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Sample records for inuit preschoolers nunavut

  1. Food insecurity among Inuit preschoolers: Nunavut Inuit Child Health Survey, 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egeland, Grace M; Pacey, Angela; Cao, Zirong; Sobol, Isaac

    2010-02-23

    Food security (i.e., a condition in which all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life) has been noted to be lower in indigenous communities in Canada. We investigated the prevalence of inadequate food security, or food insecurity, among Inuit households with preschool children. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of the health status of 388 randomly selected Inuit children aged three to five years in 16 Nunavut communities during the period from 2007 to 2008. From the survey data, we classified levels of food insecurity specifically among children. We also classified levels of overall food insecurity of the household of each child. We calculated the weighted prevalence of levels of child food insecurity and of household food insecurity. Nearly 70% of Inuit preschoolers resided in households rated as food insecure (69.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 64.7%-74.6%). Overall, 31.0% of children were moderately food insecure, and 25.1% were severely food insecure, with a weighted prevalence of child food insecurity of 56.1% (95% CI 51.0%-61.3%). Primary care-givers in households in which children were severely food insecure reported experiencing times in the past year when their children skipped meals (75.8%), went hungry (90.4%) or did not eat for a whole day (60.1%). Primary caregivers in households in which children were moderately food insecure reported experiencing times in the past year when they worried food would run out (85.1%), when they fed their children less expensive food (95.1%) and when their children did not eat enough because there was no money for food (64.3%). We observed a high prevalence of household food insecurity, with a substantial proportion of children with severely food insecure status. Interventions are needed to ensure a healthy start in life for Inuit preschoolers.

  2. Culturally Sensitive Counselling in Nunavut: Implications of Inuit Traditional Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wihak, Christine; Merali, Noorfarah

    2003-01-01

    The success of the Inuit people of Canada in seeking political autonomy resulted in the creation of the Nunavut territory. The new Government of Nunavut (GN) has instituted Inuit Quajimajatiqangit (IQ), the values, norms, and traditional knowledge of the Inuit, as formal policy to guide the delivery of health, social, and civil services in order…

  3. Inuit Voices on Quality Education in Nunavut: Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredua-Kwarteng, Eric

    2016-01-01

    This paper is based on a research that explored how Inuit community members in Nunavut Territory, Canada, conceptualized quality education in the socio-cultural context of the territory. Data were collected through telephone interviews of 13 Inuit community members in Nunavut and document reviews both of which were conducted in 2010. The data…

  4. Mammal Distribution in Nunavut: Inuit Harvest Data and COSEWIC's Species at Risk Assessment Process

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    Karen A. Kowalchuk

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC assesses risk potential for a species by evaluating the best available information from all knowledge sources including Aboriginal traditional knowledge (ATK. Effective application of ATK in this process has been challenging. Inuit knowledge (IK of mammal distribution in Nunavut is reflected, in part, in the harvest spatial data from two comprehensive studies: the Use and Occupancy Mapping (UOM Study conducted by the Nunavut Planning Commission (NPC and the Nunavut Wildlife Harvest Study (WHS conducted by the Nunavut Wildlife Management Board (NWMB. The geographic range values of extent of occurrence (EO and area of occupancy (AO were derived from the harvest data for a selected group of mammals and applied to Phase I of the COSEWIC assessment process. Values falling below threshold values can trigger a potential risk designation of either endangered (EN or threatened (TH for the species being assessed. The IK values and status designations were compared with available COSEWIC data. There was little congruency between the two sets of data. We conclude that there are major challenges within the risk assessment process and specifically the calculation of AO that contributed to the disparity in results. Nonetheless, this application illustrated that Inuit harvest data in Nunavut represents a unique and substantial source of ATK that should be used to enrich the knowledge base on arctic mammal distribution and enhance wildlife management and conservation planning.

  5. HIV/AIDS Risk and Prevention Issues Among Inuit Living in Nunavut Territory of Canada.

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    Kumar, Alexander

    HIV infections occur across the Arctic but their incidence among aboriginal populations varies vastly. At the time this research was initiated there were no data on their occurrence, risk of HIV/AIDS or preventive strategies among Inuit living in the Nunavut territory of Canada. This review is the first to assess the risk of HIV infection among Inuit and evaluate current prevention strategies among Canadian-Inuit populations. The contents of this article are based on the author's own research, undertaken during 3 visits to the Canadian Arctic and the published literature. Disproportionately high rates of Chlamydia and Gonorrhoea within Inuit communities confirm the potential threat of silent HIV transmission. Inuit awareness of HIV/AIDS issues remains inadequate. It is easy to blame distorted perceptions fuelled by the media, religious influence and socio-cultural factors. Aboriginal and Inuit groups, including youth, women and injection drug abusers are at increased risk of infection. The adaptability of proven prevention methods including condom use and male circumcision are discussed. Access to treatment, adherence and resistance issues in the North Canada, require attention. HIV/AIDS poses a considerable threat to Canadian Inuit public health. The most important problem to be addressed is Inuit lack of awareness and understanding of HIV. Education is the single most effective means of prevention. Inuit-specific and culture-sensitive interventions are recommended. Further research opportunities exist to investigate Inuit understanding over HIV/AIDS issues and to assess local prevention efforts. Copyright © 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  6. "The weight on our shoulders is too much, and we are falling": Suicide among Inuit male youth in Nunavut, Canada.

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    Kral, Michael J

    2013-03-01

    Inuit youth suicide is at an epidemic level in the circumpolar north. Rapid culture change has left Inuit in a state of coloniality that destabilized their kin-based social organization, and in spite of advances in self-governance social problems such as suicide continue. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork I carried out in Nunavut, Canada (2004-2005), including 27 interviews with Inuit between the ages of 17 and 61, I examine male youth in particular in the context of recent colonial change, gender ideologies and behavior, youth autonomy, and the family. Anger is common among Inuit male youth, often directed toward girlfriends and parents, and suicide is embedded in some of these relationships. Many Inuit male youth are struggling with a new cultural model of love and sexuality. Inuit speak about a need for more responsible parenting. Evidence is beginning to show, however, that local, community-based suicide prevention may be working. © 2013 by the American Anthropological Association.

  7. "Symptoms of something all around us": Mental health, Inuit culture, and criminal justice in Arctic communities in Nunavut, Canada.

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    Ferrazzi, Priscilla; Krupa, Terry

    2016-09-01

    Rehabilitation-oriented criminal court mental health initiatives to reduce the number of people with mental illness caught in the criminal justice system exist in many North American cities and elsewhere but not in the mainly Inuit Canadian Arctic territory of Nunavut. This study explores whether the therapeutic aims of these resource-intensive, mainly urban initiatives can be achieved in criminal courts in Nunavut's resource constrained, culturally distinct and geographically remote communities. A qualitative multiple-case study in the communities of Iqaluit, Arviat and Qikiqtarjuaq involved 55 semi-structured interviews and three focus groups with participants representing four sectors essential to these initiatives: justice, health, community organizations and community members. These interviews explored whether the therapeutic jurisprudence (TJ) principles that guide criminal court mental health initiatives and the component objectives of these principles could be used to improve the criminal court response to people with mental illness in Nunavut. Interviews revealed 13 themes reflecting perceptions of Inuit culture's influence on the identification of people with mental illness, treatment, and collaboration between the court and others. These themes include cultural differences in defining mental illness, differences in traditional and contemporary treatment models, and the importance of mutual cultural respect. The findings suggest Inuit culture, including its recent history of cultural disruption and change, affects the vulnerability of Nunavut communities to the potential moral and legal pitfalls associated with TJ and criminal court mental health initiatives. These pitfalls include the dominance of biomedical approaches when identifying a target population, the medicalization of behaviour and culture, the risk of "paternalism" in therapeutic interventions, and shortcomings in interdisciplinary collaboration that limit considerations of Inuit culture. The

  8. Indoor air quality and risk of severe lower respiratory tract infection in Inuit infants in Baffin Region, Nunavut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovesi, T. [Children' s Hospital of Easterrn Ontario, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This paper discussed the indoor air quality in the houses of Inuit infants in Nunavut and the health implications. Inuit infants in the Baffin (Qikiqtani) Region of Nunavut have the highest reported rate in the world of severe lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) including bronchiolitis and pneumonia requiring hospitalization. This population also has a high rate of long-term complications after severe LRTI. The houses in the region are small and crowded and tend to be kept warm and humid. Although the homes are heated with low-sulphur Arctic diesel, there is no evidence of leakage from furnaces, as nitrogen dioxide concentrations are low. Houses are generally clean, with very low levels of dust mites and generally low levels of indoor mould. However, indoor smoking is prevalent. According to measured ventilation of indoor carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) concentrations, most houses have ventilation rates below recommended standards. A controlled trial of installing heat recovery ventilators (HRVs) in the homes of the 68 young Inuit children in 3 communities in the Baffin Region has shown that active HRVs can significantly reduce mean indoor CO{sub 2} concentrations and increase occupant comfort. Health outcomes are currently undergoing analysis. 11 refs.

  9. Traditional food consumption is associated with better diet quality and adequacy among Inuit adults in Nunavut, Canada.

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    Sheehy, Tony; Kolahdooz, Fariba; Roache, Cindy; Sharma, Sangita

    2015-01-01

    The Inuit population is undergoing a rapid nutrition transition as a result of reduced consumption of traditional foods. This study aims to describe the differences in dietary adequacy between non-traditional and traditional eaters among Inuit populations in Nunavut, Canada. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a culturally appropriate quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Participants included 208 Inuit adults from three isolated communities in Nunavut. Traditional eaters consumed a more nutrient-dense diet and achieved better dietary adequacy than non-traditional eaters. Traditional foods accounted for 7 and 27% of energy intake among non-traditional and traditional eaters, respectively. Non-nutrient-dense foods accounted for a greater proportion of energy intake in non-traditional eaters; however, these were consumed in significant amounts by both the groups (36 and 27% of total energy). Consumption of traditional foods is associated with greater diet quality and dietary adequacy. Efforts should be made to promote traditional and non-traditional foods of high-nutritional quality.

  10. Art and artistic processes bridge knowledge systems about social-ecological change: An empirical examination with Inuit artists from Nunavut, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Kaitlyn J. Rathwell; Derek Armitage

    2016-01-01

    The role of art and artistic processes is one fruitful yet underexplored area of social-ecological resilience. Art and art making can nurture Indigenous knowledge and at the same time bridge knowledge across generations and cultures (e.g., Inuit and scientific). Experiences in two Inuit communities in northern Canada (Cape Dorset and Pangnirtung, Nunavut) provide the context in which we empirically examine the mechanisms through which art and art making may bridge knowledge systems about soci...

  11. "Dessiner, c'est parler". Pratiques figuratives, représentations symboliques et enjeux socio-culturels des arts graphiques inuit au Nunavut (Arctique canadien)

    OpenAIRE

    Maire, Aurélie

    2014-01-01

    This doctoral research examines the themes of figurative practices, symbolic representations and the socio-cultural stakes specific to Inuit graphic arts in the communities of Kinngait (Cape Dorset) and Pangniqtuuq (Pangnirtung) in Nunavut (the Canadian Arctic). The notions of drawing (titiqtugaq-) and of speech (uqaq-) are central to the thesis, which is guided by an interdisciplinary approach within the perspective of ethno-history of Inuit sketch art. The thesis is organized into three par...

  12. Prey items and predation behavior of killer whales (Orcinus orca) in Nunavut, Canada based on Inuit hunter interviews.

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    Ferguson, Steven H; Higdon, Jeff W; Westdal, Kristin H

    2012-01-30

    Killer whales (Orcinus orca) are the most widely distributed cetacean, occurring in all oceans worldwide, and within ocean regions different ecotypes are defined based on prey preferences. Prey items are largely unknown in the eastern Canadian Arctic and therefore we conducted a survey of Inuit Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) to provide information on the feeding ecology of killer whales. We compiled Inuit observations on killer whales and their prey items via 105 semi-directed interviews conducted in 11 eastern Nunavut communities (Kivalliq and Qikiqtaaluk regions) from 2007-2010. Results detail local knowledge of killer whale prey items, hunting behaviour, prey responses, distribution of predation events, and prey capture techniques. Inuit TEK and published literature agree that killer whales at times eat only certain parts of prey, particularly of large whales, that attacks on large whales entail relatively small groups of killer whales, and that they hunt cooperatively. Inuit observations suggest that there is little prey specialization beyond marine mammals and there are no definitive observations of fish in the diet. Inuit hunters and elders also documented the use of sea ice and shallow water as prey refugia. By combining TEK and scientific approaches we provide a more holistic view of killer whale predation in the eastern Canadian Arctic relevant to management and policy. Continuing the long-term relationship between scientists and hunters will provide for successful knowledge integration and has resulted in considerable improvement in understanding of killer whale ecology relevant to management of prey species. Combining scientists and Inuit knowledge will assist in northerners adapting to the restructuring of the Arctic marine ecosystem associated with warming and loss of sea ice.

  13. Prey items and predation behavior of killer whales (Orcinus orca) in Nunavut, Canada based on Inuit hunter interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Killer whales (Orcinus orca) are the most widely distributed cetacean, occurring in all oceans worldwide, and within ocean regions different ecotypes are defined based on prey preferences. Prey items are largely unknown in the eastern Canadian Arctic and therefore we conducted a survey of Inuit Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) to provide information on the feeding ecology of killer whales. We compiled Inuit observations on killer whales and their prey items via 105 semi-directed interviews conducted in 11 eastern Nunavut communities (Kivalliq and Qikiqtaaluk regions) from 2007-2010. Results Results detail local knowledge of killer whale prey items, hunting behaviour, prey responses, distribution of predation events, and prey capture techniques. Inuit TEK and published literature agree that killer whales at times eat only certain parts of prey, particularly of large whales, that attacks on large whales entail relatively small groups of killer whales, and that they hunt cooperatively. Inuit observations suggest that there is little prey specialization beyond marine mammals and there are no definitive observations of fish in the diet. Inuit hunters and elders also documented the use of sea ice and shallow water as prey refugia. Conclusions By combining TEK and scientific approaches we provide a more holistic view of killer whale predation in the eastern Canadian Arctic relevant to management and policy. Continuing the long-term relationship between scientists and hunters will provide for successful knowledge integration and has resulted in considerable improvement in understanding of killer whale ecology relevant to management of prey species. Combining scientists and Inuit knowledge will assist in northerners adapting to the restructuring of the Arctic marine ecosystem associated with warming and loss of sea ice. PMID:22520955

  14. "The trauma experienced by generations past having an effect in their descendants": narrative and historical trauma among Inuit in Nunavut, Canada.

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    Crawford, Allison

    2014-06-01

    "Sivulirijat aksururnaqtukkuurnikugijangat aktuiniqaqsimaninga kinguvaanginnut" translates as "the trauma experienced by generations past having an effect in their descendants." The legacy of the history of colonialism is starting to take narrative shape as Inuit give voice to the past and its manifestations in the present through public commissions such as the federal Truth and Reconciliation Commission and the Inuit-led Qikiqtani Truth Commission. However, an examination of other discursive contexts reveals a collective narrative of the colonial past that is at times silent, incomplete or seemingly inconsistent. Reading the political narrative through the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement, and the proceedings of the Legislative Assembly of Nunavut since its formation on April 1, 1999, exposes an almost complete silence about this history. Oral histories, an important form for the preservation and transmission of traditional cultural knowledge, do narrate aspects of this experience of contact, but in accounts that can appear highly individual, fragmented, even contradictory. In contrast, one domain that does seem to register and engage with the impacts of this history of colonialism is Inuit art, specifically visual art and film. In some cases these artistic narratives pre-date the historical trauma narratives of the commissions, which began with the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (RCAP) in the mid-1990s. This paper examines these narrative alternatives for recounting historic trauma in Nunavut, while also considering the implications of understanding historical trauma as narrative. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  15. Eating habits of a population undergoing a rapid dietary transition: portion sizes of traditional and non-traditional foods and beverages consumed by Inuit adults in Nunavut, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehy, Tony; Roache, Cindy; Sharma, Sangita

    2013-06-02

    To determine the portion sizes of traditional and non-traditional foods being consumed by Inuit adults in three remote communities in Nunavut, Canada. A cross-sectional study was carried out between June and October, 2008. Trained field workers collected dietary data using a culturally appropriate, validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire (QFFQ) developed specifically for the study population. Caribou, muktuk (whale blubber and skin) and Arctic char (salmon family), were the most commonly consumed traditional foods; mean portion sizes for traditional foods ranged from 10 g for fermented seal fat to 424 g for fried caribou. Fried bannock and white bread were consumed by >85% of participants; mean portion sizes for these foods were 189 g and 70 g, respectively. Sugar-sweetened beverages and energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods were also widely consumed. Mean portion sizes for regular pop and sweetened juices with added sugar were 663 g and 572 g, respectively. Mean portion sizes for potato chips, pilot biscuits, cakes, chocolate and cookies were 59 g, 59 g, 106 g, 59 g, and 46 g, respectively. The present study provides further evidence of the nutrition transition that is occurring among Inuit in the Canadian Arctic. It also highlights a number of foods and beverages that could be targeted in future nutritional intervention programs aimed at obesity and diet-related chronic disease prevention in these and other Inuit communities.

  16. Inuit parent perspectives on sexual health communication with adolescent children in Nunavut: “It's kinda hard for me to try to find the words”

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    Healey, Gwen

    2014-01-01

    Background For Inuit, the family unit has always played a central role in life and in survival. Social changes in Inuit communities have resulted in significant transformations to economic, political and cultural aspects of Inuit society. Where the family unit was once the setting for dialogue on family relations and sexuality, this has largely been replaced by teachings from the medical community and/or the school system. Objective The purpose of this study was to explore Inuit parent perspectives on sharing knowledge with teenage children about sexual health and relationships. Method A qualitative Indigenous knowledge approach was used for this study with a focus on Inuit ways of knowing as described in the Piliriqattigiinniq Community Health Research Partnership Model. Interviews were conducted with 20 individual parents in 3 Nunavut communities in 2011. Parents were asked about whether and how they talk to their children about sexual health and relationships. An analytical approach building on the concept of Iqqaumaqatigiiniq (“all knowing coming into one”), which is similar to “immersion and crystallization,” was used to identify story elements, groupings or themes in the data. The stories shared by parents are honoured, keeping their words intact as often as possible in the presentation of results. Results Parents shared stories of themselves, family members and observations of the community. Fifteen of 17 mothers in the study reported having experienced sexual abuse as children or adolescents. Parents identified the challenges that they have and continue to experience as a result of forced settlement, family displacement and the transition of Inuit society. They expressed a desire to teach their children about sexual health and relationships and identified the need for emotional support to do this in the wake of the trauma they have experienced. Parents highly valued elders and the knowledge they have about family relationships and childrearing

  17. Inuit parent perspectives on sexual health communication with adolescent children in Nunavut: “It's kinda hard for me to try to find the words”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwen Healey

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: For Inuit, the family unit has always played a central role in life and in survival. Social changes in Inuit communities have resulted in significant transformations to economic, political and cultural aspects of Inuit society. Where the family unit was once the setting for dialogue on family relations and sexuality, this has largely been replaced by teachings from the medical community and/or the school system. Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore Inuit parent perspectives on sharing knowledge with teenage children about sexual health and relationships. Method: A qualitative Indigenous knowledge approach was used for this study with a focus on Inuit ways of knowing as described in the Piliriqattigiinniq Community Health Research Partnership Model. Interviews were conducted with 20 individual parents in 3 Nunavut communities in 2011. Parents were asked about whether and how they talk to their children about sexual health and relationships. An analytical approach building on the concept of Iqqaumaqatigiiniq (“all knowing coming into one”, which is similar to “immersion and crystallization,” was used to identify story elements, groupings or themes in the data. The stories shared by parents are honoured, keeping their words intact as often as possible in the presentation of results. Results: Parents shared stories of themselves, family members and observations of the community. Fifteen of 17 mothers in the study reported having experienced sexual abuse as children or adolescents. Parents identified the challenges that they have and continue to experience as a result of forced settlement, family displacement and the transition of Inuit society. They expressed a desire to teach their children about sexual health and relationships and identified the need for emotional support to do this in the wake of the trauma they have experienced. Parents highly valued elders and the knowledge they have about family relationships

  18. Inuit parent perspectives on sexual health communication with adolescent children in Nunavut: "it's kinda hard for me to try to find the words".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Gwen

    2014-01-01

    For Inuit, the family unit has always played a central role in life and in survival. Social changes in Inuit communities have resulted in significant transformations to economic, political and cultural aspects of Inuit society. Where the family unit was once the setting for dialogue on family relations and sexuality, this has largely been replaced by teachings from the medical community and/or the school system. The purpose of this study was to explore Inuit parent perspectives on sharing knowledge with teenage children about sexual health and relationships. A qualitative Indigenous knowledge approach was used for this study with a focus on Inuit ways of knowing as described in the Piliriqattigiinniq Community Health Research Partnership Model. Interviews were conducted with 20 individual parents in 3 Nunavut communities in 2011. Parents were asked about whether and how they talk to their children about sexual health and relationships. An analytical approach building on the concept of Iqqaumaqatigiiniq ("all knowing coming into one"), which is similar to "immersion and crystallization," was used to identify story elements, groupings or themes in the data. The stories shared by parents are honoured, keeping their words intact as often as possible in the presentation of results. Parents shared stories of themselves, family members and observations of the community. Fifteen of 17 mothers in the study reported having experienced sexual abuse as children or adolescents. Parents identified the challenges that they have and continue to experience as a result of forced settlement, family displacement and the transition of Inuit society. They expressed a desire to teach their children about sexual health and relationships and identified the need for emotional support to do this in the wake of the trauma they have experienced. Parents highly valued elders and the knowledge they have about family relationships and childrearing. There are powerful, unresolved healing issues in

  19. Art and artistic processes bridge knowledge systems about social-ecological change: An empirical examination with Inuit artists from Nunavut, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlyn J. Rathwell

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of art and artistic processes is one fruitful yet underexplored area of social-ecological resilience. Art and art making can nurture Indigenous knowledge and at the same time bridge knowledge across generations and cultures (e.g., Inuit and scientific. Experiences in two Inuit communities in northern Canada (Cape Dorset and Pangnirtung, Nunavut provide the context in which we empirically examine the mechanisms through which art and art making may bridge knowledge systems about social-ecological change. Art making and artworks create continuity between generations via symbols and skill development (e.g., seal skin stretching for a modern artistic mural and by creating mobile and adaptive boundary objects that function as a shared reference point to connect different social worlds. Our results indicate how art and artistic processes may bridge knowledge systems through six mechanisms, and in so doing contribute to social-ecological resilience during change and uncertainty. These mechanisms are (1 embedding knowledge, practice and belief into art objects; (2 sharing knowledge using the language of art; (3 sharing of art making skills; (4 art as a contributor to monitoring social-ecological change; (5 the role of art in fostering continuity through time; and (6 art as a site of knowledge coproduction.

  20. Prey items and predation behavior of killer whales (Orcinus orca) in Nunavut, Canada based on Inuit hunter interviews

    OpenAIRE

    Ferguson, Steven H; Higdon, Jeff W; Westdal, Kristin H

    2012-01-01

    Background Killer whales (Orcinus orca) are the most widely distributed cetacean, occurring in all oceans worldwide, and within ocean regions different ecotypes are defined based on prey preferences. Prey items are largely unknown in the eastern Canadian Arctic and therefore we conducted a survey of Inuit Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) to provide information on the feeding ecology of killer whales. We compiled Inuit observations on killer whales and their prey items via 105 semi-direc...

  1. Education as Reconciliation: Resorting Inuit Nunangat

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    McKechnie, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Education is stated as the number one priority of the Government of Nunavut's "Sivumiut Abluqta" mandate. The Nunavut education system is seen by many as failing to provide Inuit with the promise of supporting Inuit economic and social well-being. Today in Nunavut, there is a growing awareness of the effects of past colonialist polices…

  2. Staying healthy “under the sheets”: Inuit youth experiences of access to sexual and reproductive health and rights in Arviat, Nunavut, Canada

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    Gregory J Corosky

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inuit youth are reported to experience considerably worse sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR outcomes than Canadian youth in general, as evidenced through public health data on sexually transmitted infections, unintended young pregnancies and rates of sexual violence in Nunavut compared to national averages. Existing literature on Inuit SRHR has identified the impact of westernization and colonialism on health outcomes, though gaps remain in addressing youth- and community-specific experiences of SRHR. Objective: This study aims to generate youth-focused evidence on experiences of SRHR relating to access to care in Arviat in order to better inform locally authored interventions geared towards improving youth SRHR. Design: The Piliriqatigiinniq Partnership Community Health Research Model (PRM developed by the Qaujigiartiit Health Research Centre was followed to generate data on youth experiences of SRHR support access in Arviat. In-depth interviews were conducted with 9 male youth (ages 17–22 years, 10 female youth (ages 16–22 years and 6 community leaders (aged 25+. Snowball sampling was used to engage informants, and data analysis followed an approach similar to conventional content analysis, where emphasis was placed on “immersion and crystallization” of data, corresponding to the Inuit concept of Iqqaumaqatigiinniq in the PRM. Findings were continuously checked with community members in Arviat during the analysis phase, and their feedback was incorporated into the report. Results: Youth in Arviat were found to face significant barriers to SRHR care and support. Three major themes emerged as important factors conditioning youth access to SRHR resources in the community: trust of support workers in the community; stigma/taboos surrounding SRHR topics; and feelings of powerlessness impeding female and lesbian/gay/bisexual/transgender/queer youth in particular from accessing care. Conclusions: The locally specific

  3. Staying healthy "under the sheets": Inuit youth experiences of access to sexual and reproductive health and rights in Arviat, Nunavut, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corosky, Gregory J; Blystad, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Inuit youth are reported to experience considerably worse sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) outcomes than Canadian youth in general, as evidenced through public health data on sexually transmitted infections, unintended young pregnancies and rates of sexual violence in Nunavut compared to national averages. Existing literature on Inuit SRHR has identified the impact of westernization and colonialism on health outcomes, though gaps remain in addressing youth- and community-specific experiences of SRHR. This study aims to generate youth-focused evidence on experiences of SRHR relating to access to care in Arviat in order to better inform locally authored interventions geared towards improving youth SRHR. The Piliriqatigiinniq Partnership Community Health Research Model (PRM) developed by the Qaujigiartiit Health Research Centre was followed to generate data on youth experiences of SRHR support access in Arviat. In-depth interviews were conducted with 9 male youth (ages 17-22 years), 10 female youth (ages 16-22 years) and 6 community leaders (aged 25+). Snowball sampling was used to engage informants, and data analysis followed an approach similar to conventional content analysis, where emphasis was placed on "immersion and crystallization" of data, corresponding to the Inuit concept of Iqqaumaqatigiinniq in the PRM. Findings were continuously checked with community members in Arviat during the analysis phase, and their feedback was incorporated into the report. Youth in Arviat were found to face significant barriers to SRHR care and support. Three major themes emerged as important factors conditioning youth access to SRHR resources in the community: trust of support workers in the community; stigma/taboos surrounding SRHR topics; and feelings of powerlessness impeding female and lesbian/gay/bisexual/transgender/queer youth in particular from accessing care. The locally specific ways these themes emerged revealed important structural factors at play in

  4. Inuit Legends, Oral Histories, Art, and Science in the Collaborative Development of Lessons That Foster Two-Way Learning: The Return of the Sun in Nunavut

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    McMillan, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of a science unit for Nunavut students and my collaboration with Louise Uyarak, an early years teacher and a graduate of Arctic College's teacher education program. The unit addresses light outcomes in the "Canadian Common Framework of Science Learning Outcomes, K-12". More importantly, it…

  5. “There’s No Book and There’s No Guide”: The Expressed Needs of Qallunaat Educators in Nunavut

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    Junita Ross Epp

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Non-Inuit educators in five communities in Nunavut expressed frustration with: a the lack of culturally relevant curriculum and resources, b the unsuitability of the materials for students whose first language is Inuktitut, and c their own lack of preparation for culturally appropriate teaching of Inuit students. Although these are symptomatic of larger problems, the creation of culturally relevant, ESL-sensitive curriculum and resources, an orientation to Inuit culture and teaching in Nunavut, and increased inservicing would help non-Inuit teachers teach Inuit students.

  6. “There’s No Book and There’s No Guide”: The Expressed Needs of Qallunaat Educators in Nunavut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Berger

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Non-Inuit educators in five communities in Nunavut expressed frustration about the lack of culturally relevant curriculum and resources, the unsuitability of these materials for students whose first language is Inuktitut, and their own lack of ability to teach Inuit students effectively. Although these are symptomatic of larger problems, we recommend that the Nunavut Department of Education prioritize the creation of culturally relevant, ESL-sensitive curriculum and resources, institute an orientation to Inuit culture for all non-Inuit teachers, and provide regular inservicing to help them teach Inuit students effectively.

  7. Higher body mass, older age and higher monounsaturated fatty acids intake reflect better quantitative ultrasound parameters in Inuit preschoolers

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    Jessy El Hayek

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Investigate the effects of selected factors associated with quantitative ultrasound parameters among Inuit preschoolers living in Arctic communities (56° 32′–72° 40′N. Materials and methods. Children were selected randomly in summer and early fall (n=296. Dietary intake was assessed through the administration of a 24-h dietary recall (24-h recall and a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. Anthropometry was measured using standardized procedures. Plasma 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OHD and parathyroid hormone (PTH were measured using a chemiluminescent assay (Liaison, Diasorin. Quantitative ultrasound parameters were measured using Sahara Sonometer, (Hologic Inc.. Results. Children divided by speed of sound (SoS and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA quartiles were not different for age (years, sex (M/F, calcium (mg/d and vitamin D intake (µg/d and plasma 25(OHD concentration (nmol/L. However, children in the highest BUA and SoS quartile had higher body mass index (BMI compared to those in quartile 1. Using multivariate linear regression, higher BMI, older age and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA intake were predictors of BUA while only BMI was a predictor of SoS. Conclusions. Further investigation assessing intakes of traditional foods (TF and nutrients affecting bone parameters along with assessment of vitamin D status of Inuit children across seasons is required.

  8. Racial/Cultural Identity: Transformation among School-Based Mental Health Professionals Working in Nunavut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wihak, Christine; Merali, Noorfarah

    2007-01-01

    Eight non-Aboriginal school counselors, who temporarily lived in Nunavut to provide services to Inuit clients, were interviewed regarding changes in their sense of self and their racial/cultural identity as a result of cross-cultural immersion. They were also engaged in an arts-based exercise where they pictorially represented perceived…

  9. Inuit Perspectives on Arctic Environmental Change': A Traveling Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, E. M.; Hakala, J. S.; Gearheard, S.

    2006-12-01

    The Inuit of Nunavut, Canada, have an intimate relationship with their surroundings. As a culture that relies on knowledge of sea ice, snow, and weather conditions for success in hunting, fishing, and healthy wellbeing, Inuit have observed and studied environmental patterns for generations. An ongoing study into their traditional knowledge and their observations of environmental change is being conducted by researcher Dr. Shari Gearheard, who has worked with Inuit communities in Nunavut for over a decade. The results of the research have been published in scientific journals, and to communicate the results to a broader audience, Dr. Gearheard designed an interactive CD-ROM displaying photographs, maps, and interview videos of Inuit Elders' perspectives on the changes they have witnessed. Receiving immediate popularity since its release in 2004, copies of `When the Weather is Uggianaqtuq: Inuit Observations of Environmental Change' have been distributed worldwide, to indigenous peoples, social science and climate change researchers, teachers, students, and the general public. To further disseminate the information contained on the CD-ROM, the National Snow and Ice Data Center and the Museum of Natural History, both of the University of Colorado, are partnering to create an exhibition which will open at the Museum during the International Polar Year in April 2008. The exhibit, tentatively titled `Inuit Perspectives on Arctic Environmental Change,' will feature photographs, graphics, and text in both English and Inuktitut describing environmental change in the North. The goals are to make the information and interpretation contained on the CD-ROM available and more accessible to a broad audience and to raise awareness about Arctic climate change and the important contribution of Inuit knowledge. Following exhibition at the Museum, the exhibit will travel throughout the United States, Alaska, and Nunavut, through a network of museums, schools, libraries, tribal

  10. Kivalliq Inuit Centre boarding home and the provision of prenatal education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawford, Karen M; Giles, Audrey R

    2016-01-01

    The Kivalliq Inuit Centre (KIC), a boarding home in Winnipeg, Manitoba, is unique in its provision of a pilot prenatal education class and public health nursing services for Nunavummiut who are beneficiaries of the Nunavut Land Claim Agreement. Through a critical review of literature, policies and interviews related to evacuation for birth, we argue that the pilot at the KIC has the potential to play an important role in improving maternal child health for residents of Nunavut.

  11. Seasonal prevalence and determinants of food insecurity in Iqaluit, Nunavut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Guo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food insecurity is an ongoing problem in the Canadian Arctic. Although most studies have focused on smaller communities, little is known about food insecurity in larger centres. Objectives: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of food insecurity during 2 different seasons in Iqaluit, the territorial capital of Nunavut, as well as identify associated risk factors. Designs: A modified United States Department of Agriculture Food Security Survey was applied to 532 randomly selected households in September 2012 and 523 in May 2013. Chi-square tests and multivariable logistic regression were used to examine potential associations between food security and 9 risk factors identified in the literature. Results: In September 2012, 28.7% of surveyed households in Iqaluit were food insecure, a rate 3 times higher than the national average, but lower than smaller Inuit communities in Nunavut. Prevalence of food insecurity in September 2012 was not significantly different in May 2013 (27.2%. When aggregating results from Inuit households from both seasons (May and September, food insecurity was associated with poor quality housing and reliance on income support (p<0.01. Unemployment and younger age of the person in charge of food preparation were also significantly associated with food insecurity. In contrast to previous research among Arctic communities, gender and consumption of country food were not positively associated with food security. These results are consistent with research describing high food insecurity across the Canadian Arctic. Conclusion: The factors associated with food insecurity in Iqaluit differed from those identified in smaller communities, suggesting that experiences with, and processes of, food insecurity may differ between small communities and larger commercial centres. These results suggest that country food consumption, traditional knowledge and sharing networks may play a less important role in larger Inuit

  12. Seasonal prevalence and determinants of food insecurity in Iqaluit, Nunavut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yang; Berrang-Ford, Lea; Ford, James; Lardeau, Marie-Pierre; Edge, Victoria; Patterson, Kaitlin; Harper, Sherilee L

    2015-01-01

    Food insecurity is an ongoing problem in the Canadian Arctic. Although most studies have focused on smaller communities, little is known about food insecurity in larger centres. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of food insecurity during 2 different seasons in Iqaluit, the territorial capital of Nunavut, as well as identify associated risk factors. A modified United States Department of Agriculture Food Security Survey was applied to 532 randomly selected households in September 2012 and 523 in May 2013. Chi-square tests and multivariable logistic regression were used to examine potential associations between food security and 9 risk factors identified in the literature. In September 2012, 28.7% of surveyed households in Iqaluit were food insecure, a rate 3 times higher than the national average, but lower than smaller Inuit communities in Nunavut. Prevalence of food insecurity in September 2012 was not significantly different in May 2013 (27.2%). When aggregating results from Inuit households from both seasons (May and September), food insecurity was associated with poor quality housing and reliance on income support (pinsecurity. In contrast to previous research among Arctic communities, gender and consumption of country food were not positively associated with food security. These results are consistent with research describing high food insecurity across the Canadian Arctic. The factors associated with food insecurity in Iqaluit differed from those identified in smaller communities, suggesting that experiences with, and processes of, food insecurity may differ between small communities and larger commercial centres. These results suggest that country food consumption, traditional knowledge and sharing networks may play a less important role in larger Inuit communities.

  13. The Inuit gut microbiome is dynamic over time and shaped by traditional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Geneviève; Girard, Catherine; Lapointe, François-Joseph; Shapiro, B Jesse

    2017-11-16

    The human gut microbiome represents a diverse microbial community that varies across individuals and populations, and is influenced by factors such as host genetics and lifestyle. Diet is a major force shaping the gut microbiome, and the effects of dietary choices on microbiome composition are well documented. However, it remains poorly known how natural temporal variation in diet can affect the microbiome. The traditional Inuit diet is primarily based on animal products, which are thought to vary seasonally according to prey availability. We previously investigated the Inuit gut microbiome sampled at a single time point, and found no detectable differences in overall microbiome community composition attributable to the traditional Inuit diet. To determine whether seasonal changes in the Inuit diet might induce more pronounced changes in the microbiome, we collected stool and toilet paper samples, and dietary information from Inuit volunteers living in Resolute Bay (Nunavut, Canada), and compared them to individuals of European descent living in Montréal (Québec, Canada) consuming a typical Western diet. We sequenced the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene to characterize microbiome diversity and composition, and compared samples collected with toilet paper or from stool. Our results show that these sampling methods provide similar, but non-identical portraits of the microbiome. Based on toilet paper samples, we found that much of the variation in microbiome community composition could be explained by individual identity (45-61% of variation explained, depending on the beta diversity metric used), with small but significant variation (3-5%) explained by sex or geography (Nunavut or Montréal). In contrast with our previous study at one time point, sampling over the course of a year revealed that diet explains 11% of variation in community composition across all participants, and 17% of variation specifically among Nunavut participants. However, we observed no clear

  14. The use of Photovoice to document and characterize the food security of users of community food programs in Iqaluit, Nunavut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardeau, M-P; Healey, G; Ford, J

    2011-01-01

    Food insecurity is a chronic problem affecting Inuit communities. The most comprehensive assessment of Inuit food security to-date, the Inuit Health Survey, reported that 70% of Inuit pre-school children lived in 'food insecure' households. Food banks and soup kitchens are relatively new in the Arctic but the number of users is increasing. Little is known about the experience and determinants of food insecurity among food program users who are often among the most marginalized (socially and economically) in communities. The use of participatory research methods when working in the north of Canada can promote meaningful knowledge exchange with community members and this approach was used in the present 'Photovoice' research. Photovoice uses photography to develop a baseline understanding of an issue, in this case the experience and determinants of food insecurity among users of community food programs in Iqaluit, Nunavut. The target population includes those who face significant social and economic marginalization, an often neglected group in Arctic food systems research. Eight regular users of food programs were recruited and engaged in a Photovoice research project to document factors determining their daily food consumption. The research method was introduced in workshops and discussion included the ethical concerns related to photography and how to take pictures. Participants were supplied with digital cameras, and asked to answer the following question using photography: 'What aspects of your everyday life affect what you eat and how much you have to eat?'. In the final workshop, photographs were discussed among the group and participants identified key themes in the photographs, offering an understanding of food insecurity from their perspectives. The group then discussed what should be done with the knowledge gained. Factors improving food security were the customary systems for sharing 'country food', and the presence of social support networks in the

  15. Using Soluble Transferrin Receptor and Taking Inflammation into Account When Defining Serum Ferritin Cutoffs Improved the Diagnosis of Iron Deficiency in a Group of Canadian Preschool Inuit Children from Nunavik

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    Huguette Turgeon O’Brien

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of iron depletion, iron deficient erythropoiesis (IDE, and iron deficiency anemia (IDA was assessed in preschool Inuit children using soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR and traditional indicators of iron status while disregarding or taking inflammation into account when defining SF cutoffs. Iron depletion was defined as follows: (1 SF 5 mg/L, respectively. IDE corresponded to iron depletion combined with total iron binding capacity > 72 μmol/L and/or transferrin saturation < 16%. Iron depletion and IDE affected almost half of the children when accounting for inflammation, compared to one-third when the SF cutoff was defined regardless of CRP level (P<0.0001. The prevalence of IDE adjusted for inflammation (45.1% was very similar to the prevalence observed when sTfR was used as a sole marker of IDE (47.4%. The prevalence of anemia was 15%. The prevalence of IDA (IDE + hemoglobin < 110 g/L was higher when accounting for than when disregarding inflammation (8.0% versus 6.2%, P=0.083. Using sTfR and different SF cutoffs for children with versus without inflammation improved the diagnosis of iron depletion and IDE. Our results confirm that Inuit children are at particularly high risk for iron deficiency.

  16. Food insecurity, vitamin D insufficiency and respiratory infections among Inuit children

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    Sze Man Tse

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food insecurity, vitamin D deficiency and lower respiratory tract infections are highly prevalent conditions among Inuit children. However, the relationship between these conditions has not been examined in this population. Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between food insecurity and severe respiratory infections before age 2 years and health centre visits for a respiratory problem in the past year. We also explored the relationship between serum vitamin D status and respiratory outcomes in this population. Design: We included children aged 3–5 years who participated in a cross-sectional survey of the health of preschool Inuit children in Nunavut, Canada, from 2007 to 2008 (n=388. Parental reports of severe respiratory infections in the first 2 years of life and health care visits in the past 12 months were assessed through a questionnaire. Child and adult food security were assessed separately and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels were measured in a subgroup of participants (n=279. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to assess the association between food security, vitamin D and each of the 2 respiratory outcomes. Results: Child and adult food insecurity measures were not significantly associated with adverse respiratory outcomes. Household crowding [odds ratio (OR=1.51, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.09–2.09, p=0.01 for the child food security model] and higher birth weight (OR=1.21, 95% CI: 1.02–1.43, p=0.03 were associated with reported severe chest infections before age 2 years while increasing age was associated with decreased odds of reported health care visits for a respiratory problem (OR=0.66, 95% CI: 0.48–0.91, p=0.02. Neither vitamin D insufficiency nor deficiency was associated with these respiratory outcomes. Conclusions: Using a large cross-sectional survey of Inuit children, we found that household crowding, but not food security or vitamin D levels, was

  17. Food insecurity, vitamin D insufficiency and respiratory infections among Inuit children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Sze Man; Weiler, Hope; Kovesi, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Food insecurity, vitamin D deficiency and lower respiratory tract infections are highly prevalent conditions among Inuit children. However, the relationship between these conditions has not been examined in this population. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between food insecurity and severe respiratory infections before age 2 years and health centre visits for a respiratory problem in the past year. We also explored the relationship between serum vitamin D status and respiratory outcomes in this population. We included children aged 3-5 years who participated in a cross-sectional survey of the health of preschool Inuit children in Nunavut, Canada, from 2007 to 2008 (n=388). Parental reports of severe respiratory infections in the first 2 years of life and health care visits in the past 12 months were assessed through a questionnaire. Child and adult food security were assessed separately and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels were measured in a subgroup of participants (n=279). Multivariate logistic regression was performed to assess the association between food security, vitamin D and each of the 2 respiratory outcomes. Child and adult food insecurity measures were not significantly associated with adverse respiratory outcomes. Household crowding [odds ratio (OR)=1.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09-2.09, p=0.01 for the child food security model] and higher birth weight (OR=1.21, 95% CI: 1.02-1.43, p=0.03) were associated with reported severe chest infections before age 2 years while increasing age was associated with decreased odds of reported health care visits for a respiratory problem (OR=0.66, 95% CI: 0.48-0.91, p=0.02). Neither vitamin D insufficiency nor deficiency was associated with these respiratory outcomes. Using a large cross-sectional survey of Inuit children, we found that household crowding, but not food security or vitamin D levels, was associated with adverse respiratory outcomes. Further studies are warranted to

  18. Indian Inuit Pottery '73

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawow, 1974

    1974-01-01

    A unique exhibit of Canadian Native Ceramics which began touring various art galleries in September 1973 is described both verbally and photographically. The Indian Inuit Pottery '73 display, part of the 1973 International Ceramics Exhibition, includes 110 samples of craftsmanship from Indian and Inuit artists across Canada. (KM)

  19. Inuit-Style Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Rayma

    1999-01-01

    Presents an art activity where students create Inuit-style animals. Discusses the Inuit (Eskimo) artform in which the compositions utilize patterning and textures, such as small lines signifying fur. Explains that this project is well suited to a study of animals or to integrate with a social studies unit about Canada. (CMK)

  20. Ethnobotany of the Kiluhikturmiut Inuinnait of Kugluktuk, Nunavut, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Duffy Davis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The disparity in floral diversity between tropical and arctic regions is reflected in a paucity of ethnobotanical research among arctic cultures.  The Kiluhikturmiut Inuinnait are an Inuit subpopulation who inhabit the Kitikmeot Region of the Territory of Nunavut in Canada’s Arctic.  We conducted an ethnobotanical survey in the Inuinnait hamlet of Kugluktuk to document the traditional uses of plants as food, materials, and medicine.  Data were gathered through unstructured interviews, participant observation, purposive sampling, and voucher-specimen collection of all plants used.  Uses were documented for 23 plant species/types contained in 14 families.  Nine species/types were eaten, six species/types were used as materials, and 12 species were used for medicine.  Villagers shared common knowledge of plants used for food and materials; however, knowledge of medicinal plants was restricted to a single healer.  We argue that specialized knowledge such as the use of medicinal plants is important to document especially when the number individuals using this knowledge is dwindling.

  1. “Double culturedness”: the “capital” of Inuit nurses

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    Helle Møller

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. The health and educational systems in Greenland and Nunavut are reflections of those in Denmark and Southern Canada, with the language of instruction and practise being Danish and English. This places specific demands on Inuit studying nursing. Objective. This paper discusses the experiences of Inuit who are educated in nursing programmes and practise in healthcare systems located in the Arctic but dominated by EuroCanadian and Danish culture and language. Design. Research was qualitative and ethnographic. It was conducted through 12 months of fieldwork in 5 Greenlandic and 2 Nunavut communities. Methods. Observation, participant observation, interviews, questionnaires and document review were used. The analytical framework involved Bourdieu’s concepts of capital and habitus. Results. Participants experienced degrees of success and well-being in the educational systems that are afforded to few other Canadian and Greenlandic Inuit. This success appeared to be based on nurses and students possessing, or having acquired, what I call “double culturedness”; this makes them able to communicate in at least 2 languages and cultures, including the ability to understand, negotiate and interact, using at least 2 ways of being in the world and 2 ways of learning and teaching. Conclusion. There continues to be a critical need for Inuit nurses with their special knowledge and abilities in the healthcare systems of the Arctic. Inuit nurses’ experiences will help inform the education and healthcare systems and point to areas in need of support and change in order to increase recruitment and retention of nursing students and practitioners.

  2. Inuit Impressions in Soapstone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Shannon

    1998-01-01

    Tells how Inuit artists approach the making of soapstone sculptures as a process of intuition and "reading" the materials. Describes a project in which students make their own soapstone carvings using coping saws, wood rasps, and sandpaper as tools. Notes tips and techniques for working with the soapstone and tools. (DSK)

  3. Food insecurity among Inuit women exacerbated by socioeconomic stresses and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumier, Maude C; Ford, James D

    2010-01-01

    To identify and characterize the determinants of food insecurity among Inuit women. A community-based study in Igloolik, Nunavut, using semi-structured interviews (n = 36) and focus groups (n = 5) with Inuit women, and key informants interviews with health professionals (n = 13). There is a high prevalence of food insecurity among Inuit females in Igloolik, with women in the study reporting skipping meals and reducing food intake on a regular basis. Food insecurity is largely transitory in nature and influenced by food affordability and budgeting; food knowledge; education and preferences; food quality and availability; absence of a full-time hunter in the household; cost of harvesting; poverty; and addiction. These determinants are operating in the context of changing livelihoods and climate-related stresses. Inuit women's food insecurity in Igloolik is the outcome of multiple determinants operating at different spatial-temporal scales. Climate change and external socio-economic stresses are exacerbating difficulties in obtaining sufficient food. Coping strategies currently utilized to manage food insecurity are largely reactive and short-term in nature, and could increase food system vulnerability to future stresses. Intervention by local, territorial and federal governments is required to implement, coordinate and monitor strategies to enhance women's food security, strengthen the food system, and reduce vulnerability to future stressors.

  4. Municipal water quantities and health in Nunavut households: an exploratory case study in Coral Harbour, Nunavut, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Kiley; Castleden, Heather; Jamieson, Rob; Furgal, Chris; Ell, Lorna

    2014-01-01

    Access to adequate quantities of water has a protective effect on human health and well-being. Despite this, public health research and interventions are frequently focused solely on water quality, and international standards for domestic water supply minimums are often overlooked or unspecified. This trend is evident in Inuit and other Arctic communities even though numerous transmissible diseases and bacterium infections associated with inadequate domestic water quantities are prevalent. Our objective was to explore the pathways by which the trucked water distribution systems being used in remote northern communities are impacting health at the household level, with consideration given to the underlying social and environmental determinants shaping health in the region. Using a qualitative case study design, we conducted 37 interviews (28 residents, 9 key informants) and a review of government water documents to investigate water usage practices and perspectives. These data were thematically analysed to understand potential health risks in Arctic communities and households. Each resident receives an average of 110 litres of municipal water per day. Fifteen of 28 households reported experiencing water shortages at least once per month. Of those 15, most were larger households (5 people or more) with standard sized water storage tanks. Water shortages and service interruptions limit the ability of some households to adhere to public health advice. The households most resilient, or able to cope with domestic water supply shortages, were those capable of retrieving their own drinking water directly from lake and river sources. Residents with extended family and neighbours, whom they can rely on during shortages, were also less vulnerable to municipal water delays. The relatively low in-home water quantities observed in Coral Harbour, Nunavut, appear adequate for some families. Those living in overcrowded households, however, are accessing water in quantities more

  5. Municipal water quantities and health in Nunavut households: an exploratory case study in Coral Harbour, Nunavut, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiley Daley

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Access to adequate quantities of water has a protective effect on human health and well-being. Despite this, public health research and interventions are frequently focused solely on water quality, and international standards for domestic water supply minimums are often overlooked or unspecified. This trend is evident in Inuit and other Arctic communities even though numerous transmissible diseases and bacterium infections associated with inadequate domestic water quantities are prevalent. Objectives: Our objective was to explore the pathways by which the trucked water distribution systems being used in remote northern communities are impacting health at the household level, with consideration given to the underlying social and environmental determinants shaping health in the region. Methods: Using a qualitative case study design, we conducted 37 interviews (28 residents, 9 key informants and a review of government water documents to investigate water usage practices and perspectives. These data were thematically analysed to understand potential health risks in Arctic communities and households. Results: Each resident receives an average of 110 litres of municipal water per day. Fifteen of 28 households reported experiencing water shortages at least once per month. Of those 15, most were larger households (5 people or more with standard sized water storage tanks. Water shortages and service interruptions limit the ability of some households to adhere to public health advice. The households most resilient, or able to cope with domestic water supply shortages, were those capable of retrieving their own drinking water directly from lake and river sources. Residents with extended family and neighbours, whom they can rely on during shortages, were also less vulnerable to municipal water delays. Conclusions: The relatively low in-home water quantities observed in Coral Harbour, Nunavut, appear adequate for some families. Those living in

  6. Dietary advice on Inuit traditional food use needs to balance benefits and risks of mercury, selenium, and n3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Brian D; Goncharov, Alexey B; Egeland, Grace M; Chan, Hing Man

    2013-06-01

    Elevated concentrations of mercury (Hg) are commonly found in the traditional foods, including fish and marine mammals, of Inuit living in Canada's Arctic. As a result, Inuit often have higher dietary Hg intake and elevated Hg blood concentrations. However, these same traditional foods are excellent sources of essential nutrients. The goals of this study were 1) to identify the traditional food sources of Hg exposure for Inuit, 2) to estimate the percentage of Inuit who meet specific nutrient Dietary Reference Intakes and/or exceed the Toxicological Reference Values (TRVs), and 3) to evaluate options that maximize nutrient intake while minimizing contaminant exposure. A participatory cross-sectional survey was designed in consultation with Inuit in 3 Canadian Arctic jurisdictions (Nunatsiavut, Nunavut, and the Inuvialuit Settlement Region). Estimated intakes for EPA (20:5n3) and DHA (22:6n3) met suggested dietary targets, and estimated selenium (Se) intake fell within the Acceptable Range of Oral Intake. Estimated intakes of Hg (rs = 0.41, P exposure must emphasize the overall healthfulness of traditional foods and be designed to prevent concomitant harm to the nutrient intakes of Inuit.

  7. Is an Inuit Literary History Possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Keavy

    2010-01-01

    In 1921, the Greenlandic anthropologist Knud Rasmussen set out to travel twenty thousand miles by dog team across Inuit Nunaat--the Inuit homeland. During this three-year journey--the famous Fifth Thule Expedition--Rasmussen was struck by the similarities in the language and culture of Inuit communities across the entire Arctic. Considering the…

  8. Socioeconomic indicators and frequency of traditional food, junk food, and fruit and vegetable consumption amongst Inuit adults in the Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopping, B N; Erber, E; Mead, E; Sheehy, T; Roache, C; Sharma, S

    2010-10-01

    Increasing consumption of non-nutrient-dense foods (NNDF), decreasing consumption of traditional foods (TF) and low consumption of fruit and vegetables (FV) may contribute to increasing chronic disease rates amongst Inuit. The present study aimed to assess the daily frequency and socioeconomic and demographic factors influencing consumption of TF, FV and NNDF amongst Inuit adults in Nunavut, Canada. Using a cross-sectional study design and random household sampling in three communities in Nunavut, a food frequency questionnaire developed for the population was used to assess frequency of NNDF, TF and FV consumption amongst Inuit adults. Socioeconomic status (SES) was assessed by education level, ownership of items in working condition, and whether or not people in the household were employed or on income support. Mean frequencies of daily consumption were compared across gender and age groups, and associations with socioeconomic indicators were analysed using logistic regression. Two hundred and eleven participants (36 men, 175 women; mean (standard deviation) ages 42.1 (15.0) and 42.2 (13.2) years, respectively; response rate 69-93%) completed the study. Mean frequencies of consumption for NNDF, TF and FV were 6.3, 1.9 and 1.6 times per day, respectively. On average, participants ≤50 years consumed NNDF (P=0.003) and FV (P=0.01) more frequently and TF (P=0.01) less frequently than participants >50 years. Education was positively associated with FV consumption and negatively associated with TF consumption. Households on income support were more likely to consume TF and NNDF. These results support the hypothesis that the nutrition transition taking place amongst Inuit in Nunavut results in elevated consumption of NNDF compared with TF and FV. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  9. Cancer patterns in Inuit populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melbye, M.; Friborg, Jeppe Tang

    2008-01-01

    Inuit people inhabit the circumpolar region, with most living in Alaska, northwest Canada, and Greenland. Although malignant diseases were believed to be almost non-existent in Inuit populations during the beginning of the 20th century, the increasing life expectancy within these populations showed...... a distinct pattern, characterised by a high risk of Epstein-Barr virus-associated carcinomas of the nasopharynx and salivary glands, and a low risk of tumours common in white populations, including cancer of the prostate, testis, and haemopoietic system. Both genetic and environmental factors seem...... to be responsible for this pattern. During the second half of the 20th century, Inuit societies underwent major changes in lifestyle and living conditions, and the risk of lifestyle-associated tumours, especially cancers of the lung, colon, and breast, increased considerably after changes in smoking, diet...

  10. Cancer patterns in Inuit populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melbye, M.; Friborg, Jeppe Tang

    2008-01-01

    to be responsible for this pattern. During the second half of the 20th century, Inuit societies underwent major changes in lifestyle and living conditions, and the risk of lifestyle-associated tumours, especially cancers of the lung, colon, and breast, increased considerably after changes in smoking, diet......, and reproductive factors. This Review will briefly summarise the current knowledge on cancer epidemiology in Inuit populations, with emphasis on the characteristic Inuit types of cancer Udgivelsesdato: 2008/9...... a distinct pattern, characterised by a high risk of Epstein-Barr virus-associated carcinomas of the nasopharynx and salivary glands, and a low risk of tumours common in white populations, including cancer of the prostate, testis, and haemopoietic system. Both genetic and environmental factors seem...

  11. Food consumption, obesity and abnormal glycaemic control in a Canadian Inuit community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, J; Putulik Kidlapik, C; Martin, B; Dean, H J; Trepman, E; Embil, J M

    2014-12-01

    Dietary and lifestyle factors may contribute to diabetes and obesity in the Canadian Inuit. We documented dietary patterns, physical activity level, obesity, blood glucose abnormalities and diabetes prevalence in a Canadian Inuit community. There were 250 Inuit residents of Repulse Bay, Nunavut, who had an interview about diet and physical activity, measurement of weight and height, and laboratory studies (194 subjects). Children, adolescents and younger adults (aged snack foods and sweet drinks than older adults (aged ≥ 48 years). Only 88 of 250 subjects (35%) reported that they went out on the land once or more per week. Of the 85 children and adolescent subjects (aged 7-17 years), 11 (13%) were obese. Average body mass index for adults (aged ≥ 18 years) was 29 ± 6 kg m(-2) , and 61 adults (37%) were obese (body mass index ≥30 kg m(-2) ). In the 140 adults who had laboratory studies, 18 adults (13%) had a blood glucose abnormality, including 10 adults (7%) with impaired fasting glucose, four adults (3%) with impaired glucose tolerance and six adults (4%) with diabetes (five adults previously undiagnosed). Twelve of the 194 subjects tested (6%) had fasting insulin ≥140 pmol L(-1) (mean, 196 ± 87 pmol L(-1) ). In summary, there was a high prevalence of poor dietary choices, limited physical activity, obesity and type 2 diabetes in this Inuit community. Public health programmes are needed to improve the dietary and health status of this community. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical Obesity © 2014 World Obesity.

  12. Higher blood pressure among Inuit migrants in Denmark than among the Inuit in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P; Jørgensen, M E; Lumholt, P

    2002-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: Previous studies of blood pressure among the Inuit have given inconsistent results and studies comparing Inuit migrants with those living in traditional Inuit areas are absent. The purpose of the study was to compare the blood pressure of the Inuit in Greenland with that of Inuit...... migrants in Denmark. DESIGN: Questionnaire, interview, and clinical examination in a cross sectional random population sample. SETTING: A population based survey among Inuit in Greenland and Inuit migrants in Denmark. Participants: 2046 Inuit aged >/or =18, 61% of the sample. MAIN RESULTS: Age and gender...... adjusted blood pressures were 117/72 mm Hg in Greenland and 127/81 mm Hg among the migrants (p

  13. Sea Ice in the Belcher Islands, Nunavut, Canada, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains interviews of three hunters from Sanikiliaq, Belcher Islands, in the territory of Nunavut, Canada. The hunters describe their observations of...

  14. Hunger among Inuit children in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, Leanne C; Langlois, Kellie A; Kohen, Dafna E

    2013-01-01

    Inuit populations may be at increased risk for experiencing poor nutrition or hunger due to limited access and availability to food. The prevalence and correlates of parental perceptions of hunger among a nationally representative sample of Inuit children in Canada have not yet been reported. Data are from the 2006 Aboriginal Children's Survey (ACS). Sociodemographic information, dietary behaviours and hunger status were parent-reported via a household interview for Inuit children aged 2-5 years (n=1,234). Prevalence of hunger was calculated among Inuit children by sociodemographic factors and by dietary behaviours. In addition, a multivariate logistic regression model was conducted to determine factors associated with parental perception of ever experiencing hunger. The prevalence of Inuit children in Canada aged 2-5 years ever experiencing hunger was 24.4%. Children who were reported to have experienced hunger consumed milk and milk products (p0.05). The majority (81%) of Inuit parents/guardians of ever-hungry children sought help from family or friends. Factors associated with an increased likelihood of experiencing hunger include sociodemographic characteristics (such as income and household size), living in an Inuit region and living in a community with cultural activities. About 1 in 4 Inuit children were reported by their parents to have experienced hunger, and hunger was associated with region, sociodemographic and community factors. Future research could further examine the impact of ever experiencing hunger on the health status of Inuit children and their families in Canada.

  15. Multiliteracies and Family Language Policy in an Urban Inuit Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Donna; Budach, Gabriele; Muckpaloo, Igah

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the intersection of family language policy with Indigenous multiliteracies and urban Indigeneity. It documents a grassroots Inuit literacy initiative in Ottawa, Canada and considers literacy practices among Inuit at a local Inuit educational centre, where maintaining connections between urban Inuit and their homeland…

  16. Diabetes among Inuit migrants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moustgaard, Helene; Bjerregaard, Peter; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2005-01-01

    and physical inactivity. The association between waist circumference and diabetes was significantly stronger among Inuit migrants in Denmark than among Inuit in Greenland. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of diabetes is high among the Inuit migrants in Denmark. However, unlike that reported in most studies......OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of diabetes and impaired glucose intolerance (IGT) among Inuit migrants living in Denmark, and to compare with findings from Greenland. Further, we analyzed determinants for diabetes and impaired glucose metabolism. STUDY DESIGN: Cross......-sectional, population-based epidemiological study. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included randomly selected Inuit migrants in Denmark aged 34 years and above. Diabetes and IGT were diagnosed using the oral glucose tolerance test. Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference were measured, and blood samples were...

  17. Development of radio dramas for health communication pilot intervention in Canadian Inuit communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racicot-Matta, Cassandra; Wilcke, Markus; Egeland, Grace M.

    2016-01-01

    A mixed-methods approach was used to develop a culturally appropriate health intervention over radio within the Inuit community of Pangnirtung, Nunavut (NU), Canada. The radio dramas were developed, recorded and tested pre-intervention through the use of Participatory Process and informed by the extended elaboration likelihood model (EELM) for education–communication. The radio messages were tested in two focus groups (n = 4 and n = 5) to determine fidelity of the radio dramas to the EELM theory. Focus group feedback identified that revisions needed to be made to two characteristics required of educational programmes by the EELM theorem: first, the quality of the production was improved by adding Inuit youth recorded music and second, the homophily (relatability of characters) of radio dramas was improved by re-recording the dramas with voices of local youth who had been trained in media communication studies. These adjustments would not have been implemented had pre-intervention testing of the radio dramas not taken place and could have reduced effectiveness of the overall intervention. Therefore, it is highly recommended that media tools for health communication/education be tested with the intended target audience before commencement of programmes. Participatory Process was identified to be a powerful tool in the development and sustainability of culturally appropriate community health programming. PMID:24957329

  18. Development of radio dramas for health communication pilot intervention in Canadian Inuit communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racicot-Matta, Cassandra; Wilcke, Markus; Egeland, Grace M

    2016-03-01

    A mixed-methods approach was used to develop a culturally appropriate health intervention over radio within the Inuit community of Pangnirtung, Nunavut (NU), Canada. The radio dramas were developed, recorded and tested pre-intervention through the use of Participatory Process and informed by the extended elaboration likelihood model (EELM) for education-communication. The radio messages were tested in two focus groups (n = 4 and n = 5) to determine fidelity of the radio dramas to the EELM theory. Focus group feedback identified that revisions needed to be made to two characteristics required of educational programmes by the EELM theorem: first, the quality of the production was improved by adding Inuit youth recorded music and second, the homophily (relatability of characters) of radio dramas was improved by re-recording the dramas with voices of local youth who had been trained in media communication studies. These adjustments would not have been implemented had pre-intervention testing of the radio dramas not taken place and could have reduced effectiveness of the overall intervention. Therefore, it is highly recommended that media tools for health communication/education be tested with the intended target audience before commencement of programmes. Participatory Process was identified to be a powerful tool in the development and sustainability of culturally appropriate community health programming. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Decreasing overweight and central fat patterning with Westernization among the Inuit in Greenland and Inuit migrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P; Jørgensen, M E; Andersen, S

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse overweight, obesity and central fat patterning among the Inuit of Greenland and Inuit migrants in Denmark and their relation to Westernization. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, population-based epidemiological study. SUBJECTS: A total of 2046 adult Greenlanders (Inuit), 61% of those...... women. Adjusted for BMI, age and Inuit heritage waist circumference decreased with Westernization (among women), while hip circumference did not change. The differences were particularly pronounced for migrants compared with residents of Greenland. CONCLUSION: BMI and central fat patterning decrease...... with Westernization among Greenland Inuit women contrary to most studies of migrants. The changes were less prominent among men. This suggests a reduced cardiovascular risk profile with Westernization among Greenland Inuit....

  20. Hunger among Inuit children in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanne C. Findlay

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives. Inuit populations may be at increased risk for experiencing poor nutrition or hunger due to limited access and availability to food. The prevalence and correlates of parental perceptions of hunger among a nationally representative sample of Inuit children in Canada have not yet been reported. Design. Data are from the 2006 Aboriginal Children's Survey (ACS. Sociodemographic information, dietary behaviours and hunger status were parent-reported via a household interview for Inuit children aged 2–5 years (n=1,234. Prevalence of hunger was calculated among Inuit children by sociodemographic factors and by dietary behaviours. In addition, a multivariate logistic regression model was conducted to determine factors associated with parental perception of ever experiencing hunger. Results. The prevalence of Inuit children in Canada aged 2–5 years ever experiencing hunger was 24.4%. Children who were reported to have experienced hunger consumed milk and milk products (p<0.001; fish, eggs and meat (p<0.05; fruits (p<0.001; and vegetables (p<0.001 significantly less often than never-hungry children. Fast food and processed foods, soft drinks and juice, and salty snacks, sweets and desserts were consumed as often as never-hungry children (all p>0.05. The majority (81% of Inuit parents/guardians of ever-hungry children sought help from family or friends. Factors associated with an increased likelihood of experiencing hunger include sociodemographic characteristics (such as income and household size, living in an Inuit region and living in a community with cultural activities. Conclusion. About 1 in 4 Inuit children were reported by their parents to have experienced hunger, and hunger was associated with region, sociodemographic and community factors. Future research could further examine the impact of ever experiencing hunger on the health status of Inuit children and their families in Canada.

  1. The characteristics and experience of community food program users in arctic Canada: a case study from Iqaluit, Nunavut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, James; Lardeau, Marie-Pierre; Vanderbilt, Will

    2012-06-21

    Community food programs (CFPs), including soup kitchens and food banks, are a recent development in larger settlements in the Canadian Arctic. Our understanding of utilization of these programs is limited as food systems research has not studied the marginalised and transient populations using CFPs, constraining service planning for some of the most vulnerable community members. This paper reports on a baseline study conducted with users of CFPs in Iqaluit, Nunavut, to identify and characterize utilization and document their food security experience. Open ended interviews and a fixed-choice survey on a census (n = 94) were conducted with of users of the food bank, soup kitchen, and friendship centre over a 1 month period, along with key informant interviews. Users of CFPs are more likely to be Inuit, be unemployed, and have not completed high school compared to the general Iqaluit population, while also reporting high dependence on social assistance, low household income, and an absence of hunters in the household. The majority report using CFPs for over a year and on a regular basis. The inability of users to obtain sufficient food must be understood in the context of socio-economic transformations that have affected Inuit society over the last half century as former semi-nomadic hunting groups were resettled into permanent settlements. The resulting livelihood changes profoundly affected how food is produced, processed, distributed, and consumed, and the socio-cultural relationships surrounding such activities. Consequences have included the rising importance of material resources for food access, the weakening of social safety mechanisms through which more vulnerable community members would have traditionally been supported, and acculturative stress. Addressing these broader challenges is essential for food policy, yet CFPs also have an essential role in providing for those who would otherwise have limited food access.

  2. The characteristics and experience of community food program users in arctic Canada: a case study from Iqaluit, Nunavut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ford James

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community food programs (CFPs, including soup kitchens and food banks, are a recent development in larger settlements in the Canadian Arctic. Our understanding of utilization of these programs is limited as food systems research has not studied the marginalised and transient populations using CFPs, constraining service planning for some of the most vulnerable community members. This paper reports on a baseline study conducted with users of CFPs in Iqaluit, Nunavut, to identify and characterize utilization and document their food security experience. Methods Open ended interviews and a fixed-choice survey on a census (n = 94 were conducted with of users of the food bank, soup kitchen, and friendship centre over a 1 month period, along with key informant interviews. Results Users of CFPs are more likely to be Inuit, be unemployed, and have not completed high school compared to the general Iqaluit population, while also reporting high dependence on social assistance, low household income, and an absence of hunters in the household. The majority report using CFPs for over a year and on a regular basis. Conclusions The inability of users to obtain sufficient food must be understood in the context of socio-economic transformations that have affected Inuit society over the last half century as former semi-nomadic hunting groups were resettled into permanent settlements. The resulting livelihood changes profoundly affected how food is produced, processed, distributed, and consumed, and the socio-cultural relationships surrounding such activities. Consequences have included the rising importance of material resources for food access, the weakening of social safety mechanisms through which more vulnerable community members would have traditionally been supported, and acculturative stress. Addressing these broader challenges is essential for food policy, yet CFPs also have an essential role in providing for those who would

  3. Diabetes among Inuit migrants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moustgaard, Helene; Bjerregaard, Peter; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2005-01-01

    The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of diabetes and impaired glucose intolerance (IGT) among Inuit migrants living in Denmark, and to compare with findings from Greenland. Further, we analyzed determinants for diabetes and impaired glucose metabolism....

  4. Inuit dietary patterns in modern Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Jeppesen, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to apply two different approaches of dietary pattern definition to data from Greenland and to analyse the contemporary dietary patterns of the Inuit in Greenland in relation to urbanization and socio-economic positions.......The purpose of the study was to apply two different approaches of dietary pattern definition to data from Greenland and to analyse the contemporary dietary patterns of the Inuit in Greenland in relation to urbanization and socio-economic positions....

  5. Diabetes among Inuit migrants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moustgaard, Helene; Bjerregaard, Peter; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2005-01-01

    The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of diabetes and impaired glucose intolerance (IGT) among Inuit migrants living in Denmark, and to compare with findings from Greenland. Further, we analyzed determinants for diabetes and impaired glucose metabolism.......The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of diabetes and impaired glucose intolerance (IGT) among Inuit migrants living in Denmark, and to compare with findings from Greenland. Further, we analyzed determinants for diabetes and impaired glucose metabolism....

  6. Inuit interpretations of sleep paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Samuel; Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2005-03-01

    Traditional and contemporary Inuit concepts of sleep paralysis were investigated through interviews with elders and young people in Iqaluit, Baffin Island. Sleep paralysis was readily recognized by most respondents and termed uqumangirniq (in the Baffin region) or aqtuqsinniq (Kivalliq region). Traditional interpretations of uqumangirniq referred to a shamanistic cosmology in which the individual's soul was vulnerable during sleep and dreaming. Sleep paralysis could result from attack by shamans or malevolent spirits. Understanding the experience as a manifestation of supernatural power, beyond one's control, served to reinforce the experiential reality and presence of the spirit world. For contemporary youth, sleep paralysis was interpreted in terms of multiple frameworks that incorporated personal, medical, mystical, traditional/shamanistic, and Christian views, reflecting the dynamic social changes taking place in this region.

  7. How Much Culture Is Enough? Inuit Teachers' Perceptions on the State of Inuit Culture in Nunavik Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Blair

    2014-01-01

    This paper highlights findings of a survey conducted with the Kativik School Board, Canada, to gain insight into the perceptions of Inuit teachers concerning how Inuit culture is taught in the classroom. While findings indicate that teachers are integrating Inuit culture to varying degrees, roughly half of respondents suggest that not enough Inuit…

  8. Higher blood pressure among Inuit migrants in Denmark than among the Inuit in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P; Jørgensen, M E; Lumholt, P

    2002-01-01

    . The associations with Inuit heritage, alcohol, diet, and physical activity were not significant. The difference between the two populations persisted after adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, education, and smoking. Among those who had completed high school, there was no difference between the systolic...... adjusted blood pressures were 117/72 mm Hg in Greenland and 127/81 mm Hg among the migrants (pschool education...... blood pressure of the two populations while the difference for diastolic blood pressure was much less than for those with less education. CONCLUSIONS: Blood pressure was lower among the Inuit in Greenland than among the Inuit migrants in Denmark but the difference was absent (systolic pressure...

  9. Silalirijiit Project: Kangiqtugaapik (Clyde River), Nunavut, Canada, Weather Station Network, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Kangiqtugaapik (Clyde River), Nunavut, Canada, Weather Station Network is a collection of weather station data from the locations of Akuliaqattak,...

  10. Level and Temporal Trend of Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Greenlandic Inuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Manhai; Bossi, Rossana; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    bears. However, until now, no data have been reported for PFAAs in Greenlandic Inuit. This study assesses the level and temporal trend of serum PFAAs in Greenlandic Inuit. Study design: Cross-section and temporal time trend survey. Methods: Serum PFAA levels were determined in 284 Inuit from different...... Greenlandic districts using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization. The temporal time trend of serum PFAAs in Nuuk Inuit during 19982005 and the correlation between serum PFAAs and legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were explored. Results: Serum PFAA levels were...... higher in Nuuk Inuit than in non-Nuuk Inuit. Within the same district, higher PFAA levels were observed for males. An age-dependent, increasing trend of serum PFAA levels in the period from 19982005 was observed for Nuuk Inuit. For the pooled gender data, no significant association between PFAAs...

  11. Inuit are protected against prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dewailly, Eric; Mulvad, Gert; Pedersen, Henning Sloth

    2003-01-01

    Incidence and mortality rates for prostate cancer are reported to be low among Inuit, but this finding must be additionally supported given the difficulty of obtaining a precise medical diagnosis in the Arctic. We conducted an autopsy study in 1990–1994 among 61 deceased males representative of all...... deaths occurring in Greenland and found only one invasive prostate cancer. Histological data were available for 27 autopsies and revealed no latent carcinoma. Our results suggest that in situ carcinoma is rare among Inuit and that their traditional diet, which is rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty...

  12. Level and temporal trend of perfluoroalkyl acids in Greenlandic Inuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manhai Long

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs have been detected in human blood, breast milk and umbilical cord blood across the globe. PFAAs do accumulate in the marine food chain in Arctic regions. In Greenland, increasing PFAA concentrations were observed during 1982–2006 in ringed seals and polar bears. However, until now, no data have been reported for PFAAs in Greenlandic Inuit. This study assesses the level and temporal trend of serum PFAAs in Greenlandic Inuit. Study design: Cross-section and temporal time trend survey. Methods: Serum PFAA levels were determined in 284 Inuit from different Greenlandic districts using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization. The temporal time trend of serum PFAAs in Nuuk Inuit during 1998–2005 and the correlation between serum PFAAs and legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs were explored. Results: Serum PFAA levels were higher in Nuuk Inuit than in non-Nuuk Inuit. Within the same district, higher PFAA levels were observed for males. An age-dependent, increasing trend of serum PFAA levels in the period from 1998–2005 was observed for Nuuk Inuit. For the pooled gender data, no significant association between PFAAs and legacy POPs was observed for Nuuk Inuit while for non-Nuuk Inuit this correlation was significant. No correlation between PFAAs and legacy POPs was found for male Inuit, whereas significant correlation was observed both for pooled female Inuit and for non-Nuuk Inuit females. Conclusions: We suggest that sources other than seafood intake might contribute to the observed higher PFAA levels in Nuuk Inuit compared to the pooled non-Nuuk Inuit.

  13. Inuit Health in Transition - the diet of young Inuit in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Charlotte

    intake of refined sugar from candy, cakes and beverages (pfast food, like burger, pizza, and salted snacks, followed by the age group of 25-34 year old (pfoods...... is influenced both by sex and age. The macronutrients in the diet of young Greenlanders are mainly contributed by imported foods. These findings support the hypothesis that young Inuit are moving toward a westernised diet, which can lead to public health consequences in the future.......Inuit Health in Transition - the diet of young Inuit in Greenland Charlotte Jeppesen, National Institute of Public Health, Copenhagen, Denmark OBJECTIVE The traditional diet of Inuit living in Greenland consists of marine mammals, reindeer, wild fowls and fish. Within the last 50 years consumption...

  14. Plasma YKL-40 in Inuit and Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøjgaard, Camilla; Johansen, Julia S; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2015-01-01

    (median 55 µg/l, range 10-2909, n = 8899). In Inuit, increased alcohol intake was significantly associated with increased plasma YKL-40 levels (P alkaline phosphatase and low values of albumin. Smoking, gender and bilirubin were...... intake patterns, nutrition and genes may play a role in these findings....

  15. The Inuit cancer pattern--the influence of migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, T.; Friborg, J.; Andersen, Allan

    2008-01-01

    [31.7 (CI 22.0-45.5)] and salivary glands [3.1 (CI 1.4-6.9)] observed among Inuit migrating to Denmark were comparable to those observed among Inuit never living in Denmark. Significant higher risk of cancer of the bladder, breast, prostate gland, skin, brain and stomach was observed among Inuit......The Inuit cancer pattern is characterized by high frequencies of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-associated carcinomas of the nasopharynx and salivary glands. The reasons are unknown, but genetic and environmental factors are believed to be involved. Using data from the well-defined Inuit population...... in Greenland we investigated whether migration to Denmark influenced their risk of cancer. Greenland is part of the Danish Kingdom, and population-based registries cover both countries. Using rates for Denmark as reference, sex-specific standardized incidence ratios (SIR) were calculated for Inuit who never...

  16. The Inuit cancer pattern--the influence of migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, T.; Friborg, J.; Andersen, Allan

    2008-01-01

    The Inuit cancer pattern is characterized by high frequencies of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-associated carcinomas of the nasopharynx and salivary glands. The reasons are unknown, but genetic and environmental factors are believed to be involved. Using data from the well-defined Inuit population...... [31.7 (CI 22.0-45.5)] and salivary glands [3.1 (CI 1.4-6.9)] observed among Inuit migrating to Denmark were comparable to those observed among Inuit never living in Denmark. Significant higher risk of cancer of the bladder, breast, prostate gland, skin, brain and stomach was observed among Inuit...... following migration to Denmark. The SIR was not generally influenced by duration of stay. The high risk of carcinoma of the nasopharynx and salivary glands observed in Inuit populations is maintained after migration to a low incidence area. This indicates that genetic factors or environmental factors acting...

  17. Blood pressure among the Inuit (Eskimo) populations in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Dewailly, Eric; Young, T Kue

    2003-01-01

    Studies of blood pressure among various Inuit (Eskimo) populations in the Arctic have given inconsistent results. Most studies reported lower blood pressure among the Inuit as compared with the predominantly white national populations. This has been attributed to traditional subsistence practices...... and lifestyle. This study compared the blood pressure among the major Inuit population groups with other populations and examined the associations with factors like age, gender, obesity and smoking....

  18. Contemporary Inuit Traditional Beliefs Concerning Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardon, A. A.; Mardon, E. G.; Williams, J. S.

    1992-07-01

    Inuit religious mythology and the importance of meteorites as "messages" from the Creator of all things is only now being recognized. Field investigations near Resolute, Cornwallis Island in the high Canadian Arctic in 1988 are the bases for this paper. Through interpreters, several elders of the local Inuit described in detail the Inuit belief, recognition, and wonder at the falling meteors & meteorites during the long Polar Night and Polar Day. Such events are passed on in the oral tradition from generation to generation by the elders and especially those elders who fulfill the shamanistic roles. The Inuit have come across rocks that they immediately recognize as not being "natural" and in the cases of a fall that was observed and the rock recovered the meteorite is kept either on the person or in some hidden niche known only to that person. In one story recounted a meteorite fell and was recovered at the birth of one very old elder and the belief was that if the rock was somehow damaged or taken from his possession he would die. Some indirect indication also was conveyed that the discovery and possession of meteorites allow shaman to have "supernatural" power. This belief in the supernatural power of meteorites can be seen historically in many societies, including Islam and the "black rock" (Kaaba) of Mecca. It should also be noted, however, that metallic meteorites were clearly once the major source of iron for Eskimo society as is indicated from the recovery of meteoritical iron arrow heads and harpoon heads from excavated pre-Viking contact sites. The one evident thing that became clear to the author is that the Inuit distinctly believe that these meteorites are religious objects of the highest order and it brings into question the current academic practice of sending meteorites south to research institutes. Any seeming conflict with the traditional use of meteoric iron is more apparent than real--the animals, the hunt, and the act of survival--all being

  19. Metabolic profile in two physically active Inuit groups consuming either a western or a traditional Inuit diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch-Andersen, Thor; Olsen, David B.; Søndergaard, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of regular physical activity on metabolic risk factors and blood pressure in Inuit with high BMI consuming a western diet (high amount of saturated fatty acids and carbohydrates with a high glycemic index). Study design: Cross sectional study, comparing Inuit ea...... activity. However, when considering the total cardio vascular risk profile the Inuit consuming a western diet had a less healthy profile than the Inuit consuming a traditional diet.......Objectives: To evaluate the effect of regular physical activity on metabolic risk factors and blood pressure in Inuit with high BMI consuming a western diet (high amount of saturated fatty acids and carbohydrates with a high glycemic index). Study design: Cross sectional study, comparing Inuit...... eating a western diet with Inuit eating a traditional diet. Methods: Two physically active Greenland Inuit groups consuming different diet, 20 eating a traditional diet (Qaanaaq) and 15 eating a western diet (TAB), age (mean (range)); 38, (22–58) yrs, BMI; 28 (20–40) were subjected to an oral glucose...

  20. Suicide and Suicide Prevention among Inuit in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Inuit in Canada have among the highest suicide rates in the world, and it is primarily among their youth. Risk factors include known ones such as depression, substance use, a history of abuse, and knowing others who have made attempts or have killed themselves, however of importance are the negative effects of colonialism. This took place for Inuit primarily during the government era starting in the 1950s, when Inuit were moved from their family-based land camps to crowded settlements run by white men, and children were removed from their parents and placed into residential or day schools. This caused more disorganization than reorganization. The most negative effect of this colonialism/imperialism for Inuit has been on their family and sexual relationships. Many Inuit youth feel alone and rejected. Suicide prevention has been taking place, the most successful being community-driven programs developed and run by Inuit. Mental health factors for Indigenous peoples are often cultural. It is recommended that practitioners work with the community and with Inuit organizations. Empowered communities can be healing. PMID:27738249

  1. Greenlandic Inuit show genetic signatures of diet and climate adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fumagalli, Matteo; Moltke, Ida; Grarup, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The indigenous people of Greenland, the Inuit, have lived for a long time in the extreme conditions of the Arctic, including low annual temperatures, and with a specialized diet rich in protein and fatty acids, particularly omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). A scan of Inuit genomes......, with the effect on height replicated in Europeans. By analyzing membrane lipids, we found that the selected alleles modulate fatty acid composition, which may affect the regulation of growth hormones. Thus, the Inuit have genetic and physiological adaptations to a diet rich in PUFAs....

  2. Assessing diet and lifestyle in the Canadian Arctic Inuit and Inuvialuit to inform a nutrition and physical activity intervention programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S

    2010-10-01

    Inuit in Nunavut (NU) and Inuvialuit in the Northwest Territories (NWT), Canada, were traditionally nomadic peoples whose culture and lifestyle were founded on hunting and gathering foods from the local environment, primarily land and marine mammals. Lifestyle changes within the last century have brought about a rapid nutrition transition, characterised by decreasing consumption of traditional foods and an associated increase in the consumption of processed, shop-bought foods. This transition may be attributed to a multitude of factors, such as acculturation, overall food access and availability, food insecurity and climate change. Obesity and risk for chronic disease are higher in the Canadian Arctic population compared with the Canadian national average. This present review describes the study population and methodologies used to collect data in order to study the nutrition transition amongst Aboriginal Arctic populations and develop Healthy Foods North (HFN), a novel, multi-institutional and culturally appropriate programme that aims to improve dietary adequacy and reduce risk of chronic disease. Included in this special issue of the Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics are papers describing dietary intake patterns, physical activity levels, dietary behaviours, chronic disease prevalence and psychosocial factors that potentially mediate behaviour. A further paper describes how these data were utilised to inform and develop Healthy Foods North. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  3. Level and temporal trend of perfluoroalkyl acids in Greenlandic Inuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Manhai; Bossi, Rossana; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2012-01-01

    Greenlandic districts using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization. The temporal time trend of serum PFAAs in Nuuk Inuit during 19982005 and the correlation between serum PFAAs and legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were explored. Results: Serum PFAA levels were......Objectives: Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been detected in human blood, breast milk and umbilical cord blood across the globe. PFAAs do accumulate in the marine food chain in Arctic regions. In Greenland, increasing PFAA concentrations were observed during 19822006 in ringed seals and polar...... bears. However, until now, no data have been reported for PFAAs in Greenlandic Inuit. This study assesses the level and temporal trend of serum PFAAs in Greenlandic Inuit. Study design: Cross-section and temporal time trend survey. Methods: Serum PFAA levels were determined in 284 Inuit from different...

  4. Cardiovascular Disease Susceptibility and Resistance in Circumpolar Inuit Populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvermosegaard, Maria; Dahl-Petersen, Inger K; Nielsen, Nina Odgaard

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major public health issue in indigenous populations in the Arctic. These diseases have emerged concomitantly with profound social changes over the past 60 years. The aim of this study was to summarize the literature on CVD risk among Arctic Inuit. Literature...... on prevalence, incidence, and time trends for CVD and its risk factors in Arctic Inuit populations was reviewed. Most evidence supports a similar incidence of coronary heart disease and a higher incidence of cerebrovascular disease among Arctic Inuit than seen in western populations. Factors that may increase...... intake (at least documented in Greenland), and contaminant levels are declining. Although there have been marked socioeconomic and dietary changes, it remains unsolved and to some extent controversial how this may have influenced cardiovascular risk among Arctic Inuit. The increase in life expectancy...

  5. Adapting to the Effects of Climate Change on Inuit Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, James D.; Willox, Ashlee Cunsolo; Chatwood, Susan; Furgal, Christopher; Harper, Sherilee; Mauro, Ian; Pearce, Tristan

    2014-01-01

    Climate change will have far-reaching implications for Inuit health. Focusing on adaptation offers a proactive approach for managing climate-related health risks—one that views Inuit populations as active agents in planning and responding at household, community, and regional levels. Adaptation can direct attention to the root causes of climate vulnerability and emphasize the importance of traditional knowledge regarding environmental change and adaptive strategies. An evidence base on adaptation options and processes for Inuit regions is currently lacking, however, thus constraining climate policy development. In this article, we tackled this deficit, drawing upon our understanding of the determinants of health vulnerability to climate change in Canada to propose key considerations for adaptation decision-making in an Inuit context. PMID:24754615

  6. The health of Inuit children under age 6 in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, Leanne C; Janz, Teresa A

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that Inuit children experience poor health as compared to their non-Aboriginal counterparts, although social determinants such as family and social conditions, lifestyle or behaviour, and cultural factors may be at play. The purpose of the current study was to examine the parent-reported health of Inuit children under 6 years of age living in Canada. Data from the 2006 Aboriginal Children's Survey were used to examine measures of Inuit child health as rated by parents including child health, limitations to physical activity, chronic conditions, ear infections, and dental problems. Associations between social determinants of health and parent-rated Inuit child health were also explored. Most Inuit children under age 6 were reported by their parents or guardians to be in excellent or very good health. The most common chronic conditions identified were asthma, speech and language difficulties, allergies, lactose intolerance, and hearing impairment. Several social determinants of health were associated with child health, including parental education, household income, breastfeeding, and perceived housing conditions. The findings show that social determinants of health, including both socio-economic and household characteristics, are associated with Inuit child health.

  7. The health of Inuit children under age 6 in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanne C. Findlay

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Previous research has suggested that Inuit children experience poor health as compared to their non-Aboriginal counterparts, although social determinants such as family and social conditions, lifestyle or behaviour, and cultural factors may be at play. The purpose of the current study was to examine the parent-reported health of Inuit children under 6 years of age living in Canada. Study design and methods. Data from the 2006 Aboriginal Children's Survey were used to examine measures of Inuit child health as rated by parents including child health, limitations to physical activity, chronic conditions, ear infections, and dental problems. Associations between social determinants of health and parent-rated Inuit child health were also explored. Results. Most Inuit children under age 6 were reported by their parents or guardians to be in excellent or very good health. The most common chronic conditions identified were asthma, speech and language difficulties, allergies, lactose intolerance, and hearing impairment. Several social determinants of health were associated with child health, including parental education, household income, breastfeeding, and perceived housing conditions. Conclusions. The findings show that social determinants of health, including both socio-economic and household characteristics, are associated with Inuit child health.

  8. Doing the right thing! A model for building a successful hospital-based ethics committee in Nunavut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine Cole

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. There exists a need throughout the North to increase capacity to address issues of health ethics and for community members to better understand and share their perspectives on this topic. Ethics comes down to weighing rights and wrongs, evaluating differing needs and understandings, acknowledging the many shades of grey and doing our best to come up with the just, fair and moral approach to the question at hand. Northern regions must collaborate to share capacity, successes and experiences in order to meet the unique needs of northern health care institutions and move forward on this issue. While guidelines for ethical research with indigenous populations exist, little has been published about an Inuit approach to health ethics more broadly. Design . To fill a critical need and to meet accreditation standards, the Qikiqtani General Hospital (QGH in Iqaluit, Nunavut, Canada, is in the process of building an Ethics Committee. Capitalizing on partnerships with other bodies both in northern and southern Canada has proved an efficient and effective way to develop local solutions to challenges that have been experienced both at QGH and other jurisdictions. Methods . The Ottawa Hospital Ethics Office and the active ethics committee at Stanton General Hospital in Yellowknife, NT, contributed expertise and experience, and helped provide some direction for the QGH ethics committee. At the local level, based on our shared commitment to health care ethics, the Qaujigiartiit Health Research Centre is an invaluable partner whose parallel efforts to develop a northern Health Research Ethics Board (REB gives great synergy to the QGH Ethics Committee. Results . Passion and commitment, as well as administrative support and endorsement from health care leaders, are the aspects of successful initiatives that we have identified to date. Using the information from both the experiences of other partners, as well as information gathered at a retreat held in

  9. Doing the right thing! A model for building a successful hospital-based ethics committee in Nunavut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Madeleine; Healey, Gwen

    2013-01-01

    There exists a need throughout the North to increase capacity to address issues of health ethics and for community members to better understand and share their perspectives on this topic. Ethics comes down to weighing rights and wrongs, evaluating differing needs and understandings, acknowledging the many shades of grey and doing our best to come up with the just, fair and moral approach to the question at hand. Northern regions must collaborate to share capacity, successes and experiences in order to meet the unique needs of northern health care institutions and move forward on this issue. While guidelines for ethical research with indigenous populations exist, little has been published about an Inuit approach to health ethics more broadly. To fill a critical need and to meet accreditation standards, the Qikiqtani General Hospital (QGH) in Iqaluit, Nunavut, Canada, is in the process of building an Ethics Committee. Capitalizing on partnerships with other bodies both in northern and southern Canada has proved an efficient and effective way to develop local solutions to challenges that have been experienced both at QGH and other jurisdictions. The Ottawa Hospital Ethics Office and the active ethics committee at Stanton General Hospital in Yellowknife, NT, contributed expertise and experience, and helped provide some direction for the QGH ethics committee. At the local level, based on our shared commitment to health care ethics, the Qaujigiartiit Health Research Centre is an invaluable partner whose parallel efforts to develop a northern Health Research Ethics Board (REB) gives great synergy to the QGH Ethics Committee. Passion and commitment, as well as administrative support and endorsement from health care leaders, are the aspects of successful initiatives that we have identified to date. Using the information from both the experiences of other partners, as well as information gathered at a retreat held in Iqaluit in September 2011, we are working to develop a

  10. Metabolic profile in two physically active Inuit groups consuming either a western or a traditional Inuit diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thor Munch; Olsen, David B; Søndergaard, Hans

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of regular physical activity on metabolic risk factors and blood pressure in Inuit with high BMI consuming a western diet (high amount of saturated fatty acids and carbohydrates with a high glycemic index).......To evaluate the effect of regular physical activity on metabolic risk factors and blood pressure in Inuit with high BMI consuming a western diet (high amount of saturated fatty acids and carbohydrates with a high glycemic index)....

  11. Postcolonial suicide among Inuit in Arctic Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kral, Michael J

    2012-06-01

    Indigenous youth suicide incidence is high globally, and mostly involves young males. However, the Inuit of Arctic Canada have a suicide rate that is among the highest in the world (and ten times that for the rest of Canada). The author suggests that suicide increase has emerged because of changes stemming in part from the Canadian government era in the Arctic in the 1950s and 1960s. The effects of government intervention dramatically affected kin relations, roles, and responsibilities, and affinal/romantic relationships. Suicide is embedded in these relationships. The author also discusses the polarization between psychiatric and indigenous/community methods of healing, demonstrating that government-based intervention approaches to mental health are not working well, and traditional cultural healing practices often take place outside of the mainstream clinics in these communities. The main questions of the paper are: Who should control suicide prevention? What is the best knowledge base for suicide prevention?

  12. Familial aggregation of intracranial aneurysms in an Inuit patient population in Kalaallit Nunaat (Greenland)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgaard, Lars; Eskesen, Vagn; Gjerris, Flemming

    2003-01-01

    The incidence of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and intracranial aneurysm (IA) has been reported to be higher in Greenlandic Inuits than in Caucasian Danes, but the rate of familial aggregation in Inuits is unknown....

  13. Household crowding and psychosocial health among Inuit in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riva, Mylène; Larsen, Christina Viskum Lytken; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2014-01-01

    men and women are differently influenced by their housing conditions. METHODS: Data on more than 3,000 Inuit aged 18 years and older are from the Inuit health in transition Greenland survey. Associations between household crowding and composition, and mental well-being and binge drinking were examined...... using logistic regression models, adjusting for individuals' characteristics. RESULTS: Household crowding was associated with poorer mental well-being. Binge drinking was more common among people living in households without children. These effects were more important for women than for men......OBJECTIVES: Poor housing conditions experienced by many Indigenous peoples threaten their health and well-being. This study examines whether household crowding is associated with poorer psychosocial health among Greenlanders, and the mediating role of social support. It also assesses whether Inuit...

  14. Fat distribution and glucose intolerance among Greenland inuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marit Eika; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Stolk, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    circumference [WC], and percentage of body fat) and the indices of glucose metabolism (fasting and 2-h glucose levels, insulin resistance per homeostasis model assessment [HOMA-IR], and the insulin sensitivity index [ISI0,120]) among Greenland Inuit. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 3,108 adult Inuit...... associated with glucose intolerance, fasting and 2-h plasma glucose levels, HOMA-IR, and ISI0,120. VAT was more strongly associated with all outcomes than was SAT. After further adjustment for BMI or WC, VAT was associated with glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, whereas there was a trend toward...

  15. Pneumatization and otitis media in Greenlandic Inuit before European colonization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Homøe, P; Lynnerup, N; Skovgaard, L T

    1995-01-01

    A total of 127 Greenlandic Inuit crania from before the European colonization of Greenland and deriving from the West (W), Southeast (SE), and Northeast (NE) coast of Greenland were examined for sequelae of infectious middle ear disease (IMED) and for a relationship between the size of the pneuma......A total of 127 Greenlandic Inuit crania from before the European colonization of Greenland and deriving from the West (W), Southeast (SE), and Northeast (NE) coast of Greenland were examined for sequelae of infectious middle ear disease (IMED) and for a relationship between the size...

  16. Metabolic profile in two physically active Inuit groups consuming either a western or a traditional Inuit diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thor Munch-Andersen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the effect of regular physical activity on metabolic risk factors and blood pressure in Inuit with high BMI consuming a western diet (high amount of saturated fatty acids and carbohydrates with a high glycemic index. Study design: Cross sectional study, comparing Inuit eating a western diet with Inuit eating a traditional diet. Methods: Two physically active Greenland Inuit groups consuming different diet, 20 eating a traditional diet (Qaanaaq and 15 eating a western diet (TAB, age (mean (range; 38, (22–58 yrs, BMI; 28 (20–40 were subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, blood sampling, maximal oxygen uptake test, food interview/collection and monitoring of physical activity. Results: All Inuit had a normal OGTT. Fasting glucose (mmol/l, HbA1c (%, total cholesterol (mmol/l and HDL-C (mmol/l were for Qaanaaq women: 4.8±0.2, 5.3±0.1, 4.96±0.42, 1.34±0.06, for Qaanaaq men: 4.9±0.1, 5.7±0.1, 5.08±0.31, 1.28±0.09, for TAB women: 5.1±0.2, 5.3±0.1, 6.22±0.39, 1.86±0.13, for TAB men: 5.1±0.2, 5.3±0.1, 6.23±0.15, 1.60±0.10. No differences were found in systolic or diastolic blood pressure between the groups. There was a more adverse distribution of small dense LDL-C particles and higher total cholesterol and HDL-C concentration in the western diet group. Conclusions: Diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance was not found in the Inuit consuming either the western or the traditional diet, and this could, at least partly, be due to the high amount of regular daily physical activity. However, when considering the total cardio vascular risk profile the Inuit consuming a western diet had a less healthy profile than the Inuit consuming a traditional diet.

  17. Association between socioeconomic status and overweight and obesity among Inuit adults: International Polar Year Inuit Health Survey, 2007–2008

    OpenAIRE

    Zienczuk, Natalia; Egeland, Grace M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the socio-economic correlates of overweight and obesity among Inuit undergoing rapid cultural changes. Study design. A cross-sectional health survey of 2,592 Inuit adults from 36 communities in the Canadian Arctic. Methods. Main outcome measures were overweight and obesity (BMI>25 kg/m2 and >30 kg/m2, respectively) and as characteristics were similar, groups were combined into an at-risk BMI category (BMI>25 kg/m2). Logistic regression was used to determine th...

  18. Pneumatization and otitis media in Greenlandic Inuit before European colonization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Homøe, P; Lynnerup, N; Skovgaard, L T

    1995-01-01

    A total of 127 Greenlandic Inuit crania from before the European colonization of Greenland and deriving from the West (W), Southeast (SE), and Northeast (NE) coast of Greenland were examined for sequelae of infectious middle ear disease (IMED) and for a relationship between the size of the pneuma...

  19. Water systems, sanitation, and public health risks in remote communities: Inuit resident perspectives from the Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Kiley; Castleden, Heather; Jamieson, Rob; Furgal, Chris; Ell, Lorna

    2015-06-01

    Safe drinking water and wastewater sanitation are universally recognized as critical components of public health. It is well documented that a lack of access to these basic services results in millions of preventable deaths each year among vulnerable populations. Water and wastewater technologies and management practices are frequently tailored to local environmental conditions. Also important, but often overlooked in water management planning, are the social, cultural and economic contexts in which services are provided. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to identify and understand residents' perceptions of the functionality of current water and wastewater sanitation systems in one vulnerable context, that of a remote Arctic Aboriginal community (Coral Harbour, Nunavut), and to identify potential future water related health risks. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 28 Inuit residents and 9 key informants in 2011 and 2012. Findings indicate that the population's rapid transition from a semi-nomadic hunting and gathering lifestyle to permanent settlements with municipally provided utilities is influencing present-day water usage patterns, public health perceptions, and the level of priority decision-makers place on water and wastewater management issues. Simultaneously environmental, social and cultural conditions conducive to increased human exposure to waterborne health risks were also found to exist and may be increasing in the settlements. While water and wastewater system design decisions are often based on best practices proven suitable in similar environmental conditions, this study reinforces the argument for inclusion of social, cultural, and economic variables in such decisions, particularly in remote and economically challenged contexts in Canada or elsewhere around the world. The results also indicate that the addition of qualitative data about water and wastewater systems users' behaviours to technical knowledge of systems and

  20. Proces odrodzenia praw amerykańskich ludów rdzennych na przykładzie „prawa do ziemi” kanadyjskich Inuitów

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Bonusiak

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Inuici zamieszkują tereny rozciągające się wzdłuż koła podbiegunowego, od Aleutów i Alaski, przez północnączęść Kanady, aż po należącą do Danii Grenlandię. Spis powszechny z 2006 roku wykazał, że w Kanadzie mieszkaich około 50 tysięcy. W II połowie XX wieku włączyli się oni do działań zmierzających do zmiany sytuacjiludów rdzennych zamieszkałych na terytorium Kanady. Początkowo marginalizowani i niedostrzegani przezbiałą większość byli w stanie skutecznie przeciwstawić się dominującej kulturze i utrzymać własną odrębność,a nawet uzyskać prawo do decydowania o własnych losach. Z sukcesem wykorzystali procesy występujące naarenie międzynarodowej i w polityce wewnętrznej Kanady, łącząc swe dążenia z działaniami Indian. Tak jakdla innych aborygenów rozsianych po całym świecie, tak i dla Inuitów zagadnieniem niezwykłej wagi byłoposiadanie i wykorzystanie ziemi i jej zasobów. Ukoronowaniem ich wysiłków stało się utworzenie z częścizamieszkanych przez nich obszarów odrębnego terytorium Nunavut. Artykuł przedstawia proces odrodzeniakanadyjskich Inuitów i obecny zakres ich samodzielności. Zwraca uwagę na uwarunkowania i procesy łącząceich z Indianami i Metysami, a także na przesłanki i konsekwencje odmienności losów i statusu Inuitów.Szczególnie wyeksponowany został problem „prawa do ziemi” i różne od europejskiego jego rozumienie.

  1. Distance education for tobacco reduction with Inuit frontline health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Rob; Hammond, Merryl; Carry, Catherine L; Kinnon, Dianne; Killulark, Joan; Nevala, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco reduction is a major priority in Canadian Inuit communities. However, many Inuit frontline health workers lacked the knowledge, confidence and support to address the tobacco epidemic. Given vast distances, high costs of face-to-face training and previous successful pilots using distance education, this method was chosen for a national tobacco reduction course. To provide distance education about tobacco reduction to at least 25 frontline health workers from all Inuit regions of Canada. Promising practices globally were assessed in a literature survey. The National Inuit Tobacco Task Group guided the project. Participants were selected from across Inuit Nunangat. They chose a focus from a "menu" of 6 course options, completed a pre-test to assess individual learning needs and chose which community project(s) to complete. Course materials were mailed, and trainers provided intensive, individualized support through telephone, fax and e-mail. The course ended with an open-book post-test. Follow-up support continued for several months post-training. Of the 30 participants, 27 (90%) completed the course. The mean pre-test score was 72% (range: 38-98%). As the post-test was done using open books, everyone scored 100%, with a mean improvement of 28% (range: 2-62%). Although it was often challenging to contact participants through phone, a distance education approach was very practical in a northern context. Learning is more concrete when it happens in a real-life context. As long as adequate support is provided, we recommend individualized distance education to others working in circumpolar regions.

  2. Distance education for tobacco reduction with Inuit frontline health workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Collins

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background . Tobacco reduction is a major priority in Canadian Inuit communities. However, many Inuit frontline health workers lacked the knowledge, confidence and support to address the tobacco epidemic. Given vast distances, high costs of face-to-face training and previous successful pilots using distance education, this method was chosen for a national tobacco reduction course. Objective . To provide distance education about tobacco reduction to at least 25 frontline health workers from all Inuit regions of Canada. Design . Promising practices globally were assessed in a literature survey. The National Inuit Tobacco Task Group guided the project. Participants were selected from across Inuit Nunangat. They chose a focus from a “menu” of 6 course options, completed a pre-test to assess individual learning needs and chose which community project(s to complete. Course materials were mailed, and trainers provided intensive, individualized support through telephone, fax and e-mail. The course ended with an open-book post-test. Follow-up support continued for several months post-training. Results . Of the 30 participants, 27 (90% completed the course. The mean pre-test score was 72% (range: 38–98%. As the post-test was done using open books, everyone scored 100%, with a mean improvement of 28% (range: 2–62%. Conclusions . Although it was often challenging to contact participants through phone, a distance education approach was very practical in a northern context. Learning is more concrete when it happens in a real-life context. As long as adequate support is provided, we recommend individualized distance education to others working in circumpolar regions.

  3. The influence of persistent organic pollutants in the traditional Inuit diet on markers of inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schæbel, L K; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie; Vestergaard, H

    2017-01-01

    exposure to POPs from the marine diet and inflammation, taking into account other factors such as vitamin D. We invited Inuit and non-Inuit living in settlements or the town in rural East Greenland or in the capital city Nuuk. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire and donated a blood sample......Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are high in Inuit living predominately on the traditional marine diet. Adverse effects of POPs include disruption of the immune system and cardiovascular diseases that are frequent in Greenland Inuit. We aimed to assess the association between...... of Greenlandic food items (pfood items (p

  4. Canada's relationship with Inuit: a history of policy and program development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bonesteel, Sarah; Anderson, Erik

    2008-01-01

    ... and justice, sovereignty and relocations, the E-number identification system, Inuit political organizations, comprehensive claim agreements, housing, healthcare, education, economic development, self-government...

  5. Els inuit. Caçadors del Gran Nord

    OpenAIRE

    Bailón Trueba, Francesc

    2017-01-01

    Els inuit, també coneguts com a “esquimals” i que significa “éssers humans”, són un dels pobles indígenes que encara conserven moltes de les seves antigues tradicions. Vivint en perfecta simbiosi amb la naturalesa han sabut aprofitar els escassos recursos que l'Àrtic els ofereix i s'han convertit en l'actualitat en la societat caçadora més avançada del món. Conèixer el passat dels inuit ens permetrà entendre millor el present i futur d'aquest poble, un dels més afectats per l'escalfament glob...

  6. Cytokine responses in relation to age, gender, body mass index, Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, and otitis media among inuit in greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Odgaard; Soborg, Bolette; Børresen, Malene

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the cytokine response pattern in Inuit in Greenland in relation to age, gender, body mass index (BMI), Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (MTI), and otitis media (OM) to assess whether Inuit may have signs of impaired immune responsiveness to infection.......To evaluate the cytokine response pattern in Inuit in Greenland in relation to age, gender, body mass index (BMI), Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (MTI), and otitis media (OM) to assess whether Inuit may have signs of impaired immune responsiveness to infection....

  7. Co-production of knowledge: An Inuit Indigenous Knowledge perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, R.; Behe, C.

    2017-12-01

    A "co-production of knowledge" approach brings together different knowledge systems while building equitable and collaborative partnerships from `different ways of knowing.' Inuit Indigenous Knowledge is a systematic way of thinking applied to phenomena across biological, physical, cultural and spiritual systems; rooted with a holistic understanding of ecosystems (ICC Alaska 2016). A holistic image of Arctic environmental change is attained by bringing Indigenous Knowledge (IK) holders and scientists together through a co-production of knowledge framework. Experts from IK and science should be involved together from the inception of a project. IK should be respected as its own knowledge system and should not be translated into science. A co-production of knowledge approach is important in developing adaptation policies and practices, for sustainability and to address biodiversity conservation (Daniel et al. 2016). Co-production of knowledge is increasingly being recognized by the scientific community at-large. However, in many instances the concept is being incorrectly applied. This talk will build on the important components of co-production of knowledge from an Inuit perspective and specifically IK. In this presentation we will differentiate the co-production of knowledge from a multi-disciplinary approach or multi-evidence based decision-making. We underscore the role and value of different knowledge systems with different methodologies and the need for collaborative approaches in identifying research questions. We will also provide examples from our experiences with Indigenous communities and scientists in the Arctic. References: Inuit Circumpolar Council of Alaska. 2016. Alaskan Inuit Food Security Conceptual Framework: How to Assess the Arctic From An Inuit Perspective, 201pp. Daniel, R., C. Behe, J. Raymond-Yakoubian, E. Krummel, and S. Gearhead. Arctic Observing Summit White Paper Synthesis, Theme 6: Interfacing Indigenous Knowledge, Community

  8. Association between socioeconomic status and overweight and obesity among Inuit adults: International Polar Year Inuit Health Survey, 2007–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Zienczuk

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate the socio-economic correlates of overweight and obesity among Inuit undergoing rapid cultural changes. Study design. A cross-sectional health survey of 2,592 Inuit adults from 36 communities in the Canadian Arctic. Methods. Main outcome measures were overweight and obesity (BMI>25 kg/m2 and >30 kg/m2, respectively and as characteristics were similar, groups were combined into an at-risk BMI category (BMI>25 kg/m2. Logistic regression was used to determine the association between various sociodemographic characteristics and physical activity with overweight and obesity. Results. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 28 and 36%, respectively, with a total prevalence of overweight and obesity of 64%. In analyses of sociodemographic variables adjusted for age, gender and region, higher education, any employment, personal income, and private housing were all significantly positively correlated with an at-risk BMI (p≤0.001. Smoking, Inuit language as primary language spoken at home, and walking were inversely associated with overweight and obesity. Conclusions. The current findings highlight the social disparities in overweight and obesity prevalence in an ethnically distinct population undergoing rapid cultural changes.

  9. North of 60--The Inuit: An Introduction to the Eskimos of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Ottawa (Ontario).

    In just 30 years the approximately 25,000 Canadian Inuit moved from traditional hunting and trapping to a multifacted, multimillion dollar economy based on tourism, arts and crafts, and renewable resource development. The rapidly changing Inuit world brought positive changes such as compulsory, better-quality education and improved health, as well…

  10. Adverse Metabolic Risk Profiles in Greenlandic Inuit Children Compared to Danish Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch-Andersen, T.; Sorensen, K.; Andersen, L. B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective During recent decades, the prevalence of metabolic morbidity has increased rapidly in adult Greenlandic Inuit. To what extent this is also reflected in the juvenile Inuit population is unknown. The objective was, therefore, in the comparison with Danish children, to evaluate metabolic p...

  11. Self-rated health among Greenlandic Inuit and Norwegian Sami adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spein, Anna Rita; Pedersen, Cecilia Petrine; Silviken, Anne Cathrine

    2013-01-01

    Self-rated health (SRH) and associated risk and protective correlates were investigated among two indigenous adolescent populations, Greenlandic Inuit and Norwegian Sami.......Self-rated health (SRH) and associated risk and protective correlates were investigated among two indigenous adolescent populations, Greenlandic Inuit and Norwegian Sami....

  12. Genetic variation in alcohol metabolizing enzymes among Inuit and its relation to drinking patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Mikkelsen, Stine Schou; Becker, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Variation in genes involved in alcohol metabolism is associated with drinking patterns worldwide. We compared variation in these genes among the Inuit with published results from the general population of Denmark and, due to the Asian ancestry of the Inuit, with Han Chinese. We analyzed...

  13. Nunavik: Inuit-Controlled Education in Arctic Quebec. Northern Lights Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vick-Westgate, Ann

    This book documents the debate among the Inuit of Nunavik (northern Quebec) over the purposes, strengths, and weaknesses of public schools in their 14 arctic communities. The book begins with a summary of the history of education in Nunavik, including traditional Inuit methods and purposes of education. The 14 communities comprise the Kativik…

  14. Birth Weight and Risk of Adiposity among Adult Inuit in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn, Pernille Falberg; Smith, Lærke Steenberg; Andersen, Gregers Stig

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Inuit population in Greenland has undergone rapid socioeconomic and nutritional changes simultaneously with an increasing prevalence of obesity. Therefore, the objective was to examine fetal programming as part of the aetiology of obesity among Inuit in Greenland by investigating...

  15. The Harvest and Management of Migratory Bird Eggs by Inuit in Nunatsiavut, Labrador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natcher, David; Felt, Larry; Chaulk, Keith; Procter, Andrea

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents the results of collaborative research conducted in 2007 on the harvest of migratory bird eggs by Inuit households of Nunatsiavut, Labrador. Harvest variability between communities and species is examined, as is the social and ecological factors affecting the 2007 Inuit egg harvest. Representing the first comprehensive account of Inuit egg use in Labrador, this information should be valuable to agencies responsible for managing migratory bird populations in North America and will contribute to a more informed understanding of the complexity and temporal variability in subsistence harvesting among Labrador Inuit. It is argued that the recognition of this complexity will be critical as the Nunatsiavut Government and other wildlife management agencies formulate management policies that are supportive rather, than constraining, to Inuit resource use in the future.

  16. Prevalence of age-related maculopathy and age-related macular degeneration among the inuit in Greenland. The Greenland Inuit Eye Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Varis Nis; Rosenberg, Thomas; la Cour, Morten

    2008-01-01

    To examine the age- and gender-specific prevalence and describe the common phenotype of early age-related maculopathy (ARM) and late-stage age-related macular degeneration (AMD) among the Inuit in Greenland.......To examine the age- and gender-specific prevalence and describe the common phenotype of early age-related maculopathy (ARM) and late-stage age-related macular degeneration (AMD) among the Inuit in Greenland....

  17. Obesity studies in the circumpolar Inuit: a scoping review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey Galloway

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Among circumpolar populations, recent research has documented a significant increase in risk factors which are commonly associated with chronic disease, notably obesity. Objective. The present study undertakes a scoping review of research on obesity in the circumpolar Inuit to determine the extent obesity research has been undertaken, how well all subpopulations and geographic areas are represented, the methodologies used and whether they are sufficient in describing risk factors, and the prevalence and health outcomes associated with obesity. Design. Online databases were used to identify papers published 1992–2011, from which we selected 38 publications from Canada, the United States, and Greenland that used obesity as a primary or secondary outcome variable in 30 or more non-pregnant Inuit (“Eskimo” participants aged 2 years or older. Results. The majority of publications (92% reported cross-sectional studies while 8% examined retrospective cohorts. All but one of the studies collected measured data. Overall 84% of the publications examined obesity in adults. Those examining obesity in children focused on early childhood or adolescence. While most (66% reported 1 or more anthropometric indices, none incorporated direct measures of adiposity. Evaluated using a customized quality assessment instrument, 26% of studies achieved an “A” quality ranking, while 18 and 39% achieved quality rankings of “B” and “C”, respectively. Conclusions. While the quality of studies is generally high, research on obesity among Inuit would benefit from careful selection of methods and reference standards, direct measures of adiposity in adults and children, studies of preadolescent children, and prospective cohort studies linking early childhood exposures with obesity outcomes throughout childhood and adolescence.

  18. iNUIT: Internet of Things for Urban Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Carrino

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Internet of Things (IoT seems a viable way to enable the Smart Cities of the future. iNUIT (Internet of Things for Urban Innovation is a multi-year research program that aims to create an ecosystem that exploits the variety of data coming from multiple sensors and connected objects installed on the scale of a city, in order to meet specific needs in terms of development of new services (physical security, resource management, etc.. Among the multiple research activities within iNUIT, we present two projects: SmartCrowd and OpEc. SmartCrowd aims at monitoring the crowd’s movement during large events. It focuses on real-time tracking using sensors available in smartphones and on the use of a crowd simulator to detect possible dangerous scenarios. A proof-of-concept of the application has been tested at the Paléo Festival (Switzerland showing the feasibility of the approach. OpEc (Optimisation de l’Eclairage public aims at using IoT to implement dynamic street light management and control with the goal of reducing street light energy consumption while guaranteeing the same level of security of traditional illumination. The system has been tested during two months in a street in St-Imier (Switzerland without interruption, validating its stability and resulting in an overall energy saving of about 56%.

  19. Dietary adequacy of vitamin D and calcium among Inuit and Inuvialuit women of child-bearing age in Arctic Canada: a growing concern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Kolahdooz

    Full Text Available Arctic populations are at an increased risk of vitamin D inadequacy due to geographic latitude and a nutrition transition. This study aimed to assess the adequacy of dietary vitamin D and calcium among women of child-bearing age in Arctic Canada.This study collected data from 203 randomly selected women of child-bearing age (19-44 years in Nunavut and the Northwest Territories of Arctic Canada. Cross-sectional surveys using a validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire were analysed to determine the dietary adequacy of vitamin D and calcium and summarize the top foods contributing to vitamin D and calcium intake among traditional food eaters (TFE and non-traditional food eaters (NTFE.The response rate was between 69-93% depending on the community sampled. Mean BMIs for both TFE and NTFE were above the normal range. Traditional food eaters had a significantly higher median vitamin D intake compared with non-traditional eaters (TFE=5.13 ± 5.34 µg/day; NTFE=3.5 ± 3.22 µg/day, p=0·004. The majority of women (87% were below the Estimated Average Requirements (EAR for vitamin D. Despite adequate median daily calcium intake in both TFE (1,299 ± 798 mg/day and NTFE (992 ± 704 mg/day; p=0.0005, 27% of the study population fell below the EAR for calcium. Dairy products contributed the most to intake of vitamin D (TFE=30.7%; NTFE=39.1% and calcium (TFE=25.5%; NTFE=34.5%.Inadequate dietary vitamin D intake is evident among Inuit and Inuvialuit women of child-bearing age in Arctic Canada. Promotion of nutrient-rich sources of traditional foods, supplementation protocols and/or expanded food fortification should be considered to address this nutrition concern.

  20. Prevalence of obesity and its metabolic correlates among the circumpolar inuit in 3 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, T Kue; Bjerregaard, Peter; Dewailly, Eric

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We investigated the prevalence of obesity and the metabolic correlates of different levels of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference among the Inuit in 3 countries. METHODS: Data from 4 surveys of Inuit in Canada, Greenland, and Alaska conducted during 1990-2001 were pooled......, with a total sample size of 2545 participants. These data were compared with data from a Canadian population of predominantly European origin. RESULTS: Using the World Health Organization criteria for overweight and obesity, we found that the crude prevalence of overweight among Inuit men and women was 36.......6% and 32.5%, respectively, and obesity was 15.8% and 25.5%, respectively. Inuit prevalences were similar to those of the highly developed countries of Europe and North America. As levels of obesity increased, as measured by BMI or waist circumference, the mean values of various metabolic indicators...

  1. Food insecurity and nutritional biomarkers in relation to stature in Inuit children from Nunavik

    OpenAIRE

    Pirkle, Catherine; Lucas, Michel; Dallaire, Renée; Ayotte, Pierre; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Dewailly, Éric; Muckle, Gina

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Inuit in Canada experience alarming levels of food insecurity, but nutritional and physiological consequences are poorly documented, especially in school-age children. The objective of this study was to assess the relation of food insecurity to iron deficiency and stature in school-aged Inuit children from Nunavik (Northern Quebec). METHODS: Food insecurity, iron deficiency, and stature were assessed in a cohort of children. Food insecurity was determined by interviewing ...

  2. Dangerous climate change and the importance of adaptation for the Arctic's Inuit population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, James D

    2009-01-01

    The Arctic's climate is changing rapidly, to the extent that 'dangerous' climate change as defined by the United Nations Framework on Climate Change might already be occurring. These changes are having implications for the Arctic's Inuit population and are being exacerbated by the dependence of Inuit on biophysical resources for livelihoods and the low socio-economic-health status of many northern communities. Given the nature of current climate change and projections of a rapidly warming Arctic, climate policy assumes a particular importance for Inuit regions. This paper argues that efforts to stabilize and reduce greenhouse gas emissions are urgent if we are to avoid runaway climate change in the Arctic, but unlikely to prevent changes which will be dangerous for Inuit. In this context, a new policy discourse on climate change is required for Arctic regions-one that focuses on adaptation. The paper demonstrates that states with Inuit populations and the international community in general has obligations to assist Inuit to adapt to climate change through international human rights and climate change treaties. However, the adaptation deficit, in terms of what we know and what we need to know to facilitate successful adaptation, is particularly large in an Arctic context and limiting the ability to develop response options. Moreover, adaptation as an option of response to climate change is still marginal in policy negotiations and Inuit political actors have been slow to argue the need for adaptation assistance. A new focus on adaptation in both policy negotiations and scientific research is needed to enhance Inuit resilience and reduce vulnerability in a rapidly changing climate.

  3. Estimation of otitis media in ancient populations: A study of past and present Greenlandic Inuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Homøe, P; Lynnerup, N; Skovgaard, Lene Theil

    1996-01-01

    adult Inuit crania from the pre-European colonization period (before A.D. 1721) of Greenland. The occurrence of IMED as designated by the model was eight out of 34 (23.5 per cent) in living Inuit, 10 out of 56 (17.9 per cent) in crania from the 18th to 19th century and six out of 127 (4.7 per cent......) in crania from the pre-colonization period. These frequencies differed significantly (p

  4. Arctic observers: Richard King, monogenism and the historicisation of Inuit through travel narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sera-Shriar, Efram

    2015-06-01

    In 1848 the ethnologist, surgeon and Arctic explorer Richard King (1810-1876) published a three-part series on Inuit in the Journal of the Ethnological Society of London. This series provided a detailed history of Inuit from the eleventh century to the early nineteenth century. It incorporated a mixture of King's personal observations from his experience travelling to the Arctic as a member of George Back's expedition (1833-1835), and the testimonies of other contemporary and historical actors who had written on the subject. The aim was to historicise Inuit through the use of travel reports and show persistent features among the race. King was a monogenist and his sensitive recasting of Inuit was influenced by his participation in a research community actively engaged in humanitarian and abolitionist causes. The physician and ethnologist Thomas Hodgkin (1798-1866) argued that King's research on Inuit was one of the best ethnological approaches to emulate and that it set the standard for the nascent discipline. If we are to take seriously Hodgkin's claim, we should look at how King constructed his depiction of Inuit. There is much to be gained by investigating the practices of nineteenth-century ethnologists because it strengthens our knowledge of the discipline's past and shows how modern understandings of races were formed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A common Greenlandic Inuit BRCA1 RING domain founder mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, T.v.O.; Ejlertsen, B.; Albrechtsen, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Germ-line mutations in the tumour suppressor proteins BRCA1 and BRCA2 predispose to breast and ovarian cancer. We examined 32 breast and/or ovarian cancer patients from Greenland for mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2. Whereas no mutations were identified in 19 families, 13 families exhibited a BRCA1...... exon 3 nucleotide 234 T > G mutation, which has not previously been reported in the breast cancer information core (BIC) database. The mutation changes a conserved cysteine 39 to a glycine in the Zn(2+) site II of the RING domain, which is essential for BRCA1 ubiquitin ligase activity. Eight...... of the families had members with ovarian cancer, suggesting that the RING domain may be an ovarian cancer hotspot. By SNP array analysis, we find that all 13 families share a 4.5 Mb genomic fragment containing the BRCA1 gene, showing that the mutation originates from a founder. Finally, analysis of 1152 Inuit...

  6. CT-scanning of ancient Greenlandic Inuit temporal bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homoe, P.; Videbaek, H.

    1992-01-01

    Additional morphological evidence of former infectious middle ear disease (IMED) was found by CT-scanning in 5 of 6 Greenlandic Inuit crania strongly suspected for former IMED due to earlier examination revealing either bilateral hypocellularity or asymmetry of the pneumatized area of the temporal bones. The CT-scans showed sclerosing and obliteration of the air cells and even destruction of the cellular septae, and a high degree of irregularity of the cells. Sclerosing of the surrounding bone tissue was also found. The findings in one cranium were dubious and could both be regarded as a congenital malformation or an infection in infanthood. CT-scan confirms and even adds to the results of conventional X-ray of temporal bones making hypotheses of paleopathology more reliable. The findings also support the environmental theory of pneumatization of the air cell system in the temporal bones. (13 refs., 10 figs.)

  7. Xenohormone transactivities are inversely associated to serum POPs in Inuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonefeld-Jorgensen Eva C

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The persistent organic pollutants (POPs are highly lipophilic and resistant to biodegradation and found in e.g. seafood and marine mammals. Greenlandic Inuit have high intake of marine food and thus high POP burden that varies according to local conditions and dietary preference. We do for the very first time report the serum POP related non-steroidal xenohormone activity of Inuit across Greenland. The aims were 1 to determine the integrated xenohormone bioactivities as an exposure biomarker of the actual lipophilic serum POP mixture measuring the effect on estrogen (ER and androgen receptor (AR transactivity in citizens from different Greenlandic districts and 2 to evaluate associations to serum POP markers (14 PCBs and 10 pesticides and lifestyle characteristics. Methods Serum samples from 121 men and 119 women from Nuuk, Sisimiut and Qaanaaq were extracted using SPE-HPLC fractionation to obtain the serum POP fraction free of endogenous hormones. The serum POP fraction was used for determination of xenohormone transactivity using ER and AR reporter gene assays. Results In overall, the xenohormone transactivities differed between districts as well as between the genders. Associations between the transactivities and age, n-3/n-6 and smoker years were observed. The xenoestrogenic and xenoandrogenic transactivities correlated negatively to the POPs for the combined female and male data, respectively. Conclusion The non-steroidal xenohormone transactivities can be used as an integrated biomarker of POP exposure and lifestyle characteristics. The actual serum POP mixtures antagonized the age adjusted sex hormone receptor functions. Comparison of different study populations requires in addition to age inclusion of diet and lifestyle factors.

  8. The characteristics and experience of community food program users in arctic Canada: a case study from Iqaluit, Nunavut

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, James; Lardeau, Marie-Pierre; Vanderbilt, Will

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Community food programs (CFPs), including soup kitchens and food banks, are a recent development in larger settlements in the Canadian Arctic. Our understanding of utilization of these programs is limited as food systems research has not studied the marginalised and transient populations using CFPs, constraining service planning for some of the most vulnerable community members. This paper reports on a baseline study conducted with users of CFPs in Iqaluit, Nunavut, to ide...

  9. Ethnic differences in leptin and adiponectin levels between Greenlandic Inuit and Danish children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thor Munch-Andersen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. In a recent study, we found that Greenlandic Inuit children had a more adverse metabolic profile than Danish children. Aerobic fitness and adiposity could only partly account for the differences. Therefore, we set out to evaluate and compare plasma leptin and adiponectin levels in Danish and Inuit children. Methods. In total, 187 Inuit and 132 Danish children (5.7–17.1 years had examinations of anthropometrics, body fat content, pubertal staging, fasting blood and aerobic fitness. Results. Plasma leptin was higher in Danish boys [3,774 (4,741–3,005] [pg/mL unadjusted geometric mean (95% CI] compared to both northern [2,076 (2,525–1,706] (p<0.001 and southern (2,515 (3,137–2,016 (p<0.001 living Inuit boys and higher in Danish girls [6,988 (8,353–5,847] compared to southern living Inuit girls [4,910 (6,370–3,785] (p=0.021 and tended to be higher compared to northern living Inuit girls [5,131 (6,444–4,085] (p=0.052. Plasma adiponectin was higher for both Danish boys [22,359 (2,573–19,428] [ng/mL unadjusted geometric mean (95% CI] and girls [26,609 (28,994–24,420] compared to southern living Inuit boys [15,306 (18,406–12,728] and girls [18,864 (22,640–15,717] (both p<0.001, respectively. All differences remained after adjustment for body fat percentage (BF%, aerobic fitness, age and puberty. The leptin/adiponectin ratio was higher in Danish boys and tended to be higher in Danish girls compared to northern living Inuit boys and girls, respectively. These differences were eliminated after adjustment for BF%, aerobic fitness, age and puberty. Conclusions. In contrast to our hypothesis, plasma leptin was higher in Danish children despite a more healthy metabolic profile compared to Inuit children. As expected, plasma adiponectin was lowest in Inuit children with the most adverse metabolic profile.

  10. Laboratory characterization of invasive Haemophilus influenzae isolates from Nunavut, Canada, 2000-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Raymond S W; Li, Y Anita; Mullen, Angie; Baikie, Maureen; Whyte, Kathleen; Shuel, Michelle; Tyrrell, Gregory; Rotondo, Jenny A L; Desai, Shalini; Spika, John

    2016-01-01

    With invasive Haemophilus influenzae serotype b (Hib) disease controlled by vaccination with conjugate Hib vaccines, there is concern that invasive disease due to non-serotype b strains may emerge. This study characterized invasive H. influenzae (Hi) isolates from Nunavut, Canada, in the post-Hib vaccine era. Invasive H. influenzae isolates were identified by conventional methods at local hospitals; and further characterized at the provincial and federal public health laboratories, including detection of serotype antigens and genes, multi-locus sequence typing and antibiotic susceptibility. Of the 89 invasive H. influenzae cases identified from 2000 to 2012, 71 case isolates were available for study. There were 43 serotype a (Hia), 12 Hib, 2 Hic, 1 Hid, 1 Hie, 2 Hif and 10 were non-typeable (NT). All 43 Hia were biotype II, sequence type (ST)-23. Three related STs were found among the Hib isolates: ST-95 (n=9), ST-635 (n=2) and ST-44 (n=1). Both Hif belonged to ST-124 and the 2 Hic were typed as ST-9. The remaining Hid (ST-1288) and Hie (ST-18) belonged to 2 separate clones. Of the 10 NT strains, 3 were typed as ST-23 and the remaining 7 isolates each belonged to a unique ST. Eight Hib and 1 NT-Hi were found to be resistant to ampicillin due to β-lactamase production. No resistance to other antibiotics was detected. During the period of 2000-2012, Hia was the predominant serotype causing invasive disease in Nunavut. This presents a public health concern due to an emerging clone of Hia as a cause of invasive H. influenzae disease and the lack of published guidelines for the prophylaxis of contacts. The clonal nature of Hia could be the result of spread within an isolated population, and/or unique characteristics of this strain to cause invasive disease. Further study of Hia in other populations may provide important information on this emerging pathogen. No antibiotic resistance was detected among Hia isolates; a small proportion of Hib and NT-Hi isolates

  11. Preterm birth in the Inuit and First Nations populations of Québec, Canada, 1981–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Auger

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate preterm birth (PTB for Inuit and First Nations vs. non-Indigenous populations in the province of Québec, Canada. Study design: Retrospective cohort study. Methods: We evaluated singleton live births for Québec residents, 1981–2008 (n = 2,310,466. Municipality of residence (Inuit-inhabited, First Nations-inhabited, rest of Québec and language (Inuit, First Nations, French/English were used to identify Inuit and First Nations births. The outcome was PTB (<37 completed weeks. Cox proportional hazards regression was employed to estimate hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (CI of PTB, adjusting for maternal age, education, marital status, parity and birth year. Results: PTB rates were higher for Inuit language speakers in Inuit-inhabited areas and the rest of Québec compared with French/English speakers in the rest of Québec, and disparities persisted over time. Relative to French/English speakers in the rest of Québec, Inuit language speakers in the rest of Québec had the highest risk of PTB (HR 1.98, 95% CI: 1.62–2.41. The risk was also elevated for Inuit language speakers in Inuit-inhabited areas, though to a lesser extent (HR 1.29, 95% CI: 1.18–1.41. In contrast, First Nations language speakers in First Nations-inhabited areas and the rest of Québec had similar or lower risks of PTB relative to French/English speakers in the rest of Québec. Conclusions: Inuit populations, especially those outside Inuit-inhabited areas, have persistently elevated risks of PTB, indicating a need for strategies to prevent PTB in this population.

  12. Les competences spatiales geometriques et l'acculturation mathematique inuite. Rapport de recherche (Geometric Spatial Competencies and Inuit Mathematical Acculturation. Research Report).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallascio, Richard; Allaire, Richard; Lafortune, Louise; Mongeau, Pierre

    Inuit children and children from an urban environment, inhabiting as they do differing spatial environments, contrasted with one another in terms of perception, representation, and the manifestation of geometric, topographic, and projective properties. The general hypothesis of this research is that the process of mathematical acculturation is…

  13. Hydrologic monitoring tools for freshwater municipal planning in the Arctic: the case of Iqaluit, Nunavut, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakaic, Michael; Medeiros, Andrew Scott; Peters, Jessica F; Wolfe, Brent B

    2017-06-06

    Freshwater and the services it provides are vital to both natural ecosystems and human needs; however, extreme climates and their influence on freshwater availability can be challenging for municipal planners and engineers to manage these resources effectively. In Arctic Canada, financial and human capital limitations have left a legacy of freshwater systems that underserve current communities and may be inadequate in the near future under a warming climate, growing population, and increasing demand. We address this challenge to community water resource planning by applying several novel water supply forecasting methods to evaluate the Apex River as an alternative freshwater source for Iqaluit, Nunavut (Canada). Surveys of water isotope composition of the Apex River and tributaries indicated that rainfall is the main source of water replenishment. This information was utilized to calibrate a water resource assessment that considered climate forecasting scenarios and their influence on supply, and alternative scenarios for freshwater management to better adapt to a changing climate. We found that under current climate and demand conditions, the freshwater supply of Iqaluit would be in a perpetual state of drawdown by 2024. Analysis of current infrastructure proposals revealed significant deficiencies in the supply extensions proposed whereby the Apex replenishment pipeline would only provide a 2-year extension to current municipal supply. Our heuristic supply forecast methods allowed for several alternative supply strategies to be rapidly evaluated, which will aid the community planning process by specifically quantifying the service life of the city's current and future primary water supply.

  14. The influence of persistent organic pollutants in the traditional Inuit diet on markers of inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L K Schæbel

    Full Text Available Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs are high in Inuit living predominately on the traditional marine diet. Adverse effects of POPs include disruption of the immune system and cardiovascular diseases that are frequent in Greenland Inuit. We aimed to assess the association between exposure to POPs from the marine diet and inflammation, taking into account other factors such as vitamin D. We invited Inuit and non-Inuit living in settlements or the town in rural East Greenland or in the capital city Nuuk. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire and donated a blood sample for measurement of the two markers of inflammation YKL-40 and hsCRP, 25-hydroxy-vitamin D, eleven organochlorine pesticides (OCPs, fourteen polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, one polybrominated biphenyl, and nine polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs adjusted to the serum lipid content. Participants were 50 through 69 years old, living in settlements, town or city (n = 151/173/211; 95% participation rate. ΣOCP, ΣPCB and ΣPBDE serum levels were higher in Inuit than in non-Inuit (p<0.001/ p<0.001/ p<0.001, in older individuals (p<0.001/p<0.001/p = 0.002 and in participants with the highest intake of Greenlandic food items (p<0.001/p<0.001/p<0.001. Both YKL-40 and hsCRP serum levels were higher in Inuit compared to non-Inuit (p<0.001/p = 0.001, and increased with age (p<0.001/p = 0.001 and with the intake of Greenlandic food items (p<0.001/p = 0.002. Multivariate analysis conformed to a marked influence on both YKL-40 and hsCRP by ΣOCP (p<0.001/p<0.001 and ΣPCBs (p<0.001/p = 0.001 after adjusting for age, BMI, vitamin D, alcohol and smoking. POP levels were associated with the intake of the traditional Inuit diet and with markers of inflammation. This supports a pro-inflammatory role of POPs to promote chronic diseases common to populations in Greenland. These data inform guidelines on 'the Arctic dilemma' and encourage follow-up on the ageing Arctic

  15. Teen pregnancy in Inuit communities – gaps still needed to be filled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Moisan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Teen pregnancy is depicted around the world as an important cause of health disparities both for the child and the mother. Accordingly, much effort has been invested in its prevention and led to its decline in the northern hemisphere since the mid-1990s. Despite that, high rates are still observed in the circumpolar regions. As Inuit communities have granted better understanding of teenage pregnancy a priority for the coming years, this article comprehensively reviews this multidimensional issue. By depicting current prevalence, likely determinants and possible impacts documented among Inuit of Canada, Alaska and Greenland, and contrasting them to common knowledge that has emerged from other populations over the years, great gaps surface. In some regions, the number of pregnancies per number of Inuit women aged between 15 and 19 years has increased since the turn of the millennium, while statistics from others are either absent or difficult to compare. Only few likely determinants of teenage pregnancy such as low education and some household factors have actually been recognized among Inuit populations. Documented impacts of early pregnancy on Inuit women and their children are also limited compared to those from other populations. As a way to better address early pregnancy in the circumpolar context, the defence for additional scientific efforts and the provision of culturally adapted sexual health prevention programmes appear critical.

  16. Teen pregnancy in Inuit communities - gaps still needed to be filled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisan, Caroline; Baril, Chloé; Muckle, Gina; Belanger, Richard E

    2016-01-01

    Teen pregnancy is depicted around the world as an important cause of health disparities both for the child and the mother. Accordingly, much effort has been invested in its prevention and led to its decline in the northern hemisphere since the mid-1990s. Despite that, high rates are still observed in the circumpolar regions. As Inuit communities have granted better understanding of teenage pregnancy a priority for the coming years, this article comprehensively reviews this multidimensional issue. By depicting current prevalence, likely determinants and possible impacts documented among Inuit of Canada, Alaska and Greenland, and contrasting them to common knowledge that has emerged from other populations over the years, great gaps surface. In some regions, the number of pregnancies per number of Inuit women aged between 15 and 19 years has increased since the turn of the millennium, while statistics from others are either absent or difficult to compare. Only few likely determinants of teenage pregnancy such as low education and some household factors have actually been recognized among Inuit populations. Documented impacts of early pregnancy on Inuit women and their children are also limited compared to those from other populations. As a way to better address early pregnancy in the circumpolar context, the defence for additional scientific efforts and the provision of culturally adapted sexual health prevention programmes appear critical.

  17. Teen pregnancy in Inuit communities – gaps still needed to be filled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisan, Caroline; Baril, Chloé; Muckle, Gina; Belanger, Richard E.

    2016-01-01

    Teen pregnancy is depicted around the world as an important cause of health disparities both for the child and the mother. Accordingly, much effort has been invested in its prevention and led to its decline in the northern hemisphere since the mid-1990s. Despite that, high rates are still observed in the circumpolar regions. As Inuit communities have granted better understanding of teenage pregnancy a priority for the coming years, this article comprehensively reviews this multidimensional issue. By depicting current prevalence, likely determinants and possible impacts documented among Inuit of Canada, Alaska and Greenland, and contrasting them to common knowledge that has emerged from other populations over the years, great gaps surface. In some regions, the number of pregnancies per number of Inuit women aged between 15 and 19 years has increased since the turn of the millennium, while statistics from others are either absent or difficult to compare. Only few likely determinants of teenage pregnancy such as low education and some household factors have actually been recognized among Inuit populations. Documented impacts of early pregnancy on Inuit women and their children are also limited compared to those from other populations. As a way to better address early pregnancy in the circumpolar context, the defence for additional scientific efforts and the provision of culturally adapted sexual health prevention programmes appear critical. PMID:27938638

  18. Frequent left ventricular hypertrophy independent of blood pressure in 1851 pre-western Inuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stig; Kjærgaard, Marie; Jørgensen, Marit Eika

    2011-01-01

    only after the age of 40 years in pre-western Inuit. Left ventricular hypertrophy peaked among 30-year olds and was independent of elevated blood pressure. It may be speculated that the common left ventricular hypertrophy was due to marked physical activity that contributed to the low occurrence......BACKGROUND: Elevated blood pressure is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and may be detected by left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in electrocardiogram (ECG). Pre-western Inuit had frequent signs of LVH in ECG predominantly in the 3rd decade while a low occurrence of ischemic heart disease....... METHODS: We evaluated the association between blood pressures and ECG signs of LVH, cardiac auscultation, and symptoms related to heart disease in the recently recovered data from the survey of 1851 Inuit conducted in 1962-1964 in East Greenland. RESULTS: The participation rate was 97%. Among the 812...

  19. Prevalence of Obesity Among Inuit in Greenland and Temporal Trend by Social Position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Jørgensen, Marit Eika

    2013-01-01

    -2001, and 2005-2010. Sociodemographic information was obtained by interview. Information on obesity (body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference) was obtained by clinical examination and in 1993-1994 by interview. Statistics included multiple linear regression and Univariate General Linear Models. RESULTS......: General and central obesity is increasing among the Inuit in Greenland. There is an increasing positive association of obesity with social position for both men and women. The high prevalence of obesity is a serious public health problem that is expected to affect the already high prevalence of Type 2......OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to analyze the temporal trend of obesity among Inuit in Greenland during 1993-2010 according to sex and relative social position. METHODS: Data (N = 5,123) were collected in cross-sectional health surveys among the Inuit in Greenland in 1993-1994, 1999...

  20. Inuit interpreters engaged in end-of-life care in Nunavik, Northern Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hordyk, Shawn Renee; Macdonald, Mary Ellen; Brassard, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Inuit interpreters are key players in end-of-life (EOL) care for Nunavik patients and families. This emotionally intensive work requires expertise in French, English and Inuit dialects to negotiate linguistic and cultural challenges. Cultural differences among medical institutions and Inuit communities can lead to value conflicts and moral dilemmas as interpreters navigate how best to transmit messages of care at EOL. Our goal was to understand the experience of Inuit interpreters in the context of EOL care in Nunavik in order to identify training needs. In the context of a larger ethnographic project on EOL care in Nunavik, we met with 24 current and former interpreters from local health centres and Montreal tertiary care contexts. Data included informal and formal interviews focusing on linguistic resources, experiences concerning EOL care, and suggestions for the development of interpretation training. Inuit working as interpreters in Nunavik are hired to provide multiple services of which interpretation plays only a part. Many have no formal training and have few resources (e.g. visual aids, dictionaries) to draw upon during medical consultations. Given the small size of communities, many interpreters personally know their clients and often feel overwhelmed by moral dilemmas when translating EOL information for patients and families. The concept of moral distress is a helpful lens to make sense of their experience, including personal and professional repercussions. Inuit interpreters in Nunavik are working with little training yet in context with multiple linguistic and cultural challenges. Linguistic and cultural resources and focused training on moral dilemmas unique to circumpolar contexts could contribute to improved work conditions and ultimately to patient care.​​​​.

  1. Pan-Arctic TV Series on Inuit wellness: a northern model of communication for social change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rhonda; Morales, Robin; Leavitt, Doreen; Carry, Catherine; Kinnon, Dianne; Rideout, Denise; Clarida, Kath

    2011-06-01

    This paper provides highlights of a utilization-focused evaluation of a collaborative Pan-Arctic Inuit Wellness TV Series that was broadcast live in Alaska and Canada in May 2009. This International Polar Year (IPY) communication and outreach project intended to (1) share information on International Polar Year research progress, disseminate findings and explore questions with Inuit in Alaska, Canada and Greenland; (2) provide a forum for Inuit in Alaska, Canada and Greenland to showcase innovative health and wellness projects; (3) ensure Inuit youth and adult engagement throughout; and (4) document and reflect on the overall experience for the purposes of developing and "testing" a participatory communication model. Utilization-focused formative evaluation of the project, with a focus on overall objectives, key messages and lessons learned to facilitate program improvement. Participant observation, surveys, key informant interviews, document review and website tracking. Promising community programs related to 3 themes - men's wellness, maternity care and youth resilience - in diverse circumpolar regions were highlighted, as were current and stillevolving findings from ongoing Arctic research. Multiple media methods were used to effectively deliver and receive key messages determined by both community and academic experts. Local capacity and new regional networks were strengthened. Evidence-based resources for health education and community action were archived in digital formats (websites and DVDs), increasing accessibility to otherwise isolated individuals and remote communities. The Pan-Arctic Inuit Wellness TV Series was an innovative, multi-dimensional communication project that raised both interest and awareness about complex health conditions in the North and stimulated community dialogue and potential for increased collaborative action. Consistent with a communication for social change approach, the project created new networks, increased motivation to act

  2. Raised BMI cut-off for overweight in Greenland Inuit – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig Andersen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obesity is associated with increased morbidity and premature death. Obesity rates have increased worldwide and the WHO recommends monitoring. A steep rise in body mass index (BMI, a measure of adiposity, was detected in Greenland from 1963 to 1998. Interestingly, the BMI starting point was in the overweight range. This is not conceivable in a disease-free, physically active, pre-western hunter population. Objective. This led us to reconsider the cut-off point for overweight among Inuit in Greenland. Design and findings. We found 3 different approaches to defining the cut-off point of high BMI in Inuit. First, the contribution to the height by the torso compared to the legs is relatively high. This causes relatively more kilograms per centimetre of height that increases the BMI by approximately 10% compared to Caucasian whites. Second, defining the cut-off by the upper 90-percentile of BMI from height and weight in healthy young Inuit surveyed in 1963 estimated the cut-off point to be around 10% higher compared to Caucasians. Third, if similar LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides are assumed for a certain BMI in Caucasians, the corresponding BMI in Inuit in both Greenland and Canada is around 10% higher. However, genetic admixture of Greenland Inuit and Caucasian Danes will influence this difference and hamper a clear distinction with time. Conclusion. Defining overweight according to the WHO cut-off of a BMI above 25 kg/m2 in Greenland Inuit may overestimate the number of individuals with elevated BMI.

  3. Low incidence of cardiovascular disease among the Inuit--what is the evidence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Young, T Kue; Hegele, Robert A

    2003-01-01

    The notion that the incidence of ischemic heart disease (IHD) is low among the Inuit subsisting on a traditional marine diet has attained axiomatic status. The scientific evidence for this is weak and rests on early clinical evidence and uncertain mortality statistics.......The notion that the incidence of ischemic heart disease (IHD) is low among the Inuit subsisting on a traditional marine diet has attained axiomatic status. The scientific evidence for this is weak and rests on early clinical evidence and uncertain mortality statistics....

  4. Serological and molecular epidemiological outcomes after two decades of universal infant hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination in Nunavut, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Chris; Minuk, Gerald Y; Uhanova, Julia; Baikie, Maureen; Wong, Thomas; Osiowy, Carla

    2017-08-16

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection within the Canadian Arctic is considered endemic (>2% prevalence). Within the Arctic region of Nunavut, a vaccination program targeted at newborn infants was initiated approximately 20years ago, along with interim grade school catch-up programs, with the result that individuals born after 1980 are presumed vaccinated. This study investigates the effectiveness of these programs and is the first seroepidemiological survey to determine HBV prevalence in Nunavut in the post-vaccination era. Anonymized serum specimens scheduled for destruction following medical testing were collected between April 2013 and April 2014 from individuals granting consent. Specimens were tested for HBV antibodies, surface antigen (HBsAg), and HBV DNA to perform molecular characterization. Four thousand eight hundred and two specimens (13% of the population) were collected, with a resulting median age of 29years (range 1week to 93years). The prevalence of antibody to the HBV core protein was 9.4%; however, a 10-fold decrease in the rate of HBV exposure was noted among those born after 1980 compared to those born before (1.8% vs. 19.8%, pB5 (previously B6) was the most prevalent genotype observed (81.8%) indicating persistence of locally acquired infection. Vaccine-based antibody as the sole serological marker was evident in the vaccine age cohort, although the rate of decay with increasing age was much greater than predicted (less than 10% in those aged 5-19years). Nearly two decades after the advent of HBV vaccination in Nunavut, HBV prevalence has decreased to 1.2%, indicating non-endemic prevalence. However, the persistence of infection and a lower than expected prevalence of vaccine-based immunity in the vaccine age cohort will require further investigation to understand the causes and consequences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Traditional food consumption is associated with higher nutrient intakes in Inuit children attending childcare centres in Nunavik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Gagné

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To describe traditional food (TF consumption and to evaluate its impact on nutrient intakes of preschool Inuit children from Nunavik. Design. A cross-sectional study. Methods. Dietary intakes of children were assessed with a single 24-hour recall (n=217. TF consumption at home and at the childcare centres was compared. Differences in children's nutrient intakes when consuming or not consuming at least 1 TF item were examined using ANCOVA. Results. A total of 245 children attending childcare centres in 10 communities of Nunavik were recruited between 2006 and 2010. The children's mean age was 25.0±9.6 months (11–54 months. Thirty-six percent of children had consumed at least 1 TF item on the day of the recall. TF contributed to 2.6% of total energy intake. Caribou and Arctic char were the most reported TF species. Land animals and fish/shellfish were the main contributors to energy intake from TF (38 and 33%, respectively. In spite of a low TF intake, children who consumed TF had significantly (p<0.05 higher intakes of protein, omega-3 fatty acids, iron, phosphorus, zinc, copper, selenium, niacin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, and vitamin B12, and lower intakes of energy and carbohydrate compared with non-consumers. There was no significant difference in any of the socio-economic variables between children who consumed TF and those who did not. Conclusion. Although TF was not eaten much, it contributed significantly to the nutrient intakes of children. Consumption of TF should be encouraged as it provides many nutritional, economic, and sociocultural benefits.

  6. GAD65 antibodies among Greenland Inuit and its relation to glucose intolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Lynge; Bjerregaard, Peter; Jørgensen, Marit Eika

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of circulating Glutamin-Acid-decarboxylase 65 antibodies in a sample of Greenlanders (Inuit) with clinically verified diabetes with samples of participants from a population survey. The study population included participants with known diabetes ...

  7. From Cultural Deprivation to Individual Deficits: A Genealogy of Deficiency in Inuit Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Adult education programs are often grounded in problematic assumptions about learners' inadequacies. The purpose of this article is to critique such assumptions through presenting a history of the manner in which representatives of Canadian governments conceptualized the education of Inuit adults from the 1940s through the 1980s. Using…

  8. Who Speaks What Language and Why?: Language Use of Families in an Inuit Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crago, Martha; Genesee, Fred

    A study investigated language choice within families in a small (population 1,100) Inuit community in rural northern Quebec province (Canada). Since the settlement's formation 40 years ago, the population has become increasingly interethnic, with people speaking a mixture of Inuktitut, English, and French. Subjects were 23 couples with children…

  9. Exposure of Inuit in Greenland to organochlorines through the marine diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P; Dewailly, E; Ayotte, P

    2001-01-01

    statistically significant positive associations with age, marine diet, and male sex in multiple linear regression analyses. The exceptionally high plasma concentrations of several organochlorines among the Inuit of Greenland are attributed to a lifelong high intake of seafood, in particular marine mammals...

  10. Re-Learning the Traditional Art of Inuit Grass Basket-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Cindy

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an adult learning project to revitalise the traditional Inuit art of weaving grass baskets. The participants involved in the project, all older women who speak an indigenous first language (Inuktitut) and who have limited experience with formal education, largely on their own initiative, undertook the process of successfully…

  11. The apolipoprotein E polymorphism in Greenland Inuit in its global perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, Lars Ulrik; Gerdes, C; Hansen, Peter Sten

    1996-01-01

    was relatively high, about 23%. As in most other populations, mean plasma lipoprotein-related variables, except high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, were higher in both Inuit men and women with epsilon 4 than in epsilon 3 epsilon 3 genotypes (P HDL cholesterol...

  12. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among the Inuit in Greenland. A comparison between two proposed definitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, M.E.; Bjerregaard, P.; Gyntelberg, F.

    2004-01-01

    and triglycerides, and lower mean values of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol; among women, triglycerides were higher with the NCEP syndrome. CONCLUSION: The metabolic syndrome is common among Inuit using either the WHO definition or the proposed NCEP definition. The classification disagreement...

  13. High age-adjusted prevalence of Parkinson's disease among Inuits in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wermuth, Lene; Pakkenberg, Henning; Jeune, Bernard

    2002-01-01

    The prevalence of PD among Inuits in Greenland has not been determined. The authors found 40 patients with PD at the prevalence date January 1, 2000. The crude prevalence of PD was estimated to be 81.0 per 100.000 inhabitants born in Greenland. However, owing to the low proportion of 50+ year old...

  14. Northwest Territories Inuit, and Urban and Rural Alberta Normative Data: Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilgosh, L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Normative data collected for the Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test from children (ages 7-14) in urban and rural Alberta and for Inuit children in the Northwest Territories, Canada, were consistently below the Harris norms particularly for the Draw-a-Woman test. Alternate sets of Draw-a-Person norms are proposed for use with these groups. (Author/VW)

  15. Microbial Communities in Subpermafrost Saline Fracture Water at the Lupin Au Mine, Nunavut, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onstott, Tullis [Princeton University; McGown, Daniel [Princeton University; Bakermans, Corien [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Ruskeeniemi, T [Geological Survey of Finland; Ahonen, L [Geological Survey of Finland; Telling, J [University of Toronto; Soffientino, B [University of Rhode Island; Pfiffner, Susan M. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Sherwood-Lollar, Barbara [University of Toronto; Frape, S [University of Waterloo, Canada; Stotler, R [University of Waterloo, Canada; Johnson, E [Indiana University; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A [ORNL; Rothmel, Randi [Shaw Environmental, Inc., Lawrenceville, NJ; Pratt, L.M. [Indiana University

    2009-01-01

    We report the first investigation of a deep subpermafrost microbial ecosystem, a terrestrial analog for the Martian subsurface. Our multidisciplinary team analyzed fracture water collected at 890 and 1,130 m depths beneath a 540-m-thick permafrost layer at the Lupin Au mine (Nunavut, Canada). 14C, 3H, and noble gas isotope analyses suggest that the Na Ca Cl, suboxic, fracture water represents a mixture of geologically ancient brine, ~25-kyr-old, meteoric water and a minor modern talik-water component. Microbial planktonic concentrations were ~103 cells mL 1. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene from extracted DNA and enrichment cultures revealed 42 unique operational taxonomic units in 11 genera with Desulfosporosinus, Halothiobacillus, and Pseudomonas representing the most prominent phylotypes and failed to detect Archaea. The abundance of terminally branched and midchain-branched saturated fatty acids (5 to 15 mol%) was consistent with the abundance of Grampositive bacteria in the clone libraries. Geochemical data, the ubiquinone (UQ) abundance (3 to 11 mol%), and the presence of both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria indicated that the environment was suboxic, not anoxic. Stable sulfur isotope analyses of the fracture water detected the presence of microbial sulfate reduction, and analyses of the vein-filling pyrite indicated that it was in isotopic equilibrium with the dissolved sulfide. Free energy calculations revealed that sulfate reduction and sulfide oxidation via denitrification and not methanogenesis were the most thermodynamically viable consistent with the principal metabolisms inferred from the 16S rRNA community composition and with CH4 isotopic compositions. The sulfate-reducing bacteria most likely colonized the subsurface during the Pleistocene or earlier, whereas aerobic bacteria may have entered the fracture water networks either during deglaciation prior to permafrost formation 9,000 years ago or from the nearby talik through the hydrologic gradient

  16. Traditional dietary pattern is associated with elevated cholesterol among the Inuit of Nunavik.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonté, Marie-Ève; Dewailly, Eric; Lucas, Michel; Chateau-Degat, Marie-Ludivine; Couture, Patrick; Lamarche, Benoît

    2014-08-01

    Our cross-sectional study assessed the associations between dietary patterns and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among Nunavik Inuit. This study was conducted as part of the 2004 Nunavik Inuit Health Survey, which included the collection of clinical measurements, plasma samples, and diet information from a food frequency questionnaire. A sample of 666 Inuit aged 18 years and older was included in our analyses. Dietary patterns were generated by principal component analysis. Multivariate general linear models adjusting for sex, age, waist circumference, and other potential confounders were used to examine associations between dietary patterns and CVD risk factors. Four distinct patterns were identified, namely the traditional, Western, nutrient-poor food, and healthy patterns. The traditional pattern showed positive associations with plasma total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, apolipoprotein B100, LDL peak particle diameter, and oxidized LDL (all P values for trend≤0.04), but showed no association with the total cholesterol:high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio or with inflammatory biomarkers (all P values for trend ≥0.19). The nutrient-poor food pattern was positively associated with oxidized LDL (P=0.04), but inversely associated with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Ppatterns showed no association with any CVD risk factor. Our data show that high adherence to a traditional pattern among Nunavik Inuit is not associated with important changes in CVD risk factors, with the exception of a slight elevation in cholesterol concentrations, most likely attributable to increased n-3 fatty acid intake. Dietary patterns reflecting the recent introduction of market foods in the Inuit diet appear to exert a trivial influence on CVD risk factors. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Temporal trends of alcohol and drug use among Inuit of Northern Quebec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn Fortin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alcohol and drug use is a serious health problem for many indigenous populations across Canada, including Inuit. The literature on substance use in these populations is too sparse to devise public health interventions. Objective: The present article portrays alcohol and drug use among Inuit living in Nunavik (Northern Quebec between the 1990s and 2000s, and identifies socio-demographic characteristics related to substance use. Design: The Santé Québec Health Survey (1992 and the Nunavik Inuit Health Survey Qanuippitaa (2004 served as databases for this empirical work. Statistical comparisons were made of substance use variables in the 2 samples. Proportions were compared by chi-square tests (p≤0.05 with benchmarking of statistics for all of Quebec and, when available, all of Canada. Results: Alcohol and drug use among Inuit increased significantly between 1992 and 2004, particularly among young adults. Alcohol users consumed significantly more alcohol per drinking episode than other Canadians in both time periods. Considerable cannabis use was widespread. In 2004, no significant differences in frequencies of heavy drinking episodes were observed by gender, with 60% of drug users consuming alcohol on a regular basis. Conclusions: As in other populations from North America, this study profiles the increase in substance use among Inuit from Nunavik in the first part of the last 20 years. We observed distinct substance use patterns among them in comparison to other Canadians. Such findings, if replicated in the coming years, emphasize the need for major, culturally-relevant public health interventions in this population.

  18. Urbanization, migration and alcohol use in a population of Greenland Inuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Marie Henriette; Grønbaek, Morten; Bjerregaard, Peter; Becker, Ulrik

    2005-06-01

    To analyse the effects of migration and urbanisation on alcohol intake among a population of Greenland Inuit. Population-based cross-sectional study of 4,139 Inuit randomly selected from Denmark and four areas of western Greenland. Data collection was based on interviews and self-administered questionnaires. The association between different aspects of alcohol intake (quantity of intake, occasional heavy drinking, and the modified CAGE questionnaire) and place of living were analysed using a chi-square test and logistic regression analysis. The population living in Denmark had a higher mean alcohol intake than those living in Greenland. Drinking above the sensible drinking limits (21 drinks per week for men and 14 drinks per week for women; where one drink contains 12 g alcohol) was also more prevalent in the population living in Denmark, whereas a higher proportion of those living in Greenland was abstaining. In contrast to the higher alcohol intake in the population living in Denmark, a higher proportion of individuals with episodes of heavy drinking (binge drinking), was observed in both large and small communities in Greenland. A higher proportion of positive results on the modified CAGE test, measuring alcohol dependence, were also seen in large communities in Greenland. We found no statistically significant differences in alcohol intake between Inuit living in large and small communities in Greenland. When comparing Inuit living in Denmark according to length of stay in Denmark, we found a significantly increase in prevalence of binge drinking with length of stay, while no significant variation with length of stay was found for other alcohol parameters. Our findings suggest that the alcohol intake among Inuit, living in Denmark and in Greenland respectively, differs in relation to total intake, drinking patterns and a measure of alcohol dependence. Whether this may be attributed to urbanization, or to migration, is not clear.

  19. Associations between vitamin D status and type 2 diabetes measures among Inuit in Greenland may be affected by other factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina O; Bjerregaard, Peter; Rønn, Pernille F

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Epidemiological studies have provided evidence of an association between vitamin D insufficiency and type 2 diabetes. Vitamin D levels have decreased among Inuit in Greenland, and type 2 diabetes is increasing. We hypothesized that the decline in vitamin D could have contributed...... to the increase in type 2 diabetes, and therefore investigated associations between serum 25(OH)D3 as a measure of vitamin D status and glucose homeostasis and glucose intolerance in an adult Inuit population. METHODS: 2877 Inuit (≥18 years) randomly selected for participation in the Inuit Health in Transition...... associated with impaired fasting glycaemia (OR: 1.08, p = 0.001), but not with IGT or type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Our results did not support an association between low vitamin D levels and risk of type 2 diabetes. Instead, we found weak positive associations between vitamin D levels and fasting- and 2hour...

  20. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in diarrhoeic patients in the Qikiqtani Region, Nunavut, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Iqbal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the prevalences of infection with the protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in humans appear to be relatively high in the Canadian North, their transmission patterns are poorly understood. Objective: To determine the detection rate and the molecular characteristics of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in diarrhoeic patients in the Qikiqtani (Baffin Island Region of Nunavut, Canada, in order to better understand the burden of illness and the potential mechanisms of transmission. Study design/methods: Diarrhoeal stool specimens (n=108 submitted to the Qikiqtani General Hospital for clinical testing were also tested for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis using epifluorescence microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. DNA sequencing and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP analyses were performed on PCR-positive specimens to determine the species, genotypes and sub-genotypes of the parasites. Results: Cryptosporidium was detected in 15.7% of the diarrhoeic patients, while Giardia was detected in 4.6%. DNA sequencing of a fragment of the small subunit rRNA gene indicated that all of the Cryptosporidium amplicons had a 100% homology to C. parvum, and a gp60 assay showed that all aligned with C. parvum sub-genotype IIa. Microsatellite analysis revealed 3 cases of sub-genotype IIaA15G2R1, 2 of IIaA15G1R and 1 case each of sub-genotypes IIaA16G1R1 and IIaA15R1. For Giardia, results based on the amplification of both the 16S rRNA gene and the gdh gene were generally in agreement, and both DNA sequencing and RFLP demonstrated the presence of the G. duodenalis Assemblage B genotype. Conclusions: Both C. parvum and G. duodenalis Assemblage B were present in human diarrhoeal stool specimens from Nunavut, which was suggestive of zoonotic transmission, although human-to-human transmission cannot be ruled out. To fully understand the public health significance of the

  1. Management of oil and gas resources in the Northwest Territories, Nunavut and the offshore : one year later

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortier, M.C. [Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    The resurgence of petroleum exploration in Canada's North was discussed with emphasis on new gas development and production in the southern Northwest Territories (NWT). Oil and gas resources discovered in the Mackenzie Valley and the Mackenzie Delta-Beaufort Sea regions of the NWT, in the Arctic Islands of the NWT and Nunavut and in offshore eastern Nunavut total 268 million cubic metres of oil and 690 billion cubic metres of natural gas. Most of the discoveries in the North are undeveloped. Imperial Oil's Norman Wells field is one of the exceptions which to date has produced 29 million cubic metres of oil. Amoco's Pointed Mountain gas field has produced 9 billion cubic metres of gas. The North is estimated to hold approximately 19 per cent of Canada's remaining recoverable conventional light crude oil resources and about 21 per cent of the remaining discovered natural gas. In 1999, the Ikhil gas field, developed by the Inuvialuit, near Inuvik began producing gas. In addition to the strength of commodity prices, this growing activity is driven by new rights issuance, a profit-sensitive royalty regime, cost-reducing technology, and increasing participation by Northerners as a result of land claim settlements. This paper focused on the rights issuance process, competitive land tenure instruments, benefits plans and the royalty regime. The federal government has recognized that energy resource development in Canada is major force of economic growth. It is responsible for the management of oil and gas resources North of 60 degrees N latitude in the Northwest Territories, Nunavut and offshore through the Northern Oil and Gas Directorate of the Department of Indian and Northern Affairs and regulated by the National Energy Board. Land claim agreements in northern Canada have settled First Nation ownership of lands. This paper included a brief description of the three types of land tenure instruments issued on frontier lands including the exploration

  2. When Does Preschool Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Weiland, Christina; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2016-01-01

    We have many reasons to invest in preschool programs, including persistent gaps in school readiness between children from poorer and wealthier families, large increases in maternal employment over the past several decades, and the rapid brain development that preschool-age children experience. But what do we know about preschool education's…

  3. Nanolitre real-time PCR detection of bacterial, parasitic, and viral agents from patients with diarrhoea in Nunavut, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Goldfarb

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Little is known about the microbiology of diarrhoeal disease in Canada's Arctic regions. There are a number of limitations of conventional microbiology testing techniques for diarrhoeal pathogens, and these may be further compromised in the Arctic, given the often long distances for specimen transport. Objective. To develop a novel multiple-target nanolitre real-time reverse transcriptase (RT-PCR platform to simultaneously test diarrhoeal specimens collected from residents of the Qikiqtani (Baffin Island Region of Nunavut, Canada, for a wide range of bacterial, parasitic and viral agents. Study design/methods. Diarrhoeal stool samples submitted for bacterial culture to Qikiqtani General Hospital in Nunavut over an 18-month period were tested with a multiple-target nanolitre real-time PCR panel for major diarrhoeal pathogens including 8 bacterial, 6 viral and 2 parasitic targets. Results. Among 86 stool specimens tested by PCR, a total of 50 pathogens were detected with 1 or more pathogens found in 40 (46.5% stool specimens. The organisms detected comprised 17 Cryptosporidium spp., 5 Clostridium difficile with toxin B, 6 Campylobacter spp., 6 Salmonella spp., 4 astroviruses, 3 noroviruses, 1 rotavirus, 1 Shigella spp. and 1 Giardia spp. The frequency of detection by PCR and bacterial culture was similar for Salmonella spp., but discrepant for Campylobacter spp., as Campylobacter was detected by culture from only 1/86 specimens. Similarly, Cryptosporidium spp. was detected in multiple samples by PCR but was not detected by microscopy or enzyme immunoassay. Conclusions. Cryptosporidium spp., Campylobacter spp. and Clostridium difficile may be relatively common but possibly under-recognised pathogens in this region. Further study is needed to determine the regional epidemiology and clinical significance of these organisms. This method appears to be a useful tool for gastrointestinal pathogen research and may also be helpful for clinical

  4. AhR transcription serum activity of Inuit´s across Greenlandic districts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Manhai; Deutch, Bente; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2007-01-01

    included 357 serum samples from the Greenlandic districts: Nuuk and The study included 357 serum samples from the Greenlandic districts: Nuuk and Sisimiut (South West Coast), Qaanaaq (North Coast) and Tasiilaq (East Coast). The bioaccumulated serum POPs were extracted by ethanol: hexane and clean...... and/or lifestyle factors. Results: In total 85% of the Inuit samples elicited agonistic AhR transactivity in a district In total 85% of the Inuit samples elicited agonistic AhR transactivity in a district dependent pattern. The median level of the AhR-TCDD equivalent (AhR-TEQ) of the separate genders...... was similar in the different districts. For the combined data the order of the median AhR-TEQ was Tasiilaq > Nuuk > Sisimiut > Qaanaaq possibly being related to the different composition of POPs. In overall, the AhR transactivity was inversely correlated to the levels of sum POPs, age and /or intake of marine...

  5. Gambling behavior and problem gambling reflecting social transition and traumatic childhood events among Greenland Inuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christina Viskum Lytken; Curtis, Tine; Bjerregaard, Peter

    to study gambling behavior and problem gambling among Greenland Inuit in relation to the ongoing social transition and traumatic events during childhood. Design, settings and participants: A large representative cross-sectional study among Greenland Inuit (n=2189). Data was collected among adults (18......+) in 9 towns and 13 villages in Greenland from 2005-2010. Measurements: Problem gambling, gambling behavior and traumatic childhood events were measured through a self-administered questionnaire. The lie/bet screen was used to identify past year and lifetime problem gambling. Social transition...... was measured as place of residence and a combination of residence, education and occupation. Findings: The lifetime prevalence of problem gambling was 16% among men and 10% among women (p

  6. Gambling Behavior and Problem Gambling Reflecting Social Transition and Traumatic Childhood Events Among Greenland Inuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christina Viskum Lytken; Curtis, Tine; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    gambling behavior and problem gambling among Greenland Inuit in relation to the ongoing social transition and traumatic events during childhood. A large representative cross-sectional study was conducted among Greenland Inuit (n = 2,189). Data was collected among adults (18+) in 9 towns and 13 villages...... in Greenland from 2005 to 2010. Problem gambling, gambling behavior and traumatic childhood events were measured through a self-administered questionnaire. The lie/bet screen was used to identify past year and lifetime problem gambling. Social transition was measured as place of residence and a combination...... of residence, education and occupation. The lifetime prevalence of problem gambling was 16 % among men and 10 % among women (p ...

  7. Blood serum concentrations of perfluorinated compounds in men from Greenlandic Inuit and European populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindh, Christian H; Rylander, Lars; Toft, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), are used in large quantities. They are persistent and found in measurable levels in human serum around the world. They have been associated with developmental, hepatic, and carcinogenic...... effects in animal studies. The aim of the present study was to describe levels of PFCs in serum among Inuits from Greenland and inhabitants from Warsaw, Poland and Kharkiv, Ukraine. Furthermore, the aim was to define social- and lifestyle related determinants of exposure for these compounds. Serum levels...... of seven PFCs were analyzed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The concentrations of PFOS and PFOA were the highest of all PFCs in all three populations with a total amount of almost 90% of the PFCs. The mean levels of PFOS and PFOA were in the Greenlandic Inuits 52 and 4.8 ng m...

  8. Time trend by region of suicides and suicidal thoughts among Greenland Inuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Larsen, Christina Viskum Lytken

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Suicides remain a major public health problem in Greenland. Their increase coincides with the modernization since 1950. Serious suicidal thoughts are reported by a significant proportion of participants in countrywide surveys. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the time trend by region of suicides...... and suicidal thoughts among the Inuit in Greenland. DESIGN: Data included the Greenland registry of causes of death for 1970-2011 and 2 cross-sectional health surveys carried out in 1993-1994 and 2005-2010 with 1,580 and 3,102 Inuit participants, respectively. RESULTS: Suicide rates were higher among men than...... women while the prevalence of suicidal thoughts was higher among women. Suicide rates for men and women together increased from 1960 to 1980 and have remained around 100 per 100,000 person-years since then. The regional pattern of time trend for suicide rates varied with an early peak in the capital...

  9. Prevalence of Obesity Among Inuit in Greenland and Temporal Trend by Social Position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Jørgensen, Marit Eika

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to analyze the temporal trend of obesity among Inuit in Greenland during 1993-2010 according to sex and relative social position. METHODS: Data (N = 5,123) were collected in cross-sectional health surveys among the Inuit in Greenland in 1993-1994, 1999......-2001, and 2005-2010. Sociodemographic information was obtained by interview. Information on obesity (body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference) was obtained by clinical examination and in 1993-1994 by interview. Statistics included multiple linear regression and Univariate General Linear Models. RESULTS......: Among men the prevalence of overweight (BMI 25-29.9) decreased while general obesity (BMI ≥ 30) did not change. Central obesity increased from 16.0% in 1993-1994 to 25.4% in 2005-2010 (P obesity increased. Central obesity increased from 31.3% in 1993-1994 to 54...

  10. DNA evidence of bowhead whale exploitation by Greenlandic Paleo-Inuit 4,000 years ago

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seersholm, Frederik Valeur; Pedersen, Mikkel Winther; Søe, Martin Jensen

    2016-01-01

    The demographic history of Greenland is characterized by recurrent migrations and extinctions since the first humans arrived 4,500 years ago. Our current understanding of these extinct cultures relies primarily on preserved fossils found in their archaeological deposits, which hold valuable......-described midden deposits. Our results confirm that the species found in the fossil record, like harp seal and ringed seal, were a vital part of Inuit subsistence, but also add a new dimension with evidence that caribou, walrus and whale species played a more prominent role for the survival of Paleo-Inuit cultures...... than previously reported. Most notably, we report evidence of bowhead whale exploitation by the Saqqaq culture 4,000 years ago....

  11. Urbanization, migration and alcohol use in a population of Greenland inuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Marie Henriette; Grønbæk, Morten; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse the effects of migration and urbanisation on alcohol intake among a population of Greenland Inuit. STUDY DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional study of 4,139 Inuit randomly selected from Denmark and four areas of western Greenland. Data collection was based on interviews...... and self-administered questionnaires. METHODS: The association between different aspects of alcohol intake (quantity of intake, occasional heavy drinking, and the modified CAGE questionnaire) and place of living were analysed using a chi-square test and logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The population...... living in Denmark had a higher mean alcohol intake than those living in Greenland. Drinking above the sensible drinking limits (21 drinks per week for men and 14 drinks per week for women; where one drink contains 12 g alcohol) was also more prevalent in the population living in Denmark, whereas a higher...

  12. Associations between vitamin D status and atherosclerosis among Inuit in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjødesen, Camilla U; Jørgensen, Marit E; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Low levels of vitamin D are suspected to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis among Inuit in Greenland, and to evaluate the association with vitamin D status. We...... hypothesized that low vitamin D status could be associated with higher carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) as a marker of atherosclerosis. METHODS: 756 adults from the Inuit Health in Transition (IHIT) study carried out in Greenland in the period 2005-2010 were included. A blood sample donated in 1987...... was available for a sub-sample of 102 individuals. Serum 25(OH)D3 from the IHIT study and the 1987 survey was used as a measure of vitamin D status. IMT measurements were conducted by ultrasound scanning. The prevalence of atherosclerosis was estimated, and the association between serum 25(OH)D3 and IMT...

  13. Gender differences in the association between westernization and metabolic risk among Greenland Inuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marit Eika; Moustgaard, Helene; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2006-01-01

    and urine-albumin/creatinine ratio were analysed. Westernization was estimated by place of residence and language. RESULTS: The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 20.3% among men and 19.5% among women (p = 0.73). The association between the metabolic syndrome and westernization was different for men...... and women. For men there was an increase in prevalence of the metabolic syndrome with westernization within Greenland, but the variation was less pronounced than the difference between the migrants and the Inuit in Greenland. Age, family history of diabetes, and non-smoking were directly associated...... lower among female migrants compared with Inuit women in Greenland. Age, family history of diabetes, non-smoking, and low education were associated with the metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: The effect of westernization on metabolic risk was different for men and women. For men physical inactivity due...

  14. Learning by watching Vernacular Iñupiaq-Inuit design learning as inspiration for design education

    OpenAIRE

    Janne Beate Reitan

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I explore a single case of vernacular clothing design — the practice and learning of design for contemporary Iñupiaq-Inuit clothing made by women from Kaktovik in Northern Alaska — and I hope to contribute to a better understanding of design practice and learning in general. Design research has many unexplored areas, and one of these omissions is vernacular design, or folk design. In my opinion, professional and academic design may well have something to learn from vernacular...

  15. The Health of Indian and Inuit Children in Canada in the 1980s and 1990s

    OpenAIRE

    Pekeles, Gary

    1988-01-01

    The last 20 years have seen important improvements in the health status of Native Canadian children. Discrepancies in health status remain between Native and other Canadians. Further improvement is less likely to result from adding more medical services than from broader social change. The economic and cultural base of Native communities needs strengthening. Indian and Inuit people need the opportunities and resources to assume responsibility for their own health and social services in the co...

  16. Temporal trends in Inuit, First Nations and non-Aboriginal birth outcomes in rural and northern Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonet, Fabienne; Wilkins, Russell; Luo, Zhong-Cheng

    2012-01-01

    The objective was to assess trends in Inuit, First Nations and non-Aboriginal birth outcomes in the rural and northern regions of Quebec. In a birth cohort-based study of all births to residents of rural and northern Quebec from 1991 through 2000 (n = 177,193), we analyzed birth outcomes and infant mortality for births classified by maternal mother tongue (Inuit, First Nations or non-Aboriginal) and by community type (predominantly First Nations, Inuit or non-Aboriginal). From 1991-1995 to 1996-2000, there was a trend of increasing rates of preterm birth for all 6 study groups. In all rural and northern areas, low birth weight rates increased significantly only for the Inuit mother tongue group [RR1.45 (95% CI 1.05-2.01)]. Stillbirth rates showed a non-significant increase for the Inuit mother tongue group [RR1.76 (0.64-4.83)]. Neonatal mortality rates decreased significantly in the predominantly non-Aboriginal communities and in the non-Aboriginal mother tongue group [RR0.78 (0.66-0.92)], and increased non-significantly for the First Nations mother tongue group [RR2.17 (0.71-6.62)]. Perinatal death rates increased for the First Nations mother tongue grouping in northern areas [RR2.19 (0.99-4.85)]. There was a disconcerting rise of some mortality outcomes for births to First Nations and Inuit mother tongue women and to women in predominantly First Nations and Inuit communities, in contrast to some improvements for births to non-Aboriginal mother tongue women and to women in predominantly non-Aboriginal communities in rural or northern Quebec, indicating a need for improving perinatal and neonatal health for Aboriginal populations in rural and northern regions.

  17. Temporal trends in Inuit, First Nations and non-Aboriginal birth outcomes in rural and northern Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabienne Simonet

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The objective was to assess trends in Inuit, First Nations and non-Aboriginal birth outcomes in the rural and northern regions of Quebec. Study design and methods. In a birth cohort-based study of all births to residents of rural and northern Quebec from 1991 through 2000 (n = 177,193, we analyzed birth outcomes and infant mortality for births classified by maternal mother tongue (Inuit, First Nations or non-Aboriginal and by community type (predominantly First Nations, Inuit or non-Aboriginal. Results. From 1991–1995 to 1996–2000, there was a trend of increasing rates of preterm birth for all 6 study groups. In all rural and northern areas, low birth weight rates increased significantly only for the Inuit mother tongue group [RR1.45 (95% CI 1.05–2.01]. Stillbirth rates showed a non-significant increase for the Inuit mother tongue group [RR1.76 (0.64–4.83]. Neonatal mortality rates decreased significantly in the predominantly non-Aboriginal communities and in the non-Aboriginal mother tongue group [RR0.78 (0.66–0.92], and increased non-significantly for the First Nations mother tongue group [RR2.17 (0.71–6.62]. Perinatal death rates increased for the First Nations mother tongue grouping in northern areas [RR2.19 (0.99–4.85]. Conclusion. There was a disconcerting rise of some mortality outcomes for births to First Nations and Inuit mother tongue women and to women in predominantly First Nations and Inuit communities, in contrast to some improvements for births to non-Aboriginal mother tongue women and to women in predominantly non-Aboriginal communities in rural or northern Quebec, indicating a need for improving perinatal and neonatal health for Aboriginal populations in rural and northern regions.

  18. Growth in Inuit children exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls and lead during fetal development and childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallaire, Renée; Dewailly, Éric; Ayotte, Pierre; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Jacobson, Sandra W; Jacobson, Joseph L; Muckle, Gina

    2014-10-01

    Because of their geographical location and traditional lifestyle, Canadian Inuit children are highly exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and lead (Pb), environmental contaminants that are thought to affect fetal and child growth. We examined the associations of these exposures with the fetal and postnatal growth of Inuit children. We conducted a prospective cohort study among Inuit from Nunavik (Arctic Québec). Mothers were recruited at their first prenatal visit; children (n=290) were evaluated at birth and at 8-14 years of age. Concentrations of PCB 153 and Pb were determined in umbilical cord and child blood. Weight, height and head circumference were measured at birth and during childhood. Cord blood PCB 153 concentrations were not associated with anthropometric measurements at birth or school age, but child blood PCB 153 concentrations were associated with reduced weight, height and head circumference during childhood. There was no association between cord Pb levels and anthropometric outcomes at birth, but cord blood Pb was related to smaller height and shows a tendency of a smaller head circumference during childhood. Our results suggest that chronic exposure to PCBs during childhood is negatively associated with skeletal growth and weight, while prenatal Pb exposure is related to reduced growth during childhood. This study is the first to link prenatal Pb exposure to poorer growth in school-age children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Birth weight and risk of adiposity among adult Inuit in Greenland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernille Falberg Rønn

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The Inuit population in Greenland has undergone rapid socioeconomic and nutritional changes simultaneously with an increasing prevalence of obesity. Therefore, the objective was to examine fetal programming as part of the aetiology of obesity among Inuit in Greenland by investigating the association between birth weight and measures of body composition and fat distribution in adulthood. METHODS: The study was based on cross-sectional data from a total of 1,473 adults aged 18-61 years in two population-based surveys conducted in Greenland between 1999-2001 and 2005-2010. Information on birth weight was collected from birth records. Adiposity was assessed by anthropometry, fat mass index (FMI, fat-free mass index (FFMI, and visceral (VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT estimated by ultrasound. The associations to birth weight were analyzed using linear regression models and quadratic splines. Analyses were stratified by sex, and adjusted for age, birthplace, ancestry and family history of obesity. RESULTS: Spline analyses showed linear relations between birth weight and adult adiposity. In multiple regression analyses, birth weight was positively associated with BMI, waist circumference, FMI, FFMI and SAT with generally weaker associations among women compared to men. Birth weight was only associated with VAT after additional adjustment for waist circumference and appeared to be specific and inverse for men only. CONCLUSIONS: Higher birth weight among Inuit was associated with adiposity in adulthood. More studies are needed to explore a potential inverse association between birth size and VAT.

  20. (13)Carbon and (15)nitrogen isotopes in autopsy liver tissue samples from Greenlandic Inuit and Danes: consumption of marine versus terrestrial food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, N.; Laursen, J.; Mulvad, G.

    2010-01-01

    in liver tissue from Greenlandic Inuit and Danes. Subjects/Methods: Normal liver tissue was obtained at autopsy in 1992-1994 from 60 Inuit with a median age of 61 years (range 25-83) and in 1986 from 15 ethnic Danes with a median age of 84 years (range 66-93). By sieving, liver tissue was separated...

  1. Pedagogy, policy and preschool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornerup, Ida; Schrøder, Vibeke

    The aim of this study is to conduct a discourse analysis on how global, national and local policy documents influence preschool teacher education and the practical pedagogical work in preschools. The study is part of a larger Nordic research study (Gjems, Vatne, Schrøder and Kornerup). Previous...... studies of preschool teacher education (Vatne, Gjems 2014) shows that professional knowledge vary according to the consolidation act of education and that there seems to be connections between both global and national policy and the educational field (Kornerup, 2011). The discourse analysis...... of the implementation of the learning curriculum in Danish preschools. This focus has affected both preschools and education. During this century, the preschool teacher education has been revised three times....

  2. Liver biochemistry and associations with alcohol intake, hepatitis B virus infection and Inuit ethnicity: a population-based comparative epidemiological survey in Greenland and Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rex, Karsten Fleischer; Krarup, Henrik Bygum; Laurberg, Peter; Andersen, Stig

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is common in Arctic populations and high alcohol intake has been associated with an increased risk of a number of diseases. Yet, a description of the influence of alcohol intake in persons with HBV infection on liver biochemistry is lacking. We aimed to describe the association between reported alcohol intake and liver biochemistry taking into account also HBV infection, ethnicity, Inuit diet, body mass index (BMI), gender and age in an Arctic population. Population-based investigation of Inuit (n=441) and non-Inuit (94) in Greenland and Inuit living in Denmark (n=136). Participants filled in a questionnaire on alcohol intake and other life style factors. Blood samples were tested for aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin, albumin, hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis B surface antibody and hepatitis B core antibody. We also performed physical examinations. Participation rate was 95% in Greenland and 52% in Denmark. An alcohol intake above the recommended level was reported by 12.9% of non-Inuit in Greenland, 9.1% of Inuit in East Greenland, 6.1% of Inuit migrants and 3.4% of Inuit in the capital of Greenland (p=0.035). Alcohol intake was associated with AST (pbiochemistry. Non-Inuit in Greenland reported a higher alcohol intake than Inuit. Ethnic origin was more markedly associated with liver biochemistry than was alcohol intake, and Greenlandic ethnicity modified the effect of alcohol intake on AST. HBV infection was slightly associated with ALP but not with other liver biochemistry parameters.

  3. Swedish Preschool Teachers' Ideas of the Ideal Preschool Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramling Samuelsson, Ingrid; Williams, Pia; Sheridan, Sonja; Hellman, Annette

    2016-01-01

    In Sweden, preschool has been noted as being of a high quality compared to many other countries. However, dramatic changes in the preschool sector are taking place. A recent law states that it is a child's right to get a preschool place within a few months. As a consequence, the number of children in preschool has increased, which could influence…

  4. The association between n-3 fatty acids in erythrocyte membranes and insulin resistance: The Inuit Health in Transition Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorseng, Trine; Witte, Daniel R; Vistisen, Dorte

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. To examine the association between the content of n-3 fatty acids and insulin resistance in an Inuit population. Study design. The Inuit Health in Transition Study was carried out between 2003 and 2007 in Greenland as a cross-sectional study. Our preliminary results are based...... adjusted for age, gender, BMI and ethnicity, the association remained statistically significant for C20:5 n-3 (EPA), C22:3 n-3 and C18:3 n-3 cis. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that some types of n-3 fatty acids may have a protective effect against insulin resistance. The role of potential confounders...

  5. Protective effects of selenium against DNA adducts formation in Inuit environmentally exposed to PCBs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravoori, Srivani; Srinivasan, Cidambi; Pereg, Daria; Robertson, Larry W; Ayotte, Pierre; Gupta, Ramesh C

    2012-01-01

    Dietary habits that expose populations to potential toxicants as well as protective agents simultaneously is a realistic scenario where a meaningful assessment of the interactions and net benefit or damage can be made. A group of Inuit from Salluit, Northern Canada are exposed to high levels of PCBs and selenium, both present in the Inuit traditional foods such as blubber from sea mammals and fatty fish. Blood samples were collected from 83 Inuit, 22–70 years old. Blood selenium and PCB levels were determined previously and ranged from 227 to 2,069 µg/L and 1.7 to 143 µg/L, respectively. DNA isolated from white blood cells were analyzed by modified 32P-postlabeling adductomics technology that detects a multitude of highly polar to lipophilic adducts. The levels of 8-oxodG adducts ranged from 470 to 7,400 adducts/109 nucleotides. Other as yet unidentified polar adducts showed a 30 to 800–fold inter-individual variability. Adduct levels were negatively associated with PCB and selenium levels. The subjects were classified into high and low ratio groups, with respect to selenium/PCB. In the high ratio group, the coefficient of selenium is significantly negatively correlated with 8-oxodG (r = −0.38, p = 0.014) and total adducts (r = −0.41, p = 0.009) while there was no correlation within the low selenium/PCB group. This study suggests increasing selenium has mitigating effect in reducing DNA adducts and therefore, possible negative effects of PCB were not rendered. A protective effect of selenium is highlighted. PMID:19735942

  6. American Preschoolers on Ritalin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the controversial use of Ritalin among preschool children, examining research from two studies: "Treatment Strategies for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder" and "Preschool ADHD Treatment Study." Examines issues related to the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD and concludes by examining the influence of the human…

  7. Assessing Preschoolers' Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Urbana, IL.

    There are 11 behavioral dimensions which parents and preschool teachers can use in assessing the development of preschool children. These dimensions are: (1) sleeping; (2) eating; (3) toilet habits; (4) range of affect or emotion; (5) variations in play; (6) curiosity; (7) acceptance of authority; (8) initiative; (9) interest; (10) spontaneous…

  8. Association between whole blood mercury and glucose intolerance among adult Inuit in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Charlotte; Valera, Beatriz; Nielsen, Nina O

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The Arctic diet is partly constituted by traditional food characterized by top predator animals such as whales, walrus, and seals with high mercury content. Mercury exposure has been associated with glucose intolerance in Western populations. We studied the association between whole...... blood mercury and glucose intolerance in a highly exposed non-Western population METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 2640 Inuit (18+ years) with information on ancestry, smoking, waist circumference, total energy intake, and physical activity. Mercury, fasting- and 2-h plasma glucose, insulin, and c...

  9. Androgen-like activities in blood cleared for endogenous steroid hormones across European and Inuit populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Tanja; Hjelmborg, Philip Sebastian; Goralczyk, Katarzyna

    of the present study was to compare the actual level of androgen-like activity in serum fractions containing the lipophilic POPs but free of endogenous hormones between different European and Inuit populations for finally to evaluate whether the xeno-androgenic activity is correlated to bio-accumulated POPs...... and /or lifestyle.To obtain the serum fraction containing the actual mixture of bio-accumulated POPs SPE-HPLC extraction was performed. The effect of the serum extract on the function of the androgen receptor (AR) trans-activity was determined using the Chinese Hamster Ovary cells CHO-K1, which were...

  10. High prevalence of markers of coronary heart disease among Greenland Inuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marit Eika; Bjerregaard, Peter; Kjaergaard, Jens Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: It is a common notion that coronary heart disease (CHD) is rare among the Inuit, possibly due to a high intake of omega-3-fatty acids. The scientific evidence for this is weak and to some extent based on uncertain mortality statistic. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence...... in Greenland. Blood tests were supplemented by structured interviews, anthropometry, and measurements of blood pressure, and the participants received an oral glucose tolerance test. RESULTS: The prevalence of symptomatic CHD (AP, self-reported MI) was 7.3% among men and 6.9% among women, and 12.2% and 13...

  11. Obesity and central fat pattern among Greenland Inuit and a general population of Denmark (Inter99)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, M E; Glümer, C; Bjerregaard, P

    2003-01-01

    pressure, triglyceride, and higher levels of HDL cholesterol than the Danish participants at any given level of obesity. Fasting glucose and fasting insulin levels within obesity categories were not different in the two populations. Adjustment for physical activity, smoking, school education, and alcohol...... in body composition....... received a standard 75 g OGTT. s-Triglyceride, s-HDL cholesterol, fasting and 2 h p-glucose and s-insulin were analysed. Blood pressure was measured. Information on lifestyle factors was obtained by a questionnaire and interview. RESULTS: The Inuit had lower levels of 2-h glucose and insulin, blood...

  12. Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen as markers of dietary variation among sociocultural subgroups of Inuit in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; V. L. Larsen, Christina; K. Dahl-Petersen, Inger

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We assessed the use of stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen as biomarkers for traditional versus store-bought food among the Inuit. Furthermore, we compared the isotope patterns among sociocultural population groups. METHODS: As a part of a country-wide health survey in Greenland...

  13. Physical activity energy expenditure is associated with 2-h insulin independently of obesity among Inuit in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl-Petersen, Inger Katrine; Bjerregaard, Peter; Brage, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Indigenous populations throughout the Arctic are experiencing a rapid increase in the prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes. The role of physical activity in relation to glucose metabolism in Arctic populations is not well studied. We examined the association between objectively measured...... physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and glucose metabolism in a population-based study of adult Inuit in Greenland....

  14. Increased asthma and adipose tissue inflammatory gene expression with obesity and Inuit migration to a western country

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backer, Vibeke; Baines, Katherine J; Powell, Heather

    2016-01-01

    . Pro-inflammatory gene expression (IL-6, IL-1β) was higher in those living in Denmark, and with increasing BMI and dietary changes. The anti-inflammatory (M2) macrophage marker, CD163, was higher in Greenland-dwelling Inuit (p

  15. The association between blood pressure and whole blood methylmercury in a cross-sectional study among Inuit in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anni Brit Sternhagen; Davidsen, Michael; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2012-01-01

    and clinical measurements was obtained - the latter after overnight fasting. BP was measured according to standardized guidelines. Whole blood mercury concentration was used as a marker of exposure. The analyses were restricted to Inuit aged 30-69 years with four Greenlandic grandparents (N = 1...

  16. Socioeconomic and Cultural Correlates of Diet Quality in the Canadian Arctic: Results from the 2007-2008 Inuit Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Tracey; Johnson-Down, Louise; Egeland, Grace M

    2015-09-01

    We examined the impact of socioeconomic and cultural factors on dietary quality in adult Inuit living in the Canadian Arctic. Interviews and a 24-h dietary recall were administered to 805 men and 1292 women from Inuit regions in the Canadian Arctic. We examined the effect of age, sex, education, income, employment, and cultural variables on respondents' energy, macronutrient intake, sodium/potassium ratio, and healthy eating index. Logistic regression was used to assess the impact of socioeconomic status (SES) on diet quality indicators. Age was positively associated with traditional food (TF) consumption and greater energy from protein but negatively associated with total energy and fibre intake. Associations between SES and diet quality differed considerably between men and women and there was considerable regional variability in diet quality measures. Age and cultural variables were significant predictors of diet quality in logistic regression. Increased age and use of the Inuit language in the home were the most significant predictors of TF consumption. Our findings are consistent with studies reporting a nutrition transition in circumpolar Inuit. We found considerable variability in diet quality and complex interaction between SES and cultural variables producing mixed effects that differ by age and gender.

  17. A Healing Space: The Experiences of First Nations and Inuit Youth with Equine-Assisted Learning (EAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, Colleen Anne; Chalmers, Darlene; Bresette, Nora; Swain, Sue; Rankin, Deb; Hopkins, Carol

    2011-01-01

    The Nimkee NupiGawagan Healing Centre (NNHC) in Muncey, ON provides residential treatment to First Nations and Inuit youth who abuse solvents. As a complement to its culture-based programming, in 2008 the centre began offering weekly equine-assisted learning (EAL) curriculum to its clients in partnership with the Keystone Equine Centre and the…

  18. Tobacco smoke increases the risk of otitis media among Greenlandic Inuit children while exposure to organochlorines remain insignificant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ramon Gordon; Koch, Anders; Homøe, Preben

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to environmental levels of organochlorines (OCs) has been demonstrated to have immunotoxic effects in humans. We investigated the relationship between prenatal exposure to OCs and the occurrence of otitis media (OM) among Inuit children in Greenland. METHODS: We...

  19. mtDNA from hair and nail clarifies the genetic relationship of the 15th century Qilakitsoq Inuit mummies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, M Thomas P; Djurhuus, Durita; Melchior, Linea

    2007-01-01

    The 15th century Inuit mummies excavated at Qilakitsoq in Greenland in 1978 were exceptionally well preserved and represent the largest find of naturally mummified specimens from the Arctic. The estimated ages of the individuals, their distribution between two adjacent graves, the results of tissue...

  20. Family support and the child as health promoting agent in the Arctic - "the Inuit way".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery-Andersen, Ruth A; Borup, Ina

    2012-01-01

    In the context of the UN's 1990 'Convention on the Right's of the Child' 1990, and the associated definition of health promotion as a community's ability to recognise, define and make decisions on how to create a healthy society, this article describes and analyses how family support networks are conceived and present themselves in perinatal Inuit families. This literature review conducted an initial and secondary search using the keywords and combinations of the keywords: healthy families, health promoting families, resiliency, Arctic, Inuit, Family support, was executed in PubMed, Popline, CSA and CINAHL. The tertiary literature search was then combined with literature gleaned from literature lists, and other relevant articles were selected. Individual members of the family contribute to the health of the family, but the child is often the catalyst for health promotion within the family, not only the siblings to the unborn child, but also the unborn child. Perinatal entities create their own networks that support and develop concepts of family and support systems. Resiliency, kinship and ecocultural process within the family are concomitant to the health of perinatal family and of the children. More research is needed that moves children from being viewed as the receivers of health towards being seen as the promoters of health and an important actor as health promoting agent within the family.

  1. Ontogenetic and static allometry in the human face: contrasting Khoisan and Inuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidline, Sarah E; Gunz, Philipp; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2015-09-01

    Regional differences in modern human facial features are present at birth, and ontogenetic allometry contributes to variation in adults. However, details regarding differential rates of growth and timing among regional groups are lacking. We explore ontogenetic and static allometry in a cross-sectional sample spanning Africa, Europe and North America, and evaluate tempo and mode in two regional groups with very different adult facial morphology, the Khoisan and Inuit. Semilandmark geometric morphometric methods, multivariate statistics and growth simulations were used to quantify and compare patterns of facial growth and development. Regional-specific facial morphology develops early in ontogeny. The Inuit has the most distinct morphology and exhibits heterochronic differences in development compared to other regional groups. Allometric patterns differ during early postnatal development, when significant increases in size are coupled with large amounts of shape changes. All regional groups share a common adult static allometric trajectory, which can be attributed to sexual dimorphism, and the corresponding allometric shape changes resemble developmental patterns during later ontogeny. The amount and pattern of growth and development may not be shared between regional groups, indicating that a certain degree of flexibility is allowed for in order to achieve adult size. In early postnatal development the face is less constrained compared to other parts of the cranium allowing for greater evolvability. The early development of region-specific facial features combined with heterochronic differences in timing or rate of growth, reflected in differences in facial size, suggest different patterns of postnatal growth. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Cannabis use in relation to obesity and insulin resistance in the Inuit population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngueta, Gerard; Bélanger, Richard E; Laouan-Sidi, Elhadji A; Lucas, Michel

    2015-02-01

    To ascertain the relationship between cannabis use, obesity, and insulin resistance. Data on 786 Inuit adults from the Nunavik Inuit Health Survey (2004) were analyzed. Information on cannabis use was obtained from a self-completed, confidential questionnaire. Fasting blood glucose and insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) served as surrogate markers of insulin resistance. Analysis of covariance and multivariate logistic regression ascertained relationships between cannabis use and outcomes. Cannabis use was highly prevalent in the study population (57.4%) and was statistically associated with lower body mass index (BMI) (P cannabis users and nonusers. Mediation analysis showed that the effect of cannabis use on insulin resistance was indirect, through BMI. In multivariate analysis, past-year cannabis use was associated with 0.56 lower likelihood of obesity (95% confidence interval 0.37-0.84). Cannabis use was associated with lower BMI, and such an association did not occur through the glucose metabolic process or related inflammatory markers. The association between cannabis use and insulin resistance was mediated through its influence on weight. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  3. Nature in Preschool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Mia; Frøkjær, Thorleif

    ‘Nature and nature phenomena’ has formed a specific curriculum theme in Danish preschool since early childhood curriculum was prescribed by law in 2004. However, recent evaluations show that the implementation of an early childhood curriculum has not produced an increased pedagogical focus...... on ‘nature and nature phenomena’ in preschools (EVA 2012). This finding, along with an increased political interest in goals and measurable outcome of early childhood curriculum (Broström 2012), will be the starting point in our ambition to carry out a more thorough qualitative investigation into links...... between preschool teachers’ understanding and interest in teaching nature and the rather poor evaluation....

  4. Reading use in preschool

    OpenAIRE

    Laísa Cristina dos Santos Guilherme; Rodrigo Ferreira Daverni

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Reading in preschool is a time of awakening the taste and pleasure in reading, it is also a source of reflection, discovery and learn to listen. It is then necessary that the contact with the reading start from pre-school, with a variety of texts and the teacher also has the habit of reading in their daily lives. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the benefits of daily reading in the classroom pre-school life of a student, which the characteristics of a player and teacher re...

  5. Preschool Children with ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2001-01-01

    Differences in behavioral, social, and school functioning of 58 preschool-age (3 -5 years) children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and 36 normal controls were examined at Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA.

  6. Raising a Fit Preschooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as young as 4 years old, organized and team sports are not recommended until kids are a little ... decide to enroll your preschooler in an organized team sport, such as T-ball or soccer, make sure ...

  7. Promoting preschool reading

    OpenAIRE

    Istenič, Vesna

    2013-01-01

    The thesis titled Promoting preschool reading consists of a theoretiral and an empirical part. In the theoretical part I wrote about reading, the importance of reading, types of reading, about reading motivation, promoting reading motivation, internal and external motivation, influence of reading motivation on the child's reading activity, reading and familial literacy, the role of adults in promotion reading literacy, reading to a child and promoting reading in pre-school years, where I ...

  8. Art Inuit : Formes de l'Ame et Représentations de l'Etre. : Histoire de l'art et anthropologie

    OpenAIRE

    Pelaudeix , Cecile

    2007-01-01

    Relying on extensive field work, both in remote Arctic communities and outpost camps, and inside Canadian art collections, Cecile Pelaudeix's book presents a critical analysis of the Western perception of Inuit art, the theoretical assumptions underlying art history and anthropology discourse, and proposes a renewed interpretation of Kenojuak Ashevak's work (1959-2002), as well as a new understanding of contemporary Inuit art works at large. The author accords art work a deep meaning by revea...

  9. Dioxin-like compounds are not associated with bone strength measured by ultrasonography in Inuit women from Nunavik (Canada): results of a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paunescu, Alexandra-Cristina; Ayotte, Pierre; Dewailly, Éric; Dodin, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    Background Bone strength in Inuit people appears lower than that of non-Aboriginals. Inuit are exposed to persistent organic pollutants including dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) through their traditional diet that comprises predatory fish and marine mammal fat. Results from experimental and population studies suggest that some DLCs can alter bone metabolism and increase bone fragility. Objective This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted to examine the relationship between the stiffness index (SI) and plasma concentrations of total DLCs or specific dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in Inuit women of Nunavik (Northern Quebec, Canada). Methods SI was determined by ultrasonography at the right calcaneus of 194 Inuit women aged 35–72 years who participated to Qanuippitaa? How Are We? Nunavik Inuit Health Survey in 2004. Plasma total DLC levels were quantified by measuring the aryl hydrocarbon receptor–mediated transcriptional activity elicited by plasma sample extracts in a cell-based reporter gene assay. Plasma concentrations of DL-PCBs nos. 105, 118, 156, 157, 167 and 189 were measured by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. We used multiple linear regression analyses to investigate relations between total DLCs or specific DL-PCBs and SI, taking into consideration several potential confounders. Results Neither total plasma DLCs nor specific DL-PCBs were associated with SI after adjustment for several confounders and covariates. Conclusion Our results do not support a relation between exposure to DLCs and bone strength measured by ultrasonography in Inuit women of Nunavik. PMID:23730628

  10. Dioxin-like compounds are not associated with bone strength measured by ultrasonography in Inuit women from Nunavik (Canada: results of a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra-Cristina Paunescu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bone strength in Inuit people appears lower than that of non-Aboriginals. Inuit are exposed to persistent organic pollutants including dioxin-like compounds (DLCs through their traditional diet that comprises predatory fish and marine mammal fat. Results from experimental and population studies suggest that some DLCs can alter bone metabolism and increase bone fragility. Objective. This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted to examine the relationship between the stiffness index (SI and plasma concentrations of total DLCs or specific dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs in Inuit women of Nunavik (Northern Quebec, Canada. Methods. SI was determined by ultrasonography at the right calcaneus of 194 Inuit women aged 35–72 years who participated to Qanuippitaa? How Are We? Nunavik Inuit Health Survey in 2004. Plasma total DLC levels were quantified by measuring the aryl hydrocarbon receptor–mediated transcriptional activity elicited by plasma sample extracts in a cell-based reporter gene assay. Plasma concentrations of DL-PCBs nos. 105, 118, 156, 157, 167 and 189 were measured by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. We used multiple linear regression analyses to investigate relations between total DLCs or specific DL-PCBs and SI, taking into consideration several potential confounders. Results. Neither total plasma DLCs nor specific DL-PCBs were associated with SI after adjustment for several confounders and covariates. Conclusion. Our results do not support a relation between exposure to DLCs and bone strength measured by ultrasonography in Inuit women of Nunavik.

  11. Cross-stratified Wood: Enigmatic Woody Debris Deposits in Warm-Polar Fluvial Sediments (Pliocene Beaufort Formation, Nunavut)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, N. S.; Gosse, J. C.; Rybczynski, N.

    2012-04-01

    Woody debris has been an important sediment component and a significant geomorphic agent in pristine fluvial systems since the Devonian. In recent years a large volume of research has focussed on various aspects of the importance of woody debris within the fluvial realm; from the evolutionary significance of fossil wood accumulations in the rock record to studies of the biogeomorphological and ecological importance of woody debris in modern rivers. In this presentation we describe cross-stratified woody debris deposits comprising organic detritus from a boreal-type treeline forest that included species of pine, birch, poplar, alder, spruce, eastern cedar, and larch, in both shrub and tree form. The cross-stratified wood is an enigmatic subset of fine woody debris which, to our knowledge, has never before been described from either the global stratigraphic record or modern fluvial environments. The deposits we describe are located within the Pliocene Beaufort Formation on Meighen Island, Nunavut, Canada, at a latitude of 80°N, and are compared with other cross-stratified woody debris deposits that have been noted elsewhere in the Pliocene of the Canadian Arctic. We make the robust observation that these deposits appear to be geographically and stratigraphically restricted to polar latitudes from a period of warm climatic conditions during the Pliocene (15-20 °C warmer mean annual temperature than the present day). In this regard it is possible to speculate that the transport of large amounts of woody debris as bedload is potentially a unique feature of forested high latitude rivers. Such bedload deposition requires a large amount of woody debris with a greater density than the fluid transporting it. The softwood composition of the debris suggests that this was most likely attained by saturation and subsequent entrainment of extensive accumulations of deadwood, promoted by unusually high rates of tree mortality and low rates of bacterial decomposition arising from

  12. Childhood conditions and education as determinants of adult height and obesity among Greenland Inuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Height and obesity are risk factors for cardiovascular disease and other physical and mental health conditions. Their association with childhood socioeconomic position has been demonstrated in studies among European and a few third world populations. In a random sample of adult Greenland Inuit (N...... = 2302) we studied the association between childhood socioeconomic conditions and height as well as prevalence of obesity (BMI > or = 30) in a cross sectional design. In block recursive graphical independence models, height was associated with mother's place of birth, birth cohort, childhood residence......, alcohol problems in childhood home, and education among both men and women. Obesity was associated with mother's place of birth (for men) and with alcohol problems (for women). In General Linear Models, men with an all rural background and no education beyond primary school measured on average 165.1 cm...

  13. The value of Inuit participation when conserving the common eider duck in Arctic Canada and Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilchrist, Grant; Merkel, Flemming Ravn; Sonne, Christian

    The northern common eider duck nests in the eastern Canadian Arctic and west Greenland, and migrates to winter in Atlantic Canada and southwest Greenland. The eider is harvested for its meat, feather down and eggs and its ongoing conservation is the shared responsibility of Canada, Greenland......, Denmark, and northerners. This presentation will review the meaningful involvement and direct participation of Inuit during many aspects of historical and ongoing eider duck conservation efforts. These include studies that examined the sustainability of harvest, the establishment of new harvest...... regulations, long term monitoring of breeding colonies in remote coastal locations, reporting on emerging disease epidemics, and ongoing field studies which examine the impacts of polar bear predation under changing sea ice conditions. This presentation will review how working relationships were established...

  14. Language Deficits in ADHD Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapitou, Paraskevi; Andreou, Georgia

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of preschool ADHD on linguistic and metalinguistic awareness and mental ability. Eight subscales of the Athina Test were administered to ADHD preschoolers and a control group. Results showed that ADHD preschoolers performed significantly lower than the control group in all tasks. The greatest difficulty for…

  15. Learning by watching Vernacular Iñupiaq-Inuit design learning as inspiration for design education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janne Beate Reitan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I explore a single case of vernacular clothing design — the practice and learning of design for contemporary Iñupiaq-Inuit clothing made by women from Kaktovik in Northern Alaska — and I hope to contribute to a better understanding of design practice and learning in general. Design research has many unexplored areas, and one of these omissions is vernacular design, or folk design. In my opinion, professional and academic design may well have something to learn from vernacular design, although this research is about vernacular learning and about what, why and how the‘making’ discipline of clothing design is learned. This study was based on observations of and interviews with seamstresses and research-by-design, which includes authorial participation in designing and sewing in adherence to Iñupiaq tradition. All of this was recorded on digital video film. The investigation of Iñupiaq-Inuit clothing design indicates that watching was the most common way of learning, a phenomenon I have chosen to call learning-by-watching, a concept that can be seen as a development of both Schön and Wenger’s theories of learning, as influenced by John Dewey’s theory of learning-by-doing. This study will be discussed in connection with design education, from kindergarten to professional studies in higher education, in the forthcoming research project, Design Literacy, the purpose of which is to develop theory to improve design education in both compulsory and academic design education. Consequently, to improve design education in general, a thorough focus on learning-by-watching in communities of practice would make for more reflective practitioners and more sustainable design practices in the long run.Keywords: Vernacular design, clothing design, design thinking, learning-by-watching, learning-bydoing.

  16. Time trend by region of suicides and suicidal thoughts among Greenland Inuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Larsen, Christina Viskum Lytken

    2015-01-01

    Suicides remain a major public health problem in Greenland. Their increase coincides with the modernization since 1950. Serious suicidal thoughts are reported by a significant proportion of participants in countrywide surveys. To analyze the time trend by region of suicides and suicidal thoughts among the Inuit in Greenland. Data included the Greenland registry of causes of death for 1970-2011 and 2 cross-sectional health surveys carried out in 1993-1994 and 2005-2010 with 1,580 and 3,102 Inuit participants, respectively. Suicide rates were higher among men than women while the prevalence of suicidal thoughts was higher among women. Suicide rates for men and women together increased from 1960 to 1980 and have remained around 100 per 100,000 person-years since then. The regional pattern of time trend for suicide rates varied with an early peak in the capital, a continued increase to very high rates in remote East and North Greenland and a slow increase in villages relative to towns on the West Coast. Suicidal thoughts followed the regional pattern for completed suicides. Especially for women there was a noticeable increasing trend in the villages. The relative risk for suicide was highest among those who reported suicidal thoughts, but most suicides happened outside this high-risk group. Suicide rates and the prevalence of suicidal thoughts remain high in Greenland but different regional trends point towards an increased marginalization between towns on the central West Coast, villages and East and North Greenland. Different temporal patterns call for different regional strategies of prevention.

  17. DNA-polymorphisms and plasma levels of vascular disease risk factors in Greenland Inuit--is there a relation with the low risk of cardiovascular disease in the Inuit?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maat, M de; Bladbjerg, E-M; Johansen, L G

    1999-01-01

    with Caucasian populations. We have extended this study and evaluated whether or not this was also true for the genetic polymorphisms of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and angiotensinogen in a group of 133 Greenland Inuit....... In the Inuit, the f(insertion allele) of the t-PA intron8ins311 polymorphism was 0.37 (CI 0.32-0.43), the f(4G allele) of the PAI-1 promoter polymorphism was 0.88 (CI 0.83-0.91), the f(deletion allele) of the ACE intron16ins287 polymorphism was 0.40 (CI 0.33-0.47) and the f(M-allele) of the angiotensinogen M....../T353 polymorphism was 0.30(CI 0.25-0.38). As for fibrinogen and FVII polymorphisms, these frequencies are all significantly different from what is reported for Caucasian populations. In the Inuit, plasma levels of fibrinogen and D-Dimer were higher than in the Danes, the PAI-1 levels were lower...

  18. The associations of a marine diet with plasma lipids, blood glucose, blood pressure and obesity among the inuit in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P; Pedersen, H S; Mulvad, G

    2000-01-01

    and not statistically significant. The pattern was similar within groups with low, medium and high consumption of marine food. CONCLUSIONS: There are statistically significant associations between the consumption of marine food and certain lipid fractions in the blood also in this population with a very high average......OBJECTIVE: To analyse the associations between the intake of fish and marine mammals and risk factors for cardiovascular disease, ie lipid profile, fasting blood glucose, blood pressure and obesity, in a population whose average consumption of n-3 fatty acids is high compared with Western countries....... DESIGN: Information was obtained from a population survey in Greenland: interview data, clinical data and fasting blood samples were obtained from a random sample of Inuit from three towns and four villages. SUBJECTS: Two-hundred and fifty-nine adult Inuit (74% of the sample). RESULTS: Marine diet...

  19. A cross-sectional study of the association between persistent organic pollutants and glucose intolerance among Greenland Inuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marit Eika; Borch-Johnsen, K; Bjerregaard, P

    2008-01-01

    prevalence over the last 30 years. Thus the aim was to study the association between POPs and glucose intolerance and markers of insulin resistance and insulin secretion using a population-based design. METHODS: From 1999 to 2002 the Greenland population study was carried out among adult Inuit living...... in Greenland. The examination included a 75 g OGTT, anthropometric measurements, a structured interview, and blood tests. Plasma glucose and serum insulin were analysed, and three defined subclasses of POPs were analysed in a subgroup. Associations were adjusted for age, sex, waist circumference, Inuit...... heritage, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and educational level. RESULTS: Data on POPs were available on 692 individuals, 305 men (mean age 50 years) and 387 women (mean age 49 years). The prevalence of diabetes was 10.3%, and 10.5% had impaired glucose tolerance. The concentrations of several POPs...

  20. Preschool Teachers use of ICTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masoumi, Davoud

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the ways in which information and communication technologies (ICT) are integrated in three preschools in south-western Sweden. The case study involved observations of and interviews with preschool teachers. The findings support claims that ICT can enhance preschool...... practices by providing a variety of complementary opportunities to enrich and transform existing curricula. The study shows that in the studied preschools ICTs have been appropriated in distinctive ways: as an object to enrich existing practices; as a cultural mediator; as a way to entertain young children...... to the complexities that surround engagement with any innovation in preschool settings, and the adoption of new technologies in particular....

  1. Associations between Vitamin D Status and Type 2 Diabetes Measures among Inuit in Greenland May Be Affected by Other Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina O Nielsen

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have provided evidence of an association between vitamin D insufficiency and type 2 diabetes. Vitamin D levels have decreased among Inuit in Greenland, and type 2 diabetes is increasing. We hypothesized that the decline in vitamin D could have contributed to the increase in type 2 diabetes, and therefore investigated associations between serum 25(OHD3 as a measure of vitamin D status and glucose homeostasis and glucose intolerance in an adult Inuit population.2877 Inuit (≥18 years randomly selected for participation in the Inuit Health in Transition study were included. Fasting- and 2hour plasma glucose and insulin, C-peptide and HbA1c were measured, and associations with serum 25(OHD3 were analysed using linear and logistic regression. A subsample of 330 individuals who also donated a blood sample in 1987, were furthermore included.After adjustment, increasing serum 25(OHD3 (per 10 nmol/L was associated with higher fasting plasma glucose (0.02 mmol/L, p = 0.004, 2hour plasma glucose (0.05 nmol/L, p = 0.002 and HbA1c (0.39%, p<0.001, and with lower beta-cell function (-1.00 mmol/L, p<0.001. Serum 25(OHD3 was positively associated with impaired fasting glycaemia (OR: 1.08, p = 0.001, but not with IGT or type 2 diabetes.Our results did not support an association between low vitamin D levels and risk of type 2 diabetes. Instead, we found weak positive associations between vitamin D levels and fasting- and 2hour plasma glucose levels, HbA1c and impaired fasting glycaemia, and a negative association with beta-cell function, underlining the need for determination of the causal relationship.

  2. A systematic review and meta-analysis of cardiorespiratory fitness among Indigenous populations in North America and circumpolar Inuit populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayat, Lila M A; Murchison, Claire C; Foulds, Heather J A

    2018-04-01

    Indigenous populations experience health disparities including increased obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease rates. Cardiorespiratory fitness is beneficial for maintaining positive health outcomes. The objective of this systematic review is to evaluate cardiorespiratory fitness among Indigenous populations including comparisons across genders, Indigenous identities, age groups, decades, socio-demographic variables and in comparison to non-Indigenous groups. Included articles reported various cardiorespiratory fitness measures using maximal treadmill or cycle ergometer tests, 20 m shuttle run, 1 mile run/walk test and 6 min walk test. From 14 databases searched in March 2017, including MEDLINE, EMBASE and Scopus, 1069 citations were evaluated and 39 articles included, representing 32 investigations and 10,579 individuals. First Nations/American Indian (FN/AI) adults have greater cardiorespiratory fitness than Inuit. Inuit and FN/AI men and boys have higher cardiorespiratory fitness than women and girls. Lower cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome and a western lifestyle. Cardiorespiratory fitness has declined among Inuit adults, averaging 51.7 ± 7.9 mL·kg -1 ·min -1 in 1970 to 37.7 ± 6.9 mL·kg -1 ·min -1 in 2000. Among men, FN/AI have greater cardiorespiratory fitness compared to European-descents, and European-descents have greater cardiorespiratory fitness compared to Inuit. The 1 mile run/walk time showed that FN/AI boys, girls, and youth had faster times compared to European-descendants, but 20 m shuttle run showed that European-descent boys and youth advanced to further stages compared to FN/AI populations. Cardiorespiratory fitness is declining, and among some Indigenous populations to lower levels than European-descent populations. Improving cardiorespiratory fitness for Indigenous populations should be considered a primary health strategy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mitochondrial coupling and capacity of oxidative phosphorylation in skeletal muscle of Inuit and Caucasians in the arctic winter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnaiger, E; Boushel, R; Søndergaard, H

    2015-01-01

    During evolution, mitochondrial DNA haplogroups of arctic populations may have been selected for lower coupling of mitochondrial respiration to ATP production in favor of higher heat production. We show that mitochondrial coupling in skeletal muscle of traditional and westernized Inuit habituatin...... latitude and high altitude where economy of locomotion may be optimized by preservation of biochemical coupling efficiency at modest mitochondrial density, when submaximum performance is uncoupled from VO2max and maximum capacities of oxidative phosphorylation....

  4. Mental Health in Inuit Youth from Nunavik: Clinical Considerations on a Transcultural, Interdisciplinary, Community-oriented Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auclair, Geneviève; Sappa, Mary

    2012-05-01

    This paper discusses the organization of mental health care for youth in Nunavik and considers how best to adapt care to the sociocultural and geographical specificities of this region. Services are described and discussed by a general practitioner and a community worker in Nunavik. Current social and medical care delivery in Nunavik is provided by professionals who are largely non-Inuit and who are supported by Inuit community workers and interpreters. Community workers are key players in the provision of social and mental health care for youth. Efforts are made to adapt care to the sociocultural specificities of Inuit youth, and to locally-based multidisciplinary care addressing the multiple determinants of mental health. While efforts to adapt care are ongoing, the ideal model of care integrating transcultural, multidisciplinary and community-oriented approaches are yet to become a reality. Increased communication among care providers is suggested as a way to strengthen the current collaborative model of care. Future goals include having a majority of care being provided locally and building community ownership and governance of care institutions.

  5. Household Crowding and Food Insecurity Among Inuit Families With School-Aged Children in the Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muckle, Gina; Dewailly, Éric; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Ayotte, Pierre; Riva, Mylène

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relation of household crowding to food insecurity among Inuit families with school-aged children in Arctic Quebec. Methods. We analyzed data collected between October 2005 and February 2010 from 292 primary caregiver–child dyads from 14 Inuit communities. We collected information about household conditions, food security, and family socioeconomic characteristics by interviews. We used logistic regression models to examine the association between household crowding and food insecurity. Results. Nearly 62% of Inuit families in the Canadian Arctic resided in more crowded households, placing them at risk for food insecurity. About 27% of the families reported reducing the size of their children’s meals because of lack of money. The likelihood of reducing the size of children’s meals was greater in crowded households (odds ratio = 3.73; 95% confidence interval = 1.96, 7.12). After we adjusted for different socioeconomic characteristics, results remained statistically significant. Conclusions. Interventions operating across different levels (community, regional, national) are needed to ensure food security in the region. Targeting families living in crowded conditions as part of social and public health policies aiming to reduce food insecurity in the Arctic could be beneficial. PMID:25602890

  6. Glacial transport and local ice dynamics under the Keewatin Ice Divide of the Laurentide Ice Sheet, central Nunavut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulet, C.; Roy, M.; McMartin, I.

    2009-12-01

    Goulet, C.; Roy, M., Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, and GEOTOP, University of Quebec in Montreal, QC, H3C 3P8; McMartin, I., Geological Survey of Canada, 601 Booth Street, Ottawa, ON, K1A OE8 Recent paleogeographic reconstructions indicate that the Keewatin Ice Divide (KID) of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) was highly dynamic throughout the last glacial cycle. Extensive field measurements of cross-cutting ice-flow erosional features (striations, grooves) on multi-faceted bedrock outcrops, as well as mapping of streamlined landforms indicate significant displacements (up to 500 km) of this ice flow center during the last glacial cycle. These episodes of ice-flow reorganization likely affected the patterns of glacial transport, but the extent of the reworking of former glacial dispersal trains is often unconstrained in certain regions. Here we report ice-flow directional data and associated glacial-dynamic considerations for an area located 100 km north of Baker Lake, central Nunavut. This area lies underneath the zone of migration of the KID (essentially north of its final position), thus representing a key area for understanding the dynamics of this sector of the LIS. Measurements of ice-flow indicators indicate at least 7 ice-flow directions, going from N, NNW, NW to WNW, NNE, W, SE, and SW to WSW. A relative chronology was established from multiple intersecting striations and geometrical relations between multi-faceted outcrops, starting from older phases to younger ones with W, NW, NNW, and N. Surficial mapping using air-photo and satellite images indicate that this region is characterized by zones of fast and slower ice velocity. The presence in the centre of the study area of a drift-free positive relief formed by resistant NE-SW-oriented Proterozoic quartzite appears to have played an important role on the local ice dynamics by slowing down the velocity of the ice. Local example of varying ice velocity systems is expressed by a glacially

  7. “There’s No Book and There’s No Guide”: The Expressed Needs of Qallunaat Educators in Nunavutp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Berger

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-Inuit educators in five communities in Nunavut expressed frustration with: a the lack of culturally relevant curriculum and resources, b the unsuitability of the materials for students whose first language is Inuktitut, and c their own lack of preparation for culturally appropriate teaching of Inuit students. Although these are symptomatic of larger problems, the creation of culturally relevant, ESL-sensitive curriculum and resources, an orientation to Inuit culture and teaching in Nunavut, and increased inservicing would help non-Inuit teachers teach Inuit students.

  8. Assessment of Attention in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahone, E.M.; Schneider, H.E.

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, there has been an increased interest in the assessment and treatment of preschool children presenting with concerns about attention problems. This article reviews the research and clinical literature involving assessment of attention and related skills in the preschool years. While inattention among preschoolers is common, symptoms alone do not necessarily indicate a disorder, and most often represent a normal variation in typical preschool child development. Thus, accurate identification of “disordered” attention in preschoolers can be challenging, and development of appropriate, norm-referenced tests of attention for preschoolers is also difficult. The current review suggests that comprehensive assessment of attention and related functions in the preschool child should include thorough review of the child’s history, planned observations, and formal psychometric testing. The three primary methods of psychometric assessment that have been used to characterize attentional functioning in preschool children include performance-based tests, structured caregiver interviews, and rating scales (parent, teacher, and clinician). Among performance-based methods for measurement of attention in the preschool years, tests have been developed to assess sustained attention, selective (focused) attention, span of attention (encoding/manipulation), and (top-down) controlled attention—including freedom from distractibility and set shifting. Many of these tests remain experimental in nature, and review of published methods yields relatively few commercially available, nationally normed tests of attention for preschoolers, and an overall dearth of reliability and validity studies on the available measures. PMID:23090646

  9. Microcomputers and Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Dina

    Preschool children can benefit by working with microcomputers. Thinking skills are enhanced by software games that focus on logic, memory, problem solving, and pattern recognition. Counting, sequencing, and matching games develop mathematics skills, and word games focusing on basic letter symbol and word recognition develop language skills.…

  10. THE PRESCHOOL INVENTORY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CALDWELL, BETTYE M.; SOULE, DONALD

    THE PRESCHOOL INVENTORY BEGAN AS AN ANSWER TO THE NEED FOR SOME TYPE OF INSTRUMENT THAT WOULD PROVIDE AN INDICATION OF HOW MUCH A DISADVANTAGED CHILD, PRIOR TO HIS INTRODUCTION TO HEAD START, HAD ACHIEVED IN AREAS REGARDED AS NECESSARY FOUNDATIONS FOR SUBSEQUENT SUCCESS IN SCHOOL. MEASURING BASIC INTELLIGENCE WAS NOT THE GOAL. RATHER, THE…

  11. Preschool Children's School Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekdogan, Serpil; Akgül, Esra

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine preschool teachers' perspectives about children's school readiness. Qualitative and quantitative research methods were used in the study as a mixed method research. Data, in the quantitative aspects of the research, were collected through the use of "School Readiness Form" developed by Boz (2004)…

  12. The obesity-associated risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality is not lower in Inuit compared to Europeans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn, Pernille Falberg; Lucas, Michel; Laouan Sidi, Elhadji A

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Inuit populations have lower levels of cardiometabolic risk factors for the same level of body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC) compared to Europeans in cross-sectional studies. We aimed to compare the longitudinal associations of anthropometric measures with card...... incidences of CVD and all-cause mortality, but the trends in the associations with the anthropometric measures only differ for all-cause mortality. Previous findings of a lower obesity-associated cardiometabolic risk among Inuit were not confirmed....... with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in Inuit and Europeans. METHODS: Using pooled data from three population-based studies in Canada, Greenland and Denmark, we conducted a cohort study of 10,033 adult participants (765 Nunavik Inuit, 2960 Greenlandic Inuit and 6308 Europeans). Anthropometric...... measures collected at baseline included: BMI, WC, waist-to-hip-ratio (WHR), waist-to-height-ratio (WHtR) and a body shape index (ABSI). Information on CVD and death was retrieved from national registers or medical files. Poisson regression analyses were used to calculate incidence rates for CVD and all-cause...

  13. AhR transcriptional activity in serum of Inuits across Greenlandic districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonefeld-Jorgensen Eva C

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human exposure to lipophilic persistent organic pollutants (POPs including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDDs/PCDFs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and organochlorine pesticide is ubiquitous. The individual is exposed to a complex mixture of POPs being life-long beginning during critical developmental windows. Exposure to POPs elicits a number of species- and tissue-specific toxic responses, many of which involve the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR. The aim of this study was to compare the actual level of integrated AhR transcriptional activity in the lipophilic serum fraction containing the actual POP mixture among Inuits from different districts in Greenland, and to evaluate whether the AhR transactivity is correlated to the bio-accumulated POPs and/or lifestyle factors. Methods The study included 357 serum samples from the Greenlandic districts: Nuuk and Sisimiut (South West Coast, Qaanaaq (North Coast and Tasiilaq (East Coast. The bio-accumulated serum POPs were extracted by ethanol: hexane and clean-up on Florisil columns. Effects of the serum extract on the AhR transactivity was determined using the Hepa 1.12cR mouse hepatoma cell line carrying an AhR-luciferase reporter gene, and the data was evaluated for possible association to the serum levels of 14 PCB congeners, 10 organochlorine pesticide residues and/or lifestyle factors. Results In total 85% of the Inuit samples elicited agonistic AhR transactivity in a district dependent pattern. The median level of the AhR-TCDD equivalent (AhR-TEQ of the separate genders was similar in the different districts. For the combined data the order of the median AhR-TEQ was Tasiilaq > Nuuk ≥ Sisimiut > Qaanaaq possibly being related to the different composition of POPs. In overall, the AhR transactivity was inversely correlated to the levels of sum POPs, age and/or intake of marine food. Conclusion i We observed that the proportion of dioxin like (DL compounds in the

  14. Preschool Movement Education in Turkey: Perceptions of Preschool Administrators and Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevimli-Celik, Serap; Kirazci, Sadettin; Ince, Mustafa Levent

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of preschool administrators and parents about preschool movement education and movement practices in preschools. Participants were 8 preschool administrators and 21 parents from 8 randomly selected private preschools in one of the municipalities in Ankara, Turkey. Semi-structured interviews,…

  15. Child Sexual Abuse at Preschools--A Research Review of a Complex Issue for Preschool Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Helena; Eidevald, Christian; Westberg-Broström, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research review is to synthesize research published between 2000 and 2015 regarding child sexual abuse, preschool and preschool teachers. The review identifies themes relevant for the preschool teacher profession: child sexual abuse at preschools, suspicions and consequences for the preschool sector, preventing techniques and…

  16. Harmful alcohol use and frequent use of marijuana among lifetime problem gamblers and the prevalence of cross-addictive behaviour among Greenland Inuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christina Viskum Lytken; Curtis, Tine; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Public health research has pointed to alcohol and substance abuse as the most significant public health challenges in Greenland with the negative impact on families and communities that entail, but few studies have investigated the role of problem gambling as addictive behaviour among Inuit. The ....... The objectives of the present study were to investigate (a) the association between lifetime problem gambling and harmful alcohol use as well as frequent use of marijuana and (b) the prevalence of cross-addictive behaviour among Greenland Inuit....

  17. High protein and cholesterol intakes associated with emergence of glucose intolerance in a low-risk Canadian Inuit population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefidbakht, Saghar; Johnson-Down, Louise; Young, T Kue; Egeland, Grace M

    2016-07-01

    The rate of type 2 diabetes mellitus among Inuit is 12·2 % in individuals over 50 years of age, similar to the Canadian prevalence. Given marked dietary transitions in the Arctic, we evaluated the dietary and other correlates of not previously diagnosed glucose intolerance, defined as type 2 diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance. Cross-sectional analyses were limited to adults with a completed 2 h oral glucose tolerance test and without pre-existing diabetes. Anthropometric assessments, health and medication usage questionnaires and a 24 h dietary recall were administered. Canadian International Polar Year Inuit Health Survey (2007-2008). Inuit adults (n 777). Glucose intolerance was associated with older age and adiposity. Percentage of energy from protein above the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range of 35 %, compared with intake within the range, was associated with increased odds of glucose intolerance (OR=1·98; 95 % CI 1·09, 3·61) in multivariable analyses. Further, cholesterol intake in the highest three quartiles combined (median exposures of 207, 416 and 778 mg/d, respectively) compared with the lowest quartile (median intake of 81 mg/d) was associated with glucose intolerance (OR=2·15; 95 % CI 1·23, 3·78) in multivariable analyses. Past-day traditional food consumption was borderline protective of glucose intolerance (P=0·054) and high fibre intake was not significantly protective (P=0·08). The results contribute to the existing literature on high protein and cholesterol intakes as they may relate to diabetes risk.

  18. Translational research to reduce trans-fat intakes in Northern Québec (Nunavik Inuit communities: a success story?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Émilie Counil

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Following our results, based on population studies conducted in Greenland and Northern Canada, that Nunavik Inuit were thrice as highly exposed to dietary trans-fat as were Greenlandic Inuit, and that the biological levels found in Nunavik were already associated with deleterious blood lipid profiles, we decided to engage in translational activities. Our goal was to support Inuit communities in the practical implementation of a reduction of the trans-fat content of food sold in Nunavik. We carried out a preliminary feasibility study in Kuujjuaq and participated in several meetings. This translational phase involved an Inuk leader, an Inuk student, a southern student, a southern nutritionist and a southern researcher in the framework of a public health project. In the present article, we recount the different phases of the process, from research implementation to results dissemination and institutional commitment to implement a primary prevention program of reduction in trans-fat exposure in Nunavik. This is the occasion to draw broader conclusions on the factors that could either act in favour of or, on the contrary, would likely compromise the implementation of primary prevention interventions dealing with food and nutrition in the Arctic. Finally, we share some reflections on future translational activities dealing with trans-fat as well as other junk food issues. The analytical framework we propose integrates a range of factors, from geo-climatic to socio-economic, ethno-cultural, and even political, that we think should be examined while identifying and building preventive recommendations and strategies related to the Northern diet.

  19. Motivations and Barriers in Promoting Preschool Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçükturan, A. Güler; Akbaba Altun, Sadegül

    2017-01-01

    This study is designed to explore the reasons for sending and not sending preschool age children to preschools at an early age by exploring the motivations for and barriers towards promoting preschool education in Turkey. It aimed to determine various stakeholders' perceptions, attitudes, and knowledge related to preschool education in order to…

  20. Quality in preschool in a cultural context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh-Müller, Grethe; Ringsmose, Charlotte

    What is educational quality i preschools? How can it be evaluated/measured. How can educational quality be developped in everyday life in preschools?......What is educational quality i preschools? How can it be evaluated/measured. How can educational quality be developped in everyday life in preschools?...

  1. The association between blood pressure and whole blood methylmercury in a cross-sectional study among Inuit in Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen Anni Brit

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Inuit in Greenland have a high average consumption of marine species and are highly exposed to methylmercury, which in other studies has been related to hypertension. Data on the relation between methylmercury and hypertension is limited, especially in populations subjected to a high exposure of methylmercury. We examined the relation between whole blood mercury and blood pressure (BP in Inuit in Greenland. Methods A cross-sectional population-based study among adult Inuit in Greenland was performed in 2005–2009. Information on socio-demography, lifestyle, BP, blood samples and clinical measurements was obtained – the latter after overnight fasting. BP was measured according to standardized guidelines. Whole blood mercury concentration was used as a marker of exposure. The analyses were restricted to Inuit aged 30–69 years with four Greenlandic grandparents (N = 1,861. Multivariate regression analyses with inclusion of confounders were done separately for men and women with the omission of participants receiving anti-hypertensive drugs, except for logistic regression analyses of the relation between mercury and presence of hypertension (yes/no. Results The mean whole blood mercury level was 20.5 μg/L among men and 14.7 μg/L among women. In multivariate analyses adjusted for confounders, diastolic BP decreased with increasing mercury concentration. In men diastolic BP decreased significantly for each four-fold increase in mercury concentration (Beta = −0.04, standard error = 0.01, p = 0.001, while no relation between mercury and diastolic BP was found among women. For systolic BP, a similar non-statistically significant result was seen only for men (Beta = −0.02, standard error = 0.01, p = 0.06. A relation between mercury and hypertension was only found in men; the odds ratio for hypertension was 0.99 (95% CI: 0.98-0.99. No relation between quintiles of mercury and hypertension

  2. Systematic Quality Work in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Sonja; Williams, Pia; Sandberg, Anette

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the meaning that Swedish preschool teachers ascribe to systematic quality work. In Sweden, all preschools are required to work systematically with quality issues. This involves several interdependent steps that follow each other in a specific order. Although the concept of systematic quality work might…

  3. Defining Nature-Based Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larimore, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Nature-based early childhood education. Nature-based preschool. Nature preschool. Forest kindergarten. Nature kindergarten. Waldkindergarten. Forest school. These are a few of the program terms currently being discussed among early childhood environmental education professionals in the United States. Why is there so much discussion about the names…

  4. Association between whole blood mercury and glucose intolerance among adult Inuit in Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeppesen, Charlotte; Valera, Beatriz; Nielsen, Nina O; Bjerregaard, Peter; Jørgensen, Marit E

    2015-11-01

    The Arctic diet is partly constituted by traditional food characterized by top predator animals such as whales, walrus, and seals with high mercury content. Mercury exposure has been associated with glucose intolerance in Western populations. We studied the association between whole blood mercury and glucose intolerance in a highly exposed non-Western population Cross-sectional study of 2640 Inuit (18+ years) with information on ancestry, smoking, waist circumference, total energy intake, and physical activity. Mercury, fasting- and 2-h plasma glucose, insulin, and c-peptide were measured in blood. Fasting participants without diabetes were classified into normal glucose tolerance, impaired glucose tolerance, impaired fasting glycemia, or type 2 diabetes. We calculated hepatic insulin resistance with homoeostatic model assessment - insulin resistance index, peripheral insulin sensitivity by ISI0,120., and relative beta cell function by c-peptide/insulin ratio. We conducted adjusted linear- and logistic regression analyses. For an increase in whole blood mercury of 5 µg/L we found a positive association with fasting glucose [% change=0.25 (95% CI: 0.20; 0.30); p<0.001], and 2-h glucose [% change=0.23 (95% CI: 0.05; 0.40); p=0.01]. Mercury was weakly associated with impaired fasting glycemia [OR=1.03 (95% CI: 1.02; 1.05)], and type 2 diabetes [OR=1.02 (95% CI: 1.01; 1.04)]. While the study found a weak but statistically significant association between whole blood mercury and both impaired fasting glycemia and type 2 diabetes, no associations were found with measures of underlying disturbances in glucose homoeostasis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Inuit women's attitudes and experiences towards cervical cancer and prevention strategies in Nunavik, Quebec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerigo, Helen; Macdonald, Mary Ellen; Franco, Eduardo L.; Brassard, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To describe the attitudes about and experiences with cervical cancer, Pap smear screenings and the HPV vaccine among a sample of Inuit women from Nunavik, Quebec, Canada. We also evaluated demographic and social predictors of maternal interest in HPV vaccination. Study design A mixed method design was used with a cross-sectional survey and focus group interviews. Methods Women were recruited through convenience sampling at 2 recruitment sites in Nunavik from March 2008 to June 2009. Differences in women's responses by age, education, and marital status were assessed. Unconditional logistic regression was used to determine predictors of women's interest in HPV vaccination for their children. Results Questionnaires were completed by 175 women aged 18–63, and of these women a total of 6 women aged 31–55 participated in 2 focus groups. Almost half the survey participants had heard of cervical cancer. Women often reported feelings of embarrassment and pain during the Pap smear and older women were more likely to feel embarrassed than younger women. Only 27% of women had heard of the HPV vaccine, and 72% of these women were interested in vaccinating their child for HPV. No statistically significant predictors of maternal interest in HPV vaccination were found. Conclusions Our findings indicate that health service planners and providers in Nunavik should be aware of potential barriers to Pap smear attendance, especially in the older age groups. Given the low awareness of cervical cancer, the Pap smear and the HPV vaccine, education on cervical cancer and prevention strategies may be beneficial.1 PMID:22456050

  6. Psychometric validation of the household food insecurity access scale among Inuit pregnant women from Northern Quebec.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Teh

    Full Text Available Globally, food insecurity is a major public health concern. In North America, it is particularly prevalent in certain sub-groups, including Indigenous communities. Although many Indigenous and remote communities harvest and share food, most food security assessment tools focus on economic access. This study describes the psychometric evaluation of a modified Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS, developed for mixed economies, to assess food insecurity among pregnant Inuit women.The HFIAS was administered to 130 pregnant women in Nunavik (Arctic region of Quebec, Canada. Data were fit to a Rasch Rating Scale Model (RSM to determine the discrimination ability of the HFIAS. Person parameter (Theta estimates were calculated based on the RSM to provide a more accurate scoring system of the modified HFIAS for this population. Theta values were compared to known correlates of food insecurity.Comparative fit indices showed preference for a modified version of the HFIAS over the original. Theta values displayed a continuum of severity estimates and those values indicating greater food insecurity were consistently linked to known correlates of food insecurity. Participants living in households with more than 1 hunter (Theta = -.45 or more than 1 fisher (Theta = -.43 experienced less food insecurity than those with no hunters (Theta = .48 or fishers (Theta = .49 in their household. The RSM indicated the scale showed good discriminatory ability. Subsequent analyses indicated that most scale items pertain to the classification of a household as moderately food insecure.The modified HFIAS shows potential for measuring food insecurity among pregnant women in Nunavik. This is an efficient instrument that can inform interventions targeting health conditions impacting groups that obtain food through both monetary and non-monetary means.

  7. Psychometric validation of the household food insecurity access scale among Inuit pregnant women from Northern Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Lisa; Pirkle, Catherine; Furgal, Chris; Fillion, Myriam; Lucas, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Globally, food insecurity is a major public health concern. In North America, it is particularly prevalent in certain sub-groups, including Indigenous communities. Although many Indigenous and remote communities harvest and share food, most food security assessment tools focus on economic access. This study describes the psychometric evaluation of a modified Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS), developed for mixed economies, to assess food insecurity among pregnant Inuit women. The HFIAS was administered to 130 pregnant women in Nunavik (Arctic region of Quebec), Canada. Data were fit to a Rasch Rating Scale Model (RSM) to determine the discrimination ability of the HFIAS. Person parameter (Theta) estimates were calculated based on the RSM to provide a more accurate scoring system of the modified HFIAS for this population. Theta values were compared to known correlates of food insecurity. Comparative fit indices showed preference for a modified version of the HFIAS over the original. Theta values displayed a continuum of severity estimates and those values indicating greater food insecurity were consistently linked to known correlates of food insecurity. Participants living in households with more than 1 hunter (Theta = -.45) or more than 1 fisher (Theta = -.43) experienced less food insecurity than those with no hunters (Theta = .48) or fishers (Theta = .49) in their household. The RSM indicated the scale showed good discriminatory ability. Subsequent analyses indicated that most scale items pertain to the classification of a household as moderately food insecure. The modified HFIAS shows potential for measuring food insecurity among pregnant women in Nunavik. This is an efficient instrument that can inform interventions targeting health conditions impacting groups that obtain food through both monetary and non-monetary means.

  8. Psychometric validation of the household food insecurity access scale among Inuit pregnant women from Northern Quebec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Lisa; Pirkle, Catherine; Fillion, Myriam

    2017-01-01

    Background Globally, food insecurity is a major public health concern. In North America, it is particularly prevalent in certain sub-groups, including Indigenous communities. Although many Indigenous and remote communities harvest and share food, most food security assessment tools focus on economic access. This study describes the psychometric evaluation of a modified Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS), developed for mixed economies, to assess food insecurity among pregnant Inuit women. Methods The HFIAS was administered to 130 pregnant women in Nunavik (Arctic region of Quebec), Canada. Data were fit to a Rasch Rating Scale Model (RSM) to determine the discrimination ability of the HFIAS. Person parameter (Theta) estimates were calculated based on the RSM to provide a more accurate scoring system of the modified HFIAS for this population. Theta values were compared to known correlates of food insecurity. Results Comparative fit indices showed preference for a modified version of the HFIAS over the original. Theta values displayed a continuum of severity estimates and those values indicating greater food insecurity were consistently linked to known correlates of food insecurity. Participants living in households with more than 1 hunter (Theta = -.45) or more than 1 fisher (Theta = -.43) experienced less food insecurity than those with no hunters (Theta = .48) or fishers (Theta = .49) in their household. The RSM indicated the scale showed good discriminatory ability. Subsequent analyses indicated that most scale items pertain to the classification of a household as moderately food insecure. Conclusions The modified HFIAS shows potential for measuring food insecurity among pregnant women in Nunavik. This is an efficient instrument that can inform interventions targeting health conditions impacting groups that obtain food through both monetary and non-monetary means. PMID:28614392

  9. Evaluation of a Leadership Program for First Nations, Métis, and Inuit Youth: Stories of Positive Youth Development and Community Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsall, Tanya; Forneris, Tanya

    2018-01-01

    First Nations, Métis, and Inuit (FNMI) youth experience many health disparities in comparison with their mainstream Canadian peers. Researchers have recommended that interventions developed to enhance health and well-being for FNMI youth apply a strengths-based approach that acknowledges contextual challenges. This article uses a qualitative…

  10. Polymorphisms in Phase I and Phase II genes and breast cancer risk and relations to persistent organic pollutant exposure: a case–control study in Inuit women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghisari, Mandana; Eiberg, Hans; Long, Manhai

    2014-01-01

    Background: We have previously reported that chemicals belonging to the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as perfluorinated compounds (PFAS) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are risk factors in Breast Cancer (BC) development in Greenlandic Inuit women. The present case–control study a...

  11. Terra nullius, Inuit Habitation and Norse Occupation – With Special Emphasis on the 1933 East Greenland Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Thomas Ørebech

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sovereignty acquired by occupation entails “recognize[d] title based on discovery,” “a reasonable period [of] … effective occupation of the region claimed to be discovered” and “the continuous and peaceful display of State authority.” Only terra nullius is subject to occupation. A territory inhabited by indigenous groups that sustain social and political organization may impede an occupying power because the terra nullius requirement fails. While sovereignty over thinly populated areas are often lax, case law requires less public involvement in these sparsely inhabited areas. This study reveals that the Dano-Norwegian Kings regarded the Inuit as “our subjects.” The Kings’ pretention of absolutum dominium and jurisdiction involved both the Norse and Inuit ethnic groups and “bygð ok ubygð” (settled and unsettled land. The exodus of the Norse peoples in 1450 AD for 200 years did not undermine the acquired sovereignty of the Dano-Norwegian Crown, which as a result, spoiled the 1931 Norwegian pretentions to legally occupy East-Greenland. Denmark's triumph in the 1933-East Greenland case resulted from a “zero-sum principle.” More than a 100 years earlier, the Danish Kingdom lost a succession of countries and dependencies. The 1814 Kiel Treaty transferred mainland Norway to Sweden, but explicitly states that none of the ancient Norwegian dependencies, Greenland, Iceland and Faroe Islands would follow suit. Thus, these territories remained part of the Kingdom of Denmark.

  12. Mental symptoms and comorbid behaviours among Inuit in Greenland: the role of household crowding and household social structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riva, Mylène; Larsen, Christina Viskum Lytken; Bjerregaard, Peter

    on 3108 Inuit aged 18 years and older are from the Inuit Health in Transition Survey. Dependent variables considered were: feelings of depression and of anxiety; binge drinking; harmful drinking; and use of marijuana. Household crowding was measured by the number of people in the house, and the social...... with higher risk of reporting feeling anxious (OR: 1.05; 95%CI: 1.00-1.09) or depressed (OR: 1.05; 95%CI: 1.02-1.09), but with lower risks of heavy drinking (OR: 0.89; 95%CI: 0.82-0.98), use of marijuana (OR: 0.85; 95%CI: 0.77-0.94), and marginally (p... marijuana (OR: 1.34; 95%CI: 0.98-1.81), but not of harmful drinking, were significantly higher in households composed only of adults. Although similar patterns of associations are observed, household crowding and the social structure of the household appear to influence women’s mental symptoms and comorbid...

  13. Riddle in preschool education

    OpenAIRE

    Ferjančič, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    In this work, in theoretical part, I would like to explore and present: (1) the theory of riddle and forms in which it appears; (2) the historical origin of riddles; (3) the emergence of the first riddles in Slovenia; (4) the characteristics of literary riddles and definition how riddles are formed; (5) the importance of the riddles in the preschool period, since most of them are for younger generation; (6) different ways of setting and solving riddles with the youngest according to their abi...

  14. Preschoolers' dietary behaviours: parents' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Patricia; Irwin, Jennifer D; He, Meizi; Bouck, L Michelle Sangster; Pollett, Graham

    2006-01-01

    Preschoolers' dietary intake behaviours are described from the perspective of their parents. A maximum variation sample of 71 parents of preschoolers participated in this qualitative study. Ten semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted. Two experienced moderators facilitated all focus groups, which were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Strategies to ensure trustworthiness of the data were employed throughout the study. Two team members independently performed inductive content analysis. NVivo software was used to code the emerging themes. Parents identified food and food issues as key health-related behaviours among preschoolers. Parents discussed challenges to healthy eating, including time limitations and societal pressures, as well as methods for facilitating healthy food choices, including bribery, education, and being creative with food. Dietary intake is on the minds of preschoolers' parents. Unfortunately, some methods that parents currently use to promote healthy food choices may be more detrimental than beneficial for children in the long term. Parents' keen interest in their preschoolers' eating habits may make them particularly receptive to learning about and facilitating healthy choices in more behaviourally appropriate ways. Widespread educational messages about the benefits and detriments of various strategies to facilitate healthy eating among preschoolers therefore seem warranted.

  15. Organising and Leading Systematic Quality Work in the Preschool -- Preschool Managers' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håkansson, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Preschool managers' responsibility for and leadership of systematic quality work has come to the fore in connection with changes made to the Swedish preschool curriculum. The aim of this study is to contribute to the understanding of preschool managers' leadership and management of the systematic quality work in Swedish preschools with reference…

  16. Objectively measured sedentary behavior in preschool children: comparison between Montessori and traditional preschools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Wonwoo; Blair, Steven N; Pate, Russell R

    2013-01-03

    This study aimed to compare the levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior in children attending Montessori preschools with those attending traditional preschools. The participants in this study were preschool children aged 4 years old who were enrolled in Montessori and traditional preschools. The preschool children wore ActiGraph accelerometers. Accelerometers were initialized using 15-second intervals and sedentary behavior was defined as Montessori preschools, after adjusting for selected potential correlates of preschoolers' sedentary behavior. Children attending Montessori preschools spent less time in sedentary behavior than those attending traditional preschools during the in-school (44.4. min/hr vs. 47.1 min/hr, P = 0.03), after-school (42.8. min/hr vs. 44.7 min/hr, P = 0.04), and total-day (43.7 min/hr vs. 45.5 min/hr, P = 0. 009) periods. School type (Montessori or traditional), preschool setting (private or public), socio-demographic factors (age, gender, and socioeconomic status) were found to be significant predictors of preschoolers' sedentary behavior. Levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior were significantly lower among children attending Montessori preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools. Future research should examine the specific characteristics of Montessori preschools that predict the lower levels of sedentary behavior among children attending these preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools.

  17. Water quality and health in northern Canada: stored drinking water and acute gastrointestinal illness in Labrador Inuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Carlee J; Sargeant, Jan M; Edge, Victoria L; Ford, James D; Farahbakhsh, Khosrow; Shiwak, Inez; Flowers, Charlie; Harper, Sherilee L

    2017-07-12

    One of the highest self-reported incidence rates of acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI) in the global peer-reviewed literature occurs in Inuit communities in the Canadian Arctic. This high incidence of illness could be due, in part, to the consumption of contaminated water, as many northern communities face challenges related to the quality of municipal drinking water. Furthermore, many Inuit store drinking water in containers in the home, which could increase the risk of contamination between source and point-of-use (i.e., water recontamination during storage). To examine this risk, this research characterized drinking water collection and storage practices, identified potential risk factors for water contamination between source and point-of-use, and examined possible associations between drinking water contamination and self-reported AGI in the Inuit community of Rigolet, Canada. The study included a cross-sectional census survey that captured data on types of drinking water used, household practices related to drinking water (e.g., how it was collected and stored), physical characteristics of water storage containers, and self-reported AGI. Additionally, water samples were collected from all identified drinking water containers in homes and analyzed for presence of Escherichia coli and total coliforms. Despite municipally treated tap water being available in all homes, 77.6% of households had alternative sources of drinking water stored in containers, and of these containers, 25.2% tested positive for total coliforms. The use of transfer devices and water dippers (i.e., smaller bowls or measuring cups) for the collection and retrieval of water from containers were both significantly associated with increased odds of total coliform presence in stored water (OR transfer device  = 3.4, 95% CI 1.2-11.7; OR dipper  = 13.4, 95% CI 3.8-47.1). Twenty-eight-day period prevalence of self-reported AGI during the month before the survey was 17.2% (95% CI 13

  18. Literature review on the preschool pedestrian

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review was to describe (1) the factors leading to typical preschool pedestrian accidents, (2) the developmental characteristics of the preschool child that affect his/her behavior in traffic, (3) social factors that may...

  19. Computerized sociometric assessment for preschool children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endedijk, Hinke M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2015-01-01

    In preschool classes, sociometric peer ratings are used to measure children's peer relationships. The current study examined a computerized version of preschool sociometric ratings. The psychometric properties were compared of computerized sociometric ratings and traditional peer ratings for

  20. Literature review on the preschool pedestrian

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-01

    The purpose of this literature review was to describe (1) the factors leading to typical preschool pedestrian accidents, (2) the developmental characteristics of the preschool child that affect his/her behavior in traffic, (3) social factors that may...

  1. Appendicitis during pregnancy in a Greenlandic Inuit woman; antibiotic treatment as a bridge-to-surgery in a remote area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalsgaard Jensen, Trine; Penninga, Luit

    2016-05-18

    Appendicitis during pregnancy causes severe diagnostic problems, and is associated with an increase in perforation rate and morbidity compared to that in the normal population. In addition, it may cause preterm birth and fetal loss. In remote areas, appendicitis during pregnancy, besides presenting diagnostic problems, also creates treatment difficulties. In Northern Greenland, geographical distances are vast, and weather conditions can be extreme. We report a case of a Greenlandic Inuit woman who presented with appendicitis during pregnancy. The nearest hospital with surgical and anaesthetic care was located nearly 1200 km away, and, due to extreme weather conditions, she could not be transferred immediately. She was treated with intravenous antibiotic treatment, and after weather conditions had improved, she was transferred by aeroplane and underwent appendicectomy. She recovered without complications. Our case suggests that appendicitis during pregnancy may be treated with antibiotics in remote areas until surgical treatment is available. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  2. Alcohol, smoking, and drug use among Inuit women of childbearing age during pregnancy and the risk to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muckle, Gina; Laflamme, Dominique; Gagnon, Jocelyne; Boucher, Olivier; Jacobson, Joseph L; Jacobson, Sandra W

    2011-06-01

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy, a known teratogen often associated with drug use and smoking is a well-known public health concern. This study provides prevalence data for alcohol, smoking, and illicit drug use before, during, and after pregnancy among Inuit. Factors associated with alcohol use are also identified. Two hundred and eight Inuit women from Arctic Quebec were interviewed at mid-pregnancy, and at 1 and 11 months postpartum to provide descriptive data on smoking, alcohol, and drug use during pregnancy, and the year before and after pregnancy. Sociodemographic and family characteristics potentially associated with alcohol use were documented. Ninety-two percent of the women reported smoking and 61% reported drinking during pregnancy. Episodes of binging during pregnancy were reported by 62% of the alcohol users, which correspond to 38% of pregnant women. Thirty-six percent of the participants reported using marijuana during pregnancy. Alcohol use and binge drinking during pregnancy were more likely to be reported by women who lived in less crowded houses, had a better knowledge of a second language, drank alcohol more often and in larger amounts prior to pregnancy, and used illicit drugs. Binge drinkers were more likely to be single women and to have had fewer previous pregnancies. Postpartum distress and violence were more likely to be experienced by women who used alcohol during pregnancy. Binge drinking during pregnancy was best predicted by drinking habits before pregnancy, maternal symptoms of depression, the use of illicit drugs during pregnancy, and the number of young children living with the mother. These results confirm that alcohol is a major risk factor to maternal and child health in this population, underscoring the need for culturally relevant and effective prevention programs. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  3. Associations between prenatal cigarette smoke exposure and externalized behaviors at school age among Inuit children exposed to environmental contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrosiers, Caroline; Boucher, Olivier; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Dewailly, Eric; Ayotte, Pierre; Jacobson, Sandra W; Jacobson, Joseph L; Muckle, Gina

    2013-01-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is common among Inuit women from the Canadian Arctic. Yet prenatal cigarette smoke exposure (PCSE) is seen as a major risk factor for childhood behavior problems. Recent data also suggest that co-exposure to neurotoxic environmental contaminants can exacerbate the effects of PCSE on behavior. This study examined the association between PCSE and behavior at school age in a sample of Inuit children from Nunavik, Québec, where co-exposure to environmental contaminants is also an important issue. Interactions with lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg), two contaminants associated with behavioral problems, were also explored. Participants were 271 children (mean age=11.3years) involved in a prospective birth-cohort study. PCSE was assessed through maternal recall. Assessment of child behavior was obtained from the child's classroom teacher on the Teacher Report Form (TRF) and the Disruptive Behavior Disorders Rating Scale (DBD). Exposure to contaminants was assessed from umbilical cord and child blood samples. Other confounders were documented by maternal interview. After control for contaminants and confounders, PCSE was associated with increased externalizing behaviors and attention problems on the TRF and higher prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) assessed on the DBD. No interactions were found with contaminants. This study extends the existing empirical evidence linking PCSE to behavioral problems in school-aged children by reporting these effects in a population where tobacco use is normative rather than marginal. Co-exposure to Pb and Hg do not appear to exacerbate tobacco effects, suggesting that these substances act independently. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Student Outcomes in a Blended Preschool Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesbury, Sybil A.

    2015-01-01

    This case study examined the effect of quality preschool programming on child outcomes in a blended inclusive preschool program implemented in an urban school system in the piedmont of North Carolina. The blended inclusive preschool program was a newly initiated program in this district and had been in place for only 1 school year. The purpose of…

  5. Bilingual Preschools. Volume 2: Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, Kristin, Ed.; Rohde, Andreas, Ed.; Schelletter, Christina, Ed.; Steinlen, Anja K., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on data from eleven preschools in four European countries (Germany, Belgium, Sweden, and the UK), this edited volume explores the progress of preschool children learning English over a period of two years. This edited volume (Volume II) gives details on best practices in bilingual preschools as well as background and training on topics…

  6. The Arts in Turkish Preschool Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acer, Dilek

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important factors determining a nation's level of development in the modern world is preschool education. When preschool education is perceived as an entity that affects every aspect of childhood development, this fact is undeniable. Several aspects of preschool education, including art education, play a significant role in a…

  7. Computerized Sociometric Assessment for Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endedijk, Hinke M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2015-01-01

    In preschool classes, sociometric peer ratings are used to measure children's peer relationships. The current study examined a computerized version of preschool sociometric ratings. The psychometric properties were compared of computerized sociometric ratings and traditional peer ratings for preschoolers. The distributions, inter-item…

  8. Enhancing Preschool Education in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Nirmala; Koong, Maggie

    2000-01-01

    Presents overview of Hong Kong preschool education. Considers the history of preschool education, early childhood curriculum, training of early childhood professionals, and monitoring of standard services. Discusses trends in Hong Kong preschool education and problems in early childhood education, including exclusion from the main education…

  9. Climate change influences on environment as a determinant of Indigenous health: Relationships to place, sea ice, and health in an Inuit community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkalec, Agata; Furgal, Chris; Skinner, Mark W; Sheldon, Tom

    2015-07-01

    This paper contributes to the literature on Indigenous health, human dimensions of climate change, and place-based dimensions of health by examining the role of environment for Inuit health in the context of a changing climate. We investigated the relationship between one key element of the environment - sea ice - and diverse aspects of health in an Inuit community in northern Canada, drawing on population health and health geography approaches. We used a case study design and participatory and collaborative approach with the community of Nain in northern Labrador, Canada. Focus groups (n = 2), interviews (n = 22), and participant observation were conducted in 2010-11. We found that an appreciation of place was critical for understanding the full range of health influences of sea ice use for Inuit. Negative physical health impacts were reported on less frequently than positive health benefits of sea ice use, which were predominantly related to mental/emotional, spiritual, social, and cultural health. We found that sea ice means freedom for sea ice users, which we suggest influences individual and collective health through relationships between sea ice use, culture, knowledge, and autonomy. While sea ice users reported increases in negative physical health impacts such as injuries and stress related to changing environmental conditions, we suggest that less tangible climate change impacts related to losses of health benefits and disruptions to place meanings and place attachment may be even more significant. Our findings indicate that climate change is resulting in and compounding existing environmental dispossession for Inuit. They also demonstrate the necessity of considering place meanings, culture, and socio-historical context to assess the complexity of climate change impacts on Indigenous environmental health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Wishful thinking in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Stéphane; Clément, Fabrice; Mercier, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    The current experiment sought to demonstrate the presence of wishful thinking--when wishes influence beliefs--in young children. A sample of 77 preschoolers needed to predict, eight times in a row, which of two plastic eggs, one containing one toy and the other containing three toys, would be drawn by a blinded experimenter. On the four trials in which the children could not keep the content of the egg drawn, they were equally likely to predict that either egg would be drawn. By contrast, on the four trials in which the children got to keep the content of the egg, they were more likely to predict that the egg with three toys would be drawn. Any effort the children exerted would be the same across conditions, so that this demonstration of wishful thinking cannot be accounted for by an effort heuristic. One group of children--a subgroup of the 5-year-olds--did not engage in wishful thinking. Children from this subgroup instead used the representativeness heuristic to guide their answers. This result suggests that having an explicit representation of the outcome inhibits children from engaging in wishful thinking in the same way as explicit representations constrain the operation of motivated reasoning in adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Plasma organochlorine concentrations and bone ultrasound measurements: a cross-sectional study in peri-and postmenopausal Inuit women from Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulvad Gert

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inuit women are highly exposed through their traditional seafood based diet to organochlorine compounds, some of them displaying endocrine disrupting properties. We hypothesized that this exposure might be related to bone characteristics that are altered in osteoporosis, because hormone deficiency is a known risk factor for the disease. Methods We measured quantitative ultrasound parameters (QUS at the right calcaneum of 153 peri- and postmenopausal Inuit women (49–64 year old from Nuuk, Greenland, and investigated the relation between these parameters and plasma organochlorine concentrations. We used high-resolution gas chromatography with electron capture detection to analyze plasma samples for 14 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB congeners and 11 chlorinated pesticides and metabolites. We analysed morning urine samples for cadmium, a potential confounder, by atomic absorption spectrometry. We used a validated questionnaire to document dietary and lifestyle habits as well as reproductive and medical histories. Results Concentrations of PCB 153, a surrogate of exposure to most organochlorines present in plasma samples, were inversely correlated to QUS parameters in univariate analyses (p 2 = 0.39; p Conclusion Overall we found little evidence that organochlorines exposure is related to osteoporosis in Greenlandic Inuit women, but the hypothesis that exposure to dioxin-like compounds might be linked to decreased bone quality and osteoporosis deserves further attention.

  12. 'Changing climate, changing health, changing stories' profile: using an EcoHealth approach to explore impacts of climate change on inuit health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, S L; Edge, V L; Cunsolo Willox, A

    2012-03-01

    Global climate change and its impact on public health exemplify the challenge of managing complexity and uncertainty in health research. The Canadian North is currently experiencing dramatic shifts in climate, resulting in environmental changes which impact Inuit livelihoods, cultural practices, and health. For researchers investigating potential climate change impacts on Inuit health, it has become clear that comprehensive and meaningful research outcomes depend on taking a systemic and transdisciplinary approach that engages local citizens in project design, data collection, and analysis. While it is increasingly recognised that using approaches that embrace complexity is a necessity in public health, mobilizing such approaches from theory into practice can be challenging. In 2009, the Rigolet Inuit Community Government in Rigolet, Nunatsiavut, Canada partnered with a transdisciplinary team of researchers, health practitioners, and community storytelling facilitators to create the Changing Climate, Changing Health, Changing Stories project, aimed at developing a multi-media participatory, community-run methodological strategy to gather locally appropriate and meaningful data to explore climate-health relationships. The goal of this profile paper is to describe how an EcoHealth approach guided by principles of transdisciplinarity, community participation, and social equity was used to plan and implement this climate-health research project. An overview of the project, including project development, research methods, project outcomes to date, and challenges encountered, is presented. Though introduced in this one case study, the processes, methods, and lessons learned are broadly applicable to researchers and communities interested in implementing EcoHealth approaches in community-based research.

  13. Seasonal variability in physicochemical characteristics of small water bodies across a High Arctic wetland, Polar Bear Pass, Bathurst Island, Nunavut, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abnizova, A.; Miller, E.; Shakil, S.; Young, K. L.

    2012-12-01

    Small water bodies (lakes, ponds) in permafrost environments make up roughly half of the total area of surface water, but their relevance to nutrient and carbon fluxes on a landscape scale still remains largely unknown. Small variations in pond water balance as a result of seasonal changes in precipitation, evaporation, or drainage processes have the potential to produce considerable changes in the carbon and nutrient budgets as small changes in the water level can have a major effect on volumes and surface areas of ponds. The aims of this study were (1) to identify the main characteristics in pond hydrology both seasonally and between years; (2) to identify factors controlling variation in measured physicochemical variables; and (3) to detect seasonal trends in the hydrological and chemical characteristics of ponds located in an extensive low-gradient High Arctic wetland. We conducted detailed limnological surveys of 50 wetland ponds located at Polar Bear Pass (PBP), Bathurst Island, Nunavut, Canada during 2007-2010. The results indicate large seasonal variability in physicochemical parameters that is associated with pond water budget changes, especially for ponds with steady water levels vs. dynamic ponds (fluctuating water levels). Principal component analysis (PCA) of the datasets indicated that major ion content, specifically calcium (Ca2+), was responsible for much of the variability among the ponds in both 2008 and 2009. Additionally in 2009 most of the variability was also due to specific conductivity in the summer and magnesium (Mg2+) in the fall. These trends are typically identified as a result of dilution or evapo-concentration processes in small water bodies. In 2007, a warm and dry year, pH and potassium (K+) were responsible for much of variation between ponds. This is attributed to high vegetation growth in ponds and a longer growing season. While no trend was identified in 2010 (PCA analysis), calculations of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from 50

  14. Review of the studies on nutrition in Polish preschool children. Part 2. Meals prepared at preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkiel-Pawłowska, Sylwia; Chalcarz, Wojciech

    This article is the second part of the review of the studies on nutrition in Polish preschool children. In the first part, studies on preschool menus assessment were presented and summarised, whereas this article reviews the studies on the assessment of foods and meals prepared at preschool. The aim of this review was to present and summarise the results of the studies on the assessment of meals prepared for children at preschool based on the reports from the preschool food storeroom, the studies on chemical analysis of sample meals served at preschools and the studies on comparison of the results of chemical analysis to the results obtained by calculations obtained from computer programmes. The results of the studies on the assessment of meals prepared for children at preschool using various methods confirm most of the findings from the studies on the assessment of preschool menus. It is necessary to carry out more studies on energy and nutrient content assessment of preschool meals determined by chemical analysis of sample meals in order to provide more accurate information about the real nutritional value of meals served to children at preschool. It is essential to update the Polish food composition tables to enable more precise calculations of nutritional value of the meals planned for children at preschools which will improve the possibility of adjusting preschool meals to the real needs of both 3-year-old and 4-6-year-old children during their stay at preschool.

  15. Objectively measured sedentary behavior in preschool children: comparison between Montessori and traditional preschools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byun Wonwoo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to compare the levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior in children attending Montessori preschools with those attending traditional preschools. Methods The participants in this study were preschool children aged 4 years old who were enrolled in Montessori and traditional preschools. The preschool children wore ActiGraph accelerometers. Accelerometers were initialized using 15-second intervals and sedentary behavior was defined as Results Children attending Montessori preschools spent less time in sedentary behavior than those attending traditional preschools during the in-school (44.4. min/hr vs. 47.1 min/hr, P = 0.03, after-school (42.8. min/hr vs. 44.7 min/hr, P = 0.04, and total-day (43.7 min/hr vs. 45.5 min/hr, P = 0. 009 periods. School type (Montessori or traditional, preschool setting (private or public, socio-demographic factors (age, gender, and socioeconomic status were found to be significant predictors of preschoolers’ sedentary behavior. Conclusions Levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior were significantly lower among children attending Montessori preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools. Future research should examine the specific characteristics of Montessori preschools that predict the lower levels of sedentary behavior among children attending these preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools.

  16. The rise and fall of dental therapy in Canada: a policy analysis and assessment of equity of access to oral health care for Inuit and First Nations communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leck, Victoria; Randall, Glen E

    2017-07-20

    Inequality between most Canadians and those from Inuit and First Nations communities, in terms of both access to oral health care services and related health outcomes, has been a long-standing problem. Efforts to close this equity gap led to the creation of dental therapy training programs. These programs were designed to produce graduates who would provide services in rural and northern communities. The closure of the last dental therapy program in late 2011 has ended the supply of dental therapists and governments do not appear to have any alternative solutions to the growing gap in access to oral health care services between most Canadians and those from Inuit and First Nations communities. A policy analysis of the rise and fall of the dental therapy profession in Canada was conducted using historical and policy documents. The analysis is framed within Kingdon's agenda-setting framework and considers why dental therapy was originally pursued as an option to ensure equitable access to oral health care for Inuit and First Nations communities and why this policy has now been abandoned with the closure of Canada's last dental therapy training school. The closure of the last dental therapy program in Canada has the potential to further reduce access to dental care in some Inuit and First Nations communities. Overlaps between federal and provincial jurisdiction have contributed to the absence of a coordinated policy approach to address the equity gap in access to dental care which will exacerbate the inequalities in comparison to the general population. The analysis suggests that while a technically feasible policy solution is available there continues to be no politically acceptable solution and thus it remains unlikely that a window of opportunity for policy change will open any time soon. In the absence of federal government leadership, the most viable option forward may be incremental policy change. Provincial governments could expand the scope of practice for

  17. Preschool teachers’ reasoning about interactive whiteboard embedded in Swedish preschools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Bourbour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the ways in which teachers enact the interactive whiteboard (IWB in Swedish preschools in relation to preschool children’s mathematical learning. Data collected from interviews with four preschool teachers have provided the opportunity to consider the potential of IWB to facilitate a creative approach to young children’s mathematic education. The findings suggest that IWB use in preschool is mostly viewed as “Space for children to involve in problem-solving situations”, “Supporting collaborative learning and mutual negotiation”, “Goal-oriented mathematics learning facilitated by IWB” and “Retaining children’s interest in learning activities”. This study also highlights the importance of teachers’ technological knowledge and skills in mediating the interaction and facilitating the use of IWB in preschool pedagogical practices. Normal 0 21 false false false SV JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Normal tabell"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Cambria","serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;}

  18. Preschool Needle Pain Responding: Establishing 'Normal'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, Jordana A; DiLorenzo, Miranda G; Pillai Riddell, Rebecca R; Flora, David B; Greenberg, Saul; Garfield, Hartley

    2017-06-01

    The current study sets forth to provide descriptive data for preschool vaccination pain responding as well as examine longitudinal relationships over early childhood. Growth mixture modeling was first used to describe stable subgroups of preschoolers on the basis of their pain response patterns over 2-minutes post-needle. Secondly, a parallel-process growth curve model was used to assess the stability of acute pain responding from 12 months of age to preschool age. Specifically, we examined whether preschool pain-related distress or regulation could be predicted from 12-month acute pain responding. Preschool participants were part of a Canadian longitudinal cohort (The Opportunities to Understand Childhood Hurt [OUCH] cohort; N = 302). Growth mixture modeling analyses discerned 3 distinct groups of preschoolers, with an important minority not regulating to low-no pain by 2 minutes post-needle. There were no significant associations between 12-month and preschool pain responding. These results highlight the steep trajectory of development between these different stages of early childhood and the variability of pain responding at the preschool vaccination. This study provides descriptive data for preschool vaccination pain responding as well as examines longitudinal relationships over early childhood. Demonstrating significantly different pain patterns from infancy, 25% of preschoolers are displaying suboptimal regulation trajectories. This considerable minority poses a significant concern because of the established trajectory of phobia onset in middle childhood. Copyright © 2017 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Inclusion in Malaysian Integrated Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, Sailajah; Loveridge, Judith; Green, Vanessa A.

    2015-01-01

    Inclusive education has been introduced through a number of policy developments in Malaysia over the last 10 years but there is little research investigating the extent and nature of inclusive education for preschoolers with special educational needs (SEN). This study surveyed both regular and special education teachers in Malaysian integrated…

  20. Barriers to Vaccinating Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orenstein, Walter A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Despite the effectiveness of vaccinations in preventing disease, preschool children, particularly in the inner cities, are not being adequately immunized. Inadequate clinic staff and hours, inconvenient locations, prohibitive policies, and missed opportunities within the health care system may contribute to this problem. Suggests policy changes…

  1. Learnings from Compensatory, Preschool Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, J. McVicker

    This paper presents a discussion of the value of compensatory education for preschool children from poor and uneducated families, focusing on knowledge gained from 12 years of experience with compensatory programs in the United States. The development of Project Head Start is described, and the role of behavioral science research in the…

  2. Why Preschoolers Need Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pica, Rae

    2011-01-01

    NAEYC, the National Association for Sport and Physical Education, and the US Department of Health and Human Services all recommend that preschool programs offer physical education. There are many reasons why. First, young children form healthy habits early in life. Before entering elementary school they learn to brush their teeth, bathe…

  3. Mozart Effect in Preschool Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Ken

    2006-01-01

    In 1993, Rauscher et al. reported a temporary increase in spatial-temporal ability after listening to Mozart's music. This led to numerous replication and extension studies with mixed findings in the past decade. This study investigated the "Mozart effect" in preschool children. Forty-one boys and girls, aged three to five, attempted a series of…

  4. Preschool teacher's view on learning in preschool in Sweden and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström professor m.so., Stig; Frøkjær, Thorleif; Johansson, Inge

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how preschool teachers in Sweden and Denmark perceive children’s learning in preschool. The study aimed to answer the following questions: What is ‘learning’? How do children learn? What are the best conditions for children’s learning? What is the role...... similarities between how Danish and Swedish preschool teachers think of learning and participation. This supports earlier assumption about the coherence of Nordic preschool beliefs which unites education and care....

  5. Process Mediates Structure: The Relation between Preschool Teacher Education and Preschool Teachers' Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blömeke, Sigrid; Jenßen, Lars; Grassmann, Marianne; Dunekacke, Simone; Wedekind, Hartmut

    2017-01-01

    Data about processes and outcomes of preschool teacher education is scarce. This paper examines the opportunities to learn (OTL) of prospective preschool teachers (N = 1,851) at different types and stages of preschool teacher education and their relation to general pedagogical knowledge (GPK), mathematics pedagogical content knowledge (MPCK), and…

  6. Assessing Preschool Children's Pretend Play: Preliminary Validation of the Affect in Play Scale-Preschool Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaugars, Astrida Seja; Russ, Sandra W.

    2009-01-01

    Research Findings: A description of the development and preliminary validation of the Affect in Play Scale-Preschool version (APS-P) is presented by demonstrating associations among preschool children's play, creativity, and daily behavior using multiple methodologies. Thirty-three preschool-age children completed a standardized 5-minute play task…

  7. Collaboration between Mathematics Facilitators and Preschool Teachers Using the Innovative "Senso-Math" Preschool Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassidov, Dina; Ilany, Bat-Sheva

    2018-01-01

    This article presents a mixed-method study of the innovative "Senso-Math" preschool program and the reactions of both the facilitators, who underwent a special training program, and the preschool teachers in whose classes the program was implemented. The goal of the program is to enhance mathematical development in preschool children…

  8. Preschool Teachers' Views on Competence in the Context of Home and Preschool Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuorinen, Tuula; Sandberg, Anette; Sheridan, Sonja; Williams, Pia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyse and discuss preschool teachers' views regarding competence within their profession in the context of home and preschool collaboration. The question addressed is as follows: In what situations do preschool teachers perceive that their competence becomes visible for parents? The results, based on interviews…

  9. An Examination of Parents' and Preschool Workers' Perspectives on Bullying in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, David Lansing; Kovac, Velibor Bobo

    2016-01-01

    Parents (n = 141) and preschool workers (n = 81) completed a survey regarding their perspectives towards: (a) the existence of bullying in preschool, (b) interpretations of bullying, (c) the roles of bullies and victims, and (d) gender differences. Findings suggest that both groups largely believe that bullying occurs in preschool. Excluding…

  10. Transition between Swedish Preschool and Preschool Class: A Question about Interweaving Care and Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatalo, Tarja; Meier, Joanna; Frank, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    This study highlights teachers' experiences with transition from Swedish preschool to preschool class, i.e. from the daycare centre to the formal school. One assumption was that transition activities, to favour continuity in the long-term, need to focus on children's learning within the target areas that the policy documents specify for preschool.…

  11. Cooperation between Parents and Preschool Institutions through Different Concepts of Preschool Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercnik, Sanja; Devjak, Tatjana

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyses the importance, role, and methods of cooperation between parents and preschool institutions through the different concepts of preschool education and different educational approaches and formal frameworks. Through educational approaches, the authors analyse how cooperation affects the implementation of preschool education in…

  12. Science Education in Preschool: How to Assimilate the Reggio Emilia Pedagogy in a Turkish Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inan, Hatice Zeynep

    2009-01-01

    This commentary manuscript, which was part of a larger research project, aimed to show how teachers can help preschoolers construct their knowledge of science and meet preschool science standards successfully in a Reggio Emilia approach. The demonstrations for preschool teachers are summarized as follows: be inspired by the Reggio Emilia approach;…

  13. A theoretical framework for analysing preschool teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaiklin, Seth

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces a theoretical framework for analysing preschool teaching as a historically-grounded societal practice. The aim is to present a unified framework that can be used to analyse and compare both historical and contemporary examples of preschool teaching practice within and across...... national traditions. The framework has two main components, an analysis of preschool teaching as a practice, formed in relation to societal needs, and an analysis of the categorical relations which necessarily must be addressed in preschool teaching activity. The framework is introduced and illustrated...... through the analysis of one of the earliest recorded examples of preschool education (initiated by J. F. Oberlin in northeastern France in 1767). The general idea of societal need is elaborated as a way of analysing practices, and a general analytic schema is presented for characterising preschool...

  14. Search Results | Page 25 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-04-01

    Results 241 - 250 of 1119 ... Inuit food security : vulnerability of the traditional food system to climatic extremes during winter 2010/2011 in Iqaluit, Nunavut. Broader social determinants such as poverty have a greater influence on Inuit food security. Published date. April 1, 2012. Studies.

  15. Search Results | Page 97 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-04-01

    Results 961 - 970 of 8491 ... Inuit food security : vulnerability of the traditional food system to climatic extremes during winter 2010/2011 in Iqaluit, Nunavut. Broader social determinants such as poverty have a greater influence on Inuit food security. Published date. April 1, 2012. Studies.

  16. Affordances of Ditches for Children in Preschool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerstrup, Inger Elisabeth; Møller, Maja Steen

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to expand understanding of the affordances provided by ditches in a Danish preschool context. Affordances are defined as the meaningful action possibilities of the environment. At a forest preschool, a group of 21 children aged approximately 3to 6.5 years accompanied by two to three...... offered varied and changing action possibilities for the preschool children. The paper discusses the possible incorporation of this largely unrecognized design element by planners and managers of green spaces and playgrounds for children in preschool....

  17. Cooperation between Parents and Preschool Institutions through Different Concepts of Preschool Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Berčnik

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the importance, role, and methods of cooperation between parents and preschool institutions through the different concepts of preschool education and different educational approaches and formal frameworks. Through educational approaches, the authors analyse how cooperation affects the implementation of preschool education in alternative educational approaches, such as the Waldorf, Montessori, and Reggio Emilia approaches, and Slovenian public preschool institutions. They envisage that different educational approaches in preschool education perceive the importance and role of cooperation with parents differently and conclude that there are various models of cooperation, which can be demonstrated through a theoretical analysis of the aforementioned alternative preschool approaches. In their view, partnership promotes a shared commitment to the quality realisation of educational goals; it also develops understanding and an ethos of openness in the relationship between all actors in the process of care and education of preschool children.

  18. Forcing preschool children with food

    OpenAIRE

    Šterbenc, Urška

    2015-01-01

    In our thesis we primarily focused on how to get our preschool children to eat healthy without having to force them into it. Most adults have at least one negative childhood eating experience, nonetheless they still use inappropriate principles or techniques when it comes to encouraging their children towards a healthy and balanced diet. Parents often forget they have to set a proper example for their children, since they are known to take up eating habits from their parents. Nowadays, a chil...

  19. Food additives and preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyn, Danika M; McNulty, Breige A; Nugent, Anne P; Gibney, Michael J

    2013-02-01

    Food additives have been used throughout history to perform specific functions in foods. A comprehensive framework of legislation is in place within Europe to control the use of additives in the food supply and ensure they pose no risk to human health. Further to this, exposure assessments are regularly carried out to monitor population intakes and verify that intakes are not above acceptable levels (acceptable daily intakes). Young children may have a higher dietary exposure to chemicals than adults due to a combination of rapid growth rates and distinct food intake patterns. For this reason, exposure assessments are particularly important in this age group. The paper will review the use of additives and exposure assessment methods and examine factors that affect dietary exposure by young children. One of the most widely investigated unfavourable health effects associated with food additive intake in preschool-aged children are suggested adverse behavioural effects. Research that has examined this relationship has reported a variety of responses, with many noting an increase in hyperactivity as reported by parents but not when assessed using objective examiners. This review has examined the experimental approaches used in such studies and suggests that efforts are needed to standardise objective methods of measuring behaviour in preschool children. Further to this, a more holistic approach to examining food additive intakes by preschool children is advisable, where overall exposure is considered rather than focusing solely on behavioural effects and possibly examining intakes of food additives other than food colours.

  20. A founder AGL mutation causing glycogen storage disease type IIIa in Inuit identified through whole-exome sequencing: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau-Nepton, Isabelle; Okubo, Minoru; Grabs, Rosemarie; Mitchell, John; Polychronakos, Constantin; Rodd, Celia

    2015-02-03

    Glycogen storage disease type III is caused by mutations in both alleles of the AGL gene, which leads to reduced activity of glycogen-debranching enzyme. The clinical picture encompasses hypoglycemia, with glycogen accumulation leading to hepatomegaly and muscle involvement (skeletal and cardiac). We sought to identify the genetic cause of this disease within the Inuit community of Nunavik, in whom previous DNA sequencing had not identified such mutations. Five Inuit children with a clinical and biochemical diagnosis of glycogen storage disease type IIIa were recruited to undergo genetic testing: 2 underwent whole-exome sequencing and all 5 underwent Sanger sequencing to confirm the identified mutation. Selected DNA regions near the AGL gene were also sequenced to identify a potential founder effect in the community. In addition, control samples from 4 adults of European descent and 7 family members of the affected children were analyzed for the specific mutation by Sanger sequencing. We identified a homozygous frame-shift deletion, c.4456delT, in exon 33 of the AGL gene in 2 children by whole-exome sequencing. Confirmation by Sanger sequencing showed the same mutation in all 5 patients, and 5 family members were found to be carriers. With the identification of this mutation in 5 probands, the estimated prevalence of genetically confirmed glycogen storage disease type IIIa in this region is among the highest worldwide (1:2500). Despite identical mutations, we saw variations in clinical features of the disease. Our detection of a homozygous frameshift mutation in 5 Inuit children determines the cause of glycogen storage disease type IIIa and confirms a founder effect. © 2015 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.

  1. Review of the studies on nutrition in Polish preschool children. Part 1. Preschool menus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkiel, Sylwia; Chalcarz, Wojciech

    The last review of the literature on nutrition in Polish children covered the years 1980-1995. From that time living conditions in Poland have changed due to political and economic changes. Attitudes toward eating and healthy life-style have also changed. Therefore, it is necessary to summarise current knowledge about what Polish preschool children eat. The aim of this article was to present the areas of research on nutrition in Polish preschool children based on the review of the literature, and to present and summarise the results of the studies on the assessment of preschool menus. The review of the literature showed two main areas of research on nutrition in Polish preschool children: the assessment of meals planned and served to children at preschools, and the assessment of food behaviour and daily food and nutrient intake in preschool children. Studies on energy and nutrient content of preschool menus should be carried out regularly in order to improve nutrition of children during their stay at preschool and vegetarian menus should be studied to fill the gap in the literature. The methodology of assessing preschool meals should be the same in order to provide the possibility to compare both the results and the conclusions. Preschool menus should be adjusted to the needs of 3-year-old children and 4-6-year-old children separately. The nation-wide education programme for preschool staff should be worked out and implemented in order to teach the preschool staff about the current nutrition recommendations for children, as well as the nutritional needs of 3-year-old children and 4-6-year-old children. preschool children, nutrition, preschool menus, energy content, nutrient content.

  2. Investing in Our Future: The Evidence Base on Preschool Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Weiland, Christina; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Burchinal, Margaret R.; Espinosa, Linda M.; Gormley, William T.; Ludwig, Jens; Magnuson, Katherine A.; Phillips, Deborah; Zaslow, Martha J.

    2013-01-01

    The expansion of publicly-funded preschool education is currently the focus of a prominent debate. At present, 42% of 4-year-olds attend publicly funded preschool (28% attend public prekindergarten programs, 11% Head Start, and 3% special education preschool programs). A vigorous debate about the merits of preschool education is underway, although…

  3. 45 CFR 605.38 - Preschool and adult education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preschool and adult education. 605.38 Section 605... Preschool, Elementary, and Secondary Education § 605.38 Preschool and adult education. A recipient to which this subpart applies that provides preschool education or day care or adult education may not, on the...

  4. Facilitating Preschool Learning and Movement through Dance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Lasa, Riolama; Ideishi, Roger I.; Ideishi, Siobhan K.

    2007-01-01

    A preschool movement through dance program is a way to open the door to numerous cultural benefits and opportunities, and preschool skill facilitation. Creating new contexts for learning enrich young children and offer them different opportunities to understand and negotiate the world. Inclusive curricular integration and parent and community…

  5. The Importance of Music in Preschool Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlin, Anna; Gustavsson, Hans-Olof

    2015-01-01

    At a few universities in Sweden students can chose a preschool teacher education programme with a music profile. At one of these universities, a study was undertaken that aimed to explore student teachers' understanding of self as musician, their future professional role as a preschool teacher and how the education equips for that. Sixteen…

  6. Creative Inspiration for Preschoolers from Museums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönkkö, Marja-Leena; Aerila, Juli-Anna; Grönman, Satu

    2016-01-01

    This research explores the learning outcomes of preschool children produced through visits to an historic house museum environment. The new Finnish preschool curriculum identifies the importance of arts-based approaches for children and that these approaches should be closely aligned to experiential and holistic education. The aim of the research…

  7. Bilingual Preschools. Volume I: Learning and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, Kristin, Ed.; Rohde, Andreas, Ed.; Schelletter, Christina, Ed.; Steinlen, Anja K., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on data from eleven preschools in four European countries (Germany, Belgium, Sweden, and the UK), this edited volume explores the progress of preschool children learning English over a period of two years. In the first volume, children's lexical and grammatical comprehension, the quality of L2 input, the effect of immersion on L1…

  8. A Preschooler's Dread--That New Baby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Irene

    Preschool children display behavior changes in the classroom after a new sibling is born. In an effort to address this issue, suggestions were devised to aid teachers in helping the preschool child adapt to a new sibling with positive results. This paper describes a parent's workshop structure to help prepare parents for the interaction between…

  9. Correlates of adiposity among Latino preschool children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood obesity is at record high levels in the US and disproportionately affects Latino children; however, studies examining Latino preschool children's obesity-related risk factors are sparse. This study determined correlates of Latino preschoolers' (ages 3-5 years) adiposity to inform future ob...

  10. Looking for Theory in Preschool Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Christine

    2012-01-01

    This paper sets out to examine the place of theory in preschool education, considering the theories to which practitioners and providers have access and which provide a rationale for everyday practices and shape the experiences of young children. The paper reflects the circumstances of preschool provision, practices and thinking in the UK in…

  11. Promoting Effective Preschool Programs. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoly, Lynn; Zellman, Gail; Li, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This is one in a series of policy briefs on key education issues prepared by the RAND Corporation for the Obama administration. Preschool education plays an important role in increasing school readiness and closing achievement gaps for children at risk. However, access to high-quality preschool programs varies greatly. Therefore, policymakers…

  12. Demographics of Preschoolers Who Require AAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binger, Cathy; Light, Janice

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of the investigation was to gather demographic information pertaining to preschoolers who require augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). METHOD: To obtain this information, a survey was developed and then distributed to preschool speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in Pennsylvania. RESULTS: Results indicated that…

  13. Continuous Improvement in State Funded Preschool Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Sarah L.

    2012-01-01

    State funded preschool programs were constantly faced with the need to change in order to address internal and external demands. As programs engaged in efforts towards change, minimal research was available on how to support continuous improvement efforts within the context unique to state funded preschool programs. Guidance available had…

  14. The Ecological Education of Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaeva, S. N.

    2008-01-01

    The system of ecological education of preschool children includes multiple interconnected blocks that cover all aspects of the ecological pedagogical process in a preschool institution: the content of the ecological education, the ways it is conducted (methods and technologies), and the organization and management of the process.

  15. Preschool Teachers' Language Use in Sociodramatic Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meacham, Sohyun

    2013-01-01

    Preschool teachers' language use has been described in recent research, as preschoolers' language development is found to be an important preparation for later reading development. Based on existing research on teachers' language use in sociodramatic play, however, it is still unclear how teachers use their language specifically in sociodramatic…

  16. Grapheme-Phoneme Acquisition of Deaf Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal-Alvarez, Jennifer S.; Lederberg, Amy R.; Easterbrooks, Susan R.

    2012-01-01

    We examined acquisition of grapheme-phoneme correspondences by 4 deaf and hard-of-hearing preschoolers using instruction from a curriculum designed specifically for this population supplemented by Visual Phonics. Learning was documented through a multiple baseline across content design as well as descriptive analyses. Preschoolers who used sign…

  17. ADHD in Preschool: Approaches and Teacher Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajay; Squires, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Due to the prevalence of ADHD, there is a need for early intervention at the preschool level to improve children's chance of academic success in later years. Yet few preschool teachers are trained to meet the challenges children with ADHD present. This paper gives a rationale and curriculum for teacher training in ADHD, with an emphasis on Social…

  18. Physical Education at Preschools: The Meaning of "Physical Education" to Practitioners at Three Preschool Settings in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvilly, Nollaig; Verheul, Martine; Atencio, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Background: Preschool physical education has been largely unexplored by researchers. This article examines the meaning of the term "physical education", in relation to preschool contexts, to 14 practitioners working at three preschool settings in Scotland. Our focus on preschool physical education reflects a change in the language…

  19. Community-based Participatory Process – Climate Change and Health Adaptation Program for Northern First Nations and Inuit in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane McClymont Peace

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Health Canada's Program for Climate Change and Health Adaptation in Northern First Nation and Inuit Communities is unique among Canadian federal programs in that it enables community-based participatory research by northern communities. Study design: The program was designed to build capacity by funding communities to conduct their own research in cooperation with Aboriginal associations, academics, and governments; that way, communities could develop health-related adaptation plans and communication materials that would help in adaptation decision-making at the community, regional, national and circumpolar levels with respect to human health and a changing environment. Methods: Community visits and workshops were held to familiarize northerners with the impacts of climate change on their health, as well as methods to develop research proposals and budgets to meet program requirements. Results: Since the launch of the Climate Change and Health Adaptation Program in 2008, Health Canada has funded 36 community projects across Canada's North that focus on relevant health issues caused by climate change. In addition, the program supported capacity-building workshops for northerners, as well as a Pan-Arctic Results Workshop to bring communities together to showcase the results of their research. Results include: numerous films and photo-voice products that engage youth and elders and are available on the web; community-based ice monitoring, surveillance and communication networks; and information products on land, water and ice safety, drinking water, food security and safety, and traditional medicine. Conclusions: Through these efforts, communities have increased their knowledge and understanding of the health effects related to climate change and have begun to develop local adaptation strategies.

  20. Nutritional practices in full-day-care pre-schools.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jennings, A

    2011-06-01

    Full-day-care pre-schools contribute significantly to the nutritional intake and acquisition of dietary habits of the pre-school child. The present study investigated nutritional practices in full-day-care pre-schools in Dublin, Ireland, aiming to determine the nutritional support that pre-school managers deem necessary, thereby facilitating the amelioration of existing pre-school nutritional training and practices.

  1. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase IA polymorphism P479L is common in Greenland Inuit and is associated with elevated plasma apolipoprotein A-I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajakumar, Chandheeb; Ban, Matthew R; Cao, Henian

    2009-01-01

    Carnitine palmitoyltransferase IA, encoded by CPT1A, is a key regulator of fatty acid metabolism. Previously, a loss of function mutation, namely c.1436 CT (p.P479L), was reported in CPT1A in the homozygous state in Canadian aboriginal male with presumed CPT1A deficiency. In order to determine...... the population frequency of this variant, we determined CPT1A p.P479L genotypes in 1111 Greenland Inuit. Associations between genotype and variation in plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, apolipoprotein (apo) B, and apo A-I were also investigated. We found the L479 allele occurs at a high...... frequency in this sample (0.73), while it was completely absent in 285 non-aboriginal samples. This suggests the original proband's symptoms were not likely due to the CPT1A p.P479L mutation, since it very common in Inuit and since symptoms suggesting CPT1A deficiency have not been reported in any carrier...

  2. A systematic review of the effectiveness of school-based obesity prevention programmes for First Nations, Inuit and Métis youth in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, K; Leatherdale, S T; Elton-Marshall, T

    2015-06-01

    First Nations, Inuit and Métis (FNIM) youth are disproportionately affected by obesity and represent known a high-risk group in Canada. School-based prevention programmes may have the potential to effectively influence obesity-related health behaviours (i.e. healthy eating and physical activity) among this population. We conducted a systematic review of nine electronic databases (2003-2014) to identify studies that describe school-based programmes that have been developed to improve obesity-related health behaviours and outcomes among FNIM youth in Canada. The objectives of this review were to identify and evaluate the effectiveness of these programmes and assess the strength of the methodologies used to evaluate them. Fifteen studies, representing seven distinct interventions, met our inclusion criteria. The majority of these programmes did not result in significant improvements in outcomes related to obesity, healthy eating, or physical activity among FNIM youth. The studies varied in design rigour and use of evaluation activities. The lack of literature on effective school-based programmes for FNIM youth in Canada that target obesity-related outcomes highlights a priority area for future intervention development, evaluation and dissemination within the peer-reviewed literature. Further research is needed on interventions involving Métis and Inuit youth, secondary school-aged FNIM youth and FNIM youth living in urban settings. © 2015 World Obesity.

  3. Preschool education studentsʼ attitude towards inclusion in preschool educational context

    OpenAIRE

    Skubic, Darija; Vidrih, Alenka

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the attitudes of preschool education students regarding inclusive teaching/inclusive practices. As a research instrument a questionnaire with 17 statements, referred to education, practices and policies of inclusion was developed. 118 students of the preschool education study programme at the Faculty of Education in Ljubljana participated in the study. There were 3 different groups of students: 25 students of the 2nd year of preschool educat...

  4. Green Settings for Children in Preschools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerstrup, Inger Elisabeth

    This Danish study investigates the relationship between children in preschool (age range 3-6.5 years) and the outdoor environments they use. The main aim is to describe and analyse the outdoor features of significance for children’s activities and of importance for design and management of green...... settings for preschools. The intent is to facilitate transfer of knowledge from preschools to planners and managers of green settings such as woodland, parks, green lots and playgrounds. The central concept applied is that of affordances, here defined as the meaningful action possibilities...

  5. Social games with pre-school children

    OpenAIRE

    Tomažin, Maja

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the thesis Social games with pre-school children is to present social games as one of the work methods for relational learning. The theoretical part defines the social development of pre-school children and focuses on social skills that begin to emerge in the preschool period and of course social games. The purpose of social games is active learning, meaning they provide concrete situations, through which children actively learn as well as use social skills and express their views ...

  6. Shared decision-making and health for First Nations, Métis and Inuit women: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jull Janet

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about shared decision-making (SDM with Métis, First Nations and Inuit women (“Aboriginal women”. SDM is a collaborative process that engages health care professional(s and the client in making health decisions and is fundamental for informed consent and patient-centred care. The objective of this study is to explore Aboriginal women’s health and social decision-making needs and to engage Aboriginal women in culturally adapting an SDM approach. Methods Using participatory research principles and guided by a postcolonial theoretical lens, the proposed mixed methods research will involve three phases. Phase I is an international systematic review of the effectiveness of interventions for Aboriginal peoples’ health decision-making. Developed following dialogue with key stakeholders, proposed methods are guided by the Cochrane handbook and include a comprehensive search, screening by two independent researchers, and synthesis of findings. Phases II and III will be conducted in collaboration with Minwaashin Lodge and engage an urban Aboriginal community of women in an interpretive descriptive qualitative study. In Phase II, 10 to 13 Aboriginal women will be interviewed to explore their health/social decision-making experiences. The interview guide is based on the Ottawa Decision Support Framework and previous decisional needs assessments, and as appropriate may be adapted to findings from the systematic review. Digitally-recorded interviews will be transcribed verbatim and analyzed inductively to identify participant decision-making approaches and needs when making health/social decisions. In Phase III, there will be cultural adaptation of an SDM facilitation tool, the Ottawa Personal Decision Guide, by two focus groups consisting of five to seven Aboriginal women. The culturally adapted guide will undergo usability testing through individual interviews with five to six women who are about to make a health

  7. Values education in practice in Danish preschools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström, Stig; Jensen, Anders Skriver

    2018-01-01

    preschool, and also shared reflection seminars with practitioners from all three preschools, the practitioners constructed and re-constructed a reflected and goal oriented values education. With particular focus on caring, disciplinary, and democratic values and with use of an educational tool called...... and goals, content and educational principles. This illustrates the educational use of the didactic model, and with use of several examples based the data, the chapter communicates a possible outline of a values education in preschool with weight on practice. Keywords: Caring, disciplinary, and democratic......In an action research project carried out in three preschools in Denmark, researchers and practitioners analysed and discussed video recorded observations of everyday practice. The intention was to illuminate the values embedded in everyday communication and practice. Based on meetings in each...

  8. Preschool literacy and second language learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars

    Preschool literacy and second language learners Lars Holm In order to understand literacy and language in education it is no longer enough to direct research attention to schools and universities. In the Nordic countries, preschools have become important arenas for numerous political initiatives...... (programs and concepts) intended to improve pre-school children’s literacy and language skills. Seen in a knowledge-society perspective the development might be characterized as an expansion of a life-long-learning evidence-based strategy into early childhood. The importance of development of early...... in the literacy events they meet in their day-care centers and kindergartens? Examining these social practices in pre-schools might illuminate the interplay between language and literacy and the learning processes of second language learners and contribute to the discussion about the need for re...

  9. Gender education of pre-school children

    OpenAIRE

    ILYIN G.L.; SALIMULLINA A.E.

    2013-01-01

    The article in question sets out the concept of gender education of pre-school children in relation to such concepts as gender and sexual development. The differences in features of development of children of different sex are singled out.

  10. Harmonious Parents and Their Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, Diana

    1971-01-01

    This brief report describes harmonious parents and their children. The six preschool daughters whose parents were harmonious were outstandingly competent but the opposite was true of the two sons. (Author/WY)

  11. Academic Language in Preschool: Research and Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Luna, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Developing and scaffolding academic language is an important job of preschool teachers. This Teaching Tip provides five strategies that extend the topic of academic language by integrating previous research and field-based data into classroom practice.

  12. Social and Ideological Entanglements of Preschool Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Dzikiewicz-Gazda

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article I address a phenomenon that I call “neo-liberal entanglements” of preschool education, clearly observable in the project “Enterprising Preschooler” currently underway in Wroclaw's preschools. I provide a critical analysis of the project, exposing the ideological mechanisms that contribute to the commercialization of children’s life worlds and their early socialization into the mechanisms of market consumerism.

  13. Physical Activity and Health in Preschool Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Line Brinch

    Physical activity is beneficial in relation to several life style diseases and the association between physical activity and early predictors of life style diseases seem to be present already in preschool age. Since physical activity and other health behaviours are established during childhood an...... is less suitable for this age group. A recommendation for preschool children should aim at increasing physical activity in general and decreasing sedentary behaviour. Furthermore the importance of increased activity of moderate and vigorous intensity should be stresse...

  14. Household Income and Preschool Attendance in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xin; Xu, Di; Han, Wen-Jui

    2015-01-01

    This article draws upon the literature showing the benefits of high-quality preschools on child well-being to explore the role of household income on preschool attendance for a cohort of 3-to 6-year-olds in China using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey, 1991-2006. Analyses are conducted separately for rural (N = 1,791) and urban…

  15. Universal Access to Preschool Education: Approaches to Integrating Preschool with School in Rural and Remote Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockett, Sue; Perry, Bob

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, the government of South Australia responded to Federal agreements aimed at universal access to preschool education for children in the year before starting formal schooling by introducing a trial designed to "integrate" preschool children into first year of school programmes in rural and remote areas of the state. This paper…

  16. Hidden Spaces and Places in the Preschool: Withdrawal Strategies in Preschool Children's Peer Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skanfors, Lovisa; Lofdahl, Annica; Hagglund, Solveig

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses how children make use of their preschool context in order to withdraw. Ethnographic observations were made of two-to five-year-old children's interactions during free play and teacher-led activities in the preschool, and documentation was carried out through field notes and video recordings. The empirical material was…

  17. Who Goes to Preschool and Why Does It Matter? Preschool Policy Brief. Issue 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, W. Steven; Yarosz, Donald J.

    2007-01-01

    In a world shaped by global competition, preschool education programs play an increasingly vital role in child development and school readiness. There is growing awareness that early learning's impacts persist across children's life spans, affecting educational achievement, adult earning and even crime and delinquency. Preschool education is…

  18. Physical Activity in Preschool Children: Comparison between Montessori and Traditional Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Russell R.; O'Neill, Jennifer R.; Byun, Wonwoo; McIver, Kerry L.; Dowda, Marsha; Brown, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the influence of Montessori methods on children's physical activity (PA). This cross-sectional study compared PA of children attending Montessori and traditional preschools. Methods: We enrolled 301 children in 9 Montessori and 8 traditional preschools in Columbia, South Carolina. PA was measured by accelerometry…

  19. A Tool for Identifying Preschoolers' Deficits in Social Competence: The Preschool Taxonomy of Problem Situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankemeyer, Maureen; Culp, Rex E.; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Culp, Anne McDonald

    2002-01-01

    This article describes the development of the Preschool Taxonomy of Problem Situations (PTOPS). An examination of the PTOPS using a clinical sample of 42 maltreated children (ages 2-5) indicated the PTOPS subscales were high in internal reliability and were highly convergent with subscales of the Preschool Behavior Questionnaire. (Contains…

  20. Using the Preschool Language Scale, Fourth Edition to Characterize Language in Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volden, Joanne; Smith, Isabel M.; Szatmari, Peter; Bryson, Susan; Fombonne, Eric; Mirenda, Pat; Roberts, Wendy; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Waddell, Charlotte; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Georgiades, Stelios; Duku, Eric; Thompson, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The Preschool Language Scale, Fourth Edition (PLS-4; Zimmerman, Steiner, & Pond, 2002) was used to examine syntactic and semantic language skills in preschool children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) to determine its suitability for use with this population. We expected that PLS-4 performance would be better in more…

  1. Fathers and preschool behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeKlyen, M; Biernbaum, M A; Speltz, M L; Greenberg, M T

    1998-03-01

    Fathers have seldom been the focus of research investigating the causes and correlates of early behavior problems. Two studies examined fathers of preschool boys with and without clinic-referred behavior problems. Six domains of risk were examined: life stress, social support, psychological symptoms, parenting attitudes, positive involvement, and harsh discipline. Clinic fathers differed from fathers of matched comparison boys with respect to all of these except social support, but only harsh discipline contributed uniquely to clinic status. These domains correctly classified 81% of the boys. Within the clinic group, teacher-rated problem severity 1 year later was predicted by fathers' life stress, psychological symptoms, and positive involvement, indicating that different factors may account for initial clinic status versus stability of problems. Mothers' self-report data better predicted clinic group membership, whereas fathers' data better predicted Year 2 outcomes for clinic boys.

  2. Serum levels of perfluorinated compounds and sperm Y:X chromosome ratio in two European populations and in Inuit from Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Linus; Giwercman, Yvonne Lundberg; Jönsson, Bo A G

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), which exhibit reproductive toxicity in experimental animals, affect sperm sex chromosome ratio. The Y:X ratio was determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Serum concentrations of PFOA...... and PFOS were measured in 607 men from Greenland, Poland and Ukraine using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Data was analyzed by linear and nonlinear regression. We observed no associations between PFOA and Y:X ratio (p=0.845 in a linear model, p=0.296 in a nonlinear model). A positive...... nonlinear association between PFOS and Y:X ratio was observed (p=0.016), with no association in a linear model (p=0.118). Analyzing the populations separately, a negative trend between categorized PFOS exposure and Y:X ratio was observed for the Inuit (B=-0.002, p=0.044). In conclusion, there was a negative...

  3. Preschool teachers’ views on children's learning: an international perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström, Stig; Sandberg, Anette; Johansson, Inge

    2015-01-01

    This comparative study investigated the perspectives of preschool teachers in Australia, Denmark, Estonia, German, Greece and Sweden about learning and participation in preschool. A structured survey questionnaire investigated four main questions: What situations can be characterised as learning......? What activities are important for learning? What are the best conditions for children’s learning? How do preschool teachers understand participation in relation to children’s learning in preschool? Results suggest that play, interactions with other children and adults, the provision of different...

  4. Overweight and Obesity Prevalence Among School-Aged Nunavik Inuit Children According to Three Body Mass Index Classification Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medehouenou, Thierry Comlan Marc; Ayotte, Pierre; St-Jean, Audray; Meziou, Salma; Roy, Cynthia; Muckle, Gina; Lucas, Michel

    2015-07-01

    Little is known about the suitability of three commonly used body mass index (BMI) classification system for Indigenous children. This study aims to estimate overweight and obesity prevalence among school-aged Nunavik Inuit children according to International Obesity Task Force (IOTF), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and World Health Organization (WHO) BMI classification systems, to measure agreement between those classification systems, and to investigate whether BMI status as defined by these classification systems is associated with levels of metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers. Data were collected on 290 school-aged children (aged 8-14 years; 50.7% girls) from the Nunavik Child Development Study with data collected in 2005-2010. Anthropometric parameters were measured and blood sampled. Participants were classified as normal weight, overweight, and obese according to BMI classification systems. Weighted kappa (κw) statistics assessed agreement between different BMI classification systems, and multivariate analysis of variance ascertained their relationship with metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers. The combined prevalence rate of overweight/obesity was 26.9% (with 6.6% obesity) with IOTF, 24.1% (11.0%) with CDC, and 40.4% (12.8%) with WHO classification systems. Agreement was the highest between IOTF and CDC (κw = .87) classifications, and substantial for IOTF and WHO (κw = .69) and for CDC and WHO (κw = .73). Insulin and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein plasma levels were significantly higher from normal weight to obesity, regardless of classification system. Among obese subjects, higher insulin level was observed with IOTF. Compared with other systems, IOTF classification appears to be more specific to identify overweight and obesity in Inuit children. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cultural change and mental health in Greenland: the association of childhood conditions, language, and urbanization with mental health and suicidal thoughts among the Inuit of Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Curtis, Tine

    2002-01-01

    In Greenland, the rapid sociocultural change of the last 50 years has been paralleled by an epidemiological transition characterized by a reduction in infectious diseases, an increase in cancer and cardiovascular diseases, and an increased prevalence of mental health problems. During 1993-94 and 1997-98, two health interview surveys were conducted among Inuit in Greenland and Inuit migrants in Denmark. The response rates were 71 and 55%. Information on mental health was obtained from 1388 and 1769 adults. As indicators of mental health, the prevalence of potential psychiatric cases according to the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and the prevalence of suicidal thoughts were studied in relation to childhood residence and father's occupation, current residence, and language. The statistical methods included logistic regression and graphical independence models. The results indicated a U-shaped association in Greenland of GHQ-cases with age and a high prevalence of suicidal thoughts among young people; a low prevalence of GHQ-cases among those who were bilingual or spoke only Danish; and a high prevalence of suicidal thoughts among migrants who grew up in Denmark and among residents of the capital of Greenland. In Greenland, women were more often GHQ-cases and had suicidal thoughts more often than men. The association between language and GHQ-cases is presumed to operate through socioeconomic factors. It is necessary to modify the common notion that rapid societal development is in itself a cause of poor mental health: as a result of successful integration into the modern Greenlandic society, some population groups have better mental health compared to other groups.

  6. Preschool Teachers' Attitudes and Beliefs Toward Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Sharon Henry

    In the United States, a current initiative, Advancing Active STEM Education for Our Youngest Learners, aims to advance science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education in early childhood. The purpose of this study was to understand preschool teachers' proficiency with science and address the problem of whether or not science learning opportunities are provided to young children based on teachers' attitudes and beliefs. A theoretical framework for establishing teachers' attitudes toward science developed by van Aalderen-Smeets, van der Molen, and Asma, along with Bandura's theory of self-efficacy were the foundations for this research. Research questions explored preschool teachers' attitudes and beliefs toward science in general and how they differed based on education level and years of preschool teaching experience. Descriptive comparative data were collected from 48 preschool teacher participants using an online format with a self-reported measure and were analyzed using nonparametric tests to describe differences between groups based on identified factors of teacher comfort, child benefit, and challenges. Results indicated that the participants believed that early childhood science is developmentally appropriate and that young children benefit from science instruction through improved school-readiness skills. Preschool teachers with a state credential or an associate's degree and more teaching experience had more teacher comfort toward science based on attitudes and beliefs surveyed. The data indicated participating preschool teachers experienced few challenges in teaching science. The study may support positive social change through increased awareness of strengths and weaknesses of preschool teachers for the development of effective science professional development. Science is a crucial component of school-readiness skills, laying a foundation for success in later grades.

  7. Peer Effects on Head Start Children's Preschool Competency

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Dawn; Hanish, Laura D.; Martin, Carol Lynn; Fabes, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    The goals of this study were to investigate whether young children attending Head Start (N = 292; M[subscript age] = 4.3 years) selected peers based on their preschool competency and whether children's levels of preschool competency were influenced by their peers' levels of preschool competency. Children's peer interaction partners were…

  8. Response of preschool children with asthma symptoms to fluticasone propionate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roorda, R J; Mezei, G; Bisgaard, H

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many uncertainties remain in the diagnosis and treatment of preschool children with asthma symptoms. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the subgroups of preschool children (aged 12-47 months) with recurrent asthma symptoms most likely to respond to inhaled fluticasone propionate (200...... the management of preschool children with recurrent asthma symptoms....

  9. Universal Preschool Programs and Long-Term Child Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrichson, Jens; Kristiansen, Ida Lykke; Viinholt Nielsen, Bjørn Christian

    2018-01-01

    This systematic review included 25 studies using natural experiments to estimate the effects of universal preschool programs for children aged 0-6 years on child outcomes measured from third grade to adulthood. Studies comparing preschool with parental, family, or other informal modes of care...... alternative types of universal preschool programs in terms of long-term outcomes....

  10. Anaemia, Nutritional Status and Parasitic Infection among Preschool ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study was carried out to determine the packed cell volume nutritional status and parasitic infection among preschool children living in rural villages. Subjects and Methods: A total of 116 preschool children in nine villages formed the population for this study. The preschool children were studied using ...

  11. An Evaluation of Preschool Education in the Awutu Efutu Senya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the state of preschool education in the Winneba district with the intent of identifying strengths and weaknesses of the sub system. A comparison of rural and urban preschools in the district was also explored. A sample of 30 preschools made up of 16 public and 14 private ones were selected through ...

  12. Integration of Interactive Whiteboard in Swedish Preschool Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourbour, Maryam; Vigmo, Sylvi; Samuelsson, Ingrid Pramling

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at exploring the roles preschool teachers give technologies in mathematics education and the ways they structure their mathematics learning activities using interactive whiteboard (IWB) as a technological artefact. Data collected from observations of three preschool teachers embedding IWB in a preschool practice in Sweden provided…

  13. Relational Aggression in Children with Preschool-Onset Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belden, Andy C.; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Luby, Joan L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The role of preschool-onset (PO) psychiatric disorders as correlates and/or risk factors for relational aggression during kindergarten or first grade was tested in a sample of 146 preschool-age children (age 3 to 5.11 years). Method: Axis-I diagnoses and symptom scores were derived using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment.…

  14. Print Knowledge of Preschool Children with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werfel, Krystal L.; Lund, Emily; Schuele, C. Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Measures of print knowledge were compared across preschoolers with hearing loss and normal hearing. Alphabet knowledge did not differ between groups, but preschoolers with hearing loss performed lower on measures of print concepts and concepts of written words than preschoolers with normal hearing. Further study is needed in this area.

  15. Assessing Preschool Teachers' Practices to Promote Self-Regulated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adagideli, Fahretdin Hasan; Saraç, Seda; Ader, Engin

    2015-01-01

    Recent research reveals that in preschool years, through pedagogical interventions, preschool teachers can and should promote self-regulated learning. The main aim of this study is to develop a self-report instrument to assess preschool teachers' practices to promote self-regulated learning. A pool of 50 items was recruited through literature…

  16. The Discourse of a Preschool Education Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Miškeljin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a critical analysis of the discourse of a preschool education curriculum. Its starting point is Foucault’s concept of discourse as language in use, which not only reflects the social order, but also shapes it through a network of conventions, knowledge and practices determining man’s – or, in this case, the reader’s – perception of reality. The analysis is based on identifying the discourse strategies and/or systems of rules laid out in the text The basic principles of the preschool education curriculum for three- to seven-year-old children – model A which make possible certain statements and insights regarding children and thus position the child and the preschool teacher by means of discourse repertoires. This approach helps contextualize the text and leads to an understanding of the basic discourse mechanism involved in the creation of specific versions of preschool education. As discourse analysis itself is related to interpretation and narratology, with the story as a constant, so is this paper a story about a preschool curriculum, for, like any other text, it tells an unfinished story that can yet evolve in different directions.

  17. Inuit health in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P; Curtis, T; Borch-Johnsen, K

    2003-01-01

    specimens (blood, urine, subcutaneous fat tissue). The clinical examinations included anthropometric measurements, an oral glucose tolerance test, ECG, ultrasound of thyroid gland and carotid arteries, a skin prick test, and lung function. The data collection areas in Greenland ranged from the westernized...

  18. Communication patterns in preschool education institutions - practical examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radic-Hozo, Endica

    2014-10-01

    Proper communication in pre-school institutions for education is undeniable importance to the development of the child, as evidenced by numerous studies. After the child's birth follows the most complex phase in its early phases - preschool education. Only high-quality, synergistic relationship triad: parent-child-educator and the modern postulates of preschool child education, warrants successful preschool child education. Description, with examples from daily practice in a large institution for preschool education, marked were the critical points on the complex way in child education, many pitfalls encountered by both parents and educators. Considered are the errors in communication with the proposed solution to avoid the same in practice. Proper, daily communication in the preschool institution for education, within a relationship between parent-child-educator, mutual consultation, respect, acceptance, facilitation, resulting in successful common goal - the proper education and socialization of children in institutions for preschool education.

  19. Children´s and Preschool Teacher´s Photographs of New Preschool Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kim

    In an ongoing project (2013-2014) about children´s and preschool teacher´s interactions with and experiences of new architecture/physical environment, young children between 2-5 years and their preschool teachers has photographed the physical and social environment. A numbers of photo......-elicitated interviews with the preschool teachers had been held over the summer too. These actions have created increased awareness of the relationship between the physical and social environment and generated a lot of communication and interpretations among all involved. The project continues during the wintertime....... The aim of the project, (inspired from action research, new childhood sociology, phenomenology) is to create knowledge (on basis of experiences, narratives, observations/field notes, photos/visual knowledge) about the preschool environment, which might qualify the discourse of kindergartens and the new...

  20. Preschool Orientation and Mobility: An Expanded Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Everett W.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The article describes a broadened definition of orientation and mobility as it relates to serving a diverse population of visually handicapped preschoolers, examines the relationship of orientation and mobility to other curriculum areas, and considers the importance of coordinated involvement between parents and professionals. (CL)

  1. Developing Gifted Children in Hungarian Preschool Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Iren; Papp, Irene

    2013-01-01

    At a conference, a secondary school teacher was very surprised when she heard about the idea of talent development in preschool education. "What does it mean?" she asked. In this paper we answer the above question with a model created by joint research. We describe our method of developing gifted children with the involvement of…

  2. Behavioral/Emotional Problems of Preschoolers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rescorla, L.A.; Achenbach, T.M.; Ivanova, M.Y.

    2012-01-01

    This study tested societal effects on caregiver/teacher ratings of behavioral/emotional problems for 10,521 preschoolers from 15 societies. Many societies had problem scale scores within a relatively narrow range, despite differences in language, culture, and other characteristics. The small age...

  3. Research Report. Should Barbie Go to Preschool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Kitty G.; Liberman, Evelyn

    1985-01-01

    Reports a study which compared the play of nine four-year-old girls with baby dolls and with Barbie dolls. Nonfacilitative play behavior was observed much more frequently in the baby doll sessions than in the Barbie sessions. Suggests that Barbie dolls could be used as an alternative doll activity in preschool classrooms. (CB)

  4. Transitions from preschool to primary school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström, Stig; Einarsdottir, Johanna; Vrinioti, Kalliope

    2010-01-01

      The article deals with transition from preschool to primary school. Starting with a historical overview presenting Fröbel's transition understanding from 1852 over European politics in the 1960s and 1970s, recommendations by the Councils of Europe from the 1990s and ending with OECD's actual...

  5. Inequality in Preschool Education and School Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, Katherine A.; Meyers, Marcia K.; Ruhm, Christopher J.; Waldfogel, Jane

    2004-01-01

    Attendance in U.S. preschools has risen substantially in recent decades, but gaps in enrollment between children from advantaged and disadvantaged families remain. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999, we analyze the effect of participation in child care and early education on children's school…

  6. Market Failure? Estimating Inequality in Preschool Availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Bruce; Liang, Xiaoyan

    1996-01-01

    Two studies employed differing levels of analysis to explain the distribution of preschool availability, examining distribution in 100 counties nationwide and using zip-code-level data for Massachusetts. Together the studies show that the degree of distributional equity varies among states and locales, conditioned by household and policy…

  7. Understanding and Enhancing Multicultural Teaching in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Chi-Hung; Hue, Ming-Tak

    2017-01-01

    Preschool teachers are an important element of high-quality, developmentally and multiculturally appropriate early childhood programmes. 7.5% of the total 160,000 children enrolled in Hong Kong kindergartens are ethnic-minority students and they are neglected in the Hong Kong education system until 2008. This study investigated the perceptions of…

  8. Tell Me Lies: Confronting the Preschool Closet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Travis

    2011-01-01

    This case explores the impact of being closeted on a gay, male preschool educator and the ways in which homophobic culture is fostered in one early learning center. Although sometimes protective, being challenged to hide one's sexual orientation most always has negative consequences for the individual and society. Internalized homophobia silences…

  9. Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichstrom, Lars; Berg-Nielsen, Turid Suzanne; Angold, Adrian; Egger, Helen Link; Solheim, Elisabet; Sveen, Trude Hamre

    2012-01-01

    Background: Many disorders in childhood and adolescence were already present in the preschool years. However, there is little empirical research on the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in young children. A true community study using structured diagnostic tools has yet to be published. Methods: All children born in 2003 or 2004 in the city of…

  10. Childcare Quality and Preschoolers' Math Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Young; Dobbs-Oates, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the associations between four types of childcare quality (i.e. teacher-child closeness, frequency of math-related activities, and teacher education and experience) and preschoolers' residualised gain in math over the course of six months. Additionally, potential interactions between teacher-child closeness and other indicators…

  11. A Survey of Preschool Programs in Tennessee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Beth G.; Rog, Debbra

    One of four volumes dealing with the CARE (Children's Agencies, Resources, Etc.) Linkages Project in Tennessee, this manual reports a survey of preschool programs in 16 counties. The goal of the CARE project was to foster collaboration leading to more effective linkages between publicly funded child care and development programs and other service…

  12. Preschool Children's Perceptions of Overweight Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wei; Aurelia, Di Santo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if preschool children perceive overweight children to have more negative characteristics than non-overweight children. Children from 32 to 70 months old (N = 42) listened to four stories about an interaction between two children, in which one child demonstrated socially unacceptable behaviour and one child…

  13. "Dora the Explorer": Preschool Geographic Educator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, James R.

    2008-01-01

    "Dora the Explorer" is a twenty-three-minute television program for preschoolers viewed by millions every day in many countries. These programs are also marketed as videotapes and DVDs. This seven-year-old Latina, bilingual cartoon character teaches many things by interacting with the young viewers. On every program Dora and friends have to go…

  14. Measuring Perceptual Motor Ability in Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, William J.; And Others

    A general working model of cognitive development assumes that there are sets of orthogonal cognitive abilities, which remain fairly stable after age 7. This paper examines the long term predictive and diagnostic value of assessing specific cognitive abilities among preschool children. This model by empirical studies was defendable on the grounds…

  15. Mathematics and Didactic Contract in Swedish Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delacour, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to study and analyse how a teacher implements an outdoor realistic problem situation for children aged 4-5 in a Swedish preschool. By an "outdoor realistic problem situation", I mean a situation initiated by a teacher in which children come into contact with mathematical concepts and in which the outside…

  16. Fundamental movement skills among Australian preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Louise L; King, Lesley; Farrell, Louise; Macniven, Rona; Howlett, Sarah

    2010-09-01

    Early childhood is a critical period for the development of fundamental movement skills (FMS). Children who do not master FMS are more likely to experience failure in the motor domain and less likely to participate in sport and games during childhood and adolescence. Studies among primary school aged children report low levels of FMS mastery indicating the need to implement FMS programs during the preschool years. Cross-sectional study of 425 children attending preschools in the Sydney, Australia in 2008. FMS were assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 including locomotor (run, gallop, hop, horizontal jump) and object control (strike, catch, kick overhand throw) skills. Data were analysed using linear regression and chi-squared analyses. Total locomotor score was higher among girls compared with boys (pmastery differed across each FMS. Girls generally had higher mastery of locomotor skills and boys had higher mastery of object control skills. These findings highlight the need to provide structured opportunities which facilitate children's acquisition of FMS, which may include providing gender separated games, equipment and spaces. That mastery of FMS is low in primary school children indicates the importance of early intervention programs in preschools. Preschools and child care centers hold promise as a key setting for implementing FMS programs.

  17. Information Environment of Preschool Educational Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmakova, Anna Pavlovna

    2016-01-01

    The paper considers the elements of the information environment of preschool educational institutions by the example of the Ulyanovsk region. The article describes the interconnected system of factors that includes qualified personnel, logistics support, methodological basis, and management structures that affect the development of the information…

  18. On Major Developments in Preschoolers' Imagination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diachenko, Olga M.

    2011-01-01

    The role of the imagination in adult thinking is to go beyond reality and to express generalised laws. The researcher's job is to specify the cultural tools that preschool children use in the development of their imagination. Previous research has identified two main stages in the development of imagination up until the age of six, a third stage…

  19. Reference values for spirometry in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burity, Edjane F; Pereira, Carlos A C; Rizzo, José A; Brito, Murilo C A; Sarinho, Emanuel S C

    2013-01-01

    Reference values for lung function tests differ in samples from different countries, including values for preschoolers. The main objective of this study was to derive reference values in this population. A prospective study was conducted through a questionnaire applied to 425 preschool children aged 3 to 6 years, from schools and day-care centers in a metropolitan city in Brazil. Children were selected by simple random sampling from the aforementioned schools. Peak expiratory flow (PEF), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volumes (FEV1, FEV0.50), forced expiratory flow (FEF25-75) and FEV1/FVC, FEV0.5/FVC and FEF25-75/FVC ratios were evaluated. Of the 425 children enrolled, 321 (75.6%) underwent the tests. Of these, 135 (42.0%) showed acceptable results with full expiratory curves and thus were included in the regression analysis to define the reference values. Height and gender significantly influenced FVC values through linear and logarithmic regression analysis. In males, R(2) increased with the logarithmic model for FVC and FEV1, but the linear model was retained for its simplicity. The lower limits were calculated by measuring the fifth percentile residues. Full expiratory curves are more difficult to obtain in preschoolers. In addition to height, gender also influences the measures of FVC and FEV1. Reference values were defined for spirometry in preschool children in this population, which are applicable to similar populations. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Values Education in Nordic Preschools: A Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberg, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The six papers in this special issue focus on how values and values education are embedded in the everyday life at Nordic preschools. The studies in this special issue provide stimulating theoretical and methodological knowledge to inform further study of values education internationally. A key contribution of the papers is that there is…

  1. Motor fitness and preschooler children obesity status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Santos, Sandra; Santos, Amanda; Vale, Susana; Mota, Jorge

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between motor fitness (MF) and obesity status in preschool children. The sample comprised 467 children aged 3-6 years. Preschool children body mass index was classified according to International Obesity Task Force and categorised into three levels, normal, overweight and obesity. Total physical activity was assessed by accelerometer and MF test was assessed through two MF tests 10 × 5m shuttle run test (SRT) and a 7 m jumping distance on 2 feet test (J2F). Low MF was considered for MF if SD above 1. A single variable with three categories was created: low MF medium MF and high MF. The prevalence of normal weight, overweight and obesity was 67.6%, 22.7% and 9.7%, respectively. The prevalence of SD > 1 for SRT was 13.7% and 14.4% for J2F, for single variable was 19.2%. Multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that obese preschoolers were more likely six times classified as having low MF level than their non-overweight counterparts (OR: 6.4; IC: 1.3-36.6). This study showed a considerable prevalence of overweight and obesity among preschoolers. Obesity has already been associated with lower MF. Further longitudinal studies are needed to confirm this data.

  2. Preschoolers Benefit from Visually Salient Speech Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalonde, Kaylah; Holt, Rachael Frush

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored visual speech influence in preschoolers using 3 developmentally appropriate tasks that vary in perceptual difficulty and task demands. They also examined developmental differences in the ability to use visually salient speech cues and visual phonological knowledge. Method: Twelve adults and 27 typically developing 3-…

  3. Promoting Social and Emotional Learning in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMeulenaere, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Michelle DeMeulenaere discusses social/emotional learning (SEL), with a focus on helping preschool children gain knowledge about feelings and getting along with others. SEL is the process in which children are able to acknowledge and recognize the emotions of others, develop empathy, make good decisions, establish friendships, and…

  4. Preschool + School + Communication = What for Educator Relationships?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopps, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Communication between educators in preschool and school settings has been promoted consistently in research literature and policy as a practice to enhance children's transition to school. Underlying the practice are the assumptions that communication between educators is (a) a way of building on children's learning and responding to their diverse…

  5. Indoor and Outdoor Play in Preschool Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeker, Julia

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explain children's indoor and outdoor play in preschool programs in terms of teacher interaction, peer interaction and task orientation. Children's indoor and outdoor play behaviors were compared using the Individualized Classroom Assessment Scoring System (inCLASS). Findings included significant differences on…

  6. Stepfamilies: Awareness and Attitudes of Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Sherri; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Attempted to determine whether a specific stepfamily curriculum would affect the stepfamily's awareness of preschool children. Although no changes were found in attitudes in either control or experimental groups, a significant increase was found in the experimental group's awareness. (Author/KS)

  7. Augmented Reality: Daily Prayers for Preschooler Student

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendra Pradibta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Education is one of the aspects that many synthesized with technology. Yet, this is contrary to the fact that where most of the learning materials are still based on text. This research aims to develop an alternative learning media by implementing Augmented Reality Technology for Preschooler students. Augmented Reality (AR is an application that can combine the virtual object as text, pictures and animation into the real world. Development of Augmented Reality application uses Web Aurasma Based Studio, with learning materials of daily prayer for preschool student. The development of the characters and the animations were using Adobe Illustrator and Adobe After Effects. The results of the study showed that technology Augmented Reality can be used as an alternative learning media especially in the learning process in Preschool Al Furqon. This is because the content Augmented Reality in the form of animation can gives more understanding and attention for preschool student to follow the learning process

  8. The Heteroglossic World of Preschoolers' Pretend Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lynn E.

    2009-01-01

    This inquiry applied Bakhtin's dialogic process to the pretend play of preschool children using an interpretive approach. It used vignettes from videotaped data and Bakhtin's theories of dialogism and heteroglossia to provide an understanding of how children appropriate social roles and rules in pretend play and use a variety of "voices"…

  9. What Preschool Children Like Best about School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebling, Susan; Jacobs, Jennifer; Kochanowski, Leslie; Vaughn, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    While conducting a needs assessment for a large Midwestern social service organization, the authors asked 252 preschool children from six Head Start programs what they like best about school. They wanted to reveal how children perceived their school and what they liked best about school--more specifically, what were their favorite areas and…

  10. Brain development during the preschool years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Timothy T.; Jernigan, Terry L.

    2012-01-01

    The preschool years represent a time of expansive psychological growth, with the initial expression of many psychological abilities that will continue to be refined into young adulthood. Likewise, brain development during this age is characterized by its “blossoming” nature, showing some of its most dynamic and elaborative anatomical and physiological changes. In this article, we review human brain development during the preschool years, sampling scientific evidence from a variety of sources. First, we cover neurobiological foundations of early postnatal development, explaining some of the primary mechanisms seen at a larger scale within neuroimaging studies. Next, we review evidence from both structural and functional imaging studies, which now accounts for a large portion of our current understanding of typical brain development. Within anatomical imaging, we focus on studies of developing brain morphology and tissue properties, including diffusivity of white matter fiber tracts. We also present new data on changes during the preschool years in cortical area, thickness, and volume. Physiological brain development is then reviewed, touching on influential results from several different functional imaging and recording modalities in the preschool and early school-age years, including positron emission tomography (PET), electroencephalography (EEG) and event-related potentials (ERP), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), magnetoencephalography (MEG), and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Here, more space is devoted to explaining some of the key methodological factors that are required for interpretation. We end with a section on multimodal and multidimensional imaging approaches, which we believe will be critical for increasing our understanding of brain development and its relationship to cognitive and behavioral growth in the preschool years and beyond. PMID:23007644

  11. QUALITY MANAGEMENT OF PRESCHOOL EDUCATION IN THE CONDITIONS OF FSED PE (FEDERAL STATE EDDUCATIONAL STANDART OF PRESCHOOL EDUCATION REALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila Vasilevna Timoshenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the research results of ensuring the education problems quality of preschool age children in the conditions of preschool education system modernization: Federal state educational standard of preschool education realization (FSED PE.The article discusses the concept of education quality in relation to the early childhood education: as the normative level, which corresponds to the quality of individual child deve-lopment preschool; and as the quality of the pedagogical process and the environment in which it is performed, quality of training, technology, financial and material conditions, the quality of management.It is established that the technology of preschool education quality management is ensured by the implementation of the following management stages:- quality management definitions the goals and objectives of education in the preschool educational agency;- quality management of the selection of programs, technologies;- quality management design and planning of the whole pedagogical process in the preschool educational agency;- quality control monitoring of preschool education.It was revealed that modern teachers experience difficulties in the development and quality implementation of the Basic educational program of preschool education. In this connection, the role of methodological work with preschool educational agency teachers based on certain levels of their professional competence.

  12. Peer Effects on Head Start Children’s Preschool Competency

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Dawn; Hanish, Laura D.; Martin, Carol Lynn; Fabes, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    The goals of the present study were to investigate whether young children attending Head Start (N=292; Mage=4.3 years) selected peers based on their preschool competency and whether children’s levels of preschool competency were influenced by their peers’ levels of preschool competency. Children’s peer interaction partners were intensively observed several times a week over one academic year. Social network analyses revealed that children selected peer interaction partners with similar levels of preschool competency and were influenced over time by their partners’ levels of preschool competency. These effects held even after controlling for several child (e.g., sex and language) and family factors (e.g., financial strain and parent education). Implications for promoting preschool competency among Head Start children are discussed. PMID:26479545

  13. Problems of computerization in the brunch of preschool education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podolyaka А.Е.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of computer technologies was probed in preschool education. 27 pedagogical workers of child's preschool establishments took part in research. The differentiated approach is rotined in the selection of facilities of physical education of children of preschool age. The basic requirements are selected to the computer programs. Found out disparity between enhanceable demand on the computer programs and their introduction in an educational educate process. Multilevel classification and sequence is set in the selection of mobile games.

  14. Preschool Teachers' Level of Attitudes toward Early Mathematics Education

    OpenAIRE

    Çelik, Meryem

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of this study isexamining the preschool teachers' level of attitudes toward early mathseducation and correlation between these levels and various variables.“Preschool Teachers' Attitudes towards Early Childhood Math AssessmentInstrument" is applied to 60 teachers who were pre-school teachers in 2013and formed the sample of this study. As a result of these analysis, it has beenprecipitated that teachers' level of attitudes toward early maths education isgood. Meanin...

  15. Memory development in preschool children with disabilities in the game

    OpenAIRE

    Viktoriya Shypikova

    2013-01-01

    The scientific article "Development of memory in preschool children with disabilities in the game" reveals the relevance of the application of the game as the leading activity during the preschool years to optimize the development of the mental process of memory in children with disabilities. Work on the development of children's memory in the form of a game as the most effective form, aimed at attracting the attention of professionals working with preschool children with disabilities, a...

  16. Re-evaluation of blood mercury, lead and cadmium concentrations in the Inuit population of Nunavik (Québec: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayotte Pierre

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arctic populations are exposed to mercury, lead and cadmium through their traditional diet. Studies have however shown that cadmium exposure is most often attributable to tobacco smoking. The aim of this study is to examine the trends in mercury, lead and cadmium exposure between 1992 and 2004 in the Inuit population of Nunavik (Northern Québec, Canada using the data obtained from two broad scale health surveys, and to identify sources of exposure in 2004. Methods In 2004, 917 adults aged between 18 and 74 were recruited in the 14 communities of Nunavik to participate to a broad scale health survey. Blood samples were collected and analysed for metals by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and dietary and life-style characteristics were documented by questionnaires. Results were compared with data obtained in 1992, where 492 people were recruited for a similar survey in the same population. Results Mean blood concentration of mercury was 51.2 nmol/L, which represent a 32% decrease (p 2 = 0.20; p 2 = 0.04; p 2 = 0.20.; p 2 = 0.56; p Conclusion Important decreases in mercury, lead and cadmium exposure were observed. Mercury decrease could be explained by dietary changes and the ban of lead cartridges use likely contributed to the decrease in lead exposure. Blood cadmium concentrations remain high and, underscoring the need for intensive tobacco smoking prevention campaigns in the Nunavik population.

  17. Relationships between sperm DNA fragmentation, sperm apoptotic markers and serum levels of CB-153 and p,p'-DDE in European and Inuit populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stronati, A; Manicardi, G C; Cecati, M

    2006-01-01

    Persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) are suspected to interfere with hormone activity and the normal homeostasis of spermatogenesis. We investigated the relationships between sperm DNA fragmentation, apoptotic markers identified on ejaculated spermatozoa and POP levels in the blood of 652 ......, but not in the highly exposed Inuit men. Additional issues (genetic background, lifestyle habits and characterization of total xeno-hormonal activities) need to be investigated in order to fully assess the population variations observed........ Sperm DNA fragmentation was measured by using the TUNEL assay, whereas immunofluorescence methods were utilized for detecting pro-apoptotic (Fas) and anti-apoptotic (Bcl-xL) markers. Both TUNEL assay and apoptotic markers were statistically differed across the four populations. No correlation between...... neither sperm DNA fragmentation nor apoptotic sperm parameters and the large variations in POPs exposure was observed for the separate study groups. However, considering the European populations taken together, we showed that both %TUNEL positivity and Bcl-xL were related to CB-153 serum levels, whereas...

  18. Water infrastructure and well-being among First Nations, Métis and Inuit individuals in Canada: what does the data tell us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, Melanie; Penner, Stephen

    2018-02-08

    This paper documents the association between water and sanitation infrastructure and health indicators in Canada for First Nations, Métis and Inuit individuals living on and off-reserve in Canada. We use two data sources: the Aboriginal Peoples Survey and a survey conducted in a First Nations community in northern Manitoba-St. Theresa Point First Nation. We find statistically significant relationships between water infrastructure and health status in both sources of data. In particular, among individuals living off-reserve, contaminated water is associated with a 5-7% lower likelihood of reporting good self-rated health and a 4% higher probability of reporting a health condition or stomach problem. Those in St. Theresa Point First Nation without running water are four times more likely to report an illness relative to those with running water. Off-reserve, this likely suggests a need for improved public education on the management of private water supplies and more frequent water testing. Our case study suggests that further investment in water/sanitation infrastructure and housing is needed in the community.

  19. Raised incidence of ankylosing spondylitis among Inuit populations could be due to high HLA-B27 association and starch consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Taha; Wilson, Clyde; Ebringer, Alan

    2015-06-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory arthritis mainly affecting the spinal joints. It would appear that the most likely causative agent in the development of AS is an environmental factor in the genetically susceptible, HLA-B27 positive, individuals. Extensive data from several countries support the notion that Klebsiella pneumonia bacteria are the most likely culprit in the causation of AS. These microbes possess antigens which resemble HLA-B27 and spinal collagens. Increased intake of high-starch diet is directly proportional to the gut-associated bacterial load, especially in the large intestine, and among these microbial agents, Klebsiella is considered as one of the main constituting components. Therefore, a low-starch diet intake alongside the currently used medical therapeutic modalities could be beneficial in the management of patients with early AS. It is suggested that a change in the dietary habits from high protein, low-starch marine components to the Westernized high-starch diet among the Inuit peoples of Alaska and Canada could be considered as one of the main contributing factors in the increased prevalence of AS during the last few decades within this genetically unmixed native population.

  20. Effectiveness of a Danish early year preschool program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bente; Holm, Anders; Bremberg, Sven

    2013-01-01

    A significant number of studies indicate that early year preschool programs lead to positive long-term effects. Systematic quality improvement of early year preschool may enhance these outcomes. The ASP Program was built on this principle. In this program preschool staff are supported...... in their efforts to critically reflect on current practices and to change these. A randomized controlled study was carried out in Denmark from September 2006 to May 2008. The study encompassed 2323 children in 59 preschools in two municipalities. Children were assessed using the Strength and Difficulties...

  1. Validating the Preschool and Kindergarten Behavior Scales-2: Preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Sofia; Seabra-Santos, Maria João; Albuquerque, Cristina P

    2017-06-01

    Social skills deficits and some behavior problems are a well-established issue in preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, most of the studies available analyze social skills or behavior problems of children with ASD, but not both. The present study intends to compare the social skills and behavior problems of 32 preschoolers with ASD paired with 32 typically developing preschoolers, as evidence of validity of the Portuguese version of the Preschool and Kindergarten Behavior Scales - Second Edition (PKBS-2). Each child was rated independently by parents and teachers. Results showed a statistically significant difference in all PKBS-2 scores between the two groups, with the children with ASD rated with fewer social skills and more behavior problems by both informants. The discriminant analysis highlighted the three Social Skills, the Over-Activity/Lack of Attention and Social Withdrawal subscales as more accurate in differentiating between the two groups. The implications of using a single behavior rating scale that can be filled in by different informants (parents and teachers) to assess positive and negative behaviors are emphasized. Furthermore, the usefulness of the PKBS-2 as a screening assessment tool that could be used in clinical practice and intervention with preschoolers with ASD is discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pre-Schoolers, Pre-School Teachers, and Interpersonal Problem-Solving Skills: A Comparative Study in Turkey and Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Derya

    2011-01-01

    Interpersonal cognitive problem solving, one of the most crucial social skills, is a life-long competency that must be supported from the early years of life. In this study, the opinions of 55 Turkish pre-school teachers and 53 Flemish pre-school teachers who work with 3-6-year-old children in private and public pre-schools in metropolitan cities…

  3. Children´s and Preschool Teacher´s Photographs of New Preschool Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kim

    . The aim of the project, (inspired from action research, new childhood sociology, phenomenology) is to create knowledge (on basis of experiences, narratives, observations/field notes, photos/visual knowledge) about the preschool environment, which might qualify the discourse of kindergartens and the new......In an ongoing project (2013-2014) about children´s and preschool teacher´s interactions with and experiences of new architecture/physical environment, young children between 2-5 years and their preschool teachers has photographed the physical and social environment. A numbers of photo...... transparent (widespread use of glass in both interior and exterior walls). The new architecture is based on (neoliberal) ideas of flexibility and puts the emphasis on early childhood learning. But one thing is the ideas of politicians, architects and builders, another is how the buildings are "lived...

  4. INCLUSIVE CULTURE IN PRE-SCHOOL INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena NOVACHEVSKA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Inclusive education is a rational concept that refers to the overall and long-term transformation of institutional systems in society, especially in education. Along with the transformation, a number of important and unresolved issues still appear in both theory and practice, as the duty of pre-school institutions and schools is to educate every student in the mainstream education system. One of the most important aspects of inclusion is the inclusive culture. Regardless of the good inclusive policy and practice, one cannot talk about successful inclusion without a properly developed inclusive institutional culture.This paper is a contribution to the research considering the development of inclusive culture in three preschool institutions. It is based on the thinking and attitudes of the pre­school staff toward the necessity of developing and nurturing an inclusive culture. Successful inclusion of pupils with special needs in the mainstream school system cannot be conceived without an inclusive culture.

  5. Actigraphic Sleep Pattern of Preschoolers With ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melegari, Maria Grazia; Vittori, Elena; Mallia, Luca; Devoto, Alessandra; Lucidi, Fabio; Ferri, Raffaele; Bruni, Oliviero

    2016-10-04

    To assess the features of sleep in preschoolers with ADHD by means of questionnaire and actigraphy. Twenty-five ADHD and 21 age-matched typically developing (TD) preschool children underwent the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) for ages 1½ to 5 and Pre-School-Age Psychiatric Assessment interview. Sleep was assessed by means of a modified Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children and wrist actigraphy for at least 5 days. Children with ADHD, compared with TD, showed higher scores in CBCL Withdrawal (58.83 vs. 51.15, p Attention Problems (69.88 vs. 51.54, p sleep minutes (56.44 vs. 32.79, p sleep and night-to-night variability for sleep duration and motor activity. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. The role of preschool in reducing inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Waldfogel, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Children from disadvantaged families have lower levels of school readiness when they enter school than do children from more advantaged families. Many countries have tried to reduce this inequality through publicly provided preschool. Evidence on the potential of these programs to reduce inequality in child development is now quite strong. Long-term studies of large publicly funded programs in Europe and Latin America, and newer studies on state and local prekindergarten programs implemented ...

  7. Developing creativity in Montessori preschool class

    OpenAIRE

    KYSELOVÁ, Soňa

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work is to point out the possibilities of developing creativity in a preschool classroom, which works by the philosophy of Montessori pedagogy that is sometimes critisised as too strict and not offering enough space for creativity and fantasy. The theoretical part will content characterisation of creativity and pedagogy of Maria Montessori, concept of creativity as perceived by Maria Montessori, art exploitation for developing creativity and it´s assertion in Montesori classro...

  8. The Traditional in Contemporary Curricula of Preschool Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopas-Vukašinović Emina

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary curricula of preschool education are the result of the improvement of pedagogical and didactic theories. They imply a technical plan with which it is possible to achieve measurable objectives of preschool education. The curriculum is also defined as a tool for quality and equal education for all. It represents a reflection of the time, society and culture in which it exists, but also a model for future society and education. Thus an important research question arises as to what extent we recognize traditional ideas about learning and the development of a preschool child in contemporary preschool programs. Are traditional ideas about educating young children unjustly neglected or do we recognize them in contemporary pedagogical theory even today, at the same time forgetting about the past and declaring them innovations? This paper deals with the starting points for the development of a curriculum. The goal of the research was to determine to what extent can the starting points for the development of preschool children, which have existed in the first preschool programs in Serbia in the late 19th century, be recognized in contemporary preschool programs. A descriptive method was applied as well as a procedure for content analysis of program documents. Research results confirm that the elements of the first preschool programs, which remain relevant until today, can be recognized in contemporary preschool programs. They are related to target orientations, principles and functions of preschool education. However, these ideas are defined as contemporary tendencies, and the fact that they existed in preschool programs that were developed a long time ago is unjustly ignored.

  9. Feasibility of spirometry testing in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampschmidt, Jordan C; Brooks, Edward G; Cherry, Debra C; Guajardo, Jesus R; Wood, Pamela R

    2016-03-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of obtaining acceptable and reproducible spirometry data in preschool aged children (3-5 years) by technicians without prior experience with spirometry. Two technicians were trained to perform spirometry testing (ndd Easy on-PC) and to administer standardized questionnaires. Preschool aged children were enrolled from two Head Start centers and a local primary care clinic. Subjects were trained in proper spirometry technique and tested until at least two acceptable efforts were obtained or the subject no longer produced acceptable efforts. 200 subjects were enrolled: mean age 4.0 years (± 0.7 SD); age distribution: 51 (25.5%) 3 years old, 103 (51.5%) 4 years old, and 46 (23%) 5 years old. Fifty-six percent male and 75% Hispanic. One hundred thirty (65%) subjects produced at least one acceptable effort on their first visit: 23 (45%) for 3 years old, 67 (65%) for 4 years old, and 40 (87%) for 5 years old. The number of acceptable efforts correlated with age (r = 0.29, P spirometry results from the preschool aged children; the number of acceptable efforts correlated significantly with age. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. [Language Competence and Behavioural Problems in Preschool].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rißling, J K; Melzer, J; Menke, B; Petermann, F; Daseking, M

    2015-10-01

    Children with language disorders are at increased risk of developing behavioural and emotional problems. The analysis focused on the question whether behavioural problems differ depending on the type of language deficit. The present study examines the behaviour of preschool children with different language impairments. The results of N=540 children aged between 4;0 and 5;11 years were analyzed. Language impairments were classified into phonetics/phonology (n=44), vocabulary (n=44), grammar (n=58), pragmatics (n=26) and multiple language impairments (n=171). In addition, a distinction was made between deficits in language production and comprehension. The children were compared with an unimpaired control group (n=197). The extent of emotional and behavioural problems were analyzed. The results indicate that emotional and behavioural problems differ depending on the type of language deficit already in preschoolers. Especially deficits in language comprehension, pragmatic impairments and multiple language impairments increase the risk of behavioural and emotional problems and hyperactivity. The relationship between language skills and emotional and behavioural problems should be emphasized in the developmental observation and documentation in preschool. In particular, the distinction between deficits in pragmatics and behavioural problems requires a differentiated examination to ensure an optimal intervention. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Preschool Education in China and the United States: A Personal Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yanhui; Richey, Dean

    2007-01-01

    In this article the preschool education in China and the United States are compared, based on the factors that influence the preschool education in each country as well as the characteristics of the preschool education in each culture. The preschool education in both countries has its strengths and weaknesses, which result from their respective…

  12. The High/Scope Perry Preschool Study: A Case Study in Random Assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweinhart, Lawrence J.

    2000-01-01

    Studied the long-term benefits of preschool programs for young children living in poverty in the High/Scope Perry Preschool Study, which examined the lives of 123 African Americans randomly divided into a preschool treatment group and a no-preschool comparison group. Cost-benefit analyses of data on these students to age 27 show beneficial effects…

  13. Making Oneself Heard--Children's Experiences of Empowerment in Swedish Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almqvist, Anna-Lena; Almqvist, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Children's experiences of empowerment in relation to preschool peers and in child-adult interactions were studied, involving 25 four- to six-year-olds from four Swedish preschools. Group interviews using puppets comprised pre-constructed scenarios to examine preschools' activities. Children took photos of indoor and outdoor preschool environments,…

  14. Preschool--An Arena for Children's Learning of Social and Cognitive Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Pia; Sheridan, Sonja; Sandberg, Anette

    2014-01-01

    The aim is to investigate Swedish preschool teachers' accounts of children's learning in relation to the goals in the Swedish preschool curriculum. The research question is: "What do preschool teachers see as fundamental aspects of learning in preschool practice?" The study is based on interactionist perspectives founded in Urie…

  15. Trajectories of Preschool Disorders to Full DSM Depression at School Age and Early Adolescence: Continuity of Preschool Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luby, Joan L.; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Tillman, Rebecca; April, Laura M.; Belden, Andy C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Preschool-onset depression, a developmentally adapted form of depression arising between the ages of 3–6, has demonstrated numerous features of validity including characteristic alterations in stress reactivity and brain function. Notably, this validated syndrome with multiple clinical markers is characterized by sub-threshold DSM Major Depressive Disorder criteria, raising questions about its clinical significance. To clarify the utility and public health significance of the preschool-onset depression construct, diagnostic outcomes of this group at school age and adolescence were investigated. Methods We investigated the likelihood of meeting full DSM Major Depressive Disorder criteria in later childhood (i.e., ≥ age 6) as a function of preschool depression, other preschool Axis I disorders, maternal depression, parenting non-support and traumatic life events in a longitudinal prospective study of preschool children. Results Preschool-onset depression emerged as a robust predictor of DSM-5 Major Depressive Disorder in later childhood even after accounting for the effect of maternal depression and other risk factors. Preschool-onset conduct disorder also predicted DSM-5 Major Depressive Disorder in later childhood, but this association was partially mediated by maternal non-support, reducing the effect of preschool conduct disorder in predicting DSM depression by 21%. Discussion Study findings provide evidence that this preschool depressive syndrome is a robust risk factor for meeting full DSM criteria for Major Depressive Disorder in later childhood over and above other established risk factors. Preschool conduct disorder also predicted Major Depressive Disorder but was mediated by maternal non-support. Findings suggest that attention to preschool depression and conduct disorder in addition to maternal depression and exposure to trauma should now become an important factor for identification of young children at highest risk for later MDD who should

  16. Parenting Style Associated with Sedentary Behaviour in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schary, David P.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Loprinzi, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    There is an absence of studies exploring the relationship between parental style and sedentary behaviour in preschool-aged children. Given the link between parenting style and other health behaviours, and given that preschool children engage in relatively high levels of sedentary behaviour, this study's purpose was to examine if a preschool…

  17. Analysing the Implemented Curriculum of Mathematics in Preschool Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharos, Konstantinos; Koustourakis, Gerasimos; Papadimitriou, Konstantina

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to contribute to development of research tools for observation and analysis of educational practices used by teachers in preschool classrooms. More specifically, we approached the implemented curriculum of mathematics in Greek preschool education. We analysed the recorded data from a week of teaching practices in eight…

  18. Preschool Gifted Education: Perceived Challenges Associated with Program Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettler, Todd; Oveross, Mattie E.; Salman, Rania C.

    2017-01-01

    This descriptive study investigated the challenges related to implementing gifted education services in preschool centers. Participants were 254 licensed preschool center directors in a southern state. Participants completed a researcher-created survey including both selected response items and constructed response items to examine the perceived…

  19. Evaluation of a Sexual Abuse Prevention Education for Chinese Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjing; Chen, Jingqi; Feng, Yanan; Li, Jingyi; Liu, Chengfeng; Zhao, Xiaoxia

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of a sexual abuse prevention education in a sample of Chinese preschool children in Beijing, China. Method: One hundred and fifty preschool children were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (N = 78) or the wait-list control group (N = 72). Children were posttested on…

  20. Occupational Therapy in Preschools: A Synthesis of Current Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmin, Emmanuelle; Gauthier, Anne; Julien, Marjorie; Hui, Caroline

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a synthesis of current knowledge about occupational therapy in preschools (for 3-6 year olds) in order to provide a better understanding of this field of practice and to guide the implementation or programming of this service. In the literature, occupational therapy in preschools has been documented mainly in the USA. Results…

  1. Pre-Schooling and Academic Performance of Lower Primary School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... used Chi-square test of independence, Phi and Cramer's V test, Independent sample t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient to analyze the data obtained. The results indicated that there was a relationship between pre-schooling and the performance of pre-schooled lower primary school pupils in literacy and numeracy.

  2. Supporting Preschool Teachers' Vocabulary Instruction during Storybook Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blamey, Katrin L.; Beauchat, Katherine A.; Sweetman, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    Preschool educators represent a unique population for which to design professional development; as a result, innovative professional development models are necessary. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of training preschool teachers to use a Shared Reading Innovation Configuration (IC) tool on their planning, implementation, and…

  3. Does Special Education Improve Preschoolers' Academic Skills? Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Amanda L.; Field, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated associations between enrollment in preschool special education and school readiness skills for children with mild to moderate delays. Findings indicated that on average, children who received preschool special education services had lower scores in reading and math in kindergarten than similar children who did not receive…

  4. Global Citizenship Education: Emancipatory Practice in a New York Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Robin Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    By the time many preschool-age African American children enter preschool, they have already been exposed to indicators that inform them of their "place" and their "worth" in the communities they frequent. There is a gap in the literature on the value of global education for African American children. This research is a study of…

  5. Research-Based Options for Education Policymaking: Preschool Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, William

    2012-01-01

    Publicly supported, high-quality preschool education is among the most successful and well-documented of education reforms. There is near-universal agreement that high-quality preschool programs more than pay for themselves in economic and social benefits. Program quality is absolutely critical. While no one factor can be considered determinative,…

  6. Preschooler Sleep Patterns Related to Cognitive and Adaptive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe-Cooperman, Kathleen; Brady-Amoon, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: Preschoolers' sleep patterns were examined related to cognitive and adaptive functioning. The sample consisted of 874 typically developing preschool children with a mean age of 40.01 months. Parent/caregiver reports of children's sleep pattern factors, Stanford-Binet 5 intelligence scale scores, and Behavior Assessment System…

  7. Priming the Pump: Implementing Response to Intervention in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Donna; Schmertzing, Lorraine; Schmertzing, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This instrumental case study used qualitative methods and grounded theory to examine the implementation of Response to Intervention (RtI) in a rural preschool program. Ten of the preschool staff and eight parents were involved. Other data sources included continuous field notes, memos maintained by the researcher, classroom observations, and…

  8. Household market participation and stunting in preschool children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Stunting among Malawian preschool children continues to be a concern. Method: A cross-sectional survey of 251 semi-urban households, who participated in a community-supported preschool programme, was conducted. Results: Of the 433 participating two- to five-year-old children, 34.4% had stunting.

  9. Exploring the Phenomenology of Whiteness in a Swedish Preschool Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Eva; Lindqvist, Beatriz

    2018-01-01

    This article explores how constructions of identity, race and difference permeate and are challenged in a Swedish preschool class. The study is informed by theories of phenomenology and critical whiteness. Data are drawn from a larger ethnographic study conducted in an ethnically diverse preschool. The purpose of the study was to explore how…

  10. 45 CFR 84.38 - Preschool and adult education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preschool and adult education. 84.38 Section 84.38 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Preschool, Elementary, and Secondary Education § 84.38...

  11. 43 CFR 17.220 - Preschool, elementary, and secondary education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preschool, elementary, and secondary education. 17.220 Section 17.220 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Handicap § 17.220 Preschool, elementary,...

  12. Affordances of outdoor settings for children in preschool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerstrup, Inger Elisabeth; van den Bosch, Cecil Konijnendijk

    2017-01-01

    Heft’s functional taxonomy for children’s outdoor environment based on the concept of affordances was applied and investigated in a Danish preschool context. Affordances here refer to the meaningful action possibilities of the environment. Two groups of children (3–6 years) enrolled in preschool...

  13. Preschool Child Care and Child Well-being in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Micha; Bauer, Jan M.

    Because the value of preschool child care is under intensive debate among both policymakers and society in general, this paper analyzes the relation between preschool care and the well-being of children and adolescents in Germany. It also examines differences in outcomes based on child...

  14. Crossing Boundaries: A Variety of Perspectives on Preschool Stories

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    preschool stories from multiple perspectives including the child featured in the story, the family of the child, the .... preschool stories resemble Carr's (2001) conception of Learning Stories. Learning Stories offer “families a window into the often invisible life of the classroom ... female with a background in psychology and.

  15. The Type of Curriculum Activities Implemented in Jordanian Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Jamal; Fayez, Merfat; Al-Zboon, Eman Khleif

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to ascertain the nature of curriculum activities in Jordanian preschools. Fifteen preschools participated in the study. Data were collected by observing the children in their daily routines, as well as analysing their writings and drawings. Data were translated from Arabic to English before analysing it. Four main categories were…

  16. ELL Preschoolers' English Vocabulary Acquisition from Storybook Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Molly F.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of rich explanation, baseline vocabulary, and home reading practices on English language learning (ELL) preschoolers' sophisticated vocabulary learning from storybook reading. Eighty typically developing preschoolers were pretested in L1 (Portuguese) and L2 (English) receptive vocabulary and were assigned to…

  17. Pre-School Education in Morocco and Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzoubaa, Khadija; Benghabrit-Remaoun, Nouria

    2004-01-01

    This article is an analysis of the current state of early childhood care in the Maghreb, in particular in Morocco and Algeria, where the pre-schooling rate for 5-year-olds is on the increase. Extending pre-school infrastructures and the need to create unified curricula have been among the most urgent questions to be tackled over the last decade in…

  18. Punishment Insensitivity and Impaired Reinforcement Learning in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Nichols, Sara R.; Voss, Joel; Zobel, Elvira; Carter, Alice S.; McCarthy, Kimberly J.; Pine, Daniel S.; Blair, James; Wakschlag, Lauren S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Youth and adults with psychopathic traits display disrupted reinforcement learning. Advances in measurement now enable examination of this association in preschoolers. The current study examines relations between reinforcement learning in preschoolers and parent ratings of reduced responsiveness to socialization, conceptualized as a…

  19. Lifelong education of a preschool educational establishment teacher: theoretical aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Людмила Зіновіївна Мінда

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the issue of continuous professional development of preschool educational establishment teachers considering challenges in the modern information society. The author analyses theoretical aspects of the concept of preschool teachers’ lifelong education, particularly in the postgraduate education system. The author outlines the problems and prospects of adult education development in Ukraine

  20. See, Say, Write: A Writing Routine for the Preschool Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copp, Stefanie B.; Cabell, Sonia Q.; Tortorelli, Laura S.

    2016-01-01

    See, Say, Write is an adaptable classroom writing routine that teachers can use across a range of activities in the preschool classroom. This preschool writing routine offers an opportunity for teachers to build on a shared experience through engagement in rich conversation and writing. After a shared experience, teachers will provide a visual…

  1. Preschool Predictors of Childhood Anxiety Disorders: A Prospective Community Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichstrøm, Lars; Belsky, Jay; Berg-Nielsen, Turid Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Background: Anxiety disorders are often present at preschool age. Research on older children and studies contrasting preschoolers with high versus low behavioral inhibition (BI) highlight several risk factors, but these have not been investigated in community samples of young children. Child, parent, and peer factors at age 4 were therefore…

  2. Impact of Thematic Approach on Communication Skill in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashokan, Varun; Venugopal, Kalpana

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of thematic approach on communication skills for preschool children. The study was a quasi experimental non-equivalent pretest-post-test control group design whereby 5-6 year old preschool children (n = 49) were randomly assigned to an experimental and a control group. The experimental group students were exposed…

  3. Reproducing (and Disrupting) Heteronormativity: Gendered Sexual Socialization in Preschool Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gansen, Heidi M.

    2017-01-01

    Using ethnographic data from 10 months of observations in nine preschool classrooms, I examine gendered sexual socialization children receive from teachers' practices and reproduce through peer interactions. I find heteronormativity permeates preschool classrooms, where teachers construct (and occasionally disrupt) gendered sexuality in a number…

  4. Principle Elements of Curriculum in the Preschool Pattern of Montessori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmaee, Azizollah Baboli; Saadatmand, Zohreh; Yarmohammadian, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Montessori the physician and educational philosopher was probably one of the most prominent and famous education theorizer in the field of preschool education. Current research attempts to extract and clarify the major elements of curriculum by reliance on Montessori viewpoints. In this paper first the philosophical basics of preschool education…

  5. English Verb Accuracy of Bilingual Cantonese-English Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezzonico, Stefano; Goldberg, Ahuva; Milburn, Trelani; Belletti, Adriana; Girolametto, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Knowledge of verb development in typically developing bilingual preschoolers may inform clinicians about verb accuracy rates during the 1st 2 years of English instruction. This study aimed to investigate tensed verb accuracy in 2 assessment contexts in 4- and 5-year-old Cantonese-English bilingual preschoolers. Method: The sample included…

  6. Doing Things. A Live Action Video for Preschoolers [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo Peep Productions, Eureka, MT.

    Some preschool teachers have expressed concern regarding the lack of science instructional material for students age 2 through the preschool years. This videotape was developed to help fill this chasm in our educational system. It contains activities from students' everyday life such as eating, washing, and playing. These daily processes are then…

  7. Nature Preschools and Forest Kindergartens: The Handbook for Outdoor Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, David

    2016-01-01

    "Nature Preschools and Forest Kindergartens" is the latest from environmental education expert David Sobel. Joined by a variety of colleagues to share their experiences and steps for creating a successful forest kindergarten program, "Nature Preschools and Forest Kindergartens" walks you through the European roots of the…

  8. Internal and External Influences on Vocabulary Development in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Susanne; Lockl, Kathrin; Weinert, Sabine; Anders, Yvonne; Kluczniok, Katharina; Rossbach, Hans-Gunther

    2013-01-01

    Competency in society's lingua franca plays a major role in the emergence of social disparities within education. Therefore, the present longitudinal study investigates vocabulary development and its predictors in preschool years. We focus on whether internal (phonological working memory) and external variables (preschool and home learning…

  9. Preschoolers' Stereotypes About Sex Differences in Emotionality: A Metacognitive Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemelski, Bruce E.; Birnbaum, Dana W.

    Metacognitive approach responses of preschoolers about sex differences in emotionality were examined to determine if they could be modified by contextual cues. Fear was clearly perceived as a feminine emotion by preschoolers. Sadness was not seen as gender-specific. Females utilized imagery as a mediator of their gender attribution. Results…

  10. Preschool Teachers' Beliefs of Creative Pedagogy: Important for Fostering Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Rebecca Hun Ping; Leung, Chi Hung

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to develop and validate an instrument, the Early Childhood Creative Pedagogy Questionnaire (ECCPQ), which can be used to understand preschool teachers' beliefs about creative pedagogy as a means of fostering creativity. Items were initially constructed from a review of the literature and interviews with 27 preschool teachers in…

  11. Interpreting values in the daily practices of Nordic preschools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström, Stig; Anna-Maija, Puriola; Johannesson, Eva Marianne

    2016-01-01

    children dressing for outdoor play in a Swedish preschool. The research material consisted of extracts from group interviews in ten preschools (two from each Nordic country). The research questions included: How do values emerge in practitioners’ interpretations? What is the interpretive process like...

  12. Malnutrition among Preschool-Aged Autistic Children in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Waly, Mostafa I.; Al-Farsi, Omar A.; Al Shafaee, Mohammed A.; Deth, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    To assess prevalence of malnutrition indicators among preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) a cross-sectional study was conducted among 128 Omani autistic children 3-5 years of age. Based on standardized z-scores, the overall prevalence of malnutrition was 9.2 per 100 preschool ASD children (95% CI 4.1, 11.6). The most common type…

  13. Impact of Structured Movement Time on Preschoolers' Physical Activity Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Kara K.; Matsuyama, Abigail L.; Robinson, Leah E.

    2017-01-01

    Preschool-aged children are not meeting national physical activity recommendations. This study compares preschoolers' physical activity engagement during two different physical activity opportunities: outdoor free play or a structured movement session. Eighty-seven children served as participants: 40 children participated in outdoor free play and…

  14. Meeting the Social Needs of Preschool English Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchtel, Molly; Hughes, Kere; Luze, Gayle; Bruna, Katherine Richardson; Peterson, Carla

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes the findings of a study that examined the differences between preschool English learners and preschool English speakers in the areas of classroom conduct, social skills, and teacher-child relationship quality, as rated by their teachers. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings for early care and education…

  15. Supporting Children's Oral Language Development in the Preschool Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whorrall, Jennifer; Cabell, Sonia Q.

    2016-01-01

    Supporting children's oral language development during the preschool years is critical for later reading success. Research shows that preschool teachers may be missing opportunities to engage children in the kinds of conversations that foster the development of rich oral language skills. Teachers hoping to support these skills can provide children…

  16. Differentiated Rates of Growth across Preschool Dual Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Richard G.; Kim, Do-Hong; Durham, Sean; Burts, Diane C.

    2017-01-01

    This study illustrates why preschool children who are dual language learners (DLLs) are not a homogeneous group. An empirically developed model of preschool DLL subgroups, based on latent class analysis, was presented. The model reflects three separate subgroups of DLL children present in many classrooms where DLL children are served: Bilinguals,…

  17. Sharing Expository Texts with Preschool Children in Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breit-Smith, Allison; Busch, Jamie; Guo, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Although a general limited availability of expository texts currently exists in preschool special education classrooms, expository tests offer speech-language pathologists (SLPs) a rich context for addressing the language goals of preschool children with language impairment on their caseloads. Thus, this article highlights the differences between…

  18. Lexical and metaphonological abilities in preschoolers with phonological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Ranilde Cristiane Cavalcante; Avila, Clara Regina Brandão de

    2010-01-01

    lexical and metaphonological abilities of phonologically disordered preschoolers. to investigate the influence of Phonological Disorder on the lexical and metaphonological abilities of a group of preschoolers and the correlation between them. participants were 56 preschoolers - 32 boys and 24 girls - with ages between 4 years and 6 months and 6 years and 11 months, divided into two different groups: the Research Group, composed of 28 preschoolers with Phonological Disorder, and the Control Group, composed of 28 preschoolers with normal speech and no oral speech-related complaints, paired to the research group by gender and age. All of the participants were initially assessed by the ABFW Test - Phonology. After that, they were assessed on their lexical and metaphonological abilities by the ABFW Test - Vocabulary and phonological awareness test: sequential assessment instrument, CONFIAS - identification tasks and, rhyme and alliteration production, respectively. regarding lexical ability, the preschoolers from both groups presented similar behavior. The disordered preschoolers presented the worst performance on the overall analysis of the metaphonological ability. Age had an influence on the performance of lexical ability for both groups and the metaphonological abilities only for the Control Group. Correlations were identified, mostly positive, good to moderate between lexical and metaphonological abilities. the influence of Phonological Disorder may only be observed on the metaphonological performance. Phonological Disorder did not interfere with the development of the lexical ability of this group of preschoolers. Positive correlations were identified between both abilities in the studied age group.

  19. Disciplining Professionals: A Feminist Discourse Analysis of Public Preschool Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisson, Jamie Huff; Iverson, Susan V.

    2014-01-01

    Educational reforms across the globe have had implications for the work of preschool teachers and thus their professional identities. This article draws on a feminist discourse lens to examine data collected from a recent narrative inquiry focused on understanding the professional identities of five public preschool teachers in the USA. This…

  20. The Relation between Television Exposure and Executive Function among Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathanson, Amy I.; Aladé, Fashina; Sharp, Molly L.; Rasmussen, Eric E.; Christy, Katheryn

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relations between television exposure during the preschool years and the development of executive function (EF). Data were gathered from 107 parents of preschoolers who provided information on children's television viewing, background television exposure, exposure to specific televised content, and the age at which…

  1. The Traditional in Contemporary Curricula of Preschool Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopas-Vukašinovic, Emina; Savovic, Margit

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary curricula of preschool education are the result of the improvement of pedagogical and didactic theories. They imply a technical plan with which it is possible to achieve measurable objectives of preschool education. The curriculum is also defined as a tool for quality and equal education for all. It represents a reflection of the…

  2. Preschool Teacher Well-Being: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall-Kenyon, Kendra M.; Bullough, Robert V.; MacKay, Kathryn Lake; Marshall, Esther E.

    2014-01-01

    Much is changing in preschool education. Current reform primarily emphasizes standardized practice, academic outcomes, and accountability. Little attention has been given to how these changes are impacting the well-being of teachers. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current literature on preschool teacher well-being and identify…

  3. Relations between Attachment, Gender, and Behavior with Peers in Preschool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Patricia J.

    1991-01-01

    Preschool children's security of attachment was assessed in the laboratory, and their interactions with peers were observed in the preschool. Insecure boys showed more aggressive, disruptive, assertive, and controlling behavior than secure children. Insecure girls showed more dependent and compliant behavior, and less assertive and controlling…

  4. People, Places, and Pandas: Engaging Preschoolers with Interactive Whiteboards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berson, Ilene R.; Cross, Megan D.; Ward, Jennifer; Berson, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a recent project undertaken at the University of South Florida's (USF) Preschool for Creative Learning. To align with the inquiry approach of their laboratory school, the environment at the Preschool is designed so that children can learn through exploration and individual initiative. The administration and…

  5. Language Learning in Outdoor Environments: Perspectives of preschool staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Norling

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Language environment is highlighted as an important area in the early childhood education sector. The term language environment refers to language-promoting aspects of education, such as preschool staff’s use of verbal language in interacting with the children. There is a lack of research about language learning in outdoor environments; thus children’s language learning is mostly based on the indoor physical environment. The aim of this study is therefore to explore, analyse, and describe how preschool staff perceive language learning in outdoor environments. The data consists of focus-group interviews with 165 preschool staff members, conducted in three cities in Sweden. The study is meaningful, thus results contribute knowledge regarding preschool staffs’ understandings of language learning in outdoor environments and develop insights to help preschool staff stimulate children’s language learning in outdoor environments.

  6. Assessing Preschool Teachers’ Practices to Promote Self-Regulated Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahretdin Hasan ADAGİDELİ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent research reveals that in preschool years, through pedagogical interventions, preschool teachers can and should promote self-regulated learning. The main aim of this study is to develop a self-report instrument to assess preschool teachers’ practices to promote self-regulated learning. A pool of 50 items was recruited through literature review. Items, then, were formulated as statements, to which the teachers could respond on a Likert-scale. In line with the expert and teacher opinions, twenty statements were removed from the original pool and some statements were reformulated. The latest version of the scale consisted of 21 statements. The participants were preschool teacher (N=169 from Istanbul. Empirical testing at item and scale level showed that T-SRL is a reliable and a valid instrument to assess preschool teachers’ classroom practices promoting self-regulated learning of their children at the age of 3-6.

  7. Assessing preschool teachers’ practices to promote self-regulated learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahretdin Hasan Adagideli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent research reveals that in preschool years, through pedagogical interventions, preschool teachers can and should promote self-regulated learning. The main aim of this study is to develop a self-report instrument to assess preschool teachers’ practices to promote self-regulated learning. A pool of 50 items was recruited through literature review. Items, then, were formulated as statements, to which the teachers could respond on a Likert-scale. In line with the expert and teacher opinions, twenty statements were removed from the original pool and some statements were reformulated. The latest version of the scale consisted of 21 statements. The participants were preschool teacher (N=169 from Istanbul. Empirical testing at item and scale level showed that T-SRL is a reliable and a valid instrument to assess preschool teachers’ classroom practices promoting self-regulated learning of their children at the age of 3-6.

  8. Different forms of assessment and documentation in Swedish preschools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Christine Vallberg-Roth

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The aim is to describe and discuss documentation and assessment practices in Swedish preschools from a didaktik perspective. What different forms of documentation and assessment are found in the preschools? Preschools in both urban and rural municipalities are included in the selection.  Document and textual analysis are used. A varied multi-documentation emerge. The multi-documentation at each preschool expose that preschool teachers seem to switch between different forms of documentation and assessment, including summative, formative and other assessments. The concept of transformative assessment may capture the different assessments interwoven in the multi-documentation. Transformative assessment is a concept focusing on reshaping and interplaying assessments that are intertwined in the registration and complex documentation at different levels and directions.

  9. HIV/AIDS risk factors as portrayed in mass media targeting First Nations, Métis, and Inuit peoples of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie; Friedman, Daniela B; Clarke, Juanne N

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the coverage and portrayal of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) risk factors as framed in newspaper targeting Aboriginal (First Nations, Métis, and Inuit) peoples in canada. From a sample of 31 Aboriginal newspapers published in English from 1996 to 2000, 14 newspapers were randomly selected. Of 167 articles published on HIV/AIDS during this time period, all anecdotal (n=34) and an approximate 25% random sample of scientific (n=32) articles were analyzed using both quantitative (coding reliability and frequencies) and qualitative (in-depth content analysis) analyses. Individual risk factors for HIV/AIDS were described in 74%, (49/66) of the articles and included unprotected sexual intercourse (20/49 or 41%), sharing of needles for injection drug use (IDU; 16/49 or 33%), infected blood transfusions (3/49 or 6%), and vertical transmission from mother to a baby (10/49 or 20%). Additional risk factors of alcohol use and poverty were mentioned in 29% and 25% of the articles. In addition to the well-recognized HIV/AIDS risk groups of prostitutes and homosexual men, sexual abuse victims, prisoners, and women were identified in aboriginal newspapers as being at risk. Although Aboriginal women were identified as being at high risk, the newspaper coverage also emphasized their lack of knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS. Heterosexual men were not mentioned as being at risk for HIV/AIDS in the newspaper articles. The prevalence of HIV/AIDS is higher among Canadian Aboriginals than in the general population. Local and community newspapers are an important channels for the dissemination of health information for isolated, rural, and aboriginal communities. The findings show that Aboriginal media identify high-risk groups and individualistic risk factors for HIV/AIDS within a public health perspective.

  10. PRENATAL EXPOSURE TO METHYLMERCURY AND PCBS AFFECTS DISTINCT STAGES OF INFORMATION PROCESSING: AN EVENT-RELATED POTENTIAL STUDY WITH INUIT CHILDREN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Olivier; Bastien, Célyne H.; Saint-Amour, Dave; Dewailly, Éric; Ayotte, Pierre; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Muckle, Gina

    2016-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are seafood contaminants known for their adverse effects on neurodevelopment. This study examines the relation of developmental exposure to these contaminants to information processing assessed with event-related potentials (ERPs) in school-aged Inuit children from Nunavik (Arctic Québec). In a prospective longitudinal study on child development, exposure to contaminants was measured at birth and 11 years of age. An auditory oddball protocol was administered at 11 years to measure ERP components N1 and P3b. Multiple regression analyses were performed to examine the associations of levels of the contaminants to auditory oddball performance (mean reaction time, omission errors and false alarms) and ERP parameters (latency and amplitude) after control for potential confounding variables. A total of 118 children provided useable ERP data. Prenatal MeHg exposure was associated with slower reaction times and fewer false alarms during the oddball task. Analyses of the ERP parameters revealed that prenatal MeHg exposure was related to greater amplitude and delayed latency of the N1 wave in the target condition but not to the P3b component. MeHg effects on the N1 were stronger after control for seafood nutrients. Prenatal PCB exposure was not related to any endpoint for sample as a whole but was associated with a decrease in P3b amplitude in the subgroup of children who had been breast-fed for less than 3 months. Body burdens of MeHg and PCBs at 11 years were not related to any of the behavioural or ERP measures. These data suggest that prenatal MeHg exposure alters attentional mechanisms modulating early processing of sensory information. By contrast, prenatal PCB exposure appears to affect information processing at later stages, when the information is being consciously evaluated. These effects seem to be mitigated in children who are breast-fed for a more extended period. PMID:20403381

  11. Does Pre-School Education Matter? Understanding the Lived Experiences of Parents and Their Perceptions of Preschool Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manigo, Catrina; Allison, Rinyka

    2017-01-01

    According to the United States Department of Education, approximately 4,172,347 four-year-olds are eligible to attend publicly funded preschool programs. Of this number, only 1,709,607 of those eligible are enrolled in a publicly funded preschool program (U.S. Department of Education, 2014). Because of a lack of quantitative and qualitative data…

  12. Applying a Socioecological Model to Understand Preschool Children's Sedentary Behaviors from the Viewpoints of Parents and Preschool Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Määttä, Suvi; Ray, Carola; Roos, Gun; Roos, Eva

    2016-01-01

    This study explored parents' and preschool personnel's opinions on factors influencing 3-5-year-old children's sedentary behaviors by applying the socioecological model. Four focus group interviews with preschool personnel (N = 14) and six interviews with parents (N = 17) were conducted in autumn 2014. Two researchers independently analyzed the…

  13. Preschool Teaching Staff's Opinions on the Importance of Preschool Curricular Fields of Activities, Art Genres and Visual Arts Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupancic, Tomaž; Cagran, Branka; Mulej, Matjaž

    2015-01-01

    This article presents preschool teachers' and assistant teachers' opinions on the importance of selected fields of educational work in kindergartens. The article first highlights the importance of activities expressing artistic creativity within modern curriculums. Then, it presents an empirical study that examines the preschool teachers' and…

  14. The relationship between preschool education attendance and school performance and potential for improvement of preschool education in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujić Sunčica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the data of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA in 2003 and 2009, we look at the relationship between preschool attendance and school performance, taking into account socio-economic characteristics of a family and a household. The effect of preschool education on student achievement is measured through the 15-year-old pupils' scholastic performance in reading, mathematics and scientific literacy evaluated through PISA. We find that for male pupils the positive effect of preschool attendance on school performance disappears once we control for the factors of socio-economic background. In the sample of female pupils, the positive effect of preschool attendance on school performance remains significant even after we control for the factors of socio-economic background. Based on the PISA data results and the large nationally representative surveys (MICS, LSMS, we conclude that there are different possibilities for improvement of preschool education in Serbia, considered from the perspective of coverage and equity, quality of offered services, as well as a number of children per educator, and the total governmental resources earmarked for preschool education. This is important because improvement of preschool education contributes to the positive development of a relationship between preschool education and long-term education outcomes.

  15. Preschool Teachers' Use of Music in the Classroom: A Survey of Park District Preschool Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Rekha S.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how preschool teachers use music and identify the types of music activities available to children in their classrooms. Preschool teachers (N = 178) at park district programs throughout a large state in the American Midwest responded to an online questionnaire. Although teachers acknowledged using music…

  16. Obesity in preschoolers: behavioral correlates and directions for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhl, Elizabeth S; Clifford, Lisa M; Stark, Lori J

    2012-01-01

    Nearly 14% of American preschoolers (ages 2-5) are obese (BMI ≥ 95th percentile for age and gender), yet this group has received little attention in the obesity intervention literature. This review examines what is known about behavioral correlates of obesity in preschoolers and the developmental context for lifestyle modification in this age group. Information was used to critically evaluate existing weight management prevention and intervention programs for preschoolers and formulate suggestions for future intervention research development. A systematic search of the medical and psychological/behavioral literatures was conducted with no date restrictions, using PubMed, PsycInfo, and MEDLINE electronic databases and bibliographies of relevant manuscripts. Evidence suggests several modifiable behaviors, such as sugar sweetened beverage intake, television use, and inadequate sleep, may differentiate obese and healthy weight preschoolers. Developmental barriers, such as food neophobia, food preferences, and tantrums challenge caregiver efforts to modify preschoolers' diet and activity and parental feeding approaches, and family routines appear related to the negative eating and activity patterns observed in obese preschoolers. Prevention programs yield modest success in slowing weight gain, but their effect on already obese preschoolers is unclear. Multi-component, family-based, behavioral interventions show initial promise in positive weight management for already obese preschoolers. Given that obesity intervention research for preschoolers is in its infancy, and the multitude of modifiable behavioral correlates for obesity in this age group, we discuss the use of an innovative and efficient research paradigm (Multiphase Optimization Strategy; MOST) to develop an optimized intervention that includes only treatment components that are found to empirically reduce obesity in preschoolers.

  17. An Evaluation of the Preschool PATHS Curriculum on the Development of Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Cerian; Cline, Tony

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of preschool Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS), an early years curriculum designed to improve children's social and emotional competence, and reduce problem behaviour. Fifty-seven children aged three to four years took part in the study over one academic year. The control group (Group 1) received…

  18. Preschoolers' Performance on the Brazilian Adaptation of the Preschool Language Assessment Instrument - Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindau, Tâmara Andrade; Rossi, Natalia Freitas; Giacheti, Celia Maria

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to test whether the Brazilian version of the Preschool Language Assessment Instrument - Second Edition (PLAI-2) has the potential to assess and identify differences in typical language development of Portuguese-speaking preschoolers. The study included 354 children of both genders with typical language development who were between the ages of 3 years and 5 years 11 months. The version of the PLAI-2 previously translated into Brazilian Portuguese was used to assess the communication skills of these preschool-age children. Statistically significant differences were found between the age groups, and the raw score tended to increase as a function of age. With nonstandardized assessments, the performances of the younger groups revealed behavioral profiles (e.g., nonresponsive, impulsive behavior) that directly influenced the evaluation. The findings of this study show that the PLAI-2 is effective in identifying differences in language development among Brazilian children of preschool age. Future research should include studies validating and standardizing these findings. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Preschool Children's Healthy Lifestyles: South African Parents' and Preschool Staff Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Karen; Forinder, Ulla; Clarke, Marina; Snyman, Stefanus; Ringsberg, Karin C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The worldwide growth of non-communicable diseases requires important lifestyle adaptations. The earlier a healthy lifestyle is adopted, the better. Enabling a healthy lifestyle for children during the preschool years ideally involves the cooperation of parents and teachers. Health promotion with parents and teachers is most effective…

  20. Preschool Teachers' Perceptions of Rough and Tumble Play vs. Aggression in Preschool-Aged Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCarlo, Cynthia F.; Baumgartner, Jennifer; Ota, Carrie; Jenkins, Charlene

    2015-01-01

    Rough and tumble play has been found to be positive for physical, social and cognitive development; it is often erroneously misinterpreted as aggression and generally stopped by preschool teachers. The current study sought to examine the relationship between teacher training and education and judgements about aggression in children. Ninety-four…

  1. Does Professional Development of Preschool Teachers Improve Child Socio-Emotional Outcomes?

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Bente; Jensen, Peter; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    2015-01-01

    From 2011 to 2013 a randomized controlled trial has been run in Danish preschools to obtain evidence on improvements of early childhood education by providing training to the preschool teachers. The purpose of the intervention is to improve child socio-emotional outcomes (measured by SDQ), especially for socially disadvantaged children. The intervention preschools received extra training of the preschool teachers, whereas control preschools did not receive any training. The results show impro...

  2. Identification of a novel BRCA1 nucleotide 4803delCC/c.4684delCC mutation and a nucleotide 249T>A/c.130T>A (p.Cys44Ser) mutation in two Greenlandic Inuit families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas van Overeem; Jønson, Lars; Albrechtsen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Germ-line mutations in the tumour suppressor proteins BRCA1 and BRCA2 predispose to breast and ovarian cancer. We have recently identified a Greenlandic Inuit BRCA1 nucleotide 234T>G/c.115T>G (p.Cys39Gly) founder mutation, which at that time was the only disease-causing BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation...... identified in this population. Here, we describe the identification of a novel disease-causing BRCA1 nucleotide 4803delCC/c.4684delCC mutation in a Greenlandic Inuit with ovarian cancer. The mutation introduces a frameshift and a premature stop at codon 1572. We have also identified a BRCA1 nucleotide 249T......>A/c.130T>A (p.Cys44Ser) mutation in another Greenlandic individual with ovarian cancer. This patient share a 1-2 Mb genomic fragment, containing the BRCA1 gene, with four Danish families harbouring the same mutation, suggesting that the 249T>A/c.130T>A (p.Cys44Ser) mutation originates from a Danish...

  3. Inter-population variations in concentrations, determinants of and correlations between 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153 and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl-ethylene (p,p'-DDE: a cross-sectional study of 3161 men and women from Inuit and European populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonefeld-Jörgensen Eva C

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study is part of a collaborative project (Inuendo, aiming to assess the impact of dietary persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs on human fertility. The aims with the present study are to analyze inter-population variations in serum concentrations of 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153 and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl-ethylene (p,p'-DDE, to assess inter-population variations in biomarker correlations, and to evaluate the relative impact of different determinants for the inter-individual variations in POP-biomarkers. Method In study populations of 3161 adults, comprising Greenlandic Inuits, Swedish fishermen and their wives, and inhabitants from Warsaw, Poland and Kharkiv, Ukraine, serum concentrations of CB-153 and p,p'-DDE, were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results The median serum concentrations of CB-153 were for male and female Inuits 200 and 110, for Swedish fishermen 190 and their wives 84, for Kharkiv men and women 44 and 27, and for Warsaw men and women 17 and 11 ng/g lipids, respectively. The median serum concentrations of p,p'-DDE were for Kharkiv men and women 930 and 650, for male and female Inuits 560 and 300, for Warsaw men and women 530 and 380, and for Swedish fishermen 240 and their wives 140 ng/g lipids, respectively. The correlation coefficients between CB-153 and p,p'-DDE varied between 0.19 and 0.92, with the highest correlation among Inuits and the lowest among men from Warsaw. Men had averagely higher serum concentrations of CB-153 and p,p'-DDE, and there were positive associations between age and the POP-biomarkers, whereas the associations with BMI and smoking were inconsistent. Dietary seafood was of importance only in the Inuit and Swedish populations. Conclusion CB-153 concentrations were much higher in Inuits and Swedish fishermen's populations than in the populations from Eastern Europe, whereas the pattern was different for p,p'-DDE showing highest

  4. Polish 2012 growth references for preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kułaga, Zbigniew; Grajda, Aneta; Gurzkowska, Beata; Góźdź, Magdalena; Wojtyło, Małgorzata; Swiąder, Anna; Różdżyńska-Świątkowska, Agnieszka; Litwin, Mieczysław

    2013-06-01

    Growth references are useful in monitoring a child's growth, which is an essential part of child care. The aim of this paper is to provide updated growth references for Polish preschool children and to assess how well children in Poland match or diverge from the World Health Organization (WHO) growth standards/references and recent German height-for-age references. The height-, weight-, body mass index-for-age, and weight-for-height references were constructed with the LMS method using data from a recent, large, population-representative sample of 4,941 preschool children aged 3 to 6 years (the OLA study). In the case of boys, the third, 50th, and 97th height percentiles of new Polish and German references overlap almost completely, whereas the WHO growth standards/references percentiles are systematically lower. In the case of girls, comparison between the new Polish and German height references showed conformity on the third and 50th percentile, whereas body height values of the WHO standards/references are shorter. Polish children aged 3 to 6 years from for the nation representative sample, had significantly greater than zero mean z scores of height-, weight-, and BMI-for-age and weight-for-height, relative to the WHO growth standards/references. The number of children in the sample with height-for-age below -2 SD was significantly lower than expected and number of children with height-for-age above +2 SD was significantly higher than expected. The OLA study growth references can be recommended as national references for preschool children in Poland.

  5. SMOKING HABITS OF NIS PRESCHOOL CHILDREN'S PARENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miodrag Vucic

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The greatest threat for the public health in Serbia is definitively smoking. 1,3 billion of people in the world are smokers and 4,9 million of death at the global level are direct consequences of smoking. If this smoking rhythm continues until 2020. the number of deaths caused by smoking will have been doubled. There are 4000 identified substances in the tobacco smoke, 50 of which have been proven to be carcinogenic. Nowdays, 14000 to 15000 young people in the developed countries and 68000-84000 in the underdeveloped contries begin to smoke. 700 millions of children, the half of the whole children population, are exposed to the passive smoking.The prevalence of smoking in Serbia, although reduced by 6,9% compared to 2000 is still very high and makes 33,6% of the whole population (38,1% of men and 29,9% of women.The aim of this study was to investigate the smoking habits of preschool children's parents, motivated by the fact that the children of that age are highly sensitive and susceptible to the toxic influence of tobacco smoke, but also to check the necessity for an aggressive public health programme implementation in the aimed populations.This research, as a cross-sectional stady, is carried out among preschool children's parents, children being 4 to 6 years old that attend nursery schools in Nis.The prevalence of smoking in preschool children's parents is extremely high, and makes 46% (45,1% of men and 46,9% of women. Having taken into consideration the parental role in upbringing and education of children, as well as the influence of passive smoking, the main conclusion is that the children's health is seriously endangered. Education, making new and maintaining already existing programmes and legal obligations considering smoking are significant steps for reducing smoking and promoting health.

  6. BUDESONIDE TREATMENT IN CHILDREN PRESCHOOL AGE

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    E.A. Vishneva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronchial asthma remains disease with wide prevalence in children different age. Inhalation corticosteroids are medications of first line of therapy in children. The article describes the ways of treatment with budesonide (Pulmicort in children preschool age. The data from different studies prove the effectiveness and safety of treatment with as turbuhaler, as nebulizer form of this drug. Key words: children, bronchial asthma, inhalational corticosteroids, budesonide.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(1:76-80

  7. Curriculum in preschool. Adjustment or libetation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström professor m.so., Stig

    2012-01-01

    on this tendency and consider developing an alternative approach: Critical early childhood education. On the basis of a critical theory of society, a theory of recognition (Honneth, 1995), a Bildung oriented critical-constructive Didaktik* (Klafki, 1995, 1998) and various childhood approaches (Dahlberg, Moss......, & Pence, 2001, 2007), this article will present an outline of critical preschool education. * The German term Didaktik is not the equivalent of the English term didactics. The concept of Didaktik goes beyond both didactics and the term curriculum by focusing on both democratic aims and content...

  8. Associations between preschool attendance and developmental impairments in pre-school children in a six-year retrospective survey

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    Baune Bernhard T

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many school-aged children suffer physical and mental impairments which can adversely affect their development and result in significant morbidity. A high proportion of children in western countries attend pre-school, and it is likely that the preschool environment influences the prevalence and severity of these impairments. Currently there is insufficient data available on the prevalence of these impairments and their causal associations. The influence that location of a pre-school and the duration of preschool attendance have on the prevalence of these impairments is not known. Methods In a retrospective survey spanning six years (1997–2002 we reviewed the records of 6,230 preschool children who had undergone routine school entry assessments. These children had been assessed utilising a modified manual of the "Bavarian Model" for school entry examinations. This model outlines specific criteria for impairments of motor, cognitive, behavioural and psychosocial functioning. Prevalence rates for physical and behavioural impairments were based on the results of these assessments. The relationship between the prevalence of impairments and the duration of preschool attendance and the location of the preschool attended was estimated utilizing logistic regression models. Results We found that 20.7% of children met the criteria for at least one type of impairment. Highest prevalence rates (11.5% were seen for speech impairments and lowest (3.5% for arithmetic impairments. Boys were disproportionately over represented, with 25.5% meeting the criteria for impairment, compared to 13.0% for girls. Children who had attended preschool for less than one year demonstrated higher rates of impairment (up to 19.1% for difficulties with memory, concentration or perseverance compared to those who had attended for a longer duration (up to 11.6% for difficulties with pronouncation. Children attending preschool in an urban location had slightly

  9. Integration of children with visual impairment in regular preschools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambring, M

    2001-09-01

    The current practice in Germany is to integrate children who are blind or partially sighted into regular preschools providing they exhibit no further severe impairments. The present study asked 72 regular preschool teachers about their experiences in integrating 24 children who were blind and 16 who were partially sighted. Results showed that integration seemed to be unproblematic except for greater emotional difficulties in children who are partially sighted. According to preschool teachers, integrating children who are blind is far more complex and difficult than integrating the partially sighted. One fifth of the blind exhibited marked to serious problems in 10 out of 28 preschool activities surveyed. Most of these difficulties involved manual, cognitive, interactive and daily living skills. When asked about difficulties that had not been anticipated before integration commenced, preschool teachers emphasized four domains: the increase in their own workload; the children's problems with concentration and motivation; fixation on one preschool teacher; and difficulties in the fine- and gross-motor domain as well as in daily living skills. Findings indicate the need for improved preparations and support when integrating the blind into regular preschool.

  10. Relational Aggression in Children with Preschool Onset (PO) Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belden, Andy C.; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Luby, Joan L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The role of preschool onset (PO) psychiatric disorders as correlates and/or risk factors for relational aggression during kindergarten or 1st grade was tested in a sample of N = 146 preschool-age children (3 to 5.11). Method Axis-I diagnoses and symptom scores were derived using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment. Children’s roles in relational aggression as aggressor, victim, aggressive-victim, or non-aggressor/non-victim were determined at preschool and again 24 months later at elementary school entry. Results Preschoolers diagnosed with PO-psychiatric disorders were 3 times as likely as the healthy preschoolers to be classified aggressors, victims, or aggressive-victims. Children diagnosed with PO-disruptive, depressive, and/or anxiety disorders were at least 6 times as likely as children without PO-psychiatric disorders to become aggressive-victims during elementary school after covarying for other key risk factors. Conclusions Findings suggested that PO-psychiatric disorders differentiated preschool and school-age children’s roles in relational aggression based on teacher-report. Recommendations for future research and preventative intervention aimed at minimizing the development of relational aggression in early childhood by identifying and targeting PO-psychiatric disorders are made. PMID:22917202

  11. Ways to improve the professionalism quality of pre-school teachers in the implementation of developing training in practice of preschool educational institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Бахышева Шарафат Арам кызы

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article the problems of pre-school teachers’ training in the process of implementation in pre-school "Curriculum of pre-school education in the Republic of Azerbaijan" are revealed. Difficulties and positive aspects in the work of teachers implementing developing training are marked. Education upgrading requires knowledge of trends of innovative developments in this system, objectives, content, forms and methods of work from pre-school teachers

  12. Some effects of homelessness on the psychological functioning of preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBiase, R; Waddell, S

    1995-12-01

    The developmental consequences of homelessness have only recently begun to be investigated. This study examined the effects of homelessness on the self-concept, behavioral symptoms, and emotional development of preschoolers. Self-concept was examined using the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Acceptance for Young Children and teachers rated behavioral symptoms using the Child Behavior Checklist. Emotional development was also examined. Results showed that homeless preschoolers have lower self-concepts and display more deviant behaviors on the Child Behavior Checklist than housed preschoolers of the same socioeconomic status. Recognition and understanding of emotion, however, were similar in both groups.

  13. Arctic Security: An Adaptive Approach for a Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Center for International Studies in Toronto, “the evolving security perspective in Greenland and Nunavut is formed by the Inuit tradition which...nations using state-of-the- art technologies to explore physical, biological, and social research topics in both the Arctic and Antarctic.136 Among the

  14. Why Do They Speak Inuktitut? Language and Identity in Iqaluit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorais, Louis-Jacques

    Residents of Iqaluit, the capital of Nunavut, discussed why they use Inuktitut or English in different circumstances. Interviews with 50 Inuit adults in Iqaluit inquired about their language usage with six categories of people: their parents, children, spouse, siblings, friends, and fellow workers. No gender differences were found, although some…

  15. Adaptations of Professional Ethics among Counselors Living and Working in a Remote Native Canadian Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wihak, Christine; Merali, Noorfarah

    2007-01-01

    Eight non-Native counselors who temporarily relocated to the Native Canadian community of Nunavut were interviewed upon their return about experiences working with Inuit clients that challenged their professional training. Analysis of the counselors' narratives suggested that they used a social constructivism approach to manage confidentiality,…

  16. Food brand recognition and BMI in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Kristen; Moorman, Jessica; Peralta, Mericarmen; Fayhee, Kally

    2017-07-01

    Children's food brand recognition predicts health-related outcomes such as preference for obesogenic foods and increased risk for overweight. However, it is uncertain to what degree food brand recognition acts as a proxy for other factors such as parental education and income, child vocabulary, child age, child race/ethnicity, parent healthy eating guidance, child commercial TV viewing, and child dietary intake, all of which may influence or be influenced by food brand recognition. U.S. preschoolers (N = 247, average age 56 months) were measured for BMI and completed the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test plus recognition and recall measures for a selection of U.S. food brands. Parents completed measures of healthy eating guidance, child dietary intake, child commercial TV viewing, parent education, household income, parent BMI, and child age and race/ethnicity. Controlling these variables, child food brand recognition predicted higher child BMI percentile. Further, qualitative examination of children's incorrect answers to recall items demonstrated perceptual confusion between brand mascots and other fantasy characters to which children are exposed during the preschool years, extending theory on child consumer development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Relationship Between Parents and Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgun Ongider

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Parents play a key role in the emotional development of child especially in preschool age. There are many related factors in the relationship of child and parent. It is important to understand children’s subjective experiences with their parents. Temperamental characteristics of the mother have an important role to play in the quality of this relationship. Most parents desire to have deep, intimate relationships between their children. Also, children need emo-tional closeness, safety and security. Attachment is the strong emotional bond that develops between child and primary caregiver. The secure attachment style increases the emotional development of child positively and it may serve as a protective factor for psychological well-being. Children’s well-being often depends on how children perceive or interpret their parents behaviors. Poor parenting practices represent some of the most risk factors for psychological problems in childhood. There are many research results show that correlation between the parental negative attitudes and the psychopathology of the children. The present study aimed to review the relationship between parent and preschool children.

  18. Food consumption patterns in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabayo, Roman; Spence, John C; Casey, Linda; Storey, Kate

    2012-01-01

    Healthy eating during early childhood is important for growth and development. Eating Well with Canada's Food Guide (CFG) provides dietary recommendations. We investigated patterns of food consumption among preschool children and attempted to determine whether these children's intakes met nutrition recommendations. Between 2005 and 2007, four- and five-year-old children (n=2015) attending 12 Edmonton-region public health units for immunization were recruited for a longitudinal study on determinants of childhood obesity. The children's dietary intake at baseline was assessed using parental reports. Overall, 29.6%, 23.5%, 90.9%, and 94.2% of the children met recommendations for vegetables and fruit, grain products, milk and alternatives, and meat and alternatives, respectively. In addition, 79.5% consumed at least one weekly serving of foods in the "choose least often" group. Significant differences existed in consumption of food groups across socioeconomic and demographic groups. For example, 82.9%, 84.7%, and 75.9% of preschool children from neighbourhoods of low, medium, and high socioeconomic status, respectively, consumed at least one food in the "choose least often" group (χ² =16.2, pConsumption of vegetables and fruit and grain products was low among participants, and intake of "choose least often" foods was high. Consumption of foods also differed among socioeconomic and demographic groups. To encourage healthy eating among children, public health professionals should target groups who do not meet the CFG recommendations.

  19. [Quality scale for preschool spirometry interpretation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, Francisca; Bedregal, Paula; Ubilla, Carlos; Barrientos, Hortensia; Caussade, Solange

    2017-02-01

    Since 2007, there are international guidelines for implementation and interpretation of spirometry in preschool children. A percentage of these patients cannot obtain maneuvers that meet all eligibility criteria. The objective of this study was to develop a quality scale for interpreting these partially acceptable spirometry. Delphi methodology was used, which allows to reach consensus among experts analyzing a defined problem. We invited to participate pediatric pneumologists dedicated to lung function and who participated actively in scientific specialty societies in Chile. Successive rounds were conducted with questionnaires about criteria used to assess spirometry in preschool children. These criteria define the acceptability of spirometric maneuvers according to international guidelines. Proposed quality grades were “very good”, “good”, “fair” and “bad”. Thirteen of the 15 invited experts accepted our invitation. In the first round 9 disagreed with the degree of “regular” quality. In the second round this was removed and 11 experts answered, 9 of them agreed with the use of this new version. The most contentious criterion was the end of expiration. Most experts agreed with the final scale, using “very good”, “good” and “bad” judgments. This would help to improve the performance of spirometry in children between 2 and 5 years.

  20. Oral transmucosal midazolam premedication for preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, U A; Collier, P J; Malviya, S; Voepel-Lewis, T; Wagner, D; Siewert, M J

    2001-02-01

    To evaluate the acceptance and effectiveness of 0.2 mg x kg(-1) of oral transmucosal midazolam as a premedicant in infants and preschool children. In a randomized, prospective double-blind placebo controlled study, 44 healthy children, between the ages of eight months to six years, presenting for elective surgery were divided in two groups. The medicated group received 0.2 mg x kg(-1) of injectable midazolam mixed with an equal volume of strawberry syrup and the placebo group received plain syrup 0.08 ml x kg(-1). Medications were placed on the anterosuperior aspect of the child's tongue in 3-5 aliquots of 0.2-0.4 ml. A blinded observer assessed the acceptance of the medication by willingness to open the mouth for the next aliquot and the efficacy of the medication was assessed by ease of separation from the parent. Ninety-six percent of the children in the placebo group and 95% in the midazolam group willingly accepted the medication. Separation of children from parents was successful in 95% of the medicated children compared with 59% in the placebo group (P = 0.006). Oral midazolam in thick strawberry syrup, administered in small aliquots via the oral transmucosal route was well accepted and proved to be an effective premedicant in infants and preschool children.