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Sample records for intrusive domes morphometric

  1. Lunar Intrusive Domes on the Floor of Grimaldi and Near Aristillus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöhler, C.; Lena, R.; Pau, K. C.

    2010-03-01

    In this contribution we examine two large lunar domes of probably intrusive origin. The morphometric properties of the domes are derived, and geophysical parameters (intrusion depth, magma pressure) are estimated based on modelling.

  2. Origin of the Lyme Dome and implications for the timing of multiple Alleghanian deformational and intrusive events in southern Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, G.J.; Aleinikoff, J.N.; Wintsch, R.P.

    2007-01-01

    Geologic mapping, structural analysis, and geochronology in the area of the Lyme dome, southern Connecticut provides constraints on the origin of the rocks in the core of the dome, the absolute timing of the principal deformational and thermal events attributed to Alleghanian orogenesis, and the processes that generated the dome. Detrital zircon geochronology in combination with ages on intrusive rocks brackets the deposition of quartzite in the core of the dome sometime between ca. 925 and 620 Ma. Granite and granodiorite intruded the Neoproteorozic metasedimentary rocks in the core of the dome at ca. 620 to 610 Ma. Four major early Permian events associated with the Alleghanian orogeny affected the rocks in the Lyme dome area. Syn-tectonic migmatization and widespread penetrative deformation (D1, ca. 300 - 290 Ma) included emplacement of alaskite at 290 ?? 4 Ma during regional foliation development and aluminosilicate-orthoclase metamorphic conditions. Rocks of the Avalon terrane may have wedged between Gander cover rocks and Gander basement in the core of the Lyme during D1. Limited structural evidence for diapiric uplift of the Lyme dome indicates that diapirism started late in D1 and was completed by D2 (ca. 290 - 280 Ma) when horizontal WNW contractional stresses dominated over vertical stresses. Second sillimanite metamorphism continued and syn-tectonic D2 granite pegmatite (288 ?? 4 Ma) and the Joshua Rock Granite Gniess (284 ?? 3 Ma) intruded at this time. North-northwest extension during D3 (ca. 280 - 275 Ma) led to granitic pegmatite intrusion along S3 cleavage planes and in extensional zones in boudin necks during hydraulic failure and decompression melting. Intrusion of a Westerly Granite dike at 275 ?? 4 Ma suggests that D3 extension was active, and perhaps concluding, by ca. 275 Ma. Late randomly oriented but gently dipping pegmatite dikes record a final stage of intrusion during D4 (ca. 275 - 260 Ma), and a switch from NNW extension to vertical

  3. Petrogenesis of postcollisional magmatism at Scheelite Dome, Yukon, Canada: Evidence for a lithospheric mantle source for magmas associated with intrusion-related gold systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mair, John L.; Farmer, G. Lang; Groves, David I.; Hart, Craig J.R.; Goldfarb, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    The type examples for the class of deposits termed intrusion-related gold systems occur in the Tombstone-Tungsten belt of Alaska and Yukon, on the eastern side of the Tintina gold province. In this part of the northern Cordillera, extensive mid-Cretaceous postcollisional plutonism took place following the accretion of exotic terranes to the continental margin. The most cratonward of the resulting plutonic belts comprises small isolated intrusive centers, with compositionally diverse, dominantly potassic rocks, as exemplified at Scheelite Dome, located in central Yukon. Similar to other spatially and temporally related intrusive centers, the Scheelite Dome intrusions are genetically associated with intrusion-related gold deposits. Intrusions have exceptional variability, ranging from volumetrically dominant clinopyroxene-bearing monzogranites, to calc-alkaline minettes and spessartites, with an intervening range of intermediate to felsic stocks and dikes, including leucominettes, quartz monzonites, quartz monzodiorites, and granodiorites. All rock types are potassic, are strongly enriched in LILEs and LREEs, and feature high LILE/HFSE ratios. Clinopyroxene is common to all rock types and ranges from salite in felsic rocks to high Mg augite and Cr-rich diopside in lamprophyres. Less common, calcic amphibole ranges from actinolitic hornblende to pargasite. The rocks have strongly radiogenic Sr (initial 87Sr/86Sr from 0.711-0.714) and Pb isotope ratios (206Pb/204Pb from 19.2-19.7), and negative initial εNd values (-8.06 to -11.26). Whole-rock major and trace element, radiogenic isotope, and mineralogical data suggest that the felsic to intermediate rocks were derived from mafic potassic magmas sourced from the lithospheric mantle via fractional crystallization and minor assimilation of metasedimentary crust. Mainly unmodified minettes and spessartites represent the most primitive and final phases emplaced. Metasomatic enrichments in the underlying lithospheric mantle

  4. Lunar domes properties and formation processes

    CERN Document Server

    Lena, Raffaello; Phillips, Jim; Chiocchetta, Maria Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Lunar domes are structures of volcanic origin which are usually difficult to observe due to their low heights. The Lunar Domes Handbook is a reference work on these elusive features. It provides a collection of images for a large number of lunar domes, including telescopic images acquired with advanced but still moderately intricate amateur equipment as well as recent orbital spacecraft images. Different methods for determining the morphometric properties of lunar domes (diameter, height, flank slope, edifice volume) from image data or orbital topographic data are discussed. Additionally, multispectral and hyperspectral image data are examined, providing insights into the composition of the dome material. Several classification schemes for lunar domes are described, including an approach based on the determined morphometric quantities and spectral analyses. Furthermore, the book provides a description of geophysical models of lunar domes, which yield information about the properties of the lava from which the...

  5. Regional tectonic context, timing, and intrusion mechanism of gneiss domes, eastern Papua New Guinea, from offshore seismic reflection and well data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitz, G. G.; Mann, P.; Lavier, L. L.

    2011-12-01

    The D'Entrecasteaux Island (DEI) gneiss domes are fault-bounded topographic domes with ~2.5 km of relief exposing ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) and high-pressure (HP) metamorphic gneisses and migmatites that began to exhume ~8 Ma in a zone of continental extension 120 km west of the tip of the westward propagating Woodlark seafloor spreading. Two previous models for the origin and emplacement of the gneiss domes include: 1) the domes are metamorphic core complexes formed as footwall blocks on north-dipping, low-angle (Trobriand basin and the Goodenough basin. MCS and well data show the Trobriand basin initially formed as an asymmetrical Miocene forearc basin overlying the south-dipping Trobriand subduction zone that underwent a late Miocene (~11-9 Ma) inversion event that deformed and uplifted the basin's southern and northern margins. Since extension began 8 Ma, the Trobriand basin has evolved as a symmetrical sag basin with 1-3 km of subsidence and few normal faults deforming the upper crust. The Goodenough basin to the south of the Trobriand basin formed as an asymmetrical and southward-tilted half-graben whose master normal fault is the Owen-Stanley fault zone (OSFZ) along the southern edge of the basin. Reconstruction on this structure based on the geometry of faults in the hanging wall indicates a minimum slip on the order of 10 km along a listric fault plane shallowly dipping to the north. The western extension of the OSFZ dips 18 deg. to 24 deg. north along the northern edge of the Dayman dome; the eastern extension of the fault along the northern edge of the Moresby seamount dips 30 deg. north. We have also identified the Trobriand fault, a 60-km-long subaerial and submarine transfer fault connecting the OSFZ and the active Woodlark spreading center in the offshore seismic data. To understand continental extension at depth surrounding the DEI, upper crust extension determined through structural reconstructions is compared to lower crust extension predicted from

  6. Millennium Dome publikupuuduses

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Londoni Millennium Dome toob iga nädal umbes 7 miljonit krooni kahjumit. Valitsusel on plaanis laenata Dome'ile 60 miljonit naela. Jennie Page'i asemele kutsuti direktoriks Pariisi Eurodisney juht Pierre-Yves Gerbeau. Inglise riiklike muuseumide ja kunstigaleriide tasuta külastatavaks muutmine alates aastast 2002 jääb ära.

  7. Insights into magma depth under resurgent domes from analogue modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothelande, Elodie; Merle, Olivier

    2014-05-01

    Post-collapse resurgence is a common process observed in many calderas, yet the mechanisms of this phenomenon are still poorly known. Whereas most models account for circular doming, deviations from circular shape is common in nature, reflecting either the shape of the underlying reservoir or the influence of regional structures. We conducted a series of scaled experiments to investigate the structural evolution of a resurgent dome in response to an elongated source. A sand-plaster mixture was chosen as the analogue for the brittle pile of volcanic rocks and silicone putty simulates the ductile behavior of the intruding magma. The uplift of the intrusion roof drives the resurgence. A set of 21 experiments have been conducted varying the thickness of the brittle overburden and the width of the silicone intrusion. Three types of extensional patterns associated with doming are observed: two lateral grabens, a single axial graben, and no graben. In the third type, the shape of the dome is significantly less elongated and extension is accommodated by two sets of normal faults, which are roughly concentric and radial from the center of the dome. These three extension modes are strongly related to the thickness of the brittle overburden. The "single axial graben" type, frequently observed in nature, corresponds to intermediate thicknesses. Results of experiments with a single graben show that the dome width is dependent on both tested parameters. In contrast, the graben width is strongly dependent on the overburden thickness whereas the intrusion width is of limited importance. As a significant result, the graben width shows an almost perfectly linear dependency upon the brittle overburden thickness. A simple geometrical model of the analogue system can be proposed, in which opposite master faults of the graben intersect at depth at the junction with the rising viscous intrusion. Geometric constants, or nearly so, such as the slope of the dome flanks and the dip of the

  8. Hot-dome anemometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Brian E.

    1998-05-01

    Hot-dome anemometry obtains three components of flow velocity using an array of sensors, specifically five hot films in the present contribution, which are mounted around the hemispherical tip of a cylindrical support. Calibration for speed and angle resembles that of hot wires and split films except that the procedures accommodate heat transfer dominated by forced convection from the surface of a sphere rather than single or multiple cylinders. Measurements are obtained with hot domes, conventional hot wires, and impact probes in the wake of a wing to quantify measurement uncertainties.

  9. Constraints on the source of resurgent doming inferred from analogue and numerical modeling - Implications on the current feeding system of the Yenkahe dome-Yasur volcano complex (Vanuatu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothelande, E.; Peltier, A.; Got, J.-L.; Merle, O.; Lardy, M.; Garaebiti, E.

    2016-08-01

    Resurgence, defined as the post-collapse long-term uplift of a caldera floor, is commonly attributed to a renewed rise of magma. The Yenkahe dome (Vanuatu) exhibits a common morphology - elongated with a graben on top - among resurgent domes, and is also one of the most active structures of the kind. In this study, we performed a joint analysis based on analogue and finite element numerical models to (1) constrain the width and depth of the long-term deformation intrusive source of the Yenkahe dome and (2) discuss the close association between the Yenkahe dome and the active Yasur cone. We consider the resurgent deformation at the surface to be driven by the uplift of a magma reservoir roof in depth. As the edifice deformation response depends on the medium and the source properties, the mechanical behavior of the upper crust and the nature of the source are modeled using two very different sets of hypotheses. Analogue modeling uses silicone putty, an analogue for a large viscous magma body, intruding a sand-plaster mixture reproducing a Mohr-Coulomb behavior for the crust. Numerical models consider the vertical displacement of a rigid indenter, allowing the conservation of a flat-shaped roof, into an elastoplastic material. Numerical and analogue models show different resurgent dome structures at depth but similar dome and graben morphologies in the surface. Inverse faults - or equivalent shearing zones - delimiting the dome provide an explanation for the confined nature of resurgent doming and the persistent volcanic activity on the dome border represented by the Yasur volcano. Analogue and numerical models together provide an estimation range of 1-1.8 km for the intrusive deformation source depth, and 1.3-2 km for its width. The proposed association between the Yenkahe dome and the Yasur volcano is compatible with such a shallow depth of the magma reservoir, and argues for a discontinuous resurgence process.

  10. Origin of Domes on Europa: The Role of Thermally Induced Compositional Buoyancy,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, R. T.; Barr, A. C.

    2004-01-01

    The surface of Jupiter's moon Europa is peppered by topographic domes, interpreted as sites of intrusion and extrusion. Diapirism is consistent with dome morphology, but thermal buoyancy alone cannot produce sufficient driving pressures to create the observed dome elevations. Instead, diapirs may initiate by thermal convection that induces compositional segregation. Exclusion of impurities from warm upwellings allows sufficient buoyancy for icy plumes to create the observed surface topography, provided the ice shell has a small effective elastic thickness (0.2 to 0.5 km) and contains low-eutectic point impurities at the few percent level. This model suggests that the ice shell may be depleted in impurities over time.

  11. The control of overburden thickness on resurgent domes: insights from analogue models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acocella, V.; Cifelli, F.; Funiciello, R.

    2001-11-01

    Resurgent doming consists of the uplift, usually accompanied by volcanic activity, of part of a collapse caldera. Analogue models were used to investigate the architecture of resurgent domes. Dry sand simulates the brittle crust; uprising silicone, located at the base of the sand-pack, simulates magma. The deformation pattern depends mainly upon: (1) the ratio (aspect ratio) between the thickness of the sand overburden and the width of the silicone intrusion; (2) the duration of experiment. For aspect ratios ≈1, two concentric domes develop; the first-formed outer dome is bordered by inward-dipping reverse ring faults, while the inner dome by outward-dipping normal ring faults. The layers inside the dome are uniformly dipping. For aspect ratios ≈0.4, the dome shows a crestal depression, surrounded by radial fractures, followed by an apical extrusion of silicone. The internal structure of the dome is made up of domed layers. Independently from the aspect ratio, the duration of the experiment enhances silicone extrusion. A consistent structure is observed in most resurgent domes in nature. The comparison between experiments and nature suggests that two distinct resurgence modes occur, mainly depending on the aspect ratio (thickness/width) of the crust overlying the magma chamber. Aspect ratios ≈1 develop a resurgent block with uniformly-dipping layers and peripheral volcanic activity (Ischia and Pantelleria type). Aspect ratios ≈0.4 develop a resurgent dome with a crestal depression, domed layers within and peripheral and internal volcanic activity (Valles and Long Valley type).

  12. Zircon Recycling in Arc Intrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J.; Barth, A.; Matzel, J.; Wooden, J.; Burgess, S.

    2008-12-01

    Recycling of zircon has been well established in arc intrusions and arc volcanoes, but a better understanding of where and how zircons are recycled can help illuminate how arc magma systems are constructed. To that end, we are conducting age, trace element (including Ti-in-zircon temperatures; TzrnTi) and isotopic studies of zircons from the Late Cretaceous (95-85 Ma) Tuolumne Intrusive Suite (TIS) in the Sierra Nevada Batholith (CA). Within the TIS zircons inherited from ancient basement sources and/or distinctly older host rocks are uncommon, but recycled zircon antecrysts from earlier periods of TIS-related magmatism are common and conspicuous in the inner and two most voluminous units of the TIS, the Half Dome and Cathedral Peak Granodiorites. All TIS units have low bulk Zr ([Zr]825°C), [Zr] in the TIS is a factor of 2 to 3 lower than saturation values. Low [Zr] in TIS rocks might be attributed to a very limited supply of zircon in the source, by disequilibrium melting and rapid melt extraction [1], by melting reactions involving formation of other phases that can incorporate appreciable Zr [2], or by removal of zircon at an earlier stage of magma evolution. Based on a preliminary compilation of literature data, low [Zr] is common to Late Cretaceous N.A. Cordilleran granodioritic/tonalitic intrusions (typically Tzrnsat [3]. A corollary is that slightly older zircon antecrysts that are common in the inner units of the TIS could be considered inherited if they are derived from remelting of slightly older intrusions. Remelting at such low temperatures in the arc would require a source of external water. Refs: [1] Sawyer, J.Pet 32:701-738; [2] Fraser et al, Geology 25:607-610; [3] Harrison et al, Geology 35:635- 638

  13. A novel nonintrusive method to resolve the thermal dome effect of pyranometers: Instrumentation and observational basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Qiang; Tsay, Si-Chee

    2010-04-01

    A new method for improving the ground-based pyranometer measurements of solar irradiance has been employed during the East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols and Impact on Regional Climate field experiment, Asian Monsoon Year in China in 2008. Depending on the temperature difference between its detector and domes, a pyranometer's thermal dome effect (TDE) can vary from a few W m-2 at night to over tens of W m-2 during daytime. Yet in traditional calibration procedures only a single calibration constant is determined, and consequently TDE is misrepresented. None of the methods that have been documented in the literature can capture TDE nonintrusively using the same instrument. For example, although adding a temperature sensor to the detector assembly is straightforward, attaching any sensor on a dome is intrusive and will affect its overall optical and physical properties. Furthermore, in response to the solar elevation and atmospheric variables, the dome temperature distribution is both dynamic and uneven, which makes it exceedingly difficult for locating a representative point on the dome for measuring TDE. However, the effective-dome-temperature is proportional to the pressure of the air trapped between the outer and the inner domes; therefore with a minor modification to a pyranometer, we can utilize the ideal gas law to gauge TDE without affecting the domes. Pyranometers can become climate-quality instruments once their TDE are nonintrusively determined.

  14. The LSST Dome final design

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, J.; Neill, D. R.; Barr, J.; De Lorenzi, Simone; Marchiori, Gianpietro

    2016-07-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is a large (8.4 meter) wide-field (3.5 degree) survey telescope, which will be located on the Cerro Pachón summit in Chile 1. As a result of the Telescope wide field of view, the optical system is unusually susceptible to stray light 2. In addition, balancing the effect of wind induced telescope vibrations with Dome seeing is crucial. The rotating enclosure system (Dome) includes a moving wind screen and light baffle system. All of the Dome vents include hinged light baffles, which provide exceptional Dome flushing, stray light attenuation, and allows for vent maintenance access from inside the Dome. The wind screen also functions as a light screen, and helps define a clear optical aperture for the Telescope. The Dome must operate continuously without rotational travel limits to accommodate the Telescope cadence and travel. Consequently, the Azimuth drives are located on the fixed lower enclosure to accommodate glycol water cooling without the need for a utility cable wrap. An air duct system aligns when the Dome is in its parked position, and this provides air cooling for temperature conditioning of the Dome during the daytime. A bridge crane and a series of ladders, stairs and platforms provide for the inspection, maintenance and repair of all of the Dome mechanical systems. The contract to build the Dome was awarded to European Industrial Engineering in Mestre, Italy in May 2015. In this paper, we present the final design of this telescope and site sub-system.

  15. Microstructural and deformational studies on mylonite in the detachment faults of Yalashangbo dome, North Himalayan domes zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Bo; ZHANG Jinjiang; GUO Lei; WANG Weiliang

    2005-01-01

    The Yalashangbo dome, located at the eastern end of North Himalayan domes zone, has a geometry and structure similar to those of a metamorphic core complex. Ductile shear zones formed the detachment system around the dome and these zones are composed of garnet-bearing phyllonite, mylonitic schist, mylonitic gneiss and mylonitic granite. Ductile shear fabrics developed well in mylonitic rocks, and penetrative lineation and foliation were formed by stretched quartz and feldspar and preferred orientation of mica. Polar Mohr diagram method is used to calculate the kinematic vorticity numbers of the shear zones in the detachment system. Results indicate that the shear zone is a thinned shear zone (thinning of 23 % )in an extensional setting which underwent a general shear dominated by simple shear. Comparison of the vorticity numbers between the northern and southern flanks of the Yalashangbo dome shows that the dome is an asymmetric system formed by a north-northwest-directed detaching unanimously. Statistical fractal analysis shows that the shapes of dynamically recrystallized quartz grains in the mylonites have characteristics of self-similarity, with fractal numbers ranging from 1.05 to 1.18. From these fractal numbers, the strain rate of the rock was deduced from 10-9.2 S-1 to 10-7.3 S-1, the differential paleao-stress was 13.7-25.6 MPa during the deformation happened at a temperature over 500 ℃. The ductile shear zones in the detachment system around Yalashangbo dome were formed under a high green-schist grade condition or happened simultaneously with the intrusion of granite.

  16. Autonomous Dome for Robotic Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Akash; Ganesh, Shashikiran

    2016-01-01

    Physical Research Laboratory operates a 50cm robotic observatory at Mount Abu. This Automated Telescope for Variability Studies (ATVS) makes use of Remote Telescope System 2 (RTS2) for autonomous operations. The observatory uses a 3.5m dome from Sirius Observatories. We have developed electronics using Arduino electronic circuit boards with home grown logic and software to control the dome operations. We are in the process of completing the drivers to link our Arduino based dome controller with RTS2. This document is a short description of the various phases of the development and their integration to achieve the required objective.

  17. Petroleum Vapor Intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    One type of vapor intrusion is PVI, in which vapors from petroleum hydrocarbons such as gasoline, diesel, or jet fuel enter a building. Intrusion of contaminant vapors into indoor spaces is of concern.

  18. Jurassic domes in the North Sea - northern North Atlantic region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surlyk, F. [Univ. of Copenhagen, Geological Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    The stratigraphic and tectonic evolution of the Jurassic of East Greenland, the Norwegian Shelf and the North Sea is remarkably similar. A major Middle Jurassic unconformity occurs in all three areas. In the North Sea it is commonly termed the `Mid-Cimmerian Unconformity` and is characterized by progressive truncation of the underlying section towards a centre at the triple junction between the Central Graben, Viking Graben and Moray Firth. Strata above the unconformity show a progressive Late Aalenian-Early Kimmeridgian onlap in the same direction. These relations have been interpreted as caused by Early Jurassic uplift and of a major thermal dome in the central North Sea, followed by Medial and Late Jurassic rifting, erosion, deflation and transgression of the dome. The East Greenland unconformity shows progressive truncation of underlying strata from south to north, and Bajocian to Callovian onlap in the same direction. The same pattern seems to be developed on the conjugate Norwegian margin. This suggests the possibility that the three unconformities have similar causes for their development. It is proposed that major rift domes formed in the Central North Sea and in the Greenland-Norway seaway in Early Jurassic times. The domes were eroded and gradually deflated during Medial Jurassic times and were finally submerged by the Late Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian. They were associated with volcanism and rifting which was delayed with respect to dome initiation. Roughly contemperaneous domes were present west of Britain, north of the Porcupine Seabight, and in Scania, southern Sweden, as reflected by development of asymmetrical unconformities showing progressive truncation of underlying strata, onlap of overlying Jurassic strata, and associated intrusive and extrusive volcanism. The domes are related to impingement of the heads of transient mantle plumes at the base of the lithosphere. The associated unconformities are thus of non-eustatic nature. Domal uplift and

  19. A Dome Amidst the Hexagons

    Science.gov (United States)

    American School and University, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Describes the design of the gymnasium of York (South Carolina) Comprehensive High School, a circular 12,000 square foot structure with a prefabricated domed roof constructed of steel hubs and curved wooden beams. (JG)

  20. 3D Density Modeling with Gravity and Muon-Radiographic Observations in Showa-Shinzan Lava Dome, Usu, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Ryuichi; Miyamoto, Seigo; Okubo, Shuhei; Oshima, Hiromitsu; Maekawa, Tokumitsu

    2017-03-01

    We performed three-dimensional density modeling of Showa-Shinzan lava dome, Usu, Japan, by joint inversion of the gravity anomaly and recently obtained muon radiography data. Our multilayer emulsion muon detector significantly reduces the background noise in our measurements of the muon flux through the dome. The high-quality muon data enables us to more accurately reconstruct the density structure of the lava dome compared with our own previous work. We find that the lava dome consists of a cylindrical column of massive lava with a diameter of 300 m, and that there is no evidence of magma intrusion in the shallow part of the plateau, located east of the dome.

  1. Monitoring the Chaiten Rhyolite Dome: Interpretation of Airborne Thermal and Aeromagnetic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, M.; Pavez Alvarado, A.; Whelley, P. L.; Calder, E. S.; Rymer, H.

    2010-12-01

    : locate vents, delineate active and inactive lobe boundaries, map recent rockfall and PF deposits along with their active source areas, identify areas with higher extrusion rates, and show that different parts of the dome have distinct growth styles. Structural interpretation of satellite imagery and 1992 aeromagnetic data are generally consistent with the thermal data, showing a NW-SE trending regional structure south of Chaiten previously described by Lange et al. (2008). N-S and NE-SW sets of faults were also recognized that affect the Chaiten caldera, the basement rocks of Miocene intrusives and Plio-Pleistocene volcanics, the dome complex and the location of magnetic anomalies which are interpreted as magmatic intrusions at depth. Thermal data, dome morphology and geophysical data suggest the same controlling structures for this eruption. These agree with the main Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault Zone (LOFZ) trend.

  2. Traditional and Modern Morphometrics: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan OCAKOĞLU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphometrics, a branch of morphology, is the study of the size and shape components of biological forms and their variation in the population. In biological and medical sciences, there is a long history of attempts to quantitatively express the diversity of the size and shape of biological forms. On the basis of historical developments in morphometry, we address several questions related to the shape of organs or organisms that are considered in biological and medical studies. In the field of morphometrics, multivariate statistical analysis is used to rigorously address such questions. Historically, these methods have involved the analysis of collections of distances or angles, but recent theoretical, computational, and other advances have shifted the focus of morphometric procedures to the Cartesian coordinates of anatomical points. In recent years, in biology and medicine, the traditional morphometric studies that aim to analyze shape variation have been replaced by modern morphometric studies. In the biological and medical sciences, morphometric methods are frequently preferred for examining the morphologic structures of organs or organisms with regard to diseases or environmental factors. These methods are also preferred for evaluating and classifying the variation of organs or organisms with respect to growth or allometry time dependently. Geometric morphometric methods are more valid than traditional morphometric methods in protecting more morphological information and in permitting analysis of this information.

  3. Interior intrusion detection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, J.R.; Matter, J.C. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Dry, B. (BE, Inc., Barnwell, SC (United States))

    1991-10-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing interior intrusion detection systems. Interior intrusion sensors are discussed according to their primary application: boundary-penetration detection, volumetric detection, and point protection. Information necessary for implementation of an effective interior intrusion detection system is presented, including principles of operation, performance characteristics and guidelines for design, procurement, installation, testing, and maintenance. A glossary of sensor data terms is included. 36 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Interior intrusion detection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, J.R.; Matter, J.C. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Dry, B. (BE, Inc., Barnwell, SC (United States))

    1991-10-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing interior intrusion detection systems. Interior intrusion sensors are discussed according to their primary application: boundary-penetration detection, volumetric detection, and point protection. Information necessary for implementation of an effective interior intrusion detection system is presented, including principles of operation, performance characteristics and guidelines for design, procurement, installation, testing, and maintenance. A glossary of sensor data terms is included. 36 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Assessment of the Extent of Land Deformation Associated with Salt Domes within the Jazan City and Surroundings, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankratz, H. G.; Sultan, M.; Fathy, K.; AlMogren, S. M.; Harbi, H.; Sefry, S.; Emil, M.; Elkadiri, R.; Ahmed, M.; Othman, A.; Chouinard, K.

    2016-12-01

    The Jazan city in the Jazan Province of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a vibrant and rapidly growing economic center and port. The old city of Jazan is centered over a salt dome (diaper) that crops out over an area, 3-4 km wide and 20 to 40 m above surroundings. The intrusion of the diaper into the overlying cap rock causes uneven surfaces, compromises building foundations, and causes infrastructural problems. Our study is aimed at the assessment of the salt dome-related land deformation. Using observations acquired over known locations of salt domes in Jazan and neighboring Farsan Islands, we identified criteria by which previously unidentified, near-surface salt domes, could be mapped. The selected criteria and/or applied methodologies included: (1) deformation over potential salt dome locations detected from Envisat, ERS-2, and Sentinel-1 scenes using the Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterers [StaMPs] and SARscape software. Uplift rates of about 3 mm/yr were observed over the salt dome outcrop in Jazan with increasing rates towards the center, indicating continuous rise of the salt diaper. (2) Local elevation highs over potential, near surface, salt dome intrusions observed in high spatial resolution (12.5 m), PALSAR digital elevation model (DEM). The elevation the Jazan dome is 45m high, whereas its surroundings are 15-30m high. (3) Negative Bouguer gravity anomalies over potential salt dome locations (Bouguer maps generated from 714 m interval airborne gravity data). Negative Bouguer anomalies were observed over the salt domes in Jazan (-3 mGal) and in Farsan (-30 mGal). (4) Boundaries of the potential salt domes extracted from zero tilt contour values on tilt derivative maps. (5) Shallow (GIS platform) of observations extracted from remote sensing, geophysical, GPS, and DEM datasets (items 1 through 5). Eight previously unidentified locations of potential near-surface salt domes were identified along the Red Sea coastline within the scene extent, five of

  6. ROUNDSCALE SPEARFISH branchiostegal morphometric data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The morphometric characteristics that separate white marlin Kajikia albidus from roundscale spearfish Tetrapturus georgii can be difficult for non-experts to...

  7. Computer Intrusions and Attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Howard

    1999-01-01

    Examines some frequently encountered unsolicited computer intrusions, including computer viruses, worms, Java applications, trojan horses or vandals, e-mail spamming, hoaxes, and cookies. Also discusses virus-protection software, both for networks and for individual users. (LRW)

  8. What factors control superficial lava dome explosivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudon, Georges; Balcone-Boissard, Hélène; Villemant, Benoît; Morgan, Daniel J.

    2015-09-01

    Dome-forming eruption is a frequent eruptive style and a major hazard on numerous volcanoes worldwide. Lava domes are built by slow extrusion of degassed, viscous magma and may be destroyed by gravitational collapse or explosion. The triggering of lava dome explosions is poorly understood: here we propose a new model of superficial lava-dome explosivity based upon a textural and geochemical study (vesicularity, microcrystallinity, cristobalite distribution, residual water contents, crystal transit times) of clasts produced by key eruptions. Superficial explosion of a growing lava dome may be promoted through porosity reduction caused by both vesicle flattening due to gas escape and syn-eruptive cristobalite precipitation. Both processes generate an impermeable and rigid carapace allowing overpressurisation of the inner parts of the lava dome by the rapid input of vesiculated magma batches. The relative thickness of the cristobalite-rich carapace is an inverse function of the external lava dome surface area. Explosive activity is thus more likely to occur at the onset of lava dome extrusion, in agreement with observations, as the likelihood of superficial lava dome explosions depends inversely on lava dome volume. This new result is of interest for the whole volcanological community and for risk management.

  9. Programmable shape transformation of elastic spherical domes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Arif M; Braun, Paul V; Hsia, K Jimmy

    2016-07-20

    We investigate mismatch strain driven programmable shape transformation of spherical domes and report the effects of different geometric and structural characteristics on dome behavior in response to applied mismatch strain. We envision a bilayer dome design where the differential swelling of the inner layer with respect to the passive outer layer in response to changes in dome surroundings (such as the introduction of an organic solvent) introduces mismatch strain within the bilayer system and causes dome shape transformation. Finite element analysis reveals that, in addition to snap-through, spherical domes undergo bifurcation buckling and eventually gradual bending to morph into cylinders with increasing mismatch strain. Besides demonstrating how the snap-through energy barrier depends on the spherical dome shape, our analysis identifies three distinct groups of dome geometries based on their mismatch strain-transformed configuration relationships. Our experiments with polymer-based elastic bilayer domes that exhibit differential swelling in organic solvents qualitatively confirm the finite element predictions. We establish that, in addition to externally applied stimuli (mismatch strain), bilayer spherical dome morphing can be tuned and hence programmed through its geometry and structural characteristics. Incorporation of an elastic instability mechanism such as snap-through within the framework of stimuli-responsive functional devices can improve their response time which is otherwise controlled by diffusion. Hence, our proposed design guidelines can be used to realize deployable, multi-functional, reconfigurable, and therefore, adaptive structures responsive to a diverse set of stimuli across multiple length scales.

  10. Improving daylight in mosques using domes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alturki, I.; Schiler, M.; Boyajian, Y.

    1996-10-01

    This paper studies the possibilities for improving daylight in mosques by measuring the illumination level under various domes in an old mosque ``Mosque of Guzelce Hasan Bey in Hayrabolu`` using an architectural physical model. The illumination level under the domes were tested under three different cases: a dome without openings (the original building), a dome with a central opening, and a dome with openings around the base. It was found that a dome with openings around the base brings an evenly distributed light all over the prayer hall during the critical hours of 12:00 p.m. and 3:00 p.m. In addition, it improves the quality and quantity of light.

  11. Blast Diffusion by Different Shapes of Domes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Ranjan Sahu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Domes have been used since ancient times in constructions. These are effective structures in supporting loads for large span. Dome has an added advantage of having good looking in structural applications. Many shapes of domes are being used nowadays for residential, commercial, and industrial purposes. Specific purpose domes are also used for nuclear containment. Main threats to structures are from the bomb blast. Hence, domes too are to be designed to withstand effectively the pressure energy generated by the blast. A comparative theoretical study is proposed on the different shapes of domes having same weight and thickness. Various responses are estimated through numerical method after simulating blast and comparing their intensities.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 65, No. 1, January 2015, pp.77-82, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.65.6908

  12. Network intrusion detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oboile Tirelo; YANG Chun-hua

    2003-01-01

    Nowadays, network computer systems play an increasingly important role in society and economy. They have become the targets of a wide array of malicious attacks that invariably turn into actual intrusions. This is why the computer security has become an essential concern for network administrators. Too often, intrusions wreak havoc inside LANs and the time and cost to repair the damage can grow to extreme proportions. Instead of using passive measures to fix and patch security holes once they have been exploited, it is more effective to adopt a protective approach to intrusions. In addition to the well-established intrusion prevention techniques such as data encryption and message integrity, user authentication and user authorization, as well as the avoidance of security flaws inherent to many off-the-shelf applications, intrusion detection techniques can be viewed as an addition safeguard for network computers. The paper discusses traditional and new security designs, the approach to implementing best-practice security measures and the method to trace the malicious computer attackers.

  13. Network Intrusion Dataset Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Science, pages 576–585. Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, June 2010. • Jing Xiao-Pei and Wang Hou -Xiang. “A new immunity intrusion detection model based on...2008. • Hongying Zheng, Meiju Hou , and Yu Wang. “An efficient hybrid clustering-PSO algorithm for anomaly intrusion detection.” Journal of Software...Technology, 2(6):1790– 1799, 2010. [34] Lee, Suchul, Hyunchul Kim, Dhiman Barman, Sungryoul Lee, Chong -kwon Kim, Ted Kwon, and Yanghee Choi. “NeTraMark: a

  14. Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems: REFERENCE SITE INITIAL ASSESSMENT FOR A SALT DOME REPOSITORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harwell, M. A.; Brandstetter, A.; Benson, G. L.; Raymond, J. R.; Brandley, D. J.; Serne, R. J.; Soldat, J. K.; Cole, C. R.; Deutsch, W. J.; Gupta, S. K.; Harwell, C. C.; Napier, B. A.; Reisenauer, A. E.; Prater, L. S.; Simmons, C. S.; Strenge, D. L.; Washburn, J. F.; Zellmer, J. T.

    1982-06-01

    As a methodology demonstration for the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI), the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program conducted an initial reference site analysis of the long-term effectiveness of a salt dome repository. The Hainesville Salt Dome in Texas was chosen to be representative of the Gulf Coast interior salt domes; however, the Hainesville Site has been eliminated as a possible nuclear waste repository site. The data used for this exercise are not adequate for an actual assessment, nor have all the parametric analyses been made that would adequately characterize the response of the geosystem surrounding the repository. Additionally, because this was the first exercise of the complete AEGIS and WASTE Rock Interaction Technology (WRIT) methodology, this report provides the initial opportunity for the methodology, specifically applied to a site, to be reviewed by the community outside the AEGIS. The scenario evaluation, as a part of the methodology demonstration, involved consideration of a large variety of potentially disruptive phenomena, which alone or in concert could lead to a breach in a salt dome repository and to a subsequent transport of the radionuclides to the environment. Without waste- and repository-induced effects, no plausible natural geologic events or processes which would compromise the repository integrity could be envisioned over the one-million-year time frame after closure. Near-field (waste- and repository-induced) effects were excluded from consideration in this analysis, but they can be added in future analyses when that methodology development is more complete. The potential for consequential human intrusion into salt domes within a million-year time frame led to the consideration of a solution mining intrusion scenario. The AEGIS staff developed a specific human intrusion scenario at 100 years and 1000 years post-closure, which is one of a whole suite of possible scenarios. This scenario

  15. Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems: REFERENCE SITE INITIAL ASSESSMENT FOR A SALT DOME REPOSITORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harwell, M. A.; Brandstetter, A.; Benson, G. L.; Bradley, D. J.; Serne, R. J.; Soldat, J. K; Cole, C. R.; Deutsch, W. J.; Gupta, S. K.; Harwell, C. C.; Napier, B. A.; Reisenauer, A. E.; Prater, L. S.; Simmons, C. S.; Strenge, D. L.; Washburn, J. F.; Zellmer, J. T.

    1982-06-01

    As a methodology demonstration for the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI), the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program conducted an initial reference site analysis of the long-term effectiveness of a salt dome repository. The Hainesville Salt Dome in Texas was chosen to be representative of the Gulf Coast interior salt domes; however, the Hainesville Site has been eliminated as a possible nuclear waste repository site. The data used for this exercise are not adequate for an actual assessment, nor have all the parametric analyses been made that would adequately characterize the response of the geosystem surrounding the repository. Additionally, because this was the first exercise of the complete AEGIS and WASTE Rock Interaction Technology (WRIT) methodology, this report provides the initial opportunity for the methodology, specifically applied to a site, to be reviewed by the community outside the AEGIS. The scenario evaluation, as a part of the methodology demonstration, involved consideration of a large variety of potentially disruptive phenomena, which alone or in concert could lead to a breach in a salt dome repository and to a subsequent transport of the radionuclides to the environment. Without waste- and repository-induced effects, no plausible natural geologic events or processes which would compromise the repository integrity could be envisioned over the one-million-year time frame after closure. Near-field (waste- and repository-induced) effects were excluded from consideration in this analysis, but they can be added in future analyses when that methodology development is more complete. The potential for consequential human intrusion into salt domes within a million-year time frame led to the consideration of a solution mining intrusion scenario. The AEGIS staff developed a specific human intrusion scenario at 100 years and 1000 years post-closure, which is one of a whole suite of possible scenarios. This scenario

  16. Environmental assessment: Richton Dome Site, Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Richton Dome site in Mississippi as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Richton Dome site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EAs. The site is in the Gulf interior region, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains two other potentially acceptable sites--the Cypress Creek Dome site in Mississippi and the Vacherie Dome site in Louisiana. Although the Cypress Creek Dome and the Vacherie Dome sites are suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Richton Dome site is the preferred site in the Gulf interior region. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Richton Dome site is not disqualified under the guidelines.

  17. Cryovolcanic Emplacement of Domes on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Lynnae C.; Glaze, Lori S.; Baloga, Stephen M.

    2016-01-01

    Here we explore the hypothesis that certain domes on Europa may have been produced by the extrusion of viscous cryolavas. A new mathematical method for the emplacement and relaxation of viscous lava domes is presented and applied to putative cryovolcanic domes on Europa. A similarity solution approach is applied to the governing equation for fluid flow in a cylindrical geometry, and dome relaxation is explored assuming a volume of cryolava has been rapidly emplaced onto the surface. Nonphysical sin- gularities inherent in previous models for dome relaxation have been eliminated, and cryolava cooling is represented by a time-variable viscosity. We find that at the onset of relaxation, bulk kinematic viscosities may lie in the range between 10(exp 3) and 10(exp 6) sq m/s, while the actual fluid lava viscosity may be much lower. Plausible relaxation times to form the domes, which are linked to bulk cryolava rheology, are found to range from 3.6 days to 7.5 years. We find that cooling of the cryolava, while dominated by conduction through an icy skin, should not prevent fluids from advancing and relaxing to form domes within the timescales considered. Determining the range of emplacement conditions for putative cryolava domes will shed light on Europa's resurfacing history. In addition, the rheologies and compositions of erupted cryolavas have implications for subsurface cryomagma ascent and local surface stress conditions on Europa.

  18. Volcanic ash at Santiaguito dome complex, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornby, Adrian; Kendrick, Jackie; Lavallée, Yan; Cimarelli, Corrado; von Aulock, Felix; Rhodes, Emma; Kennedy, Ben; Wadsworth, Fabian

    2015-04-01

    Dome-building volcanoes often suffer episodic explosions. Examination of eruptive activity at Santiaguito dome complex (Guatemala) reveals that gas-and-ash explosions are concordant with rapid inflation/ deflation cycles of the active dome. During these explosions strain is accommodated along marginal faults, where tensional fracture mechanisms and friction dominate, complicating the model of ash generation by bubble rupture in magma. Here, we describe textural features, morphology and petrology of ash collected before, during and after a dome collapse event at Santiaguito dome complex on the 28th November 2012. We use QEM-scan (on more than 35000 grains), laser diffraction granulometry and optical and scanning microscopy to characterise the samples. The ash samples show a bimodal size distribution and a range of textures, crystal content and morphologies. The ash particles are angular to sub-angular and are relatively dense, so do not appear to comprise of pore walls. Instead the ash is generally blocky (>70%), similar to the products of shear magma failure. The ash samples show minor variation before, during and after dome collapse, specifically having a smaller grain size and a higher fraction of phenocrysts fragments before collapse. Textural analysis shows vestiges of chemically heterogeneous glass (melt) filaments originating from the crystals and crosscut by fragmentation during volcanic ash formation. High-velocity friction can induce melting of dome lavas, producing similar disequilibrium melting textures. This work shows the importance of deformation mechanisms in ash generation at lava domes and during Vulcanian activity.

  19. Turning Norton's Dome Against Material Induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawid, Richard

    2015-09-01

    John Norton has proposed a position of "material induction" that denies the existence of a universal inductive inference schema behind scientific reasoning. In this vein, Norton has recently presented a "dome scenario" based on Newtonian physics that, in his understanding, is at variance with Bayesianism. The present note points out that a closer analysis of the dome scenario reveals incompatibilities with material inductivism itself.

  20. Environmental assessment: Richton Dome site, Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Richton Dome site in Mississippi as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Richton Dome site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EAs. The site is in the Gulf interior region, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains two other potentially acceptable sites--the Cypress Creek Dome site in Mississippi and the Vacherie Dome site in Louisiana. Although the Cypress Creek Dome and the Vacherie Dome sites are suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Richton Dome site is the preferred site in the Gulf interior region. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Richton Dome site is not disqualified under the guidelines.

  1. Morphometrics applied to medical entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujardin, Jean-Pierre

    2008-12-01

    Morphometrics underwent a revolution more than one decade ago. In the modern morphometrics, the estimate of size is now contained in a single variable reflecting variation in many directions, as many as there are landmarks under study, and shape is defined as their relative positions after correcting for size, position and orientation. With these informative data, and the corresponding software freely available to conduct complex analyses, significant biological and epidemiological features can be quantified more accurately. We discuss the evolutionary significance of the environmental impact on metric variability, mentioning the importance of concepts like genetic assimilation, genetic accommodation, and epigenetics. We provide examples of measuring the effect of selection on metric variation by comparing (unpublished) Qst values with corresponding (published) Fst. The primary needs of medical entomologists are to distinguish species, especially cryptic species, and to detect them where they are not expected. We explain how geometric morphometrics could apply to these questions, and where there are deficiencies preventing the approach from being utilized at its maximum potential. Medical entomologists in connection with control programs aim to identify isolated populations where the risk of reinfestation after treatment would be low ("biogeographical islands"). Identifying them can be obtained from estimating the number of migrants per generation. Direct assessment of movement remains the most valid approach, but it scores active movement only. Genetic methods estimating gene flow levels among interbreeding populations are commonly used, but gene flow does not necessarily mean the current flow of migrants. Methods using the morphometric variation are neither suited to evaluate gene flow, nor are they adapted to estimate the flow of migrants. They may provide, however, the information needed to create a preliminary map pointing to relevant areas where one could

  2. Autonomous Dome for a Robotic Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A.; Sengupta, A.; Ganesh, S.

    2016-12-01

    The Physical Research Laboratory operates a 50 cm robotic observatory at Mount Abu (Rajsthan, India). This Automated Telescope for Variability Studies (ATVS) makes use of the Remote Telescope System 2 (RTS2) for autonomous operations. The observatory uses a 3.5 m dome from Sirius Observatories. We have developed electronics using Arduino electronic circuit boards with home grown logic and software to control the dome operations. We are in the process of completing the drivers to link our Arduino based dome controller with RTS2. This document is a short description of the various phases of the development and their integration to achieve the required objective.

  3. Emplacement Scenarios for Volcanic Domes on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaze, Lori S.; Baloga, Steve M.; Stofan, Ellen R.

    2012-01-01

    One key to understanding the history of resurfacing on Venus is better constraints on the emplacement timescales for the range of volcanic features visible on the surface. A figure shows a Magellan radar image and topography for a putative lava dome on Venus. 175 such domes have been identified with diameters ranging from 19 - 94 km, and estimated thicknesses as great as 4 km. These domes are thought to be volcanic in origin and to have formed by the flow of viscous fluid (i.e., lava) on the surface.

  4. Recent accumulation rate at Dome A, Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU ShuGui; LI YuanSheng; XIAO CunDe; REN JiaWen

    2007-01-01

    Based on the horizon of β activity and the density profiles, recent accumulation rate at Dome A, Antarctica is calculated to be 0.023 m water equivalent per year. This value is comparative to the accumulation rates deduced from the other inland sites of Antarctica. Clear-sky precipitation (or diamond dust) dominates the total precipitation at Dome A region. We speculate Dome A as a potential site to discover the oldest ice in Antarctica due to its tremendous ice thickness (>3000 m), extremely low accumulation rate, and low ice velocity.

  5. Wireless Intrusion Prevention Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack TIMOFTE

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The wireless networks have changed the way organizations work and offered a new range of possibilities, but at the same time they introduced new security threats. While an attacker needs physical access to a wired network in order to launch an attack, a wireless network allows anyone within its range to passively monitor the traffic or even start an attack. One of the countermeasures can be the use of Wireless Intrusion Prevention Systems.

  6. Pressure Dome for High-Pressure Electrolyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Timothy; Schmitt, Edwin

    2012-01-01

    A high-strength, low-weight pressure vessel dome was designed specifically to house a high-pressure [2,000 psi (approx. = 13.8 MPa)] electrolyzer. In operation, the dome is filled with an inert gas pressurized to roughly 100 psi (approx. = 690 kPa) above the high, balanced pressure product oxygen and hydrogen gas streams. The inert gas acts to reduce the clamping load on electrolyzer stack tie bolts since the dome pressure acting axially inward helps offset the outward axial forces from the stack gas pressure. Likewise, radial and circumferential stresses on electrolyzer frames are minimized. Because the dome is operated at a higher pressure than the electrolyzer product gas, any external electrolyzer leak prevents oxygen or hydrogen from leaking into the dome. Instead the affected stack gas stream pressure rises detectably, thereby enabling a system shutdown. All electrical and fluid connections to the stack are made inside the pressure dome and require special plumbing and electrical dome interfaces for this to be accomplished. Further benefits of the dome are that it can act as a containment shield in the unlikely event of a catastrophic failure. Studies indicate that, for a given active area (and hence, cell ID), frame outside diameter must become ever larger to support stresses at higher operating pressures. This can lead to a large footprint and increased costs associated with thicker and/or larger diameter end-plates, tie-rods, and the frames themselves. One solution is to employ rings that fit snugly around the frame. This complicates stack assembly and is sometimes difficult to achieve in practice, as its success is strongly dependent on frame and ring tolerances, gas pressure, and operating temperature. A pressure dome permits an otherwise low-pressure stack to operate at higher pressures without growing the electrolyzer hardware. The pressure dome consists of two machined segments. An O-ring is placed in an O-ring groove in the flange of the bottom

  7. Reactivation of a collisional suture by Miocene transpressional domes associated with the Red River and Song Chay detachment faults, northern Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osozawa, Soichi; Van Vuong, Nguyen; Van Tich, Vu; Wakabayashi, John

    2015-06-01

    Elongate Miocene gneissose and granitic domes in northern Vietnam formed in a dextral-transpressional ductile shear regime, possibly associated with large-scale restraining step-overs along dextral faults. Initial anticlinal D1 doming involved folding of both basement and hanging wall rocks with D1 secondary folds that verge toward the anticlinal axes. Such folds reflect dome-scale flexural slip folding. With continued shortening, D2 detachment faults developed on the flanks of the anticlines along the hanging wall-basement interface, so that the basement was extruded vertically into the overlying hanging wall rocks. The detachment faults were associated with D2 drag folds that verge away from the anticlinal axes. The hanging wall assemblage lacks a well-ordered stratigraphy, displaying primarily block-in-matrix fabric. We identified bedded cherts, associated with umbers and alkalic basaltic intrusions within these hanging wall rocks, a first report of such rocks from Vietnam. The association of cherts, umbers, and basaltic intrusions and extrusions with block-in-matrix units with clastic rocks strongly suggest that the hanging wall rocks comprise part of a subduction complex. Because the base of a subduction complex is a former subduction megathrust horizon, the hanging wall-basement interface represents a reactivated collisional suture. Such a suture was probably associated with the Indosinian orogeny, and the basement should be the Indochina continental block. This structure may have influenced the position of Miocene dextral faulting in addition to controlling the position of the dome detachments. The well-known Red River fault marks the boundary of one of the domes, but in this region it appears to be a detachment (normal) fault rather than a dextral strike-slip fault. However, the association with the dome evolution with large-scale restraining step-overs suggests that dextral faulting associated with dome development may lie further away from the dome axes

  8. The Longevity of Lava Dome Eruptions

    CERN Document Server

    Wolpert, Robert L; Calder, Eliza S

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the duration of past, on-going and future volcanic eruptions is an important scientific goal and a key societal need. We present a new methodology for forecasting the duration of on-going and future lava dome eruptions based on a database (DomeHaz) recently compiled by the authors. The database includes duration and composition for 177 such eruptions, with "eruption" defined as the period encompassing individual episodes of dome growth along with associated quiescent periods during which extrusion pauses but unrest continues. In a key finding we show that probability distributions for dome eruption durations are both heavy-tailed and composition-dependent. We construct Objective Bayes statistical models featuring heavy-tailed Generalized Pareto distributions with composition-specific parameters to make forecasts about the durations of new and on-going eruptions that depend on both eruption duration-to-date and composition. Our Bayesian predictive distributions reflect both uncertainty about mode...

  9. Telescope and instrument robotization at Dome C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassmeier, K. G.; Agabi, K.; Agnoletto, L.; Allan, A.; Andersen, M. I.; Ansorge, W.; Bortoletto, F.; Briguglio, R.; Buey, J.-T.; Castellini, S.; Coudé du Foresto, V.; Damé, L.; Deeg, H. J.; Eiroa, C.; Durand, G.; Fappani, D.; Frezzotti, M.; Granzer, T.; Gröschke, A.; Kärcher, H. J.; Lenzen, R.; Mancini, A.; Montanari, C.; Mora, A.; Pierre, A.; Pirnay, O.; Roncella, F.; Schmider, F.-X.; Steele, I.; Storey, J. W. V.; Tothill, N. F. H.; Travouillon, T.; Vittuari, L.

    2007-07-01

    This article reviews the situation for robotization of telescopes and instruments at the Antarctic station Concordia on Dome C. A brain-storming meeting was held in Tenerife in March 2007 from which this review emerged. We describe and summarize the challenges for night-time operations of various astronomical experiments at conditions ``between Earth and Space'' and conclude that robotization is likely a prerequisite for continuous astronomical data taking during the 2000-hour night at Dome C.

  10. Measurement error in geometric morphometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruciano, Carmelo

    2016-06-01

    Geometric morphometrics-a set of methods for the statistical analysis of shape once saluted as a revolutionary advancement in the analysis of morphology -is now mature and routinely used in ecology and evolution. However, a factor often disregarded in empirical studies is the presence and the extent of measurement error. This is potentially a very serious issue because random measurement error can inflate the amount of variance and, since many statistical analyses are based on the amount of "explained" relative to "residual" variance, can result in loss of statistical power. On the other hand, systematic bias can affect statistical analyses by biasing the results (i.e. variation due to bias is incorporated in the analysis and treated as biologically-meaningful variation). Here, I briefly review common sources of error in geometric morphometrics. I then review the most commonly used methods to measure and account for both random and non-random measurement error, providing a worked example using a real dataset.

  11. Dome, Sweet Dome--Geodesic Structures Teach Math, Science, and Technology Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, Ray; Fitzgerald, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Today, geodesic domes are found on playgrounds, homes, over radar installations, storage facilities, at Disney's Epcot Center, and at World's Fairs. The inventor of the design, Buckminster Fuller, thought that geodesic domes could be used to cover large areas and even designed one to cover all of New York's Manhattan Island. This article details…

  12. Venus - Stereoscopic Images of Volcanic Domes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    This Magellan image depicts a stereoscopic pair of an area on Venus with small volcanic domes. Stereoscopic images of Venus offer exciting new possibilities for scientific analysis of Venusian landforms, such as the domes shown here, impact craters, graben -- long rifts bounded by faults -- and other geologic features. Stereopsis, or a three-dimensional view of this scene, may be obtained by viewing with a stereoscope. One may also cut this photograph into two parts and look at the left image with the left eye and the right image with the right eye; conjugate images (the same features) should be about 5 centimeters (2 inches) apart when viewing. This area is located at 38.4 degrees south latitude and 78.3 degrees east longitude. The incidence, or look, angle of the left image is 28.5 degrees and that of the right image is 15.6 degrees. Radar illumination for both images comes from the left. A small dome at left center is about 140 meters (464 feet) high and 6 kilometers (3.7 miles) wide. Other domes with smaller relief can be perceived in three dimensions. At the smaller incidence angle used to acquire the image on the right, radar brightness is more sensitive to small changes in topography. This enhances the visibility of many of the domes in this scene.

  13. Holodeck: Telepresence Dome Visualization System Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hite, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the simulation and consideration of different image-projection strategies for the Holodeck, a dome that will be used for highly immersive telepresence operations in future endeavors of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Its visualization system will include a full 360 degree projection onto the dome's interior walls in order to display video streams from both simulations and recorded video. Because humans innately trust their vision to precisely report their surroundings, the Holodeck's visualization system is crucial to its realism. This system will be rigged with an integrated hardware and software infrastructure-namely, a system of projectors that will relay with a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) and computer to both project images onto the dome and correct warping in those projections in real-time. Using both Computer-Aided Design (CAD) and ray-tracing software, virtual models of various dome/projector geometries were created and simulated via tracking and analysis of virtual light sources, leading to the selection of two possible configurations for installation. Research into image warping and the generation of dome-ready video content was also conducted, including generation of fisheye images, distortion correction, and the generation of a reliable content-generation pipeline.

  14. Intrusive growth of sclerenchyma fibers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snegireva, A.V.; Ageeva, M.V.; Amenitskii, S.I.; Chernova, T.E.; Ebskamp, M.; Gorshkova, T.A.

    2010-01-01

    Intrusive growth is a type of cell elongation when the rate of its longitudinal growth is higher than that of surrounding cells; therefore, these cells intrude between the neighboring cells penetrating the middle lamella. The review considers the classical example of intrusive growth, e.g., elongati

  15. Solvents and vapor intrusion pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Scott D; Krieger, Gary R; Palmer, Robert B; Waksman, Javier C

    2004-08-01

    Vapor intrusion must be recognized appropriately as a separate pathway of contamination. Although many issues resemble those of other forms of contamination (particularly its entryway, which is similar to that of radon seepage), vapor intrusion stands apart as a unique risk requiring case-specific action. This article addresses these issues and the current understanding of the most appropriate and successful remedial actions.

  16. Environmental assessment, Richton Dome site, Mississippi (US)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1986-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (42 USC Sections 10101-10226) requires the environmental assessment of a potential site to include a statement of the basis for the nomination of a site as suitable for characterization. Volume 2 of this environmental assessment provides a detailed evaluation of the Richton Dome Site and its suitability as the site for a radioactive waste disposal facility under DOE siting guidelines, as well as a comparison of the Richton Dome site with other proposed sites. Evaluation of the Richton Dome site is based on the reference repository design, but the evaluation will not change if based on the Mission Plan repository concept. The comparative evaluation of proposed sites is required under DOE guidelines, but is not intended to directly support the subsequent recommendation of three sites for characterization as candidate sites. 428 refs., 24 figs., 62 tabs. (MHB)

  17. Insights into mare basalt thicknesses on the Moon from intrusive magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaut, Chloé; Thiriet, Mélanie; Thorey, Clément

    2016-08-01

    Magmatic intrusions preferentially spread along interfaces marked by rigidity and density contrasts. Thus the contact between a lunar mare and its substratum provides a preferential location for subsequent magmatic intrusions. Shallow intrusions that bend the overlying layer develop characteristic shapes that depend on their radius and on the overlying layer flexural wavelength and hence on their emplacement depth. We characterize the topography of seven, previously identified, candidate intrusive domes located within different lunar maria, using data from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter. Their topographic profiles compare very well with theoretical shapes from a model of magma flow below an elastic layer, supporting their interpretation as intrusive features. This comparison allows us to constrain their intrusion depths and hence the minimum mare thickness at these sites. These new estimates are in the range 400-1900 m and are generally comparable to or thicker than previous estimates, when available. The largest thickness (⩾ 1700 m) is obtained next to the Hortensius and Kepler areas that are proposed to be the relicts of ancient volcanic shields.

  18. Evaluation of dome-input geometry for pyroelectric detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, J.; Hanssen, L. M.; Eppeldauer, G. P.

    2013-06-01

    Dome-input pyroelectric radiometers with different black coatings were developed to extend the spectral responsivity scale from near infrared (NIR) to 20 μm. The reflective dome with shiny gold-coating has been known to be an efficient light trap to enhance the detector absorptance and to minimize spectral responsivity variation. The enhancement of spectral responsivity using reflective dome relies on optical characterization of black coating on detector, reflectance of dome reflector, and input aperture dimension, etc. We report a comparison of spectral responsivity of dome-input pyroelectric radiometers measured with/without dome-trap from 2.4 μm to 14 μm using the Infrared Spectral Comparator Facility (IRSCF) at NIST. The results show 4 % to 8 % gain of responsivity for two dome-input pyroelectric detectors, with reduced structure of spectral responsivity. The uncertainty of dome-input pyroelectric radiometer calibrations is approximately 2 % (k = 2).

  19. Granitoid intrusions and related deposits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟良义; 李绪俊

    1996-01-01

    Taking the Bainaimiao copper and gold deposits, Inner Mongolia and the Wushan copper deposits, Jiangxi Province as examples, a discussion is devoted to the relationship between the granitoid intrusions and related deposits from different lines of evidence: the spatial distribution, country rocks and alteration of the deposits, trace element contents and vertical zoning of elements in deposits, the metallogenic preference of granitoid intrusions, the metallogenic models and stable isotopic geology. It is concluded that the ore-bearing fluids mainly come from granitoid magmas and granitoid intrusions are closely associated with the related deposits in space.

  20. Novel Model for Intrusion Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jia-chun; Li Zhi-tang

    2003-01-01

    It's very difficult that the traditional intrusion detection methods based on accurate match adapt to the blur and uncertainty of user information and expert knowledge, it results in failing to report the variations of attack signature. In addition security itself includes fuzziness, the judgment standard of confidentiality, integrity and availability of system resource is uncertain. In this paper fuzzy intrusion detection based on partial match is presented to detect some types of attacks availably and alleviate some of the difficulties of above approaches, the architecture of fuzzy intrusion detection system(FIDS) is introduced and its performance is analyzed.

  1. Novel Model for Intrusion Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li; Jia-chun; Li; Zhi-tang

    2003-01-01

    It's very difficult that the traditional intrusion detection methods based on accurate match adapt to the blur and uncertainty of user information and expert knowledge, it results in failing to report the variation of attack signature.In addition security itself includes fuzziness, the judgment standard of confidentiality, integrity and availability of system resource is uncertain. In this paper fuzzy intrusion detection based on partial match is presented to detect some types of attacks availably and alleviate some of the difficulties of above approaches, the architecture of fuzzy intrusion detection system(FIDS) is introduced and its performance is analyzed.

  2. Development of Virtual Morphometric Globes Using Blender

    CERN Document Server

    Florinsky, I V

    2015-01-01

    Virtual globes - programs implementing interactive three-dimensional (3D) models of planets - are increasingly used in geosciences. Global morphometric models can be useful for tectonic and planetary studies. We describe the development of the first testing version of the system of virtual morphometric globes for the Earth, Mars, and the Moon. As the initial data, we used three 15'-gridded global digital elevation models (DEMs) extracted from SRTM30_PLUS, the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter, and the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter gridded archives. For three planetary bodies, we derived global digital models and maps of several morphometric attributes (i.e., horizontal curvature, vertical curvature, minimal curvature, maximal curvature, and catchment area). To develop the system, we used Blender, the open-source software for 3D modeling and visualization. First, a 3D sphere model was generated. Second, the global morphometric maps as textures were imposed to the sphere surface. Finally, the real-time 3D graphics B...

  3. 49 CFR 178.255-3 - Expansion domes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Expansion domes. 178.255-3 Section 178.255-3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Specifications for Portable Tanks § 178.255-3 Expansion domes. (a) Expansion domes, if applied, must have...

  4. Morphometrics, 3D Imaging, and Craniofacial Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgrimsson, Benedikt; Percival, Christopher J.; Green, Rebecca; Young, Nathan M.; Mio, Washington; Marcucio, Ralph

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have shown how volumetric imaging and morphometrics can add significantly to our understanding of morphogenesis, the developmental basis for variation and the etiology of structural birth defects. On the other hand, the complex questions and diverse imaging data in developmental biology present morphometrics with more complex challenges than applications in virtually any other field. Meeting these challenges is necessary in order to understand the mechanistic basis for variation in complex morphologies. This chapter reviews the methods and theory that enable the application of modern landmark-based morphometrics to developmental biology and craniofacial development, in particular. We discuss the theoretical foundations of morphometrics as applied to development and review the basic approaches to the quantification of morphology. Focusing on geometric morphometrics, we discuss the principal statistical methods for quantifying and comparing morphological variation and covariation structure within and among groups. Finally, we discuss the future directions for morphometrics in developmental biology that will be required for approaches that enable quantitative integration across the genotype-phenotype map. PMID:26589938

  5. Recent advances in vapor intrusion site investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Thomas; Loll, Per; Eklund, Bart

    2017-02-22

    Our understanding of vapor intrusion has evolved rapidly since the discovery of the first high profile vapor intrusion sites in the late 1990s and early 2000s. Research efforts and field investigations have improved our understanding of vapor intrusion processes including the role of preferential pathways and natural barriers to vapor intrusion. This review paper addresses recent developments in the regulatory framework and conceptual model for vapor intrusion. In addition, a number of innovative investigation methods are discussed.

  6. Fiber-optic gyro location of dome azimuth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehne, John W.

    2016-07-01

    The 2.1-m Otto Struve Telescope, world's second largest in 1939, today has modern motion control and superb tracking, yet the 19-m-diameter Art Deco dome has resisted many attempts to record its azimuth electronically. Demonstrated in January 2016, a small tactical-grade fiber-optic gyro located anywhere on the rotating structure, aided by a few fiducial points to zero gyro drift, adequately locates the azimuth. The cost of a gyro is practically independent of dome size, offering an economical solution for large domes that cannot be easily encoded with conventional systems. The 100-Hz sampling is capable of revealing anomalies in the rotation rate, valuable for preventive maintenance on any dome. I describe software methods and time series analysis to integrate angular velocity to dome azimuth; transformation of telescope hour angle and declination into required dome azimuth, using a formula that accounts for a cross-axis mount inside an offset dome; and test results.

  7. El Domo Vitrofírico Escuela Piedra Parada del Complejo Volcanico Piroclastico del Río Chubut Medio The Escuela Piedra Parada Vitrophyric Dome, from the Rio Chubut Medio Volcanic-Pyroclastic Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Aragón

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudia la geología y geoquímica de un domo vitrofírico riolítico de 0,8 km², vinculado a otros cinco domos que están alineados a lo largo del foso de una caldera paleocena de 25 km de diámetro. El domo pertenece al magmatismo post-colapso de la caldera. Las fracturas anulares controlaron la distribución de los domos a lo largo del foso. Las fracturas radiales controlaron el conducto de alimentación del domo. El domo muestra relaciones de intrusividad y extrusión respecto de las tufolitas lacustres que lo contienen. Riolitas foliadas intruyen y sobreyacen al domo por su punto mas elevado, cuando este estaba aún a alta temperatura. La geoquímica muestra que los vitrófiros y lavas foliadas, son riolitas con alto potasio, de naturaleza calcoalcalina, comagmáticas y probablemente vinculadas a un intrusivo andesitico tipo etmolito o embudo, que también está restringido al foso de la caldera.Geology and geochemistry of a 0.8 km² rhyolitic vitrophyric dome, related to other five domes that line up along the moat of a 25 km diameter cauldron of Paleocene age is studied. The dome belongs to the post-collapse intra calderas magmatism. Ring fractures controlled domes distribution along moat. Radial fractures controlled dome's local feeding conduits. The Dome shows intrusive and extrusive relations with tuffaceous stratified lacustrine sediments. A foliated rhyolite intruded the dome and extruded through the apex of it, while the dome was still at high temperature. Geochemistry shows that vitrophyres and foliated lavas are high potassium rhyolites of calcalkaline nature, comagmatic and probably related to a funnel like (etmolith andesitic intrusive that is also restricted to the caldera's moat.

  8. Numerical experiments on the role of buoyancy and rheology during the formation of extension-driven gneiss domes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korchinski, Megan; Rey, Patrice; Teyssier, Christian; Whitney, Donna; Mondy, Luke

    2016-04-01

    Domal structures that are cored with crystallized partially melted crustal rocks are ubiquitous features in active and exhumed orogens. The exposure of these gneiss/migmatite domes at the Earth's surface represents an opportunity to study the mechanisms of flow within the deep crust, and the mode of emplacement of high-pressure rocks into the shallow crust. End-member gneiss dome types include (1) extension-driven domes that core metamorphic core complexes, and (2) buoyancy-driven domes that are exhumed by diapiric flow. Numerical models are ideally suited to test the relative roles of buoyancy and extension-driven mechanisms in dome dynamics, and therefore to explore the interaction of physical parameters involved in doming. To that end, this research utilizes a 2D visco-plastic thermomechanical modeling framework to undertake a parametric numerical experiment where the density (range of 2700-3100 kg.m3) and viscosity (range of 1E19-1E21 Pa.s) of the lower crust are systematically varied. The style and timing of "intrusion" of partially molten lower crust into non-molten lower crust is similar for densities of 2700-3100 kg.m3 across two lower crustal viscosities tested here (1E19 Pa.s, 1E21 Pa.s). However, dome development and upwards flow of lower crust material for a relatively high-density, middle-viscosity lower crust (2900-3100 kg.m^3; 1E20 Pa.s) involves a significant upward translation of the Moho, relative to the low-density, middle-viscosity model results. In addition, the high-density, middle-viscosity model shows a decrease in the volume of partial melt in the lower crust, and distributed brittle faulting in the upper crust. Thus, this experiment suite illustrates that variations in density and viscosity of the lower crust influence (1) faults distribution in the upper crust, (2) flow patterns within the lower crust, (3) upward translation of the solidus into the lower crust, and (4) upward displacement of the Moho. The style of extension within the

  9. consistencia en dome: un caso de estudio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL CABARCAS

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Las herramientas metaCASE ofrecen una funcionalidad similar a la de las herramientas CASE convencionales para notaciones gráficas arbitrarias, una vez estas notaciones le sean especificadas adecuadamente. La principal dificultad de dichas herramientas es la especificación de las diferentes reglas de consistencia, que deben tenerse en cuenta cuando se usa una notación. En este artículo se presenta la especificación de dos reglas de consistencia del diagrama de clases de UML en el metaCASE DOME, codificadas en el lenguaje de programación Alter. Adicionalmente, se hace un análisis comparativo entre las especificaciones de los aspectos estructurales y de las reglas de consistencia en DOME y en la especificación de UML provista por el OMG.

  10. MROI Array telescopes: the relocatable enclosure domes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, G.; Busatta, A.; Payne, I.

    2016-07-01

    The MROI - Magdalena Ridge Interferometer is a project which comprises an array of up to 10 1.4m diameter mirror telescopes arranged in a "Y" configuration. Each of these telescopes will be housed inside a Unit Telescope Enclosure (UTE) which are relocatable onto any of 28 stations. EIE GROUP Srl, Venice - Italy, was awarded the contract for the design, the construction and the erection on site of the MROI by the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. The close-pack array of the MROI - including all 10 telescopes, several of which are at a relative distance of less than 8m center to center from each other - necessitated an original design for the Unit Telescope Enclosure (UTE). This innovative design enclosure incorporates a unique dome/observing aperture system to be able to operate in the harsh environmental conditions encountered at an altitude of 10,460ft (3,188m). The main characteristics of this Relocatable Enclosure Dome are: a Light insulated Steel Structure with a dome made of composites materials (e.g. glass/carbon fibers, sandwich panels etc.), an aperture motorized system for observation, a series of louvers for ventilation, a series of electrical and plants installations and relevant auxiliary equipment. The first Enclosure Dome is now under construction and the completion of the mounting on site id envisaged by the end of 2016. The relocation system utilizes a modified reachstacker (a transporter used to handle freight containers) capable of maneuvering between and around the enclosures, capable of lifting the combined weight of the enclosure with the telescope (30tons), with minimal impacts due to vibrations.

  11. Teapot Dome: past, present, and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curry, W.H. Jr.

    1977-05-01

    The Teapot Dome field is the 99th largest oil field in the United States with a proved reserve of 42,515,000 bbl, yet the field is sparsely drilled and underdeveloped. The writer credits Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 with 38 million bbl of future reserves. The long history of Teapot Dome since the early 1900s, sometimes turbulent, sometimes dormant, was marred by government scandal, akin to Watergate in notoriety, in the 1920s. Harry F. Sinclair's Mammoth Oil Company obtained leases from the Department of the Interior in a fraudulent manner which led to prison sentences for some of the principals. Oil production in the Teapot Dome field is from three formations; the shallow Shannon at depths of 400 to 1,000 ft (122 to 305 m); the Second Wall Creek member of the Frontier Formation at 2,500 to 3,000 ft (362 to 914 m); and the Tensleep Sandstone at 5,500 ft (1,676 m). The Second Wall Creek is the principal producing sandstone and has the greatest future production potential. Current production is small. As of December 1973, each of the 42 Navy wells averaged 4.4 b/d from the Shannon Sandstone, and 49 offset wells averaged 2.2 b/d each. In the Second Wall Creek, each of the 23 Navy wells averaged 10 b/d and 8 offset wells averaged 14.9 b/d each. Total daily production was 416 bbl and grand total for Teapot Dome through December 1975 was 7,762,709 bbl.

  12. Underwater Calibration of Dome Port Pressure Housings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocerino, E.; Menna, F.; Fassi, F.; Remondino, F.

    2016-03-01

    Underwater photogrammetry using consumer grade photographic equipment can be feasible for different applications, e.g. archaeology, biology, industrial inspections, etc. The use of a camera underwater can be very different from its terrestrial use due to the optical phenomena involved. The presence of the water and camera pressure housing in front of the camera act as additional optical elements. Spherical dome ports are difficult to manufacture and consequently expensive but at the same time they are the most useful for underwater photogrammetry as they keep the main geometric characteristics of the lens unchanged. Nevertheless, the manufacturing and alignment of dome port pressure housing components can be the source of unexpected changes of radial and decentring distortion, source of systematic errors that can influence the final 3D measurements. The paper provides a brief introduction of underwater optical phenomena involved in underwater photography, then presents the main differences between flat and dome ports to finally discuss the effect of manufacturing on 3D measurements in two case studies.

  13. What factors control the superficial lava dome explosivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudon, Georges; Balcone-Boissard, Hélène; Villemant, Benoit; Morgan, Daniel J.

    2015-04-01

    Dome-forming eruption is a frequent eruptive style; lava domes result from intermittent, slow extrusion of viscous lava. Most dome-forming eruptions produce highly microcrystallized and highly- to almost totally-degassed magmas which have a low explosive potential. During lava dome growth, recurrent collapses of unstable parts are the main destructive process of the lava dome, generating concentrated pyroclastic density currents (C-PDC) channelized in valleys. These C-PDC have a high, but localized, damage potential that largely depends on the collapsed volume. Sometimes, a dilute ash cloud surge develops at the top of the concentrated flow with an increased destructive effect because it may overflow ridges and affect larger areas. In some cases, large lava dome collapses can induce a depressurization of the magma within the conduit, leading to vulcanian explosions. By contrast, violent, laterally directed, explosions may occur at the base of a growing lava dome: this activity generates dilute and turbulent, highly-destructive, pyroclastic density currents (D-PDC), with a high velocity and propagation poorly dependent on the topography. Numerous studies on lava dome behaviors exist, but the triggering of lava dome explosions is poorly understood. Here, seven dome-forming eruptions are investigated: in the Lesser Antilles arc: Montagne Pelée, Martinique (1902-1905, 1929-1932 and 650 y. BP eruptions), Soufrière Hills, Montserrat; in Guatemala, Santiaguito (1929 eruption); in La Chaîne des Puys, France (Puy de Dome and Puy Chopine eruptions). We propose a new model of superficial lava-dome explosivity based upon a textural and geochemical study (vesicularity, microcrystallinity, cristobalite distribution, residual water contents, crystal transit times) of clasts produced by these key eruptions. Superficial explosion of a growing lava dome may be promoted through porosity reduction caused by both vesicle flattening due to gas escape and syn-eruptive cristobalite

  14. Hemispherical Optical Dome for Underwater Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, Ron S.; Lunde, Emily L.; Coronado, Patrick L.; Quijada, Manuel A.

    2017-01-01

    For many years, acoustic systems have been used as the primary method for underwater communication; however, the data transfer rate of such systems is low because sound propagates slowly through the water. A higher throughput can be achieved using visible light to transmit data underwater. The first issue with using this approach is that there is generally a large loss of the light signal due to scattering and absorption in water even though there is an optimal wavelength for transmission in the blue or green wavelengths of the visible spectrum. The second issue is that a simple system consisting only of a highly directional source transmitter and small optical detector receiver has a very narrow field of view. The goal of this project is to improve an optical, underwater communication system by increasing the effective field of view of the receiving optics. To this end, we make two changes to the simple system: (1) An optical dome was added near the receiver. An array of lenses is placed radially on the surface of the dome, reminiscent of the compound eye of an insect. The lenses make the source and detector planes conjugate, and each lens adds a new region of the source plane to the instrument's total field of view. (2) The receiver was expanded to include multiple photodiodes. With these two changes, the receiver has much more tolerance to misalignments (in position and angle) of the transmitter.Two versions of the optical dome (with 6 and 8 diameters) were designed using the CREO CAD software and modeled using the CODE V optical design software. A series of these transparent hemispherical domes, with both design diameters, were manufactured using a 5-axis mill. The prototype was then retrofitted with lenses and compared with the computer-generated model to demonstrate the effectiveness of this solution. This work shows the dome design improves the optical field of view of the underwater communication system considerably. Furthermore, with the experimental test

  15. A global distributed basin morphometric dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xinyi; Anagnostou, Emmanouil N.; Mei, Yiwen; Hong, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Basin morphometry is vital information for relating storms to hydrologic hazards, such as landslides and floods. In this paper we present the first comprehensive global dataset of distributed basin morphometry at 30 arc seconds resolution. The dataset includes nine prime morphometric variables; in addition we present formulas for generating twenty-one additional morphometric variables based on combination of the prime variables. The dataset can aid different applications including studies of land-atmosphere interaction, and modelling of floods and droughts for sustainable water management. The validity of the dataset has been consolidated by successfully repeating the Hack's law.

  16. Intrusion Detection using unsupervised learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusum bharti

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Clustering is the one of the efficient datamining techniques for intrusion detection. In clustering algorithm kmean clustering is widely used for intrusion detection. Because it gives efficient results incase of huge datasets. But sometime kmean clustering fails to give best result because of class dominance problem and no class problem. So for removing these problems we are proposing two new algorithms for cluster to class assignment. According to our experimental results the proposed algorithm are having high precision and recall for low class instances.

  17. Building Intrusion Tolerant Software System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Wen-ling; WANG Li-na; ZHANG Huan-guo; CHEN Wei

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we describe and analyze the hypothesis about intrusion tolerance software system, so that it can provide an intended server capability and deal with the impacts caused by the intruder exploiting the inherent security vulnerabilities. We present some intrusion tolerance technology by exploiting N-version module threshold method in constructing multilevel secure software architecture, by detecting with hash value, by placing an "antigen" word next to the return address on the stack that is similar to human immune system, and by adding "Honey code" nonfunctional code to disturb intruder, so that the security and the availability of the software system are ensured.

  18. A software tool for network intrusion detection

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van der Walt, C

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This presentation illustrates how a recently developed software tool enables operators to easily monitor a network and detect intrusions without requiring expert knowledge of network intrusion detections....

  19. Morphometrics parallel genetics in a newly discovered and endangered taxon of Galapagos tortoise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ylenia Chiari

    Full Text Available Galápagos tortoises represent the only surviving lineage of giant tortoises that exhibit two different types of shell morphology. The taxonomy of Galápagos tortoises was initially based mainly on diagnostic morphological characters of the shell, but has been clarified by molecular studies indicating that most islands harbor monophyletic lineages, with the exception of Isabela and Santa Cruz. On Santa Cruz there is strong genetic differentiation between the two tortoise populations (Cerro Fatal and La Reserva exhibiting domed shell morphology. Here we integrate nuclear microsatellite and mitochondrial data with statistical analyses of shell shape morphology to evaluate whether the genetic distinction and variability of the two domed tortoise populations is paralleled by differences in shell shape. Based on our results, morphometric analyses support the genetic distinction of the two populations and also reveal that the level of genetic variation is associated with morphological shell shape variation in both populations. The Cerro Fatal population possesses lower levels of morphological and genetic variation compared to the La Reserva population. Because the turtle shell is a complex heritable trait, our results suggest that, for the Cerro Fatal population, non-neutral loci have probably experienced a parallel decrease in variability as that observed for the genetic data.

  20. Non-Intrusive Appliance Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogsteen, G; Hoogsteen, Gerwin; Krist, J.O.; Bakker, Vincent; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2012-01-01

    Energy conservation becomes more important nowadays. The use of smart meters and, in the near future, smart appliances, are the key to achieve reduction in energy consumption. This research proposes a non-intrusive appliance monitor and recognition system for implementation on an embedded system. Th

  1. Occurrence of seawater intrusion overshoot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morgan, L.K.; Bakker, M.; Werner, A.D.

    2015-01-01

    A number of numerical modeling studies of transient sea level rise (SLR) and seawater intrusion (SI) in flux-controlled aquifer systems have reported an overshoot phenomenon, whereby the freshwater-saltwater interface temporarily extends further inland than the eventual steady state position. Recent

  2. Final OSWER Vapor Intrusion Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is preparing to finalize its guidance on assessing and addressing vapor intrusion, which is defined as migration of volatile constituents from contaminated media in the subsurface (soil or groundwater) into the indoor environment. In November 2002, EPA issued draft guidance o...

  3. Experiences with network intrusion detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coolen, R.; Luiijf, H.A.M.; Geloven, W.J.F. van; Bakker, E.A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes our experience with several commercial Network Intrusion Detection Systems (NIDSs)deployed in a network connected to the Internet. Specific problems in the operation of NIDS are highlighted, and a number of solutions to identified problems will be presented. Finally, we shall pr

  4. Morphometric Characterization of Small Cell Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chisoi Anca

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The morphometry in histopathology is used to characterize cell populations belonging to different tissues and to identify differences in their parameters with prognostic implications. To achieve morphometric examination were selected 6 of 24 cases identified as small cell lymphocytic lymphoma. For each case analysis was done on five fields, for each field measuring the parameters of 20 cells. The studied parameters were for cytoplasm: cytoplasmic area, maximum and minimum cytoplasmic diameter, cytoplasmic perimeter; for nucleus were measured: nuclear area, minimum and maximum nuclear diameter, nuclear perimeter, nuclear contour index, nuclear ellipticity index, nuclear irregularity index. Also the nucleocytoplasmic ratio was calculated in all studied cases. Small cell lymphocytic lymphoma is characterized in morphometric terms having a small cytoplasmic area (average 29.206 and also a small nuclear area (mean 28.939 having a nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio appearance suggestive for adult lymphocyte. A nuclear contour index small value (3.946, ellipticity index value also small (3.521 and small nuclear irregularity index (3.965. Standard deviations, in any of the studied morphometric categories, is around or below 1 suggesting monomorphic cell appearance. These morphometric and microscopic features characterized mainly by a small population of adult lymphocytes, monomorphic, with rounded hipercromic nuclei, dense chromatin, support the framing into indolent lymphoma group in terms of clinical outcome.

  5. Morphometric study of Euchiton (Gnaphalieae: Asteraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flann, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    A morphometric study was undertaken to survey taxa in the genus Euchiton Cass., distributed across Australia, New Zealand and South-east Asia. Phenetic analyses of herbarium specimens showed several taxa to be well delimited, including E. brassii (Mattf.) Anderb., E. breviscapus (Mattf.) Anderb., E.

  6. Morphometric study of Euchiton (Gnaphalieae: Asteraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flann, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    A morphometric study was undertaken to survey taxa in the genus Euchiton Cass., distributed across Australia, New Zealand and South-east Asia. Phenetic analyses of herbarium specimens showed several taxa to be well delimited, including E. brassii (Mattf.) Anderb., E. breviscapus (Mattf.) Anderb., E.

  7. Intrusive luxation of 60 permanent incisors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsilingaridis, Georgios; Malmgren, Barbro; Andreasen, Jens O;

    2012-01-01

    Intrusive luxation in the permanent dentition is an uncommon injury but it is considered one of the most severe types of dental trauma because of the risk for damage to the periodontal ligament, pulp and alveolar bone. Management of intrusive luxation in the permanent dentition is controversial....... The purpose of this study was to evaluate pulp survival and periodontal healing in intrusive luxated permanent teeth in relation to treatment alternatives, degree of intrusion and root development....

  8. Schematic designs for penetration seals for a repository in Richton Dome. [Richton Dome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsall, P.C.; Case, J.B.; Meyer, D.; Franzone, J.G.; Coons, W.E.

    1985-12-01

    The isolation of radioactive wastes in geologic repositories requires that human-made penetrations such as shafts, tunnels, or boreholes are adequately sealed. This report describes schematic seal designs for a repository in dome salt referenced to the geology of the Richton Dome in Mississippi. The designs are presented for extensive peer review and will be updated as conceptual designs if the Richton Dome is selected as a candidate repository site. The principal components of the seal system are concrete bulkheads and dense earth backfill placed in salt and anhydrite horizons in the shafts and in the tunnels in the shaft pillar. Crushed salt backfill is placed throughout the disposal areas. Close to the waste, this backfill should consolidate in response to closure of the rooms, resulting in effective encapsulation of the waste within a period of about 1000 years. Analyses based on a limited amount of laboratory testing indicate that consolidation rates will be relatively slow at locations further removed from the waste. Rates of consolidation are slow because of the slow-creeping properties of the Richton Dome salt and because of the relatively shallow (1900 feet) repository depth.

  9. Modal Composition and Age of Intrusions in North-Central and Northeast Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Bray, Edward A.; Crafford, A. Elizabeth Jones

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Data presented in this report characterize igneous intrusions of north-central and northeast Nevada and were compiled as part of the Metallogeny of the Great Basin project conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) between 2001 and 2007. The compilation pertains to the area bounded by lats 38.5 and 42 N., long 118.5 W., and the Nevada-Utah border (fig. 1). The area contains numerous large plutons and smaller stocks but also contains equally numerous smaller, shallowly emplaced intrusions, including dikes, sills, and endogenous dome complexes. Igneous intrusions (hereafter, intrusions) of multiple ages are major constituents of the geologic framework of north-central and northeast Nevada (Stewart and Carlson, 1978). Mesozoic and Cenozoic intrusions are particularly numerous and considered to be related to subduction along the west edge of the North American plate during this time. Henry and Ressel (2000) and Ressel and others (2000) have highlighted the association between magmatism and ore deposits along the Carlin trend. Similarly, Theodore (2000) has demonstrated the association between intrusions and ore deposits in the Battle Mountain area. Decades of geologic investigations in north-central and northeast Nevada (hereafter, the study area) demonstrate that most hydrothermal ore deposits are spatially, and probably temporally and genetically, associated with intrusions. Because of these associations, studies of many individual intrusions have been conducted, including those by a large number of Master's and Doctoral thesis students (particularly University of Nevada at Reno students and associated faculty), economic geologists working on behalf of exploration and mining companies, and USGS earth scientists. Although the volume of study area intrusions is large and many are associated with ore deposits, no synthesis of available data that characterize these rocks has been assembled. Compilations that have been produced for intrusions in Nevada

  10. The Mairan domes: silicic volcanic constructs on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glotch, Timothy D.; Hagerty, Justin J.; Lucey, Paul G.; Hawke, B. Ray; Giguere, Thomas A.; Arnold, Jessica A.; Williams, Jean-Pierre; Jolliff, Bradley L.; Paige, David A.

    2011-01-01

    The Mairan domes are four features located in northern Oceanus Procellarum at ∼312.3E, 41.4N on the Moon. High resolution visible imagery, visible-to-mid-IR spectra, and Lunar Prospector Th abundance data all indicate that these four domes have a composition that is consistent with derivation from a Si-rich, highly evolved magma.

  11. Superconducting Dome in a Gate-Tuned Band Insulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ye, J. T.; Zhang, Y. J.; Akashi, R.; Bahramy, M. S.; Arita, R.; Iwasa, Y.

    2012-01-01

    A dome-shaped superconducting region appears in the phase diagrams of many unconventional superconductors. In doped band insulators, however, reaching optimal superconductivity by the fine-tuning of carriers has seldom been seen. We report the observation of a superconducting dome in the temperature

  12. SOLUTION MINING IN SALT DOMES OF THE GULF COAST EMBAYMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griswold, G. B.

    1981-02-01

    Following a description of salt resources in the salt domes of the gulf coast embayment, mining, particularly solution mining, is described. A scenario is constructed which could lead to release of radioactive waste stored in a salt dome via inadvertent solution mining and the consequences of this scenario are analyzed.

  13. Geology--hydrology of Avery Island Salt Dome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacoby, C.H.

    1977-07-01

    After a review of the geology of the Gulf Coast salt domes, the geology (geomorphology and tectonics) and hydrology of Avery Island Dome, 10 miles south-southwest of New Iberia, Louisiana, were studied in detail. Rock mechanics were studied using grouts and piezometers. 17 figs. (DLC)

  14. Emplacement of Volcanic Domes on Venus and Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Lynnae C.; Glaze, Lori S.; Baloga, Steve M.

    2015-01-01

    Placing firmer constraints on the emplacement timescales of visible volcanic features is essential to obtaining a better understanding of the resurfacing history of Venus. Fig. 1 shows a Magellan radar image and topography for a putative venusian lava dome. 175 such domes have been identified, having diameters that range from 19 - 94 km, and estimated thicknesses as great as 4 km [1-2]. These domes are thought to be volcanic in origin [3], having formed by the flow of a viscous fluid (i.e., lava) onto the surface. Among the unanswered questions surrounding the formation of Venus steep-sided domes are their emplacement duration, composition, and the rheology of the lava. Rheologically speaking, maintenance of extremely thick, 1-4 km flows necessitates higher viscosity lavas, while the domes' smooth upper surfaces imply the presence of lower viscosity lavas [2-3]. Further, numerous quantitative issues, such as the nature and duration of lava supply, how long the conduit remained open and capable of supplying lava, the volumetric flow rate, and the role of rigid crust in influencing flow and final morphology all have implications for subsurface magma ascent and local surface stress conditions. The surface of Jupiter's icy moon Europa exhibits many putative cryovolcanic constructs [5-7], and previous workers have suggested that domical positive relief features imaged by the Galileo spacecraft may be volcanic in origin [5,7-8] (Fig. 2). Though often smaller than Venus domes, if emplaced as a viscous fluid, formation mechanisms for europan domes may be similar to those of venusian domes [7]. Models for the emplacement of venusian lava domes (e.g. [9-10]) have been previously applied to the formation of putative cryolava domes on Europa [7].

  15. Transdomes: Emplacement of Migmatite Domes in Oblique Tectonic Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teyssier, C. P.; Rey, P. F.; Whitney, D. L.; Mondy, L. S.; Roger, F.

    2014-12-01

    Many migmatite domes are emplaced within wrench corridors in which a combination of strike-slip and extensional detachment zones (pull-apart, extensional relay, or transfer zones) focus deep-crust exhumation. The Montagne Noire dome (France, Variscan Massif Central) exemplifies wrench-related dome formation and displays the following structural, metamorphic, and geochronologic characteristics of a 'transdome': the dome is elongate in the direction of extension; foliation outlines a double dome separated by a high-strain zone; lineation is shallowly plunging with a fairly uniform trend that parallels the strike of the high-strain zone; subdomes contain recumbent structures overprinted by upright folds that affected upward by flat shear zones associated with detachment tectonics; domes display a large syn-deformation metamorphic gradient from core (upper amphibolite facies migmatite) to margin (down to greenschist facies mylonite); some rocks in the dome core experienced isothermal decompression revealed by disequilibrium reaction textures, particularly in mafic rocks (including eclogite); and results of U-Pb geochrononology indicate a narrow range of metamorphic crystallization from core to mantling schist spanning ~10 Myr. 3D numerical modeling of transdomes show that the dome solicits a larger source region of partially molten lower crust compared to 2D models; this flowing crust creates a double-dome architecture as in 2D models but there are differences in the predicted thermal history and flow paths. In a transtension setting, flow lines converge at depth (radial-centripetal flow) toward the zone of extension and diverge at shallow levels in a more uniform direction that is imposed by upper crust motion and deformation. This evolution produces a characteristic pattern of strain history, progressive fabric overprint, and P-T paths that are comparable to observed dome rocks.

  16. Growth and Allometry in Modern Morphometrics: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz SIĞIRLI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In traditional shape analysis, linear distance, angles and ratios of measurements are used in multivariate statistical analyses. The challenge in any analysis of growth is to extend quantitative description and to explore aspects of the biology of a given organism, such as the genetic basis of morphogenesis, the phylogenetic underpinnings of developmental patterns, or the role of hormones, teratogens, dietary elements, and other environmental variables on the growth process. It is important to define the growth process with mathematical equations that include biologically meaningful parameters. Size has several different meanings such as length, area, volume, and even the linear combinations of different measured quantities. However, in statistical shape analysis, size is obtained by a specific approach, which provides the geometrical information of an object. Allometry theory was developed as a result of shape variations that occur with the growth of an organism’s different parts or organs at different rates. As the idea of size and shape has been one of the most controversial subjects in traditional morphometrics, allometry (relationship between size and shape plays an important role in the development of statistical shape analysis. The quantities used in traditional morphometrics for size are highly correlated with shape. Thus, many different methods have been proposed for size correction. However, because of disagreement regarding relevant methods of size correction, researchers have investigated different methods for the analysis of shape data. Today, new geometrical morphometric approaches are being used extensively to explore and model growth and allometry.

  17. Ice flow modelling at EPICA Dome C and Dome Fuji, East Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Parrenin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available 1-D ice flow models are used to construct the age scales at the Dome C and Dome Fuji drilling sites (East Antarctica. The poorly constrained glaciological parameters at each site are recovered by fitting independent age markers identified on each core. We reconstruct past accumulation rates, that are larger than those modelled using the classical vapour saturation pressure relationship during glacial periods by up to a factor 1.5. During the Early Holocene, changes in reconstructed accumulation are not linearly related to changes in ice isotopic composition. A simple model of past elevation changes is developed and shows an amplitude variation of 110–120 m at both sites. We suggest that there is basal melting at Dome C (0.56±0.19 mm/yr. The reconstructed velocity profile is highly non linear at both sites, which suggests complex ice flow effects. This induces a non linear thinning function in both drilling sites, which is also characterized by bumps corresponding to variations in surface elevation with time.

  18. Mesoscale optical turbulence simulations above Dome C, Dome A and South Pole

    CERN Document Server

    Lascaux, Franck; Hagelin, Susanna; 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.17709.x

    2010-01-01

    In two recent papers the mesoscale model Meso-NH, joint with the Astro-Meso-NH package, has been validated at Dome C, Antarctica, for the characterization of the optical turbulence. It has been shown that the meteorological parameters (temperature and wind speed, from which the optical turbulence depends on) as well as the Cn2 profiles above Dome C were correctly statistically reproduced. The three most important derived parameters that characterize the optical turbulence above the internal antarctic plateau: the surface layer thickness, the seeing in the free-atmosphere and in the total atmosphere showed to be in a very good agreement with observations. Validation of Cn2 has been performed using all the measurements of the optical turbulence vertical distribution obtained in winter so far. In this paper, in order to investigate the ability of the model to discriminate between different turbulence conditions for site testing, we extend the study to two other potential astronomical sites in Antarctica: Dome A ...

  19. 1-D-ice flow modelling at EPICA Dome C and Dome Fuji, East Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Parrenin

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available One-dimensional (1-D ice flow models are used to construct the age scales at the Dome C and Dome Fuji drilling sites (East Antarctica. The poorly constrained glaciological parameters at each site are recovered by fitting independent age markers identified within each core. We reconstruct past accumulation rates, that are larger than those modelled using the classical vapour saturation pressure relationship during glacial periods by up to a factor 1.5. During the Early Holocene, changes in reconstructed accumulation are not linearly related to changes in ice isotopic composition. A simple model of past elevation changes is developed and shows an amplitude variation of 110–120 m at both sites. We suggest that there is basal melting at Dome C (0.56±0.19 mm/yr. The reconstructed velocity profile is highly non-linear at both sites, which suggests complex ice flow effects. This induces a non-linear thinning function in both drilling sites, which is also characterized by bumps corresponding to variations in ice thickness with time.

  20. PENGEMBANGAN DESA WISATA RUMAH DOME BERBASIS AGROINDUSTRI PANGAN LOKAL (Kajian Diversifikasi Ketela Pohon di Desa Wisata Rumah Dome Prambanan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susi Wuri Ani

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Pangan merupakan kebutuhan utama dalam kehidupan manusia. Pemenuhan kebutuhan pangan baik dari segi jumlah, mutu, gizi maupun keamanan berkaitan dengan Sumberdaya Manusia (SDM. Kualitas konsumsi pangan dan gizi masyarakat menentukan SDM masyarakat tersebut. Agroindustri pangan lokal merupakan kegiatan yang memberdayakan sumberdaya lokal (indigenous resources. Seluruh potensi lokal dimanfaatkan untuk menguatkan agroindustri pangan lokal. Penduduk di kawasan wisata Rumah Dome belum mampu mengolah bahan pangan lokal. Kegiatan ini bertujuan membentuk kelompok usaha produktif Ibu-Ibu PKK di Rumah Dome untuk dapat meningkatkan nilai ekonomis pangan lokal (ketela pohon. Hal yang dilakukan adalah memberikan pelatihan pengolahan ketela pohon menjadi ceriping singkong berbagai rasa, keripik belut daun singkong, membuat brownies berbahan tepung ketela, mengemas produk dengan brand Rumah Dome dan memberikan pelatihan pembukuan sederhana. Dengan kegiatan ini diharapkan akan tumbuh kelompok usaha produktif sehingga dapat mengangkat citra wisata Rumah Dome dan meningkatkan pendapatan masyarakat di Rumah Dome. Abstract Food is a major necessity in human life. Food needs are important for human resource (HR both in terms of quantity and quality. Quality of food consumption and nutrition communities determine the HR community. Local food agroindustry is an activity that empowers local resources (indigenous resources. The whole potential of local food used to strengthen local agroindustry. Residents in the tourist area of Dome House have not been able to process local food. This activity aims to establish productive business of woman group (PKK in Dome House to increase the economic value of local food (cassava. The activities are training for production process, packaging with Dome House’s brand and simple accounting management. The cassava processing training are: (1 making variety flavors of cassava chips; (2 producing eel chips from cassava leaves and (3

  1. Classification and Importance of Intrusion Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajasekaran K

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An intrusion detection system (IDS is a device or software application that monitors network or system activities for malicious activities or policy violations and produces reports to a Management Station. Some systems may attempt to stop an intrusion attempt but this is neither required nor expected of a monitoring system. Due to a growing number of intrusion events and also because the Internet and local networks have become so ubiquitous, organizations are increasingly implementing various systems that monitor IT security breaches. This includes an overview of the classification of intrusion detection systems and introduces the reader to some fundamental concepts of IDS methodology: audit trail analysis and on-the-fly processing as well as anomaly detection and signature detection approaches. This research paper discusses the primary intrusion detection techniques and the classification of intrusion Detection system.

  2. First field identification of the Cuonadong dome in southern Tibet: implications for EW extension of the North Himalayan gneiss dome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jiangang; Li, Guangming; Wang, Genhou; Huang, Yong; Zhang, Linkui; Dong, Suiliang; Liang, Wei

    2017-07-01

    The Cuonadong dome exposes in east-southern margin of the North Himalayan gneiss domes (NHGD), which is reported first time in this study. The Cuonadong dome is located at the southern part of the Zhaxikang ore concentration area, which is divided into three tectono-lithostratigraphic units by two curved faults around the dome geometry from upper to lower (or from outer to inner): the upper unit, middle unit and lower unit, and the outer fault is Nading fault, while the inner fault is Jisong fault. The Cuonadong dome is a magmatic orthogneiss and leucogranite mantled by orthogneiss and metasedimentary rocks, which in turn are overlain by Jurassic metasedimentary and sedimentary rocks. The grades of metamorphism and structural deformation increase towards the core, which is correspondence with the Ridang Formation low-metamorphic schist, tourmaline granitic-biotite gneiss, garnet-mica gneiss and mylonitic quartz-mica gneiss. The Cuonadong dome preserves evidences for four major deformational events: firstly top-to-S thrust (D1), early approximately N-S extensional deformation (D2), main approximately E-W extensional deformation (D3), and late collapse structural deformation (D4) around the core of the Cuonadong dome, which are consistent to three groups lineation: approximately N-S-trending lineation including L1 and L2, E-W trending L3, and L4 with plunging towards outside of the dome, respectively. The formation of the Cuonadong dome was probably resulted from the main E-W extensional deformation which is a result of eastward flow of middle or lower crust from beneath Tibet accommodated by northward oblique underthrusting of Indian crust beneath Tibet. The establishment of the Cuonadong dome enhanced the E-W extension of the NHGD, which is further divided into two structural dome zones according to the different extensional directions: approximately N-S extensional North Himalayan gneiss domes (NS-NHGD) and E-W extensional North Himalayan gneiss domes (EW

  3. First field identification of the Cuonadong dome in southern Tibet: implications for EW extension of the North Himalayan gneiss dome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jiangang; Li, Guangming; Wang, Genhou; Huang, Yong; Zhang, Linkui; Dong, Suiliang; Liang, Wei

    2016-07-01

    The Cuonadong dome exposes in east-southern margin of the North Himalayan gneiss domes (NHGD), which is reported first time in this study. The Cuonadong dome is located at the southern part of the Zhaxikang ore concentration area, which is divided into three tectono-lithostratigraphic units by two curved faults around the dome geometry from upper to lower (or from outer to inner): the upper unit, middle unit and lower unit, and the outer fault is Nading fault, while the inner fault is Jisong fault. The Cuonadong dome is a magmatic orthogneiss and leucogranite mantled by orthogneiss and metasedimentary rocks, which in turn are overlain by Jurassic metasedimentary and sedimentary rocks. The grades of metamorphism and structural deformation increase towards the core, which is correspondence with the Ridang Formation low-metamorphic schist, tourmaline granitic-biotite gneiss, garnet-mica gneiss and mylonitic quartz-mica gneiss. The Cuonadong dome preserves evidences for four major deformational events: firstly top-to-S thrust (D1), early approximately N-S extensional deformation (D2), main approximately E-W extensional deformation (D3), and late collapse structural deformation (D4) around the core of the Cuonadong dome, which are consistent to three groups lineation: approximately N-S-trending lineation including L1 and L2, E-W trending L3, and L4 with plunging towards outside of the dome, respectively. The formation of the Cuonadong dome was probably resulted from the main E-W extensional deformation which is a result of eastward flow of middle or lower crust from beneath Tibet accommodated by northward oblique underthrusting of Indian crust beneath Tibet. The establishment of the Cuonadong dome enhanced the E-W extension of the NHGD, which is further divided into two structural dome zones according to the different extensional directions: approximately N-S extensional North Himalayan gneiss domes (NS-NHGD) and E-W extensional North Himalayan gneiss domes (EW

  4. Polygenetic Nature of a Rhyolitic Dome: Cerro Pizarro, Eastern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Nuñez, G.; Riggs, N.

    2006-12-01

    Rhyolitic domes are commonly regarded as monogenetic volcanoes associated with single, brief eruptions, such as those forming basaltic scoria cones; this contrasts with domes of andesitic or dacitic composition that usually show a complex evolution. Rhyolitic domes are characterized by short-lived successions of pyroclastic and effusive activity associated with a series of discrete eruptive events that commonly last on the order of years to decades or perhaps centuries. Cerro Pizarro is an isolated rhyolitic dome with a volume of ~1.1 km3, located in the eastern Mexican Volcanic Belt, in the intermontane Serdán-Oriental basin. Cerro Pizarro has an eruptive history similar to a polygenetic volcano, including a complex evolution of alternating explosive and effusive eruptions, a cryptodome phase, and sector collapse, marked chemical variations with time, and long-term repose periods (~ 50-80 ky) between eruptions that reveals intermittent injection of magmas. Whereas major element chemistry does not show significant changes, trace and rare-earth elements show marked differences between the last eruptive episode and the initial and intermediate stages of activity. Other rhyolitic domes such as Glass Mountain, CA, Taylor Creek, NM, South Sister domes, OR, and the Mono Inyo complex, CA, show moderate to strong chemical variations. These domes, however, are related to larger volcanic fields or are dome complexes formed by numerous vents, in contrast with Cerro Pizarro, which is an isolated volcano with no apparent relation to nearby larger volcanic systems (e.g., Los Humeros caldera). This eruptive behavior provides new insights into how rhyolite domes may evolve. A protracted, complex evolution bears important implications for hazard assessment. Activity at Cerro Pizarro leads us to speculate that isolated rhyolitic systems may become reactivated, potentially after tens of thousands of years.

  5. Association Rules Applied to Intrusion Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    We discuss the basic intrusion detection techniques, and focus on how to apply association rules to intrusion detection. Begin with analyzing some close relations between user's behaviors, we discuss the mining algorithm of association rules and apply to detect anomaly in IDS. Moreover, according to the characteristic of intrusion detection, we optimize the mining algorithm of association rules, and use fuzzy logic to improve the system performance.

  6. Non-intrusive refractometer sensor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pabitra Nath

    2010-04-01

    An experimental realization of a simple non-intrusive refractometer sensor is demonstrated in this communication. The working principle of the sensor is based on intensity modulation of the back-reflected light when output light from an optical fibre end focusses onto air–medium interface. The change in the refractive index of the medium affects the reflectance of the incident light signal and thus modulates the back-reflected signal. Refractive index variation as small as 0.002 RIU can be measured using the present technique. The advantages of the technique are its simplicity, cost efficiency and usefulness in monitoring refractive indices of acidic solutions.

  7. An optical remote controlled high voltage dome for electron microscopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruan, S. [The Enrico Fermi Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Kapp, O.H. [The Department of Radiology and the Enrico Fermi Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    1995-08-01

    A low cost high voltage dome has been completed for an electron microscope with a thermal emission tip as electron source. Two fibers are used to provide communication across the high electrical field zone between the computer and the dome. This system provides a reliable method to operate the dome circuitry (floating at high voltage) and ensures the safety of both the computer system and the operator. Because of the application of ``dummy`` serial data transfer, the least number of fibers and associated components are used, providing a relatively low-cost solution to this problem. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  8. Sulfide intrusion and detoxification in Zostera marina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Holmer, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    nutrition in general. By a global review of sulfide intrusion, coupled with a series of field studies and in situ experiments we elucidate sulfide intrusion and different strategies of seagrasses to sustain sulfide intrusion. Using stable isotope tracing, scanning electron microscopy with x-ray analysis...... indicating a possible role of sulfide in the sulfur nutrition beside the detoxification function. Our results suggest different adaptations of Z. marina to reduced sediments and sulfide intrusion ranging from bacterial and chemical reoxidation of sulfide to sulfate to incorporation of sulfide into organic...

  9. An international perspective on Facebook intrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błachnio, Agata; Przepiorka, Aneta; Benvenuti, Martina; Cannata, Davide; Ciobanu, Adela Magdalena; Senol-Durak, Emre; Durak, Mithat; Giannakos, Michail N; Mazzoni, Elvis; Pappas, Ilias O; Popa, Camelia; Seidman, Gwendolyn; Yu, Shu; Wu, Anise M S; Ben-Ezra, Menachem

    2016-08-30

    Facebook has become one of the most popular social networking websites in the world. The main aim of the study was to present an international comparison of Facebook intrusion and Internet penetration while examining possible gender differences. The study consisted of 2589 participants from eight countries: China, Greece, Israel, Italy, Poland, Romania, Turkey, USA. Facebook intrusion and Internet penetration were taken into consideration. In this study the relationship between Facebook intrusion and Internet penetration was demonstrated. Facebook intrusion was slightly negatively related to Internet penetration in each country.

  10. The Effects of the Foldable Dome of KDUST on the Observation Based on CFD Method at Dome A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianghai; Gong, Xuefei; Gu, Bozhong

    2016-12-01

    For modern telescopes with the strict requirement of high-resolution image quality, the influence of wind load cannot be ignored. KDUST is a 2.5 m optical telescope and will be installed at Dome A. To study the effects of wind load on KDUST, the low-frequency wind speed data observed by KL-AWS-2G weather station at Dome A are transformed into high frequency based on the theory of wind speed fluctuation spectrum; then, the numerical wind tunnel simulation is conducted under the conditions of different dominant wind directions, different dome opening angles, and the elevation angles of KDUST. The results show that different wind directions mainly affect the wind velocity and turbulence kinetic energy around the telescope; the optical path difference increases along with the increase of the dome opening angle, but decreases with the increase of the elevation angle of KDUST; the dome seeing decreases with the increase of both the dome opening angle and elevation angle. This simulation will provide a useful reference for the future design and construction of KDUST and its foldable dome.

  11. An assessment of hydrothermal alteration in the Santiaguito lava dome complex, Guatemala: implications for dome collapse hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Jessica L.; Calder, Eliza S.; Hubbard, Bernard E.; Bernstein, Marc L.

    2013-01-01

    A combination of field mapping, geochemistry, and remote sensing methods has been employed to determine the extent of hydrothermal alteration and assess the potential for failure at the Santiaguito lava dome complex, Guatemala. The 90-year-old complex of four lava domes has only experienced relatively small and infrequent dome collapses in the past, which were associated with lava extrusion. However, existing evidence of an active hydrothermal system coupled with intense seasonal precipitation also presents ideal conditions for instability related to weakened clay-rich edifice rocks. Mapping of the Santiaguito dome complex identified structural features related to dome growth dynamics, potential areas of weakness related to erosion, and locations of fumarole fields. X-ray diffraction and backscattered electron images taken with scanning electron microscopy of dacite and ash samples collected from around fumaroles revealed only minor clay films, and little evidence of alteration. Mineral mapping using ASTER and Hyperion satellite images, however, suggest low-temperature (alteration on erosional surfaces of the domes, but not the type of pervasive acid-sulfate alteration implicated in collapses of other altered edifices. To evaluate the possibility of internal alteration, we re-examined existing aqueous geochemical data from dome-fed hot springs. The data indicate significant water–rock interaction, but the Na–Mg–K geoindicator suggests only a short water residence time, and δ18O/δD ratios show only minor shifts from the meteoric water line with little precipitation of secondary (alteration) minerals. Based on available data, hydrothermal alteration on the dome complex appears to be restricted to surficial deposits of hydrous silica, but the study has highlighted, importantly, that the 1902 eruption crater headwall of Santa María does show more advanced argillic alteration. We also cannot rule out the possibility of advanced alteration within the dome

  12. Extrusion cycles during dome-building eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    de' Michieli Vitturi, M.; Clarke, A. B.; Neri, A.; Voight, B.

    2013-06-01

    We identify and quantify controls on the timescales and magnitudes of cyclic (periodic) volcanic eruptions using the numerical model DOMEFLOW (de' Michieli Vitturi et al., 2010) which was developed by the authors for magma systems of intermediate composition. DOMEFLOW treats the magma mixture as a liquid continuum with dispersed gas bubbles and crystals in thermodynamic equilibrium with the melt and assumes a modified Poiseuille form of the viscous term for fully developed laminar flow in a conduit of cylindrical cross-section. During ascent, magma pressure decreases and water vapor exsolves and partially degasses from the melt as the melt simultaneously crystallizes, causing changes in mixture density and viscosity. Two mechanisms previously proposed to cause periodic eruption behavior have been implemented in the model and their corresponding timescales explored. The first applies a stick-slip model in which motion of a shallow solid plug is resisted by static/dynamic friction, as described in Iverson et al. (2006). For a constant magma supply rate at depth, this mechanism yields cyclic extrusion with timescales of seconds to tens of seconds with values generally depending on assumed friction coefficients. The second mechanism does not consider friction but treats the plug as a high-viscosity Newtonian fluid. During viscous resistance, pressure beneath the degassed plug can increase sufficiently to overcome dome overburden, plug weight, and viscous forces, and ultimately drive the plug from the conduit. In this second model cycle periods are on the order of hours, and decrease with increasing magma supply rate until a threshold is reached, at which point periodicity disappears and extrusion rate becomes steady (vanishingly short periods). Magma volatile content for fixed chamber pressure has little effect on cycle timescales, but increasing volatile content increases mass flow rate and cycle magnitude as defined by the difference between maximum and minimum

  13. Building Guastavino dome in China: A historical survey of the dome of the Auditorium at Tsinghua University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yishi Liu

    2014-06-01

    The first part combs up the intellectual origins and precedents of the campus planning by Henry Murphy. As the dome is a focal point of the study, a brief course on the history of dome construction in the West is needed. The third part, based upon field measurement in July 2013, compares the actual dome with its original design featured by the Guastavino method, deducing possible reasons that resulted in the differences, including architect׳s unfamiliarity with Guastavino Company and its parameters, considerations about cost, and local construction tradition.

  14. STUDY OF MORPHOMETRIC CHANGES OF FOETAL STOMACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Aneesur Rahman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Interest in human development is very widespread largely because of the curiosity about our beginnings and desire to improve the quality of life. Understanding of the processes involved in the formation of various organs and systems has unrevealed most cryptic secrets of the nature. Human development begins at fertilisation when a male gamete or sperm unites with a female gamete or oocyte to form a single cell, a zygote. With the formation of zygote (single-celled stage, foetal development begins. The aim of the study is to- 1 Study the morphometric parameters of foetal stomach at various gestational ages. 2 Compare these observations with the previous studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS Present work was the cross-sectional study carried out in the Department of Anatomy in collaboration with the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at SRTRGMC and Hospital, Ambajogai Dist., Beed, Maharashtra. For this, approval of Institutional Ethical Committee was taken. 30 aborted human foetuses of different age groups ranging from 12 to 36 weeks of fertilisation were taken from the Department of OB-GYN. Foetuses were preserved by using 10% formalin. Age of foetuses were determined by crown-rump length and history given by mother. Foetuses were dissected after preservation for 15 days and morphometric studies were done on stomach. RESULTS Various quantitative parameters like weight of foetus, crown-rump length, total length of stomach, weight of stomach, length of greater curvature, lesser curvature, width of cardia and width of pylorus were used. For the purpose of study and comparison with other researchers, the foetuses were divided into 3 groups. Morphometric changes were observed in different groups and compared with previous studies. CONCLUSION With the increase in the body weight, crown-rump length and gestational age of the foetus, there is gradual increase on various parameters of stomach.

  15. Geometry of shoot apical dome and distribution of growth rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Nakielski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of the relative elementary rate of growth (RERG in apical domes of various shapes and patterns of displacement lines can be analytically examined. The geometry of these domes may be described by parabolas of n-th order, the variant of the distribution of linear growth rate should be established along any displacement line (e.g. along the axis and then the RERG can be studied as the function depending on the position coordinates and the parameter n. Such investigations of several aplical domes of various shapes have been performed. The results confirm the occurrence of the minimum of relative, elementary growth rate (in volume in the subapical region of the dome independently of the type of geometry (n parabola order.

  16. Cradleboard's New Dome School. A Real Learning Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grones, Freda

    1998-01-01

    Describes how the construction of a new domed K-5, multipurpose facility created a learning experience for its students. Highlights the cost savings realized in its construction, and the interior design's minor problems with sound and storage. (GR)

  17. The E-ELT Project: the Dome design status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, G.; de Lorenzi, S.; Busatta, A.

    2010-07-01

    Status of the Feasibility Study of E-ELT, the ESO 42 m Extreme Large Telescope, with emphasis on the Dome architecture and erection. The Dome is a hemispherical shape concept servomechanism 86 m high, with an external diameter of 108 m and a 45 m wide Observing Slit. Such dimensions require the application of big structure technologies (like stadium, hangar etc), in order to comply with manufacturing, transport and assembly constrains. The mentioned technology must be fitted with mechanical and control system constrains required by this kind of servo-system. Mechanisms inside the Dome must be sufficiently light and stiff, and composite materials meet the above mentioned requirements. The management of the whole mass is extremely important for the services and power consumption. This paper describes how the above mentioned problems were handled during the E-ELT Dome Feed study.

  18. Under The Dome: Doped holographic superconductors with broken translational symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Baggioli, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    We comment on a simple way to accommodate translational symmetry breaking into the recently proposed holographic model which features a superconducting dome-shaped region on the temperature-doping phase diagram.

  19. Mesoscale Optical Turbulence simulations at Dome C

    CERN Document Server

    Lascaux, F; Hagelin, S; Stoesz, J

    2009-01-01

    These last years ground-based astronomy has been looking towards Antarctica, especially its summits and the internal continental plateau where the optical turbulence (OT) appears to be confined in a shallow layer close to the surface. Preliminary measurements have so far indicated pretty good value for the seeing above 30-35 m: 0.36" (Agabi et al. 2006), 0.27" (Lawrence et al. 2004) and 0.3" (Trinquet et al. 2008) at Dome C. Site testing campaigns are however extremely expensive, instruments provide only local measurements and atmospheric modeling might represent a step ahead towards the search and selection of astronomical sites thanks to the possibility to reconstruct 3D Cn2 maps over a surface of several kilometers. The Antarctic Plateau represents therefore an important benchmark test to evaluate the possibility to discriminate sites on the same plateau. Our group (Hagelin et al. 2008) has proven that the analyses from the ECMWF global model do not describe with the required accuracy the antarctic boundar...

  20. Sperm kinematic, head morphometric and kinetic-morphometric subpopulations in the blue fox (Alopex lagopus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Soler

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work provides information on the blue fox ejaculated sperm quality needed for seminal dose calculations. Twenty semen samples, obtained by masturbation, were analyzed for kinematic and morphometric parameters by using CASA-Mot and CASA-Morph system and principal component (PC analysis. For motility, eight kinematic parameters were evaluated, which were reduced to PC1, related to linear variables, and PC2, related to oscillatory movement. The whole population was divided into three independent subpopulations: SP1, fast cells with linear movement; SP2, slow cells and nonoscillatory motility; and SP3, medium speed cells and oscillatory movement. In almost all cases, the subpopulation distribution by animal was significantly different. Head morphology analysis generated four size and four shape parameters, which were reduced to PC1, related to size, and PC2, related to shape of the cells. Three morphometric subpopulations existed: SP1: large oval cells; SP2: medium size elongated cells; and SP3: small and short cells. The subpopulation distribution differed between animals. Combining the kinematic and morphometric datasets produced PC1, related to morphometric parameters, and PC2, related to kinematics, which generated four sperm subpopulations - SP1: high oscillatory motility, large and short heads; SP2: medium velocity with small and short heads; SP3: slow motion small and elongated cells; and SP4: high linear speed and large elongated cells. Subpopulation distribution was different in all animals. The establishment of sperm subpopulations from kinematic, morphometric, and combined variables not only improves the well-defined fox semen characteristics and offers a good conceptual basis for fertility and sperm preservation techniques in this species, but also opens the door to use this approach in other species, included humans.

  1. Sperm kinematic, head morphometric and kinetic-morphometric subpopulations in the blue fox (Alopex lagopus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Carles; Contell, Jesús; Bori, Lorena; Sancho, María; García-Molina, Almudena; Valverde, Anthony; Segarvall, Jan

    2017-01-01

    This work provides information on the blue fox ejaculated sperm quality needed for seminal dose calculations. Twenty semen samples, obtained by masturbation, were analyzed for kinematic and morphometric parameters by using CASA-Mot and CASA-Morph system and principal component (PC) analysis. For motility, eight kinematic parameters were evaluated, which were reduced to PC1, related to linear variables, and PC2, related to oscillatory movement. The whole population was divided into three independent subpopulations: SP1, fast cells with linear movement; SP2, slow cells and nonoscillatory motility; and SP3, medium speed cells and oscillatory movement. In almost all cases, the subpopulation distribution by animal was significantly different. Head morphology analysis generated four size and four shape parameters, which were reduced to PC1, related to size, and PC2, related to shape of the cells. Three morphometric subpopulations existed: SP1: large oval cells; SP2: medium size elongated cells; and SP3: small and short cells. The subpopulation distribution differed between animals. Combining the kinematic and morphometric datasets produced PC1, related to morphometric parameters, and PC2, related to kinematics, which generated four sperm subpopulations – SP1: high oscillatory motility, large and short heads; SP2: medium velocity with small and short heads; SP3: slow motion small and elongated cells; and SP4: high linear speed and large elongated cells. Subpopulation distribution was different in all animals. The establishment of sperm subpopulations from kinematic, morphometric, and combined variables not only improves the well-defined fox semen characteristics and offers a good conceptual basis for fertility and sperm preservation techniques in this species, but also opens the door to use this approach in other species, included humans. PMID:27751987

  2. Intrusive and Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring (A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Danilo Burbano Acuña

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There is not discussion about the need of energyconservation, it is well known that energy resources are limitedmoreover the global energy demands will double by the end of2030, which certainly will bring implications on theenvironment and hence to all of us.Non-Intrusive load monitoring (NILM is the process ofrecognize electrical devices and its energy consumption basedon whole home electric signals, where this aggregated load datais acquired from a single point of measurement outside thehousehold. The aim of this approach is to get optimal energyconsumption and avoid energy wastage. Intrusive loadmonitoring (ILM is the process of identify and locate singledevices through the use of sensing systems to support control,monitor and intervention of such devices. The aim of thisapproach is to offer a base for the development of importantapplications for remote and automatic intervention of energyconsumption inside buildings and homes as well. For generalpurposes this paper states a general framework of NILM andILM approaches.Appliance discerns can be tackled using approaches fromdata mining and machine learning, finding out the techniquesthat fit the best this requirements, is a key factor for achievingfeasible and suitable appliance load monitoring solutions. Thispaper presents common and interesting methods used.Privacy concerns have been one of the bigger obstacles forimplementing a widespread adoption of these solutions; despitethis fact, developed countries like those inside the EU and theUK have established a deadline for the implementation ofsmart meters in the whole country, whereas USA governmentstill struggles with the acceptance of this solution by itscitizens.The implementation of security over these approachesalong with fine-grained energy monitoring would lead to abetter public agreement of these solutions and hence a fasteradoption of such approaches. This paper reveals a lack ofsecurity over these approaches with a real scenario.

  3. Observer Kalman Filter Identification of Suspen-Dome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guojun Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of Suspen-Dome structures have been built, but there is some difficulty in using experimental data to obtain good modal parameters, especially modal damping. In this paper, an ANSYS numerical simulation of the 35.4 m span Suspen-Dome is presented. Firstly, the natural vibration characteristics of Suspen-Dome and dynamic response under some random forces were obtained. Then the results of the numerical simulation established that 60 modes are sufficient for a reasonable dynamic model. This model is used to represent the Suspen-Dome dynamic behavior, and OKID is then used to try to identify a model from simulated data. A 400-order model generated from OKID is shown to contain the 60 modes from ANSYS and is shown to give good predictions of the dynamic behavior of Suspen-Dome. The results of this paper can confirm that it can be a very efficient tool for the identification of models of Suspen-Dome dynamics.

  4. Vapour Intrusion into Buildings - A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter provides a review of recent research on vapour intrusion of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into buildings. The chapter builds on a report from Tillman and Weaver (2005) which reviewed the literature on vapour intrusion through 2005. Firstly, the term ‘vapour intru...

  5. The morphometrics of "masculinity" in human faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitteroecker, Philipp; Windhager, Sonja; Müller, Gerd B; Schaefer, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    In studies of social inference and human mate preference, a wide but inconsistent array of tools for computing facial masculinity has been devised. Several of these approaches implicitly assumed that the individual expression of sexually dimorphic shape features, which we refer to as maleness, resembles facial shape features perceived as masculine. We outline a morphometric strategy for estimating separately the face shape patterns that underlie perceived masculinity and maleness, and for computing individual scores for these shape patterns. We further show how faces with different degrees of masculinity or maleness can be constructed in a geometric morphometric framework. In an application of these methods to a set of human facial photographs, we found that shape features typically perceived as masculine are wide faces with a wide inter-orbital distance, a wide nose, thin lips, and a large and massive lower face. The individual expressions of this combination of shape features--the masculinity shape scores--were the best predictor of rated masculinity among the compared methods (r = 0.5). The shape features perceived as masculine only partly resembled the average face shape difference between males and females (sexual dimorphism). Discriminant functions and Procrustes distances to the female mean shape were poor predictors of perceived masculinity.

  6. The morphometrics of "masculinity" in human faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Mitteroecker

    Full Text Available In studies of social inference and human mate preference, a wide but inconsistent array of tools for computing facial masculinity has been devised. Several of these approaches implicitly assumed that the individual expression of sexually dimorphic shape features, which we refer to as maleness, resembles facial shape features perceived as masculine. We outline a morphometric strategy for estimating separately the face shape patterns that underlie perceived masculinity and maleness, and for computing individual scores for these shape patterns. We further show how faces with different degrees of masculinity or maleness can be constructed in a geometric morphometric framework. In an application of these methods to a set of human facial photographs, we found that shape features typically perceived as masculine are wide faces with a wide inter-orbital distance, a wide nose, thin lips, and a large and massive lower face. The individual expressions of this combination of shape features--the masculinity shape scores--were the best predictor of rated masculinity among the compared methods (r = 0.5. The shape features perceived as masculine only partly resembled the average face shape difference between males and females (sexual dimorphism. Discriminant functions and Procrustes distances to the female mean shape were poor predictors of perceived masculinity.

  7. Intrusion Preventing System using Intrusion Detection System Decision Tree Data Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syurahbil

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: To distinguish the activities of the network traffic that the intrusion and normal is very difficult and to need much time consuming. An analyst must review all the data that large and wide to find the sequence of intrusion on the network connection. Therefore, it needs a way that can detect network intrusion to reflect the current network traffics. Approach: In this study, a novel method to find intrusion characteristic for IDS using decision tree machine learning of data mining technique was proposed. Method used to generate of rules is classification by ID3 algorithm of decision tree. Results: These rules can determine of intrusion characteristics then to implement in the firewall policy rules as prevention. Conclusion: Combination of IDS and firewall so-called the IPS, so that besides detecting the existence of intrusion also can execute by doing deny of intrusion as prevention.

  8. Low-temperature thermochronologic constraints on cooling and exhumation trends along conjugate margins, within core complexes and eclogite-bearing gneiss domes of the Woodlark rift system of eastern Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, P. G.; Baldwin, S.; Bermudez, M. A.; Miller, S. R.; Webb, L. E.; Little, T.

    2012-12-01

    In eastern Papua New Guinea, active sea-floor spreading within the Woodlark Basin has been propagating westward since at least 6 Ma into heterogeneous crust of the Woodlark Rift. The seafloor spreading system divides the northern conjugate margin (Woodlark Rise) from the southern margin (Pocklington Rise). West of the seafloor spreading rift-tip are high-standing extensional gneiss domes and core complexes of the D'Entrecasteaux Islands (DEI). Domes comprise amphibolite and eclogite-facies gneisses, and Pleistocene granitoid intrusions. Flanked by mylonitic shear zone carapaces and normal faults, the domes are juxtaposed against an upper plate that includes ultramafic rocks and gabbro, correlated with the Papuan ultramafic belt. Petrologic and structural evidence from the DEI has been interpreted as evidence for diapiric ascent of the largely felsic domes, with thermo-mechanical modeling proposing (U)HP exhumation in terms of diapiric flow aided by propagating extension, with feedback between the two. Core complexes lacking evidence for diapiric-aided exhumation include the Prevost Range (eastern Normanby Island), Dayman Dome (Papuan Peninsula), and Misima Island (southern conjugate margin). Thermochronology is being applied to understand the thermal and exhumation history, and hence help constrain mechanisms of (U)HP exhumation. AFT and AHe ages from samples near sea-level along conjugate margins and DEI range from ca. 12 Ma to Goodenough Island, the western-most and highest-standing dome. On Goodenough Island, samples from the core zone have AFT ages from ~3 - test the relative roles of buoyancy and normal faulting during exhumation of eclogite-bearing domes within the Woodlark rift system.

  9. The role of estrogen in intrusive memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Jessica; Chervonsky, Liza; Felmingham, Kim L; Bryant, Richard A

    2013-11-01

    Intrusive memories are highly vivid, emotional and involuntary recollections which cause significant distress across psychological disorders including posttraumatic disorder (PTSD). Recent evidence has potentially extended our understanding of the development of intrusive memories by identifying biological factors which significantly impact on memories for emotionally arousing stimuli. This study investigated the role of stress on the development of intrusions for negative and neutral images, and indexed the potential contributions of sex (estrogen and progesterone) and stress (noradrenaline and cortisol) hormones. Whilst viewing the images, half the participants underwent a cold pressor stress (CPS) procedure to induce stress while the control participants immersed their hands in warm water. Saliva samples were collected to index estrogen, progesterone and noradrenergic and cortisol response. Participants (55 university students, 26 men, 29 women) viewed a series of negatively arousing and neutral images. Participants completed recall and intrusions measures 2 days later. Negative images resulted in greater recall and more intrusions than neutral images. In the cold water condition females recalled fewer neutral memories than males. Cortisol increase predicted decreased recall of negative memories in males, and estrogen predicted increased intrusions of negative images in women. These findings are consistent with evidence that circulating levels of ovarian hormones influence memory for emotionally arousing events, and provides the first evidence of the influence of sex hormones on intrusive memories. These results provide one possible explanation for the higher incidence of anxiety disorders in women.

  10. Signature Based Intrusion Detection System Using SNORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Kumar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Now a day’s Intrusion Detection systems plays very important role in Network security. As the use of internet is growing rapidly the possibility of attack is also increasing in that ratio. People are using signature based IDS’s. Snort is mostly used signature based IDS because of it is open source software. World widely it is used in intrusion detection and prevention domain. Basic analysis and security engine (BASE is also used to see the alerts generated by Snort. In the paper we have implementation the signature based intrusion detection using Snort. Our work will help to novel user to understand the concept of Snort based IDS.

  11. Magma accumulation and segregation during regional-scale folding: The Holland's dome granite injection complex, Damara belt, Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Tolene; Kisters, Alexander

    2016-08-01

    The regional-scale, upright fold of the Holland's dome in the Damara belt of central Namibia contains a kilometre-scale network of intrusive, highly fractionated uraniferous leucogranites. Three broadly orthogonal and intersecting sets of leucogranite sheets that intruded parallel and at right angles to the axial plane of the first-order fold can be distinguished. The granites are internally sheeted and illustrate the growth of the injection complex through the successive addition of thousands of smaller magma batches. Spatial and timing relationships point to a stepwise evolution of the injection complex. Early dilatancy-driven segregation and accumulation of granitic magmas in the core of the fold, above a basal detachment, was followed by compaction-driven segregation of a melt phase during fold tightening. The intersecting leucogranite sets provide a suitably organized permeability structure for melt segregation, while the successive injection of magma batches ensures compatibility between regional strain rates during folding and the rates of magma segregation. The three-dimensional network of melt-bearing structures further assisted regional shortening past the lock-up of the fold. The Holland's dome injection complex illustrates the geometric complexity of magma transfer pathways and the significance of regional-scale folding for the accumulation, segregation and fractionation of granitic magmas in suprasolidus crust.

  12. Estimating population age structure using otolith morphometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doering-Arjes, P.; Cardinale, M.; Mosegaard, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    known-age fish individuals. Here we used known-age Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) from the Faroe Bank and Faroe Plateau stocks. Cod populations usually show quite large variation in growth rates and otolith shape. We showed that including otolith morphometrics into ageing processes has the potential...... to make ageing objective, accurate, and fast. Calibration analysis indicated that a known-age sample from the same population and environment is needed to obtain robust calibration; using a sample from a different stock more than doubles the error rate, even in the case of genetically highly related...... populations. The intercalibration method was successful but generalization from one stock to another remains problematic. The development of an otolith growth model is needed for generalization if an operational method for different populations is required in the future....

  13. Implications of Viscosity-Contrast for Co-Extruding Two-Component Magmas, Triggering Eruptions and Forming Layered Domes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrigan, C. R.; Clarke, S. M.

    2004-12-01

    Polymer co-extrusion experiments represent excellent dynamical analogies with two-magma transport and the effusion of composite lava domes. They demonstrate that the co-extrusion of magmas having different viscosity can explain not only the observed normal zoning in magma dikes and conduits but also the compositional layering observed in effused lava domes. New results indicate that dike and conduit zoning along with dome layering are strongly dependent on the viscosity contrast between the flowing magmas. Realistic models of magma storage and dike formation show that co-extrusion of magmas is both more readily explained and energetically preferred over serial intrusion processes. Co-extrusion during the formation of dikes may play an important role in triggering larger volcanic eruptions. Lubrication of the flow by a typically, more mafic, lower-viscosity component allows a more viscous but also more highly volatile-charged magma to be transported greater distances upward in the dike resulting in exsolution of a gas phase and the formation of a magma foam. Transition to a foam lowers the bulk density of the magma enabling dikes to propagate greater vertical distances for a given back pressure. Our new results suggest that a dike propagating across a sloping magma-chamber roof intersecting both "wet" silicic and relatively "dry" mafic layers has the greatest probability of reaching the surface in the dike segment where the magmas flow co-extrusively. Thus, bimodal eruptive compositions are dynamically preferred in such a petrologically common magmatic regime. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  14. Morphometric analysis of Willis circle arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma Voljevica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Willis arterial circle (circulus arteriosus cerebri Willisi is the most important part of the collateral circulatory system of the brain. It functions in normal and pathological situations such as valvular mechanism and thus allows optimal blood supply of all parts of the brain tissue, which reduces the risk of transient ischemic attack (TIA and stroke. The main pre-requisite for the normal function of the circle is its completeness and the lack of hypoplastic vessels. Materials and Methods: In this research, we used 100 angiograms of carotid system shown by serial angiography by Seldinger taken from the archives of the Department of Radiology, Clinical Center University of Sarajevo. For morphometric analysis of blood vessels, we used specially designed software program ELLIPSE (ViDiTo, Zoltan Tomoris, Kosice, Slovak Republic, tomori@saske.sk. In this way, it was possible to more easily store and analyze angiograms that were used for morphometric analysis. Results: In our study, larger diameters of blood vessels in Willis circle were observed in the younger subjects compared to older except the diameter of the internal carotid artery, which was about 0.2 to 0.3 mm larger in the older subjects. In both age groups among males, we recorded larger diameters of the internal carotid artery and segment before the circle of the posterior cerebral artery in relation to the female population, while the rear communicating artery in females was 0.1 mm wider in diameter compared to men in category of younger respondents.

  15. Excellent daytime seeing at Dome Fuji on the Antarctic plateau

    CERN Document Server

    Okita, H; Ashley, M C B; Takato, N

    2013-01-01

    Context. Dome Fuji, the second highest region on the Antarctic plateau, is expected to have some of the best astronomical seeing on Earth. However, site testing at Dome Fuji is still in its very early stages. Aims. To investigate the astronomical seeing in the free atmosphere above Dome Fuji, and to determine the height of the surface boundary layer. Methods. A Differential Image Motion Monitor was used to measure the seeing in the visible (472 nm) at a height of 11 m above the snow surface at Dome Fuji during the austral summer of 2012/2013. Results. Seeing below 0.2'' has been observed. The seeing often has a local minimum of ~0.3'' near 18 h local time. Some periods of excellent seeing, 0.3'' or smaller, were also observed, sometimes extending for several hours at local midnight. The median seeing is higher, at 0.52''---this large value is believed to be caused by periods when the telescope was within the turbulent boundary layer. Conclusions. The diurnal variation of the daytime seeing at Dome Fuji is sim...

  16. Upheaval Dome, An Analogue Site for Gale Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, P. G.; Eignebrode, J. L.

    2011-01-01

    We propose Upheaval Dome in southeastern Utah as an impact analogue site on Earth to Mars Science Laboratory candidate landing site Gale Crater. The genesis of Upheaval Dome was a mystery for some time--originally thought to be a salt dome. The 5 km crater was discovered to possess shocked quartz and other shock metamorphic features just a few years ago, compelling evidence that the crater was formed by impact, although the structural geology caused Shoemaker and Herkenhoff to speculate an impact origin some 25 years earlier. The lithology of the crater is sedimentary. The oldest rocks are exposed in the center of the dome, upper Permian sandstones, and progressively younger units are well exposed moving outward from the center. These are Triassic sandstones, siltstones and shales, which are intruded by clastic dikes. There are also other clay-rich strata down section, as is the case with Gale Crater. There is significant deformation in the center of the crater, with folding and steeply tilted beds, unlike the surrounding Canyonlands area, which is relatively undeformed. The rock units are well exposed at Upheaval Dome, and there are shatter cones, impactite fragments, shocked quartz grains and melt rocks present. The mineral shock features suggest that the grains were subjected to dynamic pressures> 10 GPa.

  17. Granitoid magmatism of Alarmaut granite-metamorphic dome, West Chukotka, NE Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchitskaya, M. V.; Sokolov, S. D.; Bondarenko, G. E.; Katkov, S. M.

    2009-04-01

    ]. Analyses of cores of some zircons from granodiorites of Lupveem batholith indicate Precambrian age of protolith (717, 1070.4 and 1581.5 m.a.) [15]. 40Ar-39Ar age of synmetamorphic biotite varies from 108 to 103 m.a. [15]. Intrusive rocks of Alarmaut dome are represented by wide spectrum of rocks: diorites, Q diorites, Q monzodiorites, granodiorites, tonalites, granites. Granodiorites and granites contain mafic enclaves of monzonites and Q monzonites. SiO2 contents in rocks of Alarmaut dome varies from 58,55% in diorites to 71,3% in granites; in enclaves - from 54,6% in monzonites to 61.89% in Q monzonites. Granitoids are normal and subalkaline rocks according to SiO2 vs K2O+Na2O and belong to high-K calc-alkaline and shoshonite series according to K2O vs SiO2. They are mainly metaluminous rocks (ASI syncollisional granites and volcanic arc granites, but within the field of postcollisional [19]. Geochronological and structural data indicate temporal relation between magmatism, metamorphism and deformations, accompanying formation of dome structure. Structural data also indicate the dome formation between two regional strike-slips. Strike-slip deformations of terminal stage of collision might have resulted in local zones of extensions [6, 8]. Intrusive contacts of studied granitoid plutons with already deformed host deposits indicate their postcollisional origin. Wide petrographical spectrum of granitoids, hornblende and biotite existence in granites, metaluminous high-K and shoshonite character, biotites compositions allow belonging them to high-K granites of I-type. Appearance of I-type granites in postcollisional setting is usually related to crustal anatexis under the influence of hot asthenospheric mantle due to delamination of lower parts of lithosphere. At the same time the processes of mingling of magmas of different composition, assimilation, fractional crystallization take place. Thus, in tectonic scenario of Alarmaut dome formation except dominating submergence of

  18. Grey-theory based intrusion detection model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Boping; Zhou Xianwei; Yang Jun; Song Cunyi

    2006-01-01

    To solve the problem that current intrusion detection model needs large-scale data in formulating the model in real-time use, an intrusion detection system model based on grey theory (GTIDS) is presented. Grey theory has merits of fewer requirements on original data scale, less limitation of the distribution pattern and simpler algorithm in modeling.With these merits GTIDS constructs model according to partial time sequence for rapid detect on intrusive act in secure system. In this detection model rate of false drop and false retrieval are effectively reduced through twice modeling and repeated detect on target data. Furthermore, GTIDS framework and specific process of modeling algorithm are presented. The affectivity of GTIDS is proved through emulated experiments comparing snort and next-generation intrusion detection expert system (NIDES) in SRI international.

  19. Intrusion Detection Architecture Utilizing Graphics Processors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Madoš

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available With the thriving technology and the great increase in the usage of computer networks, the risk of having these network to be under attacks have been increased. Number of techniques have been created and designed to help in detecting and/or preventing such attacks. One common technique is the use of Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS. Today, number of open sources and commercial IDS are available to match enterprises requirements. However, the performance of these systems is still the main concern. This paper examines perceptions of intrusion detection architecture implementation, resulting from the use of graphics processor. It discusses recent research activities, developments and problems of operating systems security. Some exploratory evidence is presented that shows capabilities of using graphical processors and intrusion detection systems. The focus is on how knowledge experienced throughout the graphics processor inclusion has played out in the design of intrusion detection architecture that is seen as an opportunity to strengthen research expertise.

  20. Autonomous Rule Creation for Intrusion Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd Vollmer; Jim Alves-Foss; Milos Manic

    2011-04-01

    Many computational intelligence techniques for anomaly based network intrusion detection can be found in literature. Translating a newly discovered intrusion recognition criteria into a distributable rule can be a human intensive effort. This paper explores a multi-modal genetic algorithm solution for autonomous rule creation. This algorithm focuses on the process of creating rules once an intrusion has been identified, rather than the evolution of rules to provide a solution for intrusion detection. The algorithm was demonstrated on anomalous ICMP network packets (input) and Snort rules (output of the algorithm). Output rules were sorted according to a fitness value and any duplicates were removed. The experimental results on ten test cases demonstrated a 100 percent rule alert rate. Out of 33,804 test packets 3 produced false positives. Each test case produced a minimum of three rule variations that could be used as candidates for a production system.

  1. Periodontal changes following molar intrusion with miniscrews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Bayani

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, these results suggest that not only periodontal status was not negatively affected by intrusion, but also there were signs of periodontal improvement including attachment gain and shortening of clinical crown height.

  2. Autonomous Rule Creation for Intrusion Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd Vollmer; Jim Alves-Foss; Milos Manic

    2011-04-01

    Many computational intelligence techniques for anomaly based network intrusion detection can be found in literature. Translating a newly discovered intrusion recognition criteria into a distributable rule can be a human intensive effort. This paper explores a multi-modal genetic algorithm solution for autonomous rule creation. This algorithm focuses on the process of creating rules once an intrusion has been identified, rather than the evolution of rules to provide a solution for intrusion detection. The algorithm was demonstrated on anomalous ICMP network packets (input) and Snort rules (output of the algorithm). Output rules were sorted according to a fitness value and any duplicates were removed. The experimental results on ten test cases demonstrated a 100 percent rule alert rate. Out of 33,804 test packets 3 produced false positives. Each test case produced a minimum of three rule variations that could be used as candidates for a production system.

  3. A phased approach to network intrusion detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, K.A.; DuBois, D.H.; Stallings, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the design and development of a prototype intrusion detection system for the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Integrated Computing Network (ICN). The development of this system is based on three basic assumptions: (1) that statistical analysis of computer system and user activates may be used to characterize normal system and user behavior, and that given the resulting statistical profiles, behavior which deviates beyond certain bounds can be detected, (2) that expert system techniques can be applied to security auditing and intrusion detection, and (3) that successful intrusion detection may take place while monitoring a limited set of network activities. The Network Anomaly Detection and Intrusion Reporter (NADIR) design intent was to duplicate and improve the audit record review activities which had previously been undertaken by security personnel, to replace the manual review of audit logs with a near realtime expert system.

  4. Immune Based Intrusion Detector Generating Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Xiao-mei; YU Ge; XIANG Guang

    2005-01-01

    Immune-based intrusion detection approaches are studied. The methods of constructing self set and generating mature detectors are researched and improved. A binary encoding based self set construction method is applied. First,the traditional mature detector generating algorithm is improved to generate mature detectors and detect intrusions faster. Then, a novel mature detector generating algorithm is proposed based on the negative selection mechanism. Accord ing to the algorithm, less mature detectors are needed to detect the abnormal activities in the network. Therefore, the speed of generating mature detectors and intrusion detection is improved. By comparing with those based on existing algo rithms, the intrusion detection system based on the algorithm has higher speed and accuracy.

  5. A Citizen's Guide to Vapor Intrusion Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guide describes how vapor intrusion is the movement of chemical vapors from contaminated soil and groundwater into nearby buildings.Vapors primarily enter through openings in the building foundation or basement walls.

  6. Intrusion Detection System Using Advanced Honeypots

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Ram Kumar

    2009-01-01

    The exponential growth of Internet traffic has made public servers increasingly vulnerable to unauthorized accesses and intrusions. In addition to maintaining low latency for the client, filtering unauthorized accesses has become one of the major concerns of a server maintainer. This implementation of an Intrusion Detection System distinguishes between the traffic coming from clients and the traffic originated from the attackers, in an attempt to simultaneously mitigate the problems of both latency and security. We then present the results of a series of stress and scalability tests, and suggest a number of potential uses for such a system. As computer attacks are becoming more and more difficult to identify the need for better and more efficient intrusion detection systems increases. The main problem with current intrusion detection systems is high rate of false alarms. Using honeypots provides effective solution to increase the security.

  7. Folding retractable protective dome for space vehicle equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Paul R. (Inventor); Messinger, Ross H. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A folding, retractable dome for protecting a feature, such as a docking mechanism, a hatch or other equipment at an exterior surface of a space vehicle, includes a plurality of arcuate ribs, each having opposite ends respectively pinioned at opposite sides of the feature at the surface of the vehicle for rotational movement about an axis of rotation extending through the opposite ends and through an arcuate path of revolution extending over the feature, and a flexible cover attached to each of the ribs such that, in a deployed configuration of the dome, in which adjacent ribs are rotated apart from each other at a maximum relative angle therebetween, the cover is stretched generally tangentially between the adjacent ribs to form a generally arcuate shield over the feature, and in a retracted position of the dome, in which adjacent ribs are rotated together at a minimum relative angle therebetween, the cover is collapsed to define folded pleats between the adjacent ribs.

  8. The “eye of Africa” (Richat dome, Mauritania): An isolated Cretaceous alkaline-hydrothermal complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matton, Guillaume; Jébrak, Michel

    2014-09-01

    The Richat dome is a spectacular circular structure located in the Mauritanian part of the Sahara Desert. The current erosion level of this igneous complex presents a wide variety of contrasting extrusive and intrusive rocks from shallow to deep source regions providing insight into the magmatic process at the origin of the complex. The Richat is the superposition of a bimodal tholeiitic suite crosscut by carbonatitic and kimberlitic magmatic rocks. The bimodal series is characterized by two concentric gabbroic ring dikes and two extrusive rhyolitic centers representing the remnant of two maar systems. Silica undersaturated magmas occur as carbonatite dikes, a kimberlite plug, and kimberlite sills extruded along the old regional anisotropies filling NNE-SSW dextral strike-slip faults and en-echelon tension gashes. An intense low-temperature hydrothermal event affected the Richat area. It is responsible, notably, for the karst-collapse central mega-breccia, the alteration of the rhyolites, the potassic alteration of the gabbros and the stable isotope enrichment in the carbonatites. A piston-like collapse is proposed to explain the contrast existing between the central and outer part of the Richat. Structural inheritance played an important role in the history of the Richat complex. Pre-existing anisotropies acted as a pathway for the ascent of asthenospheric and sub-continental melts and allowed the coexistence of alkaline and tholeiitic magmas within the same igneous complex.

  9. Intrusion-Tolerant Architectures: Concepts and Design

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Veríssimo; Nuno Ferreira Neves; Miguel Correia

    2003-01-01

    There is a significant body of research on distributed computing architectures, methodologies and algorithms, both in the fields of fault tolerance and security. Whilst they have taken separate paths until recently, the problems to be solved are of similar nature. In classical dependability, fault tolerance has been the workhorse of many solutions. Classical security-related work has on the other hand privileged, with few exceptions, intrusion prevention. Intrusion tolerance (IT) is a new app...

  10. Cluster based Intrusion Detection System for Manets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Dang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Manets are the ad hoc networks that are build on demand or instantly when some mobile nodes come in the mobility range of each other and decide to cooperate for data transfer and communication. Therefore there is no defined topology for Manets. They communicate in dynamic topology which continuously changes as nodes are not stable. Due to this lack of infrastructure and distributed nature they are more vulnerable for attacks and provide a good scope to malicious users to become part of the network. To prevent the security of mobile ad hoc networks many security measures are designed such as encryption algorithms, firewalls etc. But still there is some scope of malicious actions. So, Intrusion detection systems are proposed to detect any intruder in the network and its malicious activities. Cluster based intrusion detection system is also designed to restrict the intruders activities in clusters of mobile nodes. In clusters each node run some intrusion detection code to detect local as well as global intrusion. In this paper we have taken insight of intrusion detection systems and different attacks on Manet security. Then we proposed how overhead involved in cluster based intrusion detection system can be reduced.

  11. A system for distributed intrusion detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snapp, S.R.; Brentano, J.; Dias, G.V.; Goan, T.L.; Heberlein, L.T.; Ho, Che-Lin; Levitt, K.N.; Mukherjee, B. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA). Div. of Computer Science); Grance, T. (Air Force Cryptologic Support Center, San Antonio, TX (USA)); Mansur, D.L.; Pon, K.L. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Smaha, S.E. (Haystack Labs., Inc., Austin, TX (USA))

    1991-01-01

    The study of providing security in computer networks is a rapidly growing area of interest because the network is the medium over which most attacks or intrusions on computer systems are launched. One approach to solving this problem is the intrusion-detection concept, whose basic premise is that not only abandoning the existing and huge infrastructure of possibly-insecure computer and network systems is impossible, but also replacing them by totally-secure systems may not be feasible or cost effective. Previous work on intrusion-detection systems were performed on stand-alone hosts and on a broadcast local area network (LAN) environment. The focus of our present research is to extend our network intrusion-detection concept from the LAN environment to arbitarily wider areas with the network topology being arbitrary as well. The generalized distributed environment is heterogeneous, i.e., the network nodes can be hosts or servers from different vendors, or some of them could be LAN managers, like our previous work, a network security monitor (NSM), as well. The proposed architecture for this distributed intrusion-detection system consists of the following components: a host manager in each host; a LAN manager for monitoring each LAN in the system; and a central manager which is placed at a single secure location and which receives reports from various host and LAN managers to process these reports, correlate them, and detect intrusions. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  12. FLAMMABLE GAS DIFFUSION THROUGH SINGLE SHELL TANK (SST) DOMES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MEACHAM, J.E.

    2003-11-10

    This report quantified potential hydrogen diffusion through Hanford Site Single-Shell tank (SST) domes if the SSTs were hypothetically sealed airtight. Results showed that diffusion would keep headspace flammable gas concentrations below the lower flammability limit in the 241-AX and 241-SX SST. The purpose of this document is to quantify the amount of hydrogen that could diffuse through the domes of the SSTs if they were hypothetically sealed airtight. Diffusion is assumed to be the only mechanism available to reduce flammable gas concentrations. The scope of this report is limited to the 149 SSTs.

  13. Exploring Learning through Audience Interaction in Virtual Reality Dome Theaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolellis, Panagiotis; Daradoumis, Thanasis

    Informal learning in public spaces like museums, science centers and planetariums is increasingly popular during the last years. Recent advancements in large-scale displays allowed contemporary technology-enhanced museums to get equipped with digital domes, some with real-time capabilities like Virtual Reality systems. By conducting extensive literature review we have come to the conclusion that little to no research has been carried out on the leaning outcomes that the combination of VR and audience interaction can provide in the immersive environments of dome theaters. Thus, we propose that audience collaboration in immersive virtual reality environments presents a promising approach to support effective learning in groups of school aged children.

  14. Morphometric variation in the forest rodent Malacomys edwardsi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-08-31

    Aug 31, 2014 ... Morphometric variation in the forest rodent Malacomys edwardsi in Côte d' ... This genus only occurs in tropical regions of Africa. ... complex, Jacquet et al., 2014). ..... structure matrix indicates that LOTE, BULL, UPDA and.

  15. 13 Morphometric Analysis of Ogunpa and Ogbere Drainage Basins ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    Morphometric Analysis of Ogunpa and Ogbere Drainage Basins, Ibadan, Nigeria. *Ajibade ... complex rock in Southwestern Nigeria. .... This work was based on map analysis ..... Bs = VI/HE where Bs = Basin slope, VI = Vertical Interval and.

  16. Current status and potential of morphometric sperm analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Maroto-Morales; Olga García-Álvarez; Manuel Ramón; Felipe Martínez-Pastor; M Rocío Fernández-Santos; A Josefa Soler; José Julián Garde

    2016-01-01

    The spermatozoon is the most diverse cell type known and this diversity is considered to reflect differences in sperm function. How the diversity in sperm morphology arose during speciation and what role the different specializations play in sperm function, however, remain incompletely characterized. This work reviews the hypotheses proposed to explain sperm morphological evolution, with a focus on some aspects of sperm morphometric evaluation; the ability of morphometrics to predict sperm cr...

  17. Geophysical characterization of hydrothermal systems and intrusive bodies, El Chichón volcano (Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutzeler, Martin; Varley, Nick; Roach, Michael

    2011-04-01

    The 1982 explosive eruptions of El Chichón volcano (Chiapas, Mexico) destroyed the inner dome and created a 1-km-wide and 180-m-deep crater within the somma crater. A shallow hydrothermal system was exposed to the surface of the new crater floor and is characterized by an acid crater lake, a geyser-like Cl-rich spring (soap pool), and numerous fumarole fields. Multiple geophysical surveys were performed to define the internal structure of the volcanic edifice and its hydrothermal system. We carried out a high-resolution ground-based geomagnetic survey in the 1982 crater and its surroundings and 38 very low frequency (VLF) transects around the crater lake. A 3-D inversion of the ground-based magnetic data set highlighted three high-susceptibility isosurfaces, interpreted as highly magnetized bodies beneath the 1982 crater floor. Inversion of a digitized regional aeromagnetic map highlighted four major deeply rooted cryptodomes, corresponding to major topographic highs and massive lava dome outcrops outside and on the somma rim. The intracrater magnetic bodies correspond closely to the active hydrothermal vents and their modeled maximum basal depth matches the elevation of the springs on the flanks of the volcano. Position, dip, and vertical extent of active and extinct hydrothermal vents identified by VLF-EM surveys match the magnetic data set. We interpret the shallow lake spring hydrothermal system to be mostly associated with buried remnants of the 550 BP dome, but the Cl-rich soap pool may be connected to a small intrusion emplaced at shallow depth during the 1982 eruption.

  18. Biometrics, biomathematics and the morphometric synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookstein, F L

    1996-03-01

    At the core of contemporary morphometrics--the quantitative study of biological shape variation--is a synthesis of two originally divergent methodological styles. One contributory tradition is the multivariate analysis of covariance matrices originally developed as biometrics and now dominant across a broad expanse of applied statistics. This approach, couched solely in the linear geometry of covariance structures, ignores biomathematical aspects of the original measurements. The other tributary emphasizes the direct visualization of changes in biological form. However, making objective the biological meaning of the features seen in those diagrams was always problematical; also, the representation of variation, as distinct from pairwise difference, proved infeasible. To combine these two variants of biomathematical modeling into a valid praxis for quantitative studies of biological shape was a goal earnestly sought though most of this century. That goal was finally achieved in the 1980s when techniques from mathematical statistics, multivariate biometrics, non-Euclidean geometry and computer graphics were combined in a coherent new system of tools for the complete regionalized quantitative analysis of landmark points together with the biomedical images in which they are seen. In this morphometric synthesis, correspondence of landmarks (biologically labeled geometric points, like "bridge of the nose") across specimens is taken as a biomathematical primitive. The shapes of configurations of landmarks are defined as equivalence classes with respect to the Euclidean similarity group and then represented as single points in David Kendall's shape space, a Riemannian manifold with Procrustes distance as metric. All conventional multivariate strategies carry over to the study of shape variation and covariation when shapes are interpreted in the tangent space to the shape manifold at an average shape. For biomathematical interpretation of such analyses, one needs a basis

  19. MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF GLENOID FOSSA OF SCAPULA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on sixty scapulae obtained from the department of Anatomy, Government Medical College, Jammu. The shape of the glenoid cavity was observed in all the scapulae. It was inverted comma shaped, tear drop shaped, oval and round shaped. T he shape on the two sides was compared. Morphometry of the glenoid cavity was done and compared on right and left side. The dimensions of the glenoid fossa provide important information for designing and fitting of glenoid component for shoulder arthroplas ty. An understanding of variations of glenoid cavity is essential for evaluating pathological conditions like osseous Bankart lesions and osteochondral defects. INTRODUCTION: Shoulder arthroplasty is a common mode of treatment to treat shoulder pathologies like shoulder arthritis. Knowledge about the shape and morphological parameters is essential for success of shoulder arthroplasty as otherwise there would be loosening of the joint necessisitating the need for revision surgery. The articular surfaces for shoulder joint are the glenoid cavity (or fossa of scapula and head of humerus. The glenoid fossa is a shallow ovoid depression on the lateral angle of the scapula. It is also called as the glenoid cavity or the head of the scapula. There is variation in the shape of the glenoid fossa. The glenoid rim presents a small notch on its anterior and upper part . (1 The glenoid notch prevents the attachment of fibrocartilaginous glenoidal labrum to the glenoidal rim, which can be detach ed leading to Bankart, s les ion . (2 A knowledge of the shape and morphometry of glenoid fossa is essential for treat ing glenohumeral osteoarthritis . (3 Morphometric analysis of glenoid fossa is also essential when total shoulder prosthesis has to be used. It is also essential for eva luating Bankart lesion, osteochondral defects, shoulder instability etc. Thorough scanning of available literature revealed that there is dearth of literature regarding

  20. Mud dome, stone dome and mud and stone dome in the rural buildings of vernacular architecture in center of Castilla y León (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Abril Revuelta

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the center of Castilla y León there are few examples of old rural buildings linked to economic activities that have developed in the agrarian field. These are known chozos and casetas, and they have been built with dome-shaped solutions using autochthon materials: mud and stone. The influence of traditional techniques of both elements has generated a singular typological rarely seen in the rest of the Iberian Peninsula. Different types of domes have been analyzed in situ. And they have been contrasted by documentary sources and it has significantly expanded the information published of them, especially about their typological variety and their construction process. This research aims to provide tools to restore a constructive knowledge that is forgotten in place, to value its architectural wealth, which can encourage their rehabilitation.

  1. Geometric morphometric analysis reveals sexual dimorphism in the distal femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaignac, Etienne; Savall, Frederic; Faruch, Marie; Reina, Nicolas; Chiron, Philippe; Telmon, Norbert

    2016-02-01

    An individual's sex can be determined by the shape of their distal femur. The goal of this study was to show that differences in distal femur shape related to sexual dimorphism could be identified, visualized, and quantified using 3D geometric morphometric analysis. Geometric morphometric analysis was carried out on CT scans of the distal femur of 256 subjects living in the south of France. Ten landmarks were defined on 3D reconstructions of the distal femur. Both traditional metric and geometric morphometric analyses were carried out on these bone reconstructions; these analyses identified trends in bone shape in sex-based subgroups. Sex-related differences in shape were statistically significant. The subject's sex was correctly assigned in 77.3% of cases using geometric morphometric analysis. This study has shown that geometric morphometric analysis of the distal femur is feasible and has revealed sexual dimorphism differences in this bone segment. This reliable, accurate method could be used for virtual autopsy and be used to perform diachronic and interethnic comparisons. Moreover, this study provides updated morphometric data for a modern population in the south of France. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Two types of superconducting domes in unconventional superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Tanmoy; Panagopoulos, Christos

    2016-10-01

    Uncovering the origin of unconventional superconductivity is often plagued by the overwhelming material diversity with varying normal and superconducting (SC) properties. In this article, we deliver a comprehensive study of the SC properties and phase diagrams using multiple tunings (such as disorder, pressure or magnetic field in addition to doping and vice versa) across several families of unconventional superconductors, including the copper-oxides, heavy-fermions, organics and the recently discovered iron-pnictides, iron-chalcogenides, and oxybismuthides. We discover that all these families often possess two types of SC domes, with lower and higher SC transition temperatures T c, both unconventional but with distinct SC and normal states properties. The lower T c dome arises with or without a quantum critical point (QCP), and not always associated with a non-Fermi liquid (NFL) background. On the contrary, the higher-T c dome clearly stems from a NFL or strange metal phase, without an apparent intervening phase transition or a QCP. The two domes appear either fully separated in the phase diagram, or merged into one, or arise independently owing to their respective normal state characteristics. Our findings suggest that a QCP-related mechanism is an unlikely scenario for the NFL phase in these materials, and thereby narrows the possibility towards short-range fluctuations of various degrees of freedom in the momentum and frequency space. We also find that NFL physics may be a generic route to higher-T c superconductivity.

  3. An application of LOTEM around salt dome near Houston, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paembonan, Andri Yadi; Arjwech, Rungroj; Davydycheva, Sofia; Smirnov, Maxim; Strack, Kurt M.

    2017-07-01

    A salt dome is an important large geologic structure for hydrocarbon exploration. It may seal a porous reservoir of rocks that form petroleum reservoirs. Several techniques such as seismic, gravity, and electromagnetic including magnetotelluric have successfully yielded salt dome interpretation. Seismic has difficulties seeing through the salt because the seismic energy gets trapped by the salt due to its high velocity. Gravity and electromagnetics are more ideal methods. Long Offset Transient Electromagnetic (LOTEM) and Focused Source Electromagnetic (FSEM) were tested over a salt dome near Houston, Texas. LOTEM data were recorded at several stations with varying offset, and the FSEM tests were also made at some receiver locations near a suspected salt overhang. The data were processed using KMS's processing software: First, for assurance, including calibration and header checking; then transmitter and receiver data are merged and microseismic data is separated; Finally, data analysis and processing follows. LOTEM processing leads to inversion or in the FSEM case 3D modeling. Various 3D models verify the sensitivity under the salt dome. In addition, the processing was conducted pre-stack, stack, and post-stack. After pre-stacking, the noise was reduced, but showed the ringing effect due to a low-pass filter. Stacking and post-stacking with applying recursive average could reduce the Gibbs effect and produce smooth data.

  4. Completely open-foldable domes remaining cool in sunshine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerschlag, Robert H.; Deelen, Sander; Hoogendoorn, Pieter W.; Kommers, Johannes N. M.; Sonner, Thomas; Simoes, Roberto; Grassin, Olivier; Fischer, Andreas; Visser, Simon; Thewissen, Kristof

    2016-07-01

    These open-foldable very light-weight domes, based on very strong textile membranes highly tensioned between steel bows, are designed for bad-weather protection and maintenance of instruments for astronomical, meteorological and civil-engineering measurements and have extremely high wind stability. The domes of the GREGOR telescope and the Dutch Open Telescope are the two existing prototypes. Improvements were developed with all parts light-colored to remain cool in solar light. The new specially made connection parts (eyes) between the textile parts are made from white-colored PETP, a very strong and UV-stable synthetic, and have a better geometrical shape giving higher stability. The rubber seal tubes on top of the dome were of black-colored chloride rubber CR (neoprene), strong and UV stable, but very warm in sunlight. New UV-stable EPDM rubber tubes were produced in natural light color. To get this rubber stiff enough to give good sealing, a black-colored stiff EPDM rubber is put inside the light-colored one. Tests were performed and the forces necessary for compression of the rubber tubes were measured. An inside black tube with a circa 1.3 times larger compression force than the original black tubes was applied. The assembling of the black tubes into the light-colored tubes was successfully applied at the DOT and GREGOR domes.

  5. Sensitivity analyses of cables to suspen-dome structural system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高博青; 翁恩豪

    2004-01-01

    The construction of the cables is a key step for erecting suspen-dome structures. In practical engineering, it is difficult to ensure that the designed pre-stresses of cables have been exactly introduced into the structures in the site; so it is necessary to evaluate the influence of the variation of the pre-stresses on the structural behavior. In the present work, an orthogonal design method was employed to investigate the pre-stressed cables' sensitivity to the suspen-dome system. The investigation was concentrated on a Kiewitt suspen-dome. Parametric studies were carried out to study the sensitivity of the structure's static behavior, dynamic behavior, and buckling loads when the pre-stresses in the cables varied. The investigation indicated that suspen-dome structures are sensitive to the pre-stresses in all cables; and that the sensitivity depended on the location of the cables and the kind of structural behavior. Useful suggestions are given at the end of the paper.

  6. Sensitivity analyses of cables to suspen-dome structural system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高博青; 翁恩豪

    2004-01-01

    The construction of the cables is a key step for erecting suspen-dome structures. In practical engineering, it is difficult to ensure that the designed pre-stresses of cables have been exactly introduced into the structures in the site; so it is necessary to evaluate the influence of the variation of the pre-stresses on the structural behavior. In the present work, an orthogonal design method was employed to investigate the pre-stressed cables'sensitivity to the suspen-dome system. The investigation was concentrated on a Kiewitt suspen-dome. Parametric studies were carried out to study the sensitivity of the structure's static behavior, dynamic behavior, and buckling loads when the pre-stresses in the cables varied. The investigation indicated that suspen-dome structures are sensitive to the pre-stresses in all cables; and that the sensitivity depended on the location of the cables and the kind of structural behavior. Useful suggestions are given at the end of the paper.

  7. SUMMER DIURNAL CYCLE AT DOME C ON THE ANTARTIC PLATEAU

    OpenAIRE

    Barral, H.; E. Vignon; Bazile, E.; Traullé, O; Gallée, H.; Genthon, C.; Brun, C.; F. Couvreux; P. Le Moigne

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The ice-sheet offers us ”laboratory cases” with endless snow covered, relatively homogeneous, flat or sloped areas with persistent and strong stable stratifications resulting in low level jets. Dome C (75°06 S,123°E) on the East Antarctic Plateau is one of them.

  8. Site testing for submillimetre astronomy at Dome C, Antarctica

    CERN Document Server

    Tremblin, P; Schneider, N; Durand, G Al; Ashley, M C B; Lawrence, J S; Luong-Van, D M; Storey, J W V; Durand, G An; Reinert, Y; Veyssiere, C; Walter, C; Ade, P; Calisse, P G; Challita, Z; Fossat, E; Sabbatini, L; Pellegrini, A; Ricaud, P; Urban, J

    2011-01-01

    Over the past few years a major effort has been put into the exploration of potential sites for the deployment of submillimetre astronomical facilities. Amongst the most important sites are Dome C and Dome A on the Antarctic Plateau, and the Chajnantor area in Chile. In this context, we report on measurements of the sky opacity at 200 um over a period of three years at the French-Italian station, Concordia, at Dome C, Antarctica. We also present some solutions to the challenges of operating in the harsh polar environ- ment. Dome C offers exceptional conditions in terms of absolute atmospheric transmission and stability for submillimetre astron- omy. Over the austral winter the PWV exhibits long periods during which it is stable and at a very low level (0.1 to 0.3 mm). Higher values (0.2 to 0.8 mm) of PWV are observed during the short summer period. Based on observations over three years, a transmission of around 50% at 350 um is achieved for 75% of the time. The 200-um window opens with a typical transmission...

  9. Geometric morphometrics of hominoid infraspinous fossa shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, David J; Serrins, Jesse D; Seitelman, Brielle; Martiny, Amy R; Gunz, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Recent discoveries of early hominin scapulae from Ethiopia (Dikika, Woranso-Mille) and South Africa (Malapa) have motivated new examinations of the relationship between scapular morphology and locomotor function. In particular, infraspinous fossa shape has been shown to significantly differ among hominoids. However, this region presents relatively few homologous landmarks, such that traditional distance and angle-based methods may oversimplify this three-dimensional structure. To more thoroughly assess infraspinous fossa shape variation as it relates to function among adult hominoid representatives, we considered two geometric morphometric (GM) approaches--one employing five homologous landmarks ("wireframe") and another with 83 sliding semilandmarks along the border of the infraspinous fossa. We identified several differences in infraspinous fossa shape with traditional approaches, particularly in superoinferior fossa breadth and scapular spine orientation. The wireframe analysis reliably captured the range of shape variation in the sample, which reflects the relatively straightforward geometry of the infraspinous fossa. Building on the traditional approach, the GM results highlighted how the orientation of the medial portion of the infraspinous fossa differed relative to both the axillary border and spine. These features distinguished Pan from Gorilla in a way that traditional analyses had not been able to discern. Relative to the wireframe method, the semilandmark approach further distinguished Pongo from Homo, highlighting aspects of infraspinous fossa morphology that may be associated with climbing behaviors in hominoid taxa. These results highlight the ways that GM methods can enhance our ability to evaluate complex aspects of shape for refining and testing hypotheses about functional morphology.

  10. DNA immunisation. New histochemical and morphometric data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Ehirchiou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Splenic germinal center reactions were measured during primary response to a plasmidic DNA intramuscular injection. Cardiotoxin-pretreated Balb/c mice were immunized with DNA plasmids encoding or not the SAG1 protein, a membrane antigen of Toxoplasma gondii. Specific anti-SAG1 antibodies were detected on days 16 and 36 after injection of coding plasmids. The results of ELISAs showed that the SAG1-specific antibodies are of the IgG2a class. Morphometric analyses were done on serial immunostained cryosections of spleen and draining or non-draining lymph nodes. This new approach made it possible to evaluate the chronological changes induced by DNA immunisation in the germinal centres (in number and in size. Significant increases in the number of germinal centres were measured in the spleen and only in draining lymph nodes after plasmid injection. the measured changes of the germinal centers appeared to result from the adjuvant stimulatory effect of the plasmidic DNA since both the coding and the noncoding plasmid DNA induced them. No measurable changes were recorded in the Tdependent zone of lymph organs.

  11. Sustainable Outreach: Lessons Learned from Space Update and Discovery Dome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiff, P. H.; Sumners, C.; Law, C. C.

    2009-12-01

    A sustainable program lives on past its initial funding cycle, and develops a network of users that ensures continued life, either by fees, advertising revenue, or by making the program more successful in later sponsored grants. Teachers like free things, so having a sponsor for products such as lithographs or CD-Roms is key to wide distribution. In 1994 we developed “Space Update®”, under the NASA “Public Use of the Internet” program. It has new editions annually, with over 40,000 distributed so far (many purchased but most free at teacher and student workshops). In 1996 we created a special edition “Space Weather®”, which includes the space weather module from Space Update plus other resources. Initially developed with funding from the IMAGE mission, it is now sponsored by Cluster and MMS. A new edition is published annually and distributed in the “Sun-Earth Day” packet; total distribution now exceeds 180,000. “Earth Update” was created in 1999 under cooperative agreement “Museums Teaching Planet Earth”. It now has a total distribution of over 20,000. Both Earth Update and Space Update were developed to be museum kiosk software, and more than 15 museums have them on display. Over 4,000 users are active in our e-Teacher network and 577 in our museum educator network. Although these can certainly be considered successful because of their longevity and user base, we have had a far more dramatic sustainable program arise in the last six years… the “Discovery Dome®”. Invented at HMNS and developed under NASA Cooperative Agreement “Immersive Earth”, this dome was the first digital portable planetarium that also showed fulldome movies with an interactive interface (first shown to the public at the Dec 2003 AGU meeting). The Discovery Dome network (tinyurl.com/DiscDome) has spun those initial 6 NASA-funded domes into over 90 installations in 22 states and 23 countries. Creating high quality content is quite expensive and so needs

  12. Key variables influencing patterns of lava dome growth and collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, T.; Elsworth, D.; Voight, B.; Mattioli, G. S.; Jansma, P. E.

    2013-12-01

    Lava domes are conical structures that grow by the infusion of viscous silicic or intermediate composition magma from a central volcanic conduit. Dome growth can be characterized by repeated cycles of growth punctuated by collapse, as the structure becomes oversized for its composite strength. Within these cycles, deformation ranges from slow long term deformation to sudden deep-seated collapses. Collapses may range from small raveling failures to voluminous and fast-moving pyroclastic flows with rapid and long-downslope-reach from the edifice. Infusion rate and magma rheology together with crystallization temperature and volatile content govern the spatial distribution of strength in the structure. Solidification, driven by degassing-induced crystallization of magma leads to the formation of a continuously evolving frictional talus as a hard outer shell. This shell encapsulates the cohesion-dominated soft ductile core. Here we explore the mechanics of lava dome growth and failure using a two-dimensional particle-dynamics model. This meshless model follows the natural evolution of a brittle carapace formed by loss of volatiles and rheological stiffening and avoids difficulties of hour-glassing and mesh-entangelment typical in meshed models. We test the fidelity of the model against existing experimental and observational models of lava dome growth. The particle-dynamics model follows the natural development of dome growth and collapse which is infeasible using simple analytical models. The model provides insight into the triggers that lead to the transition in collapse mechasnism from shallow flank collapse to deep seated sector collapse. Increase in material stiffness due to decrease in infusion rate results in the transition of growth pattern from endogenous to exogenous. The material stiffness and strength are strongly controlled by the magma infusion rate. Increase in infusion rate decreases the time available for degassing induced crystallization leading to a

  13. A New Method for Intrusion Detection using Manifold Learning Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoping Hou

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Computer and network security has received and will still receive much attention. Any unexpected intrusion will damage the network. It is therefore imperative to detect the network intrusion to ensure the normal operation of the internet. There are many studies in the intrusion detection and intrusion patter recognition. The artificial neural network (ANN has proven to be powerful for the intrusion detection. However, very little work has discussed the optimization of the input intrusion features for the ANN. Generally, the intrusion features contain a certain number of useless features, which is useless for the intrusion detection. Large dimensions of the feature data will also affect the intrusion detection performance of the ANN. In order to improve the ANN performance, a new approach for network intrusion detection based on nonlinear feature dimension reduction and ANN is proposed in this work. The manifold learning algorithm was used to reduce the intrusion feature vector. Then an ANN classifier was employed to identify the intrusion. The efficiency of the proposed method was evaluated with the real intrusion data. The test result shows that the proposed approach has good intrusion detection performance.

  14. PENGEMBANGAN DESA WISATA RUMAH DOME BERBASIS AGROINDUSTRI PANGAN LOKAL (Kajian Diversifikasi Ketela Pohon di Desa Wisata Rumah Dome Prambanan)

    OpenAIRE

    Susi Wuri Ani; Mei Tri Sundari; Ernoiz Antriyandarti

    2013-01-01

    Pangan merupakan kebutuhan utama dalam kehidupan manusia. Pemenuhan kebutuhan pangan baik dari segi jumlah, mutu, gizi maupun keamanan berkaitan dengan Sumberdaya Manusia (SDM). Kualitas konsumsi pangan dan gizi masyarakat menentukan SDM masyarakat tersebut. Agroindustri pangan lokal merupakan kegiatan yang memberdayakan sumberdaya lokal (indigenous resources). Seluruh potensi lokal dimanfaatkan untuk menguatkan agroindustri pangan lokal. Penduduk di kawasan wisata Rumah Dome belum mampu meng...

  15. Fused traditional and geometric morphometrics demonstrate pinniped whisker diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginter, Carly C; DeWitt, Thomas J; Fish, Frank E; Marshall, Christopher D

    2012-01-01

    Vibrissae (whiskers) are important components of the mammalian tactile sensory system, and primarily function as detectors of vibrotactile information from the environment. Pinnipeds possess the largest vibrissae among mammals and their vibrissal hair shafts demonstrate a diversity of shapes. The vibrissae of most phocid seals exhibit a beaded morphology with repeating sequences of crests and troughs along their length. However, there are few detailed analyses of pinniped vibrissal morphology, and these are limited to a few species. Therefore, we comparatively characterized differences in vibrissal hair shaft morphologies among phocid species with a beaded profile, phocid species with a smooth profile, and otariids with a smooth profile using traditional and geometric morphometric methods. Traditional morphometric measurements (peak-to-peak distance, crest width, trough width and total length) were collected using digital photographs. Elliptic Fourier analysis (geometric morphometrics) was used to quantify the outlines of whole vibrissae. The traditional and geometric morphometric datasets were subsequently combined by mathematically scaling each to true rank, followed by a single eigendecomposition. Quadratic discriminant function analysis demonstrated that 79.3, 97.8 and 100% of individuals could be correctly classified to their species based on vibrissal shape variables in the traditional, geometric and combined morphometric analyses, respectively. Phocids with beaded vibrissae, phocids with smooth vibrissae, and otariids each occupied distinct morphospace in the geometric morphometric and combined data analyses. Otariids split into two groups in the geometric morphometric analysis and gray seals appeared intermediate between beaded- and smooth-whiskered species in the traditional and combined analyses. Vibrissal hair shafts modulate the transduction of environmental stimuli to the mechanoreceptors in the follicle-sinus complex (F-SC), which results in

  16. Fused Traditional and Geometric Morphometrics Demonstrate Pinniped Whisker Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginter, Carly C.; DeWitt, Thomas J.; Fish, Frank E.; Marshall, Christopher D.

    2012-01-01

    Vibrissae (whiskers) are important components of the mammalian tactile sensory system, and primarily function as detectors of vibrotactile information from the environment. Pinnipeds possess the largest vibrissae among mammals and their vibrissal hair shafts demonstrate a diversity of shapes. The vibrissae of most phocid seals exhibit a beaded morphology with repeating sequences of crests and troughs along their length. However, there are few detailed analyses of pinniped vibrissal morphology, and these are limited to a few species. Therefore, we comparatively characterized differences in vibrissal hair shaft morphologies among phocid species with a beaded profile, phocid species with a smooth profile, and otariids with a smooth profile using traditional and geometric morphometric methods. Traditional morphometric measurements (peak-to-peak distance, crest width, trough width and total length) were collected using digital photographs. Elliptic Fourier analysis (geometric morphometrics) was used to quantify the outlines of whole vibrissae. The traditional and geometric morphometric datasets were subsequently combined by mathematically scaling each to true rank, followed by a single eigendecomposition. Quadratic discriminant function analysis demonstrated that 79.3, 97.8 and 100% of individuals could be correctly classified to their species based on vibrissal shape variables in the traditional, geometric and combined morphometric analyses, respectively. Phocids with beaded vibrissae, phocids with smooth vibrissae, and otariids each occupied distinct morphospace in the geometric morphometric and combined data analyses. Otariids split into two groups in the geometric morphometric analysis and gray seals appeared intermediate between beaded- and smooth-whiskered species in the traditional and combined analyses. Vibrissal hair shafts modulate the transduction of environmental stimuli to the mechanoreceptors in the follicle-sinus complex (F-SC), which results in

  17. Fused traditional and geometric morphometrics demonstrate pinniped whisker diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly C Ginter

    Full Text Available Vibrissae (whiskers are important components of the mammalian tactile sensory system, and primarily function as detectors of vibrotactile information from the environment. Pinnipeds possess the largest vibrissae among mammals and their vibrissal hair shafts demonstrate a diversity of shapes. The vibrissae of most phocid seals exhibit a beaded morphology with repeating sequences of crests and troughs along their length. However, there are few detailed analyses of pinniped vibrissal morphology, and these are limited to a few species. Therefore, we comparatively characterized differences in vibrissal hair shaft morphologies among phocid species with a beaded profile, phocid species with a smooth profile, and otariids with a smooth profile using traditional and geometric morphometric methods. Traditional morphometric measurements (peak-to-peak distance, crest width, trough width and total length were collected using digital photographs. Elliptic Fourier analysis (geometric morphometrics was used to quantify the outlines of whole vibrissae. The traditional and geometric morphometric datasets were subsequently combined by mathematically scaling each to true rank, followed by a single eigendecomposition. Quadratic discriminant function analysis demonstrated that 79.3, 97.8 and 100% of individuals could be correctly classified to their species based on vibrissal shape variables in the traditional, geometric and combined morphometric analyses, respectively. Phocids with beaded vibrissae, phocids with smooth vibrissae, and otariids each occupied distinct morphospace in the geometric morphometric and combined data analyses. Otariids split into two groups in the geometric morphometric analysis and gray seals appeared intermediate between beaded- and smooth-whiskered species in the traditional and combined analyses. Vibrissal hair shafts modulate the transduction of environmental stimuli to the mechanoreceptors in the follicle-sinus complex (F-SC, which

  18. Data Mining and Intrusion Detection Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zibusiso Dewa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid evolution of technology and the increased connectivity among its components, imposes new cyber-security challenges. To tackle this growing trend in computer attacks and respond threats, industry professionals and academics are joining forces in order to build Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS that combine high accuracy with low complexity and time efficiency. The present article gives an overview of existing Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS along with their main principles. Also this article argues whether data mining and its core feature which is knowledge discovery can help in creating Data mining based IDSs that can achieve higher accuracy to novel types of intrusion and demonstrate more robust behaviour compared to traditional IDSs.

  19. Intrusion Detection System: Security Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ShabnamNoorani,

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available An intrusion detection system (IDS is an ad hoc security solution to protect flawed computer systems. It works like a burglar alarm that goes off if someone tampers with or manages to get past other security mechanisms such as authentication mechanisms and firewalls. An Intrusion Detection System (IDS is a device or a software application that monitors network or system activities for malicious activities or policy violations and produces reports to a management station.Intrusion Detection System (IDS has been used as a vital instrument in defending the network from this malicious or abnormal activity..In this paper we are comparing host based and network based IDS and various types of attacks possible on IDS.

  20. An Adaptive Clustering Algorithm for Intrusion Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Juli

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,we introduce an adaptive clustering algorithm for intrusion detection based on wavecluster which was introduced by Gholamhosein in 1999 and used with success in image processing.Because of the non-stationary characteristic of network traffic,we extend and develop an adaptive wavecluster algorithm for intrusion detection.Using the multiresolution property of wavelet transforms,we can effectively identify arbitrarily shaped clusters at different scales and degrees of detail,moreover,applying wavelet transform removes the noise from the original feature space and make more accurate cluster found.Experimental results on KDD-99 intrusion detection dataset show the efficiency and accuracy of this algorithm.A detection rate above 96% and a false alarm rate below 3% are achieved.

  1. An Overview on Intrusion Detection in Manet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh D. Wagh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A mobile ad hoc network (MANET is a self-configuring of mobile devices network connected without wires and hence MANET has become a very popular technology now days. A MANETS are the networks that are building, when some mobile nodes come in the mobility range of each other for data transfer and communication. In MANET, nodes are not stable hence the communication topology is not stable due to this vulnerable for attacks. MANET devices are connected via wireless links without using an existing network infrastructure or centralized administration due to which MANETs are not able to diverse types of attacks and intrusions. Hence intrusion detection has attracted many researchers. This paper gives an overview and different methods to detect intrusion in MANET.

  2. An overview to Software Architecture in Intrusion Detection System

    CERN Document Server

    Bahrami, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    Network intrusion detection systems provide proactive defense against security threats by detecting and blocking attack-related traffic. This task can be highly complex, and therefore, software based network intrusion detection systems have difficulty in handling high speed links. This paper reviews of many type of software architecture in intrusion detection systems and describes the design and implementation of a high-performance network intrusion detection system that combines the use of software-based network intrusion detection sensors and a network processor board. The network processor acts as a customized load balancing splitter that cooperates with a set of modified content-based network intrusion detection sensors in processing network traffic.

  3. Effective analysis of cloud based intrusion detection system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Ram

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The goal of IDS is to analyze events on the network and identify attacks. The increasing number of network security related incidents makes it necessary for organizations to actively protect their sensitive data with the installation of intrusion detection systems (IDS. People are paid more attention on intrusion detection which as an important computer network security technology. According to the development trend of intrusion detection, detecting all kinds of intrusions effectively requires a global view of the monitored network, Here, discuss about new intrusion detection mechanism based on cloud computing, which can make up for the deficiency of traditional intrusion detection, and proved to be great scalable.

  4. Perceived illness intrusion among patients on hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bapat Usha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dialysis therapy is extremely stressful as it interferes with all spheres of daily acti-vities of the patients. This study is aimed at understanding the perceived illness intrusion among pa-tients on hemodialysis (HD and to find the association between illness intrusion and patient demo-graphics as well as duration of dialysis. A cross sectional study involving 90 patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD stage V, on HD was performed during the period from 2005 to 2006. The subjects included were above 18 years of age, willing, stable and on dialysis for at least two months. Patients with psychiatric co-morbidity were excluded. A semi-structured interview schedule covering socio-demographics and a 13 item illness intrusion checklist covering the various aspects of life was ca-rried out. The study patients were asked to rate the illness intrusion and the extent. The data were ana-lyzed statistically. The mean age of the subjects was 50.28 ± 13.69 years, males were predominant (85%, 73% were married, 50% belonged to Hindu religion, 25% had pre-degree education, 25% were employed and 22% were housewives. About 40% and 38% of the study patients belonged to middle and upper socio-economic strata respectively; 86% had urban background and lived in nuclear fami-lies. The mean duration on dialysis was 24 ± 29.6 months. All the subjects reported illness intrusion to a lesser or greater extent in various areas including: health (44%, work (70% finance (55%, diet (50% sexual life (38% and psychological status (25%. Illness had not intruded in areas of rela-tionship with spouse (67%, friends (76%, family (79%, social (40% and religious functions (72%. Statistically significant association was noted between illness intrusion and occupation (P= 0.02.

  5. Morphometric Analysis of Auxin-Mediated Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Daniel

    Auxin controls many aspects of plant development through its effects on growth. Its distribution is controlled by specific tissue and organ level polar transport streams. The responses to environmental cues such as gravity light, nutrient availability are largely controlled by coordinated regulation of distinct auxin transport streams. Many plant responses to the environment involve changes in shape. Much can be learned about the underlying processes controlling plant form if the response is measured with sufficient resolution. Computer-aided analysis of digital images or 'machine vision' can be used to greatly increase the speed and consistency of data from a morphometric study of plant form. Advances in image acquisition and analysis pioneered at UW-Madison have allowed unprecedented resolution of the growth and gravitropism of Arabidopsis. A reverse genetic analysis was used to determine if the MDR-like ABC transporters influence auxin distribution important for plant development and the response to environmental cues in Arabidopsis. Mutations in MDR1 (At3g28860) reduce acropetal auxin transport in the root. This is correlated with deviation from the vertical axis. Mutations in MDR4 (At2g47000) reduce basipetal auxin transport in the root. This is correlated with hypergravitropism. It was theorized that reduced transport whithin the elongation zone is responsible for the increased curvature. Flavanols were found to regulate gravitropism upstream of MDR4. The mdr1 mdr4 double mutant showed additive but not synergistic phenotypes, suggesting that the two auxin transport streams are more independent than interdependent. MDR proteins seem to enhance auxin transport in situations where PIN-type effux alone is insufficient.

  6. MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSES OF THE PARACENTRAL LOBE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacyr Oliveira Neto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available ntroduction:There are no studies that evaluate measurements of the distances between the grooves that delimit the Paracentral Lobule (PCL in the literature. This study seeks to contribute to the knowledge regarding the anatomy of the PCL, conducting an analysis of morphometric measurements in this region and its correlation with the paracentral sulcus, marginal branch of the cingulate and central sulcus. Methods:42 hemispheres were evaluated, 20 were right and 22 left. Using digital caliper Dc - 6 Western ®, measurements of the size of PCL in the sagittal axis and coronal axis were made, in addition to measures of the Central Sulcus to the Paracentral Sulcus (motor area and Central Sulcus to Marginal Branch of the Cingulate Sulcus (somesthetic area, comparing the prevalence of each of these lengths between hemispheres. Results:The average length between the Paracentral Sulcus and the Central Sulcus was 24.49 cm(14.2 to 38.6 cm in the right hemisphere and 25.50 cm(11.7 to 37.0 cm in the left. As between the Central Sulcus and the Marginal Branch of the Cingulate Sulcus was in average 10.03 cm(2.6 to 22.7 cm in the right and in the left PCL 9.17cm(2.6 to 22.7 cm. In the right hemisphere, 19 samples(86,4% presented greater motor area than somesthetic and, in the left hemisphere, 19 samples(95% had greater motor area. Conclusion:The motor area showed prevalence in relation to the sensory area in the analysis of the two hemispheres, while the comparison of other measures between the two hemispheres showed no significance.

  7. Morphometric analyses of the Paracentral Lobe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacyr Oliveira Neto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:There are no studies that evaluate measurements of the distances between the grooves that delimit the Paracentral Lobule (PCL in the literature. This study seeks to contribute to the knowledge regarding the anatomy of the PCL, conducting an analysis of morphometric measurements in this region and its correlation with the paracentral sulcus, marginal branch of the cingulate and central sulcus.Methods:42 hemispheres were evaluated, 20 were right and 22 left. Using digital caliper Dc - 6 Western ®, measurements of the size of PCL in the sagittal axis and coronal axis were made, in addition to measures of the Central Sulcus to the Paracentral Sulcus (motor area and Central Sulcus to Marginal Branch of the Cingulate Sulcus (somesthetic area, comparing the prevalence of each of these lengths between hemispheres.Results:The average length between the Paracentral Sulcus and the Central Sulcus was 24.49 cm(14.2 to 38.6 cm in the right hemisphere and 25.50 cm(11.7 to 37.0 cm in the left. As between the Central Sulcus and the Marginal Branch of the Cingulate Sulcus was in average 10.03 cm(2.6 to 22.7 cm in the right and in the left PCL 9.17cm(2.6 to 22.7 cm. In the right hemisphere, 19 samples(86,4% presented greater motor area than somesthetic and, in the left hemisphere, 19 samples(95%  had greater motor area.Conclusion:The motor area showed prevalence in relation to the sensory area in the analysis of the two hemispheres, while the comparison of other measures between the two hemispheres showed no significance.

  8. Corrosion investigation of material combinations in a mobile phone dome-key pad system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambat, Rajan; Møller, Per

    2007-01-01

    Mobile phone dome-key pad system is the device that connects the phone keys to the printed circuit board (PCB). The material combination for a typical dome-key pad system is Ag/AISI 202 steel for the dome and Au/Ni/Cu for the key pad. Under humid conditions dome-key pad system is susceptible...... microstructural studies, polarization measurements using microelectrochemical technique, salt spray testing, and corrosion morphology analysis. The immersion Au layer on pads showed pores, and rolled bonded silver layer on dome had cracks and kinks. The difference in electrochemical behaviour of the metallic...

  9. The Central Pamir domes as tracer of gravitational disequilibrium and deformation phases forced by deep-seated lithospheric processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutte, Daniel; Fox, Matthew; Ratschbacher, Lothar

    2017-04-01

    Miocene gneiss domes in the Pamir allow unique insight into crustal-scale processes forming the Asian crust of the Pamir-Tibet Plateau. They were exhumed along normal-sense shear zones in an intermittent phase of N-S extension while earlier and later structures document N-S shortening. Recently, Schmidt et al. (2011), Stearns et al., (2013; 2015), Rutte et al. (a & b, accepted), and Hacker et al. (submitted) established a vast structural, petrologic, and geochronologic dataset for the Central Pamir domes. These studies interpreted the domes as a product of gravitational collapse. The dataset includes (micro)structural observations constraining the mechanism of exhumation, thermobarometry of the metamorphic rocks, petrochronologic data constraining timing of pro- and retrogression, a vast multi-method thermochronometric dataset including age-elevation and age-distance data, dates for normal-sense shear zones and barometric data on intrusive rocks. These data constrain the time-temperature, pressure-temperature, and time-pressure history of the dome rocks. We explore the dataset using one-dimensional thermal models. Our code solves the heat transfer equation and gives a transient solution allowing for variation of the geothermal gradient and thermal diffusivity. At this stage, our models suggest that exponential decay of an initially high exhumation rate of 6 km/Myr at 22 Ma to 0.5km/Myr at 13 Ma best explains the dataset. This suggests a one-time input of gravitational potential energy (GPE) that is successively decaying through crustal extension. Both, Asian crustal foundering or Indian slab breakoff may concur with this result. While the Central Pamir domes extend >400 km along strike of the orogen, little variation in timing of most of exhumation during N-S extension is observed. This suggests that the underlying mechanism - be it crustal foundering or slab breakoff - varied little along strike as well. References Hacker, B.R., Ratschbacher, L., Rutte, D

  10. Computationally Efficient Neural Network Intrusion Security Awareness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd Vollmer; Milos Manic

    2009-08-01

    An enhanced version of an algorithm to provide anomaly based intrusion detection alerts for cyber security state awareness is detailed. A unique aspect is the training of an error back-propagation neural network with intrusion detection rule features to provide a recognition basis. Network packet details are subsequently provided to the trained network to produce a classification. This leverages rule knowledge sets to produce classifications for anomaly based systems. Several test cases executed on ICMP protocol revealed a 60% identification rate of true positives. This rate matched the previous work, but 70% less memory was used and the run time was reduced to less than 1 second from 37 seconds.

  11. Adaptive Genetic Algorithm Model for Intrusion Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Anil Kumar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Intrusion detection systems are intelligent systems designed to identify and prevent the misuse of computer networks and systems. Various approaches to Intrusion Detection are currently being used, but they are relatively ineffective. Thus the emerging network security systems need be part of the life system and this ispossible only by embedding knowledge into the network. The Adaptive Genetic Algorithm Model - IDS comprising of K-Means clustering Algorithm, Genetic Algorithm and Neural Network techniques. Thetechnique is tested using multitude of background knowledge sets in DARPA network traffic datasets.

  12. Intrusion Detection Using Cost-Sensitive Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Mitrokotsa, Aikaterini; Douligeris, Christos

    2008-01-01

    Intrusion Detection is an invaluable part of computer networks defense. An important consideration is the fact that raising false alarms carries a significantly lower cost than not detecting at- tacks. For this reason, we examine how cost-sensitive classification methods can be used in Intrusion Detection systems. The performance of the approach is evaluated under different experimental conditions, cost matrices and different classification models, in terms of expected cost, as well as detection and false alarm rates. We find that even under unfavourable conditions, cost-sensitive classification can improve performance significantly, if only slightly.

  13. Design of Secure Distributed Intrusion Detection Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Intrusion Detection System (IDS) have received a great deal of attention because of their excellent ability of preventing network incidents. Recently, many efficient approaches have been proposed to improve detection ability of IDS. While the self-protection ability of IDS is relatively worse and easy to be exploited by attackers, this paper gives a scheme of Securely Distributed Intrusion Detection System (SDIDS). This system adopts special measurements to enforce the security of IDS components. A new secure mechanism combining role-based access control and attribute certificate is used to resist attack to communication.

  14. Intrusion Detection Approach Using Connectionist Expert System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Rui; LIU Yu-shu; DU Yan-hui

    2005-01-01

    In order to improve the detection efficiency of rule-based expert systems, an intrusion detection approach using connectionist expert system is proposed. The approach converts the AND/OR nodes into the corresponding neurons, adopts the three-layered feed forward network with full interconnection between layers,translates the feature values into the continuous values belong to the interval [0, 1 ], shows the confidence degree about intrusion detection rules using the weight values of the neural networks and makes uncertain inference with sigmoid function. Compared with the rule-based expert system, the neural network expert system improves the inference efficiency.

  15. Intrusion Detection amp Prevention Systems - Sourcefire Snort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Vuppala

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Information security is a challenging issue for all business organizations today amidst increasing cyber threats. While there are many alternative intrusion detection amp prevention systems available to choose from selecting the best solution to implement to detect amp prevent cyber-attacks is a difficult task. The best solution is of the one that gets the best reviews and suits the organizations needs amp budget. In this review paper we summarize various classes of intrusion detection and prevention systems compare features of alternative solutions and make recommendation for implementation of one as the best solution for business organization in Fiji.

  16. Computationally Efficient Neural Network Intrusion Security Awareness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd Vollmer; Milos Manic

    2009-08-01

    An enhanced version of an algorithm to provide anomaly based intrusion detection alerts for cyber security state awareness is detailed. A unique aspect is the training of an error back-propagation neural network with intrusion detection rule features to provide a recognition basis. Network packet details are subsequently provided to the trained network to produce a classification. This leverages rule knowledge sets to produce classifications for anomaly based systems. Several test cases executed on ICMP protocol revealed a 60% identification rate of true positives. This rate matched the previous work, but 70% less memory was used and the run time was reduced to less than 1 second from 37 seconds.

  17. Morphometric analysis of llama (Lama glama) sperm head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casaretto, C; Lombardo, D M; Giuliano, S; Gambarotta, M; Carretero, M I; Miragaya, M H

    2012-05-01

    Llama production in Argentina has increased, as the international interest in breeding this type of animals has grown in the last years. Considering the great polymorphism that llama spermatozoa present at evaluation using light microscopy, the aim of this study was to objectively evaluate llama sperm head morphometry using digital morphometric analysis. Five ejaculates from each of eight males were obtained to evaluate morphometric parameters of 8000 sperm heads stained with Tinción 15(®). The following average results were obtained for each parameter: size parameters: area 20.09 μm(2), length 6.60 μm, width 4.14 μm, equivalent circle diameter 5.06 μm, curve length 5.79 μm and curve width 3.48 μm; boundary parameters: perimeter 18.54 μm and convex perimeter 17.34 μm; and shape parameters: roundness 1.28 and elongation 1.59. Morphometric parameters of sperm head were compared between ejaculates of the same male and between males. Significant differences between ejaculates of the same male were found for all parameters evaluated (P < 0.01). Significant differences between males were found for all morphometric parameters (P < 0.01) except for curve length, curve width and perimeter. The differences detected would indicate that there is not a single morphometric pattern for Lama glama sperm head, because parameter values cannot be standardised.

  18. Electrical structure beneath the Hangai Dome, Mongolia, from magnetotelluric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comeau, Matthew; Käufl, Johannes; Becken, Michael; Kuvshinov, Alexey; Demberel, Sodnomsambuu; Sukhbaatar, Usnikh; Batmagnai, Erdenechimeg; Tserendug, Shoovdor; Nasan, Ochir

    2017-04-01

    The Hangai Dome in west-central Mongolia is an unusual high-elevation intra-continental plateau located far from tectonic plate boundaries and characterized by dispersed, low-volume, basaltic volcanism. This region is an ideal natural laboratory for studying intra-continental orogenic and magmatic processes resulting from crust-mantle interactions. The processes responsible for developing the Hangai Dome remain unexplained, due in part to a lack of high resolution geophysical data over the area. Here we present newly acquired broadband (0.008 - 3,000 s) magnetotelluric (MT) data from a large-scale ( 200 x 450 km) and high resolution (site spacing > 5 km) survey across the Hangai Dome. A total of 125 sites were collected and include full MT sites and telluric-only sites where inter-station transfer functions were computed. The MT data are used to generate an electrical resistivity model of the crust and upper mantle below the Hangai Dome. The model shows that the lower crust ( 30 - 50 km; below the brittle-ductile transition zone) beneath the Hangai Dome contains anomalous discrete pockets of low-resistivity ( 30 ohm-m) material that indicate the presence of local accumulations of fluids and/or low-percent partial melts. These anomalous regions appear to be spatially associated with the surface expressions of past volcanism, hydrothermal activity, and an increase in heat flow. They also correlate with observed crustal low-density and low-velocity anomalies. However they are in contrast to some geochemical and petrological studies which show long-lived crustal melt storage is impossible below the Hangai due to limited crustal assimilation and crustal contamination, arguing for a single parent-source at mantle depths. The upper mantle ( 6%) at this location. The results are consistent with modern geochemical and geophysical data, which show a thin lithosphere below the Hangai region. Furthermore the results agree with geodynamic models that require a low-heat flux

  19. Variations of growth in shoot apical domes of spruce seedlings: A study using the growth tensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Nakielski

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Variations of the relative elemental rate of growth within apical domes, for the case when dome geometry changes during development, were modeled. It was ascertained that: 1 the domes of spruce seedlings have a paraboloidal shape; 2 the shape is maintained during growth, but the domes become higher and wider; 3 the relative elemental rate of growth in area on dome surface is isotropic, as indicated by analysis of cell packets in the surface layer. These data were used in modeling by means of the growth tensor and natural coordinate system. Growth of the dome was considered a superposition: 1 of relatively fast steady shape growth, where the isotropy of growth in area on the surface of the dome, was determined, and 2 of relatively slow isogonic growth, which does not disturb the isotropy. The convergent parabolic system was selected as the natural coordinate system. Distributions of the growth rates in the form of computer-made maps for three domes differing in age, were obtained. It appears that the growth rates within the dome are relatively high in the distal part and smaller in the central and peripheral regions. This variation decreases progressively with seedling age when the dome becomes wider. The relative elemental rate of growth in volume, averaged for the whole dome, also decreases.

  20. Geological evaluation of Gulf Coast salt domes: overall assessment of the Gulf Interior Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-10-01

    The three major phases in site characterization and selection are regional studies, area studies, and location studies. This report characterizes regional geologic aspects of the Gulf Coast salt dome basins. It includes general information from published sources on the regional geology; the tectonic, domal, and hydrologic stability; and a brief description the salt domes to be investigated. After a screening exercise, eight domes were chosen for further characterization: Keechi, Oakwood, and Palestine Domes in Texas; Vacherie and Rayburn's domes in North Louisiana; and Cypress Creek and Richton domes in Mississippi. A general description of each, maps of the location, property ownership, and surface geology, and a geologic cross section were presented for each dome.

  1. The use of digital periapical radiographs to study the prevalence of alveolar domes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xambre, Pedro Augusto Oliveira Santos; Valerio, Claudia Scigliano; e Alves Cardoso, Claudia Assunção; Custódio, Antônio Luís Neto

    2016-01-01

    Purpose In the present study, we coined the term 'alveolar dome' and aimed to demonstrate the prevalence of alveolar domes through digital periapical radiographs. Materials and Methods This study examined 800 digital periapical radiographs in regard to the presence of alveolar domes. The periapical radiographs were acquired by a digital system using a photostimulable phosphor (PSP) plate. The χ2 test, with a significance level of 5%, was used to compare the prevalence of alveolar domes in the maxillary posterior teeth and, considering the same teeth, to verify the difference in the prevalence of dome-shaped phenomena between the roots. Results The prevalence of alveolar domes present in the first pre-molars was statistically lower as compared to the other maxillary posterior teeth (pauxiliary information necessary to identify alveolar domes, thus improving diagnosis, planning, and treatment. PMID:27672614

  2. Genetic model of hanging wall syncline and central dome in extensional fault

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘德来; 丁贵明; 鲁兵

    2002-01-01

    Hanging wall syncline and central dome are special extension structures, developing over the hanging wall in an extensional ramp-flat fault. Under the condition that the flat is sub-horizontal, the hanging wall syncline is separated from the half graben by the central dome. And on the dome forms an erosional surface. Both sediments in the half graben and erosional surface on the top of the central dome extended over the dome and entered into the hanging wall syncline with extension going on. Meanwhile, those having entered were overlapped by new sedimentary layers in the hanging wall syncline, so that there is a together-threaded, diachronic unconformity to form in the same epoch stratum. The layers in the hanging wall syncline also have an attribute of migrating laterally and getting tilted with extension. There is no sedimentation on the central dome. But sediments, which came from the half graben, got thicker over the dome in extension.

  3. Extensional unroofing of the Veliki Jastrebac dome (Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marović Milun

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the basic structural elements of the dome of Veliki Jastrebac, as well as the chronology and mechanisms of the deformational events responsible for its formation. It was determined that the dome of Veliki Jastrebac consists of two large sequences which are, in the vertical section, in the inverse position. The lower part is made of Late Cretaceous and Cretaceous-Palaeogene low-grade to medium-grade metamorphic rocks, which are intruded by Paleogene granitoid (probably the Vardar Zone, which are covered with a large overthrust consisting metamorphics of the Serbian-Macedonian Mass. The low-grade to medium-grade metamorphosed complex of Veliki Jastrebac, with the granitoid, represents a metamorphic core complex, exhumed by mechanisms of extensional tectonics in the Paleogene.

  4. In the heart of Brunelleschi’s Dome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Corazzi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, thanks to laser scanner technology, at researchers’ disposal there is a tool capturing informati on on the refl ectance of materials composing the building and, calculati ng the return ti me of the laser beams emitt ed with errors on the order of millimeters, able to acquire a point cloud of the object with three-dimensional coordinates.From this documentati on it is possible to obtain useful informati on necessary for the geometrical and structural understanding of Brunelleschi’s Dome. Thus it is possible to survey the roof ti les of thesectors, the marble of the ribs, the holes of scaffoldings, interior spurs, corridors, vaults, “corde blande”, the herringbone, up to verifying the curvature of the pointed profi le (“quarto e quinto acuto”. The survey also used Georadar, tomography for the intrados and extrados of the dome, endoscopy and metal detector.

  5. Dietary ecology of Murinae (Muridae, Rodentia): a geometric morphometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Cano, Ana Rosa; Hernández Fernández, Manuel; Alvarez-Sierra, M Ángeles

    2013-01-01

    Murine rodents represent a highly diverse group, which displays great ecological versatility. In the present paper we analyse the relationship between dental morphology, on one hand, using geometric morphometrics based upon the outline of first upper molar and the dietary preference of extant murine genera, on the other. This ecomorphological study of extant murine rodents demonstrates that dietary groups can be distinguished with the use of a quantitative geometric morphometric approach based on first upper molar outline. A discriminant analysis of the geometric morphometric variables of the first upper molars enables us to infer the dietary preferences of extinct murine genera from the Iberian Peninsula. Most of the extinct genera were omnivore; only Stephanomys showed a pattern of dental morphology alike that of the herbivore genera.

  6. Dietary ecology of Murinae (Muridae, Rodentia: a geometric morphometric approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rosa Gómez Cano

    Full Text Available Murine rodents represent a highly diverse group, which displays great ecological versatility. In the present paper we analyse the relationship between dental morphology, on one hand, using geometric morphometrics based upon the outline of first upper molar and the dietary preference of extant murine genera, on the other. This ecomorphological study of extant murine rodents demonstrates that dietary groups can be distinguished with the use of a quantitative geometric morphometric approach based on first upper molar outline. A discriminant analysis of the geometric morphometric variables of the first upper molars enables us to infer the dietary preferences of extinct murine genera from the Iberian Peninsula. Most of the extinct genera were omnivore; only Stephanomys showed a pattern of dental morphology alike that of the herbivore genera.

  7. Data Mining Approaches for Intrusion Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    In this paper we discuss our research in developing general and systematic methods for intrusion detection. The key ideas are to use data mining techniques...two general data mining algorithms that we have implemented: the association rules algorithm and the frequent episodes algorithm. These algorithms can

  8. Intrusion Detection System Visualization of Network Alerts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Intrusion Detection System Visualization of Network Alerts Dolores M. Zage and Wayne M. Zage Ball State University Final Report July 2010...contracts. Staff Wayne Zage, Director of the S2ERC and Professor, Department of Computer Science, Ball State University Dolores Zage, Research

  9. Chemical Observations of a Polar Vortex Intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeberl, M. R.; Kawa, S. R.; Douglass, A. R.; McGee, T. J.; Browell, E.; Waters, J.; Livesey, N.; Read, W.; Froidevaux, L.

    2006-01-01

    An intrusion of vortex edge air in D the interior of the Arctic polar vortex was observed on the January 31,2005 flight of the NASA DC-8 aircraft. This intrusion was identified as anomalously high values of ozone by the AROTAL and DIAL lidars. Our analysis shows that this intrusion formed when a blocking feature near Iceland collapsed, allowing edge air to sweep into the vortex interior. along the DC-8 flight track also shows the intrusion in both ozone and HNO3. Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs) were observed by the DIAL lidar on the DC-8. The spatial variability of the PSCs can be explained using MLS HNO3 and H2O observations and meteorological analysis temperatures. We also estimate vortex denitrification using the relationship between N2O and HNO3. Reverse domain fill back trajectory calculations are used to focus on the features in the MLS data. The trajectory results improve the agreement between lidar measured ozone and MLS ozone and also improve the agreement between the HNO3 measurements PSC locations. The back trajectory calculations allow us to compute the local denitrification rate and reduction of HCl within the filament. We estimate a denitrification rate of about lO%/day after exposure to below PSC formation temperature. Analysis of Aura MLS observations made

  10. Root resorption after orthodontic intrusion and extrusion:.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, G.; Huang, S.; Hoff, J.W. Von den; Zeng, X.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to compare root resorption in the same individual after application of continuous intrusive and extrusive forces. In nine patients (mean age 15.3 years), the maxillary first premolars were randomly intruded or extruded with a continuous force of 100 cN for eight wee

  11. Access Control from an Intrusion Detection Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunes Leal Franqueira, V.

    Access control and intrusion detection are essential components for securing an organization's information assets. In practice, these components are used in isolation, while their fusion would contribute to increase the range and accuracy of both. One approach to accomplish this fusion is the

  12. The Second Deep Ice Coring Project at Dome Fuji, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideaki Motoyama

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the history of the polar icecaps, dust and aerosols have been transported through the atmosphere to the poles, to be preserved within the annually freezing ice of the growing ice shields. Therefore, the Antarctic ice sheet is a “time capsule" for environmental data, containing information of ancient periods of Earth’s history. To unravel this history and decode cycles in glaciations and global change is among the major goals of the Dome Fuji Ice Coring Project.

  13. Dual innervation of neonatal Merkel cells in mouse touch domes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwen Niu

    Full Text Available Merkel cell-neurite complexes are specialized mechanosensory end organs that mediate discriminative touch sensation. It is well established that type I slowly adapting (SAI mechanoreceptors, which express neural filament heavy chain (NFH, innervate Merkel cells. It was previously shown that neurotrophic factor NT3 and its receptor TrkC play crucial roles in controlling touch dome Merkel cell innervation of NFH+ fibers. In addition, nerve fibers expressing another neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase (NTRK, Ret, innervate touch dome Merkel cells as well. However, the relationship between afferents responsive to NT3/TrkC signaling and those expressing Ret is unclear. It is also controversial if these Ret+ fibers belong to the early or late Ret+ DRG neurons, which are defined based on the co-expression and developmental dependence of TrkA. To address these questions, we genetically traced Ret+ and TrkC+ fibers and analyzed their developmental dependence on TrkA. We found that Merkel cells in neonatal mouse touch domes receive innervation of two types of fibers: one group is Ret+, while the other subset expresses TrkC and NFH. In addition, Ret+ fibers depend on TrkA for their survival and normal innervation whereas NFH+ Merkel cell innervating fibers are almost unaltered in TrkA mutant mice, supporting that Ret+ and NFH+/TrkC+ afferents are two distinct groups. Ret signaling, on the other hand, plays a minor role for the innervation of neonatal touch domes. In contrast, Merkel cells in the glabrous skin are mainly contacted by NFH+/TrkC+ afferents. Taken together, our results suggest that neonatal Merkel cells around hair follicles receive dual innervation while Merkel cells in the glabrous skin are mainly innervated by only SAI mechanoreceptors. In addition, our results suggest that neonatal Ret+ Merkel cell innervating fibers most likely belong to the late but not early Ret+ DRG neurons.

  14. How stratospheric are deep stratospheric intrusions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trickl, T.; Vogelmann, H.; Giehl, H.; Scheel, H.-E.; Sprenger, M.; Stohl, A.

    2014-09-01

    Preliminary attempts of quantifying the stratospheric ozone contribution in the observations at the Zugspitze summit (2962 m a.s.l.) next to Garmisch-Partenkirchen in the German Alps had yielded an approximate doubling of the stratospheric fraction of the Zugspitze ozone during the time period 1978 to 2004. These investigations had been based on data filtering by using low relative humidity (RH) and elevated 7Be as the criteria for selecting half-hour intervals of ozone data representative of stratospheric intrusion air. To quantify the residual stratospheric component in stratospherically influenced air masses, however, the mixing of tropospheric air into the stratospheric intrusion layers must be taken into account. In fact, the dewpoint mirror instrument at the Zugspitze summit station rarely registers RH values lower than 10% in stratospheric air intrusions. Since 2007 a programme of routine lidar sounding of ozone, water vapour and aerosol has been conducted in the Garmisch-Partenkirchen area. The lidar results demonstrate that the intrusion layers are drier by roughly one order of magnitude than indicated in the in situ measurements. Even in thin layers RH values clearly below 1% have frequently been observed. These thin, undiluted layers present an important challenge for atmospheric modelling. Although the ozone values never reach values typical of the lower-stratosphere it becomes, thus, obvious that, without strong wind shear or convective processes, mixing of stratospheric and tropospheric air must be very slow in most of the free troposphere. As a consequence, the analysis the Zugspitze data can be assumed to be more reliable than anticipated. Finally, the concentrations of Zugspitze carbon monoxide rarely drop inside intrusion layers and normally stay clearly above full stratospheric values. This indicates that most of the CO, and thus the intrusion air mass, originates in the shallow "mixing layer" around the thermal tropopause. The CO mixing ratio in

  15. How stratospheric are deep stratospheric intrusions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Trickl

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary attempts of quantifying the stratospheric ozone contribution in the observations at the Zugspitze summit (2962 m a.s.l. next to Garmisch-Partenkirchen in the German Alps had yielded an approximate doubling of the stratospheric fraction of the Zugspitze ozone during the time period 1978 and 2004. These investigations had been based on data filtering by using low relative humidity and elevated 7Be as the criteria for selecting half-hour intervals of ozone data representative of stratospheric intrusion air. For quantifying the residual stratospheric component in stratospherically influenced air masses, however, the mixing of tropospheric air into the stratospheric intrusion layers must be taken into account. In fact, the dew-point-mirror instrument at the Zugspitze summit station rarely registers relative humidity (RH values lower than 10% in stratospheric air intrusions. Since 2007 a programme of routine lidar sounding of ozone, water vapour and aerosol has been conducted in the Garmisch-Partenkirchen area. The lidar results demonstrate that the intrusion layers are dryer by roughly one order of magnitude than indicated in the in-situ measurements. Even in thin layers frequently RH values clearly below 1% have been observed. These thin, undiluted layers present an important challenge for atmospheric modelling. Although the ozone values never reach values typical of the lower-stratosphere it becomes, thus, obvious that, without strong wind shear or convective processes, mixing of stratospheric and tropospheric air must be very slow in most of the free troposphere. As a consequence, the analysis the Zugspitze data can be assumed to be more reliable than anticipated. Finally, the concentrations of Zugspitze carbon monoxide rarely drop inside intrusion layers and normally stay clearly above full stratospheric values. This indicates that most of the CO and, thus, the intrusion air mass originate in the shallow "mixing layer" around the

  16. How stratospheric are deep stratospheric intrusions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Trickl

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary attempts of quantifying the stratospheric ozone contribution in the observations at the Zugspitze summit (2962 m a.s.l. next to Garmisch-Partenkirchen in the German Alps had yielded an approximate doubling of the stratospheric fraction of the Zugspitze ozone during the time period 1978 to 2004. These investigations had been based on data filtering by using low relative humidity (RH and elevated 7Be as the criteria for selecting half-hour intervals of ozone data representative of stratospheric intrusion air. To quantify the residual stratospheric component in stratospherically influenced air masses, however, the mixing of tropospheric air into the stratospheric intrusion layers must be taken into account. In fact, the dewpoint mirror instrument at the Zugspitze summit station rarely registers RH values lower than 10% in stratospheric air intrusions. Since 2007 a programme of routine lidar sounding of ozone, water vapour and aerosol has been conducted in the Garmisch-Partenkirchen area. The lidar results demonstrate that the intrusion layers are drier by roughly one order of magnitude than indicated in the in situ measurements. Even in thin layers RH values clearly below 1% have frequently been observed. These thin, undiluted layers present an important challenge for atmospheric modelling. Although the ozone values never reach values typical of the lower-stratosphere it becomes, thus, obvious that, without strong wind shear or convective processes, mixing of stratospheric and tropospheric air must be very slow in most of the free troposphere. As a consequence, the analysis the Zugspitze data can be assumed to be more reliable than anticipated. Finally, the concentrations of Zugspitze carbon monoxide rarely drop inside intrusion layers and normally stay clearly above full stratospheric values. This indicates that most of the CO, and thus the intrusion air mass, originates in the shallow "mixing layer" around the thermal tropopause. The

  17. NADIR (Network Anomaly Detection and Intrusion Reporter): A prototype network intrusion detection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, K.A.; DuBois, D.H.; Stallings, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Network Anomaly Detection and Intrusion Reporter (NADIR) is an expert system which is intended to provide real-time security auditing for intrusion and misuse detection at Los Alamos National Laboratory's Integrated Computing Network (ICN). It is based on three basic assumptions: that statistical analysis of computer system and user activities may be used to characterize normal system and user behavior, and that given the resulting statistical profiles, behavior which deviates beyond certain bounds can be detected, that expert system techniques can be applied to security auditing and intrusion detection, and that successful intrusion detection may take place while monitoring a limited set of network activities such as user authentication and access control, file movement and storage, and job scheduling. NADIR has been developed to employ these basic concepts while monitoring the audited activities of more than 8000 ICN users.

  18. Simulation of network intrusion detection system with GPenSim

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, network has penetrated into every aspect of our life with its rapid growth and popularization. More and more serious network security problems have occurred together with this process, especially network intrusion problem. It has seriously affected the normal use of network, so research of network intrusion detection has become one of the hottest research areas. This thesis simulated a network intrusion detection system based on particle filter to solve the network intrusion ...

  19. Towards Multi-Stage Intrusion Detection using IP Flow Records

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Fahad Umer; Muhammad Sher; Imran Khan

    2016-01-01

    Traditional network-based intrusion detection sys-tems using deep packet inspection are not feasible for modern high-speed networks due to slow processing and inability to read encrypted packet content. As an alternative to packet-based intrusion detection, researchers have focused on flow-based intrusion detection techniques. Flow-based intrusion detection systems analyze IP flow records for attack detection. IP flow records contain summarized traffic information. However, flow data is very ...

  20. Efficiency of Svm and Pca to Enhance Intrusion Detection System

    OpenAIRE

    Soukaena Hassan Hashem

    2013-01-01

    Intrusion detection system (IDS) is a system that gathers and analyzes information from various areas within a computer or a network to identify attacks made against these components. This research proposed an Intrusion Detection Model (IDM) for detection intrusion attempts, the proposal is a hybrid IDM because it considers both features of network packets and host features that are sensitive to most intrusions. The dataset used to build the hybrid IDM is the proposed HybD (Hybrid Dataset) da...

  1. Enhancement of local air pollution by urban CO(2) domes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Mark Z

    2010-04-01

    Data suggest that domes of high CO(2) levels form over cities. Despite our knowledge of these domes for over a decade, no study has contemplated their effects on air pollution or health. In fact, all air pollution regulations worldwide assume arbitrarily that such domes have no local health impact, and carbon policy proposals, such as "cap and trade", implicitly assume that CO(2) impacts are the same regardless of where emissions occur. Here, it is found through data-evaluated numerical modeling with telescoping domains from the globe to the U.S., California, and Los Angeles, that local CO(2) emissions in isolation may increase local ozone and particulate matter. Although health impacts of such changes are uncertain, they are of concern, and it is estimated that that local CO(2) emissions may increase premature mortality by 50-100 and 300-1000/yr in California and the U.S., respectively. As such, reducing locally emitted CO(2) may reduce local air pollution mortality even if CO(2) in adjacent regions is not controlled. If correct, this result contradicts the basis for air pollution regulations worldwide, none of which considers controlling local CO(2) based on its local health impacts. It also suggests that a "cap and trade" policy should consider the location of CO(2) emissions, as the underlying assumption of the policy is incorrect.

  2. Effects of hemiplegy on pulmonary function and diaphragmatic dome displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Izabella Cecília Lima; Clementino, Adriana Carla Costa Ribeiro; Rocha, Eduardo Henrique Tenório; Brandão, Daniella Cunha; Dornelas de Andrade, Armele

    2011-09-15

    We evaluated the diaphragmatic excursion, volumetric measurement, maximal inspiratory pressure (PI(max)), lung function tests (forced vital capacity-FVC, forced expiratory volume in the first second-FEV1, mean forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% of the FVC maneuver-FEF(25-75%), peak expiratory flow-PEF and maximal voluntary ventilation-MVV), displacement of the domes diaphragmatics with ultrasonography and inspiratory capacity, the MAS scale (Motor Assessment Scale) in 20 hemiplegic patients volunteers and eight controls. In right-side hemiplegia, movement was 4.97 ± 0.78 cm and 4.20 ± 1.45 cm for the right and left domes of the diaphragm, respectively, whereas these values were 4.42 ± 0.92 cm and 4.66 ± 1.17 cm in left-side hemiplegia. PI(max) was -48.75 ± 27.5 cmH2O in right-side hemiplegic patients and -74.17 ± 13.57 cmH2O in left-side hemiplegic patients. Right-side hemiplegia exhibited greater impairment of the respiratory muscles than left-side hemiplegia due to the physiologic positioning of the domes of the diaphragm which may be compromised for hemiplegia.

  3. Ice crystal precipitation at Dome C site (East Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santachiara, G.; Belosi, F.; Prodi, F.

    2016-01-01

    For the first time, falling ice crystals were collected on glass slides covered with a thin layer of 2% formvar in chloroform at the Dome Concordia site (Dome C), Antarctica. Samplings were performed in the framework of the 27th Italian Antarctica expedition of the Italian National Program for Research in Antarctica in the period 21 February-6 August 2012. Events of clear-sky precipitations and precipitations from clouds were considered and the replicas obtained were examined under Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Several shapes of ice crystals were identified, including "diamond dust" (plates, pyramids, hollow and solid columns), and crystal aggregates varying in complexity. Single events often contained both small (10 μm to 50 μm) and large (hundreds of microns) crystals, suggesting that crystals can form simultaneously near the ground (height of a few hundred metres) and at higher layers (height of thousands of metres). Images of sampled crystal replicas showed that single bullets are not produced separately, but by the disintegration of combinations of bullets. Rimed ice crystals were absent in the Dome C samples, i.e. the only mode of crystal growth was water vapour diffusion. On considering the aerosol in the sampled crystals, we reached the conclusion that inertial impaction, interception and Brownian motion were insufficient to explain the scavenged aerosol. We therefore presume that phoretic forces play a role in scavenging during the crystal growth process.

  4. Lunar Mare Dome Identification and Morphologic Properties Analysis Using Chang'E-2 Lunar Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xingguo; Mu, Lingli; Li, Chunlai; Liu, Jianjun; Ren, Xin; Wang, Yuanyuan

    2016-04-01

    Identify the lunar mare dome and study the morphologic properties to know more knowledge about the structure will enhance the study of lunar volcanism. Traditionally, most lunar domes are identified by the scientists from exploring the images or topographic maps of the lunar surface with manual method, which already found out a bunch of lunar domes in specific local areas. For the purpose of getting more knowledge about global lunar dome, it is necessary to identify the lunar dome from the global lunar mare. However, it is hard to find new lunar domes from the global lunar mare only with manual method, since in that case, the large volume lunar data is needed and such work is too time consumed, so that, there are few researchers who have indentified and study the properties of the lunar dome from the perspective of lunar global scale. To solve the problem mentioned above, in this approach , CE-2 DEM, DOM data in 7m resolution were used in the detection and morphologic analysis of the lunar domes and a dome detection method based on topographic characteristics were developed.We firstly designed a method considering the morphologic characteristics to identify the lunar dome with Chang'E2(CE-2) lunar global data, after that, the initial identified result with properties is analyzed, and finally, by integrating the result with lunar domes already found by former researchers, we made some maps about the spatial distribution of the global lunar mare dome. With the CE-2 data covering the former lunar domes and the new found lunar domes, we surveyed and calculated some morphologic properties, and found that, lunar domes are circular or eclipse shaped, obviously different from background in topography,which has a average diameter between 3-25km, circular degree less than 1.54, with a average slope less than 10°, average height less than 650m and diameter/height less than 0.065. Almost all of the lunar domes are located in the extent of 58°N~54°S,167°W~180°E,and nearly

  5. Design and Development of a Composite Dome for Experimental Characterization of Material Permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Hector; Smeltzer, Stanley S., III

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the design and development of a carbon fiber reinforced plastic dome, including a description of the dome fabrication, method for sealing penetrations in the dome, and a summary of the planned test series. This dome will be used for the experimental permeability characterization and leakage validation of composite vessels pressurized using liquid hydrogen and liquid nitrogen at the Cryostat Test Facility at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The preliminary design of the dome was completed using membrane shell analysis. Due to the configuration of the test setup, the dome will experience some flexural stresses and stress concentrations in addition to membrane stresses. Also, a potential buckling condition exists for the dome due to external pressure during the leak testing of the cryostat facility lines. Thus, a finite element analysis was conducted to assess the overall strength and stability of the dome for each required test condition. Based on these results, additional plies of composite reinforcement material were applied to local regions on the dome to alleviate stress concentrations and limit deflections. The dome design includes a circular opening in the center for the installation of a polar boss, which introduces a geometric discontinuity that causes high stresses in the region near the hole. To attenuate these high stresses, a reinforcement system was designed using analytical and finite element analyses. The development of a low leakage polar boss system is also investigated.

  6. The state of the art in intrusion prevention and detection

    CERN Document Server

    Pathan, Al-Sakib Khan

    2013-01-01

    The State of the Art in Intrusion Prevention and Detection analyzes the latest trends and issues surrounding intrusion detection systems in computer networks, especially in communications networks. Its broad scope of coverage includes wired, wireless, and mobile networks; next-generation converged networks; and intrusion in social networks.Presenting cutting-edge research, the book presents novel schemes for intrusion detection and prevention. It discusses tracing back mobile attackers, secure routing with intrusion prevention, anomaly detection, and AI-based techniques. It also includes infor

  7. Research on IPv6 intrusion detection system Snort-based

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zihao; Wang, Hui

    2010-07-01

    This paper introduces the common intrusion detection technologies, discusses the work flow of Snort intrusion detection system, and analyzes IPv6 data packet encapsulation and protocol decoding technology. We propose the expanding Snort architecture to support IPv6 intrusion detection in accordance with CIDF standard combined with protocol analysis technology and pattern matching technology, and present its composition. The research indicates that the expanding Snort system can effectively detect various intrusion attacks; it is high in detection efficiency and detection accuracy and reduces false alarm and omission report, which effectively solves the problem of IPv6 intrusion detection.

  8. The decorative program of the domes and area under the domes in the church of the monastery Resava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prolović Jadranka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Because the dome is interpreted as a symbol of the heavens, it is reserved for heavenly subjects. The calotte of the dome is seen as a vault of heaven or 'heaven in the heavens' and, as such, as the 'house of Christ'. As the commentator in the 19th century reports, the image of Christ Pantokrator was once located at the zenith of the central dome of Resava. The preserved scenes and figures below the dome, specifically the heavenly liturgy and the prophets, confirm the original existence of this image. Together they build an iconology that was very widespread in late Byzantine art. The composition of the central dome of Resava resembles in its complete appearance, supported by some particularities, the central dome of Ravanica, which served as a model for the artists of Resava. One can find close parallels for the decoration of the side domes in Ravanica. The similar arrangement of heavenly powers in the tambours of the domes in Ravanica and Resava indicate that, like in Ravanica, Christ Emmanuel, the Age of Days, the Mother of God and the Archangel Michael could have been depicted in the zenith of the side domes of Resava. This type of decorative scheme in side domes is common in late Byzantine monumental painting. The remaining fragments with images of angels as deacons positioned in the ring around the zenith of the central dome show that the Heavenly Liturgy was depicted here, specifically the Large Entrance which, aside from the communion, was the only part of the liturgy visible to the faithful. In Resava, the Heavenly Liturgy is completed by the images of crowds of angels, which are portrayed in the tambours of the side domes. The liturgical hymns that accompany these images of angels confirm this order. The rendering of orders of angels in the tambours of the side domes in Resava comply with the traditional program in which these heavenly beings - who being closest to God, who were his first creations and the only to whom a look in the

  9. Morphometric Analysis of Mandibular Growth in Skeletal Class III Malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Zwei-Chieng Chang

    2006-01-01

    Conclusion: We conclude that thin-plate spline analysis and the finite element morphometric method are efficient for the localization and quantification of size and shape changes that occur during mandibular growth. Plots of maximum and minimum principal directions can provide useful information about the trends of growth changes.

  10. Geometric morphometrics of different malocclusions in lateral skull radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenthaler, Josef; Čelar, Aleš; Ritt, Christopher; Mitteröcker, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the role of craniofacial shape in malocclusion by application of geometric morphometrics to a set of two-dimensional landmarks and semilandmarks obtained from lateral skull radiographs. Cephalometric radiograph tracings of 88 untreated Caucasians (age range 7-39 years) were assigned to four groups according to their occlusion: neutrocclusion, distocclusion, mesiocclusion, and anterior open bite. The geometric morphometric shape analysis incorporated 66 landmarks and semilandmarks, which underwent generalized Procrustes analysis, between-groups principal component analysis, thin-plate spline deformation grid visualization, permutation tests, and receiver operating characteristic curves. The position and shape of the mandible contributed to differences between the distocclusion and mesiocclusion groups, whereas the maxillary shape showed less variation. The growth-related shape alteration during adolescence was most pronounced in the mesiocclusion group and least pronounced in the neutrocclusion group. The open bite group was associated with an altered orientation of the mandibular body and the maxilla,  showed the most hyperdivergent maxillomandibular pattern but was not an own skeletal entity. Despite clear differences in mean shape across the four groups, the individual distribution of craniofacial shape overlapped between the groups without discrete clusters. Craniofacial shape was clearly associated with dental malocclusion and showed considerable variation. Geometric morphometrics was a powerful research tool but for diagnosing individual malocclusion standard cephalometric measurements including overjet and overbite were equally or more efficient than geometric morphometric descriptors.

  11. Morphometric studies on a part of Central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kodagali, V.N.

    Morphometric and slope angle studies carried out on a part of Indian Ocean Basin have shown that gentle slope angle ranges dominate, 92% of the area represented by 0-3 degrees slopes. Young's hypothesis of log-normal distribution of slope angle...

  12. Catchment delineation and morphometric analysis using geographical information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Kumar, Rohitashw; Singh, P K; Singh, Manjeet; Yadav, K K; Mittal, H K

    2015-01-01

    The geographical information system (GIS) has emerged as an efficient tool in delineation of drainage patterns of watershed planning and management. The morphometric parameters of basins can address linear, areal and relief aspects. The study deals with the integrated watershed management of Baliya micro-watersheds, located in the Udaipur district of Rajasthan, India. Morphometric analysis in hydrological investigation is an important aspect and it is inevitable in the development and management of drainage basins. The determination of linear, areal and relief parameters indicate fairly good significance. The low value of the bifurcation ratio of 4.19 revealed that the drainage pattern has not been distorted by structural disturbance. The high value of the elongation ratio (0.68) compared to the circulatory ratio (0.27) indicates an elongated shape of the watershed. The high value of drainage density (5.39 km/km(2)) and stream frequency (12.32) shows that the region has impermeable subsoil material under poor vegetative cover with a low relief factor. The morphometric parameters of relief ratio (0.041) and relative relief (0.99%) show that the watershed can be treated using GIS techniques to determine the morphometric presence of dendritic drainage pattern, with a view to selecting the soil and water conservation measures and water harvesting.

  13. Morphometric Evaluation of Preeclamptic Placenta Using Light Microscopic Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Mukherjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Deficient trophoblast invasion and anomalies in placental development generally lead to preeclampsia (PE but the inter-relationship between placental function and morphology in PE still remains unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphometric features of placental villi and capillaries in preeclamptic and normal placentae. The study included light microscopic images of placental tissue sections of 40 preeclamptic and 35 normotensive pregnant women. Preprocessing and segmentation of these images were performed to characterize the villi and capillaries. Fisher’s linear discriminant analysis (FLDA, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA, and principal component analysis (PCA were applied to identify the most significant placental (morphometric features from microscopic images. A total of 10 morphometric features were extracted, of which the villous parameters were significantly altered in PE. FLDA identified 5 highly significant morphometric features (>90% overall discrimination accuracy. Two large subclusters were clearly visible in HCA based dendrogram. PCA returned three most significant principal components cumulatively explaining 98.4% of the total variance based on these 5 significant features. Hence, quantitative microscopic evaluation revealed that placental morphometry plays an important role in characterizing PE, where the villous is the major component that is affected.

  14. Morphometric study of Euchiton traversii complex (Gnaphalieae: Asteraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flann, C.M.; Breitwieser, I.; Ward, J.M.; Walsh, N.G.; Ladiges, P.Y.

    2008-01-01

    A morphometric study was undertaken into alpine and subalpine species of Euchiton Cass. (Gnaphalieae: Asteraceae) in the Euchiton traversii species complex in south-eastern Australia and New Zealand. Phenetic analysis of both field-collected and herbarium specimens resolved the following six taxa in

  15. ISDTM:An Intrusion Signatures Description Temporal Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OuYangMing-guang; ZhouYang-bo

    2003-01-01

    ISDTM, based on an augmented Allen's interval temporal logic (ITL) and first-order predicate calculus, is a formal temporal model for representing intrusion signatures.It is augmented with some real time extensions which enhance the expressivity. Intrusion scenarios usually are the set of events and system states, wherethe temporal sequence is their basic relation. Intrusion signatures description, therefore, is to represent such temporal relations in a sense. While representing these signatures, ISDTM decomposes the intrusion process into the sequence of events according to their relevant intervals, and then specifies network states in these Intervals. The uncertain intrusion signatures as well as basic temporal modes of events, which consist of the parallel mode,the sequential mode and the hybrid mode, can be succinctly and naturally represented in ISDTM. Mode chart is the visualization of intrusion signatures in ISDTM, which makes the formulas more readable. The intrusion signatures descriptions in ISDTM have advantages of compact construct, concise syntax, scalability and easy implementation.

  16. A Comprehensive Study in Data Mining Frameworks for Intrusion Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Venkatesan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Intrusions are the activities that violate the security policy of system. Intrusion Detection is the process used to identify intrusions. Network security is to be considered as a major issue in recent years, since the computer network keeps on expanding every day. An Intrusion Detection System (IDS is a system for detecting intrusions and reporting to the authority or to the network administration. Data mining techniques have been successfully applied in many fields like Network Management, Education, Science, Business, Manufacturing, Process control, and Fraud Detection. Data Mining for IDS is the technique which can be used mainly to identify unknown attacks and to raise alarms when security violations are detected. The purpose of this survey paper is to describe the methods/ techniques which are being used for Intrusion Detection based on Data mining concepts and the designed frame works for the same. We are also going to review the related works for intrusion detection.

  17. Using Jquery with Snort to Visualize Intrusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa El - Din Riad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The explosive growth of malicious activities on worldwide communication networks, such as the Internet, has highlighted the need for efficient intrusion detection systems. The efficiency of traditional intrusion detection systems is limited by their inability to effectively relay relevant information due to their lack of interactive / immersive technologies. Visualized information is a technique that can encode large amounts of complex interrelated data, being at the same time easily quantified, manipulated, and processed by a human user. Authors have found that the representations can be quite effective at conveying the needed information and resolving the relationships extremely rapidly. To facilitate the creation of novel visualizations this paper presents a new framework that is designed with using data visualization technique by using Jquery Php for analysis and visualizes snort result data for user.

  18. Iron isotope systematics of the Skaergaard intrusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lesher, Charles; Lundstrom, C.C.; Barfod, Gry

    report the results of a broad study of the iron isotope compositions of gabbros within the layered and upper border series of the Skaergaard intrusion, pegmatite and granophyre associated with these gabbroic rocks, and the sandwich horizon thought to represent the product of extreme differentiation and/or...... crystallization on non-traditional stable isotope systems, particularly iron. FeTi oxide minerals (titanomagnetite and ilmenite) appear after ~60% of the magma had solidified. This was a significant event affecting the liquid line of descent and potentially accompanied by iron isotope fractionation. Here we...... liquid immiscibility. Forty-eight whole rock samples from well-constrained stratigraphic levels in the intrusion were crushed, powdered and dissolved, followed by iron separation by ion chromatography. Purified solutions were analyzed by MC- ICPMS in high-resolution mode using the sample-std bracket...

  19. In-situ trainable intrusion detection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Symons, Christopher T.; Beaver, Justin M.; Gillen, Rob; Potok, Thomas E.

    2016-11-15

    A computer implemented method detects intrusions using a computer by analyzing network traffic. The method includes a semi-supervised learning module connected to a network node. The learning module uses labeled and unlabeled data to train a semi-supervised machine learning sensor. The method records events that include a feature set made up of unauthorized intrusions and benign computer requests. The method identifies at least some of the benign computer requests that occur during the recording of the events while treating the remainder of the data as unlabeled. The method trains the semi-supervised learning module at the network node in-situ, such that the semi-supervised learning modules may identify malicious traffic without relying on specific rules, signatures, or anomaly detection.

  20. An immune based dynamic intrusion detection model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Tao

    2005-01-01

    With the dynamic description method for self and antigen, and the concept of dynamic immune tolerance for lymphocytes in network-security domain presented in this paper, a new immune based dynamic intrusion detection model (Idid) is proposed. In Idid, the dynamic models and the corresponding recursive equations of the lifecycle of mature lymphocytes, and the immune memory are built. Therefore, the problem of the dynamic description of self and nonself in computer immune systems is solved, and the defect of the low efficiency of mature lymphocyte generating in traditional computer immune systems is overcome. Simulations of this model are performed, and the comparison experiment results show that the proposed dynamic intrusion detection model has a better adaptability than the traditional methods.

  1. Iron isotope systematics of the Skaergaard intrusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lesher, Charles; Lundstrom, C.C.; Barfod, Gry

    crystallization on non-traditional stable isotope systems, particularly iron. FeTi oxide minerals (titanomagnetite and ilmenite) appear after ~60% of the magma had solidified. This was a significant event affecting the liquid line of descent and potentially accompanied by iron isotope fractionation. Here we...... report the results of a broad study of the iron isotope compositions of gabbros within the layered and upper border series of the Skaergaard intrusion, pegmatite and granophyre associated with these gabbroic rocks, and the sandwich horizon thought to represent the product of extreme differentiation and....../or liquid immiscibility. Forty-eight whole rock samples from well-constrained stratigraphic levels in the intrusion were crushed, powdered and dissolved, followed by iron separation by ion chromatography. Purified solutions were analyzed by MC- ICPMS in high-resolution mode using the sample-std bracket...

  2. A Survey on Intrusion Detection in MANETs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BakeyaLakshmi, P.; Santhi, K.

    2012-10-01

    A mobile ad hoc network is an infrastructureless network that changes its links dynamically, which makes routing in MANET a difficult process. As Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET) has become a very important technology, research concerning its security problem, especially, in intrusion detection has attracted many researchers. Feature selection methodology plays a vital role in the data analysis process. PCA is used to analyze the selected features. This is because, redundant and irrelevant features often reduce performance of the intrusion detection system. It performs better in increasing speed and predictive accuracy. This survey aims to select and analyze the network features using principal component analysis. While performing various experiments, normal and attack states are simulated and the results for the selected features are analyzed.

  3. Intrusion Detection in Wireless Body Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadya El MOUSSAID

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent advances in electronic and robotics industry have enabled the manufacturing of sensors capable of measuring a set of application-oriented parameters and transmit them back to the base station for analysis purposes. These sensors are widely used in many applications including the healthcare systems forming though a Wireless Body Sensor Networks. The medical data must be highly secured and possible intrusion has to be fully detected to proceed with the prevention phase. In this paper, we propose a new intrusion superframe schema for 802.15.6 standard to detect the cloning attack. The results proved the efficiency of our technique in detecting this type of attack based on 802.15.6 parameters performances coupled with frequency switching at the radio model.

  4. Sensing Danger: Innate Immunology for Intrusion Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Uwe, Aickelin

    2008-01-01

    The immune system provides an ideal metaphor for anomaly detection in general and computer security in particular. Based on this idea, artificial immune systems have been used for a number of years for intrusion detection, unfortunately so far with little success. However, these previous systems were largely based on immunological theory from the 1970s and 1980s and over the last decade our understanding of immunological processes has vastly improved. In this paper we present two new immune inspired algorithms based on the latest immunological discoveries, such as the behaviour of Dendritic Cells. The resultant algorithms are applied to real world intrusion problems and show encouraging results. Overall, we believe there is a bright future for these next generation artificial immune algorithms.

  5. A Survey on VANET Intrusion Detection Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed ERRITALI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the security issues on Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs have become one of the primary concerns. The VANET is inherently very vulnerable to attacks than wired network because it is characterized by high mobility, shared wireless medium and the absence of centralized security services offered by dedicated equipment such as firewalls and authentication servers. Attackcountermeasures such as digital signature and encryption, can be used as the first line of defense for reducing the possibilities of attacks. However, these techniques have limited prevention in general, and they are designed for a set of known attacks. They are unlikely to avoid most recent attacks that are designed to circumvent existing security measures. For this reason, there is a need of second technique to “detect and notify” these newer attacks, i.e. “intrusion detection”. This article aims to present and classifycurrent techniques of Intrusion Detection System (IDS aware VANETs.

  6. Multilayer Statistical Intrusion Detection in Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noureddine Boudriga

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid proliferation of mobile applications and services has introduced new vulnerabilities that do not exist in fixed wired networks. Traditional security mechanisms, such as access control and encryption, turn out to be inefficient in modern wireless networks. Given the shortcomings of the protection mechanisms, an important research focuses in intrusion detection systems (IDSs. This paper proposes a multilayer statistical intrusion detection framework for wireless networks. The architecture is adequate to wireless networks because the underlying detection models rely on radio parameters and traffic models. Accurate correlation between radio and traffic anomalies allows enhancing the efficiency of the IDS. A radio signal fingerprinting technique based on the maximal overlap discrete wavelet transform (MODWT is developed. Moreover, a geometric clustering algorithm is presented. Depending on the characteristics of the fingerprinting technique, the clustering algorithm permits to control the false positive and false negative rates. Finally, simulation experiments have been carried out to validate the proposed IDS.

  7. Age characteristic of morphometric parameters of an orbit in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubyna S.O.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The knowledge of a morphometric characteristics of an orbit are important in planning of surgical interventions after craniofacial injuries and a number of ophthalmologic and oncological diseases. Objective. To determine the standard morphometric parameters of an orbit in humans of different age groups. Methods. Research was performed in Donetsk diagnostic center with the use of computer tomography-scans. 96 people aged from 21 to 74 years took part in the research with their consent; 32 people – the first period of mature age (men – 22-35 years, women – 21-35 years; 32 people – the second period of mature age (men – 36-60 years, women – 36-55 years; 32 people –aged group (men – 61-74 years, women – 56-74 years – without pathologies of a craniofacial zone. Orbit length, its depth, angle between medial and lateral walls, width and height of an orbital entrance, inclination angle were measured. Results. Significant asymmetry in values of the length of the lower orbital wall in the first period of mature age was revealed. It affects the value of this parameter as a morphometric standard during surgical intervention, and justifies the measurement at least in two planes: frontal and axial. Conclusion. It was established that there are no reliable differences between morphometric parameters of an orbit in persons of various age groups, except the depth of an orbit and length of its lower wall in the second period of the mature age. Citation: Dubyna SO, Yabluchansky MI. [Age characteristic of morphometric parameters of an orbit in adults]. Morphologia. 2015;9(1:29-33. Ukrainian.

  8. MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES AND MORPHOMETRIC PARAMETERS OF HUMAN FETAL THYMUS GLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Havila Hasini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Thymus is one of the central lymphoid organs. It plays an important role in the differentiation, selection and maturation of T-lymphocytes. In the recent years morphology and morphometry of the thymus gland in the newborn is gaining significance as it demonstrates great variability between individual infants and in the same infant at different times. Materials and methods: In the present study 45 thymus specimens from aborted human fetuses of 16 to 40 weeks gestational age and both sexes were studied by autopsy for morphological and morphometric features. The morphometric parameters were measured using pachymeter. Results: The thymus gland was located in the superior mediastinum. 60% (27/45 specimens showed cervical extensions. Brachiocephalic vein anterior to thymus was observed in 3 cases which is an important anomaly to be observed in thymectomy procedure. Thymuses were greyish pink to greyish brown in colour. Variations were also observed in the number of lobes of glands in which one is single lobed, most of the glands are bilobed and few are trilobed. There is progressive increase in all morphometric dimensions of the thymus in relation to gestational age. Most of the specimens were less than 4cm in length. Half of the specimens were below 2cm in width and other half were 2.0 to 5.0 cm in width. For 90% of the specimens thickness of the organ was less than 0.5cm. The thymus gland was 0.2% of fetal body weight. Conclusion: The morphological observations of thymus gland shows great variations which has to be considered in thymectomy. In addition to anthropometric parameters of fetus, morphometric parameters of thymus glands present significant relation to the gestational age of fetuses. It is possible to determine the thymic morphometric parameters in relation to gestational age.

  9. Morphometric Analysis of a semi-arid region using GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Kumar Arya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study an attempt has been made to study the morphometric parameters and drainage properties of a watershed of semi-arid (khad region located at Hoshiarpur district of Punjab (India. Morphometric analysis has been carried out on the watershed of 174.385 km2 area using ESRI Arc GIS 10.0 software and CartoSAT-1 DEM data of spatial resolution 2.5 m obtained from NRSC (National Remote Sensing Center, Hyderabad for evaluating various morphometric parameters. On the basis of linear, areal and relief aspects various morphometric parameters were evaluated using Arc GIS 10.0 software. Hydrology tool under Spatial analyst tool in ArcGIS10.0 has been used for generating the watershed boundary, flow accumulation, drainage network and stream order map. Area and the perimeter have been calculated using ArcGIS 10.0 and it comes out to be 174.385 Km2 and 77.539 km respectively. Drainage map of the study area shows dendritic to sub-dendritic drainage pattern. The study reveals that the stream number decreases with the increase in the stream order, the mean bifurcation ratio of the watershed is 4.35 which means that the watershed falls under normal basin category, the elongation ratio of the watershed is 0.604 which indicates that it is less elongated, the circularity ratio of the watershed is 0.365 indicating its elongation and highly permeable homogeneous materials. The present study shows the competency of remotely sensed satellite imagery coupled with GIS for morphometric analysis of a particular region and is useful for the watershed management, identification of critical zones and for implementing various soil and water conservation practices in that region or watershed.

  10. A Review of Vapor Intrusion Models

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Yijun; Suuberg, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    A complete vapor intrusion (VI) model, describing vapor entry of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) into buildings located on contaminated sites, generally consists of two main parts-one describing vapor transport in the soil and the other its entry into the building. Modeling the soil vapor transport part involves either analytically or numerically solving the equations of vapor advection and diffusion in the subsurface. Contaminant biodegradation must often also be included in this simulatio...

  11. The Dome Automations of ATA50 and MASS-DIMM Telescopes for DAG Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, E.; Celik, H. I.; Ozbaldan, E. E.; Guney, Y.; Yesilyaprak, C.

    2016-12-01

    In the scope of Eastern Anatolia Observatory (DAG) Project, The DAG Technical Team has carried out various automation studies like dome, camera, atmospherical equipments, etc. The domes of ATA50 and MASS-DIMM Telescopes have almost similar opening systems. Both telescopes will run as robotic very soon; therefore it's mandatory and inevitable to make the automations of their domes. The automation studies as its electronics and software developed by DAG Technical Team are presented.

  12. Artificial Intrusion Detection Techniques: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh Gupta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Networking has become the most integral part of our cyber society. Everyone wants to connect themselves with each other. With the advancement of network technology, we find this most vulnerable to breach and take information and once information reaches to the wrong hands it can do terrible things. During recent years, number of attacks on networks have been increased which drew the attention of many researchers on this field. There have been many researches on intrusion detection lately. Many methods have been devised which are really very useful but they can only detect the attacks which already took place. These methods will always fail whenever there is a foreign attack which is not famous or which is new to the networking world. In order to detect new intrusions in the network, researchers have devised artificial intelligence technique for Intrusion detection prevention system. In this paper we are going to cover what types evolutionary techniques have been devised and their significance and modification.

  13. A BOOSTING APPROACH FOR INTRUSION DETECTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zan Xin; Han Jiuqiang; Zhang Junjie; Zheng Qinghua; Han Chongzhao

    2007-01-01

    Intrusion detection can be essentially regarded as a classification problem,namely,distinguishing normal profiles from intrusive behaviors.This paper introduces boosting classification algorithm into the area of intrusion detection to learn attack signatures.Decision tree algorithm is used as simple base learner of boosting algorithm.Furthermore,this paper employs the Principle Component Analysis(PCA)approach,an effective data reduction approach,to extract the key attribute set from the original high-dimensional network traffic data.KDD CUP 99 data set is used in these exDeriments to demonstrate that boosting algorithm can greatly improve the clas.sification accuracy of weak learners by combining a number of simple"weak learners".In our experiments,the error rate of training phase of boosting algorithm is reduced from 30.2%to 8%after 10 iterations.Besides,this Daper also compares boosting algorithm with Support Vector Machine(SVM)algorithm and shows that the classification accuracy of boosting algorithm is little better than SVM algorithm's.However,the generalization ability of SVM algorithm is better than boosting algorithm.

  14. Intrusion Detection with Multi-Connected Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelkader Khobzaoui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, considerable attention has been given to data mining techniques to improve the performance of intrusion detection systems (IDS. This has led to the application of various classification and clustering techniques for the purpose of intrusion detection. Most of them assume that behaviors, both normal and intrusions, are represented implicitly by connected classes. We state that such assumption isn't evident and is a source of the low detection rate and false alarm. This paper proposes a suitable method able to reach high detection rate and overcomes the disadvantages of conventional approaches which consider that behaviors must be closed to connected representation only. The main strategy of the proposed method is to segment sufficiently each behavior representation by connected subsets called natural classes which are used, with a suitable metric, as tools to build the expected classifier. The results show that the proposed model has many qualities compared to conventional models; especially regarding those have used DARPA data set for testing the effectiveness of their methods. The proposed model provides decreased rates both for false negative rates and for false positives.

  15. Intrusion detection using rough set classification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张连华; 张冠华; 郁郎; 张洁; 白英彩

    2004-01-01

    Recently machine learning-based intrusion detection approaches have been subjected to extensive researches because they can detect both misuse and anomaly. In this paper, rough set classification (RSC), a modern learning algorithm, is used to rank the features extracted for detecting intrusions and generate intrusion detection models. Feature ranking is a very critical step when building the model. RSC performs feature ranking before generating rules, and converts the feature ranking to minimal hitting set problem addressed by using genetic algorithm (GA). This is done in classical approaches using Support Vector Machine (SVM) by executing many iterations, each of which removes one useless feature. Compared with those methods, our method can avoid many iterations. In addition, a hybrid genetic algorithm is proposed to increase the convergence speed and decrease the training time of RSC. The models generated by RSC take the form of"IF-THEN" rules, which have the advantage of explication. Tests and comparison of RSC with SVM on DARPA benchmark data showed that for Probe and DoS attacks both RSC and SVM yielded highly accurate results (greater than 99% accuracy on testing set).

  16. Intrusion detection using rough set classification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张连华; 张冠华; 郁郎; 张洁; 白英彩

    2004-01-01

    Recently machine learning-based intrusion detection approaches have been subjected to extensive researches because they can detect both misuse and anomaly. In this paper, rough set classification (RSC), a modem learning algorithm,is used to rank the features extracted for detecting intrusions and generate intrusion detection models. Feature ranking is a very critical step when building the model. RSC performs feature ranking before generating rules, and converts the feature ranking to minimal hitting set problem addressed by using genetic algorithm (GA). This is done in classical approaches using Support Vector Machine (SVM) by executing many iterations, each of which removes one useless feature. Compared with those methods, our method can avoid many iterations. In addition, a hybrid genetic algorithm is proposed to increase the convergence speed and decrease the training time of RSC. The models generated by RSC take the form of"IF-THEN" rules,which have the advantage of explication. Tests and comparison of RSC with SVM on DARPA benchmark data showed that for Probe and DoS attacks both RSC and SVM yielded highly accurate results (greater than 99% accuracy on testing set).

  17. Intrusion detection using pattern recognition methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nan; Yu, Li

    2007-09-01

    Today, cyber attacks such as worms, scanning, active attackers are pervasive in Internet. A number of security approaches are proposed to address this problem, among which the intrusion detection system (IDS) appears to be one of the major and most effective solutions for defending against malicious users. Essentially, intrusion detection problem can be generalized as a classification problem, whose goal is to distinguish normal behaviors and anomalies. There are many well-known pattern recognition algorithms for classification purpose. In this paper we describe the details of applying pattern recognition methods to the intrusion detection research field. Experimenting on the KDDCUP 99 data set, we first use information gain metric to reduce the dimensionality of the original feature space. Two supervised methods, the support vector machine as well as the multi-layer neural network have been tested and the results display high detection rate and low false alarm rate, which is promising for real world applications. In addition, three unsupervised methods, Single-Linkage, K-Means, and CLIQUE, are also implemented and evaluated in the paper. The low computational complexity reveals their application in initial data reduction process.

  18. Count out your intrusions: effects of verbal encoding on intrusive memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krans, Julie; Naring, Gerard; Becker, Eni S

    2009-11-01

    Peri-traumatic information processing is thought to affect the development of intrusive trauma memories. This study aimed to replicate and improve the study by Holmes, Brewin, and Hennessy (2004, Exp. 3) on the role of peri-traumatic verbal processing in analogue traumatic intrusion development. Participants viewed an aversive film under one of three conditions: counting backwards in 3s ("verbal interference"), verbalising emotions and thoughts ("verbal enhancement"), or without an extra task. A dual-process account of PTSD would predict that verbal interference would increase intrusion frequency compared to no task, whereas verbal enhancement would lead to a decrease. In contrast, mainstream memory theory predicts a decrease in intrusion frequency from any concurrent task that diverts attention away from the trauma film. The main finding was that the verbal interference task led to a decrease in intrusive memories of the film compared to the other two conditions. This finding does not support a dual-process account of PTSD, but is in line with general theories of memory and attention.

  19. Light, shadows and surface characteristics: the multispectral Portable Light Dome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watteeuw, Lieve; Hameeuw, Hendrik; Vandermeulen, Bruno; Van der Perre, Athena; Boschloos, Vanessa; Delvaux, Luc; Proesmans, Marc; Van Bos, Marina; Van Gool, Luc

    2016-11-01

    A multispectral, multidirectional, portable and dome-shaped acquisition system is developed within the framework of the research projects RICH (KU Leuven) and EES (RMAH, Brussels) in collaboration with the ESAT-VISICS research group (KU Leuven). The multispectral Portable Light Dome (MS PLD) consists of a hemispherical structure, an overhead camera and LEDs emitting in five parts of the electromagnetic spectrum regularly covering the dome's inside surface. With the associated software solution, virtual relighting and enhancements can be applied in a real-time, interactive manner. The system extracts genuine 3D and shading information based on a photometric stereo algorithm. This innovative approach allows for instantaneous alternations between the computations in the infrared, red, green, blue and ultraviolet spectra. The MS PLD system has been tested for research ranging from medieval manuscript illuminations to ancient Egyptian artefacts. Preliminary results have shown that it documents and measures the 3D surface structure of objects, re-visualises underdrawings, faded pigments and inscriptions, and examines the MS results in combination with the actual relief characteristics of the physical object. Newly developed features are reflection maps and histograms, analytic visualisations of the reflection properties of all separate LEDs or selected areas. In its capacity as imaging technology, the system acts as a tool for the analysis of surface materials (e.g. identification of blue pigments, gold and metallic surfaces). Besides offering support in answering questions of attribution and monitoring changes and decay of materials, the PLD also contributes to the identification of materials, all essential factors when making decisions in the conservation protocol.

  20. Seafloor doming driven by active mantle degassing offshore Naples (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Guido; Passaro, Salvatore; Tamburrino, Stella; Vallefuoco, Mattia; Tassi, Franco; Vaselli, Orlando; Giannini, Luciano; Caliro, Stefano; Chiodini, Giovanni; Sacchi, Marco; Rizzo, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Structures and processes associated with shallow water hydrothermal fluid discharges on continental shelves are poorly known. We report geomorphological, geophysical, and geochemical evidences of a 5.5 x 5.3 km seabed doming located 5 km offshore the Naples harbor (Italy). The dome lies between 100 and 170 m of water depth and it is 15-20 m higher than the surrounding seafloor. It is characterized by a hummocky morphology due to 280 sub-circular to elliptical mounds, about 660 cones, and 30 pockmarks. The mounds and pockmarks alignments follow those of the main structural discontinuity affecting the Gulf of Naples. The seafloor swelling and breaching require relatively low pressures (about 2-3 MPa), and the sub-seafloor structures, which consists of 'pagodas' affecting the present-day seabed, record the active upraise, pressurization, and release of magmatic fluids. The gas composition of the sampled submarine emissions is consistent with that of the emissions from the hydrothermal systems of Ischia, CampiFlegrei and Somma-Vesuvius active volcanoes, and CO2 has a magmatic/thermometamorphic origin. The 3He/4He ratios (1.66-1.96 Ra) are slightly lower than in the Somma-Vesuvius and Campi Flegrei volcanoes (~2.6-3.0 Ra) indicating the contamination of fluids originated from the same magmatic source by crustal-derived radiogenic 4He. All these evidences concur to hypothesize an extended magmatic reservoir beneath Naples and its offshore. Seabed doming, faulting, and hydrothermal discharges are manifestations of non-volcanic unrests potentially preluding submarine eruptions and/or hydrothermal explosions. We conclude that seabed deformations and hydrothermal discharge must be included in the coastal hazard studies.

  1. How old is the ice beneath Dome A, Antarctica?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chinese scientists will start to drill a deep ice core at Kunlun station near Dome A in the near future. Recent work has predicted that Dome A is a location where ice older than 1 million years can be found. We model flow, temperature and the age of the ice by applying a three-dimensional, thermo-mechanically coupled full-Stokes model to a 70 km × 70 km domain around Kunlun station, using isotropic non-linear rheology and different prescribed anisotropic ice fabrics that vary the evolution from isotropic to single maximum at 1/3 or 2/3 depths. The variation in fabric is about as important as the uncertainties in geothermal heat flux in determining the vertical advection which in consequence controls both the basal temperature and the age profile. We find strongly variable basal ages across the domain since the ice varies greatly in thickness and any basal melting effectively removes very old ice in the deepest parts of the subglacial valleys. Comparison with dated radar isochrones in the upper one third of the ice sheet cannot sufficiently constrain the age of the deeper ice, with uncertainties as large as 500 000 yr in the basal age. We also assess basal age and thermal state sensitivities to geothermal heat flux and surface conditions. Despite expectations of modest changes in surface height over a glacial cycle at Dome A, even small variations in the evolution of surface conditions cause large variation in basal conditions which is consistent with basal accretion features seen in radar surveys.

  2. A Scalable and Modular Dome Illumination System for Scientific Microphotography on a Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Ricardo; Buffington, Matthew L.

    2016-01-01

    A scalable and modular LED illumination dome for microscopic scientific photography is described and illustrated, and methods for constructing such a dome are detailed. Dome illumination for insect specimens has become standard practice across the field of insect systematics, but many dome designs remain expensive and inflexible with respect to new LED technology. Further, a one-size-fits-all dome cannot accommodate the large breadth of insect size encountered in nature, forcing the photographer to adapt, in some cases, to a less than ideal dome design. The dome described here is scalable, as it is based on a isodecahedron, and the template for the dome is available as a downloaded file from the internet that can be printed on any printer, on the photographer’s choice of media. As a result, a photographer can afford, using this design, to produce a series of domes of various sizes and materials, and LED ring lights of various sizes and color temperatures, depending on the need. PMID:27138573

  3. 南极Dome A地区的近期积累率

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯书贵; 李院生; 效存德; 任贾文

    2007-01-01

    根据总β活化度标志层确定南极Dome A地区的近期平均积累率为0.023 m水当量/a,该值与南极内陆其他观测点的积累率相当.晴天降水(clear-sky precipitation)是Dome A地区的一种主要降水方式.基于Dome A地区的低积累率和冰层厚度等,推论Dome A地区可能存在南极最古老的冰.

  4. Spatial variations of growth within domes having different patterns of principal growth directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Nakielski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth rate variations for two paraboloidal domes: A and B, identical when seen from the outside but differing in the internal pattern of principal growth directions, were modeled by means of the growth tensor and a natural coordinate system. In dome A periclinal trajectories in the axial plane were given by confocal parabolas (as in a tunical dome, in dome B by parabolas converging to the vertex (as in a dome without a tunica. Accordingly, two natural coordinate systems, namely paraboloidal for A and convergent parabolic for B, were used. In both cases, the rate of growth in area on the surfaces of domes was assumed to be isotropic and identical in corresponding points. It appears that distributions of growth rates within domes A and B are similar in their peripheral and central parts and different only in their distal regions. In the latter, growth rates are relatively large; the maximum relative rate of growth in volume is around the geometric focus in dome A, and on the surface around the vertex in dome B.

  5. The lunar Gruithuisen silicic extrusive domes: Topographic configuration, morphology, ages, and internal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, M. A.; Head, J. W.; Bystrov, A.

    2016-07-01

    The Gruithuisen domes, situated on the western portion of the Imbrium basin rim, form three tall mountains (NW, Gamma, Delta) totaling ∼780 km3 in volume. The shapes of the domes are significantly different from that of mare-type domes elsewhere on the Moon. We use data from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and Kaguya missions (LRO Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera, Diviner, and the Kaguya imager) to characterize the domes and assess models for their origin. The configuration of the domes (steep slopes, up to ∼18-20°) and their specific remote sensing characteristics (strong downturn in the UV, and results from the M3 and Diviner instruments) suggest that the domes formed by eruptions of highly viscous lava. The estimated surface volumes of the domes vary from ∼20 km3 (NW dome) to ∼290 km3 (Gamma dome) to ∼470 km3 (Delta dome). The domes occur on the portion of the Imbrium basin rim that is overlain by ejecta from the post-Imbrium Iridum crater. In some areas, relatively high albedo smooth volcanic plains are seen within the Iridum ejecta near the Gruithuisen domes, and low albedo mare deposits surround and embay the domes and Iridum crater. Dating of different units and features by crater counts indicates that impact melts from the Iridum basin are ∼3.9 Ga old, the domes Gamma and Delta are ∼3.8 Ga, and the ages of the plains near the domes vary from ∼2.3 to ∼3.6 Ga. A fresh impact crater exposes the internal structure of the Gamma dome. The most prominent features on the wall of the crater are rough, blocky layers that are typical of volcanic plains in the highlands and maria around the domes. The layers are interleaved with fine-grained materials of higher and lower albedo and the visible orientation of the layers changes over short (a few hundred meters) distances. These characteristics of the internal structure of the dome are consistent with eruptions of high viscosity lava (rough layers) that

  6. Static analysis of a sonar dome rubber window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, J. L.

    1978-01-01

    The application of NASTRAN (level 16.0.1) to the static analysis of a sonar dome rubber window (SDRW) was demonstrated. The assessment of the conventional model (neglecting the enclosed fluid) for the stress analysis of the SDRW was made by comparing its results to those based on a sophisticated model (including the enclosed fluid). The fluid was modeled with isoparametric linear hexahedron elements with approximate material properties whose shear modulus was much smaller than its bulk modulus. The effect of the chosen material property for the fluid is discussed.

  7. Field Survey of Cactus Crater Storage Facility (Runit Dome)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas Miller, Terence Holland

    2008-10-31

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Health and Safety (DOE/HS-10), requested that National Security Technologies, LLC, Environmental Management directorate (NSTec/EM) perform a field survey of the Cactus Crater Storage Facility (Runit Dome), similar to past surveys conducted at their request. This field survey was conducted in conjunction with a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) mission on Runit Island in the Enewetak Atoll in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI). The survey was strictly a visual survey, backed up by digital photos and a written description of the current condition.

  8. Dome-shaped osteotomy for distal radius fracture malunions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelli, Giorgio A

    2003-06-01

    After having hinted to the various component of the malformity caused by malunions of the distal radius fracture, the various possibilities of correcting this deformity are described. The difficulty to correct all the components of the deformity are considered. Then a Dome-shaped osteotomy of the distal radius is described that allows to correct all the deformities in all the directions as the gliding plane of the osteotomy is spherical. The ulnar plus and the DRUJ alterations are corrected by means of an added Sauvé-Kapandji procedure that guarantees against any painful movement of the DRUJ preserving effective prono-supination.

  9. Lotuce: A new monitor for turbulence characterization inside telescope's dome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziad, Aziz; Dali Ali, Wassila; Borgnino, Julien; Sarazin, Marc; Buzzoni, Bernard

    2013-12-01

    A new concept of an instrument, Lotuce, dedicated to measure the turbulence inside the dome has been developed jointly with ESO. It consists of using parallel laser beams separated by non redundant baselines between 0.1 and 2-3m and measuring Angle-of-Arrival (AA) fluctuations from spots displacements on a CCD. We use weighted least-square method to fit the measured AA longitudinal and transverse covariances with theoretical forms deduced from the usual models of turbulence. Then, the whole parameters characterizing this turbulence are provided from a complete spatio-temporal analysis of AA fluctuations. The first results of this new instrument are presented and discussed.

  10. Age constraints on felsic intrusions, metamorphism and gold mineralisation in the Palaeoproterozoic Rio Itapicuru greenstone belt, NE Bahia State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, E.F.; Xavier, R.P.; McNaughton, N.J.; Hagemann, S.G.; Fletcher, I.; Snee, L.

    2006-01-01

    U-Pb sensitive high resolution ion microprobe mass spectrometer (SHRIMP) ages of zircon, monazite and xenotime crystals from felsic intrusive rocks from the Rio Itapicuru greenstone belt show two development stages between 2,152 and 2,130 Ma, and between 2,130 and 2,080 Ma. The older intrusions yielded ages of 2,152??6 Ma in monazite crystals and 2,155??9 Ma in zircon crystals derived from the Trilhado granodiorite, and ages of 2,130??7 Ma and 2,128??8 Ma in zircon crystals derived from the Teofila??ndia tonalite. The emplacement age of the syntectonic Ambro??sio dome as indicated by a 2,080??2-Ma xenotime age for a granite dyke probably marks the end of the felsic magmatism. This age shows good agreement with the Ar-Ar plateau age of 2,080??5 Ma obtained in hornblendes from an amphibolite and with a U-Pb SHRIMP age of 2,076??10 Ma in detrital zircon crystals from a quartzite, interpreted as the age of the peak of the metamorphism. The predominance of inherited zircons in the syntectonic Ambro??sio dome suggests that the basement of the supracrustal rocks was composed of Archaean continental crust with components of 2,937??16, 3,111??13 and 3,162??13 Ma. Ar-Ar plateau ages of 2,050??4 Ma and 2,054??2 Ma on hydrothermal muscovite samples from the Fazenda Brasileiro gold deposit are interpreted as minimum ages for gold mineralisation and close to the true age of gold deposition. The Ar-Ar data indicate that the mineralisation must have occurred less than 30 million years after the peak of the metamorphism, or episodically between 2,080 Ma and 2,050 Ma, during uplift and exhumation of the orogen. ?? Springer-Verlag 2006.

  11. Frequency of intrusive luxation in deciduous teeth and its effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Vivian; Jacomo, Diana Ribeiro; Campos, Vera

    2010-08-01

    The aims of this study were three-fold: First, to determine the prevalence of partial and total intrusion of the primary anterior teeth. Second, to investigate the sequelae of total and partial intrusive luxation in the primary anterior teeth and in their successors and finally, to establish whether the sequelae on both deciduous and permanent teeth were related to the child's age at the time of the intrusion. Data collected from records of 169 boys and 138 girls, all between the ages of zero and 10 years, who were undergoing treatment during the period of March 1996 to December 2004. The sample was composed of 753 traumatized deciduous teeth, of which 221 presented intrusive luxation injury. Children with ages ranging from one to 4 years were the most affected with falls being the main cause of intrusion. Of all intruded teeth 128 (57.9%) were totally intruded and 93 (42.1%) partially. Pulp necrosis/premature loss and color change were the most frequent sequelae in both total and partial intrusions. Concerning permanent dentition, the most common disturbances were color change and/or enamel hypoplasia. Both types of intrusion caused eruption disturbance. Total intrusion was the most frequent type of intrusive luxation. There was no significant correlation between the child's age at the time of intrusion and the frequency of subsequent sequela on primary injured teeth (P = 0.035), between the age at the time of injury and the developmental disturbances on permanent teeth (P = 0.140).

  12. Morphometric assessment of uplifting coral reef sequences, Sumba Island, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nexer, Maëlle; Authemayou, Christine; Schildgen, Taylor; Hantoro, Wayhoe; Molliex, Stephane; Delcaillau, Bernard; Pedoja, Kevin; Husson, Laurent; Regard, Vincent

    2015-04-01

    Rates and patterns of vertical ground motions constitute a basic framework for understanding the kinematics of the deforming lithosphere. Calibrating morphometric indices with landscape maturity and tectonic deformation requires comparisons with regions of known uplift history. The ability to derive uplift histories from marine or reefal terrace analysis in coastal zones therefore makes such settings ideal for testing morpho-tectonic analysis techniques. To explore the relationships between uplift rates and landscape morphology, we studied a 300-km-long coastal stretch affected by slow to moderate uplift rates, varying laterally from ≈0.02 to ≈0.6 mm/yr. We exploited the systematic spatial variation in rock uplift rates recorded in well-dated sequences of coral reef terraces of Sumba Island to assess the manner and degree to which the eight morphometric indices selected for this study can be correlated with tectonic forcing. The uniform equatorial climate and lithology (most of the bedrock is composed of Quaternary reefal limestones) across the study area allow us to evaluate which morphometric indices best reflect the spatial variations in Pleistocene coastal uplift rates. Morphometric indices extracted from digital elevation models include residual relief, incision, stream length index, ksn, hypsometric integral, drainage area, mean relief, and shape factor. We calculated and extracted these indices at three scales: across the whole island, from grouped sequences of coral reef terraces undergoing comparable uplift rates and individual catchments draining mainly the coral reef zones located in the northern part of Sumba Island. We find that SL, hypsometric integral, mean relief and shape factor of catchments positively correlate with uplift rates, whereas incision, residual relief, and ksn do not. Interestingly enough, we find that only the areas that are uplifting at a rate faster than 0.3 mm/yr can yield the extreme values for these indices, implying in turn

  13. Photogrammetric monitoring of lava dome growth during the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbach, Angela K.; Bull, Katharine F.; Wessels, Rick L.; McGimsey, Robert G.

    2013-06-01

    The 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska, began with a phreatic explosion on 15 March followed by a series of at least 19 explosive events and growth and destruction of at least two, and likely three, lava domes between 22 March and 4 April. On 4 April explosive activity gave way to continuous lava effusion within the summit crater. We present an analysis of post-4 April lava dome growth using an oblique photogrammetry approach that provides a safe, rapid, and accurate means of measuring dome growth. Photogrammetric analyses of oblique digital images acquired during helicopter observation flights and fixed-wing volcanic gas surveys produced a series of digital elevation models (DEMs) of the lava dome from 16 April to 23 September. The DEMs were used to calculate estimates of volume and time-averaged extrusion rates and to quantify morphological changes during dome growth. Effusion rates ranged from a maximum of 35 m3 s- 1 during the initial two weeks to a low of 2.2 m3 s- 1 in early summer 2009. The average effusion rate from April to July was 9.5 m3 s- 1. Early, rapid dome growth was characterized by extrusion of blocky lava that spread laterally within the summit crater. In mid-to-late April the volume of the dome had reached 36 × 106 m3, roughly half of the total volume, and dome growth within the summit crater began to be limited by confining crater walls to the south, east, and west. Once the dome reached the steep, north-sloping gorge that breaches the crater, growth decreased to the south, but the dome continued to inflate and extend northward down the gorge. Effusion slowed during 16 April-1 May, but in early May the rate increased again. This rate increase was accompanied by a transition to exogenous dome growth. From mid-May to July the effusion rate consistently declined. The decrease is consistent with observations of reduced seismicity, gas emission, and thermal anomalies, as well as declining rates of geodetic deflation or inflation. These trends

  14. Structures, kinematics, thermochronology and tectonic evolution of the Ramba gneiss dome in the northern Himalaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Guo; Jinjiang Zhang; Bo Zhang

    2008-01-01

    The Ramba gneiss dome, one of the north Himalayan gneiss domes, is composed of three tectono-lithologic units separated by an upper and a lower detachment fault. Low-grade metamorphic Tethyan Himalayan sedimentary sequence formed the upper unit above the brittle upper detachment fault. Mylonitic gneiss and a leucogranite pluton made up the lower unit beneath the ductile lower detach-ment fault. Mylonitic middle-grade garnet-, staurolite- and andalusite-schist constituted the middle unit between the two faults, which may be that the basal part of the upper unit experienced detachment shear. The Ramba dome underwent three episodes of deformationin its tectonic evolution. The first episode was a top-down-to-north-northwest sliding possibly related to the activity of the south Tibetan detachment system (STDS). The second episode was the dominant deformation related to a east-west extension, which resulted in a unique top-down-to-east kinematics and the major tectonic features of the dome. The third episode was a collapse sliding toward the outsides of the dome. The Ramba gneiss dome is possibly a result of the east-west extension and magmatic diapir. The lower detachment fault is probably the main detachment fault separating the sedimentary sequence from the crystalline basement during the east-west extension in the dominant deformation episode. The diapir of the leucogranite pluton formed the doming shape of the Ramba gneiss dome. This pluton intruded in the core of the dome in a late stage of the dominant deformation, and its Ar-Ar cooling ages are about 6 Myr. This indicates that the dominant deformation of the dome happened at the same time of the east-west extension represented by the north-south trending riffs throughout the northern Himalaya and southern Tibet. Therefore, the formation of the Ramba gneiss dome should be related to this east-west extension.

  15. The use of digital periapical radiographs to study the prevalence of alveolar domes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xambre, Pedro Augusto Oliveira Santos; Valerio, Claudia Scigliano; Alves Cardoso, Claudia Assuncoe; Custodio, Antonio Luis Neto; Manzi, Flavio Ricardo [Dept. of Oral Radiology, School of Dentistry, Pontifical Catholic University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte (Brazil)

    2016-09-15

    In the present study, we coined the term 'alveolar dome' and aimed to demonstrate the prevalence of alveolar domes through digital periapical radiographs. This study examined 800 digital periapical radiographs in regard to the presence of alveolar domes. The periapical radiographs were acquired by a digital system using a photostimulable phosphor (PSP) plate. The χ2 test, with a significance level of 5%, was used to compare the prevalence of alveolar domes in the maxillary posterior teeth and, considering the same teeth, to verify the difference in the prevalence of dome-shaped phenomena between the roots. The prevalence of alveolar domes present in the first pre-molars was statistically lower as compared to the other maxillary posterior teeth (p<0.05). No statistically significant difference was observed in the prevalence of alveolar domes between the maxillary first and second molars. Considering the maxillary first and second molars, it was observed that the palatal root presented a lower prevalence of alveolar domes when compared to the distobuccal and mesiobuccal roots (p<0.05). The present study coined the term 'alveolar dome', referring to the anatomical projection of the root into the floor of the maxillary sinus. The maxillary first and second molars presented a greater prevalence of alveolar domes, especially in the buccal roots, followed by the third molars and second pre-molars. Although the periapical radiograph is a two-dimensional method, it can provide dentists with the auxiliary information necessary to identify alveolar domes, thus improving diagnosis, planning, and treatment.

  16. COBBER: A Pocket Cloud Detector for Dome C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, J. T.; Storey, J. W. V.; Ashley, M. C. B.

    COBBER (ClOud OBservER), is a mid-infrared sky monitor featuring a 10mu m Perkin-Elmer TPS534 thermopile detector. Radiation is focussed on to the detector through an anti-reflection coated, hemispherical ZnSe lens, providing a 30o field of view on the sky. At 10cm in length and 4cm diameter, the tiny cloud monitor was designed for ease of transportation and an extremely low power budget. Run in conjunction with ICECAM, it uses power supplied by lithium thionyl chloride (LiSOCl_2) batteries. COBBER is powered up by the ICECAM system once every two hours, sending its data to Sydney via the ARGOS satellite link. The instrument was installed at Dome C in January of 2003, and has been collecting data continuously from this date. In over 70 observing days, only four days of cloud have been recorded, results which have been confirmed by a webcamera installed at Dome C as part of the AASTINO project.

  17. Solar performance of an electrochromic geodesic dome roof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porta-Gandara, M.A. [Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas del Noroeste, BCS (Mexico); Gomez-Munoz, V. [Centro Interdisciplinario de Ciencas Marinas, BCS (Mexico)

    2005-10-01

    A Fuller type geodesic dome was modeled in terms of the variation of the solar energy that passes to the interior when the dome is covered with electrochromic glazing (ECG), compared with common glass, by means of two different solar control strategies: one discrete and the other continuous. With the discrete strategy, when a solar beam strikes any ECG pane at any angle, it is darkened to its maximum level. In the continuous strategy, each ECG pane is darkened by using a direct function of solar beam radiation. The results demonstrate the advantages of solar control achieved with the former strategy. For the discrete strategy, the daily reduction in solar energy intake, with respect to the ordinary glass, was around 86% for all considered latitudes along the year. The optimum values for the continuous strategy occurred during the equinoxes with a maximum reduction of 69% for all latitudes. During the summer solstice, the reduction percentages increase with the latitude from 52 to 57%. During the winter solstice, the energy reduction with the continuous strategy decreases with the latitude from 52% in the Equator to 46% at 40{sup o} north latitude. (author)

  18. Exceptional astronomical seeing conditions above Dome C in Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Jon S; Ashley, Michael C B; Tokovinin, Andrei; Travouillon, Tony

    2004-09-16

    One of the most important considerations when planning the next generation of ground-based optical astronomical telescopes is to choose a site that has excellent 'seeing'--the jitter in the apparent position of a star that is caused by light bending as it passes through regions of differing refractive index in the Earth's atmosphere. The best mid-latitude sites have a median seeing ranging from 0.5 to 1.0 arcsec (refs 1-5). Sites on the Antarctic plateau have unique atmospheric properties that make them worth investigating as potential observatory locations. Previous testing at the US Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station has, however, demonstrated poor seeing, averaging 1.8 arcsec (refs 6, 7). Here we report observations of the wintertime seeing from Dome C (ref. 8), a high point on the Antarctic plateau at a latitude of 75 degrees S. The results are remarkable: the median seeing is 0.27 arcsec, and below 0.15 arcsec 25 per cent of the time. A telescope placed at Dome C would compete with one that is 2 to 3 times larger at the best mid-latitude observatories, and an interferometer based at this site could work on projects that would otherwise require a space mission.

  19. Device overshield for mass-sensing enhancement (DOME) structure fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Vincent T. K.; Freeman, Mark R.; Hiebert, Wayne K.

    2010-10-01

    Nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) have demonstrated excellent sensitivity in their ability to measure small particle masses even to the point of being able to differentiate between different chemical species based on their mass. NEMS mass responsivity, however, depends upon mechanical mode profile and adsorption location, a fact which considerably complicates mass-sensing analysis and reduces overall sensitivity. We introduce a fabrication scheme-termed device overshield for mass-sensing enhancement (DOME) involving structures which physically limit the position at which a flux of material is deposited onto a NEMS resonating sensor. This surface nanomachining process uses silicon-on-insulator, silicon dioxide and silicon nitride layers to produce multiple, independent structural levels. It could be used to create MEMS over NEMS structures, to fabricate integrated shadow-masks resistant to high temperature processing, or for enhancing the mass-sensing performance of underlying nanomechanical devices. The DOME structures do not appear to significantly affect the resonator response and are shown to successfully block incoming mass from being deposited on specified portions of a NEMS beam.

  20. Nonlinear vibration of a hemispherical dome under external water pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, C. T. F.; McLennan, A.; Little, A. P. F.

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the behaviour of a hemi-spherical dome when vibrated under external water pressure, using the commercial computer package ANSYS 11.0. In order to achieve this aim, the dome was modelled and vibrated in air and then in water, before finally being vibrated under external water pressure. The results collected during each of the analyses were compared to the previous studies, and this demonstrated that ANSYS was a suitable program and produced accurate results for this type of analysis, together with excellent graphical displays. The analysis under external water pressure, clearly demonstrated that as external water pressure was increased, the resonant frequencies decreased and a type of dynamic buckling became likely; because the static buckling eigenmode was similar to the vibration eigenmode. ANSYS compared favourably with the in-house software, but had the advantage that it produced graphical displays. This also led to the identification of previously undetected meridional modes of vibration; which were not detected with the in-house software.

  1. Design of sandwich acoustic window for sonar domes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Mengsa; LI Dongsheng; GONG Li; XU Jian

    2005-01-01

    Aimed at the low noise design of sonar dome in ships, a method has been presented for calculating the sonar self noise of a simplified sonar dome consisting of sandwich acoustic window and parallel acoustic cavity, which is excited by stationary random pressure fluctuation of turbulence boundary layer, using temporal and spatial double Fourier transform and wavenumber-frequency spectrum analysis. After numerically analyzing the influence of geometrical and physical parameters of acoustic window on the sonar self noise, the design method and reasonable parameters for sandwich acoustic window are proposed. The results show that the property of low noise induced by acoustic window of sandwich is dominated by the cut-off effect of longitudinal wave and transverse wave propagating in the visco-elastic layer of sandwich as well as the mismatch effect of impedance. If the thickness, density, Young's modulus and damping factor of plates and visco-elastic layer as well as the sound speed of longitudinal wave and transverse wave in the visco-elastic layer are selected reasonably, the maximum noise reduction of sandwich acoustic window is 6.5 dB greater than that of a single glass fiber reinforced plastic plate.

  2. Meteorological data for the astronomical site at Dome A, Antarctica

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Yi; Ashley, Michael C B; Bonner, Collin S; Hu, Keliang; Liu, Qiang; Li, Yuansheng; Ma, Bin; Wang, Lifan; Wen, Haikun

    2014-01-01

    We present an analysis of the meteorological data collected at Dome A, Antarctica by the Kunlun Automated Weather Station, including temperatures and wind speeds at eight elevations above the snow surface between 0m and 14.5m. The average temperatures at 2m and 14.5m are $-54^{\\circ}$C and $-46^{\\circ}$C, respectively. We find that a strong temperature inversion existed at all heights for more than 70% of the time, and the temperature inversion typically lasts longer than 25 hours, indicating an extremely stable atmosphere. The temperature gradient is larger at lower elevations than higher elevations. The average wind speed was 1.5m/s at 4m elevation. We find that the temperature inversion is stronger when the wind speed is lower and the temperature gradient decreases sharply at a specific wind speed for each elevation. The strong temperature inversion and low wind speed results in a shallow and stable boundary layer with weak atmospheric turbulence above it, suggesting that Dome A should be an excellent site...

  3. Photometry of Variable Stars from Dome A, Antarctica

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Lingzhi; Krisciunas, Kevin; Wang, Lifan; Ashley, Michael C B; Cui, Xiangqun; Feng, Long-Long; Gong, Xuefei; Lawrence, Jon S; Liu, Qiang; Luong-Van, Daniel; Pennypacker, Carl R; Shang, Zhaohui; Storey, John W V; Yang, Huigen; Yang, Ji; Yuan, Xiangyan; York, Donald G; Zhou, Xu; Zhu, Zhenxi

    2011-01-01

    Dome A on the Antarctic plateau is likely one of the best observing sites on Earth thanks to the excellent atmospheric conditions present at the site during the long polar winter night. We present high-cadence time-series aperture photometry of 10,000 stars with i<14.5 mag located in a 23 square-degree region centered on the south celestial pole. The photometry was obtained with one of the CSTAR telescopes during 128 days of the 2008 Antarctic winter. We used this photometric data set to derive site statistics for Dome A and to search for variable stars. Thanks to the nearly-uninterrupted synoptic coverage, we find 6 times as many variables as previous surveys with similar magnitude limits. We detected 157 variable stars, of which 55% are unclassified, 27% are likely binaries and 17% are likely pulsating stars. The latter category includes delta Scuti, gamma Doradus and RR Lyrae variables. One variable may be a transiting exoplanet.

  4. Smart Cylindrical Dome Antenna Based on Active Frequency Selective Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongyu Ding

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we proposed a beamforming antenna, which is realized using an omnidirectional antenna in the center surrounded by a cylindrical smart dome. The smart dome is made of 16 active frequency selective surface columns of which the amplitude and phase response can be continuously tuned by varying the bias voltages of the employed varactors. Thus, the performance of the proposed antenna could achieve higher gain, better nulling level, and more agility than many switch methods-based cylindrical reconfigurable antennas. Moreover, in order to overcome the unavailable analytical synthesis caused by complex mutual coupling between columns, we develop a genetic algorithm based optimization system and conducted a serial of experiments to evaluate the high-gain, nulling, continuously steering, and frequency-invariant ability. The results show that, during the frequency tunable range of the AFSS (2.0 GHz to 2.7 GHz, the antenna can offer an additional gain of up to 6.57 dB and nulling level of −56.41 dBi. For the high-gain modes, the −3 dB beam widths are 26°–34°, which offers enhanced angular resolution compared with other reported beam-sweeping work. Furthermore, the radiation pattern is continuously steerable.

  5. Rapid laccolith intrusion driven by explosive volcanic eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Jonathan M.; Cordonnier, Benoit; Schipper, C. Ian; Tuffen, Hugh; Baumann, Tobias S.; Feisel, Yves

    2016-11-01

    Magmatic intrusions and volcanic eruptions are intimately related phenomena. Shallow magma intrusion builds subsurface reservoirs that are drained by volcanic eruptions. Thus, the long-held view is that intrusions must precede and feed eruptions. Here we show that explosive eruptions can also cause magma intrusion. We provide an account of a rapidly emplaced laccolith during the 2011 rhyolite eruption of Cordón Caulle, Chile. Remote sensing indicates that an intrusion began after eruption onset and caused severe (>200 m) uplift over 1 month. Digital terrain models resolve a laccolith-shaped body ~0.8 km3. Deformation and conduit flow models indicate laccolith depths of only ~20-200 m and overpressures (~1-10 MPa) that likely stemmed from conduit blockage. Our results show that explosive eruptions may rapidly force significant quantities of magma in the crust to build laccoliths. These iconic intrusions can thus be interpreted as eruptive features that pose unique and previously unrecognized volcanic hazards.

  6. Corticostriatal circuitry in regulating diseases characterized by intrusive thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalivas, Benjamin C; Kalivas, Peter W

    2016-03-01

    Intrusive thinking triggers clinical symptoms in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Using drug addiction as an exemplar disorder sustained in part by intrusive thinking, we explore studies demonstrating that impairments in corticostriatal circuitry strongly contribute to intrusive thinking. Neuroimaging studies have long implicated this projection in cue-induced craving to use drugs, and preclinical models show that marked changes are produced at corticostriatal synapses in the nucleus accumbens during a relapse episode. We delineate an accumbens microcircuit that mediates cue-induced drug seeking becoming an intrusive event. This microcircuit harbors many potential therapeutic targets. We focus on preclinical and clinical studies, showing that administering N-acetylcysteine restores uptake of synaptic glutamate by astroglial glutamate transporters and thereby inhibits intrusive thinking. We posit that because intrusive thinking is a shared endophenotype in many disorders, N-acetylcysteine has positive effects in clinical trials for a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, including drug addiction, gambling, trichotillomania, and depression.

  7. Multi-agent cooperative intrusion response in mobile adhoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Ping; Zou Futai; Jiang Xinghao; Li Jianhua

    2007-01-01

    The nature of adhoc networks makes them vulnerable to security attacks. Many security technologies such as intrusion prevention and intrusion detection are passive in response to intrusions in that their countermeasures are only to protect the networks, and there is no automated network-wide counteraction against detected intrusions. the architecture of cooperation intrusion response based multi-agent is propose. The architecture is composed of mobile agents. Monitor agent resides on every node and monitors its neighbor nodes. Decision agent collects information from monitor nodes and detects an intrusion by security policies. When an intruder is found in the architecture, the block agents will get to the neighbor nodes of the intruder and form the mobile firewall to isolate the intruder. In the end, we evaluate it by simulation.

  8. Morphometric analysis of the hip joint in fetuses and neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossakowski, Dariusz; Popko, Janusz

    2003-12-30

    Background. Information's about prenatal development of hip joint are necessary for full understanding of it's neonatal abnormalities. Material and methods. Our research was carried out during autopsies on 43 cadavers of 20-40 week old fetuses and 7 cadavers of newborns which died before twelfth week. Observation of development of hip in the second half of the prenatal growth and the neonatal period was based on morphometric analysis. Results and Conclusions. In the hips of 20 to 40 weeks old fetuses, 3 cases of dysplasia were found. Morphometric analysis of hips in this age group, showed very complex developmental processes. The most important of them seems to be the decreasing overlay of acetabulum over femoral head in the last few weeks before the birth. This physiological process is an result of the relative decrease in acetabulum depth and simultaneous faster increase of femoral head diameter in two last weeks of prenatal development.

  9. Morphometric analysis of human embryos to predict developmental competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziebe, Søren

    2013-01-01

    , but rather choosing and prioritising between the available embryos. Data suggest that only approximately 5% of aspirated human oocytes have the competence to implant and develop into a child and that, in most treatment cycles, there is no oocyte capable of implanting. The most likely outcome is a negative......Morphometric and morphokinetic approaches toward embryo quality assessment have for many years been difficult due to technical limitations. Today, with improvements in laboratory techniques and subsequent quality, we have a better understanding of the morphometric and kinetics of embryo development....... Fertility clinics are moving from "sensing" embryo quality to measuring embryo quality--and this is happening every day in fertility clinics all over the world. However, we cannot select for something that is not there. In daily clinical life it is almost never a question of selecting the optimal embryo...

  10. Morphometric analysis of hepatocellular nodular lesions in HCV cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertemati, Maurizio; Moscheni, Claudia; Petrella, Duccio; Lamperti, Luca; Cossa, Mara; Gambacorta, Marcello; Goffredi, Maria; Vizzotto, Laura

    2012-04-15

    We generated a computerized morphometric model to evaluate and quantify the morphological features in large regenerative nodules (LRN), high-grade dysplastic nodules (HGDN) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Sixteen LRN, 10 HGDN and 16 HCC in HCV-cirrhotic livers were stained with H&E, smooth muscle actin, CD34, CD31 and reticulin to evaluate volume and surface fractions. On H&E stains, the most discriminatory features between LRN, HGDN and HCC were volume fraction and the number of hepatocyte nuclei in unit volume and hepatocyte nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio. On immunohistochemistry, volume fractions of capillarised sinusoids, capillary units and isolated arteries were significantly different among all groups and highest in HCC; surface fraction of reticulin was markedly decreased in HCC. Our morphometric model is an objective method for quantification of the morphological changes of the nodular lesions, and it could be applied to studies involving histological evaluation of the spectrum of nodular lesions arising in the cirrhotic liver.

  11. Determination of a novel size proxy in comparative morphometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Gallagher

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Absolute size is a critical determinant of organismal biology, yet there exists no real consensus as to what particular metric of ‘size’ is empirically valid in assessments of extinct mammalian taxa. The methodological approach of JE Mosimann has found extensive favour in ‘size correction’ in comparative morphometrics, but not ‘size prediction’ in palaeontology and palaeobiology. Analyses of five distinct mammalian data sets confirm that a novel size variate (GMSize derived from k=8 dimensions of the postcranial skeleton effectively satisfies all expectations of the Jolicoeur–Mosimann theorem of univariate and multivariate size. On the basis of strong parametric correlations between the k=8 variates and between scores derived from the first principal component and geometric mean size (GMSize in all series, this novel size variable has considerable utility in comparative vertebrate morphometrics and palaeobiology as an appropriate descriptor of individual size in extant and extinct taxa.

  12. Network Intrusion Detection based on GMKL Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yuxiang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the 31th statistical reports of China Internet network information center (CNNIC, by the end of December 2012, the number of Chinese netizens has reached 564 million, and the scale of mobile Internet users also reached 420 million. But when the network brings great convenience to people's life, it also brings huge threat in the life of people. So through collecting and analyzing the information in the computer system or network we can detect any possible behaviors that can damage the availability, integrity and confidentiality of the computer resource, and make timely treatment to these behaviors which have important research significance to improve the operation environment of network and network service. At present, the Neural Network, Support Vector machine (SVM and Hidden Markov Model, Fuzzy inference and Genetic Algorithms are introduced into the research of network intrusion detection, trying to build a healthy and secure network operation environment. But most of these algorithms are based on the total sample and it also hypothesizes that the number of the sample is infinity. But in the field of network intrusion the collected data often cannot meet the above requirements. It often shows high latitudes, variability and small sample characteristics. For these data using traditional machine learning methods are hard to get ideal results. In view of this, this paper proposed a Generalized Multi-Kernel Learning method to applied to network intrusion detection. The Generalized Multi-Kernel Learning method can be well applied to large scale sample data, dimension complex, containing a large number of heterogeneous information and so on. The experimental results show that applying GMKL to network attack detection has high classification precision and low abnormal practical precision.

  13. Intelligent Intrusion Detection System Model Using Rough Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Huai-zhi; HU Chang-zhen; TAN Hui-min

    2005-01-01

    A model of intelligent intrusion detection based on rough neural network (RNN), which combines the neural network and rough set, is presented. It works by capturing network packets to identify network intrusions or malicious attacks using RNN with sub-nets. The sub-net is constructed by detection-oriented signatures extracted using rough set theory to detect different intrusions. It is proved that RNN detection method has the merits of adaptive, high universality,high convergence speed, easy upgrading and management.

  14. Performance Assessment of Network Intrusion-Alert Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    personnel information, credit card information theft, etc. The focus has shifted to attacks that can cause significant damage. Intrusion detection...Maintaining access Miscellanous Reverse engineering RFID tools Table 3. BackTrack Intrusion-detection System/Intrusion-prevention System Penetration...high processing power. 22 Machine 1’s network interface card connected to the mirroring port on the first port of the Ethernet switch. Machine 2’s

  15. Morphometrics of genus Caluromys (Didelphimorphia : Didelphidae) in northern South America

    OpenAIRE

    López Fuster, María José; Pérez Hernández, Roger; Ventura Queija, Jacinto

    2008-01-01

    We reviewed the morphometric relationships between different forms of the woolly opossum, genus Caluromys, in northern South America by means of univariate and multivariate analyses of skull characters. Results revealed that specimens from Trinidad and northern Venezuela differ substantially in size and shape from other representatives of the genus. Thus, we propose that they should be attributed to Caluromys trinitatis rather to C. philander. Consequently, the specific name given by Thomas (...

  16. Morphological and morphometrical analysis of Heterodera spp. populations in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Lafi, Hamzeh A.; Al-Banna, Luma; Sadder, Monther T.; Hussein M. Migdadi

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic diversity of five Jordanian populations of cyst nematodes, Heterodera spp. collected from five regions from Jordan (Ar-Ramtha, Madaba, Dana, Al-Karak, and Jerash) was investigated. Soil samples were collected from one representative field in each region. Morphological and morphometrical characteristics revealed that Heterodera latipons is dominated in cereal fields at Ar-Ramtha, Madaba, Dana and Al-Karak regions and Heterodera schachtii in Jerash. Cysts populations from all cereal ...

  17. MORPHOMETRIC ASPECTS IN THE BÂRLAD BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BĂLAN OANA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bârlad valley morphometry is strongly influenced by lithology, geological structure and climatic conditions. Between its springs and the outflow we noticed notable deviations from valley monocline structure and from the consecvent overall direction of the river system. Morphometric analysis of the Bârlad valley cumulates and summarizes the sequence of events that occurred in its hydrographic basin, which in turn has been actively reflected in indices such as generated the altimetry, the relief depth fragmentation.

  18. Introduction to gravity currents and intrusions

    CERN Document Server

    Ungarish, Marius

    2009-01-01

    The whole book is well written in a clear and pedagogical general style. … the author has, in my opinion, produced the first comprehensive book entirely devoted to the modeling of gravity currents and intrusions. This book will be particularly useful to graduate and PhD students, as well as to academics and research engineers working in this field. It may be used as a self-consistent document to get a detailed idea of the state of knowledge about a given problem or a guide toward more specialized papers. It is rich with ideas regarding the direction in which further research is warranted. This

  19. Forensic Analysis of Windows Registry Against Intrusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoyang Xie

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Windows Registry forensics is an important branch of computer and network forensics. Windows Registry is often considered as the heart of Windows Operating Systems because it contains allof the configuration setting of specific users, groups, hardware, software, and networks. Therefore, Windows Registry can be viewed as a gold mine of forensic evidences which could be used in courts. This paper introduces the basics of Windows Registry, describes its structure and its keys and subkeys thathave forensic values. This paper also discusses how the Windows Registry forensic keys can be applied in intrusion detection.

  20. Sulfide intrusion and detoxification in seagrasses ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Holmer, Marianne

    strategies of seagrasses to sustain sulfide intrusion. Using stable isotope tracing, scanning electron microscopy with x-ray analysis, tracing sulfur compounds combined with ecosystem parameters we found different spatial, intraspecific and interspecific strategies to cope with sulfidic sediments. 1......) Tolerance, by elimination (eg. Zostera marina); where we found precipitation of sulfide as non-toxic elemental sulfur on the inner wall of the root lacunae. 2) Utilization (eg. Z. marina), where seagrasses detoxify and incorporate sulfides by active uptake and metabolize to sulfate, representing a non...

  1. Iron fluxes to Talos Dome, Antarctica, over the past 200 kyr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vallelonga

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric fluxes of iron (Fe over the past 200 kyr are reported for the coastal Antarctic Talos Dome ice core, based on acid leachable Fe concentrations. Fluxes of Fe to Talos Dome were consistently greater than those at Dome C, with the greatest difference observed during interglacial climates. We observe different Fe flux trends at Dome C and Talos Dome during the deglaciation and early Holocene, attributed to a combination of deglacial activation of dust sources local to Talos Dome and the reorganisation of atmospheric transport pathways with the retreat of the Ross Sea ice shelf. This supports similar findings based on dust particle sizes and fluxes and Rare Earth Element fluxes. We show that Ca and Fe should not be used as quantitative proxies for mineral dust, as they all demonstrate different deglacial trends at Talos Dome and Dome C. Considering that a 20 ppmv decrease in atmospheric CO2 at the coldest part of the last glacial maximum occurs contemporaneously with the period of greatest Fe and dust flux to Antarctica, we confirm that the maximum contribution of aeolian dust deposition to Southern Ocean sequestration of atmospheric CO2 is approximately 20 ppmv.

  2. Iron fluxes to Talos Dome, Antarctica, over the past 200 kyr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vallelonga

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric fluxes of iron (Fe over the past 200 kyr are reported for the coastal Antarctic Talos Dome ice core, based on acid leachable Fe concentrations. Fluxes of Fe to Talos Dome were consistently greater than those at Dome C, with the greatest difference observed during interglacial climates. We observe different Fe flux trends at Dome C and Talos Dome during the deglaciation and early Holocene, attributed to a combination of deglacial activation of dust sources local to Talos Dome and reorganization of atmospheric transport pathways with the retreat of the Ross Sea ice shelf. This supports similar findings based on dust particle sizes and fluxes and Rare Earth Element fluxes. We show that Ca and Fe should not be used as quantitative proxies for mineral dust, as they all demonstrate different deglacial trends at Talos Dome and Dome C. Considering that a 20 ppmv decrease in atmospheric CO2 at the coldest part of the last glacial maximum occurs contemporaneously with the period of greatest Fe and dust flux to Antarctica, we conclude that the maximum contribution of aeolian dust deposition to Southern Ocean sequestration of atmospheric CO2 is approximately 20 ppmv.

  3. Preliminary evidence indicating Dome A(Antarctica) satisfying preconditions for drilling the oldest ice core

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Lowest temperature and snow accumulation rate are preconditions for retrieving the oldest ice core from the polar ice sheets.The 10-m depth firn temperature at Dome A,the summit of the Antaretie Ice Sheet,recorded by an automatic weather station(AWS)was-58.3℃in 2005 and-58.2℃in 2006,respectively.The 10-m firn temperature is an approximation of the annual mean air temperature(AMAT),and this is the lowest AMAT that has been recorded on the surface of the Earth.The stable isotopic ratios(δ18O and δD)of surface snow at Dome A are also lower than at other ice sheet domes along the East Antarctic Ice Divide such as Dome C,Dome F,Dome B and Vostok.These facts indicate that Dome A is the"pole of cold"on the Earth.The total amount of snow accumulation rate in 2005 and 2006 was only 0.16 cm,equaling 0.016 m water equivalent per year,the lowest precipitation ever recorded from Antarctica.Preliminary evidences indicate that Dome A is a candidate site for recovering the oldest ice core.

  4. Development and Applications of Dome A-DEM in Antarctic Ice Sheet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jiying; WEN Jiahong; WANG Yafeng; WANG Weili; Beata M CATHSO; Kenneth C JEZEK

    2007-01-01

    Dome A, the highest dome of East Antarctic Ice Sheet, is being an area focused by international Antarctic community after Chinese Antarctic Expedition finally reached there in 2005, and with the ongoing International Polar Year (IPY) during August 2007. In this paper two data processing methods are used together to generate two 100-m cell size digital elevation models (DEMs) of the Dome A region (Dome A-DEM) by using Cokriging method to interpolate the ICESat GLAS data, with Ihde-DEM as a constraint. It provides fundamental data to glaciological and geophysical investigation in this area. The Dome A-DEM was applied to determining the ice-sheet surface elevations and coordinates of the south and north summits, defining boundaries of basins and ice flowlines, deducing subglacial topography, and mapping surface slope and aspect in Dome A region. The DEM shows there are two (north and south) summits in Dome A region. The coordinate and the surface elevation of the highest point (the north summit) are 80°21'29.86"S, 77°21'50.29"E and 4092.71±1.43m, respectively. The ice thickness and sub-ice bedrock elevation at north summit are 2420m and 1672m, respectively. Dome A region contains four drainage basins that meet together near the south summit. Ice flowlines, slope and aspect in detail are also derived using the DEM.

  5. Growth rates of lava domes with respect to viscosity of magmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Yokoyama

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In the discussion of lava dome formation, viscosity of magma plays an important role. Measurements of viscosity of magmas in field and laboratory are briefly summarized. The types of lava dome emplacements are classified into two, squeeze- and spine-type, by kinetic processes. The squeeze-type is the formation of a dome as a result of squeezes of magma through conduits and the latter is solidified magma forced to ascend by underlying fluid magma. An important parameter in the formation of such lava domes is their growth rates. Lava domes of squeeze-type are governed by the Hagen-Poiseuille Law which involves their viscosoties and other eruption parameters. At present, the real viscosity of magmas at the site of lava dome is still inaccessible. In order to avoid uncertainty in viscosity of magmas, a conception of «macroscopic viscosity» is proposed, which involves effects of chemical components, mainly SiO2 and volatile material, crystals and temperature, and their changes with time. Lava dome formations during the 20th century are briefly examined and their growth rates are estimated. The relationship between the growth rates and the SiO2 content of the magma is statistically studied, and the macroscopic viscosity is empirically expressed as a function of SiO2 content. The linearity between the two parameters is reasonably interpreted. This means that formation processes of lava domes are dominantly controlled by macroscopic viscosity of magma.

  6. The ongoing dome emplacement and destruction cyclic process at Popocatépetl volcano, Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Vazquez, Angel; De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando; Mendoza-Rosas, Ana Teresa

    2016-09-01

    The ongoing eruptive activity of Popocatépetl volcano has been characterized by emplacement and subsequent destruction of a succession of lava domes. Between the onset of the current eruption in 1994 and the time of this submission, 38 episodes of lava dome formation and removal have been identified. Each dome has showed particular features related to the magma extrusion process. Among other manifestations, dome-emplacement events have been usually accompanied by relatively low-intensity, protracted explosions referred to as exhalations. After variable times of residence, emplacements have ended in partial or total destruction of the domes by strong vulcanian explosions that produced sizeable ash plumes, with most of them also ejecting incandescent debris onto the volcano flanks. Here, we present a detailed account for the observed activity related to the domes' growth and destruction, related seismic monitoring signals, and morphological features of the domes based on 19 years of visual observations and image analysis. We then discuss a model for the process of dome growth and destruction and its hazard implications.

  7. Structural Optimization of the Retractable Dome for Four Meter Telescope (FMT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Nian; Li, Yuxi; Fan, Yue; Ma, Wenli; Huang, Jinlong; Jiang, Ping; Kong, Sijie

    2017-03-01

    Dome seeing degrades the image quality of ground-based telescopes. To achieve dome seeing of the Four Meter Telescope (FMT) less than 0.5 arcsec, structural optimizations based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation were proposed. The results of the simulation showed that dome seeing of FMT was 0.42 arcsec, which was mainly caused by the slope angle of the dome when the slope angle was 15° and the wind speed was 10 m/s. Furthermore, the lower the air speed was, the less dome seeing would be. Wind tunnel tests (WT) with a 1:120 scaled model of the retractable dome and FMT indicated that the calculated deviations of the CFD simulation used in this paper were less than 20% and the same variations of the refractive index derived from the WT would be a convincing argument for the validity of the simulations. Thus, the optimization of the retractable dome was reliable and the method expressed in this paper provided a reference for the design of next generation of ground-based telescope dome.

  8. The mythic structure in the black dome of the Haftpeikar: Study of Hero's journey in the first dome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Kazem Mousavi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper the Vogler Hero's journey is used for analyzing the mythic structures and hero's journey of the first dome of the Haftpeikar. Vogler Released his founds in the Writer's Journey book. This book that is really dependent on Campbell's Single Myth Theory is a practical guidance for script writing and review of that. The levels of the hero's journey in his book are include: The normal world, invitation to the story, reject the invitation, visit the mentor, passing the first gate, the exams, the allies, the enemies, qualifying to the deepest cave, trial, the reward, the road back, resurrection, return with the elixir.  In this paper, at first the properties of each level of the hero's journey theory are matching with the journey's levels in the black dome story. After that seven useful archetypes including hero, mentor, threshold guardian, herald, shape shifter, the shadow and trickster, are determined in the text.  Black dome has several journeys' cycles. Journey's that are seen in this dome are: (Bahram's journey: A part of the internal journey of Bahram in black dome. (The king's maid journey: Internal journey of the king's maid that wears black clothes after hearing the story. (King of black clothes' journey: The king's journey to the Madhooshan city for exploring the mystery of the black alien. (The reader's journey: This internal journey belongs to the readers of the first dome that learn their lessons through traveling to the character's world. (Nezami's journey: The Nezami's internal journey with composing the text. Checking the reader's journey and black dome's composer is out of this text. While the first and second journey just saying some parts, the black king has completer levels and for affecting on the other journeys is the most important story of the first dome. Therefore at first we check the black king story and we explain the other journeys.  The goal of this paper in addition to the usage of the vogler

  9. Morphometric growth relationships of the immature human mandible and tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Erin F; Kieser, Jules A; Kramer, Beverley

    2014-06-01

    The masticatory apparatus is a highly adaptive musculoskeletal complex comprising several relatively independent structural components, which assist in functions including feeding and breathing. We hypothesized that the tongue is elemental in the maintenance of normal ontogeny of the mandible and in its post-natal growth and development, and tested this using a morphometric approach. We assessed tongue and mandibular measurements in 174 (97 male) human cadavers. Landmark lingual and mandibular data were gathered individuals aged between 20 gestational weeks and 3 yr postnatal. In this analysis, geometric morphometrics assisted in visualizing the morphometrical growth changes in the mandible and tongue. A linear correlation in conjunction with principal component analysis further visualized the growth relationship between these structures. We found that the growth of the tongue and mandible were intrinsically linked in size and shape between 20 gestational weeks and 24 months postnatal. However, the mandible continued to change in shape and size into the 3rd yr of life, whereas the tongue only increased in size over this same period of time. These findings provide valuable insights into the allometric growth relationship between these structures, potentially assisting the clinician in predicting the behaviour of these structures in the assessment of malocclusions.

  10. Statolith Morphometrics Can Discriminate among Taxa of Cubozoan Jellyfishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Mooney

    Full Text Available Identification of potentially harmful cubomedusae is difficult due to their gelatinous nature. The only hard structure of medusae, the statolith, has the potential to provide robust measurements for morphometric analysis. Traditional morphometric length to width ratios (L: W and modern morphometric Elliptical Fourier Analysis (EFA were applied to proximal, oral and lateral statolith faces of 12 cubozoan species. EFA outperformed L: W as L: W did not account for the curvature of the statolith. Best discrimination was achieved with Canonical Discriminant Analysis (CDA when analysing proximal + oral + lateral statolith faces in combination. Normalised Elliptical Fourier (NEF coefficients classified 98% of samples to their correct species and 94% to family group. Statolith shape agreed with currently accepted cubozoan taxonomy. This has potential to assist in identifying levels of risk and stock structure of populations in areas where box jellyfish envenomations are a concern as the severity of envenomation is family dependent. We have only studied 12 (27% of the 45 currently accepted cubomedusae, but analyses demonstrated that statolith shape is an effective taxonomic discriminator within the Class.

  11. Types of saltwater intrusion of the Changjiang Estuary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    茅志昌; 沈焕庭; JamesT.Liu; D.Eisma

    2001-01-01

    The Changjiang Estuary is characterized by multi-order bifurcations, unsteady submerged sandbars, mid-channel sandbars, creeks and riffles. The following four types of saltwater intrusion are found: (1) direct intrusion from the sea; (2) intrusion during tidal flooding; (3) intrusion from tidal flats overflow; and (4) salt water coming upstream through other waterways. These result in a complicated temporal and spatial salinity distribution. A high chlorinity concentration zone exists from the Liuhekou to the Sidongkou along the South Branch. The salinity during neap tide or ordinary tide is higher than during spring tide.

  12. Sensitivity of storage field performance to geologic and cavern design parameters in salt domes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehgartner, Brian L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Park, Byoung Yoon

    2009-03-01

    A sensitivity study was performed utilizing a three dimensional finite element model to assess allowable cavern field sizes for strategic petroleum reserve salt domes. A potential exists for tensile fracturing and dilatancy damage to salt that can compromise the integrity of a cavern field in situations where high extraction ratios exist. The effects of salt creep rate, depth of salt dome top, dome size, caprock thickness, elastic moduli of caprock and surrounding rock, lateral stress ratio of surrounding rock, cavern size, depth of cavern, and number of caverns are examined numerically. As a result, a correlation table between the parameters and the impact on the performance of storage field was established. In general, slower salt creep rates, deeper depth of salt dome top, larger elastic moduli of caprock and surrounding rock, and a smaller radius of cavern are better for structural performance of the salt dome.

  13. Improved manufacturing techniques for rf and laser hardening of missile domes, phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlewicz, W. T.; Mann, I. B.; Martin, P. M.; Hays, D. D.; Graybeal, A. G.

    1982-07-01

    The adaptation of an existing Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) optical coating capability developed for high power fusion laser applications to the case of RF and laser hardening of plastic missile domes used by US Army (MICOM) is reported. RF hardening of Hellfire and Copperhead 1.06 micron missile domes by use of transparent conductive Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) coatings is demonstrated. The project involved adaptation of a coating material and process developed for flat glass components used in fusion lasers to the case of hemispherical or conical heat sensitive plastic domes used on laser guided missiles. Specific ITO coating property goals are an electrical sheet resistance of 10 ohms/square, a coated dome transmission of 80% or more at 1.06 micron wavelength (compared to 90% for a bare dome), and good adhesion. The sheet resistance goal of 10 ohms/square was expected to result in an RF attenuation of 30 dB at the frequencies of importance.

  14. Photogrammetric analysis of dome growth during the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbach, A. K.; Bull, K. F.; Wessels, R. L.

    2009-12-01

    The 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska, began with a phreatic explosion on 15 March followed by a series of at least 19 magmatic explosive events and growth and destruction of at least two lava domes (22 March-4 April). On 4 April explosive activity gave way to continuous lava effusion within the summit crater. We present an analysis of post-4 April lava dome growth using an oblique photogrammetry approach that provides a safe, rapid, and simple means of quantifying dome growth. Photogrammetric analyses of oblique digital images acquired during helicopter observation flights and fixed-wing gas surveys produced a series of digital elevation models (DEMs) of the lava dome from 16 April-20 August. The DEMs were used to estimate volume and subsequent time-averaged extrusion rates. Extrusion rates averaged about 11 m3 s-1 through June, or 6 m3 s-1 assuming dome growth continued into August. Dome growth rates ranged from a maximum of 35 m3 s-1 during the initial two weeks to a low of 0.6 m3 s-1 in early summer 2009. From April 4 to mid-May, significant fluctuations in extrusion rates indicative of short-term pulsations in growth lasting hours to days are under sampled by the few photogrammetry surveys. In contrast to these fluctuations, subsequent extrusion rates from mid-May-June, and possibly continuing through August, consistently declined. The decrease in growth rate is consistent with observations of reduced seismicity, gas emission, and thermal anomalies, as well as declining rates of geodetic deflation. These trends suggest dome growth ceased in June. We calculate the total volume of the dome to be about 70 x 106 m3, more than twice the estimated volume of the largest dome extruded during the 1989-1990 eruption. The DEMs were also used, in conjunction with time-lapse web-camera images, to monitor and quantify dome dimensions and investigate the mechanics of dome emplacement. Early, rapid dome growth was characterized by endogenous, blocky lava that spread

  15. A structural outline of the Yenkahe volcanic resurgent dome (Tanna Island, Vanuatu Arc, South Pacific)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merle, O.; Brothelande, E.; Lénat, J.-F.; Bachèlery, P.; Garaébiti, E.

    2013-12-01

    A structural study has been conducted on the resurgent Yenkahe dome (5 km long by 3 km wide) located in the heart of the Siwi caldera of Tanna Island (Vanuatu arc, south Pacific). This spectacular resurgent dome hosts a small caldera and a very active strombolian cinder cone - the Yasur volcano - in the west and exhibits an intriguing graben in its central part. Detailed mapping and structural observations make it possible to unravel the volcano-tectonic history of the dome. It is shown that, following the early formation of a resurgent dome in the west, a complex collapse (caldera plus graben) occurred and this was associated with the recent uplift of the eastern part of the present dome. Eastward migration of the underlying magma related to regional tectonics is proposed to explain this evolution.

  16. Effect of Pyramidal Dome Geometry on the Acoustical Characteristics in A Mosque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dg. H. Kassim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As an important symbol in Islam, a mosque is built with architectural grandeur. Among the characteristics is its high ceiling and it is usually constructed with a typical spherical dome shape. Some mosques, however, are influenced by the local culture and the dome can be of a different shape, such as pyramidal, as found in mosques in Malacca, Malaysia. This paper presents an assessment of the internal acoustical characteristics of a mosque having a pyramidal dome. The study is conducted by means of computer simulation using CATT indoor acoustic software. Reverberation time and clarity are taken to evaluate the intelligibility of speech. The effect of the angle and height of the dome on the acoustical parameters is discussed. It is found that a pyramidal dome with a steeper angle contributes to poor acoustic clarity.

  17. Advanced Trace Pattern For Computer Intrusion Discovery

    CERN Document Server

    Rahayu, S Siti; Shahrin, S; Zaki, M Mohd; Faizal, M A; Zaheera, Z A

    2010-01-01

    The number of crime committed based on the malware intrusion is never ending as the number of malware variants is growing tremendously and the usage of internet is expanding globally. Malicious codes easily obtained and use as one of weapon to gain their objective illegally. Hence, in this research, diverse logs from different OSI layer are explored to identify the traces left on the attacker and victim logs in order to establish worm trace pattern to defending against the attack and help revealing true attacker or victim. For the purpose of this paper, it focused on malware intrusion and traditional worm namely sasser worm variants. The concept of trace pattern is created by fusing the attacker's and victim's perspective. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to propose a general worm trace pattern for attacker's, victim's and multi-step (attacker/victim)'s by combining both perspectives. These three proposed worm trace patterns can be extended into research areas in alert correlation and computer forens...

  18. Characterizing and Improving Distributed Intrusion Detection Systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurd, Steven A; Proebstel, Elliot P.

    2007-11-01

    Due to ever-increasing quantities of information traversing networks, network administrators are developing greater reliance upon statistically sampled packet information as the source for their intrusion detection systems (IDS). Our research is aimed at understanding IDS performance when statistical packet sampling is used. Using the Snort IDS and a variety of data sets, we compared IDS results when an entire data set is used to the results when a statistically sampled subset of the data set is used. Generally speaking, IDS performance with statistically sampled information was shown to drop considerably even under fairly high sampling rates (such as 1:5). Characterizing and Improving Distributed Intrusion Detection Systems4AcknowledgementsThe authors wish to extend our gratitude to Matt Bishop and Chen-Nee Chuah of UC Davis for their guidance and support on this work. Our thanks are also extended to Jianning Mai of UC Davis and Tao Ye of Sprint Advanced Technology Labs for their generous assistance.We would also like to acknowledge our dataset sources, CRAWDAD and CAIDA, without which this work would not have been possible. Support for OC48 data collection is provided by DARPA, NSF, DHS, Cisco and CAIDA members.

  19. A Bayesian Networks in Intrusion Detection Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mehdi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrusion detection systems (IDSs have been widely used to overcome security threats in computer networks. Anomaly-based approaches have the advantage of being able to detect previously unknown attacks, but they suffer from the difficulty of building robust models of acceptable behaviour which may result in a large number of false alarms caused by incorrect classification of events in current systems. We propose a new approach of an anomaly Intrusion detection system (IDS. It consists of building a reference behaviour model and the use of a Bayesian classification procedure associated to unsupervised learning algorithm to evaluate the deviation between current and reference behaviour. Continuous re-estimation of model parameters allows for real time operation. The use of recursive Log-likelihood and entropy estimation as a measure for monitoring model degradation related with behavior changes and the associated model update show that the accuracy of the event classification process is significantly improved using our proposed approach for reducing the missing-alarm.

  20. Research on the dry intrusion accompanying the low vortex precipitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO; XiuPing; WU; GuoXiong; ZHAO; BingKe; YU; YuBin; YANG; GuiMing

    2007-01-01

    By employing the 6.7μm satellite vapor cloud images and NCEP/NCAR 1°×1° reanalysis datasets, the characteristics and mechanism of the dry intrusion, as well as its impacts on the low vortex precipitation at the Meiyu front are explored in this paper. It is found that the formation,development and maintenance of the low vortex precipitation at the Meiyu front are closely related to the evolution of the dry intrusion. The dry intrusion is characterized by high potential vorticity (PV), low humidity and cold air. The dry intrusion exhibits as an obvious dark zone on vapor cloud images, an area in which atmospheric relative humidity is lower than 60%. However, the features of the dry intrusion on the vapor images are clearer than that of the humidity field, for the former is the digital vapor cloud images with high temporal and spatial resolution, and it can be used to explore the finer characteristics of the development, evolution and supplement of the intrusion during the development of the low vortex. The dry intrusion impacts accompanying the low vortex precipitation at the Meiyu front come from all levels of the troposphere, with the strongest intrusion located at the upper troposphere. The dry and cold air intrudes the vicinity of the low vortex from the upper isentropic surface to the lower one, slanting east-ward from lower to higher level. The low vortex precipitation region is usually situated in front of the dry intrusion where the relative humidity gradient is higher. The research also reveals that the mechanism of the dry intrusion is that the high potential vorticity descends from the upper troposphere to the lower level, therefore, the dry intrusion can be used as an important index of the high PV forcing. To the west of the low vortex precipitation, the upper level northerlies descend across the isentropic surface, then the dry cold advection can trigger the instable development in the midlow troposphere. The dry intru-sion enhances the low vortex

  1. Geometrical nonlinear stability analyses of cable-truss domes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高博青; 卢群鑫; 董石麟

    2003-01-01

    The nonlinear finite element method is used to analyze the geometrical nonlinear stability of cable-truss domes with different cable distributions. The results indicate that the critical load increases evidently when cables, especially diagonal cables, are distributed in the structure. The critical loads of the structure at different rise-span ratios are also discussed in this paper. It was shown that the effect of the tensional cable is more evident at small rise-span ratio. The buckling of the structure is characterized by a global collapse at small rise-span ratio; that the torsional buckling of the radial truss occurs at big rise-span ratio; and that at proper rise-span ratio, the global collapse and the lateral buckling of the truss occur nearly simultaneously.

  2. Ice Dome Construction for Large Scale Habitats on Atmosphereless Bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Farr, Stefan Harsan

    2013-01-01

    One of the greatest difficulties that space exploration faces is the lack of technology necessary to establish large volumes of habitable spaces on site. Both transporting the pre-built enclosures or transporting the equipment necessary for building them on site from conventional materials face the same enormous problem: the need to transport huge quantities of material into space, which is technically close to impossible. The current paper, explores the possibility and one approach of building these large spaces from an alternative material, water ice, a material that is a prerequisite for any settlement. The feasibility of dome shaped, pressurized, water ice buildings is analyzed from a structural integrity point of view and the possibility of building them with a technique using water sublimation and deposition onto a thin plastic film, a process which requires extremely little construction equipment with respect to the resulting habitable space.

  3. Geometrical nonlinear stability analyses of cable-truss domes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高博青; 卢群鑫; 董石麟

    2003-01-01

    The nonlinear finite element method is used to analyze the geometrical nonlinear stability of cabletruss domes with different cable distributions. The results indicate that the critical load increases evidently when cables, especially diagonal cables, are distributed in the structure. The critical loads of the structure at different rise-span ratios are also discussed in this paper. It was shown that the effect of the tensional cable is more evident at small rise-span ratio. The buckling of the structure is characterized by a global collapse at small rlse-span ratio ; that the torsional buckling of the radial truss occurs at big rise-span ratio; and that at proper rise-span ratio, the global collapse and the lateral buckling of the truss occur nearly simultaneously.

  4. Prospective Type Ia Supernova Surveys From Dome A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, A.; /LBL, Berkeley; Bonissent, A.; /Marseille, CPPM; Christiansen, J.L.; /Cal. Poly.; Ealet, A.; /Marseille, CPPM; Faccioli, L.; /UC, Berkeley; Gladney, L.; /Pennsylvania U.; Kushner, G.; /LBL, Berkeley; Linder, E.; /UC, Berkeley; Stoughton, C.; /Fermilab; Wang, L.; /Texas A-M /Purple Mountain Observ.

    2010-02-01

    Dome A, the highest plateau in Antarctica, is being developed as a site for an astronomical observatory. The planned telescopes and instrumentation and the unique site characteristics are conducive toward Type Ia supernova surveys for cosmology. A self-contained search and survey over five years can yield a spectro-photometric time series of {approx}1000 z < 0.08 supernovae. These can serve to anchor the Hubble diagram and quantify the relationship between luminosities and heterogeneities within the Type Ia supernova class, reducing systematics. Larger aperture ({approx}>4-m) telescopes are capable of discovering supernovae shortly after explosion out to z {approx} 3. These can be fed to space telescopes, and can isolate systematics and extend the redshift range over which we measure the expansion history of the universe.

  5. Prospective Type Ia supernova surveys from Dome A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, A.; Bonissent, A.; Christiansen, J. L.; Ealet, A.; Faccioli, L.; Gladney, L.; Kushner, G.; Linder, E.; Stoughton, C.; Wang, L.

    2010-03-10

    Dome A, the highest plateau in Antarctica, is being developed as a site for an astronomical observatory. The planned telescopes and instrumentation and the unique site characteristics are conducive toward Type Ia supernova surveys for cosmology. A self-contained search and survey over 5 years can yield a spectro-photometric time series of ~;; 1000 z< 0:08 supernovae. These can serve to anchor the Hubble diagram and quantify the relationship between luminosities and heterogeneities within the Type Ia supernova class, reducing systematics. Larger aperture (>=4-m) telescopes are capable of discovering supernovae shortly after explosion out to z ~;; 3. These can be fed to space telescopes, and can isolate systematics and extend the redshift range over which we measure the expansion history of the universe.

  6. MORPHOMETRIC VARIABLES AND INTERDIMENSIONAL RELATIONS FOR Cordia trichotoma (Vell.) Arráb. ex Steud.

    OpenAIRE

    Maína Roman; Delmar Antonio Bressan; Miguel Antão Durlo

    2010-01-01

    The present work was developed to observe the morphometric features and the morphometric relations for Cordia trichotoma trees in a planted forest, at Santa Maria municipality, state of RS, Brazil. The analised variables were: total height, comercial height of stem, diameter at breast height (dbh), crown diameter, crown length, crown proportion, crown projection area, slenderness rate, salience index, range index and crown formal. For the interdimensional relations study, the morphometric var...

  7. Young women's experiences of intrusive behavior in 12 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Lorraine; Scott, Adrian J; Roberts, Karl

    2016-01-01

    The present study provides international comparisons of young women's (N = 1,734) self-reported experiences of intrusive activities enacted by men. Undergraduate psychology students from 12 countries (Armenia, Australia, England, Egypt, Finland, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Portugal, Scotland, and Trinidad) indicated which of 47 intrusive activities they had personally experienced. Intrusive behavior was not uncommon overall, although large differences were apparent between countries when women's personal experiences of specific intrusive activities were compared. Correlations were carried out between self-reported intrusive experiences, the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM), and Hofstede's dimensions of national cultures. The primary associations were between women's experiences of intrusive behavior and the level of power they are afforded within the 12 countries. Women from countries with higher GEM scores reported experiencing more intrusive activities relating to courtship and requests for sex, while the experiences of women from countries with lower GEM scores related more to monitoring and ownership. Intrusive activities, many of them constituent of harassment and stalking, would appear to be widespread and universal, and their incidence and particular form reflect national level gender inequalities.

  8. Salt intrusion study in Cochin estuary - Using empirical models

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jacob, B.; Revichandran, C.; NaveenKumar, K.R.

    Intensive measurements of salt intrusion are taken at high and low waters during spring and neap tide for each month respectively from June 2007 to May 2008. Salt intrusion length at high water varied from 10 km in monsoon 2008 to more than 40 km...

  9. An improved unsupervised clustering-based intrusion detection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Yong J.; Wu, Yu; Wang, Guo Y.

    2005-03-01

    Practical Intrusion Detection Systems (IDSs) based on data mining are facing two key problems, discovering intrusion knowledge from real-time network data, and automatically updating them when new intrusions appear. Most data mining algorithms work on labeled data. In order to set up basic data set for mining, huge volumes of network data need to be collected and labeled manually. In fact, it is rather difficult and impractical to label intrusions, which has been a big restrict for current IDSs and has led to limited ability of identifying all kinds of intrusion types. An improved unsupervised clustering-based intrusion model working on unlabeled training data is introduced. In this model, center of a cluster is defined and used as substitution of this cluster. Then all cluster centers are adopted to detect intrusions. Testing on data sets of KDDCUP"99, experimental results demonstrate that our method has good performance in detection rate. Furthermore, the incremental-learning method is adopted to detect those unknown-type intrusions and it decreases false positive rate.

  10. Specification Mining for Intrusion Detection in Networked Control Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caselli, Marco; Zambon, Emmanuele; Amann, Johanna; Sommer, Robin; Kargl, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses a novel approach to specification-based intrusion detection in the field of networked control systems. Our approach reduces the substantial human effort required to deploy a specification-based intrusion detection system by automating the development of its specification rules.

  11. Soft-sensing, non-intrusive multiphase flow meter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wrobel, K.; Schiferli, W.

    2009-01-01

    For single phase flow meters more and better non-intrusive or even clamp-on meters become available. This allows for a wider use of meters and for easier flow control. As the demand for multiphase meters is increasing, the current aim is to develop a non-intrusive multiphase flow meter. The non-intr

  12. Reinforced Intrusion Detection Using Pursuit Reinforcement Competitive Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Yulia Prafitaning Tiyas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, information technology is growing rapidly,all information can be obtainedmuch easier. It raises some new problems; one of them is unauthorized access to the system. We need a reliable network security system that is resistant to a variety of attacks against the system. Therefore, Intrusion Detection System (IDS required to overcome the problems of intrusions. Many researches have been done on intrusion detection using classification methods. Classification methodshave high precision, but it takes efforts to determine an appropriate classification model to the classification problem. In this paper, we propose a new reinforced approach to detect intrusion with On-line Clustering using Reinforcement Learning. Reinforcement Learning is a new paradigm in machine learning which involves interaction with the environment.It works with reward and punishment mechanism to achieve solution. We apply the Reinforcement Learning to the intrusion detection problem with considering competitive learning using Pursuit Reinforcement Competitive Learning (PRCL. Based on the experimental result, PRCL can detect intrusions in real time with high accuracy (99.816% for DoS, 95.015% for Probe, 94.731% for R2L and 99.373% for U2R and high speed (44 ms.The proposed approach can help network administrators to detect intrusion, so the computer network security systembecome reliable. Keywords: Intrusion Detection System, On-Line Clustering, Reinforcement Learning, Unsupervised Learning.

  13. The Montagne Noire migmatitic dome emplacement (French Massif Central): new insights from petrofabric and AMS studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Nicolas; Faure, Michel; Chen, Yan

    2009-11-01

    In the southern French Massif Central, the Montagne Noire axial zone is a NE-SW elongated granite-migmatite dome emplaced within Visean south-verging recumbent folds and intruded by syn- to late-migmatization granitoids. The tectonic setting of this dome is still disputed, thus several models have been proposed. In order to better understand the emplacement mechanism of this dome, petrofabric and Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) studies have been carried out. In the granites and migmatites that form the dome core, magmatic texture and to a lesser extent weak solid-state texture are dominant. As a paramagnetic mineral, biotite is the main carrier of the magnetic susceptibility. On the basis of 135 AMS sites, the magnetic fabrics appear as independent of the lithology but related to the dome architecture. Coupling our results with previous structural and geochronological studies, allows us to propose a new emplacement model. Between 340-325 Ma, the Palaeozoic series underwent a compressional deformation represented by nappes and recumbent folds involving the thermal event leading to partial melting. Until ˜325-310 Ma, the dome emplacement was assisted by diapiric processes. An extensional event took place at ˜300 Ma, after the emplacement of the late to post-migmatitic granitic plutons. In the northeast side of the dome, a brittle normal-dextral faulting controlled the opening of the Graissessac coal basin.

  14. The first geodetic investigation at the summit of Dome A, Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Shengkai; E Dongchen; Li Yuansheng; Wang Zemin; Zhou Chunxia; SHEN Qiang

    2008-01-01

    Dome A is the highest ice feature in the Antarctica,up to now,little is known about surface topography at Dome A.The first Chinese ITASE expedition was carried out from Zhongshan station to Dome A during the 1996/1997 austral summer.During the 2004/2005 austral summer,the traverse was extended to the summit of Dome A which is 1228 km from Zhongshan Station by 21st Chinese National Antarctic Research Expedition (CHINARE).The real time kinematic (RTK) GPS surveywas carried out in the summit of Dome A during 2004/05 austral summer.The surface topography of Dome A was drawn up using the kinematic double frequency GPS data covering an area of about 70 km2.The accuracy of the kinematic survey is in the range of 0.20 m.Precise surface topography,bedrock morphology and internallayering geometry are important for the future selection of the best site for deep drilling at Dome A.

  15. Boron isotope method for study of seawater intrusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖应凯; 尹德忠; 刘卫国; 王庆忠; 魏海珍

    2001-01-01

    A distinct difference in boron isotopes between seawater and terrestrial water is emphasized by δ11B values reported for seawater and groundwater, with an average of 38.8‰ and in the range of -8.9‰ to 9.8‰, respectively. The isotopic composition of boron in groundwater can be used to quantify seawater intrusion and identify intrusion types, e.g. seawater or brine intrusions with different chemical and isotopic characteristics, by using the relation of δ11B and chloride concentration. The feasibility of utilizing boron isotope in groundwater for studying seawater intrusion in Laizhou Bay Region, China, is reported in this study, which shows that boron isotope is a useful and excellent tool for the study of seawater intrusion.

  16. Network Security using Linux Intrusion Detection System / IJORCS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arul Anitha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Attacks on the nation’s computer infrastructures are becoming an increasingly serious problem. Firewalls provide a certain amount of security, but can be fooled at times by attacks like IP spoofing and the so called authorized users. So an intelligent system that can detect attacks and intrusions is required. The tool GRANT (Global Real-time Analysis of Network Traffic being a Linux based Intrusion Detection System(LIDs, takes the advantage of the security of a Linux box and secures the other nodes in the perimeter of the network. It is capable of detecting intrusions and probes as and when they occur and capable of responding to “already” successful attacks, thus causing minimal or no damage to the entire network. For better performance, this Linux Intrusion Detection System should be part of a defense in depth strategy such as Firewall and Intrusion Prevention.

  17. Intrusive Thoughts Mediate the Association between Neuroticism and Cognitive Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Elizabeth; Sliwinski, Martin J; Smyth, Joshua M; Almeida, David M; King, Heather A

    2013-11-01

    Although research has established a negative association between trait neuroticism and cognition, little is known about the mechanisms that underlie this relationship. We examined the tendency to experience intrusive thoughts and negative affect as potential mediators of the relationship between neuroticism and cognitive performance. We hypothesized that the tendency to experience intrusive thoughts reflects ineffective attentional control and would account for the relationship between neuroticism and cognitive performance over and above the mediating effect of negative affect. Three hundred seventeen adults (Mage =49.43) completed a series of attention-demanding cognitive tasks as well as self-report measures of intrusive thoughts, negative affect, and neuroticism. Intrusive thoughts mediated the association between trait neuroticism and cognitive performance beyond negative affect. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the tendency to experience intrusive thoughts is a mechanism through which trait neuroticism influences cognitive performance.

  18. Intrusion-Tolerant Based Survivable Model of Database System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUJianming; WANGChao; MAJianfeng

    2005-01-01

    Survivability has become increasingly important with society's increased dependence of critical infrastructures on computers. Intrusiontolerant systems extend traditional secure systems to be able to survive or operate through attacks, thus it is an approach for achieving survivability. This paper proposes survivable model of database system based on intrusion-tolerant mechanisms. The model is built on three layers security architecture, to defense intrusion at the outer layer, to detect intrusion at the middle layer, and to tolerate intrusion at the inner layer. We utilize the techniques of both redundancy and diversity and threshold secret sharing schemes to implement the survivability of database and to protect confidential data from compromised servers in the presence of intrusions. Comparing with the existing schemes, our approach has realized the security and robustness for the key functions of a database system by using the integration security strategy and multiple security measures.

  19. Multi-core Processors based Network Intrusion Detection Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziqian Wan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming increasingly hard to build an intrusion detection system (IDS, because of the higher traffic throughput and the rising sophistication of attacking. Scale will be an important issue to address in the intrusion detection area. For hardware, tomorrow’s performance gains will come from multi-core architectures in which a number of CPU executes concurrently. We take the advantage of multi-core processors’ full power for intrusion detection in this work. We present an intrusion detection system based on the Snort open-source IDS that exploits the computational power of MIPS multi-core architecture to offload the costly pattern matching operations from the CPU, and thus increase the system’s processing throughput. A preliminary experiment demonstrates the potential of this system. The experiment results indicate that this method can be used effectively to speed up intrusion detection systems.

  20. Coastal Marsh Monitoring for Persistent Saltwater Intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Callie M.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA's work on the project that supports the Gulf of Mexico Alliance (GOMA) Governors Action Plan to monitor the coastal wetlands for saltwater intrusion. The action items that relate to the task are: (1) Obtain information on projected relative sea level rise, subsidence, and storm vulnerability to help prioritize conservation projects, including restoration, enhancement, and acquisition, and (2) Develop and apply ecosystem models to forecast the habitat structure and succession following hurricane disturbance and changes in ecological functions and services that impact vital socio-economic aspects of coastal systems. The objectives of the program are to provide resource managers with remote sensing products that support ecosystem forecasting models requiring salinity and inundation data. Specifically, the proposed work supports the habitat-switching modules in the Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Assessment and Restoration (CLEAR) model, which provides scientific evaluation for restoration management.

  1. Multimodal Evolution Approach to Multidimensional Intrusion Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weng Guang'an; Yu Shengsheng; Zhou Jingli

    2006-01-01

    An artificial immunity based multimodal evolution algorithm is developed to generate detectors with variable coverage for multidimensional intrusion detection. In this algorithm, a proper fitness function is used to drive the detectors to fill in those detection holes close to self set or among self spheres, and genetic algorithm is adopted to reduce the negative effects that different distribution of self imposes on the detector generating process. The validity of the algorithm is tested with spherical and rectangular detectors,respectively, and experiments performed on two real data sets ( machine learning database and DAPRA99) indicate that the proposed algorithm can obtain good results on spherical detectors, and that its performances in detection rate, false alarm rate, stability, time cost, and adaptability to incomplete training set on spherical detectors are all better than on rectangular ones.

  2. Introduction To Intrusion Detection System Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajni Tewatia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Security of a network is always an important issue. With the continuously growing network the basic security such as firewall virus scanner is easily deceived by modern attackers who are experts in using software vulnerabilities to achieve their goals. For preventing such attacks we need even smarter security mechanism which act proactively and intelligently. Intrusion Detection System is the solution of such requirement. Many techniques have been used to implement IDS. These technique basically used in the detector part of IDS such as Neural Network Clustering Pattern Matching Rule Based Fuzzy Logic Genetic Algorithms and many more. To improve the performance of an IDS these approaches may be used in combination to build a hybrid IDS so that benefits of two o more approaches may be combined.

  3. Central Pit and Dome Formation as Seen in Occator Crater, Ceres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Paul M.; Buczkowski, Debra; Scully, Jennifer E. C.; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Schmidt, Britney E.; O'Brien, David P.; Hiesinger, Harald; Sizemore, Hanna G.; Ammannito, Eleonora; Raymond, Carol; Russell, Christopher T.; Dawn Science Team

    2016-10-01

    Dawn mapping of Ceres revealed that central depressions (or pits) are common in craters >75 km. The best preserved of these is Occator (D~92 km), where the pit is associated with a major bright deposit dominated by carbonates. The pit is ~9 km wide, 600-800 m deep and flanked by asymmetric massifs 0.7 to 1.3 km high. The pit is partially filled by a fractured central dome ~3 km wide and 700 m high. Fracturing could have been due to dome inflation by "magma" or by subsurface freezing of ice. Within the bright material, two color units are mapped, including a paler surface unit and a more yellowish to reddish unit exposed within the most fractured parts of the dome surface and at small bright spots, at least some of which could be post-Occator small craters. Some bright materials form as discrete small spots midslope along the pit wall and others avoid small hills, suggesting partial topographic control. Stratigraphic relations are ambiguous but suggest formation of a smooth carapace some meters thick that was subsequently disrupted by fractures crossing the floor of Occator, and by uplift of the dome surface. Pit and dome morphologies, including dome fracturing are potentially analogous to central pits and domes in many craters on Ganymede and Callisto, suggesting some commonality in formation processes. The absence of center pits or domes on Saturnian satellites could be related to much lower temperatures on those bodies. The prominence of central pits and domes on Ceres confirms the importance of volatile materials, mostly likely water ice, in the outer layers of Ceres, especially as compared to Vesta.

  4. Analysis of thermal shock resistance of CVD ZnS dome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Daijun; Luo, Haibo; Zhou, Peipei; Hou, Xinglin

    2016-10-01

    Since the dome experiences the convective heat loading, thermal stress will be generated in the thickness direction. Thus, estimation of the thermal shock and analysis of the thermal shock resistance of the dome are the key to the design of the dome. In this paper, thermal shock resistance of CVD ZnS dome is analysed based on the flight condition of 6000m altitude and 3.0 Mach. We obtained the critical Reynolds number through a rockets pry experiment, which deduced that there exists a transition from laminar flow to turbulent flow at somewhere over the dome. We calculated the heat transfer coefficient over dome through heat transfer coefficient engineering formula of high-speed sphere with turbulent boundary layer near the stagnation point. The largest heat transfer coefficient is 2590W/(m2.K). Then, we calculated the transient thermal stress of dome by using the finite element method. Then we obtained the temperature and thermal stress distribution of different time through the direction of thickness. In order to obtain the mechanical properties of CVD ZnS at high temperatures, the 3-point bending method was used to test the flexure strength of CVD ZnS at different temperature. When compared the maximum thermal stress with flexure strength at different temperature, we find that the safety factors were not less than 1.75. The result implied that the dome has good safety margin under the proposed application condition. Through the above test and analysis, we can get the conclusion that the thermal shock resistance of the CVD ZnS dome satisfied the requirements of flight conditions.

  5. The thermal regime in the resurgent dome of Long Valley Caldera, California: Inferences from precision temperature logs in deep wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, S.; Farrar, C.D.; Williams, C.F.

    2010-01-01

    Long Valley Caldera in eastern California formed 0.76Ma ago in a cataclysmic eruption that resulted in the deposition of 600km3 of Bishop Tuff. The total current heat flow from the caldera floor is estimated to be ~290MW, and a geothermal power plant in Casa Diablo on the flanks of the resurgent dome (RD) generates ~40MWe. The RD in the center of the caldera was uplifted by ~80cm between 1980 and 1999 and was explained by most models as a response to magma intrusion into the shallow crust. This unrest has led to extensive research on geothermal resources and volcanic hazards in the caldera. Here we present results from precise, high-resolution, temperature-depth profiles in five deep boreholes (327-1,158m) on the RD to assess its thermal state, and more specifically 1) to provide bounds on the advective heat transport as a guide for future geothermal exploration, 2) to provide constraints on the occurrence of magma at shallow crustal depths, and 3) to provide a baseline for future transient thermal phenomena in response to large earthquakes, volcanic activity, or geothermal production. The temperature profiles display substantial non-linearity within each profile and variability between the different profiles. All profiles display significant temperature reversals with depth and temperature gradients temperature in the individual boreholes ranges between 124.7??C and 129.5??C and bottom hole temperatures range between 99.4??C and 129.5??C. The high-temperature units in the three Fumarole Valley boreholes are at the approximate same elevation as the high-temperature unit in borehole M-1 in Casa Diablo indicating lateral or sub-lateral hydrothermal flow through the resurgent dome. Small differences in temperature between measurements in consecutive years in three of the wells suggest slow cooling of the shallow hydrothermal flow system. By matching theoretical curves to segments of the measured temperature profiles, we calculate horizontal groundwater velocities in

  6. Morphometric analysis of the Marmara Sea river basins, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbaşı, Emre; Ozdemir, Hasan

    2014-05-01

    The drainage basin, the fundamental unit of the fluvial landscape, has been focus of research aimed at understanding the geometric characteristics of the master channel and its tributary network. This geometry is referred to as the basin morphometry and is nicely reviewed by Abrahams (1984). A great amount of research has focused on geometric characteristic of drainage basins, including the topology of the stream networks, and quantitative description of drainage texture, pattern, shape, and relief characteristics. Evaluation of morphometric parameters necessitates the analysis of various drainage parameters such as ordering of the various streams, measurement of basin area and perimeter, length of drainage channels, drainage density (Dd), stream frequency (Fs), bifurcation ratio (Rb), texture ratio (T), basin relief (Bh), Ruggedness number (Rn), time of concentration (Tc), hypsometric curve and integral (Hc and Hi) (Horton, 1932, Schumn, 1956, Strahler, 1957; Verstappen 1983; Keller and Pinter, 2002; Ozdemir and Bird, 2009). These morphometric parameters have generally been used to predict flood peaks, to assess sediment yield, and to estimate erosion rates in the basins. River basins of the Marmara Sea, has an area of approximately 40,000 sqkm, are the most important basins in Turkey based on their dense populations, industry and transportation systems. The primary aim of this study is to determine and analyse of morphometric characteristics of the Marmara Sea river basins using 10 m resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and to evaluate of the results. For these purposes, digital 10 m contour maps scaled 1:25000 and geological maps scaled 1:100000 were used as the main data sources in the study. 10 m resolution DEM data were created using the contour maps and then drainage networks and their watersheds were extracted using D8 pour point model. Finally, linear, areal and relief morphometries were applied to the river basins using Geographic Information Systems

  7. Magma ascent dynamic through Ti diffusion in magnetites. Application to lava dome-forming eruptions. Implications to lava dome superifical explosivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudon, Georges; Balcone-Boissard, Hélène; Morgan, Dan J.

    2016-04-01

    Superficial lava dome explosivity represents a major hazard during lava dome growth. But the origin of this explosive activity remains unclear until recently. By using geochemical (residual water content, silica abundance) and textural (vesicularity, microcristallinity) data, we constrain the occurrence of such hazard to the beginning of the lava dome activity. During the first stages of growth, the lava dome is small enough to develop an impermeable carapace that isolates a less degassed batch of magma inside, thus allowing an internal overpressurization of the volcano (Boudon et al., 2015). This study more precisely details the petrology and the texture of titano-magnetites as archive of magma ascent dynamic within the conduit. Titano-magnetites may exhibit two types of textures: exsolved or "limpid". When they are exsolved, no time constrain may be extracted as they re-equilibrate. On the contrary, when they are unexsolved, major element distribution, in particular Ti, may act as a powerful tool to decipher magma dynamic (differentiation, mixing) and estimate time that corresponds to the magma ascent time. The composition and elemental diffusion profiles are acquired by EPMA, following textural investigations by SEM. The time is then obtained by modelling the profile as a diffusion profile using the intracristalline diffusion coefficients published in literature. We applied this methodology to examples of lava dome superficial explosivity on Montagne Pelée in Martinique (Lesser Antilles Arc), and on Puy Chopine volcano in La Chaine des Puys, (French Massif Central). More precisely, the first phase of the Puy Chopine lava dome growth experienced a superficial explosion, as for Montagne Pelée, the first stages of the 1902 eruption (several superficial explosions occurred) and the 650 y. BP eruption (two superficial explosions destroyed the growing lava dome). We show that, for a single event, the vesiculated, undegassed batch of magma responsible of the

  8. Factors associated with morphometric brain changes in cognitively normal aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Eloah de Lucena Ferretti-Rebustini

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Cognitive impairment is associated with reductions in brain weight and volume. The factors related to morphometric brain changes in cognitively normal aging remain unknown. We aimed to identify which clinical factors are associated with morphometric brain changes in cognitively normal aging. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 414 subjects, ≥50 years old submitted to clinical assessment and brain autopsy, after informed consent, was carried out at the São Paulo Autopsy Service, Brazil. Data on cognitive and functional evaluations were collected through structured interview applied to the next-of-kin. Brain weight (g and volume (mL measurements were obtained and adjusted for head circumference (cm. Associations between brain weight/volume and related factors were obtained through univariate and multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Participants were predominantly male (60.4%, Caucasian (69%, with mean age of 67.1 ± 10.9 years. Mean brain weight was 1219.2 ± 140.9 g, and mean brain volume was 1217.1 ± 152.3 mL. Head circumference was independently associated with low brain weight (p<0.001 and volume (p<0.001. Total and adjusted brain weight and volume decreased in some conditions. Female gender (p<0.001, hypertension (p<0.009, coronary artery disease (p<0.013 and walking assistance (p<0.011 were associated with lower adjusted brain weight while schooling was associated with higher adjusted brain weight (p<0.003. Female gender (p<0.001, age (p<0.001 and hypertension (p<0.011 were associated with low adjusted brain volume. CONCLUSION: Morphometric brain changes occur despite the absence of cognitive impairment and were predominantly associated with age, female gender, mobility impairment and cardiovascular conditions. Schooling may be a protective factor.

  9. Morphometric Wing Characters as a Tool for Mosquito Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christe, Rafael de Oliveira; Multini, Laura Cristina; Vidal, Paloma Oliveira; Wilk-da-Silva, Ramon; de Carvalho, Gabriela Cristina; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes are responsible for the transmission of important infectious diseases, causing millions of deaths every year and endangering approximately 3 billion people around the world. As such, precise identification of mosquito species is crucial for an understanding of epidemiological patterns of disease transmission. Currently, the most common method of mosquito identification relies on morphological taxonomic keys, which do not always distinguish cryptic species. However, wing geometric morphometrics is a promising tool for the identification of vector mosquitoes, sibling and cryptic species included. This study therefore sought to accurately identify mosquito species from the three most epidemiologically important mosquito genera using wing morphometrics. Twelve mosquito species from three epidemiologically important genera (Aedes, Anopheles and Culex) were collected and identified by taxonomic keys. Next, the right wing of each adult female mosquito was removed and photographed, and the coordinates of eighteen digitized landmarks at the intersections of wing veins were collected. The allometric influence was assessed, and canonical variate analysis and thin-plate splines were used for species identification. Cross-validated reclassification tests were performed for each individual, and a Neighbor Joining tree was constructed to illustrate species segregation patterns. The analyses were carried out and the graphs plotted with TpsUtil 1.29, TpsRelw 1.39, MorphoJ 1.02 and Past 2.17c. Canonical variate analysis for Aedes, Anopheles and Culex genera showed three clear clusters in morphospace, correctly distinguishing the three mosquito genera, and pairwise cross-validated reclassification resulted in at least 99% accuracy; subgenera were also identified correctly with a mean accuracy of 96%, and in 88 of the 132 possible comparisons, species were identified with 100% accuracy after the data was subjected to reclassification. Our results showed that Aedes, Culex

  10. A MORPHOMETRIC STUDY OF THE SELLA TURCICA; GENDER EFFECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Mohamed Elsayed Ali SAKRAN *1, Mohammad Afzal KHAN 2, Faris Mohammed Nour ALTAF 3, Hassan Elsiddig Hassan FARAGALLA 4, Amal Yousif Ahmed Elhaj MUSTAFA 5, Muhammad Mazhar HIJAZI 6, Rayan Abdulshakur NIYAZI 7, Abrar Jamal TAWAKUL 8, Abeer Zubair MALEBARI 9, Amal AbdulAziz SALEM 10.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Precise anatomical knowledge of the sella turcica is important for neurologists and surgeons operating in the region of cavernous sinus or the surrounding structures. The current study was undertaken to record normal morphometric parameters for future reference and to determine if there is any significance difference in the sella turcica morphometry regarding the gender. Methodology: A Morphometric analysis of the Sella Turcica and structures in vicinity were done in thirty six adults’ formalin fixed cadaver's skulls (22 male and 14 female. Results: The pituitary stalk positions were middle in majority of male cases (72.7%, the remaining 27.3% were posterior. Among female; 57.1% were middle and the remaining 42.9% were posterior, no anterior position was detected among both genders with no different between male and female (p = 0.494 Normal Optic chiasma position was detected in all female cases and in 63.6% of male cases with no significant differences regarding gender (p= 0.070. No significant different in diaphragma sella shape and opening regarding gender (p.value = 0.170 and 0.914 respectively No significant difference between males and females concerning linear dimensions of sella turcica (length, depth and Anteroposterior diameters. Concerning diaphragma sella opening; no significant different regarding gender in transverse diameter (p.value= 0.316 while significant different was detected in anteroposterior diameter (p.value= 0.046 For interclinoid (anterior, posterior diameters, which represented statistically significant different regarding gender in both right and left sides (p.value = 0.004 and 0.001 respectively. Conclusion: The current study will provide normal morphometric data for future reference and further studies.

  11. Morphological and morphometrical analysis of Heterodera spp. populations in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafi, Hamzeh A; Al-Banna, Luma; Sadder, Monther T; Migdadi, Hussein M

    2016-01-01

    Phenotypic diversity of five Jordanian populations of cyst nematodes, Heterodera spp. collected from five regions from Jordan (Ar-Ramtha, Madaba, Dana, Al-Karak, and Jerash) was investigated. Soil samples were collected from one representative field in each region. Morphological and morphometrical characteristics revealed that Heterodera latipons is dominated in cereal fields at Ar-Ramtha, Madaba, Dana and Al-Karak regions and Heterodera schachtii in Jerash. Cysts populations from all cereal fields had bifenestrate vulval cone and a strong underbridge. Wherever, cysts of the cabbage population had ambifenestrate vulval cone with long vulval slit. The bullae were absent in Ar-Ramtha, Madaba and Dana populations, but present in Al-Karak and Jerash. Based on 12 morphometrical characters, the first three functions in canonical discriminant analysis accounted 99.3% of the total variation. Distance from dorsal gland duct opening to stylet base, underbridge length, a = L/W (body length/midbody width) and length of hyaline tail tip had strong and significant contributions in the first function. While the second function was strongly influenced by length of hyaline tail, fenestral length, fenestral width and tail length. However, the third canonical discriminate function was found to be influenced by stylet length, fenestral length, a = L/W (body length/midbody width) and underbridge width. The graphical representation of the distribution of the samples showed that the first canonical discriminant function clearly separated H. schachtii from Jerash from other populations. Whereas, H. latipons collected from Madaba and Dana were clearly separated in the second function. The results indicated that differences at morphological and morphometrical levels revealed diverse populations of Heterodera spp. in Jordan.

  12. DAYLIGHT PERFORMANCE OF SINGLE PEDENTIVE DOME MOSQUE DESIGN DURING WINTER SOLSTICE

    OpenAIRE

    Yasser Arab; Ahmad Sanusi Hassan

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the analysis is to measure lighting performance of single pendentive dome type and pyramid roof type in mosque design built during the Ottoman Empire in Istanbul, Turkey and Mostar, Bosnia-Herzegovina. The selected case studies are the Firuzaga and Orhan Gazi Mosques as single pendentive dome styl and Neziraga Mosque as case study for the pyramid roof type. This analysis aims to have a research finding to show that Turkish styleâs pedentive dome mosque design provides efficient...

  13. Target detection performance in helmet-mounted and conventional dome displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettinger, L J; Nelson, W T; Haas, M W

    1996-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to assess visual target detection performance using a helmet-mounted display (HMD) and a conventional flight simulation dome display. Measures of workload and mood were also obtained. Participants in both viewing conditions scanned an area 120 degrees vertical by 240 degrees horizontal while attempting to locate targets that appeared to be approaching them from one of a possible 18 locations. Results indicated significantly superior performance in the conventional dome display. Workload and mood measures also showed a significant advantage for the dome display. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for the design and use of HMD systems as components of airborne virtual environment interfaces.

  14. Damage mechanism of single-layer reticulated domes under severe earthquakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Xiao-ye; FAN Feng; ZHI Xu-dong; SHEN Shi-zhao

    2009-01-01

    To study the damage mechanism of single-layer reticulated domes subject to severe earthquakes,three limit states of single-layer reticulated domes under earthquakes are defined firstly in this paper. Then, two failure modes are presented by analyzing damage behaviors, and their characteristics are pointed out respectively. Furthermore, the damage process is analyzed and the causes of structural damage in different levels are studied. Finally, by comparing deformation and vibration status of domes with different failure modes, the principles of different failures are revealed and an integrated frame of damage mechanism is set up.

  15. Morphometric characteristics of “Tinca Gobba Dorata del Pianalto”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Guo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Forty six T3 tench from 55 to 100 g, were examined in order to set up a first database on morphological traits. Linear (total, fork, head, trunk, caudal peduncle, muscular body and tail length, height, thickness and circumference and ponderal (total body, viscera, liver and gonad weight parameters have been measured. Several morphometric indexes were calculated for each sex. The results showed there was no significant difference for K value between sexes. The relationship between C and M can be described with a quadratic regression (R2=0.81.

  16. Stress-induced comenditic trachyte effusion triggered by trachybasalt intrusion: multidisciplinary study of the AD 1761 eruption at Terceira Island (Azores)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, A.; Zanon, V.; de Groot, L. V.; Hipólito, A.; Di Chiara, A.; Self, S.

    2016-03-01

    The AD 1761 eruption on Terceira was the only historical subaerial event on the island and one of the last recorded in the Azores. The eruption occurred along the fissure zone that crosses the island and produced a trachybasalt lava flow and scoria cones. Small comenditic trachyte lava domes (known as Mistérios Negros) were also thought by some to have formed simultaneously on the eastern flank of Santa Bárbara Volcano. Following a multidisciplinary approach, we combined geological mapping, paleomagnetic, petrographic, mineral and whole-rock geochemical and structural analyses to study this eruption. The paleomagnetic dating method compared geomagnetic vectors (directions and intensities) recorded by both the AD 1761 lava flow and Mistérios Negros domes and revealed that the two events were indeed coeval. Based on new data and interpretation of historical records, we have accordingly reconstructed the AD 1761 eruptive dynamics and distinguished three phases: (1) a precursory phase characterized by decreased degassing in the fumarolic field of Pico Alto Volcano and a gradual increase of seismic activity, which marked the intrusion of trachybasalt magma; (2) a first eruptive phase that started with phreatic explosions on the eastern flank of Santa Bárbara Volcano, followed by the inconspicuous effusion of comenditic trachyte (66 wt% SiO2), forming a WNW-ESE-oriented chain of lava domes; and (3) a second eruptive phase on the central part of the fissure zone, where a Hawaiian to Strombolian-style eruption formed small scoria cones (E-W to ENE-WSW-oriented) and a trachybasalt lava flow (50 wt% SiO2) which buried 27 houses in Biscoitos village. Petrological analyses show that the two batches of magma were emitted independently without evidence of interaction. We envisage that the dome-forming event was triggered by local stress changes induced by intrusion of the trachybasalt dyke along the fissure zone, which created tensile stress conditions that promoted ascent

  17. Crustal structure of Tolfa domes complex (northern Latium - Italy) inferred from receiver functions analysis: an interplay between tectonics and magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttinelli, M.; Bianchi, I.; Anselmi, M.; Chiarabba, C.; de Rita, D.; Quattrocchi, F.

    2010-12-01

    The Tolfa-Cerite volcanic district developed along the Tyrrhenian passive margin of central Italy, as part of magmatic processes started during the middle Pliocene. In this area the uncertainties on the deep crustal structures and the definition of the intrusive bodies geometry are focal issues that still need to be addressed. After the onset of the spreading of the Tyrrhenian sea during the Late Miocene, the emplacement of the intrusive bodies of the Tolfa complex (TDC), in a general back-arc geodynamical regime, generally occurred in a low stretching rate, in correspondence of the junctions between major lithospheric discontinuities. Normal faults, located at the edge of Mio-Pliocene basins, were used as preferential pathways for the rising of magmatic masses from the mantle to the surface. We used teleseismic recordings at the TOLF and MAON broad band station of the INGV seismic network (located between the Argentario promontory and Tolfa-Ceriti dome complexes -TDC-) to image the principal seismic velocity discontinuities by receiver function analysis (RF's). Together with RF’s velocity models of the area computed using the teleseismic events recorded by a temporary network of eight stations deployed around the TDC, we achieve a general crustal model of this area. The geometry of the seismic network has been defined to focus on the crustal structure beneath the TDC, trying to define the main velocity changes attributable to the intrusive bodies, the calcareous basal complex, the deep metamorphic basement, the lower crust and the Moho. The analysis of these data show the Moho at a depth of 23 km in the TDC area and 20 km in the Argentario area. Crustal models also show an unexpected velocity decrease between 12 and 18 km, consistent with a slight dropdown of the Vp/Vs ratio, imputable to a regional mid-crustal shear zone inherited from the previous alpine orogenesis, re-activated in extensional tectonic by the early opening phases of the Tyrrhenian sea. Above

  18. Precipitation regime and stable isotopes at Dome Fuji, East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmann, Anna; Schlosser, Elisabeth; Masson-Delmotte, Valérie; Powers, Jordan G.; Manning, Kevin W.; Werner, Martin; Fujita, Koji

    2016-06-01

    A unique set of 1-year precipitation and stable water isotope measurements from the Japanese Antarctic station, Dome Fuji, has been used to study the impact of the synoptic situation and the precipitation origin on the isotopic composition of precipitation on the Antarctic Plateau. The Antarctic Mesoscale Prediction System (AMPS) archive data are used to analyse the synoptic situations that cause precipitation. These situations are investigated and divided into five categories. The most common weather situation during a precipitation event is an upper-level ridge that extends onto the Antarctic Plateau and causes strong northerly advection from the ocean. Most precipitation events are associated with an increase in temperature and wind speed, and a local maximum of δ18O. During the measurement period, 21 synoptically caused precipitation events caused 60 % of the total annual precipitation, whereas the remaining 40 % were predominantly attributed to diamond dust. By combining the synoptic analyses with 5-day back-trajectories, the moisture source regions for precipitation events were estimated. An average source region around a latitude of 55° S was found. The atmospheric conditions in the source region were used as initial conditions for running a Rayleigh-type isotopic model in order to reproduce the measured isotopic composition of fresh snow and to investigate the influence of the precipitation source region on the isotope ratios. The model represents the measured annual cycle of δ18O and the second-order isotopic parameter deuterium excess reasonably well, but yields on average too little fractionation along the transport/cooling path. While simulations with an isotopic general circulation model (GCM) (ECHAM5-wiso) for Dome Fuji are on average closer to the observations, this model cannot reproduce the annual cycle of deuterium excess. In the event-based analysis, no evidence of a correlation of the measured deuterium excess with the latitude of the

  19. Topaz rhyolites of Nathrop, Colorado: Lava domes or rheomorphic flows?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, B. M.; Panter, K. S.; Van Der Voo, R.

    2013-12-01

    Deposits of topaz-bearing rhyolite at Ruby and Sugarloaf Mountains in central Colorado are considered to be remnants of lava domes. The deposits are part of the Late Eocene-Oligocene Central Colorado Volcanic Field [1] that lies along the eastern margin of the Arkansas Graben of the Rio Grande Rift. Topaz-bearing rhyolite lava domes and flows have been identified elsewhere in Colorado and the western U.S., but an assortment of geomorphological, lithostratigraphical, and textural features of Ruby and Sugarloaf Mountains call into question their strict classification as such. Alternatively, the lava flows may be interpreted as rheomorphic ignimbrites. The volcanic deposits encompass a sequence of steeply (~70°) west-dipping units that form two N-S elongated edifices ~0.5 km long and a few hundred meters high. Their common lithostratigraphy from bottom to top is tuff breccia, vitrophyre, and flow-banded rhyolite. The tuff breccia includes large (up to ~1 m) pumice blocks and lithics that vary from nearly absent to moderately abundant (10-20%). At Sugarloaf lithics include rare cobble-sized clasts of granite, but the majority consists of flow-banded rhyolite. The tuff breccia grades normally upward into the vitrophyre with increased welding and a eutaxitic fabric defined by fiamme with increasing aspect ratios. Lithics are abundant in the vitrophyre at Sugarloaf but are rare or absent in the vitrophyre at Ruby Mountain. The transition from the vitrophyre to the flow-banded rhyolite is abrupt (welding fabric is apparent at both locations. At Ruby Mountain, evidence of vapor-phase alteration and an interlocked mosaic of quartz crystals in the groundmass is not typically found in deposits of effusive origin and is not a result of metamorphism. Preliminary remnant magnetism (RM) indicates no discernible tectonic modification of deposits on Sugarloaf Mountain, indicating that the steep westward dip is a primary depositional feature. This result supports the view of a

  20. Nuclear morphometric and morphological analysis of exfoliated buccal and tongue dorsum cells in type-1 diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Safi Oz

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The light microscopic and nuclear morphometric study indicates that type 1 diabetes can produce morphological and nuclear morphometric changes in the oral mucosa that are noticeable with exfoliative cytology.

  1. The role of stress during memory reactivation on intrusive memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Jessica; Garber, Benjamin; Bryant, Richard A

    2015-09-01

    Intrusive memories are unwanted recollections that maintain distress in psychological disorders. Increasing evidence suggests that memories that are reactivated through retrieval become temporarily vulnerable to environmental or pharmacological manipulation, including changes in levels of circulating stress hormones. This study investigated the influence of stress during memory reactivation of an emotionally arousing trauma film on subsequent intrusive memories. Three groups of participants (N=63) viewed a trauma film depicting a serious car accident at baseline. Two days later (Time 2), one group received a reactivation induction following a socially evaluated cold pressor test (SECPT; Stress/Reactivation condition), whilst the second group reactivated the memory after a control procedure (Reactivation condition). A third group underwent the SECPT but was not asked to reactivate memory of the trauma film (Stress condition). Two days later (Time 3), all participants received a surprise cued memory recall test and intrusions questionnaire which they completed online. Results showed that those in the Stress/Reactivation group had higher intrusions scores than the other two groups, suggesting that acute stress promotes intrusive memories only when the memory trace is reactivated shortly afterwards. Increased cortisol predicted enhanced intrusive experiences in the Stress/Reactivation condition but not in the other conditions. This pattern of results suggests that acute stress during the reactivation of emotional material impacts on involuntary emotional memories. These findings suggest a possible explanation for the mechanism underlying the maintenance of intrusive memories in clinical disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A Frequency-Based Approach to Intrusion Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mian Zhou

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Research on network security and intrusion detection strategies presents many challenging issues to both theoreticians and practitioners. Hackers apply an array of intrusion and exploit techniques to cause disruption of normal system operations, but on the defense, firewalls and intrusion detection systems (IDS are typically only effective in defending known intrusion types using their signatures, and are far less than mature when faced with novel attacks. In this paper, we adapt the frequency analysis techniques such as the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT used in signal processing to the design of intrusion detection algorithms. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the frequency-based detection strategy by running synthetic network intrusion data in simulated networks using the OPNET software. The simulation results indicate that the proposed intrusion detection strategy is effective in detecting anomalous traffic data that exhibit patterns over time, which include several types of DOS and probe attacks. The significance of this new strategy is that it does not depend on the prior knowledge of attack signatures, thus it has the potential to be a useful supplement to existing signature-based IDS and firewalls.

  3. Morphometric analysis of cinder cones on Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain): results and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doniz Paez, F. J.

    2009-07-01

    This paper applied morphometric to the cinder cones of Tenerife. The technical morphometric allows to establish simple models of morphology, and size to the most frequent volcanoes of Tenerife's mafic volcanism. The obtained classification allow to distinguish four morphological types of scoria cones and three size groups, which is also extended to other volcanic regions. (Author) 5 refs.

  4. Morphometric Study on Male Specimens of Hyalomma anatolicum (Acari: Ixodidae in West of Iran

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    A Hosseini

    2011-12-01

    Conclusion: Morphometric variation in Hyalomma spp is poorly studied. The variation in range and quantity of the mor­phometric parameters of H.anatolicum ‎underlies that the correct recognition and key construction for Hyalomma spe­cies dependes ‎on a complement morphometric study on the other species.

  5. Experimental modelling of ground deformation associated with shallow magma intrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galland, O.

    2012-04-01

    Active volcanoes experience ground deformation as a response to the dynamics of underground magmatic systems. The analysis of ground deformation patterns may provide important constraints on the dynamics and shape of the underlying volcanic plumbing systems. Nevertheless, these analyses usually take into account simplistic shapes (sphere, dykes, sills) and the results cannot be verified as the modelled systems are buried. In this contribution, I will present new results from experimental models of magma intrusion, in which both the evolution of ground deformation during intrusion and the shape of the underlying intrusion are monitored in 3D. The models consisted of a molten vegetable oil, simulating low viscosity magma, injected into cohesive fine-grained silica flour, simulating the brittle upper crust; oil injection resulted is sheet intrusions (dykes, sills and cone sheets). The initial topography in the models was flat. While the oil was intruding, the surface of the models slightly lifted up to form a smooth relief, which was mapped through time. After an initial symmetrical development, the uplifted area developed asymmetrically; at the end of the experiments, the oil always erupted at the steepest edge of the uplifted area. After the experiment, the oil solidified, the intrusion was excavated and the shape of its top surface mapped. The comparison between the uplifted zone and the underlying intrusions showed that (1) the complex shapes of the uplifted areas reflected the complex shapes of the underlying intrusions, (2) the time evolution of the uplifted zone was correlated with the evolution of the underlying intrusion, and (3) the early asymmetrical evolution of the uplifted areas can be used to predict the location of the eruption of the oil. The experimental results also suggest that complex intrusion shapes (inclined sheet, cone sheet, complex sill) may have to be considered more systematically in analyses of ground deformation patterns on volcanoes.

  6. Rheology of Lava Flows on Europa and the Emergence of Cryovolcanic Domes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Lynnae C.; Glaze, Lori S.; Baloga, Steve M.

    2015-01-01

    There is ample evidence that Europa is currently geologically active. Crater counts suggest that the surface is no more than 90 Myr old, and cryovolcanism may have played a role in resurfacing the satellite in recent geological times. Europa's surface exhibits many putative cryovolcanic features, and previous investigations have suggested that a number of domes imaged by the Galileo spacecraft may be volcanic in origin. Consequently, several Europa domes have been modeled as viscous effusions of cryolava. However, previous models for the formation of silicic domes on the terrestrial planets contain fundamental shortcomings. Many of these shortcomings have been alleviated in our new modeling approach, which warrants a re-assessment of the possibility of cryovolcanic domes on Europa.

  7. Hyperthyroidism with dome-and-dart T wave: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ping; Yuan, Jing-ling; Xue, Jin-hua; Qiu, Yue-qun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Dome-and-dart T waves (or bifid T waves) are a rare phenomenon in the surface electrocardiogram. These wave forms are mainly observed in patients with congenital heart disease such as atrial septal defect and ventricular septal defect. And hyperthyroidism who presented with an electrocardiogram that had dome-and-dart T waves in a precordial lead is never been reported. Patient concerns: The patient presented with continuous tachycardia, palpitations, chest tightness, and headache for 4 days, and aggravated for 1 day. Diagnoses: Hyperthyroidism. Interventions: Methimazole. Outcomes: All symptoms were alleviated. Lessons: Dome-and-dart or bifid T waves have been reported in the conventional 12-lead electrocardiograms in some patients with congenital heart disease. The case illustrated here, to the best of our knowledge, dome-and-dart or bifid T waves may associate with hyperthyroidism patients. PMID:28178156

  8. Compactional deformation bands in Wingate Sandstone; additional evidence of an impact origin for Upheaval Dome, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Chris H.; Schultz, Richard A.

    2007-04-01

    Field and microstructural observations from Upheaval Dome, in Canyonlands National Park, Utah, show that inelastic strain of the Wingate Sandstone is localized along compactional deformation bands. These bands are tabular discontinuities (Jurassic) age for this impact.

  9. Dome-shaped High Tibial Osteotomy: A Long-term Follow-up Study

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    Hongsen Chiang

    2006-01-01

    Conclusion: Dome-shaped HTO is a durable time-buying procedure for patients with unicompartmental medial gonarthrosis, and can avoid subsequent development of patella baja that may complicate further prosthetic arthroplasty.

  10. Observation of Double-Dome Superconductivity in Potassium-Doped FeSe Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Can-Li; Zhang, Hui-Min; Zhong, Yong; Hu, Xiao-Peng; Ji, Shuai-Hua; Wang, Lili; He, Ke; Ma, Xu-Cun; Xue, Qi-Kun

    2016-04-15

    We report on the emergence of two disconnected superconducting domes in alkali-metal potassium- (K-)doped FeSe ultrathin films grown on graphitized SiC(0001). The superconductivity exhibits hypersensitivity to K dosage in the lower-T_{c} dome, whereas in the heavily electron-doped higher-T_{c} dome it becomes spatially homogeneous and robust against disorder, supportive of a conventional Cooper-pairing mechanism. Furthermore, the heavily K-doped multilayer FeSe films all reveal a large superconducting gap of ∼14  meV, irrespective of film thickness, verifying the higher-T_{c} superconductivity only in the topmost FeSe layer. The unusual finding of a double-dome superconducting phase is a step towards the mechanistic understanding of superconductivity in FeSe-derived superconductors.

  11. The Morphometrics of “Masculinity” in Human Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitteroecker, Philipp; Windhager, Sonja; Müller, Gerd B.; Schaefer, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    In studies of social inference and human mate preference, a wide but inconsistent array of tools for computing facial masculinity has been devised. Several of these approaches implicitly assumed that the individual expression of sexually dimorphic shape features, which we refer to as maleness, resembles facial shape features perceived as masculine. We outline a morphometric strategy for estimating separately the face shape patterns that underlie perceived masculinity and maleness, and for computing individual scores for these shape patterns. We further show how faces with different degrees of masculinity or maleness can be constructed in a geometric morphometric framework. In an application of these methods to a set of human facial photographs, we found that shape features typically perceived as masculine are wide faces with a wide inter-orbital distance, a wide nose, thin lips, and a large and massive lower face. The individual expressions of this combination of shape features—the masculinity shape scores—were the best predictor of rated masculinity among the compared methods (r = 0.5). The shape features perceived as masculine only partly resembled the average face shape difference between males and females (sexual dimorphism). Discriminant functions and Procrustes distances to the female mean shape were poor predictors of perceived masculinity. PMID:25671667

  12. Morphometric analysis of the fascicular organisation of the optic nerve

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    Radunović Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The optic nerve is anatomically observed in four segments: intrabulbar, orbital, canalicular, and cranial. According to the literature, the surface of the transversal cut of the nerve is different through it. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fascicular organisation of the optic nerve, throughout its three segments from the eye. Methods. Five pairs of optic nerves, obtained from the autopsies were examined. Using Heidenhain's (azan staining, the cuts were prepared for microscopy. Morphometric analysis was performed using the stereological methods for morphometric cytology - the Weible’s testing system M42. The following measures were established: the surface of the transverse cut of the nerve, the entire surface of fasciculi, the entire surface of connective tissue and blood vessels, the number of fasciculi, the surface of a single fasciculus. Results. The surface of the transverse cut of the nerve was found to grow from the orbital to the cranial segment, as well as the entire surface of fasciculi. While their number is significantly lower in the cranial segment, the number of fasciculi varied slightly between the orbital and the canalicular segment. The surface of a single fasciculus grows from the bulb to the chiasma. There is probable a cause to believe that this may be due to fusion of the “small” fasciculi in the orbitocranial direction. Conclusion. There are significant differences among the examined parameters of the different parts of the optic nerve.

  13. Morphometric Approach to Pulp Fibroblast Development in Tooth Germ

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    Irina-Draga Căruntu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper builds a morphometric framework for the analysis of dental pulp fibroblast evolution during tooth development. We investigated 15 tooth germs (cases organized, by histological criteria, in three groups corresponding to cap, early bell, and late bell stages, respectively. Each group comprised five cases. The morphometric description used the following parameters: area A, perimeter P—automatically extracted by a color segmentation technique, and form factor (FF—calculated as 4πA/P2. The designed framework operated at inter- and intragroup levels. The intergroup analysis quantified the differences between groups, in the sense of a relative distance (RD adequately defined by mean-value scaling. We showed that the stage of early bell is approximately 5 times closer to late bell than to cap. The quantification procedure required concomitant information about A, P parameters (as P versus A dependences, or FF values, whereas the procedure failed for A or P separately used. The intragroup analysis quantified the similarity of the cases belonging to the same stage. We proved that, unlike the intergroup tests, the individual exploitation of all three descriptors A, P, and FF is effective, yielding highly compatible results. Within any group, most cases presented RDs less than 10% from the group mean value, regardless of the descriptor type.

  14. EVOLUTION OF MORPHOMETRIC MEASURES IN THE MANGALARGA MARCHADOR BREED

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    JULIANO MARTINS SANTIAGO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mangalarga Marchador breed accounts for the largest horse herd in Brazil and has been experiencing national and international expansion. Nevertheless, there is little scientific production on the evolution of this breed and there are no studies on the morphometric transformations that took place during its formation. In this context, the present study aimed to assess the evolution in morphometric measures of the Mangalarga Marchador breed between 1970 and 2010. The research used information archived at the Brazilian Association of Mangalarga Marchador Breeders from 23,148 males and 92,980 females in a completely randomized experimental design. The six treatments consisted of the animals measured between 1970 and 1979, 1980 and 1989, 1990 and 1994, 1995 and 1999, 2000 and 2004, and 2005 and 2010, respectively. The measures assessed were: height at withers and croup, length of the head, neck, back, croup, shoulder, and body, width of the head and croup, thoracic circumference, and cannon circumference Over the period analyzed, males and females experienced a reduction in thoracic circumference, in the lengths of the head, back, croup, and shoulder, and in the widths of the head and croup. In the males, neck length and cannon circumference also decreased, while body length increased in females. Over time, breed selection led to smaller head, higher stature, and shorter trunk length. However, important measures for the breed’s functionality, such as shoulder length and thoracic circumference, decreased.

  15. Morphometric analysis of the foramen magnum: an anatomic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Loukas, Marios; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

    2010-02-01

    To further elucidate the importance of anatomic variations in morphology of the foramen magnum and associated clinical implications, we conducted a morphometric study. Seventy-two dry skulls were used for this study. Digital images were obtained of the foramen magnum from an inferior view. These images were studied using a computer-assisted image analysis system. Next, an image processor was used to calculate pixel differences between 2 selected points, which allowed accurate translation of pixel differences into metric measurements. We found that the mean surface area of the foramen magnum was 558 mm, the mean anteroposterior diameter was 3.1 cm, and the mean horizontal diameter was 2.7 cm. For comparison, surface areas were classified into 3 types based on size. Type I foramina were identified in 20.8% of the dry skulls (15 skulls) and exhibited a surface area of less than 500 mm2. Type II (66.6%, 48 skulls) was applied to foramina of an intermediate size with surface areas ranging between 500 to 600 mm2. Type III (12.5%, 9 skulls) was applied to large foramina with surface areas of more than 600 mm2. These data may be of use as a morphometric database for description of "normal" variants of foramen magnum morphology.

  16. Morphometrical variations of the carpal bones in thoroughbreds and ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdunnabi, A H; Ahmed, Y A; Philip, C J; Davies, H M S

    2012-04-01

    There is scant morphological data for equine carpal bones despite the frequent pathology in Thoroughbreds (TB). This study aimed to identify morphological and morphometrical variations and similarities in carpal bones between and within TB and Ponies (Po). Carpal bones from nine TB and 13 Po were prepared by boiling and drying. Lateromedial width, dorsopalmar depth, proximodistal height, relative density and volume of each bone were measured. Normalized measurements of the radial (Cr) and third (C3) carpal bones were significantly different in all dimensions, and there were significant variations in relative sizes of articular facets of the ulnar (Cu), C3 and fourth (C4) carpal bones between the groups. Bilaterally, the proportionate volume of the intermediate carpal bone (Ci) was significantly greater in Po while that of Cu and C4 were significantly greater in TB. Relative density of most bones was greater in Po. The palmar tuberosity of the proximal surface of Ci and palmar tubercle on the palmar surface of Cu were more prominent and relatively larger in TB. In the second carpal bone (C2), the distal extent of the proximal articular surface on the palmar surface was greater in Po. The inconsistent first carpal bone (C1) was relatively larger in Po. Morphometrical similarities and differences in carpal bones between TB and Po indicate potential effects of selection for body size or fast exercise.

  17. Relation between the morphometric parameters of Thymus and fetal weight.

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    Carmen Niurka Piña Loyola

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: When we are born, thymus weighs about 10 or 13 g. This organ can develop as a result of the interaction among various factors that have been classified as physiological and pathological. Some studies to establish morphological patterns of this organ have reported dissimilar results. Objective: To determine morphometric parameters of thymus and it relation with fetus weight in Cienfuegos province between the years 2003-2008. Methods: A correlational, descriptive, observational study was carried out in the period between May, 2003 and May 2008. We took a sample of thymus of 147 cases of fetal death, out of a total of 151 cases, from the 17th gestational week to the end of the gestation period. Besides, we carried out measurements of this organ such as weight, height, width, thickness and volume whose variability was analyzed in relation with fetal weight. Results: There was correspondence between the gestational age and fetal weight. The morphometric parameter of thymus augmented in relation with fetal weight, being significant for fetal weights over 1500 g, where the morphologic variables of thymus reached values two fold those of the previous range. Conclusions: The more the fetus stays in the uterus the greater is its morphological and organic development, which is related with the inherent characteristics of intrauterine development for fetal period.

  18. MORPHOMETRIC STUDY OF THYROID CARTILAGES IN WESTERN INDIA

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    Mohini M.Joshi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Morphometrical evaluation of the larynx has always been interesting for both morphologists and the physicians. A good understanding of the anatomy and the knowledge of variations in the laryngeal cartilages is important Objective: Objective of the present study was to collect exact and reliable morphometric data of thyroid cartilage in adult human larynx of regional population. Methods: The totals of 50 thyroid cartilage specimens were studied. The cartilages were preserved in 5% formalin. The measurements were taken with the help of Digital Vernier Caliper. The cartilages were weighed on Single pan electronic balance. For each of the parameters, the mean, standard deviation (S.D. and range was calculated. Results: Mean depth of superior thyroid notch was 9.7± 3.36 mm. Asymmetry between the length of superior horn of thyroid cartilages in left and right sides can be seen, but difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05. It is observed that inner thyroid angle varies from 55 to 1040 and outer thyroid angle varies from 53 to 990. In present study mean weight of thyroid cartilage was 6.70±1.55 grams. Conclusions: A fair amount of intersubject variability in the dimensions was observed. Bilateral asymmetry, though present in majority of specimens, was insignificant. Various dimensions of thyroid cartilages are smaller as compared to the western population.

  19. Application of Multilevel Models to Morphometric Data. Part 2. Correlations

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    O. Tsybrovskyy

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Multilevel organization of morphometric data (cells are “nested” within patients requires special methods for studying correlations between karyometric features. The most distinct feature of these methods is that separate correlation (covariance matrices are produced for every level in the hierarchy. In karyometric research, the cell‐level (i.e., within‐tumor correlations seem to be of major interest. Beside their biological importance, these correlation coefficients (CC are compulsory when dimensionality reduction is required. Using MLwiN, a dedicated program for multilevel modeling, we show how to use multivariate multilevel models (MMM to obtain and interpret CC in each of the levels. A comparison with two usual, “single‐level” statistics shows that MMM represent the only way to obtain correct cell‐level correlation coefficients. The summary statistics method (take average values across each patient produces patient‐level CC only, and the “pooling” method (merge all cells together and ignore patients as units of analysis yields incorrect CC at all. We conclude that multilevel modeling is an indispensable tool for studying correlations between morphometric variables.

  20. Mesoscale optical turbulence simulations at Dome C: refinements

    CERN Document Server

    Lascaux, Franck; Hagelin, Susanna

    2010-01-01

    In a recent paper the authors presented an extended study aiming at simulating the classical meteorological parameters and the optical turbulence at Dome C during the winter with the atmospherical mesoscale model Meso-NH. A statistical analysis has been presented and the conclusions of that paper have been very promising. Wind speed and temperature fields revealed to be very well reconstructed by the Meso-NH model with better performances than what has been achieved with the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) global model, especially near the surface. All results revealed to be resolution-dependent and it has been proved that a grid-nesting configuration (3 domains) with a high horizontal resolution (1km) for the innermost domain is necessary to reconstruct all the optical turbulence features with a good correlation to measurements. High resolution simulations provided an averaged surface layer thickness just ~14 m higher than what is estimated by measurements, the seeing in the free at...

  1. The Alien in Greenwich - Iain Sinclair & the Millennium Dome

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    Nicoletta Vallorani

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This essays looks at Sorry Meniscus Excursions to the Millennium Dome (Profile Books, 1999, by I Sinclair. The book collects two ";;Expeditions to the building site on Bugsby's Marshes";;, made in 1997   and 1999 and commissioned by the London Review of Books. The two resulting essays were published first separately, on the review, and  then in a volume by Profile Books. The booklet is a curious meditation on the metropolis that is the sinclairian life-project, and it focuses on the most recent urban enterprise that can be labelled  as an experiment in selling fake history for a fake political credit, giving voice to a fraud born and thriving in the fairyland of Blair's New Labour. Sinclair's journey also  shows how any urban imagination, when applied to London, tends to become curiously self-directed: it acquires its own life, and, as the creature of Frankenstein, it claims its own right to narrate its story. Sinclair proves to be very good at listening to this story, and even better at re-narrating it, trying not to intrude too much and keeping the voice of the city as clean as possible. And in this case, it is the voice of an alien.

  2. Meteorologic parameters analysis above Dome C made with ECMWF data

    CERN Document Server

    Geissler, Kryno K

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present the characterization of all the principal meteorological parameters (wind speed and direction, pressure, absolute and potential temperature) extended over 25 km from the ground and over two years (2003 and 2004) above the Antarctic site of Dome C. The data set is composed by 'analyses' provided by the General Circulation Model (GCM) of the European Center for Medium Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) and they are part of the catalog MARS. A monthly and seasonal (summer and winter time) statistical analysis of the results is presented. The Richardson number is calculated for each month of the year over 25 km to study the stability/instability of the atmosphere. This permits us to trace a map indicating where and when the optical turbulence has the highest probability to be triggered on the whole troposphere, tropopause and stratosphere. We finally try to predict the best expected isoplanatic angle and wavefront coherence time employing the Richardson number maps, the wind speed profiles and sim...

  3. Using Dome C for MODIS calibration and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, X.; Wu, A.; Wenny, B.

    2008-10-01

    MODIS is a scanning radiometer that has 36 spectral bands with wavelengths from visible (VIS) to long-wave infrared (LWIR). Its observations and data products have significantly enabled studies of changes in the Earth system of land, oceans, and atmosphere. Currently, there are two nearly identical MODIS instruments operated in space: one on the Terra spacecraft launched in December 1999 and another on the Aqua spacecraft lunched in May 2002. MODIS reflective solar bands (RSB) are calibrated on-orbit by a system that consists of a solar diffuser (SD) and a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM) on a regular basis. Its thermal emissive bands (TEB) calibration is executed on a scan-by-scan basis using an on-board blackbody (BB). In addition to on-board calibrators (OBC), well-characterized ground targets have been used by MODIS calibration and validation scientists and by the MODIS Characterization Support Team (MCST) to evaluate and validate sensor on-orbit calibration, characterization, and performance. In this paper, we describe current MCST effort and progress made to examine sensor stability and inter-calibration consistency using observations over Dome Concordia, Antarctica. Results show that this site can provide useful calibration reference for a wide range of Earth-observing sensors.

  4. Eclipsing Binaries From the CSTAR Project at Dome A, Antarctica

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Ming; Wang, Songhu; Zhou, Ji-Lin; Zhou, Xu; Wang, Lingzhi; Wang, Lifan; Wittenmyer, R A; Liu, Hui-Gen; Meng, Zeyang; Ashley, M C B; Storey, J W V; Bayliss, D; Tinney, Chris; Wang, Ying; Wu, Donghong; Liang, Ensi; Yu, Zhouyi; Fan, Zhou; Feng, Long-Long; Gong, Xuefei; Lawrence, J S; Liu, Qiang; Luong-Van, D M; Ma, Jun; Wu, Zhenyu; Yan, Jun; Yang, Huigen; Yang, Ji; Yuan, Xiangyan; Zhang, Tianmeng; Zhu, Zhenxi; Zou, Hu

    2015-01-01

    The Chinese Small Telescope ARray (CSTAR) has observed an area around the Celestial South Pole at Dome A since 2008. About $20,000$ light curves in the i band were obtained lasting from March to July, 2008. The photometric precision achieves about 4 mmag at i = 7.5 and 20 mmag at i = 12 within a 30 s exposure time. These light curves are analyzed using Lomb--Scargle, Phase Dispersion Minimization, and Box Least Squares methods to search for periodic signals. False positives may appear as a variable signature caused by contaminating stars and the observation mode of CSTAR. Therefore the period and position of each variable candidate are checked to eliminate false positives. Eclipsing binaries are removed by visual inspection, frequency spectrum analysis and locally linear embedding technique. We identify 53 eclipsing binaries in the field of view of CSTAR, containing 24 detached binaries, 8 semi-detached binaries, 18 contact binaries, and 3 ellipsoidal variables. To derive the parameters of these binaries, we ...

  5. Intrusion detection in wireless ad-hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chaki, Nabendu

    2014-01-01

    Presenting cutting-edge research, Intrusion Detection in Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks explores the security aspects of the basic categories of wireless ad-hoc networks and related application areas. Focusing on intrusion detection systems (IDSs), it explains how to establish security solutions for the range of wireless networks, including mobile ad-hoc networks, hybrid wireless networks, and sensor networks.This edited volume reviews and analyzes state-of-the-art IDSs for various wireless ad-hoc networks. It includes case studies on honesty-based intrusion detection systems, cluster oriented-based

  6. Novel Hybrid Intrusion Detection System For Clustered Wireless Sensor Network

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    Hichem Sedjelmaci

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor network (WSN is regularly deployed in unattended and hostile environments. The WSN isvulnerable to security threats and susceptible to physical capture. Thus, it is necessary to use effective mechanisms to protect the network. It is widely known, that the intrusion detection is one of the mostefficient security mechanisms to protect the network against malicious attacks or unauthorized access. In this paper, we propose a hybrid intrusion detection system for clustered WSN. Our intrusion framework uses a combination between the Anomaly Detection based on support vector machine (SVM and the Misuse Detection. Experiments results show that most of routing attacks can be detected with low falsealarm.

  7. Structure and evolution of an active resurgent dome evidenced by geophysical investigations: The Yenkahe dome-Yasur volcano system (Siwi caldera, Vanuatu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothelande, E.; Lénat, J.-F.; Chaput, M.; Gailler, L.; Finizola, A.; Dumont, S.; Peltier, A.; Bachèlery, P.; Barde-Cabusson, S.; Byrdina, S.; Menny, P.; Colonge, J.; Douillet, G. A.; Letort, J.; Letourneur, L.; Merle, O.; Di Gangi, F.; Nakedau, D.; Garaebiti, E.

    2016-08-01

    In this contribution, we focus on one of the most active resurgences on Earth, that of the Yenkahe dome in the Siwi caldera (Tanna Island, Vanuatu), which is associated with the persistently active Yasur volcano. Gravity and magnetic surveys have been carried out over the past few years in the area, as well as electrical methods including electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), time domain electro-magnetics (TDEM) and self-potential (SP). These investigations were completed by thermometry, CO2 soil gas measurements, field observations and sampling. This multi-method approach allows geological structures within the caldera to be identified, as well as associated hydrothermal features. The global structure of the caldera is deduced from gravity data, which shows the caldera rim as a high density structure. Large lava fields, emplaced before and after the onset of resurgence, are evidenced by combined gravity, magnetic and resistivity signals. In the middle of the caldera, the Yenkahe dome apparently results from a combination of volcanic and tectonic events, showing that lava extrusion and resurgence have been operating simultaneously or alternately during the Siwi caldera post-collapse history. There is a clear distinction between the western and eastern parts of the dome. The western part is older and records the growth of an initial volcanic cone and the formation of a small caldera. This small caldera (paleo-Yasur caldera), partially filled with lava flows, is the present-day focus of volcanic activity and associated fluid circulation and alteration. The eastern part of the dome is presumably younger, and is characterized by intense, extensive hydrothermal alteration and activity. Its northern part is covered by lava flow piles and exhibits a shallow hydrothermal zone in ERT. The southern part has hydrothermal alteration and activity extending at least down to the base of the resurgent dome. This part of the dome is built up of low cohesion rock and is thus

  8. Three-dimensional representations of salt-dome margins at four active strategic petroleum reserve sites.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Stein, Joshua S.

    2003-01-01

    Existing paper-based site characterization models of salt domes at the four active U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites have been converted to digital format and visualized using modern computer software. The four sites are the Bayou Choctaw dome in Iberville Parish, Louisiana; the Big Hill dome in Jefferson County, Texas; the Bryan Mound dome in Brazoria County, Texas; and the West Hackberry dome in Cameron Parish, Louisiana. A new modeling algorithm has been developed to overcome limitations of many standard geological modeling software packages in order to deal with structurally overhanging salt margins that are typical of many salt domes. This algorithm, and the implementing computer program, make use of the existing interpretive modeling conducted manually using professional geological judgement and presented in two dimensions in the original site characterization reports as structure contour maps on the top of salt. The algorithm makes use of concepts of finite-element meshes of general engineering usage. Although the specific implementation of the algorithm described in this report and the resulting output files are tailored to the modeling and visualization software used to construct the figures contained herein, the algorithm itself is generic and other implementations and output formats are possible. The graphical visualizations of the salt domes at the four Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites are believed to be major improvements over the previously available two-dimensional representations of the domes via conventional geologic drawings (cross sections and contour maps). Additionally, the numerical mesh files produced by this modeling activity are available for import into and display by other software routines. The mesh data are not explicitly tabulated in this report; however an electronic version in simple ASCII format is included on a PC-based compact disk.

  9. Geochronological constraints on 140-85 Ma thermal doming extension in the Dabie orogen, central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Regional architecture of geochronology and differential cooling pattern show that the Dabie orogen underwent a thermal doming extension during 140-85 Ma. This extension resulted in widespread re-melting of the Dabie basement, intense volcanic activities in North Huaiyang and the formation of fault-controlled depressions in the Hefei basin. This thermal doming extension can be further divided into two consecutive evolving stages, i.e. the intensifying stage (140-105 Ma) and the declining stage (105-85 Ma). In the first stage (140-105 Ma), the thermal doming mainly was concentrated in the Dabie block, and to a less degree, in the Hongan block. The thermal doming structure of the Dabie block is configured with Macheng-Yuexi thermal axis, Yuexi/Luotian thermal cores and their downslide flanks. The orientation of thermal axis is dominantly parallel to the strike of orogen, and UHP/HP units together with metamorphic rocks of North Huaiyang constitute the downslide flanks. The Yuexi core differs from the Luotian core in both the intensity and the shaping time. To some extent, the Hongan block can be regarded as part of downslide systems of the Dabie doming structure. The doming process is characterized by thermal-center's migration along the Macheng-Yuexi thermal axis; consequently, it is speculated to be attributed to the convective removal of thickened orogenic root, which is a process characterized by intermittance, migration, large-scale and differentiation. During the declining stage (105-85 Ma), the dome- shaped figure still structurally existed in the Dabie orogen, but orogenic units cooled remarkably slow and magmatic activities stagnated gradually. Study on the thermal doming of Dabieshan Mountains can thus provide detailed constraints on the major tectonic problems such as the UHP/HP exhumation model, the boundary between North Dabie and South Dabie, and the orogenesis mechanism.

  10. A Cascade of Wnt, Eda, and Shh Signaling Is Essential for Touch Dome Merkel Cell Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ying; Thoresen, Daniel T; Miao, Lingling; Williams, Jonathan S; Wang, Chaochen; Atit, Radhika P; Wong, Sunny Y; Brownell, Isaac

    2016-07-01

    The Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway regulates developmental, homeostatic, and repair processes throughout the body. In the skin, touch domes develop in tandem with primary hair follicles and contain sensory Merkel cells. The developmental signaling requirements for touch dome specification are largely unknown. We found dermal Wnt signaling and subsequent epidermal Eda/Edar signaling promoted Merkel cell morphogenesis by inducing Shh expression in early follicles. Lineage-specific gene deletions revealed intraepithelial Shh signaling was necessary for Merkel cell specification. Additionally, a Shh signaling agonist was sufficient to rescue Merkel cell differentiation in Edar-deficient skin. Moreover, Merkel cells formed in Fgf20 mutant skin where primary hair formation was defective but Shh production was preserved. Although developmentally associated with hair follicles, fate mapping demonstrated Merkel cells primarily originated outside the hair follicle lineage. These findings suggest that touch dome development requires Wnt-dependent mesenchymal signals to establish reciprocal signaling within the developing ectoderm, including Eda signaling to primary hair placodes and ultimately Shh signaling from primary follicles to extrafollicular Merkel cell progenitors. Shh signaling often demonstrates pleiotropic effects within a structure over time. In postnatal skin, Shh is known to regulate the self-renewal, but not the differentiation, of touch dome stem cells. Our findings relate the varied effects of Shh in the touch dome to the ligand source, with locally produced Shh acting as a morphogen essential for lineage specification during development and neural Shh regulating postnatal touch dome stem cell maintenance.

  11. Robust salt-dome detection using the ranking of texture-based attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deriche, Mohamed

    2016-09-01

    The accurate interpretation and analysis of seismic data heavily depends on the robustness of the algorithms used. We focus on the robust detection of salt domes from seismic surveys. We discuss a novel feature-ranking classification model for saltdome detection for seismic images using an optimal set of texture attributes. The proposed algorithm overcomes the limitations of existing texture attribute-based techniques, which heavily depend on the relevance of the attributes to the geological nature of salt domes and the number of attributes used for accurate detection. The algorithm combines the attributes from the Gray-Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM), the Gabor filters, and the eigenstructure of the covariance matrix with feature ranking using the information content. The top-ranked attributes are combined to form the optimal feature set, which ensures that the algorithm works well even in the absence of strong reflectors along the salt-dome boundaries. Contrary to existing salt-dome detection techniques, the proposed algorithm is robust and computationally efficient, and works with small-sized feature sets. I used the Netherlands F3 block to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm. The experimental results suggest that the proposed workflow based on information theory can detect salt domes with accuracy superior to existing salt-dome detection techniques.

  12. A comparison between semi-spheroid- and dome-shaped quantum dots coupled to wetting layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Shahzadeh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During the epitaxial growth method, self-assembled semi-spheroid-shaped quantum dots (QDs are formed on the wetting layer (WL. However for sake of simplicity, researchers sometimes assume semi-spheroid-shaped QDs to be dome-shaped (hemisphere. In this work, a detailed and comprehensive study on the difference between electronic and transition properties of dome- and semi-spheroid-shaped quantum dots is presented. We will explain why the P-to-S intersubband transition behaves the way it does. The calculated results for intersubband P-to-S transition properties of quantum dots show two different trends for dome-shaped and semi-spheroid-shaped quantum dots. The results are interpreted using the probability of finding electron inside the dome/spheroid region, with emphasis on the effects of wetting layer. It is shown that dome-shaped and semi-spheroid-shaped quantum dots feature different electronic and transition properties, arising from the difference in lateral dimensions between dome- and semi-spheroid-shaped QDs. Moreover, an analogy is presented between the bound S-states in the quantum dots and a simple 3D quantum mechanical particle in a box, and effective sizes are calculated. The results of this work will benefit researchers to present more realistic models of coupled QD/WL systems and explain their properties more precisely.

  13. Final report on decommissioning boreholes and wellsite restoration, Gulf Coast Interior Salt Domes of Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-04-01

    In 1978, eight salt domes in Texas, Louisiana, and Mississippi were identified for study as potential locations for a nuclear waste repository as part of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program. Three domes were selected in Mississippi for ``area characterization`` phase study as follows: Lampton Dome near Columbia, Cypress Creek Dome near New Augusta, and Richton Dome near Richton. The purpose of the studies was to acquire geologic and geohydrologic information from shallow and deep drilling investigations to enable selection of sites suitable for more intensive study. Eleven deep well sites were selected for multiple-well installations to acquire information on the lithologic and hydraulic properties of regional aquifers. In 1986, the Gulf Coast salt domes were eliminated from further consideration for repository development by the selection of three candidate sites in other regions of the country. In 1987, well plugging and restoration of these deferred sites became a closeout activity. The primary objectives of this activity are to plug and abandon all wells and boreholes in accordance with state regulations, restore all drilling sites to as near original condition as feasible, and convey to landowners any wells on their property that they choose to maintain. This report describes the activities undertaken to accomplish these objectives, as outlines in Activity Plan 1--2, ``Activity Plan for Well Plugging and Site Restoration of Test Hole Sites in Mississippi.``

  14. Distributions of cranial pathologies provide evidence for head-butting in dome-headed dinosaurs (Pachycephalosauridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Joseph E; Dischler, Collin; Longrich, Nicholas R

    2013-01-01

    Pachycephalosaurids are small, herbivorous dinosaurs with domed skulls formed by massive thickening of the cranial roof. The function of the dome has been a focus of debate: the dome has variously been interpreted as the product of sexual selection, as an adaptation for species recognition, or as a weapon employed in intraspecific combat, where it was used in butting matches as in extant ungulates. This last hypothesis is supported by the recent identification of cranial pathologies in pachycephalosaurids, which appear to represent infections resulting from trauma. However, the frequency and distribution of pathologies have not been studied in a systematic fashion. Here, we show that pachycephalosaurids are characterized by a remarkably high incidence of cranial injury, where 22% of specimens have lesions on the dome. Frequency of injury shows no significant difference between different genera, but flat-headed morphs (here interpreted as juveniles or females) lack lesions. Mapping of injuries onto a digitial pachycephalosaurid skull shows that although lesions are distributed across the dome, they cluster near the apex, which is consistent with the hypothesis that the dome functioned for intraspecific butting matches.

  15. A Cascade of Wnt, Eda, and Shh Signaling Is Essential for Touch Dome Merkel Cell Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Xiao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Sonic hedgehog (Shh signaling pathway regulates developmental, homeostatic, and repair processes throughout the body. In the skin, touch domes develop in tandem with primary hair follicles and contain sensory Merkel cells. The developmental signaling requirements for touch dome specification are largely unknown. We found dermal Wnt signaling and subsequent epidermal Eda/Edar signaling promoted Merkel cell morphogenesis by inducing Shh expression in early follicles. Lineage-specific gene deletions revealed intraepithelial Shh signaling was necessary for Merkel cell specification. Additionally, a Shh signaling agonist was sufficient to rescue Merkel cell differentiation in Edar-deficient skin. Moreover, Merkel cells formed in Fgf20 mutant skin where primary hair formation was defective but Shh production was preserved. Although developmentally associated with hair follicles, fate mapping demonstrated Merkel cells primarily originated outside the hair follicle lineage. These findings suggest that touch dome development requires Wnt-dependent mesenchymal signals to establish reciprocal signaling within the developing ectoderm, including Eda signaling to primary hair placodes and ultimately Shh signaling from primary follicles to extrafollicular Merkel cell progenitors. Shh signaling often demonstrates pleiotropic effects within a structure over time. In postnatal skin, Shh is known to regulate the self-renewal, but not the differentiation, of touch dome stem cells. Our findings relate the varied effects of Shh in the touch dome to the ligand source, with locally produced Shh acting as a morphogen essential for lineage specification during development and neural Shh regulating postnatal touch dome stem cell maintenance.

  16. The Effectiveness of Modified Vertical Dome Division Technique in Reducing Nasal Tip Projection in Rhinoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rafatbakhs

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The technique of vertical dome division or tip defining, involves incising the lateral crura and vestibular skin at or lateral to the dome or tip defining point. The incision divides the lower lateral cartilage into a lateral segment and a medial segment, which are advanced anteriorly and sutured together to increase tip projection. The present study aimed at assessing a new vertical dome division, which is a modified version of vertical dome technique to decrease nasal tip projection, and increase or decrease nasal tip rotation and other tip deformities. Methods: The medical files of patients undergone rhinoplasty from 2003 to 2008 were retrospectively analyzed. The files were selected from a computerized rhinoplasty database of patients, who had been operated using a modified vertical dome technique and followed-up for one year or more after the surgery. Results: A total of 3756 patients were operated. Complications related to the nasal tip such as bossae, bifidity, persistent tip projection or tip asymmetry was seen in 81 patients (2.1%. Revisions for tip-related problems were performed in 42 patients (1.1%. Conclusions: The findings suggest that the modified vertical dome technique is an effective method for nasal tip deprojection and narrowing via an open approach. The length of follow-up and the large sample size support effectiveness of the technique

  17. Abstracting audit data for lightweight intrusion detection

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Wei

    2010-01-01

    High speed of processing massive audit data is crucial for an anomaly Intrusion Detection System (IDS) to achieve real-time performance during the detection. Abstracting audit data is a potential solution to improve the efficiency of data processing. In this work, we propose two strategies of data abstraction in order to build a lightweight detection model. The first strategy is exemplar extraction and the second is attribute abstraction. Two clustering algorithms, Affinity Propagation (AP) as well as traditional k-means, are employed to extract the exemplars, and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is employed to abstract important attributes (a.k.a. features) from the audit data. Real HTTP traffic data collected in our institute as well as KDD 1999 data are used to validate the two strategies of data abstraction. The extensive test results show that the process of exemplar extraction significantly improves the detection efficiency and has a better detection performance than PCA in data abstraction. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  18. KUROSHIO INTRUSION INTO THE SOUTH CHINA SEA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qing-hua; FAN Hai-mei; QU Yuan-yuan

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the circulation of the South China Sea (SCS), which is idealized as the rectangular basin with constant depth, is studied under Kuroshio boundary forces. Starting from the linearly quasi-geostrophic vorticity equation, the solution of the SCS circulation is given in the form of corrected Fourier series under proper boundary conditions. The results show that the intruded current flows westward and separates into the northward branch and the southward branch before arriving at the western boundary. The southward branch flows out of the SCS through the southwestern passage, at the same time, the induced cyclonic (anti-clockwise) ring almost occupies the middle and southern parts, and concomitant anti-cyclonic (clockwise) vortex appears between the cyclone and the western boundary. While the northward branch outflows through the northeastern passage, the anti-cyclonic (clockwise) ring is triggered at the northern part of the SCS. The above two vortexes are both intensified if the south-entering and the north-leaving current loop intrusion are superposed. The outer flow of the northern vortex flows westward, then northward, and then eastward, and it is very similar to the configuration of the SCS Warm Current (SCSWC) at the northern part of the SCS, thus, a kind of generating mechanism of the SCSWC is presented.

  19. Intrusion Prevention/Intrusion Detection System (IPS/IDS for Wifi Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Korcak

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The nature of wireless networks itself created new vulnerabilities that in the classical wired network s do not exist. This results in an evolutional requireme nt to implement new sophisticated security mechanis m in form of Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems. This paper deals with security issues of small off ice and home office wireless networks. The goal of our work is to design and evaluate wireless IDPS with u se of packet injection method. Decrease of attacker’s traffic by 95% was observed when compared to attacker’s traffic without deployment of proposed I DPS system.

  20. Effectiveness of Intrusion Prevention Systems (IPS) in Fast Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Shafi, Muhammad Imran; Hayat, Sikandar; Sohail, Imran

    2010-01-01

    Computer systems are facing biggest threat in the form of malicious data which causing denial of service, information theft, financial and credibility loss etc. No defense technique has been proved successful in handling these threats. Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems (IDPSs) being best of available solutions. These techniques are getting more and more attention. Although Intrusion Prevention Systems (IPSs) show a good level of success in detecting and preventing intrusion attempts to networks, they show a visible deficiency in their performance when they are employed on fast networks. In this paper we have presented a design including quantitative and qualitative methods to identify improvement areas in IPSs. Focus group is used for qualitative analysis and experiment is used for quantitative analysis. This paper also describes how to reduce the responding time for IPS when an intrusion occurs on network, and how can IPS be made to perform its tasks successfully without effecting network speed nega...

  1. Security Enrichment in Intrusion Detection System Using Classifier Ensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma R. Salunkhe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the era of Internet and with increasing number of people as its end users, a large number of attack categories are introduced daily. Hence, effective detection of various attacks with the help of Intrusion Detection Systems is an emerging trend in research these days. Existing studies show effectiveness of machine learning approaches in handling Intrusion Detection Systems. In this work, we aim to enhance detection rate of Intrusion Detection System by using machine learning technique. We propose a novel classifier ensemble based IDS that is constructed using hybrid approach which combines data level and feature level approach. Classifier ensembles combine the opinions of different experts and improve the intrusion detection rate. Experimental results show the improved detection rates of our system compared to reference technique.

  2. Probabilistic risk assessment for six vapour intrusion algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Provoost, J.; Reijnders, L.; Bronders, J.; Van Keer, I.; Govaerts, S.

    2014-01-01

    A probabilistic assessment with sensitivity analysis using Monte Carlo simulation for six vapour intrusion algorithms, used in various regulatory frameworks for contaminated land management, is presented here. In addition a deterministic approach with default parameter sets is evaluated against obse

  3. Probabilistic risk assessment for six vapour intrusion algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Provoost, J.; Reijnders, L.; Bronders, J.; Van Keer, I.; Govaerts, S.

    2014-01-01

    A probabilistic assessment with sensitivity analysis using Monte Carlo simulation for six vapour intrusion algorithms, used in various regulatory frameworks for contaminated land management, is presented here. In addition a deterministic approach with default parameter sets is evaluated against

  4. SVM Intrusion Detection Model Based on Compressed Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanxiong Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrusion detection needs to deal with a large amount of data; particularly, the technology of network intrusion detection has to detect all of network data. Massive data processing is the bottleneck of network software and hardware equipment in intrusion detection. If we can reduce the data dimension in the stage of data sampling and directly obtain the feature information of network data, efficiency of detection can be improved greatly. In the paper, we present a SVM intrusion detection model based on compressive sampling. We use compressed sampling method in the compressed sensing theory to implement feature compression for network data flow so that we can gain refined sparse representation. After that SVM is used to classify the compression results. This method can realize detection of network anomaly behavior quickly without reducing the classification accuracy.

  5. Vapor Intrusion Facility Boundaries - Approximate Extent of Contamination

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Theses polygons represent the approximate extent of contamination for Vapor Intrusion facilities. Polygons for non-Federal Facility sites were updated in January,...

  6. An expert system application for network intrusion detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, K.A.; Dubois, D.H.; Stallings, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes the design of a prototype intrusion detection system for the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Integrated Computing Network (ICN). The Network Anomaly Detection and Intrusion Reporter (NADIR) differs in one respect from most intrusion detection systems. It tries to address the intrusion detection problem on a network, as opposed to a single operating system. NADIR design intent was to copy and improve the audit record review activities normally done by security auditors. We wished to replace the manual review of audit logs with a near realtime expert system. NADIR compares network activity, as summarized in user profiles, against expert rules that define network security policy, improper or suspicious network activities, and normal network and user activity. When it detects deviant (anomalous) behavior, NADIR alerts operators in near realtime, and provides tools to aid in the investigation of the anomalous event. 15 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Tropical upper tropospheric humidity variations due to potential vorticity intrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhya, M.; Sridharan, S.; Indira Devi, M.

    2015-09-01

    Four cases (March 2009, May 2009, April 2010 and February 2012) are presented in which the ERA-interim relative humidity (RH) shows consistent increase by more than 50 % in the upper troposphere (200-250 hPa) over tropics at the eastward side of the potential vorticity (PV) intrusion region. The increase in RH is confirmed with the spaceborne microwave limb sounder observations and radiosonde observations over Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E) and is observed irrespective of whether the PV intrusions are accompanied by deep convection or not. It is demonstrated that the increase in RH is due to poleward advection induced by the PV intrusions in their eastward side at the upper tropospheric heights. It is suggested that the low-latitude convection, which is not necessarily triggered by the PV intrusion, might have transported water vapour to the upper tropospheric heights.

  8. Probabilistic risk assessment for six vapour intrusion algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Provoost, J.; Reijnders, L.; Bronders, J.; Van Keer, I.; Govaerts, S.

    2014-01-01

    A probabilistic assessment with sensitivity analysis using Monte Carlo simulation for six vapour intrusion algorithms, used in various regulatory frameworks for contaminated land management, is presented here. In addition a deterministic approach with default parameter sets is evaluated against obse

  9. Novel Non-Intrusive Vibration Monitoring System for Turbopumps Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AI Signal Research, Inc. proposes to develop a Non-Intrusive Vibration Measurement System (NI-VMS) for turbopumps which will provide effective on-board/off-board...

  10. Novel Non-Intrusive Vibration Monitoring System for Turbopumps Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ASRI proposes to develop an advanced and commercially viable Non-Intrusive Vibration Monitoring System (NI-VMS) which can provide effective on-line/off-line engine...

  11. Combining Naive Bayes and Decision Tree for Adaptive Intrusion Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Farid, Dewan Md; Rahman, Mohammad Zahidur; 10.5121/ijnsa.2010.2202

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a new learning algorithm for adaptive network intrusion detection using naive Bayesian classifier and decision tree is presented, which performs balance detections and keeps false positives at acceptable level for different types of network attacks, and eliminates redundant attributes as well as contradictory examples from training data that make the detection model complex. The proposed algorithm also addresses some difficulties of data mining such as handling continuous attribute, dealing with missing attribute values, and reducing noise in training data. Due to the large volumes of security audit data as well as the complex and dynamic properties of intrusion behaviours, several data miningbased intrusion detection techniques have been applied to network-based traffic data and host-based data in the last decades. However, there remain various issues needed to be examined towards current intrusion detection systems (IDS). We tested the performance of our proposed algorithm with existing learn...

  12. Environmental data processor of the adaptive intrusion data system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, M.S.

    1977-06-01

    A data acquisition system oriented specifically toward collection and processing of various meteorological and environmental parameters has been designed around a National Semiconductor IMP-16 microprocessor, This system, called the Environmental Data Processor (EDP), was developed specifically for use with the Adaptive Intrusion Data System (AIDS) in a perimeter intrusion alarm evaluation, although its design is sufficiently general to permit use elsewhere. This report describes in general detail the design of the EDP and its interaction with other AIDS components.

  13. A Subset Feature Elimination Mechanism for Intrusion Detection System

    OpenAIRE

    Herve Nkiama; Syed Zainudeen Mohd Said; Muhammad Saidu

    2016-01-01

    several studies have suggested that by selecting relevant features for intrusion detection system, it is possible to considerably improve the detection accuracy and performance of the detection engine. Nowadays with the emergence of new technologies such as Cloud Computing or Big Data, large amount of network traffic are generated and the intrusion detection system must dynamically collected and analyzed the data produce by the incoming traffic. However in a large dataset not all features con...

  14. Enhancing BATTLEMIND: Preventing PTSD by Coping with Intrusive Thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    replace it right away. This thought replacing skill is especially good to use late at night if you are having trouble sleeping . But, you will need to...then this is a good skill for you to practice with at home so that you can learn to be decent toward yourself. When you spend your time and energy...about intrusive thoughts ◦ CONTROL: traditional CBT skills for coping ◦ RESET: Mindfulness-based skills for coping Thoughts on intrusive thoughts

  15. Managing Temporal and Spatial Variability in Vapor Intrusion Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    Managing Temporal and Spatial Variability in Vapor Intrusion Data Todd McAlary, M.Sc., P.Eng., P.G. Geosyntec Consultants, Inc...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Managing Temporal and Spatial Variability in Vapor Intrusion Data 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...Koc (mL/g) OSWER indoor conc. at 10-6 risk (ppb) Vapour pressure (atm) Water solubility (g/l) 1,1,1-Trichloroethane 110 400

  16. Intrusion and extrusion of water in hydrophobic mesopores

    OpenAIRE

    Barrat, Jean-Louis; Lefevre, Benoit; Bocquet, Lyderic; Saugey, Anthony; Vigier, Gérard; Gobin, Pierre-François; Charlaix, Elisabeth

    2003-01-01

    We present experimental and theoretical results on intrusion-extrusion cycles of water in hydrophobic mesoporous materials, characterized by independent cylindrical pores. The intrusion, which takes place above the bulk saturation pressure, can be well described using a macroscopic capillary model. Once the material is saturated with water, extrusion takes place upon reduction of the externally applied pressure; Our results for the extrusion pressure can only be understood by assuming that th...

  17. Biochemical and Clinical Assessments of Segmental Maxillary Posterior Tooth Intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasanapanont, Jintana; Wattanachai, Tanapan; Apisariyakul, Janya; Pothacharoen, Peraphan; Kongtawelert, Prachya; Midtbø, Marit

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To compare chondroitin sulphate (CS) levels around maxillary second premolars, first molars, and second molars between the unloaded and the loaded periods and to measure the rates of intrusion of maxillary posterior teeth during segmental posterior tooth intrusion. Materials and Methods. In this prospective clinical study, 105 teeth (from 15 patients exhibiting anterior open bite and requiring maxillary posterior tooth intrusion) were studied. Competitive ELISA was used to detect CS levels. Dental casts (during the unloaded and loaded periods) were scanned, and posterior tooth intrusion distances were measured. Results. During the unloaded period, the median CS levels around maxillary second premolars, first molars, second molars (experimental teeth), and mandibular first molars (negative control) were 0.006, 0.055, 0.056, and 0.012 and during the loaded period were 2.592, 5.738, 4.727, and 0.163 ng/μg of total protein, respectively. The median CS levels around experimental teeth were significantly elevated during the loaded period. The mean rates of maxillary second premolar and first and second molar intrusion were 0.72, 0.58, and 0.40 mm/12 weeks, respectively. Conclusions. Biochemical and clinical assessments suggested that the segmental posterior tooth intrusion treatment modality with 50 g of vertical force per side was sufficient. Trial Registration. The study is registered as TCTR20170206006. PMID:28321256

  18. Combining Naive Bayes and Decision Tree for Adaptive Intrusion Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewan Md. Farid

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new learning algorithm for adaptive network intrusion detection using naive Bayesian classifier and decision tree is presented, which performs balance detections and keeps false positives at acceptable level for different types of network attacks, and eliminates redundant attributes as well as contradictory examples from training data that make the detection model complex. The proposedalgorithm also addresses some difficulties of data mining such as handling continuous attribute, dealing with missing attribute values, and reducing noise in training data. Due to the large volumes of security audit data as well as the complex and dynamic properties of intrusion behaviours, several data miningbased intrusion detection techniques have been applied to network-based traffic data and host-based data in the last decades. However, there remain various issues needed to be examined towards current intrusion detection systems (IDS. We tested the performance of our proposed algorithm with existing learning algorithms by employing on the KDD99 benchmark intrusion detection dataset. The experimental results prove that the proposed algorithm achieved high detection rates (DR andsignificant reduce false positives (FP for different types of network intrusions using limited computational resources

  19. The effects of nicotine on intrusive memories in nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Kirsten A; Cougle, Jesse R

    2013-12-01

    Correlational research suggests that smoking increases risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), though such research by nature cannot rule out third variable explanations for this relationship. The present study used an analogue trauma film design to experimentally test the effects of nicotine on the occurrence of intrusive memories. Fifty-four healthy nonsmokers were randomly assigned to ingest either a nicotine or placebo lozenge before viewing a film depicting motor vehicle accidents. Participants recorded intrusive memories immediately after the film and for a week via diary. Participants in the nicotine condition reported significantly more intrusive memories immediately after watching the film, yet no group differences emerged on intrusions or intrusion-related distress reported during the following week. Among participants low in dispositional rumination, those who had ingested a nicotine lozenge reported more intrusions in the subsequent week than those in the placebo condition. These findings provide novel experimental evidence for the role of nicotine in increasing risk of PTSD and suggest that nicotine may contribute to trauma-related rumination but not heightened reactivity to trauma cues.

  20. Saltwater intrusion in coastal regions of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Paul M.; Reichard, Eric G.

    2010-01-01

    Saltwater has intruded into many of the coastal aquifers of the United States, Mexico, and Canada, but the extent of saltwater intrusion varies widely among localities and hydrogeologic settings. In many instances, the area contaminated by saltwater is limited to small parts of an aquifer and to specific wells and has had little or no effect on overall groundwater supplies; in other instances, saltwater contamination is of regional extent and has resulted in the closure of many groundwater supply wells. The variability of hydrogeologic settings, three-dimensional distribution of saline water, and history of groundwater withdrawals and freshwater drainage has resulted in a variety of modes of saltwater intrusion into coastal aquifers. These include lateral intrusion from the ocean; upward intrusion from deeper, more saline zones of a groundwater system; and downward intrusion from coastal waters. Saltwater contamination also has occurred along open boreholes and within abandoned, improperly constructed, or corroded wells that provide pathways for vertical migration across interconnected aquifers. Communities within the coastal regions of North America are taking actions to manage and prevent saltwater intrusion to ensure a sustainable source of groundwater for the future. These actions can be grouped broadly into scientific monitoring and assessment, engineering techniques, and regulatory approaches.

  1. Three Dimensional Vapor Intrusion Modeling: Model Validation and Uncertainty Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbariyeh, S.; Patterson, B.; Rakoczy, A.; Li, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Volatile organic chemicals (VOCs), such as chlorinated solvents and petroleum hydrocarbons, are prevalent groundwater contaminants due to their improper disposal and accidental spillage. In addition to contaminating groundwater, VOCs may partition into the overlying vadose zone and enter buildings through gaps and cracks in foundation slabs or basement walls, a process termed vapor intrusion. Vapor intrusion of VOCs has been recognized as a detrimental source for human exposures to potential carcinogenic or toxic compounds. The simulation of vapor intrusion from a subsurface source has been the focus of many studies to better understand the process and guide field investigation. While multiple analytical and numerical models were developed to simulate the vapor intrusion process, detailed validation of these models against well controlled experiments is still lacking, due to the complexity and uncertainties associated with site characterization and soil gas flux and indoor air concentration measurement. In this work, we present an effort to validate a three-dimensional vapor intrusion model based on a well-controlled experimental quantification of the vapor intrusion pathways into a slab-on-ground building under varying environmental conditions. Finally, a probabilistic approach based on Monte Carlo simulations is implemented to determine the probability distribution of indoor air concentration based on the most uncertain input parameters.

  2. Towards Multi-Stage Intrusion Detection using IP Flow Records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Fahad Umer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditional network-based intrusion detection sys-tems using deep packet inspection are not feasible for modern high-speed networks due to slow processing and inability to read encrypted packet content. As an alternative to packet-based intrusion detection, researchers have focused on flow-based intrusion detection techniques. Flow-based intrusion detection systems analyze IP flow records for attack detection. IP flow records contain summarized traffic information. However, flow data is very large in high-speed networks and cannot be processed in real-time by the intrusion detection system. In this paper, an efficient multi-stage model for intrusion detection using IP flows records is proposed. The first stage in the model classifies the traffic as normal or malicious. The malicious flows are further analyzed by a second stage. The second stage associates an attack type with malicious IP flows. The proposed multi-stage model is efficient because the majority of IP flows are discarded in the first stage and only malicious flows are examined in detail. We also describe the implementation of our model using machine learning techniques.

  3. Transiting planet candidates with ASTEP 400 at Dome C, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mékarnia, D.; Guillot, T.; Rivet, J.-P.; Schmider, F.-X.; Abe, L.; Gonçalves, I.; Agabi, A.; Crouzet, N.; Fruth, T.; Barbieri, M.; Bayliss, D. D. R.; Zhou, G.; Aristidi, E.; Szulagyi, J.; Daban, J.-B.; Fanteï-Caujolle, Y.; Gouvret, C.; Erikson, A.; Rauer, H.; Bouchy, F.; Gerakis, J.; Bouchez, G.

    2016-11-01

    ASTEP 400, the main instrument of the ASTEP (Antarctica Search for Transiting ExoPlanets) programme, is a 40 cm telescope, designed to withstand the harsh conditions in Antarctica, achieving a photometric accuracy of a fraction of millimagnitude on hourly time-scales for planet-hosting southern bright (R ˜ 12 mag) stars. We review the performances of this instrument, describe its operating conditions, and present results from the analysis of observations obtained during its first three years (2010-2012) of operation, before its repatriation in 2014. During this time, we observed a total of 22 stellar fields (1° × 1° field of view). Each field, in which we measured stars up to magnitude R = 18 mag, was observed continuously during ˜7 to ˜30 d. More than 200 000 frames were recorded and 310 000 stars processed, using an implementation of the optimal image subtraction photometry algorithm. We found 43 planetary transit candidates. 20 of these candidates were observed using spectroscopic follow-ups including four targets classified as good planet candidates. Our results demonstrate that accurate near-continuous photometric observations are achievable from the Concordia station at Dome C in Antarctica, even if we were not able to reach the nominal photometric precision of the instrument. We conducted a correlation analysis between the rms noise and a large number of external parameters and found that source of the ˜1 mmag correlated noise is not obvious and does not depend on a single parameter. However, our analysis provided some hints and guidance to increase the photometric accuracy of the instrument. These improvements should equip any future telescope operating in Antarctica.

  4. Manufacturing and metrology for IR conformal windows and domes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferralli, Ian; Blalock, Todd; Brunelle, Matt; Lynch, Timothy; Myer, Brian; Medicus, Kate

    2017-05-01

    Freeform and conformal optics have the potential to dramatically improve optical systems by enabling systems with fewer optical components, reduced aberrations, and improved aerodynamic performance. These optical components differ from standard components in their surface shape, typically a non-symmetric equation based definition, and material properties. Traditional grinding and polishing tools are unable to handle these freeform shapes. Additionally, standard metrology tools cannot measure these surfaces. Desired substrates are typically hard ceramics, including poly-crystalline alumina or aluminum oxynitride. Notwithstanding the challenges that the hardness provides to manufacturing, these crystalline materials can be highly susceptible to grain decoration creating unacceptable scatter in optical systems. In this presentation, we will show progress towards addressing the unique challenges of manufacturing conformal windows and domes. Particular attention is given to our robotic polishing platform. This platform is based on an industrial robot adapted to accept a wide range of tooling and parts. The robot's flexibility has provided us an opportunity to address the unique challenges of conformal windows. Slurries and polishing active layers can easily be changed to adapt to varying materials and address grain decoration. We have the flexibility to change tool size and shape to address the varying sizes and shapes of conformal optics. In addition, the robotic platform can be a base for a deflectometry-based metrology tool to measure surface form error. This system, whose precision is independent of the robot's positioning accuracy, will allow us to measure optics in-situ saving time and reducing part risk. In conclusion, we will show examples of the conformal windows manufactured using our developed processes.

  5. Public Education and Outreach Through Full-Dome Video Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, John

    2009-03-01

    My long-term goal is to enhance public understanding of complex systems that can be best demonstrated through richly detailed computer graphic animation displayed with full-dome video technology. My current focus is on health science advances that focus on regenerative medicine, which helps the body heal itself. Such topics facilitate science learning and health literacy. My team develops multi-media presentations that bring the scientific and medical advances to the public through immersive high-definition video animation. Implicit in treating the topics of regenerative medicine will be the need to address stem cell biology. The topics are clarified and presented from a platform of facts and balanced ethical consideration. The production process includes communicating scientific information about the excitement and importance of stem cell research. Principles of function are emphasized over specific facts or terminology by focusing on a limited, but fundamental set of concepts. To achieve this, visually rich, biologically accurate 3D computer graphic environments are created to illustrate the cells, tissues and organs of interest. A suite of films are produced, and evaluated in pre- post-surveys assessing attitudes, knowledge and learning. Each film uses engaging interactive demonstrations to illustrate biological functions, the things that go wrong due to disease and disability, and the remedy provided by regenerative medicine. While the images are rich and detailed, the language is accessible and appropriate to the audience. The digital, high-definition video is also re-edited for presentation in other ``flat screen'' formats, increasing our distribution potential. Show content is also presented in an interactive web space (www.sepa.duq.edu) with complementing teacher resource guides and student workbooks and companion video games.

  6. Morphometric evaluation of keratocystic odontogenic tumor before and after marsupialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Campos Telles

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was the morphometric evaluation of the epithelial lining and fibrous capsule in histological specimens of keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KOTs before and after marsupialization. Histological sections from six KOTs that had undergone marsupialization followed by enucleation were photographed. The thickness and features of the capsule and of the epithelial lining of the tumor were evaluated upon marsupialization and upon subsequent enucleation using Axion Vision software. The histological specimens taken upon marsupialization presented an epithelial lining that is typical of KOTs. After marsupialization, the enucleated specimens had a modified epithelial lining and a fibrous capsule that both presented a greater median thickness (p = 0.0277 and p = 0.0212, respectively, morphological changes, and significant enlargement. These modifications can facilitate full surgical treatment and may well be related to a low KOT recurrence rate.

  7. Terrestrial mammal feces: a morphometric summary and description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Chame

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of feces of terrestrial mammals brings out biological and ecological data such as the species presence, diet, behaviour, territory, parasitic fauna, and home-range use, which can be applied for conservation projects and support paleoecological research that use coprolites as the main source of study. Although the new biotechnological techniques allow more accurate data, the diagnosis based on morphometric analyses permits the primary identification of the taxonomic group origin to support the best choice of subsequent analyses. We present the compilation list of fecal shape and measurements available in the literature published in North America, Eastern and Southern Africa, Europe, and new data from Brazil. Shape and diameters are the best characteristics for taxonomic identification. Feces were assembled in 9 groups that reflect the Order, sometimes the Family, and even their common origin.

  8. Automation of Morphometric Measurements for Planetary Surface Analysis and Cartography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokhanov, A. A.; Bystrov, A. Y.; Kreslavsky, M. A.; Matveev, E. V.; Karachevtseva, I. P.

    2016-06-01

    For automation of measurements of morphometric parameters of surface relief various tools were developed and integrated into GIS. We have created a tool, which calculates statistical characteristics of the surface: interquartile range of heights, and slopes, as well as second derivatives of height fields as measures of topographic roughness. Other tools were created for morphological studies of craters. One of them allows automatic placing of topographic profiles through the geometric center of a crater. Another tool was developed for calculation of small crater depths and shape estimation, using C++ programming language. Additionally, we have prepared tool for calculating volumes of relief features from DTM rasters. The created software modules and models will be available in a new developed web-GIS system, operating in distributed cloud environment.

  9. Morphometric changes of the corpus callosum in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomaiuolo, Francesco; Campana, Serena; Collins, D Louis

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of visual deprivation at birth on the development of the corpus callosum in a large group of congenitally blind individuals. We acquired high-resolution T1-weighted MRI scans in 28 congenitally blind and 28 normal sighted subjects matched for age and gender....... There was no overall group effect of visual deprivation on the total surface area of the corpus callosum. However, subdividing the corpus callosum into five subdivisions revealed significant regional changes in its three most posterior parts. Compared to the sighted controls, congenitally blind individuals showed a 12......% reduction in the splenium, and a 20% increase in the isthmus and the posterior part of the body. A shape analysis further revealed that the bending angle of the corpus callosum was more convex in congenitally blind compared to the sighted control subjects. The observed morphometric changes in the corpus...

  10. Morphometric evaluation of male Mediterranean buffaloes in Northern Corrientes, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cedrés

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine morphometric parameters for male Mediterranean buffaloes, at different stages of life, raised under natural pasture conditions in Northern Corrientes, Argentina. A total of 170 buffalo bulls, with ages of 7 months (W, weaning, 18-20 months (G18, 24-30 months (G24 and older than 36 months (G36 were evaluated. Measured parameters were body weight (BW, scrotal circumference (SC, thoracic perimeter (TP, sacrum height (SH and wither height (WH. The average daily growth of scrotal circumference was 0.013 cm per day, measured from weaning through 36 months. More studies are needed in order to standardize the morphometry of male Mediterranean buffaloes in Northern Argentina.

  11. AUTOMATION OF MORPHOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS FOR PLANETARY SURFACE ANALYSIS AND CARTOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kokhanov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For automation of measurements of morphometric parameters of surface relief various tools were developed and integrated into GIS. We have created a tool, which calculates statistical characteristics of the surface: interquartile range of heights, and slopes, as well as second derivatives of height fields as measures of topographic roughness. Other tools were created for morphological studies of craters. One of them allows automatic placing of topographic profiles through the geometric center of a crater. Another tool was developed for calculation of small crater depths and shape estimation, using C++ programming language. Additionally, we have prepared tool for calculating volumes of relief features from DTM rasters. The created software modules and models will be available in a new developed web-GIS system, operating in distributed cloud environment.

  12. Morphometric analysis of cryofixed muscular tissue for intraoperative consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianciardi, Giorgio; Pontenani, Francesca; Vassallo, Loretta; Tacchini, Damiana; Buonsanti, Michele; Tripodi, Sergio

    2016-03-01

    For diagnostic purposes, cryofixation of tissues is a daily routine technique to investigate rapidly about the presence of tumours during a surgical procedure in patients. We performed morphometric analysis of cryofixed muscular tissues according to different techniques. About 1,000 muscle fibers and 1,493 nuclei, were automatically examined. After freezing, ice tissue interfaces shrinkage of the cells were present. Liquid isopentane or liquid nitrogen produced a statistical increase of fractal dimension, D, of the ice-tissue interfaces, P damage inside the muscle cells was absent in the samples cryofixed inside the cryostat, it was present after cryofixation by liquid nitrogen or isopentane. Subcellular components like the nuclei were preserved by isopentane. This paper present, for the first time, an objective method able to quantify and characterize the damages produced by cryofixation in biological sample for intraoperative consultation.

  13. Studying developmental variation with Geometric Morphometric Image Analysis (GMIA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Christine; Metscher, Brian D; Müller, Gerd B; Mitteroecker, Philipp

    2014-01-01

    The ways in which embryo development can vary across individuals of a population determine how genetic variation translates into adult phenotypic variation. The study of developmental variation has been hampered by the lack of quantitative methods for the joint analysis of embryo shape and the spatial distribution of cellular activity within the developing embryo geometry. By drawing from the strength of geometric morphometrics and pixel/voxel-based image analysis, we present a new approach for the biometric analysis of two-dimensional and three-dimensional embryonic images. Well-differentiated structures are described in terms of their shape, whereas structures with diffuse boundaries, such as emerging cell condensations or molecular gradients, are described as spatial patterns of intensities. We applied this approach to microscopic images of the tail fins of larval and juvenile rainbow trout. Inter-individual variation of shape and cell density was found highly spatially structured across the tail fin and temporally dynamic throughout the investigated period.

  14. Regional flood susceptibility analysis in mountainous areas through the use of morphometric and land cover indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Rogelis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A classification of susceptibility to flooding of 106 mountain watersheds was carried out in Bogotá (Colombia through the use of an index composed of a morphometric indicator and a land cover indicator. Susceptibility was considered to increase with flashiness and the possibility of debris flows. Morphological variables recognised in literature to significantly influence flashiness and occurrence of debris flows were used to construct the morphometric indicator by applying principal component analysis. Subsequently, this indicator was compared with the results of debris flow propagation to assess its capacity in indentifying the morphological conditions of a watershed that make it able to transport debris flows. Propagation of debris flows was carried out using the Modified Single Flow Direction algorithm, following identification of source areas by applying thresholds identified in the slope-area curve of the watersheds. Results show that the morphometric variables can be grouped in four categories: size, shape, hypsometry and energy, with energy being the component that best explains the capability of a watershed to transport debris flows. However, the morphometric indicator was found to not sufficiently explain the records of past floods in the study area. Combining the morphometric indicator with land cover indicators improved the agreement, showing that even if morphometric parameters identify a high disposition to the occurrence of debris flow, improving land cover can reduce the susceptibility. On the contrary, if good morphometric conditions are present but deterioration of the land cover in the watershed takes place then the susceptibility to debris flow events increases.

  15. Morphometric analysis of mandibular growth in skeletal Class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jenny Zwei-Chieng; Chen, Yi-Jane; Chang, Frank Hsin-Fu; Yao, Jane Chung-Chen; Liu, Pao-Hsin; Chang, Chih-Han; Lan, Wan-Hong

    2006-04-01

    The craniofacial growth patterns of untreated individuals with skeletal Class III malocclusion have rarely been systemically investigated. This study used morphometric techniques to investigate the growth characteristics of the mandible in individuals with skeletal Class III malocclusion. Lateral cephalometric head films of 294 individuals with untreated skeletal Class III malocclusion (134 males, 160 females) were selected and divided into five triennial age groups (T1-T5) and by gender to identify the morphologic characteristics and sexual dimorphism in changes of mandibular growth. Procrustes, thin-plate spline, and finite element analyses were performed for localization of differences in shape and size changes. Maximum and minimum principal axes were drawn to express the directions of shape changes. From T1 (age 6-8 years) to T4 (age 15-17 years), the distribution of localized size and shape changes of the mandible was very similar between the two genders. From T1 to T2 (age 9-11 years), significant lengthening of the condylar region was noted (23.4-39.7%). From T2 to T3 (age 12-14 years), the greatest size and shape change occurred at the condylar head (27.4-34.9%). From T3 to T4, the greatest size and shape changes occurred in the symphyseal region (23.6-42.1%). From T4 to T5 (age>or=18 years), significant sexual dimorphism was found in the distribution and amount of localized size and shape changes. Females displayed little growth increments during T4. Despite differences in the remodeling process, the whole mandibular configurations of both genders exhibited similarly significant upward and forward deformation from T4 to T5. We conclude that thin-plate spline analysis and the finite element morphometric method are efficient for the localization and quantification of size and shape changes that occur during mandibular growth. Plots of maximum and minimum principal directions can provide useful information about the trends of growth changes.

  16. Quantitative morphometric analysis for the tectonic characterisation of northern Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camafort, Miquel; Pérez-Peña, José Vicente; Booth-Rea, Guillermo; Ranero, César R.; Gràcia, Eulàlia; Azañón, José Miguel; Melki, Fetheddine; Ouadday, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    Northern Tunisia is characterized by low deformation rates and low to moderate seismicity. Although instrumental seismicity reaches maximum magnitudes of Mw 5.5, some historical earthquakes have occurred with catastrophic consequences in this region. Aiming to improve our knowledge of active tectonics in Tunisia, we carried out both a quantitative morphometric analysis and field study in the north-western region. We applied different morphometric tools, like river profiles, knickpoint analysis, hypsometric curves and integrals and drainage pattern anomalies in order to differentiate between zones with high or low recent tectonic activity. This analysis helps identifying uplift and subsidence zones, which we relate to fault activity. Several active faults in a sparse distribution were identified. A selected sector was studied with a field campaign to test the results obtained with the quantitative analysis. During the fieldwork we identified geological evidence of recent activity and a considerable seismogenic potential along El Alia-Teboursouk (ETF) and Dkhila (DF) faults. The ETF fault could be responsible of one of the most devastating historical earthquakes in northern Tunisia that destroyed Utique in 412 A.D. Geological evidence include fluvial terraces folded by faults, striated and cracked pebbles, clastic dikes, sand volcanoes, coseismic cracks, etc. Although not reflected in the instrumental seismicity, our results support an important seismic hazard, evidenced by the several active tectonic structures identified and the two seismogenic faults described. After obtaining the current active tectonic framework of Tunisia we discuss our results within the western Mediterranean trying to contribute to the understanding of the western Mediterranean tectonic context. With our results, we suggest that the main reason explaining the sparse and scarce seismicity of the area in contrast with the adjacent parts of the Nubia-Eurasia boundary is due to its extended

  17. Postmortem acinar autolysis in rat sublingual gland: a morphometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Rodrigues Nery

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To analyze and to quantify morphological acinar postmortem changes in rat sublingual glands (SLG. MATERIAL AND METHODSs: Fifty rats were divided into two groups of 25 animals each. Group I was used for morphological and morphometric evaluations and group II for the determination of gland density and processed gland volume. Acinar autolytic changes were studied at 0 (control group, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h postmortem periods. The morphometric analysis of the volume density (Vv and total volume (Vt of intact (ia and autolyzed (aa acini was performed under light microscopy using a Zeiss II integration grid with 100 symmetrically distributed points. RESULTS: Morphologically, temporal progressive nuclear alterations and gradual loss of the structural architecture of acinar cells were found. Regarding quantitative results, both the Vvaa and the Vvia showed statistically significant differences among all postmortem periods (p0.05, respectively. Vtaa increased from 0.18 mm³ at 0 h to 38.17 mm³ at 12 h, while Vtia showed a decrease from 33.47 mm³ to 0 mm³ between 3-24 h postmortem. Data concerning Vtaa were adjusted by two-variable linear regression, obtaining the equation: y=-3.54 + 3.38x (r²=0.90. The Vtaa growth rate calculated by this equation was 3.38 mm³/h between 0-12 h. CONCLUSION: Acinar autolysis on rat SLG demonstrated the most significant signs during the first 6 h postmortem and was widely spread through the gland at 12 h.

  18. Morphometric Characters of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piya KOSAI

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study is conducted to describe the morphometric characteristics of a Thailand strain of Oreochromis niloticus. The total length of the observed fish ranged from 7.96 - 17.36 cm. Body measurement and proportions are extensively used for identification of this species. The following 18 measurements are determined for each fish: Total length (TL; Standard length (SL; Body depth (BD; Pre-dorsal length (PDL; Pre-pectoral length (PPCL; Pre-pelvic length (PPVL; Pre-anal length (PAL; Depth of caudal peduncle (DCP; Length of caudal peduncle (LCP; Head length (HL; Eye diameter (ED; Snout length (SNL; Upper jaw length (UJL; Lower jaw length (LJL; Caudal fin length (CFL; Pectoral fin length (PFL; Length of dorsal fin base (LDFB; Length of anal fin base (LAFB. The rate of growth of different morphological body parts of the fish in relation to its total length is studied. Additionally, the total length and body weight relationship is found to be a straight line in logarithmic scale expressed as Log BW = 3.026 Log TL - 1.839. The value of regression co-efficient obtained for the length-weight relationship is 3.026. This finding suggests that selection for growth using this equation is a good alternative for measuring weight in the field, when accurate weighing balances are not available. Hence, the present study provides the information of the various body parts measurements of Tilapia and establishes mathematical equations relating to these various morphometric relationships which can be utilized for the conversion of one measurement into another.doi:10.14456/WJST.2014.76

  19. Outline-based morphometrics, an overlooked method in arthropod studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujardin, Jean-Pierre; Kaba, D; Solano, P; Dupraz, M; McCoy, K D; Jaramillo-O, N

    2014-12-01

    Modern methods allow a geometric representation of forms, separating size and shape. In entomology, as well as in many other fields involving arthropod studies, shape variation has proved useful for species identification and population characterization. In medical entomology, it has been applied to very specific questions such as population structure, reinfestation of insecticide-treated areas and cryptic species recognition. For shape comparisons, great importance is given to the quality of landmarks in terms of comparability. Two conceptually and statistically separate approaches are: (i) landmark-based morphometrics, based on the relative position of a few anatomical "true" or "traditional" landmarks, and (ii) outline-based morphometrics, which captures the contour of forms through a sequence of close "pseudo-landmarks". Most of the studies on insects of medical, veterinary or economic importance make use of the landmark approach. The present survey makes a case for the outline method, here based on elliptic Fourier analysis. The collection of pseudo-landmarks may require the manual digitization of many points and, for this reason, might appear less attractive. It, however, has the ability to compare homologous organs or structures having no landmarks at all. This strength offers the possibility to study a wider range of anatomical structures and thus, a larger range of arthropods. We present a few examples highlighting its interest for separating close or cryptic species, or characterizing conspecific geographic populations, in a series of different vector organisms. In this simple application, i.e. the recognition of close or cryptic forms, the outline approach provided similar scores as those obtained by the landmark-based approach.

  20. Non-Intrusive Battery Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajewski Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The “Non-intrusive battery health monitoring”, developed by Airbus Defence and Space (ADS in cooperation with the CIRIMAT-CNRS laboratory and supported by CNES, aims at providing a diagnosis of the battery ageing in flight, called State of Health (SOH, using only the post-treatment of the battery telemetries. The battery current and voltage telemetries are used by a signal processing tool on ground to characterize and to model the battery at low frequencies which allows monitoring the evolution of its degradation with great accuracy. The frequential behaviour estimation is based on inherent disturbances on the current during the nominal functioning of the battery. For instance, on-board thermal control or equipment consumption generates random disturbances on battery current around an average current. The battery voltage response to these current random disturbances enables to model the low frequency impedance of the battery by a signal processing tool. The re-created impedance is then compared with the evolution model of the low frequencies impedance as a function of the battery ageing to estimate accurately battery degradation. Hence, this method could be applied to satellites which are already in orbit and whose battery telemetries acquisition system fulfils the constraints determined in the study. This innovative method is an improvement of present state-of-the-art and is important to have a more accurate in-flight knowledge of battery ageing which is crucial for mission and operation planning and also for possible satellite mission extension or deorbitation. This method is patented by Airbus Defence and Space and CNES.

  1. Impact of hydrothermal alteration on lava dome stability: a numerical modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detienne, Marie; Delmelle, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Lava domes are a common feature of many volcanoes worldwide. They represent a serious volcanic hazard as they are prone to repeated collapses, generating devastating debris avalanches and pyroclastic flows. While it has long been known that hydrothermal alteration degrades rock properties and weakens rock mass cohesion and strength, there is still little quantitative information allowing the description of this effect and its consequences for assessing the stability of a volcanic rock mass such as a lava dome. In this study, we use the finite difference numerical model FLAC 3D to investigate the impact of hydrothermal alteration on the stability of a volcanic dome lying on a flat surface. Different hydrothermal alteration distributions were tested to encompass the variability observed in natural lava domes. Rock shear strength parameters (minimum, maximum and mean cohesion "c" and friction angle "φ" values) representative of various degrees of hydrothermal rock alteration were used in the simulations. The model predicts that reduction of the basement rock's shear strength decreases the factor of safety significantly. A similar result is found by increasing the vertical and horizontal extension of hydrothermal alteration in the basement rocks. In addition, pervasive hydrothermal alteration within the lava dome is predicted to exert a strong negative influence on the factor of safety. Through reduction of rock porosity and permeability, hydrothermal alteration may also affect pore fluid pressure within a lava dome. The results of new FLAC 3D runs which simulate the effect of hydrothermal alteration-induced pore pressure changes on lava dome stability will be presented.

  2. Cranial ontogeny in Stegoceras validum (Dinosauria: Pachycephalosauria: a quantitative model of pachycephalosaur dome growth and variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan K Schott

    Full Text Available Historically, studies of pachycephalosaurs have recognized plesiomorphically flat-headed taxa and apomorphically domed taxa. More recently, it has been suggested that the expression of the frontoparietal dome is ontogenetic and derived from a flat-headed juvenile morphology. However, strong evidence to support this hypothesis has been lacking. Here we test this hypothesis in a large, stratigraphically constrained sample of specimens assigned to Stegoceras validum, the best known pachycephalosaur, using multiple independent lines of evidence including conserved morphology of ornamentation, landmark-based allometric analyses of frontoparietal shape, and cranial bone histology. New specimens show that the diagnostic ornamentation of the parietosquamosal bar is conserved throughout the size range of the sample, which links flat-headed specimens to domed S. validum. High-resolution CT scans of three frontoparietals reveal that vascularity decreases with size and document a pattern that is consistent with previously proposed histological changes during growth. Furthermore, aspects of dome shape and size are strongly correlated and indicative of ontogenetic growth. These results are complementary and strongly support the hypothesis that the sample represents a growth series of a single taxon. Cranial dome growth is positively allometric, proceeds from a flat-headed to a domed state, and confirms the synonymy of Ornatotholus browni as a juvenile Stegoceras. This dataset serves as the first detailed model of growth and variation in a pachycephalosaur. Flat-headed juveniles possess three characters (externally open cranial sutures, tuberculate dorsal surface texture, and open supratemporal fenestrae that are reduced or eliminated during ontogeny. These characters also occur in putative flat-headed taxa, suggesting that they may also represent juveniles of domed taxa. However, open cranial sutures and supratemporal fenestrae are plesiomorphic within

  3. Complete morphometric analysis of jugular foramen and its clinical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sushant Swaroop; Saluja, Sandeep; Vasudeva, Neelam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Tumors affecting structures in the vicinity of jugular foramen such as glomus jugulare require microsurgical approach to access this region. These tumors tend to alter the normal architecture of the jugular foramen by invading it. Therefore, it is not feasible to have correct anatomic visualization of the foramen in the presence of such pathologies. Hence, a comprehensive knowledge of the jugular foramen is needed by all the neurosurgeons while doing surgery in this region. Aim: Due to the inadequate knowledge of the accurate morphology of the jugular foramen in different sexes, the aim of this osteological study was to provide a complete morphometry including gender differences and describe some morphological characteristics of the jugular foramen in an adult Indian population. Materials and Methods: The study was done on 114 adult human dry skulls (63 males and 51 females) collected from the osteology museum in the department. Various dimensions of both endo- and exocranial aspect of jugular foramen were measured. Presence and absence of domed bony roof of jugular fossa and compartmentalization of jugular foramen were also noticed. Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square test and Student's t-test in SPSS version 23. Results: All the parameters of right jugular foramen were greater than the left side, except the distance of stylomastoid foramen from lateral margin of jugular foramen (SMJF) which was greater on the left side. Gender differences between various measurements of jugular foramen, presence of dome of jugular fossa, and compartmentalization patterns were reported. Conclusion: This study gives knowledge about the various parameters, anatomical variations of jugular foramen in both sexes of an adult Indian population, and its clinical impact on the surgeries of this region. PMID:27891036

  4. A Fiber-Optical Intrusion Alarm System Based on Quasi-Distributed Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Jiang; Yun-Jiang Rao; De-Hong Zeng

    2008-01-01

    A fiber-optical intrusion alarm system based on quasi-distributed fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors is demonstrated in this paper. The algorithms of empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and wavelet packet characteristic entropy are adopted to determine the intrusion location. The intrusion alarm software based on the Labview is developed, and it is also proved by the experiments. The results show that such a fiber-optical intrusion alarm system can offer the automatic intrusion alarm in real-time.

  5. COMPARATIVE MORPHOMETRIC AND ANATOMICAL ASPECTS OF THREE CITRUS L. SPECIES (RUTACEAE FRUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica BERCU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to present the morphometric and anatomical features of three species of Citrus L. fruits: Citrus reticulata Blanco, Citrus× sinensis Osbeck and Citrus maragarita Lour. Morphometrically were determined the length, width, area and volume for 10 fruits of each species. Anatomically, were analyzed the exocarp and mesocarp tissues, including the secretory cavities and endocarp components, respectively the number of carpels (segments and the length of the juice vesicles. The studied species fruits disclose both similarities and differences concerning their morphometric and anatomical features.

  6. Intrusion of incisors in adult patients with marginal bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melsen, B; Agerbaek, N; Markenstam, G

    1989-09-01

    Elongated and spaced incisors are common problems in patients suffering from severe periodontal disease. Thirty patients characterized by marginal bone loss and deep overbite were treated by intrusion of incisors. Three different methods for intrusion were applied: (1) J hooks and extraoral high-pull headgear, (2) utility arches, (3) intrusion bent into a loop in a 0.17 x 0.25-inch wire, and (4) base arch as described by Burstone. The intrusion was evaluated from the displacement of the apex, incision, and the center of resistance of the most prominent or elongated central incisor. Change in the marginal bone level and the amount of root resorption were evaluated on standardized intraoral radiographs. The pockets were assessed by standardized probing and the clinical crown length was measured on study casts. The results showed that the true intrusion of the center of resistance varied from 0 to 3.5 mm and was most pronounced when intrusion was performed with a base arch. The clinical crown length was generally reduced by 0.5 to 1.0 mm. The marginal bone level approached the cementoenamel junction in all but six cases. All cases demonstrated root resorption varying from 1 to 3 mm. The total amount of alveolar support--that is, the calculated area of the alveolar wall--was unaltered or increased in 19 of the 30 cases. The dependency of the results on the oral hygiene, the force distribution, and the perioral function was evaluated in relation to the individual cases. It was obvious that intrusion was best performed when (1) forces were low (5 to 15 gm per tooth) with the line of action of the force passing through or close to the center of resistance, (2) the gingiva status was healthy, and (3) no interference with perioral function was present.

  7. Improved manufacturing techniques for RF and laser hardening of missile domes. Phase I. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawlewicz, W.T.; Mann, I.B.; Martin, P.M.; Hays, D.D.; Graybeal, A.G.

    1982-07-01

    This report summarizes key results and accomplishements during the first year of a Manufacturing Methods and Technology project to adapt an existing Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) optical coating capability developed for high-power fusion-laser applications to the case of rf and laser hardening of plastic missile domes used by the US Army (MICOM). The primary objective of the first year's work was to demonstrate rf hardening of Hellfire and Copperhead 1.06-micron missile domes by use of transparent conductive Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) coatings. The project thus involved adaptation of a coating material and process developed for flat glass components used in fusion lasers to the case of hemispherical or conical heat-sensitive plastic domes used on laser-guided missiles. Specific ITO coating property goals were an electrical sheet resistance of 10 Ohms/square, a coated-dome transmission of 80% or more at 1.06 micron wavelength (compared to 90% for a bare dome), and good adhesion. The sheet resistance goal of 10 Ohms/square was expected to result in an rf attenuation of 30 dB at the frequencies of importance.

  8. Atmospheric scintillation at Dome C, Antarctica: implications for photometry and astrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Kenyon, S L; Fossat, E; Lawrence, J S; Storey, J W V; Tokovinin, A

    2006-01-01

    We present low-resolution turbulence profiles of the atmosphere above Dome C, Antarctica, measured with the MASS instrument during 25 nights in March-May 2004. Except for the lowest layer, Dome C has significantly less turbulence than Cerro Tololo and Cerro Pachon. In particular, the integrated turbulence at 16 km is always less than the median values at the two Chilean sites. From these profiles we evaluate the photometric noise produced by scintillation, and the atmospheric contribution to the error budget in narrow-angle differential astrometry. In comparison with the two mid-latitude sites in Chile, Dome C offers a potential gain of about 3.6 in both photometric precision (for long integrations) and narrow-angle astrometry precision. These gain estimates are preliminary, being computed with average wind-speed profiles, but the validity of our approach is confirmed by independent data. Although the data from Dome C cover a fairly limited time frame, they lend strong support to expectations that Dome C will...

  9. A low-cost method applicable worldwide for remotely mapping lava dome growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaussard, Estelle

    2017-07-01

    Lava dome growth and collapse represents both a significant hazard, as it can trigger pyroclastic density currents, and a monitoring challenge, limiting monitoring to a few known active volcanoes. Here, I propose a new differencing technique based on Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) amplitude images to quantify the extent of lava dome growth. This differencing technique, which is both low cost and can be utilized worldwide, is applied to SAR amplitude images at Mount St. Helens and validated using 2004-2008 aerial photography observations. Difference of amplitude images accurately characterize the dome growth location. The low ground resolution of the 2004-2008 SAR data leads to underestimation by 10 to 15% of the dome extent, but the accuracy of this method will increase with the improved resolution of current and future SAR missions. Amplitude images are a low-level SAR product available from all SAR satellites, mostly freely, making the proposed method ideal for systematic, low-cost monitoring of lava dome growth worldwide with minimum processing required.

  10. Crocodile-inspired dome-shaped pressure receptors for passive hydrodynamic sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanhere, Elgar; Wang, Nan; Kottapalli, Ajay Giri Prakash; Asadnia, Mohsen; Subramaniam, Vignesh; Miao, Jianmin; Triantafyllou, Michael

    2016-08-22

    Passive mechanosensing is an energy-efficient and effective recourse for autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) for perceiving their surroundings. The passive sensory organs of aquatic animals have provided inspiration to biomimetic researchers for developing underwater passive sensing systems for AUVs. This work is inspired by the 'integumentary sensory organs' (ISOs) which are dispersed on the skin of crocodiles and are equipped with slowly adapting (SA) and rapidly adapting (RA) receptors. ISOs assist crocodiles in locating the origin of a disturbance, both on the water surface and under water, thereby enabling them to hunt prey even in a dark environment and turbid waters. In this study, we construct SA dome receptors embedded with microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) piezoresistive sensors to measure the steady-state pressures imparted by flows and RA dome receptors embedded with MEMS piezoelectric sensors to detect oscillatory pressures in water. Experimental results manifest the ability of SA and RA dome receptors to sense the direction of steady-state flows and oscillatory disturbances, respectively. As a proof of concept, the SA domes are tested on the hull of a kayak under various pressure variations owing to different types of movements of the hull. Our results indicate that the dome receptors are capable of discerning the angle of attack and speed of the flow.

  11. Recent progress on cross-comparison of terra and aqua MODIS calibration using Dome C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Wu, Aisheng; Angal, Amit; Wenny, Brian

    2009-09-01

    For the past few years, the MODIS Characterization Support Team (MCST) at NASA/GSFC has continued and extended its effort to monitor the Terra and Aqua MODIS calibration long-term stability and to examine their calibration consistency using observations made over the Dome Concordia, Antarctica. Early results from Dome C observations show that the calibration of bands 1 and 2 (0.65 and 0.86 micron) has been consistent within 1-2% and bands 31 and 32 (11 and 12 micron) differences are less than a few tenths of Kelvin, demonstrating that this site can provide a useful calibration reference for a wide range of Earth-observing sensors in the spectral region from visible (VIS) to long-wave infrared (LWIR). Recently, several locations at the Dome C area have been endorsed by the CEOS as radiometric reference sites for sensor cross-comparison. This, as a result, has led to an invitation to the broad earth-observing community to participate in a CEOS comparison of top-of-atmosphere (TOA) spectral radiance/reflectance over the Dome C sites. In this paper, we provide a brief description of the methodologies applied in our study and report recent progress on cross-comparison of Terra and Aqua MODIS spectral bands using observations over the Dome C area, including data provided in support of the upcoming CEOS sensor cross-comparison.

  12. 3-DIMENSIONAL Geometric Survey and Structural Modelling of the Dome of Pisa Cathedral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aita, D.; Barsotti, R.; Bennati, S.; Caroti, G.; Piemonte, A.

    2017-02-01

    This paper aims to illustrate the preliminary results of a research project on the dome of Pisa Cathedral (Italy). The final objective of the present research is to achieve a deep understanding of the structural behaviour of the dome, through a detailed knowledge of its geometry and constituent materials, and by taking into account historical and architectural aspects as well. A reliable survey of the dome is the essential starting point for any further investigation and adequate structural modelling. Examination of the status quo on the surveys of the Cathedral dome shows that a detailed survey suitable for structural analysis is in fact lacking. For this reason, high-density and high-precision surveys have been planned, by considering that a different survey output is needed, according both to the type of structural model chosen and purposes to be achieved. Thus, both range-based (laser scanning) and image-based (3D Photogrammetry) survey methodologies have been used. This contribution introduces the first results concerning the shape of the dome derived from surveys. Furthermore, a comparison is made between such survey outputs and those available in the literature.

  13. Prospects of long-time-series observations from Dome C for transit search

    CERN Document Server

    Rauer, Heike; Erikson, Anders

    2008-01-01

    The detection of transiting extrasolar planets requires high-photometric quality and long-duration photometric stellar time-series. In this paper, we investigate the advantages provided by the Antarctic observing platform Dome C for planet transit detections during its long winter period, which allows for relatively long, uninterrupted time-series. Our calculations include limiting effects due to the Sun and Moon, cloud coverage and the effect of reduced photometric quality for high extinction of target fields. We compare the potential for long time-series from Dome C with a single site in Chile, a three-site low-latitude network as well as combinations of Dome C with Chile and the network, respectively. Dome C is one of the prime astronomical sites on Earth for obtaining uninterrupted long-duration observations in terms of prospects for a high observational duty cycle. The duty cycle of a project can, however, be significantly improved by integrating Dome C into a network of sites.

  14. Mechanical behaviour of dacite from Mount St. Helens (USA): A link between porosity and lava dome extrusion mechanism (dome or spine)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, M. J.; Russell, J. K.; Kennedy, L. A.

    2016-12-01

    There is a rich diversity in lava dome morphology, from blocky domes and lobes to imposing spine and whaleback structures. The latter extrude via seismically active, gouge-rich conduit-margin faults, a manifestation of a brittle failure mode. Brittle versus ductile behaviour in volcanic rocks is known to be porosity dependent, and therefore offers a tantalising link between the properties of the material near the conduit margin and the extrusion mechanism (dome or spine). We test this hypothesis by complementing published data on the mechanical behaviour of dacites from the 2004-2008 spine-forming eruption at Mount St. Helens (MSH) with new data on dacite lavas collected from the 1980 dome. The 1980 dacite samples were deformed at room temperature under a range of pressures (i.e., depths) to investigate their mechanical behaviour and failure mode (brittle or ductile). Low-porosity dacite (porosity 0.19) is brittle up to an effective pressure of 30 MPa (depth 1 km) and is ductile at 40 MPa (depth 1.5 km). High-porosity dacite (porosity 0.32) is ductile above an effective pressure of 5 MPa (depth 200 m). Samples deformed in the brittle regime show well-developed ( 1 mm) shear fracture zones comprising broken glass and crystal fragments. Samples deformed in the ductile regime feature anastomosing bands of collapsed pores. The combined dataset is used to explore the influence of strain rate, temperature, and porosity on the mechanical behaviour and failure mode of dacite. A decrease in strain rate does not influence the strength of dacite at low temperature, but reduces strength at high temperature (850 °C). Due to the extremely low glass content of these materials, such weakening is attributed to the increased efficiency of subcritical crack growth at high temperature. However, when strain rate is kept constant, temperature does not significant impact strength reflecting the highly crystallised nature of dacite from MSH. Dacite from the 2004-2008 eruption is stronger

  15. Degradation of dome cutting minerals in Hanford waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, Jacob G.; Huber, Heinz J.; Cooke, Gary A.

    2013-01-11

    At the Hanford Tank Farms, recent changes in retrieval technology require cutting new risers in several single-shell tanks. The Hanford Tank Farm Operator is using water jet technology with abrasive silicate minerals such as garnet or olivine to cut through the concrete and rebar dome. The abrasiveness of these minerals, which become part of the high-level waste stream, may enhance the erosion of waste processing equipment. However, garnet and olivine are not thermodynamically stable in Hanford waste, slowly degrading over time. How likely these materials are to dissolve completely in the waste before the waste is processed in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant can be evaluated using theoretical analysis for olivine and collected direct experimental evidence for garnet. Based on an extensive literature study, a large number of primary silicates decompose into sodalite and cancrinite when exposed to Hanford waste. Given sufficient time, the sodalite also degrades into cancrinite. Even though cancrinite has not been directly added to any Hanford tanks during process times, it is the most common silicate observed in current Hanford waste. By analogy, olivine and garnet are expected to ultimately also decompose into cancrinite. Garnet used in a concrete cutting demonstration was immersed in a simulated supernate representing the estimated composition of the liquid retrieving waste from Hanford tank 241-C-107 at both ambient and elevated temperatures. This simulant was amended with extra NaOH to determine if adding caustic would help enhance the degradation rate of garnet. The results showed that the garnet degradation rate was highest at the highest NaOH concentration and temperature. At the end of 12 weeks, however, the garnet grains were mostly intact, even when immersed in 2 molar NaOH at 80 deg C. Cancrinite was identified as the degradation product on the surface of the garnet grains. In the case of olivine, the rate of degradation in the high-pH regimes

  16. Degradation of Dome Cutting Minerals in Hanford Waste - 13100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, Jacob G.; Cooke, Gary A.; Huber, Heinz J. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, P.O. Box 850, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    At the Hanford Tank Farms, recent changes in retrieval technology require cutting new risers in several single-shell tanks. The Hanford Tank Farm Operator is using water jet technology with abrasive silicate minerals such as garnet or olivine to cut through the concrete and rebar dome. The abrasiveness of these minerals, which become part of the high-level waste stream, may enhance the erosion of waste processing equipment. However, garnet and olivine are not thermodynamically stable in Hanford waste, slowly degrading over time. How likely these materials are to dissolve completely in the waste before the waste is processed in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant can be evaluated using theoretical analysis for olivine and collected direct experimental evidence for garnet. Based on an extensive literature study, a large number of primary silicates decompose into sodalite and cancrinite when exposed to Hanford waste. Given sufficient time, the sodalite also degrades into cancrinite. Even though cancrinite has not been directly added to any Hanford tanks during process times, it is the most common silicate observed in current Hanford waste. By analogy, olivine and garnet are expected to ultimately also decompose into cancrinite. Garnet used in a concrete cutting demonstration was immersed in a simulated supernate representing the estimated composition of the liquid retrieving waste from Hanford tank 241-C-107 at both ambient and elevated temperatures. This simulant was amended with extra NaOH to determine if adding caustic would help enhance the degradation rate of garnet. The results showed that the garnet degradation rate was highest at the highest NaOH concentration and temperature. At the end of 12 weeks, however, the garnet grains were mostly intact, even when immersed in 2 molar NaOH at 80 deg. C. Cancrinite was identified as the degradation product on the surface of the garnet grains. In the case of olivine, the rate of degradation in the high

  17. How Saccade Intrusions Affect Subsequent Motor and Oculomotor Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terao, Yasuo; Fukuda, Hideki; Tokushige, Shin-ichi; Inomata-Terada, Satomi; Ugawa, Yoshikazu

    2017-01-01

    In daily activities, there is a close spatial and temporal coupling between eye and hand movements that enables human beings to perform actions smoothly and accurately. If this coupling is disrupted by inadvertent saccade intrusions, subsequent motor actions suffer from delays, and lack of coordination. To examine how saccade intrusions affect subsequent voluntary actions, we used two tasks that require subjects to make motor/oculomotor actions in response to a visual cue. One was the memory guided saccade (MGS) task, and the other the hand reaction time (RT) task. The MGS task required subjects to initiate a voluntary saccade to a memorized target location, which is indicated shortly before by a briefly presented cue. The RT task required subjects to release a button on detection of a visual target, while foveating on a central fixation point. In normal subjects of various ages, inadvertent saccade intrusions delayed subsequent voluntary motor, and oculomotor actions. We also studied patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), who are impaired not only in initiating voluntary saccades but also in suppressing unwanted reflexive saccades. Saccade intrusions also delayed hand RT in PD patients. However, MGS was affected by the saccade intrusion differently. Saccade intrusion did not delay MGS latency in PD patients who could perform MGS with a relatively normal latency. In contrast, in PD patients who were unable to initiate MGS within the normal time range, we observed slightly decreased MGS latency after saccade intrusions. What explains this paradoxical phenomenon? It is known that motor actions slow down when switching between controlled and automatic behavior. We discuss how the effect of saccade intrusions on subsequent voluntary motor/oculomotor actions may reflect a similar switching cost between automatic and controlled behavior and a cost for switching between different motor effectors. In contrast, PD patients were unable to initiate internally guided MGS in

  18. Intrusão dentária utilizando mini-implantes Orthodontic intrusion with mini-implant anchorage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Martins de Araújo

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: dentre os diversos tipos de movimentos dentários induzidos ortodonticamente, o de intrusão é, sem dúvida, um dos mais difíceis de serem conseguidos. A mecânica intrusiva convencional, apesar de viável, é complexa, no que diz respeito ao controle de seus efeitos colaterais. Isso, em grande parte, refere-se à dificuldade em se obter uma ancoragem satisfatória. Neste contexto, os mini-implantes, por oferecerem efetiva ancoragem esquelética, têm se mostrado de extrema valia para os ortodontistas, tornando a intrusão, tanto de dentes anteriores quanto posteriores, um procedimento cada vez mais simples, do ponto de vista mecânico. OBJETIVO: pretende-se, então, neste artigo, descrever e demonstrar, clinicamente, as diversas possibilidades de utilização dos mini-implantes como recurso de ancoragem para o movimento de intrusão.INTRODUCTION: Among all different varieties of orthodontically induced tooth movement, intrusion is, without doubt, one of the most difficult movements to be reached. Conventional intrusive biomechanics, although possible, may lead to undesirable side-effects. These events, in most cases, are related to the difficulty in obtaining an efficient anchorage unit. Then, mini-implants, because of their high success rates of effective skeletal anchorage, are valuable devices to orthodontists, transforming the intrusion movement, both at the anterior and the posterior regions, a more and more uncomplicated biomechanical procedure. AIM: to describe and show, clinically, different ways of using mini-implants as an anchorage system to intrusion movement.

  19. Redescription of Xiphinema americanum Cobb, 1913 with Comments on Its Morphometric Variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberti, F; Golden, A M

    1984-04-01

    Xiphinema americanum is redescribed and illustrated from material collected from Arlington Cemetery, near Cobb's type locality (Falls Church, Virginia), Morphometric data showing variations within this species are given for three additional populations.

  20. Fuzzy Aided Application Layer Semantic Intrusion Detection System - FASIDS

    CERN Document Server

    Sangeetha, S; 10.5121/ijnsa.2010.2204

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this is to develop a Fuzzy aided Application layer Semantic Intrusion Detection System (FASIDS) which works in the application layer of the network stack. FASIDS consist of semantic IDS and Fuzzy based IDS. Rule based IDS looks for the specific pattern which is defined as malicious. A non-intrusive regular pattern can be malicious if it occurs several times with a short time interval. For detecting such malicious activities, FASIDS is proposed in this paper. At application layer, HTTP traffic's header and payload are analyzed for possible intrusion. In the proposed misuse detection module, the semantic intrusion detection system works on the basis of rules that define various application layer misuses that are found in the network. An attack identified by the IDS is based on a corresponding rule in the rule-base. An event that doesn't make a 'hit' on the rule-base is given to a Fuzzy Intrusion Detection System (FIDS) for further analysis.

  1. Intrusion problematic during water supply systems' operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora-Rodriguez, Jesus; Lopez-Jimenez, P. Amparo [Departamento de Ingenieria Hidraulica y Medio Ambiente, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera, s/n, 46022, Valencia (Spain); Ramos, Helena M. [Civil Engineering Department and CEHIDRO, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2011-07-01

    Intrusion through leaks occurrence is a phenomenon when external fluid comes into water pipe systems. This phenomenon can cause contamination problems in drinking pipe systems. Hence, this paper focuses on the entry of external fluids across small leaks during normal operation conditions. This situation is especially important in elevated points of the pipe profile. Pressure variations can origin water volume losses and intrusion of contaminants into the drinking water pipes. This work focuses in obtaining up the physical representation on a specific case intrusion in a pipe water system. The combination of two factors is required to generate this kind of intrusion in a water supply system: on one hand the existence of at least a leak in the system; on the other hand, a pressure variation could occur during the operation of the system due to consumption variation, pump start-up or shutdown. The potential of intrusion during a dynamic or transient event is here analyzed. To obtain this objective an experimental case study of pressure transient scenario is analyzed with a small leak located nearby the transient source.

  2. A HIERARCHICAL INTRUSION DETECTION ARCHITECTURE FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Jadidoleslamy

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Networks protection against different types of attacks is one of most important posed issue into the network andinformation security application domains. This problem on Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs, in attention to theirspecial properties, has more importance. Now, there are some of proposed architectures and guide lines to protectWireless Sensor Networks (WSNs against different types of intrusions; but any one of them do not has acomprehensive view to this problem and they are usually designed and implemented in single-purpose; but, theproposed design in this paper tries to has been a comprehensive view to this issue by presenting a complete andcomprehensive Intrusion Detection Architecture (IDA. The main contribution of this architecture is its hierarchicalstructure; i.e., it is designed and applicable, in one or two levels, consistent to the application domain and itsrequired security level. Focus of this paper is on the clustering WSNs, designing and deploying Cluster-basedIntrusion Detection System (CIDS on cluster-heads and Wireless Sensor Network wide level Intrusion DetectionSystem (WSNIDS on the central server. Suppositions of the WSN and Intrusion Detection Architecture (IDA are:static and heterogeneous network, hierarchical and clustering structure, clusters' overlapping and using hierarchicalrouting protocol such as LEACH, but along with minor changes. Finally, the proposed idea has been verified bydesigning a questionnaire, representing it to some (about 50 people experts and then, analyzing and evaluating itsacquired results.

  3. Sensitive Data Protection Based on Intrusion Tolerance in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyu Wang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Service integration and supply on-demand coming from cloud computing can significantly improve the utilization of computing resources and reduce power consumption of per service, and effectively avoid the error of computing resources. However, cloud computing is still facing the problem of intrusion tolerance of the cloud computing platform and sensitive data of new enterprise data center. In order to address the problem of intrusion tolerance of cloud computing platform and sensitive data in new enterprise data center, this paper constructs a virtualization intrusion tolerance system based on cloud computing by researching on the existing virtualization technology, and then presents a method of intrusion tolerance to protect sensitive data in cloud data center based on virtual adversary structure by utilizing secret sharing. This system adopts the method of hybrid fault model, active and passive replicas, state update and transfer, proactive recovery and diversity, and initially implements to tolerate F faulty replicas in N=2F+1 replicas and ensure that only F+1 active replicas to execute during the intrusion-free stage. The remaining replicas are all put into passive mode, which significantly reduces the resource consuming in cloud platform. At last we prove the reconstruction and confidentiality property of sensitive data by utilizing secret sharing.

  4. Perception of the English intrusive stops by Korean listeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jeong-Im

    2002-05-01

    This paper reports results of an experiment examining Korean listeners' perception of English intrusive stops in nasal-obstruent clusters. The experiment tests (1) how often intrusive stops are perceived; (2) how language-specific syllable structure constraints influence the perception, given the fact that Korean does not allow consonant clusters in syllable onsets and codas; (3) whether even the perception of phonetic variables like intrusive stops, not phonemes, could be improved by learning. Ninety English non-words with a monosyllable structure of CVC1C2 were created, where C1=/m,n,N/, and C2=/p,k,s/. The stimuli including additional 90 filler items were recorded by three native English speakers and one representative data among them was given to three groups of native Korean listeners in terms of their English proficiency. Each was asked to monitor the target sounds [Warner and Weber, J. Phonetics 29, 23-52 (2001)]. The preliminary results show that identification of intrusive stops in English is totally dependent on Korean syllable structure, so even stimuli with strong acoustic cues were misparsed. Nonetheless, there's a high correlation between perception of intrusive stops and listeners' English proficiency, showing the possibility of the improvement of perception by learning.

  5. Orthodontic intrusive movement to reduce infrabony defects in periodontal pacients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldrieli Regina Ambrósio

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The adult tends to be an excellent orthodontic patient, because he/she is motivated and cooperative. Nevertheless, many adult patientspresent periodontal problems. Intrusive movement is usually necessary against an area with infrabony defects, and in order for treatmentto be successful, it is necessary for all related aspects to be well understood. The aim of this study was to discuss the feasibility and efficacy of orthodontic intrusion as a means of reducing infrabony defects caused by periodontal disease. The methodology used was reviewed in the literature, from which articles were selected using the MEDLINE, LILACS and BBO databases. After periodontal treatment and maintenance with suitable bacterial plaque control has been performed, orthodontic treatment with intrusive tooth movement can be performed in case of pathological tooth migration and extrusion. The segmented arch technique is the most indicated for intruding teeth with infrabony defects because it is capable of developing light and continuous forces. Furthermore, although studies did not confirm, they suggested that orthodontic intrusion could lead to the formation of new periodontal support tissue. With a multidisciplinary approach, it is possible to successfully perform intrusion movements in teeth that present infrabony defects, provided that periodontal inflammation has been treated and the patient presents an excellent level of plaque control. Among the benefits of this approach are: better appearance, better access to dental hygiene, restitution of incisal occlusion and reduction in non axial load.

  6. Distributed intrusion detection for mobile ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Ping; Jiang Xinghao; Wu Yue; Liu Ning

    2008-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networking(MANET)has become an exciting and important technology in recent years,because of the rapid proliferation of wireless devices.Mobile ad hoc networks is highly vulnerable to attacks due to the open medium,dynamically changing network topology,cooperative algorithms,and lack of centralized monitoring and management point.The traditional way of protecting networks with firewalls and encryption software is no longer sufficient and effective for those features.A distributed intrusion detection approach based on timed automata is given.A cluster-based detection scheme is presented,where periodically a node is elected as the monitor node for a cluster.These monitor nodes can not only make local intrusion detection decisions,but also cooperatively take part in global intrusion detection.And then the timed automata is constructed by the way of manually abstracting the correct behaviours of the node according to the routing protocol of dynamic source routing(DSR).The monitor nodes can verify the behaviour of every nodes by timed automata,and validly detect real-time attacks without signatures of intrusion or trained data.Compared with the architecture where each node is its own IDS agent,the approach is much more efficient while maintaining the same level of effectiveness.Finally,the intrusion detection method is evaluated through simulation experiments.

  7. SEAWATER INTRUSION TYPES AND REGIONAL DIVISIONS IN THE SOUTHERN COAST OF LAIZHOU BAY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟广兰; 韩有松; 王少青; 王珍岩

    2002-01-01

    The southern coast of Laizhou Bay, Bohai Sea, is one of the areas in China most seriously impacted by seawater intrusion. Based on the sources of intruding waterbedies, seawater intrusion can be divided into two types: intrusion of saline water derived from modern seawater, and intrusion of subsurface brine and saline water derived from paleo-seawater in shallow Quaternary sediments. There are some distinct differences in their formation, mechanism and damage. The subsurface brine intrusion is a special type, which can cause very serious disaster. The coastal landform and the Quaternary hydrogeological environment are predominant factors in the classification of seawater intrusion types. Various coastal environments in different coastal sections result in three types of intrusion: seawater intrusion, saline groundwater intrusion, and mixed seawater and saline water intrusion, in the southern coast of Laizhou Bay, which can be divided into four areas: the sea-water intrusion area in the northern Laizhou City coast, the mixed seawater and saline groundwater intrusion area in the Baisha River-Jiaolai River mouth plain area, the mixed seawater and saline groundwater intrusion area in the Weihe River mouth plain area northern Changyi county coast, and the saline ground-water intrusion area in the northern Shouguang plains.

  8. Distress and recurrence of intrusive thoughts in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Joshua C; Teachman, Bethany A

    2012-03-01

    The current study incorporated a life span perspective into existing theories of intrusive thoughts to examine age-related differences in the difficulty controlling intrusive thoughts, the distress following intrusive thought recurrences, and the meanings assigned to these recurrences. Younger (N = 51) and older (N = 49) community adults were randomly assigned to suppress (i.e., keep out of mind) or monitor an intrusive thought. Participants rated their positive and negative affect throughout engagement with the intrusive thought, and they also rated the meanings they gave to recurrences of their everyday intrusive thoughts. The results demonstrated that older adults tended to perceive greater difficulty with controlling the intrusive thought than younger adults despite the fact that they did not differ in the actual recurrence of the intrusive thought. With regard to distress, older adults experienced steadier levels of positive affect than younger adults throughout engagement with the intrusive thought. However, older adults also reported greater residual negative affect after engaging with the intrusive thought than younger adults. Finally, older and younger adults appeared to assign meanings to recurrences of intrusive thoughts in line with age-relevant concerns. Specifically, older adults were prone to interpret the recurrence of intrusive thoughts as a sign of cognitive decline, but they were less likely than younger adults to see intrusive thoughts as a sign of moral failure. Together, these results highlight a range of potential risk and protective factors in older adults for experiencing emotion dysregulation after intrusive thoughts.

  9. BENDING THE DOMING EFFECT IN STRUCTURE FROM MOTION RECONSTRUCTIONS THROUGH BUNDLE ADJUSTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Magri

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Structure from Motion techniques provides low-cost and flexible methods that can be adopted in arial surveying to collect topographic data with accurate results. Nevertheless, the so-called “doming effect”, due to unfortunate acquisition conditions or unreliable modeling of radial distortion, has been recognized as a critical issue that disrupts the quality of the attained 3D reconstruction. In this paper we propose a novel method, that works effectively in the presence of a nearly flat soil, to tackle a posteriori the doming effect: an automatic ground detection method is used to capture the doming deformation flawing the reconstruction, which in turn is wrapped to the correct geometry by iteratively enforcing a planarity constraint through a Bundle Adjustment framework. Experiments on real word datasets demonstrate promising results.

  10. Millimetric Astronomy from the High Antarctic Plateau site testing at Dome C

    CERN Document Server

    Valenziano, L

    1999-01-01

    Preliminary site testing at Dome C (Antarctica) is presented, using both Automatic Weather Station (AWS) meteorological data (1986-1993) and Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) measurements made by the authors. A comparison with South Pole and other sites is made. The South Pole is a well established astrophysical observing site, where extremely good conditions are reported for a large fraction of time during the year. Dome C, where Italy and France are building a new scientific station, is a potential observing site in the millimetric and sub-millimetric range. AWS are operating at both sites and they have been continuously monitoring temperature, pressure, wind speed and direction for more than ten years. Site testing instruments are already operating at the South Pole (AASTO, Automated Astrophysical Site-Testing Observatory), while ''light'' experiments have been running at Dome C (APACHE, Antarctic Plateau Anisotropy CHasing Experiment) during summertime. A direct comparison between the two sites is planned in...

  11. A Neogene structural dome in the Klamath Mountains, California and Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, N.; Coleman, R. G.

    1985-04-01

    Regional structural doming of Neogene age has affected rocks of the Klamath and Cascade mountains near the California-Oregon border. Evidence for this is seen in (1) subannular outcrop patterns of pre-Cretaceous lithotectonic units, (2) a crude pattern of radially oriented high-angle faults, (3) tilted Jurassic plutons, (4) tilted Cretaceous to Miocene strata, and (5) various geomorphological features. The age of doming is constrained by a major middle Miocene to earliest Pliocene angular unconformity within the Cascade Mountains and uplifted upper Miocene marine beds on the western edge of the Klamath Mountains. Uplift and doming may be the result of shortening in the Cascade fore-arc region or, more speculatively, the recent accretion of subducted material to the North American plate beneath the Klamath Mountains. *Present addresses: Mortimer, Department of Geological Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2B4, Canada; Coleman, U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California 94025

  12. Brazilian species of Gadila (Mollusca: Scaphopoda: Gadilidae): rediscovery of Gadila elongata comb. nov. and shell morphometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Caetano,Carlos H. S.; Victor Scarabino; Ricardo S. Absalão

    2010-01-01

    Gadila elongata comb. nov. was described in 1920 from the northern Gulf of Mexico. Until recently, it was only known from the type locality. Herein we present the first record of G. elongata from Brazil (Northeast coast, Ceará state, collected at 177 m) and a morphometrics analysis of the Brazilian species of Gadila. A multivariate Discriminant Function Analysis, based on nine shell morphometric variables (length, maximum diameter, length to maximum diameter ratio, distance of point of maximu...

  13. Integrated morphometric analysis in GIS environment applied to active tectonic areas.

    OpenAIRE

    Nappi, Rosa; Alessio, Giuliana

    2012-01-01

    This chapter describes a methodology for identifying the structural lineaments in active tectonic areas by integrating morphological and morphometrical data derived by DEMs (Digital Elevation Models) processing, with local seismicity data. Moreover, validation of the lineaments extracted from DEM has been carried out by examining literature geological and geomorphological data, aerial photo interpretation and field surveys. The morphometric parameters as the terrain slope, terrain aspect, ...

  14. Bat Species Comparisons Based on External Morphology: A Test of Traditional versus Geometric Morphometric Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    External morphology is commonly used to identify bats as well as to investigate flight and foraging behavior, typically relying on simple length and area measures or ratios. However, geometric morphometrics is increasingly used in the biological sciences to analyse variation in shape and discriminate among species and populations. Here we compare the ability of traditional versus geometric morphometric methods in discriminating between closely related bat species – in this case European horse...

  15. DAYLIGHT PERFORMANCE OF SINGLE PEDENTIVE DOME MOSQUE DESIGN DURING WINTER SOLSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Arab

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the analysis is to measure lighting performance of single pendentive dome type and pyramid roof type in mosque design built during the Ottoman Empire in Istanbul, Turkey and Mostar, Bosnia-Herzegovina. The selected case studies are the Firuzaga and Orhan Gazi Mosques as single pendentive dome styl and Neziraga Mosque as case study for the pyramid roof type. This analysis aims to have a research finding to show that Turkish style’s pedentive dome mosque design provides efficient indoor daylighting in the Orhan Gazi Mosque in comparison with the Firuzaga Mosque and Neziraga. This assessment is simulated during winter solstice occurred when the sun is perimetering at its most southern position along the Tropic of Capricorn. This study applies simulation analysis using Autodesk software known as 3D Studio Max Design 2011 programme. The simulations were done by the program using weather data file to provide the weather information and climate changes of the study area. The analysis shows that both mosques have mostly an evenly distributed illuminance level with Scales 1 to 5. The Orhan Gazi Mosque has slightly higher illuminance levels compared to those of the Firuzaga Mosque and bothe of the pendentive dome mosques have butter illuminance level than the pyramid roof mosque. The study concludes that the pedentive dome mosque design has an effect on the mosque indoor daylighting. Having excellent illuminance level distributed at all the locations is one of the crucial reasons why the mosques with pedentive dome roof cover are built by Ottoman master builders.

  16. Simulated Lunar Environment Spectra of Silicic Volcanic Rocks: Application to Lunar Domes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glotch, T. D.; Shirley, K.; Greenhagen, B. T.

    2016-12-01

    Lunar volcanism was dominated by flood-style basaltic volcanism associated with the lunar mare. However, since the Apollo era it has been suggested that some regions, termed "red spots," are the result of non-basaltic volcanic activity. These early suggestions of non-mare volcanism were based on interpretations of rugged geomorphology resulting from viscous lava flows and relatively featureless, red-sloped VNIR spectra. Mid-infrared data from the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter have confirmed that many of the red spot features, including Hansteen Alpha, the Gruithuisen Domes, the Mairan Domes, Lassell Massif, and Compton Belkovich are silicic volcanic domes. Additional detections of silicic material in the Aristarchus central peak and ejecta suggest excavation of a subsurface silicic pluton. Other red spots, including the Helmet and Copernicus have relatively low Diviner Christiansen feature positions, but they are not as felsic as the features listed above. To date, the SiO2 content of the silicic dome features has been difficult to quantitatively determine due to the limited spectral resolution of Diviner and lack of terrestrial analog spectra acquired in an appropriate environment. Based on spectra of pure mineral and glass separates, preliminary estimates suggest that the rocks comprising the lunar silicic domes are > 65 wt.% SiO2. In an effort to better constrain this value, we have acquired spectra of andesite, dacite, rhyolite, pumice, and obsidian rock samples under a simulated lunar environment in the Planetary and Asteroid Regolith Spectroscopy Environmental Chamber (PARSEC) at the Center for Planetary Exploration at Stony Brook University. This presentation will discuss the spectra of these materials and how they relate to the Diviner measurements of the lunar silicic dome features.

  17. Morphometric analysis of sinkholes in a karst coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, A.; Bruno, E.; Parise, M.; Pepe, M.

    2012-04-01

    Salento, the southern portion of Apulia region (SE Italy) is a narrow and elongated peninsula in carbonate rocks, with prevailing low coastlines, locally interrupted by high rock cliffs. The long stretches of low coasts are marked by typical karst landforms consisting of collapse sinkholes. These are locally designated with the dialectal term "spunnulate" (deriving from the verb "spunnare", which means to break, to sink; PARISE et al., 2003). As observed in many other karst coastal settings worldwide (FORTH et al., 1999), development of sinkholes may be particularly severe along the coast, where both natural and anthropogenic processes contribute to accelerate the dissolution of carbonate rocks and subsidence processes, influencing the coastline evolution. Following a previous study, where the main features of sinkholes at Torre Castiglione (Taranto province) were investigated and described, and a preliminary susceptibility map produced (BRUNO et al., 2008), in the present paper we perform a detailed morphometric analysis on the sample of identified sinkholes. The main morphometric parameters generally used for sinkhole characterization have been considered in this study: shape of the sinkhole, azimuth and length of major and minimum axes, depth, elongation ratio, distance from the shorelines. Each of them is described, both as individual parameter and in conjunction with the others, in the attempt to identify the main factors controlling development of sinkholes in the area, and their evolution as well. As regards this latter aspect, beside simple morphometry of the sample of sinkholes at Torre Castiglione, we also focused our attention on the likely relationships existing between distribution and shape of the sinkholes and the tectonic discontinuities. The role played by discontinuities in controlling both distribution and evolution of sinkholes has been pointed out by several authors (WHITE & WHITE, 1987; DENIZMAN, 2003; FLOREA, 2005). To investigate the matter

  18. A desktop system of virtual morphometric globes for Mars and the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florinsky, I. V.; Filippov, S. V.

    2017-03-01

    Global morphometric models can be useful for earth and planetary studies. Virtual globes - programs implementing interactive three-dimensional (3D) models of planets - are increasingly used in geo- and planetary sciences. We describe the development of a desktop system of virtual morphometric globes for Mars and the Moon. As the initial data, we used 15'-gridded global digital elevation models (DEMs) extracted from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) and the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) gridded archives. For two celestial bodies, we derived global digital models of several morphometric attributes, such as horizontal curvature, vertical curvature, minimal curvature, maximal curvature, and catchment area. To develop the system, we used Blender, the free open-source software for 3D modeling and visualization. First, a 3D sphere model was generated. Second, the global morphometric maps were imposed to the sphere surface as textures. Finally, the real-time 3D graphics Blender engine was used to implement rotation and zooming of the globes. The testing of the developed system demonstrated its good performance. Morphometric globes clearly represent peculiarities of planetary topography, according to the physical and mathematical sense of a particular morphometric variable.

  19. Morphometric Identification of Queens, Workers and Intermediates in In Vitro Reared Honey Bees (Apis mellifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. De Souza, Daiana; Wang, Ying; Kaftanoglu, Osman; De Jong, David; V. Amdam, Gro; S. Gonçalves, Lionel; M. Francoy, Tiago

    2015-01-01

    In vitro rearing is an important and useful tool for honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) studies. However, it often results in intercastes between queens and workers, which are normally are not seen in hive-reared bees, except when larvae older than three days are grafted for queen rearing. Morphological classification (queen versus worker or intercastes) of bees produced by this method can be subjective and generally depends on size differences. Here, we propose an alternative method for caste classification of female honey bees reared in vitro, based on weight at emergence, ovariole number, spermatheca size and size and shape, and features of the head, mandible and basitarsus. Morphological measurements were made with both traditional morphometric and geometric morphometrics techniques. The classifications were performed by principal component analysis, using naturally developed queens and workers as controls. First, the analysis included all the characters. Subsequently, a new analysis was made without the information about ovariole number and spermatheca size. Geometric morphometrics was less dependent on ovariole number and spermatheca information for caste and intercaste identification. This is useful, since acquiring information concerning these reproductive structures requires time-consuming dissection and they are not accessible when abdomens have been removed for molecular assays or in dried specimens. Additionally, geometric morphometrics divided intercastes into more discrete phenotype subsets. We conclude that morphometric geometrics are superior to traditional morphometrics techniques for identification and classification of honey bee castes and intermediates. PMID:25894528

  20. A Cooperative Network Intrusion detection Based on Fuzzy SVMs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohua Teng

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a large number of noise in the data obtained from network, which deteriorates intrusion detection performance. To delete the noise data, data preprocessing is done before the construction of hyperplane in support vector machine (SVM. By introducing fuzzy theory into SVM, a new method is proposed for network intrusion detection.  Because the attack behavior is different for different network protocol, a different fuzzy membership function is formatted, such that for each class of protocol there is a SVM. To implement this approach, a fuzzy SVM-based cooperative network intrusion detection system with multi-agent architecture is presented. It is composed of three types of agents corresponding to TCP, UDP, and ICMP protocols, respectively. Simulation experiments are done by using KDD CUP 1999 data set, results show that the training time is significantly shortened, storage space requirement is reduced, and classification accuracy is improved.

  1. Intrusion detection based on system calls and homogeneous Markov chains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Xinguang; Duan Miyi; Sun Chunlai; Li Wenfa

    2008-01-01

    A novel method for detecting anomalous program behavior is presented, which is applicable to hostbased intrusion detection systems that monitor system call activities. The method constructs a homogeneous Markov chain model to characterize the normal behavior of a privileged program, and associates the states of the Markov chain with the unique system calls in the training data. At the detection stage, the probabilities that the Markov chain model supports the system call sequences generated by the program are computed. A low probability indicates an anomalous sequence that may result from intrusive activities. Then a decision rule based on the number of anomalous sequences in a locality frame is adopted to classify the program's behavior. The method gives attention to both computational efficiency and detection accuracy, and is especially suitable for on-line detection. It has been applied to practical host-based intrusion detection systems.

  2. CUSUM-Based Intrusion Detection Mechanism for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishan Ying

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The nature of wireless sensor networks (WSNs makes them very vulnerable to adversary's malicious attacks. Therefore, network security is an important issue to WSNs. Due to the constraints of WSN, intrusion detection in WSNs is a challengeable task. In this paper, we present a novel intrusion detection mechanism for WSNs, which is composed of a secure data communication algorithm and an intrusion detection algorithm. The major contribution of this paper is that we propose an original secure mechanism to defend WSNs against malicious attacks by using the information generated during data communication. The approach is able to protect the data communication in a WSN even if some sensor nodes are compromised by adversary. The proposed approach is easy to be implemented and performed in resource-constrained WSN. We also evaluate the proposed approach by a simulation experiment and analyze the simulation results in detail.

  3. Physical model simulations of seawater intrusion in unconfined aquifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanapol Sriapai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to simulate the seawater intrusion into unconfined aquifer near shoreline and to assessthe effectiveness of its controlling methods by using scaled-down physical models. The intrusion controlled methods studiedhere include fresh water injection, saltwater extraction, and subsurface barrier. The results indicate that under natural dynamicequilibrium between the recharge of fresh water and the intrusion well agree with the Ghyben-Herzberg mathematical solution.Fresh water pumping from the aquifer notably move the fresh-salt water interface toward the pumping well, depending on thepumping rates and the head differences (h between the aquifer recharge and the salt water level. The fresh water injectionmethod is more favorable than the salt water extraction and subsurface barrier method. The fresh water injection rate of about10% of the usage rate can effectively push the interface toward the shoreline, and keeping the pumping well free of salinity.

  4. Distributed intrusion detection system based on fuzzy rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Peili; Su, Jie; Liu, Yahui

    2006-04-01

    Computational Intelligence is the theory and method solving problems by simulating the intelligence of human using computer and it is the development of Artificial Intelligence. Fuzzy Technique is one of the most important theories of computational Intelligence. Genetic Fuzzy Technique and Neuro-Fuzzy Technique are the combination of Fuzzy Technique and novel techniques. This paper gives a distributed intrusion detection system based on fuzzy rules that has the characters of distributed parallel processing, self-organization, self-learning and self-adaptation by the using of Neuro-Fuzzy Technique and Genetic Fuzzy Technique. Specially, fuzzy decision technique can be used to reduce false detection. The results of the simulation experiment show that this intrusion detection system model has the characteristics of distributed, error tolerance, dynamic learning, and adaptation. It solves the problem of low identifying rate to new attacks and hidden attacks. The false detection rate is low. This approach is efficient to the distributed intrusion detection.

  5. Hybrid Intrusion Detection and Prediction multiAgent System HIDPAS

    CERN Document Server

    Jemili, Farah; Ahmed, Mohamed Ben

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes an intrusion detection and prediction system based on uncertain and imprecise inference networks and its implementation. Giving a historic of sessions, it is about proposing a method of supervised learning doubled of a classifier permitting to extract the necessary knowledge in order to identify the presence or not of an intrusion in a session and in the positive case to recognize its type and to predict the possible intrusions that will follow it. The proposed system takes into account the uncertainty and imprecision that can affect the statistical data of the historic. The systematic utilization of an unique probability distribution to represent this type of knowledge supposes a too rich subjective information and risk to be in part arbitrary. One of the first objectives of this work was therefore to permit the consistency between the manner of which we represent information and information which we really dispose.

  6. Intrusion Awareness Based on Data Fusion and SVM Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramnaresh Sharma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Network intrusion awareness is important factor for risk analysis of network security. In the current decade various method and framework are available for intrusion detection and security awareness. Some method based on knowledge discovery process and some framework based on neural network. These entire model take rule based decision for the generation of security alerts. In this paper we proposed a novel method for intrusion awareness using data fusion and SVM classification. Data fusion work on the biases of features gathering of event. Support vector machine is super classifier of data. Here we used SVM for the detection of closed item of ruled based technique. Our proposed method simulate on KDD1999 DARPA data set and get better empirical evaluation result in comparison of rule based technique and neural network model.

  7. Intrusion Awareness Based on Data Fusion and SVM Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramnaresh Sharma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Network intrusion awareness is important factor forrisk analysis of network security. In the currentdecade various method and framework are availablefor intrusion detection and security awareness.Some method based on knowledge discovery processand some framework based on neural network.These entire model take rule based decision for thegeneration of security alerts. In this paper weproposed a novel method for intrusion awarenessusing data fusion and SVM classification. Datafusion work on the biases of features gathering ofevent. Support vector machine is super classifier ofdata. Here we used SVM for the detection of closeditem of ruled based technique. Our proposedmethod simulate on KDD1999 DARPA data set andget better empirical evaluation result in comparisonof rule based technique and neural network model.

  8. HYBRID ARCHITECTURE FOR DISTRIBUTED INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEM IN WIRELESS NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Yasaman Rashida

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to the rapid growth of the network application, new kinds of network attacks are emerging endlessly. So it is critical to protect the networks from attackers and the Intrusion detection technology becomes popular. Therefore, it is necessary that this security concern must be articulate right from the beginning of the network design and deployment. The intrusion detection technology is the process of identifying network activity that can lead to a compromise of security policy. Lot of work has been done in detection of intruders. But the solutions are not satisfactory. In this paper, we propose a novel Distributed Intrusion Detection System using Multi Agent In order to decrease false alarms and manage misuse and anomaly detects.

  9. Research of Intrusion Detection Technology and its Formal Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PENG Yali

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The intrusion detection technology is one of the most important dynamic security technologies, which can be used in the critical security system construction and the basic service protection. Apparently, applying formal specification to the procedure of developing an intrusion detection system can fulfill their security requirement and win the confidence of users of the secured systems. Taking a DDoS intrusion detection system as an example, we establish integrity sub-regular database through analyzing the default characteristics and universal characteristics in communication of DDoS attack, which can guarantee fast and effective detection in each appeared DDoS attack. At the same time, we use the association rules mining algorithm mine new rules and their association pattern to detect the unknown attack, and illustrate how Z can be used to specify and model the security-critical systems.

  10. Alerts Visualization and Clustering in Network-based Intrusion Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Dr. Li [University of Tennessee; Gasior, Wade C [ORNL; Dasireddy, Swetha [University of Tennessee

    2010-04-01

    Today's Intrusion detection systems when deployed on a busy network overload the network with huge number of alerts. This behavior of producing too much raw information makes it less effective. We propose a system which takes both raw data and Snort alerts to visualize and analyze possible intrusions in a network. Then we present with two models for the visualization of clustered alerts. Our first model gives the network administrator with the logical topology of the network and detailed information of each node that involves its associated alerts and connections. In the second model, flocking model, presents the network administrator with the visual representation of IDS data in which each alert is represented in different color and the alerts with maximum similarity move together. This gives network administrator with the idea of detecting various of intrusions through visualizing the alert patterns.

  11. Seasonal variability in the input of lead, barium and indium to Law Dome, Antarctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burn-Nunes...[], L.J.; Vallelonga, Paul Travis; Loss, R.D.

    2011-01-01

    Lead (Pb) isotopic compositions and concentrations, and barium (Ba) and indium (In) concentrations have been determined at monthly resolution in five Law Dome (coastal Eastern Antarctica) ice core sections dated from similar to 1757 AD to similar to 1898 AD. 'Natural' background Pb concentrations...... more impurity laden air from the Southern Hemisphere continental regions to Eastern Antarctica and Law Dome. As this Pb is isotopically identical to that emitted from south-eastern Australia (Broken Hill, Port Pine) this implies a relatively direct air trajectory pathway from southern Australia to Law...

  12. Paleomagnetic Evaluation of the Resurgent Dome at Valles Caldera, Jemez Mountains, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhode, A.; Geissman, J. W.; Goff, F. E.

    2016-12-01

    The Redondo Peak structural dome, located within the ca. 1.25 Ma Valles Caldera, Jemez Mountains, New Mexico, is a well documented example of post-caldera resurgence and is a fundamental part of the famous model of Smith and Bailey (1968). The NE/SW elongated structural resurgent dome, with over 1000 m of uplift, and its medial graben now occupied by Redondo Creek, parallel the NE orientation of the Jemez fault zone, a key boundary structure of the Rio Grande rift. Our paleomagnetic research quantifies the magnitude of structural tilt (i.e. rotation about a horizontal axis) as a component of any deformation of the resurgent dome to determine if uplift was accommodated by block uplift or by simple doming. Independently oriented samples from 43 sites located on two main structural domains that comprise the resurgent dome (the Redondo Border block and the Redondo Peak block) and within the Redondo Creek graben were obtained from the intracaldera facies of the Tshirege Member of the Bandelier Tuff and overlying lower members of post-Bandelier Valles Rhyolite. Magnetic mineralogy consists of low titanium magnetite and maghemite, consistent with previous paleomagnetic studies on flat-lying outflow facies tuff. In situ estimated directions of sites from the Redondo Border structural domain are generally steeper in inclination than the reference direction (D = 175.6, I = -35.7) (Doell et al., 1968; Sussman et al., 2011), with an average inclination of Ig = -42.5, and show a westward deflection in average declination (Dg = 184.2). In situ estimated directions of sites from the Redondo Peak structural domain are generally shallower in inclination than the reference direction (average inclination of Ig = -27.6) and show an eastward deflection in mean declination values, Dg = 160. Overall, paleomagnetic results show that the pattern of deformation is more pronounced parallel to the long axis of the dome and that the Redondo Border block exhibits some 12 degrees of down to the

  13. Linking Seismicity at Depth to the Mechanics of a Lava Dome Failure - a Forecasting Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvage, R. O.; Neuberg, J. W.; Murphy, W.

    2014-12-01

    Soufriere Hills volcano (SHV), Montserrat has been in a state of ongoing unrest since 1995. Prior to eruptions, an increase in the number of seismic events has been observed. We use the Material Failure Law (MFL) (Voight, 1988) to investigate how an accelerating number of low frequency seismic events are related to the timing of a large scale dome collapse in June 1997. We show that although the forecasted timing of a dome collapse may coincide with the known timing, the accuracy of the application of the MFL to the data is poor. Using a cross correlation technique we show how characterising seismicity into similar waveform "families'' allows us to focus on a single process at depth and improve the reliability of our forecast. A number of families are investigated to assess their relative importance. We show that despite the timing of a forecasted dome collapse ranging between several hours of the known timing of collapse, each of the families produces a better forecast in terms of fit to the seismic acceleration data than when using all low frequency seismicity. In addition, we investigate the stability of such families between major dome collapses (1997 and 2003), assessing their potential for use in real-time forecasting. Initial application of Grey's Incidence Analysis suggests that a key parameter influencing the potential for a large scale slumping on the dome of SHV is the rate of low frequency seismicity associated with magma movement and dome growth. We undertook numerical modelling of an andesitic dome with a hydrothermally altered layer down to 800m. The geometry of the dome is based on SHV prior to the collapse of 2003. We show that a critical instability is reached once slope angles exceed 25°, corresponding to a summit height of just over 1100m a.s.l.. The geometry of failure is in close agreement with the identified failure plane suggesting that the input mechanical properties are broadly consistent with reality. We are therefore able to compare

  14. ASTEP: Towards the detection and characterization of exoplanets from Dome C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rauer H.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The ASTEP project (Antarctic Search for Transiting ExoPlanets, aims at testing the quality of the Dome C site in Antarctica for photometry in the visible, as well as detecting and characterizing transiting exoplanets. A dedicated telescope, ASTEP400, has been developped and installed at Concordia. The first campaign took place during the winter 2010, and the telescope functionned nominally during all the winter. A first analysis of the data leads to a precision of 189 and 205 ppm for WASP-19 and WASP-18 respectively, for continuous observations during 1 month. This shows that extremely high precision photometry is achievable from Dome C.

  15. [Coats of arms of the Amsterdam Surgeons' Guild in the dome of the Anatomy Theatre].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gulik, Thomas M; Ijpma, Frank F A; Middelkoop, Norbert E

    2014-01-01

    In 1731, Cornelis Troost (1696-1750) painted three wardens of the surgeons' guild in Amsterdam. We know their names from the family coats of arms shown on the wall behind them. The same coats of arms and names are painted in the dome of the Anatomy Theatre in the 'Waag', the former weighing house at the Nieuwmarkt in Amsterdam, which also housed the board room of the surgeons' guild. The 84 coats of arms in the beautifully restored dome are a testimony of the rich history of the surgeons' guild.

  16. A two thousand year annual record of snow accumulation rates for Law Dome, East Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Roberts

    2014-11-01

    AD 663–704, AD 933–975 and AD 1429–1468 were below average. The calculated snow accumulation rates show good correlation with atmospheric reanalysis estimates, and significant spatial correlation over a wide expanse of East Antarctica, demonstrating that the Law Dome record captures larger scale variability across a large region of East Antarctica well beyond the immediate vicinity of the Law Dome summit. Spectral analysis reveals periodicities in the snow accumulation record which may be related to ENSO and Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation frequencies.

  17. How stratospheric are deep stratospheric intrusions? LUAMI 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trickl, Thomas; Vogelmann, Hannes; Fix, Andreas; Schäfler, Andreas; Wirth, Martin; Calpini, Bertrand; Levrat, Gilbert; Romanens, Gonzague; Apituley, Arnoud; Wilson, Keith M.; Begbie, Robert; Reichardt, Jens; Vömel, Holger; Sprenger, Michael

    2016-07-01

    A large-scale comparison of water-vapour vertical-sounding instruments took place over central Europe on 17 October 2008, during a rather homogeneous deep stratospheric intrusion event (LUAMI, Lindenberg Upper-Air Methods Intercomparison). The measurements were carried out at four observational sites: Payerne (Switzerland), Bilthoven (the Netherlands), Lindenberg (north-eastern Germany), and the Zugspitze mountain (Garmisch-Partenkichen, German Alps), and by an airborne water-vapour lidar system creating a transect of humidity profiles between all four stations. A high data quality was verified that strongly underlines the scientific findings. The intrusion layer was very dry with a minimum mixing ratios of 0 to 35 ppm on its lower west side, but did not drop below 120 ppm on the higher-lying east side (Lindenberg). The dryness hardens the findings of a preceding study ("Part 1", Trickl et al., 2014) that, e.g., 73 % of deep intrusions reaching the German Alps and travelling 6 days or less exhibit minimum mixing ratios of 50 ppm and less. These low values reflect values found in the lowermost stratosphere and indicate very slow mixing with tropospheric air during the downward transport to the lower troposphere. The peak ozone values were around 70 ppb, confirming the idea that intrusion layers depart from the lowermost edge of the stratosphere. The data suggest an increase of ozone from the lower to the higher edge of the intrusion layer. This behaviour is also confirmed by stratospheric aerosol caught in the layer. Both observations are in agreement with the idea that sections of the vertical distributions of these constituents in the source region were transferred to central Europe without major change. LAGRANTO trajectory calculations demonstrated a rather shallow outflow from the stratosphere just above the dynamical tropopause, for the first time confirming the conclusions in "Part 1" from the Zugspitze CO observations. The trajectories qualitatively explain

  18. Power-Aware Intrusion Detection in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şen, Sevil; Clark, John A.; Tapiador, Juan E.

    Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are a highly promising new form of networking. However they are more vulnerable to attacks than wired networks. In addition, conventional intrusion detection systems (IDS) are ineffective and inefficient for highly dynamic and resource-constrained environments. Achieving an effective operational MANET requires tradeoffs to be made between functional and non-functional criteria. In this paper we show how Genetic Programming (GP) together with a Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm (MOEA) can be used to synthesise intrusion detection programs that make optimal tradeoffs between security criteria and the power they consume.

  19. A national inventory of seawater intrusion vulnerability for Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanne K. Morgan

    2015-09-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: The combination of methods identified areas of highest risk to SWI including unconfined aquifers at Derby (WA and Esperance (WA, and confined aquifers at Esperance (WA and Adelaide (SA. The combination of analytic and qualitative approaches offers a more comprehensive and less subjective seawater intrusion characterization than arises from applying the methods in isolation, thereby imparting enhanced confidence in the outcomes. Importantly, active seawater intrusion conditions occur in many of Australia’s confined coastal aquifers, obviating the use of the analytical solution, and suggesting that offshore groundwater resources provide significant contributions to these systems.

  20. Hybrid Optimization of Support Vector Machine for Intrusion Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XI Fu-li; YU Song-nian; HAO Wei

    2005-01-01

    Support vector machine (SVM) technique has recently become a research focus in intrusion detection field for its better generalization performance when given less priori knowledge than other soft-computing techniques. But the randomicity of parameter selection in its implement often prevents it achieving expected performance. By utilizing genetic algorithm (GA) to optimize the parameters in data preprocessing and the training model of SVM simultaneously, a hybrid optimization algorithm is proposed in the paper to address this problem. The experimental results demonstrate that it's an effective method and can improve the perfornance of SVM-based intrusion detection system further.