is known about the ecosystem-level consequences of invasion for all but a small number of aquarium species. Here, we demonstrate how ecological stoichiometry can be used as a framework to identify aquarium invaders with the potential to modify ecosystem processes. We show that explosive growth of an introduced population of stoichiometrically unique, phosphorus (P)-rich catfish in a river in southern Mexico significantly transformed stream nutrient dynamics by altering nutrient storage and remineralization rates. Notably, changes varied between elements; the P-rich fish acted as net sinks of P and net remineralizers of nitrogen. Results from this study suggest species-specific stoichiometry may be insightful for understanding how invasive species modify nutrient dynamics when their population densities and elemental composition differ substantially from native organisms. Risk analysis for potential aquarium imports should consider species traits such as body stoichiometry, which may increase the likelihood that an invasion will alter the structure and function of ecosystems. PMID:23966642

  14. Clinicopathological characteristics of invasive gastric Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Jonathan; Wieczorek, Tad; Selig, Martin; Cheung, Hoiwan; Shen, Jeanne; Odze, Robert; Deshpande, Vikram; Zukerberg, Lawrence

    2017-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori organisms have been observed deep within the stomach mucosa with an "intracellular" appearance, although the clinicopathological characteristics of such cases remain poorly understood. We analyzed 18 cases of deep mucosal H pylori and associated clinical (sex, age, history of H pylori infection, or proton pump inhibitor [PPI] use, medications, smoking, alcohol use, comorbidities, treatment response) and pathological (presence of lymphoid aggregates, intestinal metaplasia, PPI effect, active and/or chronic inflammation, quantity of invasive versus surface H pylori) characteristics. Electron microscopy was performed on 6 cases with the highest burden of invasive H pylori. Within our sample, 3 of 16 had a history of H pylori infection, 10 of 15 were receiving PPIs at the time of biopsy, and 12 of 13 had a negative posttreatment follow-up. Histology revealed that invasive H pylori were more commonly associated with chronic inflammation, in both the antrum (15/15 chronic, 8/15 acute) and fundus (17/18 chronic, 8/18 acute). Electron microscopy showed organisms within intercellular and luminal spaces, but no intracellular organisms. Deep mucosal H pylori often have an intracellular appearance but are contained within intercellular and luminal spaces and are responsive to standard therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. THE INVASIVE COLEOPTEROFAUNA FOR REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asea M. Timuş

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The invasive coleopterofauna for Republic of Moldova consists of the 100 species. After correlation local database with Fauna Europaea for our country registered are 31 of species, but for 69 mentioned with the „absent” and 38 „no date”. In the meantime 24 species were recorded for our country: Acanthoscelides abtectus, A.pallidipennis, Alphitobius diaperinus, Alphitophagus bifasciatus, Bruchus pisorum, B.rufimanus, Caulophilus latinasus, Diabrotica virgifera, Gnathocerus cornutus, Harmonia axyridis, Lasioderma serricorne, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, Lignyodes bischoffi, Lithocharis nigriceps, Oryzaephilus surinamensis, Rhyzopertha dominica, Sitophilus granarius, S. oryzae, S. zeamais, Tenebrio molitor, Tenebrioides mauritanicus, Tribolium castaneum, T. destructor, Trogoderma granarium. According periods penetration the invasive beetles it was found that 2 species have entered the XVIII century, 16 species in the XIX, 53 species in the XX and 29 species in the XXI century. The registration invasive beetles in countries of interest to the our country is in: Bulgaria – 54 species; Poland – 39; România – 3; other countries- 4.

  16. Thymoma and minimally invasive surgical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajc, T.; Spalek, P.; Lucenic, M.; Benej, R.; Harustiak, S.

    2011-01-01

    The authors review the current thymoma classification schemes, diagnosis and surgical treatment options. Many minimally invasive techniques do not provide sufficient extensiveness when compared to complete sternotomy. The Zieliński technique combines transcervical, subxiphoidal and bilateral thoracoscopic approach in a hybrid procedure (MMIT, maximal minimally invasive thymectomy) based on double sternal traction, and allows for removal of the thymus gland, the thymoma and all the relevant mediastinal adipose tissue, thus adhering to principles of oncological radicality. Of the 28 patients undergoing MMIT there were 7 with myasthenia associated thymoma (MGAT) and 5 with a thymoma and no myasthenia, tumors staged Masaoka I-II. Apart from one temporary recurrent nerve palsy there were no postoperative complications. The largest thymoma measured 70 x 65 x 55 mm. Adjuvant radiotherapy was applied in 5 patients. Ectopic thymic tissue was identified in 100 % of patients with thymoma and no myasthenia and in 42.9 % of MGAT patients. Until now there were no recurrences, however, the follow-up median is very short, the longest follow-up period being 30 months. MMIT is a safe technique suitable also for Masaoka I-II thymoma patients and for some specific cases with Masaoka III stage (lung parenchyma invasion). The authors approach all the anterior mediastinal tumors with no mediastinal lymphadenopathy and no myasthenia as a potential thymoma and always attempt the MMIT procedure starting as VATS procedure on the side of tumor. (author)

  17. Modelling Hotspots for Invasive Alien Plants in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Dibyendu; Tiwary, Raghuvar; Barik, Saroj Kanta

    2015-01-01

    Identification of invasion hotspots that support multiple invasive alien species (IAS) is a pre-requisite for control and management of invasion. However, till recently it remained a methodological challenge to precisely determine such invasive hotspots. We identified the hotspots of alien species invasion in India through Ecological Niche Modelling (ENM) using species occurrence data from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). The predicted area of invasion for selected species were classified into 4 categories based on number of model agreements for a region i.e. high, medium, low and very low. About 49% of the total geographical area of India was predicted to be prone to invasion at moderate to high levels of climatic suitability. The intersection of anthropogenic biomes and ecoregions with the regions of 'high' climatic suitability was classified as hotspot of alien plant invasion. Nineteen of 47 ecoregions of India, harboured such hotspots. Most ecologically sensitive regions of India, including the 'biodiversity hotspots' and coastal regions coincide with invasion hotspots, indicating their vulnerability to alien plant invasion. Besides demonstrating the usefulness of ENM and open source data for IAS management, the present study provides a knowledge base for guiding the formulation of an effective policy and management strategy for controlling the invasive alien species.

  18. The role thermal physiology plays in species invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Amanda L.

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of physiological phenotypes that may play a part in the establishment of non-native species can broaden our understanding about the ecology of species invasion. Here, an assessment was carried out by comparing the responses of invasive and native species to thermal stress. The goal was to identify physiological patterns that facilitate invasion success and to investigate whether these traits are widespread among invasive ectotherms. Four hypotheses were generated and tested using a review of the literature to determine whether they could be supported across taxonomically diverse invasive organisms. The four hypotheses are as follows: (i) broad geographical temperature tolerances (thermal width) confer a higher upper thermal tolerance threshold for invasive rather than native species; (ii) the upper thermal extreme experienced in nature is more highly correlated with upper thermal tolerance threshold for invasive vs. native animals; (iii) protein chaperone expression—a cellular mechanism that underlies an organism's thermal tolerance threshold—is greater in invasive organisms than in native ones; and (iv) acclimation to higher temperatures can promote a greater range of thermal tolerance for invasive compared with native species. Each hypothesis was supported by a meta-analysis of the invasive/thermal physiology literature, providing further evidence that physiology plays a substantial role in the establishment of invasive ectotherms. PMID:27293666

  19. Five potential consequences of climate change for invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmann, Jessica J; Byers, James E; Bierwagen, Britta G; Dukes, Jeffrey S

    2008-06-01

    Scientific and societal unknowns make it difficult to predict how global environmental changes such as climate change and biological invasions will affect ecological systems. In the long term, these changes may have interacting effects and compound the uncertainty associated with each individual driver. Nonetheless, invasive species are likely to respond in ways that should be qualitatively predictable, and some of these responses will be distinct from those of native counterparts. We used the stages of invasion known as the "invasion pathway" to identify 5 nonexclusive consequences of climate change for invasive species: (1) altered transport and introduction mechanisms, (2) establishment of new invasive species, (3) altered impact of existing invasive species, (4) altered distribution of existing invasive species, and (5) altered effectiveness of control strategies. We then used these consequences to identify testable hypotheses about the responses of invasive species to climate change and provide suggestions for invasive-species management plans. The 5 consequences also emphasize the need for enhanced environmental monitoring and expanded coordination among entities involved in invasive-species management.

  20. MicroRNA and protein profiles in invasive versus non-invasive oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korvala, Johanna; Jee, Kowan; Porkola, Emmi; Almangush, Alhadi; Mosakhani, Neda; Bitu, Carolina; Cervigne, Nilva K.; Zandonadi, Flávia S.; Meirelles, Gabriela V.; Leme, Adriana Franco Paes; Coletta, Ricardo D.

    2017-01-01

    Complex molecular pathways regulate cancer invasion. This study overviewed proteins and microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) invasion. The human highly aggressive OTSCC cell line HSC-3 was examined in a 3D organotypic human leiomyoma model. Non-invasive and invasive cells were laser-captured and protein expression was analyzed using mass spectrometry-based proteomics and miRNA expression by microarray. In functional studies the 3D invasion assay was replicated after silencing candidate miRNAs, miR-498 and miR-940, in invasive OTSCC cell lines (HSC-3 and SCC-15). Cell migration, proliferation and viability were also studied in the silenced cells. In HSC-3 cells, 67 proteins and 53 miRNAs showed significant fold-changes between non-invasive vs. invasive cells. Pathway enrichment analyses allocated “Focal adhesion” and “ECM-receptor interaction” as most important for invasion. Significantly, in HSC-3 cells, miR-498 silencing decreased the invasion area and miR-940 silencing reduced invasion area and depth. Viability, proliferation and migration weren’t significantly affected. In SCC-15 cells, down-regulation of miR-498 significantly reduced invasion and migration. This study shows HSC-3 specific miRNA and protein expression in invasion, and suggests that miR-498 and miR-940 affect invasion in vitro, the process being more influenced by mir-940 silencing in aggressive HSC-3 cells than in the less invasive SCC-15.

  1. Comparison between invasive blood pressure and a non-invasive blood pressure monitor in anesthetized sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Daniel; Barletta, Michele; Mathews, Lindsey; Graham, Lynelle; Quandt, Jane

    2014-12-01

    Monitoring blood pressure under general anesthesia in animals is important to prevent hypotension and poor tissue perfusion. Thirteen sheep were enrolled to evaluate the accuracy of the petMAP, a portable non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP) monitor. Animals were anesthetized with midazolam, fentanyl, ketamine, propofol and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen for ovariectomy. Invasive and non-invasive (petMAP) blood pressure measurements were recorded simultaneously every 5 minutes. Agreement between IBP and NIBP was assessed by evaluation of bias and 95% limits of agreement (LOA) using the Bland-Altman method and correlation coefficient. None of the measurements met the criteria for good agreement between invasive and non-invasive readings established by the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation. Systolic blood pressure readings obtained at the left thoracic limb site and mean blood pressure at the right pelvic limb site met the bias and LOA criteria established by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Interacting impacts of invasive plants and invasive toads on native lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price-Rees, Samantha J; Brown, Gregory P; Shine, Richard

    2012-03-01

    The ecological impacts of an invasive species may be reduced by prior invasions if selective pressures imposed by earlier events preadapt the native biota to deal with the newer arrival. In northwestern Australia, invasion of the cane toad (Rhinella marina) kills many native predators if they ingest the highly toxic toads. Remarkably, the toads' defensive toxins (bufadienolides) are chemically similar to those of another invasive species: an ornamental plant from Madagascar, Bryophyllum spp. (Crassulaceae, mother-of-millions). Omnivorous lizards (bluetongue skinks, Tiliqua scincoides) are imperiled by the invasion of toads in northwestern Australia, but conspecifics from other areas of the continent (those where exotic plants were introduced and including areas where toads have yet to invade) are less affected because they exhibit higher physiological tolerance of toad toxins (and also of plant toxins). The willingness of captive bluetongues to consume both toads and these plants and the high correlation in the lizards' sensitivity to toad toxins versus plant toxins suggest that exotic plants may have imposed strong selection on the lizards' physiological tolerance of bufadienolides. As a result, populations of lizards from areas previously exposed to these alien plants may be preadapted to deal with the toxins of the more recent anuran invader.

  3. Invasive earthworms interact with abiotic conditions to influence the invasion of common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Alexander M; Whitfeld, Timothy J S; Lodge, Alexandra G; Eisenhauer, Nico; Frelich, Lee E; Reich, Peter B

    2015-05-01

    Common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica L.) is one of the most abundant and ecologically harmful non-native plants in forests of the Upper Midwest United States. At the same time, European earthworms are invading previously glaciated areas in this region, with largely anecdotal evidence suggesting they compound the negative effects of buckthorn and influence the invasibility of these forests. Germination and seedling establishment are important control points for colonization by any species, and manipulation of the conditions influencing these life history stages may provide insight into why invasive species are successful in some environments and not others. Using a greenhouse microcosm experiment, we examined the effects of important biotic and abiotic factors on the germination and seedling establishment of common buckthorn. We manipulated light levels, leaf litter depth and earthworm presence to investigate the independent and interactive effects of these treatments on buckthorn establishment. We found that light and leaf litter depth were significant predictors of buckthorn germination but that the presence of earthworms was the most important factor; earthworms interacted with light and leaf litter to increase the number and biomass of buckthorn across all treatments. Path analysis suggested both direct and moisture-mediated indirect mechanisms controlled these processes. The results suggest that the action of earthworms may provide a pathway through which buckthorn invades forests of the Upper Midwest United States. Hence, researchers and managers should consider co-invasion of plants and earthworms when investigating invasibility and creating preemptive or post-invasion management plans.

  4. Paradigm of plant invasion: multifaceted review on sustainable management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Prabhat Kumar

    2015-12-01

    A cascade of reviews and growing body of literature exists on forest invasion ecology, its mechanism or causes; however, no review addressed the sustainable management of invasive plants of forest in totality. Henceforth, the present paper aims to provide a critical review on the management of invasive species particularly in the context of forest plants. Plant invasion in forest is now increasingly being recognized as a global problem, and various continents are adversely affected, although to a differential scale. Quest for the ecological mechanism lying behind the success of invasive species over native species of forest has drawn the attention of researches worldwide particularly in the context of diversity-stability relationship. Transport, colonization, establishment, and landscape spread may be different steps in success of invasive plants in forest, and each and every step is checked through several ecological attributes. Further, several ecological attribute and hypothesis (enemy release, novel weapon, empty niche, evolution of increased competitive ability, etc.) were proposed pertaining to success of invasive plant species in forest ecosystems. However, a single theory will not be able to account for invasion success among all environments as it may vary spatially and temporally. Therefore, in order to formulate a sustainable management plan for invasive plants of forest, it is necessary to develop a synoptic view of the dynamic processes involved in the invasion process. Moreover, invasive species of forest can act synergistically with other elements of global change, including land-use change, climate change, increased concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide, and nitrogen deposition. Henceforth, a unified framework for biological invasions that reconciles and integrates the key features of the most commonly used invasion frameworks into a single conceptual model that can be applied to all human-mediated invasions.

  5. Invasion Success by Plant Breeding Evolutionary Changes as a Critical Factor for the Invasion of the Ornamental Plant Mahonia aquifolium

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Christel Anne

    2009-01-01

    Invasive species are a major threat to global biodiversity and cause significant economic costs. Studying biological invasions is both essential for preventing future invasions and is also useful in order to understand basic ecological processes. Christel Ross investigates whether evolutionary changes by plant breeding are a relevant factor for the invasion success of Mahonia aquifolium in Germany. Her findings show that invasive populations differ from native populations in quantitative-genetic traits and molecular markers, whereas their genetic diversity is similar. She postulates that these evolutionary changes are rather a result of plant breeding, which includes interspecific hybridisation, than the result of a genetic bottleneck or the releases from specialist herbivores.

  6. Introduced and invasive cactus species: a global review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa, Ana; Le Roux, Johannes J; Robertson, Mark P; Wilson, John R U; Richardson, David M

    2014-12-03

    Understanding which species are introduced and become invasive, and why, are central questions in invasion science. Comparative studies on model taxa have provided important insights, but much more needs to be done to unravel the context dependencies of these findings. The cactus family (Cactaceae), one of the most popular horticultural plant groups, is an interesting case study. Hundreds of cactus species have been introduced outside their native ranges; a few of them are among the most damaging invasive plant species in the world. We reviewed the drivers of introductions and invasions in the family and seek insights that can be used to minimize future risks. We compiled a list of species in the family and determined which have been recorded as invasive. We also mapped current global distributions and modelled the potential global distributions based on distribution data of known invasive taxa. Finally, we identified whether invasiveness is phylogenetically clustered for cacti and whether particular traits are correlated with invasiveness. Only 57 of the 1922 cactus species recognized in this treatment have been recorded as invasive. There are three invasion hotspots: South Africa (35 invasive species recorded), Australia (26 species) and Spain (24 species). However, there are large areas of the world with climates suitable for cacti that are at risk of future invasion-in particular, parts of China, eastern Asia and central Africa. The invasive taxa represent an interesting subset of the total species pool. There is a significant phylogenetic signal: invasive species occur in 2 of the 3 major phylogenetic clades and in 13 of the 130 genera. This phylogenetic signal is not driven by human preference, i.e. horticultural trade, but all invasive species are from 5 of the 12 cactus growth forms. Finally, invasive species tend to have significantly larger native ranges than non-invasive species, and none of the invasive species are of conservation concern in their

  7. The Human Release Hypothesis for biological invasions: human activity as a determinant of the abundance of invasive plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Heike; Brandt, Patric; Fischer, Joern; Welk, Erik; von Wehrden, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Research on biological invasions has increased rapidly over the past 30 years, generating numerous explanations of how species become invasive. While the mechanisms of invasive species establishment are well studied, the mechanisms driving abundance patterns (i.e. patterns of population density and population size) remain poorly understood. It is assumed that invasive species typically have higher abundances in their new environments than in their native ranges, and patterns of invasive species abundance differ between invaded regions. To explain differences in invasive species abundance, we propose the Human Release Hypothesis. In parallel to the established Enemy Release Hypothesis, this hypothesis states that the differences in abundance of invasive species are found between regions because population expansion is reduced in some regions through continuous land management and associated cutting of the invasive species. The Human Release Hypothesis does not negate other important drivers of species invasions, but rather should be considered as a potentially important complementary mechanism. We illustrate the hypothesis via a case study on an invasive rose species, and hypothesize which locations globally may be most likely to support high abundances of invasive species. We propose that more extensive empirical work on the Human Release Hypothesis could be useful to test its general applicability.

  8. Synergistic impacts by an invasive amphipod and an invasive fish explain native gammarid extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beggel, S; Brandner, J; Cerwenka, A F; Geist, J

    2016-07-14

    Worldwide freshwater ecosystems are increasingly affected by invasive alien species. In particular, Ponto-Caspian gobiid fishes and amphipods are suspected to have pronounced effects on aquatic food webs. However, there is a lack of systematic studies mechanistically testing the potential synergistic effects of invasive species on native fauna. In this study we investigated the interrelations between the invasive amphipod Dikerogammarus villosus and the invasive fish species Neogobius melanostomus in their effects on the native amphipod Gammarus pulex. We hypothesized selective predation by the fish as a driver for displacement of native species resulting in potential extinction of G. pulex. The survival of G. pulex in the presence of N. melanostomus in relation to the presence of D. villosus and availability of shelter was analyzed in the context of behavioural differences between the amphipod species. Gammarus pulex had a significantly higher susceptibility to predation by N. melanostomus compared to D. villosus in all experiments, suggesting preferential predation by this fish on native gammarids. Furthermore, the presence of D. villosus significantly increased the vulnerability of G. pulex to fish predation. Habitat structure was an important factor for swimming activity of amphipods and their mortality, resulting in a threefold decrease in amphipods consumed with shelter habitat structures provided. Behavioral differences in swimming activity were additionally responsible for higher predation rates on G. pulex. Intraguild predation could be neglected within short experimental durations. The results of this study provide evidence for synergistic effects of the two invasive Ponto-Caspian species on the native amphipod as an underlying process of species displacements during invasion processes. Prey behaviour and monotonous habitat structures additionally contribute to the decline of the native gammarid fauna in the upper Danube River and elsewhere.

  9. Granivory of invasive, naturalized, and native plants in communities differentially susceptible to invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, B M; Pearson, D E; Mack, R N

    2014-07-01

    Seed predation is an important biotic filter that can influence abundance and spatial distributions of native species through differential effects on recruitment. This filter may also influence the relative abundance of nonnative plants within habitats and the communities' susceptibility to invasion via differences in granivore identity, abundance, and food preference. We evaluated the effect of postdispersal seed predators on the establishment of invasive, naturalized, and native species within and between adjacent forest and steppe communities of eastern Washington, USA that differ in severity of plant invasion. Seed removal from trays placed within guild-specific exclosures revealed that small mammals were the dominant seed predators in both forest and steppe. Seeds of invasive species (Bromus tectorum, Cirsium arvense) were removed significantly less than the seeds of native (Pseudoroegneria spicata, Balsamorhiza sagittata) and naturalized (Secale cereale, Centaurea cyanus) species. Seed predation limited seedling emergence and establishment in both communities in the absence of competition in a pattern reflecting natural plant abundance: S. cereale was most suppressed, B. tectorum was least suppressed, and P. spicata was suppressed at an intermediate level. Furthermore, seed predation reduced the residual seed bank for all species. Seed mass correlated with seed removal rates in the forest and their subsequent effects on plant recruitment; larger seeds were removed at higher rates than smaller seeds. Our vegetation surveys indicate higher densities and canopy cover of nonnative species occur in the steppe compared with the forest understory, suggesting the steppe may be more susceptible to invasion. Seed predation alone, however, did not result in significant differences in establishment for any species between these communities, presumably due to similar total small-mammal abundance between communities. Consequently, preferential seed predation by small

  10. Secondary invasions of noxious weeds associated with control of invasive Tamarix are frequent, idiosyncratic and persistent

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Eduardo; Sher, Anna A.; Anderson, Robert M.; Bay, Robin F.; Bean, Daniel W.; Bissonnete, Gabriel J.; Cooper, David J.; Dohrenwend, Kara; Eichhorst, Kim D.; El Waer, Hisham; Kennard, Deborah K.; Harms-Weissinger, Rebecca; Henry, Annie L.; Makarick, Lori J.; Ostoja, Steven M.; Reynolds, Lindsay V.; Robinson, W. Wright; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Tabacchi, Erich

    2017-01-01

    Control of invasive species within ecosystems may induce secondary invasions of non-target invaders replacing the first alien. We used four plant species listed as noxious by local authorities in riparian systems to discern whether 1) the severity of these secondary invasions was related to the control method applied to the first alien; and 2) which species that were secondary invaders persisted over time. In a collaborative study by 16 research institutions, we monitored plant species composition following control of non-native Tamarix trees along southwestern U.S. rivers using defoliation by an introduced biocontrol beetle, and three physical removal methods: mechanical using saws, heavy machinery, and burning in 244 treated and 79 untreated sites across six U.S. states. Physical removal favored secondary invasions immediately after Tamarix removal (0–3 yrs.), while in the biocontrol treatment, secondary invasions manifested later (> 5 yrs.). Within this general trend, the response of weeds to control was idiosyncratic; dependent on treatment type and invader. Two annual tumbleweeds that only reproduce by seed (Bassia scoparia and Salsola tragus) peaked immediately after physical Tamarix removal and persisted over time, even after herbicide application. Acroptilon repens, a perennial forb that vigorously reproduces by rhizomes, and Bromus tectorum, a very frequent annual grass before removal that only reproduces by seed, were most successful at biocontrol sites, and progressively spread as the canopy layer opened. These results demonstrate that strategies to control Tamarix affect secondary invasions differently among species and that time since disturbance is an important, generally overlooked, factor affecting response.

  11. Seed bank survival of an invasive species, but not of two native species, declines with invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrock, John L; Christopher, Cory C; Dutra, Humberto P

    2012-04-01

    Soil-borne seed pathogens may play an important role in either hindering or facilitating the spread of invasive exotic plants. We examined whether the invasive shrub Lonicera maackii (Caprifoliaceae) affected fungi-mediated mortality of conspecific and native shrub seeds in a deciduous forest in eastern Missouri. Using a combination of L. maackii removal and fungicide treatments, we found no effect of L. maackii invasion on seed viability of the native Symphoricarpos orbiculatus (Caprifoliaceae) or Cornus drummondii (Cornaceae). In contrast, fungi were significant agents of L. maackii seed mortality in invaded habitats. Losses of L. maackii to soil fungi were also significant in invaded habitats where L. maackii had been removed, although the magnitude of the effect of fungi was lower, suggesting that changes in soil chemistry or microhabitat caused by L. maackii were responsible for affecting fungal seed pathogens. Our work suggests that apparent competition via soil pathogens is not an important factor contributing to impacts of L. maackii on native shrubs. Rather, we found that fungal seed pathogens have density-dependent effects on L. maackii seed survival. Therefore, while fungal pathogens may provide little biotic resistance to early invasion by L. maackii, our study illustrates that more work is needed to understand how changes in fungal pathogens during the course of an invasion contribute to the potential for restoration of invaded systems. More generally, our study suggests that increased rates of fungal pathogen attack may be realized by invasive plants, such as L. maackii, that change the chemical or physical environment of the habitats they invade.

  12. Responses of the soil fungal communities to the co-invasion of two invasive species with different cover classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Zhou, J; Liu, J; Jiang, K; Xiao, H; Du, D

    2018-01-01

    Soil fungal communities play an important role in the successful invasion of non-native species. It is common for two or more invasive plant species to co-occur in invaded ecosystems. This study aimed to determine the effects of co-invasion of two invasive species (Erigeron annuus and Solidago canadensis) with different cover classes on soil fungal communities using high-throughput sequencing. Invasion of E. annuus and/or S. canadensis had positive effects on the sequence number, operational taxonomic unit (OTU) richness, Shannon diversity, abundance-based cover estimator (ACE index) and Chao1 index of soil fungal communities, but negative effects on the Simpson index. Thus, invasion of E. annuus and/or S. canadensis could increase diversity and richness of soil fungal communities but decrease dominance of some members of these communities, in part to facilitate plant further invasion, because high soil microbial diversity could increase soil functions and plant nutrient acquisition. Some soil fungal species grow well, whereas others tend to extinction after non-native plant invasion with increasing invasion degree and presumably time. The sequence number, OTU richness, Shannon diversity, ACE index and Chao1 index of soil fungal communities were higher under co-invasion of E. annuus and S. canadensis than under independent invasion of either individual species. The co-invasion of the two invasive species had a positive synergistic effect on diversity and abundance of soil fungal communities, partly to build a soil microenvironment to enhance competitiveness of the invaders. The changed diversity and community under co-invasion could modify resource availability and niche differentiation within the soil fungal communities, mediated by differences in leaf litter quality and quantity, which can support different fungal/microbial species in the soil. © 2017 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  13. The stock of invasive insect species and its economic determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlasny, Vladimir

    2011-06-01

    Invasions of nonindigenous organisms have long been linked to trade, but the contribution of individual trade pathways remains poorly understood, because species are not observed immediately upon arrival and the number of species arriving annually is unknown. Species interception records may count both new arrivals and species long introduced. Furthermore, the stock of invasive insect species already present is unknown. In this study, a state-space model is used to infer the stock of detected as well as undetected invasive insect species established in the United States. A system of equations is estimated jointly to distinguish the patterns of introduction, identification, and eradication. Introductions of invasive species are modeled as dependent on the volume of trade and arrival of people. Identifications depend on the public efforts at invasive species research, as well as on the established stock of invasive species that remain undetected. Eradications of both detected and undetected invasive species depend on containment and quarantine efforts, as well as on the stock of all established invasive species. These patterns are estimated by fitting the predicted number of invasive species detections to the observed record in the North American Non-Indigenous Arthropod Database. The results indicate that agricultural imports are the most important pathway of introduction, followed by immigration of people. Expenditures by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Agricultural Research Service are found to explain the species identification record well. Between three and 38 invasive insect species are estimated to be established in the United States undetected.

  14. Multidisciplinary management of invasive placenta previa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Melissa G; Allen, Lisa; Windrim, Rory C; Kachura, John; Pollard, Lindsay; Pantazi, Sophia; Keating, Sarah; Carvalho, Jose C A; Kingdom, John C P

    2013-05-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a multidisciplinary team approach to reduce severe maternal morbidity in women with invasive placenta previa. We conducted a prospective study of 33 women with placenta previa and increta-percreta (diagnosed by ultrasound and/or magnetic resonance imaging) delivering at Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, following the introduction in January 2008 of a team-based approach to women with this condition. We included women who delivered by June 2012. We reviewed antenatal outpatient and inpatient records for use of six pre-defined team components by the attending staff obstetrician: (1) antenatal maternal-fetal medicine consultation, (2) surgical gynaecology consultation, (3) antenatal MRI, (4) interventional radiology consultation and preoperative placement of balloon catheters in the anterior divisions of the internal iliac arteries, (5) pre-planned surgical date, and (6) surgery performed by members of the invasive placenta surgical team. Antenatal course, delivery, and postpartum details were recorded to derive a five-point composite severe maternal morbidity score based on the presence or absence of: (1) ICU admission following delivery, (2) transfusion > 2 units of blood, (3) general anaesthesia start or conversion, (4) operating time in highest quartile (> 125 minutes), and (5) significant postoperative complications (readmission, prolonged postpartum stay, and/or pulmonary embolism). All 33 women survived during this time period. Two thirds (22/33) had either five or six of the six components of multidisciplinary care. Increasing use of multidisciplinary team components was associated with a significant reduction in composite morbidity (R2 = 0.228, P = 0.005). Team-based assessment and management of women with invasive placenta previa is likely to improve maternal outcomes and should be encouraged on a regional basis.

  15. Minimal Invasive Decompression for Lumbar Spinal Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Popov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lumbar spinal stenosis is a common condition in elderly patients and may lead to progressive back and leg pain, muscular weakness, sensory disturbance, and/or problems with ambulation. Multiple studies suggest that surgical decompression is an effective therapy for patients with symptomatic lumbar stenosis. Although traditional lumbar decompression is a time-honored procedure, minimally invasive procedures are now available which can achieve the goals of decompression with less bleeding, smaller incisions, and quicker patient recovery. This paper will review the technique of performing ipsilateral and bilateral decompressions using a tubular retractor system and microscope.

  16. Placenta previa percreta with bladder invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siniša Šijanović

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A 43- year old woman, with ten previous deliveries and history of two cesarean sections was admitted to our Department at 32 weeks of gestation with massive vaginal hemorrhage from an ultrasound diagnosed placenta previa. An emergency cesarean section with vertical abdominal incision was performed. A healthy 2300 g female infant was delivered. Attempts to manually remove the placenta caused massive hemorrhage. The lower uterine segment was widened due to placenta previa with suspicious placental invasion of the posterior wall of the bladder. Persistent hemorrhage demanded bilateral anterior internal iliac artery ligation and suture ligation of the bleeding vessels with supracervical hysterectomy done.

  17. "Open" minimally invasive surgery in pediatric urology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo-Tamola, Josephine; Shnorhavorian, Margarett; Koyle, Martin A

    2009-06-01

    Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) offers alternative operative approaches to standard open surgical techniques. However, MIS has been defined primarily as substituting laparoendoscopic alternatives for the traditional open surgical approach. The concept of MIS methodology may also be applied to open surgery in an effort to decrease incision size, potentially reduce morbidity and enhance convalescence, without compromising 'gold standard' outcomes. Pediatric urological applications of open MIS include pediatric renal surgery, ureteral reimplantation, ureteral surgery, inguinal-scrotal and genital surgery. A thorough review of the pediatric urology literature was performed and studies were identified describing open MIS, including outcomes and complications.

  18. Invasive treatment in complicated monochorionic twin pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundberg, Karin; Søgaard, Kirsten; Jensen, Lisa Neerup

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Monochorionic twin pregnancies are associated with increased risk of severe complications. Umbilical cord occlusion (UCO) and fetoscopic selective laser coagulation (FSLC) are used as invasive treatment. The study aim was to document treatment indications and pregnancy outcome where UCO......). Umbilical cord occlusion was undertaken in 49 TTTS cases, in four cases with fetal abnormality and TTTS and in 12 cases because of fetal anomaly only. Main outcome measures. Overall survival per fetus, survival per pregnancy of at least one fetus and further survival according to the Quintero stages. Infant...

  19. Surgeons' musculoskeletal pain in minimally invasive surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalager, Tina; Søgaard, Karen; Bech, Katrine Tholstrup

    in surgeons performing MIS is high and derives mainly from static postures. Positioning of monitor, adjustment of table height and instrument design also contribute substantially. Robotic assisted laparoscopy seems less physically demanding for the surgeon compared with conventional laparoscopy. However, some......Background: A large proportion of surgeons performing minimally invasive surgery (MIS) experience musculoskeletal pain in the upper body possibly due to awkward and long-term static positions. This can be detrimental for workability and health. The objective of the present review is to sum up...

  20. Treatment and prevention of invasive pneumococcal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Alegría, A R; Pintado, V; Barbolla, I

    2018-02-12

    Invasive pneumococcal disease is a severe infection that mainly affects patients with associated comorbidity. The paediatric conjugate vaccination has resulted in a change in the adult vaccination strategy. The antibiotic resistance of pneumococcus is not currently a severe problem. Nevertheless, the World Health Organisation has included pneumococcus among the bacteria whose treatment requires the introduction of new drugs, such as ceftaroline and ceftobiprole. Although the scientific evidence is still limited, the combination of beta-lactams and macrolides is recommended as empiric therapy for bacteraemic pneumococcal pneumonia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  1. The Long American Grain Invasion of Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Paul Richard

    This paper provides evidence that transatlantic commodity market integration began prior to the "first era of globalization" at the end of the nineteenth century. It does so by giving a long term perspective to the story of the development of an Atlantic Economy in wheat between the United States...... and Britain. Both trade statistics and contemporary comment reveal the importance of this trade from the middle to late eighteenth century, long before the so-called grain invasion of the late nineteenth century. Using data on imports from America and a large volume of substantiating primary evidence...

  2. Minimally invasive splenectomy: an update and review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamme, Gary; Birch, Daniel W.; Karmali, Shahzeer

    2013-01-01

    Laparoscopic splenectomy (LS) has become an established standard of care in the management of surgical diseases of the spleen. The present article is an update and review of current procedures and controversies regarding minimally invasive splenectomy. We review the indications and contraindications for LS as well as preoperative considerations. An individual assessment of the procedures and outcomes of multiport laparoscopic splenectomy, hand-assisted laparoscopic splenectomy, robotic splenectomy, natural orifice transluminal endoscopic splenectomy and single-port splenectomy is included. Furthermore, this review examines postoperative considerations after LS, including the postoperative course of uncomplicated patients, postoperative portal vein thrombosis, infections and malignancy. PMID:23883500

  3. Smartphone-assisted minimally invasive neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Mauricio; Petito, Carlo Emanuel; Tutihashi, Rafael; Paiva, Wellingson; Abramovicz Mandel, Suzana; Gomes Pinto, Fernando Campos; Ferreira de Andrade, Almir; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Figueiredo, Eberval Gadelha

    2018-03-13

    OBJECTIVE Advances in video and fiber optics since the 1990s have led to the development of several commercially available high-definition neuroendoscopes. This technological improvement, however, has been surpassed by the smartphone revolution. With the increasing integration of smartphone technology into medical care, the introduction of these high-quality computerized communication devices with built-in digital cameras offers new possibilities in neuroendoscopy. The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of smartphone-endoscope integration in performing different types of minimally invasive neurosurgery. METHODS The authors present a new surgical tool that integrates a smartphone with an endoscope by use of a specially designed adapter, thus eliminating the need for the video system customarily used for endoscopy. The authors used this novel combined system to perform minimally invasive surgery on patients with various neuropathological disorders, including cavernomas, cerebral aneurysms, hydrocephalus, subdural hematomas, contusional hematomas, and spontaneous intracerebral hematomas. RESULTS The new endoscopic system featuring smartphone-endoscope integration was used by the authors in the minimally invasive surgical treatment of 42 patients. All procedures were successfully performed, and no complications related to the use of the new method were observed. The quality of the images obtained with the smartphone was high enough to provide adequate information to the neurosurgeons, as smartphone cameras can record images in high definition or 4K resolution. Moreover, because the smartphone screen moves along with the endoscope, surgical mobility was enhanced with the use of this method, facilitating more intuitive use. In fact, this increased mobility was identified as the greatest benefit of the use of the smartphone-endoscope system compared with the use of the neuroendoscope with the standard video set. CONCLUSIONS Minimally invasive approaches

  4. Modifying gummy smile: a minimally invasive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Walid Ahmed; Khalil, Hesham S; Alhindi, Maryam M; Marzook, Hamdy

    2014-11-01

    Excessive gingival display is a problem that can be managed by variety of procedures. These procedures include non-surgical and surgical methods. The underlying cause of gummy smile can affect the type of procedure to be selected. Most patients prefer minimally invasive procedures with outstanding results. The authors describe a minimally invasive lip repositioning technique for management of gummy smile. Twelve patients (10 females, 2 males) with gingival display of 4 mm or more were operated under local anesthesia using a modified lip repositioning technique. Patients were followed up for 1, 3, 6 and 12 months and gingival display was measured at each follow up visit. The gingival mucosa was dissected and levator labii superioris and depressor septi muscles were freed and repositioned in a lower position. The levator labii superioris muscles were pulled in a lower position using circumdental sutures for 10 days. Both surgeon's and patient's satisfaction of surgical outcome was recorded at each follow-up visit. At early stage of follow-up the main complaints of patients were the feeling of tension in the upper lip and circum oral area, mild pain which was managed with analgesics. One month postoperatively, the gingival display in all patients was recorded to be between 2 and 4 mm with a mean of (2.6 mm). Patient satisfaction records after 1 month showed that 10 patients were satisfied with the results. Three months postoperatively, the gingival display in all patients was recorded and found to be between 2 and 5 mm with a mean of 3 mm. Patient satisfaction records showed that 8 patients were satisfied with the results as they gave scores between. Surgeon's satisfaction at three months follow up showed that the surgeons were satisfied in 8 patients. The same results were found in the 6 and 12 months follow-up periods without any changes. Complete relapse was recorded only in one case at the third postoperative month. This study showed that the proposed lip

  5. Biological invasions: recommendations for U.S. policy and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodge, David M; Williams, Susan; MacIsaac, Hugh J; Hayes, Keith R; Leung, Brian; Reichard, Sarah; Mack, Richard N; Moyle, Peter B; Smith, Maggie; Andow, David A; Carlton, James T; McMichael, Anthony

    2006-12-01

    The Ecological Society of America has evaluated current U.S. national policies and practices on biological invasions in light of current scientific knowledge. Invasions by harmful nonnative species are increasing in number and area affected; the damages to ecosystems, economic activity, and human welfare are accumulating. Without improved strategies based on recent scientific advances and increased investments to counter invasions, harm from invasive species is likely to accelerate. Federal leadership, with the cooperation of state and local governments, is required to increase the effectiveness of prevention of invasions, detect and respond quickly to new potentially harmful invasions, control and slow the spread of existing invasions, and provide a national center to ensure that these efforts are coordinated and cost effective. Specifically, the Ecological Society of America recommends that the federal government take the following six actions: (1) Use new information and practices to better manage commercial and other pathways to reduce the transport and release of potentially harmful species; (2) Adopt more quantitative procedures for risk analysis and apply them to every species proposed for importation into the country; (3) Use new cost-effective diagnostic technologies to increase active surveillance and sharing of information about invasive species so that responses to new invasions can be more rapid and effective; (4) Create new legal authority and provide emergency funding to support rapid responses to emerging invasions; (5) Provide funding and incentives for cost-effective programs to slow the spread of existing invasive species in order to protect still uninvaded ecosystems, social and industrial infrastructure, and human welfare; and (6) Establish a National Center for Invasive Species Management (under the existing National Invasive Species Council) to coordinate and lead improvements in federal, state, and international policies on invasive species

  6. Direct-Conversion Molecular Breast Imaging of Invasive Breast Cancer: Imaging Features, Extent of Invasive Disease, and Comparison Between Invasive Ductal and Lobular Histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conners, Amy Lynn; Jones, Katie N; Hruska, Carrie B; Geske, Jennifer R; Boughey, Judy C; Rhodes, Deborah J

    2015-09-01

    The purposes of this study were to compare the tumor appearance of invasive breast cancer on direct-conversion molecular breast imaging using a standardized lexicon and to determine how often direct-conversion molecular breast imaging identifies all known invasive tumor foci in the breast, and whether this differs for invasive ductal versus lobular histologic profiles. Patients with prior invasive breast cancer and concurrent direct-conversion molecular breast imaging examinations were retrospectively reviewed. Blinded review of direct-conversion molecular breast imaging examinations was performed by one of two radiologists, according to a validated lexicon. Direct-conversion molecular breast imaging findings were matched with lesions described on the pathology report to exclude benign reasons for direct-conversion molecular breast imaging findings and to document direct-conversion molecular breast imaging-occult tumor foci. Associations between direct-conversion molecular breast imaging findings and tumor histologic profiles were examined using chi-square tests. In 286 patients, 390 invasive tumor foci were present in 294 breasts. A corresponding direct-conversion molecular breast imaging finding was present for 341 of 390 (87%) tumor foci described on the pathology report. Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) tumor foci were more likely to be a mass (40% IDC vs 15% invasive lobular carcinoma [ILC]; p invasive disease in 79.8% of cases and was more likely to do so for IDC than for ILC (86.1% vs 56.7%; p invasive foci in 249 of 286 (87%) patients. Direct-conversion molecular breast imaging features of invasive cancer, including lesion type and intensity, differ by histologic subtype. Direct-conversion molecular breast imaging is less likely to show all foci of ILC compared with IDC.

  7. Mediterranean, invasive, woody species grow larger than their less-invasive counterparts under potential global environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erskine-Ogden, Jennifer; Grotkopp, Eva; Rejmánek, Marcel

    2016-04-01

    Revealing biological differences between invasive and noninvasive species is essential for predicting species' distribution changes with global environmental change. While most research has focused on differences between invasive and noninvasive species under favorable conditions using herbaceous species, invasive woody angiosperms are also of great ecological concern. Our study focused on how growth and allocation may change for invasive and noninvasive, mediterranean, woody angiosperms under future conditions caused by global change, specifically increased nitrogen deposition and drought. We tested how seedling functional traits differed between invasive and noninvasive woody angiosperms under different experimental conditions in a greenhouse setting. We compared growth rates and allocation patterns using two levels of soil nitrogen and three levels of watering. We also examined trait log response ratios to increases in nitrogen and increases in water. Our study sampled angiosperm trees and shrubs, incorporating congeneric/confamilial relationships through 13 phylogenetically controlled contrasts. Three functional traits were highly and positively associated with plant invasiveness for most conditions studied: seedling plant mass, leaf area, and height. Invasive species also had significantly higher root mass ratios at low water regardless of nitrogen input. Invasive and noninvasive species had similar log response ratios to increases in nitrogen and watering for studied traits. Mediterranean, woody, invasive species' larger mass, leaf area, and early height advantage under elevated nitrogen input and increased root production in drought conditions may lead to increased invasion of these species with expected global climate change. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  8. Multidetector CT of Locally Invasive Advanced Gastric Cancer: Value of Oblique Coronal Reconstructed Images for the Assessment of Local Invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jin Hee; Kim, Ah Yong; Kim, Hye Jin; Yook, Jeong Hwan; Yu, Eun Sil; Jang, Yoon Jin; Park, Seong Ho; Shin, Yong Moon; Ha, Hyun Kwon [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of oblique coronal reconstructed CT images to determine the local invasion of advanced gastric cancer (AGC). Thirty-four consecutive patients, who were suspected to have locally invasive advanced gastric cancer (more than T3 stage) on a preoperative MDCT scan and underwent a diagnostic or curative laparotomy, were enrolled in this study. Two reviewers performed an independent blind review of three series of MDCT images in random order; axial (AXI), conventional coronal (CCI), and oblique coronal (OCI) (parallel to long axis of gastric body and pancreas) images. In assessing the local invasion, the reader's confidence for the local invasion of AGC was graded using a five point scale (1 = definitely negative, 5 = definitely positive: T4). With surgical findings and histopathological proofs as reference standards, the diagnostic performance of the three different plans of CT images was employed for the verification of local invasion of AGC on a preoperative CT scan using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) method. Agreements between the two reviewers were analyzed using weighted kappa statistics. Results: In 19 out of 34 patients, local invasion was confirmed surgically or histopathologically (13 pancreas invasion, 6 liver invasion, 4 major vascular invasion, 3 colon and mesocolon invasion, and 2 spleen invasion). The diagnostic performance of OCI was superior to AXI or CCI in the local invasion of AGC. The differences in the area under the curve of AXI (0.770 {+-} 0.087, 0.700 {+-} 0.094), CCI (0.884 {+-} 0.058, 0.958 {+-} 0.038), and OCI (0.954 {+-} 0.050, 0.956 {+-} 0.049), were statistically significant for both reviewers. Inter-observer agreement was excellent for OCI ({kappa}= .973), which was greater than CCI (({kappa}= .839), and AXI (({kappa}= .763). On a CT scan, OCI might be a useful imaging technique in evaluating locally invasive advanced gastric cancer.

  9. Response of native insect communities to invasive plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezemer, T Martijn; Harvey, Jeffrey A; Cronin, James T

    2014-01-01

    Invasive plants can disrupt a range of trophic interactions in native communities. As a novel resource they can affect the performance of native insect herbivores and their natural enemies such as parasitoids and predators, and this can lead to host shifts of these herbivores and natural enemies. Through the release of volatile compounds, and by changing the chemical complexity of the habitat, invasive plants can also affect the behavior of native insects such as herbivores, parasitoids, and pollinators. Studies that compare insects on related native and invasive plants in invaded habitats show that the abundance of insect herbivores is often lower on invasive plants, but that damage levels are similar. The impact of invasive plants on the population dynamics of resident insect species has been rarely examined, but invasive plants can influence the spatial and temporal dynamics of native insect (meta)populations and communities, ultimately leading to changes at the landscape level.

  10. Gastric Metastasis of Triple Negative Invasive Lobular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geredeli, Caglayan; Dogru, Osman; Omeroglu, Ethem; Yilmaz, Farise; Cicekci, Faruk

    2015-05-05

    Invasive lobular carcinomas are the second most common type (5% to 15%) of invasive breast carcinomas. The most frequent sites of breast cancer metastasis are the local and distant lymph nodes, brain, lung, liver, and bones; metastasis to the gastrointestinal system, especially to the stomach, is rare. When a mass is detected in an unusual place in a patient with invasive lobular carcinoma, it should be kept in mind that such a mass may be either a second primary carcinoma or the metastasis of an invasive lobular carcinoma. In this report, we present a case of gastric metastasis from triple-negative invasive lobular breast cancer. It is important to make an accurate diagnosis by distinguishing gastric metastasis from breast cancer in order to select the best initial treatment for systemic diseases of breast cancer. Considering our case, healthcare professionals should take into account that cases with invasive lobular breast cancer may experience unusual metastases.

  11. Techniques for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Arterial Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes S. Meidert

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Since both, hypotension and hypertension, can potentially impair the function of vital organs such as heart, brain, or kidneys, monitoring of arterial blood pressure (BP is a mainstay of hemodynamic monitoring in acutely or critically ill patients. Arterial BP can either be obtained invasively via an arterial catheter or non-invasively. Non-invasive BP measurement provides either intermittent or continuous readings. Most commonly, an occluding upper arm cuff is used for intermittent non-invasive monitoring. BP values are then obtained either manually (by auscultation of Korotkoff sounds or palpation or automatically (e.g., by oscillometry. For continuous non-invasive BP monitoring, the volume clamp method or arterial applanation tonometry can be used. Both techniques enable the arterial waveform and BP values to be obtained continuously. This article describes the different techniques for non-invasive BP measurement, their advantages and limitations, and their clinical applicability.

  12. Freshwater ecosystems and aquatic insects: a paradox in biological invasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenoglio, Stefano; Bonada, Núria; Guareschi, Simone; López-Rodríguez, Manuel J; Millán, Andrés; Tierno de Figueroa, J Manuel

    2016-04-01

    Biological invasions have increased significantly in response to global change and constitute one of the major causes of biodiversity loss. Insects make up a large fraction of invasive species, in general, and freshwaters are among the most invaded ecosystems on our planet. However, even though aquatic insects dominate most inland waters, have unparalleled taxonomic diversity and occupy nearly all trophic niches, there are almost no invasive insects in freshwaters. We present some hypotheses regarding why aquatic insects are not common among aquatic invasive organisms, suggesting that it may be the result of a suite of biological, ecological and anthropogenic factors. Such specific knowledge introduces a paradox in the current scientific discussion on invasive species; therefore, a more in-depth understanding could be an invaluable aid to disentangling how and why biological invasions occur. © 2016 The Author(s).

  13. Chemical Defenses (Glucosinolates) of Native and Invasive Populations of the Range Expanding Invasive Plant Rorippa austriaca

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huberty, M.; Tielborger, K.; Harvey, J.A.; Muller, C.; Macel, M.

    2014-01-01

    Due to global warming, species are expanding their range to higher latitudes. Some range expanding plants have become invasive in their new range. The Evolution of Increased Competitive Ability (EICA) hypothesis and the Shifting Defense Hypothesis (SDH) predict altered selection on plant defenses in

  14. Quantifying "apparent" impact and distinguishing impact from invasiveness in multispecies plant invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean E. Pearson; Yvette K. Ortega; Ozkan Eren; Jose L. Hierro

    2015-01-01

    The quantification of invader impacts remains a major hurdle to understanding and managing invasions. Here, we demonstrate a method for quantifying the community-level impact of multiple plant invaders by applying Parker et al.'s (1999) equation (impact = range x local abundance x per capita effect or per unit effect) using data from 620 survey plots from 31...

  15. [Role of invasive and non-invasive ventilation in the treatment of acute respiratory failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Sergio; Zangrillo, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation is the most common invasive treatment for acute respiratory failure in intensive care units. According to non-intensivist clinicians, ventilation could be considered as a therapy for blood gas exchange, even though positive pressure ventilation can be extremely dangerous for injured lung tissue. Despite constant advances in ventilation software and modalities, aimed at optimizing patient/ventilator adjustment, the scientific community has addressed major attention in new protective strategies to ventilate the lung, trying to prevent and reduce life-threatening iatrogenic injuries that may derive from inappropriate use of mechanical ventilation. In this review we describe the main ventilation techniques as well as new emerging methodologies. The physiological bases on which the acute respiratory distress syndrome network has significantly changed the strategy for ventilation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome are also discussed. Non-invasive ventilation, including both continuous positive airway pressure and pressure support ventilation, is considered the gold standard for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations. There is an increasing interest in the clinical use of non-invasive ventilation outside intensive care units. Although many studies have analyzed risks and benefits of non-invasive ventilation in the intensive care setting, feasibility and organization processes to perform this technique in the non-intensive wards, by preserving efficacy and safety, need to be debated.

  16. Quantifying levels of biological invasion: towards the objective classification of invaded and invasible ecosystems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Catford, J.A.; Vesk, P.A.; Richardson, D. M.; Pyšek, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 1 (2012), s. 44-62 ISSN 1354-1013 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/11/1112 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : level of invasion * standard metrics * abundance Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 6.910, year: 2012

  17. Integrative invasion science: model systems, multi-site studies, focused meta-analysis, and invasion syndromes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kueffer, C.; Pyšek, Petr; Richardson, D. M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 200, č. 3 (2013), s. 615-633 ISSN 1469-8137 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/1028; GA ČR GA206/09/0563 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : model systems * invasion syndromes * multi-site studies Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 6.545, year: 2013

  18. Separating habitat invasibility by alien plants from the actual level of invasion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chytrý, M.; Jarošík, Vojtěch; Pyšek, Petr; Hájek, O.; Knollová, I.; Tichý, L.; Danihelka, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 6 (2008), s. 1541-1553 ISSN 0012-9658 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06073 Grant - others:ALARM(XE) GOCE-CT-2003-506675 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : archaeophyte * biological invasions * Central Europe Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.874, year: 2008

  19. Biological invasions and host-parasite coevolution: different coevolutionary trajectories along separate parasite invasion fronts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feis, M.E.; Goedknegt, M.A.; Thieltges, D.W.; Buschbaum, C.; Wegner, K.M.

    2016-01-01

    Host–parasite coevolution has rarely been observed in natural systems. Its study often relies on microparasitic infections introducing a potential bias in the estimation of the evolutionary change of host and parasite traits. Using biological invasions as a tool to study host–parasite coevolution in

  20. Biological invasions and natural colonisations are different: the need for invasion science

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wilson, J. R. U.; García-Díaz, P.; Cassey, P.; Richardson, D. M.; Pyšek, Petr; Blackburn, T. M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 1 (2016), s. 87-98 ISSN 1619-0033 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1002 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : biological invasions * species spread * colonization Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  1. A review of invasive and non-invasive sensory feedback in upper limb prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Pamela; Wijk, Ulrika; Björkman, Anders; Antfolk, Christian

    2017-06-01

    The constant challenge to restore sensory feedback in prosthetic hands has provided several research solutions, but virtually none has reached clinical fruition. A prosthetic hand with sensory feedback that closely imitates an intact hand and provides a natural feeling may induce the prosthetic hand to be included in the body image and also reinforces the control of the prosthesis. Areas covered: This review presents non-invasive sensory feedback systems such as mechanotactile, vibrotactile, electrotactile and combinational systems which combine the modalities; multi-haptic feedback. Invasive sensory feedback has been tried less, because of the inherent risk, but it has successfully shown to restore some afferent channels. In this review, invasive methods are also discussed, both extraneural and intraneural electrodes, such as cuff electrodes and transverse intrafascicular multichannel electrodes. The focus of the review is on non-invasive methods of providing sensory feedback to upper-limb amputees. Expert commentary: Invoking embodiment has shown to be of importance for the control of prosthesis and acceptance by the prosthetic wearers. It is a challenge to provide conscious feedback to cover the lost sensibility of a hand, not be overwhelming and confusing for the user, and to integrate technology within the constraint of a wearable prosthesis.

  2. Micro-managing arthropod invasions: eradication and control of invasive arthropods with microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ann E. Hajek; Patrick C. Tobin

    2010-01-01

    Non-indigenous arthropods are increasingly being introduced into new areas worldwide and occasionally they cause considerable ecological and economic harm. Many invasive arthropods particularly pose problems to areas of human habitation and native ecosystems. In these cases, the use of environmentally benign materials, such as host-specific entomopathogens, can be more...

  3. Plant invasions in the Czech Republic: current state, introduction dynamics, invasive species and invaded habitats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pyšek, Petr; Chytrý, M.; Pergl, Jan; Sádlo, Jiří; Wild, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 3 (2012), s. 575-629 ISSN 0032-7786 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/1028 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : invasive species * invaded habitats * Czech Republic Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.833, year: 2012

  4. Modelling plant invasion pathways in protected areas under climate change: implication for invasion management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-J. Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change may enable invasive plant species (IPS to invade protected areas (PAs, but plant invasion on a global scale has not yet been explicitly addressed. Here, we mapped the potential invasion pathways for IPS in PAs across the globe and explored potential factors determining the pathways of plant invasion under climate change. We used species distribution modelling to estimate the suitable habitats of 386 IPS and applied a corridor analysis to compute the potential pathways of IPS in PAs under climate change. Subsequently, we analysed the potential factors affecting the pathways in PAs. According to our results, the main potential pathways of IPS in PAs are in Europe, eastern Australia, New Zealand, southern Africa, and eastern regions of South America and are strongly influenced by changes in temperature and precipitation. Protected areas can play an important role in preventing and controlling the spread of IPS under climate change. This is due to the fact that measures are taken to monitor climate change in detail, to provide effective management near or inside PAs, and to control the introduction of IPS with a high capacity for natural dispersal. A review of conservation policies in PAs is urgently needed.

  5. [Two cases of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type f infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J.D.; Lind, J.W.; Bruun, B.

    2009-01-01

    Two cases of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type f infection are presented: a three-week-old boy with meningitis and a 62-year-old woman with arthritis and bacteremia. Since 1993 vaccination against H. influenzae type b (Hib) has been offered to Danish children. The result has been a remarkable...... decrease in invasive Hib disease. However, physicians need to be aware of the existence of non-type b invasive H. influenzae disease Udgivelsesdato: 2009/1/19...

  6. To tilfaelde af invasive infektioner med Haemophilus influenzae type f

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jette Dettmann; Lind, Jens Wentzel; Bruun, Britta

    2009-01-01

    Two cases of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type f infection are presented: a three-week-old boy with meningitis and a 62-year-old woman with arthritis and bacteremia. Since 1993 vaccination against H. influenzae type b (Hib) has been offered to Danish children. The result has been a remarkable...... decrease in invasive Hib disease. However, physicians need to be aware of the existence of non-type b invasive H. influenzae disease. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Jan...

  7. To tilfaelde af invasive infektioner med Haemophilus influenzae type f

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jette Dettmann; Lind, Jens; Bruun, Brita

    2009-01-01

    Two cases of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type f infection are presented: a three-week-old boy with meningitis and a 62-year-old woman with arthritis and bacteremia. Since 1993 vaccination against H. influenzae type b (Hib) has been offered to Danish children. The result has been a remarkable...... decrease in invasive Hib disease. However, physicians need to be aware of the existence of non-type b invasive H. influenzae disease. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Jan-19...

  8. Invasive plant monitoring for northern U.S. forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    William H. McWilliams; Randall S. Morin; Katherine Johnson; W. Keith Moser; James A. Westfall

    2012-01-01

    Invasive plants are monitored through canopy cover estimates for a list of species developed by FIA for the northern region of the U.S. that is integrated with a national list. Nearly all of the invasive plants on the NRS-FIA list are exotic species, but a few native species are listed. Highly invasive native species such as rhizomatous fern are absent, making the list...

  9. Impact of invasive plants on food webs and pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Sikai Wang; Qiang Sheng; Tianjiang Chu; Bo Li; Jiakuan Chen; Jihua Wu

    2013-01-01

    In natural ecosystems, energy mainly flows along food chains in food webs. Numerous studies have shown that plant invasions influence ecosystem functions through altering food webs. In recent decades, more attention has been paid to the effects of alien plants on local food webs. In this review, we analyze the influence of exotic plants on food webs and pathways, and explore the impacts of local food web characteristics on community invasibility. Invasive plants alter food webs mainly by chan...

  10. Unusual Metastatic Patterns of Invasive Lobular Carcinoma of the Breast

    OpenAIRE

    Sobinsky, Justin D.; Willson, Thomas D.; Podbielski, Francis J.; Connolly, Mark M.

    2013-01-01

    Invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast has similar patterns of metastatic disease when compared to invasive ductal carcinoma; however, lobular carcinoma metastasizes to unusual sites more frequently. We present a 65-year-old female with a history of invasive lobular breast carcinoma (T3N3M0) treated with modified radical mastectomy and aromatase-inhibitor therapy who underwent a surveillance PET scan, which showed possible sigmoid cancer. Colonoscopy with biopsy revealed a 3?cm sigmoid aden...

  11. Resource competition in plant invasions: emerging patterns and research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioria, Margherita; Osborne, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    Invasions by alien plants provide a unique opportunity to examine competitive interactions among plants. While resource competition has long been regarded as a major mechanism responsible for successful invasions, given a well-known capacity for many invaders to become dominant and reduce plant diversity in the invaded communities, few studies have measured resource competition directly or have assessed its importance relative to that of other mechanisms, at different stages of an invasion process. Here, we review evidence comparing the competitive ability of invasive species vs. that of co-occurring native plants, along a range of environmental gradients, showing that many invasive species have a superior competitive ability over native species, although invasive congeners are not necessarily competitively superior over native congeners, nor are alien dominants are better competitors than native dominants. We discuss how the outcomes of competition depend on a number of factors, such as the heterogeneous distribution of resources, the stage of the invasion process, as well as phenotypic plasticity and evolutionary adaptation, which may result in increased or decreased competitive ability in both invasive and native species. Competitive advantages of invasive species over natives are often transient and only important at the early stages of an invasion process. It remains unclear how important resource competition is relative to other mechanisms (competition avoidance via phenological differences, niche differentiation in space associated with phylogenetic distance, recruitment and dispersal limitation, indirect competition, and allelopathy). Finally, we identify the conceptual and methodological issues characterizing competition studies in plant invasions, and we discuss future research needs, including examination of resource competition dynamics and the impact of global environmental change on competitive interactions between invasive and native species. PMID

  12. Non-invasive assessment of gastric activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smallwood, R.H.; Brown, B.H.

    1983-01-01

    There have been many suggestions for the routine clinical use of the electro-enterogram, but with the exception of the reported usage in the USSR no significant penetration into medical practice has been reported elsewhere. Amongst the many suggestions have been the possible application of electrical stimulation via surface electrodes to overcome post-operative inhibition of intestinal electrical activity, which can be recorded via surface electrodes. Gastric emptying studies have shown that duodenal ulceration is associated with changes in the rate and pattern of emptying of solid meals. Identifiable patterns in the electro-gastrogram following a metal might have diagnostic application. There is some evidence of correlations of electrical activity and pathology in the large intestine. In the colon diverticular disease has been shown to change the frequency content of the slow wave electrical activity and there is some evidence that this might be recorded from surface electrodes. A major obstacle to progress remains the inability to relate non-invasive recordings to intestinal motility. The best hope may be the use of direct and yet non-invasive methods of obtaining motility and in this context real-time ultrasound imaging is probably the most promising technique. The electro-gastrogram has certainly been shown to allow recording of gastric slow wave activity and there is a reasonable hope that further methods of analysis will allow inferential information on motility to be obtained. The following section makes brief mention of these techniques

  13. [Argentine consensus of non-invasive ventilation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, Ana R; Abbona, Horacio; Ferrero, Gerardo; Figueroa Casas, Juan C; De Vega, Marcelino; Lisanti, Raul; Lopez, Ana M; Menga, Guillermo; Montiel, Guillermo C; Perez Chada, Daniel; Raimondi, Alejandro C; Raimondi, Guillermo A; Uribe Echevarria, María Elisa; Vázquez, Walter D

    2005-01-01

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is nowadays increasingly used. The significant decrease in tracheal intubation related complications makes it particularly attractive in patients with moderately acute respiratory failure (ARF) who still have some degree of respiratory autonomy. It has also been used to support patients with chronic respiratory failure. However, final outcomes are variable according to the conditions which determined its application. This Consensus was performed in order to review the evidence supporting the use of positive pressure NIV. The patho-physiological background of NIV and the equipment required technology are described. Available evidence clearly suggests benefits of NIV in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and in cardiogenic pulmonary edema (Recommendation A). When considering ARF in the setting of acute respiratory distress syndrome results are uncertain, unless dealing with immunosupressed patients (Recommendation B). Positive results are also shown in weaning of mechanical ventilation (MV), particularly regarding acute exacerbation of COPD patients (Recommendation A). An improved quality of life in chronic respiratory failure and a longer survival in restrictive disorders has also been shown (Recommendation B) while its benefit in stable COPD patients is still controversial (Recommendation C). NIV should be performed according to pre-established standards. A revision of NIV related complications is performed and the cost-benefit comparison with invasive MV is also considered.

  14. Live attenuated vaccines for invasive Salmonella infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Sharon M; Levine, Myron M

    2015-06-19

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi produces significant morbidity and mortality worldwide despite the fact that there are licensed Salmonella Typhi vaccines available. This is primarily due to the fact that these vaccines are not used in the countries that most need them. There is growing recognition that an effective invasive Salmonella vaccine formulation must also prevent infection due to other Salmonella serovars. We anticipate that a multivalent vaccine that targets the following serovars will be needed to control invasive Salmonella infections worldwide: Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Paratyphi A, Salmonella Paratyphi B (currently uncommon but may become dominant again), Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Choleraesuis (as well as other Group C Salmonella). Live attenuated vaccines are an attractive vaccine formulation for use in developing as well as developed countries. Here, we describe the methods of attenuation that have been used to date to create live attenuated Salmonella vaccines and provide an update on the progress that has been made on these vaccines. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. The evolution of minimally invasive bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelder, Andrew J; Williams, Robert; Sutton, Christopher; Khanna, Achal

    2013-08-01

    Obesity is a pandemic associated with significant morbidity and mortality. This historical article charts the progress of successful strategies that have been used to tackle weight loss from dietary modifications to the development of surgical interventions that have subsequently evolved. It also provides a précis of the reported outcome data following minimally invasive bariatric procedures. A literature review was performed. All articles relevant to the progression of bariatric surgery and minimally invasive surgery were assessed, as were those articles that described the ultimate evolution, combination, and establishment of the two techniques. This article charts the progression of early weight loss strategies, from early dietary modifications and pharmacologic interventions to initial techniques in small bowel bypass procedures, banding techniques, and sleeve gastrectomies. It also describes the simultaneous developments of endoscopic interventions and laparoscopic procedures. A range of procedures are described, which differ in their success in terms of loss of excess weight and in their complication rates. Weight loss is greatest for biliopancreatic diversion followed by gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy and least for adjustable gastric banding. Bariatric surgery is an evolving field, which will continue to expand given current epidemiologic trends. Developments in instrumentation and surgical techniques, including single access and natural orifice approaches, may offer further benefit in terms of patient acceptability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Control techniques for invasive alien plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele de Sá Dechoum

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Invasive alien species are recognized as a major threat to the conservation of biodiversity. These species should be managed based on local and regional environmental conditions. Control techniques were tested for ten invasive species in Santa Catarina State: the trees Casuarina equisetifolia, Hovenia dulcis, Psidium guajava, Syzygium cumini, and Terminalia catappa, and shrubs and herbs Rubus fruticosus, Furcraea foetida, Hedychium coronarium, Impatiens walleriana, and Tradescantia zebrina. Treatments applied for trees were cut stump, frill and girdling or ring-barking followed by herbicide application, while the other species were treated with foliar spray, application of herbicide on the root system, cut stump and herbicide injection. The active ingredients tested were Triclopyr, Glyphosate, and the combination of Triclopyr + Fluroxipyr in concentrations from 2 to 6%, according to the species. The cut stump method was efficient for all of the woody species, while ring-barking and frilling followed by herbicide application and basal bark application resulted in different levels of efficiency for the species tested. The most efficient method for herbs and shrubs was foliar spray, and the least efficient methods were cut stump and herbicide injection.

  17. Invasive candidiasis in pediatric intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhi, Sunit; Deep, Akash

    2009-10-01

    Candidemia and disseminated candidiasis are major causes of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients especially in the intensive care units (ICU). The incidence of invasive candidasis is on a steady rise because of increasing use of multiple antibiotics and invasive procedures carried out in the ICUs. Worldwide there is a shifting trend from C. albicans towards non albicans species, with an associated increase in mortality and antifungal resistance. In the ICU a predisposed host in one who is on broad spectrum antibiotics, parenteral nutrition, and central venous catheters. There are no pathognomonic signs or symptoms. The clinical clues are: unexplained fever or signs of severe sepsis or septic shock while on antibiotics, multiple, non-tender, nodular erythematous cutaneous lesions. The spectrum of infection with candida species range from superficial candidiasis of the skin and mucosa to more serious life threatening infections. Treatment of candidiasis involves removal of the most likely source of infection and drug therapy to speed up the clearance of infection. Amphotericin B remains the initial drug of first choice in hemodynamically unstable critically ill children in the wake of increasing resistance to azoles. Evaluation of newer antifungal agents and precise role of prophylactic therapy in ICU patients is needed.

  18. Minimally invasive thyroidectomy (MIT): indications and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docimo, Giovanni; Salvatore Tolone, Salvatore; Gili, Simona; d'Alessandro, A; Casalino, G; Brusciano, L; Ruggiero, Roberto; Docimo, Ludovico

    2013-01-01

    To establish if the indication for different approaches for thyroidectomy and the incision length provided by means of pre-operative assessment of gland volume and size of nodules resulted in safe and effective outcomes and in any notable aesthetic or quality-of-life impact on patients. Ninehundred eightytwo consecutive patients, undergoing total thyroidectomy, were enrolled. The thyroid volume and maximal nodule diameter were measured by means of ultrasounds. Based on ultrasounds findings, patients were divided into three groups: minimally invasive video assisted thyroidectomy (MIVAT), minimally invasive thyroidectomy (MIT) and conventional thyroidectomy (CT) groups. The data concerning the following parameters were collected: operative time, postoperative complications, postoperative pain and cosmetic results. The MIVAT group included 179 patients, MIT group included 592 patients and CT group included 211 patients. Incidence of complications did not differ significantly in each group. In MIVAT and MIT group, the perception of postoperative pain was less intense than CT group. The patients in the MIVAT (7±1.5) and MIT (8±2) groups were more satisfied with the cosmetic results than those in CT group (5±1.3) (p= MIT is a technique totally reproducible, and easily convertible to perform surgical procedures in respect of the patient, without additional complications, increased costs, and with better aesthetic results.

  19. Dispersal Polymorphisms in Invasive Fire Ants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson A Helms

    Full Text Available In the Found or Fly (FoF hypothesis ant queens experience reproduction-dispersal tradeoffs such that queens with heavier abdomens are better at founding colonies but are worse flyers. We tested predictions of FoF in two globally invasive fire ants, Solenopsis geminata (Fabricius, 1804 and S. invicta (Buren, 1972. Colonies of these species may produce two different monogyne queen types-claustral queens with heavy abdomens that found colonies independently, and parasitic queens with small abdomens that enter conspecific nests. Claustral and parasitic queens were similarly sized, but the abdomens of claustral queens weighed twice as much as those of their parasitic counterparts. Their heavier abdomens adversely impacted morphological predictors of flight ability, resulting in 32-38% lower flight muscle ratios, 55-63% higher wing loading, and 32-33% higher abdomen drag. In lab experiments maximum flight durations in claustral S. invicta queens decreased by about 18 minutes for every milligram of abdomen mass. Combining our results into a simple fitness tradeoff model, we calculated that an average parasitic S. invicta queen could produce only 1/3 as many worker offspring as a claustral queen, but could fly 4 times as long and have a 17- to 36-fold larger potential colonization area. Investigations of dispersal polymorphisms and their associated tradeoffs promises to shed light on range expansions in invasive species, the evolution of alternative reproductive strategies, and the selective forces driving the recurrent evolution of parasitism in ants.

  20. [Theory and practice of minimally invasive endodontics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, H W

    2016-08-01

    The primary goal of modern endodontic therapy is to achieve the long-term retention of a functional tooth by preventing or treating pulpitis or apical periodontitis is. The long-term retention of endodontically treated tooth is correlated with the remaining amount of tooth tissue and the quality of the restoration after root canal filling. In recent years, there has been rapid progress and development in the basic research of endodontic biology, instrument and applied materials, making treatment procedures safer, more accurate, and more efficient. Thus, minimally invasive endodontics(MIE)has received increasing attention at present. MIE aims to preserve the maximum of tooth structure during root canal therapy, and the concept covers the whole process of diagnosis and treatment of teeth. This review article focuses on describing the minimally invasive concepts and operating essentials in endodontics, from diagnosis and treatment planning to the access opening, pulp cavity finishing, root canal cleaning and shaping, 3-dimensional root canal filling and restoration after root canal treatment.

  1. Primary Intradural Hemangiopericytoma With Intramedullary Invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiang-Wei Chou

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Hemangiopericytoma (HPC is a rare tumor of the central nervous system and is usually found intracranially. Intraspinal HPCs are very rare and mostly involve the extradural bony structures. Primary intradural HPC has only been reported in 10 cases, all of which occurred in the extramedullary region. Intramedullary invasion has never been reported. Here, we describe a case of primary intradural HPC of the thoracic spine that presented initially with paresthesia and paraplegia of both legs. Magnetic resonance imaging of the thoracic spine showed an intradural dumbbell-shaped tumor at the T10 level. The initial impression was neurogenic tumor, meningioma, or metastasis. During operation, the tumor was found to have obvious intramedullary invasion. Gross-total removal was done, and the patient's neurological function improved; there was no recurrence at the 3-year follow-up. There is no consensus as to what constitutes the optimal treatment of HPC, but most neurosurgeons will advocate gross-total resection. A comparative analysis between intradural and extradural HPCs showed a higher chance of gross-total resection for intradural HPCs, while the recurrence rates showed no difference. The role of adjuvant radiotherapy remains uncertain. Due to the high risk of recurrence and metastasis of HPCs, close follow-up for a long period is mandatory. [J Chin Med Assoc 2009;72(10:536–541

  2. Ensemble habitat mapping of invasive plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, T.J.; Ma, P.; Kumar, S.; Rocca, M.; Morisette, J.T.; Jarnevich, C.S.; Benson, N.

    2010-01-01

    Ensemble species distribution models combine the strengths of several species environmental matching models, while minimizing the weakness of any one model. Ensemble models may be particularly useful in risk analysis of recently arrived, harmful invasive species because species may not yet have spread to all suitable habitats, leaving species-environment relationships difficult to determine. We tested five individual models (logistic regression, boosted regression trees, random forest, multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), and maximum entropy model or Maxent) and ensemble modeling for selected nonnative plant species in Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks, Wyoming; Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks, California, and areas of interior Alaska. The models are based on field data provided by the park staffs, combined with topographic, climatic, and vegetation predictors derived from satellite data. For the four invasive plant species tested, ensemble models were the only models that ranked in the top three models for both field validation and test data. Ensemble models may be more robust than individual species-environment matching models for risk analysis. ?? 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  3. INVASIVE AMOEBIASIS COMPLICATING IFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziglam H

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTIONAmoebiasis, which is caused by the intestinal protozoan Entamoeba histolytica, is a ubiquitous parasitic infection affecting approximately 10% of the world’s population and causing more deaths every year (100,000 deaths than any other parasitic infection, with the exception of malaria and schistosomiasis [1–3]. Most individuals with an E. histolytica infection are asymptomatic, but some develop severe invasive disease, such as amoebic colitis. Other manifestations, such as pulmonary, cardiac or brain involvement, are rare. Intestinal amoebiasis can probably also present as a chronic, non-dysenteric syndrome of diarrhoea, weight loss, and abdominal pain that can last for years and mimic inflammatory bowel disease. Fulminant colitis with bowel necrosis leading to perforation and peritonitis occurs in only about 0.5% of cases, but it is associated with a mortality rate of more than 40%. Patients with invasive amoebiasis living in the United Kingdom and other developed countries generally acquire the infection in another country in which the pathogenic species is endemic. Areas that have high rates of amoebic infection include India, Africa, Mexico and parts of Central and South America. Infection with pathogenic E. histolytica is not a common cause of travelers’ diarrhoea, and gastrointestinal infection is uncommon in travelers who have spent less than one month in endemic areas.

  4. Plasminogen alleles influence susceptibility to invasive aspergillosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee K Zaas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Invasive aspergillosis (IA is a common and life-threatening infection in immunocompromised individuals. A number of environmental and epidemiologic risk factors for developing IA have been identified. However, genetic factors that affect risk for developing IA have not been clearly identified. We report that host genetic differences influence outcome following establishment of pulmonary aspergillosis in an exogenously immune suppressed mouse model. Computational haplotype-based genetic analysis indicated that genetic variation within the biologically plausible positional candidate gene plasminogen (Plg; Gene ID 18855 correlated with murine outcome. There was a single nonsynonymous coding change (Gly110Ser where the minor allele was found in all of the susceptible strains, but not in the resistant strains. A nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (Asp472Asn was also identified in the human homolog (PLG; Gene ID 5340. An association study within a cohort of 236 allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT recipients revealed that alleles at this SNP significantly affected the risk of developing IA after HSCT. Furthermore, we demonstrated that plasminogen directly binds to Aspergillus fumigatus. We propose that genetic variation within the plasminogen pathway influences the pathogenesis of this invasive fungal infection.

  5. Minimally invasive surgery of the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Oliver S

    2007-11-01

    Minimally invasive knee replacement surgery has been developed in an attempt to lessen the impact of operations on the patient's quality of life, in the same way as arthroscopy, the forefather of minimally invasive surgery (MIS), revolutionised cartilage and ligament surgery three decades earlier. The technique is based on minimising soft tissue and muscle trauma, skin incision length, and capsular disruption while trying to maintain the ultimate goal of a well-aligned, well-fixed knee replacement. Short-term advantages including accelerated recovery and reduction in blood loss have been demonstrated, but it remains to be investigated whether MIS is able to provide sustainable benefits and long-term outcome equivalent to conventional surgery. Successful application of MIS techniques have been confirmed in conjunction with unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKR) implantation, while its use with total knee arthroplasty remains experimental. Critics have expressed concern that reduced visibility may compromise implant positioning and leg alignment which could have a negative effect on prosthetic long-term survival. MIS clearly represents a unique and more technically demanding procedure, but the learning curve may perhaps overshadow the benefits. Computer navigation may help to avoid such problems but so far scientific evidence regarding definitive outcomes is lacking, and some of the MIS techniques are still in the early phases of development.

  6. Functional morphology underlies performance differences among invasive and non-invasive ruderal Rubus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Joshua S; Yeakley, J Alan

    2013-10-01

    The ability of some introduced plant species to outperform native species under altered resource conditions makes them highly productive in ecosystems with surplus resources. However, ruderal native species are also productive when resources are available. The differences in abundance among invasive and non-invasive ruderal plants may be related to differences in ability to maintain access to or store resources for continual use. For a group of ruderal species in the Pacific Northwest of North America (invasive Rubus armeniacus; non-invasive R. ursinus, R. parviflorus, R. spectabilis, and Rosa nutkana), we sought to determine whether differences in functional morphological traits, especially metrics of water access and storage, were consistent with differences in water conductance and growth rate. We also investigated the changes in these traits in response to abundant vs. limited water availability. Rubus armeniacus had among the largest root systems and cane cross-sectional areas, the lowest cane tissue densities, and the most plastic ratios of leaf area to plant mass and of xylem area to leaf area, often sharing its rank with R. ursinus or Rosa nutkana. These three species had the highest water conductance and relative growth rates, though Rubus armeniacus grew the most rapidly when water was not limited. Our results suggest that water access and storage abilities vary with morphology among the ruderal species investigated, and that these abilities, in combination, are greatest in the invasive. In turn, functional morphological traits allow R. armeniacus to maintain rapid gas exchange rates during the dry summers in its invaded range, conferring on it high productivity.

  7. Predicting invasive fungal pathogens using invasive pest assemblages: testing model predictions in a virtual world.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean R Paini

    Full Text Available Predicting future species invasions presents significant challenges to researchers and government agencies. Simply considering the vast number of potential species that could invade an area can be insurmountable. One method, recently suggested, which can analyse large datasets of invasive species simultaneously is that of a self organising map (SOM, a form of artificial neural network which can rank species by establishment likelihood. We used this method to analyse the worldwide distribution of 486 fungal pathogens and then validated the method by creating a virtual world of invasive species in which to test the SOM. This novel validation method allowed us to test SOM's ability to rank those species that can establish above those that can't. Overall, we found the SOM highly effective, having on average, a 96-98% success rate (depending on the virtual world parameters. We also found that regions with fewer species present (i.e. 1-10 species were more difficult for the SOM to generate an accurately ranked list, with success rates varying from 100% correct down to 0% correct. However, we were able to combine the numbers of species present in a region with clustering patterns in the SOM, to further refine confidence in lists generated from these sparsely populated regions. We then used the results from the virtual world to determine confidences for lists generated from the fungal pathogen dataset. Specifically, for lists generated for Australia and its states and territories, the reliability scores were between 84-98%. We conclude that a SOM analysis is a reliable method for analysing a large dataset of potential invasive species and could be used by biosecurity agencies around the world resulting in a better overall assessment of invasion risk.

  8. Manifestation of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in the formation of mycetoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, N.; Peters, P.E.; Schellong, S.; Eiff, M. von

    1989-05-01

    Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is characterized by radiological signs allowing a correct diagnosis, including differentiation from pulmonary candidiasis, when they are associated with appropriate clinical symptoms (neutropenia and fever persisting despite broad-spectrum antibiotics). In particular the formation of a pulmonary mycetoma in a previously normal lung is one of these signs. Unlike a simple fungus ball (the saprophytic form of aspergillosis), the rounded density of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis consists of sequestrum of devitalized lung tissue owing to blood vessel invasion by Aspergillus hyphae. This morphologic phenomenon is demonstrated in the present case report and is discussed together with the other roentgenological signs of the invasive aspergillosis.

  9. Manifestation of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in the formation of mycetoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, N.; Peters, P.E.; Schellong, S.; Eiff, M. von

    1989-01-01

    Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is characterized by radiological signs allowing a correct diagnosis, including differentiation from pulmonary candidiasis, when they are associated with appropriate clinical symptoms (neutropenia and fever persisting despite broad-spectrum antibiotics). In particular the formation of a pulmonary mycetoma in a previously normal lung is one of these signs. Unlike a simple fungus ball (the saprophytic form of aspergillosis), the rounded density of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis consists of sequestrum of devitalized lung tissue owing to blood vessel invasion by Aspergillus hyphae. This morphologic phenomenon is demonstrated in the present case report and is discussed together with the other roentgenological signs of the invasive aspergillosis. (orig.) [de

  10. Globally threatened vertebrates on islands with invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatz, Dena R; Zilliacus, Kelly M; Holmes, Nick D; Butchart, Stuart H M; Genovesi, Piero; Ceballos, Gerardo; Tershy, Bernie R; Croll, Donald A

    2017-10-01

    Global biodiversity loss is disproportionately rapid on islands, where invasive species are a major driver of extinctions. To inform conservation planning aimed at preventing extinctions, we identify the distribution and biogeographic patterns of highly threatened terrestrial vertebrates (classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature) and invasive vertebrates on ~465,000 islands worldwide by conducting a comprehensive literature review and interviews with more than 500 experts. We found that 1189 highly threatened vertebrate species (319 amphibians, 282 reptiles, 296 birds, and 292 mammals) breed on 1288 islands. These taxa represent only 5% of Earth's terrestrial vertebrates and 41% of all highly threatened terrestrial vertebrates, which occur in invasive vertebrates was available for 1030 islands (80% of islands with highly threatened vertebrates). Invasive vertebrates were absent from 24% of these islands, where biosecurity to prevent invasions is a critical management tool. On the 76% of islands where invasive vertebrates were present, management could benefit 39% of Earth's highly threatened vertebrates. Invasive mammals occurred in 97% of these islands, with Rattus sp. as the most common invasive vertebrate (78%; 609 islands). Our results provide an important baseline for identifying islands for invasive species eradication and other island conservation actions that reduce biodiversity loss.

  11. Acidity generated by the tumor microenvironment drives local invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrella, Veronica; Chen, Tingan; Lloyd, Mark; Wojtkowiak, Jonathan; Cornnell, Heather H; Ibrahim-Hashim, Arig; Bailey, Kate; Balagurunathan, Yoganand; Rothberg, Jennifer M; Sloane, Bonnie F; Johnson, Joseph; Gatenby, Robert A; Gillies, Robert J

    2013-03-01

    The pH of solid tumors is acidic due to increased fermentative metabolism and poor perfusion. It has been hypothesized that acid pH promotes local invasive growth and metastasis. The hypothesis that acid mediates invasion proposes that H(+) diffuses from the proximal tumor microenvironment into adjacent normal tissues where it causes tissue remodeling that permits local invasion. In the current work, tumor invasion and peritumoral pH were monitored over time using intravital microscopy. In every case, the peritumoral pH was acidic and heterogeneous and the regions of highest tumor invasion corresponded to areas of lowest pH. Tumor invasion did not occur into regions with normal or near-normal extracellular pH. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that cells in the invasive edges expressed the glucose transporter-1 and the sodium-hydrogen exchanger-1, both of which were associated with peritumoral acidosis. In support of the functional importance of our findings, oral administration of sodium bicarbonate was sufficient to increase peritumoral pH and inhibit tumor growth and local invasion in a preclinical model, supporting the acid-mediated invasion hypothesis. Cancer Res; 73(5); 1524-35. ©2012 AACR. ©2012 AACR.

  12. A conceptual framework for invasion in microbial communities

    KAUST Repository

    Kinnunen, Marta

    2016-05-03

    There is a growing interest in controlling-promoting or avoiding-the invasion of microbial communities by new community members. Resource availability and community structure have been reported as determinants of invasion success. However, most invasion studies do not adhere to a coherent and consistent terminology nor always include rigorous interpretations of the processes behind invasion. Therefore, we suggest that a consistent set of definitions and a rigorous conceptual framework are needed. We define invasion in a microbial community as the establishment of an alien microbial type in a resident community and argue how simple criteria to define aliens, residents, and alien establishment can be applied for a wide variety of communities. In addition, we suggest an adoption of the community ecology framework advanced by Vellend (2010) to clarify potential determinants of invasion. This framework identifies four fundamental processes that control community dynamics: dispersal, selection, drift and diversification. While selection has received ample attention in microbial community invasion research, the three other processes are often overlooked. Here, we elaborate on the relevance of all four processes and conclude that invasion experiments should be designed to elucidate the role of dispersal, drift and diversification, in order to obtain a complete picture of invasion as a community process.

  13. Clinicopathological features of stomach cancer with invasive micropapillary component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Takeo; Gotohda, Naoto; Kato, Yuichiro; Kinoshita, Takahiro; Takahashi, Shinichiro; Konishi, Masaru; Daiko, Hiroyuki; Nishimura, Mitsuyo; Kuwata, Takeshi; Ochiai, Atsushi; Kinoshita, Taira

    2012-04-01

    Invasive micropapillary carcinoma has been recognized as a rare disease entity with aggressive tumor behavior. However, few reports have described invasive micropapillary carcinoma in the gastrointestinal tract, particularly its involvement in gastric cancer. We retrospectively analyzed 930 patients diagnosed with gastric cancer who underwent gastrectomy, and we then histopathologically evaluated the existence of a regional invasive micropapillary component. Clinicopathological features were investigated in patients with an invasive micropapillary component and compared with such features in 100 patients with gastric adenocarcinoma, selected as stage-matched controls, who underwent gastrectomy during the same period. Of the 930 patients, 14 were histopathologically diagnosed with gastric cancer with a regional invasive micropapillary component. There were no significant differences in age, gender, tumor location, macroscopic type, or type of surgery between patients with an invasive micropapillary component and the pT-matched controls. Histopathologically, significant differences were observed in lymphatic infiltration, venous invasion, the percentage of cases with lymph node metastasis, and the median number of metastatic lymph nodes. The three-year disease-free and overall survival rates of patients with an invasive micropapillary component were 40.5 and 59.3%, respectively, compared with those for the stage-matched controls, which were 72.6 and 80.6%, respectively (p = 0.02 and 0.07). Patients with gastric cancer with a regional invasive micropapillary component showed marked cancer infiltration in the lymphatic pathway and poor prognosis after gastrectomy.

  14. Invasion rate and population characteristics of the invasive round goby Neogobius melanostomus: effects of density and invasion history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azour, Farivar; Deurs, Mikael van; Behrens, Jane

    2015-01-01

    ). The established population revealed a broad age distribution and a 1:1 gender ratio, while fish from a recently invaded site were primarily of intermediate ages with a male-biased gender ratio. Otolith analyses suggested that the oldest individuals from the recently invaded area experienced superior growth...... Baltic Sea. Further analyses showed that fish from an established high-density round goby population were slow-growing and displayed poorer condition (weight at age and hepatosomatic index) compared to fish sampled from recently invaded locations (i.e. at the forefront of the distribution range......Round goby Neogobius melanostomus is currently one of the most wide-ranging invasive fish species in Europe and North America. The present study demonstrates how the distribution of round goby has expanded from 2008 to 2013 at a rate of about 30 km yr−1 along the Danish coastline in the western...

  15. Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from South America use an atypical red blood cell invasion pathway associated with invasion ligand polymorphisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Perez, Mary; Villasis, Elizabeth; Machado, Ricardo L D

    2012-01-01

    members of the PfRh (PfRh1, PfRh2a, PfRh2b, PfRh4, PfRh5) families were determined. We found that most P. falciparum field isolates from Colombia and Peru invade RBCs through an atypical invasion pathway phenotypically characterized as resistant to all enzyme treatments (NrTrCr). Moreover, the invasion...... blood stage vaccine design focused on invasion pathway proteins, suggesting that regional invasion variants and global geographical variation are likely to preclude a simple one size fits all type of vaccine....

  16. Minimally invasive aesthetic procedures in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wollina U

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Uwe Wollina1, Alberto Goldman21Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Academic Teaching Hospital Dresden-Friedrichstadt, Dresden, Germany; 2Clinica Goldman, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande du Sul, BrazilAbstract: Age is a significant factor in modifying specific needs when it comes to medical aesthetic procedures. In this review we will focus on young adults in their third decade of life and review minimally invasive aesthetic procedures other than cosmetics and cosmeceuticals. Correction of asymmetries, correction after body modifying procedures, and facial sculpturing are important issues for young adults. The implication of aesthetic medicine as part of preventive medicine is a major ethical challenge that differentiates aesthetic medicine from fashion.Keywords: acne scars, ice pick scars, boxcar scars, fillers 

  17. The October 2011 Kenyan invasion of Somalia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Gorm Rye

    2018-01-01

    -Kenyan origin who pursued their own interests. Security and economic concerns did play a role, while the paper dismisses that the invasion can be understood as a consequence of the Kenyan government pursuing an ‘international image management strategy’. Theoretically, the paper concludes that ‘Western’ theories......This paper asks why Kenya invaded Somalia in October 2011. It scrutinises five possible explanations as to why Kenyan decision-makers decided to invade neighbouring Somalia. The explanations are inspired by different theoretical frameworks. Some are inspired by theories developed to analyse Western...... may contribute to explaining the launch of ‘Linda Nchi,’ whereas Africa-focused theories like neo-patrimonialism seem less helpful in this particular context....

  18. [Invasive mould disease in haematological patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Camps, Isabel; Jarque, Isidro

    2014-01-01

    Invasive mould infections (IMI) are a persistent problem with high morbidity and mortality rates among patients receiving chemotherapy for hematological malignancies and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Management of IMI in this setting has become increasingly complex with the advent of new antifungal agents and diagnostic tests, which have resulted in different therapeutic strategies (prophylactic, empirical, pre-emptive, and directed). A proper assessment of the individual risk for IMI appears to be critical in order to use the best prophylactic and therapeutic approach and increase the survival rates. Among the available antifungal drugs, the most frequently used in the hematologic patient are fluconazole, mould-active azoles (itraconazole, posaconazole and voriconazole), candins (anidulafungin, caspofungin and micafungin), and lipid formulations of amphotericin B. Specific recommendations for their use, and criteria for selecting the antifungal agents are discussed in this paper. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Espana.

  19. Biochemical mechanisms of tumor invasion and metastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liotta, L A; Wewer, U; Rao, N C

    1988-01-01

    Cancer invasion and metastases is a complex multistep process. In order for a tumor cell to successfully traverse all the steps of this process and initiate a metastatic colony, it must express the right combination of gene products. Such gene products may include proteins which regulate cell...... interaction with the basement membrane and cell motility. Tumor cells attach to the basement membrane glycoprotein laminin via the cell surface laminin receptor. The human laminin receptor was purified and molecularly cloned. The level of laminin receptor mRNA is a variety of human carcinoma cells correlated...... with the number of laminin receptors on the cell surface of these cells. Following attachment to the basement membrane, the tumor cell next secretes proteases which may degrade type IV collagen. A genetic linkage between type IV collagenase secretion and metastases was studied using our new genetic system...

  20. Minimally invasive hysterectomy in Coatis ( Nasua nasua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno W. Minto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Some wildlife species, such as coatis, have a high degree of adaptability to adverse conditions, such as fragmented urban forests, increasingly common on the world stage. The increase in the number of these mesopredators causes drastic changes in the communities of smaller predators, interferes with reproductive success of trees, as well as becoming a form of exchange between domestic and wild areas, favoring the transmission of zoonosis and increasing the occurrence of attacks to animals or people. This report describes the use of minimally invasive hysterectomy in two individuals of the species Nasua nasua, which can be accomplished through the use of hook technique, commonly used to castrate dogs and cats. The small incision and healing speed of incised tissues are fundamental in wild life management since the postoperative care is limited by the behavior of these animals. This technique proved to be effective and can greatly reduce the morbidity of this procedure in coatis.