WorldWideScience

Sample records for intuition

  1. Intuition: A Concept Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilcote, Deborah R

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to conceptually examine intuition; identify the importance of intuition in nursing education, clinical practice, and patient care; encourage acceptance of the use of intuition; and add to the body of nursing knowledge. Nurses often report using intuition when making clinical decisions. Intuition is a rapid, unconscious process based in global knowledge that views the patient holistically while synthesizing information to improve patient outcomes. However, with the advent of evidence-based practice (EBP), the use of intuition has become undervalued in nursing. Walker and Avant's framework was used to analyze intuition. A literature search from 1987 to 2014 was conducted using the following keywords: intuition, intuition and nursing, clinical decision making, clinical decision making and intuition, patient outcomes, EBP, and analytical thinking. The use of intuition is reported by nurses, but is not legitimized within the nursing profession. Defining attributes of intuition are an unconscious, holistic knowledge gathered without using an analytical process and knowledge derived through synthesis, not analysis. Consequences include verification of intuition through an analytical process and translating that knowledge into a course of action. This article supports the use of intuition in nursing by offering clarity to the concept, adds to the nursing knowledge base, encourages a holistic view of the patient during clinical decision making, and encourages nurse educators to promote the use of intuition. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. INTUITION IN INTERIOR DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Solovyova

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Intuition enables individuals to develop an understanding of the structure of complex systems. In interior design many decisions are reached intuitively even though the process of formulating solutions may be argued rationally. Intuition is intrinsically intertwined with our collateral experiences, memories, and implicit thought. Design intuition draws on our entire experience, not only on what we consciously isolate as relevant information. In education we prohibit students from relying on their intuition and require solutions based on pure reason. The author of this paper argues for bringing intuitive decision making back into interior design as a legitimate design tactic.

  3. Hvad er intuition?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeller, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Artiklen undersøger forskellige betydningsvarianter af begrebet intuition og deres rolle i Descartes' og Kants erkendelsesteori.......Artiklen undersøger forskellige betydningsvarianter af begrebet intuition og deres rolle i Descartes' og Kants erkendelsesteori....

  4. INTUITION IN INTERIOR DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Solovyova

    2008-01-01

    Intuition enables individuals to develop an understanding of the structure of complex systems. In interior design many decisions are reached intuitively even though the process of formulating solutions may be argued rationally. Intuition is intrinsically intertwined with our collateral experiences, memories, and implicit thought. Design intuition draws on our entire experience, not only on what we consciously isolate as relevant information. In education we prohibit students from relying on t...

  5. Explaining Away Intuitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Ichikawa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available What is it to explain away an intuition? Philosophers regularly attempt to explain intuitions away, but it is often unclear what the success conditions for their project consist in. I attempt to articulate some of these conditions, taking philosophical case studies as guides, and arguing that many attempts to explain away intuitions underestimate the challenge the project of explaining away involves. I will conclude, therefore, that explaining away intuitions is a more difficult task than has sometimes been appreciated; I also suggest, however, that the importance of explaining away intuitions has often been exaggerated.

  6. The Management of Intuition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Haynes

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Human intuition and the creativity afforded by that intuition is an aspect of the essential human-ness of any Human Being. Heidegger refers to this essential humanness as Dasein. Collectively and individually therefore, Dasein - and from that, intuition - should be an organization’s greatest asset. It is accordingly, at least initially, difficult to understand why the management of almost all organizations do not pay more attention to the development of this asset. This paper examines a phenomenological approach to managing intuition. In particular, the paper examines the nature of Heidegger’s notion of Ding-an-sich (the thing-in-itself, a grasp of which, it is argued, is essential in coming to terms with the human capacity for intuition and creativity. The paper also offers a number of possibilities for managing intuition under the general heading of Thematic Management.

  7. Journey Through Intuition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina LEGREE

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article I wish to share how I learned about intuition through personal experiences and why it is important in education. Intuition is linked to epistemology, language, emotions, health, memory and involves the inner life of the person. For most of my life, I had very little understanding about intuition and deemed this phenomenon as useless in education. I started to learn about intuition as a result of my spouses catastrophic death. The grief I experienced precipitated a loss in my belief system and I felt a significant decrease in my ability to function in a logical or rational manner. My journey into intuition enabled me to forge a new way to live my life. I believe that each person has the ability to learn about intuition and how it can be useful in guiding ones life. The mainstream school system however fails to recognize intuition as a valid way of learning despite the research in this field. Students are therefore being given a partial education. Given this, I feel there is a serious problem which emerges if people are led to believe that the mainstream education system is offering students a complete education.

  8. Does intuition cause cooperation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkoeijen, Peter P J L; Bouwmeester, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    Recently, researchers claimed that people are intuitively inclined to cooperate with reflection causing them to behave selfishly. Empirical support for this claim came from experiments using a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 showing that people contributed more money to a common project when they had to decide quickly (i.e., a decision based on intuition) than when they were instructed to reflect and decide slowly. This intuitive-cooperation effect is of high scientific and practical importance because it argues against a central assumption of traditional economic and evolutionary models. The first experiment of present study was set up to examine the generality of the intuitive-cooperation effect and to further validate the experimental task producing the effect. In Experiment 1, we investigated Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT) workers' contributions to a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 while we manipulated the knowledge about the other players' contribution to the public goods game (contribution known vs. contribution unknown), the identity of the other players (humans vs. computers randomly generating contributions) and the time constraint (time pressure/intuition vs. forced delay/reflection). However, the results of Experiment 1 failed to reveal an intuitive-cooperation effect. Furthermore, four subsequent direct replications attempts with AMT workers (Experiments 2a, 2b, 2c and Experiment 3, which was conducted with naïve/inexperienced participants) also failed to demonstrate intuitive-cooperation effects. Taken together, the results of the present study could not corroborate the idea that people are intuitively cooperative, hence suggesting that the theoretical relationship between intuition and cooperation should be further scrutinized.

  9. Does intuition cause cooperation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter P J L Verkoeijen

    Full Text Available Recently, researchers claimed that people are intuitively inclined to cooperate with reflection causing them to behave selfishly. Empirical support for this claim came from experiments using a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 showing that people contributed more money to a common project when they had to decide quickly (i.e., a decision based on intuition than when they were instructed to reflect and decide slowly. This intuitive-cooperation effect is of high scientific and practical importance because it argues against a central assumption of traditional economic and evolutionary models. The first experiment of present study was set up to examine the generality of the intuitive-cooperation effect and to further validate the experimental task producing the effect. In Experiment 1, we investigated Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT workers' contributions to a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 while we manipulated the knowledge about the other players' contribution to the public goods game (contribution known vs. contribution unknown, the identity of the other players (humans vs. computers randomly generating contributions and the time constraint (time pressure/intuition vs. forced delay/reflection. However, the results of Experiment 1 failed to reveal an intuitive-cooperation effect. Furthermore, four subsequent direct replications attempts with AMT workers (Experiments 2a, 2b, 2c and Experiment 3, which was conducted with naïve/inexperienced participants also failed to demonstrate intuitive-cooperation effects. Taken together, the results of the present study could not corroborate the idea that people are intuitively cooperative, hence suggesting that the theoretical relationship between intuition and cooperation should be further scrutinized.

  10. ANALYSIS OF HUMAN INTUITION TOWARDS ARTIFICIAL INTUITION SYNTHESIS FOR ROBOTICS

    OpenAIRE

    Octavio Diaz-Hernandez; Victor J. Gonzalez-Villela

    2017-01-01

    Human intuition is an unconscious mental process aimed to solve problems without using a rational decision-making process. Meanwhile, the artificial intuition is a limited representation of human intuition, and it models intuitive ability of solving problems in order to be implemented in machines. In this work, we performed an analysis about analogies between human and artificial intuition using INPUTS, PROCESSING, and OUTPUTS. Mainly, we have focused on synthetize algorithms that improve rob...

  11. Apes are intuitive statisticians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakoczy, Hannes; Clüver, Annette; Saucke, Liane; Stoffregen, Nicole; Gräbener, Alice; Migura, Judith; Call, Josep

    2014-04-01

    Inductive learning and reasoning, as we use it both in everyday life and in science, is characterized by flexible inferences based on statistical information: inferences from populations to samples and vice versa. Many forms of such statistical reasoning have been found to develop late in human ontogeny, depending on formal education and language, and to be fragile even in adults. New revolutionary research, however, suggests that even preverbal human infants make use of intuitive statistics. Here, we conducted the first investigation of such intuitive statistical reasoning with non-human primates. In a series of 7 experiments, Bonobos, Chimpanzees, Gorillas and Orangutans drew flexible statistical inferences from populations to samples. These inferences, furthermore, were truly based on statistical information regarding the relative frequency distributions in a population, and not on absolute frequencies. Intuitive statistics in its most basic form is thus an evolutionarily more ancient rather than a uniquely human capacity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Intuitive analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Intuitive Analog Circuit Design outlines ways of thinking about analog circuits and systems that let you develop a feel for what a good, working analog circuit design should be. This book reflects author Marc Thompson's 30 years of experience designing analog and power electronics circuits and teaching graduate-level analog circuit design, and is the ideal reference for anyone who needs a straightforward introduction to the subject. In this book, Dr. Thompson describes intuitive and ""back-of-the-envelope"" techniques for designing and analyzing analog circuits, including transistor amplifi

  13. Intuition, Reason, and Metacognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Valerie A.; Prowse Turner, Jamie A.; Pennycook, Gordon

    2011-01-01

    Dual Process Theories (DPT) of reasoning posit that judgments are mediated by both fast, automatic processes and more deliberate, analytic ones. A critical, but unanswered question concerns the issue of monitoring and control: When do reasoners rely on the first, intuitive output and when do they engage more effortful thinking? We hypothesised…

  14. Fairness is intuitive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappelen, Alexander W.; Panton, Ulrik Haagen; Tungodden, Bertil

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we provide new evidence showing that fair behavior is intuitive to most people. We find a strong association between a short response time and fair behavior in the dictator game. This association is robust to controls that take account of the fact that response time might be affected...

  15. Does intuition cause cooperation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P.J.L. Verkoeijen (Peter); S. Bouwmeester (Samantha)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractRecently, researchers claimed that people are intuitively inclined to cooperate with reflection causing them to behave selfishly. Empirical support for this claim came from experiments using a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 showing that people contributed more

  16. Les intuitions rationnelles sont-elles des intuitions modales?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saint-Germier, Pierre Laurent G

    2017-01-01

    We discuss the view, accepted by many rational intuition theorists, that rational intuitions involve appearances of necessity. The fact that we can have rational intuitions of contingent propositions casts a doubt on the adequacy of this view. This fact can be accommodated by a fallibilist theory...... of rational intuitions, provided one accepts that these intuitions generate ineliminable modal illusions. Drawing on two-dimensional explanations of the contingent a priori, we defend an alternative view according to which the appearances involved in rational intuitions are not appearances of necessity...

  17. Intuitive numbers guide decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Peters

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Measuring reaction times to number comparisons is thought to reveal a processing stage in elementary numerical cognition linked to internal, imprecise representations of number magnitudes. These intuitive representations of the mental number line have been demonstrated across species and human development but have been little explored in decision making. This paper develops and tests hypotheses about the influence of such evolutionarily ancient, intuitive numbers on human decisions. We demonstrate that individuals with more precise mental-number-line representations are higher in numeracy (number skills consistent with previous research with children. Individuals with more precise representations (compared to those with less precise representations also were more likely to choose larger, later amounts over smaller, immediate amounts, particularly with a larger proportional difference between the two monetary outcomes. In addition, they were more likely to choose an option with a larger proportional but smaller absolute difference compared to those with less precise representations. These results are consistent with intuitive number representations underlying: a perceived differences between numbers, b the extent to which proportional differences are weighed in decisions, and, ultimately, c the valuation of decision options. Human decision processes involving numbers important to health and financial matters may be rooted in elementary, biological processes shared with other species.

  18. Intuition in Business: Empirical Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomin, Eugeniy P.; Alekseev, Andrey A.; Fomina, Natalia E.; Rensh, Marina A.; Zaitseva, Ekaterina V.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the authors propose economic projection of the views of Daniel Kahneman on intuition. The authors believe intuition to act as an operative category in entrepreneurship. The results of given statistical experiment prove viability of the phenomenon of intuition when making investment decisions. Two independent mechanisms for…

  19. "Critique of intuitive reason"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrijević Aleksandar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The author displays and reexamines Hare’s "two-level theory" of normative moral thinking ("intuitive" level and "critical" level, including goals that are intended by its establishing. Given Hare’s holism, the met ethical level, considered as fundamental or the "third" level, has notable effect on process of normative reasoning, especially if it is taken as one of the determinant of the critical moral thin king. Central part of the analysis is examination of utilitarian character of the theory.

  20. Minimalism and Speakers’ Intuitions

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    Matías Gariazzo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Minimalism proposes a semantics that does not account for speakers’ intuitions about the truth conditions of a range of sentences or utterances. Thus, a challenge for this view is to offer an explanation of how its assignment of semantic contents to these sentences is grounded in their use. Such an account was mainly offered by Soames, but also suggested by Cappelen and Lepore. The article criticizes this explanation by presenting four kinds of counterexamples to it, and arrives at the conclusion that minimalism has not successfully answered the above-mentioned challenge.

  1. Intuitive introductory statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Douglas A

    2017-01-01

    This textbook is designed to give an engaging introduction to statistics and the art of data analysis. The unique scope includes, but also goes beyond, classical methodology associated with the normal distribution. What if the normal model is not valid for a particular data set? This cutting-edge approach provides the alternatives. It is an introduction to the world and possibilities of statistics that uses exercises, computer analyses, and simulations throughout the core lessons. These elementary statistical methods are intuitive. Counting and ranking features prominently in the text. Nonparametric methods, for instance, are often based on counts and ranks and are very easy to integrate into an introductory course. The ease of computation with advanced calculators and statistical software, both of which factor into this text, allows important techniques to be introduced earlier in the study of statistics. This book's novel scope also includes measuring symmetry with Walsh averages, finding a nonp...

  2. Death of a Compatibilistic Intuition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Thomas Boysen

    2004-01-01

    The common key intuition that freedom is to do what you want to do is very attractive to compatibilistic accounts of freedom. And as a matter of fact this key intuition has been adopted by most compatibilists from Hobbes till now. Unfortunately, it suffers from serious problems. However, thanks t...

  3. Expertise and Intuitions about Reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edouard Machery

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many philosophers hold that experts’ semantic intuitions are more reliable and provide better evidence than lay people’s intuitions—a thesis commonly called “the Expertise Defense.” Focusing on the intuitions about the reference of proper names, this article critically assesses the Expertise Defense.

  4. A Study of Intuitive Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goethe, Susan E. A. M.

    The development and use of intuitive thinking, at all levels of education, have been of concern to scholars in recent years. This paper discusses the findings and theories of various scholars about intuitive thinking and learning, including the work of Jean Piaget, Jerome Bruner, Richard Jones, and Robert Ornstein. The paper also explores the use…

  5. Intuition and the axiomatic method

    CERN Document Server

    Carson, Emily

    2006-01-01

    Following developments in modern geometry, logic and physics, many scientists and philosophers in the modern era considered Kant's theory of intuition to be obsolete. But this only represents one side of the story concerning Kant, intuition and twentieth century science. Several prominent mathematicians and physicists were convinced that the formal tools of modern logic, set theory and the axiomatic method are not sufficient for providing mathematics and physics with satisfactory foundations. All of Hilbert, Gödel, Poincaré, Weyl and Bohr thought that intuition was an indispensable element in

  6. Intuitive concepts in elementary topology

    CERN Document Server

    Arnold, BH

    2011-01-01

    Classroom-tested and much-cited, this concise text is designed for undergraduates. It offers a valuable and instructive introduction to the basic concepts of topology, taking an intuitive rather than an axiomatic viewpoint. 1962 edition.

  7. Meaning in life and intuition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintzelman, Samantha J; King, Laura A

    2016-03-01

    Three correlational studies and 2 experiments examined the association between meaning in life (MIL) and reliance on intuitive information processing. In Studies 1-3 (total N = 5,079), Faith in Intuition (FI) scale and MIL were correlated positively, controlling for religiosity, positive mood, self-esteem, basic need satisfaction, and need for cognition. Two experiments manipulated processing style. In Study 4 (N = 614), participants were randomly assigned to complete the Cognitive Reflection Task (CRT; Fredrick, 2005) either immediately before (reflective/low intuitive mindset condition) or immediately after (control condition) rating MIL. Condition did not affect MIL. However, low MIL rated before the CRT predicted superior performance and greater time spent on the task. The association between reflection and MIL was curvilinear, such that MIL was strongly negatively related to CRT performance particularly at low levels of MIL. In Study 5 (N = 804), intuitive or reflective mindsets were induced and FI and MIL were measured. Induced processing style study did not affect MIL. However, those high in MIL were more responsive to the intuitive mindset induction. The relationship between FI and MIL was curvilinear (in this and the correlational studies), with intuitive processing being strongly positively related to MIL particularly at higher levels of MIL. Although often considered in the context of conscious reflection, MIL shares a positive relationship with reliance on gut feelings, and high MIL may facilitate reliance on those feelings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Linguistic Intuitions and Cognitive Penetrability

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    Michael Devitt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Metalinguistic intuitions play a very large evidential role in both linguistics and philosophy. Linguists think that these intuitions are products of underlying linguistic competence. I call this view “the voice of competence” (“VoC”. Although many philosophers seem to think that metalinguistic intuitions are a priori many may implicitly hold the more scientifically respectable VoC. According to VoC, I argue, these intuitions can be cognitively penetrated by the central processor. But, I have argued elsewhere, VoC is false. Instead, we should hold “the modest explanation” (“ME” according to which these intuitions are fairly unreflective empirical theory-laden central-processor responses to phenomena. On ME, no question of cognitive penetration arises. ME has great methodological significance for the study of language. Insofar as we rely on intuitions as evidence we should prefer those of linguists and philosophers because they are more expert. But, more importantly, we should be seeking other evidence in linguistic usage.

  9. Intuitive Music and Graphic Notation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    Describes subjects existing at Aalborg University since the middle eighties. "Intuitive Music" trains free improvisation through exercises including group-dynamic exercises, awareness exercises and parameter exercises. Students also create open compositions. "Graphic notation"concerns aural scores....... Students' works are quoted. The writer discusses the theoretical context and advocates for giving more attention to music as the medium in which music therapy takes place, referring to language theory and Jakobson. NB: the description of the two subjects are, at the present moment (2011) no longer up...... to date. Intuitive music stresses less making compositions and more using the main instrument intuitively. Graphic notation has been integrated into a larger subject (also taught by the present author) which also comprises other methods of description and interpretation of music....

  10. Approaching the Distinction between Intuition and Insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhonglu; Lei, Yi; Li, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Intuition and insight share similar cognitive and neural basis. Though, there are still some essential differences between the two. Here in this short review, we discriminated between intuition, and insight in two aspects. First, intuition, and insight are toward different aspects of information processing. Whereas intuition involves judgment about "yes or no," insight is related to "what" is the solution. Second, tacit knowledge play different roles in between intuition and insight. On the one hand, tacit knowledge is conducive to intuitive judgment. On the other hand, tacit knowledge may first impede but later facilitate insight occurrence. Furthermore, we share theoretical, and methodological views on how to access the distinction between intuition and insight.

  11. Questioning Intuition through Reflective Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Christopher D.

    2014-01-01

    Current literature on ethics and moral development focuses on discussion concerning the impact of intuition on moral decision-making. Through the use of student journal reflections over the course of one semester, this study utilized a grounded theory approach in order to explore and understand participant levels of awareness and understanding of…

  12. Intuitive Understanding of Base Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Laurel

    Purpose: This study examines whether physicians and other adults intuitively understand that the probability a positive test result is a true positive (positive predictive value, PPV) depends on the base rate of disease in the population tested. In particular, this research seeks to examine perce...

  13. Bridging intuitive and analytical thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Leron, Uri; Arcavi, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    and in mathematics education has focused on the explanatory power of intuitive thinking as source of errors and misconceptions in human behavior, decision making, reasoning, and problem solving (e.g., Fischbein, 1987, Stavy & Tirosh, 2000; Leron & Hazzan, 2006, 2009), but in this article the emphasis is more...

  14. Associative Processes in Intuitive Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morewedge, Carey K.; Kahneman, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Dual-system models of reasoning attribute errors of judgment to two failures. The automatic operations of a “System 1” generate a faulty intuition, which the controlled operations of a “System 2” fail to detect and correct. We identify System 1 with the automatic operations of associative memory and draw on research in the priming paradigm to describe how it operates. We explain how three features of associative memory—associative coherence, attribute substitution, and processing fluency—give rise to major biases of intuitive judgment. Our article highlights both the ability of System 1 to create complex and skilled judgments and the role of the system as a source of judgment errors. PMID:20696611

  15. Associative Processes in Intuitive Judgment

    OpenAIRE

    Morewedge, Carey K.; Kahneman, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Dual-system models of reasoning attribute errors of judgment to two failures. The automatic operations of a ?System 1? generate a faulty intuition, which the controlled operations of a ?System 2? fail to detect and correct. We identify System 1 with the automatic operations of associative memory and draw on research in the priming paradigm to describe how it operates. We explain how three features of associative memory?associative coherence, attribute substitution, and processing fluency?give...

  16. Social heuristics shape intuitive cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, David G; Peysakhovich, Alexander; Kraft-Todd, Gordon T; Newman, George E; Wurzbacher, Owen; Nowak, Martin A; Greene, Joshua D

    2014-04-22

    Cooperation is central to human societies. Yet relatively little is known about the cognitive underpinnings of cooperative decision making. Does cooperation require deliberate self-restraint? Or is spontaneous prosociality reined in by calculating self-interest? Here we present a theory of why (and for whom) intuition favors cooperation: cooperation is typically advantageous in everyday life, leading to the formation of generalized cooperative intuitions. Deliberation, by contrast, adjusts behaviour towards the optimum for a given situation. Thus, in one-shot anonymous interactions where selfishness is optimal, intuitive responses tend to be more cooperative than deliberative responses. We test this 'social heuristics hypothesis' by aggregating across every cooperation experiment using time pressure that we conducted over a 2-year period (15 studies and 6,910 decisions), as well as performing a novel time pressure experiment. Doing so demonstrates a positive average effect of time pressure on cooperation. We also find substantial variation in this effect, and show that this variation is partly explained by previous experience with one-shot lab experiments.

  17. The Intuitive Recommencement of Metaphysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Riquier

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available If we are to understand the complex relationship between Bergson and Kant, we must not approach the former’s philosophy as if it could only be either pre-critical or post-Kantian. Instead, the present essay seeks to shed light on this relationship by treating Kant (after Descartes and before Spencer as another “missing precursor of Bergson.” In Bergson’s eyes, Kant, like Descartes, contains two possible paths for philosophy, which reflect the two fundamental tendencies that are mixed together in the élan vital and continued in humankind: intuition and intelligence. Bergson breaks with Kant from the interior of his philosophy, which he divides into two Kantianisms: the one, which he rejects as ancient, and the other, which he appropriates. What the analysis of this Bergsonian appropriation of Kant reveals, however, is not the existence of a latent Bergsonism in Kant, but rather the recovery of a Kantianism that is completed in Bergson—a Kantianism that embarked down a path that Kant himself, who held himself back from following it in order to dispense with all “intellectual” intuition, had only sketched. Thus, if Bergson is to be believed, an intuitive metaphysics, which installs itself in pure duration, is neither below nor beyond Kantian critique, but can pass through it, can traverse it in its entirety, since it proposes to surpass it, to prolong it following the path that Kant himself had cleared in order to fulfill its suppressed virtualities.

  18. Reentrant processing in intuitive perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phan Luu

    Full Text Available The process of perception requires not only the brain's receipt of sensory data but also the meaningful organization of that data in relation to the perceptual experience held in memory. Although it typically results in a conscious percept, the process of perception is not fully conscious. Research on the neural substrates of human visual perception has suggested that regions of limbic cortex, including the medial orbital frontal cortex (mOFC, may contribute to intuitive judgments about perceptual events, such as guessing whether an object might be present in a briefly presented fragmented drawing. Examining dense array measures of cortical electrical activity during a modified Waterloo Gestalt Closure Task, results show, as expected, that activity in medial orbital frontal electrical responses (about 250 ms was associated with intuitive judgments. Activity in the right temporal-parietal-occipital (TPO region was found to predict mOFC (approximately 150 ms activity and, in turn, was subsequently influenced by the mOFC at a later time (approximately 300 ms. The initial perception of gist or meaning of a visual stimulus in limbic networks may thus yield reentrant input to the visual areas to influence continued development of the percept. Before perception is completed, the initial representation of gist may support intuitive judgments about the ongoing perceptual process.

  19. Intuitive Development: Communication in the Nineties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Pamela R.; Daumer, Claudia Rawlins

    1993-01-01

    Communication is both cognitive and intuitive, although schooling stresses left-brain skills. Ways to develop intuitive (right-brain) skills include mandalas, Jung's technique for concentrating the right brain; writing with the nondominant hand; and positive affirmations. (SK)

  20. Moral intuitions, moral expertise, and moral reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musschenga, A.W.

    2009-01-01

    In this article I examine the consequences of the dominance of intuitive thinking in moral judging and deciding for the role of moral reasoning in moral education. I argue that evidence for the reliability of moral intuitions is lacking. We cannot determine when we can trust our intuitive moral

  1. Awakening the Inner Eye. Intuition in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noddings, Nel; Shore, Paul J.

    This book discusses the meaning, importance, and uses of intuition. In the first chapter the development of the conceptual history of intuition is traced from the ancient seers, religion, art, psychology, and philosophy. In chapter 2, work which has contributed to the development of intuition as a philosophical and psychological concept is…

  2. Intuitive modeling of vaporish objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, Dmitry; Gentil, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Attempts to model gases in computer graphics started in the late 1970s. Since that time, there have been many approaches developed. In this paper we present a non-physical method allowing to create vaporish objects like clouds or smoky characters. The idea is to create a few sketches describing the rough shape of the final vaporish object. These sketches will be used as condensation sets of Iterated Function Systems, providing intuitive control over the object. The advantages of the new method are: simplicity, good control of resulting shapes and ease of eventual object animation.

  3. EDMS 6: modern and intuitive

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    As announced in Bulletin No. 14-15/2014 (see here), a new version of the system used to manage technical data and data concerning CERN equipment (EDMS, Engineering and Equipment Data Management Service) is now available.   A unique interface for all data linked to CERN’s engineering work, EDMS currently stores more than 1.2 million documents containing almost 2 million files, guaranteeing the transfer of protected information and knowledge to future generations of engineers and scientists at CERN, be it the design data and documentation for a specific object (technical specifications, test procedures, non-conformities, drawings, etc.) or technical information about the Laboratory’s infrastructure and scientific equipment. In a few months, the new EDMS 6 system will replace the current system definitively, offering its 13,000 users a more modern and intuitive interface that meets their expectations. “We've been working in close collaboration with some of ...

  4. Intuitive Choices Lead to Intensified Positive Emotions: An Overlooked Reason for "Intuition Bias"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkebøen, Geir; Nordbye, Gro H H

    2017-01-01

    People have, for many well-documented reasons, a tendency to overemphasize their intuitions and to follow them, even when they should not. This "intuition bias" leads to several kinds of specific intuitive biases in judgments and decision making. Previous studies have shown that characteristics of the decision process have a tendency to "leak" into the experience of the choice outcome. We explore whether intuitive choices influence the experience of the choice outcomes differently from "non-intuitive," analytic choices. Since intuition is feeling based, we examine in particular if intuitive choices have stronger affective consequences than non-intuitive ones. Participants in two scenario studies ( N = 90; N = 126) rated the feelings of decision makers who experienced a conflict between two options, one intuitively appealing and another that appeared preferable on analytic grounds. Choosing the intuitive alternative was anticipated to lead to somewhat more regret after negative outcomes and, in particular, much more satisfaction with positive outcomes. In two autobiographical studies, one with psychology students ( N = 88) and the other with experienced engineers ( N = 99), participants were asked to provide examples of choice conflicts between an intuitive and a non-intuitive option from their own private or professional lives. Both groups showed a tendency to report stronger emotions, in particular positive, after intuitive choices. One well-established explanation for intuition bias focuses on the nature of people's anticipated negative counterfactual thoughts if their decisions were to turn out badly. The present data indicate that intuitive choices intensify positive emotions, anticipated and real, after successful outcomes much more than negative emotions after failures. Positive outcomes are also more commonly expected than negative ones, when we make choices. We argue that markedly amplified emotions, mediated by stronger personal involvement, in the

  5. The nature of the topological intuition

    OpenAIRE

    Sultanova L. B.

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to the nature of the topological intuition and disclosure of the specifics of topological heuristics in the framework of philosophical theory of knowledge. As we know, intuition is a one of the support categories of the theory of knowledge, the driving force of scientific research. Great importance is mathematical intuition for the solution of non-standard problems, for which there is no algorithm for such a solution. In such cases, the mathematician addresses the so-ca...

  6. Strategic Decision Games: Improving Strategic Intuition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DeFoor, John E

    2007-01-01

    .... Joint doctrine recognizes intuition but overwhelmingly emphasizes analytical methods. The joint community has ample guidance and receives training and education in support of analytical decision making...

  7. Moral Intuitions and the Expertice Defence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Are the moral intuitions of philosophers more reliable than the intuitions of people who are not philosophically trained? According to what has become known as ‘the expertise defence’, the answer is in the affirmative. This answer has been sustained by drawing on analogies to expertise in other...

  8. Intuition og læring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye

    2014-01-01

    læringsprocesser. Definitionen af henholdsvis intuition og analytisk tænkning diskuteres indenfor forskellige videns felter. Vi føler ofte at intuitionen kommer ’til os’, men hvor kommer den fra? Hvordan hænger hjernens arkitektur sammen med brugen af intuition? I artiklen besvares disse spørgsmål sammen med...

  9. Moral learning as intuitive theory revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Marjorie; Wellman, Henry

    2017-10-01

    We argue that moral learning, like much of conceptual development more generally, involves development and change in children's intuitive theories of the world. Children's intuitive theories involve coherent and abstract representations of the world, which point to domain-specific, unobservable causal-explanatory entities. From this perspective, children rely on intuitive sociological theories (in particular, an abstract expectation that group memberships constrain people's obligations), and their intuitive psychological theories (including expectations that mental states motivate individual behavior) to predict, explain, and evaluate morally-relevant action. Thus, moral learning involves development and change in each of these theories of the world across childhood, as well as developmental change in how children integrate information from these two intuitive theories. This perspective is supported by a series of research studies on young children's moral reasoning and learning, and compared to other developmental approaches, including more traditional forms of constructivism and more recent nativist perspectives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Intuitive decisions on the fringes of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark C. Price

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Decision making research often dichotomises between more deliberative, cognitive processes and more heuristic, intuitive and emotional processes. We argue that within this two-systems framework (e.g., Kahneman, 2002 there is ambiguity over how to map the System 1/System 2 axis, and the notion of intuitive processing, onto the distinction between conscious and non-conscious processes. However the convergent concepts of experience-based metacognitive judgements (Koriat, 2007 and of fringe consciousness (Mangan, 1993 can clarify intuitive processing as an informative extit{conscious feeling} without conscious access to the antecedents of the feeling. We stress that these intuitive feelings can be used to guide behaviour in a controlled and contextually sensitive manner that would not be permitted by purely non-conscious influences on behaviour. An outline is provided for how to empirically recognise these intuitive feelings. This is illustrated with an example from research on implicit learning where intuitive feelings may play an important role in peoples' decisions and judgements. Finally we suggest that our approach to understanding intuitive feelings softens rather than reinforces the two-systems dichotomy.

  11. Losing Your Gut Feelings. Intuition in Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmers, Carina; Michalak, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Whereas in basic research, intuition has become a topic of great interest, clinical research and depression research in specific have not applied to the topic of intuition, yet. This is astonishing because a well-known phenomenon during depression is that patients have difficulties to judge and decide. In contrast to healthy individuals who take most daily life decisions intuitively (Kahneman, 2011), depressed individuals seem to have difficulties to come to fast and adaptive decisions. The current article pursues three goals. First, our aim is to establish the hypothesis that intuition is impaired in depression against the background of influential theoretical accounts as well as empirical evidence from basic and clinical research. The second aim of the current paper is to provide explanations for recent findings on the depression-intuition interplay and to present directions for future research that may help to broaden our understanding of decision difficulties in depression. Third, we seek to propose ideas on how therapeutic interventions can support depressed individuals in taking better decisions. Even though our knowledge regarding this topic is still limited, we will tentatively launch the idea that an important first step may be to enhance patients’ access to intuitions. Overall, this paper seeks to introduce the topic of intuition to clinical research on depression and to hereby set the stage for upcoming theory and practice. PMID:27602015

  12. Loosing gut feeling? Intuition in Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Remmers

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Whereas in basic research, intuition has become a topic of great interest, clinical research and depression research in specific have not applied to the topic of intuition, yet. This is astonishing because a well-known phenomenon during depression is that patients have difficulties to judge and decide. In contrast to healthy individuals who take most daily-life decisions intuitively (Kahneman, 2011, depressed individuals seem to have difficulties to come to fast and adaptive decisions. The current article pursues three goals. First, our aim is to establish the hypothesis that intuition is impaired in depression against the background of influential theoretical accounts as well as empirical evidence from basic and clinical research. The second aim of the current paper is to provide explanations for recent findings on the depression-intuition interplay and to present directions for future research that may help to broaden our understanding of decision difficulties in depression. Third, we seek to propose ideas on how therapeutic interventions can support depressed individuals in taking better decisions. Even though our knowledge regarding this topic is still limited, we will tentatively launch the idea that an important first step may be to enhance patients’ access to intuitions. Overall, this paper seeks to introduce the topic of intuition to clinical research on depression and to hereby set the stage for upcoming theory and practice.

  13. Facing Intuition: A functional characterization of intuitive judgment in the context of face perception

    OpenAIRE

    Mega, Laura Francesca

    2017-01-01

    Intuition is by some conceived of as biased and by others as an important tool to make decisions in a fast paced and uncertain world. Yet, within social interactions, intuitively judging is often the only feasible option to interpret the content of our most important social signals, thus facilitating attunement to social affordances. In fact, humans expertly extract and use face information in an automatic and non-conscious fashion. Is intuition therefore a fundamental building bl...

  14. Inference of trustworthiness from intuitive moral judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Jim A C; Pizarro, David A; Crockett, M J

    2016-06-01

    Moral judgments play a critical role in motivating and enforcing human cooperation, and research on the proximate mechanisms of moral judgments highlights the importance of intuitive, automatic processes in forming such judgments. Intuitive moral judgments often share characteristics with deontological theories in normative ethics, which argue that certain acts (such as killing) are absolutely wrong, regardless of their consequences. Why do moral intuitions typically follow deontological prescriptions, as opposed to those of other ethical theories? Here, we test a functional explanation for this phenomenon by investigating whether agents who express deontological moral judgments are more valued as social partners. Across 5 studies, we show that people who make characteristically deontological judgments are preferred as social partners, perceived as more moral and trustworthy, and are trusted more in economic games. These findings provide empirical support for a partner choice account of moral intuitions whereby typically deontological judgments confer an adaptive function by increasing a person's likelihood of being chosen as a cooperation partner. Therefore, deontological moral intuitions may represent an evolutionarily prescribed prior that was selected for through partner choice mechanisms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Intuition in emergency nursing: a phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyneham, Joy; Parkinson, Camillus; Denholm, Carey

    2008-04-01

    The evidence of experience of intuitive knowing in the clinical setting has to this point only been informal and anecdotal. Reported experiences thus need to be either validated or refuted so that its place in emergency nursing can be determined. The history, nature and component themes captured within the intuitive practice of emergency nursing are described. This study was informed by the philosophy and method of phenomenology. Participants were 14 experienced emergency nurses. Through their narrative accounts and recall of events their experience of knowing was captured. Through a Van Manen process and a Gadamerian analysis, six themes associated with the ways in which the participants experienced intuition in clinical practice, were identified. This paper reveals the six emerging themes as knowledge, experience, connection, feeling, syncretism and trust.

  16. Base Rates: Both Neglected and Intuitive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennycook, Gordon; Trippas, Dries; Handley, Simon J.; Thompson, Valerie A.

    2014-01-01

    Base-rate neglect refers to the tendency for people to underweight base-rate probabilities in favor of diagnostic information. It is commonly held that base-rate neglect occurs because effortful (Type 2) reasoning is required to process base-rate information, whereas diagnostic information is accessible to fast, intuitive (Type 1) processing…

  17. Researchers’ Intuitions About Power in Psychological Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Hartgerink, C.H.J.; Wicherts, J.M.; van der Maas, H.L.J.

    2016-01-01

    Many psychology studies are statistically underpowered. In part, this may be because many researchers rely on intuition, rules of thumb, and prior practice (along with practical considerations) to determine the number of subjects to test. In Study 1, we surveyed 291 published research psychologists

  18. Researchers' intuitions about power in psychological research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Hartgerink, C. H. J.; Wicherts, J. M.; Van Der Maas, H. L. J.

    2016-01-01

    Many psychology studies are statistically underpowered. In part, this may be because many researchers rely on intuition, rules of thumb, and prior practice (along with practical considerations) to determine the number of subjects to test. In Study 1, we surveyed 291 published research psychologists

  19. Inhibiting Intuitive Thinking in Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Michael O. J.

    2015-01-01

    The papers in this issue describe recent collaborative research into the role of inhibition of intuitive thinking in mathematics education. This commentary reflects on this research from a mathematics education perspective and draws attention to some of the challenges that arise in collaboration between research fields with different cultures,…

  20. Foundations for tracing intuition: Challenges and Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glöckner, A.; Witteman, C.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    The study of intuition and its relation to thoughtful reasoning is a burgeoning research topic in psychology and beyond. While the area has the potential to radically transform our conception of the mind and decision making, the procedures used for establishing empirical conclusions have often been

  1. Understanding brains: details, intuition, and big data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marder, Eve

    2015-05-01

    Understanding how the brain works requires a delicate balance between the appreciation of the importance of a multitude of biological details and the ability to see beyond those details to general principles. As technological innovations vastly increase the amount of data we collect, the importance of intuition into how to analyze and treat these data may, paradoxically, become more important.

  2. Understanding Brains: Details, Intuition, and Big Data

    OpenAIRE

    Marder, Eve

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how the brain works requires a delicate balance between the appreciation of the importance of a multitude of biological details and the ability to see beyond those details to general principles. As technological innovations vastly increase the amount of data we collect, the importance of intuition into how to analyze and treat these data may, paradoxically, become more important.

  3. Understanding brains: details, intuition, and big data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eve Marder

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how the brain works requires a delicate balance between the appreciation of the importance of a multitude of biological details and the ability to see beyond those details to general principles. As technological innovations vastly increase the amount of data we collect, the importance of intuition into how to analyze and treat these data may, paradoxically, become more important.

  4. ISEE : An Intuitive Sound Editing Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vertegaal, R.P.H.; Bonis, E.

    1994-01-01

    This article presents ISEE, an intuitive sound editing environment, as a general sound synthesis model based on expert auditory perception and cognition of musical instruments. It discusses the backgrounds of current synthesizer user interface design and related timbre space research. Of the three

  5. Entity Authentication:Analysis using Structured Intuition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method for the analysis that uses intuition of the analyst in a structured way. First we define entity authentication in terms of fine level authentication goals (FLAGs). Then we use some relevant structures in protocol narrations and use them to justify FLAGs...

  6. Goethe's Theory of Color and Scientific Intuition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajonc, Arthur G.

    1976-01-01

    Summarizes Goethe's color studies and his methods of study. It is proposed that the act of accurate qualitative observation creates the capability in the observer for an intuitive understanding of the physical laws underlying the phenomena under observation. The use of such a method as a basis for laboratory instruction is discussed. (Author/CP)

  7. Reasoning, Cognitive Control, and Moral Intuition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard ePatterson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent Social Intuitionist work suggests that moral judgments are intuitive (not based on conscious deliberation or any significant chain of inference, and that the reasons we produce to explain or justify our judgments and actions are for the most part post hoc rationalizations rather than the actual source of those judgments. This is consistent with work on judgment and explanation in other domains, and it correctly challenges one-sidedly rationalistic accounts. We suggest that in fact reasoning has a great deal of influence on moral judgments and on intuitive judgments in general. This influence is not apparent from study of judgments simply in their immediate context, but it is crucial for the question of how cognition can help us avoid deleterious effects and enhance potentially beneficial effects of affect on judgment, action, and cognition itself. We begin with established work on several reactive strategies for cognitive control of affect (e.g., suppression, reappraisal, then give special attention to more complex sorts of conflict (extended deliberation involving multiple interacting factors, both affective and reflective. These situations are especially difficult to study in a controlled way, but we propose some possible experimental approaches. We then review proactive strategies for control, including avoidance of temptation and mindfulness meditation (Froeliger, et al, 2012, This Issue. We give special attention to the role of slow or cool cognitive processes (e.g., deliberation, planning, executive control in the inculcation of long-term dispositions, traits, intuitions, skills or habits. The latter are critical because they in turn give rise to a great many of our fast, intuitive judgments. The reasoning processes involved here are distinct from post hoc rationalizations and have a very real impact on countless intuitive judgments in concrete situations. This calls for a substantial enlargement of research on cognitive control.

  8. An Intuitive Dashboard for Bayesian Network Inference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, Vikas; Farr, Anna Charisse; Wu, Paul; Mengersen, Kerrie; Yarlagadda, Prasad K D V

    2014-01-01

    Current Bayesian network software packages provide good graphical interface for users who design and develop Bayesian networks for various applications. However, the intended end-users of these networks may not necessarily find such an interface appealing and at times it could be overwhelming, particularly when the number of nodes in the network is large. To circumvent this problem, this paper presents an intuitive dashboard, which provides an additional layer of abstraction, enabling the end-users to easily perform inferences over the Bayesian networks. Unlike most software packages, which display the nodes and arcs of the network, the developed tool organises the nodes based on the cause-and-effect relationship, making the user-interaction more intuitive and friendly. In addition to performing various types of inferences, the users can conveniently use the tool to verify the behaviour of the developed Bayesian network. The tool has been developed using QT and SMILE libraries in C++

  9. An Intuitive Dashboard for Bayesian Network Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Vikas; Charisse Farr, Anna; Wu, Paul; Mengersen, Kerrie; Yarlagadda, Prasad K. D. V.

    2014-03-01

    Current Bayesian network software packages provide good graphical interface for users who design and develop Bayesian networks for various applications. However, the intended end-users of these networks may not necessarily find such an interface appealing and at times it could be overwhelming, particularly when the number of nodes in the network is large. To circumvent this problem, this paper presents an intuitive dashboard, which provides an additional layer of abstraction, enabling the end-users to easily perform inferences over the Bayesian networks. Unlike most software packages, which display the nodes and arcs of the network, the developed tool organises the nodes based on the cause-and-effect relationship, making the user-interaction more intuitive and friendly. In addition to performing various types of inferences, the users can conveniently use the tool to verify the behaviour of the developed Bayesian network. The tool has been developed using QT and SMILE libraries in C++.

  10. Intuition, deliberation, and the evolution of cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, Adam; Rand, David G

    2016-01-26

    Humans often cooperate with strangers, despite the costs involved. A long tradition of theoretical modeling has sought ultimate evolutionary explanations for this seemingly altruistic behavior. More recently, an entirely separate body of experimental work has begun to investigate cooperation's proximate cognitive underpinnings using a dual-process framework: Is deliberative self-control necessary to reign in selfish impulses, or does self-interested deliberation restrain an intuitive desire to cooperate? Integrating these ultimate and proximate approaches, we introduce dual-process cognition into a formal game-theoretic model of the evolution of cooperation. Agents play prisoner's dilemma games, some of which are one-shot and others of which involve reciprocity. They can either respond by using a generalized intuition, which is not sensitive to whether the game is one-shot or reciprocal, or pay a (stochastically varying) cost to deliberate and tailor their strategy to the type of game they are facing. We find that, depending on the level of reciprocity and assortment, selection favors one of two strategies: intuitive defectors who never deliberate, or dual-process agents who intuitively cooperate but sometimes use deliberation to defect in one-shot games. Critically, selection never favors agents who use deliberation to override selfish impulses: Deliberation only serves to undermine cooperation with strangers. Thus, by introducing a formal theoretical framework for exploring cooperation through a dual-process lens, we provide a clear answer regarding the role of deliberation in cooperation based on evolutionary modeling, help to organize a growing body of sometimes-conflicting empirical results, and shed light on the nature of human cognition and social decision making.

  11. Intuitive expertise in ICT graduate supervision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Jameson

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Intuitive expertise in the application of advanced interdisciplinary facilitation is the subject of this personal reflection on the graduate supervisory style of Professor David Squires in computers in education. This single-case reflective study examines the characteristics of effective supervision observed during masters and doctoral supervision at King's College in the years 1990-9. Interdisciplinarity in ICT graduate studies particularly requires a fluency of supervisory expertise in enabling supervisees to combine multiple complex perspectives from a number of fields of knowledge. Intuitive combinatory aspects of supervision are highlighted in this reflection on the role carried out by an academic expert in facilitating student success. This is examined from a perspective incorporating affective as well as intellectual elements, informed by characteristics identified in professional sports and performing arts coaching/mentoring. Key characteristics comprising a model of intuitive expertise in ICT graduate supervision were outlined. The resultant portrait aims to complement existing literature on graduate supervision, with reference to the field of ICTI computers in education relating to student hypermedia composition.

  12. Adults are intuitive mind-body dualists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forstmann, Matthias; Burgmer, Pascal

    2015-02-01

    In the present research, we tested the hypotheses that (a) adults are intuitive mind-body dualists, (b) that this belief can be considered a default, and (c) that it is partially explained by essentialistic reasoning about the nature of the mind. Over 8 studies, using various thought experiment paradigms, participants reliably ascribed to a physically duplicated being a greater retention of physical than of mental properties. This difference was unrelated to whether or not this being was given a proper name (Study 1b) and was only found for entities that were considered to actually possess a mind (Study 1c). Further, we found that an intuitive belief in mind-body dualism may in fact be considered a default: Taxing participants' cognitive resources (Study 2) or priming them with an intuitive (vs. analytical) thinking style (Studies 3a and 3b) both increased dualistic beliefs. In a last set of studies, we found that beliefs in mind-body dualism are indeed related to essentialistic reasoning about the mind. When a living being was reassembled from its original molecules rather than recreated from new molecules, dualistic beliefs were significantly reduced (Studies 4a and 4b). Thus, results of the present research indicate that, despite any acquired scientific knowledge about the neurological origins of mental life, most adults remain "essentialistic mind-body dualists" at heart.

  13. Kontra-intuitive agenter i Det Nye Testamente

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallbäck, Geert

    2011-01-01

    Kontra-intuitive agenter er Pascal Boyers betegnelse for guder, ånder og forfædre. De er kontra-intuitive, fordi de overskrider de intuitive kognitive domæner; de er dog også genkendelige. Disse to egenskaber gør dem velegnede at huske. Der er mange eksempler på kontra-intuitive agenter i det Nye...

  14. The meaning and the role of intuition in nursing

    OpenAIRE

    Bantouna, Vicktoria Maria

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the implementation of nursing practice some situations in which theoretical and apparent level considered unexplainable. Intuition is one of these situations that cannot be given this interpretation and therefore the meaning is often disputed in scientific fields. According to the chronological review of the phenomenon of intuition, described as a reasoning power. The concept of intuition stems from the status of elusive and based on the skills of the nurse. The role of intuit...

  15. Product evaluation based in the association between intuition and tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida e Silva, Caio Márcio; Okimoto, Maria Lúcia L R; Albertazzi, Deise; Calixto, Cyntia; Costa, Humberto

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the importance of researching the intuitiveness in the product use. It approaches the intuitiveness influence for users that already had a visual experience of the product. Finally, it is suggested the use of a table that relates the tasks performed while using a product, the features for an intuitive use and the performance metric "task success".

  16. Fostering Intuition in Management Education: Activities and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler-Smith, Eugene; Burke, Lisa A.

    2009-01-01

    In business, there is little doubt that managers use their intuitions when making decisions. But in spite of the fact that intuition and rationality are two parallel systems of knowing, intuition is often considered the antithesis of rationality and is overlooked, disregarded, or acted on covertly by managers. What is also clear is that intuition…

  17. Intuitions in Epistemology: Towards a Naturalistic Alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristoffer Ahlstrom

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper revisits the main methodological problems with conceptual analysis and considers two attempts to rectify them in terms of prototypes and reflective equilibria, respectively. Finding both wanting for the purposes of epistemological analysis, a naturalistic alternative is then sketched that explores the positive implications of aforementioned problems for the demarcation of the respective roles of intuitions and empirical investigation within three epistemological domains, viz., the evaluation of epistemological hypotheses, the amelioration of epistemic practices, and the construction of a theory of epistemic value.

  18. Researchers’ Intuitions About Power in Psychological Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Marjan; Hartgerink, Chris H. J.; Wicherts, Jelte M.; van der Maas, Han L. J.

    2016-01-01

    Many psychology studies are statistically underpowered. In part, this may be because many researchers rely on intuition, rules of thumb, and prior practice (along with practical considerations) to determine the number of subjects to test. In Study 1, we surveyed 291 published research psychologists and found large discrepancies between their reports of their preferred amount of power and the actual power of their studies (calculated from their reported typical cell size, typical effect size, and acceptable alpha). Furthermore, in Study 2, 89% of the 214 respondents overestimated the power of specific research designs with a small expected effect size, and 95% underestimated the sample size needed to obtain .80 power for detecting a small effect. Neither researchers’ experience nor their knowledge predicted the bias in their self-reported power intuitions. Because many respondents reported that they based their sample sizes on rules of thumb or common practice in the field, we recommend that researchers conduct and report formal power analyses for their studies. PMID:27354203

  19. A proximity effect in adults' contamination intuitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura R. Kim

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Magical beliefs about contagion via contact (Rozin, Nemeroff, Wane, and Sherrod, 1989 may emerge when people overgeneralize real-world mechanisms of contamination beyond their appropriate boundaries (Lindeman and Aarnio, 2007. Do people similarly overextend knowledge of airborne contamination mechanisms? Previous work has shown that very young children believe merely being close to a contamination source can contaminate an item (Springer and Belk 1994; we asked whether this same hyper-avoidant intuition is also reflected in adults' judgments. In two studies, we measured adults' ratings of the desirability of an object that had made contact with a source of contamination, an object nearby that had made no contact with the contaminant, and an object far away that had also made no contact. Adults showed a clear proximity effect, wherein objects near the contamination source were perceived to be less desirable than those far away, even though a separate group of adults unanimously acknowledged that contaminants could not possibly have made contact with either the nearby or far-away object (Study 1. The proximity effect also remained robust when a third group of adults was explicitly told that no contaminating particles had made contact with the objects at any time (Study 2. We discuss implications of our findings for extending the scope of magical contagion effects beyond the contact principle, for understanding the persistence of intuitive theories despite broad acceptance of science-based theories, and for constraining interpretations of the developmental work on proximity beliefs.

  20. Intuitions and Competence in Formal Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Stokhof

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In formal semantics intuition plays a key role, in two ways. Intuitions about semantic properties of expressions are the primary data, and intuitions of the semanticists are the main access to these data. The paper investigates how this dual role is related to the concept of competence and the role that this concept plays in semantics. And it inquires whether the self-reflexive role of intuitions has consequences for the methodology of semantics as an empirical discipline.ReferencesBaggio, Giosuè, van Lambalgen, Michiel & Hagoort, Peter. 2008. ‘Computing and recomputing discourse models: an ERP study of the semantics of temporal connectives’. Journal of Memory and Language 59, no. 1: 36–53.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2008.02.005Chierchia, Gennaro & McConnell-Ginet, Sally. 2000. Meaning and Grammar. second ed. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.Chomsky, Noam. 1965. Aspects of the Theory of Syntax. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.Cresswell, Max J. 1978. ‘Semantic competence’. In F. Guenthner & M. Guenther-Reutter (eds. ‘Meaning and Translation’, 9–27. Duckworth, London. de Swart, Henriëtte. 1998. Introduction to Natural Language Semantics. Stanford: CSLI.Dowty, David, Wall, Robert & Peters, Stanley. 1981. Introduction to Montague Semantics. Dordrecht: Reidel.Heim, Irene & Kratzer, Angelika. 1998. Semantics in Generative Grammar. Oxford: Blackwell.Larson, Richard & Segal, Gabriel. 1995. Knowledge of Meaning. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.Lewis, David K. 1975. ‘Languages and Language’. In Keith Gunderson (ed. ‘Language, Mind and Knowledge’, 3–35. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Montague, Richard. 1970. ‘Universal Grammar’. Theoria 36: 373–98.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-2567.1970.tb00434.xPartee, Barbara H. 1979. ‘Semantics – Mathematics or Psychology?’ In Rainer Bäuerle, Urs Egli & Arnim von Stechow (eds. ‘Semantics from Different Points of View’, 1–14. Berlin: Springer.Partee, Barbara H. 1980.

  1. High-level intuitive features (HLIFs) for intuitive skin lesion description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelard, Robert; Glaister, Jeffrey; Wong, Alexander; Clausi, David A

    2015-03-01

    A set of high-level intuitive features (HLIFs) is proposed to quantitatively describe melanoma in standard camera images. Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer. With rising incidence rates and subjectivity in current clinical detection methods, there is a need for melanoma decision support systems. Feature extraction is a critical step in melanoma decision support systems. Existing feature sets for analyzing standard camera images are comprised of low-level features, which exist in high-dimensional feature spaces and limit the system's ability to convey intuitive diagnostic rationale. The proposed HLIFs were designed to model the ABCD criteria commonly used by dermatologists such that each HLIF represents a human-observable characteristic. As such, intuitive diagnostic rationale can be conveyed to the user. Experimental results show that concatenating the proposed HLIFs with a full low-level feature set increased classification accuracy, and that HLIFs were able to separate the data better than low-level features with statistical significance. An example of a graphical interface for providing intuitive rationale is given.

  2. Atom history, from intuitive ideas to reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radvanyi, P.

    2007-01-01

    This book gathers the ground scientific texts that have stood out as milestones in the way scientists have built their understanding of the atom over centuries. From the very intuitive ideas of Greek philosophers to the most recent results on ultra-cold atoms, via the discovery of natural radioactivity or the existence of the neutron, about 55 articles written by prestigious physicists have been organized into 16 chapters. Each chapter being dedicated to a topic such as molecules, spectroscopy, electrons, X-rays, atom mass, artificial radioactivity..., begins with a commentary that draws the scientific context of that time, describes the links between the articles and highlights the importance of the discoveries. (A.C.)

  3. Intuitions in Epistemology: Towards a Naturalistic Alternative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlström, Kristoffer

    2009-01-01

    The present paper revisits the main methodological problems with conceptual analysis and considers two attempts to rectify them in terms of prototypes and reflective equilibria, respectively. Finding both wanting for the purposes of epistemological analysis, a naturalistic alternative is then ske......The present paper revisits the main methodological problems with conceptual analysis and considers two attempts to rectify them in terms of prototypes and reflective equilibria, respectively. Finding both wanting for the purposes of epistemological analysis, a naturalistic alternative...... is then sketched that explores the positive implications of aforementioned problems for the demarcation of the respective roles of intuitions and empirical investigation within three epistemological domains, viz., the evaluation of epistemological hypotheses, the amelioration of epistemic practices...

  4. Decision making in midwifery: rationality and intuition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhauer, Suyai

    2015-04-01

    Decision making in midwifery is a complex process that shapes and underpins clinical practice and determines, to a large extent, the quality of care. Effective decision making and professional accountability are central to clinical governance, and being able.to justify all decisions is a professional and legal requirement. At the same time, there is an emphasis in midwifery on shared decision making, and keeping women at the centre of their care, and research reveals that feelings of choice, control and autonomy are central to a positive birth experience. However the extent to which decisions are really shared and care truly woman-centred is debatable and affected by environment and culture. Using a case study of a decision made in clinical practice around amniotomy, this article explores the role of the intuitive thinking system in midwifery decision making, and highlights the importance of involving women in the decision making process.

  5. Intuitive Physics: Current Research and Controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubricht, James R; Holyoak, Keith J; Lu, Hongjing

    2017-10-01

    Early research in the field of intuitive physics provided extensive evidence that humans succumb to common misconceptions and biases when predicting, judging, and explaining activity in the physical world. Recent work has demonstrated that, across a diverse range of situations, some biases can be explained by the application of normative physical principles to noisy perceptual inputs. However, it remains unclear how knowledge of physical principles is learned, represented, and applied to novel situations. In this review we discuss theoretical advances from heuristic models to knowledge-based, probabilistic simulation models, as well as recent deep-learning models. We also consider how recent work may be reconciled with earlier findings that favored heuristic models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Role of Intuition and Creativity in Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Wierzbicki, A.P.

    1992-01-01

    The paper starts with a reflection on various perceptions of rationality in decision making; by concentrating on so-called deliberative decision making and examining its analogy to cognitive processes, a case for including intuitive decisions into the concept of rational decision making is made. The role of "Gestalt" images and basic concepts in perceiving reality is stressed. Intuitive decision making is operationally defined and various phases of intuitive decision processes are examined. S...

  7. THE ROLE OF INTUITION AND DECISION MAKING IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

    OpenAIRE

    Aurel Mircea NITA; Ionela Gabriela SOLOMON

    2015-01-01

    Intuition is the most subtle tool of knowledge that comes even from within it. Intuition does not require external information to its knowledge, it transcends the limitations of the senses and conscious mind using the operating levels of the mind and levels of reality. By developing consciousness (increase lucidity, attention and power of concentration) and keeping the balance of the mind, we may develop intuitive skills, which are so necessary for the transformational and quantum leadership ...

  8. CONDITIONS FOR INTUITIVE DECISION MAKING: THE CHINESE EXECUTIVES IN THAILAND

    OpenAIRE

    Klungsoontornrangsi, Kreingkrai

    2007-01-01

    Do Thai-Chinese managers have the ability required for their organizations to survive in an information-void environment of Thailand? How much they rely on intuition in facilitating the process of business decision making? A study of eight managers provides new insights to these questions. This paper presents the findings of a qualitative research on the factors influencing the degree of intuitive decision in Thai-Chinese business decision making. It takes a deep look at both intuitive co...

  9. Intuitive biostatistics: a nonmathematical guide to statistical thinking

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Motulsky, Harvey

    2010-01-01

    .... Intuitive Biostatistics, Completely Revised Second Edition, provides a clear introduction to statistics for undergraduate and graduate students and also serves as a statistics refresher for working scientists...

  10. Intuitive Face Judgments Rely on Holistic Eye Movement Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura F. Mega

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-verbal signals such as facial expressions are of paramount importance for social encounters. Their perception predominantly occurs without conscious awareness and is effortlessly integrated into social interactions. In other words, face perception is intuitive. Contrary to classical intuition tasks, this work investigates intuitive processes in the realm of every-day type social judgments. Two differently instructed groups of participants judged the authenticity of emotional facial expressions, while their eye movements were recorded: an ‘intuitive group,’ instructed to rely on their “gut feeling” for the authenticity judgments, and a ‘deliberative group,’ instructed to make their judgments after careful analysis of the face. Pixel-wise statistical maps of the resulting eye movements revealed a differential viewing pattern, wherein the intuitive judgments relied on fewer, longer and more centrally located fixations. These markers have been associated with a global/holistic viewing strategy. The holistic pattern of intuitive face judgments is in line with evidence showing that intuition is related to processing the “gestalt” of an object, rather than focusing on details. Our work thereby provides further evidence that intuitive processes are characterized by holistic perception, in an understudied and real world domain of intuition research.

  11. Intuitive Face Judgments Rely on Holistic Eye Movement Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mega, Laura F; Volz, Kirsten G

    2017-01-01

    Non-verbal signals such as facial expressions are of paramount importance for social encounters. Their perception predominantly occurs without conscious awareness and is effortlessly integrated into social interactions. In other words, face perception is intuitive. Contrary to classical intuition tasks, this work investigates intuitive processes in the realm of every-day type social judgments. Two differently instructed groups of participants judged the authenticity of emotional facial expressions, while their eye movements were recorded: an 'intuitive group,' instructed to rely on their "gut feeling" for the authenticity judgments, and a 'deliberative group,' instructed to make their judgments after careful analysis of the face. Pixel-wise statistical maps of the resulting eye movements revealed a differential viewing pattern, wherein the intuitive judgments relied on fewer, longer and more centrally located fixations. These markers have been associated with a global/holistic viewing strategy. The holistic pattern of intuitive face judgments is in line with evidence showing that intuition is related to processing the "gestalt" of an object, rather than focusing on details. Our work thereby provides further evidence that intuitive processes are characterized by holistic perception, in an understudied and real world domain of intuition research.

  12. Impaired intuition in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmers, Carina; Topolinski, Sascha; Dietrich, Detlef E; Michalak, Johannes

    2015-06-01

    In daily life, many decisions of minor and major importance have to be made. Thereby, intuitive judgments serve as useful guides and help us to adapt to our environment. People with major depressive disorder (MDD) often have difficulties to come to decisions. Is their intuition impaired? Since this question has not been addressed until now, the present study explored intuition in MDD. Depressed patients (n = 29) and healthy control participants (n = 27) completed the Judgment of Semantic Coherence Task, a well-established paradigm used in basic cognitive research to measure intuition. Furthermore, participants' severity of depressive symptoms (BDI-II), negative affect (PANAS), and rumination (RSQ) were assessed. All participants were interviewed with the SCID. Depressed patients showed impaired intuition compared to healthy control participants. In the depressed sample, negative affect accounts for the association between rumination and impaired intuition. Results further reveal that negative affect overall mediates the depression-intuition relationship. Patients with diminished ability to concentrate or indecisiveness had lower intuition indices compared to patients who did not fulfil this diagnostic criterion of MDD. The study introduces the phenomenon of intuition into depression research. Additionally, these results extent findings from basic research showing that induced negative mood as well difficulties to down-regulate negative affect impair intuitive coherence judgments. Current results indicate that the negative affectivity of patients is the crucial mediator in the association between depression and impaired intuition. Limitations of the study as well as the potential etiological role of intuition in MDD are discussed. The finding that intuition is impaired in depressed patients extends our knowledge as to the cognitive profile of patients with MDD. Patients who suffer from indecisiveness have lower intuition indices compared to patients who do not

  13. CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE RELIABILITY OF INTUITIVE MORAL DECISIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Nadurak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the research is a critical analysis of the reliability of intuitive moral decisions. Methodology. The work is based on the methodological attitude of empirical ethics, involving the use of findings from empirical research in ethical reflection and decision making. Originality. The main kinds of intuitive moral decisions are identified: 1 intuitively emotional decisions (i.e. decisions made under the influence of emotions that accompanies the process of moral decision making; 2 decisions made under the influence of moral risky psychological aptitudes (unconscious human tendencies that makes us think in a certain way and make decisions, unacceptable from the logical and ethical point of view; 3 intuitively normative decisions (decisions made under the influence of socially learned norms, that cause evaluative feeling «good-bad», without conscious reasoning. It was found that all of these kinds of intuitive moral decisions can lead to mistakes in the moral life. Conclusions. Considering the fact that intuition systematically leads to erroneous moral decisions, intuitive reaction cannot be the only source for making such decisions. The conscious rational reasoning can compensate for weaknesses of intuition. In this case, there is a necessity in theoretical model that would structure the knowledge about the interactions between intuitive and rational factors in moral decisions making and became the basis for making suggestions that would help us to make the right moral decision.

  14. Intuitive Experiences from Sohrevardi’s Viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heydarinoori, R

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The truth of intuitive experiences and how to fulfill them are among theissues that all people, cultures and rituals have faced with and expressedviews about. There are two major approaches; the essence-oriented notionwhich has emphasized on the cohesion and commonality of these experiencesbetween individuals and people, and construction-oriented perspective whichhas considered more important roles for the discovery ideas and thoughts inthe development and shaping of these experiences, so there are essentialdifferences of them between people and cultures. Intellectual system ofIllumination, which has been developed according to Sohrevardi’sdiscussions, has unique and valuable view in this regard. It asserts thatunion with light underlies mystical revelation and the specificself-centeredness is involved in the realization of these experiences alongwith illumination, observation, union, and inexistence. Althoughcharacteristics of illumination and talent are essential in this system ofthought, the collection of features regarding spiritual experiences,according to Sohrevardi, represents a kind of essence-orientation inmystical revelation. The personal unity of experiences based on thethinking of each individual does not mean to separate experiences. Rather,they all have common grounds. The present study first, refers to the viewsexpressed in this regard, and then explains what and how of spiritualexperiences from the viewpoint of Sohrevardi. It finally, provides answersto some unknown issues.

  15. Gamifying quantum research: harnessing human intuition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherson, Jacob

    In the emerging field of citizen science ordinary citizens have already contributed to research in as diverse fields as astronomy, protein and RNA folding, and neuron mapping by playing online games. In the www.scienceathome.org project, we have extended this democratized research to the realm of quantum physics by gamifying a class of challenges related to optimization of gate operations in a quantum computer. The games have been played by more than 150,000 players and perhaps surprisingly we observe that a large fraction of the players outperform state-of-the-art optimization algorithms. With a palette of additional games within cognitive science, behavioral economics, and corporate innovation we investigate the general features of individual and collaborative problem solving to shed additional light on the process of human intuition and innovation and potentially develop novel models of artificial intelligence. We have also developed and tested in classrooms educational games within classical and quantum physics and mathematics at high-school and university level. The games provide individualized learning and enhance motivation for the core curriculum by actively creating links to modern research challenges, see eg. Finally, we have recently launched our new democratic lab: an easily accessible remote interface for our ultra-cold atoms experiment allowing amateur scientists, students, and research institutions world-wide to perform state-of-the-art quantum experimentation. In first tests, nearly a thousand players helped optimize the production of our BEC and discovered novel efficient strategies.

  16. Detecting Disease in Radiographs with Intuitive Confidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Jaeger

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues in favor of a specific type of confidence for use in computer-aided diagnosis and disease classification, namely, sine/cosine values of angles represented by points on the unit circle. The paper shows how this confidence is motivated by Chinese medicine and how sine/cosine values are directly related with the two forces Yin and Yang. The angle for which sine and cosine are equal (45° represents the state of equilibrium between Yin and Yang, which is a state of nonduality that indicates neither normality nor abnormality in terms of disease classification. The paper claims that the proposed confidence is intuitive and can be readily understood by physicians. The paper underpins this thesis with theoretical results in neural signal processing, stating that a sine/cosine relationship between the actual input signal and the perceived (learned input is key to neural learning processes. As a practical example, the paper shows how to use the proposed confidence values to highlight manifestations of tuberculosis in frontal chest X-rays.

  17. Intuitive Experiences from Sohrevardi’s Viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Heydarinoori

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The truth of intuitive experiences and how to fulfill them are among the issues that all people, cultures and rituals have faced with and expressed views about. There are two major approaches the essence-oriented notion which has emphasized on the cohesion and commonality of these experiences between individuals and people, and construction-oriented perspective which has considered more important roles for the discovery ideas and thoughts in the development and shaping of these experiences, so there are essential differences of them between people and cultures. Intellectual system of Illumination, which has been developed according to Sohrevardi’s discussions, has unique and valuable view in this regard. It asserts that :::::union::::: with light underlies mystical revelation and the specific self-centeredness is involved in the realization of these experiences along with illumination, observation, :::::union:::::, and inexistence. Although characteristics of illumination and talent are essential in this system of thought, the collection of features regarding spiritual experiences, according to Sohrevardi, represents a kind of essence-orientation in mystical revelation. The personal unity of experiences based on the thinking of each individual does not mean to separate experiences. Rather, they all have common grounds. The present study first, refers to the views expressed in this regard, and then explains what and how of spiritual experiences from the viewpoint of Sohrevardi. It finally, provides answers to some unknown issues.

  18. Functional neuroanatomy of intuitive physical inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Jason; Mikhael, John G; Tenenbaum, Joshua B; Kanwisher, Nancy

    2016-08-23

    To engage with the world-to understand the scene in front of us, plan actions, and predict what will happen next-we must have an intuitive grasp of the world's physical structure and dynamics. How do the objects in front of us rest on and support each other, how much force would be required to move them, and how will they behave when they fall, roll, or collide? Despite the centrality of physical inferences in daily life, little is known about the brain mechanisms recruited to interpret the physical structure of a scene and predict how physical events will unfold. Here, in a series of fMRI experiments, we identified a set of cortical regions that are selectively engaged when people watch and predict the unfolding of physical events-a "physics engine" in the brain. These brain regions are selective to physical inferences relative to nonphysical but otherwise highly similar scenes and tasks. However, these regions are not exclusively engaged in physical inferences per se or, indeed, even in scene understanding; they overlap with the domain-general "multiple demand" system, especially the parts of that system involved in action planning and tool use, pointing to a close relationship between the cognitive and neural mechanisms involved in parsing the physical content of a scene and preparing an appropriate action.

  19. Intuitive and Deliberate Judgments Are Based on Common Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruglanski, Arie W.; Gigerenzer, Gerd

    2011-01-01

    A popular distinction in cognitive and social psychology has been between "intuitive" and "deliberate" judgments. This juxtaposition has aligned in dual-process theories of reasoning associative, unconscious, effortless, heuristic, and suboptimal processes (assumed to foster intuitive judgments) versus rule-based, conscious, effortful, analytic,…

  20. The Status of Native Speaker Intuitions in a Polylectal Grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debose, Charles E.

    A study of one speaker's intuitions about and performance in Black English is presented with relation to Saussure's "langue-parole" dichotomy. Native speakers of a language have intuitions about the static synchronic entities although the data of their speaking is variable and panchronic. These entities are in a diglossic relationship to each…

  1. Divine Intuition: Cognitive Style Influences Belief in God

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenhav, Amitai; Rand, David G.; Greene, Joshua D.

    2012-01-01

    Some have argued that belief in God is intuitive, a natural (by-)product of the human mind given its cognitive structure and social context. If this is true, the extent to which one believes in God may be influenced by one's more general tendency to rely on intuition versus reflection. Three studies support this hypothesis, linking intuitive…

  2. Sharing and Communicating Intuition in Organizational Decision Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Constantiou, Ioanna; Shollo, Arisa; Vendelø, Morten Thanning

    Research on intuition as part of decision making is well established in the fields of management and organization studies. There has been a large number of important theoretical works as well as empirical studies focusing on senior managers’ or executives’ intuition. While such studies are evidence...

  3. The Miracle of Compound Interest : Does our Intuition Fail?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binswanger, J.; Carman, K.G.

    2010-01-01

    When it comes to estimating the benefits of long-term savings, many people rely on their intuition. Focusing on the domain of retirement savings, we use a randomized experiment to explore people’s intuition about how money accumulates over time. We ask half of our sample to estimate future

  4. Tacit Models, Treasured Intuitions and the Discrete--Continuous Interplay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidron, Ivy

    2011-01-01

    We explore conditions for productive synthesis between formal reasoning and intuitive representations through analysis of college students' understanding of the limit concept in the definition of the derivative. In particular, we compare and contrast cognitive processes that accompany different manifestations of persistence of intuitions and tacit…

  5. Intuition Training as a Component of Reading Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Robert Allan

    Following a discussion of the value of intuitive thought processes, this paper calls for elementary and secondary teachers to encourage intuitive thinking in addition to analytic thinking. It points out that the demand for precise, analytic answers to teacher-posed questions fosters student dependency; cites statements by Jerome Bruner about the…

  6. Conditions for Intuitive Expertise: A Failure to Disagree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahneman, Daniel; Klein, Gary

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on an effort to explore the differences between two approaches to intuition and expertise that are often viewed as conflicting: heuristics and biases (HB) and naturalistic decision making (NDM). Starting from the obvious fact that professional intuition is sometimes marvelous and sometimes flawed, the authors attempt to map…

  7. Intuition as Design Dialogue: Discovering a Language beyond Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall Teal

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Henri Bergson considered the truest form of knowing to be attainable only through acts of intuition, as he believed the intuitive state created a direct connection to reality itself.For architecture, a field that is grounded in experience, it is important to balance the drive of the intellect with intuitive strategies, which help move toward the unification of data under an experiential aegis. Drawing primarily upon the writings of Bergson and Martin Heidegger, this paper describes how the reductive proclivities of the intellect tend to obscure the embodied insights of intuition, and how the listening response of intuition reveals a primal language that is activated by the immersed dialogue of one experiencing the world.

  8. Does intuition have a role in psychiatric diagnosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Anil; Grube, Michael

    2009-06-01

    Psychiatric diagnosis is invariably guided by self-report. When such self-report is questioned, reliance on formalized testing predominates. The situation is less certain, however, when such methods and clinical "feel", or intuition, conflict. While many argue for the supremacy of actuarial methods, fields such as Management have increasingly emphasized the importance of intuition; Psychiatry, although with few objective tests and reliance on the clinical encounter, offers surprisingly few answers. We explore here the use of intuition in decision-making through a case example and suggest that it is not inferior to other diagnostic methods: intuition should be used to suggest, guide, and modify psychiatric diagnosis. Mostly, there is a need for greater discussion among Psychiatrists including consideration to the clinical, legal, and ethical implications of the use of intuition in psychiatric decision-making.

  9. Counter-intuitive moral judgement following traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Dane A; Rogish, Miles; Alexander, Timothy; Riggs, Kevin J

    2017-02-07

    Several neurological patient populations, including traumatic brain injury (TBI), appear to produce an abnormally 'utilitarian' pattern of judgements to moral dilemmas; they tend to make judgements that maximize the welfare of the majority, rather than deontological judgements based on the following of moral rules (e.g., do not harm others). However, this patient research has always used extreme dilemmas with highly valued moral rules (e.g., do not kill). Data from healthy participants, however, suggest that when a wider range of dilemmas are employed, involving less valued moral rules (e.g., do not lie), moral judgements demonstrate sensitivity to the psychological intuitiveness of the judgements, rather than their deontological or utilitarian content (Kahane et al., Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 7, 2011, 393). We sought the moral judgements of 30 TBI participants and 30 controls on moral dilemmas where content (utilitarian/deontological) and intuition (intuitive/counter-intuitive) were measured concurrently. Overall TBI participants made utilitarian judgements in equal proportions to controls; disproportionately favouring utilitarian judgements only when they were counter-intuitive, and deontological judgements only when they were counter-intuitive. These results speak against the view that TBI causes a specific utilitarian bias, suggesting instead that moral intuition is broadly disrupted following TBI. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Tensions Between Science and Intuition Across the Lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtulman, Andrew; Harrington, Kelsey

    2016-01-01

    The scientific knowledge needed to engage with policy issues like climate change, vaccination, and stem cell research often conflicts with our intuitive theories of the world. How resilient are our intuitive theories in the face of contradictory scientific knowledge? Here, we present evidence that intuitive theories in 10 domains of knowledge-astronomy, evolution, fractions, genetics, germs, matter, mechanics, physiology, thermodynamics, and waves-persist more than four decades beyond the acquisition of a mutually exclusive scientific theory. Participants (104 younger adults, Mage  = 19.6, and 48 older adults, Mage  = 65.1) were asked to verify two types of scientific statements as quickly as possible: those that are consistent with intuition (e.g., "the moon revolves around the Earth") and those that involve the same conceptual relations but are inconsistent with intuition (e.g., "the Earth revolves around the sun"). Older adults were as accurate as younger adults at verifying both types of statements, but the lag in response times between intuition-consistent and intuition-inconsistent statements was significantly larger for older adults than for younger adults. This lag persisted even among professional scientists. Overall, these results suggest that the scientific literacy needed to engage with topics of global importance may be constrained by patterns of reasoning that emerge in childhood but persist long thereafter. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  11. Are 'counter-intuitive' deontological judgments really counter-intuitive? An empirical reply to.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Joseph M; Bruni, Tommaso; Greene, Joshua D

    2014-09-01

    A substantial body of evidence indicates that utilitarian judgments (favoring the greater good) made in response to difficult moral dilemmas are preferentially supported by controlled, reflective processes, whereas deontological judgments (favoring rights/duties) in such cases are preferentially supported by automatic, intuitive processes. A recent neuroimaging study by Kahane et al. challenges this claim, using a new set of moral dilemmas that allegedly reverse the previously observed association. We report on a study in which we both induced and measured reflective responding to one of Greene et al.'s original dilemmas and one of Kahane et al.'s new dilemmas. For the original dilemma, induced reflection led to more utilitarian responding, replicating previous findings using the same methods. There was no overall effect of induced reflection for the new dilemma. However, for both dilemmas, the degree to which an individual engaged in prior reflection predicted the subsequent degree of utilitarian responding, with more reflective subjects providing more utilitarian judgments. These results cast doubt on Kahane et al.'s conclusions and buttress the original claim linking controlled, reflective processes to utilitarian judgment and automatic, intuitive processes to deontological judgment. Importantly, these results also speak to the generality of the underlying theory, indicating that what holds for cases involving utilitarian physical harms also holds for cases involving utilitarian lies. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Designing for intuitive use for non-human users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wirman, Hanna; Jørgensen, Ida Kathrine Hammeleff

    2015-01-01

    In the field of human-computer interaction the notion of intuitive use describes the extent to which a human user can subconsciously interact with a product by relying on existing knowledge from similar or identical situations. In animal-computer interaction (ACI) the idea of intuitive use holds ...... with knowledge transfer from other domains familiar to the animal may allow intuitive use of digital technology. Examples will be drawn from an ongoing game design research project which aims to build digital games for Bornean orangutans....

  13. A design method for an intuitive web site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinniey, M.L.; Diegert, K.V.; Baca, B.G.; Forsythe, J.C.; Grose, E.

    1999-11-03

    The paper describes a methodology for designing a web site for human factor engineers that is applicable for designing a web site for a group of people. Many web pages on the World Wide Web are not organized in a format that allows a user to efficiently find information. Often the information and hypertext links on web pages are not organized into intuitive groups. Intuition implies that a person is able to use their knowledge of a paradigm to solve a problem. Intuitive groups are categories that allow web page users to find information by using their intuition or mental models of categories. In order to improve the human factors engineers efficiency for finding information on the World Wide Web, research was performed to develop a web site that serves as a tool for finding information effectively. The paper describes a methodology for designing a web site for a group of people who perform similar task in an organization.

  14. The importance of intuition in the occupational medicine clinical consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, R; Philipp, E; Thorne, P

    1999-01-01

    Clinical consultation involves unspoken elements which flow between doctor and patient. They are vital ingredients of successful patient management but are not easily measured, objective or evidence-based. These elements include empathy and intuition for what the patient is experiencing and trying to express, or indeed suppressing. Time is needed to explore the instinctive feeling for what is important, particularly in present day society which increasingly recognizes the worth of psychosocial factors. This time should be available in the occupational health consultation. In this paper the importance of intuition and its essential value in the clinical interview are traced through history. Differences between intuition and empathy are explored and the use of intuition as a clinical tool is examined.

  15. The Structured Intuitive Model for Product Line Economics (SIMPLE)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clements, Paul C; McGregor, John D; Cohen, Sholom G

    2005-01-01

    .... This report presents the Structured Intuitive Model of Product Line Economics (SIMPLE), a general-purpose business model that supports the estimation of the costs and benefits in a product line development organization...

  16. Stochastic Learning and the Intuitive Criterion in Simple Signaling Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Birgitte; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

    A stochastic learning process for signaling games with two types, two signals, and two responses gives rise to equilibrium selection which is in remarkable accordance with the selection obtained by the intuitive criterion......A stochastic learning process for signaling games with two types, two signals, and two responses gives rise to equilibrium selection which is in remarkable accordance with the selection obtained by the intuitive criterion...

  17. Geometrical intuition and the learning and teaching of geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Fujita, Taro; Jones, Keith; Yamamoto, Shinya

    2004-01-01

    Intuition is often regarded as essential in the learning of geometry, but how such skills might be effectively developed in students remains an open question. This paper reviews the role and importance of geometrical intuition and suggests it involves the skills to create and manipulate geometrical figures in the mind, to see geometrical properties, to relate images to concepts and theorems in geometry, and decide where and how to start when solving problems in geometry. Based on these theore...

  18. Intuition in decision making and learning: Individual and organisational perspectives.

    OpenAIRE

    Akinci, Cinla.

    2011-01-01

    Although much has been written about the role of rational/analytical ways of knowing in decision making and problem solving in management, comparatively little is known about the way intuitive cognition manifests itself in organisations in general and in relation to organisational learning in particular. Several conceptualisations have been offered in respect to the ways in which managers perceive, make sense and act in the social settings of business organisations. Intuition and organisation...

  19. Intuition in Decision Making –Theoretical and Empirical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Malewska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In an economy dominated by information and knowledge, analysis ceases to be the sole and sufficient source of knowledge. Managers seek alternative ways of obtaining and interpreting information and knowledge. Here, managerial intuitive potential begins to play an important role. The aim of this paper is to present the issue of intuition in decision making in both theoretical and empirical terms. The first part presents the essence of intuition and its role in management, especially in decision making. Then, the empirical part attempts to identify the intuitive potential of managers and the extent of its use in practical decision making. The case study method was used in order to achieve this goal. The analysis involved a Polish food company “Fawor” that employs more than 300 workers. These literature and empirical studies in the area of intuition were conducted within the research project „The impact of managerial intuitive potential on the effectiveness of decision making processes”, financed by the National Science Centre, Poland (funds allocated on the basis of decision No. DEC-2014/13/D/HS4/01750

  20. Flexible intuitions of Euclidean geometry in an Amazonian indigene group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izard, Véronique; Pica, Pierre; Spelke, Elizabeth S.; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2011-01-01

    Kant argued that Euclidean geometry is synthesized on the basis of an a priori intuition of space. This proposal inspired much behavioral research probing whether spatial navigation in humans and animals conforms to the predictions of Euclidean geometry. However, Euclidean geometry also includes concepts that transcend the perceptible, such as objects that are infinitely small or infinitely large, or statements of necessity and impossibility. We tested the hypothesis that certain aspects of nonperceptible Euclidian geometry map onto intuitions of space that are present in all humans, even in the absence of formal mathematical education. Our tests probed intuitions of points, lines, and surfaces in participants from an indigene group in the Amazon, the Mundurucu, as well as adults and age-matched children controls from the United States and France and younger US children without education in geometry. The responses of Mundurucu adults and children converged with that of mathematically educated adults and children and revealed an intuitive understanding of essential properties of Euclidean geometry. For instance, on a surface described to them as perfectly planar, the Mundurucu's estimations of the internal angles of triangles added up to ∼180 degrees, and when asked explicitly, they stated that there exists one single parallel line to any given line through a given point. These intuitions were also partially in place in the group of younger US participants. We conclude that, during childhood, humans develop geometrical intuitions that spontaneously accord with the principles of Euclidean geometry, even in the absence of training in mathematics. PMID:21606377

  1. Intuition, as the ability to perceive a higher principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulc Petr

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we predicted the role of intuition in the decision-making process. In the mapping of its importance in this process, we drew from the model of Daniel Kahneman which divides our thinking primarily into two systems, logical and associative. We (The authors view intuition as a third system that exists as if outside of both systems, emanating from the “higher principle” which may be a collective consciousness or the divine will. First, we performed a pilot experiment which used an MRI to analyze brain function while performing normal activities. After observing the results of the MRI, we hypothesized that the normal mechanical activity, albeit complicated, cannot be called intuition, but only associative thinking, which can be further developed. Intuition, however, is not directly related to the two systems, because it works outside of or beyond them, but directly affects them. In this article, we have focused mainly on the ethical and moral context of the decision-making process and its subsequent practical consequences. The inclusion of the intuitive process in conjunction with the logical and associative systems is an important tool for an individual’s understanding of crisis decision-making in keeping WITH the mission of the company.

  2. The neural basis of intuitive and counterintuitive moral judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiech, Katja; Shackel, Nicholas; Farias, Miguel; Savulescu, Julian; Tracey, Irene

    2012-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies on moral decision-making have thus far largely focused on differences between moral judgments with opposing utilitarian (well-being maximizing) and deontological (duty-based) content. However, these studies have investigated moral dilemmas involving extreme situations, and did not control for two distinct dimensions of moral judgment: whether or not it is intuitive (immediately compelling to most people) and whether it is utilitarian or deontological in content. By contrasting dilemmas where utilitarian judgments are counterintuitive with dilemmas in which they are intuitive, we were able to use functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify the neural correlates of intuitive and counterintuitive judgments across a range of moral situations. Irrespective of content (utilitarian/deontological), counterintuitive moral judgments were associated with greater difficulty and with activation in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex, suggesting that such judgments may involve emotional conflict; intuitive judgments were linked to activation in the visual and premotor cortex. In addition, we obtained evidence that neural differences in moral judgment in such dilemmas are largely due to whether they are intuitive and not, as previously assumed, to differences between utilitarian and deontological judgments. Our findings therefore do not support theories that have generally associated utilitarian and deontological judgments with distinct neural systems. PMID:21421730

  3. Psychological flexibility and mindfulness explain intuitive eating in overweight adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sairanen, Essi; Tolvanen, Asko; Karhunen, Leila; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Järvelä, Elina; Rantala, Sanni; Peuhkuri, Katri; Korpela, Riitta; Lappalainen, Raimo

    2015-07-01

    The current study investigated whether mindfulness and psychological flexibility, independently and together, explain intuitive eating. The participants were overweight or obese persons (N = 306) reporting symptoms of perceived stress and enrolled in a psychological lifestyle intervention study. Participants completed self-report measures of psychological flexibility; mindfulness including the subscales observe, describe, act with awareness, non-react, and non-judgment; and intuitive eating including the subscales unconditional permission to eat, eating for physical reasons, and reliance on hunger/satiety cues. Psychological flexibility and mindfulness were positively associated with intuitive eating factors. The results suggest that mindfulness and psychological flexibility are related constructs that not only account for some of the same variance in intuitive eating, but they also account for significant unique variances in intuitive eating. The present results indicate that non-judgment can explain the relationship between general psychological flexibility and unconditional permission to eat as well as eating for physical reasons. However, mindfulness skills-acting with awareness, observing, and non-reacting-explained reliance on hunger/satiety cues independently from general psychological flexibility. These findings suggest that mindfulness and psychological flexibility are interrelated but not redundant constructs and that both may be important for understanding regulation processes underlying eating behavior. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Exogenous cortisol causes a shift from deliberative to intuitive thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margittai, Zsofia; Nave, Gideon; Strombach, Tina; van Wingerden, Marijn; Schwabe, Lars; Kalenscher, Tobias

    2016-02-01

    People often rely on intuitive judgments at the expense of deliberate reasoning, but what determines the dominance of intuition over deliberation is not well understood. Here, we employed a psychopharmacological approach to unravel the role of two major endocrine stress mediators, cortisol and noradrenaline, in cognitive reasoning. Healthy participants received placebo, cortisol (hydrocortisone) and/or yohimbine, a drug that increases noradrenergic stimulation, before performing the cognitive reflection test (CRT). We found that cortisol impaired performance in the CRT by biasing responses toward intuitive, but incorrect answers. Elevated stimulation of the noradrenergic system, however, had no effect. We interpret our results in the context of the dual systems theory of judgment and decision making. We propose that cortisol causes a shift from deliberate, reflective cognition toward automatic, reflexive information processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Why 'Appeals to Intuitions' might not be so bad | Spurrett | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    defences of intuitions, and analytic philosophy, have also been offered. In this paper I review the case against intuitions, in particular the claims that intuitions vary with culture, and are built by natural selection, and argue that much of their force depends on assuming that the required sense of intuition is of a kind of human ...

  6. Fatal attraction: the intuitive appeal of GMO opposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancke, Stefaan; Van Breusegem, Frank; De Jaeger, Geert; Braeckman, Johan; Van Montagu, Marc

    2015-07-01

    Public opposition to genetically modified organisms (GMOs) remains strong. By contrast, studies demonstrate again and again that GM crops make a valuable contribution to the development of a sustainable type of agriculture. The discrepancy between public opinion and the scientific evidence requires an explanation. We argue that intuitive expectations about the world render the human mind vulnerable to particular misrepresentations of GMOs. We explain how the involvement of particular intuitions accounts for the popularity, persistence, and typical features of GM opposition and tackle possible objections to our approach. To conclude, we discuss the implications for science education, science communication, and the environmental movement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Neuroscientific Prediction and the Intrusion of Intuitive Metaphysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, David; Buckwalter, Wesley; Nichols, Shaun

    2017-03-01

    How might advanced neuroscience-in which perfect neuro-predictions are possible-interact with ordinary judgments of free will? We propose that peoples' intuitive ideas about indeterminist free will are both imported into and intrude into their representation of neuroscientific scenarios and present six experiments demonstrating intrusion and importing effects in the context of scenarios depicting perfect neuro-prediction. In light of our findings, we suggest that the intuitive commitment to indeterminist free will may be resilient in the face of scientific evidence against such free will. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  8. Brief Report: Intuitive and Reflective Reasoning in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Mark; Ashwin, Chris; Lewton, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    Dual Process Theory has recently been applied to Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to suggest that reasoning by people with ASD and people with higher levels of ASD-like traits can be characterised by reduced intuitive and greater reflective processing. 26 adolescents and adults with ASD and 22 adolescent and adult controls completed an assessment of…

  9. Extensional versus Intuitive Reasoning: The Conjunction Fallacy in Probability Judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tversky, Amos; Kahneman, Daniel

    1983-01-01

    Judgments under uncertainty are often mediated by intuitive heuristics that are not bound by the conjunction rule of probability. Representativeness and availability heuristics can make a conjunction appear more probable than one of its constituents. Alternative interpretations of this conjunction fallacy are discussed and attempts to combat it…

  10. Persistence of the Intuitive Conception of Living Things in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babai, Reuven; Sekal, Rachel; Stavy, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether intuitive, naive conceptions of "living things" based on objects' mobility (movement = alive) persist into adolescence and affect 10th graders' accuracy of responses and reaction times during object classification. Most of the 58 students classified the test objects correctly as living/nonliving, yet they…

  11. Metis Hub: The Development of an Intuitive Project Planning System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, Rachael M. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-08-26

    The goal is to develop an intuitive, dynamic, and consistent interface for the Metis Planning System by combining user requirements and human engineering concepts. The system is largely based upon existing systems so some tools already have working models that we can follow. However, the web-based interface is completely new.

  12. Empirical Evidence or Intuition? An Activity Involving the Scientific Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overway, Ken

    2007-01-01

    Students need to have basic understanding of scientific method during their introductory science classes and for this purpose an activity was devised which involved a game based on famous Monty Hall game problem. This particular activity allowed students to banish or confirm their intuition based on empirical evidence.

  13. Bergson's Intuition and Memory in View of NeuroQuantology

    OpenAIRE

    Başar, Erol; Güntekin, Bahar

    2009-01-01

    This essay describes the concept of great philosopher Henri Bergson, related to episodic memory, intuition and duration. Further, the relation of "quantum theory" to Bergson's philosophy is shortly described. We discuss the importance of Bergson's concepts to "Quantum Methodology" and modern science.

  14. When Theory and Intuition Meet: An Approach to Composition Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghbar, Ali A.; Trump, Kathy

    Two teachers of English as a second language composition discuss, in dialogue form, their intuitions about writing and some of the theories of language learning and writing advanced in recent years. Among the topics addressed are the following: self-consciousness; the importance of developing self-confidence in writing; finding a balance between…

  15. Intuition and Creativity: A Pas de Deux for Qualitative Researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janesick, Valerie J.

    The importance of intuition and creativity in qualitative research is discussed. By discussing lessons learned from well-known creative individuals, it is possible to find ways to open a conversation on creativity. Since the researcher is the research instrument in qualitative research projects, the definition of the role of the researcher is…

  16. Intuitive control of self-propelled microjets with haptic feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacchierotti, Claudio; Magdanz, V.; Medina-Sanchez, M.; Schmidt, O.G.; Prattichizzo, D.; Misra, Sarthak

    2015-01-01

    Self-propelled microrobots have recently shown promising results in several scenarios at the microscale, such as targeted drug delivery and micromanipulation of cells. However, none of the steering systems available in the literature enable humans to intuitively and effectively control these

  17. Intuition in Coaching: It's Not Magic

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Pierre, Peter; Smith, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Many coaches have been called instinctive for decisions they have made, whether in game situations, recruiting, or other aspects of their job. Coaches often report having "gut feelings" before making important decisions. The purpose of this article is to dispel the notion of intuition as a magical ability, and begin to look at it as an…

  18. Persistence of the Intuitive Conception of Living Things in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babai, Reuven; Sekal, Rachel; Stavy, Ruth

    2010-02-01

    This study investigated whether intuitive, naive conceptions of "living things" based on objects' mobility (movement = alive) persist into adolescence and affect 10th graders' accuracy of responses and reaction times during object classification. Most of the 58 students classified the test objects correctly as living/nonliving, yet they demonstrated significantly longer reaction times for classifying plants compared to animals and for classifying dynamic objects compared to static inanimate objects. Findings indicated that, despite prior learning in biology, the intuitive conception of living things persists up to age 15-16 years, affecting related reasoning processes. Consideration of these findings may help educators in their decisions about the nature of examples they use in their classrooms.

  19. Mind Games: Game Engines as an Architecture for Intuitive Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Tomer D; Spelke, Elizabeth; Battaglia, Peter; Tenenbaum, Joshua B

    2017-09-01

    We explore the hypothesis that many intuitive physical inferences are based on a mental physics engine that is analogous in many ways to the machine physics engines used in building interactive video games. We describe the key features of game physics engines and their parallels in human mental representation, focusing especially on the intuitive physics of young infants where the hypothesis helps to unify many classic and otherwise puzzling phenomena, and may provide the basis for a computational account of how the physical knowledge of infants develops. This hypothesis also explains several 'physics illusions', and helps to inform the development of artificial intelligence (AI) systems with more human-like common sense. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Moral intuition, good deaths and ordinary medical practitioners.

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, M

    1990-01-01

    Debate continues over the acts/omissions doctrine, and over the concepts of duty and charity. Such issues inform the debate over the moral permissibility of euthanasia. Recent papers have emphasised moral sensitivity, medical intuitions, and sub-standard palliative care as some of the factors which should persuade us to regard euthanasia as morally unacceptable. I argue that these lines of argument are conceptually misdirected and have no bearing on the bare permissibility of voluntary euthan...

  1. Zebrabase: An intuitive tracking solution for aquatic model organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Oltova, Jana; Bartunek, Petr; Machonova, Olga; Svoboda, Ondrej; Skuta, Ctibor; Jindrich, Jindrich

    2018-01-01

    Small fish species, like zebrafish or medaka, are constantly gaining popularity in basic research and disease modeling as a useful alternative to rodent model organisms. However, the tracking options for fish within a facility are rather limited. Here, we present an aquatic species tracking database, Zebrabase, developed in our zebrafish research and breeding facility that represents a practical and scalable solution and an intuitive platform for scientists, fish managers and caretakers, in b...

  2. Intuitive Robot Tasks with Augmented Reality and Virtual Obstacles

    OpenAIRE

    Gaschler, Andre;Springer, Maximilian;Rickert, Markus;Knoll, Alois

    2017-01-01

    Today's industrial robots require expert knowledge and are not profitable for small and medium sized enterprises with their small lot sizes. It is our strong belief that more intuitive robot programming in an augmented reality robot work cell can dramatically simplify re-programming and leverage robotics technology in short production cycles. In this paper, we present a novel augmented reality system for defining virtual obstacles, specifying tool positions, and specifying robot tasks. We eva...

  3. Intuitive eating: associations with physical activity motivation and BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gast, Julie; Campbell Nielson, Amy; Hunt, Anne; Leiker, Jason J

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether university women who demonstrated internal motivation related to eating behavior may also be internally motivated to participate in regular physical activity (PA) and have a lower body mass index (BMI) when controlling for age. Traditional approaches for health promotion related to healthy weight include restrictive eating and exercise prescription. Examining motivation for eating and PA may prove an effective alternative for achieving or maintaining healthy weight for university women. Design was a cross-sectional study. Study setting was a large, public university in the western United States. Subjects . Study subjects were 200 undergraduate women with a mean age of 19 years, mostly white (90%) and of healthy weight (69%, with a BMI range of 18.5-24.9). Study measures were the Intuitive Eating Scale and the Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire. Correlations and regression models were used. Intuitive eating was examined in the sample as a whole and among subgroups of respondents grouped based on tertile rankings of intuitive eating scores. There was evidence that women who demonstrated internal motivation related to eating were also internally motivated to participate in regular PA. Women who reported being internally motivated to eat were significantly more likely to engage in PA for pleasure and to view PA as part of their self-concept. Women who reported high levels of intuitive eating had significantly lower BMI scores than those reporting medium or low levels when controlling for age. For women to achieve or maintain a healthy weight, it may be best for health professionals to examine motivation for eating and PA rather than the encouragement of restrictive eating and exercise prescriptions.

  4. Understanding unconscious intelligence and intuition: "blink" and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenman, Lois

    2013-01-01

    The importance of unconscious intelligence and intuition is increasingly acknowledged by the scientific community. This essay examines and assesses the varied views on the topic presented in three books that bridge the scientific world and reading public: Blink by Malcolm Gladwell (2005), Gut Feelings by Gerd Gigerenzer (2008), and How Doctors Think by Jerome Groopman (2007). The analysis differentiates among kinds of unconscious intelligence and points towards a more complete understanding of the higher cognitive potential of the unconscious mind.

  5. Building intuitive 3D interfaces for virtual reality systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Vivek; Suryanarayanan, Srikanth; Seitel, Mathias; Mullick, Rakesh

    2007-03-01

    An exploration of techniques for developing intuitive, and efficient user interfaces for virtual reality systems. Work seeks to understand which paradigms from the better-understood world of 2D user interfaces remain viable within 3D environments. In order to establish this a new user interface was created that applied various understood principles of interface design. A user study was then performed where it was compared with an earlier interface for a series of medical visualization tasks.

  6. Dieting, exercise, and intuitive eating among early adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Jordan; Petrie, Trent A; Dockendorff, Sally; Greenleaf, Christy; Martin, Scott

    2013-12-01

    Dieting to lose weight, with its focus on restriction of caloric intake, may disrupt intuitive eating processes, though other forms of weight loss, such as exercising, which do not emphasize food may not. In a sample of 669 middle school boys and 708 girls, regardless of sex or exercising, dieting was related to feeling less free to eat what was wanted and to eating more to soothe emotions than to satisfy actual physical hunger. Exercising, independent of dieting, was associated with feeling less permission to eat what was wanted, but also eating to satisfy physical hunger as opposed to coping with emotional distress. Overall, girls were more aware and trusting of their bodily hunger and satiety cues than boys, but when boys were exercising, they scored similarly to girls on this dimension. These findings suggest that different weight loss approaches - dieting vs. exercising - have unique relationships to young adolescents' intuitive eating and these associations tend to be stable across sex. Longitudinal studies now are needed to examine how dieting that begins in childhood or early adolescence might have long-term effects on the progression of intuitive eating. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Intuition as authoritative knowledge in midwifery and homebirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis-Floyd, R; Davis, E

    1996-06-01

    As defined by Jordan (1992, 1993[1978]), authoritative knowledge motivates decision and action. Based on interviews with 22 white middle-class midwives in the United States conducted between 1992 and 1993, this article explores the inner knowing that constitutes a primary source of authoritative knowledge for homebirthers but is granted no authority in the realm of technomedicine. The purpose of this article is to call attention to these midwives' utilization of and reliance on intuition as a guide to action and decision making during homebirths. The midwife-interviewees are highly literate and competent in technological skills and biomedical diagnosis, and are keenly aware of the cultural and legal risks they run when they cannot justify their actions during a birth in logical, rational terms. Nevertheless, the deep value they place on connection, in the context of their holistic model of birth and health care, leads them to listen to and follow their "inner voice" during birth, rather than operating only according to protocols and standard parameters for "normal birth". The nature of intuition and the reasons for and consequences of the general devaluation of intuitive thinking by the wider society are also considered.

  8. Intuitive theories of information: beliefs about the value of redundancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soll, J B

    1999-03-01

    In many situations, quantity estimates from multiple experts or diagnostic instruments must be collected and combined. Normatively, and all else equal, one should value information sources that are nonredundant, in the sense that correlation in forecast errors should be minimized. Past research on the preference for redundancy has been inconclusive. While some studies have suggested that people correctly place higher value on uncorrelated inputs when collecting estimates, others have shown that people either ignore correlation or, in some cases, even prefer it. The present experiments show that the preference for redundancy depends on one's intuitive theory of information. The most common intuitive theory identified is the Error Tradeoff Model (ETM), which explicitly distinguishes between measurement error and bias. According to ETM, measurement error can only be averaged out by consulting the same source multiple times (normatively false), and bias can only be averaged out by consulting different sources (normatively true). As a result, ETM leads people to prefer redundant estimates when the ratio of measurement error to bias is relatively high. Other participants favored different theories. Some adopted the normative model, while others were reluctant to mathematically average estimates from different sources in any circumstance. In a post hoc analysis, science majors were more likely than others to subscribe to the normative model. While tentative, this result lends insight into how intuitive theories might develop and also has potential ramifications for how statistical concepts such as correlation might best be learned and internalized. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  9. Supernatural belief is not modulated by intuitive thinking style or cognitive inhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Farias, Miguel; van Mulukom, Valerie; Kahane, Guy; Kreplin, Ute; Joyce, Anna; Soares, Pedro; Oviedo, Lluis; Hernu, Mathilde; Rokita, Karolina; Savulescu, Julian; Möttönen, Riikka

    2017-01-01

    According to the Intuitive Belief Hypothesis, supernatural belief relies heavily on intuitive thinking—and decreases when analytic thinking is engaged. After pointing out various limitations in prior attempts to support this Intuitive Belief Hypothesis, we tested it across three new studies using a variety of paradigms, ranging from a pilgrimage field study to a neurostimulation experiment. In all three studies, we found no relationship between intuitive or analytical thinking and supernatura...

  10. Simple and Intuitive Mathematics for Learning Elementary Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yukio

    Mathematics is the language of physics and simple and intuitive mathematics is effective for imaging physical pictures of phenomena. This is important because geometrical viewpoints inspire ideas in physics. For example, some problems on the motion of a particle in a uniform gravitational field can be well illustrated by simple diagrams. Calculus is not only a way of calculating but is also closely related to the law of inertia through slope on a position-time graph. As such, cross-curricular study between mathematics and physics is effective for broadly developing thinking power at the high school and college levels.

  11. Non-intuitive fluid dynamics from reactor and containment technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, F.J.

    1986-01-01

    One exciting aspect of fluid dynamics is that the subject has many surprises. The surprises can be good, but if not anticipated, they sometimes can be costly and embarrassing. Several non-intuitive fluid responses have emerged from studies in nuclear reactor and containment design. These responses include bubble behavior, blowdown, and waterhammer phenomena. Apologies are extended to those who are not surprised by the results. However, many will find the examples interesting; some have been amazed; a few have declared a personal crisis in their engineering perception

  12. Designing an intuitive web application for drug discovery scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamanis, Nikiforos; Pignatelli, Miguel; Carvalho-Silva, Denise; Rowland, Francis; Cham, Jennifer A; Dunham, Ian

    2018-01-11

    We discuss how we designed the Open Targets Platform (www.targetvalidation.org), an intuitive application for bench scientists working in early drug discovery. To meet the needs of our users, we applied lean user experience (UX) design methods: we started engaging with users very early and carried out research, design and evaluation activities within an iterative development process. We also emphasize the collaborative nature of applying lean UX design, which we believe is a foundation for success in this and many other scientific projects. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. C. G. Jung and intuition: from the mindscape of the paranormal to the heart of psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilard, Nathalie

    2018-02-01

    Intuition is central in the work, practice, and philosophical legacy of C. G. Jung. In this paper, I will first discuss the importance of intuition for Jung in the paradigm usually designated the 'paranormal'. Jung was attracted to intuition as an extra-ordinary gift or function in the traditional sense, and this is considered here in relation to his 1896-1899 Zofingia Lectures and 1902 On the Psychology and Pathology of So-called Occult Phenomena: A Psychiatric Study. A significant development then occurred in 1913, when esotericist intuitions were turned toward psychological use with Jung's Red Book. There, his personal and private use of intuition - and we know how extraordinarily intuitive he was - led Jung to fully incorporate intuition at the core of his psychology. Not only in his practice, in the crucial intuitive form of empathy, but as we will see, also at the very heart of his theory. In 1921, Jung wrote Psychological Types, where intuition became one - the first - of the four fundamental functions and types of the psyche next to thinking, feeling, and sensation. In 1921, Jung proved to the world in rational argument that intuition was no longer a psychologist's hobby for table turning, but the most significant function of the psyche. © 2018, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  14. Moral intuition, good deaths and ordinary medical practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M

    1990-01-01

    Debate continues over the acts/omissions doctrine, and over the concepts of duty and charity. Such issues inform the debate over the moral permissibility of euthanasia. Recent papers have emphasised moral sensitivity, medical intuitions, and sub-standard palliative care as some of the factors which should persuade us to regard euthanasia as morally unacceptable. I argue that these lines of argument are conceptually misdirected and have no bearing on the bare permissibility of voluntary euthanasia. Further, some of the familiar slippery slope arguments against voluntary euthanasia compromise the principle of autonomy to which both supporters and opponents of euthanasia adhere. I discuss a model for doctor/patient relationships which can be applied to cases which would be seen by all disputants as strong prima facie cases for euthanasia. I argue that in certain cases it will be ordinary medical practitioners who are duty-bound to assist death. PMID:2319570

  15. Treks into intuitive geometry the world of polygons and polyhedra

    CERN Document Server

    Akiyama, Jin

    2015-01-01

    This book is written in a style that uncovers the mathematical theories buried in our everyday lives such as examples from patterns that appear in nature, art, and traditional crafts, and in mathematical mechanisms in techniques used by architects. The authors believe that through dialogues between students and mathematicians, readers may discover the processes by which the founders of the theories came to their various conclusions―their trials, errors, tribulations, and triumphs. The goal is for readers to refine their mathematical sense of how to find good questions and how to grapple with these problems. Another aim is to provide enjoyment in the process of applying mathematical rules to beautiful art and design by examples that highlight the wonders and mysteries from our daily lives. To fulfill these aims, this book deals with the latest unique and beautiful results in polygons and polyhedra and the dynamism of geometrical research history that can be found around us. The term "intuitive geometry" was ...

  16. Thinking Like a Chemist: Intuition in Thermoelectric Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeier, Wolfgang G; Zevalkink, Alex; Gibbs, Zachary M; Hautier, Geoffroy; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G; Snyder, G Jeffrey

    2016-06-06

    The coupled transport properties required to create an efficient thermoelectric material necessitates a thorough understanding of the relationship between the chemistry and physics in a solid. We approach thermoelectric material design using the chemical intuition provided by molecular orbital diagrams, tight binding theory, and a classic understanding of bond strength. Concepts such as electronegativity, band width, orbital overlap, bond energy, and bond length are used to explain trends in electronic properties such as the magnitude and temperature dependence of band gap, carrier effective mass, and band degeneracy and convergence. The lattice thermal conductivity is discussed in relation to the crystal structure and bond strength, with emphasis on the importance of bond length. We provide an overview of how symmetry and bonding strength affect electron and phonon transport in solids, and how altering these properties may be used in strategies to improve thermoelectric performance. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Moral intuition, good deaths and ordinary medical practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M

    1990-03-01

    Debate continues over the acts/omissions doctrine, and over the concepts of duty and charity. Such issues inform the debate over the moral permissibility of euthanasia. Recent papers have emphasised moral sensitivity, medical intuitions, and sub-standard palliative care as some of the factors which should persuade us to regard euthanasia as morally unacceptable. I argue that these lines of argument are conceptually misdirected and have no bearing on the bare permissibility of voluntary euthanasia. Further, some of the familiar slippery slope arguments against voluntary euthanasia compromise the principle of autonomy to which both supporters and opponents of euthanasia adhere. I discuss a model for doctor/patient relationships which can be applied to cases which would be seen by all disputants as strong prima facie cases for euthanasia. I argue that in certain cases it will be ordinary medical practitioners who are duty-bound to assist death.

  18. Structured Intuition: A Methodology to Analyse Entity Authentication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Naveed

    and the level of abstraction used in the analysis. Thus, the goal of developing a high level methodology that can be used with different notions of security, authentication, and abstraction is worth considering. In this thesis, we propose a new methodology, called the structured intuition (SI), which addresses...... in our methodology, which is called canonicity, which is a weaker form of message authenticity. As compared to many contemporary analysis techniques, an SI based analysis provides detailed results regarding the design rationales and entity authentication goals of a protocol....... consequences for the security of the system, e.g., private information of legitimate parties may be leaked or the security policy of a trusted system may be violated. At a corporate level, such a failure of authentication may result in loss of proprietary technology or customers' credit card information...

  19. Evaluation of a clinically intuitive quality assurance method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, H; Thomas, A; Oldham, M

    2013-01-01

    There is a pressing need for clinically intuitive quality assurance methods that report metrics of relevance to the likely impact on tumor control of normal tissue injury. This paper presents a preliminary investigation into the accuracy of a novel ''transform method'' which enables a clinically relevant analysis through dose-volume-histograms (DVHs) and dose overlays on the patient's CT data. The transform method was tested by inducing a series of known mechanical and delivery errors onto simulated 3D dosimetry measurements of six different head-and-neck IMRT treatment plans. Accuracy was then examined through the comparison of the transformed patient dose distributions and the known actual patient dose distributions through dose-volume histograms and normalized dose difference analysis. Through these metrics, the transform method was found to be highly accurate in predicting measured patient dose distributions for these types of errors.

  20. Decision and intuition during organizational change : an evolutionary critique of dual process theory

    OpenAIRE

    Talat, U; Chang, K; Nguyen, B

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review intuition in the context of organizational change. We argue that intuition as a concept requires attention and its formulation is necessary prior to its application in organizations. The paper provides a critique of Dual Process Theory and highlights shortcomings in organization theorizing of intuition.\\ud Design/methodology/approach: The paper is conceptual and provides in-depth theoretical discussions by drawing from the literature on decision...

  1. Intuition and emotion: examining two non-rational approaches in complex decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Tori Yu-wen

    2012-01-01

    This thesis was designed to examine two non-rational decision approaches in individual and team decision making. In Chapter 2 (Paper 1), a normative theory about how people should use intuition in making complex decisions is proposed. I draw from extant literature to derive why allowing intuition to interrupt analysis is beneficial to complex decision processes. In Chapter 3 (Paper 2), the theory of intuitive interruptions is applied to the entrepreneurial context. I argue that allowing intui...

  2. Just between the two of us: clinical intuition as a non-conscious process.

    OpenAIRE

    Swanepoel, Lucia

    2008-01-01

    Intuition is a phenomenon widely acknowledged within psychological therapy, and yet it remains poorly understood. Historically its subjective and nonrational\\ud nature has prevented it from entering into mainstream psychological research, and to date studies of the phenomenon have concentrated on; proving the existence of intuition, anecdotal or descriptive accounts, and the\\ud measurement of accuracy. Research attempting to provide a comprehensive understanding of the process of intuition wi...

  3. The interplay between intuition and rationality in strategic decision making: A paradox perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Calabretta, G.; Gemser, G.; Wijnberg, N.M.

    2017-01-01

    Although scholars have made a strong plea for an integrative approach to strategic decision making, an integrated framework that accounts for the interplay between intuition and rationality is still missing. This study addresses this gap by using a paradox lens and conceptualizes the intuition-rationality duality as a paradoxical tension. We draw on seven case studies of innovation projects to empirically derive a three-step process for managing this intuition-rationality tension through para...

  4. An intuitive concept for manufacturing and inspecting of aspherical components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Hsiao-Yu; Chang, Keng-Shou

    2011-09-01

    In this paper we propose an intuitive concept for manufacturing and inspecting of aspherical components. Two types, parabolic and cylinder, of plano-convex and plano-concave aspherical lenses were made by LOH 120S form generation machine. Three form error measurement methods were used known as coordinate measuring machine (CMM), interferometer with CGH null lens and inspection with combined pair lenses. Ultra high accuracy CMM from Panasonic Co., CGH cylinder null and CGH aspheric null from Diffraction International and OWI 150 ASPH CGH interferometer from OptoTech GmbH play the roll for measurement. CMM was used as a surface profiler to inspect the surface shape, and the software GRAPHER was also used as analysis tool to exam asphere numerical datum. The difference between theoretical and practical is as a surface polishing revised reference. The finished plano-convex and plano-concave aspherical lenses can be combined to be a plane lens. The individual and combined lenses were inspected on OPTOTECH OWI 150 ASPH CGH interferometer. The compared interference patterns have shown with the Diffration International CGH Aspheric Null "ASPHERIC 1" and CGH Cylinder Null "H80F2C". Through the procedure, the combined plano-convex and plano-concave aspherical lenses should be a perfect match plane lens and the individual lens might be an aspherical test standard element for quick inspection.

  5. Virtual microscopy: merging of computer mediated communication and intuitive interfacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ridder, Huib; de Ridder-Sluiter, Johanna G.; Kluin, Philip M.; Christiaans, Henri H. C. M.

    2009-02-01

    Ubiquitous computing (or Ambient Intelligence) is an upcoming technology that is usually associated with futuristic smart environments in which information is available anytime anywhere and with which humans can interact in a natural, multimodal way. However spectacular the corresponding scenarios may be, it is equally challenging to consider how this technology may enhance existing situations. This is illustrated by a case study from the Dutch medical field: central quality reviewing for pathology in child oncology. The main goal of the review is to assess the quality of the diagnosis based on patient material. The sharing of knowledge in social face-to-face interaction during such meeting is an important advantage. At the same time there is the disadvantage that the experts from the seven Dutch academic medical centers have to travel to the review meeting and that the required logistics to collect and bring patient material and data to the meeting is cumbersome and time-consuming. This paper focuses on how this time-consuming, nonefficient way of reviewing can be replaced by a virtual collaboration system by merging technology supporting Computer Mediated Collaboration and intuitive interfacing. This requires insight in the preferred way of communication and collaboration as well as knowledge about preferred interaction style with a virtual shared workspace.

  6. A Natural Interaction Interface for UAVs Using Intuitive Gesture Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandarana, Meghan; Trujillo, Anna; Shimada, Kenji; Allen, Danette

    2016-01-01

    The popularity of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is increasing as technological advancements boost their favorability for a broad range of applications. One application is science data collection. In fields like Earth and atmospheric science, researchers are seeking to use UAVs to augment their current portfolio of platforms and increase their accessibility to geographic areas of interest. By increasing the number of data collection platforms UAVs will significantly improve system robustness and allow for more sophisticated studies. Scientists would like be able to deploy an available fleet of UAVs to fly a desired flight path and collect sensor data without needing to understand the complex low-level controls required to describe and coordinate such a mission. A natural interaction interface for a Ground Control System (GCS) using gesture recognition is developed to allow non-expert users (e.g., scientists) to define a complex flight path for a UAV using intuitive hand gesture inputs from the constructed gesture library. The GCS calculates the combined trajectory on-line, verifies the trajectory with the user, and sends it to the UAV controller to be flown.

  7. VISPA. New applications for intuitive data visualisation and analysis creation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Benjamin; Fischer, Robert; Glaser, Christian; Heidemann, Fabian; Mueller, Gero; Quast, Thorben; Rieger, Marcel; Urban, Martin; Asseldonk, Daniel van; Cube, Ralf Florian von; Welling, Christoph [Physics Institute IIIa, RWTH Aachen University (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The Visual Physics Analysis software is a framework developed at RWTH Aachen providing intuitive access and usage of experiment-specific resources via common web browsers. Through its extension mechanism, VISPA allows for interfacing a wide range of applications to meet the demands for diverse use cases. After a quick review of the internal architecture and basic functionalities, most recent updates to the system are highlighted and various newly released extensions are presented: Our data browsers facilitate the inspection of information in Pierre Auger Observatory and HEP data samples. The JSROOT project has been embedded and enables the visualisation of ROOT files. Modular analysis chains based on our HEP software library (PXL) can be interactively created and modified using the Analysis Designer. VISPA is tested both through its integration in undergraduate and elementary particle physics courses at RWTH and through its use in analysis work for CMS and Auger. Finally, instructions on how to access our cluster or to set up an own server are given.

  8. Women chairs in academic medicine: engendering strategic intuition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Carol; Griffin, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    Because stereotypically masculine behaviors are required for effective leadership, examining female chairs' leadership in academic medicine can provide insight into the complex ways in which gender impacts on their leadership practices. The paper aims to discuss this issue. The author interviewed three female clinical chairs and compared the findings to interviews with 28 of their faculty. Grounded theory analysis of the subsequent text gathered comprehensive, systematic, and in-depth information about this case of interest at a US top-tier academic medical center. Four of five themes from the faculty were consistent with the chair's narrative with modifications: Prior Environment (Motivated by Excellence), Tough, Direct, Transparent (Developing Trust), Communal Actions (Creating Diversity of Opinion), and Building Power through Consensus (an "Artful Exercise") with an additional theme, the Significance (and Insignificance) of a Female Chair. While faculty members were acutely aware of the chair's gender, the chairs paradoxically vacillated between gender being a "non-issue" and noting that male chairs "don't do laundry." All three female chairs in this study independently and explicitly stated that gender was not a barrier, yet intuitively used successful strategies derived from the research literature. This study suggests that while their gender was highlighted by faculty, these women dismissed gender as a "non-issue." The duality of gender for these three female leaders was both minimized and subtly affirmed.

  9. Non-intuitive bubble effects in reactor and containment technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, F.J.

    1991-01-01

    Most people know a lot about bubbles, including how they rise in liquids and the way they appear when the cap is removed from a bottle of carbonated beverage. A lot of bubble knowledge is obtained from bubbling air through water in aquariums to keep the fish alive and happy, or watching scuba divers feed the sharks in large glass tanks at the local zoo. But innocent bubbles can be sources of structural loadings and sometimes destructive fluid behavior. In fact, there are many non-intuitive effects associated with bubbles which have been discovered by experiments and analyses. It has been necessary to design various reactor and containment components in the nuclear energy industry to accommodate the fact that bubbles can expand like compressed springs, or oscillate, or collapse abruptly, and create structural loads. This paper describes several important phenomena associated with bubble action in nuclear reactor and containment systems and the associated loads exerted. An awareness of these effects can help to avoid unwelcome surprises in general thermal-hydraulic applications when a system is disturbed by bubble behavior. Major topics discussed include expanding and collapsing submerged bubbles, steam chugging and ringout, bubble shattering, surprising hot bubble action in a saturated pool, bubble effects on fluid-structure-interaction, waterhammer from collapsing bubble in pipes, and vapor bubble effects on sound speed in saturated mixtures

  10. Cognitive biases can affect moral intuitions about cognitive enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucius eCaviola

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Research into cognitive biases that impair human judgment has mostly been applied to the area of economic decision-making. Ethical decision-making has been comparatively neglected. Since ethical decisions often involve very high individual as well as collective stakes, analyzing how cognitive biases affect them can be expected to yield important results. In this theoretical article, we consider the ethical debate about cognitive enhancement (CE and suggest a number of cognitive biases that are likely to affect moral intuitions and judgments about CE: status quo bias, loss aversion, risk aversion, omission bias, scope insensitivity, nature bias, and optimistic bias. We find that there are more well-documented biases that are likely to cause irrational aversion to CE than biases in the opposite direction. This suggests that common attitudes about CE are predominantly negatively biased. Within this new perspective, we hope that subsequent research will be able to elaborate this hypothesis and develop effective de-biasing techniques that can help increase the rationality of the public CE debate and thus improve our ethical decision-making.

  11. Intuitive Experiences from Sohrevardi’s Viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Heydarinoori

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The truth of intuitive experiences and how to fulfill them are among the issues that all people, cultures and rituals have faced with and expressed views about. There are two major approaches the essence-oriented notion which has emphasized on the cohesion and commonality of these experiences between individuals and people, and construction-oriented perspective which has considered more important roles for the discovery ideas and thoughts in the development and shaping of these experiences, so there are essential differences of them between people and cultures. Intellectual system of Illumination, which has been developed according to Sohrevardi’s discussions, has unique and valuable view in this regard. It asserts that :::::union::::: with light underlies mystical revelation and the specific self-centeredness is involved in the realization of these experiences along with illumination, observation, :::::union:::::, and inexistence. Although characteristics of illumination and talent are essential in this system of thought, the collection of features regarding spiritual experiences, according to Sohrevardi, represents a kind of essence-orientation in mystical revelation. The personal unity of experiences based on the thinking of each individual does not mean to separate experiences. Rather, they all have common grounds. The present study first, refers to the views expressed in this regard, and then explains what and how of spiritual experiences from the viewpoint of Sohrevardi. It finally, provides answers to some unknown issues.

  12. Preparing learners with partly incorrect intuitive prior knowledge for learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eOhst

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Learners sometimes have incoherent and fragmented intuitive prior knowledge that is (partly ‘incompatible’ with the to-be-learned contents. Such knowledge in pieces can cause conceptual disorientation and cognitive overload while learning. We hypothesized that a pre-training intervention providing a generalized schema as a structuring framework for such knowledge in pieces would support (reorganizing-processes of prior knowledge and thus reduce unnecessary cognitive load during subsequent learning. Fifty-six student teachers participated in the experiment. A framework group underwent a pre-training intervention providing a generalized, categorical schema for categorizing primary learning strategies and related but different strategies as a cognitive framework for (re-organizing their prior knowledge. Our control group received comparable factual information but no framework. Afterwards, all participants learned about primary learning strategies. The framework group claimed to possess higher levels of interest and self-efficacy, achieved higher learning outcomes, and learned more efficiently. Hence, providing a categorical framework can help overcome the barrier of incorrect prior knowledge in pieces.

  13. Preparing learners with partly incorrect intuitive prior knowledge for learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohst, Andrea; Fondu, Béatrice M. E.; Glogger, Inga; Nückles, Matthias; Renkl, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Learners sometimes have incoherent and fragmented intuitive prior knowledge that is (partly) “incompatible” with the to-be-learned contents. Such knowledge in pieces can cause conceptual disorientation and cognitive overload while learning. We hypothesized that a pre-training intervention providing a generalized schema as a structuring framework for such knowledge in pieces would support (re)organizing-processes of prior knowledge and thus reduce unnecessary cognitive load during subsequent learning. Fifty-six student teachers participated in the experiment. A framework group underwent a pre-training intervention providing a generalized, categorical schema for categorizing primary learning strategies and related but different strategies as a cognitive framework for (re-)organizing their prior knowledge. Our control group received comparable factual information but no framework. Afterwards, all participants learned about primary learning strategies. The framework group claimed to possess higher levels of interest and self-efficacy, achieved higher learning outcomes, and learned more efficiently. Hence, providing a categorical framework can help overcome the barrier of incorrect prior knowledge in pieces. PMID:25071638

  14. Bas-Relief Modeling from Normal Images with Intuitive Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhongping; Ma, Weiyin; Sun, Xianfang

    2014-05-01

    Traditional 3D model-based bas-relief modeling methods are often limited to model-dependent and monotonic relief styles. This paper presents a novel method for digital bas-relief modeling with intuitive style control. Given a composite normal image, the problem discussed in this paper involves generating a discontinuity-free depth field with high compression of depth data while preserving or even enhancing fine details. In our framework, several layers of normal images are composed into a single normal image. The original normal image on each layer is usually generated from 3D models or through other techniques as described in this paper. The bas-relief style is controlled by choosing a parameter and setting a targeted height for them. Bas-relief modeling and stylization are achieved simultaneously by solving a sparse linear system. Different from previous work, our method can be used to freely design bas-reliefs in normal image space instead of in object space, which makes it possible to use any popular image editing tools for bas-relief modeling. Experiments with a wide range of 3D models and scenes show that our method can effectively generate digital bas-reliefs.

  15. Women chairs in academic medicine: engendering strategic intuition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Carol; Griffin, Lindsay

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Because stereotypically masculine behaviors are required for effective leadership, examining female chairs’ leadership in academic medicine can provide insight into the complex ways in which gender impacts on their leadership practices. The paper aims to discuss this issue. Design/methodology/approach The author interviewed three female clinical chairs and compared the findings to interviews with 28 of their faculty. Grounded theory analysis of the subsequent text gathered comprehensive, systematic, and in-depth information about this case of interest at a US top-tier academic medical center. Findings Four of five themes from the faculty were consistent with the chair’s narrative with modifications: Prior Environment (Motivated by Excellence), Tough, Direct, Transparent (Developing Trust), Communal Actions (Creating Diversity of Opinion), and Building Power through Consensus (an “Artful Exercise”) with an additional theme, the Significance (and Insignificance) of a Female Chair. While faculty members were acutely aware of the chair’s gender, the chairs paradoxically vacillated between gender being a “non-issue” and noting that male chairs “don’t do laundry.” All three female chairs in this study independently and explicitly stated that gender was not a barrier, yet intuitively used successful strategies derived from the research literature. Originality/value This study suggests that while their gender was highlighted by faculty, these women dismissed gender as a “non-issue.” The duality of gender for these three female leaders was both minimized and subtly affirmed. PMID:26045192

  16. Beyond dual-process models: A categorisation of processes underlying intuitive judgement and decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glöckner, A.; Witteman, C.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    Intuitive-automatic processes are crucial for making judgements and decisions. The fascinating complexity of these processes has attracted many decision researchers, prompting them to start investigating intuition empirically and to develop numerous models. Dual-process models assume a clear

  17. The Role of Intuition in the Generation and Evaluation Stages of Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pétervári, Judit; Osman, Magda; Bhattacharya, Joydeep

    2016-01-01

    Both intuition and creativity are associated with knowledge creation, yet a clear link between them has not been adequately established. First, the available empirical evidence for an underlying relationship between intuition and creativity is sparse in nature. Further, this evidence is arguable as the concepts are diversely operationalized and the measures adopted are often not validated sufficiently. Combined, these issues make the findings from various studies examining the link between intuition and creativity difficult to replicate. Nevertheless, the role of intuition in creativity should not be neglected as it is often reported to be a core component of the idea generation process, which in conjunction with idea evaluation are crucial phases of creative cognition. We review the prior research findings in respect of idea generation and idea evaluation from the view that intuition can be construed as the gradual accumulation of cues to coherence. Thus, we summarize the literature on what role intuitive processes play in the main stages of the creative problem-solving process and outline a conceptual framework of the interaction between intuition and creativity. Finally, we discuss the main challenges of measuring intuition as well as possible directions for future research. PMID:27703439

  18. The Interplay between Intuition and Rationality in Strategic Decision Making : A Paradox Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calabretta, G.; Gemser, Gerda; Wijnberg, NM

    2016-01-01

    Both intuition and rationality can play important roles in strategic decision making. However, a framework that specifically accounts for the interplay between intuition and rationality is still missing. This study addresses this gap by using a paradox lens and conceptualizes the

  19. Using intuition in fuzzy front-end decision-making : a conceptual framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eling, K.; Griffin, A.; Langerak, F.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of decision-making during the execution of the fuzzy front end (FFE) is to develop a creative new product concept. Although intuitive decision-making has been found to increase new product creativity, the theoretical knowledge base as to why and under which conditions intuition use during

  20. When Should I Trust My Gut? Linking Domain Expertise to Intuitive Decision-Making Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, Erik; Rockmann, Kevin W.; Pratt, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Despite a growing body of scholarship on the concept of intuition, there is a scarcity of empirical research spotlighting the circumstances in which intuitive decision making is effective relative to analytical decision making. Seeking to address this deficiency, we conducted two laboratory studies assessing the link between domain expertise (low…

  1. Expectant Fathers’ Intuitive Parenting: Associations with Parent Characteristics and Postpartum Positive Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Altenburger, Lauren E.; Settle, Theresa A.; Kamp Dush, Claire M.; Sullivan, Jason M.; Bower, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined expectant fathers’ intuitive parenting behavior, its correlates, and its associations with fathers’ postpartum positive engagement. One hundred eighty-two expectant couples completed the Prenatal Lausanne Trilogue Play in the third trimester of pregnancy. Coders rated expectant fathers’ and mothers’ intuitive parenting behavior during this procedure. Expectant parents also completed surveys regarding their psychological and demographic characteristics. At 3 months postpartum, fathers completed time diaries that assessed the time they spent in developmentally appropriate positive engagement activities with their infants. Examination of correlates of expectant fathers’ intuitive parenting behavior revealed that expectant fathers showed lower levels of these behaviors than expectant mothers, that intuitive parenting behavior was moderately positively associated for mothers and fathers, and that individual differences in expectant fathers’ intuitive parenting behavior were associated with parent demographic and psychological characteristics. In particular, expectant fathers showed greater intuitive parenting behavior when they had greater human capital and more progressive beliefs about parent roles, and when their partners had lower parenting self-efficacy. Findings also indicated that expectant fathers’ greater intuitive parenting behavior was predictive of fathers’ greater subsequent engagement in developmentally appropriate activities at 3 months postpartum, but only when expectant mothers demonstrated low levels of intuitive parenting behavior. PMID:25798492

  2. Intuition and Insight: Two Concepts That Illuminate the Tacit in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Tacit knowledge, that is knowledge not expressible in words, may play a role in learning science, yet it is difficult to study directly. Intuition and insight, two processes that link the tacit and the explicit, are proposed as a route to investigating tacit knowledge. Intuitions are defined as tacit hunches or feelings that influence thought with…

  3. The Identification and Significance of Intuitive and Analytic Problem Solving Approaches Among College Physics Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsland, Martin N.; Novak, Joseph D.

    1974-01-01

    Described is an approach to assessment of intuitive and analytic modes of thinking in physics. These modes of thinking are associated with Ausubel's theory of learning. High ability in either intuitive or analytic thinking was associated with success in college physics, with high learning efficiency following a pattern expected on the basis of…

  4. Intuitive psychology and physics among children with autism and typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binnie, Lynne; Williams, Joanne

    2003-06-01

    Many studies have documented poor understanding of intuitive psychology among children with autism; however, few have investigated claims of superior understanding of intuitive physics said to be evident in this group. This study aimed to investigate the reported differential preference of intuitive psychology and intuitive physics among children with autism by employing three tasks each with a psychological and a physical condition. In order to gain a detailed developmental picture the study compared children with autism, an age matched comparison group, and typically developing preschoolers, 7-year-olds and 10-year-olds. Results demonstrated that children with autism preferred to employ physical causality when reasoning about novel physical and psychological events. Furthermore, their performance on a multiple-choice task confirmed their impairment in intuitive psychology whilst highlighting a superior ability to reason about physical phenomena in relation to all other comparison groups. The theoretical implications of this potential cognitive strength are discussed.

  5. Supernatural Belief Is Not Modulated by Intuitive Thinking Style or Cognitive Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Miguel; van Mulukom, Valerie; Kahane, Guy; Kreplin, Ute; Joyce, Anna; Soares, Pedro; Oviedo, Lluis; Hernu, Mathilde; Rokita, Karolina; Savulescu, Julian; Möttönen, Riikka

    2017-11-08

    According to the Intuitive Belief Hypothesis, supernatural belief relies heavily on intuitive thinking-and decreases when analytic thinking is engaged. After pointing out various limitations in prior attempts to support this Intuitive Belief Hypothesis, we test it across three new studies using a variety of paradigms, ranging from a pilgrimage field study to a neurostimulation experiment. In all three studies, we found no relationship between intuitive or analytical thinking and supernatural belief. We conclude that it is premature to explain belief in gods as 'intuitive', and that other factors, such as socio-cultural upbringing, are likely to play a greater role in the emergence and maintenance of supernatural belief than cognitive style.

  6. Intuitive physics knowledge, physics problem solving and the role of mathematical equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Buteler

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work explores the role that mathematical equations play in modifying students’ physical intuition (diSessa, 1993. The work is carried out assuming that students achieve a great deal of the refinement in their physical intuitions during problem solving (Sherin, 2006. The study is guided by the question of how the use of mathematical equations contributes to this refinement. The authors aim at expanding on Sherin´s (2006 hypothesis, suggesting a more bounding relation between physical intuitions and mathematics. In this scenario, intuitions play a more compelling role in “deciding” which equations are acceptable and which are not. Our hypothesis is constructed on the basis of three cases: the first published by Sherin (2006 and two more from registries of our own. The three cases are compared and analyzed in relation to the role of mathematical equations in refining – or not – the intuitive knowledge students bring to play during problem solving.

  7. The rat-a-gorical imperative: Moral intuition and the limits of affective learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Joshua D

    2017-10-01

    Decades of psychological research have demonstrated that intuitive judgments are often unreliable, thanks to their inflexible reliance on limited information (Kahneman, 2003, 2011). Research on the computational underpinnings of learning, however, indicates that intuitions may be acquired by sophisticated learning mechanisms that are highly sensitive and integrative. With this in mind, Railton (2014) urges a more optimistic view of moral intuition. Is such optimism warranted? Elsewhere (Greene, 2013) I've argued that moral intuitions offer reasonably good advice concerning the give-and-take of everyday social life, addressing the basic problem of cooperation within a "tribe" ("Me vs. Us"), but that moral intuitions offer unreliable advice concerning disagreements between tribes with competing interests and values ("Us vs. Them"). Here I argue that a computational perspective on moral learning underscores these conclusions. The acquisition of good moral intuitions requires both good (representative) data and good (value-aligned) training. In the case of inter-tribal disagreement (public moral controversy), the problem of bad training looms large, as training processes may simply reinforce tribal differences. With respect to moral philosophy and the paradoxical problems it addresses, the problem of bad data looms large, as theorists seek principles that minimize counter-intuitive implications, not only in typical real-world cases, but in unusual, often hypothetical, cases such as some trolley dilemmas. In such cases the prevailing real-world relationships between actions and consequences are severed or reversed, yielding intuitions that give the right answers to the wrong questions. Such intuitions-which we may experience as the voice of duty or virtue-may simply reflect the computational limitations inherent in affective learning. I conclude, in optimistic agreement with Railton, that progress in moral philosophy depends on our having a better understanding of the

  8. BOOK REVIEW: Seeking Ultimates. An Intuitive Guide to Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Neil

    2000-05-01

    Physics has the reputation of being a difficult and dry subject. Many books have been written in attempts to show that the difficulties are not insurmountable, even for the layman, and to convey some of the fascination it provides for those within it. In Seeking Ultimates Peter Landsberg avoids mathematics, the source of so many difficulties, entirely, and seeks to make physics comprehensible by what he terms intuition. He also emphasizes that there is almost no part of science that is completely understood; there are always areas of incompleteness and uncertainty, capable of providing exciting new results, and examples of this are highlighted throughout the book. After an introduction Landsberg starts with macroscopic phenomena for ease of understanding, though one might question whether the chosen topic of thermodynamics is ever going to be easy. Next he looks at microscopic effects, from atomic structure to the fundamental particles of the standard model and their interactions. There follow chapters on time and entropy, on chaos theory, on quantum mechanics and then cosmology. The final chapters look at physical constants (including the anthropic principle), whether physics has room for a creator God (the conclusion is that this is not the province of science), and some thoughts on science as a human activity. The chosen topics are those which have been important in the late twentieth century and remain important. Each chapter cites an eminent scientist as a `hero', though little is made of this. There are occasional historical notes, set in boxes, and a few short poems to leaven the text. What the book achieves is difficult to assess. Removing mathematics and adding a glossary of technical terms do not necessarily allow non-scientists to enjoy the text, as the publisher's note on the back cover suggests. The concepts can baffle the layman even more than the mathematics, and one of the most difficult of all physical concepts permeates so much of this book

  9. Clinical intuition in the nursing process and decision-making-A mixed-studies review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin-Johansson, Christina; Palmqvist, Rebecca; Rönnberg, Linda

    2017-12-01

    To review what is characteristic of registered nurses' intuition in clinical settings, in relationships and in the nursing process. Intuition is a controversial concept and nurses believe that there are difficulties in how they should explain their nursing actions or decisions based on intuition. Much of the evidence from the body of research indicates that nurses value their intuition in a variety of clinical settings. More information on how nurses integrate intuition as a core element in daily clinical work would contribute to an improved understanding on how they go about this. Intuition deserves a place in evidence-based activities, where intuition is an important component associated with the nursing process. An integrative review strengthened with a mixed-studies review. Literature searches were conducted in the databases CINAHL, PubMed and PsycINFO, and literature published 1985-2016 were included. The findings in the studies were analysed with content analysis, and the synthesis process entailed a reasoning between the authors. After a quality assessment, 16 studies were included. The analysis and synthesis resulted in three categories. The characteristics of intuition in the nurse's daily clinical activities include application, assertiveness and experiences; in the relationships with patients' intuition include unique connections, mental and bodily responses, and personal qualities; and in the nursing process include support and guidance, component and clues in decision-making, and validating decisions. Intuition is more than simply a "gut feeling," and it is a process based on knowledge and care experience and has a place beside research-based evidence. Nurses integrate both analysis and synthesis of intuition alongside objective data when making decisions. They should rely on their intuition and use this knowledge in clinical practice as a support in decision-making, which increases the quality and safety of patient care. We find that intuition plays a

  10. People Like Logical Truth: Testing the Intuitive Detection of Logical Value in Basic Propositions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Nakamura

    Full Text Available Recent studies on logical reasoning have suggested that people are intuitively aware of the logical validity of syllogisms or that they intuitively detect conflict between heuristic responses and logical norms via slight changes in their feelings. According to logical intuition studies, logically valid or heuristic logic no-conflict reasoning is fluently processed and induces positive feelings without conscious awareness. One criticism states that such effects of logicality disappear when confounding factors such as the content of syllogisms are controlled. The present study used abstract propositions and tested whether people intuitively detect logical value. Experiment 1 presented four logical propositions (conjunctive, biconditional, conditional, and material implications regarding a target case and asked the participants to rate the extent to which they liked the statement. Experiment 2 tested the effects of matching bias, as well as intuitive logic, on the reasoners' feelings by manipulating whether the antecedent or consequent (or both of the conditional was affirmed or negated. The results showed that both logicality and matching bias affected the reasoners' feelings, and people preferred logically true targets over logically false ones for all forms of propositions. These results suggest that people intuitively detect what is true from what is false during abstract reasoning. Additionally, a Bayesian mixed model meta-analysis of conditionals indicated that people's intuitive interpretation of the conditional "if p then q" fits better with the conditional probability, q given p.

  11. What neuroscience can tell about intuitive processes in the context of perceptual discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, Kirsten G; von Cramon, D Yves

    2006-12-01

    According to the Oxford English Dictionary, intuition is "the ability to understand or know something immediately, without conscious reasoning." Most people would agree that intuitive responses appear as ideas or feelings that subsequently guide our thoughts and behaviors. It is proposed that people continuously, without conscious attention, recognize patterns in the stream of sensations that impinge upon them. What exactly is being recognized is not clear yet, but we assume that people detect potential content based on only a few aspects of the input (i.e., the gist). The result is a vague perception of coherence which is not explicitly describable but instead embodied in a "gut feeling" or an initial guess, which subsequently biases thought and inquiry. To approach the nature of intuitive processes, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging when participants were working at a modified version of the Waterloo Gestalt Closure Task. Starting from our conceptualization that intuition involves an informed judgment in the context of discovery, we expected activation within the median orbito-frontal cortex (OFC), as this area receives input from all sensory modalities and has been shown to be crucially involved in emotionally driven decisions. Results from a direct contrast between intuitive and nonintuitive judgments, as well as from a parametric analysis, revealed the median OFC, the lateral portion of the amygdala, anterior insula, and ventral occipito-temporal regions to be activated. Based on these findings, we suggest our definition of intuition to be promising and a good starting point for future research on intuitive processes.

  12. When is giving an impulse? An ERP investigation of intuitive prosocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Ryan W; Aknin, Lara B; Liotti, Mario

    2016-07-01

    Human prosociality is often assumed to emerge from exerting reflective control over initial, selfish impulses. However, recent findings suggest that prosocial actions can also stem from processes that are fast, automatic and intuitive. Here, we attempt to clarify when prosocial behavior may be intuitive by examining prosociality as a form of reward seeking. Using event-related potentials (ERPs), we explored whether a neural signature that rapidly encodes the motivational salience of an event-the P300-can predict intuitive prosocial motivation. Participants allocated varying amounts of money between themselves and charities they initially labelled as high- or low-empathy targets under conditions that promoted intuitive or reflective decision making. Consistent with our predictions, P300 amplitude over centroparietal regions was greater when giving involved high-empathy targets than low-empathy targets, but only when deciding under intuitive conditions. Reflective conditions, alternatively, elicited an earlier frontocentral positivity related to response inhibition, regardless of target. Our findings suggest that during prosocial decision making, larger P300 amplitude could (i) signal intuitive prosocial motivation and (ii) predict subsequent engagement in prosocial behavior. This work offers novel insight into when prosociality may be driven by intuitive processes and the roots of such behaviors. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Social dilemma cooperation (unlike Dictator Game giving) is intuitive for men as well as women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, David G

    2017-11-01

    Does intuition favor prosociality, or does prosocial behavior require deliberative self-control? The Social Heuristics Hypothesis (SHH) stipulates that intuition favors typically advantageous behavior - but which behavior is typically advantageous depends on both the individual and the context. For example, non-zero-sum cooperation (e.g. in social dilemmas like the Prisoner's Dilemma) typically pays off because of the opportunity for reciprocity. Conversely, reciprocity does not promote zero-sum cash transfers (e.g. in the Dictator Game, DG). Instead, DG giving can be long-run advantageous because of reputation concerns: social norms often require such behavior of women but not men. Thus, the SHH predicts that intuition will favor social dilemma cooperation regardless of gender, but only favor DG giving among women. Here I present meta-analytic evidence in support of this prediction. In 31 studies examining social dilemma cooperation (N=13,447), I find that promoting intuition increases cooperation to a similar extent for both men and women. This stands in contrast to the results from 22 DG studies (analyzed in Rand et al., 2016) where intuition promotes giving among women but not men. Furthermore, I show using meta-regression that the interaction between gender and intuition is significantly larger in the DG compared to the cooperation games. Thus, I find clear evidence that the role of intuition and deliberation varies across both setting and individual as predicted by the SHH.

  14. Science and intuition: do both have a place in clinical decision making?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Helen

    Intuition is widely used in clinical decision making yet its use is underestimated compared to scientific decision-making methods. Information processing is used within scientific decision making and is methodical and analytical, whereas intuition relies more on a practitioner's perception. Intuition is an unconscious process and may be referred to as a 'sixth sense', 'hunch' or 'gut feeling'. It is not underpinned by valid and reliable measures. Expert health professionals use a rapid, automatic process to recognise familiar problems instantly. Intuition could therefore involve pattern recognition, where experts draw on experiences, so could be perceived as a cognitive skill rather than a perception or knowing without knowing how. The NHS places great importance on evidence-based practice but intuition is seemingly becoming an acceptable way of thinking and knowing in clinical decision making. Recognising nursing as an art allows intuition to be used and the environment or situation to be interpreted to help inform decision making. Intuition can be used in conjunction with evidence-based practice and to achieve good outcomes and deserves to be acknowledged within clinical practice.

  15. Dynamic hyperbolic geometry: building intuition and understanding mediated by a Euclidean model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Armella, Luis; Brady, Corey; Elizondo-Ramirez, Rubén

    2018-05-01

    This paper explores a deep transformation in mathematical epistemology and its consequences for teaching and learning. With the advent of non-Euclidean geometries, direct, iconic correspondences between physical space and the deductive structures of mathematical inquiry were broken. For non-Euclidean ideas even to become thinkable the mathematical community needed to accumulate over twenty centuries of reflection and effort: a precious instance of distributed intelligence at the cultural level. In geometry education after this crisis, relations between intuitions and geometrical reasoning must be established philosophically, rather than taken for granted. One approach seeks intuitive supports only for Euclidean explorations, viewing non-Euclidean inquiry as fundamentally non-intuitive in nature. We argue for moving beyond such an impoverished approach, using dynamic geometry environments to develop new intuitions even in the extremely challenging setting of hyperbolic geometry. Our efforts reverse the typical direction, using formal structures as a source for a new family of intuitions that emerge from exploring a digital model of hyperbolic geometry. This digital model is elaborated within a Euclidean dynamic geometry environment, enabling a conceptual dance that re-configures Euclidean knowledge as a support for building intuitions in hyperbolic space-intuitions based not directly on physical experience but on analogies extending Euclidean concepts.

  16. Accuracy of intuition in clinical decision-making among novice clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Amanda; Zulkosky, Kristen; White, Krista; Pretz, Jean

    2017-05-01

    To assess the reliance on intuitive and analytical approaches during clinical decision-making among novice clinicians and whether that reliance is associated with accurate decision-making. Nurse educators and managers tend to emphasize analysis over intuition during clinical decision-making though nurses typically report some reliance on intuition in their practice. We hypothesized that under certain conditions, reliance on intuition would support accurate decision-making, even among novices. This study utilized an experimental design with clinical complication (familiar vs. novel) and decision phase (cue acquisition, diagnosis and action) as within-subjects' factors, and simulation role (observer, family, auxiliary nurse and primary nurse) as between-subjects' factor. We examined clinical decision-making accuracy among final semester pre-licensure nursing students in a simulation experience. Students recorded their reasoning about emerging clinical complications with their patient during two distinct points in the simulation; one point involved a familiar complication and the other a relatively novel complication. All data were collected during Spring 2015. Although most participants relied more heavily on analysis than on intuition, use of intuition during the familiar complication was associated with more accurate decision-making, particularly in guiding attention to relevant cues. With the novel complication, use of intuition appeared to hamper decision-making, particularly for those in an observer role. Novice clinicians should be supported by educators and nurse managers to note when their intuitions are likely to be valid. Our findings emphasize the integrated nature of intuition and analysis in clinical decision-making. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Imagery, intuition and imagination in quantum physics education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Andrew J.

    2018-03-01

    In response to the authors, I demonstrate how threshold concepts offer a means to both contextualise teaching and learning of quantum physics and help transform students into the culture of physics, and as a way to identify particularly troublesome concepts within quantum physics. By drawing parallels from my own doctoral research in another area of contemporary physics—special relativity—I highlight concepts that require an ontological change, namely a shift beyond the reality of everyday Newtonian experience such as time dilation and length contraction, as being troublesome concepts that can present barriers to learning with students often asking "is it real?". Similarly, the domain of quantum physics requires students to move beyond "common sense" perception as it brings into sharp focus the difference between what is experienced via the sense perceptions and the mental abstraction of phenomena. And it's this issue that highlights the important role imagery and creativity have both in quantum physics and in the evolution of physics more generally, and lies in stark contrast to the apparent mathematical focus and lack of opportunity for students to explore ontological issues evident in the authors' research. By reflecting on the authors' observations of a focus on mathematical formalisms and problem solving at the expense of alternative approaches, I explore the dialectic between Heisenberg's highly mathematical approach and Schrödinger's mechanical wave view of the atom, together with its conceptual imagery, at the heart of the evolution of quantum mechanics. In turn, I highlight the significance of imagery, imagination and intuition in quantum physics, together with the importance of adopting an epistemological pluralism—multiple ways of knowing and thinking—in physics education. Again drawing parallels with the authors' work and my own, I identify the role thought experiments have in both quantum physics education and in physics more generally. By

  18. Getting a grip on your feelings: Effects of action orientation and external demands on intuitive affect regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koole, S.L.; Jostmann, N.B.

    2004-01-01

    The authors propose that volitional action is supported by intuitive affect regulation, defined as flexible, efficient, and nonrepressive control of own affective states. Intuitive affect regulation should be most apparent among action-oriented individuals under demanding conditions. Consistent with

  19. Intuition as an Expression of Procedural Knowledge and its Association With Sense-Impressions: Illustrations From Winemaking Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelius Boshoff

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the intuitive element of procedural knowledge in winemaking. It presents data on winemakers’ interpretation of intuition, specifically its relationship with sense-impressions and experience. Interviews were conducted with six winemakers and two winemaking consultants in South Africa. Four insights on intuition emerged from the interviews. According to the first, intuition is similar to artistic inspiration, the unique and subconscious flow of ideas and approaches that characterize creative instinct. The second insight emphasizes the role of the senses in knowing intuitively, and calls for an examination of the relation between intuition and the senses. The third insight views intuition as immediate knowledge that springs from a link between past experiences and current events. In the last, intuition is seen to occur when all the facts of a matter are considered and the missing pieces of the puzzle are filled in by sensory assessments.

  20. C. G. Jung and intuition: from the mindscape of the paranormal to the heart of psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Pilard, Nathalie

    2018-01-01

    Intuition is central in the work, practice, and philosophical legacy of C. G. Jung. In this paper, I will first discuss the importance of intuition for Jung in the paradigm usually designated the ‘paranormal’. Jung was attracted to intuition as an extra-ordinary gift or function in the traditional sense, and this is considered here in relation to his 1896-1899 Zofingia Lectures and 1902 On the Psychology and Pathology of So-called Occult Phenomena: A Psychiatric Study. A significant developme...

  1. Everything is permitted? People intuitively judge immorality as representative of atheists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will M Gervais

    Full Text Available Scientific research yields inconsistent and contradictory evidence relating religion to moral judgments and outcomes, yet most people on earth nonetheless view belief in God (or gods as central to morality, and many view atheists with suspicion and scorn. To evaluate intuitions regarding a causal link between religion and morality, this paper tested intuitive moral judgments of atheists and other groups. Across five experiments (N = 1,152, American participants intuitively judged a wide variety of immoral acts (e.g., serial murder, consensual incest, necrobestiality, cannibalism as representative of atheists, but not of eleven other religious, ethnic, and cultural groups. Even atheist participants judged immoral acts as more representative of atheists than of other groups. These findings demonstrate a prevalent intuition that belief in God serves a necessary function in inhibiting immoral conduct, and may help explain persistent negative perceptions of atheists.

  2. Demonstration of intuitive thinking in conditions of competitive activity depending on athletes' psychophysiological state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korobeynikov G.V.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available One investigated application of intuitive thinking, depending on the physiological status of skilled fighters in their competitive activity. In research members of the team of Ukraine in Greco-Roman wrestling participated. 29 effective throws were analysed reverse a capture from position orchestra. One analyzed the effectiveness of intuitive thinking in athletes of different weight categories and the distribution coefficients of correlation of psychophysiological functions of athletes directly in competition during championships of Ukraine, World and Europe. One found that expression of intuitive thinking is associated with weight category of skilled fighters. It is shown that the effectiveness of intuitive thinking in terms of competitive activity is related to physiological state, and, above all qualified wrestlers' neurodynamic functions.

  3. A Novel Approach in Facilitating Aviation Emergency Procedure Learning and Recall through an Intuitive Pictorial System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Estrada, Arthur; Keeley, Jennifer A; LeDuc, Patricia A; Bass, Julie M; Rouse, Tiffany N; Ramiccio, John G; Rowe, Terri L

    2007-01-01

    ...: the Intuitive Pictorial System (IPS). Descriptive and inferential statistics, along with correlation, were used to assess the study data, which determined statistically significant differences between the IPS and traditional training methods...

  4. Everything is permitted? People intuitively judge immorality as representative of atheists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, Will M

    2014-01-01

    Scientific research yields inconsistent and contradictory evidence relating religion to moral judgments and outcomes, yet most people on earth nonetheless view belief in God (or gods) as central to morality, and many view atheists with suspicion and scorn. To evaluate intuitions regarding a causal link between religion and morality, this paper tested intuitive moral judgments of atheists and other groups. Across five experiments (N = 1,152), American participants intuitively judged a wide variety of immoral acts (e.g., serial murder, consensual incest, necrobestiality, cannibalism) as representative of atheists, but not of eleven other religious, ethnic, and cultural groups. Even atheist participants judged immoral acts as more representative of atheists than of other groups. These findings demonstrate a prevalent intuition that belief in God serves a necessary function in inhibiting immoral conduct, and may help explain persistent negative perceptions of atheists.

  5. An analysis of basic design students' intuitive and analytic attitudes in colour decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Akbay, Saadet

    2003-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. Colour can be defined as a subjective preference, an experience and an intuitive sense, or as a theory and a science. Design education regards colour as a scientific theory by means of reasoning. The design students’ colour decisions, values, and intuitive attitudes are aimed to be developed and cultivated by colour education in basic design, and supported and equipped by knowledge towards analytical attitudes. Thus, the major concern o...

  6. Intuition & reason: re-assessing dual-process theories with representational sub-activation

    OpenAIRE

    Trafford, James; Tillas, Alexandros

    2015-01-01

    There is a prevalent distinction in the literature on reasoning, between Type-1 processes, (fast, automatic, associative, heuristic and intuitive); and Type-2 processes (rule-based, analytical and reflective). In this paper, we follow up recent empirical evidence [De Neys (2006b); Osman (2013)] in favour of a unitary cognitive system. More specifically, we suggest that intuitions (T1-processes) are sub-activated representations, which are in turn influenced by the weightings of the connection...

  7. Intuition, insight, and the right hemisphere: Emergence of higher sociocognitive functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon M McCrea

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Simon M McCreaDepartments of Neurology and Neuroophthalmology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, CanadaAbstract: Intuition is the ability to understand immediately without conscious reasoning and is sometimes explained as a ‘gut feeling’ about the rightness or wrongness of a person, place, situation, temporal episode or object. In contrast, insight is the capacity to gain accurate and a deep understanding of a problem and it is often associated with movement beyond existing paradigms. Examples include Darwin, Einstein and Freud’s theories of natural selection, relativity, or the unconscious; respectively. Many cultures name these concepts and acknowledge their value, and insight is recognized as particularly characteristic of eminent achievements in the arts, sciences and politics. Considerable data suggests that these two concepts are more related than distinct, and that a more distributed intuitive network may feed into a predominately right hemispheric insight-based functional neuronal architecture. The preparation and incubation stages of insight may rely on the incorporation of domain-specific automatized expertise schema associated with intuition. In this manuscript the neural networks associated with intuition and insight are reviewed. Case studies of anomalous subjects with ability–achievement discrepancies are summarized. This theoretical review proposes the prospect that atypical localization of cognitive modules may enhance intuitive and insightful functions and thereby explain individual achievement beyond that expected by conventionally measured intelligence tests. A model and theory of intuition and insight’s neuroanatomical basis is proposed which could be used as a starting point for future research and better understanding of the nature of these two distinctly human and highly complex poorly understood abilities.Keywords: intuition, insight, nonverbal decoding, nonverbal sequencing

  8. An Examination of the Role of Intuition in Individual Decision Making in Organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Rory; Hanlon, Philomena

    2007-01-01

    The feeling of knowing without knowing has often been described as listening to your heart, trusting your gut, or using your intuition. As decision makers face more turbulent and complex environments, rational analysis may not always be able to assist in yielding optimal results. In cases where sufficient data is not available or the situation is one that the decision maker or the organisation has not faced before, the decision maker may utilise intuition to guide them through uncertainty (La...

  9. Intuition and insight: Two processes that build on each other or fundamentally differ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thea Zander

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Intuition and insight are intriguing phenomena of non-analytical mental functioning: Whereas intuition denotes ideas that have been reached by sensing the solution without any explicit representation of it, insight has been understood as the sudden and unexpected apprehension of the solution by recombining the single elements of a problem. By face validity, the two processes appear similar; according to a lay perspective, it is assumed that intuition precedes insight. Yet, predominant scientific conceptualizations of intuition and insight consider the two processes to differ with regard to their (dis-continuous unfolding. That is, intuition has been understood as an experience-based and gradual process, whereas insight is regarded as a genuinely discontinuous phenomenon. Unfortunately, both processes have been investigated differently and without much reference to each other. In this contribution, we therefore set out to fill this lacuna by examining the conceptualizations of the assumed underlying cognitive processes of both phenomena, and by also referring to the research traditions and paradigms of the respective field. Based on early work put forward by Bowers and colleagues (1990 and Bowers and colleagues (1995, we referred to semantic coherence tasks consisting of convergent word triads (i.e., the solution has the same meaning to all three clue words and/or divergent word triads (i.e., the solution means something different with respect to each clue word as an excellent kind of paradigm that may be used in the future to disentangle intuition and insight experimentally. By scrutinizing the underlying mechanisms of intuition and insight, with this theoretical contribution, we hope to launch lacking but needed experimental studies and to initiate scientific cooperation between the research fields of intuition and insight that are currently still separated from each other.

  10. Intuition and Insight: Two Processes That Build on Each Other or Fundamentally Differ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, Thea; Öllinger, Michael; Volz, Kirsten G

    2016-01-01

    Intuition and insight are intriguing phenomena of non-analytical mental functioning: whereas intuition denotes ideas that have been reached by sensing the solution without any explicit representation of it, insight has been understood as the sudden and unexpected apprehension of the solution by recombining the single elements of a problem. By face validity, the two processes appear similar; according to a lay perspective, it is assumed that intuition precedes insight. Yet, predominant scientific conceptualizations of intuition and insight consider the two processes to differ with regard to their (dis-)continuous unfolding. That is, intuition has been understood as an experience-based and gradual process, whereas insight is regarded as a genuinely discontinuous phenomenon. Unfortunately, both processes have been investigated differently and without much reference to each other. In this contribution, we therefore set out to fill this lacuna by examining the conceptualizations of the assumed underlying cognitive processes of both phenomena, and by also referring to the research traditions and paradigms of the respective field. Based on early work put forward by Bowers et al. (1990, 1995), we referred to semantic coherence tasks consisting of convergent word triads (i.e., the solution has the same meaning to all three clue words) and/or divergent word triads (i.e., the solution means something different with respect to each clue word) as an excellent kind of paradigm that may be used in the future to disentangle intuition and insight experimentally. By scrutinizing the underlying mechanisms of intuition and insight, with this theoretical contribution, we hope to launch lacking but needed experimental studies and to initiate scientific cooperation between the research fields of intuition and insight that are currently still separated from each other.

  11. The Role of Intuition in Risk/Benefit Decision-Making in Human Subjects Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B

    2017-01-01

    One of the key principles of ethical research involving human subjects is that the risks of research to should be acceptable in relation to expected benefits. Institutional review board (IRB) members often rely on intuition to make risk/benefit decisions concerning proposed human studies. Some have objected to using intuition to make these decisions because intuition is unreliable and biased and lacks transparency. In this article, I examine the role of intuition in IRB risk/benefit decision-making and argue that there are practical and philosophical limits to our ability to reduce our reliance on intuition in this process. The fact that IRB risk/benefit decision-making involves intuition need not imply that it is hopelessly subjective or biased, however, since there are strategies that IRBs can employ to improve their decisions, such as using empirical data to estimate the probability of potential harms and benefits, developing classification systems to guide the evaluation of harms and benefits, and engaging in moral reasoning concerning the acceptability of risks.

  12. Investigating Undergraduate Students’ Use of Intuitive Reasoning and Evolutionary Knowledge in Explanations of Antibiotic Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Melissa; Coley, John D.; Tanner, Kimberly D.

    2017-01-01

    Natural selection is a central concept throughout biology; however, it is a process frequently misunderstood. Bacterial resistance to antibiotic medications provides a contextual example of the relevance of evolutionary theory and is also commonly misunderstood. While research has shed light on student misconceptions of natural selection, minimal study has focused on misconceptions of antibiotic resistance. Additionally, research has focused on the degree to which misconceptions may be based in the complexity of biological information or in pedagogical choices, rather than in deep-seated cognitive patterns. Cognitive psychology research has established that humans develop early intuitive assumptions to make sense of the world. In this study, we used a written assessment tool to investigate undergraduate students’ misconceptions of antibiotic resistance, use of intuitive reasoning, and application of evolutionary knowledge to antibiotic resistance. We found a majority of students produced and agreed with misconceptions, and intuitive reasoning was present in nearly all students’ written explanations. Acceptance of a misconception was significantly associated with production of a hypothesized form of intuitive thinking (all p ≤ 0.05). Intuitive reasoning may represent a subtle but innately appealing linguistic shorthand, and instructor awareness of intuitive reasoning’s relation to student misunderstandings has potential for addressing persistent misconceptions. PMID:28821540

  13. Development of syntax of intuition-based learning model in solving mathematics problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeni Heryaningsih, Nok; Khusna, Hikmatul

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the research was to produce syntax of Intuition Based Learning (IBL) model in solving mathematics problem for improving mathematics students’ achievement that valid, practical and effective. The subject of the research were 2 classes in grade XI students of SMAN 2 Sragen, Central Java. The type of the research was a Research and Development (R&D). Development process adopted Plomp and Borg & Gall development model, they were preliminary investigation step, design step, realization step, evaluation and revision step. Development steps were as follow: (1) Collected the information and studied of theories in Preliminary Investigation step, studied about intuition, learning model development, students condition, and topic analysis, (2) Designed syntax that could bring up intuition in solving mathematics problem and then designed research instruments. They were several phases that could bring up intuition, Preparation phase, Incubation phase, Illumination phase and Verification phase, (3) Realized syntax of Intuition Based Learning model that has been designed to be the first draft, (4) Did validation of the first draft to the validator, (5) Tested the syntax of Intuition Based Learning model in the classrooms to know the effectiveness of the syntax, (6) Conducted Focus Group Discussion (FGD) to evaluate the result of syntax model testing in the classrooms, and then did the revision on syntax IBL model. The results of the research were produced syntax of IBL model in solving mathematics problems that valid, practical and effective. The syntax of IBL model in the classroom were, (1) Opening with apperception, motivations and build students’ positive perceptions, (2) Teacher explains the material generally, (3) Group discussion about the material, (4) Teacher gives students mathematics problems, (5) Doing exercises individually to solve mathematics problems with steps that could bring up students’ intuition: Preparations, Incubation, Illumination, and

  14. Is intuition really cooperative? Improved tests support the social heuristics hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isler, Ozan; Maule, John; Starmer, Chris

    2018-01-01

    Understanding human cooperation is a major scientific challenge. While cooperation is typically explained with reference to individual preferences, a recent cognitive process view hypothesized that cooperation is regulated by socially acquired heuristics. Evidence for the social heuristics hypothesis rests on experiments showing that time-pressure promotes cooperation, a result that can be interpreted as demonstrating that intuition promotes cooperation. This interpretation, however, is highly contested because of two potential confounds. First, in pivotal studies compliance with time-limits is low and, crucially, evidence shows intuitive cooperation only when noncompliant participants are excluded. The inconsistency of test results has led to the currently unresolved controversy regarding whether or not noncompliant subjects should be included in the analysis. Second, many studies show high levels of social dilemma misunderstanding, leading to speculation that asymmetries in understanding might explain patterns that are otherwise interpreted as intuitive cooperation. We present evidence from an experiment that employs an improved time-pressure protocol with new features designed to induce high levels of compliance and clear tests of understanding. Our study resolves the noncompliance issue, shows that misunderstanding does not confound tests of intuitive cooperation, and provides the first independent experimental evidence for intuitive cooperation in a social dilemma using time-pressure.

  15. Risking your life without a second thought: intuitive decision-making and extreme altruism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G Rand

    Full Text Available When faced with the chance to help someone in mortal danger, what is our first response? Do we leap into action, only later considering the risks to ourselves? Or must instinctive self-preservation be overcome by will-power in order to act? We investigate this question by examining the testimony of Carnegie Hero Medal Recipients (CHMRs, extreme altruists who risked their lives to save others. We collected published interviews with CHMRs where they described their decisions to help. We then had participants rate the intuitiveness versus deliberativeness of the decision-making process described in each CHMR statement. The statements were judged to be overwhelmingly dominated by intuition; to be significantly more intuitive than a set of control statements describing deliberative decision-making; and to not differ significantly from a set of intuitive control statements. This remained true when restricting to scenarios in which the CHMRs had sufficient time to reflect before acting if they had so chosen. Text-analysis software found similar results. These findings suggest that high-stakes extreme altruism may be largely motivated by automatic, intuitive processes.

  16. Fast but not intuitive, slow but not reflective: Decision conflict drives reaction times in social dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Anthony M; Dillon, Kyle D; Rand, David G

    2015-10-01

    When people have the chance to help others at a cost to themselves, are cooperative decisions driven by intuition or reflection? To answer this question, recent studies have tested the relationship between reaction times (RTs) and cooperation, reporting both positive and negative correlations. To reconcile this apparent contradiction, we argue that decision conflict (rather than the use of intuition vs. reflection) drives response times, leading to an inverted-U shaped relationship between RT and cooperation. Studies 1 through 3 show that intermediate decisions take longer than both extremely selfish and extremely cooperative decisions. Studies 4 and 5 find that the conflict between self-interested and cooperative motives explains individual differences in RTs. Manipulating conflictedness causes longer RTs and more intermediate decisions, and RTs mediate the relationship between conflict and intermediate decisions. Finally, Studies 6 and 7 demonstrate that conflict is distinct from reflection by manipulating the use of intuition (vs. reflection). Experimentally promoting reliance on intuition increases cooperation, but has no effects on decision extremity or feelings of conflictedness. In sum, we provide evidence that RTs should not be interpreted as a direct proxy for the use of intuitive or reflective processes, and dissociate the effects of conflict and reflection in social decision making. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Intuitive versus analytical decision making modulates trust in e-commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Iannello

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis that intuition and analytical processes affect differently trust in e-commerce was tested. Participants were offered products by a series of sellers via Internet. In the intuitive condition pictures of the sellers were followed by neutral descriptions and participants had less time to decide whether to trust the seller. In the analytical condition participants were given an informative description of the seller and had a longer time to decide. Interactions among condition, price and trust emerged in behavioral and psychophysiological responses. EMG signals increased during analytical processing, suggesting a cognitive effort, whereas higher cardiovascular measures mirrored the emotional involvement when faced to untrustworthy sellers. The study supported the fruitful application of the intuitive vs. analytical approach to e-commerce and of the combination of different sources of information about the buyers while they have to choose to trust the seller in a financial transaction over the Internet.

  18. Age differences in optimism bias are mediated by reliance on intuition and religiosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaczynski, Paul A

    2017-11-01

    The relationships among age, optimism bias, religiosity, creationist beliefs, and reliance on intuition were examined in a sample of 211 high school students (M age =16.54years). Optimism bias was defined as the difference between predictions for positive and negative live events (e.g., divorce) for the self and age peers. Results indicated that older adolescents displayed less optimism bias, were less religious, believed less in creationism, and relied on intuition less than younger adolescents. Furthermore, the association between age and optimism bias was mediated by religiosity and reliance on intuition but not by creationist beliefs. These findings are considered from a dual-process theoretic perspective that emphasizes age increases in metacognitive abilities and epistemological beliefs and age declines in impulsive judgments. Research directed toward examining alternative explanations of the association among religiosity, age, and optimism bias is recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The impact of intuition and supervisor-nurse relationships on empowerment and affective commitment by generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr-Wharton, Rod; Brunetto, Yvonne; Shacklock, Kate

    2012-06-01

      This article reports a generational cohort and leader-member exchange theoretical frameworks-guided study of the influence of the supervisor-subordinate relationship on three generational nurse cohorts' use of intuition, perceptions of empowerment and affective commitment.   Within a global context of nurse shortages, knowledge about factors influencing nurse retention is urgently sought. We postulated that nurses' use of intuition is the key to their empowerment and consequent commitment to the organization, and that impact would vary among the three large nurse generations.   A self-report survey was used to gather data in 2008, which were then analysed using correlations, regression analysis, manova and path analysis. Data were obtained from 900 Baby Boomer and Generations X and Y nurses, randomly chosen from seven private hospitals across Australia.   The findings confirm the important impact of supervisor-nurse relationships upon all three generations' use of intuition. The findings add new knowledge about the differing importance of using intuition for Generation X, Generation Y and Baby Boomer nurses' perceptions of empowerment, suggesting it is more important to Baby Boomers and Generation X than to Generation Y. Further, the impact of using intuition differs significantly among the generational cohorts. The findings suggest the need for a more differentiated tailored style - sensitive to varying needs of the generations. Improving supervisor-nurse relationships is also critical, because of their impact upon nurses' use of intuition, perceptions of empowerment and affective commitment. Poor relationships lead to increased nurse replacement costs. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. A Health at Every Size intervention improves intuitive eating and diet quality in Canadian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonneau, Elise; Bégin, Catherine; Lemieux, Simone; Mongeau, Lyne; Paquette, Marie-Claude; Turcotte, Mylène; Labonté, Marie-Ève; Provencher, Véronique

    2017-06-01

    Health at Every Size ® (HAES ® ) interventions focus on healthy lifestyle by promoting behavioral changes related to diet and physical activity while emphasizing self-acceptance and well-being through an empowerment and intuitive approach. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a HAES ® program on intuitive eating and diet quality in women. The HAES ® intervention, offered by professionals from Health and Social Services Centers in Quebec (Canada), was composed of thirteen 3-h weekly meetings and a 6-h intensive day. For this study, 216 women (1.9% normal-weight, 21.1% overweight, 77.0% obese) who took part to the HAES program were compared to 110 women (3.9% normal-weight, 23.3% overweight, 72.8% obese) from a control group (waiting list). Intuitive eating was assessed using the Intuitive Eating Scale and diet quality was evaluated through the calculation of the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) from a validated web-based self-administrated food frequency questionnaire. Measurements were performed at baseline, post-intervention, and at one-year follow-up. Women who participated in the HAES ® program significantly increased their intuitive eating score compared to women in the control group at post-intervention and at follow-up (group by time interaction, p = 0.0002). A significant improvement in diet quality was also observed in the HAES ® group in comparison with the control group at post-intervention (group by time interaction, p = 0.0139). The intuitive eating score and the HEI score were positively associated in the HAES ® group at post-intervention (r = 0.20, p = 0.0237) and one-year follow-up (r = 0.22, p = 0.0359), but no such associations were noted in the control group (post-intervention, r = 0.04, p = 0.70; one-year follow-up, r = -0.15, p = 0.30). The HAES ® program seems effective in improving intuitive eating and also favours improvements in diet quality. However, the association between intuitive eating and

  1. Contributions of mindful eating, intuitive eating, and restraint to BMI, disordered eating, and meal consumption in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lisa M; Reilly, Erin E; Schaumberg, Katherine; Dmochowski, Sasha; Anderson, Drew A

    2016-03-01

    Mindful eating and intuitive eating are promoted as means to circumvent potentially maladaptive dietary restraint while maintaining a healthy weight. Although theoretically related, no studies have examined the correlations between intuitive eating, mindful eating, and restraint in the same sample. This study sought to examine these constructs and their correlations with body mass index (BMI), eating-disordered behaviors, and meal consumption in a college sample. Participants (N = 125) completed a laboratory taste-test meal and measures of each eating-related construct using the EDDS, IES, MEQ, and TFEQ-Restraint Subscale. Mindful eating, intuitive eating, and restraint were not strongly correlated. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that restraint and intuitive eating accounted for significant variance in disordered eating and BMI. Elevated restraint was associated with increased BMI and disordered eating; elevated intuitive eating was associated with decreased BMI and disordered eating. Mindful eating did not correlate with any outcome variables. Follow-up analyses suggested that specific intuitive eating subscales accounted for unique variance in the relation between intuitive eating and disordered eating. Intuitive eating was the only construct that was significantly associated with meal consumption. Intuitive eating and restraint appear to be only weakly correlated, and each is differentially associated with meal consumption. Mindful eating does not appear to relate to outcome variables.

  2. The Cognitive-Miser Response Model: Testing for Intuitive and Deliberate Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockenholt, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    In a number of psychological studies, answers to reasoning vignettes have been shown to result from both intuitive and deliberate response processes. This paper utilizes a psychometric model to separate these two response tendencies. An experimental application shows that the proposed model facilitates the analysis of dual-process item responses…

  3. Intuitive and Informal Knowledge in Preschoolers' Development of Probabilistic Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiforidou, Zoi; Pange, Jenny; Chadjipadelis, Theodore

    2013-01-01

    Preschoolers develop a wide range of mathematical informal knowledge and intuitive thinking before they enter formal, goal-oriented education. In their everyday activities young children get engaged with situations that enhance them to develop skills, concepts, strategies, representations, attitudes, constructs and operations concerning a wide…

  4. Psychological flexibility mediates change in intuitive eating regulation in acceptance and commitment therapy interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sairanen, Essi; Tolvanen, Asko; Karhunen, Leila; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Järvelä-Reijonen, Elina; Lindroos, Sanni; Peuhkuri, Katri; Korpela, Riitta; Ermes, Miikka; Mattila, Elina; Lappalainen, Raimo

    2017-06-01

    Despite the promising results related to intuitive eating, few studies have attempted to explain the processes encouraging this adaptive eating behaviour. The focus of the present study was on exploring mechanisms of change in intuitive eating and weight in acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) interventions. Mediation provides important information regarding the treatment processes and theoretical models related to specific treatment approaches. The study investigates whether psychological flexibility, mindfulness skills and sense of coherence mediated the interventions' effect on intuitive eating and weight. Secondary analysis of a randomized control trial. Mediation analysis compared two ACT interventions - face-to-face (in a group) and mobile (individually) - with a control group using a latent difference score model. Settings Data were collected in three Finnish towns. The participants were overweight or obese (n 219), reporting symptoms of perceived stress. The effect of the interventions on participants' (i) BMI, (ii) intuitive eating and its subscales, (iii) eating for physical rather than emotional reasons and (iv) reliance on internal hunger and satiety cues was mediated by changes in weight-related psychological flexibility in both ACT groups. These findings suggest that ACT interventions aiming for lifestyle changes mediate the intervention effects through the enhanced ability to continue with valued activities even when confronted with negative emotions and thoughts related to weight.

  5. An Information Integration Study on the Intuitive Physics of the Newton's Cradle

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sá Teixeira, Nuno Alexandre; Oliveira, Armando Mónica; Silva, Ana Duarte

    2014-01-01

    Newton's cradle, a device consisting of a chain of steel balls suspended in alignment, has been used extensively in physics teaching to demonstrate the principles of conservation of momentum and kinetic energy in elastic collisions. The apparent simplicity of the device allows one to test commonly hold views regarding the intuitive understanding…

  6. The non-intuitive 1/2 Thomas factor: a heuristic argument with classical electromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrysos, M

    2006-01-01

    We present a heuristic argument to deduce the non-intuitive 1/2 Thomas factor for an atomic electron revolving in its orbit about the nucleus. The argument, which is simple, pedagogical and accessible to physics beginners, uses elementary notions of classical electromagnetism rather than the advanced relativity concepts which are needed in any standard textbook derivation

  7. Social heuristics and social roles: Intuition favors altruism for women but not for men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, David G; Brescoll, Victoria L; Everett, Jim A C; Capraro, Valerio; Barcelo, Hélène

    2016-04-01

    Are humans intuitively altruistic, or does altruism require self-control? A theory of social heuristics, whereby intuitive responses favor typically successful behaviors, suggests that the answer may depend on who you are. In particular, evidence suggests that women are expected to behave altruistically, and are punished for failing to be altruistic, to a much greater extent than men. Thus, women (but not men) may internalize altruism as their intuitive response. Indeed, a meta-analysis of 13 new experiments and 9 experiments from other groups found that promoting intuition relative to deliberation increased giving in a Dictator Game among women, but not among men (Study 1, N = 4,366). Furthermore, this effect was shown to be moderated by explicit sex role identification (Study 2, N = 1,831): the more women described themselves using traditionally masculine attributes (e.g., dominance, independence) relative to traditionally feminine attributes (e.g., warmth, tenderness), the more deliberation reduced their altruism. Our findings shed light on the connection between gender and altruism, and highlight the importance of social heuristics in human prosociality. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Ethnography in Charting Paths toward Personal and Social Liberation: Using My Latina Cultural Intuition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzó, Lilia D.

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on a Chicana feminist epistemology, the author, a Latina immigrant, presents how she used her cultural intuition to engage in a two-year ethnography with Latino immigrant families. She argues that for her engaging in ethnography with her "own community" is an endeavor that calls to the fore her homegrown epistemologies and her…

  9. Implementation Intention for Initiating Intuitive Eating and Active Embodiment in Obese Patients Using a Smartphone Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Brevers

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a study protocol, which aims to explore and describe the feasibility of a mobile-phone application for initiating intuitive eating and intuitive exercising in patients who are following an ambulatory treatment for obesity. Intuitive eating refers to one’s ability to make food choices based on one’s awareness of his/her body’s response. Intuitive exercising encourages people in finding enjoyable ways of being physically active. These two components will be trained using an implementation intention procedure, that is, behavioral plans that aim at creating a strong link between a specified situation and a response. We aim to recruit up to 80 overweight and obese patients over a period of 2 years. The smartphone application will be assessed on the basis of (i data obtained through a 4-week use period, (ii self-report measures taken before and after the use of the mobile application, and (iii feedbacks from participants after the use of the mobile application. This pilot study will allow us to better understand the applicability of the use of mobile application within ambulatory treatment settings, and to adapt the design of the app necessary for building cross-sectional studies investigating its efficacy.

  10. Affective telepathy, or the intuition of the heart: 'Persona' with 'Mulholland Drive'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laine, T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the affective dynamism of the cinematic experience in terms of the so-called intuition of the heart. Inspired by the writings of Jean-Luc Nancy, it shows how the affective circulation between the film and the spectator can be a matter of sharing rather than a consequence of

  11. Bridging the Design Gap: Towards an intuitive Design Tool (CD ROM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendrich, Robert E.; Tragter, Hendrik; Kokkeler, Frans; van Houten, Frederikus J.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    A main task of industrial designers is the shaping and transformations of ideas or fuzzy notions into abstract or materialized equivalents. These sketches, models or other representations can be described as the sum of form and shape aspects, aesthetics, intuitive qualities as well as technical and

  12. Impact of an Intuitive Eating Education Program on High School Students' Eating Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Nicole; Joram, Elana; Matvienko, Oksana; Woolf, Suzanne; Knesting, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: There is a growing need for school-based nutritional educational programs that promote healthy eating attitudes without increasing an unhealthy focus on restrictive eating or promoting a poor body image. Research suggests that "intuitive eating" ("IE") approaches, which encourage individuals to focus on internal body…

  13. Acceleration Signal Characteristics for Intuitional Mass Analysis of Metallic Loose Parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kwang-Hyun; Jung, Chang-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear power plants (NPPs) have operated LPMS (Loose Parts Monitoring System) for early detection of the possible presence of metallic parts in the reactor coolant system (RCS); however, analysis of the metallic impact wave characteristics in the LPMS is an important issue because information, such as the mass of the metallic part and the impact location, is not provided. Most studies have concentrated on fieldwork using the frequency characteristics for the analysis of the metallic part mass. Thus, the field engineers cannot analyze signals without special software and access to the system. This paper is intended to introduce a process of intuitional mass analysis using the attenuation rate of the acceleration signal and the intervals between peak signals. Most studies related to mass analysis of a metallic part impact signal in LPMS have used the frequency spectrum. This paper presents a method of using the acceleration signal characteristics for intuitional mass analysis of loose metallic parts. With the method proposed in this paper, because the mass of a metallic part can be understood intuitionally without any special analysis program, intuitional analysis used in parallel with frequency spectrum analysis will be in effect

  14. Putting the use of intuition for fuzzy front end decision making on the research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eling, K.; Langerak, F.

    2011-01-01

    Decision making literature suggests that intuitive decision making is more appropriate than the established rational decision making approaches to handle the specific information processing needs of the fuzzy front end (FFE) of new product development. However, these earlier studies cannot be

  15. An Untimely Intuition: Adding a Bergsonian Dimension to Experience and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Kaustuv

    2005-01-01

    This essay explores Henri Bergson's intuition as a philosophical and methodological concept, specifically considering how it might be useful in thinking about education. The main argument is that the repetition-succession model of time--or time as measure--that became established in modernity, and to which we are habituated, edits out of…

  16. Intuitive thinking of design and redesign on innovative aircraft cabin simulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, C.F.; Chen, W.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the intuition approach in the design and redesign of the environmental friendly innovative aircraft cabin simulator is presented. The simulator is a testbed that was designed and built for research on aircraft passenger comfort improvement of long haul air travel. The simulation

  17. The interplay between intuition and rationality in strategic decision making: A paradox perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calabretta, G.; Gemser, G.; Wijnberg, N.M.

    2017-01-01

    Although scholars have made a strong plea for an integrative approach to strategic decision making, an integrated framework that accounts for the interplay between intuition and rationality is still missing. This study addresses this gap by using a paradox lens and conceptualizes the

  18. The performance effects of combining rationality and intuition in making early new product idea evaluation decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eling, K.; Langerak, F.; Griffin, A.

    New product idea evaluation decisions made by individual development team members during their idea generation activities allow for and may also benefit from the use of both rational and intuitive approaches to decision-making. Unfortunately, empirical research on whether at all and, if yes, in

  19. Causal reports: Context-dependent contributions of intuitive physics and visual impressions of launching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicovaro, Michele

    2018-05-01

    Everyday causal reports appear to be based on a blend of perceptual and cognitive processes. Causality can sometimes be perceived automatically through low-level visual processing of stimuli, but it can also be inferred on the basis of an intuitive understanding of the physical mechanism that underlies an observable event. We investigated how visual impressions of launching and the intuitive physics of collisions contribute to the formation of explicit causal responses. In Experiment 1, participants observed collisions between realistic objects differing in apparent material and hence implied mass, whereas in Experiment 2, participants observed collisions between abstract, non-material objects. The results of Experiment 1 showed that ratings of causality were mainly driven by the intuitive physics of collisions, whereas the results of Experiment 2 provide some support to the hypothesis that ratings of causality were mainly driven by visual impressions of launching. These results suggest that stimulus factors and experimental design factors - such as the realism of the stimuli and the variation in the implied mass of the colliding objects - may determine the relative contributions of perceptual and post-perceptual cognitive processes to explicit causal responses. A revised version of the impetus transmission heuristic provides a satisfactory explanation for these results, whereas the hypothesis that causal responses and intuitive physics are based on the internalization of physical laws does not. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Applying Intuition to Predict Maladaptive Interpersonal Outcomes in Mother-Infant Dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trad, Paul V.

    1994-01-01

    This article proposes that intuitive behaviors may be used to detect and resolve potential conflict in mother-infant relationships. Previewing, in which the caregiver introduces the infant to the physical sensations and interpersonal meaning of a new developmental skill, is suggested as a way of moving the mother-infant relationship in the…

  1. Relations between Intuitive Biological Thinking and Biological Misconceptions in Biology Majors and Nonmajors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, John D.; Tanner, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Research and theory development in cognitive psychology and science education research remain largely isolated. Biology education researchers have documented persistent scientifically inaccurate ideas, often termed misconceptions, among biology students across biological domains. In parallel, cognitive and developmental psychologists have described intuitive conceptual systems—teleological, essentialist, and anthropocentric thinking—that humans use to reason about biology. We hypothesize that seemingly unrelated biological misconceptions may have common origins in these intuitive ways of knowing, termed cognitive construals. We presented 137 undergraduate biology majors and nonmajors with six biological misconceptions. They indicated their agreement with each statement, and explained their rationale for their response. Results indicate frequent agreement with misconceptions, and frequent use of construal-based reasoning among both biology majors and nonmajors in their written explanations. Moreover, results also show associations between specific construals and the misconceptions hypothesized to arise from those construals. Strikingly, such associations were stronger among biology majors than nonmajors. These results demonstrate important linkages between intuitive ways of thinking and misconceptions in discipline-based reasoning, and raise questions about the origins, persistence, and generality of relations between intuitive reasoning and biological misconceptions. PMID:25713093

  2. Psychometric evaluation of the German version of the Intuitive Eating Scale-2 in a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzanska, Ulrike Alexandra; Warschburger, Petra

    2017-10-01

    Intuitive eating is based on a strong physical connection with the body, aligned to internal cues of hunger and satiety, and a low preoccupation with food. The aim of this study was to provide a German version of the Intuitive Eating Scale-2 (IES-2) and to examine its psychometric properties with data collected from 532 participants aged 18-91 years. The IES-2 was translated into German following the World Health Organization guidelines (2016). Cronbach's alpha as a measure of internal consistency was 0.89 for the IES-2 total score, as well as 0.73 - 0.92 for the IES-2 subscale scores. For group differences, the results were as hypothesized: men had higher IES-2 scores than women, and participants with under- and average weight showed higher IES-2 scores than participants with overweight and obesity. Participants without a dieting history had higher IES-2 scores than former or current dieters. In line with our hypotheses regarding construct validity, the IES-2 score had negative associations with emotional eating, restraint eating, external eating, binge eating and eating disorder symptomatology, as well as positive associations with self-efficacy and mental health-related quality of life. Second-order confirmatory factor analysis replicated the four-factor solution, with intuitive eating as a higher-order factor. These findings demonstrate that the German version of the IES-2 is a useful tool to assess intuitive eating in the general German population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Intuitive adaptive orientation control of assistive robots for people living with upper limb disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Dinh-Son; Allard, Ulysse Cote; Gosselin, Clement; Routhier, Francois; Gosselin, Benoit; Campeau-Lecours, Alexandre

    2017-07-01

    Robotic assistive devices enhance the autonomy of individuals living with physical disabilities in their day-to-day life. Although the first priority for such devices is safety, they must also be intuitive and efficient from an engineering point of view in order to be adopted by a broad range of users. This is especially true for assistive robotic arms, as they are used for the complex control tasks of daily living. One challenge in the control of such assistive robots is the management of the end-effector orientation which is not always intuitive for the human operator, especially for neophytes. This paper presents a novel orientation control algorithm designed for robotic arms in the context of human-robot interaction. This work aims at making the control of the robot's orientation easier and more intuitive for the user, in particular, individuals living with upper limb disabilities. The performance and intuitiveness of the proposed orientation control algorithm is assessed through two experiments with 25 able-bodied subjects and shown to significantly improve on both aspects.

  4. Intuitive visual impressions (cogs) for identifying clusters of diversity within potato species

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the basic research activities of genebanks is to partition stocks into groups that facilitate the efficient preservation and evaluation of the full range of useful phenotype diversity. We sought to test the usefulness of making of infra-specific groups by replicated rapid visual intuitive imp...

  5. Acceleration Signal Characteristics for Intuitional Mass Analysis of Metallic Loose Parts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwang-Hyun; Jung, Chang-Gyu [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Nuclear power plants (NPPs) have operated LPMS (Loose Parts Monitoring System) for early detection of the possible presence of metallic parts in the reactor coolant system (RCS); however, analysis of the metallic impact wave characteristics in the LPMS is an important issue because information, such as the mass of the metallic part and the impact location, is not provided. Most studies have concentrated on fieldwork using the frequency characteristics for the analysis of the metallic part mass. Thus, the field engineers cannot analyze signals without special software and access to the system. This paper is intended to introduce a process of intuitional mass analysis using the attenuation rate of the acceleration signal and the intervals between peak signals. Most studies related to mass analysis of a metallic part impact signal in LPMS have used the frequency spectrum. This paper presents a method of using the acceleration signal characteristics for intuitional mass analysis of loose metallic parts. With the method proposed in this paper, because the mass of a metallic part can be understood intuitionally without any special analysis program, intuitional analysis used in parallel with frequency spectrum analysis will be in effect.

  6. The Role of Intuition and Deliberative Thinking in Experts' Superior Tactical Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxley, Jerad H.; Ericsson, K. Anders; Charness, Neil; Krampe, Ralf T.

    2012-01-01

    Current theories argue that human decision making is largely based on quick, automatic, and intuitive processes that are occasionally supplemented by slow controlled deliberation. Researchers, therefore, predominantly studied the heuristics of the automatic system in everyday decision making. Our study examines the role of slow deliberation for…

  7. Do Students Trust in Mathematics or Intuition during Physics Problem Solving? An Epistemic Game Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate (1) students' trust in mathematics calculation versus intuition in a physics problem solving and (2) whether this trust is related to achievement in physics in the context of epistemic game theoretical framework. To achieve this research objective, paper-pencil and interview sessions were conducted. A paper-pencil…

  8. When to Blink and when to Think: Preference for Intuitive Decisions Results in Faster and Better Tactical Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Markus; Laborde, Sylvain

    2011-01-01

    Intuition is often considered an effective manner of decision making in sports. In this study we investigated whether a preference for intuition over deliberation results in faster and better lab-based choices in team handball attack situations with 54 male and female handball players of different expertise levels. We assumed that intuitive…

  9. The Acceptance Model of Intuitive Eating: A Comparison of Women in Emerging Adulthood, Early Adulthood, and Middle Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustus-Horvath, Casey L.; Tylka, Tracy L.

    2011-01-01

    The acceptance model of intuitive eating (Avalos & Tylka, 2006) posits that body acceptance by others helps women appreciate their body and resist adopting an observer's perspective of their body, which contribute to their eating intuitively/adaptively. We extended this model by integrating body mass index (BMI) into its structure and…

  10. The Role of Intuition in the Process of Objectification of Mathematical Phenomena from a Husserlian Perspective: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagorianakos, Andonis; Shvarts, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The research is a study of the Husserlian approach to intuition, informed by Merleau-Ponty's theory of perception, in the case of a prospective teacher of mathematics. It explores the two major stages-categories of intuition, the essential relations between them, and their vital role in the emergence of empirical and abstract mathematical…

  11. The Negative Relationship between Reasoning and Religiosity Is Underpinned by a Bias for Intuitive Responses Specifically When Intuition and Logic Are in Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daws, Richard E.; Hampshire, Adam

    2017-01-01

    It is well established that religiosity correlates inversely with intelligence. A prominent hypothesis states that this correlation reflects behavioral biases toward intuitive problem solving, which causes errors when intuition conflicts with reasoning. We tested predictions of this hypothesis by analyzing data from two large-scale Internet-cohort studies (combined N = 63,235). We report that atheists surpass religious individuals in terms of reasoning but not working-memory performance. The religiosity effect is robust across sociodemographic factors including age, education and country of origin. It varies significantly across religions and this co-occurs with substantial cross-group differences in religious dogmatism. Critically, the religiosity effect is strongest for tasks that explicitly manipulate conflict; more specifically, atheists outperform the most dogmatic religious group by a substantial margin (0.6 standard deviations) during a color-word conflict task but not during a challenging matrix-reasoning task. These results support the hypothesis that behavioral biases rather than impaired general intelligence underlie the religiosity effect. PMID:29312057

  12. The Negative Relationship between Reasoning and Religiosity Is Underpinned by a Bias for Intuitive Responses Specifically When Intuition and Logic Are in Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E. Daws

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that religiosity correlates inversely with intelligence. A prominent hypothesis states that this correlation reflects behavioral biases toward intuitive problem solving, which causes errors when intuition conflicts with reasoning. We tested predictions of this hypothesis by analyzing data from two large-scale Internet-cohort studies (combined N = 63,235. We report that atheists surpass religious individuals in terms of reasoning but not working-memory performance. The religiosity effect is robust across sociodemographic factors including age, education and country of origin. It varies significantly across religions and this co-occurs with substantial cross-group differences in religious dogmatism. Critically, the religiosity effect is strongest for tasks that explicitly manipulate conflict; more specifically, atheists outperform the most dogmatic religious group by a substantial margin (0.6 standard deviations during a color-word conflict task but not during a challenging matrix-reasoning task. These results support the hypothesis that behavioral biases rather than impaired general intelligence underlie the religiosity effect.

  13. Intuitive Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Michael

    1983-01-01

    Although Newton's laws of motion are well known, studies have shown that many people have misconceptions about the motions of objects. Subjects of these studies tend to follow a theory held in the three centuries before Newton (impetus theory). This theory and studies examining misconceptions about motion are discussed. (JN)

  14. Intuitive Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2009-01-01

    Handbook for people who wish to play or teach freely improvised music and improvisation pieces. With sections on how to start with different types of groups, training of musical awareness, parameters of the musical sound, the history of improvised music and some improvisational pieces....

  15. What is in a name?: The development of cross-cultural differences in referential intuitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jincai; Liu, Longgen; Chalmers, Elizabeth; Snedeker, Jesse

    2018-02-01

    Past work has shown systematic differences between Easterners' and Westerners' intuitions about the reference of proper names. Understanding when these differences emerge in development will help us understand their origins. In the present study, we investigate the referential intuitions of English- and Chinese-speaking children and adults in the U.S. and China. Using a truth-value judgment task modeled on Kripke's classic Gödel case, we find that the cross-cultural differences are already in place at age seven. Thus, these differences cannot be attributed to later education or enculturation. Instead, they must stem from differences that are present in early childhood. We consider alternate theories of reference that are compatible with these findings and discuss the possibility that the cross-cultural differences reflect differences in perspective-taking strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Domestic horses (Equus ferus caballus) fail to intuitively reason about object properties like solidity and weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haemmerli, Sarah; Thill, Corinne; Amici, Federica; Cacchione, Trix

    2018-05-01

    From early infancy, humans reason about the external world in terms of identifiable, solid, cohesive objects persisting in space and time. This is one of the most fundamental human skills, which may be part of our innate conception of object properties. Although object permanence has been extensively studied across a variety of taxa, little is known about how non-human animals reason about other object properties. In this study, we therefore tested how domestic horses (Equus ferus caballus) intuitively reason about object properties like solidity and height, to locate hidden food. Horses were allowed to look for a food reward behind two opaque screens, only one of which had either the proper height or inclination to hide food rewards. Our results suggest that horses could not intuitively reason about physical object properties, but rather learned to select the screen with the proper height or inclination from the second set of 5 trials.

  17. Sex education and sexuality, intuition and sensitivity: references to pedagogical practices of teachers in basic education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Márcia Marques Santos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is an excerpt from the systematization of doctoral research which established dialogues on continuing education, and pedagogical practices of teachers and teachers in Brazil and Portugal, where it presents speech applicant that "intuition and sensitivity" refer pedagogical practices of teachers / as regards the manifestations of sexuality in school premises. The speech that gave rise to the theory that motivated the research comes from the speech of teachers and teachers from different districts of a state in southern Brazil, from the spaces of initial training in pedagogy courses in the distance mode, where it had a student body made up of teachers that the time attending higher education. We opted for qualitative research, where one can see that the sensitivity and intuition does not replace the knowledge and training, but can be important elements for making pedagogical careful regarding the issues surrounding sexuality in the educational process.

  18. Motorization of a surgical microscope for intra-operative navigation and intuitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, M; Schweikard, A

    2010-09-01

    During surgical procedures, various medical systems, e.g. microscope or C-arm, are used. Their precise and repeatable manual positioning can be very cumbersome and interrupts the surgeon's work flow. Robotized systems can assist the surgeon but they require suitable kinematics and control. However, positioning must be fast, flexible and intuitive. We describe a fully motorized surgical microscope. Hardware components as well as implemented applications are specified. The kinematic equations are described and a novel control concept is proposed. Our microscope combines fast manual handling with accurate, automatic positioning. Intuitive control is provided by a small remote control mounted to one of the surgical instruments. Positioning accuracy and repeatability are system assists the surgeon, so that he can position the microscope precisely and repeatedly without interrupting the clinical workflow. The combination of manual und automatic control guarantees fast and flexible positioning during surgical procedures. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. A General and Intuitive Approach to Understand and Compare the Torque Production Capability of AC Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Dong; Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2014-01-01

    Electromagnetic torque analysis is one of the key issues in the analysis of electric machines. It plays an important role in machine design and control. The common method described in most of the textbooks is to calculate the torque in the machine variables and then transform them to the dq......-frame, through complicated mathematical manipulations. This is a more mathematical approach rather than explaining the physics behind torque production, which even brings a lot of difficulties to specialist. This paper introduces a general and intuitive approach to obtain the dq-frame torque equation of various...... AC machines. In this method, torque equation can be obtained based on the intuitive physical understanding of the mechanism behind torque production. It is then approved to be applicable for general case, including rotor saliency and various types of magnetomotive force sources. As an application...

  20. Intuition in medical practice: A reflection on Donald Schön's reflective practitioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickleborough, Tim

    2015-01-01

    In a recent commentary, Dr. Abhishek Biswas asks the question whether physicians should rely on their "gut feeling" when making clinical decisions. Biswas describes a situation where his intuition resulted in an immediate course of action that prompted urgent medical attention for a patient who had "routine" pain. Inspired by the author's account, I would like to further Biswas' discussion and examine its importance using the educational theories of Donald Schön and his concept of the reflective practitioner. Schön argues that technical knowledge alone is not sufficient to solve the complex problems that professionals face on a daily basis and intuition, developed through a reflective practice, is crucial for any professional's practice, especially in a time of greater uncertainty in the workplace.

  1. Liking goes with liking: An intuitive congruence between preference and prominence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morvinski, Coby; Amir, On

    2018-03-26

    In a series of 8 experiments, we demonstrate the existence of a "labeling effect" wherein people intuitively relate preferred choices to prominently labeled cues (such as heads as opposed to tails in a coin toss) and vice versa. Importantly, the observed congruence is asymmetric-it does not manifest for nonprominent cues and nonpreferred choices. This is because the congruence is driven by a process of evaluative matching: prominent cues are liked, but nonprominent cues are neutral or at most slightly negative in contrast. When we test prominent, yet truly negatively labeled cues, we indeed find a matching with less liked products. We discuss the theoretical contributions to the study of preferences and decision making, as well as demonstrate the practical implications to researchers and practitioners by using this process to assess intuitive preferences and reduce the compromise effect. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Probing folk-psychology: Do Libet-style experiments reflect folk intuitions about free action?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutschländer, Robert; Pauen, Michael; Haynes, John-Dylan

    2017-02-01

    There is an ongoing debate in philosophy and psychology about when one should consider an action to be free. Several aspects are frequently suggested as relevant: (a) a prior intention, (b) a conscious action-related thought, (c) prior deliberation, (d) a meaningful choice, (e) different consequences of the action, and (f) the duration between intention and action. Here we investigated which criteria laypeople adopt and thus probed their intuitions about free actions in three surveys based on daily life scenarios. First, our results indicate that laypeople consider a conscious intention important for an action to be free. Second, laypeople consider spontaneous actions without consequences to be freer than actions with prior deliberation. Third, laypeople consider proximal rather than distal intentions relevant when it comes to judging actions as free. Taken together, these results suggest that simple laboratory experiments on action choices reflect laypeople's intuitions of free actions to a considerable degree. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A Symbiotic Relationship: The Observe-Orient-Decide-Act (OODA) Loop, Intuition, and Strategic Thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    joint military community has not embraced Boyd’s work.8 The first is simply that the work is not readily accessible. Boyd did not commit it to text...through “implicit orientation” — or, as he names it elsewhere in the brief, “implicit communication .” This is related to the German concept of...Such challenges create increased reliance on subliminal strengths. Claxton further states, “Interesting intuitions occur as a result of thinking that

  4. German version of the intuitive eating scale: Psychometric evaluation and application to an eating disordered population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dyck, Zoé; Herbert, Beate M; Happ, Christian; Kleveman, Gillian V; Vögele, Claus

    2016-10-01

    Intuitive eating has been described to represent an adaptive eating behaviour that is characterised by eating in response to physiological hunger and satiety cues, rather than situational and emotional stimuli. The Intuitive Eating Scale-2 (IES-2) has been developed to measure such attitudes and behaviours on four subscales: unconditional permission to eat (UPE), eating for physical rather than emotional reasons (EPR), reliance on internal hunger and satiety cues (RHSC), and body-food choice congruence (B-FCC). The present study aimed at validating the psychometric properties of the German translation of the IES-2 in a large German-speaking sample. A second objective was to assess levels of intuitive eating in participants with an eating disorder diagnosis (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or binge eating disorder). The proposed factor structure of the IES-2 could be confirmed for the German translation of the questionnaire. The total score and most subscale scores were negatively related to eating disorder symptomatology, problems in appetite and emotional awareness, body dissatisfaction, and self-objectification. Women with eating disorders had significantly lower values on all IES-2 subscale scores and the total score than women without an eating disorder diagnosis. Women with a binge eating disorder (BED) diagnosis had higher scores on the UPE subscale compared to participants with anorexia nervosa (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN), and those diagnosed with AN had higher scores on the EPR subscale than individuals with BN or BED. We conclude that the German IES-2 constitutes a useful self-report instrument for the assessment of intuitive eating in German-speaking samples. Further studies are warranted to evaluate psychometric properties of the IES-2 in different samples, and to investigate its application in a clinical setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Geometry intuitive, discrete, and convex : a tribute to László Fejes Tóth

    CERN Document Server

    Böröczky, Károly; Tóth, Gábor; Pach, János

    2013-01-01

    The present volume is a collection of a dozen survey articles, dedicated to the memory of the famous Hungarian geometer, László Fejes Tóth, on the 99th anniversary of his birth. Each article reviews recent progress in an important field in intuitive, discrete, and convex geometry. The mathematical work and perspectives of all editors and most contributors of this volume were deeply influenced by László Fejes Tóth.

  6. Introduction to the special issue: Intuition and affect in risk perception and decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Gisela Boehm; Wibecke Brun

    2008-01-01

    (from the introduction) Intuition and affect have been neglected topics in the literature on human judgment and decision making for a long time. Judgmental processes involved in risk perception and decision making have traditionally been conceptualized as cognitive in nature, being based upon a rational and deliberate evaluation of the alternatives at hand. This picture started to change in the early 1980s when decision researchers looked beyond rational, deliberate, and cognitive processes a...

  7. Intuitive tactile algorithms to guide blind runners by means of a belt with vibrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durá-Gil, Juan V; Bazuelo-Ruiz, Bruno; Mollà, Fernando; Barberà-Guillem, Ricard; Jakab, Àgnes; Csielka, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Visually impaired people do not have equal possibilities to practice sports. In the case of running they need a sighted guide. This paper compare different possibilities for indicating direction to blind people by means of a belt that transmits tactile messages, and defines design requirements based on anthropometric analysis. The results shows that intuitive tactile messages are achieved with tactile stimuli applied in the ventral section, from the iliac crests to the navel.

  8. Core Intuitions About Persons Coexist and Interfere With Acquired Christian Beliefs About God.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlev, Michael; Mermelstein, Spencer; German, Tamsin C

    2017-04-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that in the minds of adult religious adherents, acquired beliefs about the extraordinary characteristics of God coexist with, rather than replace, an initial representation of God formed by co-option of the evolved person concept. In three experiments, Christian religious adherents were asked to evaluate a series of statements for which core intuitions about persons and acquired Christian beliefs about God were consistent (i.e., true according to both [e.g., "God has beliefs that are true"] or false according to both [e.g., "All beliefs God has are false"]) or inconsistent (i.e., true on intuition but false theologically [e.g., "God has beliefs that are false"] or false on intuition but true theologically [e.g., "All beliefs God has are true"]). Participants were less accurate and slower to respond to inconsistent versus consistent statements, suggesting that the core intuitions both coexisted alongside and interfered with the acquired beliefs (Experiments 1 and 2). In Experiment 2 when responding under time pressure participants were disproportionately more likely to make errors on inconsistent versus consistent statements than when responding with no time pressure, suggesting that the resolution of interference requires cognitive resources the functioning of which decreases under cognitive load. In Experiment 3 a plausible alternative interpretation of these findings was ruled out by demonstrating that the response accuracy and time differences on consistent versus inconsistent statements occur for God-a supernatural religious entity-but not for a natural religious entity (a priest). Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF THE MATHEMATICAL INTUITION OF STUDENTS IN TRAINING THE INVERSE PROBLEMS FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Виктор Семенович Корнилов

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In article attention to that fact that at students of higher educational institutions of the physical and mathematical and natural-science directions of preparation when training in the reverse tasks for differential equations the mathematical intuition which is an important component of their creative potential develops is paid. The mathematical intuition helps students to comprehend a physical sense of the researched application-oriented task, to select effective methods of mathematical physics for the decision of the reverse task for differential equations.The mathematical intuition of students develops in many respects in case of the decision of different educational jobs. Among such educational jobs: creation of system of integrable equations of the reverse task for differential equations, the proof of the conditional correctness of the decision of the reverse task for differential equations, creation of the difference analog of the reverse task for a differential equation; finding of the numerical decision of the reverse task, the proof of convergence of approximate solution of the reverse task to the exact decision, reasons for the idea of the proof of a correctness (the conditional correctness of the decision of the reverse task for differential equations, a statement of logical outputs of application-oriented or humanitarian character on the basis of the conducted research of the reverse task and other educational jobs.In the course of such training students create system of fundamental knowledge in the field of the reverse and incorrect tasks, acquire new scientific knowledge in the field of applied and calculus mathematics, but, obviously, and develop a mathematical intuition.

  10. Asclepius’ Myths and Healing Narratives: Counter-Intuitive Concepts and Cultural Expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olympia Panagiotidou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article suggests a bio-cultural approach to the Asclepius cult in order to explore the attractiveness and memorability of the religious ideas, myths, and narratives about the divine healer. The transformation of Asclepius from a mortal doctor to a divine physician is traced in mythical sagas developed in Greek antiquity. The interference of local religious, political and financial interests in the formation of myths are briefly presented. Then, the focus is shifted to the inner features that were embedded in the myths and attracted people’s attention. Following Guthrie’s theory (1992, it is suggested that the anthropomorphic perception of the ancient Greek gods was projected onto Asclepius. Boyer’s theory (1996, 2001 of counter-intuitive concepts of religious ideas is applied to the myths of Asclepius. It is suggested that his actions, rather than the portrayal of his figure and character, are what violated human-intuitive expectations about the world, grabbing the attention of supplicants and becoming conserved in memory. Further, the correlation of intuitive ontological expectations and mundane knowledge acquired through cultural conditioning is examined. The healing inscriptions from the asclepieia seem to support the findings of research conducted by Porubanova-Norquist and her colleagues (2013, 2014, according to which violations of cultural expectations have similar effects in attention and memory processes as the counter-intuitive concepts. It is further suggested that the activity of Asclepius violated cultural expectations shared by people of the ancient Greek world. This activity was particularly salient because it pertained to human experiences of illness and disease, and revealed Asclepius’ willingness to help the sick.

  11. Two-Tactor Vibrotactile Navigation Information for the Blind: Directional Resolution and Intuitive Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Roman; Bach, Michael; Heinrich, Sven P

    2017-03-01

    Lacking vision, blind people have to exploit other senses for navigation. Using the tactile rather than the auditory sense avoids masking important environmental information. Directional information is particularly important and traditionally conveyed through an array of tactors, each coding one direction. Here, we present a different approach to represent arbitrary directions with only two tactors. We tested intuitiveness, plasticity, and variability of direction perception in a behavioral experiment in 33 seeing participants.

  12. Rationality, Intuition and Flair in Entrepreneur’s Configuration - an Epistemological Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Zoltan Raluca; Vancea Romulus

    2011-01-01

    The present paper proposes an overview of the evolution of the concept of entrepreneur in an epistemological approach. After a brief history of the concept, there are some basic economic and managerial guidelines in entrepreneur’s configuration; these guidelines are found in the work of experts in management, respectively, leading economists. Rationality, flair and intuition of the entrepreneur are then analyzed in terms of existing trends in the economy, acknowledging the entrepreneurship an...

  13. Relations between intuitive biological thinking and biological misconceptions in biology majors and nonmajors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, John D; Tanner, Kimberly

    2015-03-02

    Research and theory development in cognitive psychology and science education research remain largely isolated. Biology education researchers have documented persistent scientifically inaccurate ideas, often termed misconceptions, among biology students across biological domains. In parallel, cognitive and developmental psychologists have described intuitive conceptual systems--teleological, essentialist, and anthropocentric thinking--that humans use to reason about biology. We hypothesize that seemingly unrelated biological misconceptions may have common origins in these intuitive ways of knowing, termed cognitive construals. We presented 137 undergraduate biology majors and nonmajors with six biological misconceptions. They indicated their agreement with each statement, and explained their rationale for their response. Results indicate frequent agreement with misconceptions, and frequent use of construal-based reasoning among both biology majors and nonmajors in their written explanations. Moreover, results also show associations between specific construals and the misconceptions hypothesized to arise from those construals. Strikingly, such associations were stronger among biology majors than nonmajors. These results demonstrate important linkages between intuitive ways of thinking and misconceptions in discipline-based reasoning, and raise questions about the origins, persistence, and generality of relations between intuitive reasoning and biological misconceptions. © 2015 J. D. Coley and K. Tanner. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2015 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  14. Social Intuition and Social Information in Physical Child Abuse Evaluation and Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Heather T; Cook, Lawrence J; Olson, Lenora M; Bardsley, Tyler; Campbell, Kristine A

    2017-11-01

    Poor and minority children with injuries concerning for abuse are evaluated and diagnosed for abuse differentially. We hypothesized that 2 steps in the decision-making process would influence evaluation and diagnosis: social intuition from meeting the family and objective social information associated with child abuse risk. Between 2009 and 2013, 32 child abuse pediatricians (CAPs) submitted 730 child abuse consultations including original medical evaluations and diagnoses. CAPs evaluated and diagnosed each other's cases. Comparisons of evaluations and diagnoses were made by levels of social understanding available to the CAP: meeting the family (social intuition and information), reading the case (social information), and reading the case without social information. Evaluations were compared with a consensus gold standard by using logistic regression modeling adjusting for child and CAP characteristics. Diagnostic categories were compared by level of social understanding and diagnostic certainty by using contingency tables. CAPs without access to social intuition were approximately twice as likely to perform gold standard evaluations for neurotrauma and long bone fracture compared with CAPs who met families. Diagnostic agreement fell from 73.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 70.1%-76.5%) when social information was present to 66.5% (95% CI: 63.1%-70.0%) when social information was restricted. In cases with less certainty, agreement dropped to 51.3% (95% CI: 46.0%-56.7%). Social intuition and information play a role in the physical child abuse decision-making process, which may contribute to differential diagnosis. Simple interventions including decision tools, check lists, and peer review may structure evaluations to ensure children's equal treatment. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. Believe It or Not: Examining the Case for Intuitive Logic and Effortful Beliefs

    OpenAIRE

    Howarth, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The overall objective of this thesis was to test the Default Interventionist (DI) account of belief-bias in human reasoning using the novel methodology introduced by Handley, Newstead & Trippas (2011). DI accounts focus on how our prior beliefs are the intuitive output that bias our reasoning process (Evans, 2006), whilst judgments based on logical validity require effortful processing. However, recent research has suggested that reasoning on the basis of beliefs may not be as fast and automa...

  16. Intuitive Visualization of Transient Flow: Towards a Full 3D Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Isabel; Schröder, Simon; Seidel, Torsten; König, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    Visualization of geoscientific data is a challenging task especially when targeting a non-professional audience. In particular, the graphical presentation of transient vector data can be a significant problem. With STRING Fraunhofer ITWM (Kaiserslautern, Germany) in collaboration with delta h Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH (Witten, Germany) developed a commercial software for intuitive 2D visualization of 3D flow problems. Through the intuitive character of the visualization experts can more easily transport their findings to non-professional audiences. In STRING pathlets moving with the flow provide an intuition of velocity and direction of both steady-state and transient flow fields. The visualization concept is based on the Lagrangian view of the flow which means that the pathlets' movement is along the direction given by pathlines. In order to capture every detail of the flow an advanced method for intelligent, time-dependent seeding of the pathlets is implemented based on ideas of the Finite Pointset Method (FPM) originally conceived at and continuously developed by Fraunhofer ITWM. Furthermore, by the same method pathlets are removed during the visualization to avoid visual cluttering. Additional scalar flow attributes, for example concentration or potential, can either be mapped directly to the pathlets or displayed in the background of the pathlets on the 2D visualization plane. The extensive capabilities of STRING are demonstrated with the help of different applications in groundwater modeling. We will discuss the strengths and current restrictions of STRING which have surfaced during daily use of the software, for example by delta h. Although the software focusses on the graphical presentation of flow data for non-professional audiences its intuitive visualization has also proven useful to experts when investigating details of flow fields. Due to the popular reception of STRING and its limitation to 2D, the need arises for the extension to a full 3D tool

  17. The Intuitive Physics of the Equilibrium of the Lever and of the Hydraulic Pressures: Implications for the Teaching of Elementary Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masin, Sergio Cesare; Crivellaro, Francesco; Varotto, Diego

    2014-01-01

    The research field of intuitive physics focuses on discrepancies between theoretical and intuitive physical knowledge. Consideration of these discrepancies can help in the teaching of elementary physics. However, evidence shows that theoretical and intuitive physical knowledge may also be congruent. Physics teaching could further benefit from…

  18. Is surgeon intuition equivalent to models of operative complexity in determining the surgical approach for nephron sparing surgery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranav Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: RENAL nephrometry score was associated with surgical approach intuitively chosen by an experienced surgeon, but the presence of adherent perinephric fat did not correlate with decision-making.

  19. Associations between body weight status, psychological well-being and disordered eating with intuitive eating among Malaysian undergraduate university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Wan Ying; Yeoh, Wei Ching

    2017-09-13

    Intuitive eating, which can be defined as reliance on physiological hunger and satiety cues to guide eating, has been proposed as a healthy weight management strategy. To date, there has not been a published study on intuitive eating in the context of Malaysia. Therefore, this cross-sectional study aims to determine associations between body weight status, psychological well-being and disordered eating behaviors with intuitive eating among undergraduate university students. A total of 333 undergraduate respondents (21.3% males and 78.7% females) from three randomly selected faculties in a public university in Malaysia participated in this study. Respondents completed a self-administered questionnaire which featured socio-demographic characteristics, intuitive eating, self-esteem, body appreciation, general unconditional acceptance, body acceptance by others, body function and disordered eating. Body weight, height, body fat percentage and waist circumference were measured. The results from this study revealed that there was no difference (t = 0.067, p = 0.947) in intuitive eating scores between males (75.69 ± 7.16) and females (75.62 ± 7.90). Multiple linear regression results have shown that body appreciation (β = 0.385, p < 0.001) and disordered eating (β = -0.168, p = 0.001) were significant predictors of intuitive eating, which accounted for 19.6% of the variance in intuitive eating. Health promotion programs should highlight the importance of enhancing body appreciation and preventing disordered eating behaviors among university students in order to promote intuitive eating as one of the healthy weight management approaches.

  20. Fast to forgive, slow to retaliate: intuitive responses in the ultimatum game depend on the degree of unfairness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Eamonn; Maltby, John; Bibby, Peter A; Lawrence, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary accounts have difficulty explaining why people cooperate with anonymous strangers they will never meet. Recently models, focusing on emotional processing, have been proposed as a potential explanation, with attention focusing on a dual systems approach based on system 1 (fast, intuitive, automatic, effortless, and emotional) and system 2 (slow, reflective, effortful, proactive and unemotional). Evidence shows that when cooperation is salient, people are fast (system 1) to cooperate, but with longer delays (system 2) they show greed. This is interpreted within the framework of the social heuristic hypothesis (SHH), whereby people overgeneralize potentially advantageous intuitively learnt and internalization social norms to 'atypical' situations. We extend this to explore intuitive reactions to unfairness by integrating the SHH with the 'fast to forgive, slow to anger' (FFSA) heuristic. This suggests that it is advantageous to be prosocial when facing uncertainty. We propose that whether or not someone intuitively shows prosociality (cooperation) or retaliation is moderated by the degree (certainty) of unfairness. People should intuitively cooperate when facing mild levels of unfairness (fast to forgive) but when given longer to decide about another's mild level of unfairness should retaliate (slow to anger). However, when facing severe levels of unfairness, the intuitive response is always retaliation. We test this using a series of one-shot ultimatum games and manipulate level of offer unfairness (50:50 60:40, 70:30, 80:20, 90:10) and enforced time delays prior to responding (1s, 2s, 8s, 15s). We also measure decision times to make responses after the time delays. The results show that when facing mildly unfair offers (60:40) people are fast (intuitive) to cooperate but with longer delays reject these mildly unfair offers: 'fast to forgive, and slow to retaliate'. However, for severely unfair offers (90:10) the intuitive and fast response is to always

  1. Fast to forgive, slow to retaliate: intuitive responses in the ultimatum game depend on the degree of unfairness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eamonn Ferguson

    Full Text Available Evolutionary accounts have difficulty explaining why people cooperate with anonymous strangers they will never meet. Recently models, focusing on emotional processing, have been proposed as a potential explanation, with attention focusing on a dual systems approach based on system 1 (fast, intuitive, automatic, effortless, and emotional and system 2 (slow, reflective, effortful, proactive and unemotional. Evidence shows that when cooperation is salient, people are fast (system 1 to cooperate, but with longer delays (system 2 they show greed. This is interpreted within the framework of the social heuristic hypothesis (SHH, whereby people overgeneralize potentially advantageous intuitively learnt and internalization social norms to 'atypical' situations. We extend this to explore intuitive reactions to unfairness by integrating the SHH with the 'fast to forgive, slow to anger' (FFSA heuristic. This suggests that it is advantageous to be prosocial when facing uncertainty. We propose that whether or not someone intuitively shows prosociality (cooperation or retaliation is moderated by the degree (certainty of unfairness. People should intuitively cooperate when facing mild levels of unfairness (fast to forgive but when given longer to decide about another's mild level of unfairness should retaliate (slow to anger. However, when facing severe levels of unfairness, the intuitive response is always retaliation. We test this using a series of one-shot ultimatum games and manipulate level of offer unfairness (50:50 60:40, 70:30, 80:20, 90:10 and enforced time delays prior to responding (1s, 2s, 8s, 15s. We also measure decision times to make responses after the time delays. The results show that when facing mildly unfair offers (60:40 people are fast (intuitive to cooperate but with longer delays reject these mildly unfair offers: 'fast to forgive, and slow to retaliate'. However, for severely unfair offers (90:10 the intuitive and fast response is to

  2. Overriding Moral Intuitions – Does It Make Us Immoral? Dual-Process Theory of Higher Cognition Account for Moral Reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Michał Białek; Simon J. Handley

    2013-01-01

    Moral decisions are considered as an intuitive process, while conscious reasoning is mostly used only to justify those intuitions. This problem is described in few different dual-process theories of mind, that are being developed e.g. by Frederick and Kahneman, Stanovich and Evans. Those theories recently evolved into tri-process theories with a proposed process that makes ultimate decision or allows to paraformal processing with focal bias.. Presented experiment compares...

  3. The separate roles of the reflective mind and involuntary inhibitory control in gatekeeping paranormal beliefs and the underlying intuitive confusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedholm, Annika M; Lindeman, Marjaana

    2013-08-01

    Intuitive thinking is known to predict paranormal beliefs, but the processes underlying this relationship, and the role of other thinking dispositions, have remained unclear. Study 1 showed that while an intuitive style increased and a reflective disposition counteracted paranormal beliefs, the ontological confusions suggested to underlie paranormal beliefs were predicted by individual differences in involuntary inhibitory processes. When the reasoning system was subjected to cognitive load, the ontological confusions increased, lost their relationship with paranormal beliefs, and their relationship with weaker inhibition was strongly accentuated. These findings support the argument that the confusions are mainly intuitive and that they therefore are most discernible under conditions in which inhibition is impaired, that is, when thinking is dominated by intuitive processing. Study 2 replicated the findings on intuitive and reflective thinking and paranormal beliefs. In Study 2, ontological confusions were also related to the same thinking styles as paranormal beliefs. The results support a model in which both intuitive and non-reflective thinking styles and involuntary inhibitory processes give way to embracing culturally acquired paranormal beliefs. ©2012 The British Psychological Society.

  4. Natural Language Processing Approach for Searching the Quran: Quick and Intuitive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Abidah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Quran is a scripture that acts as the main reference to people which their religion is Islam. It covers information from politics to science, with vast amount of information that requires effort to uncover the knowledge behind it. Today, the emergence of smartphones has led to the development of a wide-range application for enhancing knowledge-seeking activities. This project proposes a mobile application that is taking a natural language approach to searching topics in the Quran based on keyword searching. The benefit of the application is two-fold; it is intuitive and it saves time.

  5. Idea and Intuition: On the Perceptibility of the Platonic Ideas in the Thought of Arthur Schopenhauer

    OpenAIRE

    Costanzo, Jason

    2009-01-01

    IDEA AND INTUITION On the Perceptibility of the Platonic Ideas in the Thought of Arthur Schopenhauer In this work, I examine the perceptibility of the Platonic Ideas in the thought of Arthur Schopenhauer. The work is divided into four chapters, each focusing and building upon a specific aspect related to this questi on. The first chapter (“Plato and the Primacy of Intellect”) deals with Scho penhauer’s interpretation specific to Platonic thought. I there address the question of why it is tha...

  6. High level functions for the intuitive use of an assistive robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebec, Olivier; Ben Ghezala, Mohamed Walid; Leynart, Violaine; Laffont, Isabelle; Fattal, Charles; Devilliers, Laurence; Chastagnol, Clement; Martin, Jean-Claude; Mezouar, Youcef; Korrapatti, Hermanth; Dupourqué, Vincent; Leroux, Christophe

    2013-06-01

    This document presents the research project ARMEN (Assistive Robotics to Maintain Elderly People in a Natural environment), aimed at the development of a user friendly robot with advanced functions for assistance to elderly or disabled persons at home. Focus is given to the robot SAM (Smart Autonomous Majordomo) and its new features of navigation, manipulation, object recognition, and knowledge representation developed for the intuitive supervision of the robot. The results of the technical evaluations show the value and potential of these functions for practical applications. The paper also documents the details of the clinical evaluations carried out with elderly and disabled persons in a therapeutic setting to validate the project.

  7. Review of various dynamic modeling methods and development of an intuitive modeling method for dynamic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Seung Ki; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2008-01-01

    Conventional static reliability analysis methods are inadequate for modeling dynamic interactions between components of a system. Various techniques such as dynamic fault tree, dynamic Bayesian networks, and dynamic reliability block diagrams have been proposed for modeling dynamic systems based on improvement of the conventional modeling methods. In this paper, we review these methods briefly and introduce dynamic nodes to the existing Reliability Graph with General Gates (RGGG) as an intuitive modeling method to model dynamic systems. For a quantitative analysis, we use a discrete-time method to convert an RGGG to an equivalent Bayesian network and develop a software tool for generation of probability tables

  8. The influence of intuition and communication language in generating student conceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handhika, J.; Cari, C.; Suparmi, A.; Sunarno, W.

    2017-11-01

    This research aims to describe the influence of intuition and communication language in generating student conceptions. The conception diagnostic test is used to reveal student conception. The diagnostic test results described and communication language profiled by giving instruction to students to make sentences using physics quantities. Sentences expressed by students are reduced and profiled potential effects. Obtained information that (1) Students generalize non-scientific experience (based on feeling) into the physics problem. This process caused misconception. Communication language can make the students difficult to understand the concept because of the difference meaning of communication and physics language.

  9. Chemically intuited, large-scale screening of MOFs by machine learning techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borboudakis, Giorgos; Stergiannakos, Taxiarchis; Frysali, Maria; Klontzas, Emmanuel; Tsamardinos, Ioannis; Froudakis, George E.

    2017-10-01

    A novel computational methodology for large-scale screening of MOFs is applied to gas storage with the use of machine learning technologies. This approach is a promising trade-off between the accuracy of ab initio methods and the speed of classical approaches, strategically combined with chemical intuition. The results demonstrate that the chemical properties of MOFs are indeed predictable (stochastically, not deterministically) using machine learning methods and automated analysis protocols, with the accuracy of predictions increasing with sample size. Our initial results indicate that this methodology is promising to apply not only to gas storage in MOFs but in many other material science projects.

  10. Intuitive and interpretable visual communication of a complex statistical model of disease progression and risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jieyi Li; Arandjelovic, Ognjen

    2017-07-01

    Computer science and machine learning in particular are increasingly lauded for their potential to aid medical practice. However, the highly technical nature of the state of the art techniques can be a major obstacle in their usability by health care professionals and thus, their adoption and actual practical benefit. In this paper we describe a software tool which focuses on the visualization of predictions made by a recently developed method which leverages data in the form of large scale electronic records for making diagnostic predictions. Guided by risk predictions, our tool allows the user to explore interactively different diagnostic trajectories, or display cumulative long term prognostics, in an intuitive and easily interpretable manner.

  11. Australian Academic Librarians’ Experience of Evidence Based Practice Involves Empowering, Intuiting, Affirming, Connecting, Noticing, and Impacting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Marie Muellenbach

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Miller, F., Partridge, H., Bruce, C., Yates, C., & Howlett, A. (2017. How academic librarians experience evidence-based practice: A grounded theory model. Library & Information Science Research, 39(2, 124-130. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lisr.2017.04.003 Abstract Objective – To explore and enhance the understanding of how Australian library and information science (LIS practitioners experience or understand evidence based practice (EBP within the context of their day-to-day professional work. Design – Constructivist grounded theory methodology. Setting – University libraries in Queensland, Australia. Subjects – 13 academic librarians. Methods – Researchers contacted academic librarians by email and invited each participant to take part in a 30-60 minute, semi-structured interview. They designed interview questions to allow participants to explain their process and experience of EBP. Main results – This study identified six categories of experience of EBP using a constructivist grounded theory analysis process. The categories are: Empowering; Intuiting; Affirming; Connecting; Noticing; and Impacting. Briefly, empowering includes being empowered, or empowering clients, colleagues, and institutions through improved practice or performance. Intuiting includes being intuitive, or using one’s own intuition, wisdom, and understanding, of colleagues and clients’ behaviours to solve problems and redesign services. Affirming includes being affirmed through sharing feedback and using affirmation to strengthen support for action. Connecting includes being connected, and building connections, with clients, colleagues, and institutions. Noticing includes being actively aware of, observing, and reflecting on clients, colleagues, and literature within and outside of one’s own university, and noticing patterns in data to inform decision-making. Impacting includes being impactful, or having a visible impact, on clients, colleagues

  12. INTUITION AS A BASIS FOR LEADERSHIP: PSYCHOLOGICAL AND STATISTICAL MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela BELU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to overview a set of research results concerning the influence a person may have on others by simply using leadership skills. The premise underlying the endeavor is that, in the end, intuition is a basis for leadership. Based on the findings, the definition for leadership suggested by this article runs as follows: the harmony between what one thinks and does. Moreover, the article proposes that this harmony be taught through distinct subject matters at undergraduate level for those who are to obtain a diploma in “organizational management”.

  13. Search and Coherence-Building in Intuition and Insight Problem Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Öllinger

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Coherence-building is a key concept for a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of intuition and insight problem solving. There are several accounts that address certain aspects of coherence-building. However, there is still no proper framework defining the general principles of coherence-building. We propose a four-stage model of coherence-building. The first stage starts with spreading activation restricted by constraints. This dynamic is a well-defined rule based process. The second stage is characterized by detecting a coherent state. We adopted a fluency account assuming that the ease of information processing indicates the realization of a coherent state. The third stage is designated to evaluate the result of the coherence-building process and assess whether the given problem is solved or not. If the coherent state does not fit the requirements of the task, the process re-enters at stage 1. These three stages characterize intuition. For insight problem solving a fourth stage is necessary, which restructures the given representation after repeated failure, so that a new search space results. The new search space enables new coherent states. We provide a review of the most important findings, outline our model, present a large number of examples, deduce potential new paradigms and measures that might help to decipher the underlying cognitive processes.

  14. Intuitive Feelings of Warmth and Confidence in Insight and Noninsight Problem Solving of Magic Tricks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedne, Mikael R.; Norman, Elisabeth; Metcalfe, Janet

    2016-01-01

    The focus of the current study is on intuitive feelings of insight during problem solving and the extent to which such feelings are predictive of successful problem solving. We report the results from an experiment (N = 51) that applied a procedure where the to-be-solved problems were 32 short (15 s) video recordings of magic tricks. The procedure included metacognitive ratings similar to the “warmth ratings” previously used by Metcalfe and colleagues, as well as confidence ratings. At regular intervals during problem solving, participants indicated the perceived closeness to the correct solution. Participants also indicated directly whether each problem was solved by insight or not. Problems that people claimed were solved by insight were characterized by higher accuracy and higher confidence than noninsight solutions. There was no difference between the two types of solution in warmth ratings, however. Confidence ratings were more strongly associated with solution accuracy for noninsight than insight trials. Moreover, for insight trials the participants were more likely to repeat their incorrect solutions on a subsequent recognition test. The results have implications for understanding people's metacognitive awareness of the cognitive processes involved in problem solving. They also have general implications for our understanding of how intuition and insight are related. PMID:27630598

  15. Intuitive tactile zooming for graphics accessed by individuals who are blind and visually impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Ravi; Pawluk, T V Dianne; Ketchum, Jessica

    2013-07-01

    One possibility of providing access to visual graphics for those who are visually impaired is to present them tactually: unfortunately, details easily available to vision need to be magnified to be accessible through touch. For this, we propose an "intuitive" zooming algorithm to solve potential problems with directly applying visual zooming techniques to haptic displays that sense the current location of a user on a virtual diagram with a position sensor and, then, provide the appropriate local information either through force or tactile feedback. Our technique works by determining and then traversing the levels of an object tree hierarchy of a diagram. In this manner, the zoom steps adjust to the content to be viewed, avoid clipping and do not zoom when no object is present. The algorithm was tested using a small, "mouse-like" display with tactile feedback on pictures representing houses in a community and boats on a lake. We asked the users to answer questions related to details in the pictures. Comparing our technique to linear and logarithmic step zooming, we found a significant increase in the correctness of the responses (odds ratios of 2.64:1 and 2.31:1, respectively) and usability (differences of 36% and 19%, respectively) using our "intuitive" zooming technique.

  16. Modern Confucian Epistemology through the Lens of the Second Generation: Between Reason and Intuition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana S. Rošker

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper critically introduces the epistemological thought of the crucial representatives of the 20th-century Modern Confucian thinkers. It aims to show their particular developments of the traditional Chinese tenet that the moral cultivation of the Self is a precondition for comprehensive knowledge. A corollary of this premise is that human perception is not only rational, but also irrational, in the sense of also being determined by will or intention, desires and feelings. They assumed that the same border that divided reason from intuition also divided science from philosophy. They were not opposed to science, but to scientism, arguing that science, which aims at the recognition of objects in the external natural world and applies an exclusively rational and analytical methodology, would never be able to solve questions connected to the meaning of life or to influence an individual’s worldview. Whereas science explores fact, philosophy investigates meaning and values. The divide between reason and intuition did not merely separate science and philosophy (or natural sciences and the humanities, but also the sphere of phenomena from the sphere of values.

  17. An approach to develop chemical intuition for atomistic electron transport calculations using basis set rotations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, A.; Solomon, G. C. [Department of Chemistry and Nano-Science Center, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 5, 2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark)

    2016-05-21

    Single molecule conductance measurements are often interpreted through computational modeling, but the complexity of these calculations makes it difficult to directly link them to simpler concepts and models. Previous work has attempted to make this connection using maximally localized Wannier functions and symmetry adapted basis sets, but their use can be ambiguous and non-trivial. Starting from a Hamiltonian and overlap matrix written in a hydrogen-like basis set, we demonstrate a simple approach to obtain a new basis set that is chemically more intuitive and allows interpretation in terms of simple concepts and models. By diagonalizing the Hamiltonians corresponding to each atom in the molecule, we obtain a basis set that can be partitioned into pseudo-σ and −π and allows partitioning of the Landuaer-Büttiker transmission as well as create simple Hückel models that reproduce the key features of the full calculation. This method provides a link between complex calculations and simple concepts and models to provide intuition or extract parameters for more complex model systems.

  18. (The null) Importance of police experience on intuitive credibility of people with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzanero, Antonio L; Quintana, José M; Contreras, María J

    2014-10-21

    In the present study, the intuitive ability of police to discriminate between real and false statements of people with mild and moderate (IQ range=50-80, average=60.0) intellectual disabilities (ID) was analyzed. The assessments issued by groups with different levels of experience in police techniques (psychology students, and police officers) were compared. The results showed no differences between the two groups in their ability to discriminate (d'=0.785 and d'=0.644, respectively). When the experience of the police was taken into consideration, no differences were found between "experienced" and "novice" police officers (d'=0.721 and d'=0.582, respectively). No differences were found in response criteria, which were neutral in all cases. Moreover, 34.73% of cases evaluated by the inexperienced group were incorrectly discriminated, in comparison to the 37.75% of incorrect assessments made by police. The implications of the limited ability of intuition to discriminate between real and simulated victims with ID, which did not yield significant differences between experienced and inexperienced assessors in obtaining and assessing statements, are discussed. In light of the results of this study, it is concluded that adequate resources and standardized procedures to properly address people with ID who come into contact with the police and judicial institutions need to be provided. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. PointCom: semi-autonomous UGV control with intuitive interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Mitchell M.; Perlin, Victor E.; Iagnemma, Karl D.; Lupa, Robert M.; Rohde, Steven M.; Overholt, James; Fiorani, Graham

    2008-04-01

    Unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) will play an important role in the nation's next-generation ground force. Advances in sensing, control, and computing have enabled a new generation of technologies that bridge the gap between manual UGV teleoperation and full autonomy. In this paper, we present current research on a unique command and control system for UGVs named PointCom (Point-and-Go Command). PointCom is a semi-autonomous command system for one or multiple UGVs. The system, when complete, will be easy to operate and will enable significant reduction in operator workload by utilizing an intuitive image-based control framework for UGV navigation and allowing a single operator to command multiple UGVs. The project leverages new image processing algorithms for monocular visual servoing and odometry to yield a unique, high-performance fused navigation system. Human Computer Interface (HCI) techniques from the entertainment software industry are being used to develop video-game style interfaces that require little training and build upon the navigation capabilities. By combining an advanced navigation system with an intuitive interface, a semi-autonomous control and navigation system is being created that is robust, user friendly, and less burdensome than many current generation systems. mand).

  20. An intuitive graphical webserver for multiple-choice protein sequence search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banky, Daniel; Szalkai, Balazs; Grolmusz, Vince

    2014-04-10

    Every day tens of thousands of sequence searches and sequence alignment queries are submitted to webservers. The capitalized word "BLAST" becomes a verb, describing the act of performing sequence search and alignment. However, if one needs to search for sequences that contain, for example, two hydrophobic and three polar residues at five given positions, the query formation on the most frequently used webservers will be difficult. Some servers support the formation of queries with regular expressions, but most of the users are unfamiliar with their syntax. Here we present an intuitive, easily applicable webserver, the Protein Sequence Analysis server, that allows the formation of multiple choice queries by simply drawing the residues to their positions; if more than one residue are drawn to the same position, then they will be nicely stacked on the user interface, indicating the multiple choice at the given position. This computer-game-like interface is natural and intuitive, and the coloring of the residues makes possible to form queries requiring not just certain amino acids in the given positions, but also small nonpolar, negatively charged, hydrophobic, positively charged, or polar ones. The webserver is available at http://psa.pitgroup.org. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The impact of the mode of thought in complex decisions: intuitive decisions are better

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius eUsher

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A number of recent studies have reported that decision-quality is enhanced under conditions of inattention or distraction (unconscious-thought; Dijksterhuis, 2004; Dijksterhuis et al., 2006; Dijksterhuis & Nordgren, 2006. These reports have generated considerable controversy, for both experimental (problems of replication and theoretical reasons (interpretation. Here we report the results of four experiments. The first experiment replicates the unconscious thought effect, under conditions that validate and control the subjective criterion of decision quality. The second and third experiments examine the impact of a mode of thought manipulation (without distraction on decision quality in immediate decisions. Here we find that intuitive or affective manipulations improve decision quality compared to analytic/deliberation manipulations. The fourth experiment combines the two methods (distraction and mode of thought manipulations and demonstrates enhanced decision quality, in a situation that attempts to preserve ecological validity. The results are interpreted within a framework that is based on two interacting subsystems of decision-making: an affective/intuition based system and an analytic/deliberation system.

  2. Do interoceptive awareness and interoceptive responsiveness mediate the relationship between body appreciation and intuitive eating in young women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Alana; Chapman, Janine; Wilson, Carlene

    2017-02-01

    The extent to which an individual appreciates their own body is recognised as a proximal predictor of intuitive eating, but the mechanisms underlying this relationship are less clearly understood. This study tested whether two partially independent, self-reported facets of interoceptive ability: 'interoceptive awareness' (defined as the ability to detect internal bodily cues) and 'interoceptive responsiveness' (the way in which individuals value and respond to these cues) mediated the relationship between body appreciation and three subscales of intuitive eating: 'unconditional permission to eat'; 'reliance on internal hunger and satiety cues', and 'eating for physical rather than emotional reasons'. Multiple mediation analyses of data from an online survey of Australian college women (n = 200) showed that: (1) interoceptive awareness partially mediated the relationship between body appreciation and 'reliance on internal hunger and satiety cues', and (2) interoceptive responsiveness partially mediated the relationship between all three subscales of intuitive eating. Although preliminary, this work lends support to the theoretical framework of the acceptance model of intuitive eating and extends it by suggesting that the different facets of intuitive eating may have distinct underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cortical regions activated by the subjective sense of perceptual coherence of environmental sounds: a proposal for a neuroscience of intuition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, Kirsten G; Rübsamen, Rudolf; von Cramon, D Yves

    2008-09-01

    According to the Oxford English Dictionary, intuition is "the ability to understand or know something immediately, without conscious reasoning." In other words, people continuously, without conscious attention, recognize patterns in the stream of sensations that impinge upon them. The result is a vague perception of coherence, which subsequently biases thought and behavior accordingly. Within the visual domain, research using paradigms with difficult recognition has suggested that the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) serves as a fast detector and predictor of potential content that utilizes coarse facets of the input. To investigate whether the OFC is crucial in biasing task-specific processing, and hence subserves intuitive judgments in various modalities, we used a difficult-recognition paradigm in the auditory domain. Participants were presented with short sequences of distorted, nonverbal, environmental sounds and had to perform a sound categorization task. Imaging results revealed rostral medial OFC activation for such auditory intuitive coherence judgments. By means of a conjunction analysis between the present results and those from a previous study on visual intuitive coherence judgments, the rostral medial OFC was shown to be activated via both modalities. We conclude that rostral OFC activation during intuitive coherence judgments subserves the detection of potential content on the basis of only coarse facets of the input.

  4. Classical mechanics with calculus of variations and optimal control an intuitive introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Levi, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This is an intuitively motivated presentation of many topics in classical mechanics and related areas of control theory and calculus of variations. All topics throughout the book are treated with zero tolerance for unrevealing definitions and for proofs which leave the reader in the dark. Some areas of particular interest are: an extremely short derivation of the ellipticity of planetary orbits; a statement and an explanation of the "tennis racket paradox"; a heuristic explanation (and a rigorous treatment) of the gyroscopic effect; a revealing equivalence between the dynamics of a particle and statics of a spring; a short geometrical explanation of Pontryagin's Maximum Principle, and more. In the last chapter, aimed at more advanced readers, the Hamiltonian and the momentum are compared to forces in a certain static problem. This gives a palpable physical meaning to some seemingly abstract concepts and theorems. With minimal prerequisites consisting of basic calculus and basic undergraduate physics, this boo...

  5. Case-based clinical reasoning in feline medicine: 1: Intuitive and analytical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Paul J; Whitehead, Martin L; Johnson, Robert; O'Brien, Carolyn R; Malik, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This is Article 1 of a three-part series on clinical reasoning that encourages practitioners to explore and understand how they think and make case-based decisions. It is hoped that, in the process, they will learn to trust their intuition but, at the same time, put in place safeguards to diminish the impact of bias and misguided logic on their diagnostic decision-making. This first article discusses the relative merits and shortcomings of System 1 thinking (immediate and unconscious) and System 2 thinking (effortful and analytical). Articles 2 and 3, to appear in the March and May 2016 issues of JFMS, respectively, will examine managing cognitive error, and use of heuristics (mental short cuts) and illness scripts in diagnostic reasoning. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Cognitive science in the field: A preschool intervention durably enhances intuitive but not formal mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Moira R; Kannan, Harini; Dean, Joshua T; Spelke, Elizabeth S; Duflo, Esther

    2017-07-07

    Many poor children are underprepared for demanding primary school curricula. Research in cognitive science suggests that school achievement could be improved by preschool pedagogy in which numerate adults engage children's spontaneous, nonsymbolic mathematical concepts. To test this suggestion, we designed and evaluated a game-based preschool curriculum intended to exercise children's emerging skills in number and geometry. In a randomized field experiment with 1540 children (average age 4.9 years) in 214 Indian preschools, 4 months of math game play yielded marked and enduring improvement on the exercised intuitive abilities, relative to no-treatment and active control conditions. Math-trained children also showed immediate gains on symbolic mathematical skills but displayed no advantage in subsequent learning of the language and concepts of school mathematics. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. The Availability Heuristic, Intuitive Cost-Benefit Analysis, and Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunstein, C.R.

    2006-01-01

    Because risks are on all sides of social situations, it is not possible to be 'precautionary' in general. The availability heuristic ensures that some risks stand out as particularly salient, whatever their actual magnitude. Taken together with intuitive cost-benefit balancing, the availability heuristic helps to explain differences across groups, cultures, and even nations in the assessment of precautions to reduce the risks associated with climate change. There are complex links among availability, social processes for the spreading of information, and predispositions. If the United States is to take a stronger stand against climate change, it is likely to be a result of available incidents that seem to show that climate change produces serious and tangible harm

  8. Selection of environmental sustainable fiber materials for wind turbine blades - a contra intuitive process?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkved, Morten; Corona, Andrea; Markussen, Christen Malte

    2013-01-01

    environmental trade-offs over the entire life-span of composite materials, life cycle assessment (LCA) can be applied. In the present case study, four different types of fibers (carbon, glass, flax and carbon/flax mixture) are compared in terms of environmental sustainability and cost. Applying one of the most...... recent life cycle impact assessment methods, it is demonstrated that the environmental sustainability of the mixed carbon/flax fiber based composite material is better than that of the flax fibers alone. This observation may be contra-intuitive, but is mainly caused by the fact that the bio...... impacts in relation to the production of the carbon and glass fibers considerable compared to the impacts resulting from resin production. The ideal fiber solution, in terms of environmental sustainability, is hence the fiber composition having the lowest resin demand and lowest overall energy demand...

  9. Development of intuitive theories of motion - Curvilinear motion in the absence of external forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, M. K.; Mccloskey, M.; Proffitt, D. R.

    1986-01-01

    College students and children between the ages of 4 and 12 were asked to draw the path a ball would take upon exiting a curved tube. As in previous studies, many subjects erroneously predicted curvilinear paths. However, a clear U-shaped curve was evident in the data: Preschoolers and kindergartners performed as well as college students, whereas school-aged children were more likely to make erroneous predictions. A second study suggested that the youngest children's correct responses could not be attributed to response biases or drawing abilities. This developmental trend is interpreted to mean that the school-aged children are developing intuitive theories of motion that include erroneous principles. The results are related to the 'growth errors' found in other cognitive domains and to the historical development of formal theories of motion.

  10. Gesture-Based Extraction of Robot Skill Parameters for Intuitive Robot Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikkel Rath; Krüger, Volker

    2015-01-01

    a working system capable of TbD would be ideal. Contrary to current TbD approaches, that generally aim to recognize both action and where it is applied, we propose a division of labor, where the operator manually specifies the action the robot should perform, while gestures are used for specifying...... the relevant action parameter (e.g. on which object to apply the action). Using this two-step method has the advantages that there is no uncertainty of which action the robot will perform, it takes into account that the environment changes, so objects do not need to be at predefined locations......, and the parameter specification is possible even for inexperienced users. Experiments with 24 people in 3 different environments verify that it is indeed intuitive, even for a robotics novice, to program a mobile manipulator using this method....

  11. The Development and Validation of the Rational and Intuitive Decision Styles Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Katherine; Shih, Shin-I; Mohammed, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Decision styles reflect the typical manner by which individuals make decisions. The purpose of this research was to develop and validate a decision style scale that addresses conceptual and psychometric problems with current measures. The resulting 10-item scale captures a broad range of the rational and intuitive styles construct domain. Results from 5 independent samples provide initial support for the dimensionality and reliability of the new scale, as demonstrated by a clear factor structure and high internal consistency. In addition, our results show evidence of convergent and discriminant validity through expected patterns of correlations across decision-making individual differences and the International Personality Item Pool (IPIP) Big Five traits. Research domains that would benefit from incorporating the concept of decision styles are discussed.

  12. Can Science Explain the Human Mind? Intuitive Judgments About the Limits of Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Sara; Lombrozo, Tania

    2018-01-01

    Can science explain romantic love, morality, and religious belief? We documented intuitive beliefs about the limits of science in explaining the human mind. We considered both epistemic evaluations (concerning whether science could possibly fully explain a given psychological phenomenon) and nonepistemic judgments (concerning whether scientific explanations for a given phenomenon would generate discomfort), and we identified factors that characterize phenomena judged to fall beyond the scope of science. Across six studies, we found that participants were more likely to judge scientific explanations for psychological phenomena to be impossible and uncomfortable when, among other factors, they support first-person, introspective access (e.g., feeling empathetic as opposed to reaching for objects), contribute to making humans exceptional (e.g., appreciating music as opposed to forgetfulness), and involve conscious will (e.g., acting immorally as opposed to having headaches). These judgments about the scope of science have implications for science education, policy, and the public reception of psychological science.

  13. Cybernation of the feeling and intuition functions for the intelligent control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Vorobjev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Now researches for creating an intelligent control system сonventionally refer to “neurocybernetics” or “black box cybernetics”. The first approach has not received a meaningful progress, because modeling of elements and structures of a brain has shown insufficiency of the modern knowledge of an alive brain.Black box cybernetics means that for the reception of the intelligent system it is correct enough to reproduce observable results of the intellectual processes, besides, it makes no difference how these results are obtained. Insufficient speed of the existing computers is the difficulty, associated with the second approach. However, a huge variety of the intellectual activity displays forces to recognize, that the black box cybernetics is also doomed to fail, since all the features of intelligence cannot be taken into account.In the present research, aiming at the principles’ development for functioning of the intelligent control system of a new generation, the following approach is applied: intelligent system behavior is correctly displayed by any psychological theory of the person, therefore, “cybernation” of some enough economical of them can have the universal intelligent system as the result. Analytical psychology by Karl Jung is chosen as the prototype theory.From the four mental functions, offered by Karl Jung, in this case feeling and intuition are chosen, besides, that functions of thinking and sensation are left without in-depth analysis and are only superficially described. It is connected with the restrictions of the number of publications, and consideration of the given functions requires the significant amount.The feeling function under the given descriptions by Karl Jung, develops the attitude of «egoism» of the system to subject – a thing, situations, to process, etc. However, as no attitude is valid action, the developed attitude for the observer is “the indicator” of the given function of the system

  14. Oxytocin promotes intuitive rather than deliberated cooperation with the in-group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Velden, Femke S; Daughters, Katie; De Dreu, Carsten K W

    2017-06-01

    A contribution to a special issue on Hormones and Human Competition. In intergroup settings, individuals prefer cooperating with their in-group, and sometimes derogate and punish out-groups. Here we replicate earlier work showing that such in-group bounded cooperation is conditioned by oxytocin and extend it by showing that oxytocin-motivated in-group cooperation is intuitive rather than deliberated. Healthy males (N=65) and females (N=129) self-administered intranasal placebo or 24IU oxytocin in a double-blind placebo-controlled between-subjects design, were assigned to a three-person in-group (that faced a 3-person out-group), and given an endowment from which they could contribute to a within-group pool (benefitting the in-group), and/or to a between-group pool (benefitting the in-group and punishing the out-group). Prior to decision-making, participants performed a Stroop Interference task that was either cognitively taxing, or not. Cognitively taxed individuals kept less to themselves and contributed more to the within-group pool. Furthermore, participants receiving placebo contributed more to the within-group pool when they were cognitively taxed rather than not; those receiving oxytocin contributed to the within-group pool regardless of cognitive taxation. Neither taxation nor treatment influenced contributions to the between-group pool, and no significant sex differences were observed. It follows that in intergroup settings (i) oxytocin increases in-group bounded cooperation, (ii) oxytocin neither reduces nor increases out-group directed spite, and (iii) oxytocin-induced in-group cooperation is independent of cognitive taxation and, therefore, likely to be intuitive rather than consciously deliberated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Turkish version of the Intuitive Eating Scale-2: Validity and reliability among university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, Murat; Karaca, Kezban Esen; Saglam, Duygu; Arıtıcı, Gozde; Cengiz, Ecem; Köksal, Selen; Buyukkaragoz, Aylin Hasbay

    2017-07-01

    Intuitive Eating is defined as "the dynamic process-integrating attunement of mind, body, and food". The purpose of this study was, therefore, adapt the IES-2 to the Turkish language and reliability and validity of IES-2 among Turkish populations. We also examined the instrument's internal consistency and test-retest reliability and analysed the relationships between the IES-2 and several variables so as to evaluate the convergent and discriminant validity. Three hundred seventy-seven undergraduate and postgraduate women and men between the ages of 19-31 years (mean 22.3, SD = 3.53) attending two large private universities in Istanbul, Turkey. The best solution from the principal factors analysis of the 23 items of the IES-2 revealed four factors corresponding to the four subscales (F1: Eating for physical rather than emotional reasons; F2: Unconditional permission to eat; F3: Reliance on hunger and satiety cues; F4: Body-food choice congruence), as reported by the authors of the questionnaire. Bartlett's test of sphericity gave X 2  = 9043.49 (p Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin index was 0.87 (KMO were 0.89 for women and 0.83 for men). The test-retest reliability of the IES-2 was 0.88 for the IES-2 total score. The IES-2 had a = 0.82. These findings support the notion that intuitive eating is a viable concept for university students and the IES can be used to examine adaptive eating behaviors in this population. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Believing what we do not believe: Acquiescence to superstitious beliefs and other powerful intuitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risen, Jane L

    2016-03-01

    Traditionally, research on superstition and magical thinking has focused on people's cognitive shortcomings, but superstitions are not limited to individuals with mental deficits. Even smart, educated, emotionally stable adults have superstitions that are not rational. Dual process models--such as the corrective model advocated by Kahneman and Frederick (2002, 2005), which suggests that System 1 generates intuitive answers that may or may not be corrected by System 2--are useful for illustrating why superstitious thinking is widespread, why particular beliefs arise, and why they are maintained even though they are not true. However, to understand why superstitious beliefs are maintained even when people know they are not true requires that the model be refined. It must allow for the possibility that people can recognize--in the moment--that their belief does not make sense, but act on it nevertheless. People can detect an error, but choose not to correct it, a process I refer to as acquiescence. The first part of the article will use a dual process model to understand the psychology underlying magical thinking, highlighting features of System 1 that generate magical intuitions and features of the person or situation that prompt System 2 to correct them. The second part of the article will suggest that we can improve the model by decoupling the detection of errors from their correction and recognizing acquiescence as a possible System 2 response. I suggest that refining the theory will prove useful for understanding phenomena outside of the context of magical thinking. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Rehabilitation of activities of daily living in virtual environments with intuitive user interface and force feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Vico Chung-Lim; Lo, King-Hung; Choi, Kup-Sze

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the feasibility of using a virtual rehabilitation system with intuitive user interface and force feedback to improve the skills in activities of daily living (ADL). A virtual training system equipped with haptic devices was developed for the rehabilitation of three ADL tasks - door unlocking, water pouring and meat cutting. Twenty subjects with upper limb disabilities, supervised by two occupational therapists, received a four-session training using the system. The task completion time and the amount of water poured into a virtual glass were recorded. The performance of the three tasks in reality was assessed before and after the virtual training. Feedback of the participants was collected with questionnaires after the study. The completion time of the virtual tasks decreased during the training (p water successfully poured increased (p = 0.051). The score of the Borg scale of perceived exertion was 1.05 (SD = 1.85; 95% CI =  0.18-1.92) and that of the task specific feedback questionnaire was 31 (SD =  4.85; 95% CI =  28.66-33.34). The feedback of the therapists suggested a positive rehabilitation effect. The participants had positive perception towards the system. The system can potentially be used as a tool to complement conventional rehabilitation approaches of ADL. Implications for rehabilitation Rehabilitation of activities of daily living can be facilitated using computer-assisted approaches. The existing approaches focus on cognitive training rather than the manual skills. A virtual training system with intuitive user interface and force feedback was designed to improve the learning of the manual skills. The study shows that system could be used as a training tool to complement conventional rehabilitation approaches.

  18. High-accuracy drilling with an image guided light weight robot: autonomous versus intuitive feed control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauscher, Sebastian; Fuchs, Alexander; Baier, Fabian; Kahrs, Lüder A; Ortmaier, Tobias

    2017-10-01

    Assistance of robotic systems in the operating room promises higher accuracy and, hence, demanding surgical interventions become realisable (e.g. the direct cochlear access). Additionally, an intuitive user interface is crucial for the use of robots in surgery. Torque sensors in the joints can be employed for intuitive interaction concepts. Regarding the accuracy, they lead to a lower structural stiffness and, thus, to an additional error source. The aim of this contribution is to examine, if an accuracy needed for demanding interventions can be achieved by such a system or not. Feasible accuracy results of the robot-assisted process depend on each work-flow step. This work focuses on the determination of the tool coordinate frame. A method for drill axis definition is implemented and analysed. Furthermore, a concept of admittance feed control is developed. This allows the user to control feeding along the planned path by applying a force to the robots structure. The accuracy is researched by drilling experiments with a PMMA phantom and artificial bone blocks. The described drill axis estimation process results in a high angular repeatability ([Formula: see text]). In the first set of drilling results, an accuracy of [Formula: see text] at entrance and [Formula: see text] at target point excluding imaging was achieved. With admittance feed control an accuracy of [Formula: see text] at target point was realised. In a third set twelve holes were drilled in artificial temporal bone phantoms including imaging. In this set-up an error of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] was achieved. The results of conducted experiments show that accuracy requirements for demanding procedures such as the direct cochlear access can be fulfilled with compliant systems. Furthermore, it was shown that with the presented admittance feed control an accuracy of less then [Formula: see text] is achievable.

  19. Intuitional experiment and numerical analysis of flow characteristics affected by flow accelerated corrosion in elbow pipe system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung Joon [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyung Hoon, E-mail: kimkh@khu.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Seochun 1, Yongin, Gyeonggi 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Wall-thinning erosion of pipelines in plants leads to fatal accidents unexpectedly. • Flow Acceleration Corrosion (FAC) is a main reason of wall-thinning. • For industrial safety, it is necessary to verify the tendency of FAC. • We focused on local wall thinning by FAC with intuitional visualization experiment and numerical analysis in elbow pipe.

  20. Trends Concerning Four Misconceptions in Students' Intuitively-Based Probabilistic Reasoning Sourced in the Heuristic of Representativeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kustos, Paul Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Student difficulty in the study of probability arises in intuitively-based misconceptions derived from heuristics. One such heuristic, the one of note for this research study, is that of representativeness, in which an individual informally assesses the probability of an event based on the degree to which the event is similar to the sample from…

  1. How is VR used to support training in industry? The INTUITION network of excellence working group on education and training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobb, S.C.; Richir, S.; D'Cruz, M.; Klinger, E.; Day, A.; David, P.; Gardeux, F.; van den Broek, Egon; van der Voort, Mascha C.; Meijer, F.; Izkara, J.L.; Mavrikios, D.

    2008-01-01

    INTUITION is the European Network of Excellence on virtual reality and virtual environments applications for future workspaces. The purpose of the network is to gather expertise from partner members and determine the future research agenda for the development and use of virtual reality (VR)

  2. Eat for life: a work site feasibility study of a novel mindfulness-based intuitive eating intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Hannah E; Rossy, Lynn; Mintz, Laurie B; Schopp, Laura

    2014-01-01

    To examine the efficacy of a novel intervention for problematic eating behaviors and body dissatisfaction. Participants enrolled in the intervention or waitlist comparison group were assessed at pre and post 10 weeks. Midwestern university. One hundred twenty-four female employees or partners/spouses. Eat for Life is a 10-week group intervention integrating mindfulness and intuitive eating skills. Self-report questionnaires included the Intuitive Eating Scale, Body Appreciation Scale, Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire, Questionnaire for Eating Disorder Diagnoses, and an author-constructed supplemental and demographic questionnaire. Analyses of covariance and ordinal regression measured group differences. Structural equation modeling examined mediation effects. Results . Significant differences between groups were observed for body appreciation (F1,121 = 40.17, p = .000, partial eta squared = .25), intuitive eating (F1,121 = 67.44, p = .000, partial eta squared = .36), and mindfulness (F1,121 = 30.50, p = .000, partial eta squared = .20), with mean scores significantly higher in the intervention group than waitlist comparison group after 10 weeks. The intervention group was 3.65 times more likely to be asymptomatic for disordered eating than the comparison group. Mindfulness served as a partial mediator. The study provides support for an intervention combining intuitive eating and mindfulness for treatment of problematic eating behaviors and body dissatisfaction, with limitations including self-selection and lack of active control group.

  3. If it feels right, do it: Intuitive decision making in a sample of high-level sport coaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave eCollins

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive understanding and application of decision making is important for the professional practice and status of sports coaches. Accordingly, building on a strong work base exploring the use of professional judgement and decision making in sport, we report a preliminary investigation into uses of intuition by high-level coaches. Two contrasting groups of high-level coaches from adventure sports (n = 10 and rugby union (n = 8, were interviewed on their experiences of using intuitive and deliberative decision making styles, the source of these skills, and the interaction between the two. Participants reported similarly high levels of usage to other professions. Interaction between the two styles was apparent to varying degrees, while the role of experience was seen as an important precursor to greater intuitive practice and employment. Initially intuitive then deliberate decision making was a particular feature, offering participants an immediate check on the accuracy and validity of the decision. Integration of these data with the extant literature and implications for practice are discussed.

  4. The Effect of Content Representation Design Principles on Users' Intuitive Beliefs and Use of E-Learning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Samarraie, Hosam; Selim, Hassan; Zaqout, Fahed

    2016-01-01

    A model is proposed to assess the effect of different content representation design principles on learners' intuitive beliefs about using e-learning. We hypothesized that the impact of the representation of course contents is mediated by the design principles of alignment, quantity, clarity, simplicity, and affordance, which influence the…

  5. "If It Feels Right, Do It": Intuitive Decision Making in a Sample of High-Level Sport Coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Dave; Collins, Loel; Carson, Howie J

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive understanding and application of decision making is important for the professional practice and status of sports coaches. Accordingly, building on a strong work base exploring the use of professional judgment and decision making (PJDM) in sport, we report a preliminary investigation into uses of intuition by high-level coaches. Two contrasting groups of high-level coaches from adventure sports (n = 10) and rugby union (n = 8), were interviewed on their experiences of using intuitive and deliberative decision making styles, the source of these skills, and the interaction between the two. Participants reported similarly high levels of usage to other professions. Interaction between the two styles was apparent to varying degrees, while the role of experience was seen as an important precursor to greater intuitive practice and employment. Initially intuitive then deliberate decision making was a particular feature, offering participants an immediate check on the accuracy and validity of the decision. Integration of these data with the extant literature and implications for practice are discussed.

  6. Maternal intuitive eating as a moderator of the association between concern about child weight and restrictive child feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylka, Tracy L; Lumeng, Julie C; Eneli, Ihuoma U

    2015-12-01

    Mothers who are concerned about their young child's weight are more likely to use restrictive feeding, which has been associated with increased food seeking behaviors, emotional eating, and overeating in young children across multiple prospective and experimental studies. In the present study, we examined whether mothers' intuitive eating behaviors would moderate the association between their concern about their child's weight and their use of restrictive feeding. In a sample of 180 mothers of young children, two maternal intuitive eating behaviors (i.e., eating for physical reasons, trust in hunger and satiety cues) moderated this association after controlling for maternal age, body mass index, years of education, race/ethnicity, awareness of hunger and satiety cues and perceptions of child weight. More specifically, concern about child weight was unrelated to restrictive feeding for mothers with higher levels of eating for physical reasons and trust in hunger and satiety cues. However, concern about child weight was positively related to restrictive feeding among mothers with lower or average levels of eating for physical reasons and trust in hunger and satiety cues. These findings indicate that it may be important address maternal intuitive eating within interventions designed to improve self-regulated eating in children, as mothers who attend these interventions tend to be highly concerned about their child's weight and, if also low in intuitive eating, may be at risk for using restrictive feeding behaviors that interfere with children's self-regulated eating. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Children's Intuitive Sense of Number Develops Independently of Their Perception of Area, Density, Length, and Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odic, Darko

    2018-01-01

    Young children can quickly and intuitively represent the number of objects in a visual scene through the Approximate Number System (ANS). The precision of the ANS--indexed as the most difficult ratio of two numbers that children can reliably discriminate--is well known to improve with development: whereas infants require relatively large ratios to…

  8. How Intuition and Language Use Relate to Students' Understanding of Span and Linear Independence in an Elementary Linear Algebra Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Catherine Frieda

    2010-01-01

    A possible contributing factor to students' difficulty in learning advanced mathematics is the conflict between students' "natural" learning styles and the formal structure of mathematics, which is based on definitions, theorems, and proofs. Students' natural learning styles may be a function of their intuition and language skills. The purpose of…

  9. Evidence should trump intuition by preferring inbred strains to outbred stocks in preclinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festing, Michael F W

    2014-01-01

    Inbred strains of mice such as C57BL and BALB/c are more widely used in published work than outbred stocks of mice such as ICR and CD-1. In contrast, outbred stocks of rats such as Wistar and Sprague-Dawley are more widely used than inbred strains such as F344 and LEW. The properties of inbred and outbred mice and rats are briefly reviewed, and it is concluded that, with some exceptions, there is a strong case for using inbred strains in most controlled experiments. This is because they are usually more uniform, so that fewer animals are usually needed to detect a specified response and they are more repeatable, because they are genetically defined (i.e., the strain can be identified using genetic markers) and less liable to genetic change. Yet many scientists continue to use outbred animals. In Daniel Kahneman's book "Thinking Fast and Slow" he explains that we can answer questions in 2 ways: "fast" by intuition or "slow" by analytical reasoning. The former method is instantaneous, requires no thought but is not evidence based. Analytical reasoning is evidence based but requires hard work, which we all avoid. He has found that "… when faced with a difficult question, we often answer an easier one instead, usually without noticing the substitution." The target question of whether to choose outbred or inbred strains in controlled experiments is a difficult one requiring knowledge of the characteristics of these strains and the principles of experimental design. A substitute question, "are humans and outbred stocks both genetically heterogeneous," is easily answered in the affirmative. It is likely that many scientists are intuitively answering the substitute question and are assuming that they have answered the target question. If so they may be using the wrong animals in their research. Nor is the fact that humans and outbred stocks are alike in being genetically heterogeneous a reason for using them. The whole concept of a "model" is that it is similar to the

  10. Uneasy working and uncertainties facing: the power of intuition in emergency decision making. Neuro-psychobiological correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Colombo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of complex cognitive processes on the decision-making is an extremely important factor in the field of emergency medicine, as it is closely related to the environmental, cultural and functional characteristics of the system. The article analyses the group, organisational and emotive aspects that interfere with the effectiveness of emergency staff, the role of intuition in analytical operating models, and the interrelations with the areas (cortical and subcortical of the brain involved in decisional conflict situations. There are members of the emergency teams who are the organisers of the process, and who monitor it; they share the difficulty to act, as well as procedures, and guarantee the “local knowledge”, which often deals with limited information, emergencies and unexpected events in the clinic. The various professional roles involved in the decision-making process itself use diagnostic instruments and personal experience, which often makes use of a psychic function, namely, intuition. Intuition is an unconscious process that allows access to a large number of models, information, and data learnt and stored in the long-term memory, without the need for any clear conscious cognitive effort. In this context, the characteristics of intuition and its function and reliability are investigated, as are the value of heuristics in making decisions and its role in different cognitive styles. Improving the outcomes of the decision-making process and the levels of safety in an emergency requires shared rules and operating procedures, knowledge of the situation, awareness of the human tendency to make cognitive and emotional distortions, and an ability to blend, safely, intuitive cognitive and analytical styles, depending on the task at hand.

  11. CCTop: An Intuitive, Flexible and Reliable CRISPR/Cas9 Target Prediction Tool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Stemmer

    Full Text Available Engineering of the CRISPR/Cas9 system has opened a plethora of new opportunities for site-directed mutagenesis and targeted genome modification. Fundamental to this is a stretch of twenty nucleotides at the 5' end of a guide RNA that provides specificity to the bound Cas9 endonuclease. Since a sequence of twenty nucleotides can occur multiple times in a given genome and some mismatches seem to be accepted by the CRISPR/Cas9 complex, an efficient and reliable in silico selection and evaluation of the targeting site is key prerequisite for the experimental success. Here we present the CRISPR/Cas9 target online predictor (CCTop, http://crispr.cos.uni-heidelberg.de to overcome limitations of already available tools. CCTop provides an intuitive user interface with reasonable default parameters that can easily be tuned by the user. From a given query sequence, CCTop identifies and ranks all candidate sgRNA target sites according to their off-target quality and displays full documentation. CCTop was experimentally validated for gene inactivation, non-homologous end-joining as well as homology directed repair. Thus, CCTop provides the bench biologist with a tool for the rapid and efficient identification of high quality target sites.

  12. Intuitive wireless control of a robotic arm for people living with an upper body disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, C L; Turgeon, P; Campeau-Lecours, A; Maheu, V; Boukadoum, M; Roy, S; Massicotte, D; Gosselin, C; Gosselin, B

    2015-08-01

    Assistive Technologies (ATs) also called extrinsic enablers are useful tools for people living with various disabilities. The key points when designing such useful devices not only concern their intended goal, but also the most suitable human-machine interface (HMI) that should be provided to users. This paper describes the design of a highly intuitive wireless controller for people living with upper body disabilities with a residual or complete control of their neck and their shoulders. Tested with JACO, a six-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) assistive robotic arm with 3 flexible fingers on its end-effector, the system described in this article is made of low-cost commercial off-the-shelf components and allows a full emulation of JACO's standard controller, a 3 axis joystick with 7 user buttons. To do so, three nine-degree-of-freedom (9-DOF) inertial measurement units (IMUs) are connected to a microcontroller and help measuring the user's head and shoulders position, using a complementary filter approach. The results are then transmitted to a base-station via a 2.4-GHz low-power wireless transceiver and interpreted by the control algorithm running on a PC host. A dedicated software interface allows the user to quickly calibrate the controller, and translates the information into suitable commands for JACO. The proposed controller is thoroughly described, from the electronic design to implemented algorithms and user interfaces. Its performance and future improvements are discussed as well.

  13. Assessing the effectiveness of intuitive eating for weight loss - pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglin, Judith Camele

    2012-04-01

    The obesity epidemic is widely recognized as a major public health issue resulting in chronic diseases. Calorie restriction (CR) is frequently used for most weight loss programs. The intuitive eating (IE) approach uses an individual's response to internal cues of hunger, satiety, and appetite and replaces CR. The study was a randomized controlled trial with two groups that assessed the anthropometric measurements of obese adults using CR and IE to achieve weight loss. The participants were sedentary obese individuals with no history of chronic diseases. They engaged in physical activity three times per week for 30 minutes and recorded their daily food intake in a food diary. Instructions were given for the CR and IE at the start and midpoint of the study. The duration of the study was 6 weeks. Weight and waist circumference were measured and body mass index calculated. total weight loss was significantly (p=0.03) lower in the CR group than in the IE group. The CR group lost weight consistently throughout the study, whereas weight loss in the IE group was significantly less at the endpoint than at the midpoint. Calorie restriction is a superior approach to weight management than IE.

  14. Harnessing modern web application technology to create intuitive and efficient data visualization and sharing tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan eWood

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Neuroscientists increasingly need to work with big data in order to derive meaningful results in their field. Collecting, organizing and analyzing this data can be a major hurdle on the road to scientific discovery. This hurdle can be lowered using the same technologies that are currently revolutionizing the way that cultural and social media sites represent and share information with their users. Web application technologies and standards such as RESTful webservices, HTML5 and high-performance in-browser JavaScript engines are being utilized to vastly improve the way that the world accesses and shares information. The neuroscience community can also benefit tremendously from these technologies. We present here a web application that allows users to explore and request the complex datasets that need to be shared among the neuroimaging community. The COINS (Collaborative Informatics and Neuroimaging Suite Data Exchange uses web application technologies to facilitate data sharing in three phases: Exploration, Request/Communication, and Download. This paper will focus on the first phase, and how intuitive exploration of large and complex datasets is achieved using a framework that centers around asynchronous client-server communication (AJAX and also exposes a powerful API that can be utilized by other applications to explore available data. First opened to the neuroscience community in August 2012, the Data Exchange has already provided researchers with over 2500 GB of data.

  15. Stress potentiates decision biases: A stress induced deliberation-to-intuition (SIDI model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongjun Yu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Humans often make decisions in stressful situations, for example when the stakes are high and the potential consequences severe, or when the clock is ticking and the task demand is overwhelming. In response, a whole train of biological responses to stress has evolved to allow organisms to make a fight-or-flight response. When under stress, fast and effortless heuristics may dominate over slow and demanding deliberation in making decisions under uncertainty. Here, I review evidence from behavioral studies and neuroimaging research on decision making under stress and propose that stress elicits a switch from an analytic reasoning system to intuitive processes, and predict that this switch is associated with diminished activity in the prefrontal executive control regions and exaggerated activity in subcortical reactive emotion brain areas. Previous studies have shown that when stressed, individuals tend to make more habitual responses than goal-directed choices, be less likely to adjust their initial judgment, and rely more on gut feelings in social situations. It is possible that stress influences the arbitration between the emotion responses in subcortical regions and deliberative processes in the prefrontal cortex, so that final decisions are based on unexamined innate responses. Future research may further test this ‘stress induced deliberation-to-intuition’ (SIDI model and examine its underlying neural mechanisms.

  16. The one-electron oxidation of a dithiolate molecule: The importance of chemical intuition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bushnell, Eric A. C.; Burns, Thomas D.; Boyd, Russell J.

    2014-01-01

    A series of nine commonly used density functional methods were assessed to accurately predict the oxidation potential of the (C 2 H 2 S 2 −2 /C 2 H 2 S 2 •− ) redox couple. It was found that due to their greater tendency for charge delocalization the GGA functionals predict a structure where the radical electron is delocalized within the alkene backbone of C 2 H 2 S 2 •− , whereas the hybrid functionals and the reference QCISD/cc-pVTZ predict that the radical electron remains localized on the sulfurs. However, chemical intuition suggests that the results obtained with the GGA functionals should be correct. Indeed, with the use of the geometries obtained at the HCTH/6-311++G(3df,3pd) level of theory both the QCISD and hybrid DFT methods yield a molecule with a delocalized electron. Notably, this new molecule lies at least 53 kJ mol −1 lower in energy than the previously optimized one that had a localized radical. Using these new structures the calculated oxidation potential was found to be 2.71–2.97 V for the nine DFT functionals tested. The M06-L functional provided the best agreement with the QCISD/cc-pVTZ reference oxidation potential of 3.28 V

  17. From Intuitive Programming of Robotic Systems to Business Sustainability of Manufacturing SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Mocan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Economic growth and sustainable development are issues which are becoming more and more important for nowadays companies. Sustainable development strives for moderate and responsible use within the economic and production activity the limited resources of our planet. Eco-innovations, eco-efficiency and corporate social responsibility practices define much of the current industrial sustainability agenda. While important, they are insufficient in themselves to deliver the holistic changes necessary to achieve long-term social and environmental sustainability. This paper proposed a framework for designing multimodal human-robot interfaces and a demonstrator that facilitate a sustainable use of robotic systems with positive effects on SMEs business sustainability. The proposed approach is intended to bring important contributions to the development of human robot interaction in order to facilitate intuitive programming and to enable easily adapting to changes in robot tasks and applications without the need of using skilled personnel. Our research emphasize the idea that new technologies in product and process create and enable new business strategies; and we demonstrate that changing the paradigm in programming industrial robotic systems it is possible by a “business case for sustainability” to have a sustainable development of the business, in special in case of SMEs.

  18. SAGES TAVAC safety and effectiveness analysis: da Vinci ® Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Shawn; Oleynikov, Dmitry; Gould, Jon; Azagury, Dan; Sandler, Bryan; Hutter, Matthew; Ross, Sharona; Haas, Eric; Brody, Fred; Satava, Richard

    2015-10-01

    The da Vinci(®) Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) is a computer-assisted (robotic) surgical system designed to enable and enhance minimally invasive surgery. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has cleared computer-assisted surgical systems for use by trained physicians in an operating room environment for laparoscopic surgical procedures in general, cardiac, colorectal, gynecologic, head and neck, thoracic and urologic surgical procedures. There are substantial numbers of peer-reviewed papers regarding the da Vinci(®) Surgical System, and a thoughtful assessment of evidence framed by clinical opinion is warranted. The SAGES da Vinci(®) TAVAC sub-committee performed a literature review of the da Vinci(®) Surgical System regarding gastrointestinal surgery. Conclusions by the sub-committee were vetted by the SAGES TAVAC Committee and SAGES Executive Board. Following revisions, the document was evaluated by the TAVAC Committee and Executive Board again for final approval. Several conclusions were drawn based on expert opinion organized by safety, efficacy, and cost for robotic foregut, bariatric, hepatobiliary/pancreatic, colorectal surgery, and single-incision cholecystectomy. Gastrointestinal surgery with the da Vinci(®) Surgical System is safe and comparable, but not superior to standard laparoscopic approaches. Although clinically acceptable, its use may be costly for select gastrointestinal procedures. Current data are limited to the da Vinci(®) Surgical System; further analyses are needed.

  19. To punish or repair? Evolutionary psychology and lay intuitions about modern criminal justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Michael Bang; Sell, Aaron; Tooby, John; Cosmides, Leda

    2013-01-01

    We propose that intuitions about modern mass-level criminal justice emerge from evolved mechanisms designed to operate in ancestral small-scale societies. By hypothesis, individuals confronted with a crime compute two distinct psychological magnitudes: one that reflects the crime’s seriousness and another that reflects the criminal’s long-term value as an associate. These magnitudes are computed based on different sets of cues and are fed into motivational mechanisms regulating different aspects of sanctioning. The seriousness variable regulates how much to react (e.g., how severely we want to punish); the variable indexing the criminal’s association value regulates the more fundamental decision of how to react (i.e., whether we want to punish or repair). Using experimental designs embedded in surveys, we validate this theory across several types of crime and two countries. The evidence augments past research and suggests that the human mind contains dedicated psychological mechanisms for restoring social relationships following acts of exploitation. PMID:23412662

  20. Nondestructive and intuitive determination of circadian chlorophyll rhythms in soybean leaves using multispectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wen-Juan; Wang, Xia; Deng, Yong-Ren; Li, Jia-Hang; Chen, Wei; Chiang, John Y.; Yang, Jian-Bo; Zheng, Lei

    2015-01-01

    The circadian clock, synchronized by daily cyclic environmental cues, regulates diverse aspects of plant growth and development and increases plant fitness. Even though much is known regarding the molecular mechanism of circadian clock, it remains challenging to quantify the temporal variation of major photosynthesis products as well as their metabolic output in higher plants in a real-time, nondestructive and intuitive manner. In order to reveal the spatial-temporal scenarios of photosynthesis and yield formation regulated by circadian clock, multispectral imaging technique has been employed for nondestructive determination of circadian chlorophyll rhythms in soybean leaves. By utilizing partial least square regression analysis, the determination coefficients R2, 0.9483 for chlorophyll a and 0.8906 for chlorophyll b, were reached, respectively. The predicted chlorophyll contents extracted from multispectral data showed an approximately 24-h rhythm which could be entrained by external light conditions, consistent with the chlorophyll contents measured by chemical analyses. Visualization of chlorophyll map in each pixel offers an effective way to analyse spatial-temporal distribution of chlorophyll. Our results revealed the potentiality of multispectral imaging as a feasible nondestructive universal assay for examining clock function and robustness, as well as monitoring chlorophyll a and b and other biochemical components in plants. PMID:26059057

  1. Intuitive Tools for the Design and Analysis of Communication Payloads for Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culver, Michael R.; Soong, Christine; Warner, Joseph D.

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to make future communications satellite payload design more efficient and accessible, two tools were created with intuitive graphical user interfaces (GUIs). The first tool allows payload designers to graphically design their payload by using simple drag and drop of payload components onto a design area within the program. Information about each picked component is pulled from a database of common space-qualified communication components sold by commerical companies. Once a design is completed, various reports can be generated, such as the Master Equipment List. The second tool is a link budget calculator designed specifically for ease of use. Other features of this tool include being able to access a database of NASA ground based apertures for near Earth and Deep Space communication, the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) base apertures, and information about the solar system relevant to link budget calculations. The link budget tool allows for over 50 different combinations of user inputs, eliminating the need for multiple spreadsheets and the user errors associated with using them. Both of the aforementioned tools increase the productivity of space communication systems designers, and have the colloquial latitude to allow non-communication experts to design preliminary communication payloads.

  2. The one-electron oxidation of a dithiolate molecule: the importance of chemical intuition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnell, Eric A C; Burns, Thomas D; Boyd, Russell J

    2014-05-14

    A series of nine commonly used density functional methods were assessed to accurately predict the oxidation potential of the (C2H2S2(-2)/C2H2S2(•-)) redox couple. It was found that due to their greater tendency for charge delocalization the GGA functionals predict a structure where the radical electron is delocalized within the alkene backbone of C2H2S2(•-), whereas the hybrid functionals and the reference QCISD/cc-pVTZ predict that the radical electron remains localized on the sulfurs. However, chemical intuition suggests that the results obtained with the GGA functionals should be correct. Indeed, with the use of the geometries obtained at the HCTH/6-311++G(3df,3pd) level of theory both the QCISD and hybrid DFT methods yield a molecule with a delocalized electron. Notably, this new molecule lies at least 53 kJ mol(-1) lower in energy than the previously optimized one that had a localized radical. Using these new structures the calculated oxidation potential was found to be 2.71-2.97 V for the nine DFT functionals tested. The M06-L functional provided the best agreement with the QCISD/cc-pVTZ reference oxidation potential of 3.28 V.

  3. Testing Wallace's intuition: water type, reproductive isolation and divergence in an Amazonian fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Tiago H S; Borghezan, Elio A; Machado, Valeria N; Powell, Daniel L; Röpke, Cristhiana P; Oliveira, Claudio; Zuanon, Jansen; Farias, Izeni P

    2018-06-01

    Alfred Russel Wallace proposed classifying Amazon rivers based on their colour and clarity: white, black and clear water. Wallace also proposed that black waters could mediate diversification and yield distinct fish species. Here, we bring evidence of speciation mediated by water type in the sailfin tetra (Crenuchus spilurus), a fish whose range encompasses rivers of very distinct hydrochemical conditions. Distribution of the two main lineages concords with Wallace's water types: one restricted to the acidic and nutrient-poor waters of the Negro River (herein Rio Negro lineage) and a second widespread throughout the remaining of the species' distribution (herein Amazonas lineage). These lineages occur over a very broad geographical range, suggesting that despite occurring in regions separated by thousands of kilometres, individuals of the distinct lineages fail to occupy each other's habitats, hundreds of metres apart and not separated by physical barrier. Reproductive isolation was assessed in isolated pairs exposed to black-water conditions. All pairs with at least one individual of the lineage not native to black waters showed significantly lower spawning success, suggesting that the water type affected the fitness and contributed to reproductive isolation. Our results endorse Wallace's intuition and highlight the importance of ecological factors in shaping diversity of the Amazon fish fauna. © 2018 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2018 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  4. The one-electron oxidation of a dithiolate molecule: The importance of chemical intuition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bushnell, Eric A. C.; Burns, Thomas D.; Boyd, Russell J., E-mail: russell.boyd@dal.ca [Department of Chemistry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 (Canada)

    2014-05-14

    A series of nine commonly used density functional methods were assessed to accurately predict the oxidation potential of the (C{sub 2}H{sub 2}S{sub 2}{sup −2}/C{sub 2}H{sub 2}S{sub 2}{sup •−}) redox couple. It was found that due to their greater tendency for charge delocalization the GGA functionals predict a structure where the radical electron is delocalized within the alkene backbone of C{sub 2}H{sub 2}S{sub 2}{sup •−}, whereas the hybrid functionals and the reference QCISD/cc-pVTZ predict that the radical electron remains localized on the sulfurs. However, chemical intuition suggests that the results obtained with the GGA functionals should be correct. Indeed, with the use of the geometries obtained at the HCTH/6-311++G(3df,3pd) level of theory both the QCISD and hybrid DFT methods yield a molecule with a delocalized electron. Notably, this new molecule lies at least 53 kJ mol{sup −1} lower in energy than the previously optimized one that had a localized radical. Using these new structures the calculated oxidation potential was found to be 2.71–2.97 V for the nine DFT functionals tested. The M06-L functional provided the best agreement with the QCISD/cc-pVTZ reference oxidation potential of 3.28 V.

  5. PIA: An Intuitive Protein Inference Engine with a Web-Based User Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uszkoreit, Julian; Maerkens, Alexandra; Perez-Riverol, Yasset; Meyer, Helmut E; Marcus, Katrin; Stephan, Christian; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Eisenacher, Martin

    2015-07-02

    Protein inference connects the peptide spectrum matches (PSMs) obtained from database search engines back to proteins, which are typically at the heart of most proteomics studies. Different search engines yield different PSMs and thus different protein lists. Analysis of results from one or multiple search engines is often hampered by different data exchange formats and lack of convenient and intuitive user interfaces. We present PIA, a flexible software suite for combining PSMs from different search engine runs and turning these into consistent results. PIA can be integrated into proteomics data analysis workflows in several ways. A user-friendly graphical user interface can be run either locally or (e.g., for larger core facilities) from a central server. For automated data processing, stand-alone tools are available. PIA implements several established protein inference algorithms and can combine results from different search engines seamlessly. On several benchmark data sets, we show that PIA can identify a larger number of proteins at the same protein FDR when compared to that using inference based on a single search engine. PIA supports the majority of established search engines and data in the mzIdentML standard format. It is implemented in Java and freely available at https://github.com/mpc-bioinformatics/pia.

  6. Harnessing modern web application technology to create intuitive and efficient data visualization and sharing tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Dylan; King, Margaret; Landis, Drew; Courtney, William; Wang, Runtang; Kelly, Ross; Turner, Jessica A; Calhoun, Vince D

    2014-01-01

    Neuroscientists increasingly need to work with big data in order to derive meaningful results in their field. Collecting, organizing and analyzing this data can be a major hurdle on the road to scientific discovery. This hurdle can be lowered using the same technologies that are currently revolutionizing the way that cultural and social media sites represent and share information with their users. Web application technologies and standards such as RESTful webservices, HTML5 and high-performance in-browser JavaScript engines are being utilized to vastly improve the way that the world accesses and shares information. The neuroscience community can also benefit tremendously from these technologies. We present here a web application that allows users to explore and request the complex datasets that need to be shared among the neuroimaging community. The COINS (Collaborative Informatics and Neuroimaging Suite) Data Exchange uses web application technologies to facilitate data sharing in three phases: Exploration, Request/Communication, and Download. This paper will focus on the first phase, and how intuitive exploration of large and complex datasets is achieved using a framework that centers around asynchronous client-server communication (AJAX) and also exposes a powerful API that can be utilized by other applications to explore available data. First opened to the neuroscience community in August 2012, the Data Exchange has already provided researchers with over 2500 GB of data.

  7. Moral Foundations of Welfare Attitudes: The Role of Moral Intuition and Reasoning in Pursuing Social Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Findor Andrej

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article interconnects the research on welfare attitudes and welfare chauvinism with moral psychology in order to develop an interdisciplinary analytical approach designed for studying attitudes to welfare policies and potentially overcoming the divisions prevalent in many European democracies. It introduces Moral Foundations Theory (MFT - an empirical approach to analysing intuitions, reasoning, and emotions constituting moral judgment - and outlines its understanding of competing versions of fairness and distributive justice. The potential contributions of MFT are exemplified on a case study situated in contemporary Slovakia which deals with two conflicting conceptions of fairness, as equity and as equality, embodied in the diverging attitudes towards an amendment to the Act on the Assistance in Material Need (2013. The article argues that MFT and related research programmes are irreplaceable components in an interdisciplinary study of the plurality of welfare policy attitudes. It also highlights the transformative potential of MFT and related research programmes in devising interventions aimed at changing (political attitudes to welfare and reducing their polarisation.

  8. High resolution esophageal manometry--the switch from "intuitive" visual interpretation to Chicago classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, M; Balakumaran, T A; Palaniappan, S; Srinivasan, Vijaya; Batcha, M; Venkataraman, Jayanthi

    2014-03-01

    High resolution esophageal manometry (HREM) has been interpreted all along by visual interpretation of color plots until the recent introduction of Chicago classification which categorises HREM using objective measurements. It compares HREM diagnosis of esophageal motor disorders by visual interpretation and Chicago classification. Using software Trace 1.2v, 77 consecutive tracings diagnosed by visual interpretation were re-analyzed by Chicago classification and findings compared for concordance between the two systems of interpretation. Kappa agreement rate between the two observations was determined. There were 57 males (74 %) and cohort median age was 41 years (range: 14-83 years). Majority of the referrals were for gastroesophageal reflux disease, dysphagia and achalasia. By "intuitive" visual interpretation, the tracing were reported as normal in 45 (58.4 %), achalasia 14 (18.2 %), ineffective esophageal motility 3 (3.9 %), nutcracker esophagus 11 (14.3 %) and nonspecific motility changes 4 (5.2 %). By Chicago classification, there was 100 % agreement (Kappa 1) for achalasia (type 1: 9; type 2: 5) and ineffective esophageal motility ("failed peristalsis" on visual interpretation). Normal esophageal motility, nutcracker esophagus and nonspecific motility disorder on visual interpretation were reclassified as rapid contraction and esophagogastric junction (EGJ) outflow obstruction by Chicago classification. Chicago classification identified distinct clinical phenotypes including EGJ outflow obstruction not identified by visual interpretation. A significant number of unclassified HREM by visual interpretation were also classified by it.

  9. TeMoto: Intuitive Multi-Range Telerobotic System with Natural Gestural and Verbal Instruction Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Valner

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Teleoperated mobile robots, equipped with object manipulation capabilities, provide safe means for executing dangerous tasks in hazardous environments without putting humans at risk. However, mainly due to a communication delay, complex operator interfaces and insufficient Situational Awareness (SA, the task productivity of telerobots remains inferior to human workers. This paper addresses the shortcomings of telerobots by proposing a combined approach of (i a scalable and intuitive operator interface with gestural and verbal input, (ii improved Situational Awareness (SA through sensor fusion according to documented best practices, (iii integrated virtual fixtures for task simplification and minimizing the operator’s cognitive burden and (iv integrated semiautonomous behaviors that further reduce cognitive burden and negate the impact of communication delays, execution latency and/or failures. The proposed teleoperation system, TeMoto, is implemented using ROS (Robot Operating System to ensure hardware agnosticism, extensibility and community access. The operator’s command interface consists of a Leap Motion Controller for hand tracking, Griffin PowerMate USB as turn knob for scaling and a microphone for speech input. TeMoto is evaluated on multiple robots including two mobile manipulator platforms. In addition to standard, task-specific evaluation techniques (completion time, user studies, number of steps, etc.—which are platform and task dependent and thus difficult to scale—this paper presents additional metrics for evaluating the user interface including task-independent criteria for measuring generalized (i task completion efficiency and (ii operator context switching.

  10. Intuition, subjectivity, and Le bricoleur: cancer patients' accounts of negotiating a plurality of therapeutic options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Alex

    2009-08-01

    Cancer patients are now combining complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) with biomedical cancer treatments, reflecting an increasingly pluralistic health care environment. However, there has been little research done on the ways in which cancer patients juggle multiplicity in claims to expertise, models of disease, and therapeutic practice. Drawing on the accounts of cancer patients who use CAM, in this article I develop a conceptualization of therapeutic decision making, utilizing the notion of bricolage as a key point of departure. The patient accounts illustrate the "piecing together" (or bricolage) of therapeutic trajectories, drawing on intuitive, embodied knowledge, as well as formalized "objective" scientific expertise. Le bricoleur, as characterized here, actively mediates, rather than accepts or rejects CAM or biomedicine, and utilizes a combination of scientific expertise, embodied physicality, and social knowledge to make decisions and assess therapeutic effectiveness. Although these "border crossings" are potentially subversive of established biomedical expertise, the analysis also illustrates the structural constraints (and penalties) associated with bricolage, and furthermore, the interplay of a repositioning of responsibility with neoliberal forms of self-governance.

  11. Virtual haptic system for intuitive planning of bone fixation plate placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kup-Sze Choi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Placement of pre-contoured fixation plate is a common treatment for bone fracture. Fitting of fixation plates on fractured bone can be preoperatively planned and evaluated in 3D virtual environment using virtual reality technology. However, conventional systems usually employ 2D mouse and virtual trackball as the user interface, which makes the process inconvenient and inefficient. In the paper, a preoperative planning system equipped with 3D haptic user interface is proposed to allow users to manipulate the virtual fixation plate intuitively to determine the optimal position for placement on distal medial tibia. The system provides interactive feedback forces and visual guidance based on the geometric requirements. Creation of 3D models from medical imaging data, collision detection, dynamics simulation and haptic rendering are discussed. The system was evaluated by 22 subjects. Results show that the time to achieve optimal placement using the proposed system was shorter than that by using 2D mouse and virtual trackball, and the satisfaction rating was also higher. The system shows potential to facilitate the process of fitting fixation plates on fractured bones as well as interactive fixation plate design.

  12. Brief Report. Educated Adults Are Still Affected by Intuitions about the Effect of Arithmetical Operations: Evidence from a Reaction-Time Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamvakoussi, Xenia; Van Dooren, Wim; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2013-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that intuitions about the effect of operations, e.g., "addition makes bigger" and "division makes smaller", are still present in educated adults, even after years of instruction. To establish the intuitive character, we applied a reaction time methodology, grounded in dual process theories of reasoning. Educated…

  13. The Lexicographic Treatment of Days in Sepedi, or When Mother-Tongue Intuition Fails*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles-Maurice de Schryver

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: Since May 2001 the Sepedi National Lexicography Unit officially started the actual dictionary-writing of a pioneering Explanatory Sepedi Dictionary (PyaSsaL. The compilation is undertaken within the theoretical framework of Simultaneous Feedback, is fully corpus-based, and follows an onomasiological approach to the Sepedi lexicon. In this article the various compilation aspects are examined and illustrated by means of one onomasiological sub-field, namely the days of the week. It is shown how a balanced combination of mother-tongue intuition, data from existing (bilingual dictionaries, fieldwork results, corpus queries, and grammarians' conjectures can and should lead to a sound lexicographic treatment.

    Keywords: SEPEDI NATIONAL LEXICOGRAPHY UNIT (NLU, SIMULTANEOUS FEEDBACK (SF, PRETORIA SEPEDI CORPUS (PSC, ONOMASIOLOGICAL APPROACH, DAYS OF THE WEEK, MOTHER-TONGUE INTUITION, FIELDWORK, QUESTIONNAIRES, INTERVIEWS, GRAMMARIANS' CONJECTURES, NOUN CLASSES, REPETITIVE INSERTED TEXTS

    Kakaretšo: Tshekatsheko ya matšatši polelong ya Sesotho sa Leboa go ya kadinyakwa tša go ngwala Pukuntšu, goba ge dikakanyo tša mmoledi wapolelo ye di sa atlege. Go thoma ka Mei 2001 Yuniti ya Bosetšhaba ya Pukuntšu ya Sesotho saLeboa e thomile semmušo go ngwala Pukuntšutlhaloši ya Sesotho sa Leboa (PyaSsaL. Thulaganyoya yona e laolwa ke teori ya Simultaneous Feedback, e theilwe godimo ga sešegontšu (khophase,gape e latela tsela ya go hlaloša manšu a Sesotho sa Leboa go ya ka direrwa tše di fapanego. Motaodišwaneng ye go tsinkelwa mekgwa ya go fapanafapana ya thulaganyo gape mekgwa yeo ešupetšwa ka karolwana e tee ya direrwa tša PyaSsaL, e lego matšatši a beke. Go bontšhwa ka faotekanelo ya kopanyo ya dikakanyo tša mmoledi wa Sesotho sa Leboa, tshedimošo go tšwa go dipukuntšu(tša malemepedi tšeo di šetšego di le gona, dipoelo tša nyakišišontle, diphatišišo ka garega sešegontšu, le dikakanyo tša borapopapolelo

  14. Size acceptance and intuitive eating improve health for obese, female chronic dieters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Linda; Stern, Judith S; Van Loan, Marta D; Keim, Nancy L

    2005-06-01

    Examine a model that encourages health at every size as opposed to weight loss. The health at every size concept supports homeostatic regulation and eating intuitively (ie, in response to internal cues of hunger, satiety, and appetite). Six-month, randomized clinical trial; 2-year follow-up. White, obese, female chronic dieters, aged 30 to 45 years (N=78). Free-living, general community. Six months of weekly group intervention (health at every size program or diet program), followed by 6 months of monthly aftercare group support. Anthropometry (weight, body mass index), metabolic fitness (blood pressure, blood lipids), energy expenditure, eating behavior (restraint, eating disorder pathology), and psychology (self-esteem, depression, body image). Attrition, attendance, and participant evaluations of treatment helpfulness were also monitored. Analysis of variance. Cognitive restraint decreased in the health at every size group and increased in the diet group, indicating that both groups implemented their programs. Attrition (6 months) was high in the diet group (41%), compared with 8% in the health at every size group. Fifty percent of both groups returned for 2-year evaluation. Health at every size group members maintained weight, improved in all outcome variables, and sustained improvements. Diet group participants lost weight and showed initial improvement in many variables at 1 year; weight was regained and little improvement was sustained. The health at every size approach enabled participants to maintain long-term behavior change; the diet approach did not. Encouraging size acceptance, reduction in dieting behavior, and heightened awareness and response to body signals resulted in improved health risk indicators for obese women.

  15. The intuitive use of laryngeal airway tools by first year medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fries Michael

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Providing a secured airway is of paramount importance in cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Although intubating the trachea is yet seen as gold standard, this technique is still reserved to experienced healthcare professionals. Compared to bag-valve facemask ventilation, however, the insertion of a laryngeal mask airway offers the opportunity to ventilate the patient effectively and can also be placed easily by lay responders. Obviously, it might be inserted without detailed background knowledge. The purpose of the study was to investigate the intuitive use of airway devices by first-year medical students as well as the effect of a simple, but well-directed training programme. Retention of skills was re-evaluated six months thereafter. Methods The insertion of a LMA-Classic and a LMA-Fastrach performed by inexperienced medical students was compared in an airway model. The improvement on their performance after a training programme of overall two hours was examined afterwards. Results Prior to any instruction, mean time to correct placement was 55.5 ± 29.6 s for the LMA-Classic and 38.1 ± 24.9 s for the LMA-Fastrach. Following training, time to correct placement decreased significantly with 22.9 ± 13.5 s for the LMA-Classic and 22.9 ± 19.0 s for the LMA-Fastrach, respectively (p Conclusion Untrained laypersons are able to use different airway devices in a manikin and may therefore provide a secured airway even without having any detailed background knowledge about the tool. Minimal theoretical instruction and practical skill training can improve their performance significantly. However, refreshment of knowledge seems justified after six months.

  16. 'Trying to pin down jelly' - exploring intuitive processes in quality assessment for meta-ethnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toye, Francine; Seers, Kate; Allcock, Nick; Briggs, Michelle; Carr, Eloise; Andrews, JoyAnn; Barker, Karen

    2013-03-21

    Studies that systematically search for and synthesise qualitative research are becoming more evident in health care, and they can make an important contribution to patient care. However, there is still no agreement as to whether, or how we should appraise studies for inclusion. We aimed to explore the intuitive processes that determined the 'quality' of qualitative research for inclusion in qualitative research syntheses. We were particularly interested to explore the way that knowledge was constructed. We used qualitative methods to explore the process of quality appraisal within a team of seven qualitative researchers funded to undertake a meta-ethnography of chronic non-malignant musculoskeletal pain. Team discussions took place monthly between October 2010 and June 2012 and were recorded and transcribed. Data was coded and organised using constant comparative method. The development of our conceptual analysis was both iterative and collaborative. The strength of this team approach to quality came from open and honest discussion, where team members felt free to agree, disagree, or change their position within the safety of the group. We suggest two core facets of quality for inclusion in meta-ethnography - (1) Conceptual clarity; how clearly has the author articulated a concept that facilitates theoretical insight. (2) Interpretive rigour; fundamentally, can the interpretation 'be trusted?' Our findings showed that three important categories help the reader to judge interpretive rigour: (ii) What is the context of the interpretation? (ii) How inductive is the interpretation? (iii) Has the researcher challenged their interpretation? We highlight that methods alone do not determine the quality of research for inclusion into a meta-ethnography. The strength of a concept and its capacity to facilitate theoretical insight is integral to meta-ethnography, and arguably to the quality of research. However, we suggest that to be judged 'good enough' there also needs to

  17. Can We Achieve Intuitive Prosthetic Elbow Control Based on Healthy Upper Limb Motor Strategies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manelle Merad

    2018-02-01

    ' coordination models can lead to an intuitive and natural prosthetic control.

  18. The intuitive use of laryngeal airway tools by first year medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickenbach, Johannes; Schälte, Gereon; Beckers, Stefan; Fries, Michael; Derwall, Matthias; Rossaint, Rolf

    2009-09-22

    Providing a secured airway is of paramount importance in cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Although intubating the trachea is yet seen as gold standard, this technique is still reserved to experienced healthcare professionals. Compared to bag-valve facemask ventilation, however, the insertion of a laryngeal mask airway offers the opportunity to ventilate the patient effectively and can also be placed easily by lay responders. Obviously, it might be inserted without detailed background knowledge.The purpose of the study was to investigate the intuitive use of airway devices by first-year medical students as well as the effect of a simple, but well-directed training programme. Retention of skills was re-evaluated six months thereafter. The insertion of a LMA-Classic and a LMA-Fastrach performed by inexperienced medical students was compared in an airway model. The improvement on their performance after a training programme of overall two hours was examined afterwards. Prior to any instruction, mean time to correct placement was 55.5 +/- 29.6 s for the LMA-Classic and 38.1 +/- 24.9 s for the LMA-Fastrach. Following training, time to correct placement decreased significantly with 22.9 +/- 13.5 s for the LMA-Classic and 22.9 +/- 19.0 s for the LMA-Fastrach, respectively (p < 0.05). After six months, the results are comparable prior (55.6 +/- 29.9 vs 43.1 +/- 34.7 s) and after a further training period (23.5 +/- 13.2 vs 26.6 +/- 21.6, p < 0.05). Untrained laypersons are able to use different airway devices in a manikin and may therefore provide a secured airway even without having any detailed background knowledge about the tool. Minimal theoretical instruction and practical skill training can improve their performance significantly. However, refreshment of knowledge seems justified after six months.

  19. An Intuitive Calculus Book for Engineers Um Livro de Cálculo Intuitivo para Engenheiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Alexandre de Miranda

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of studying the history of calculus teaching and, particularly, the consequences of Calculus Made Easy (1910 in the mathematics education context, this work intends to make an historical analysis to clarify the connections between Silvanus Phillips Thompson (its author and education in the early Twentieth Century, mainly mathematics education. Thompson was concerned about Physics and Radiology,however, at the dawn of the new century, his interests in technical education had also burgeoned. One of his goals was to demystify Calculus, tackling the subject intuitively – Calculus Made Easy. The book did not draw much respect from mathematicians and was acridly criticized. Keywords: Mathematics Education, History of Mathematics Education, Silvanus Phillips Thompson, Calculus Made Easy.Com o intuito de estudar a história do ensino de Cálculo e, mais especificamente, os desdobramentos do livro Calculus Made Easy (1910 no contexto da educação matemática, este trabalho procura fazer uma análise histórica que elucide as relações entre Silvanus Phillips Thompson (autor do livro e a educação do início do século XX, particularmente a educação matemática. Thompson legou muito às áreas da física e da radiologia, porém, com a chegada do novo século, passou a se dedicar intensamente à educação técnica de seus compatriotas ingleses. Um de seus objetivos era desmistificar alguns conceitos do Cálculo, tratando o assunto de maneira intuitiva. Por esse motivo, o livro foi criticado por alguns matemáticos. Palavras-chave: Educação Matemática. História da Educação Matemática. Silvanus Phillips Thompson. Calculus Made Easy.

  20. Biomechanical Reconstruction Using the Tacit Learning System: Intuitive Control of Prosthetic Hand Rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Shintaro; Shimoda, Shingo; Alnajjar, Fady S K; Iwatsuki, Katsuyuki; Hoshiyama, Minoru; Tanaka, Hirotaka; Hirata, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Background: For mechanically reconstructing human biomechanical function, intuitive proportional control, and robustness to unexpected situations are required. Particularly, creating a functional hand prosthesis is a typical challenge in the reconstruction of lost biomechanical function. Nevertheless, currently available control algorithms are in the development phase. The most advanced algorithms for controlling multifunctional prosthesis are machine learning and pattern recognition of myoelectric signals. Despite the increase in computational speed, these methods cannot avoid the requirement of user consciousness and classified separation errors. "Tacit Learning System" is a simple but novel adaptive control strategy that can self-adapt its posture to environment changes. We introduced the strategy in the prosthesis rotation control to achieve compensatory reduction, as well as evaluated the system and its effects on the user. Methods: We conducted a non-randomized study involving eight prosthesis users to perform a bar relocation task with/without Tacit Learning System support. Hand piece and body motions were recorded continuously with goniometers, videos, and a motion-capture system. Findings: Reduction in the participants' upper extremity rotatory compensation motion was monitored during the relocation task in all participants. The estimated profile of total body energy consumption improved in five out of six participants. Interpretation: Our system rapidly accomplished nearly natural motion without unexpected errors. The Tacit Learning System not only adapts human motions but also enhances the human ability to adapt to the system quickly, while the system amplifies compensation generated by the residual limb. The concept can be extended to various situations for reconstructing lost functions that can be compensated.

  1. Minding the gap between logic and intuition: an interpretative approach to ethical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirklin, D

    2007-07-01

    In an attempt to be rational and objective, and, possibly, to avoid the charge of moral relativism, ethicists seek to categorise and characterise ethical dilemmas. This approach is intended to minimise the effect of the confusing individuality of the context within which ethically challenging problems exist. Despite and I argue partly as a result of this attempt to be rational and objective, even when the logic of the argument is accepted--for example, by healthcare professionals--those same professionals might well respond by stating that the conclusions are unacceptable to them. In this paper, I argue that an interpretative approach to ethical analysis, involving an examination of the ways in which ethical arguments are constructed and shared, can help ethicists to understand the origins of this gap between logic and intuition. I suggest that an argument will be persuasive either if the values underpinning the proposed argument accord with the reader's values and worldview, or if the argument succeeds in persuading the reader to alter these. A failure either to appreciate or to acknowledge those things that give meaning to the lives of all the interested parties will make this objective far harder, if not impossible, to achieve. If, as a consequence, the narratives ethicists use to make their arguments seem to be about people living in different circumstances, and faced with different choices and challenges, from those the readers or listeners consider important or have to face in their own lives, then the argument is unlikely to seem either relevant or applicable to those people. The conclusion offered by the ethicist will be, for that individual, counterintuitive. Abortion, euthanasia and cadaveric organ donation are used as examples to support my argument.

  2. Make It Intuitive: An Evaluation Practice Emergent From The Plans And Scripted Behavior Of The Computer-community Of Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pat Lehane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The catch phrase today for system designers is to “make it intuitive,” which begs the question, what is intuitive? The action research discussed in this article was the final stage of the application of grounded theory to user data that provided survey categories (criteria for system acceptance. A theoretical rationale from the discipline of human–computer interaction was proposed to provide a consistent and repeatable interpretation of the users’ responses to the survey and directly align the responses to software design considerations. To put this work into context, I discuss in this article a case study on the use of the survey to monitor the user experience during the upgrade of an enterprise system and the subsequent implications and outcomes of applying the theoretical paradigm in practice. As such it may provide food for thought on survey design for elicitation of user requirements for information and communication technology systems.

  3. Is experiential-intuitive cognitive style more inclined to err on conjunction fallacy than analytical-rational cognitive style?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yong

    2015-01-01

    In terms of prediction by Epstein's integrative theory of personality, cognitive-experiential self-theory (CEST), those people with experiential-intuitive cognitive style are more inclined to induce errors than the other people with analytical-rational cognitive style in the conjunction fallacy (two events that can occur together are seen as more likely than at least one of the two events). We tested this prediction in a revised Linda problem. The results revealed that rational and experiential cognitive styles do not statistically influence the propensity for committing the conjunction fallacy, which is contrary to the CEST's predictions. Based on the assumption that the rational vs. experiential processing is a personality trait with comparatively stabile specialities, these findings preliminarily indicate that those people who are characterized by "rational thinking" are not more inclined to use Bayes' deduction than the other people who are labeled by "intuitive thinking" or by "poor thinking."

  4. Intuition: A Needed Component of Leadership for Decision-making in Today’s Technology Driven Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-15

    technology‘s influence. She states, ―We treat technology as a family member…‖. Email replaced the Post Office with instant communication worldwide. We can...how or why the conclusion was reached in a rational sense. As Rowan states, ―Not being able to articulate a hazy, indistinct, subliminal impression...decisions and act independently, Kennan was not able to communicate his message and idea to senior leadership for years after his intuition led him

  5. Intuitive Music and Graphic Notation:Two Musical Training Disciplines within Music Therapy Education and their theoretical Backgrounds

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    1999-01-01

    Describes subjects existing at Aalborg University since the middle eighties. "Intuitive Music" trains free improvisation through exercises including group-dynamic exercises, awareness exercises and parameter exercises. Students also create open compositions. "Graphic notation"concerns aural scores. Students' works are quoted. The writer discusses the theoretical context and advocates for giving more attention to music as the medium in which music therapy takes place, referring to language the...

  6. Affective and rational consumer choice modes: The role of intuition, analytical decision-making, and attitudes to money

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Patric; Engelberg, Elisabeth

    2006-01-01

    This paper was motivated by a paucity of research addressing how consumer decision-making is related to beliefs about money and different modes of reasoning. To investigate this issue, data were collected from 142 participants, who filled out questionnaires involving scales aimed to measure affective and rational purchase approaches, intuitive and analytical decision-making styles, as well as money attitudes. One finding was that consumers interchangeably rely on affective and rational approa...

  7. Is experiential-intuitive cognitive style more inclined to err on conjunction fallacy than analytical-rational cognitive style?

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Yong

    2015-01-01

    In terms of prediction by Epstein’s integrative theory of personality, cognitive-experiential self-theory (CEST), those people with experiential-intuitive cognitive style are more inclined to induce errors than the other people with analytical-rational cognitive style in the conjunction fallacy (two events that can occur together are seen as more likely than at least one of the two events). We tested this prediction in a revised Linda problem. The results revealed that rational and experienti...

  8. Selection of environmental sustainable fiber materials for wind turbine blades - a contra intuitive process?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkved, M.; Corona, A. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Management Engineering, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Markussen, C.M.; Madsen, Bo [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Wind Energy, Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2013-09-01

    Over the recent decades biomaterials have been marketed successfully supported by the common perception that biomaterials and environmental sustainability de facto represents two sides of the same coin. The development of sustainable composite materials such as blades for small-scale wind turbines have thus partially been focused on the substitution of conventional fiber materials with bio-fibers. The major question is if this material substitution actually, is environmental sustainable. In order to assess a wide pallet of environmental impacts and taking into account positive and negative environmental trade-offs over the entire life-span of composite materials, life cycle assessment (LCA) can be applied. In the present case study, four different types of fibers (carbon, glass, flax and carbon/flax mixture) are compared in terms of environmental sustainability and cost. Applying one of the most recent life cycle impact assessment methods, it is demonstrated that the environmental sustainability of the mixed carbon/flax fiber based composite material is better than that of the flax fibers alone. This observation may be contra-intuitive, but is mainly caused by the fact that the bio-material resin demand is by far exceeding the resin demand of the conventional fibers, and since the environmental burden of the resin is comparable to that of the fibers, resin demand is in terms of environmental sustainability important. On the other hand is the energy demand and associated environmental impacts in relation to the production of the carbon and glass fibers considerable compared to the impacts resulting from resin production. The ideal fiber solution, in terms of environmental sustainability, is hence the fiber composition having the lowest resin demand and lowest overall energy demand. The optimum environmental solution hence turns out to be a 70:30 flax:carbon mix, thereby minimizing the use of carbon fibers and resin. On top of the environmental sustainability

  9. Intuitive ultrasonography for autonomous medical care in limited-resource environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulchavsky, Scott A.; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Garcia, Kathleen M.; Melton, Shannon L.; Ebert, Douglas; Hamilton, Douglas R.

    2011-05-01

    Management of health problems in limited resource environments, including spaceflight, faces challenges in both available equipment and personnel. The medical support for spaceflight outside Low Earth Orbit is still being defined; ultrasound (US) imaging is a candidate since trials on the International Space Station (ISS) prove that this highly informative modality performs very well in spaceflight. Considering existing estimates, authors find that US could be useful in most potential medical problems, as a powerful factor to mitigate risks and protect mission. Using outcome-oriented approach, an intuitive and adaptive US image catalog is being developed that can couple with just-in-time training methods already in use, to allow non-expert crew to autonomously acquire and interpret US data for research or diagnosis. The first objective of this work is to summarize the experience in providing imaging expertise from a central location in real time, enabling data collection by a minimally trained operator onsite. In previous investigations, just-in-time training was combined with real-time expert guidance to allow non-physician astronauts to perform over 80 h of complex US examinations on ISS, including abdominal, cardiovascular, ocular, musculoskeletal, dental/sinus, and thoracic exams. The analysis of these events shows that non-physician crew-members, after minimal training, can perform complex, quality US examinations. These training and guidance methods were also adapted for terrestrial use in professional sporting venues, the Olympic Games, and for austere locations including Mt. Everest. The second objective is to introduce a new imaging support system under development that is based on a digital catalog of existing sample images, complete with image recognition and acquisition logic and technique, and interactive multimedia reference tools, to guide and support autonomous acquisition, and possibly interpretation, of images without real-time link with a human

  10. Intuitive Mathematical Knowledge as an Essential Aspect of Contemporary Adult Learning: A case of women street vendors in the city of Gaborone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Nthogo Lekoko

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The findings of a phenomenological interview study with women street vendors showed a strong link between participants’ perceptions of everyday use of mathematical literacy and the speculations that mathematical use arose spontaneously in response to a practical need. The concept of intuitive mathematics as used indicates that mathematical thinking is an indispensable element of everyday conversation. Although the study finds that intuition and spontaneity are essential principles of lifelong learning, it concludes with recommendations for an empowerment curriculum that interweaves participants’ experiences and intuition with formal/academic mathematical literacy and psychosocial skills necessary for success in a highly competitive business world.

  11. Intuitive Mathematical Knowledge as an Essential Aspect of Contemporary Adult Learning: A case of women street vendors in the city of Gaborone

    OpenAIRE

    Nthogo Lekoko, Rebecca; Getrude Garegae, Kgomotso

    2006-01-01

    The findings of a phenomenological interview study with women street vendors showed a strong link between participants’ perceptions of everyday use of mathematical literacy and the speculations that mathematical use arose spontaneously in response to a practical need. The concept of intuitive mathematics as used indicates that mathematical thinking is an indispensable element of everyday conversation. Although the study finds that intuition and spontaneity are essential principles of lifelong...

  12. Examining women's perceptions of their mother's and romantic partner's interpersonal styles for a better understanding of their eating regulation and intuitive eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonneau, Noémie; Carbonneau, Elise; Cantin, Mélynda; Gagnon-Girouard, Marie-Pierre

    2015-09-01

    Intuitive eating is a positive approach to weight and eating management characterized by a strong reliance on internal physiological hunger and satiety cues rather than emotional and external cues (e.g., Tylka, 2006). Using a Self-Determination Theory framework (Deci & Ryan, 1985), the main purpose of this research was to examine the role played by both the mother and the romantic partner in predicting women's intuitive eating. Participants were 272 women (mean age: 29.9 years) currently involved in a heterosexual romantic relationship. Mothers and romantic partners were both found to have a role to play in predicting women's intuitive eating via their influence on women's motivation for regulating eating behaviors. Specifically, both the mother's and partner's controlling styles were found to predict women's controlled eating regulation, which was negatively related to their intuitive eating. In addition, autonomy support from the partner (but not from the mother) was found to positively predict intuitive eating, and this relationship was mediated by women's more autonomous regulation toward eating. These results were uncovered while controlling for women's body mass index, which is likely to affect women's eating attitudes and behaviors. Overall, these results attest to the importance of considering women's social environment (i.e., mother and romantic partner) for a better understanding of their eating regulation and ability to eat intuitively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Rigid dietary control, flexible dietary control, and intuitive eating: Evidence for their differential relationship to disordered eating and body image concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linardon, Jake; Mitchell, Sarah

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to replicate and extend from Tylka, Calogero, and Daníelsdóttir (2015) findings by examining the relationship between rigid control, flexible control, and intuitive eating on various indices of disordered eating (i.e., binge eating, disinhibition) and body image concerns (i.e., shape and weight over-evaluation, body checking, and weight-related exercise motivations). This study also examined whether the relationship between intuitive eating and outcomes was mediated by dichotomous thinking and body appreciation. Analysing data from a sample of 372 men and women recruited through the community, this study found that, in contrast to rigid dietary control, intuitive eating uniquely and consistently predicted lower levels of disordered eating and body image concerns. This intuitive eating-disordered eating relationship was mediated by low levels of dichotomous thinking and the intuitive eating-body image relationship was mediated by high levels of body appreciation. Flexible control predicted higher levels of body image concerns and lower levels of disordered eating only when rigid control was accounted for. Findings suggest that until the adaptive properties of flexible control are further elucidated, it may be beneficial to promote intuitive eating within public health approaches to eating disorder prevention. In addition to this, particular emphasis should also be made toward promoting body acceptance and eradicating a dichotomous thinking style around food and eating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Answer first: Applying the heuristic-analytic theory of reasoning to examine student intuitive thinking in the context of physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mila Kryjevskaia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We have applied the heuristic-analytic theory of reasoning to interpret inconsistencies in student reasoning approaches to physics problems. This study was motivated by an emerging body of evidence that suggests that student conceptual and reasoning competence demonstrated on one task often fails to be exhibited on another. Indeed, even after instruction specifically designed to address student conceptual and reasoning difficulties identified by rigorous research, many undergraduate physics students fail to build reasoning chains from fundamental principles even though they possess the required knowledge and skills to do so. Instead, they often rely on a variety of intuitive reasoning strategies. In this study, we developed and employed a methodology that allowed for the disentanglement of student conceptual understanding and reasoning approaches through the use of sequences of related questions. We have shown that the heuristic-analytic theory of reasoning can be used to account for, in a mechanistic fashion, the observed inconsistencies in student responses. In particular, we found that students tended to apply their correct ideas in a selective manner that supported a specific and likely anticipated conclusion while neglecting to employ the same ideas to refute an erroneous intuitive conclusion. The observed reasoning patterns were consistent with the heuristic-analytic theory, according to which reasoners develop a “first-impression” mental model and then construct an argument in support of the answer suggested by this model. We discuss implications for instruction and argue that efforts to improve student metacognition, which serves to regulate the interaction between intuitive and analytical reasoning, is likely to lead to improved student reasoning.

  15. Cross-cultural validity of the Intuitive Eating Scale-2. Psychometric evaluation in a sample of the general French population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Géraldine M; Méjean, Caroline; Bellisle, France; Andreeva, Valentina A; Sautron, Valérie; Hercberg, Serge; Péneau, Sandrine

    2015-01-01

    Intuitive eating is an adaptive dietary behavior that emphasizes eating in response to physiological hunger and satiety cues. The Intuitive Eating Scale-2 (IES-2) measures such attitudes and behaviors. The aim of the present study was to adapt the IES-2 to the French context and to test its psychometric properties in 335 women and 297 men participating in the NutriNet-Santé study. We evaluated the construct validity of the IES-2 by testing hypotheses with regard to its factor structure, relationships with scores of the revised 21-item Three Factor Eating Questionnaire and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale, and differences between "a priori" relevant subgroups. First, the exploratory factor analysis revealed three main dimensions: Eating for Physical Rather than Emotional Reasons, Reliance on Hunger and Satiety Cues, and Unconditional Permission to Eat. Second-order confirmatory factor analysis upheld the 3-factor solution influenced by a broader intuitive eating dimension. IES-2 total score was negatively related to cognitive restraint (r = -0.31, P < 0.0001), emotional eating (r = -0.58, P < 0.0001), uncontrolled eating (r = -0.40, P < 0.0001), and depressive symptoms (r = -0.20, P < 0.0001). IES-2 subscales showed similar correlations. Women had lower scores than did men for the IES-2 total scale (3.3 in women vs. 3.5 in men, P < 0.0001), Eating for Physical Reasons, and Unconditional Permission to Eat subscales. Current or former dieters had lower scores on the IES-2 total scale and on all subscales than did those who had never dieted (all P < 0.01). Finally, results showed satisfactory reliability for the IES-2 total scores (internal consistency = 0.85 and test-retest reliability = 0.79 over a mean 8-week period) and for its subscales. Thus, the French IES-2 can be considered a useful instrument for assessing adult intuitive eating behaviors in empirical and epidemiological studies in the

  16. Protocol of Taste and See: A Feasibility Study of a Church-Based, Healthy, Intuitive Eating Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Lycett

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Obesity treatment remains a high global priority. Evidence suggests holistic approaches, which include a religious element, are promising. Most research is from the USA, but recent evidence suggests a need within the UK population. The aim of this study is to explore the feasibility of running and evaluating a Christian-based, healthy, intuitive-eating programme, in a UK church. This is the protocol of a mixed-methods single-group feasibility study of a ten-week programme. The programme focuses on breaking the “diet and weight regain” cycle using principles from intuitive eating uniquely combined with biblical principles of love, freedom, responsibility, forgiveness, and spiritual need. We will recruit at least ten adult participants who are obese, overweight, or of a healthy weight with problematic eating behaviours. Participants can be from any faith or none. Robust measures of physical, psychological and spiritual outcomes will be used. Results are not yet available. Findings will be used to design a cluster-randomised controlled trial to test efficacy through many churches. If weight reduces by a small amount, there will be substantial benefits to public health. With a strong association between obesity and mental-ill health, a holistic intervention is particularly important. Using churches addresses religious and spiritual health, and uses existing social structures and a voluntary workforce that are sustainable and cost-effective.

  17. Are ‘counter-intuitive’ deontological judgments really counter-intuitive? An empirical reply to Kahane et al. (2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Tommaso; Greene, Joshua D.

    2014-01-01

    A substantial body of evidence indicates that utilitarian judgments (favoring the greater good) made in response to difficult moral dilemmas are preferentially supported by controlled, reflective processes, whereas deontological judgments (favoring rights/duties) in such cases are preferentially supported by automatic, intuitive processes. A recent neuroimaging study by Kahane et al. challenges this claim, using a new set of moral dilemmas that allegedly reverse the previously observed association. We report on a study in which we both induced and measured reflective responding to one of Greene et al.’s original dilemmas and one of Kahane et al.’s new dilemmas. For the original dilemma, induced reflection led to more utilitarian responding, replicating previous findings using the same methods. There was no overall effect of induced reflection for the new dilemma. However, for both dilemmas, the degree to which an individual engaged in prior reflection predicted the subsequent degree of utilitarian responding, with more reflective subjects providing more utilitarian judgments. These results cast doubt on Kahane et al.’s conclusions and buttress the original claim linking controlled, reflective processes to utilitarian judgment and automatic, intuitive processes to deontological judgment. Importantly, these results also speak to the generality of the underlying theory, indicating that what holds for cases involving utilitarian physical harms also holds for cases involving utilitarian lies. PMID:23887818

  18. Neural evidence for moral intuition and the temporal dynamics of interactions between emotional processes and moral cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Dan-Yang; Gan, Tian; Liu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral and neurological studies have revealed that emotions influence moral cognition. Although moral stimuli are emotionally charged, the time course of interactions between emotions and moral judgments remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated the temporal dynamics of the interaction between emotional processes and moral cognition. The results revealed that when making moral judgments, the time course of the event-related potential (ERP) waveform was significantly different between high emotional arousal and low emotional arousal contexts. Different stages of processing were distinguished, showing distinctive interactions between emotional processes and moral reasoning. The precise time course of moral intuition and moral reasoning sheds new light on theoretical models of moral psychology. Specifically, the N1 component (interpreted as representing moral intuition) did not appear to be influenced by emotional arousal. However, the N2 component and late positive potential were strongly affected by emotional arousal; the slow wave was influenced by both emotional arousal and morality, suggesting distinct moral processing at different emotional arousal levels.

  19. Logic feels so good-I like it! Evidence for intuitive detection of logicality in syllogistic reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsanyi, Kinga; Handley, Simon J

    2012-05-01

    When people evaluate syllogisms, their judgments of validity are often biased by the believability of the conclusions of the problems. Thus, it has been suggested that syllogistic reasoning performance is based on an interplay between a conscious and effortful evaluation of logicality and an intuitive appreciation of the believability of the conclusions (e.g., Evans, Newstead, Allen, & Pollard, 1994). However, logic effects in syllogistic reasoning emerge even when participants are unlikely to carry out a full logical analysis of the problems (e.g., Shynkaruk & Thompson, 2006). There is also evidence that people can implicitly detect the conflict between their beliefs and the validity of the problems, even if they are unable to consciously produce a logical response (e.g., De Neys, Moyens, & Vansteenwegen, 2010). In 4 experiments we demonstrate that people intuitively detect the logicality of syllogisms, and this effect emerges independently of participants' conscious mindset and their cognitive capacity. This logic effect is also unrelated to the superficial structure of the problems. Additionally, we provide evidence that the logicality of the syllogisms is detected through slight changes in participants' affective states. In fact, subliminal affective priming had an effect on participants' subjective evaluations of the problems. Finally, when participants misattributed their emotional reactions to background music, this significantly reduced the logic effect. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Intuition and Moral Decision-Making – The Effect of Time Pressure and Cognitive Load on Moral Judgment and Altruistic Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonn, Caroline; Johannesson, Magnus; Kirchler, Michael; Koppel, Lina; Västfjäll, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Do individuals intuitively favor certain moral actions over others? This study explores the role of intuitive thinking—induced by time pressure and cognitive load—in moral judgment and behavior. We conduct experiments in three different countries (Sweden, Austria, and the United States) involving over 1,400 subjects. All subjects responded to four trolley type dilemmas and four dictator games involving different charitable causes. Decisions were made under time pressure/time delay or while experiencing cognitive load or control. Overall we find converging evidence that intuitive states do not influence moral decisions. Neither time-pressure nor cognitive load had any effect on moral judgments or altruistic behavior. Thus we find no supporting evidence for the claim that intuitive moral judgments and dictator game giving differ from more reflectively taken decisions. Across all samples and decision tasks men were more likely to make utilitarian moral judgments and act selfishly compared to women, providing further evidence that there are robust gender differences in moral decision-making. However, there were no significant interactions between gender and the treatment manipulations of intuitive versus reflective decision-making. PMID:27783704

  1. Lo intuitivo como aprendizaje para el desarrollo de la actividad creadora en los estudiantes The intuitive learning for the development of the creative activity in students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha María Casas-Rodríguez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo que se presenta constituye un análisis epistemológico del aprendizaje intuitivo como dimensión humana. Su objetivo es caracterizar el marco referencial para una epistemología de lo intuitivo, a partir de la revisión bibliográfica y con la utilización del método hermenéutico, el histórico- lógico, la inducción- deducción y el análisis - síntesis. Sus principales resultados son los fundamentos epistemológicos del aprendizaje intuitivo, la definición pedagógica del aprendizaje intuitivo y la caracterización de las experiencias intuitivas.This article constitutes an epistemological analysis of the intuitive learning as a human dimension. Its objective is to characterize the referential sitting for an epistemology about the intuitive beginning myth the cheering of the bibliography and the Hermeneutical method, Historical- logical, Induction- deduction, and analysis and synthesis. Its main results are: the epistemological foundation of the intuitive learning, the pedagogical definition of the intuitive learning and the characterization of the intuitive experiences.

  2. An intuitive method to automatically detect the common and not common frequencies for two or more time-varying signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doca, C.; Paunoiu, C.; Doca, L.

    2013-01-01

    Sampling a time-varying signal and his spectral analysis are, both, subjected to theoretically compelling, such as Shannon's theorem and the objectively limiting of the frequencys resolution. After obtaining the signals (Fourier) spectrum, this is processed and interpreted usually by a scientist who, presumably, has sufficient prior information about the monitored signal to conclude, for example, on the significant frequencies. Obviously, processing and interpretation of individual spectra are routine tasks that can be automated by suitable software (PC application). The problems complicate if we need to compare two or more spectra corresponding to different signals and/or phenomena. In the above context, this paper presents an intuitive method for automatic identification of the common and not common frequencies for two or more congruent spectra. The method is illustrated by numerical simulations, and by the results obtained in the analysis of the noise from some experimental measured signals. (authors)

  3. Effects of concerns about pathogens on conservatism and anti-fat prejudice: are they mediated by moral intuitions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Justin H; Isherwood, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Threat perceptions are associated with politically conservative attitudes. Research has also found that specific forms of threat perception (e.g., concerns about pathogens) are associated with functional reactions (e.g., anti-fat prejudice). Recently, moral intuitions have been implicated in explaining political orientation: Liberals tend to place greater weight on "individualizing foundations" (justice and care concerns) in particular, whereas conservatives tend to place high weight on "binding foundations" (loyalty, respect, and purity concerns) as well. A recent study attempted to integrate the above strands of research by showing that the effect of threat perceptions on conservatism is mediated by a tendency to place relatively greater weight on the binding foundations. The present study was intended to replicate and extend past research by testing (a) whether concerns about pathogens predict conservatism and anti-fat prejudice and (b) whether those effects are mediated by a tendency to place relatively greater weight on the binding foundations.

  4. Influence of Intuition and Capability on Accelerated Product Development in Big-Medium Scaled Food Companies in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pepey Riawati Kurnia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available To face the pressure of competition, more and more companies perform accelerated product development by shortening the product development time so that the product will arrive at the market at the shortest time. Food industry has also performed accelerated product development. Using evolution theory, contingency theory, market-based view, and resource-based view a research model has been built. Results of the research’s initial identification show that food industry in Indonesia is in growth level towards maturity level. Meanwhile, competition in the food industry is in moderate level towards hypercompetition level. Tactics of accelerated product development often carried out is by simplifying the product development steps to eliminating the product development steps. The innovation type used is incremental innovation since it is fast and easy. Results of the research give information that intuition and capabilities are the main motivating factors for big-medium scaled food companies in Indonesia to accelerate product development.

  5. How Reasoning, Judgment, and Decision Making are Colored by Gist-based Intuition: A Fuzzy-Trace Theory Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Jonathan C; Reyna, Valerie F; Weldon, Rebecca B; Brainerd, Charles J

    2015-12-01

    Fuzzy-trace theory distinguishes verbatim (literal, exact) from gist (meaningful) representations, predicting that reliance on gist increases with experience and expertise. Thus, many judgment-and-decision-making biases increase with development, such that cognition is colored by context in ways that violate logical coherence and probability theories. Nevertheless, this increase in gist-based intuition is adaptive: Gist is stable, less sensitive to interference, and easier to manipulate. Moreover, gist captures the functionally significant essence of information, supporting healthier and more robust decision processes. We describe how fuzzy-trace theory accounts for judgment-and-decision making phenomena, predicting the paradoxical arc of these processes with the development of experience and expertise. We present data linking gist memory processes to gist processing in decision making and provide illustrations of gist reliance in medicine, public health, and intelligence analysis.

  6. Clinical intuition versus statistics: different modes of tacit knowledge in clinical epidemiology and evidence-based medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braude, Hillel D

    2009-01-01

    Despite its phenomenal success since its inception in the early nineteen-nineties, the evidence-based medicine movement has not succeeded in shaking off an epistemological critique derived from the experiential or tacit dimensions of clinical reasoning about particular individuals. This critique claims that the evidence-based medicine model does not take account of tacit knowing as developed by the philosopher Michael Polanyi. However, the epistemology of evidence-based medicine is premised on the elimination of the tacit dimension from clinical judgment. This is demonstrated through analyzing the dichotomy between clinical and statistical intuition in evidence-based medicine's epistemology of clinical reasoning. I argue that clinical epidemiology presents a more nuanced epistemological model for the application of statistical epidemiology to the clinical context. Polanyi's theory of tacit knowing is compatible with the model of clinical reasoning associated with clinical epidemiology, but not evidence-based medicine.

  7. Projector-based augmented reality for intuitive intraoperative guidance in image-guided 3D interstitial brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krempien, Robert; Hoppe, Harald; Kahrs, Lüder; Daeuber, Sascha; Schorr, Oliver; Eggers, Georg; Bischof, Marc; Munter, Marc W; Debus, Juergen; Harms, Wolfgang

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this study is to implement augmented reality in real-time image-guided interstitial brachytherapy to allow an intuitive real-time intraoperative orientation. The developed system consists of a common video projector, two high-resolution charge coupled device cameras, and an off-the-shelf notebook. The projector was used as a scanning device by projecting coded-light patterns to register the patient and superimpose the operating field with planning data and additional information in arbitrary colors. Subsequent movements of the nonfixed patient were detected by means of stereoscopically tracking passive markers attached to the patient. In a first clinical study, we evaluated the whole process chain from image acquisition to data projection and determined overall accuracy with 10 patients undergoing implantation. The described method enabled the surgeon to visualize planning data on top of any preoperatively segmented and triangulated surface (skin) with direct line of sight during the operation. Furthermore, the tracking system allowed dynamic adjustment of the data to the patient's current position and therefore eliminated the need for rigid fixation. Because of soft-part displacement, we obtained an average deviation of 1.1 mm by moving the patient, whereas changing the projector's position resulted in an average deviation of 0.9 mm. Mean deviation of all needles of an implant was 1.4 mm (range, 0.3-2.7 mm). The developed low-cost augmented-reality system proved to be accurate and feasible in interstitial brachytherapy. The system meets clinical demands and enables intuitive real-time intraoperative orientation and monitoring of needle implantation.

  8. Projector-Based Augmented Reality for Intuitive Intraoperative Guidance in Image-Guided 3D Interstitial Brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krempien, Robert; Hoppe, Harald; Kahrs, Lueder; Daeuber, Sascha; Schorr, Oliver; Eggers, Georg; Bischof, Marc; Munter, Marc W.; Debus, Juergen; Harms, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to implement augmented reality in real-time image-guided interstitial brachytherapy to allow an intuitive real-time intraoperative orientation. Methods and Materials: The developed system consists of a common video projector, two high-resolution charge coupled device cameras, and an off-the-shelf notebook. The projector was used as a scanning device by projecting coded-light patterns to register the patient and superimpose the operating field with planning data and additional information in arbitrary colors. Subsequent movements of the nonfixed patient were detected by means of stereoscopically tracking passive markers attached to the patient. Results: In a first clinical study, we evaluated the whole process chain from image acquisition to data projection and determined overall accuracy with 10 patients undergoing implantation. The described method enabled the surgeon to visualize planning data on top of any preoperatively segmented and triangulated surface (skin) with direct line of sight during the operation. Furthermore, the tracking system allowed dynamic adjustment of the data to the patient's current position and therefore eliminated the need for rigid fixation. Because of soft-part displacement, we obtained an average deviation of 1.1 mm by moving the patient, whereas changing the projector's position resulted in an average deviation of 0.9 mm. Mean deviation of all needles of an implant was 1.4 mm (range, 0.3-2.7 mm). Conclusions: The developed low-cost augmented-reality system proved to be accurate and feasible in interstitial brachytherapy. The system meets clinical demands and enables intuitive real-time intraoperative orientation and monitoring of needle implantation

  9. A GUI-based intuitive tool for analyzing formats and extracting contents of binary data in fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, O.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A GUI-based intuitive tool for data format analysis is presented. • Data can be viewed in any data types specified by the user in real time. • Analyzed formats are saved and reused as templates for other data of the same forms. • Users can easily extract contents in any forms by writing a simple script file. • The tool would be useful for exchanging data in collaborative fusion researches. - Abstract: An intuitive tool with graphical user interface (GUI) for analyzing formats and extracting contents of binary data in fusion research is presented. Users can examine structures of binary data at arbitrary addresses by selecting their type from a list of radio buttons in the data inspection window and checking their representations instantly on the computer screen. The result of analysis is saved in a file which contains the information such as name, data type, start address, and array size of the data. If the array size of some data depends on others that appear prior to the former and if the users specify their relation in the inspection window, the resultant file can also be used as a format template for the same series of data. By writing a simple script, the users can extract the contents of data either to a text or binary file in the format of their preference. As a real-life example, the tool is applied to the MHD equilibrium data at JT-60U, where poloidal flux data are extracted and converted to a format suitable for contour plotting in other data visualization program. The tool would be useful in collaborative fusion researches for exchanging relatively small-size data, which don’t fit in well with the standard routine processes

  10. Zopár úvah o dôvtipe a intuícii (Several Considerations on Esprit and Intuition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renáta Kišoňová

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article treats of an esprit and an intuition. What is the role of the esprit in the cognize? In common use means an esprit fast, automatic fixing in a given aspect. The problem of the esprit is related with the problem of the understanding of jokes, riddles, or poetical metaphors. It is also connected with the mathematical cognizance or "sight" in geometry. The speech analyzes several chosen thinkers which attended to enquiries of the esprit or the intuition, e.g. I. Kant, L. Wittgenstein and H. Bergson.

  11. Gestures to intuitively control large displays : 7th International Gesture Workshop, GW 2007, Lisbon, Portugal, May 23-25, 2007 : revised selected papers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fikkert, W.; van der Vet, P.; Rauwerda, H.; Breit, T.; Nijholt, A.; Sales Dias, M.; Gibet, S.; Wanderley, M.M.; Bastos, R.

    2009-01-01

    Large displays are highly suited to support discussions in empirical science. Such displays can display project results on a large digital surface to feed the discussion. This paper describes our approach to closely involve multidisciplinary omics scientists in the design of an intuitive display

  12. Complex Dynamic Systems View on Conceptual Change: How a Picture of Students' Intuitive Conceptions Accrue from Dynamically Robust Task Dependent Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koponen, Ismo T.; Kokkonen, Tommi; Nousiainen, Maiji

    2017-01-01

    We discuss here conceptual change and the formation of robust learning outcomes from the viewpoint of complex dynamic systems (CDS). The CDS view considers students' conceptions as context dependent and multifaceted structures which depend on the context of their application. In the CDS view the conceptual patterns (i.e. intuitive conceptions…

  13. The GlycanBuilder: a fast, intuitive and flexible software tool for building and displaying glycan structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceroni, Alessio; Dell, Anne; Haslam, Stuart M

    2007-08-07

    Carbohydrates play a critical role in human diseases and their potential utility as biomarkers for pathological conditions is a major driver for characterization of the glycome. However, the additional complexity of glycans compared to proteins and nucleic acids has slowed the advancement of glycomics in comparison to genomics and proteomics. The branched nature of carbohydrates, the great diversity of their constituents and the numerous alternative symbolic notations, make the input and display of glycans not as straightforward as for example the amino-acid sequence of a protein. Every glycoinformatic tool providing a user interface would benefit from a fast, intuitive, appealing mechanism for input and output of glycan structures in a computer readable format. A software tool for building and displaying glycan structures using a chosen symbolic notation is described here. The "GlycanBuilder" uses an automatic rendering algorithm to draw the saccharide symbols and to place them on the drawing board. The information about the symbolic notation is derived from a configurable graphical model as a set of rules governing the aspect and placement of residues and linkages. The algorithm is able to represent a structure using only few traversals of the tree and is inherently fast. The tool uses an XML format for import and export of encoded structures. The rendering algorithm described here is able to produce high-quality representations of glycan structures in a chosen symbolic notation. The automated rendering process enables the "GlycanBuilder" to be used both as a user-independent component for displaying glycans and as an easy-to-use drawing tool. The "GlycanBuilder" can be integrated in web pages as a Java applet for the visual editing of glycans. The same component is available as a web service to render an encoded structure into a graphical format. Finally, the "GlycanBuilder" can be integrated into other applications to create intuitive and appealing user

  14. The GlycanBuilder: a fast, intuitive and flexible software tool for building and displaying glycan structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dell Anne

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carbohydrates play a critical role in human diseases and their potential utility as biomarkers for pathological conditions is a major driver for characterization of the glycome. However, the additional complexity of glycans compared to proteins and nucleic acids has slowed the advancement of glycomics in comparison to genomics and proteomics. The branched nature of carbohydrates, the great diversity of their constituents and the numerous alternative symbolic notations, make the input and display of glycans not as straightforward as for example the amino-acid sequence of a protein. Every glycoinformatic tool providing a user interface would benefit from a fast, intuitive, appealing mechanism for input and output of glycan structures in a computer readable format. Results A software tool for building and displaying glycan structures using a chosen symbolic notation is described here. The "GlycanBuilder" uses an automatic rendering algorithm to draw the saccharide symbols and to place them on the drawing board. The information about the symbolic notation is derived from a configurable graphical model as a set of rules governing the aspect and placement of residues and linkages. The algorithm is able to represent a structure using only few traversals of the tree and is inherently fast. The tool uses an XML format for import and export of encoded structures. Conclusion The rendering algorithm described here is able to produce high-quality representations of glycan structures in a chosen symbolic notation. The automated rendering process enables the "GlycanBuilder" to be used both as a user-independent component for displaying glycans and as an easy-to-use drawing tool. The "GlycanBuilder" can be integrated in web pages as a Java applet for the visual editing of glycans. The same component is available as a web service to render an encoded structure into a graphical format. Finally, the "GlycanBuilder" can be integrated into other

  15. Food risk perceptions, gender, and individual differences in avoidance and approach motivation, intuitive and analytic thinking styles, and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leikas, Sointu; Lindeman, Marjaana; Roininen, Katariina; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2007-03-01

    Risks appear to be perceived in two different ways, affectively and rationally. Finnish adult internet users were contacted via e-mail and asked to fill an internet questionnaire consisting of questions of food risks and measures of avoidance and approach motivation, analytic and intuitive information processing style, trait anxiety, and gender in order to find out (1) whether food risks are perceived two-dimensionally, (2) how individual differences in motivation, information processing, and anxiety are associated with the different dimensions of food risk perceptions, and (3) whether gender moderates these associations. The data were analyzed by factor, correlation and regression analyses. Three factors emerged: risk scariness, risk likelihood, and risks of cardiovascular disease. Personality and gender x personality interactions predicted food risk perceptions. Results showed that food risk perceptions generally form two dimensions; scariness and likelihood, but that this may depend on the nature of the risk. In addition, results imply that individuals with high avoidance motivation perceive food risks as scarier and more likely than others, and that individuals with an analytic information processing style perceive food risks as less likely than others. Trait anxiety seems to be associated with higher food risk perceptions only among men.

  16. An approach for the condensed presentation of intuitive citation impact metrics which remain reliable with very few publications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, D.; Tippett, Ch.; Côté, G.; Roberge, G.; Archambault, E.

    2016-07-01

    An approach for presenting citation data in a condensed and intuitive manner which will allow for their reliable interpretation by policy analysts even in cases where the number of peer-reviewed publications produced by a given entity remains small is presented. The approach is described using country level data in Agronomy & Agriculture (2004–2013), an area of specialisation for many developing countries with a small output size. Four citation impact metrics, and a synthesis graph that we call the distributional micro-charts of relative citation counts, are considered in building our “preferred” presentation layout. These metrics include two indicators that have long been used by Science-Metrix in its bibliometric reports, the Average of Relative Citations (ARC) and the percentage of publications in the 10% most cited publications in the database (HCP), as well as two newer metrics, the Median of Relative Citations (MRC) and the Relative Integration Score (RIS). The findings reveal that the proposed approach combining the MRC and HCP with the distributional micro-charts effectively allows to better qualify the citation impact of entities in terms of central location, density of the upper citation tail and overall distribution than Science-Metrix former approach based on the ARC and HCP. This is especially true of cases with small population sizes where a strong presence of outliers (denoted by strong HCP scores) can have a significant effect on the central location of the citation data when estimated with an average. (Author)

  17. Identification of Leishmania donovani Topoisomerase 1 inhibitors via intuitive scaffold hopping and bioisosteric modification of known Top 1 inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamidala, Rajinikanth; Majumdar, Papiya; Jha, Kunal Kumar; Bathula, Chandramohan; Agarwal, Rahul; Chary, M. Thirumala; Mazumdar, H. K.; Munshi, Parthapratim; Sen, Subhabrata

    2016-05-01

    A library of arylidenefuropyridinediones was discovered as potent inhibitors of Leishmania donovani Topoisomerase 1 (LdTop1) where the active molecules displayed considerable inhibition with single digit micromolar EC50 values. This molecular library was designed via intuitive scaffold hopping and bioisosteric modification of known topoisomerase 1 inhibitors such as camptothecin, edotecarin and etc. The design was rationalized by molecular docking analysis of the compound prototype with human topoisomerase 1 (HTop1) and Leishmania donovani topoisomerase 1(LdTop1). The most active compound 4 displayed no cytotoxicity against normal mammalian COS7 cell line (~100 fold less inhibition at the EC50). Similar to camptothecin, 4 interacted with free LdTop1 as observed in the preincubation DNA relaxation inhibition experiment. It also displayed anti-protozoal activity against Leishmania donovani promastigote. Crystal structure investigation of 4 and its molecular modelling with LdTop1 revealed putative binding sites in the enzyme that could be harnessed to generate molecules with better potency.

  18. The Aggregate Risk Index: An intuitive tool providing the health risks of air pollution to health care community and public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicard, Pierre; Talbot, Charles; Lesne, Olivia; Mangin, Antoine; Alexandre, Nicolas; Collomp, Rémy

    2012-01-01

    In the framework of the European project PASODOBLE (FP7), we set up downstream information services by combining environmental and health data with a view to support the health care community and to improve vulnerable people welfare. Indeed there is a profound relationship between human health, well-being and air pollution levels. The main objectives are to establish correlations between air quality, exposure of populations and their reactivity, to develop and validate air quality indexes and to construct a prediction model of this sanitary index. This index will be implemented on 3 European sites: Greece (Athens and Thessaloniki), the Netherlands and "Provence Alpes Côte d'Azur" (South East of France). The selected region and cities are among the most affected by the atmospheric pollution in Europe and leads to serious sanitary concerns. The service aims to provide up-to-date, detailed information on air quality discomfort. The Aggregate Risk Index is based on the Cairncross's concept, obtained from the Relative Risk associated with short-term exposure to common air pollutants and takes into account the possible effects of a mixture of pollutants. This communication tool, easy to use and intuitive, about the levels of air pollution and the associated health risks, will be used to communicate information to the general population, authorities and to the health care community and will provide advanced warning of potentially health-damaging air pollution events.

  19. Strategi eller intuition ?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne; Vibæk, Kasper Sánchez

    2010-01-01

    Artiklen redegør for en forskningsbaseret strategimodel som er afprøvet undervisningen på kandidatdelen ved KA. Modellen har til hensigt at sprogliggøre og definere en række arkitektoniske designprocesser så de studerende kan beskrive deres valg og prioriteringer....

  20. Minimalism and Speakers' Intuitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATÍAS GARIAZZO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El minimalismo propone una semántica que no da cuenta de las intuiciones de los hablantes acerca de las condiciones de verdad de una gama de proposiciones o enunciados. Por lo tanto, uno de los retos que enfrenta dicha posición es el de brindar una explicación de cómo su atribución de contenidos semánticos a estas proposiciones se fundamenta en el uso. Dicha explicación fue ofrecida principalmente por Soames pero también sugerida por Cappelen y Lepore. El artículo desarrolla una crítica de esta explicación mediante cuatro tipos de contraejemplos y llega a la conclusión de que el minimalismo no logra responder exitosamente al reto que se le plantea.

  1. Intuitive Versus Contemplative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koudstaal, Martin; Sloof, Randolph; Van Praag, Mirjam

    We examine in a large survey (n = 1,928) how contemplative entrepreneurs, managers and employees are in their decision making styles. Besides two well-known subjective measures taken from psychology, we also build on Rubinstein (2016) by including two objective measures derived from response time......, but at the same time share with managers a higher need for cognition, and thus take more time to think things over....

  2. Teaching Intuitive Eating and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Skills Via a Web-Based Intervention: A Pilot Single-Arm Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Sara; Edwards, Olivia; Gray, Andrew; Nada-Raja, Shyamala; Lillis, Jason; Tylka, Tracy L

    2016-01-01

    Background Middle-aged women are at risk of weight gain and associated comorbidities. Deliberate restriction of food intake (dieting) produces short-term weight loss but is largely unsuccessful for long-term weight management. Two promising approaches for the prevention of weight gain are intuitive eating (ie, eating in accordance with hunger and satiety signals) and the development of greater psychological flexibility (ie, the aim of acceptance and commitment therapy [ACT]). Objectives This pilot study investigated the usage, acceptability, and feasibility of “Mind, Body, Food,” a Web-based weight gain prevention intervention prototype that teaches intuitive eating and psychological flexibility skills. Methods Participants were 40 overweight women (mean age 44.8 [standard deviation, SD, 3.06] years, mean body mass index [BMI] 32.9 [SD 6.01] kg/m2, mean Intuitive Eating Scale [IES-1] total score 53.4 [SD 7.46], classified as below average) who were recruited from the general population in Dunedin, New Zealand. Module completion and study site metrics were assessed using Google Analytics. Use of an online self-monitoring tool was determined by entries saved to a secure online database. Intervention acceptability was assessed postintervention. BMI, intuitive eating, binge eating, psychological flexibility, and general mental and physical health were assessed pre- and postintervention and 3-months postintervention. Results Of the 40 women enrolled in the study, 12 (30%) completed all 12 modules (median 7.5 [interquartile range, IQR, 2-12] modules) and 4 (10%) used the self-monitoring tool for all 14 weeks of the intervention period (median 3 [IQR 1-9] weeks). Among 26 women who completed postintervention assessments, most women rated “Mind, Body, Food” as useful (20/26, 77%), easy to use (17/25, 68%) and liked the intervention (22/25, 88%). From pre- to postintervention, there were statistically significant within-group increases in intuitive eating (IES-2

  3. Unified User Interface to Support Effective and Intuitive Data Discovery, Dissemination, and Analysis at NASA GES DISC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, M.; Hegde, M.; Bryant, K.; Johnson, J. E.; Ritrivi, A.; Shen, S.; Volmer, B.; Pham, L. B.

    2015-01-01

    Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) has been providing access to scientific data sets since 1990s. Beginning as one of the first Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) archive centers, GES DISC has evolved to offer a wide range of science-enabling services. With a growing understanding of needs and goals of its science users, GES DISC continues to improve and expand on its broad set of data discovery and access tools, sub-setting services, and visualization tools. Nonetheless, the multitude of the available tools, a partial overlap of functionality, and independent and uncoupled interfaces employed by these tools often leave the end users confused as of what tools or services are the most appropriate for a task at hand. As a result, some the services remain underutilized or largely unknown to the users, significantly reducing the availability of the data and leading to a great loss of scientific productivity. In order to improve the accessibility of GES DISC tools and services, we have designed and implemented UUI, the Unified User Interface. UUI seeks to provide a simple, unified, and intuitive one-stop shop experience for the key services available at GES DISC, including sub-setting (Simple Subset Wizard), granule file search (Mirador), plotting (Giovanni), and other services. In this poster, we will discuss the main lessons, obstacles, and insights encountered while designing the UUI experience. We will also present the architecture and technology behind UUI, including NodeJS, Angular, and Mongo DB, as well as speculate on the future of the tool at GES DISC as well as in a broader context of the Space Science Informatics.

  4. The inherence heuristic: an intuitive means of making sense of the world, and a potential precursor to psychological essentialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimpian, Andrei; Salomon, Erika

    2014-10-01

    We propose that human reasoning relies on an inherence heuristic, an implicit cognitive process that leads people to explain observed patterns (e.g., girls wear pink) predominantly in terms of the inherent features of their constituents (e.g., pink is a delicate color). We then demonstrate how this proposed heuristic can provide a unified account for a broad set of findings spanning areas of research that might at first appear unrelated (e.g., system justification, nominal realism, is-ought errors in moral reasoning). By revealing the deep commonalities among the diverse phenomena that fall under its scope, our account is able to generate new insights into these phenomena, as well as new empirical predictions. A second main goal of this article, aside from introducing the inherence heuristic, is to articulate the proposal that the heuristic serves as a foundation for the development of psychological essentialism. More specifically, we propose that essentialism - which is the common belief that natural and social categories are underlain by hidden, causally powerful essences - emerges over the first few years of life as an elaboration of the earlier, and more open-ended, intuitions supplied by the inherence heuristic. In the final part of the report, we distinguish our proposal from competing accounts (e.g., Strevens's K-laws) and clarify the relationship between the inherence heuristic and related cognitive tendencies (e.g., the correspondence bias). In sum, this article illuminates a basic cognitive process that emerges early in life and is likely to have profound effects on many aspects of human psychology.

  5. Making the invisible visible - blending data with film, CGI and intuitive apps in environmental education and public engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, Ravi

    2015-04-01

    Comprehending the scale of our current environmental challenges and the possible impacts of alternative policy pathways and decisions, is a very human problem, at all levels of society. For everyone from policy negotiators to school children, the invisibility of the processes of environmental change (e.g. the increase of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere), and the timeframes over which impacts are felt, exacerbate the difficulty of both understanding and communicating about the challenge. By unleashing real environmental data and imagery in a form easily usable by educators and non-technical audiences, it is possible to greatly address this problem, whilst also engaging potential new contributors in solution-finding. The combination of real data, innovative data visualisation techniques, film, animation and apps can help to connect with the public, empower teachers and learners, and create new business opportunities. This presentation will look at these opportunities principally through two current case-study initiatives: a) New methods of presenting and enabling access to earth observation data through art, film and apps (including work led by Imperative Space); and b) The use of high-end animation to enable more intuitive understanding of climate change related data (including work led by Carbon Visuals). Through this work, we will consider the importance of 'emotional engagement' and personal impact of environmental imagery and data when presented appropriately. Our aim should be to ensure the next generation of policy and decision-makers have grown up with a routine, embedded, and day-to-day exposure to environmental data and imagery, so that they are equipped with a deep-seated understanding of the majesty, vulnerability and fragility of our environment. Emotional engagement can be derived from clear communication about the context of the imagery and data, but also through high 'production values', the quality of apps and tools, the way in which stories are

  6. The sweet spot of clinical intuitions: Predictors of the effects of context on impressions of conduct disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Jessecae K; Burke, Christopher T; De Los Reyes, Andres

    2016-02-01

    How people interpret a mental disorder symptom has been shown to depend on the contextual life factors surrounding its presentation. Specifically, people are more likely to judge a symptom as clinically relevant if that symptom presents in a high-risk environment (e.g., child associates with deviant peers) relative to a low-risk environment (e.g., child associates with normative peer group). Importantly, not all symptoms are influenced by context to the same extent, and there is low agreement across people as to how this influence manifests. In this paper, we explore what factors predict the extent to which clinicians and laypeople interpret mental disorder symptoms as a function of diagnosis-congruent versus incongruent contextual information. We tested the impact of 2 statistical factors (prevalence and diagnosticity) and 2 more intuitive factors (diagnostic importance and abnormality) on the degree to which a symptom is interpreted differently in different contexts. Clinicians' impressions of the diagnosticity and importance of a symptom evidenced a curvilinear relationship with the use of context, with extremely important and unimportant as well as extremely diagnostic and nondiagnostic symptoms being less influenced by context. Laypeople showed a similar curvilinear relation between diagnosticity judgments and context effects. Additionally, clinicians showed a linear relationship between abnormality judgments and context use, with extremely abnormal symptoms being influenced less by context, whereas laypeople showed a curvilinear relationship between symptom abnormality and context use, with extremely abnormal and normal symptoms being influenced the most by context. We discuss implications of these findings for clinical diagnosis. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. A facilitated diffusion model constrained by the probability isotherm: a pedagogical exercise in intuitive non-equilibrium thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Brian

    2017-06-01

    This paper seeks to develop a more thermodynamically sound pedagogy for students of biological transport than is currently available from either of the competing schools of linear non-equilibrium thermodynamics (LNET) or Michaelis-Menten kinetics (MMK). To this end, a minimal model of facilitated diffusion was constructed comprising four reversible steps: cis- substrate binding, cis → trans bound enzyme shuttling, trans -substrate dissociation and trans → cis free enzyme shuttling. All model parameters were subject to the second law constraint of the probability isotherm, which determined the unidirectional and net rates for each step and for the overall reaction through the law of mass action. Rapid equilibration scenarios require sensitive 'tuning' of the thermodynamic binding parameters to the equilibrium substrate concentration. All non-equilibrium scenarios show sigmoidal force-flux relations, with only a minority of cases having their quasi -linear portions close to equilibrium. Few cases fulfil the expectations of MMK relating reaction rates to enzyme saturation. This new approach illuminates and extends the concept of rate-limiting steps by focusing on the free energy dissipation associated with each reaction step and thereby deducing its respective relative chemical impedance. The crucial importance of an enzyme's being thermodynamically 'tuned' to its particular task, dependent on the cis- and trans- substrate concentrations with which it deals, is consistent with the occurrence of numerous isoforms for enzymes that transport a given substrate in physiologically different circumstances. This approach to kinetic modelling, being aligned with neither MMK nor LNET, is best described as intuitive non-equilibrium thermodynamics, and is recommended as a useful adjunct to the design and interpretation of experiments in biotransport.

  8. Lack of interaction between sensing-intuitive learning styles and problem-first versus information-first instruction: a randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David A; Thompson, Warren G; Thomas, Kris G; Thomas, Matthew R

    2009-03-01

    Adaptation to learning styles has been proposed to enhance learning. We hypothesized that learners with sensing learning style would perform better using a problem-first instructional method while intuitive learners would do better using an information-first method. Randomized, controlled, crossover trial. Resident ambulatory clinics. 123 internal medicine residents. Four Web-based modules in ambulatory internal medicine were developed in both "didactic" (information first, followed by patient problem and questions) and "problem" (case and questions first, followed by information) format. Knowledge posttest, format preference, learning style (Index of Learning Styles). Knowledge scores were similar between the didactic (mean +/- standard error, 83.0 +/- 0.8) and problem (82.3 +/- 0.8) formats (p = .42; 95% confidence interval [CI] for difference, -2.3 to 0.9). There was no difference between formats in regression slopes of knowledge scores on sensing-intuitive scores (p = .63) or in analysis of knowledge scores by styles classification (sensing 82.5 +/- 1.0, intermediate 83.7 +/- 1.2, intuitive 81.0 +/- 1.5; p = .37 for main effect, p = .59 for interaction with format). Format preference was neutral (3.2 +/- 0.2 [1 strongly prefers didactic, 6 strongly prefers problem], p = .12), and there was no association between learning styles and preference (p = .44). Formats were similar in time to complete modules (43.7 +/- 2.2 vs 43.2 +/- 2.2 minutes, p = .72). Starting instruction with a problem (versus employing problems later on) may not improve learning outcomes. Sensing and intuitive learners perform similarly following problem-first and didactic-first instruction. Results may apply to other instructional media.

  9. Discrepancies between multicriteria decision analysis-based ranking and intuitive ranking for pharmaceutical benefit-risk profiles in a hypothetical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshikawa, K; Ono, S

    2017-02-01

    Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) has been generally considered a promising decision-making methodology for the assessment of drug benefit-risk profiles. There have been many discussions in both public and private sectors on its feasibility and applicability, but it has not been employed in official decision-makings. For the purpose of examining to what extent MCDA would reflect the first-hand, intuitive preference of evaluators in practical pharmaceutical assessments, we conducted a questionnaire survey involving the participation of employees of pharmaceutical companies. Showing profiles of the efficacy and safety of four hypothetical drugs, each respondent was asked to rank them following the standard MCDA process and then to rank them intuitively (i.e. without applying any analytical framework). These two approaches resulted in substantially different ranking patterns from the same individuals, and the concordance rate was surprisingly low (17%). Although many respondents intuitively showed a preference for mild, balanced risk-benefit profiles over profiles with a conspicuous advantage in either risk or benefit, the ranking orders based on MCDA scores did not reflect the intuitive preference. Observed discrepancies between the rankings seemed to be primarily attributed to the structural characteristics of MCDA, which assumes that evaluation on each benefit and risk component should have monotonic impact on final scores. It would be difficult for MCDA to reflect commonly observed non-monotonic preferences for risk and benefit profiles. Possible drawbacks of MCDA should be further investigated prior to the real-world application of its benefit-risk assessment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The role intuitive decision making plays in project selection in the residential property market: a case study of a medium sized

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Diarmuid

    2013-01-01

    non-peer-reviewed This thesis addresses the role of intuition in project selection in residential property development. The paper provides a comprehensive review of existing literature in relation to project selection and decision making. In addition, the examination of the project files of M.A. Ryan & Sons Ltd., a medium sized property development company, has enabled a case study to be carried out on three projects carried out by the organisation. Through the case study, t...

  11. O problema da intuição intelectual enquanto postulado prático em Fichte [The problem of intellectual intuition as a practical postulate in Fichte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Martins Cecim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Na Modernidade, o idealista alemão Fichte reconstrói o conceito de intuição intelectual não mais em termos de um procedimento teórico-reflexivo que visa o conhecimento da pretensa coisa-em-si, mas em termos de uma intuição de cunho prático, a partir do conceito kantiano de postulado prático, o que acaba por refletir a primazia da liberdade da razão prática sobre a razão teórica, tendo em vista a impossibilidade de conhecermos as realidades absolutas. Não obstante, essa intuição é problemática por não tratar de uma realidade objetiva, mas tão somente de uma subjetividade autorreflexiva. [In Modernity, the German idealist Fichte reconstructs the intellectual intuition not in terms of a theoretical-reflexive procedure that aims at the pretense knowledge of the thing-in-itself, but in terms of a practical-oriented intuition, from the Kantian concept of practical postulate, which ultimately reflects the priority of freedom in the practical reason over the theoretical reason, taking into account the impossibility of knowing the absolute realities. Nevertheless, this intuition is problematic, for it does not concern an objective reality, but only a self-reflected subjectivity

  12. ‘Trying to pin down jelly’ - exploring intuitive processes in quality assessment for meta-ethnography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies that systematically search for and synthesise qualitative research are becoming more evident in health care, and they can make an important contribution to patient care. However, there is still no agreement as to whether, or how we should appraise studies for inclusion. We aimed to explore the intuitive processes that determined the ‘quality’ of qualitative research for inclusion in qualitative research syntheses. We were particularly interested to explore the way that knowledge was constructed. Methods We used qualitative methods to explore the process of quality appraisal within a team of seven qualitative researchers funded to undertake a meta-ethnography of chronic non-malignant musculoskeletal pain. Team discussions took place monthly between October 2010 and June 2012 and were recorded and transcribed. Data was coded and organised using constant comparative method. The development of our conceptual analysis was both iterative and collaborative. The strength of this team approach to quality came from open and honest discussion, where team members felt free to agree, disagree, or change their position within the safety of the group. Results We suggest two core facets of quality for inclusion in meta-ethnography - (1) Conceptual clarity; how clearly has the author articulated a concept that facilitates theoretical insight. (2) Interpretive rigour; fundamentally, can the interpretation ‘be trusted?’ Our findings showed that three important categories help the reader to judge interpretive rigour: (ii) What is the context of the interpretation? (ii) How inductive is the interpretation? (iii) Has the researcher challenged their interpretation? Conclusions We highlight that methods alone do not determine the quality of research for inclusion into a meta-ethnography. The strength of a concept and its capacity to facilitate theoretical insight is integral to meta-ethnography, and arguably to the quality of research. However, we suggest that

  13. A New Quaternion-Based Kalman Filter for Real-Time Attitude Estimation Using the Two-Step Geometrically-Intuitive Correction Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Kaiqiang; Li, Jie; Zhang, Xiaoming; Shen, Chong; Bi, Yu; Zheng, Tao; Liu, Jun

    2017-09-19

    In order to reduce the computational complexity, and improve the pitch/roll estimation accuracy of the low-cost attitude heading reference system (AHRS) under conditions of magnetic-distortion, a novel linear Kalman filter, suitable for nonlinear attitude estimation, is proposed in this paper. The new algorithm is the combination of two-step geometrically-intuitive correction (TGIC) and the Kalman filter. In the proposed algorithm, the sequential two-step geometrically-intuitive correction scheme is used to make the current estimation of pitch/roll immune to magnetic distortion. Meanwhile, the TGIC produces a computed quaternion input for the Kalman filter, which avoids the linearization error of measurement equations and reduces the computational complexity. Several experiments have been carried out to validate the performance of the filter design. The results demonstrate that the mean time consumption and the root mean square error (RMSE) of pitch/roll estimation under magnetic disturbances are reduced by 45.9% and 33.8%, respectively, when compared with a standard filter. In addition, the proposed filter is applicable for attitude estimation under various dynamic conditions.

  14. The Relationship between Intuitive Action Choices and Moral Reasoning on Animal Ethics Issues in Students of Veterinary Medicine and Other Relevant Professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrinder, Joy M; Phillips, Clive J C

    2018-01-01

    With growing understanding of animals' capabilities, and public and organizational pressures to improve animal welfare, moral action by veterinarians and other relevant professionals to address animal issues is increasingly important. Little is known about how their action choices relate to their moral reasoning on animal ethics issues. A moral judgment measure, the VetDIT, with three animal and three non-animal scenarios, was used to investigate the action choices of 619 students in five animal- and two non-animal-related professional programs in one Australian university, and how these related to their moral reasoning based on Personal Interest (PI), Maintaining Norms (MN), or Universal Principles (UP) schemas. Action choices showed significant relationships to PI, MN, and UP questions, and these varied across program groups. Having a previous degree or more experience with farm animals had a negative relationship, and experience with horses or companion animals a positive relationship, with intuitive action choices favoring life and bodily integrity of animals. This study helps to explain the complex relationship between intuitive moral action choices and moral reasoning on animal ethics issues. As a useful research and educational tool for understanding this relationship, the VetDIT can enhance ethical decision making.

  15. Habilidade intuitiva no cuidado de enfermagem Habilidad intuitiva en el cuidado de enfermería Intuitive ability in nursing care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcione Leite da Silva

    2003-08-01

    ón principal es la tomada de decisión para mejor calidad del cuidado.This study aimed to understand the intuitive ability of nursing professionals in caring. The study method was qualitative, adopting a descriptive exploratory approach. Sampling involved 87 female nursing professionals, being 31 nurses, 29 nursing technicians and 18 nursing auxiliaries. The result showed different levels of intuitive abilities, related to novice, standard, and veteran. The relation between the three levels of intuitive abilities and the corresponding figures in years, observed in a North American study, was not identified. The factors described as affecting the intuitive experience were both environmental and intra-interpersonal (personological. The experiences of the professionals portrayed the importance of intuition in nursing care, mainly in doubtful and conflicting situations and, in this sense, its vital function was decision-making towards better quality of nursing care.

  16. Optimal Positioning of the Nipple-Areola Complex in Men Using the Mohrenheim-Estimated-Tangential-Tracking-Line (METT-Line): An Intuitive Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mett, Tobias R; Krezdorn, Nicco; Luketina, Rosalia; Boyce, Maria K; Henseler, Helga; Ipaktchi, Ramin; Vogt, Peter M

    2017-12-01

    The reconstruction of the body shape after post-bariatric surgery or high-grade gynecomastia involves, besides skin tightening, the repositioning of anatomical, apparent landmarks. The surgeon usually defines these during the preoperative planning. In particular, the positions of the nipple-areola complexes (NAC) should contribute to the gender-appropriate appearance. While in the female breast numerous methods have been developed to determine the optimal position of the NACs, there are only a few, metric and often impractical algorithms for positioning the nipples and areoles in the male. With this study, we show the accuracy of the intuitive positioning of the nipple-areola complex in men. From a pre-examined and measured quantity of 10 young and healthy men, six subjects were selected, which corresponded, on the basis of their chest and trunk dimensions, to the average of known data from the literature. The photographed frontal views were retouched in two steps. Initially, only the NACs were removed and the chest contours were left. In a second step, all contours and the navel were blurred. These pictures were submitted to resident and consultant plastic surgeons, who were asked to draw the missing NACs without any tools. The original positions of the nipples were compared with the inscriptions. Furthermore, the results were compared between the contoured and completely retouched pictures and between the residents and consultants. A total of 8 consultants and 7 residents were included. In the contoured and completely retouched images, a significant deviation of the marked positions of the missing features was found. The height of the NAC was determined somewhat more precisely than the vertical position. There was no significant difference between the contoured and completely retouched images, with a discretely more accurate tendency on the contoured images. In comparison with the professional experience, the consultants were tangentially more precise, but

  17. Making it possible to measure knowledge, experience and intuition in diagnosing lung injury severity: a fuzzy logic vision based on the Murray score

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Murray score is the result of an equation that gives all its variables the same linear contribution and weight and makes use of consented cut-offs. Everyday physicians' vocabulary is full of terms (adjectives) like: little, small, low, high, etc. that they handle in an intuitive and not always linear way to make therapeutic decisions. The purpose of this paper is to develop a fuzzy logic (FL) vision of Murray's score variables to enable the measurement of physicians' knowledge, experience and intuition in diagnosing lung injury and test if they followed Murray's equation predictions. Methods For a prospective survey carried out among a team of professionals (aged 29 to 53) in a University Hospital Intensive Care Unit, twelve physicians filled in two questionnaires. In the first one they had to define the ranks which should be categorized as normal, moderate and severe for three of four Murray variables. In another questionnaire, which represented all probable combinations of those categories, they had to tick the pulmonary condition as: no injury, mild, moderate, and ARDS. This procedure gave rise to a Fuzzy Inference System designed to provide the degree of severity as sensed by the group. Results The survey showed fuzzy frontiers for the categories and fuzzy diagnosis. In all, 45% of the hypothetical patients (n 18,013) were equally diagnosed by the survey and Murray's equation, whereas another 51% was overestimated in one level by the survey. Physicians agreed with 96.5% of ARDS cases according to Murray's test but only 11.6% of its mild cases were equally diagnosed by the survey. Nonlinearity of the survey reasoning (high relevance to gas exchange and chest film) was apparent. Conclusions The contiguous categories of the variables confirm the existence of fuzzy frontiers. An overestimation was found in the surveyed group's interpretation of severity. This overestimation was mainly due to the different weight assigned to PO2/FiO2 and chest film

  18. A structured literature review on the role of mindfulness, mindful eating and intuitive eating in changing eating behaviours: effectiveness and associated potential mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Janet M; Smith, Nicola; Ashwell, Margaret

    2017-12-01

    The role of mindfulness, mindful eating and a newer concept of intuitive eating in modulating eating habits is an area of increasing interest. In this structured literature review, a summary of the current evidence is presented, together with details of interventions undertaken and the tools to measure outcomes. It is broad in scope given the emerging evidence base in this area. The review yielded sixty-eight publications: twenty-three interventions in obese/overweight populations; twenty-nine interventions in normal-weight populations; sixteen observational studies, three of which were carried out in overweight/obese populations. Mindfulness-based approaches appear most effective in addressing binge eating, emotional eating and eating in response to external cues. There is a lack of compelling evidence for the effectiveness of mindfulness and mindful eating in weight management. Mindfulness-based approaches may prevent weight gain. Reduced food intake was seen in some of the studies in overweight and obese populations, but this was less apparent in the studies in normal-weight populations. The evidence base for intuitive eating is limited to date and further research is needed to examine its potential in altering eating behaviours. Mindfulness appears to work by an increased awareness of internal, rather than external, cues to eat. Mindfulness and mindful eating have the potential to address problematic eating behaviours and the challenges many face with controlling their food intake. Encouraging a mindful eating approach would seem to be a positive message to be included in general weight management advice to the public.

  19. Svenska elevers språkkänsla för det engelska språket : Vikten av intuition i elevers språkliga problemlösning

    OpenAIRE

    Wohllebe, Malte

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if and in which cases Swedish students rely on their intuition when being confronted with English and how efficiently their language intuition, or sprachgefühl, functions. To study these questions a task was developed in which Swedish students of upper secondary level were asked to identify and correct various kinds of mistakes that were hidden in an English text. They were also asked to give an explanation for the changes they made, based on grammatic...

  20. O Método de Ensino Intuitivo e a política educacional de Benjamin Constant. The intuitive teaching method and the educational policy of Benjamin Constant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva, Daniele Hungaro da

    2014-08-01

    , the educational phenomenon of intuitive teaching in the educational policies of Benjamin Constant in Brazil. To this end, we sought to establish the educational concept that permeates the writings of the intuitive teaching method, in relation to their theoretical predictions, in order to emphasize the teaching model proposed by the politician for the organization of the national public school. The bibliographic search is based on the Ordinance 981 of 08 Nov 1890 (BRASIL, 1890, and on laws and regulations that advocated the educational reform by Benjamin Constant. The following works were also relevant sources used in this study: Machado (2002, Silva (2008, and Valdemarin (2004. In the Republican period, Benjamin Constant Botelho de Magalhães was responsible for continuing the Public Education Reform. However, the discussion of a reform that would define the application of modern methods in teaching didactics was necessary. Nowadays, this article assists the understanding of the reforms meant that Benjamin Constant to public education at the early Republican government in Brazil, besides the understanding of how these educational traces, together with the dissemination of the intuitive teaching method for all classes, designed the organizational structure of the present Brazilian school system.

  1. We Recognize Ourselves as Being Similar to Others: Implications of the “Social Brain Hypothesis” for the Biological Evolution of the Intuition of Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eckart Voland

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Consistent with and in extension of the “social brain hypothesis,” I discuss the idea that the intuition of free will emerged during the course of primate social evolution. If, as the “social brain hypothesis” alleges, the main selective pressure among primates is on generating social knowledge about one's cooperators and competitors, then it is the knowledge about others and not the knowledge about oneself that is the scarce cognitive resource. It is beneficial to make the others predictable and to form hypotheses about their probable behavioral tendencies. This is done by behavior reading and mind reading and by classifying the recurring stochastic patterns in everyday language as the “will.” Thus, the idea of free will emerged first as a social attribution and not as an introspectively gained insight. The fact that ego applies the idea of freedom also to itself and considers itself to be as free as it considers the social partners to be free, i.e. unpredictable, is in this view a non-selected by-product of social intelligence.

  2. Representational coexistence in the God concept: Core knowledge intuitions of God as a person are not revised by Christian theology despite lifelong experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlev, Michael; Mermelstein, Spencer; German, Tamsin C

    2018-01-25

    Previous research has shown that in the minds of young adult religious adherents, acquired theology about the extraordinary characteristics of God (e.g., omniscience) coexists with, rather than replaces, an initial concept of God formed by co-option of the person concept. We tested the hypothesis that representational coexistence holds even after extensive experience with Christian theology, as indexed by age. Christian religious adherents ranging in age from 18 to 87 years were asked to evaluate as true or false statements on which core knowledge intuitions about persons and Christian theology about God were consistent (both true or both false) or inconsistent (true on one and false on the other). Results showed, across adulthood, more theological errors in evaluating inconsistent versus consistent statements. Older adults also exhibited slower response times to inconsistent versus consistent statements. These findings show that despite extensive experience, indeed a lifetime of experience for some participants, the Christian theological God concept does not separate from the initial person concept from which it is formed. In fact, behavioral signatures of representational coexistence were not attenuated by experience. We discuss the broader implications of these findings to the acquisition of evolutionarily new concepts.

  3. An optimized microstructure to minimizing in-plane and through-plane pressure drops of fibrous materials: Counter-intuitive reduction of gas diffusion layer permeability with porosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghifar, Hamidreza

    2018-05-01

    The present study experimentally investigates the realistic functionality of in-plane and through-plane pressure drops of layered fibrous media with porosity, fiber diameter, fiber spacing, fiber-fiber angles and fiber-flow angles. The study also reveals that pressure drop may increase with porosity and fiber diameter under specific circumstances. This counter-intuitive point narrows down the validity range of widely-used permeability-porosity-diameter models or correlations. It is found that, for fibrous materials, the most important parameter that impacts the in-plane pressure drop is not their porosities but the number of fibers extended in the flow direction. It is also concluded that in-plane pressure drop is highly dependent upon the flow direction (fiber-flow angles), especially at lower porosities. Contrary to in-plane pressure drop, through-plane pressure drop is a weak function of fiber-fiber angles but is strongly impacted by fiber spacing, especially at lower porosities. At a given porosity, low through-plane pressure drops occur if fiber spacing does not change practically from one layer to another. Through-plane pressure drop also, insignificantly, increases with the intersecting angles between fibers. An optimized microstructure of fibrous media resulting in minimal in-plane and through-plane pressure drops is also offered for the first time in this work.

  4. Hybrid Design Tools Intuit Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendrich, Robert E.; Kyvsgaard Hansen, P.; Rasmussen, J.; Jorgensen, K.A.; Tollestrup, C.

    2012-01-01

    Non-linear, non-explicit, non-standard thinking and ambiguity in design tools has a great impact on enhancement of creativity during ideation and conceptualization. Tacit-tangible representation based on a mere idiosyncratic and individual approach combined with computational assistance allows the

  5. Libyan intuitive for rural electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, I. M. Saleh; Kreama, N. M.; Khalat, M. A.

    2006-01-01

    One of the obstacles in rural electrification is choosing the type of the electric source which best fits rural areas technically, socially, and economically. Renewable sources can be used to electrify rural areas. Rural electrification in Libya by photovoltaic systems in a national program which is devoted to electrify isolated villages, as part of this program the installation of 300 systems was started at the beginning of the year 2003 with a total power of 400 K Wp, the sizes of stand alone systems are 1.8 K Wp, 1.2 K Wp, 0.75 K Wp, and 0.15 K Wp, beside a hybrid system of diesel and PV. The systems was designed to supply different family needs a total of 5000 inhabitants will benefit from this project. In this paper we will introduce the rural photovoltaic electrification in Libya program, company the performance of three different PV sizes through the first two years of working. The systems performing well and with performance ratio much more than the deigned, very little power failure was reported, and there are social and technical issues to be addressed before, and after the installation of the PV system.(Author)

  6. The Desire of Parenthood: Intuitive Co-parental Behaviors and Quality of Couple Relationship among Italian and Belgian Same-Sex and Opposite-Sex Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miscioscia, Marina; Blavier, Adelaide; Pagone, Paolo R.; Simonelli, Alessandra

    2017-01-01

    Studies that focused on family issues have allowed a great understanding of the aspects related to its subsystems, such as parenting desire and its expectations, couples’ satisfaction and quality of child’s outcomes. All these aspects are greatly interconnected and contribute to the creation of specific family dynamics, such as the quality of family interactions. The present study focuses on intuitive co-parental behaviors and the quality of couple relationship observed during the decision process (intention and desire) to be (or become) parents. Our first goal was to explore these aspects in a cross-national sample made of Italian and Belgian heterosexual, lesbian and gay couples. We then aimed to evaluate if the degree of internalized homophobia affects co-parental alliance. The quality of couple relationship and co-parental behaviors have been evaluated through the recruitment of a group of 115 stable heterosexual, gay and lesbian couples (230 individuals, 20–50 years of age) without children, who wanted to become parents. We used the Prenatal Lausanne Trilogue Play to evaluate the Co-parental Alliance; the couple’s satisfaction was assessed with the Dyadic Adjustment Scale and the Internalized Homophobia with the MISS-LG. In line with the existent literature, the analysis did not find any difference between lesbian, gay and heterosexual couples in terms of co-parental alliance. High levels of couple adjustment lead to better parental performances among both Italian and Belgian couples. The results suggest also that sexual stigma differs from one country to another, and it has an impact on the capability of managing co-parenting. Clinical implications should be verified in further longitudinal studies in order to observe the impact on the inter-generational transmission of psychopathology. PMID:28261120

  7. Natural orifice transgastric endoscopic wedge hepatic resection in an experimental model using an intuitively controlled master and slave transluminal endoscopic robot (MASTER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phee, S J; Ho, K Y; Lomanto, D; Low, S C; Huynh, V A; Kencana, A P; Yang, K; Sun, Z L; Chung, S C Sydney

    2010-09-01

    The lack of triangulation of standard endoscopic devices limits the degree of freedom for surgical maneuvers during natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES). This study explored the feasibility of adapting an intuitively controlled master and slave transluminal endoscopic robot (MASTER) the authors developed to facilitate wedge hepatic resection in NOTES. The MASTER consists of a master controller, a telesurgical workstation, and a slave manipulator that holds two end-effectors: a grasper, and a monopolar electrocautery hook. The master controller is attached to the wrist and fingers of the operator and connected to the manipulator by electrical and wire cables. Movements of the operator are detected and converted into control signals driving the slave manipulator via a tendon-sheath power transmission mechanism allowing nine degrees of freedom. Using this system, wedge hepatic resection was performed through the transgastric route on two female pigs under general anesthesia. Entry into the peritoneal cavity was via a 10-mm incision made on the anterior wall of the stomach by the electrocautery hook. Wedge hepatic resection was performed using the robotic grasper and hook. Hemostasis was achieved with the electrocautery hook. After the procedure, the resected liver tissue was retrieved through the mouth using the grasper. Using the MASTER, transgastric wedge hepatic resection was successfully performed on two pigs with no laparoscopic assistance. The entire procedure took 9.4 min (range, 8.5-10.2 min), with 7.1 min (range, 6-8.2 min) spent on excision of the liver tissue. The robotics-controlled device was able to grasp, retract, and excise the liver specimen successfully in the desired plane. This study demonstrated for the first time that the MASTER could effectively mitigate the technical constraints normally encountered in NOTES procedures. With it, the triangulation of surgical tools and the manipulation of tissue became easy, and wedge hepatic

  8. From Augustine of Hippo's Memory Systems to Our Modern Taxonomy in Cognitive Psychology and Neuroscience of Memory: A 16-Century Nap of Intuition before Light of Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassel, Jean-Christophe; Cassel, Daniel; Manning, Lilianne

    2013-03-01

    Over the last half century, neuropsychologists, cognitive psychologists and cognitive neuroscientists interested in human memory have accumulated evidence showing that there is not one general memory function but a variety of memory systems deserving distinct (but for an organism, complementary) functional entities. The first attempts to organize memory systems within a taxonomic construct are often traced back to the French philosopher Maine de Biran (1766-1824), who, in his book first published in 1803, distinguished mechanical memory, sensitive memory and representative memory, without, however, providing any experimental evidence in support of his view. It turns out, however, that what might be regarded as the first elaborated taxonomic proposal is 14 centuries older and is due to Augustine of Hippo (354-430), also named St Augustine, who, in Book 10 of his Confessions, by means of an introspective process that did not aim at organizing memory systems, nevertheless distinguished and commented on sensible memory, intellectual memory, memory of memories, memory of feelings and passion, and memory of forgetting. These memories were envisaged as different and complementary instances. In the current study, after a short biographical synopsis of St Augustine, we provide an outline of the philosopher's contribution, both in terms of questions and answers, and focus on how this contribution almost perfectly fits with several viewpoints of modern psychology and neuroscience of memory about human memory functions, including the notion that episodic autobiographical memory stores events of our personal history in their what, where and when dimensions, and from there enables our mental time travel. It is not at all meant that St Augustine's elaboration was the basis for the modern taxonomy, but just that the similarity is striking, and that the architecture of our current viewpoints about memory systems might have preexisted as an outstanding intuition in the philosopher

  9. Towards system-wide implementation of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) in routine practice: Developing simple, intuitive descriptions of ICF categories in the ICF Generic and Rehabilitation Set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodinger, Birgit; Reinhardt, Jan D; Selb, Melissa; Stucki, Gerold; Yan, Tiebin; Zhang, Xia; Li, Jianan

    2016-06-13

    A national, multi-phase, consensus process to develop simple, intuitive descriptions of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) categories contained in the ICF Generic and Rehabilitation Sets, with the aim of enhancing the utility of the ICF in routine clinical practice, is presented in this study. A multi-stage, national, consensus process was conducted. The consensus process involved 3 expert groups and consisted of a preparatory phase, a consensus conference with consecutive working groups and 3 voting rounds (votes A, B and C), followed by an implementation phase. In the consensus conference, participants first voted on whether they agreed that an initially developed proposal for simple, intuitive descriptions of an ICF category was in fact simple and intuitive. The consensus conference was held in August 2014 in mainland China. Twenty-one people with a background in physical medicine and rehabilitation participated in the consensus process. Four ICF categories achieved consensus in vote A, 16 in vote B, and 8 in vote C. This process can be seen as part of a larger effort towards the system-wide implementation of the ICF in routine clinical and rehabilitation practice to allow for the regular and comprehensive evaluation of health outcomes most relevant for the monitoring of quality of care.

  10. Evidence-based care and the case for intuition and tacit knowledge in clinical assessment and decision making in mental health nursing practice: an empirical contribution to the debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, I; Lyons, C M

    2001-08-01

    This paper provides empirical evidence that challenges the view that methods of clinical assessment and decision making should not rely solely on logical positivist approaches. Whilst the National Health Service (NHS) Executive currently takes a hard positivist line on what constitutes evidence-based practice, data reveal that it is not always appropriate to disregard the tacit knowledge and intuition of experienced practitioners when making assessment decisions in mental health nursing practice. Data support the case for a holistic approach which may draw on intuition and tacit knowledge, as well as traditional approaches, to meet the requirements of clients with complex mental health problems. A model based on Schon's notion of reflection in and reflection on practice is proposed which demonstrates the value of intuition and tacit knowledge. This model allows the generation of insights which may ultimately be demonstrated to be acceptable and empirically testable. It is accepted that an element of risk taking is inevitable, but the inclusion of a formal analytical process into the model reduces the likelihood of inappropriate care interventions. The cognitive processes which experienced nurses use to make clinical decisions and their implications for practice will be explored.

  11. Combinando intuição e objetividade na construção de cenários alternativos Combining intuition with objectivity in building scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Ribas

    2008-12-01

    um procedimento cujas características principais foram transparência e baixo custo.Planning by means of scenarios has been carried out for 40 years. From introduction in l967 up to late seventies, analytic effort was directed to improve the scenario technique as a support decision for making. The three methodological lines that emerged are intuitive logic, probabilistic trends and prospective analysis. Subsequently preference for scenarios in planning did not progress as expected. This was due to the limited success of practitioners in dealing with excessive technicalities on the one hand and recurrent superficiality on the other. Furthermore, Millett (2003 emphasized middle management complaints that scenarios did not deal with competitive issues or to their critical business decisions. The author defined the challenges to be faced which were the resolution of misunderstanding regarding definition and methodology for scenario construction, clarification and expansion of the appropriate application of scenarios and reduction of resources necessary for scenario planning, all of which were addressed in the procedure presented. With an exploratory approach, subjective opinion from the intuition of specialists was combined with analytical methods. This procedure was applied step-by-step to construct alternate scenarios for residential consumption of electrical energy in the state of Parana up to 2015. Results from structured interviews with 14 specialists selected by appraisals, were combined with information from social, economic and electric power industry data bases. Low cost and transparency were the features of the three alternates scenarios produced together with their subjective probabilities.

  12. Birth weight differences between those offered financial voucher incentives for verified smoking cessation and control participants enrolled in the Cessation in Pregnancy Incentives Trial (CPIT), employing an intuitive approach and a Complier Average Causal Effects (CACE) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnachie, Alex; Haig, Caroline; Sinclair, Lesley; Bauld, Linda; Tappin, David M

    2017-07-20

    The Cessation in Pregnancy Incentives Trial (CPIT), which offered financial incentives for smoking cessation during pregnancy showed a clinically and statistically significant improvement in cessation. However, infant birth weight was not seen to be affected. This study re-examines birth weight using an intuitive and a complier average causal effects (CACE) method to uncover important information missed by intention-to-treat analysis. CPIT offered financial incentives up to £400 to pregnant smokers to quit. With incentives, 68 women (23.1%) were confirmed non-smokers at primary outcome, compared to 25 (8.7%) without incentives, a difference of 14.3% (Fisher test, p financial incentives to quit. Viewed in this way, the overall birth weight gain with incentives is attributable only to potential quitters. We compared an intuitive approach to a CACE analysis. Mean birth weight of potential quitters in the incentives intervention group (who therefore quit) was 3338 g compared with potential quitters in the control group (who did not quit) 3193 g. The difference attributable to incentives, was 3338 - 3193 = 145 g (95% CI -617, +803). The mean difference in birth weight between the intervention and control groups was 21 g, and the difference in the proportion who managed to quit was 14.3%. Since the intervention consisted of the offer of incentives to quit smoking, the intervention was received by all women in the intervention group. However, "compliance" was successfully quitting with incentives, and the CACE analysis yielded an identical result, causal birth weight increase 21 g ÷ 0.143 = 145 g. Policy makers have great difficulty giving pregnant women money to stop smoking. This study indicates that a small clinically insignificant improvement in average birth weight is likely to hide an important clinically significant increase in infants born to pregnant smokers who want to stop but cannot achieve smoking cessation without the addition of financial

  13. Adlerian psychology as an intuitive operant system

    OpenAIRE

    Pratt, Ann B.

    1985-01-01

    Traditional accounts of the Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler tend to sentimentalize his system and obscure its functional flavor. Six basic Adlerian positions on human behavior, including Rudolf Dreikurs' “four goals of misbehavior,” are interpreted as a primitive statement of operant principles. Applied techniques long used by Individual Psychology practitioners strongly resemble interventions that applied behavior analysts have developed by more systematic means.

  14. Toward the Geocentric Framework of Intuition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping

    2014-01-01

    (rooted in the Eastern ontology of ‘Tao’) to ambiguity (rooted in the Eastern epistemology of Yin-Yang Balancing), and finally to metaphor (rooted in the Eastern methodology of ‘Wu’). The reframed perspective of ambiguity as a multi-frame blend will mediate between complexity and metaphor with a shared...

  15. Intuitive experimentation in the physical world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramley, Neil R; Gerstenberg, Tobias; Tenenbaum, Joshua B; Gureckis, Todd M

    2018-06-06

    Many aspects of our physical environment are hidden. For example, it is hard to estimate how heavy an object is from visual observation alone. In this paper we examine how people actively "experiment" within the physical world to discover such latent properties. In the first part of the paper, we develop a novel framework for the quantitative analysis of the information produced by physical interactions. We then describe two experiments that present participants with moving objects in "microworlds" that operate according to continuous spatiotemporal dynamics similar to everyday physics (i.e., forces of gravity, friction, etc.). Participants were asked to interact with objects in the microworlds in order to identify their masses, or the forces of attraction/repulsion that governed their movement. Using our modeling framework, we find that learners who freely interacted with the physical system selectively produced evidence that revealed the physical property consistent with their inquiry goal. As a result, their inferences were more accurate than for passive observers and, in some contexts, for yoked participants who watched video replays of an active learner's interactions. We characterize active learners' actions into a range of micro-experiment strategies and discuss how these might be learned or generalized from past experience. The technical contribution of this work is the development of a novel analytic framework and methodology for the study of interactively learning about the physical world. Its empirical contribution is the demonstration of sophisticated goal directed human active learning in a naturalistic context. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Stock-car racing makes intuitive physicists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2008-03-01

    Formula One races involve cars festooned with gadgets and complex electronic devices, in which millions of dollars are spent refining a vehicle's aerodynamics and reducing its weight. But in events run by America's National Association of Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR), cars hurtle round an oval track at speeds of about 300 km h-1 without the help of the complex sensors that are employed in Formula One cars. To avoid crashing, drivers must make their own adjustments to track conditions, engine problems and the traffic around them.

  17. Syndrome Diagnosis: Human Intuition or Machine Intelligence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braaten, Øivind; Friestad, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether artificial intelligence methods can represent objective methods that are essential in syndrome diagnosis. Most syndromes have no external criterion standard of diagnosis. The predictive value of a clinical sign used in diagnosis is dependent on the prior probability of the syndrome diagnosis. Clinicians often misjudge the probabilities involved. Syndromology needs objective methods to ensure diagnostic consistency, and take prior probabilities into account. We applied two basic artificial intelligence methods to a database of machine-generated patients - a ‘vector method’ and a set method. As reference methods we ran an ID3 algorithm, a cluster analysis and a naive Bayes’ calculation on the same patient series. The overall diagnostic error rate for the the vector algorithm was 0.93%, and for the ID3 0.97%. For the clinical signs found by the set method, the predictive values varied between 0.71 and 1.0. The artificial intelligence methods that we used, proved simple, robust and powerful, and represent objective diagnostic methods. PMID:19415142

  18. Redefining Cheminformatics with Intuitive Collaborative Mobile Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Alex M; Ekins, Sean; Williams, Antony J

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The proliferation of mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet computers has recently been extended to include a growing ecosystem of increasingly sophisticated chemistry software packages, commonly known as apps. The capabilities that these apps can offer to the practicing chemist are approaching those of conventional desktop-based software, but apps tend to be focused on a relatively small range of tasks. To overcome this, chemistry apps must be able to seamlessly transfer data to other apps, and through the network to other devices, as well as to other platforms, such as desktops and servers, using documented file formats and protocols whenever possible. This article describes the development and state of the art with regard to chemistry-aware apps that make use of facile data interchange, and some of the scenarios in which these apps can be inserted into a chemical information workflow to increase productivity. A selection of contemporary apps is used to demonstrate their relevance to pharmaceutical research. Mobile apps represent a novel approach for delivery of cheminformatics tools to chemists and other scientists, and indications suggest that mobile devices represent a disruptive technology for drug discovery, as they have been to many other industries. PMID:23198002

  19. Adlerian psychology as an intuitive operant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, A B

    1985-01-01

    Traditional accounts of the Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler tend to sentimentalize his system and obscure its functional flavor. Six basic Adlerian positions on human behavior, including Rudolf Dreikurs' "four goals of misbehavior," are interpreted as a primitive statement of operant principles. Applied techniques long used by Individual Psychology practitioners strongly resemble interventions that applied behavior analysts have developed by more systematic means.

  20. Improving topology optimization intuition through games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nobel-Jørgensen, Morten; Malmgren-Hansen, David; Bærentzen, J. Andreas

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the educational game, TopOpt Game, which invites the player to solve various optimization challenges. The main purpose of gamifying topology optimization is to create a supplemental educational tool which can be used to introduce concepts of topology optimization to newcomers...

  1. Calculus an intuitive and physical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Kline, Morris

    1998-01-01

    Application-oriented introduction relates the subject as closely as possible to science. In-depth explorations of the derivative, the differentiation and integration of the powers of x, and theorems on differentiation and antidifferentiation lead to a definition of the chain rule and examinations of trigonometric functions, logarithmic and exponential functions, techniques of integration, polar coordinates, much more. Clear-cut explanations, numerous drills, illustrative examples. 1967 edition. Solution guide available upon request.

  2. Cesare Lombroso: Methodological ambiguities and brilliant intuitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Uberto; Verde, Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    This paper on Cesare Lombroso aims to assess his contribution to the criminological sciences. Although much praised worldwide, Lombroso was also the target of scathing criticism and unmitigated condemnation. Examination of Lombroso's method of data collection and analysis reveals his weakness. Indeed, his approach was extremely naive, simplistic and uncritical, aimed at irrefutably demonstrating the hypotheses that he championed, without exercising the methodological caution that was already beginning to characterize scientific research in his day. However, we must acknowledge that his biological theories of crime are undergoing new developments as a result of the recent success of biological psychiatry. On the other hand we should recognize that his work was not limited to his biological central theory; rather, it covered a range of cues and concepts, for the most part ignored, that demonstrate his interest in the economic, cultural and social factors that impact on crime. For these reasons, Lombroso appears to have anticipated many modern conceptions regarding delinquent behavior and criminal justice, such as those of restorative justice, the so-called "situational" theories of criminal behavior and white collar crime. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Intuition beyond the law of the state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Connelly

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines one aspect of the possible influence of Aristotle on Spinoza's thinking of state laws and their limitations.  In the Nicomachean Ethics, the Stagirite sets out a theory of the just city based on appropriate geometrical proportioning of justice, but then proposes the hypothesis of the most excellent man: someone so virtuous that they cannot be bound by the city's laws and so must be banished or elevated to monarch.  The article investigates how Spinoza's own conceptions of geometry and metaphysics inform his view of justice and laws in the city.  It indicates how, in continuing to posit the virtuous as someone both with a higher form of cognition of law, but who must nevertheless live in the city, Spinoza is likely to have been confronted with Aristotle's 'problem of excellence'.  The article examines Spinoza's initial and strikingly modern solution to the problem, but also indicates how Spinoza's own thinking on metaphysics and genetic geometry pushes him beyond this 'answer' in his later political work.

  4. Moral Intuition and the Professional Military Ethic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    civilization. Emotion is primary in human culture and it‟s in influence is unquestionable – it absolutely dominates the human sense of morality . The...person that are made with respect to a set of virtues [and behaviors] held to be obligatory by members of a culture or sub- culture . Moral reasoning...formula for postmodern relativism . When it comes to morality and ethics, the “how to” decision-making process is never as important as what our Soldier

  5. From Augustine of Hippo’s Memory Systems to Our Modern Taxonomy in Cognitive Psychology and Neuroscience of Memory: A 16-Century Nap of Intuition before Light of Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Cassel

    2012-12-01

    intuition in the philosopher’s mind.

  6. A counter-intuitive approach to calculating non-exchangeable 2H isotopic composition of hair: treating the molar exchange fraction fE as a process-related rather than compound-specific variable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landwehr, J.M.; Meier-Augenstein, W.; Kemp, H.F.

    2011-01-01

    Hair is a keratinous tissue that incorporates hydrogen from material that an animal consumes but it is metabolically inert following synthesis. The stable hydrogen isotope composition of hair has been used in ecological studies to track migrations of mammals as well as for forensic and archaeological purposes to determine the provenance of human remains or the recent geographic life trajectory of living people. Measurement of the total hydrogen isotopic composition of a hair sample yields a composite value comprised of both metabolically informative, non-exchangeable hydrogen and exchangeable hydrogen, with the latter reflecting ambient or sample preparation conditions. Neither of these attributes is directly measurable, and the non-exchangeable hydrogen composition is obtained by estimation using a commonly applied mathematical expression incorporating sample measurements obtained from two distinct equilibration procedures. This commonly used approach treats the fraction of exchangeable hydrogen as a mixing ratio, with a minimal procedural fractionation factor assumed to be close or equal to 1. Instead, we propose to use full molar ratios to derive an expression for the non-exchangeable hydrogen composition explicitly as a function of both the procedural fractionation factor α and the molar hydrogen exchange fraction fE. We apply these derivations in a longitudinal study of a hair sample and demonstrate that the molar hydrogen exchange fraction fE should, like the procedural fractionation factor α, be treated as a process-dependent parameter, i.e. a reaction-specific constant. This is a counter-intuitive notion given that maximum theoretical values for the molar hydrogen exchange fraction fE can be calculated that are arguably protein-type specific and, as such, fE could be regarded as a compound-specific constant. We also make some additional suggestions for future approaches to determine the non-exchangeable hydrogen composition of hair and the use of

  7. Intuitīvas ēšanas, ķermeņa masas indeksa un ēšanas pārliecību saistība gados jaunākām un vecākām sievietēm.

    OpenAIRE

    Vilciņa, Sabīne

    2016-01-01

    Pētījuma mērķis bija noskaidrot sakarības starp intuitīvu ēšanu, ĶMI un ēšanas pārliecībām sieviešu izlasē (N=514) un noskaidrot, vai pastāv atšķirības starp gados jaunākām (18-40) sievietēm (n=259) un gados vecākām (41-69) sievietēm (n=255). Pētījumā tika izmantotas intuitīvas ēšanas skala - 2 un ēšanas pārliecību aptauja. Rezultāti norāda, ka gados vecākas sievietes uzrāda statistiski nozīmīgi zemākus rezultātus intuitīvas ēšanas dimensijā „beznosacījumu atļaujā ēst “, statistiski nozīmīgi ...

  8. 论直觉、偏差和情绪在伦理决策中的作用%The role of intuition, heuristics, and emotion in ethical decision-making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍如昕

    2015-01-01

    Ethical decision-making is an important issue in the field of ethics research especially of the business ethics. Currently, most ethical decision-making models treat the process of ethical decision-making as a logical and reasoned process, sitting on assumptions of rational, conscious, and quasilegal reasoning. Such models are predominate despite the fact that they could not fully explain the complexity of the ethical thinking and the dilemmas in the practice. In fact, many irrational elements affect the processes in the ethical decision-making. The essay selectively reviews the effects of intuition, heuristics, and emotion, which profoundly affect human behavior and lead to systematic biases and departures from normative theories of rationality.%伦理决策是伦理学尤其是商业伦理研究领域中的重要议题。现有大多数伦理决策模型基于理性、意识和准合法的前提假设,将伦理决策视为逻辑和理性的过程。尽管这些模型在目前伦理决策的研究中占有主导地位,然而这些模型往往难以完全解释伦理思维和实践困境中的复杂性。事实上,许多非理性因素对伦理决策存在影响。通过回顾、梳理现有伦理决策中直觉、偏差和情绪对伦理决策影响的相关研究说明,这些非理性因素从根本上影响着人类伦理决策,并且导致对理性的标准化伦理决策理论的偏离。

  9. A systematic review of controlled trials on visual stress using Intuitive Overlays or the Intuitive Colorimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Bruce J W; Allen, Peter M

    2016-01-01

    Claims that coloured filters aid reading date back 200 years and remain controversial. Some claims, for example, that more than 10% of the general population and 50% of people with dyslexia would benefit from coloured filters lack sound evidence and face validity. Publications with such claims typically cite research using methods that have not been described in the scientific literature and lack a sound aetiological framework. Notwithstanding these criticisms, some researchers have used more rigorous selection criteria and methods of prescribing coloured filters that were developed at a UK Medical Research Council unit and which have been fully described in the scientific literature. We review this research and disconfirm many of the more extreme claims surrounding this topic. This literature indicates that a minority subset of dyslexics (circa 20%) may have a condition described as visual stress which most likely results from a hyperexcitability of the visual cortex. Visual stress is characterised by symptoms of visual perceptual distortions, headaches, and eyestrain when viewing repetitive patterns, including lines of text. This review indicates that visual stress is distinct from, although sometimes co-occurs with, dyslexia. Individually prescribed coloured filters have been shown to improve reading performance in people with visual stress, but are unlikely to influence the phonological and memory deficits associated with dyslexia and therefore are not a treatment for dyslexia. This review concludes that larger and rigorous randomised controlled trials of interventions for visual stress are required. Improvements in the diagnosis of the condition are also a priority. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  10. Intuitive physics and intuitive psychology (“theory of mind” in offspring of mothers with psychoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeka Maróthi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Offspring of individuals with psychoses sometimes display an abnormal development of cognition, language, motor performance, social adaptation, and emotional functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of children of mothers with schizophrenia (n = 28 and bipolar disorder (n = 23 to understand mental states of others using the Eyes Test (folk psychology or “theory of mind” and physical causal interactions of inanimate objects (folk physics. Compared with healthy controls (n = 29, the children of mothers with schizophrenia displayed significantly impaired performances on the Eyes Test but not on the folk physics test when corrected for IQ. The children of mothers with bipolar disorder did not differ from the controls. The folk physics test showed a significant covariance with IQ, whereas the Eyes Test did not exhibit such covariance. These results suggest that the attribution of mental states, but not the interpretation of causal interaction of objects, is impaired in offspring of individuals with schizophrenia, which may contribute to social dysfunctions.

  11. Virtual microscopy: Merging of computer mediated collaboration and intuitive interfacing

    OpenAIRE

    De Ridder, H.; De Ridder-Sluiter, J.G.; Kluin, P.M.; Christiaans, H.H.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    Ubiquitous computing (or Ambient Intelligence) is an upcoming technology that is usually associated with futuristic smart environments in which information is available anytime anywhere and with which humans can interact in a natural, multimodal way. However spectacular the corresponding scenarios may be, it is equally challenging to consider how this technology may enhance existing situations. This is illustrated by a case study from the Dutch medical field: central quality reviewing for pat...

  12. Virtual microscopy : Merging of computer mediated collaboration and intuitive interfacing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Ridder, H.; De Ridder-Sluiter, J.G.; Kluin, P.M.; Christiaans, H.H.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    Ubiquitous computing (or Ambient Intelligence) is an upcoming technology that is usually associated with futuristic smart environments in which information is available anytime anywhere and with which humans can interact in a natural, multimodal way. However spectacular the corresponding scenarios

  13. Cognitive biases can affect moral intuitions about cognitive enhancement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caviola, L.; Mannino, A.; Savulescu, J.; Faulmüller, N.

    2014-01-01

    Research into cognitive biases that impair human judgment has mostly been applied to the area of economic decision-making. Ethical decision-making has been comparatively neglected. Since ethical decisions often involve very high individual as well as collective stakes, analyzing how cognitive biases

  14. Designing Intuitive Web Solutions for Monitoring Patients’ Rehabilitation at Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raihana Ferdous

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design of web-based remote monitoring interfaces aimed at supporting therapists and caregivers in supervising motor-cognitive rehabilitation plans of care to be performed by patients at home. This work was part of a three years’ research project where game-based environments for upper body motor rehabilitation of post-stroke patients were developed in collaboration with two main rehabilitation centers in Italy and Austria, for a subsequent deployment at patients’ homes. The paper will specifically focus on describing the iterative design of the home rehabilitation features for clinicians over the first two years of the project to enable the delivery and monitoring of more personalized, engaging plans of care for home therapy by rehabilitation centers and services.

  15. Post-buckling analysis of composite beams: A simple intuitive ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and lateral displacement functions at any discrete location of the beam. ..... shells under combined axial compression and radial pressure. ... Razakamiadana A and Zidi M 1999 Buckling and post-buckling of concentric cylindrical tubes under.

  16. Text Readability and Intuitive Simplification: A Comparison of Readability Formulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Scott A.; Allen, David B.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2011-01-01

    Texts are routinely simplified for language learners with authors relying on a variety of approaches and materials to assist them in making the texts more comprehensible. Readability measures are one such tool that authors can use when evaluating text comprehensibility. This study compares the Coh-Metrix Second Language (L2) Reading Index, a…

  17. Intuitive Exploration of Volumetric Data Using Dynamic Galleries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, Daniel; Falk, Martin; Ynnerman, Anders

    2016-01-01

    In this work we present a volume exploration method designed to be used by novice users and visitors to science centers and museums. The volumetric digitalization of artifacts in museums is of rapidly increasing interest as enhanced user experience through interactive data visualization can be achieved. This is, however, a challenging task since the vast majority of visitors are not familiar with the concepts commonly used in data exploration, such as mapping of visual properties from values in the data domain using transfer functions. Interacting in the data domain is an effective way to filter away undesired information but it is difficult to predict where the values lie in the spatial domain. In this work we make extensive use of dynamic previews instantly generated as the user explores the data domain. The previews allow the user to predict what effect changes in the data domain will have on the rendered image without being aware that visual parameters are set in the data domain. Each preview represents a subrange of the data domain where overview and details are given on demand through zooming and panning. The method has been designed with touch interfaces as the target platform for interaction. We provide a qualitative evaluation performed with visitors to a science center to show the utility of the approach.

  18. A Distributed Tactile Sensor for Intuitive Human-Robot Interfacing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cirillo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Safety of human-robot physical interaction is enabled not only by suitable robot control strategies but also by suitable sensing technologies. For example, if distributed tactile sensors were available on the robot, they could be used not only to detect unintentional collisions, but also as human-machine interface by enabling a new mode of social interaction with the machine. Starting from their previous works, the authors developed a conformable distributed tactile sensor that can be easily conformed to the different parts of the robot body. Its ability to estimate contact force components and to provide a tactile map with an accurate spatial resolution enables the robot to handle both unintentional collisions in safe human-robot collaboration tasks and intentional touches where the sensor is used as human-machine interface. In this paper, the authors present the characterization of the proposed tactile sensor and they show how it can be also exploited to recognize haptic tactile gestures, by tailoring recognition algorithms, well known in the image processing field, to the case of tactile images. In particular, a set of haptic gestures has been defined to test three recognition algorithms on a group of 20 users. The paper demonstrates how the same sensor originally designed to manage unintentional collisions can be successfully used also as human-machine interface.

  19. Global evidence of extreme intuitive moral prejudice against atheists

    OpenAIRE

    Gervais, Will

    2017-01-01

    Mounting evidence supports longstanding claims that religions can extend cooperative networks. However, religious prosociality may have a strongly parochial component. Moreover, aspects of religion may promote or exacerbate conflict with those outside a given religious group, promoting regional violence, intergroup conflict, as well as tacit prejudice against nonbelievers. Anti-atheist prejudice—a growing concern in increasingly secular societies—affects employment, elections, family life, an...

  20. From intuition to statistics in building subsurface structural models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenburg, J.P.; Alpak, F.O.; Naruk, S.; Solum, J.

    2011-01-01

    Experts associated with the oil and gas exploration industry suggest that combining forward trishear models with stochastic global optimization algorithms allows a quantitative assessment of the uncertainty associated with a given structural model. The methodology is applied to incompletely imaged structures related to deepwater hydrocarbon reservoirs and results are compared to prior manual palinspastic restorations and borehole data. This methodology is also useful for extending structural interpretations into other areas of limited resolution, such as subsalt in addition to extrapolating existing data into seismic data gaps. This technique can be used for rapid reservoir appraisal and potentially have other applications for seismic processing, well planning, and borehole stability analysis.

  1. An Intuitive Definition of Demand Flexibility in Direct Load Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahersima, Fatemeh; Madsen, Per Printz; Andersen, Palle

    2013-01-01

    Two control approaches: direct and indirect control of demand side energy management in a smart grid are studied. Indirect control of energy demands is based on economic incentives. In this approach, consumers will shift their energy consumption with the benefit of a cut down in the electricity b...

  2. Intuitive Music:A Mini-Handbook: Version 2009f

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2009-01-01

    Handbook for people who wish to play or teach freely improvised music and improvisation pieces. With sections on how to start with different types of groups, training of musical awareness, parameters of the musical sound, the history of improvised music and a bibliography. - Greek translation by Demetrios Psychas, 2013. Handbook for people who wish to play or teach freely improvised music and improvisation pieces. With sections on how to start with different types of groups, training of mu...

  3. People's Intuitions about Randomness and Probability: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecoutre, Marie-Paule; Rovira, Katia; Lecoutre, Bruno; Poitevineau, Jacques

    2006-01-01

    What people mean by randomness should be taken into account when teaching statistical inference. This experiment explored subjective beliefs about randomness and probability through two successive tasks. Subjects were asked to categorize 16 familiar items: 8 real items from everyday life experiences, and 8 stochastic items involving a repeatable…

  4. Seize changes, be courageous, and trust your mentors and intuition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Bente

    2014-01-01

    The above advice is the general messages that I would like to leave with you, my younger colleagues. I could also have framed the advice in another way: Even if you’re scared stiff of not being able to perform well, don’t be afraid to try! It can only go wrong, and if so, you’ve had yet another...... try. However, a life of an academic will only stop with the final breath. I will probably also after my formal career get pleasure and energy from reading and exploring new or changing avenues for thinking and writing about my field, learning, organisational, working life, and professionals’ learning...

  5. Intuitive Understanding of Solutions of Partially Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article uses diagrams that help the observer see how solutions of the wave equation and heat conduction equation are obtained. The analytical approach cannot necessarily show the mechanisms of the key to the solution without transforming the differential equation into a more convenient form by separation of variables. The visual clues based…

  6. Pure intuition: Miranda Fricker on the economy of prejudice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús ZAMORA BONILLA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Two aspects of Miranda Fricker’s book are criticised: the implicit assumption that ethical theory can solve fundamental problems in epistemology, and the excessive reliance on testimony as a fundamental source of knowledge. Against the former, it is argued that ethical theories are based on cultural prejudices to a higher extent than epistemological theories. Against the latter, argumentation is proposed as a more important epistemic practice than testimony.

  7. An Intuitive Robot Teleoperation System for Nuclear Power Plant Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang-hyuk; Gu, Taehyeong; Lee, Kyung-min; Ye, Sung-Joon; Bang, Young-bong

    2017-01-01

    A robot teleoperation system consists of a master device and a slave robot. The master device senses human intention and delivers it to the salve robot. A haptic device and an exoskeletal robot are widely used as the master device. The slave robot carries out operations delivered by the master device. It should guarantee enough degree of freedom (DOF) to perform the instructed operation and mobility in the environment inside the nuclear plant, such as flat surfaces and stairs. A 7-DOF robotic arm is commonly used as the slave device. This paper proposed a robot teleoperation system for nuclear power plant decommissioning. It discussed an experiment that was performed to validate the system's usability. The operator wearing the exoskeletal master device at the master site controlled the slave robot enabling it to move on a flat surface, climb/descend stairs, and move obstacles. The proposed robot teleoperation system can also be used in hazardous working environments where the use of such robots would be beneficial to human health and safety. In the future, research studies on the protection against radiation that damages the slave robot should be conducted.

  8. Recognition-Primed Decisions, Ethical Intuition and Borrowing Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    According to Freud , socialization is the primary source of moral development and people develop morally when one’s internal desires are overcome by...32 Sigmund Freud (6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939), was an Austrian neurologist who founded the discipline of psychoanalysis. 33 Kornblum, W

  9. Accuracy and Intuition: The Mission of a Science Journalist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramling, Carolyn

    2004-07-01

    After years of experimenting with how to explain my thesis research to family and friends, I realized two things: (1) just because I was the presumed expert on a topic didn't mean I could easily break it down into absorbable nuggets of information; but (2) trying to do that was an absorbing challenge. It was more than a game; it was a sort of mission. How do I convince my audience that the underlying science isn't too esoteric-that science can be more fun than intimidating? The AAAS Mass Media Science and Engineering Fellowship program seemed like a perfect opportunity to undertake this mission. As a recent Ph.D. in marine geochemistry in the MIT/WHOI Joint Program for Oceanography, I had written and presented specialized papers geared toward scientists. However, as a science journalist, I imagined I would be a sort of interpreter, an intermediary between scientists and the general public, translating complicated scientific concepts into readable prose, while maintaining constant vigilance against jargon and assumptions. Something like that.

  10. Accuracy of Slovak national stereotypes: Result of judgment or intuition?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kouřilová, Sylvie; Hřebíčková, Martina

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 2 (2011), 201-213 ISSN 0039-3320 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP407/10/2394 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : national stereotypes * judgement * five-factor model Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.197, year: 2011

  11. An intuitive interface for building management and planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de B.; Buma, S.A.; Jessurun, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    Building management and planning professionals utilize database systems for administrative support, but these systems are inadequate for conveying architectural plans. In this article we describe the so-called Virtual Maquette that was developed at the Eindhoven University of Technology for the

  12. Defying Intuition: Demonstrating the Importance of the Empirical Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Art

    1992-01-01

    Describes a classroom activity featuring a simple stay-switch probability game. Contends that the exercise helps students see the importance of empirically validating beliefs. Includes full instructions for conducting and discussing the exercise. (CFR)

  13. The Color Glass Condensate: An Intuitive Physical Description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLerran, Larry

    2006-01-01

    I argue that the scattering of very high energy strongly interacting particles is controlled by a new, universal form of matter, the Color Glass Condensate. This matter is predicted by QCD and explains the saturation of gluon densites at small x. I motivate the existence of this matter and describe some of its properties

  14. Intuitiveness of Symbol Features for Air Traffic Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Mary Kim; Vu, Kim-Phuong L.; Thorpe, Elaine; Battiste, Vernol; Strybel, Thomas Z.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of two online surveys asking participants to indicate what type of air traffic information might be conveyed by a number of symbols and symbol features (color, fill, text, and shape). The results of this initial study suggest that the well-developed concepts of ownership, altitude, and trajectory are readily associated with certain symbol features, while the relatively novel concept of equipage was not clearly associated with any specific symbol feature.

  15. Exploring Native and Non-Native Intuitions of Word Frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Norbert; Dunham, Bruce

    1999-01-01

    Asked native and nonnative speakers to give judgments of frequency for near synonyms in second-language lexical sets and compared those responses to modern corpus word counts. Native speakers were able to discern the core word in lexical sets either 77% or 85%, and nonnative speakers at 71% or 79%. (Author/VWL)

  16. Autonomy, evidence and intuition: nurses and decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traynor, Michael; Boland, Maggie; Buus, Niels

    2010-07-01

    This paper is a report of a study conducted to examine how nurses represent professional clinical decision-making processes, and to determine what light Jamous and Peloille's 'Indeterminacy/Technicality ratio' concept can shed on these representations. Classic definitions of professional work feature autonomy of decision-making and control over the field of work. Sociologists Jamous and Peloille have described professional work as being high in 'indeterminacy' (the use of tacit judgements) relative to technicality (activity able to be codified). The rise of the evidence-based practice movement has been seen as increasing the realm of technical decision-making in healthcare, and it is relevant to analyse nurses' professional discourse and study how they respond to this increase. Three focus groups with qualified nurses attending post-qualifying courses at a London university were held in 2008. Participants were asked to talk about influences on their decision-making. The discussions were tape-recorded, transcribed and subjected to discourse analysis. Participants described their decision-making as influenced by both indeterminate and technical features. They acknowledged useful influences from both domains, but pointed to their personal 'experience' as the final arbiter of decision-making. Their accounts of decision-making created a sense of professional autonomy while at the same time protecting it against external critique. Pre- and post-registration nurse education could encourage robust discussion of the definition and roles of 'irrational' aspects of decision-making and how these might be understood as components of credible professional practice.

  17. Building Intuitive Arguments for the Triangle Congruence Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatek-Jimenez, Katrina

    2008-01-01

    The triangle congruence conditions are a central focus to nearly any course in Euclidean geometry. The author presents a hands-on activity that uses straws and pipe cleaners to explore and justify the triangle congruence conditions. (Contains 4 figures.)

  18. Intuitive understanding of nonlocality as implied by quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohm, D.G.; Hiley, B.J.

    1975-01-01

    The fact is brought out that the essential new quality implied by the quantum theory is nonlocality; i.e., that a system cannot be analyzed into parts whose basic properties do not depend on the state of the whole system. This is done in terms of the causal interpretation of the quantum theory, proposed by one of us (D.B.) in 2952, involving the introduction of the ''quantum potential.'' It is shown that this approach implies a new universal type of description, in which the standard or canonical form is always supersystem-system-subsystem; and this leads to the radically new notion of unbroken wholeness of the entire universe. Finally, some of the implications of extending these notions to the relativity domain, and in so doing, a novel concept of time, in terms of which relativity and quantum theory may eventually be brought together, is indicated

  19. Intuitions and Undefined Operations: The Cases of Division by Zero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsamir, Pessia; Sheffer, Ruth; Tirosh, Dina

    2000-01-01

    Describes a study that explores secondary school students' conceptions of division by zero. Examines whether students identify expressions involving division by zero as undefined or tend to assign them numerical values. Studies students' justifications and analyzes the effects of age and level of achievement in mathematics on students' responses…

  20. Intuitive optics: what great apes infer from mirrors and shadows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völter, Christoph J; Call, Josep

    2018-05-02

    There is ongoing debate about the extent to which nonhuman animals, like humans, can go beyond first-order perceptual information to abstract structural information from their environment. To provide more empirical evidence regarding this question, we examined what type of information great apes (chimpanzees, bonobos, and orangutans) gain from optical effects such as shadows and mirror images. In an initial experiment, we investigated whether apes would use mirror images and shadows to locate hidden food. We found that all examined ape species used these cues to find the food. Follow-up experiments showed that apes neither confused these optical effects with the food rewards nor did they merely associate cues with food. First, naïve chimpanzees used the shadow of the hidden food to locate it but they did not learn within the same number of trials to use a perceptually similar rubber patch as indicator of the hidden food reward. Second, apes made use of the mirror images to estimate the distance of the hidden food from their own body. Depending on the distance, apes either pointed into the direction of the food or tried to access the hidden food directly. Third, apes showed some sensitivity to the geometrical relation between mirror orientation and mirrored objects when searching hidden food. Fourth, apes tended to interpret mirror images and pictures of these mirror images differently depending on their prior knowledge. Together, these findings suggest that apes are sensitive to the optical relation between mirror images and shadows and their physical referents.

  1. Money Is Essential: Ownership Intuitions Are Linked to Physical Currency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlmann, Eric Luis; Zhu, Luke

    2013-01-01

    Due to basic processes of psychological essentialism and contagion, one particular token of monetary currency is not always interchangeable with another piece of currency of equal economic value. When money loses its physical form it is perceived as "not quite the same" money (i.e., to have partly lost the original essence that distinguished it…

  2. Development and Evaluation of an Intuitive Operations Planning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    fournir un soutien 24 heures par jour, 7 jours par semaine, tenir des conférences en ligne avec image et son, utiliser des ateliers virtuels et utiliser...FOO asks IO for more clarification about typography of land 0:23 Logi returns to table; starts making notes 0:23 Comd tells OPS O and AOPS O to work

  3. Discovery simulations and the assessment of intuitive knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaak, Janine; de Jong, Anthonius J.M.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the present work is to have a closer look at the relations between the features of discovery simulations, the learning processes elicited, the knowledge that results, and the methods used to measure this acquired knowledge. It is argued that discovery simulations are ‘rich’, have a

  4. Imagery, Intuition and Imagination in Quantum Physics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Andrew J.

    2018-01-01

    In response to the authors, I demonstrate how threshold concepts offer a means to both contextualise teaching and learning of quantum physics and help transform students into the culture of physics, and as a way to identify particularly troublesome concepts within quantum physics. By drawing parallels from my own doctoral research in another area…

  5. Short Paper: Design Tools, Hybridization Exploring Intuitive Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendrich, Robert E.; Kuhlen, Torsten; Coquillart, Sabine; Interrante, Victoria

    2010-01-01

    Design and Design Engineering is about making abstract representations often based on fuzzy notions, ideas or prerequisite requirements with the use of various design tools. This paper introduces an interactive hybrid design tool to assist and support singular design activity or multiple

  6. More interoperability and intuitive control to open up the market for domotics; Meer interoperabiliteit en intuitive bediening kunnen domoticamarkt openbreken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Mil, R.

    2011-09-15

    There are three important goals in building and dwelling automation; more comfort, increasing safety and more efficient energy use. Nevertheless, the use of domotics does not always lead to realization of these goals. Moreover, there are some preconditions that determine their acceptance among consumers. [Dutch] Er zijn drie belangrijke doelen om installaties in woningen en gebouwen te automatiseren: meer comfort, vergroting van de veiligheid en efficienter energieverbruik. Toch leidt toepassing van domotica niet altijd automatisch tot het bereiken van deze doelen. Bovendien zijn er enkele randvoorwaarden die bepalend zijn voor de acceptatie bij de consument.

  7. Virtual Environments for Intuitive Human-System Interaction (Environnements virtuels d'interaction Homme-Systeme Intuitive) (CD-ROM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    ...: Changing missions and development of new virtual and augmented reality technologies require the alliance to investigate and integrate new concepts for preparing their militaries and for evaluating...

  8. الحدس ما بين النظرية والتطبيق في النص المسرحي مسرحية سوء تفاهم انموذجا The Intuition between theory and practice in the text theatrical play misunderstanding as a model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ievan ali Hadi م.م ايفان علي هادي

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Research Summary Knowing whether time and space within the text theatrical reality of what we believe or see or feel it, this leads to see if the killing symbolic of others and to the world and cut vision and visual, thought, and found it all leads to questions put in front of sensations and ideas, all of which is plucking really comprehensive that can not be accessed only by the forces of more ingenuity that will move understanding abstract of the feelings the other bank the bank informed understanding of the insider events and produces philosophy whereby, the outlook abstract will not be able to apply only to things that are located in front of As for the substance which those meanings internal They exist only legitimate right which can be relied upon to analyze text playwright and this strength and motor is undoubtedly (intuition as brokered can raise everything to the level of substance that produces ideas and possibilities substance can produce and packaged and contain events those possibilities are derived from the strength of intuition Assorted to do so. The process of trauma caused suddenly the incidence of Sense on their misguided produce imbalance and spends the individual toward equilibrium again and cut off then conduct mental processes and enters in the field something new, and there then the case of conscience may be violent until it reaches the enthusiasm and flowing in mind torrent suddenly of ideas and images. Call for this sudden moments of creativity, which vary accompanied by moments and emotional crises seem far from the normal operations of the mind and feeling, far from the rule of the will and control, for all that we call the (intuition. Can count this interpretation, in fact one of the oldest interpretations and observations suggest that the concept of intuition in the minds of critics and poets throughout history available in Subliminal automatically prevail in each and make them able to be creative, and this is what

  9. News Education: Physics Education Networks meeting has global scale Competition: Competition seeks the next Brian Cox Experiment: New measurement of neutrino time-of-flight consistent with the speed of light Event: A day for all those who teach physics Conference: Students attend first Anglo-Japanese international science conference Celebration: Will 2015 be the 'Year of Light'? Teachers: Challenging our intuition in spectacular fashion: the fascinating world of quantum physics awaits Research: Science sharpens up sport Learning: Kittinger and Baumgartner: on a mission to the edge of space International: London International Youth Science Forum calls for leading young scientists Competition: Physics paralympian challenge needs inquisitive, analytical, artistic and eloquent pupils Forthcoming events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Education: Physics Education Networks meeting has global scale Competition: Competition seeks the next Brian Cox Experiment: New measurement of neutrino time-of-flight consistent with the speed of light Event: A day for all those who teach physics Conference: Students attend first Anglo-Japanese international science conference Celebration: Will 2015 be the 'Year of Light'? Teachers: Challenging our intuition in spectacular fashion: the fascinating world of quantum physics awaits Research: Science sharpens up sport Learning: Kittinger and Baumgartner: on a mission to the edge of space International: London International Youth Science Forum calls for leading young scientists Competition: Physics paralympian challenge needs inquisitive, analytical, artistic and eloquent pupils Forthcoming events

  10. The Intuitive and the Logical in the Mathematical Knowledge: analysis of a pedagogical proposal from a viewpoint of new philosophical approaches and in the educational context of mathematics O Intuitivo e o Lógico no Conhecimento Matemático: análise de uma proposta pedagógica em relação a abordagens filos��ficas atuais e ao contexto educacional da matemática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Meneghetti

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider the Meneghetti & Bicudo’s proposal (2003 about the constitution of the mathematical knowledge and analyze it with respect to the following two focuses: under the conceptions of the mathematical knowledge after the mathematical fundamentalist crises and in the educational context of mathematics. The investigation of the first focus is done analyzing news claims to the mathematical philosophy. The investigation of the second focus is done firstly by a theoretical reflection and, soon after that, by focalizing the implementation of the proposal in the process of development of the didactic materials to teaching and learning of Mathematics. Finally, we present the main results of the application of one of those materials. Keywords: Mathematical Knowledge. Intuitive Aspect. Logical Aspect. Philosophy of Mathematics. Mathematics Education. Pedagogical Proposal.Este trabalho tem por objetivo retomar a proposta apresentada em Meneghetti & Bicudo (2003, referente à constituição do saber matemático, e analisá-la sob dois enfoques: em relação às concepções de conhecimento matemático após crise fundamentalista da matemática e ao contexto educacional da matemática. A investigação do primeiro enfoque foi feita analisando atuais reivindicações para a filosófica da matemática e a do segundo se deu, primeiramente, por meio de uma reflexão teórica e, em seguida, focalizando a implementação da proposta no processo de elaboração de materiais didáticos para o ensino e aprendizagem da matemática. Finaliza-se a pesquisa apresentado os principais resultados da aplicação de um desses materiais. Palavras-chave: Conhecimento Matemático. Aspecto Intuitivo. Aspecto Lógico. Filosofia da Matemática. Educação Matemática. Proposta Pedagógica.

  11. Transfer function design based on user selected samples for intuitive multivariate volume exploration

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Liang; Hansen, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Multivariate volumetric datasets are important to both science and medicine. We propose a transfer function (TF) design approach based on user selected samples in the spatial domain to make multivariate volumetric data visualization more accessible for domain users. Specifically, the user starts the visualization by probing features of interest on slices and the data values are instantly queried by user selection. The queried sample values are then used to automatically and robustly generate high dimensional transfer functions (HDTFs) via kernel density estimation (KDE). Alternatively, 2D Gaussian TFs can be automatically generated in the dimensionality reduced space using these samples. With the extracted features rendered in the volume rendering view, the user can further refine these features using segmentation brushes. Interactivity is achieved in our system and different views are tightly linked. Use cases show that our system has been successfully applied for simulation and complicated seismic data sets. © 2013 IEEE.

  12. What Makes a Good Trader? On the Role of Intuition and Reflection on Trader Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Corgnet, Brice; Desantis, Mark; Porter, David

    2016-01-01

    Using simulations and experiments, we pinpoint two main drivers of trader performance: cognitive reflection and theory of mind. Both dimensions facilitate traders' learning about asset valuation. Cognitive reflection helps traders use market signals to update their beliefs whereas theory of mind offers traders crucial hints on the quality of those signals. We show these skills to be complementary because traders benefit from understanding the quality of market signals only if they are capable...

  13. Relations between Intuitive Biological Thinking and Biological Misconceptions in Biology Majors and Nonmajors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, John D.; Tanner, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Research and theory development in cognitive psychology and science education research remain largely isolated. Biology education researchers have documented persistent scientifically inaccurate ideas, often termed "misconceptions," among biology students across biological domains. In parallel, cognitive and developmental psychologists…

  14. Oxytocin promotes intuitive rather than deliberated cooperation with the in-group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Velden, F.S.; Daughters, K.; De Dreu, C.K.W.

    A contribution to a special issue on Hormones and Human Competition. In intergroup settings, individuals prefer cooperating with their in-group, and sometimes derogate and punish out-groups. Here we replicate earlier work showing that such in-group bounded cooperation is conditioned by oxytocin and

  15. Unconscious intuition or conscious analysis? Critical questions for the Deliberation-Without-Attention paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balazs Aczel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Deliberation without Attention (DWA effect refers to apparent improvements in decision-making following a period of distraction. It has been presented as evidence for beneficial unconscious cognitive processes. We identify two major concerns with this claim: first, as these demonstrations typically involve subjective preferences, the effects of distraction cannot be objectively assessed as beneficial; second, there is no direct evidence that the DWA manipulation promotes unconscious decision processes. We describe two tasks based on the DWA paradigm in which we found no evidence that the distraction manipulation led to decision processes that are subjectively unconscious, nor that it reduced the influence of presentation order upon performance. Crucially, we found that a lack of awareness of decision process was associated with poorer performance, both in terms of subjective preference measures used in traditional DWA paradigm and in an equivalent task where performance can be objectively assessed. Therefore, we argue that reliance on conscious memory itself can explain the data. Thus the DWA paradigm is not an adequate method of assessing beneficial unconscious thought.

  16. Mobile Manipulation, Tool Use, and Intuitive Interaction for Cognitive Service Robot Cosero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Stückler

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive service robots that shall assist persons in need in performing their activities of daily living have recently received much attention in robotics research.Such robots require a vast set of control and perception capabilities to provide useful assistance through mobile manipulation and human-robot interaction.In this article, we present hardware design, perception, and control methods for our cognitive service robot Cosero.We complement autonomous capabilities with handheld teleoperation interfaces on three levels of autonomy.The robot demonstrated various advanced skills, including the use of tools.With our robot we participated in the annual international RoboCup@Home competitions, winning them three times in a row.

  17. Fast and intuitive programming of adaptive laser cutting of lace enabled by machine vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaamonde, Iago; Souto-López, Álvaro; García-Díaz, Antón

    2015-07-01

    A machine vision system has been developed, validated, and integrated in a commercial laser robot cell. It permits an offline graphical programming of laser cutting of lace. The user interface allows loading CAD designs and aligning them with images of lace pieces. Different thread widths are discriminated to generate proper cutting program templates. During online operation, the system aligns CAD models of pieces and lace images, pre-checks quality of lace cuts and adapts laser parameters to thread widths. For pieces detected with the required quality, the program template is adjusted by transforming the coordinates of every trajectory point. A low-cost lace feeding system was also developed for demonstration of full process automation.

  18. Uncertainty plus prior equals rational bias: an intuitive Bayesian probability weighting function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, John; Baddeley, Roland

    2012-10-01

    Empirical research has shown that when making choices based on probabilistic options, people behave as if they overestimate small probabilities, underestimate large probabilities, and treat positive and negative outcomes differently. These distortions have been modeled using a nonlinear probability weighting function, which is found in several nonexpected utility theories, including rank-dependent models and prospect theory; here, we propose a Bayesian approach to the probability weighting function and, with it, a psychological rationale. In the real world, uncertainty is ubiquitous and, accordingly, the optimal strategy is to combine probability statements with prior information using Bayes' rule. First, we show that any reasonable prior on probabilities leads to 2 of the observed effects; overweighting of low probabilities and underweighting of high probabilities. We then investigate 2 plausible kinds of priors: informative priors based on previous experience and uninformative priors of ignorance. Individually, these priors potentially lead to large problems of bias and inefficiency, respectively; however, when combined using Bayesian model comparison methods, both forms of prior can be applied adaptively, gaining the efficiency of empirical priors and the robustness of ignorance priors. We illustrate this for the simple case of generic good and bad options, using Internet blogs to estimate the relevant priors of inference. Given this combined ignorant/informative prior, the Bayesian probability weighting function is not only robust and efficient but also matches all of the major characteristics of the distortions found in empirical research. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Twenty-first Century Managers and Intuition: An Exploratory Example of Pedagogic Change for Business Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A.; Holtham, C.; Rich, M.; Dove, A.

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the 20th century, business organizations have been subject to and have contributed to enormous changes in the way they work and the situations with which they have to deal, from revolutionary technology developments to the changing competitive environment. Since 2007, business has changed following the financial crisis. Management…

  20. Counter-intuitive influence of Himalayan river morphodynamics on Indus Civilisation urban settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ajit; Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov; Sinha, Rajiv

    2017-01-01

    Urbanism in the Bronze-age Indus Civilisation (similar to 4.6-3.9 thousand years before the present, ka) has been linked to water resources provided by large Himalayan river systems, although the largest concentrations of urban-scale Indus settlements are located far from extant Himalayan rivers....... Here we analyse the sedimentary architecture, chronology and provenance of a major palaeochannel associated with many of these settlements. We show that the palaeochannel is a former course of the Sutlej River, the third largest of the present-day Himalayan rivers. Using optically stimulated...... luminescence dating of sand grains, we demonstrate that flow of the Sutlej in this course terminated considerably earlier than Indus occupation, with diversion to its present course complete shortly after similar to 8 ka. Indus urban settlements thus developed along an abandoned river valley rather than...