WorldWideScience

Sample records for intrusion water

  1. Salt water intrusion on Uznam Island - 'Wydrzany' water intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochaniec, M.

    1999-01-01

    Aquifers of Uznam Island have high risk of saline water intrusion due to geographical and geological location. Hydrogeological and geophysical researchers were taken up in order to evaluate changes in intrusion of saline water into aquifer of Uznam Island. Water intake named 'Wydrzany' was built in south part of island in 1973. Since 1975 geophysical research has shown intrusion of salt water from reservoirs and bedrock due to withdrawn of water. In 1997 geoelectrical researches evaluated changes which have taken place since 1975 in saline water intrusion into aquifers of Uznam Island. The last research result showed that intrusion front moved 1100 m to the centre of island in comparison with situation in 1975. (author)

  2. Thermal effects of water intrusion in hydrophobic nanoporous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbowiak, Thomas; Paulin, Christian; Ballandras, Anthony; Weber, Guy; Bellat, Jean-Pierre

    2009-07-29

    Liquid water intrusion in hydrophobic nanoporous silicalite-1, a pure siliceous zeolite, in isothermal conditions under high pressure produces an endothermic effect. After intrusion, confined water in zeolite pores is in a different state from that of the liquid bulk water. Such forced intrusion also chemically modifies the material and tends to render it slightly more hydrophilic.

  3. GROUND WATER SAMPLING OF VOCS IN THE WATER/CAPILLARY FRINGE AREA FOR VAPOR INTRUSION ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vapor intrusion has recently been considered a major pathway for increased indoor air contamination from certain volatile organic contaminants (VOCs). The recent Draft EPA Subsurface Vapor Intrusion Guidance Document states that ground water samples should be obtained from the u...

  4. Intrusion problematic during water supply systems' operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora-Rodriguez, Jesus; Lopez-Jimenez, P. Amparo [Departamento de Ingenieria Hidraulica y Medio Ambiente, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera, s/n, 46022, Valencia (Spain); Ramos, Helena M. [Civil Engineering Department and CEHIDRO, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2011-07-01

    Intrusion through leaks occurrence is a phenomenon when external fluid comes into water pipe systems. This phenomenon can cause contamination problems in drinking pipe systems. Hence, this paper focuses on the entry of external fluids across small leaks during normal operation conditions. This situation is especially important in elevated points of the pipe profile. Pressure variations can origin water volume losses and intrusion of contaminants into the drinking water pipes. This work focuses in obtaining up the physical representation on a specific case intrusion in a pipe water system. The combination of two factors is required to generate this kind of intrusion in a water supply system: on one hand the existence of at least a leak in the system; on the other hand, a pressure variation could occur during the operation of the system due to consumption variation, pump start-up or shutdown. The potential of intrusion during a dynamic or transient event is here analyzed. To obtain this objective an experimental case study of pressure transient scenario is analyzed with a small leak located nearby the transient source.

  5. Spatial distribution of saline water and possible sources of intrusion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The spatial distribution of saline water and possible sources of intrusion into Lekki lagoon and transitional effects on the lacustrine ichthyofaunal characteristics were studied during March, 2006 and. February, 2008. The water quality analysis indicated that, salinity has drastically increased recently in the lagoon (0.007 to ...

  6. Spatial distribution of saline water and possible sources of intrusion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The spatial distribution of saline water and possible sources of intrusion into Lekki lagoon and transitional effects on the lacustrine ichthyofaunal characteristics were studied during March, 2006 and February, 2008. The water quality analysis indicated that, salinity has drastically increased recently in the lagoon (0.007 to ...

  7. Saline water intrusion toward groundwater: Issues and its control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purnama S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, saline water pollution has been gaining its importance as the major issue around the world, especially in the urban coastal area. Saline water pollution has major impact on human life and livelihood. It ́s mainly a result from static fossil water and the dynamics of sea water intrusion. The problem of saline water pollution caused by seawater intrusion has been increasing since the beginning of urban population. The problem of sea water intrusion in the urban coastal area must be anticipated as soon as possible especially in the urban areas developed in coastal zones,. This review article aims to; (i analyze the distribution of saline water pollution on urban coastal area in Indonesia and (ii analyze some methods in controlling saline water pollution, especially due to seawater intrusion in urban coastal area. The strength and weakness of each method have been compared, including (a applying different pumping patterns, (b artificial recharge, (c extraction barrier, (d injection barrier and (e subsurface barrier. The best method has been selected considering its possible development in coastal areas of developing countries. The review is based considering the location of Semarang coastal area, Indonesia. The results have shown that artificial recharge and extraction barrier are the most suitable methods to be applied in the area.

  8. Geophysical study of saline water intrusion in Lagos municipality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    Saline water intrusion presently constitutes serious concerns in the Lagos municipality just like many other coastal cities, thus necessitating its intervallic study. The present study involving 52 borehole logs (consisting of natural gamma and electrical resistivity components) was aimed at delineating intruded and vulnerable ...

  9. Groundwater quality degradation due to salt water intrusion in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Saltwater intrusion problems are widespread where there are over pumping of groundwater from coastal aquifers. Water samples were collected from production boreholes in Zanzibar municipality and analyzed for salinity indication parameters comprising of chloride, electrical conductivity, total dissolved salts and ...

  10. Geophysical study of saline water intrusion in Lagos municipality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Saline water intrusion presently constitutes serious concerns in the Lagos municipality just like many other coastal cities, thus necessitating its intervallic study. The present study involving 52 borehole logs (consisting of natural gamma and electrical resistivity components) was aimed at delineating intruded and vulnerable ...

  11. Innovative methods to reduce salt water intrusion in harbours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenenboom, J.; Uittenbogaard, R.; Hulsen, L.; van der Kaaij, T.; Kielen, N.

    2017-12-01

    The availability of fresh water in densely populated estuarine environments will in the future more often be threatened due to both human (e.g. channel deepening) and natural (sea-level rise, storm surges, extremely low river discharges) causes. Here, the salt water intrusion into the New Waterway, the main navigation channel of the port of Rotterdam, is used as a case study to elaborate on two innovative ways to mitigate the effects of salt water intrusion. The first method is based on the concept that vertical mixing of a salt wedge reduces its intrusion length. The idea is to equip a vessel with cranes that hold perforated tubes close to the bed alongside the vessel. By connecting compressors to the perforated tubes, a bubble screen with an adjustable vertical location can be created. Since the horizontal location of the bubble screens is not fixed, the vessel can sail in the vicinity of the moving salt wedge therewith increasing the effectiveness of the method. Another advantage of this intervention is that it can be deployed temporarily when the urgency for the prevention of salt water intrusion is high. The second method originates from the Port of Rotterdam Authority and is inspired by a small bypass that is present between two parallel channels (New Waterway and Caland Canal) connecting the North Sea to the Port of Rotterdam. Due to the different hydrodynamic characteristics of the hinterland of both channels, a difference in salinity and water level is present between both ends of the bypass. As a result, a lateral inflow of water into the New Waterway occurs at the same moment that the flood velocities transport saline water landwards. The lateral inflow of water into this channel has no momentum in the landward direction and therefore decreases the landward flow velocity and therewith the salt water intrusion. In addition, the inflow drives a vertical circulation that mixes the water column close to the bypass. Similar to the bubble screens mentioned

  12. Coplanar capacitance sensors for detecting water intrusion in composite structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassr, Amr A; El-Dakhakhni, Wael W; Ahmed, Wael H

    2008-01-01

    Composite materials are becoming more affordable and widely used for retrofitting, rehabilitating and repairing reinforced concrete structures designed and constructed under older specifications. However, the mechanical properties and long-term durability of composite materials may degrade severely in the presence of water intrusion. This study presents a new non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technique for detecting the water intrusion in composite structures by evaluating the dielectric properties of different composite system constituent materials. The variation in the dielectric signatures was employed to design a coplanar capacitance sensor with high sensitivity to detect such defects. An analytical model was used to study the effect of the sensor geometry on the output signal and to optimize sensor design. A finite element model was developed to validate analytical results and to evaluate other sensor design-related parameters. Experimental testing of a concrete specimen wrapped with composite laminate and containing a series of pre-induced water intrusion defects was conducted in order to validate the concept of the new technique. Experimental data showed excellent agreement with the finite element model predictions and confirmed sensor performance

  13. Hydrodynamic modeling of the intrusion phenomenon in water distribution systems; Modelacion hidrodinamica del fenomeno de intrusion en tuberia de abastecimiento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Jimenez, Petra Amparo; Mora-Rodriguez, Jose de Jesus; Perez-Garcia, Rafael; Martinez-Solano, F. Javier [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (Spain)

    2008-10-15

    This paper describes a strategy for the hydrodynamic modeling of the pathogen intrusion phenomenon in water distribution systems by the combination of a breakage with a depression situation. This scenario will be modeled computationally and experimentally. The phenomenon to be represented by both simulations is the same: the entrance of an external volume into the circulation of a main volume, known as a pathogen intrusion, as long as the main volume is potable water. To this end, a prototype and a computational model based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) are used, which allow visualizing the fields of speeds and pressures in a simulated form. With the comparison of the results of both models, conclusions will be drawn on the detail of the studied pathogen intrusion phenomenon. [Spanish] En el presente documento se describe una estrategia de modelacion del fenomeno hidrodinamico de la intrusion patogena en redes de distribucion de agua por combinacion de una rotura con una situacion de depresion. Este escenario sera modelado computacional y experimentalmente. El fenomeno que se desea representar con ambas simulaciones es el mismo: la entrada de un caudal externo a una conduccion para la que circula un caudal principal, denominado intrusion patogena, siempre y cuando el caudal principal sea agua potable. Para ello se dispone de un prototipo y un modelo computacional basado en la Dinamica de Fluidos Computacional (DFC de aqui en adelante), que permite visualizar los campos de velocidades y presiones de forma simulada. Con la comparacion de los resultados de ambos modelos se extraeran conclusiones sobre el detalle del fenomeno de la intrusion patogena estudiado.

  14. Simulation of sea water intrusion in coastal aquifers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers is generally three dimensional (3-D) in nature. In the literature, there is a general lack of reported results on 3-D simulations. This paper presents some typical example simulations of 3-D seawater intrusion process for a specified hypothetical study area. The simulation results presented ...

  15. Prediction of sea water intrusion for mining activity in close precincts of sea shore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Awanindra Pratap; Gupta, Prem Kumar; Khandelwal, Manoj

    2013-01-01

    The mining lease area of Surka [District Bhavnagar, Gujarat (India)] is located within 6-12 km horizontal distance of sea shore of Gulf of Cambay. Whenever, there will be onset of lignite extraction, there will be always a threat of sea water intrusion into the mining lease area due to its close proximity to seashore. This article describes the prediction of sea water intrusion into the lease area of whole mining block using Ghyben-Herzberg relation between fresh and saline water, Remote Sensing, Ground Truth verification, Electrical Resistivity Survey and groundwater table monitored during the year 2004. As per the Ghyben-Herzberg relation, results show that there will not be sea water intrusion. If there is excess pumping of water then also the basement rock below the lignite seam will put hindrance to any possible upconing of saline water interface.

  16. Sea water intrusion by sea-level rise: scenarios for the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loáiciga, Hugo A; Pingel, Thomas J; Garcia, Elizabeth S

    2012-01-01

    This study presents a method to assess the contributions of 21st-century sea-level rise and groundwater extraction to sea water intrusion in coastal aquifers. Sea water intrusion is represented by the landward advance of the 10,000 mg/L iso-salinity line, a concentration of dissolved salts that renders groundwater unsuitable for human use. A mathematical formulation of the resolution of sea water intrusion among its causes was quantified via numerical simulation under scenarios of change in groundwater extraction and sea-level rise in the 21st century. The developed method is illustrated with simulations of sea water intrusion in the Seaside Area sub-basin near the City of Monterey, California (USA), where predictions of mean sea-level rise through the early 21st century range from 0.10 to 0.90 m due to increasing global mean surface temperature. The modeling simulation was carried out with a state-of-the-art numerical model that accounts for the effects of salinity on groundwater density and can approximate hydrostratigraphic geometry closely. Simulations of sea water intrusion corresponding to various combinations of groundwater extraction and sea-level rise established that groundwater extraction is the predominant driver of sea water intrusion in the study aquifer. The method presented in this work is applicable to coastal aquifers under a variety of other scenarios of change not considered in this work. For example, one could resolve what changes in groundwater extraction and/or sea level would cause specified levels of groundwater salinization at strategic locations and times. © 2011, The Author(s). Ground Water © 2011, National Ground Water Association.

  17. Acoustic monitoring of terrorist intrusion in a drinking water network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quesson, B.A.J.; Sheldon-Robert, M.K.; Vloerbergh, I.N.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.

    2009-01-01

    In collaboration with Kiwa Water Research, TNO (Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research) has investigated the possibilities to detect and classify aberrant sounds in water networks, using acoustic sensors. Amongst the sources of such sounds are pumps, drills, mechanical impacts,

  18. Sea water intrusion studies near Kovaya limestone mine, Saurashtra coast, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujari, Paras R; Soni, Abhay K

    2009-07-01

    The Kovaya Limestone Mine is situated on the Saurashtra coast of India. Though the mine is dependent on the desalination plant installed in the plant for its domestic and industrial water requirements, there is significant withdrawal of groundwater by the large number of bore wells and open wells, which are present in the agricultural fields lying in and around the leased area of the mine. The heavy withdrawal of groundwater has led to intrusion of seawater. The present work entails study of possible seawater intrusion by chemical analysis of major cations and anions in selected groundwater samples. Very high total dissolved solids in the range of >1,000 mg/l and high chloride in the range of 103 mg/l to 3,899 mg/l have been measured in the groundwater samples. 'Resistivity Imaging Survey' has also been carried out on selected profiles in the study area. The Electrical Resistivity Tomography images indicate very low resistivity zones (~0-3 Omega m) in the bottom portion of the resistivity depth section. These low resistivity zones can be interpreted to be due to seawater intrusion. The resistivity sections on the excavated Pits, where mining is going on, indicate possibilities of seawater intrusion. Hence, protection from seawater intrusion is recommended through restriction of mining up to the safe level.

  19. Analysing monthly sectorial water use and its influence on salt intrusion induced water shortage in urbanized deltas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, Mingtian; Yan, Dan; Kabat, Pavel; Huang, Heqing; Hutjes, Ronald W.A.; Werners, Saskia E.

    2016-01-01

    Urbanizing delta regions face seasonal water shortages induced by rising salt intrusion. Decreasing river discharge is readily listed as the major cause of water shortage events. Yet, observations of river discharge often fail to support this attribution. Evidence of the association between

  20. Bacterial amplification and in-place carpet drying: implications for category 1 water intrusion restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Jim; Banta, John; Passmore, Boni; Ayers, Mark; Abbott, Sean P; Cole, Eugene C

    2012-05-01

    The study described in this article investigated whether in-place carpet drying processes resulted in bacterial amplification following water intrusion from a clean water source (category 1) in a residential indoor environment. Bacterial amplification was examined after wetting a 10-year-old carpet and pad that had no history of water intrusion. Three test areas were extracted and dried using industry-recommended procedures for in-place drying and compared to a control area that was not extracted or dried. Results from carpet, pad, and subsurface dust demonstrated that bacterial amplification occurred in all test areas. CFUs of bacteria per gram of carpet surface dust and subsurface dust prior to water intrusion were lower than levels in subsurface dust after in-place drying. The authors' study contributes to information regarding the restoration of water-based carpet damage by professional water damage restoration companies, building maintenance personnel, and housekeeping managers. Results suggest that the appropriate response time for carpet pad salvage is considerably shorter than the current industry recommendation of 72 hours.

  1. Geophysical study for saline water intrusion in a coastal alluvial terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Kalpan; Saha, D. K.; Chakraborty, P.

    2001-03-01

    Geophysical investigations comprising electrical resistivity and shallow seismic refraction methods have been employed in the alluvial coastal belt of Digha, in the Eastern India for environmental study, to investigate the nature and status of subsurface saline water contamination. Geophysical surveys have delineated different subsurface geological formations such as dune sand, top sandy soil, saline sand and saline clay on the basis of their characteristic resistivity and velocity signatures. It is also inferred from geophysical interpretation that the thickness of the near-surface saline zone decreases inland away from the shore. Fortunately for Digha, clay layers present at different subsurface levels, which have probable extensions under the sea, have acted as barriers against any large-scale saline water intrusion at depth, even though pockets of saline/brackish zones have been interpreted in the subsurface. Clay formations are predominant up to a depth of about 60 m in the area below which an aquifer zone has been demarcated. A few locales that are already saline or are vulnerable for saline water intrusion have been identified at different depth levels and these zones should be avoided for ground water development. Further, several comparatively safe zones where ground water can be effectively exploited, have been delineated in the area. It has been observed that geophysical methods are highly useful in the environmental study for assessing saline water intrusion in alluvial terrain even in the presence of thick clay formations.

  2. Malvinas-slope water intrusions on the northern Patagonia continental shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Piola

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Patagonia continental shelf located off southeastern South America is bounded offshore by the Malvinas Current, which extends northward from northern Drake Passage (~55° S to nearly 38° S. The transition between relatively warm-fresh shelf waters and Subantarctic Waters from the western boundary current is characterized by a thermohaline front extending nearly 2500 km. We use satellite derived sea surface temperature, and chlorophyll-a data combined with hydrographic and surface drifter data to document the intrusions of slope waters onto the continental shelf near 41° S. These intrusions create vertically coherent localized negative temperature and positive salinity anomalies extending onshore about 150 km from the shelf break. The region is associated with a center of action of the first mode of non-seasonal sea surface temperature variability and also relatively high chlorophyll-a variability, suggesting that the intrusions are important in promoting the local development of phytoplankton. The generation of slope water penetrations at this location may be triggered by the inshore excursion of the 100 m isobath, which appears to steer the Malvinas Current waters over the outer shelf.

  3. An Excel Macro to Plot the HFE-Diagram to Identify Sea Water Intrusion Phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez-Forcada, Elena; Sánchez San Román, F Javier

    2015-01-01

    A hydrochemical facies evolution diagram (HFE-D) is a multirectangular diagram, which is a useful tool in the interpretation of sea water intrusion processes. This method note describes a simple method for generating an HFE-D plot using the spreadsheet software package, Microsoft Excel. The code was applied to groundwater from the alluvial coastal plain of Grosseto (Tuscany, Italy), which is characterized by a complex salinization process in which sea water mixes with sulfate or bicarbonate recharge water. © 2014, National GroundWater Association.

  4. Chemical fingerprinting of saline water intrusion into sewage lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Ola; Aina, Oluwajinmi Daniel; Ahmad, Farrukh

    2017-10-01

    High salinity in sewage sludge can affect not only the operation of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) but also the quality of treated water generated, thereby limiting its downstream reuse. Using data on geochemical parameters, both for the central WWTP in Abu Dhabi, UAE, and literature values for potential regional saline water sources (e.g., shallow groundwater and regional Arabian Gulf seawater), a variety of chemical fingerprinting diagnostic ratios were calculated and plotted in order to determine the source of salinity in the municipal sewage. Data were compared with data from a regional WWTP that was not impacted by salinity. Monitoring data demonstrated persistently elevated levels of salinity in the municipal wastewater arriving at the central WWTP from the city. Dilution/concentration analysis using a conductivity vs. chloride plot showed both potential sources, i.e. Arabian Gulf seawater and coastal hypersaline groundwater, as feasible sources of wastewater salinization. Further diagnostic analysis using a Panno Plot indicated that coastal groundwater was the only likely source of salinization of municipal sewage. Additional confirmation of the identity of the source and the extent of mixing using different lines of evidence like stable isotope ratios is recommended for future study.

  5. Sea water intrusion model of Amchitka Island, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheatcraft, S.W.

    1995-09-01

    During the 1960s and 1970s, Amchitka Island, Alaska, was the site of three underground nuclear tests, referred to as Milrow, Long Shot and Cannikin. Amchitka Island is located in the western part of the Aleutian Island chain, Alaska. The groundwater systems affected by the three underground nuclear tests at Amchitka Island are essentially unmonitored because all of the current monitoring wells are too shallow and not appropriately placed to detect migration from the cavities. The dynamics of the island's fresh water-sea water hydrologic system will control contaminant migration from the three event cavities, with migration expected in the direction of the Bering Sea from Long shot and Cannikin and the Pacific Ocean from Milrow. The hydrogeologic setting (actively flowing groundwater system to maintain a freshwater lens) suggests a significant possibility for relatively rapid contaminant migration from these sites, but also presents an opportunity to use projected flowpaths to a monitoring advantage. The purpose of this investigation is to develop a conceptual model of the Amchitka groundwater system and to produce computer model simulations that reflect the boundary conditions and hydraulic properties of the groundwater system. The simulations will be used to assess the validity of the proposed conceptual model and highlight the uncertainties in hydraulic properties of the aquifer. The uncertainties will be quantified by sensitivity analyses on various model parameters. Within the limitations of the conceptual model and the computer simulations, conclusions will be drawn regarding potential radionuclide migration from the three underground nuclear tests

  6. Impact of sea-level rise on sea water intrusion in coastal aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Adrian D; Simmons, Craig T

    2009-01-01

    Despite its purported importance, previous studies of the influence of sea-level rise on coastal aquifers have focused on specific sites, and a generalized systematic analysis of the general case of the sea water intrusion response to sea-level rise has not been reported. In this study, a simple conceptual framework is used to provide a first-order assessment of sea water intrusion changes in coastal unconfined aquifers in response to sea-level rise. Two conceptual models are tested: (1) flux-controlled systems, in which ground water discharge to the sea is persistent despite changes in sea level, and (2) head-controlled systems, whereby ground water abstractions or surface features maintain the head condition in the aquifer despite sea-level changes. The conceptualization assumes steady-state conditions, a sharp interface sea water-fresh water transition zone, homogeneous and isotropic aquifer properties, and constant recharge. In the case of constant flux conditions, the upper limit for sea water intrusion due to sea-level rise (up to 1.5 m is tested) is no greater than 50 m for typical values of recharge, hydraulic conductivity, and aquifer depth. This is in striking contrast to the constant head cases, in which the magnitude of salt water toe migration is on the order of hundreds of meters to several kilometers for the same sea-level rise. This study has highlighted the importance of inland boundary conditions on the sea-level rise impact. It identifies combinations of hydrogeologic parameters that control whether large or small salt water toe migration will occur for any given change in a hydrogeologic variable.

  7. Calibrating a Salt Water Intrusion Model with Time-Domain Electromagnetic Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herckenrath, Daan; Odlum, Nick; Nenna, Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    are transformed to an electrical resistivity model, after which a geophysical forward response is calculated and compared with the measured geophysical data. This approach was applied for a field site in Santa Cruz County, California, where a time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) dataset was collected......Salt water intrusion models are commonly used to support groundwater resource management in coastal aquifers. Concentration data used for model calibration are often sparse and limited in spatial extent. With airborne and ground-based electromagnetic surveys, electrical resistivity models can...

  8. Contextualising Water Use in Residential Settings: A Survey of Non-Intrusive Techniques and Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Carboni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Water monitoring in households is important to ensure the sustainability of fresh water reserves on our planet. It provides stakeholders with the statistics required to formulate optimal strategies in residential water management. However, this should not be prohibitive and appliance-level water monitoring cannot practically be achieved by deploying sensors on every faucet or water-consuming device of interest due to the higher hardware costs and complexity, not to mention the risk of accidental leakages that can derive from the extra plumbing needed. Machine learning and data mining techniques are promising techniques to analyse monitored data to obtain non-intrusive water usage disaggregation. This is because they can discern water usage from the aggregated data acquired from a single point of observation. This paper provides an overview of water usage disaggregation systems and related techniques adopted for water event classification. The state-of-the art of algorithms and testbeds used for fixture recognition are reviewed and a discussion on the prominent challenges and future research are also included.

  9. Evaluation of Hanford Single-Shell Waste Tanks Suspected of Water Intrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feero, Amie J.; Washenfelder, Dennis J.; Johnson, Jeremy M.; Schofield, John S.

    2013-01-01

    Intrusions evaluations for twelve single-shell tanks were completed in 2013. The evaluations consisted of remote visual inspections, data analysis, and calculations of estimated intrusion rates. The observation of an intrusion or the preponderance of evidence confirmed that six of the twelve tanks evaluated had intrusions. These tanks were tanks 241-A-103, BX-101, BX-103, BX-110, BY-102, and SX-106

  10. Integral Analysis of Field Work and Laboratory Electrical Resistivity Imaging for Saline Water Intrusion Prediction in Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawawi, M. H.; Zahar, M. F.; Hashim, M. M. M.; Hazreek, Z. A. M.; Zahari, N. M.; Kamaruddin, M. A.

    2018-04-01

    Saline water intrusion is a serious threat to the groundwater as many part of the world utilize groundwater as their main source of fresh water supply. The usage of high salinity level of water as drinking water can lead to a very serious health hazard towards human. Saline water intrusion is a process by which induced flow of seawater into freshwater aquifer along the coastal area. It might happen due to human action and/or by natural event. The climate change and rise up of sea level may speed up the saline water intrusion process. The conventional method for distinguishing and checking saltwater interference to groundwater along the coast aquifers is to gather and test the groundwater from series of observation wells (borehole) with an end goal to give the important information about the hydrochemistry data to conclude whether the water in the well are safe to consume or not. An integrated approach of field and laboratory electrical resistivity investigation is proposed for indicating the contact region between saline and fresh groundwater. It was found that correlation for both soilbox produced almost identical curvilinear trends for 2% increment of seawater tested using sand sample. This project contributes towards predicting the saline water intrusion to the groundwater by non-destructive test that can replaced the conventional method of groundwater monitoring using series of boreholes in the coastal area

  11. Social Perception of Public Water Supply Network and Groundwater Quality in an Urban Setting Facing Saltwater Intrusion and Water Shortages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alameddine, Ibrahim; Jawhari, Gheeda; El-Fadel, Mutasem

    2017-04-01

    Perceptions developed by consumers regarding the quality of water reaching their household can affect the ultimate use of the water. This study identified key factors influencing consumers' perception of water quality in a highly urbanized coastal city, experiencing chronic water shortages, overexploitation of groundwater, and accelerated saltwater intrusion. Household surveys were administered to residents to capture views and perceptions of consumed water. Concomitantly, groundwater and tap water samples were collected and analyzed at each residence for comparison with perceptions. People's rating of groundwater quality was found to correlate to the measured water quality both in the dry and wet seasons. In contrast, perceptions regarding the water quality of the public water supply network did not show any correlation with the measured tap water quality indicators. Logistic regression models developed to predict perception based on salient variables indicated that age, apartment ownership, and levels of total dissolved solids play a significant role in shaping perceptions regarding groundwater quality. Perceptions concerning the water quality of the public water supply network appeared to be independent of the measured total dissolved solids levels at the tap but correlated to those measured in the wells. The study highlights misconceptions that can arise as a result of uncontrolled cross-connections of groundwater to the public supply network water and the development of misaligned perceptions based on prior consumption patterns, water shortages, and a rapidly salinizing groundwater aquifer.

  12. Social Perception of Public Water Supply Network and Groundwater Quality in an Urban Setting Facing Saltwater Intrusion and Water Shortages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alameddine, Ibrahim; Jawhari, Gheeda; El-Fadel, Mutasem

    2017-04-01

    Perceptions developed by consumers regarding the quality of water reaching their household can affect the ultimate use of the water. This study identified key factors influencing consumers' perception of water quality in a highly urbanized coastal city, experiencing chronic water shortages, overexploitation of groundwater, and accelerated saltwater intrusion. Household surveys were administered to residents to capture views and perceptions of consumed water. Concomitantly, groundwater and tap water samples were collected and analyzed at each residence for comparison with perceptions. People's rating of groundwater quality was found to correlate to the measured water quality both in the dry and wet seasons. In contrast, perceptions regarding the water quality of the public water supply network did not show any correlation with the measured tap water quality indicators. Logistic regression models developed to predict perception based on salient variables indicated that age, apartment ownership, and levels of total dissolved solids play a significant role in shaping perceptions regarding groundwater quality. Perceptions concerning the water quality of the public water supply network appeared to be independent of the measured total dissolved solids levels at the tap but correlated to those measured in the wells. The study highlights misconceptions that can arise as a result of uncontrolled cross-connections of groundwater to the public supply network water and the development of misaligned perceptions based on prior consumption patterns, water shortages, and a rapidly salinizing groundwater aquifer.

  13. The Gulf of Aden Intermediate Water Intrusion Regulates the Southern Red Sea Summer Phytoplankton Blooms

    KAUST Repository

    Dreano, Denis

    2017-01-09

    Knowledge on large-scale biological processes in the southern Red Sea is relatively limited, primarily due to the scarce in situ, and satellite-derived chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) datasets. During summer, adverse atmospheric conditions in the southern Red Sea (haze and clouds) have long severely limited the retrieval of satellite ocean colour observations. Recently, a new merged ocean colour product developed by the European Space Agency (ESA)-the Ocean Color Climate Change Initiative (OC-CCI)-has substantially improved the southern Red Sea coverage of Chl-a, allowing the discovery of unexpected intense summer blooms. Here we provide the first detailed description of their spatiotemporal distribution and report the mechanisms regulating them. During summer, the monsoon-driven wind reversal modifies the circulation dynamics at the Bab-el-Mandeb strait, leading to a subsurface influx of colder, fresher, nutrient-rich water from the Indian Ocean. Using satellite observations, model simulation outputs, and in situ datasets, we track the pathway of this intrusion into the extensive shallow areas and coral reef complexes along the basin\\'s shores. We also provide statistical evidence that the subsurface intrusion plays a key role in the development of the southern Red Sea phytoplankton blooms.

  14. Intrusion of the Bay of Bengal water into the Arabian Sea during winter monsoon and associated chemical and biological response

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Narvekar, J.; Kumar, A.; Shaji, C.; Anand, P.; Sabu, P.; Rijomon, G.; Josia, J.; Jayaraj, K.A.; Radhika, A.; Nair, K.K.C.

    : Physicochemical properties. Citation: Prasanna Kumar, S., et al. (2004), Intrusion of the Bay of Bengal water into the Arabian Sea during winter monsoon and associated chemical and biological response, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L15304, doi:10.1029/2004GL020247. 1...

  15. Modeling modified Circumpolar Deep Water intrusions onto the Prydz Bay continental shelf, East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengyan; Wang, Zhaomin; Cheng, Chen; Xia, Ruibin; Li, Bingrui; Xie, Zelin

    2017-07-01

    An eddy-resolving coupled regional ocean-sea ice-ice shelf model is employed to locate the hot spots where modified Circumpolar Deep Water (mCDW) intrudes onto the continental shelf within Prydz Bay, and locate the paths through which mCDW is transported to the Amery Ice Shelf (AIS) calving front. Evaluation of the model output is with satellite, hydrographic and borehole data. Two critical windows responsible for mCDW intrusions are identified. The first is the eastern branch of the cyclonic Prydz Bay gyre (PBG) that carries mCDW to the ice front line, accounting for an annual mean heat transport of ˜8.7 ×1011 J s-1. The second is located to the east of the Four Ladies Bank (FLB) where mCDW is channeled through submarine troughs, accounting for an annual mean heat transport of ˜16.2 ×1011 J s-1. The eddy-induced heat transport accounts for ˜23% in the path of the PBG and ˜52% in the path of the eastern coastal current, with respect to their total onshore heat transport. The seasonal pulsing of mCDW intrusions is greatly dependent on the seasonal cycle of the Antarctic Slope Current (ASC) that peaks with a maximum of ˜29.3 Sv at 75°E in June. In austral winter, mCDW is allowed to access the eastern flank of the AIS calving front with potential consequences for the basal mass balance of the AIS. The dynamic effects of small-scale troughs on the longshore ASC play an important role in the onshore mCDW transport.

  16. Forced intrusion of water and aqueous solutions in microporous materials: from fundamental thermodynamics to energy storage devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraux, Guillaume; Coudert, François-Xavier; Boutin, Anne; Fuchs, Alain H

    2017-12-07

    We review the high pressure forced intrusion studies of water in hydrophobic microporous materials such as zeolites and MOFs, a field of research that has emerged some 15 years ago and is now very active. Many of these studies are aimed at investigating the possibility of using these systems as energy storage devices. A series of all-silica zeolites (zeosil) frameworks were found suitable for reversible energy storage because of their stability with respect to hydrolysis after several water intrusion-extrusion cycles. Several microporous hydrophobic zeolite imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) also happen to be quite stable and resistant towards hydrolysis and thus seem very promising for energy storage applications. Replacing pure water by electrolyte aqueous solutions enables to increase the stored energy by a factor close to 3, on account of the high pressure shift of the intrusion transition. In addition to the fact that aqueous solutions and microporous silica materials are environmental friendly, these systems are thus becoming increasingly interesting for the design of new energy storage devices. This review also addresses the theoretical approaches and molecular simulations performed in order to better understand the experimental behavior of nano-confined water. Molecular simulation studies showed that water condensation takes place through a genuine first-order phase transition, provided that the interconnected pores structure is 3-dimensional and sufficiently open. In an extreme confinement situations such as in ferrierite zeosil, condensation seem to take place through a continuous supercritical crossing from a diluted to a dense fluid, on account of the fact that the first-order transition line is shifted to higher pressure, and the confined water critical point is correlatively shifted to lower temperature. These molecular simulation studies suggest that the most important features of the intrusion/extrusion process can be understood in terms of equilibrium

  17. Silicate geothermometry as an indicator of water-rock interaction processes in the serpentinized mafic-ultramafic intrusion of Ylivieska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruskeeniemi, T.; Blomqvist, R.; Vuorela, P.; Frape, S.K.; Blyth, A.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the study was to use oxygen and hydrogen isotopes to examine the origin of different generations of serpentine. Of special interest was the study of low-temperature generations that may be correlated with the present meteoric waters. The research was commenced with drill core logging in order to obtain insight into the fracture minerals and their distribution in a mafic-ultramafic intrusion. (39 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.)

  18. Economic impacts of urban flooding in South Florida: Potential consequences of managing groundwater to prevent salt water intrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowski, Jeffrey; Engel, Vic; Martinez, Chris; Mirchi, Ali; Watkins, David; Sukop, Michael C; Hughes, Joseph D

    2018-04-15

    High-value urban zones in coastal South Florida are considered particularly vulnerable to salt water intrusion into the groundwater-based, public water supplies caused by sea level rise (SLR) in combination with the low topography, existing high water table, and permeable karst substrate. Managers in the region closely regulate water depths in the extensive South Florida canal network to control closely coupled groundwater levels and thereby reduce the risk of saltwater intrusion into the karst aquifer. Potential SLR adaptation strategies developed by local managers suggest canal and groundwater levels may have to be increased over time to prevent the increased salt water intrusion risk to groundwater resources. However, higher canal and groundwater levels cause the loss of unsaturated zone storage and lead to an increased risk of inland flooding when the recharge from rainfall exceeds the capacity of the unsaturated zone to absorb it and the water table reaches the surface. Consequently, higher canal and groundwater levels are also associated with increased risk of economic losses, especially during the annual wet seasons. To help water managers and urban planners in this region better understand this trade-off, this study models the relationships between flood insurance claims and groundwater levels in Miami-Dade County. Via regression analyses, we relate the incurred number of monthly flood claims in 16 Miami-Dade County watersheds to monthly groundwater levels over the period from 1996 to 2010. We utilize these estimated statistical relationships to further illustrate various monthly flood loss scenarios that could plausibly result, thereby providing an economic quantification of a "too much water" trade-off. Importantly, this understanding is the first of its kind in South Florida and is exceedingly useful for regional-scale hydro-economic optimization models analyzing trade-offs associated with high water levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  19. Human intrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hora, S.; Neill, R.; Williams, R.; Bauser, M.; Channell, J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper focused on the possible approaches to evaluating the impacts of human intrusion on nuclear waste disposal. Several major issues were reviewed. First, it was noted that human intrusion could be addressed either quantitatively through performance assessments or qualitatively through design requirements. Second, it was decided that it was impossible to construct a complete set of possible future human intrusion scenarios. Third, the question of when the effect of possible human intrusion should be considered, before or after site selection was reviewed. Finally, the time frame over which human intrusion should be considered was discussed

  20. On-line detection of Escherichia coli intrusion in a pilot-scale drinking water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikonen, Jenni; Pitkänen, Tarja; Kosse, Pascal; Ciszek, Robert; Kolehmainen, Mikko; Miettinen, Ilkka T

    2017-08-01

    Improvements in microbial drinking water quality monitoring are needed for the better control of drinking water distribution systems and for public health protection. Conventional water quality monitoring programmes are not always able to detect a microbial contamination of drinking water. In the drinking water production chain, in addition to the vulnerability of source waters, the distribution networks are prone to contamination. In this study, a pilot-scale drinking-water distribution network with an on-line monitoring system was utilized for detecting bacterial intrusion. During the experimental Escherichia coli intrusions, the contaminant was measured by applying a set of on-line sensors for electric conductivity (EC), pH, temperature (T), turbidity, UV-absorbance at 254 nm (UVAS SC) and with a device for particle counting. Monitored parameters were compared with the measured E. coli counts using the integral calculations of the detected peaks. EC measurement gave the strongest signal compared with the measured baseline during the E. coli intrusion. Integral calculations showed that the peaks in the EC, pH, T, turbidity and UVAS SC data were detected corresponding to the time predicted. However, the pH and temperature peaks detected were barely above the measured baseline and could easily be mixed with the background noise. The results indicate that on-line monitoring can be utilized for the rapid detection of microbial contaminants in the drinking water distribution system although the peak interpretation has to be performed carefully to avoid being mixed up with normal variations in the measurement data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The geographical conditions of intensity of salty waters intrusions to coastal lakes on Polish Southern Baltic coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieslinski, R.

    2009-04-01

    Lakes situated on the coast of the southern Baltic function in different conditions than those in which typically inland reservoirs occur. They are situated in the contact zone of two environments: land and sea. These reservoirs together with their direct catchments form specific hydrographic arrangement, in which the course of physical, chemical and biological processes depends on the fact which of these two environments exerts a stronger influence at a given moment. This is important as the lakes situated in the shore zone of the southern Baltic are not exposed to phenomena caused by constant tides, as it is the case in open seas (Ataie-Ashtiani et al., 1999), but only to extreme hydrometeorological conditions, which lead to the formation of the phenomenon of intrusions of sea waters and of damming the free outflow of potamic waters (Demirel, 2004; Cieśliński, Drwal, 2005). What should also be remembered are the local hydrographic, hydrological and morphometric conditions. As a result of intrusions, in the waters of coastal lakes, apart from inland waters there are also waters of sea origin. The proportions of these genetically distinct waters are variable and differ in individual lakes (Grassi, Netti, 2000; Drwal, Cieśliński, 2007). Despite the difference in the causal factor triggering the phenomenon of salt water intrusions, the effect is usually the same as that observed, for instance, in lakes and lagoons of seas with tides (Ishitobi et al., 1999; De Louw, Oude Essink, 2001) and poorly flushed lagoon (Hsing-Juh et al., 2006) or estuaries (Uncles et al., 2002), though the scale of qualitative changes is greater in the case of open seas than in half-closed and closed seas. The status of the research carried out so far enables proposing a hypothesis that chlorides concentrations, as the best indicators for establishing the occurrence of the phenomenon of intrusions, depend not only on the meteorological factor but in some of the lakes on various

  2. The effect of sea-water intrusion due to the large scale construction in a coastal region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, S.; Jin, S.; Woo, N. C.; Lee, J.; Lee, H.; Kim, Y.

    2010-12-01

    This study was carried out for estimating the seawater intrusion at the disturbed aquifer by a large scale construction when building a power plant in a coastal region, located in southeastern part of the Korean peninsula. Groundwater sampling and vertical profiling of electrical conductivity(EC) for 8 monitoring wells were carried. EC profiling results shows that maximum EC for PW-5, 6 and 7 is over 40 mS/cm, for PZ-1, 3, 4 and 8 is 18.76, 4.46, 26.16, 21.42 mS/cm and for PZ-2 is 0.79 mS/cm,respectively. Chemical composition of water samples shows that water types of Na-Cl for PZ-5, 6, and 7 (excavated and backfilled area), Na-Cl-SO4 for PZ-4 and PZ-8, Na-Ca-Mg-Cl for PZ-1, Ca-Na-SO4-Cl for PZ-2, and Mg-Ca-Na-SO4 for PZ-3. In addition, the bivariate plot of SO4/Cl(meq ratios) and SO4(mmol/L) indicates that PZ-4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 appear to be seawater, PZ-1 is located at mixing zone between freshwater and seawater, and PZ-2 is freshwater. However, based on the high SO42- level and (HCO3-/Sum anions} ratio less than 0.8, groundwater at PZ-3 seems to show the gypsum dissolution. The gypsum dissolution was attributed to the effect of sea-water intrusion on ageing of lean concrete that was used for backfill around the PZ-3. Key words : large scale construction, EC profiling, hydrochemistry, sea-water intrusion, concrete ageing Acknowledgement This study has been carried out under the Nuclear R&D Program [No. 2010-0001070] supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, Republic of Korea.

  3. Effect of sea-level rise on salt water intrusion near a coastal well field in southeastern Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Christian D; Zygnerski, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A variable-density groundwater flow and dispersive solute transport model was developed for the shallow coastal aquifer system near a municipal supply well field in southeastern Florida. The model was calibrated for a 105-year period (1900 to 2005). An analysis with the model suggests that well-field withdrawals were the dominant cause of salt water intrusion near the well field, and that historical sea-level rise, which is similar to lower-bound projections of future sea-level rise, exacerbated the extent of salt water intrusion. Average 2005 hydrologic conditions were used for 100-year sensitivity simulations aimed at quantifying the effect of projected rises in sea level on fresh coastal groundwater resources near the well field. Use of average 2005 hydrologic conditions and a constant sea level result in total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration of the well field exceeding drinking water standards after 70 years. When sea-level rise is included in the simulations, drinking water standards are exceeded 10 to 21 years earlier, depending on the specified rate of sea-level rise. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  4. Mapping saline water intrusion into the coastal aquifer with geophysical and geochemical techniques: the University of Lagos campus case (Nigeria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayolabi, Elijah A; Folorunso, Adetayo F; Odukoya, Abiodun M; Adeniran, Adelere E

    2013-01-01

    Saltwater intrusion into the coastal aquifer, a phenomenon brought by the flow of seawater into freshwater aquifers originally caused by groundwater extraction near the coast, has long been recognised as a major concern around the world. In this study, we employed geophysical and geochemical techniques to map and provide evidences that the coastal aquifers in the study area have been intruded by saltwater from the adjacent Lagos lagoon. The resistivity data were acquired with an electrode spacing (a) that vary between 1.6 to 8 m, and expansion factor n of 30. The depth inverted models obtained from inversion of the fifteen resistivity data obtained in the area revealed significant impact of the lagoon water on the aquifers indicated as low resistivity usually below 7 Ωm. A combination of four different electrode arrays - Schlumberger, Wenner, Dipole-dipole and pole-dipole, with at least three deployed at each site ( except for three traverses - traverses 13, 14 and 15), yield better horizontal and vertical resolution, having depth range of 36-226 m with 1.6-8 m electrode spacing used. The delineated geoelectric layers were juxtaposed with logs from both boreholes located within the campus. Evidence from geochemical study of borehole and the lagoon water samples corroborated the ERT result. Progressive decrease in total dissolved solute (TDS) and electrical conductivity (EC) from the lagoon to the coastal aquifer buttresses gradual encroachment of the inland aquifers by the intruding lagoon water. In addition, similar trend was observed in heavy metal distribution Pollution Index (PI) plot suggesting possible underground flow of water from the lagoon to the aquifers. From this study, we deduced that excessive groundwater extraction and possibly the reduction of groundwater gradients which allows saline-water to displace fresh water in the aquifer of the investigated area are responsible for the saline water intrusion observed.

  5. Water intrusions and particle signatures in the Black Sea: a Biogeochemical-Argo float investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanev, Emil Vassilev; Grayek, Sebastian; Claustre, Hervé; Schmechtig, Chaterine; Poteau, Antoine

    2017-09-01

    Continuous observations during 3 years with a vertical resolution of 1 dbar from two Bio-Argo floats in the Black Sea that were equipped with oxygen optodes, chlorophyll fluorometers, and backscattering sensors are analyzed. The particle backscattering coefficient, b bp provides a proxy for the concentration of suspended particles. The observations clearly identify thermal and b bp intrusions down to 700-800 m in the Bosporus inflow area. In this area, b bp is more than five times larger than elsewhere, which could indicate bacterial abundance and possible biological involvement in the precipitation of Mn-containing particles. The b bp anomalies become much shallower than the temperature anomalies with increasing distance to the east of the strait. Their maxima are located between the onset of the suboxic zone and the upper part of the anoxic layer. Unlike well-known intrusions that are caused by inflow, open ocean intrusions are shallower and often characterized by multiple layers of backscatter maxima with thicknesses of only 15-20 m. The ratio between backscattering coefficients measured at two wavelengths, which gives a proxy for particle size, shows that the relative amount of larger size particles in the anoxic layer increases with depth. The particle concentrations and their size distribution display different vertical variability, which indicates the complex transformation of biological matter. The lower concentration of particles and lower chlorophyll-a during the extremely warm 2016 reveals an overall positive correlation between the two properties. The trends in the particle backscattering coefficient in the suboxic zone during 2013-2016 could indirectly reveal a biogeochemical response to temperature changes.

  6. Negative effects of salinity on water fleas: implications of saltwater intrusion on freshwater organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, A.

    2017-12-01

    Saltwater intrusion can impact freshwater organisms. In this project, Daphnia were used to determine these impacts. I exposed Daphnia to four different treatments (A-C) of salinity for twenty-four hours, hypothesizing that only the control (D) Daphnia would survive. Average percent survival was 89% for D, 85% for C, 7% for B, and 0% for A. The percent survival increases as the salinity decreases. These results suggest that if Daphnia are exposed to a salinity of 5 ppt or higher, they probably will not survive.

  7. Vapor Intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vapor intrusion occurs when there is a migration of volatile chemicals from contaminated groundwater or soil into an overlying building. Volatile chemicals can emit vapors that may migrate through subsurface soils and into indoor air spaces.

  8. Global assessment of coastal aquifer state and its vulnerability respect to Sea Water Intrusion. Application to several Mediterranean Coastal Aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena, Leticia; Pulido-Velazquez, David; Renau-Pruñonosa, Arianna; Morell, Ignacio

    2017-04-01

    In this research we propose a method for a global assessment of coastal aquifer state and its vulnerability to Sea Water Intrusion (SWI). It is based on two indices, the MART index, which summarize the global significance of the SWI phenomenon, and the L_GALDIT for a lumped assessment of the vulnerability to SWI. Both of them can be useful as a tool to assess coastal groundwater bodies in risk of not achieving good status in accordance with the Water Framework Directive (WFD, 2000) and to identify possible management alternative to reduce existing impacts. They can be obtained even from a reduced number of data (in the MART case only depend on the geometry and available aquifer state data) with simple calculations, which have been implemented in a general GIS tool that can be easily applied to other case studies. The MART index in an aquifer is related with the total mass of chloride in the aquifer due to sea water intrusion and can be obtained by simple linear operations of volume and concentrations that can be deduced from a schematic conceptual cross-section approach (orthogonal to the shore line) defined to summarize the intrusion volume in the aquifer. At a certain historical time, this representative aquifer cross-section can be defined in a systhematic way from the aquifer geometry, the specific yield, and the hydraulic head and chloride concentration fields that can be deduced from the available information by using appropriate interpolation methods. Following the proposed procedure we will finally obtain a summary of the historical significance of the SWI in an aquifer at different spatial resolution: 3D salinity concentration maps, 2D representative conceptual cross-section of intrusion and the MART lumped significance index. The historical evolution of the MART can be employed to perform a global assessment of the resilience and trends of global significance of the SWI in an aquifer. It can be useful to compare the significance of intrusion problems in

  9. Coupled human-water system dynamics of saltwater intrusion in the low coastal plain of the Po River, Ravenna, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauriola, Ilaria; Ciriello, Valentina; Antonellini, Marco; Pande, Saket

    2017-04-01

    Human activities affect the whole hydrological cycle with possible severe consequences on ecosystem services. Human-water interaction follows complex dynamics that can't be addressed only through the analysis of water withdrawals and contamination processes. As such, comprehensive analysis strategies based on a socio-hydrology approach may allow to deeply understand the co-evolution of human and water systems. Here, we focus on the low coastal plain of the Po river in the south of Ravenna (Italy), which is adjacent to the North Adriatic sea. In particular, our study regards a basin characterized by a land reclamation drainage system, given the low topography which reaches in some places 1 m below sea level. In this area, the thin phreatic coastal aquifer is affected by a relevant salinization process and characterized by the presence of valuable water-dependent ecosystems such as pine forests and wetlands. Groundwater salinization is mainly caused by seawater intrusion due to the hydraulic gradient landwards that is enhanced by land subsidence, land use and drainage allowing for agriculture and settlements. Such a complex scenario involves environmental, social and economic interests. We study the intricate system of relationships occurring between a set of socio-hydrological state variables of interest based on the dynamic analysis of land use changes in the study area that mainly affect groundwater recharge and the availability of freshwater for ecosystem and agriculture activities.

  10. Delineation of Salt Water Intrusion through Use of Electromagnetic-Induction Logging: A Case Study in Southern Manhattan Island, New York

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Stumm

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater with chloride concentrations up to 15,000 mg/L has intruded the freshwater aquifer underlying southern Manhattan Island, New York. Historical (1940–1950 chloride concentration data of glacial aquifer wells in the study area indicate the presence of four wedges of saltwater intrusion that may have been caused by industrial pumpage. The limited recharge capability of the aquifer, due to impervious surfaces and the 22.7 million liters per day (mld of reported industrial pumpage early in the 20th Century was probably the cause for the saltwater intrusion and the persistence of the historical saltwater intrusion wedges over time. Recent drilling of wells provided new information on the hydrogeology and extent of saltwater intrusion of the glacial aquifer overlying bedrock. The new observation wells provided ground-water level, chloride concentration, hydraulic conductivity, and borehole geophysical data of the glacial aquifer. The glacial sediments range in thickness from less than 0.3 m to more than 76.2 m within the study area. A linear relation between Electromagnetic-induction (EM conductivity log response and measured chloride concentration was determined. Using this relation, chloride concentration was estimated in parts of the glacial aquifer where sampling was not possible. EM logging is an effective tool to monitor changes in saltwater intrusion wedges.

  11. Coastal Water Quality Modeling in Tidal Lake: Revisited with Groundwater Intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, C.

    2016-12-01

    A new method for predicting the temporal and spatial variation of water quality, with accounting for a groundwater effect, has been proposed and applied to a water body partially connected to macro-tidal coastal waters in Korea. The method consists of direct measurement of environmental parameters, and it indirectly incorporates a nutrients budget analysis to estimate the submarine groundwater fluxes. Three-dimensional numerical modeling of water quality has been used with the directly collected data and the indirectly estimated groundwater fluxes. The applied area is Saemangeum tidal lake that is enclosed by 33km-long sea dyke with tidal openings at two water gates. Many investigations of groundwater impact reveal that 10 50% of nutrient loading in coastal waters comes from submarine groundwater, particularly in the macro-tidal flat, as in the west coast of Korea. Long-term monitoring of coastal water quality signals the possibility of groundwater influence on salinity reversal and on the excess mass outbalancing the normal budget in Saemangeum tidal lake. In the present study, we analyze the observed data to examine the influence of submarine groundwater, and then a box model is demonstrated for quantifying the influx and efflux. A three-dimensional numerical model has been applied to reproduce the process of groundwater dispersal and its effect on the water quality of Saemangeum tidal lake. The results show that groundwater influx during the summer monsoon then contributes significantly, 20% more than during dry season, to water quality in the tidal lake.

  12. VOC SAMPLING IN THE WATER TABLE/CAPILLARY FRINGE AREA FOR ASSESSING IMPACT ON VAPOR INTRUSION AND INDOOR AIR QUALITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vapor intrusion has been determined to be a major pathway for increased indoor air contamination from volatile organic contaminants (VOCs) at certain contaminated sites. In order to properly assess vapor intrusion, it is important to adequately evaluate VOC concentrations in the...

  13. The vertical structure of ozone and water vapor profiles in Lhasa within Asia summer monsoon anticyclone during the stratospheric intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Vogel, Bärbel; Bian, Jianchun; Müller, Rolf; Günther, Gebhard; Bai, Zhixuan; Li, Qian; Fan, Qiujun; Zhang, Jinqiang

    2017-04-01

    A stratospheric intrusion process occurred over the southeastern side of the Asia summer monsoon (ASM) region is investigated using the balloon-borne measurements of ozone and water vapor during 18-20 August 2013. Data from Lhasa (29.66° N, 91.14° E, above sea level (asl.) 3,650 m) show that the positive relative change of the ozone mixing ratios in the tropopause layer attained to 90 % on 19 and 20 August. The backward trajectory calculation from CLaMS model and the satellite data from the ozone monitoring instrument (OMI) and the atmospheric infrared sounder (AIRS) indicate that the (stratospheric) air parcels intruded (originated) from the Northeast Asia to the southeastern edge of the ASM anticyclone. Meanwhile, typhoon Utor occurred over the sourtheastern edge of the ASM and lasted from 8 to 18 August 2013. The convection associated with Utor uplifted air with low ozone from the Western Pacific to the middle/upper troposphere. Air parcels with high ozone from the high latitude and with low ozone from the Western Pacific met at the sourtheastern side of the ASM and then transported westward to Lhasa over long-distances (˜2,000 km). In addition, the laminated identification method is used to identify the laminae structure of the ozone and water vapor profiles from the middle troposphere to the lower stratosphere in Lhasa, confirming the role of the dynamic disturbance (e.g., Rossby and gravity wave)

  14. A system dynamics mode-based exploratory analysis of salt water intrusion in coastal aquifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakkel, J.H.; Slinger, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Coastal communities dependent upon groundwater resources for drinking water and irrigation are vulnerable to salinization of the groundwater reserve. The increasing uncertainty associated with changing climatic conditions, population and economic development, and technological advances poses

  15. Strategies to combat salt water intrusion in coastal aquifers : A model-based exploratory analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakkel, J.H.; Slinger, J.H.

    2011-01-01

    Coastal communities dependent upon groundwater resources for drinking water and irrigation are vulnerable to salinization of the groundwater reserve. The increasing uncertainty associated with changing climatic conditions, population and economic development, and technological advances in

  16. Check valve slam caused by air intrusion in emergency cooling water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, C.S.

    2011-01-01

    Waterhammer pressures were experienced during periodic starting of Residual Heat Removal (RHR) pumps at a nuclear plant. Prior to an analytical investigation careful analysis performed by plant engineers indicated that the spring effect of entrapped air in a heat exchanger resulted in water hammer due to check valve slam following flow reversal. In order to determine in more detail the values of pertinent parameters controlling this water hammer a hydraulic transient analysis was performed of the RHR piping system, including essential elements such as the pump, check valve, and heat exchanger. Using characteristic torque and pressure loss curves the motion of the check valve was determined. By comparing output of the water hammer analysis with site recordings of pump discharge pressure the computer model was calibrated, allowing for a realistic estimate of the quantity of entrapped air in the heat exchanger. (author)

  17. A system dynamics mode-based exploratory analysis of salt water intrusion in coastal aquifers

    OpenAIRE

    Kwakkel, J.H.; Slinger, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Coastal communities dependent upon groundwater resources for drinking water and irrigation are vulnerable to salinization of the groundwater reserve. The increasing uncertainty associated with changing climatic conditions, population and economic development, and technological advances poses significant challenges for freshwater management. The research reported in this paper offers an approach for investigating and addressing the challenges to freshwater management using innovative explorato...

  18. SWIBANGLA: Managing salt water intrusion impacts in coastal groundwater systems of Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faneca Sànchez, Marta; Bashar, Khairul; Janssen, Gijs; Vogels, Marjolein; Snel, Jan; Zhou, Yangxiao; Stuurman, Roelof J.; Oude Essink, Gualbert

    Bangladesh is densely populated and it is expected that the population increases significantly in the coming decade, up to 60% more by 2050 according to IIASA (2013). Demand for drinking water will increase accordingly. These developments may cause significant changes in the hydrological system,

  19. Seawater Intrusion Impacts on the Water Quality of the Groundwater on theNorthwest Coast of Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Abdelkader T; Askri, Brahim

    2016-08-01

    The groundwater aquifer in the coastal region of the northwest of Oman has been used extensively since the early 1980s for agricultural, industrial and municipal purposes. The over pumping of this reservoir has led to the intrusion of seawater and therefore to the deterioration of the groundwater quality. In this study, an investigation was carried out in the southern part of this region to identify the quality of groundwater, to understand the main sources of groundwater mineralisation, and to check the suitability of groundwater for drinking and irrigation. The spatial distributions and temporal variations of groundwater level and electrical conductivity were studied for the period from 1982 to 2005 using data collected from 225 wells. In addition, groundwater samples were collected recently in 2012 from eight wells and analysed for pH, EC, and major ions to understand the sources of dissolved ions and assess the chemical quality of the groundwater. The study area was divided into two strips parallel to the coastline, A and B, located in the discharge and recharge parts of the aquifer, respectively. Results showed a significant increase in the degree of water mineralisation in the direction of south to north following the regional flow direction. Results showed also that the groundwater in the last area could be used for irrigation with little danger of exchangeable sodium while this aquifer is unsuitable for irrigation in the discharge area because it presents a very high salinity hazard.

  20. KERENTANAN PENYUSUPAN AIR LAUT DI PESISIR UTARA PULAU TERNATE (Vulnerability of Sea Water Intrusion in Northern Coastal of Ternate Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Achmad

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penelitian ini dilakukan di wilayah pesisir bagian utara Pulau Ternate, dengan tujuan mengetahui kedalaman batas kontak airtanah dengan air laut dan menganalisis akuifer serta cara pengambilan airtanah sehingga tidak terjadi penyusupan air laut ke dalam tubuh airtanah. Sampel air sumur diukur untuk mengetahui kadar salinitas dan daya hantar listrik (DHL. Kedalaman batas kontak airtanah dengan air laut dukur dengan menggunakan metode geolistrik. Hasil pengukuran DHL dan salinitas airtanah di wilayah pesisir utara menunjukkan, terdapat penyusupan air laut di Desa Tobolo dan Sulamadaha, dengan rentang nilai masing-masing antara 0,5-3,3 mS/cm dan 0,2-1,7 ppt. Hasil pengukuran geolistrik menunjukkan batas kontak airtanah dengan air laut rata-rata antara 12-15 m dari permukaan. Nilai resistivitas air laut berkisar antara 0,01-20 Ωm. Hasil penelitian ini memberikan peringatan untuk tidak melakukan pengeboran sumur di wilayah pesisir. Sebagai contoh kasus, pengeboran sumur hingga 80 m dengan jarak sekitar 250 m dari garis pantai di Desa Takome, di mana batas kontak airtanah dengan air laut pada kedalaman 15 m. Pengukuran nilai DHL dan salinatas air dari sumur ini menunjukkan masing-masing 6,1 mS/cm dan 3,3 ppt. Nilai ini menunjukkan kedalaman sumur bor telah melewati zona pencampuran antara airtanah dengan air laut (interface.   ABSTRACT This research was conducted in the coastal areas of northern part of Ternate island, in order to know the depth of interface and to analyze the aquifers and to avoid seawater intrusion caused of groundwater extraction. Well water samples were measured to determine levels of salinity and DHL. The depth of interface was measured using geoelectric method. The results of electrical conductivity (EC and salinity of groundwater measurement in the northern coastal area showed that, there is infiltration of sea water in Tobolo and Sulamadaha. The EC and salinity values ranging between 0.5-3.3 mS/cm and 0.2-1.7 ppt

  1. Arsenic, Boron, and Fluoride Concentrations in Ground Water in and Near Diabase Intrusions, Newark Basin, Southeastern Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.; Sloto, Ronald A.

    2006-01-01

    During an investigation in 2000 by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) of possible contaminant releases from an industrial facility on Congo Road near Gilbertsville in Berks and Montgomery Counties, southeastern Pennsylvania, concentrations of arsenic and fluoride above USEPA drinking-water standards of 10 ?g/L and 4 mg/L, respectively, and of boron above the USEPA health advisory level of 600 ?g/L were measured in ground water in an area along the northwestern edge of the Newark Basin. In 2003, the USEPA requested technical assistance from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to help identify sources of arsenic, boron, and fluoride in the ground water in the Congo Road area, which included possible anthropogenic releases and naturally occurring mineralization in the local bedrock aquifer, and to identify other areas in the Newark Basin of southeastern Pennsylvania with similarly elevated concentrations of these constituents. The USGS reviewed available data and collected additional ground-water samples in the Congo Road area and four similar hydrogeologic settings. The Newark Basin is the largest of the 13 major exposed Mesozoic rift basins that stretch from Nova Scotia to South Carolina. Rocks in the Newark Basin include Triassic through Jurassic-age sedimentary sequences of sandstones and shales that were intruded by diabase. Mineral deposits of hydrothermal origin are associated with alteration zones bordering intrusions of diabase and also occur as strata-bound replacement deposits of copper and zinc in sedimentary rocks. The USGS review of data available in 2003 showed that water from about 10 percent of wells throughout the Newark Basin of southeastern Pennsylvania had concentrations of arsenic greater than the USEPA maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 ?g/L; the highest reported arsenic concentration was at about 70 ?g/L. Few data on boron were available, and the highest reported boron concentration in well-water samples was 60 ?g/L in contrast

  2. Mechanical, Thermal, and Electrical Energy Storage in a Single Working Body: Electrification and Thermal Effects upon Pressure-Induced Water Intrusion-Extrusion in Nanoporous Solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosu, Yaroslav; Mierzwa, Michał; Eroshenko, Valentine A; Pawlus, Sebastian; Chorażewski, Mirosław; Nedelec, Jean-Marie; Grolier, Jean-Pierre E

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents the first experimental evidence of pronounced electrification effects upon reversible cycle of forced water intrusion-extrusion in nanoporous hydrophobic materials. Recorded generation of electricity combined with high-pressure calorimetric measurements improves the energy balance of {nanoporous solid + nonwetting liquid} systems by compensating mechanical and thermal energy hysteresis in the cycle. Revealed phenomena provide a novel way of "mechanical to electrical" and/or "thermal to electrical" energy transformation with unprecedented efficiency and additionally open a perspective to increase the efficiency of numerous energy applications based on such systems taking advantage of electricity generation during operational cycle.

  3. Saltwater intrusion monitoring in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinos, Scott T.

    2016-01-01

    Florida's communities are largely dependent on freshwater from groundwater aquifers. Existing saltwater in the aquifers, or seawater that intrudes parts of the aquifers that were fresh, can make the water unusable without additional processing. The quality of Florida's saltwater intrusion monitoring networks varies. In Miami-Dade and Broward Counties, for example, there is a well-designed network with recently constructed short open-interval monitoring wells that bracket the saltwater interface in the Biscayne aquifer. Geochemical analyses of water samples from the network help scientists evaluate pathways of saltwater intrusion and movement of the saltwater interface. Geophysical measurements, collected in these counties, aid the mapping of the saltwater interface and the design of monitoring networks. In comparison, deficiencies in the Collier County monitoring network include the positioning of monitoring wells, reliance on wells with long open intervals that when sampled might provide questionable results, and the inability of existing analyses to differentiate between multiple pathways of saltwater intrusion. A state-wide saltwater intrusion monitoring network is being planned; the planned network could improve saltwater intrusion monitoring by adopting the applicable strategies of the networks of Miami-Dade and Broward Counties, and by addressing deficiencies such as those described for the Collier County network.

  4. Technology Review of Nondestructive Methods for Examination of Water Intrusion Areas on Hanford’s Double-Shell Waste Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, Michael L.; Pardini, Allan F.

    2008-05-09

    necessary to de-rate critical components. There are currently no tools that automatically convert the NDE data to formats compatible with structural analysis programs. While radiographic techniques still provide significant advantages in spatial resolution, non-ionizing techniques are still preferred. Radar imagining in the 1–5 GHz has become the most useful. Unfortunately the algorithms and underlying assumptions used in these reconstructions are proprietary, and it is not possible to assess the quality and limitations of the analytical methods used to generate the derived structural data. The hypothesis that water intrusion may contribute to potential rebar corrosion of the tank domes provided the primary guidance in reviewing and evaluating available NDE technologies. Of primary concern is the need to employ technologies that provide the best opportunity for visualizing the rebar and providing quantitative data that can be integrated into structural analysis efforts to better understand and quantify the structural capacity of the domes. The conclusion is that an imaging system capable of locating and quantifying the distribution and conditions of the cement, aggregate, and rebar will provide the most valuable baseline upon which to build a case for the integrity of the structure. If successful, such a system would fulfill the need to incorporate valuable data into current structural load capacity analysis.

  5. Orthodontic intrusion : Conventional and mini-implant assisted intrusion mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anup Belludi

    2012-01-01

    intrusion has revolutionized orthodontic anchorage and biomechanics by making anchorage perfectly stable. This article addresses various conventional clinical intrusion mechanics and especially intrusion using mini-implants that have proven effective over the years for intrusion of maxillary anteriors.

  6. The use of airborne electromagnetic for efficient mapping of salt water intrusion and outflow to the sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auken, Esben; Kirkegaard, Casper; Ribeiro, Joana

    2010-01-01

    Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) is an efficient tool for mapping groundwater resources in sedimentary environments. AEM delivers a very high data coverage and results in high-resolution electrical images of the subsurface. In particular the time domain methods (TEM) are well suited for mapping o0f...... moment than frequency domain methods (FEM). We discuss the advantages of using airborne systems in coastal area for understanding of saltwater intrusion problems. Examples are shown from surveys at the vest cost of Holland and in Denmark....

  7. Petroleum Vapor Intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    One type of vapor intrusion is PVI, in which vapors from petroleum hydrocarbons such as gasoline, diesel, or jet fuel enter a building. Intrusion of contaminant vapors into indoor spaces is of concern.

  8. Hydrogeology, water quality, and saltwater intrusion in the Upper Floridan Aquifer in the offshore area near Hilton Head Island, South Carolina, and Tybee Island, Georgia, 1999-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falls, W. Fred; Ransom, Camille; Landmeyer, James E.; Reuber, Eric J.; Edwards, Lucy E.

    2005-01-01

    To assess the hydrogeology, water quality, and the potential for saltwater intrusion in the offshore Upper Floridan aquifer, a scientific investigation was conducted near Tybee Island, Georgia, and Hilton Head Island, South Carolina. Four temporary wells were drilled at 7, 8, 10, and 15 miles to the northeast of Tybee Island, and one temporary well was drilled in Calibogue Sound west of Hilton Head Island. The Upper Floridan aquifer at the offshore and Calibogue sites includes the unconsolidated calcareous quartz sand, calcareous quartz sandstone, and sandy limestone of the Oligocene Lazaretto Creek and Tiger Leap Formations, and the limestone of the late Eocene Ocala Limestone and middle Avon Park Formation. At the 7-, 10-, and 15-mile sites, the upper confining unit between the Upper Floridan and surficial aquifers correlates to the Miocene Marks Head Formation. Paleochannel incisions have completely removed the upper confining unit at the Calibogue site and all but a 0.8-foot-thick interval of the confining unit at the 8-mile site, raising concern about the potential for saltwater intrusion through the paleochannel-fill sediments at these two sites. The paleochannel incisions at the Calibogue and 8-mile sites are filled with fine- and coarse-grained sediments, respectively. The hydrogeologic setting and the vertical hydraulic gradients at the 7- and 10-mile sites favored the absence of saltwater intrusion during predevelopment. After decades of onshore water use in Georgia and South Carolina, the 0-foot contour in the regional cone of depression of the Upper Floridan aquifer is estimated to have been at the general location of the 7- and 10-mile sites by the mid-1950s and at or past the 15-mile site by the 1980s. The upward vertical hydraulic gradient reversed, but the presence of more than 17 feet of upper confining unit impeded the downward movement of saltwater from the surficial aquifer to the Upper Floridan aquifer at the 7- and 10-mile sites. At the 10

  9. On the Salt Water Intrusion into the Durusu Lake, Istanbul: A Joint Central Loop TEM And Multi-Electrode ERT Field Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardali, Ayça Sultan; Tezkan, Bülent; Gürer, Aysan

    2018-02-01

    Durusu Lake is the biggest and most important freshwater source supplying drinking water to the European side of Istanbul. In this study, electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and transient electromagnetic (TEM) measurements were applied to detect a possible salt water intrusion into the lake and to delineate the subsurface structure in the north of Durusu Lake. The ERT and TEM measurements were carried out along six parallel profiles extending from the sea coast to the lake shore on the dune barrier. TEM data were interpreted using different 1-D inversion methods such as Occam, Marquardt, and laterally constrained inversion (LCI). ERT data were interpreted using 2-D inversion techniques. The inversion results of ERT and TEM data were shown as resistivity depth sections including topography. The sand layer spreading over the basin has a resistivity of 150-400 Ωm with a thickness of 5-10 m. The sandy layer with clay, silt, and gravel has a resistivity of 15-100 Ωm and a thickness of 10-40 m followed by a clay layer of a resistivity below 10 Ωm. When the inversion of these data is interpreted along with the hydrogeology of the area, it is concluded that the salt water intrusion along the dune barrier is not common and occurs at a particular area where the distance between lake and sea is very close. Using information from boreholes around the lake, it was verified that the common conductive region at depths of 30 m or more consists of clay layers and clay lenses.

  10. Simulation of Variable-Density Ground-Water Flow and Saltwater Intrusion beneath Manhasset Neck, Nassau County, New York, 1905-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Jack; Misut, Paul E.; Busciolano, Ronald J.

    2009-01-01

    The coastal-aquifer system of Manhasset Neck, Nassau County, New York, has been stressed by pumping, which has led to saltwater intrusion and the abandonment of one public-supply well in 1944. Measurements of chloride concentrations and water levels in 2004 from the deep, confined aquifers indicate active saltwater intrusion in response to public-supply pumping. A numerical model capable of simulating three-dimensional variable-density ground-water flow and solute transport in heterogeneous, anisotropic aquifers was developed using the U.S. Geological Survey finite-element, variable-density, solute-transport simulator SUTRA, to investigate the extent of saltwater intrusion beneath Manhasset Neck. The model is composed of eight layers representing the hydrogeologic system beneath Manhasset Neck. Four modifications to the area?s previously described hydrogeologic framework were made in the model (1) the bedrock-surface altitude at well N12191 was corrected from a previously reported value, (2) part of the extent of the Raritan confining unit was shifted, (3) part of the extent of the North Shore confining unit was shifted, and (4) a clay layer in the upper glacial aquifer was added in the central and southern parts of the Manhasset Neck peninsula. Ground-water flow and the location of the freshwater-saltwater interface were simulated for three conditions (time periods) (1) a steady-state (predevelopment) simulation of no pumping prior to about 1905, (2) a 40-year transient simulation based on 1939 pumpage representing the 1905-1944 period of gradual saltwater intrusion, and (3) a 60-year transient simulation based on 1995 pumpage representing the 1945-2005 period of stabilized withdrawals. The 1939 pumpage rate (12.1 million gallons per day (Mgal/d)) applied to the 1905-1944 transient simulation caused modeled average water-level declines of 2 and 4 feet (ft) in the shallow and deep aquifer systems from predevelopment conditions, respectively, a net decrease of 5

  11. Interior intrusion detection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, J.R.; Matter, J.C. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Dry, B. (BE, Inc., Barnwell, SC (United States))

    1991-10-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing interior intrusion detection systems. Interior intrusion sensors are discussed according to their primary application: boundary-penetration detection, volumetric detection, and point protection. Information necessary for implementation of an effective interior intrusion detection system is presented, including principles of operation, performance characteristics and guidelines for design, procurement, installation, testing, and maintenance. A glossary of sensor data terms is included. 36 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Interior intrusion detection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, J.R.; Matter, J.C.; Dry, B.

    1991-10-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing interior intrusion detection systems. Interior intrusion sensors are discussed according to their primary application: boundary-penetration detection, volumetric detection, and point protection. Information necessary for implementation of an effective interior intrusion detection system is presented, including principles of operation, performance characteristics and guidelines for design, procurement, installation, testing, and maintenance. A glossary of sensor data terms is included. 36 figs., 6 tabs

  13. Research Project on CO2 Geological Storage and Groundwater Resources: Water Quality Effects Caused by CO2 Intrusion into Shallow Groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkholzer, Jens; Apps, John; Zheng, Liange; Zhang, Yingqi; Xu, Tianfu; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2008-10-01

    One promising approach to reduce greenhouse gas emissions is injecting CO{sub 2} into suitable geologic formations, typically depleted oil/gas reservoirs or saline formations at depth larger than 800 m. Proper site selection and management of CO{sub 2} storage projects will ensure that the risks to human health and the environment are low. However, a risk remains that CO{sub 2} could migrate from a deep storage formation, e.g. via local high-permeability pathways such as permeable faults or degraded wells, and arrive in shallow groundwater resources. The ingress of CO{sub 2} is by itself not typically a concern to the water quality of an underground source of drinking water (USDW), but it will change the geochemical conditions in the aquifer and will cause secondary effects mainly induced by changes in pH, in particular the mobilization of hazardous inorganic constituents present in the aquifer minerals. Identification and assessment of these potential effects is necessary to analyze risks associated with geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. This report describes a systematic evaluation of the possible water quality changes in response to CO{sub 2} intrusion into aquifers currently used as sources of potable water in the United States. Our goal was to develop a general understanding of the potential vulnerability of United States potable groundwater resources in the event of CO{sub 2} leakage. This goal was achieved in two main tasks, the first to develop a comprehensive geochemical model representing typical conditions in many freshwater aquifers (Section 3), the second to conduct a systematic reactive-transport modeling study to quantify the effect of CO{sub 2} intrusion into shallow aquifers (Section 4). Via reactive-transport modeling, the amount of hazardous constituents potentially mobilized by the ingress of CO{sub 2} was determined, the fate and migration of these constituents in the groundwater was predicted, and the likelihood that drinking water

  14. Intrusion detection sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.D.

    1978-07-01

    Intrusion detection sensors are an integral part of most physical security systems. Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Safeguards and Security, Sandia Laboratories has conducted a survey of available intrusion detection sensors and has tested a number of different sensors. An overview of these sensors is provided. This overview includes (1) the operating principles of each type of sensor, (2) unique sensor characteristics, (3) desired sensor improvements which must be considered in planning an intrusion detection system, and (4) the site characteristics which affect the performance of both exterior and interior sensors. Techniques which have been developed to evaluate various intrusion detection sensors are also discussed

  15. Mercury distribution in coals influenced by magmatic intrusions, and surface waters from the Huaibei Coal Mining District, Anhui, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Zhicao; Liu, Guijian; Sun, Ruoyu; Wu, Dun; Wu, Bin; Zhou, Chuncai

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Hg concentrations in coal and surface water samples were determined. • Hg is enriched in the Huaibei coals. • Magmatic activities imparted influences on Hg content and distribution. • Hg contents in surface waters are relative low at the present status. - Abstract: The Hg concentrations in 108 samples, comprising 81 coal samples, 1 igneous rock, 2 parting rock samples and 24 water samples from the Huaibei Coal Mining District, China, were determined by cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The abundance and distribution of Hg in different coal mines and coal seams were studied. The weighted average Hg concentration for all coal samples in the Huaibei Coalfield is 0.42 mg/kg, which is about twice that of average Chinese coals. From southwestern to northeastern coalfield, Hg concentration shows a decreasing trend, which is presumably related to magmatic activity and fault structures. The relatively high Hg levels are observed in coal seams Nos. 6, 7 and 10 in the southwestern coal mines. Correlation analysis indicates that Hg in the southwestern and southernmost coals with high Hg concentrations is associated with pyrite. The Hg concentrations in surface waters in the Huaibei Coal Mining District range from 10 to 60 ng/L, and display a decreasing trend with distance from a coal waste pile but are lower than the regulated levels for Hg in drinking water

  16. Saltwater intrusion in the Yangtze (Changjiang) Estuary, potential risks from integrated effect of damming, water transfer, and sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z.; Li, M.

    2017-12-01

    The densely-populated mega-city of Shanghai relies increasingly on freshwater from the Yangtze (Changjiang) Estuary (70% now). However, this strategy is facing potential threats due to dam construction and extensive water diversion in the basin and future sea-level rise. The present study evaluates the ability of Shanghai to source its water from the estuary, especially in the dry season in relation the hydro-mode of dam operation. Flow salinity 0.45 psu (chloride 250 mg/L) above which the estuary is unusable for freshwater. Correlating discharge and salinity, maximum salinity and related time duration, and taking the future water diversions and sea-level rise into consideration, we extrapolated salinity events into the future at intervals of 10 years until 2040. We estimate that water diversions of 56.2x109m3 (1800 m3s-1), 59.2x109m3(1900 m3s-1) and 61.3x109 m3(2000 m3s-1) will occur in 2020, 2030 and 2040, and a rise of sea level of 0.12 m by 2040 (from 2010), equivalent 506 m3s-1, ca. 19.4% of the total reducing discharge of 2040 into the estuary (ca. 28% projected to the worst case of February of 2040). Based on scenario building, the pattern of salinity distribution would remain >0.45 for 20-65, 75-90 and 120-128 days (in 2020, 2030, and 2040, respectively), for extreme low-flow conditions. These periods exceed the present 68-day maximum freshwater storage in Qingcaosha reservoir, which is meant to secure freshwater for Shanghai in the future.

  17. A Comprehensive evaluation of groundwater vulnerability to saltwater up-coning and sea water intrusion in a coastal aquifer (case study: Ghaemshahr-juybar aquifer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motevalli, Alireza; Moradi, Hamid Reza; Javadi, Saman

    2018-02-01

    Aquifer salinization has recently increased significantly due to human activity and has caused irreparable environmental and economic effects. In this research, a new method is proposed for modeling the vulnerability to salinity for the Ghaemshahr-juybar aquifer. Specifically, the GALDIT (Sea water intrusion) and TAWLBIC (Saltwater up-coning) indices were combined to produce a map of vulnerability (Comprehensive Salinity Index or CSI) to seawater intrusion of a region near the coast and saltwater up-coning away from the coast, respectively. Single parameter and removal layer sensitivity analysis were performed in order to identify the sensitive parameters and achieve optimal weights (through the single-parameter method) of contributing factors in all three methods. The three optimized methods produced were GALDIT-Opt, TAWLBIC-Opt and CSI-Opt. To assess the accuracy of the original maps and optimal ones, the Pearson correlation was used. Results indicated that the Pearson correlation of the optimized GALDIT, TAWLBIC and CSI model was better than GALDIT, TAWLBIC and CSI. The results show that the increase in correlation between EC (Electrical Conductivity), TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) and SAR (Sodium Adsorption Ratio) from the GALDIT model to the CSI-Opt model from values of 0.64, 0.56 and 0.68 has improved to values of 0.81, 0.88 and 0.91, respectively. The highest concentration of EC, with a value of 7050 μs/cm, is sampled in the areas of the east and northwest of the Ghaemshahr-juybar aquifer, which are classified in the CSI-Opt model as high and very high vulnerability levels. The highest concentration of TDS and SAR has been found in the east, northwest and northeast of the Ghaemshahr-juybar aquifer with a value of 4724 ppm for TDS and 14 mg/l for SAR that have been modeled in the CSI-Opt index as highly vulnerable areas. Eventually, CSI mapping can be used as an efficient tool in prioritizing in terms of the vulnerability to aquifer salinity, carrying out

  18. Storm Driven Upwelling Responsible for pCO2-rich Water Intrusion in the South Atlantic Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noakes, S.; Gledhill, D. K.

    2016-02-01

    Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary (GRNMS) is located approximately 20 miles offshore Georgia along the inner to middle shelf of the South Atlantic Bight (SAB). The University of Georgia (UGA) and the Pacific Marine Environmental Lab have maintained a high resolution pCO2 system for almost a decade on the National Data Buoy Center's buoy moored at GRNMS. To support the surface monitoring and set the stage for benthic monitoring at GRNMS, UGA and GRNMS have established a seafloor observatory that monitors pCO2, pH and water quality parameters. Traditional thought had held that given the relatively shallow water depth at GRNMS, the pCO2 measured on the surface could be extrapolated to the seafloor and utilized to monitor the benthic community. However, seafloor pCO2 data collected to date have revealed unusual episodes of subsurface pCO2-rich water moving through GRNMS that had not been previously identified by surface monitoring. Many of these events correspond with major storms that have either formed off the SAB or passed nearby GRNMS. Based on the surface data collected to date, temperature driven seasonal pCO2 changes occur naturally on an annual scale in the SAB which also affects the pH. However, the storms appear to have induced upwelling of pCO2-rich water from the deep Atlantic Ocean pushing it inward over the long continental shelf towards GRNMS. The result of the upwelling is a sharp increase of subsurface pCO2 lasting only days to weeks as compared to the seasonal cycle. It is part of the natural weather patterns for storms to form off the SAB or pass nearby, but depending on if the storm frequency increases due to global climate change, this process may become more of an impact on the benthic community. How this affects the benthic community has yet to be determined, but it is clear that they have adapted to seasonal fluctuations for survival. These upwellings are obviously adding to the SAB total carbon budget and affecting the benthic water quality

  19. Computer Intrusions and Attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Howard

    1999-01-01

    Examines some frequently encountered unsolicited computer intrusions, including computer viruses, worms, Java applications, trojan horses or vandals, e-mail spamming, hoaxes, and cookies. Also discusses virus-protection software, both for networks and for individual users. (LRW)

  20. Mobilization of arsenic, lead, and mercury under conditions of sea water intrusion and road deicing salt application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongbing; Alexander, John; Gove, Brita; Koch, Manfred

    2015-09-01

    Water geochemistry data from complexly designed salt-solution injection experiments in the laboratory, coastal aquifers of Bangladesh and Italy, taken from the literature, and two salted watersheds of New Jersey, US were collected and analyzed to study the geochemical mechanisms that mobilize As, Pb, and Hg under varied salting conditions. Overall, increased NaCl-concentrations in aquifers and soil are found to increase the release of Pb and Hg into the water. Reducing environments and possible soil dispersion by hydrated Na+ are found to lead to an increase of As-concentration in water. However, the application of a pure NaCl salt solution in the column injection experiment was found to release less As, Pb, and Hg initially from the soil and delay their concentration increase, when compared to the application of CaCl2 and NaCl mixed salts (at 6:4 weight ratio). The concentration correlation dendrogram statistical analyses of the experimental and field data suggest that the release of As, Hg, and Pb into groundwater and the soil solution depends not only on the salt level and content, but also on the redox condition, dissolved organic matter contents, competitiveness of other ions for exchange sites, and source minerals. With the ongoing over-exploration of coastal aquifers from increased pumping, continued sea-level rise, and increased winter deicing salt applications in salted watersheds of many inland regions, the results of this study will help understand the complex relation between the concentrations of As, Pb, and Hg and increased salt level in a coastal aquifer and in soils of a salted watershed.

  1. Adaptive intrusion data system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.S.

    1976-01-01

    An Adaptive Intrusion Data System (AIDS) was developed to collect data from intrusion alarm sensors as part of an evaluation system to improve sensor performance. AIDS is a unique digital data compression, storage, and formatting system. It also incorporates capability for video selection and recording for assessment of the sensors monitored by the system. The system is software reprogrammable to numerous configurations that may be utilized for the collection of environmental, bi-level, analog and video data. The output of the system is digital tapes formatted for direct data reduction on a CDC 6400 computer, and video tapes containing timed tagged information that can be correlated with the digital data

  2. Oil-material fractionation in Gulf deep water horizontal intrusion layer: Field data analysis with chemodynamic fate model for Macondo 252 oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, A T; Thibodeaux, L J; Parsons, A R; Overton, E; Valsaraj, K T; Nandakumar, K

    2016-04-15

    Among the discoveries of the Deepwater Horizon blowout was the so-called "sub-surface plume"; herein termed the "oil-trapping layer". Hydrocarbons were found positioned at ~1100-1300m with thickness ~100-150m and moving horizontally to the SW in a vertically stratified layer at the junction of the cold abyssal water and the permanent thermocline. This study focuses on its formation process and fate of the hydrocarbons within. The originality of this work to the field is two-fold, first it provides a conceptual framework which places layer origin in the context of a horizontal "intrusion" from the near-field, vertical, blow-out plume and second, it offers a theoretical model for the hydrocarbon chemicals within the horizontal layer as it moves far-afield. The model quantifies the oil-material fractionation process for the soluble and fine particle. The classical Box model, retrofitted with an internal gradient, the "G-Box", allows an approach that includes turbulent eddy diffusion coupled with droplet rise velocity and reactive decay to produce a simple, explicit, transparent, algebraic model with few parameters for the fate of the individual fractions. Computations show the soluble and smallest liquid droplets moving very slowly vertically through the layer appearing within the trapping layer at low concentration with high persistence. The larger droplets move-through this trapping zone quickly, attain high concentrations, and eventually form the sea surface slick. It impacts the field of oil spill engineering science by providing the conceptual idea and the algorithms for projecting the quantities and fractions of oil-material in a deep water, horizontal marine current being dispersed and moving far afield. In the field of oil spill modeling this work extends the current generation near-field plume source models to the far-field. The theory portrays the layer as an efficient oil-material trap. The model-forecasted concentration profiles for alkanes and aromatics

  3. Oceanic thermohaline intrusions: theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddick, Barry; Kerr, Oliver

    2003-03-01

    This is a review of theories governing growth and evolution of thermohaline intrusive motions. We discuss theories based on eddy coefficients and salt finger flux ratios and also on molecular Fickian diffusion, drawing relationships and parallels where possible. We discuss linear theories of various physical configurations, effects of rotation and shear, and nonlinear theories. A key requirement for such theories to become quantitatively correct is the development and field testing of relationships between double-diffusive fluxes and average vertical gradients of temperature and salinity. While we have some ideas about the functional dependencies and rough observational constraints on the magnitudes of such flux/gradient relationships, many questions will not be answered until usable ‘flux laws’ exist. Furthermore, numerical experiments on double-diffusive intrusions are currently feasible, but will have more quantitative meaning when fluxes are parameterised with such laws. We conclude that more work needs to be done in at least two areas. Firstly, tests of linear theory against observations should continue, particularly to discover the extent to which linear theories actually explain the genesis of intrusions. Secondly, theoretical studies are needed on the nonlinear effects that control the evolution and finite amplitude state of intrusions, since these determine the lateral fluxes of salt, heat, and momentum.

  4. Intrusion detection: systems and models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherif, J. S.; Dearmond, T. G.

    2002-01-01

    This paper puts forward a review of state of the art and state of the applicability of intrusion detection systems, and models. The paper also presents a classfication of literature pertaining to intrusion detection.

  5. Investigation of Seawater Intrusion into Coastal Groundwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    https://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jasem.v21i2.18. Key words: Escravos, Vertical electrical sounding, Saltwater Intrusion, freshwater lenses, Aquifer, groundwater. Globally groundwater contributes a greater percentage of water usage in domestic, irrigation of agricultural farms and industrial purposes. Though groundwater is not the ...

  6. Interior intrusion alarm systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prell, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    In meeting the requirements for the safeguarding of special nuclear material and the physical protection of licensed facilities, the licensee is required to design a physical security system that will meet minimum performance requirements. An integral part of any physical security system is the interior intrusion alarm system. The purpose of this report is to provide the potential user of an interior intrusion alarm system with information on the various types, components, and performance capabilities available so that he can design and install the optimum alarm system for his particular environment. In addition, maintenance and testing procedures are discussed and recommended which, if followed, will help the user obtain the optimum results from his system

  7. Perimeter intrusion sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, M.J.

    1977-01-01

    To obtain an effective perimeter intrusion detection system requires careful sensor selection, procurement, and installation. The selection process involves a thorough understanding of the unique site features and how these features affect the performance of each type of sensor. It is necessary to develop procurement specifications to establish acceptable sensor performance limits. Careful explanation and inspection of critical installation dimensions is required during on-site construction. The implementation of these activities at a particular site is discussed

  8. Network Intrusion Dataset Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    protection in the United States. AFIT-ENG-13-M-49 NETWORK INTRUSION DATASET ASSESSMENT THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Electrical and...conclusions as to its use as a benchmark dataset vary: Cho et al. [10] recommend not using the KDD99 dataset at all, while Engen et al. [16] suggest that...more care be taken in interpretation of results, but recommend continued use. As discussed by Engen et al. [16], researchers continue to use the KDD99

  9. Intrusion detection system elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, M.J.; Mangan, D.L.

    1980-09-01

    This report highlights elements required for an intrusion detection system and discusses problems which can be encountered in attempting to make the elements effective. Topics discussed include: sensors, both for exterior detection and interior detection; alarm assessment systems, with the discussion focused on video assessment; and alarm reporting systems, including alarm communication systems and dislay/console considerations. Guidance on careful planning and design of a new or to-be-improved system is presented

  10. Physical model simulations of seawater intrusion in unconfined aquifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanapol Sriapai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to simulate the seawater intrusion into unconfined aquifer near shoreline and to assessthe effectiveness of its controlling methods by using scaled-down physical models. The intrusion controlled methods studiedhere include fresh water injection, saltwater extraction, and subsurface barrier. The results indicate that under natural dynamicequilibrium between the recharge of fresh water and the intrusion well agree with the Ghyben-Herzberg mathematical solution.Fresh water pumping from the aquifer notably move the fresh-salt water interface toward the pumping well, depending on thepumping rates and the head differences (h between the aquifer recharge and the salt water level. The fresh water injectionmethod is more favorable than the salt water extraction and subsurface barrier method. The fresh water injection rate of about10% of the usage rate can effectively push the interface toward the shoreline, and keeping the pumping well free of salinity.

  11. Effect of Groundwater Pumping on Seawater Intrusion in Coastal Aquifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Sherif

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Many aquifers around the globe are located in coastal areas and are thus subjected to the seawater intrusion phenomenon. The growth of population in coastal areas and the conjugate increase in human, agricultural, and industrial activities have imposed an increasing demand for freshwater. This increase in water demand is often covered by extensive pumping of fresh groundwater, causing subsequent lowering of the water table (or piezometric head and upsetting the dynamic balance between freshwater and saline water bodies. The classical result of such a development is seawater intrusion. This paper presents a review for the seawater intrusion phenomenon in coastal aquifers. The effect of pumping activities on the seawater intrusion in the Nile Delta aquifer of Egypt is investigated. It was concluded that any additional pumping should be located in the middle Delta and avoided in the eastern and western sides of the Delta.

  12. Wireless Intrusion Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    LEO with Belkin/ Libra spoofing N or m al iz ed O cc ur re nc es Frequency Error (kHz) Figure 3-8 Frequency error Distributions...0.40 0.45 Linksys/CIAMPIAJ1 Linksys/LEO with Belkin/ Libra spoofing N or m al iz ed O cc ur re nc es Received Power (dBm) Figure 3-10...Belkin/ Libra spoofing N or m al iz ed O cc ur re nc es Rise-Time (samples) Figure 3-12 Packet Rise-Time Distributions During Intrusion

  13. Mapping soil salinity and a fresh-water intrusion in three-dimensions using a quasi-3d joint-inversion of DUALEM-421S and EM34 data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zare, Ehsan; Huang, Jingyi; Koganti, Triven

    2017-01-01

    in the horizontal mode (i.e., EM34-10H, EM34-20H and EM34-40H) were considered. We estimated σ using a quasi-3d joint-inversion algorithm (EM4Soil). The best correlation (R2 = 0.92) between σ and measured soil ECe was identified when a forward modelling (FS), inversion algorithm (S2) and damping factor (lambda = 0...... and helped to infer a freshwater intrusion from a water storage reservoir at depth and as a function of its proximity to near-surface prior stream channels and buried paleochannels. It was concluded that this method can be applied elsewhere to map the soil salinity and water movement and provide guidance...

  14. Motion effects on intrusion development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krans, J.; Näring, G.W.B.; Holmes, E.A.; Becker, E.S.

    2010-01-01

    Analogue studies on intrusion development have found that visuospatial tasks performed during the encoding of aversive information reduce subsequent intrusion development. However, these studies cannot rule out a physical explanation in terms of simple movement. In the current study we addressed

  15. How stratospheric are deep stratospheric intrusions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Trickl

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary attempts of quantifying the stratospheric ozone contribution in the observations at the Zugspitze summit (2962 m a.s.l. next to Garmisch-Partenkirchen in the German Alps had yielded an approximate doubling of the stratospheric fraction of the Zugspitze ozone during the time period 1978 to 2004. These investigations had been based on data filtering by using low relative humidity (RH and elevated 7Be as the criteria for selecting half-hour intervals of ozone data representative of stratospheric intrusion air. To quantify the residual stratospheric component in stratospherically influenced air masses, however, the mixing of tropospheric air into the stratospheric intrusion layers must be taken into account. In fact, the dewpoint mirror instrument at the Zugspitze summit station rarely registers RH values lower than 10% in stratospheric air intrusions. Since 2007 a programme of routine lidar sounding of ozone, water vapour and aerosol has been conducted in the Garmisch-Partenkirchen area. The lidar results demonstrate that the intrusion layers are drier by roughly one order of magnitude than indicated in the in situ measurements. Even in thin layers RH values clearly below 1% have frequently been observed. These thin, undiluted layers present an important challenge for atmospheric modelling. Although the ozone values never reach values typical of the lower-stratosphere it becomes, thus, obvious that, without strong wind shear or convective processes, mixing of stratospheric and tropospheric air must be very slow in most of the free troposphere. As a consequence, the analysis the Zugspitze data can be assumed to be more reliable than anticipated. Finally, the concentrations of Zugspitze carbon monoxide rarely drop inside intrusion layers and normally stay clearly above full stratospheric values. This indicates that most of the CO, and thus the intrusion air mass, originates in the shallow "mixing layer" around the thermal tropopause. The

  16. Passive intrusion detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laue, E. G. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An intrusion detection system is described in which crystal oscillators are used to provide a frequency which varies as a function of fluctuations of a particular environmental property of the atmosphere, e.g., humidity, in the protected volume. The system is based on the discovery that the frequency of an oscillator whose crystal is humidity sensitive, varies at a frequency or rate which is within a known frequency band, due to the entry of an intruder into the protected volume. The variable frequency is converted into a voltage which is then filtered by a filtering arrangement which permits only voltage variations at frequencies within the known frequency band to activate an alarm, while inhibiting the alarm activation when the voltage frequency is below or above the known frequency band.

  17. Saltwater intrusion in coastal regions of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Paul M.; Reichard, Eric G.

    2010-01-01

    Saltwater has intruded into many of the coastal aquifers of the United States, Mexico, and Canada, but the extent of saltwater intrusion varies widely among localities and hydrogeologic settings. In many instances, the area contaminated by saltwater is limited to small parts of an aquifer and to specific wells and has had little or no effect on overall groundwater supplies; in other instances, saltwater contamination is of regional extent and has resulted in the closure of many groundwater supply wells. The variability of hydrogeologic settings, three-dimensional distribution of saline water, and history of groundwater withdrawals and freshwater drainage has resulted in a variety of modes of saltwater intrusion into coastal aquifers. These include lateral intrusion from the ocean; upward intrusion from deeper, more saline zones of a groundwater system; and downward intrusion from coastal waters. Saltwater contamination also has occurred along open boreholes and within abandoned, improperly constructed, or corroded wells that provide pathways for vertical migration across interconnected aquifers. Communities within the coastal regions of North America are taking actions to manage and prevent saltwater intrusion to ensure a sustainable source of groundwater for the future. These actions can be grouped broadly into scientific monitoring and assessment, engineering techniques, and regulatory approaches.

  18. Work zone intrusion alarm effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    16. Abstract : The New Jersey Department of Transportation (NJDOT) commissioned a study to evaluate how : effective a work zone safety device known as the SonoBlaster! Work Zone Intrusion Alarm would be : in protecting maintenance workers fro...

  19. Environment-Sensitive Intrusion Detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Giffin, Jonathan T; Dagon, David; Jha, Somesh; Lee, Wenke; Miller, Barton P

    2006-01-01

    .... We improve the effectiveness of such model-based intrusion detection systems by incorporating into the model knowledge of the environment in which the program runs, and by increasing the accuracy...

  20. An immunological approach to intrusion detection

    OpenAIRE

    Watkins, A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an examination of intrusion detection schemes. It discusses\\ud traditional views of intrusion detection, and examines the more novel, but perhaps more\\ud effective, approach to intrusion detection as modeled on the human immune system. The\\ud discussion looks at some of the implications raised by intrusion detection research for\\ud information security in general.

  1. Recovery of freshwater marsh vegetation after a saltwater intrusion event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, K M; McKee, K L; Mendelssohn, I A

    1995-07-01

    Greenhouse mesocosms of freshwater marsh vegetation were exposed to a simulated saltwater intrusion event followed by a recovery period during which water levels and interstitial water salinity were adjusted over a range of conditions. Virtually all above-ground vegetation, including the three dominant species, Sagittaria lancifolia L., Leersia oryzoides (L.) Swartz, and Panicum hemitomon Schultes, was killed by the initial saltwater intrusion event. P. hemitomon did not recover, but S. lancifolia and L. oryzoides, as well as many of the other species initially present, exhibited some ability to recover depending on post-saltwater intrusion conditions. Increasingly harsh recovery conditions (for freshwater marsh vegetation), including more reduced soil conditions, higher interstitial salinities, and higher interstitial sulfide concentrations were associated with decreased live above-ground biomass and species richness. The effect of elevated salinity on vegetative recovery became more pronounced under flooded conditions. This experiment illustrates that the response of a freshwater marsh community to the long-term disturbance effect of a transient saltwater intrusion event will be strongly influenced by post-intrusion salinity and water levels.

  2. Ratio of Major Ions in Groundwater to Determine Saltwater Intrusion in Coastal Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudaryanto; Naily, Wilda

    2018-02-01

    Saltwater or seawater intrusion into groundwater aquifers occurs mostly in big cities and developing coastal cities. Coastal hydrology is associated with complex and highly dynamic environmental characteristics of interactions between groundwater, surface water, and water from the estuary. The rise of sea levels and excessive use of groundwater for clean water source trigger saltwater intrusion. Identification of saltwater intrusion into groundwater can be done by groundwater sampling and major ion analysis. The major ions dissolved in water are Ca, Mg, Na, K, Cl, HCO3, and SO4; the major ion ratios are Cl/Br, Ca/Mg, Ca/ (HCO3 and SO4), and Na/Cl. By knowing whether groundwater quality has been or has not been influenced by saltwater, groundwater zones can be determined in every coastal area. In addition, by analyzing and reviewing some concepts about the intrusion or contamination of saltwater into groundwater, there will be sufficient results for the identification of saltwater intrusion.

  3. PENURUNAN TINGKAT INTRUSI AIR LAUT BERDASARKAN "CHLORIDE BICARBONATE RATIO" MENGGUNAKAN LUBANG RESAPAN BIOPORI : STUDI KASUS DI KOTA SEMARANG (Decreased of Sea Water Intrusion Based On “Chloride-Bicarbonater Ratio”Using the Biopore Absorption Hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Sundari Miswadi

    2010-11-01

    Hnya naik. Kadar N03 menunjukkan pada minggu ketiga dan minggu keenam didapatkan hasil yang sarna, yaitu 16,66% sumur naik, dan 83,30 % turun. Kadar PO43- pada minggu ketiga lerdeteksi sebesar 100% jumlah sumur turun, sedangkan pada minggu keenam 16,66% turun, dan 83,30 % naik. Nilai kekeruhan pada minggu ketiga terdeteksi 16,66% sumur naik, dan 83,30 % turun, sedangkan pada minggu keenam 49,98 % sumur naik kekeruhannya, dan 49,98 % turun. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan, setelah penggunaan LRB pada minggu ketiga, sebanyak 82,41 % sumur mengalami penurunan dan 17,59% mengalami kenaikan pada ketujuh parameter, sedangkan pada minggu keenam sebanyak 54,75% sumur mengalami penurunan, dan 45,25 % sumur mengalami kenaikan pada ketujuh parameter. Hasil optimal penggunaan LRB sebagai adsorben diperoleh pada minggu keenam.   ABSTRACT Flood becomes annual agenda for the people who live in the coastal area of Semarang. But now, the regions which far from the coast are now no longer free from the flood and sea water intrusion. It happens because the water already exceeds the amount of soil replenishment (recharge, and the land has lost its function in absorbing water due to uncontrolled construction of buildings and housing which are not environmentally friendly. This study aims to map the level of sea water intrusion in the dug wells based on “Chloride-Bicarbonate Ratio”, and electrical conductivity (DHL and salinity in the city of Semarang. Research conducted on 30 dug wells owned by residents of the distance from the coast between 0,5-5 (five kilometers. Sea water intrusion rate was calculated based on the ratio of chloride to carbonate and bicarbonate, and the results were plotted on base maps. The results showed the level of sea water intrusion and the value of DHL in the eastern part of Semarang city much worse than the west coast area of Semarang, while the levels of salinity in most areas of research were in average levels. The results of studies

  4. Poleward intrusion in the northern Galician shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, I.; Ospina-Alvarez, N.; deCastro, M.; Varela, M.; Gomez-Gesteira, M.; Prego, R.

    2010-05-01

    The evolution of a warm water mass related to the Iberian Poleward Current (IPC) was characterized along the northern Galician shelf in November 2008 by means of Sea Surface Temperature and wind data. It was observed that under upwelling favorable conditions water temperature decreased along the northern coast and a temperature break appeared between Cape Vilano and Cape Ortegal showing a relaxation of the poleward intrusion. The effect of the IPC was also analyzed inside the Northern Galician Rias taking into account the hydrographical and biogeochemical properties measured on November 18. Water driven by the IPC was observed close to the mouth of the rias, around Cape Estaca de Bares, causing a nutrient salts decrease. Inside the rias a slight biological activity was found near surface resulting from fluvial contributions.

  5. Numerical simulation and analysis of saltwater intrusion lengths in the Pearl River Delta, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, W.; Feng, H.; Zheng, J.; Hoitink, A.J.F.; Vegt, van der M.; Zhu, Y.; Cai, H.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, large-scale saltwater intrusion has been threatening the freshwater supply in the metropolitan cities surrounding the Pearl River delta (PRD). Therefore, a better understanding of the saltwater intrusion process in this region is necessary for local water resource management. In

  6. Intrusive upwelling in the Central Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benthuysen, Jessica A.; Tonin, Hemerson; Brinkman, Richard; Herzfeld, Michael; Steinberg, Craig

    2016-11-01

    In the Central Great Barrier Reef, the outer continental shelf has an open reef matrix that facilitates the exchange of waters with the Coral Sea. During austral summer, cool water intrudes onto the shelf along the seafloor. Temperature observations reveal cool, bottom intrusions during a 6 year period from the Queensland Integrated Marine Observing System's Palm Passage mooring. A metric is used to identify 64 intrusion events. These intrusions predominantly occur from October to March including the wet season. During an event, the outer-shelf's near-bottom temperature decreases by 1-3°C typically over 1 week. The near-bottom salinity tends to increase, while near-surface changes do not reflect these tendencies. Intrusion events occur predominantly with either weakening equatorward winds or poleward wind bursts. A regional hydrodynamic model for the Great Barrier Reef captures the timing and amplitude of these intrusions. During intrusion events, isotherms tend to uplift over the continental slope and onto the shelf and the East Australian Current intensifies poleward. Over the shelf, a bottom-intensified onshore current coincides with bottom cooling. For numerous events, the model diagnostics reveal that the cross-shelf flow is dominated by the geostrophic contribution. A vertical circulation tilts the isopycnals upward on the southern side of the passage, causing an along-shelf density gradient and geostrophic onshore flow with depth. While wind fluctuations play a major role in controlling the along-shelf currents, model results indicate that a concurrent topographically induced circulation can assist the onshore spread of cool water.

  7. INTEGRATED ASSESSMENTS OF POSSIBLE EFFECTS OF HYDROCARBON AND SALT WATER INTRUSION ON THE GROUNDWATER OF IGANMU AREA OF LAGOSMETROPOLIS, SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adetayo F. Adetayo F.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Vertical electrical sounding (VES and Induced Polarisation (IP methods of geophysical survey were incorporated with  physiochemical analysis of well water samples to determine vertical extent of petroleum-product contamination in subsurface soils and groundwater from bulk-fuel storage and distribution terminals in Iganmu area of Lagos. Interpreted results of VES and IP revealed four geoelectric layers. Clay with resistivity and IP values ranging from 1.5 - 14 m and 50 - 400mV/V respectively was encountered at the last layer penetrated by the survey except in four VES stations where the clay horizon was delineated at the third layer. This implies that subsurface aquifer is sealed by impervious layer which possibly prevents it from being contaminated by hydrocarbon and other refuse materials from the surface. Borehole log and electrical resistivity survey from a control site within the area were also incorporated with the geophysical measurements and these confirm lithologic similarity and the presence of a sealant above the aquifer layer. In addition to this, the results of the physical and geochemical analyses carried out on groundwater samples from shallow wells within the pack show very negligible level of hydrocarbon contamination which has no serious environmental implications on subsurface water in the area. However, electrical conductivity, salinity and TDS values obtained show high level of dissolved minerals (salts making the water highly saline and unsuitable for drinking being far above recommended values for drinking water. We thus inferred that Lagos lagoon must haveinvaded the aquifer in some places leading to high salinity observed.

  8. The effect of fuel burnup and dispersed water intrusion on the criticality of spent high-level nuclear fuel in a geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culbreth, W.G.; Zielinski, P.R.

    1994-01-01

    Studies of the spent fuel waste package have been conducted through the use of a Monte-Carlo neutron simulation program to determine the ability of the fuel to sustain a chain reaction. These studies have included fuel burnup and the effect of water mists on criticality. Results were compared with previous studies. In many criticality studies of spent fuel waste packages, fresh fuel with an enrichment as high as 4.5% is used as the conservative (worst) case. The actual spent fuel has a certain amount of burnup that decreases the concentration of fissile uranium and increases the amount of radionuclides present. The LWR Radiological Data Base from OCRWM has been used to determine the relative radionuclide ratios and KENO 5.1 was used to calculate values of the effective multiplication factor, k eff . Spent fuel is not capable of sustaining a chain reaction unless a suitable moderator, such as water, is present. A completely flooded container has been treated as the worst case for criticality. Results of a previous report that demonstrated that k eff actually peaked at a water-to-mixture ratio of 13% were analyzed for validity. In the present study, these results did not occur in the SCP waste package container

  9. Non-intrusive refractometer sensor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    present technique. The present technique may be useful for monitoring refractive indices of active chemical solutions which was not possible with intrusive-type FO sensors. 2. Sensor principle. For a circular beam of light with cross-sectional area A, incident at an angle θi on the surface of a second medium, the power ...

  10. Non-Intrusive Appliance Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogsteen, G; Hoogsteen, Gerwin; Krist, J.O.; Bakker, Vincent; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2012-01-01

    Energy conservation becomes more important nowadays. The use of smart meters and, in the near future, smart appliances, are the key to achieve reduction in energy consumption. This research proposes a non-intrusive appliance monitor and recognition system for implementation on an embedded system.

  11. Occurrence of seawater intrusion overshoot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morgan, L.K.; Bakker, M.; Werner, A.D.

    2015-01-01

    A number of numerical modeling studies of transient sea level rise (SLR) and seawater intrusion (SI) in flux-controlled aquifer systems have reported an overshoot phenomenon, whereby the freshwater-saltwater interface temporarily extends further inland than the eventual steady state position.

  12. Non-intrusive refractometer sensor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An experimental realization of a simple non-intrusive refractometer sensor is demonstrated in this communication. The working principle of the sensor is based on intensity modulation of the back-reflected light when output light from an optical fibre end focusses onto air–medium interface. The change in the refractive index ...

  13. Zero Trust Intrusion Containment for Telemedicine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sood, Arun

    2002-01-01

    .... Our objective is the design and analysis of 'zero-trust' Intrusion Tolerant Systems. These are systems built under the extreme assumption that all intrusion detection techniques will eventually fail...

  14. Computer Network Equipment for Intrusion Detection Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ye, Nong

    2000-01-01

    .... To test the process model, the system-level intrusion detection techniques and the working prototype of the intrusion detection system, a set of computer and network equipment has been purchased...

  15. Numerical modelling of seawater intrusion in Shenzhen (China ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1. Introduction. Seawater intrusion constitutes a prominent hydro- logical problem in many coastal areas of the world. It is generally defined as the encroachment of saline water into fresh groundwater domains in coastal aquifer settings (Werner and Simmons 2008). This phenomenon will occur when the natural equilib-.

  16. Tracking salinity intrusions in a coastal forested freshwater wetland system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand D. Jayakaran; Thomas M. Williams; William H. Conner

    2016-01-01

    Coastal forested freshwater wetlands are sentinel sites for salinity intrusions associated with large, tidally influenced, storm-driven or drought-induced incursions of estuarine waters into freshwater ecosystems. These incursions may also be exacerbated by rising sea levels associated with climate change.

  17. Intrusive luxation of 60 permanent incisors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsilingaridis, Georgios; Malmgren, Barbro; Andreasen, Jens O

    2012-01-01

    Intrusive luxation in the permanent dentition is an uncommon injury but it is considered one of the most severe types of dental trauma because of the risk for damage to the periodontal ligament, pulp and alveolar bone. Management of intrusive luxation in the permanent dentition is controversial....... The purpose of this study was to evaluate pulp survival and periodontal healing in intrusive luxated permanent teeth in relation to treatment alternatives, degree of intrusion and root development....

  18. Excess water generation during reaction-inducing intrusion of granitic melts into ultramafic rocks at crustal P-T conditions in the Sør Rondane Mountains of East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Masaoki; Okamoto, Atsushi; Tsuchiya, Noriyoshi

    2017-07-01

    Arc magmas are one of the main sources of aqueous geofluids in the crust, and the movement of fluids above magma chambers has been geophysically imaged. Here, we constrain the water budget (i.e., supply, consumption and release of H2O) in these areas above magma chamber by examining the hydration caused by crust-melt reactions in the Sør Rondane Mountains of East Antarctica. The study area contains a phlogopite-pargasite-peridotite unit that has been intruded by numerous granitic dikes, creating hydration reaction zones at the dike-peridotite boundary. These reactions occurred at 0.5 GPa and 700 °C, corresponding to middle crustal conditions, and generated a series of reaction zones with distance from the granitic dikes as follows: (i) granitic dike, (ii) pargasite-actinolite zone, (iii) tremolite-phlogopite zone, (iv) anthophyllite-phlogopite zone, (v) phlogopite-olivine-orthopyroxene zone, and (vi) unaltered pargasite-phlogopite peridotite. The presence of amphiboles with a preferred orientation perpendicular to the dike margins and an absence of Cr-rich magnetite indicate that the pargasite-actinolite zone [zone (ii)] grew from the dike margins as a result of the dike reacting with the host rock, with an initial melt/rock boundary located between zones (ii) and (iii). The H2O contents of reaction zones (ii)-(v) are higher than the content in the hosting pargasite-phlogopite peridotite, suggesting that the intrusion of the dike was associated with hydration reactions. Geochemical analysis along a profile through the reaction zones indicates Mg and Fe depletion, and Si enrichment in zones (iii)-(iv), and Ca depletion and K enrichment in zones (iv)-(v) relative to the hosting pargasite-phlogopite peridotite. In contrast, zone (ii) is characterized by Ca, Fe, and Mg enrichments relative to the granitic dike. These observations suggest that the reaction zone sequence was formed by the elemental transfer between granitic dike and parasite-phlogopite peridotite: Ca

  19. Influence of seawater intrusion on microbial communities in groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unno, Tatsuya; Kim, Jungman; Kim, Yumi; Nguyen, Son G; Guevarra, Robin B; Kim, Gee Pyo; Lee, Ji-Hoon; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2015-11-01

    Groundwater is the sole source of potable water on Jeju Island in the Republic of (South) Korea. Groundwater is also used for irrigation and industrial purposes, and it is severely impacted by seawater intrusion in coastal areas. Consequently, monitoring the intrusion of seawater into groundwater on Jeju is very important for health and environmental reasons. A number of studies have used hydrological models to predict the deterioration of groundwater quality caused by seawater intrusion. However, there is conflicting evidence of intrusion due to complicated environmental influences on groundwater quality. Here we investigated the use of next generation sequencing (NGS)-based microbial community analysis as a way to monitor groundwater quality and detect seawater intrusion. Pristine groundwater, groundwater from three coastal areas, and seawater were compared. Analysis of the distribution of bacterial species clearly indicated that the high and low salinity groundwater differed significantly with respect to microbial composition. While members of the family Parvularculaceae were only identified in high salinity water samples, a greater percentage of the phylum Actinobacteria was predominantly observed in pristine groundwater. In addition, we identified 48 shared operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with seawater, among which the high salinity groundwater sample shared a greater number of bacterial species with seawater (6.7%). In contrast, other groundwater samples shared less than 0.5%. Our results suggest that NGS-based microbial community analysis of groundwater may be a useful tool for monitoring groundwater quality and detect seawater intrusion. This technology may also provide additional insights in understanding hydrological dynamics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Estimation of crystallization pressure of granite intrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue-Ming

    2017-08-01

    A numerical method is presented to estimate the crystallization pressure of granite intrusions based on two polynomial equations obtained by an analysis of the existing haplogranite ternary phase diagram and associated dataset. The results indicate that the pressure is correlated respectively with normative quartz (Qtz) content and with normative albite (Ab) plus orthoclase (Or) contents of granitic rocks as follows. where P is pressure in MPa, and R denotes correlation coefficient. It is noted that the procedure of normalizing the sum of CIPW norm (quartz, albite, orthoclase) contents to 100% is required before using Eqs. (1) and (2). The difference in pressure calculations between these two equations is ≤ 16 MPa for the range of normative quartz contents from 15 to 40 wt%. An example of how to use these equations to estimate the crystallization pressure of a granite intrusion is also provided to show the validity and convenience of this method. The uncertainty of such pressure estimation is not well known, although it must fall into the uncertainty range of the existing experimental work on pressure constraints. The simplicity of this empirical method is appreciable, although its applicability to natural granitoids needs further test. More experimental work is required to constrain the effects of components, such as CaO, FeO, MgO, F, Cl, CO2, on the granite phase equilibria. These equations, however, can be used for estimating crystallization pressures of water-saturated and quartz-oversaturated granitic systems.

  1. Recent advances in vapor intrusion site investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Thomas; Loll, Per; Eklund, Bart

    2017-12-15

    Our understanding of vapor intrusion has evolved rapidly since the discovery of the first high profile vapor intrusion sites in the late 1990s and early 2000s. Research efforts and field investigations have improved our understanding of vapor intrusion processes including the role of preferential pathways and natural barriers to vapor intrusion. This review paper addresses recent developments in the regulatory framework and conceptual model for vapor intrusion. In addition, a number of innovative investigation methods are discussed. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Transboundary geophysical mapping of geological elements and salinity distribution critical for the assessment of future sea water intrusion in response to sea level rise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jørgensen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Geophysical techniques are increasingly being used as tools for characterising the subsurface, and they are generally required to develop subsurface models that properly delineate the distribution of aquifers and aquitards, salt/freshwater interfaces, and geological structures that affect groundwater flow. In a study area covering 730 km2 across the border between Germany and Denmark, a combination of an airborne electromagnetic survey (performed with the SkyTEM system, a high-resolution seismic survey and borehole logging has been used in an integrated mapping of important geological, physical and chemical features of the subsurface. The spacing between flight lines is 200–250 m which gives a total of about 3200 line km. About 38 km of seismic lines have been collected. Faults bordering a graben structure, buried tunnel valleys, glaciotectonic thrust complexes, marine clay units, and sand aquifers are all examples of geological structures mapped by the geophysical data that control groundwater flow and to some extent hydrochemistry. Additionally, the data provide an excellent picture of the salinity distribution in the area and thus provide important information on the salt/freshwater boundary and the chemical status of groundwater. Although the westernmost part of the study area along the North Sea coast is saturated with saline water and the TEM data therefore are strongly influenced by the increased electrical conductivity there, buried valleys and other geological elements are still revealed. The mapped salinity distribution indicates preferential flow paths through and along specific geological structures within the area. The effects of a future sea level rise on the groundwater system and groundwater chemistry are discussed with special emphasis on the importance of knowing the existence, distribution and geometry of the mapped geological elements, and their control on the groundwater salinity distribution is assessed.

  3. Adaptive Intrusion Data System (AIDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corlis, N.E.

    1980-05-01

    The adaptive intrusion data system (AIDS) was developed to collect data from intrusion alarm sensors as part of an evaluation system to improve sensor performance. AIDS is a unique data system which uses computer controlled data systems, video cameras and recorders, analog-to-digital conversion, environmental sensors, and digital recorders to collect sensor data. The data can be viewed either manually or with a special computerized data-reduction system which adds new data to a data base stored on a magnetic disc recorder. This report provides a synoptic account of the AIDS as it presently exists. Modifications to the purchased subsystems are described, and references are made to publications which describe the Sandia-designed subsystems

  4. Saltwater Intrusion Through Submerged Caves due to the Venturi Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazmutdinova, K.; Nof, D.

    2016-12-01

    Saltwater intrusion into freshwater sources is a concern in coastal areas. In order to reduce the intrusion of seawater the physical mechanisms that allow this to occur must be understood. This study presents an approach to quantify saltwater intrusion in karstic coastal aquifers due to the presence of submerged caves. Many water-filled caves have variable tunnel cross-sections and often have narrow connections between two otherwise large tunnels. Generally, the diameter of these restrictions is 1 - 2 m and the flow speed within them is approximately 1 - 5 m/s. Main cave tunnels can be 10 - 20 times bigger than restrictions, and have flow speeds ranging anywhere between 0.5 cm/s and 20 cm/s. According to Bernoulli's theorem, in order to balance high velocities within a restriction, the pressure has to drop as the water flow passes through a narrow tunnel. This is expected to influence the height to which a deeper saline aquifer can penetrate in conduits connecting the narrow restriction and saltwater. For sufficiently small restrictions, saline water can invade the freshwater tunnel. The intrusion of saltwater from a deeper, saline aquifer into a fresh groundwater system due to the Venturi effect in submerged caves was computed, and an analytical and a qualitative model that captures saltwater intrusion into a fresh aquifer was developed. Using Bernoulli's theorem, we show that depths from which the saline water can be drawn into the freshwater tunnel reach up to 450 m depending on the difference in the density between fresh and saltwater. The velocity of the saline upward flow is estimated to be 1.4 m/s using the parameters for Wakulla Spring, a first order magnitude spring in Florida, with a saltwater interface 180 m below the spring cave system.

  5. Salt Intrusion in the Tweed Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uncles, R. J.; Stephens, J. A.

    1996-09-01

    Results are presented from a 2-week field programme in the Tweed Estuary, U.K. Maximum values of the empirically based Estuarine Richardson Number, Ri E, occurred during neap tides, and minimum values occurred during spring tides. Estimated values of Ri Evaried between 0·3 and 2·3, suggesting the occurrence of partially mixed to stratified conditions, depending on tidal state and freshwater inflow. These relatively large values of Ri Ewere consistent with both observed strong salinity stratification and large salt fluxes due to vertical shear transport. Low values (0·5) values in the halocline. A velocity maximum occurred within the halocline during the early flood. Wave-like spatial oscillations of the halocline occurred on the ebb. The oscillation troughs were situated above deep holes located just down-estuary of the rail and old road bridges. There was an indication that the constricted flow between the bridges' arches resulted in enhanced mixing of near-surface waters and a thickening of the halocline. It is also possible that these wave-like structures were stationary, near-critical internal lee waves, triggered by the deep holes. Trapping of high-salinity waters occurred on the ebb. Saline pools were isolated within a deep hole or deeper section of bed by the falling halocline. When the salt wedge moved further down-estuary, the ' trapped ' waters were subjected to strongly ebbing, overlying freshwater, and were subsequently entrained and flushed. The salinity intrusion was a strong function of spring-neap tidal state and a weaker function of freshwater inflow. The estimated salinity intrusion varied from about 4·7 to 7·6 km during the fieldwork period. The strong dependence on tidal range followed from the comparable lengths of the tidal excursion and salinity intrusion. Long excursion lengths were also partly responsible for the short residence (or flushing) times and their strong dependence on spring-neap tidal state. For typical summer freshwater

  6. Mapping soil salinity and a fresh-water intrusion in three-dimensions using a quasi-3d joint-inversion of DUALEM-421S and EM34 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Ehsan; Huang, Jingyi; Koganti, Triven; Triantafilis, John

    2017-04-01

    In order to understand the drivers of topsoil salinization, the distribution and movement of salt in accordance with groundwater need mapping. In this study, we described a method to map the distribution of soil salinity, as measured by the electrical conductivity of a saturated soil-paste extract (ECe), and in 3-dimensions around a water storage reservoir in an irrigated field near Bourke, New South Wales, Australia. A quasi-3d electromagnetic conductivity image (EMCI) or model of the true electrical conductivity (sigma) was developed using 133 apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) measurements collected on a 50 m grid and using various coil arrays of DUALEM-421S and EM34 instruments. For the DUALEM-421S we considered ECa in horizontal coplanar (i.e., 1 mPcon, 2 mPcon and 4 mPcon) and vertical coplanar (i.e., 1 mHcon, 2 mHcon and 4 mHcon) arrays. For the EM34, three measurements in the horizontal mode (i.e., EM34-10H, EM34-20H and EM34-40H) were considered. We estimated σ using a quasi-3d joint-inversion algorithm (EM4Soil). The best correlation (R2 = 0.92) between σ and measured soil ECe was identified when a forward modelling (FS), inversion algorithm (S2) and damping factor (lambda = 0.2) were used and using both DUALEM-421 and EM34 data; but not including the 4 m coil arrays of the DUALEM-421S. A linear regression calibration model was used to predict ECe in 3-dimensions beneath the study field. The predicted ECe was consistent with previous studies and revealed the distribution of ECe and helped to infer a freshwater intrusion from a water storage reservoir at depth and as a function of its proximity to near-surface prior stream channels and buried paleochannels. It was concluded that this method can be applied elsewhere to map the soil salinity and water movement and provide guidance for improved land management.|

  7. Intrusion scenarios in fusion waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchetti, M.; Zucchetti, M.; Rocco, P.

    1998-01-01

    Results of analyses on human intrusions into repositories of fusion radioactive waste are presented. The main topics are: duration of the institutional control, occurrence of intrusion, intrusion scenarios, acceptable risk limits and probabilistic data. Application to fusion waste repositories is implemented with a computational model: wells drilling is considered as the possible scenario. Doses and risks to intruder for different SEAFP-2 cases turn out to be very small. No intervention to reduce the hazard is necessary. (authors)

  8. Intrusion scenarios in fusion waste disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zucchetti, M. [European Commission, JRC, Institute for Advanced Material, Ispra, Vatican City State, Holy See (Italy); Zucchetti, M.; Rocco, P. [Energetics Dept., Polytechnic of Turin (Italy)

    1998-07-01

    Results of analyses on human intrusions into repositories of fusion radioactive waste are presented. The main topics are: duration of the institutional control, occurrence of intrusion, intrusion scenarios, acceptable risk limits and probabilistic data. Application to fusion waste repositories is implemented with a computational model: wells drilling is considered as the possible scenario. Doses and risks to intruder for different SEAFP-2 cases turn out to be very small. No intervention to reduce the hazard is necessary. (authors)

  9. Effect of winds and waves on salt intrusion in the Pearl River estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Wenping; Lin, Zhongyuan; Chen, Yunzhen; Chen, Zhaoyun; Zhang, Heng

    2018-02-01

    Salt intrusion in the Pearl River estuary (PRE) is a dynamic process that is influenced by a range of factors and to date, few studies have examined the effects of winds and waves on salt intrusion in the PRE. We investigate these effects using the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) modeling system applied to the PRE. After careful validation, the model is used for a series of diagnostic simulations. It is revealed that the local wind considerably strengthens the salt intrusion by lowering the water level in the eastern part of the estuary and increasing the bottom landward flow. The remote wind increases the water mixing on the continental shelf, elevates the water level on the shelf and in the PRE and pumps saltier shelf water into the estuary by Ekman transport. Enhancement of the salt intrusion is comparable between the remote and local winds. Waves decrease the salt intrusion by increasing the water mixing. Sensitivity analysis shows that the axial down-estuary wind, is most efficient in driving increases in salt intrusion via wind straining effect.

  10. Effect of winds and waves on salt intrusion in the Pearl River estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Gong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Salt intrusion in the Pearl River estuary (PRE is a dynamic process that is influenced by a range of factors and to date, few studies have examined the effects of winds and waves on salt intrusion in the PRE. We investigate these effects using the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST modeling system applied to the PRE. After careful validation, the model is used for a series of diagnostic simulations. It is revealed that the local wind considerably strengthens the salt intrusion by lowering the water level in the eastern part of the estuary and increasing the bottom landward flow. The remote wind increases the water mixing on the continental shelf, elevates the water level on the shelf and in the PRE and pumps saltier shelf water into the estuary by Ekman transport. Enhancement of the salt intrusion is comparable between the remote and local winds. Waves decrease the salt intrusion by increasing the water mixing. Sensitivity analysis shows that the axial down-estuary wind, is most efficient in driving increases in salt intrusion via wind straining effect.

  11. Sulfide intrusion and detoxification in Zostera marina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Holmer, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    Sulfide intrusion in seagrasses represents a global threat to seagrasses. In contrast seegrasses grow in hostile sediments, where they are constantly exposed to sulfide intrusion. Little is known about the strategies to survive sulfide intrusion, if there are detoxification mechanisms and sulfur...... indicating a possible role of sulfide in the sulfur nutrition beside the detoxification function. Our results suggest different adaptations of Z. marina to reduced sediments and sulfide intrusion ranging from bacterial and chemical reoxidation of sulfide to sulfate to incorporation of sulfide into organic...

  12. [Analysis of intrusion errors in free recall].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesfeldt, H F A

    2017-06-01

    Extra-list intrusion errors during five trials of the eight-word list-learning task of the Amsterdam Dementia Screening Test (ADST) were investigated in 823 consecutive psychogeriatric patients (87.1% suffering from major neurocognitive disorder). Almost half of the participants (45.9%) produced one or more intrusion errors on the verbal recall test. Correct responses were lower when subjects made intrusion errors, but learning slopes did not differ between subjects who committed intrusion errors and those who did not so. Bivariate regression analyses revealed that participants who committed intrusion errors were more deficient on measures of eight-word recognition memory, delayed visual recognition and tests of executive control (the Behavioral Dyscontrol Scale and the ADST-Graphical Sequences as measures of response inhibition). Using hierarchical multiple regression, only free recall and delayed visual recognition retained an independent effect in the association with intrusion errors, such that deficient scores on tests of episodic memory were sufficient to explain the occurrence of intrusion errors. Measures of inhibitory control did not add significantly to the explanation of intrusion errors in free recall, which makes insufficient strength of memory traces rather than a primary deficit in inhibition the preferred account for intrusion errors in free recall.

  13. The roles of noradrenergic and glucocorticoid activation in the development of intrusive memories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Bryant

    Full Text Available Intrusive memories are a common feature of many psychological disorders. Recent evidence has potentially extended cognitive models of intrusions by identifying the role of biological markers of arousal at the time of consolidation in subsequent memory for emotional events. This study investigated the role of arousal during consolidation in the development of intrusive memories. Seventy-eight university students (37 men and 41 women viewed 20 negative and 20 neutral images. Half the participants then underwent a cold pressor test (High Stress, immersing their hand in ice water, while the remaining participants immersed their hand in warm water (Low Stress. Samples of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA and cortisol were collected from participants at baseline and following the stressor challenge. Participants completed a delayed free recall test and intrusion questionnaires two days later. Participants in the High Stress condition reported more intrusions of negative images than participants in the Low Stress condition. An interaction variable in a linear regression of increased noradrenergic and cortisol values predicted intrusive memories of emotional stimuli for men but not women. These findings are consistent with recent evidence of the combined effects of noradrenaline and corticoid responses to stress on emotional memories, and also with increasing evidence of gender differences in how stress hormones influence formation of emotional memories. These findings point to possible mechanisms by which development of intrusions may be prevented after consolidation of traumatic experiences.

  14. Development of an Assessment Procedure for Seawater Intrusion Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsi Ting, F.; Yih Chi, T.

    2017-12-01

    The Pingtung Plain is one of the areas with extremely plentiful groundwater resources in Taiwan. Due to that the application of the water resource is restricted by significant variation of precipitation between wet and dry seasons, groundwater must be used as a recharge source to implement the insufficient surface water resource during dry seasons. In recent years, the coastal aquaculture rises, and the over withdrawn of groundwater by private well results in fast drop of groundwater level. Then it causes imbalance of groundwater supply and leads to serious seawater intrusion in the coastal areas. The purpose of this study is to develop an integrated numerical model of groundwater resources and seawater intrusion. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), MODFLOW and MT3D models were applied to analyze the variation of the groundwater levels and salinity concentration to investigate the correlation of parameters, which are used to the model applications in order to disposal saltwater intrusion. The data of groundwater levels, pumping capacity and hydrogeological data to were collected to build an integrated numerical model. Firstly, we will collect the information of layered aquifer and the data of hydrological parameters to build the groundwater numerical model at Pingtung Plain, and identify the amount of the groundwater which flow into the sea. In order to deal with the future climate change conditions or extreme weather conditions, we will consider the recharge with groundwater model to improve the seawater intrusion problem. The integrated numerical model which describes that seawater intrusion to deep confined aquifers and shallow unsaturated aquifers. Secondly, we will use the above model to investigate the weights influenced by different factors to the amount area of seawater intrusion, and predict the salinity concentration distribution of evaluation at coastal area of Pingtung Plain. Finally, we will simulate groundwater recharge/ injection at the coastal

  15. Animal intrusion status report for fiscal year 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landeen, D.S.

    1990-08-01

    The Protective Barrier and Warning Marker System Development Plan identified tasks that need to be completed to design a final protective barrier to implement in-place disposal of radioactive waste. This report summarizes the animal intrusion tasks that were conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company in fiscal years 1988 and 1989 with respect to small mammals and water infiltration. 2 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Intrusive and Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring (A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Danilo Burbano Acuña

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There is not discussion about the need of energyconservation, it is well known that energy resources are limitedmoreover the global energy demands will double by the end of2030, which certainly will bring implications on theenvironment and hence to all of us.Non-Intrusive load monitoring (NILM is the process ofrecognize electrical devices and its energy consumption basedon whole home electric signals, where this aggregated load datais acquired from a single point of measurement outside thehousehold. The aim of this approach is to get optimal energyconsumption and avoid energy wastage. Intrusive loadmonitoring (ILM is the process of identify and locate singledevices through the use of sensing systems to support control,monitor and intervention of such devices. The aim of thisapproach is to offer a base for the development of importantapplications for remote and automatic intervention of energyconsumption inside buildings and homes as well. For generalpurposes this paper states a general framework of NILM andILM approaches.Appliance discerns can be tackled using approaches fromdata mining and machine learning, finding out the techniquesthat fit the best this requirements, is a key factor for achievingfeasible and suitable appliance load monitoring solutions. Thispaper presents common and interesting methods used.Privacy concerns have been one of the bigger obstacles forimplementing a widespread adoption of these solutions; despitethis fact, developed countries like those inside the EU and theUK have established a deadline for the implementation ofsmart meters in the whole country, whereas USA governmentstill struggles with the acceptance of this solution by itscitizens.The implementation of security over these approachesalong with fine-grained energy monitoring would lead to abetter public agreement of these solutions and hence a fasteradoption of such approaches. This paper reveals a lack ofsecurity over these approaches with a real scenario.

  17. A new physical barrier system for seawater intrusion control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoulhalik, Antoifi; Ahmed, Ashraf; Hamill, G. A.

    2017-06-01

    The construction of subsurface physical barriers is one of various methods used to control seawater intrusion (SWI) in coastal aquifers. This study proposes the mixed physical barrier (MPB) as a new barrier system for seawater intrusion control, which combines an impermeable cutoff wall and a semi-permeable subsurface dam. The effect of the traditionally-used physical barriers on transient saltwater wedge dynamics was first explored for various hydraulic gradients, and the workability of the MPB was thereafter thoroughly analysed. A newly developed automated image analysis based on light-concentration conversion was used in the experiments, which were completed in a porous media tank. The numerical code SEAWAT was used to assess the consistency of the experimental data and examine the sensitivity of the performance of the barriers to various key parameters. The results show that the MPB induced a visible lifting of the dense saline flux upward towards the outlet by the light freshwater. This saltwater lifting mechanism, observed for the first time, induced significant reduction to the saline water intrusion length. The use of the MPB yielded up to 62% and 42% more reduction of the saltwater intrusion length than the semi-permeable dam and the cutoff wall, respectively. The performance achieved by the MPB with a wall depth of 40% of the aquifer thickness was greater than that of a single cutoff wall with a penetration depth of 90% of the aquifer thickness (about 13% extra reduction). This means that the MPB could produce better seawater intrusion reduction than the traditionally used barriers at even lower cost.

  18. Acknowledging the dilemmas of intrusive media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathieu, David; Finger, Juliane; Dias, Patrcia

    2017-01-01

    production, media literacy, media regulation, and activism. Consulting with these stakeholders left the impression that pressures and intrusions from media lack widespread acknowledgement, and that little is known about audiences’ strategies to cope with media. Even when intrusions are acknowledged, we find...

  19. Traumatic intrusions as 'worse case scenario's'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merckelbach, H; Muris, P; Horselenberg, R; Rassin, E

    1998-11-01

    While some clinicians assume that traumatic intrusions are historically accurate revisualizations of traumatic incidents, others have suggested that these types of intrusions may represent a worse case scenario (i.e. exaggerated) version of the trauma. To explore this issue, a survey was conducted among undergraduate students (N = 189). Of the 69 respondents who had been the victim of or witness to a relatively recent trauma, 15 (22%) reported an exaggerated perception of the traumatic incident. Exaggerated intrusions were found to have more flashback qualities and tended to have a higher frequency than 'realistic' intrusions. These findings are well in line with the idea that intrusions are not necessarily veridical copies of traumatic events.

  20. Intrusion-Aware Alert Validation Algorithm for Cooperative Distributed Intrusion Detection Schemes of Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Jae Song

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Existing anomaly and intrusion detection schemes of wireless sensor networks have mainly focused on the detection of intrusions. Once the intrusion is detected, an alerts or claims will be generated. However, any unidentified malicious nodes in the network could send faulty anomaly and intrusion claims about the legitimate nodes to the other nodes. Verifying the validity of such claims is a critical and challenging issue that is not considered in the existing cooperative-based distributed anomaly and intrusion detection schemes of wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we propose a validation algorithm that addresses this problem. This algorithm utilizes the concept of intrusion-aware reliability that helps to provide adequate reliability at a modest communication cost. In this paper, we also provide a security resiliency analysis of the proposed intrusion-aware alert validation algorithm.

  1. Water System Adaptation To Hydrological Changes: Module 6, Synchronous Management of Storm Surge, Sea Level Rise, and Salt Water Intrusion: Case Study in Mattapoisett, Massachusetts, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This course will introduce students to the fundamental principles of water system adaptation to hydrological changes, with emphasis on data analysis and interpretation, technical planning, and computational modeling. Starting with real-world scenarios and adaptation needs, the co...

  2. A New Method for Intrusion Detection using Manifold Learning Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Guoping Hou; Xuan Ma; Yuelei Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Computer and network security has received and will still receive much attention. Any unexpected intrusion will damage the network. It is therefore imperative to detect the network intrusion to ensure the normal operation of the internet. There are many studies in the intrusion detection and intrusion patter recognition. The artificial neural network (ANN) has proven to be powerful for the intrusion detection. However, very little work has discussed the optimization of the input intrusion fea...

  3. How stratospheric are deep stratospheric intrusions? LUAMI 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Trickl

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A large-scale comparison of water-vapour vertical-sounding instruments took place over central Europe on 17 October 2008, during a rather homogeneous deep stratospheric intrusion event (LUAMI, Lindenberg Upper-Air Methods Intercomparison. The measurements were carried out at four observational sites: Payerne (Switzerland, Bilthoven (the Netherlands, Lindenberg (north-eastern Germany, and the Zugspitze mountain (Garmisch-Partenkichen, German Alps, and by an airborne water-vapour lidar system creating a transect of humidity profiles between all four stations. A high data quality was verified that strongly underlines the scientific findings. The intrusion layer was very dry with a minimum mixing ratios of 0 to 35 ppm on its lower west side, but did not drop below 120 ppm on the higher-lying east side (Lindenberg. The dryness hardens the findings of a preceding study (“Part 1”, Trickl et al., 2014 that, e.g., 73 % of deep intrusions reaching the German Alps and travelling 6 days or less exhibit minimum mixing ratios of 50 ppm and less. These low values reflect values found in the lowermost stratosphere and indicate very slow mixing with tropospheric air during the downward transport to the lower troposphere. The peak ozone values were around 70 ppb, confirming the idea that intrusion layers depart from the lowermost edge of the stratosphere. The data suggest an increase of ozone from the lower to the higher edge of the intrusion layer. This behaviour is also confirmed by stratospheric aerosol caught in the layer. Both observations are in agreement with the idea that sections of the vertical distributions of these constituents in the source region were transferred to central Europe without major change. LAGRANTO trajectory calculations demonstrated a rather shallow outflow from the stratosphere just above the dynamical tropopause, for the first time confirming the conclusions in “Part 1” from the Zugspitze CO observations. The

  4. Effects of recharge wells and flow barriers on seawater intrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyun, Roger; Momii, Kazuro; Nakagawa, Kei

    2011-01-01

    The installation of recharge wells and subsurface flow barriers are among several strategies proposed to control seawater intrusion on coastal groundwater systems. In this study, we performed laboratory-scale experiments and numerical simulations to determine the effects of the location and application of recharge wells, and of the location and penetration depth of flow barriers, on controlling seawater intrusion in unconfined coastal aquifers. We also compared the experimental results with existing analytical solutions. Our results showed that more effective saltwater repulsion is achieved when the recharge water is injected at the toe of the saltwater wedge. Point injection yields about the same repulsion compared with line injection from a screened well for the same recharge rate. Results for flow barriers showed that more effective saltwater repulsion is achieved with deeper barrier penetration and with barriers located closer to the coast. When the flow barrier is installed inland from the original toe position however, saltwater intrusion increases with deeper barrier penetration. Saltwater repulsion due to flow barrier installation was found to be linearly related to horizontal barrier location and a polynomial function of the barrier penetration depth. Copyright © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © 2010 National Ground Water Association.

  5. Intrusion Detection Systems with Live Knowledge System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-31

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0058 Intrusion Detection Systems with Live Knowledge System Byeong Ho Kang UNIVERSITY OF TASMANIA Final Report 05/31/2016...COVERED (From - To) 20 May 2015 to 19 May 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Intrusion Detection Systems with Live Knowledge System 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...298 10/26/2016https://livelink.ebs.afrl.af.mil/livelink/llisapi.dll Final Report for AOARD Grant FA2386-15-1-4061 “ Intrusion Detection Systems with

  6. Sulfide intrusion and detoxification in seagrasses ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Holmer, Marianne

    is known about the strategies of seagrasses to survive sulfide intrusion, their potential detoxification mechanisms and sulfur nutrition in general. By a global review of sulfide intrusion, coupled with a series of field studies and in situ experiments we elucidate sulfide intrusion and different...... not present in terrestrial plants at that level. Sulfide is not necessarily toxic but used as sulfur nutrition, presupposing healthy seagrass ecosystems that can support detoxification mechanisms. Presence or absence of those mechanisms determines susceptibility of seagrass ecosystems to sediment sulfide...

  7. Alpha intrusion on ovenight polysomnogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahapetian R

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. A 30 year-old Army veteran with a past medical history significant for chronic lumbar back pain stemming from a fall-from-height injury sustained in 2006 was referred to the sleep laboratory for evaluation of chronic fatigue and excessive daytime hypersomnolence. His Epworth sleepiness scale score was 16. He denied a history of snoring and witnessed apnea. Body Mass Index (BMI was 25.7 kg/m2. His main sleep related complaints were frequent nocturnal arousals, poor sleep quality, un-refreshing sleep, prolonged latency to sleep onset, and nightmares. An In-lab attended diagnostic polysomnogram was performed. Sleep efficiency was reduced (73% and overall arousal index was not significantly elevated (3.2 events/hour. The sleep study showed rapid eye movement (REM related sleep disordered breathing that did not meet diagnostic criteria for sleep apnea. There was no evidence for period limb movement disorder. However, the study was significant for alpha wave intrusion in stage N2 non-REM and stage ...

  8. Perimeter intrusion detection and assessment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, M.J.; Jacobs, J.; McGovern, D.E.

    1977-01-01

    The key elements of the system considered at a materials storage site are intrusion sensors, alarm assessment, and system control and display. Three papers discussing each of these topics are compiled. They are abstracted individually. (JSR)

  9. Intrusion Detection Architecture Utilizing Graphics Processors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Madoš

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available With the thriving technology and the great increase in the usage of computer networks, the risk of having these network to be under attacks have been increased. Number of techniques have been created and designed to help in detecting and/or preventing such attacks. One common technique is the use of Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS. Today, number of open sources and commercial IDS are available to match enterprises requirements. However, the performance of these systems is still the main concern. This paper examines perceptions of intrusion detection architecture implementation, resulting from the use of graphics processor. It discusses recent research activities, developments and problems of operating systems security. Some exploratory evidence is presented that shows capabilities of using graphical processors and intrusion detection systems. The focus is on how knowledge experienced throughout the graphics processor inclusion has played out in the design of intrusion detection architecture that is seen as an opportunity to strengthen research expertise.

  10. A Citizen's Guide to Vapor Intrusion Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guide describes how vapor intrusion is the movement of chemical vapors from contaminated soil and groundwater into nearby buildings.Vapors primarily enter through openings in the building foundation or basement walls.

  11. Autonomous Rule Creation for Intrusion Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd Vollmer; Jim Alves-Foss; Milos Manic

    2011-04-01

    Many computational intelligence techniques for anomaly based network intrusion detection can be found in literature. Translating a newly discovered intrusion recognition criteria into a distributable rule can be a human intensive effort. This paper explores a multi-modal genetic algorithm solution for autonomous rule creation. This algorithm focuses on the process of creating rules once an intrusion has been identified, rather than the evolution of rules to provide a solution for intrusion detection. The algorithm was demonstrated on anomalous ICMP network packets (input) and Snort rules (output of the algorithm). Output rules were sorted according to a fitness value and any duplicates were removed. The experimental results on ten test cases demonstrated a 100 percent rule alert rate. Out of 33,804 test packets 3 produced false positives. Each test case produced a minimum of three rule variations that could be used as candidates for a production system.

  12. Periodontal changes following molar intrusion with miniscrews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Bayani

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, these results suggest that not only periodontal status was not negatively affected by intrusion, but also there were signs of periodontal improvement including attachment gain and shortening of clinical crown height.

  13. NIST Special Publication on Intrusion Detection Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bace, Rebecca Gurley

    2001-01-01

    Intrusion detection systems (IDSs) are software or hardware systems that automate the process of monitoring the events occurring in a computer system or network, analyzing them for signs of security problems...

  14. IGNEOUS INTRUSION IMPACTS ON WASTE PACKAGES AND WASTE FORMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Bernot

    2004-04-19

    -chemical environment and seepage water alteration by reaction with intruded basalt. The scope of this model only includes impacts to the components stated above, and does not include impacts to other engineered barrier system (EBS) components such as the waste package pallet. The results of this model report will be used in TSPA for several parameters including (1) temperature of magma (used for the temperature of the waste form after an intrusion) (2) temperature increase in Zone 2 due to intrusion to evaluate impact to Zone 2 waste packages; (3) effects of exsolved gases reaching Zone 2 to evaluate impact to Zone 2 waste packages; and (4) pH and ionic strength of water reacted with basalt to be used in conjunction with ''Dissolved Concentration Limits of Radioactive Elements'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS: 163152]) to determine solubility of spent fuel within the basalt. Ionic strength will also be used in conjunction with ''Waste Form and In-Drift Colloids-Associated Radionuclide Concentrations: Abstraction and Summary'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS: 166845]) for stability of colloids.

  15. The neural representation of intrusive thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiedek, Florian; Brose, Annette; Schott, Björn H.; Lindenberger, Ulman; Lövden, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Based on the philosophical notion that language embodies thought we investigated whether a habitual tendency for intrusive thought that younger and older participants report over a period of 100 sessions, spread out over about 6 months, is associated with brain regions related to language production. In favour of this hypothesis, we found that individual differences in habitual intrusive thoughts are correlated with activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, Broca’s area) as well as the cingulate cortex (CC) during a two-choice reaction-time task in fMRI. Participants who habitually tended to experience intrusive thoughts showed greater activity during task-free (baseline) compared to task periods in brain regions involved in language production. Task performance was unrelated to individual differences in intrusive thoughts. We conclude that intrusive thoughts may be represented in a language-like format and that individuals reporting a habitually higher tendency for intrusive thoughts may have stronger and more habitual inner speech processes. PMID:22563007

  16. Animal intrusion status report for fiscal year 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landeen, D.S.

    1991-03-01

    The Protective Barrier and Warning Marker System Development Plan identified tasks that need to be completed to design a final protective barrier to implement in-place disposal of radioactive waste. This report summarizes the animal intrusion work conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company in fiscal year 1990 regarding small mammals and water infiltration. An animal intrusion lysimeter facility was constructed and installed in fiscal year 1988. The facility consists of two outer boxes buried at grade that serve as receptacles for six animal intrusion lysimeters. Small burrowing mammals common to the Hanford Site environs are introduced over a 3- to 4-month period. Supplemental precipitation is added to three of the lysimeters with a rainulator at a rate equivalent to a 100-year storm. Soil moisture samples are taken before and after each test, and soil moisture measurements are also taken with a hydroprobe during the test period. During fiscal year 1990, tests three and four were completed and test five was initiated. Results of test three (summer treatment), which used Townsend ground squirrels and pocket gophers, indicated that the additional 1.5 inches of precipitation that was added with the rainulator was lost during this test. The plots that did not receive any additional precipitation all lost water (5 to 6 percent). Results from test four (winter treatment), which used pocket gophers and pocket mice, indicated that all of the lysimeters except one gained water. The two control lysimeters (rainulator plots and nonrainulator lysimeters with no animals) gained more water than their corresponding animal burrow lysimeters. 4 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Modeling the transient response of saline intrusion to rising sea-levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Matt D; Howard, Ken W F

    2011-01-01

    Sea levels are expected to rise as a result of global temperature increases, one implication of which is the potential exacerbation of sea water intrusion into coastal aquifers. Given that approximately 70% of the world's population resides in coastal regions, it is imperative to understand the interaction between fresh groundwater and sea water intrusion in order to best manage available resources. For this study, controlled investigation has been carried out concerning the temporal variation in sea water intrusion as a result of rising sea levels. A series of fixed inland head two-dimensional sea water intrusion models were developed with SEAWAT in order to assess the impact of rising sea levels on the transient migration of saline intrusion in coastal aquifers under a range of hydrogeological property conditions. A wide range of responses were observed for typical hydrogeological parameter values. Systems with a high ratio of hydraulic conductivity to recharge and high effective porosity lagged behind the equilibrium sea water toe positions during sea-level rise, often by many hundreds of meters, and frequently taking several centuries to equilibrate following a cease in sea-level rise. Systems with a low ratio of hydraulic conductivity to recharge and low effective porosity did not develop such a large degree of disequilibrium and generally stabilized within decades following a cease in sea-level rise. This study provides qualitative initial estimates for the expected rate of intrusion and predicted degree of disequilibrium generated by sea-level rise for a range of hydrogeological parameter values. Copyright © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © 2010 National Ground Water Association.

  18. Network Intrusion Detection System using Apache Storm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Asif Manzoor

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Network security implements various strategies for the identification and prevention of security breaches. Network intrusion detection is a critical component of network management for security, quality of service and other purposes. These systems allow early detection of network intrusion and malicious activities; so that the Network Security infrastructure can react to mitigate these threats. Various systems are proposed to enhance the network security. We are proposing to use anomaly based network intrusion detection system in this work. Anomaly based intrusion detection system can identify the new network threats. We also propose to use Real-time Big Data Stream Processing Framework, Apache Storm, for the implementation of network intrusion detection system. Apache Storm can help to manage the network traffic which is generated at enormous speed and size and the network traffic speed and size is constantly increasing. We have used Support Vector Machine in this work. We use Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining 1999 (KDD’99 dataset to test and evaluate our proposed solution.

  19. Perceived illness intrusion among patients on hemodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bapat, Usha; Kedlaya, Prashanth G; Gokulnath

    2009-01-01

    Dialysis therapy is extremely stressful as it interferes with all spheres of daily activities of the patients. This study is aimed at understanding the perceived illness intrusion among patients on hemodialysis (HD) and to find the association between illness intrusion and patient demo-graphics as well as duration of dialysis. A cross sectional study involving 90 patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage V, on HD was performed during the period from 2005 to 2006. The subjects included were above 18 years of age, willing, stable and on dialysis for at least two months. Patients with psychiatric co-morbidity were excluded. A semi-structured interview schedule covering sociodemographics and a 13 item illness intrusion checklist covering the various aspects of life was carried out. The study patients were asked to rate the illness intrusion and the extent. The data were analyzed statistically. The mean age of the subjects was 50.28 + - 13.69 years, males were predominant (85%), 73% were married, 50% belonged to Hindu religion, 25% had pre-degree education, 25% were employed and 22% were housewives. About 40% and 38% of the study patients belonged to middle and upper socio-economic strata respectively; 86% had urban background and lived in nuclear families. The mean duration on dialysis was 24 + - 29.6 months. All the subjects reported illness intrusion to a lesser or greater extent in various areas including: health (44%), work (70%) finance (55%), diet (50%) sexual life (38%) and psychological status (25%). Illness had not intruded in areas of relationship with spouse (67%), friends (76%), family (79%), social (40%) and religious functions (72%). Statistically significant association was noted between illness intrusion and occupation (P= 0.02). (author)

  20. Perceived illness intrusion among patients on hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bapat Usha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dialysis therapy is extremely stressful as it interferes with all spheres of daily acti-vities of the patients. This study is aimed at understanding the perceived illness intrusion among pa-tients on hemodialysis (HD and to find the association between illness intrusion and patient demo-graphics as well as duration of dialysis. A cross sectional study involving 90 patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD stage V, on HD was performed during the period from 2005 to 2006. The subjects included were above 18 years of age, willing, stable and on dialysis for at least two months. Patients with psychiatric co-morbidity were excluded. A semi-structured interview schedule covering socio-demographics and a 13 item illness intrusion checklist covering the various aspects of life was ca-rried out. The study patients were asked to rate the illness intrusion and the extent. The data were ana-lyzed statistically. The mean age of the subjects was 50.28 ± 13.69 years, males were predominant (85%, 73% were married, 50% belonged to Hindu religion, 25% had pre-degree education, 25% were employed and 22% were housewives. About 40% and 38% of the study patients belonged to middle and upper socio-economic strata respectively; 86% had urban background and lived in nuclear fami-lies. The mean duration on dialysis was 24 ± 29.6 months. All the subjects reported illness intrusion to a lesser or greater extent in various areas including: health (44%, work (70% finance (55%, diet (50% sexual life (38% and psychological status (25%. Illness had not intruded in areas of rela-tionship with spouse (67%, friends (76%, family (79%, social (40% and religious functions (72%. Statistically significant association was noted between illness intrusion and occupation (P= 0.02.

  1. An automatically tuning intrusion detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhenwei; Tsai, Jeffrey J P; Weigert, Thomas

    2007-04-01

    An intrusion detection system (IDS) is a security layer used to detect ongoing intrusive activities in information systems. Traditionally, intrusion detection relies on extensive knowledge of security experts, in particular, on their familiarity with the computer system to be protected. To reduce this dependence, various data-mining and machine learning techniques have been deployed for intrusion detection. An IDS is usually working in a dynamically changing environment, which forces continuous tuning of the intrusion detection model, in order to maintain sufficient performance. The manual tuning process required by current systems depends on the system operators in working out the tuning solution and in integrating it into the detection model. In this paper, an automatically tuning IDS (ATIDS) is presented. The proposed system will automatically tune the detection model on-the-fly according to the feedback provided by the system operator when false predictions are encountered. The system is evaluated using the KDDCup'99 intrusion detection dataset. Experimental results show that the system achieves up to 35% improvement in terms of misclassification cost when compared with a system lacking the tuning feature. If only 10% false predictions are used to tune the model, the system still achieves about 30% improvement. Moreover, when tuning is not delayed too long, the system can achieve about 20% improvement, with only 1.3% of the false predictions used to tune the model. The results of the experiments show that a practical system can be built based on ATIDS: system operators can focus on verification of predictions with low confidence, as only those predictions determined to be false will be used to tune the detection model.

  2. Adaptive intrusion data system (AIDS) software routines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corlis, N.E.

    1980-07-01

    An Adaptive Intrusion Data System (AIDS) was developed to collect information from intrusion alarm sensors as part of an evaluation system to improve sensor performance. AIDS is a unique digital data-compression, storage, and formatting system; it also incorporates a capability for video selection and recording for assessment of the sensors monitored by the system. The system is software reprogrammable to numerous configurations that may be used for the collection of environmental, bilevel, analog, and video data. This report describes the software routines that control the different AIDS data-collection modes, the diagnostic programs to test the operating hardware, and the data format. Sample data printouts are also included

  3. Computationally Efficient Neural Network Intrusion Security Awareness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd Vollmer; Milos Manic

    2009-08-01

    An enhanced version of an algorithm to provide anomaly based intrusion detection alerts for cyber security state awareness is detailed. A unique aspect is the training of an error back-propagation neural network with intrusion detection rule features to provide a recognition basis. Network packet details are subsequently provided to the trained network to produce a classification. This leverages rule knowledge sets to produce classifications for anomaly based systems. Several test cases executed on ICMP protocol revealed a 60% identification rate of true positives. This rate matched the previous work, but 70% less memory was used and the run time was reduced to less than 1 second from 37 seconds.

  4. Intrusion Detection amp Prevention Systems - Sourcefire Snort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Vuppala

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Information security is a challenging issue for all business organizations today amidst increasing cyber threats. While there are many alternative intrusion detection amp prevention systems available to choose from selecting the best solution to implement to detect amp prevent cyber-attacks is a difficult task. The best solution is of the one that gets the best reviews and suits the organizations needs amp budget. In this review paper we summarize various classes of intrusion detection and prevention systems compare features of alternative solutions and make recommendation for implementation of one as the best solution for business organization in Fiji.

  5. A Process Engineering Approach to the Development and Integration of Intrusion Detection Techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ye, Nong

    2001-01-01

    ...) investigate system-level intrusion detection techniques for the fusion and correlation of local information about intrusions, based on the integration infrastructure for intrusion detection; and (3...

  6. A Process Engineering Approach to the Development and Integration of Intrusion Detection Techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ye, Nong

    2002-01-01

    ...) investigate system-level intrusion detection techniques for the fusion and correlation of local information about intrusions, based on the integration infrastructure for intrusion detection; and (3...

  7. Managing saltwater intrusion in coastal arid regions and its societal implications for agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundmann, Jens; Al-Khatri, Ayisha; Schütze, Niels

    2016-05-01

    Coastal aquifers in arid and semiarid regions are particularly at risk due to intrusion of salty marine water. Since groundwater is predominantly used in irrigated agriculture, its excessive pumping - above the natural rate of replenishment - strengthen the intrusion process. Using this increasingly saline water for irrigation, leads to a destruction of valuable agricultural resources and the economic basis of farmers and their communities. The limitation of resources (water and soil) in these regions requires a societal adaptation and change in behaviour as well as the development of appropriate management strategies for a transition towards stable and sustainable future hydrosystem states. Besides a description of the system dynamics and the spatial consequences of adaptation on the resources availability, the contribution combines results of an empirical survey with stakeholders and physically based modelling of the groundwater-agriculture hydrosystem interactions. This includes an analysis of stakeholders' (farmers and decision makers) behaviour and opinions regarding several management interventions aiming on water demand and water resources management as well as the thinking of decision makers how farmers will behave. In this context, the technical counter measures to manage the saltwater intrusion by simulating different groundwater pumping strategies and scenarios are evaluated from the economic and social point of view and if the spatial variability of the aquifer's hydrogeology is taken into consideration. The study is exemplarily investigated for the south Batinah region in the Sultanate of Oman, which is affected by saltwater intrusion into a coastal aquifer system due to excessive groundwater withdrawal for irrigated agriculture.

  8. The history and evaluation of saltwater intrusion into a coastal aquifer in Mersin, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Zeynel

    2004-03-01

    The Mersin-Kazanli region is a densely industrialized region. The factories and towns cover their water demand from groundwater. With the increased water demand, saltwater intrusion has occurred. The chloride concentration of the water samples from some wells has been analysed periodically since these wells were drilled. The results of these analyses and electrical conductivity measurements were used to show the history and development of saltwater intrusion up to the year 2000. The Cl(-) concentration of the water within the alluvial aquifer increased to over 3000 mg/l in 1999 and the wells were closed completely. In 2001 new wells were drilled more than 1 km away from the sea and old well field. With the results of the analyses conducted in 2001, the current groundwater quality was determined. The ground water is of the magnesium-calcium-bicarbonate type and this composition is controlled by the interaction of the water with the sediments of alluvial deposits.

  9. Intrusion Detection in SCADA Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barbosa, R.R.R.; Pras, Aiko; Stiller, Burckhard; De Turck, Filip

    Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) sys- tems are a critical part of large industrial facilities, such as water dis- tribution infrastructures. With the goal of reducing costs and increas- ing efficiency, these systems are becoming increasingly interconnected. However, this has also

  10. Two Issues in Premise Plumbing: Contamination Intrusion at Service Line and Choosing Alternative Plumbing Material

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Juneseok

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide water distribution infrastructure system is old and deteriorating. A water system with its myriad appurtenances (including pumps and valves and tanks) is susceptible to hydraulic transients resulting in high and low pressure waves alternatively passing through the network. While both low and high pressure events structurally tax the already weak system, there is copious evidence indicating intrusion of contaminants into the drinking water pipes from the pipeâ s exterior environment...

  11. Web Defacement and Intrusion Monitoring Tool: WDIMT

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masango, Mfundo G

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available at altering the content of the web pages or to make the website inactive. This paper proposes a Web Defacement and Intrusion Monitoring Tool, that could be a possible solution to the rapid identification of altered or deleted web pages. The proposed tool...

  12. Chemical Observations of a Polar Vortex Intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeberl, M. R.; Kawa, S. R.; Douglass, A. R.; McGee, T. J.; Browell, E.; Waters, J.; Livesey, N.; Read, W.; Froidevaux, L.

    2006-01-01

    An intrusion of vortex edge air in D the interior of the Arctic polar vortex was observed on the January 31,2005 flight of the NASA DC-8 aircraft. This intrusion was identified as anomalously high values of ozone by the AROTAL and DIAL lidars. Our analysis shows that this intrusion formed when a blocking feature near Iceland collapsed, allowing edge air to sweep into the vortex interior. along the DC-8 flight track also shows the intrusion in both ozone and HNO3. Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs) were observed by the DIAL lidar on the DC-8. The spatial variability of the PSCs can be explained using MLS HNO3 and H2O observations and meteorological analysis temperatures. We also estimate vortex denitrification using the relationship between N2O and HNO3. Reverse domain fill back trajectory calculations are used to focus on the features in the MLS data. The trajectory results improve the agreement between lidar measured ozone and MLS ozone and also improve the agreement between the HNO3 measurements PSC locations. The back trajectory calculations allow us to compute the local denitrification rate and reduction of HCl within the filament. We estimate a denitrification rate of about lO%/day after exposure to below PSC formation temperature. Analysis of Aura MLS observations made

  13. An Adaptive Database Intrusion Detection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Rita M.

    2011-01-01

    Intrusion detection is difficult to accomplish when attempting to employ current methodologies when considering the database and the authorized entity. It is a common understanding that current methodologies focus on the network architecture rather than the database, which is not an adequate solution when considering the insider threat. Recent…

  14. Smart sensor systems for outdoor intrusion detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, J.K.

    1988-01-01

    A major improvement in outdoor perimeter security system probability of detection (PD) and reduction in false alarm rate (FAR) and nuisance alarm rate (NAR) may be obtained by analyzing the indications immediately preceding an event which might be interpreted as an intrusion. Existing systems go into alarm after crossing a threshold. Very slow changes, which accumulate until the threshold is reached, may be assessed falsely as an intrusion. A hierarchial program has begun at Stellar to develop a modular, expandable Smart Sensor system which may be interfaced to most types of sensor and alarm reporting systems. A major upgrade to the SSI Test Site is in progress so that intrusions may be simulated in a controlled and repeatable manner. A test platform is being constructed which will operate in conduction with a mobile instrumentation center with CCTVB, lighting control, weather and data monitoring and remote control of the test platform and intrusion simulators. Additional testing was contracted with an independent test facility to assess the effects of severe winter weather conditions

  15. Vapor Intrusion Characterization Report (Revision 1.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vapor Intrusion Characterization Report (Revision 1) - February 5, 2015: This report, which was approved by the EPA on February 18, 2015, documents the results from implementation of the Final Vapor Intrusion Characterization Work Plan.

  16. On the Feasibility of Intrusion Detection Inside Workstation Disks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Griffin, John L; Pennington, Adam; Bucy, John S; Choundappan, Deepa; Muralidharan, Nithya; Ganger, Gregory R

    2003-01-01

    Storage-based intrusion detection systems (IDSs) can be valuable tools in monitoring for and notifying administrators of malicious software executing on a host computer, including many common intrusion tool kits...

  17. Fact Sheets and Letter to Residents: St. Louis Park Vapor Intrusion Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheets and letters to residents related to the St. Louis Park Vapor Intrusion site. Samples of ground water taken in St. Louis Park in 2005 and 2006 by the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency were found to contain volatile organic compounds, VOCs.

  18. Notes on saltwater intrusion and trace element distribution in Metro Manila groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, G. Jr.; Ramos, A.F.; Fernandez, L.G.; Almoneda, R.V.; Garcia, T.Y.; Cruz, C.C.; Petrache, C.A.; Andal, T.T.; Alcantara, E.

    1989-01-01

    Preliminary analyses of waters for uranium and other trace elements from deepwells operated by the Metropolitan Waterworks and Sewerage System (MWSS) in Metro Manila were performed. Uranium, which ranged from 0.2 ppb to 6 ppb, was correlated with saltwater intrusion. Values >=0.8 ppb for uranium were considered indicative of saline water intrusion in the aquifers. Saline water intrusions in Malabon, Navotas, Paranaque, Las Pinas, Bacoor, Imus, Kawit, Pasig, Antipolo, San Mateo, Taguig, Cainta, Taytay, Alabang and Muntinlupa were noted. Most of these areas were also identified by MWSS as being affected by saltwater intrusion. Tritium values ranged from 0 (below detection limits) to 44 tritium units. Except for one well in Muntinlupa, all the values obtained were below the lower limit of detection of 30.83 T.U. Mercury contents in six well locations had values above the maximum limit set by the National Standards for Drinking Water. Four wells exceeded the permissible level for manganese while two wells had iron concentrations greater than the National Standards. Other trace element concentrations such as Cr, Pb, Zn, Co and Ni either did not exceed their permissible levels or were not included in the National Standards. (Auth.). 6 refs.; 1 tab.; 3 figs

  19. Numerical modeling of seawater intrusion in Zhoushuizi district of Dalian City, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J.; Lin, J.; Wu, J.

    2013-12-01

    A three-dimensional heterogeneous density-dependent numerical model was constructed to simulate the seawater intrusion process in coastal aquifers in Zhoushuizi Region, Dalian City. Model calibration was achieved through a prediction-correction method by adjusting the zonation and values of hydrogeologic parameters until the calculated heads and concentrations matched the observed values. Model validation results also showed that it was reasonable under current data conditions. Then the calibrated and validated model was applied to predict the dynamics and trend of seawater intrusion according to the current groundwater abstraction conditions in this study area 30 years after 2010. Prediction results showed that overall seawater intrusion in the future would be even more severe. Actually, with the growing of the population and development of the economy, the demand for ground water will be increasing continuously so that the problem of seawater intrusion may be more serious than that predicted by the modelin this study. Better strategies for reasonably governing exploitation of groundwater in the study area can be further developed by using this three-dimensional seawater intrusion model.

  20. The state of the art in intrusion prevention and detection

    CERN Document Server

    Pathan, Al-Sakib Khan

    2013-01-01

    The State of the Art in Intrusion Prevention and Detection analyzes the latest trends and issues surrounding intrusion detection systems in computer networks, especially in communications networks. Its broad scope of coverage includes wired, wireless, and mobile networks; next-generation converged networks; and intrusion in social networks.Presenting cutting-edge research, the book presents novel schemes for intrusion detection and prevention. It discusses tracing back mobile attackers, secure routing with intrusion prevention, anomaly detection, and AI-based techniques. It also includes infor

  1. Research on IPv6 intrusion detection system Snort-based

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zihao; Wang, Hui

    2010-07-01

    This paper introduces the common intrusion detection technologies, discusses the work flow of Snort intrusion detection system, and analyzes IPv6 data packet encapsulation and protocol decoding technology. We propose the expanding Snort architecture to support IPv6 intrusion detection in accordance with CIDF standard combined with protocol analysis technology and pattern matching technology, and present its composition. The research indicates that the expanding Snort system can effectively detect various intrusion attacks; it is high in detection efficiency and detection accuracy and reduces false alarm and omission report, which effectively solves the problem of IPv6 intrusion detection.

  2. The Development of Agent Information for Intrusion Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Sugiantoro

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available As the challenges and problems surround intrusion rises rapidly, the intrusion detection system has been gradually developed. Agent-based approach for intrusion detection system has developed from single to multi agent, and later developed mobile agents in order to increase system's capability to face with a more complex challenge and change. A number of studies had been identified that mobile agent can reduce network traffic, however the study related to intrusion detection using static and mobile agent for finding intruder has not been fully achieved.Keywords:  Information, Intrusion, mobile, networks

  3. Comparison of empirical models with intensively observed data for prediction of salt intrusion in the Sumjin River estuary, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. Shaha

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Performance of empirical models has been compared with extensively observed data to determine the most suitable model for prediction of salt intrusion in the Sumjin River estuary, Korea. Intensive measurements of salt intrusion were taken at high and low waters during both spring and neap tide in each season from August 2004 to April 2007. The stratification parameter varied with the distance along the estuary, tidal period and freshwater discharge, indicating that the Sumjin River estuary experiences a transition from partially- or well-mixed during spring tide to stratified during neap tide. The salt intrusion length at high water varied from 13.4 km in summer 2005 to 25.6 km in autumn 2006. The salt intrusion mostly depends on the freshwater discharge rather than spring-neap tidal oscillation. Analysis of three years observed salinity data indicates that the scale of the salt intrusion length in the Sumjin River estuary is proportional to the river discharge to the −1/5 power. Four empirical models have been applied to the Sumjin River estuary to explore the most suitable model for prediction of the salt intrusion length. Comparative results show that the Nguyen and Savenije (2006 model, developed under both partially- and well-mixed estuaries, performs best of all models studied (relative error of 4.6%. The model was also applied under stratified neap tide conditions, with a relative error of 5.2%, implying applicability of this model under stratified conditions as well.

  4. Hydrogeochemical investigation of seawater intrusion into confined aquifer in Liepaja city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikse, Janis; Retike, Inga; Delina, Aija; Babre, Alise; Kalvans, Andis

    2015-04-01

    Large scale pumping of groundwater has caused seawater intrusion into Upper Devonian Famenian multi aquifer (D3fm), particularly Muri - Zagare aquifer (D3mr-zg) in the Liepaja city area, and intrusion is developing towards water supply wells which are located inland to the south-east from Liepaja City. In this study attempt has been made to determine seawater intrusion rate and current hydrogeochemical conditions in Muri - Zagare confined aquifer using data on chemical composition of groundwater samples, taken from exploration and monitoring wells. Dataset of major ions and trace elements were used acquired from monitoring wells, project wells and water supply wells dated from 1960.-ies to year 2013. Various techniques are used for better understanding of seawater intrusion development, its current state and possible further development, including Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) and probability graphs. Probability graph revealed that it is possible to distinguish fresh, brackish and saline water by electrical conductivity (EC) threshold. Seawater influence can be detected up to 4 km inland from the Baltic Sea coast. Analysis of hydrogeochemical data reveal great influence of cation exchange processes on groundwater chemical composition. Besides seawater intrusion, signs of intrusion from subjacent aquifer (Devonian akmene-jonisku) were detected from analysis. Majority of samples showed manganese, sodium, potassium and calcium ion correlation with Cl- indicating that these components can be enriched during freshwater and seawater mixing. This study revealed that is possible to distinguish brackish water from freshwater by using Ca/Cl, Mg/Cl and K/Cl ionic ratios. PCA and HCA statistical analysis proved their usability in investigation of seawater intrusion process as they can distinguish different groups of water from chemical composition point of view. The research is supported by the European Union through the ESF

  5. Distributed fiber optic moisture intrusion sensing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2003-06-24

    Method and system for monitoring and identifying moisture intrusion in soil such as is contained in landfills housing radioactive and/or hazardous waste. The invention utilizes the principle that moist or wet soil has a higher thermal conductance than dry soil. The invention employs optical time delay reflectometry in connection with a distributed temperature sensing system together with heating means in order to identify discrete areas within a volume of soil wherein temperature is lower. According to the invention an optical element and, optionally, a heating element may be included in a cable or other similar structure and arranged in a serpentine fashion within a volume of soil to achieve efficient temperature detection across a large area or three dimensional volume of soil. Remediation, moisture countermeasures, or other responsive action may then be coordinated based on the assumption that cooler regions within a soil volume may signal moisture intrusion where those regions are located.

  6. Iron isotope systematics of the Skaergaard intrusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lesher, Charles; Lundstrom, C.C.; Barfod, Gry

    crystallization on non-traditional stable isotope systems, particularly iron. FeTi oxide minerals (titanomagnetite and ilmenite) appear after ~60% of the magma had solidified. This was a significant event affecting the liquid line of descent and potentially accompanied by iron isotope fractionation. Here we...... report the results of a broad study of the iron isotope compositions of gabbros within the layered and upper border series of the Skaergaard intrusion, pegmatite and granophyre associated with these gabbroic rocks, and the sandwich horizon thought to represent the product of extreme differentiation and....../or liquid immiscibility. Forty-eight whole rock samples from well-constrained stratigraphic levels in the intrusion were crushed, powdered and dissolved, followed by iron separation by ion chromatography. Purified solutions were analyzed by MC- ICPMS in high-resolution mode using the sample-std bracket...

  7. A simplified approach to true molar intrusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flieger Stefanie

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Orthodontic management of anterior open bites is a demanding task for orthodontists. Molar intrusion as a primary means of open bite correction entails the need for appropriate anchorage. Orthodontic mini implants can provide the required mechanical support. The suggested procedure aims to reduce the risk of complications such as root damage or soft tissue irritations while minimizing overall complexity. Methods Three female patients aged 14, 18 and 19 years who decided against a surgical correction were treated with a device consisting of mini implants in the palatal slope, a palatal bar and intrusion cantilevers. Results In all three patients, an open bite reduction of more than a millimeter occurred within four months. An anterior overbite of 2 mm or more could be established within 6 to 9 months. Conclusions The method presented in this article enables the practitioner to use mini implants in an easily accessible insertion site. A lab-side procedure is optional but not required.

  8. In-situ trainable intrusion detection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Symons, Christopher T.; Beaver, Justin M.; Gillen, Rob; Potok, Thomas E.

    2016-11-15

    A computer implemented method detects intrusions using a computer by analyzing network traffic. The method includes a semi-supervised learning module connected to a network node. The learning module uses labeled and unlabeled data to train a semi-supervised machine learning sensor. The method records events that include a feature set made up of unauthorized intrusions and benign computer requests. The method identifies at least some of the benign computer requests that occur during the recording of the events while treating the remainder of the data as unlabeled. The method trains the semi-supervised learning module at the network node in-situ, such that the semi-supervised learning modules may identify malicious traffic without relying on specific rules, signatures, or anomaly detection.

  9. Intrusion Learning: An Overview of an Emergent Discipline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Bailetti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to provide a definition of intrusion learning, identify its distinctive aspects, and provide recommendations for advancing intrusion learning as a practice domain. The authors define intrusion learning as the collection of online network algorithms that learn from and monitor streaming network data resulting in effective intrusion-detection methods for enabling the security and resiliency of enterprise systems. The network algorithms build on advances in cyber-defensive and cyber-offensive capabilities. Intrusion learning is an emerging domain that draws from machine learning, intrusion detection, and streaming network data. Intrusion learning offers to significantly enhance enterprise security and resiliency through augmented perimeter defense and may mitigate increasing threats facing enterprise perimeter protection. The article will be of interest to researchers, sponsors, and entrepreneurs interested in enhancing enterprise security and resiliency.

  10. Perimeter intrusion detection and assessment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, M.J.; Jacobs, J.; McGovern, D.E.

    1977-11-01

    To obtain an effective perimeter intrusion detection system requires careful sensor selection, procurement, and installation. The selection process involves a thorough understanding of the unique site features and how these features affect the performance of each type of sensor. It is necessary to develop procurement specifications to establish acceptable sensor performance limits. Careful explanation and inspection of critical installation dimensions is required during on-site construction. The implementation of these activities at a particular site is discussed.

  11. INTRUSIVE MARKETING METHODS A CONTEMPORARY CONSUMER PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Owais, Faizan

    2008-01-01

    Is marketing practice destroying the faith of consumers? It may be argued that marketing practice over recent years has taken a more direct approach that appears intrusive and manipulative to consumers. The marketing activities we see today are a desperate attempt to grab consumer attention in any way possible and it is all spelling out bad news for marketing. Marketers have been faced with many challenges, with markets at saturation point, competitiveness is on the rise and marketers are...

  12. Perimeter intrusion detection and assessment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, M.J.; Jacobs, J.; McGovern, D.E.

    1977-11-01

    To obtain an effective perimeter intrusion detection system requires careful sensor selection, procurement, and installation. The selection process involves a thorough understanding of the unique site features and how these features affect the performance of each type of sensor. It is necessary to develop procurement specifications to establish acceptable sensor performance limits. Careful explanation and inspection of critical installation dimensions is required during on-site construction. The implementation of these activities at a particular site is discussed

  13. WIPP performance assessment: impacts of human intrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.R.; Hunter, R.L.; Bertram-Howery, S.G.; Lappin, A.R.

    1989-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico is a research and development facility that may become the USA's first and only mined geologic repository for transuranic waste. Human intrusion into the WIPP repository after closure has been shown by preliminary sensitivity analyses and calculations of consequences to be an important, and perhaps the most important, factor in long-term repository performance

  14. Intrusion detection using pattern recognition methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nan; Yu, Li

    2007-09-01

    Today, cyber attacks such as worms, scanning, active attackers are pervasive in Internet. A number of security approaches are proposed to address this problem, among which the intrusion detection system (IDS) appears to be one of the major and most effective solutions for defending against malicious users. Essentially, intrusion detection problem can be generalized as a classification problem, whose goal is to distinguish normal behaviors and anomalies. There are many well-known pattern recognition algorithms for classification purpose. In this paper we describe the details of applying pattern recognition methods to the intrusion detection research field. Experimenting on the KDDCUP 99 data set, we first use information gain metric to reduce the dimensionality of the original feature space. Two supervised methods, the support vector machine as well as the multi-layer neural network have been tested and the results display high detection rate and low false alarm rate, which is promising for real world applications. In addition, three unsupervised methods, Single-Linkage, K-Means, and CLIQUE, are also implemented and evaluated in the paper. The low computational complexity reveals their application in initial data reduction process.

  15. Noble gas systematics of the Skaergaard intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, F.; Farley, K. A.; Taylor, H. P.

    2017-12-01

    The noble gas isotopic compositions of olivines from the Skaergaard layered mafic intrusion in Greenland reveal that magmas readily exchange noble gases with their environment after emplacement. Although Skaergaard magmas are thought to have derived from the upper mantle, all of the olivine separates we analyzed have 3He/4He ratios less than that of the upper mantle ( 8 Ra, where Ra = 3He/4He of the atmosphere, 1.39 x 10-6). This suggests that crustal and/or atmospheric noble gases have contaminated all Skaergaard magmas to some extent. We obtained the highest 3He/4He ratios ( 2 Ra) from olivines found in the lowermost exposed layers of the intrusion away from the margins. Excess radiogenic 4He (indicated by Raatmospheric isotopic compositions, but higher relative helium abundances than the atmosphere. We suggest that post-crystallization hydrothermal circulation introduced atmosphere-derived noble gases into uppermost layers of the intrusion. Such high temperature exchanges of volatiles between plutons and their immediate surroundings may help explain why so few mantle-derived rocks retain mantle-like noble gas signatures.

  16. Efficient Mining and Detection of Sequential Intrusion Patterns for Network Intrusion Detection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyu, Mei-Ling; Huang, Zifang; Luo, Hongli

    In recent years, pervasive computing infrastructures have greatly improved the interaction between human and system. As we put more reliance on these computing infrastructures, we also face threats of network intrusion and/or any new forms of undesirable IT-based activities. Hence, network security has become an extremely important issue, which is closely connected with homeland security, business transactions, and people's daily life. Accurate and efficient intrusion detection technologies are required to safeguard the network systems and the critical information transmitted in the network systems. In this chapter, a novel network intrusion detection framework for mining and detecting sequential intrusion patterns is proposed. The proposed framework consists of a Collateral Representative Subspace Projection Modeling (C-RSPM) component for supervised classification, and an inter-transactional association rule mining method based on Layer Divided Modeling (LDM) for temporal pattern analysis. Experiments on the KDD99 data set and the traffic data set generated by a private LAN testbed show promising results with high detection rates, low processing time, and low false alarm rates in mining and detecting sequential intrusion detections.

  17. Synergy of climate change and local pressures on saltwater intrusion in heterogeneous coastal aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Najm, M.; Safi, A.; El-Fadel, M.; Doummar, J.; Alameddine, I.

    2016-12-01

    The relative importance of climate change induced sea level rise on the salinization of a highly urbanized karstified coastal aquifers were compared with non-sustainable pumping. A 3D variable-density groundwater flow and solute transport model was used to predict the displacement of the saltwater-freshwater interface in a pilot aquifer located along the Eastern Mediterranean. The results showed that the influence of sea level rise was marginal when compared with the encroachment of salinity associated with anthropogenic abstraction. Model predictions of salinity mass and volumetric displacement of the interface corresponding to a long-term monthly transient model showed that the saltwater intrusion dynamic is highly sensitive to change in the abstraction rates which were estimated based on combinations of water consumption rates and population growth rates. Salinity encroachment, however, appeared to be more sensitive to water consumption rates in comparison to population growth rates, where a 50% increase in the rate of former led to four times more intrusion as compared to an equivalent increase in population growth rate over 20 years. Coupling both increase in population growth and increased consumption rates had a synergistic effect that aggravated the intrusion beyond the sum of the individual impacts. Adaptation strategies targeting a decrease in groundwater exploitation proved to be effective in retarding the intrusion.

  18. A methodological framework to assess the environmental and economic effects of injection barriers against seawater intrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siarkos, Ilias; Latinopoulos, Dionysis; Mallios, Zisis; Latinopoulos, Pericles

    2017-05-15

    Seawater intrusion is responsible for the progressive deterioration of groundwater quality in numerous coastal aquifers worldwide. As a consequence, seawater intrusion may constitute a serious threat to local groundwater resources, as well as to the regional economy of coastal areas. To alleviate these negative effects, a number of well-designed protective measures could be implemented. The implementation of these measures is usually associated with significant benefits for the environment and the local economy. In this perspective, the present study investigates the particular case of constructing injection barriers for controlling seawater intrusion by developing a methodological framework that combines numerical modeling with spatial and cost-benefit analyses. To this task, we introduce a novel approach, which considers the socio-economic aspects of seawater intrusion in the modeling procedure, and at the same time focuses on the spatial and temporal relationships between water salinity and farmers' income. To test the proposed methodology two alternative artificial recharge scenarios - with different volumes of water used for injection - are assessed. According to the results of this analysis, both scenarios are likely to have a positive impact on groundwater quality, as well as, a net economic benefit to local society. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Innovative Structure Solution for Preventing Salt Intrusion and Retaining Freshwater In Mekong Delta VietNam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, S.T.; Vrijling, J.K.; Stive, M.J.F.

    2013-01-01

    In the Mekong Delta Vietnam, the construction of sluices with the purpose of retaining fresh water and preventing salt water intrusion potentially plays a very important role. However, the structures constructed in small rivers according to local or traditional technology revealed many disadvantages

  20. The uranium deposit at Kvanefjeld, the Ilimaussaq intrusion, South Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soerensen, H.; Rose-Hansen, J.; Leth Nielsen, B.; Loevborg, L.; Soerensen, E.; Lundgaard, T.

    1974-01-01

    The uranium-thorium deposits is located in part of an alkaline intrusion consisting of peralkaline, agpaitic nepheline syenites. The radioactive minerals are steenstrupine, uranium-rich monazite, thorite and pigmentary material. The radio-element content varies from 100 to 3000 ppm U and 300 to 15000 ppm Th. Reasonably assured ore in the main area with a grade of 310 ppm is calculated to 5800 metric tons of uranium in 18.6 million metric tons of ore. Estimated additional reserves with a grade of 292 ppm U are 29.4 million tons of ore with 8700 tons of uranium and 3.5 million tons of ore with a grade of 350 ppm yielding 1200 tons of uranium. Estimates of amounts of thorium ore are 2.6 times those of uranium. A method of recovery of the uranium based on sulphating roasting and subsequent leaching with water is described. (author)

  1. An intrusion detection system based on fiber hydrophone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junrong; Qiu, Xiufen; Shen, Heping

    2017-10-01

    This paper provides a new intrusion detection system based on fiber hydrophone, focusing beam forming figure positioning according to the near field and high precision sound source location algorithm which can accurately position the intrusion; obtaining its behavior path , obtaining the intrusion events related information such as speed form tracking intrusion trace; And analyze identification the detected intrusion behavior. If the monitor area is larger, the algorithm will take too much time once, and influence the system response time, for reduce the calculating time. This paper provides way that coarse location first, and then scanned for accuracy, so as to realize the intrusion events (such as car, etc.) the remote monitoring of positioning. The system makes up the blank in process capture of the fiber optic intrusion detection technology, and improves the understanding of the invasion. Through the capture of the process of intrusion behavior, and the fusion detection of intrusion behavior itself, thus analysis, judgment, identification of the intrusion information can greatly reduce the rate of false positives, greatly improved the reliability and practicability of the perimeter security system.

  2. Monitoring and Assessment of Saltwater Intrusion using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Remote Sensing and Geophysical measurements of Guimaras Island, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, B. C. B.

    2015-12-01

    Degrading groundwater quality due to saltwater intrusion is one of the key challenges affecting many island aquifers. These islands hold limited capacity for groundwater storage and highly dependent on recharge due to precipitation. But its ease of use, natural storage and accessibility make it more vulnerable to exploitation and more susceptible to encroachment from its surrounding oceanic waters. Estimating the extent of saltwater intrusion and the state of groundwater resources are important in predicting and managing water supply options for the community. In Guimaras island, central Philippines, increasing settlements, agriculture and tourism are causing stresses on its groundwater resource. Indications of saltwater intrusion have already been found at various coastal areas in the island. A Geographic Information Systems (GIS)-based approach using the GALDIT index was carried out. This includes six parameters assessing the seawater intrusion vulnerability of each hydrogeologic setting: Groundwater occurrence, Aquifer hydraulic conductivity, Groundwater Level above sea, Distance to shore, Impact of existing intrusion and Thickness of Aquifer. To further determine the extent of intrusion, Landsat images of various thematic layers were stacked and processed for unsupervised classification and electrical resistivity tomography using a 28-electrode system with array lengths of 150 and 300 meters was conducted. The GIS index showed where the vulnerable areas are located, while the geophysical measurements and images revealed extent of seawater encroachment along the monitoring wells. These results are further confirmed by the measurements collected from the monitoring wells. This study presents baseline information on the state of groundwater resources and increase understanding of saltwater intrusion dynamics in island ecosystems by providing a guideline for better water resource management in the Philippines.

  3. Geophysical characterization of saltwater intrusion in a coastal aquifer: The case of Martil-Alila plain (North Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himi, Mahjoub; Tapias, Josefiina; Benabdelouahab, Sara; Salhi, Adil; Rivero, Luis; Elgettafi, Mohamed; El Mandour, Abdenabi; Stitou, Jamal; Casas, Albert

    2017-02-01

    Several factors can affect the quantity and the quality of groundwater resources, but in coastal aquifers seawater intrusion is often the most significant issue regarding freshwater supply. Further, saltwater intrusion is a worldwide issue because about seventy percent of the world's population lives in coastal regions. Generally, fresh groundwater not affected by saltwater intrusion is characterized by low salinity and therefore low electrical conductivity (EC) values. Consequently, high values of EC in groundwater along the coastline are usually associated to seawater intrusion. This effect is amplified if the coastal aquifer is overexploited with a subsequent gradual displacement of the freshwater-saltwater interface towards the continent. Delineation of marine intrusion in coastal aquifers has traditionally relied upon observation wells and collection of water samples. This approach may miss important hydrologic features related to saltwater intrusion in areas where access is difficult and where wells are widely spaced. Consequently, the scarcity of sampling points and sometimes their total absence makes the number of data available limited and most of the time not representative for mapping the spatial and temporal variability of groundwater salinity. In this study, we use a series of geophysical methods for characterizing the aquifer geometry and the extension of saltwater intrusion in the Martil-Alila coastal region (Morocco) as a complement to geological and hydrogeochemical data. For this reason, we carried out three geophysical surveys: Gravity, Electrical Resistivity and Frequency Domain Electromagnetic. The geometry of the basin has been determined from the interpretation of a detailed gravity survey. Electrical resistivity models derived from vertical electrical soundings allowed to characterize the vertical and the lateral extensions of aquifer formations. Finally, frequency domain electromagnetic methods allowed delineating the extension of the

  4. Groundwater Overexploitation and Seawater Intrusion in Coastal Areas of Arid and Semi-Arid Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawal Alfarrah

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The exploitation of groundwater resources is of high importance and has become very crucial in the last decades, especially in coastal areas of arid and semi-arid regions. The coastal aquifers in these regions are particularly at risk due to intrusion of salty marine water. One example is the case of Tripoli city at the Mediterranean coast of Jifarah Plain, North West Libya. Libya has experienced progressive seawater intrusion in the coastal aquifers since the 1930s because of its ever increasing water demand from underground water resources. Tripoli city is a typical area where the contamination of the aquifer in the form of saltwater intrusion is very developed. Sixty-four groundwater samples were collected from the study area and analyzed for certain parameters that indicate salinization and pollution of the aquifer. The results demonstrate high values of the parameters Electrical Conductivity, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Cl− and SO42−, which can be attributed to seawater intrusion, where Cl− is the major pollutant of the aquifer. The water types according to the Stuyfzand groundwater classification are mostly CaCl, NaCl and Ca/MgMix. These water types indicate that groundwater chemistry is changed by cation exchange reactions during the mixing process between freshwater and seawater. The intensive extraction of groundwater from the aquifer reduces freshwater outflow to the sea, creates drawdown cones and lowering of the water table to as much as 25 m below mean sea level. Irrigation with nitrogen fertilizers and domestic sewage and movement of contaminants in areas of high hydraulic gradients within the drawdown cones probably are responsible for the high NO3− concentration in the region.

  5. Sensitivity analysis on parameters and processes affecting vapor intrusion risk

    KAUST Repository

    Picone, Sara

    2012-03-30

    A one-dimensional numerical model was developed and used to identify the key processes controlling vapor intrusion risks by means of a sensitivity analysis. The model simulates the fate of a dissolved volatile organic compound present below the ventilated crawl space of a house. In contrast to the vast majority of previous studies, this model accounts for vertical variation of soil water saturation and includes aerobic biodegradation. The attenuation factor (ratio between concentration in the crawl space and source concentration) and the characteristic time to approach maximum concentrations were calculated and compared for a variety of scenarios. These concepts allow an understanding of controlling mechanisms and aid in the identification of critical parameters to be collected for field situations. The relative distance of the source to the nearest gas-filled pores of the unsaturated zone is the most critical parameter because diffusive contaminant transport is significantly slower in water-filled pores than in gas-filled pores. Therefore, attenuation factors decrease and characteristic times increase with increasing relative distance of the contaminant dissolved source to the nearest gas diffusion front. Aerobic biodegradation may decrease the attenuation factor by up to three orders of magnitude. Moreover, the occurrence of water table oscillations is of importance. Dynamic processes leading to a retreating water table increase the attenuation factor by two orders of magnitude because of the enhanced gas phase diffusion. © 2012 SETAC.

  6. Corticostriatal circuitry in regulating diseases characterized by intrusive thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalivas, Benjamin C; Kalivas, Peter W

    2016-03-01

    Intrusive thinking triggers clinical symptoms in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Using drug addiction as an exemplar disorder sustained in part by intrusive thinking, we explore studies demonstrating that impairments in corticostriatal circuitry strongly contribute to intrusive thinking. Neuroimaging studies have long implicated this projection in cue-induced craving to use drugs, and preclinical models show that marked changes are produced at corticostriatal synapses in the nucleus accumbens during a relapse episode. We delineate an accumbens microcircuit that mediates cue-induced drug seeking becoming an intrusive event. This microcircuit harbors many potential therapeutic targets. We focus on preclinical and clinical studies, showing that administering N-acetylcysteine restores uptake of synaptic glutamate by astroglial glutamate transporters and thereby inhibits intrusive thinking. We posit that because intrusive thinking is a shared endophenotype in many disorders, N-acetylcysteine has positive effects in clinical trials for a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, including drug addiction, gambling, trichotillomania, and depression.

  7. High-resolution insights into episodes of crystallization, hydrothermal alteration and remelting in the Skaergaard intrusive complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotzlaw, Jörn-Frederik; Bindeman, Ilya N.; Schaltegger, Urs; Brooks, C. Kent; Naslund, H. Richard

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents a new high-precision zircon U-Pb geochronological view on the crystallization and assembly process of one of the most important and intensely studied intrusive bodies on Earth—the Skaergaard intrusion in East Greenland. With analytical uncertainties of a few tens of thousands of years, we were able to resolve several important events during cooling of this intrusion. Initial cooling of the shallowly intruded ˜300 km3 of tholeiitic basaltic magma from liquidus to zircon saturation at ˜1000 °C is recorded by a precise zircon crystallization age of 55.960±0.018 Ma of an intercumulus gabbroic pegmatite in the lower portion of the intrusion. Based on this zircon crystallization age and a published cooling model we estimate the "true" age of emplacement to be ˜56.02 Ma. The last portions of Skaergaard appear to crystallize completely ˜100 ka after emplacement as recorded by abundant ˜55.91-55.93 Ma zircons in the Sandwich Horizon (SH), where lower and upper solidification fronts met. Intrusion of an isotopically distinct new magma batch, the ˜600 m thick Basistoppen Sill, into the solidified upper portion of Skaergaard, happened at 55.895±0.018 Ma, suggesting close timing between crystallization of evolved rocks around the SH and intrusion of the Basistoppen Sill. The novel result of this work is the demonstration that zircons in the SH, >100 m below the Basistoppen contact, have a bimodal age distribution, with the youngest population of 55.838±0.019 Ma postdating intrusion of the Basistoppen Sill by 57±37 ka. Oxygen isotope analyses reveal that SH zircons are low and heterogeneous with respect to δ18O. These results support the proposed conclusion that the SH crystallized twice: it was fully crystalline, then hydrothermally-altered by low-δ18O surface waters and subsequently partially remelted, triggered by heat of the Basistoppen Sill. The low-degree partial melt generated during remelting partially migrated upward by intergranular

  8. Numerical and physical modeling of cutoff walls against saltwater intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crestani, Elena; Camporese, Matteo; Salandin, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Seawater intrusion is a relevant problem for many communities living in small islands, where the amount of fresh water available for human consumption depends on the delicate equilibrium between the natural groundwater recharge from rainfall and the surrounding sea. However, it can represent a significant issue also for coastal regions where groundwater is extracted for water supply: an excessive extraction to meet growing demands for drinking water and irrigation purposes leads to a decrease of seaward flows of fresh water and consequently to an increase of seawater intrusion into coastal aquifers. Cutoff walls represent one of the possible strategies that can be adopted to reduce seawater intrusion into coastal aquifers and to limit the inland progression of the saltwater wedge. In this study, on the basis of several preliminary simulations developed by the SUTRA code, a cutoff wall occluding 70% of the aquifer depth is designed for a physical experiment, whose setup details are reported as follows. The physical model represents the terminal part of a coastal aquifer and consists of a flume 500 cm long, 30 cm wide and 60 cm high, filled for an height of 49 cm with glass beads with a d50 of 0.6 mm and a uniformity coefficient d60/d10 1.5. The resulting porous medium is homogeneous, with porosity of about 0.37 and hydraulic conductivity of about 1.3 10-3 m/s. Upstream from the sandbox, a tank filled by freshwater provides recharge for the aquifer. The downstream tank simulates the sea and red food dye is added to the saltwater to easily visualize the salt wedge. The volume of the downstream tank is about five times the upstream one, and, due to the small filtration discharge, minimizing salt concentration variations due to the incoming freshwater flow. The hydraulic gradient during the tests is constant, due to the fixed water level in the tanks. Water levels and discharged flow rate are continuously monitored. The cutoff wall was realized with sodium bentonite

  9. Unconventional applications of conventional intrusion detection sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.D.; Matter, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    A number of conventional intrusion detection sensors exists for the detection of persons entering buildings, moving within a given volume, and crossing a perimeter isolation zone. Unconventional applications of some of these sensors have recently been investigated. Some of the applications which are discussed include detection on the edges and tops of buildings, detection in storm sewers, detection on steam and other types of large pipes, and detection of unauthorized movement within secure enclosures. The enclosures can be used around complicated control valves, electrical control panels, emergency generators, etc

  10. Apriori-based network intrusion detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wenjin; Liu Junrong; Liu Baoxu

    2012-01-01

    With the development of network communication technology, more and more social activities run by Internet. In the meantime, the network information security is getting increasingly serious. Intrusion Detection System (IDS) has greatly improved the general security level of whole network. But there are still many problem exists in current IDS, e.g. high leak rate detection/false alarm rates and feature library need frequently upgrade. This paper presents an association-rule based IDS. This system can detect unknown attack by generate rules from training data. Experiment in last chapter proved the system has great accuracy on unknown attack detection. (authors)

  11. Introduction to gravity currents and intrusions

    CERN Document Server

    Ungarish, Marius

    2009-01-01

    The whole book is well written in a clear and pedagogical general style. … the author has, in my opinion, produced the first comprehensive book entirely devoted to the modeling of gravity currents and intrusions. This book will be particularly useful to graduate and PhD students, as well as to academics and research engineers working in this field. It may be used as a self-consistent document to get a detailed idea of the state of knowledge about a given problem or a guide toward more specialized papers. It is rich with ideas regarding the direction in which further research is warranted. This

  12. Geophysical characterization from Itu intrusive suite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascholati, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    The integrated use of geophysical, geological, geochemical, petrographical and remote sensing data resulted in a substantial increase in the knowledge of the Itu Intrusive Suite. The main geophysical method was gamma-ray spectrometry together with fluorimetry and autoradiography. Three methods were used for calculation of laboratory gamma-ray spectrometry data. For U, the regression method was the best one. For K and Th, equations system and absolute calibration presented the best results. Surface gamma-ray spectrometry allowed comparison with laboratory data and permitted important contribution to the study of environmental radiation. (author)

  13. Enhancing Battlemind: Preventing PTSD by Coping with Intrusive Thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Training enhancement (not treatment)  Addressing intrusive thoughts (secondary prevention of PTSD ?? decrease distress)  Mindfulness based intervention...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-09-1-0535 TITLE: Enhancing BATTLEMIND: Preventing PTSD by Coping with Intrusive Thoughts PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-09-1-0535 Enhancing BATTLEMIND: Preventing PTSD by Coping With Intrusive Thoughts 5b. GRANT NUMBER 08194004

  14. Diabetes Intrusiveness and Wellness among Elders: A Test of the Illness Intrusiveness Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCoster, Vaughn A.; Killian, Tim; Roessler, Richard T.

    2013-01-01

    Using data collected from 147 predominately African American senior citizens in Arkansas, this research examined the Illness Intrusiveness Model (Devins, 1991; Devins & Seland, 1987; Devins & Shnek, 2000) to explain variations in wellness specifically related to participants' adaptation to diabetes. The theoretical model hypothesized that…

  15. Saltwater intrusion in the surficial aquifer system of the Big Cypress Basin, southwest Florida, and a proposed plan for improved salinity monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinos, Scott T.

    2013-01-01

    The installation of drainage canals, poorly cased wells, and water-supply withdrawals have led to saltwater intrusion in the primary water-use aquifers in southwest Florida. Increasing population and water use have exacerbated this problem. Installation of water-control structures, well-plugging projects, and regulation of water use have slowed saltwater intrusion, but the chloride concentration of samples from some of the monitoring wells in this area indicates that saltwater intrusion continues to occur. In addition, rising sea level could increase the rate and extent of saltwater intrusion. The existing saltwater intrusion monitoring network was examined and found to lack the necessary organization, spatial distribution, and design to properly evaluate saltwater intrusion. The most recent hydrogeologic framework of southwest Florida indicates that some wells may be open to multiple aquifers or have an incorrect aquifer designation. Some of the sampling methods being used could result in poor-quality data. Some older wells are badly corroded, obstructed, or damaged and may not yield useable samples. Saltwater in some of the canals is in close proximity to coastal well fields. In some instances, saltwater occasionally occurs upstream from coastal salinity control structures. These factors lead to an incomplete understanding of the extent and threat of saltwater intrusion in southwest Florida. A proposed plan to improve the saltwater intrusion monitoring network in the South Florida Water Management District’s Big Cypress Basin describes improvements in (1) network management, (2) quality assurance, (3) documentation, (4) training, and (5) data accessibility. The plan describes improvements to hydrostratigraphic and geospatial network coverage that can be accomplished using additional monitoring, surface geophysical surveys, and borehole geophysical logging. Sampling methods and improvements to monitoring well design are described in detail. Geochemical analyses

  16. Managing saltwater intrusion in coastal arid regions and its societal implications for agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Grundmann

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Coastal aquifers in arid and semiarid regions are particularly at risk due to intrusion of salty marine water. Since groundwater is predominantly used in irrigated agriculture, its excessive pumping – above the natural rate of replenishment – strengthen the intrusion process. Using this increasingly saline water for irrigation, leads to a destruction of valuable agricultural resources and the economic basis of farmers and their communities. The limitation of resources (water and soil in these regions requires a societal adaptation and change in behaviour as well as the development of appropriate management strategies for a transition towards stable and sustainable future hydrosystem states. Besides a description of the system dynamics and the spatial consequences of adaptation on the resources availability, the contribution combines results of an empirical survey with stakeholders and physically based modelling of the groundwater-agriculture hydrosystem interactions. This includes an analysis of stakeholders' (farmers and decision makers behaviour and opinions regarding several management interventions aiming on water demand and water resources management as well as the thinking of decision makers how farmers will behave. In this context, the technical counter measures to manage the saltwater intrusion by simulating different groundwater pumping strategies and scenarios are evaluated from the economic and social point of view and if the spatial variability of the aquifer's hydrogeology is taken into consideration. The study is exemplarily investigated for the south Batinah region in the Sultanate of Oman, which is affected by saltwater intrusion into a coastal aquifer system due to excessive groundwater withdrawal for irrigated agriculture.

  17. Deep Seawater Intrusion Enhanced by Geothermal Through Deep Faults in Xinzhou Geothermal Field in Guangdong, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, G.; Ou, H.; Hu, B. X.; Wang, X.

    2017-12-01

    This study investigates abnormal sea water intrusion from deep depth, riding an inland-ward deep groundwater flow, which is enhanced by deep faults and geothermal processes. The study site Xinzhou geothermal field is 20 km from the coast line. It is in southern China's Guangdong coast, a part of China's long coastal geothermal belt. The geothermal water is salty, having fueled an speculation that it was ancient sea water retained. However, the perpetual "pumping" of the self-flowing outflow of geothermal waters might alter the deep underground flow to favor large-scale or long distant sea water intrusion. We studied geochemical characteristics of the geothermal water and found it as a mixture of the sea water with rain water or pore water, with no indication of dilution involved. And we conducted numerical studies of the buoyancy-driven geothermal flow in the deep ground and find that deep down in thousand meters there is favorable hydraulic gradient favoring inland-ward groundwater flow, allowing seawater intrude inland for an unusually long tens of kilometers in a granitic groundwater flow system. This work formed the first in understanding geo-environment for deep ground water flow.

  18. Multi-User Low Intrusive Occupancy Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azkario Rizky Pratama

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Smart spaces are those that are aware of their state and can act accordingly. Among the central elements of such a state is the presence of humans and their number. For a smart office building, such information can be used for saving energy and safety purposes. While acquiring presence information is crucial, using sensing techniques that are highly intrusive, such as cameras, is often not acceptable for the building occupants. In this paper, we illustrate a proposal for occupancy detection which is low intrusive; it is based on equipment typically available in modern offices such as room-level power-metering and an app running on workers’ mobile phones. For power metering, we collect the aggregated power consumption and disaggregate the load of each device. For the mobile phone, we use the Received Signal Strength (RSS of BLE (Bluetooth Low Energy nodes deployed around workspaces to localize the phone in a room. We test the system in our offices. The experiments show that sensor fusion of the two sensing modalities gives 87–90% accuracy, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  19. Multi-User Low Intrusive Occupancy Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratama, Azkario Rizky; Widyawan, Widyawan; Lazovik, Alexander; Aiello, Marco

    2018-03-06

    Smart spaces are those that are aware of their state and can act accordingly. Among the central elements of such a state is the presence of humans and their number. For a smart office building, such information can be used for saving energy and safety purposes. While acquiring presence information is crucial, using sensing techniques that are highly intrusive, such as cameras, is often not acceptable for the building occupants. In this paper, we illustrate a proposal for occupancy detection which is low intrusive; it is based on equipment typically available in modern offices such as room-level power-metering and an app running on workers' mobile phones. For power metering, we collect the aggregated power consumption and disaggregate the load of each device. For the mobile phone, we use the Received Signal Strength (RSS) of BLE (Bluetooth Low Energy) nodes deployed around workspaces to localize the phone in a room. We test the system in our offices. The experiments show that sensor fusion of the two sensing modalities gives 87-90% accuracy, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  20. Multi-User Low Intrusive Occupancy Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyawan, Widyawan; Lazovik, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Smart spaces are those that are aware of their state and can act accordingly. Among the central elements of such a state is the presence of humans and their number. For a smart office building, such information can be used for saving energy and safety purposes. While acquiring presence information is crucial, using sensing techniques that are highly intrusive, such as cameras, is often not acceptable for the building occupants. In this paper, we illustrate a proposal for occupancy detection which is low intrusive; it is based on equipment typically available in modern offices such as room-level power-metering and an app running on workers’ mobile phones. For power metering, we collect the aggregated power consumption and disaggregate the load of each device. For the mobile phone, we use the Received Signal Strength (RSS) of BLE (Bluetooth Low Energy) nodes deployed around workspaces to localize the phone in a room. We test the system in our offices. The experiments show that sensor fusion of the two sensing modalities gives 87–90% accuracy, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed approach. PMID:29509693

  1. Wavelet Analysis of the Dynamic Characteristics of Saltwater Intrusion in the Beibu Gulf, Southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q.

    2016-12-01

    The Nanliujiang Waterway (NW), a major outlet of the Beibu gulf, is a crucial source of water supply for Beihai City in Southern China. This waterway is frequently affected by saltwater intrusion from the Beibu Gulf of southern China, which has caused serious water shortage in recent years. For the planning and management of water supply at this waterway it is necessary to understand the characteristics of saltwater intrusion particularly in the low flow period of the year. However, as a result of multiple impacts from tide, river discharge, wind, topography, channel bathometry, and some other factors, the saltwater intrusion into this waterway is highly non-linear. In order to account for the non-linear characteristics, the wavelet method was used to analyse the period characteristics of tidal range, river discharge, and salinity and the impact of tidal range and river discharge on the salinity. Results show that the tidal range at Bailong station and the salinity at Beihai-port station both exhibit a stable 13.5-day period and the salinity in the NW is largely impacted by the tidal range during low stream flow periods. River flows from upstream of the waterway don't show any stable period characteristic. It, however, is critical in mitigating the salinity for water supply during saltwater intrusion. A minimum total flow of 2600 m3/s from upstream at Daguangsha and Yinpang stations has been practiced as a threshold for safe water supply. This study has found that the present time when salinity is below the maximum permissible salinity of 238 ml/g for water supply increases as the river discharge from upstream increases and up to 40-60% of the time the salinity at water supply pumping station is below 238 mg/l when the upstream flow is greater than 2600 m3/s. Planning and management of water supply operation at the NW is politically, economically and mostly importantly technically challenging, findings from this study can provide some guidance for operation and

  2. Modeling saltwater intrusion in highly heterogeneous coastal aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safi, Amir; El-Fadel, Mutasem; Doummar, Joanna; Abou Najm, Majdi; Alameddine, Ibrahim

    2016-04-01

    In this study, a 3D variable-density flow and solute transport model SEAWAT was used to examine the impact of macroscopic variation in a soil matrix on widening or narrowing the thickness of the saltwater-freshwater mixing zone. Located along the Eastern Mediterranean (Beirut), the pilot aquifer consists of karstified limestone of Cretaceous age overlain by Upper Tertiary and Quaternary unconsolidated deposits. The model used the advanced pilot-points parameterization coupled with PEST to characterize spatial heterogeneity. Historically simulated water levels were relied upon to reduce potential numerical instabilities induced by insensitive parameters in transient calibration. The latter demonstrated a high degree of heterogeneity in the middle parts of the aquifer and along western coastlines with specification of a high hydraulic conductivity and low storativity in fault networks. The response of the aquifer to seasonal stresses such as climate cycles, pumping rates and recharge rates was manifested as high fluctuations in potentiometric surface due to potential fast flow pathways along faults. The final distribution of saltwater intrusion supports two mechanisms 1) lateral encroachment of recent seawater into the western zone of the aquifer which is of most concern due to high horizontal hydraulic conductivity in the wave direction and 2) upconing in the northwest and southwest of the aquifer due to large vertical hydraulic conductivities that tend to exacerbate the vertical movement of salinity. Acknowledgments This study is part of a program on climate change and seawater intrusion along the Eastern Mediterranean funded by the International Development Research Center (IDRC) of Canada at the American University of Beirut (AUB). Special thanks are extended to Dr. Charlotte Macalister at IDRC for her support and feedback in implementing this program.

  3. Simulation of salinity intrusion along the Georgia and South Carolina coasts using climate-change scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrads, Paul; Roehl, Edwin A.; Daamen, Ruby C.; Cook, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Potential changes in climate could alter interactions between environmental and societal systems and adversely affect the availability of water resources in many coastal communities. Changes in streamflow patterns in conjunction with sea-level rise may change the salinity-intrusion dynamics of coastal rivers. Several municipal water-supply intakes are located along the Georgia and South Carolina coast that are proximal to the present day saltwater-freshwater interface of tidal rivers. Increases in the extent of salinity intrusion resulting from climate change could threaten the availability of freshwater supplies in the vicinity of these intakes. To effectively manage these supplies, water-resource managers need estimates of potential changes in the frequency, duration, and magnitude of salinity intrusion near their water-supply intakes that may occur as a result of climate change. This study examines potential effects of climate change, including altered streamflow and sea-level rise, on the dynamics of saltwater intrusion near municipal water-supply intakes in two coastal areas. One area consists of the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (AIW) and the Waccamaw River near Myrtle Beach along the Grand Strand of the South Carolina Coast, and the second area is on or near the lower Savannah River near Savannah, Georgia. The study evaluated how future sea-level rise and a reduction in streamflows can potentially affect salinity intrusion and threaten municipal water supplies and the biodiversity of freshwater tidal marshes in these two areas. Salinity intrusion occurs as a result of the interaction between three principal forces—streamflow, mean coastal water levels, and tidal range. To analyze and simulate salinity dynamics at critical coastal gaging stations near four municipal water-supply intakes, various data-mining techniques, including artificial neural network (ANN) models, were used to evaluate hourly streamflow, salinity, and coastal water-level data collected

  4. Molar Intrusion in Open-bite Adults Using Zygomatic Miniplates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzouk, Eiman S; Abdallah, Essam Mohamed; El-Kenany, Walid A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the skeletal, dental and soft tissue changes that arise after intrusion of the maxillary molars using zygomatic miniplates in adult skeletal anterior open bite patients. In addition to measuring the amount and rate of molar intrusion; with special emphasis on changes in the axial inclination of the intruded molars. The study group was composed of 13 anterior open bite patients (mean age 18 years, 8 months ± 2 years, 2 months) with posterior dentoalveolar excess. Mini-plates were placed in the zygomatic buttress bilaterally. The upper arch was segmentally leveled and a double Trans-Palatal Arch (TPA) was bonded. Closed NiTi coil spring was placed bilaterally between the book of the mini-plate just mesial and distal to the first molar buccal tube applying intrusive force of 450 gper side. Lateral and posteroanterior cephalograms were taken before intrusion (T1: post upper segmental leveling) and after intrusion (T2). Comparison between means before and after the intrusion was done using Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test (WSRT). Mandibular autorotation followed the molar intrusion, SNB and SN-Pog angles significantly increased while the ANB, MP-SN angle and N-S-Gn angle significantly decreased. The mean amount of accomplished molar intrusion was 3.1mm ± 0.74mm, with a rate of 0.36mm per month ± 0.08mm per month and a bite closure of 6.55mm ± 1.83mm. There was no significant buccal tip in the right and left molars upon intrusion. Conclusion: Miniplates zygomatic anchorage can be used effectively for skeletal open bite correction through posterior dento-alveolar intrusion. Intrusion of the posterior teeth with skeletal anchorage induced counterclockwise rotation of the mandible and, as a consequence, corrected the anteroposterior intermaxillary relationship with a dramatic improvement in the facial soft tissue convexity.

  5. Mapping saltwater intrusion in the Biscayne Aquifer, Miami-Dade County, Florida using transient electromagnetic sounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitterman, David V.

    2014-01-01

    Saltwater intrusion in southern Florida poses a potential threat to the public drinking-water supply that is typically monitored using water samples and electromagnetic induction logs collected from a network of wells. Transient electromagnetic (TEM) soundings are a complementary addition to the monitoring program because of their ease of use, low cost, and ability to fill in data gaps between wells. TEM soundings have been used to map saltwater intrusion in the Biscayne aquifer over a large part of south Florida including eastern Miami-Dade County and the Everglades. These two areas are very different with one being urban and the other undeveloped. Each poses different conditions that affect data collection and data quality. In the developed areas, finding sites large enough to make soundings is difficult. The presence of underground pipes further restricts useable locations. Electromagnetic noise, which reduces data quality, is also an issue. In the Everglades, access to field sites is difficult and working in water-covered terrain is challenging. Nonetheless, TEM soundings are an effective tool for mapping saltwater intrusion. Direct estimates of water quality can be obtained from the inverted TEM data using a formation factor determined for the Biscayne aquifer. This formation factor is remarkably constant over Miami-Dade County owing to the uniformity of the aquifer and the absence of clay. Thirty-six TEM soundings were collected in the Model Land area of southeast Miami-Dade County to aid in calibration of a helicopter electromagnetic (HEM) survey. The soundings and HEM survey revealed an area of saltwater intrusion aligned with canals and drainage ditches along U.S. Highway 1 and the Card Sound Road. These canals and ditches likely reduced freshwater levels through unregulated drainage and provided pathways for seawater to flow at least 12.4 km inland.

  6. Hysteretic behavior in seawater intrusion in response to discontinuous drought periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salandin, P.; Darvini, G.

    2017-12-01

    The seawater intrusion (SWI) represents a relevant problem for communities living in many coastal regions and in small islands, where the amount of fresh water available for human consumption or irrigation purposes depends on the equilibrium between the natural groundwater recharge from precipitations and the surrounding sea. This issue is exacerbated by climate changes, and, as a consequence, the reduction of natural groundwater recharge and the decrease the seaward flows of fresh water rather than sea level rise, as recently demonstrated by Ketabchi et al. (2016), leads to magnify the seawater intrusion into coastal aquifers. The temporal fluctuation of the fresh water table level are a natural consequence of the interaction of the aquifer with a water body or due to the seasonal replenishment of the water table. The severe and prolonged drought phenomena as that observed in last years in some areas of the Mediterranean, as over the central western Mediterranean basin, Italy and Spain, where a decreasing trend in total precipitation was detected (Alpert et al., 2002) in addition to the rise in temperature, enlarges the variation of the freshwater flux and can magnify the progression of the saline wedge. In the present study we demonstrate that the presence of varying boundary constraints or forcing factors may lead to hysteretic behavior in saltwater intrusion, showing dependence of the saline wedge on historic conditions. Therefore, the dynamic behavior of SWI may depend on both the present and past forcing conditions. To this aim different transient simulations supported by evidences deduced from a physical model are carried out to assess the presence of the hysteretic effects in the SWI phenomenon and to evaluate its influence in the management of the coastal aquifers for both the rational exploitation and the corrected management of water resources. About 70% of the world's population dwells in coastal zones. Therefore the optimal exploitation of fresh

  7. Modeling salt intrusion in the San Francisco Estuary prior to anthropogenic influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, S. W.; Gross, E. S.; Hutton, P. H.

    2017-08-01

    Anthropogenic changes have dramatically transformed the upper San Francisco Estuary over the past two centuries. Key changes influencing the region's hydrology and hydrodynamics include land use changes, levee construction and channel modifications, upstream reservoir construction, and out-of-basin water exports. In order to examine how these changes have altered the physical characteristics of the estuary, 3-D hydrodynamic models were constructed to study the system in its ;pre-development; condition, prior to significant modern anthropogenic influence, and in its contemporary condition. The pre-development system model was calibrated by varying marsh plain elevations in order to match sparse observations of tidal characteristics; the contemporary system model was calibrated to observed flow, stage, and salinity data. A recent three-year period covering a wide range of flow conditions was used to compare and contrast the hydrodynamic behavior of the two systems. While the contemporary model simulation assumed historical observed boundary conditions, the pre-development model simulation assumed conditions thought to exist prior to the alterations of the past two centuries. The relationship between estuary outflow and the longitudinal distance from the estuary mouth to the 2 psu bottom salinity isohaline (X2) was analyzed. Salt intrusion in the pre-development system was found to be slightly more sensitive to outflow and responded faster to changes in outflow than in the contemporary system. Changes in estuary outflows were responsible for more of the salt intrusion differences between the two systems than were changes in estuary geometry and bathymetry. An analysis of the physical mechanisms contributing to salt intrusion found tidal trapping and other unsteady processes to be more important in the pre-development estuary than in the contemporary one. In both systems, steady processes such as estuarine circulation were strongest during neap tides and unsteady salt

  8. Variable-density numerical modeling of seawater intrusion in coastal aquifer with well-developed conduits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Z.; Hu, B. X.

    2015-12-01

    Karst aquifer is an important drinking water supply for nearly 25% of the world's population. Well-developed subground conduit systems usually can be found in a well-developed karst aquifer, as a dual permeability system. Hydraulic characteristics of non-laminar flow in conduits could be significantly different from darcian flow in porous medium; therefore, hybrid model and different governing equations are necessary in numerical modeling of karst hydrogeology. On the other hand, seawater intrusion has been observed and studied for several decades, also become a worldwidely problem due to groundwater over-pumping and rising sea level. The density difference between freshwater and seawater is recognized as the major factor governing the movements of two fluids in coastal aquifer. Several models have been developed to simulate groundwater flow in karst aquifer, but hardly describe seawater intrusion through the conduits without coupling variable density flow and solute transport. In this study, a numerical SEAWAT model has been developed to simulate variable density flow and transport in heterogeneous karst aquifer. High-density seawater is verified to intrude further inland through high permeability conduit network rather than porous medium. The numerical model also predicts the effect of different cases on seawater intrusion in coastal karst aquifer, such as rising sea level, tide stages and freshwater discharge effects. A series of local and global uncertainty analysis have been taken to evaluate the sensitivity of hydraulic conductivity, porosity, groundwater pumping, sea level, salinity and dispersivity. Heterogeneous conduit and porous medium hydraulic characteristics play an important role in groundwater flow and solute transport simulation. Meanwhile, another hybrid model VDFST-CFP model is currently under development to couple turbulent conduit flow and variable density groundwater flow in porous media, which provides a new method and better description in

  9. Young women's experiences of intrusive behavior in 12 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Lorraine; Scott, Adrian J; Roberts, Karl

    2016-01-01

    The present study provides international comparisons of young women's (N = 1,734) self-reported experiences of intrusive activities enacted by men. Undergraduate psychology students from 12 countries (Armenia, Australia, England, Egypt, Finland, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Portugal, Scotland, and Trinidad) indicated which of 47 intrusive activities they had personally experienced. Intrusive behavior was not uncommon overall, although large differences were apparent between countries when women's personal experiences of specific intrusive activities were compared. Correlations were carried out between self-reported intrusive experiences, the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM), and Hofstede's dimensions of national cultures. The primary associations were between women's experiences of intrusive behavior and the level of power they are afforded within the 12 countries. Women from countries with higher GEM scores reported experiencing more intrusive activities relating to courtship and requests for sex, while the experiences of women from countries with lower GEM scores related more to monitoring and ownership. Intrusive activities, many of them constituent of harassment and stalking, would appear to be widespread and universal, and their incidence and particular form reflect national level gender inequalities. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Effects of igneous intrusions on the petroleum system: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senger, Kim; Millett, John; Planke, Sverre; Ogata, Kei; Eide, Christian Haug; Festøy, Marte; Galland, Olivier; Jerram, Dougal A.

    2017-01-01

    Igneous intrusions feature in many sedimentary basins where hydrocarbon exploration and production is continuing. Owing to distinct geophysical property contrasts with siliciclastic host rocks (e.g., higher Vp, density and resistivity than host rocks), intrusions can be easily delineated within data

  11. Porting Extremely Lightweight Intrusion Detection (ELIDe) to Android

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    ARL-TN-0681 ● OCT 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Porting Extremely Lightweight Intrusion Detection (ELIDe) to Android by...Lightweight Intrusion Detection (ELIDe) to Android by Ken F Yu and Garret S Payer Computational and Information Sciences Directorate, ARL...

  12. Reinforced Intrusion Detection Using Pursuit Reinforcement Competitive Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Yulia Prafitaning Tiyas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, information technology is growing rapidly,all information can be obtainedmuch easier. It raises some new problems; one of them is unauthorized access to the system. We need a reliable network security system that is resistant to a variety of attacks against the system. Therefore, Intrusion Detection System (IDS required to overcome the problems of intrusions. Many researches have been done on intrusion detection using classification methods. Classification methodshave high precision, but it takes efforts to determine an appropriate classification model to the classification problem. In this paper, we propose a new reinforced approach to detect intrusion with On-line Clustering using Reinforcement Learning. Reinforcement Learning is a new paradigm in machine learning which involves interaction with the environment.It works with reward and punishment mechanism to achieve solution. We apply the Reinforcement Learning to the intrusion detection problem with considering competitive learning using Pursuit Reinforcement Competitive Learning (PRCL. Based on the experimental result, PRCL can detect intrusions in real time with high accuracy (99.816% for DoS, 95.015% for Probe, 94.731% for R2L and 99.373% for U2R and high speed (44 ms.The proposed approach can help network administrators to detect intrusion, so the computer network security systembecome reliable. Keywords: Intrusion Detection System, On-Line Clustering, Reinforcement Learning, Unsupervised Learning.

  13. Specification Mining for Intrusion Detection in Networked Control Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caselli, M.; Zambon, Emmanuele; Amann, Johanna; Sommer, Robin; Kargl, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses a novel approach to specification-based intrusion detection in the field of networked control systems. Our approach reduces the substantial human effort required to deploy a specification-based intrusion detection system by automating the development of its specification rules.

  14. Statistical decision making for authentication and intrusion detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimitrakakis, C.; Mitrokotsa, A.

    2009-01-01

    User authentication and intrusion detection differ from standard classification problems in that while we have data generated from legitimate users, impostor or intrusion data is scarce or non-existent. We review existing techniques for dealing with this problem and propose alternatives based on a

  15. Numerical modelling of seawater intrusion in Shenzhen (China ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A fairly good fitness between the observed and computed values was obtained by a manual trial-and-error method. ... controlling seawater intrusion in such coastal aquifer systems. 1. Introduction. Seawater intrusion constitutes a ..... reveals that FEFLOW is an effective and robust simulation tool for studying variable-density.

  16. Soft-sensing, non-intrusive multiphase flow meter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wrobel, K.; Schiferli, W.

    2009-01-01

    For single phase flow meters more and better non-intrusive or even clamp-on meters become available. This allows for a wider use of meters and for easier flow control. As the demand for multiphase meters is increasing, the current aim is to develop a non-intrusive multiphase flow meter. The

  17. Performance Assessment of Network Intrusion-Alert Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    through honeypots, machines explicitly designated solely to learn the methods used by black-hats to probe and hack a system so that a network...Maintaining access Miscellanous Reverse engineering RFID tools Table 3. BackTrack Intrusion-detection System/Intrusion-prevention System Penetration

  18. Simulation of seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers: Some typical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers is generally three dimensional (3-D) in nature. In the literature, there is a general lack of reported results on 3-D simulations. This paper presents some typical example simulations of 3-D seawater intrusion process for a specified hypothetical study area. The simulation results presented ...

  19. Seawater intrusion vulnerability indicators for freshwater lenses in strip islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, L.; Werner, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Freshwater lenses on small islands have been described as some of the most vulnerable aquifer systems in the world. Yet, little guidance is available regarding methods for rapidly assessing the vulnerability of freshwater lenses to the potential effects of climate change. To address this gap we employ a steady-state analytic modelling approach to develop seawater intrusion (SWI) vulnerability indicator equations. The vulnerability indicator equations quantify the propensity for SWI to occur in strip islands due to both recharge change and sea-level rise (SLR) (incorporating the effect of land surface inundation (LSI)). This work extends that of Werner et al. (2012) who developed SWI vulnerability indicator equations for unconfined and confined continental aquifers, and did not consider LSI. Flux-controlled and head-controlled conceptualisations of freshwater lenses are adopted. Under flux-controlled conditions the water table is able to rise unencumbered by land surface effects. Under head-controlled conditions the head is fixed at the centre of the lens due to, for example, centrally located topographic controls, surface water features or pumping. A number of inferences about SWI vulnerability in freshwater lenses can be made from the analysis: (1) SWI vulnerability indicators for SLR (under flux-controlled conditions) are proportional to lens thickness (or volume) and the rate of LSI and inversely proportional to island width; (2) SWI vulnerability indicators for recharge change (under flux-controlled conditions) are proportional to lens thickness (or volume) and inversely proportional to recharge; (3) SLR has greater impact under head-controlled conditions rather than flux-controlled conditions, whereas the opposite is the case for LSI and recharge change. Example applications to several case studies illustrate use of the method for rapidly ranking lenses according to vulnerability, thereby allowing for prioritisation of areas where further and more detailed SWI

  20. Using state-of-the-art technology to evaluate saltwater intrusion in the Biscayne aquifer of Miami-Dade County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinos, Scott T.

    2014-01-01

    The fresh groundwater supplies of many communities have been adversely affected or limited by saltwater intrusion. An insufficient understanding of the origin of intruded saltwater may lead to inefficient or ineffective water-resource management. A 2008–2012 cooperative U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Miami-Dade County study of saltwater intrusion describes state-of-the art technology used to evaluate the origin and distribution of this saltwater.

  1. Approach for Assessing Human Intrusion into a Radwaste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Dong Keun; Kim, Jung Woo; Jeong, Jong Tae; Baik, Min Hoon

    2016-01-01

    An approach to assess human intrusion into radwaste repository resulting from future human actions was proposed based on the common principals, requirements, and recommendations from IAEA, ICRP, and OECD/NEA, with the assumption that the intrusion occurs after loss of knowledge of the hazardous nature of the disposal facility. At first, the essential boundary conditions were derived on the basis of international recommendations, followed by overall approach to deal with inadvertent human intrusion. The essential premises were derived on the basis of international recommendations, followed by overall approach to deal with inadvertent human intrusion. The procedure to derive protective measures was also explained with four steps regarding how to derive safety framework, general measures, potential measures, and eventual protective measures on the basis of stylized scenarios. It is expected that the approach proposed in this study will be effectively used to reduce the potential for and/or consequence of human intrusion during entire processes of realization of disposal facility.

  2. Network Intrusion Detection through Stacking Dilated Convolutional Autoencoders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Network intrusion detection is one of the most important parts for cyber security to protect computer systems against malicious attacks. With the emergence of numerous sophisticated and new attacks, however, network intrusion detection techniques are facing several significant challenges. The overall objective of this study is to learn useful feature representations automatically and efficiently from large amounts of unlabeled raw network traffic data by using deep learning approaches. We propose a novel network intrusion model by stacking dilated convolutional autoencoders and evaluate our method on two new intrusion detection datasets. Several experiments were carried out to check the effectiveness of our approach. The comparative experimental results demonstrate that the proposed model can achieve considerably high performance which meets the demand of high accuracy and adaptability of network intrusion detection systems (NIDSs. It is quite potential and promising to apply our model in the large-scale and real-world network environments.

  3. Network Intrusion Detection with Threat Agent Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Bajtoš

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increase in usage of computer systems and computer networks, the problem of intrusion detection in network security has become an important issue. In this paper, we discuss approaches that simplify network administrator’s work. We applied clustering methods for security incident profiling. We consider K-means, PAM, and CLARA clustering algorithms. For this purpose, we used data collected in Warden system from various security tools. We do not aim to differentiate between normal and abnormal network traffic, but we focus on grouping similar threat agents based on attributes of security events. We suggest a case of a fine classification and a case of a coarse classification and discuss advantages of both cases.

  4. USBcat - Towards an Intrusion Surveillance Toolset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Chapman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies an intrusion surveillance framework which provides an analyst with the ability to investigate and monitor cyber-attacks in a covert manner. Where cyber-attacks are perpetrated for the purposes of espionage the ability to understand an adversary's techniques and objectives are an important element in network and computer security. With the appropriate toolset, security investigators would be permitted to perform both live and stealthy counter-intelligence operations by observing the behaviour and communications of the intruder. Subsequently a more complete picture of the attacker's identity, objectives, capabilities, and infiltration could be formulated than is possible with present technologies. This research focused on developing an extensible framework to permit the covert investigation of malware. Additionally, a Universal Serial Bus (USB Mass Storage Device (MSD based covert channel was designed to enable remote command and control of the framework. The work was validated through the design, implementation and testing of a toolset.

  5. Stress, intrusive imagery, and chronic distress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, A.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the nature of stress in the context of problems with its definition and sources of confusion regarding its usefulness and specificity. Stress can be defined as a negative emotional experience accompanied by predictable biochemical, physiological, and behavioral changes that are directed toward adaptation either by manipulating the situation to alter the stressor or by accommodating its effects. Chronic stress is more complex than most definitions suggest and is clearly not limited to situations in which stressors persist for long periods of time. Responses may habituate before a stressor disappears or may persist long beyond the physical presence of the stressor. This latter case, in which chronic stress and associated biobehavioral changes outlast their original cause, is considered in light of research at Three Mile Island and among Vietnam veterans. The role of intrusive images of the stressor or uncontrollable thoughts about it in maintaining stress is explored

  6. Introduction To Intrusion Detection System Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajni Tewatia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Security of a network is always an important issue. With the continuously growing network the basic security such as firewall virus scanner is easily deceived by modern attackers who are experts in using software vulnerabilities to achieve their goals. For preventing such attacks we need even smarter security mechanism which act proactively and intelligently. Intrusion Detection System is the solution of such requirement. Many techniques have been used to implement IDS. These technique basically used in the detector part of IDS such as Neural Network Clustering Pattern Matching Rule Based Fuzzy Logic Genetic Algorithms and many more. To improve the performance of an IDS these approaches may be used in combination to build a hybrid IDS so that benefits of two o more approaches may be combined.

  7. Metallogenic aspects of Itu intrusive suite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, G.; Pascholati, E.M.

    1990-01-01

    The integrated use of geological, geochemical, geophysical and remote sensing data is providing interesting new information on the metallogenic characteristics of the Itu Intrusive Suite. During World War II, up to 1959, a wolframite deposit was mined near the border of the northernmost body (Itupeva Granite). This deposit is formed by greisen veins associated with cassiterite and topaz, clearly linked with later phases of magmatic differentiation. Generally those veins are related to hydrothermal alteration of the granites and the above mentioned shear zone. U, Th and K determinations by field and laboratory gammaspectrometry were used for regional distribution analysis of those elements and its ratios and calculation of radioactivity heat production. In this aspects, the Itupeva Granite is the hottest and presents several anomalies in the Th/U ratio, indicative of late or post magmatic oxidation processes. (author)

  8. Coastal Marsh Monitoring for Persistent Saltwater Intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Callie M.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA's work on the project that supports the Gulf of Mexico Alliance (GOMA) Governors Action Plan to monitor the coastal wetlands for saltwater intrusion. The action items that relate to the task are: (1) Obtain information on projected relative sea level rise, subsidence, and storm vulnerability to help prioritize conservation projects, including restoration, enhancement, and acquisition, and (2) Develop and apply ecosystem models to forecast the habitat structure and succession following hurricane disturbance and changes in ecological functions and services that impact vital socio-economic aspects of coastal systems. The objectives of the program are to provide resource managers with remote sensing products that support ecosystem forecasting models requiring salinity and inundation data. Specifically, the proposed work supports the habitat-switching modules in the Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Assessment and Restoration (CLEAR) model, which provides scientific evaluation for restoration management.

  9. Emplacement of sandstone intrusions during contractional tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladino, Giuseppe; Grippa, Antonio; Bureau, Denis; Alsop, G. Ian; Hurst, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    Sandstone injections are created by the forceful emplacement of remobilized sand in response to increases in overpressure. However, the contribution provided by horizontal compressive stress to the build-up in overpressure, and the resulting emplacement of sand injection complexes, is still to be substantiated by robust field observations. An opportunity to address this issue occurs in Central California where a large volume of sandstone intrusions record regionally-persistent supra-lithostatic pore-pressure. Detailed fieldwork allows sandstone-filled thrusts to be recognized and, for the first time, permits us to demonstrate that some sandstone intrusions are linked to contractional deformation affecting the western border of the Great Valley Basin. Fluidized sand was extensively injected along thrust surfaces, and also fills local dilatant cavities linked to thrusting. The main aims of this paper are to provide detailed descriptions of the newly recognized syn-tectonic injections, and describe detailed cross-cutting relationships with earlier sandstone injection complexes in the study area. Finally, an evolutionary model consisting of three phases of sand injection is provided. In this model, sand injection is linked to contractional tectonic episodes affecting the western side of the Great Valley Basin during the Early-Middle Cenozoic. This study demonstrates that sand injections, driven by fluid overpressure, may inject along thrusts and folds and thereby overcome stresses associated with regional contractional deformation. It is shown that different generations of sand injection can develop in the same area under the control of different stress regimes, linked to the evolving mountain chain.

  10. Resistivity imaging reveals complex pattern of saltwater intrusion along Monterey coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Meredith; Pidlisecky, Adam; Knight, Rosemary

    2017-08-01

    Electrical Resistivity Tomography data were acquired along 40 km of the Monterey Bay coast in central California. These data resulted in electrical resistivity images to depths of approximately 280 m.b.s.l., which were used to understand the distribution of freshwater and saltwater in the subsurface, and factors controlling this distribution. The resulting resistivity sections were interpreted in conjunction with existing data sets, including well logs, seismic reflection data, geologic reports, hydrologic reports, and land use maps from the region. Interpretation of these data shows a complex pattern of saltwater intrusion resulting from geology, pumping, and recharge. The resistivity profiles were used to identify geological flow conduits and barriers such as palaeo-channels and faults, localized saltwater intrusion from individual pumping wells, infiltration zones of surface fresh and brackish water, and regions showing improvements in water quality due to management actions. The use of ERT data for characterizing the subsurface in this region has led to an understanding of the spatial distribution of freshwater and saltwater at a level of detail unattainable with the previously deployed traditional well based salinity mapping and monitoring techniques alone. Significant spatial variability in the extent and geometry of intrusion observed in the acquired data highlights the importance of adopting continuous subsurface characterization methods such as this one.

  11. Using a time lapse microgravity model for mapping seawater intrusion around Semarang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supriyadi,, E-mail: supriyadi@mail.unnes.ac.id; Khumaedi [Physics Department, Semarang State University (UNNES), D7 Building 2nd Floor FMIPA Sekaran Gunungpati (Indonesia); Yusuf, M. [Badan Meteologi Klimatologi Goefisika (BMKG), Jl.Angkasa I No.2 Kemayoran Jakarta Pusat (Indonesia); Agung, W. [Physics Department, Diponegoro University (UNDIP), Jl. Prof. Soedharto, Tembalang, Semarang (Indonesia)

    2016-03-11

    A modeling of time-lapse microgravity anomaly due to sea water intrusion has been conducted. It used field data of aquifer cross section, aquifer thickness and lithology of research area. Those data were then processed using Grav3D and Surfer. Modeling results indicated that the intrusion of sea water resulting in a time-lapse microgravity anomalies of 0.12 to 0.18 mGal, at soil layer density of 0.15 g/cm{sup 3} to 0.3 g/cm{sup 3} and at depth of 30 to 100 m. These imply that the areas experiencing seawater intrusion were Tanjung Mas, SPBE Bandarharjo, Brass, Old Market Boom and Johar as the microgravity measured there were in the range of 0.12 to 0.18 mGal and the density contrast were at 0.15 g/cm{sup 3} to 0.28 g/cm{sup 3}. Areas that experienced fluid reduction were Puri Anjasmoro, Kenconowungu and Puspowarno with microgravity changes from -0.06 mGal to -0.18 mGal.

  12. A novel interacting multiple model based network intrusion detection scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Ruichi; Venkatasubramanian, Vijay; Leung, Henry

    2006-04-01

    In today's information age, information and network security are of primary importance to any organization. Network intrusion is a serious threat to security of computers and data networks. In internet protocol (IP) based network, intrusions originate in different kinds of packets/messages contained in the open system interconnection (OSI) layer 3 or higher layers. Network intrusion detection and prevention systems observe the layer 3 packets (or layer 4 to 7 messages) to screen for intrusions and security threats. Signature based methods use a pre-existing database that document intrusion patterns as perceived in the layer 3 to 7 protocol traffics and match the incoming traffic for potential intrusion attacks. Alternately, network traffic data can be modeled and any huge anomaly from the established traffic pattern can be detected as network intrusion. The latter method, also known as anomaly based detection is gaining popularity for its versatility in learning new patterns and discovering new attacks. It is apparent that for a reliable performance, an accurate model of the network data needs to be established. In this paper, we illustrate using collected data that network traffic is seldom stationary. We propose the use of multiple models to accurately represent the traffic data. The improvement in reliability of the proposed model is verified by measuring the detection and false alarm rates on several datasets.

  13. A Frequency-Based Approach to Intrusion Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mian Zhou

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Research on network security and intrusion detection strategies presents many challenging issues to both theoreticians and practitioners. Hackers apply an array of intrusion and exploit techniques to cause disruption of normal system operations, but on the defense, firewalls and intrusion detection systems (IDS are typically only effective in defending known intrusion types using their signatures, and are far less than mature when faced with novel attacks. In this paper, we adapt the frequency analysis techniques such as the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT used in signal processing to the design of intrusion detection algorithms. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the frequency-based detection strategy by running synthetic network intrusion data in simulated networks using the OPNET software. The simulation results indicate that the proposed intrusion detection strategy is effective in detecting anomalous traffic data that exhibit patterns over time, which include several types of DOS and probe attacks. The significance of this new strategy is that it does not depend on the prior knowledge of attack signatures, thus it has the potential to be a useful supplement to existing signature-based IDS and firewalls.

  14. The Experience of Intrusions Scale: a preliminary examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salters-Pedneault, Kristalyn; Vine, Vera; Mills, Mary Alice; Park, Crystal; Litz, Brett T

    2009-01-01

    Intrusive thoughts (i.e., unwelcome, distressing, involuntary thoughts) are prevalent in a variety of clinical conditions and are increasingly a focus of translational research. The goal of this study was to develop and preliminarily examine a brief self-report measure designed to assess clinically relevant aspects of the experience of intrusive thoughts related to a particular target. The Experience of Intrusions Scale (EIS) is a five-item measure that assesses the frequency, unpredictability, and unwantedness of intrusive thoughts, as well as the interference and distress caused by the intrusions, each on a five-point Likert-type scale. Five times over a four-] period, female undergraduates (N=160) completed the EIS in response to intrusive thoughts regarding a film clip depicting a sexual assault. On the first and last days, participants completed the EIS five minutes after watching the clip. In between film clip viewings, participants completed the EIS once per day. The EIS demonstrated good internal consistency, good to excellent test-retest reliability using both immediate post-stimulus and 24-hour time intervals, and convergent validity with two existing measures of intrusive phenomena: the White Bear Suppression Inventory (Wegner & Zanakos, 1994) and the Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version (Weathers, Litz, Herman, Huska, & Keane, 1993).

  15. The role of stress during memory reactivation on intrusive memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Jessica; Garber, Benjamin; Bryant, Richard A

    2015-09-01

    Intrusive memories are unwanted recollections that maintain distress in psychological disorders. Increasing evidence suggests that memories that are reactivated through retrieval become temporarily vulnerable to environmental or pharmacological manipulation, including changes in levels of circulating stress hormones. This study investigated the influence of stress during memory reactivation of an emotionally arousing trauma film on subsequent intrusive memories. Three groups of participants (N=63) viewed a trauma film depicting a serious car accident at baseline. Two days later (Time 2), one group received a reactivation induction following a socially evaluated cold pressor test (SECPT; Stress/Reactivation condition), whilst the second group reactivated the memory after a control procedure (Reactivation condition). A third group underwent the SECPT but was not asked to reactivate memory of the trauma film (Stress condition). Two days later (Time 3), all participants received a surprise cued memory recall test and intrusions questionnaire which they completed online. Results showed that those in the Stress/Reactivation group had higher intrusions scores than the other two groups, suggesting that acute stress promotes intrusive memories only when the memory trace is reactivated shortly afterwards. Increased cortisol predicted enhanced intrusive experiences in the Stress/Reactivation condition but not in the other conditions. This pattern of results suggests that acute stress during the reactivation of emotional material impacts on involuntary emotional memories. These findings suggest a possible explanation for the mechanism underlying the maintenance of intrusive memories in clinical disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Contribution of hydrochemical and geoelectrical approaches to investigate salinization process and seawater intrusion in the coastal aquifers of Chaouia, Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najib, Saliha; Fadili, Ahmed; Mehdi, Khalid; Riss, Joëlle; Makan, Abdelhadi

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to identify groundwater salinization origin and to determine seawater intrusion extension toward the inland in Chaouia, Morocco. To reach these objectives, firstly, 46 groundwater samples were analyzed for major chemical elements during January 2012 and, secondly, 10 electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) profiles were performed perpendicularly to the coastal fringe. Statistical analysis provided the distinction between three Clusters reflecting different hydrochemical processes. Cluster I and Cluster II-a showed a high water electrical conductivity (EC) (from 2.3 to 11.2mS/cm) with the dominance of Na + (668mg/L on average) and Cl - (1735mg/L on average) ions as a consequence of seawater intrusion. However, Cluster II-b presented low ECs (from 0.5 to 1.7mS/cm) and Ca 2+ (99.6mg/L on average) and HCO 3 2- (235.2mg/L on average) ions dominance. Water chemistry in these wells was controlled by water-rock interaction, cation exchange, and anthropogenic activities. The Hydrochemical Facies Evolution Diagram highlighted the succession of different water facies developed between intrusion and freshening phases. The formation of Na-HCO 3 facies, which characterizes the last facies of freshening phase, followed the succession of Na-Cl, MixNa-MixCl, MixCa-MixCl, MixCa-MixHCO 3 , and Na-HCO 3 . In contrast, Na-Cl facies formation, which characterizes the last facies of intrusion phase, followed the evolution of Ca-HCO 3 , Ca-MixHCO 3 , Ca-MixCl, MixCa-MixCl, MixCa-Cl, and Na-Cl. Moreover, the obtained ERT results allowed determining the extent of different hydrochemical facies and provided more details about seawater intrusion extension. The conductive level assigned to seawater contamination showed a resistivity less than 36Ω.m, which remains limited to 3000m from the ocean, where Na-Cl water type dominates. The seawater intrusion depth varied between 5 and 40m from the surface. Overall, this original study in Chaouia region demonstrated the effectiveness

  17. Numerical modelling of seawater intrusion in Shenzhen (China) using a 3D density-dependent model including tidal effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei; Yang, Qingchun; Martín, Jordi D.; Juncosa, Ricardo

    2013-04-01

    During the 1990s, groundwater overexploitation has resulted in seawater intrusion in the coastal aquifer of the Shenzhen city, China. Although water supply facilities have been improved and alleviated seawater intrusion in recent years, groundwater overexploitation is still of great concern in some local areas. In this work we present a three-dimensional density-dependent numerical model developed with the FEFLOW code, which is aimed at simulating the extent of seawater intrusion while including tidal effects and different groundwater pumping scenarios. Model calibration, using waterheads and reported chloride concentration, has been performed based on the data from 14 boreholes, which were monitored from May 2008 to December 2009. A fairly good fitness between the observed and computed values was obtained by a manual trial-and-error method. Model prediction has been carried out forward 3 years with the calibrated model taking into account high, medium and low tide levels and different groundwater exploitation schemes. The model results show that tide-induced seawater intrusion significantly affects the groundwater levels and concentrations near the estuarine of the Dasha river, which implies that an important hydraulic connection exists between this river and groundwater, even considering that some anti-seepage measures were taken in the river bed. Two pumping scenarios were considered in the calibrated model in order to predict the future changes in the water levels and chloride concentration. The numerical results reveal a decreased tendency of seawater intrusion if groundwater exploitation does not reach an upper bound of about 1.32 × 104 m3/d. The model results provide also insights for controlling seawater intrusion in such coastal aquifer systems.

  18. Saltwater intrusion into tidal freshwater marshes alters the biogeochemical processing of organic carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, S. C.; Franklin, R. B.; Berrier, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    Environmental perturbations in wetlands affect the integrated plant-microbial-soil system, causing biogeochemical responses that can manifest at local to global scales. The objective of this study was to determine how saltwater intrusion affects carbon mineralization and greenhouse gas production in coastal wetlands. Working with tidal freshwater marsh soils that had experienced ~ 3.5 yr of in situ saltwater additions, we quantified changes in soil properties, measured extracellular enzyme activity associated with organic matter breakdown, and determined potential rates of anaerobic carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) production. Soils from the field plots treated with brackish water had lower carbon content and higher C : N ratios than soils from freshwater plots, indicating that saltwater intrusion reduced carbon availability and increased organic matter recalcitrance. This was reflected in reduced activities of enzymes associated with the hydrolysis of cellulose and the oxidation of lignin, leading to reduced rates of soil CO2 and CH4 production. The effects of long-term saltwater additions contrasted with the effects of short-term exposure to brackish water during three-day laboratory incubations, which increased rates of CO2 production but lowered rates of CH4 production. Collectively, our data suggest that the long-term effect of saltwater intrusion on soil CO2 production is indirect, mediated through the effects of elevated salinity on the quantity and quality of autochthonous organic matter inputs to the soil. In contrast, salinity, organic matter content, and enzyme activities directly influence CH4 production. Our analyses demonstrate that saltwater intrusion into tidal freshwater marshes affects the entire process of carbon mineralization, from the availability of organic carbon through its terminal metabolism to CO2 and/or CH4, and illustrate that long-term shifts in biogeochemical functioning are not necessarily consistent with short

  19. Multiple subtropical stratospheric intrusions over Reunion Island: Observational, Lagrangian, and Eulerian numerical modeling approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vérèmes, H.; Cammas, J.-P.; Baray, J.-L.; Keckhut, P.; Barthe, C.; Posny, F.; Tulet, P.; Dionisi, D.; Bielli, S.

    2016-12-01

    Signatures of multiple stratospheric intrusions were observed on simultaneous and collocated ozone and water vapor profiles retrieved by lidars and radiosondes at the Maïdo Observatory, Reunion Island (21°S, 55°E, 2160 m above sea level), during MAïdo LIdar Calibration CAmpaign in April 2013. A singular structure of the ozone vertical profile with three peaks (in excess of 90 ppbv, at 8, 10, and 13 km altitude) embedded in a thick dry layer of air suggested stratospheric intrusions with multiple origins. The hypothesis is corroborated by a synoptic analysis based on re-analyses. European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts ERA-Interim temporal series associated with 5 days Lagrangian back trajectories initialized on each ozone peak allows to capture their stratospheric origin. The ozone peak at the lowest altitude is associated with an irreversible tropopause folding process along the polar jet stream during an extratropical cutoff low formation. Simultaneous lidar water vapor profiles of this peak show that the anticorrelation with ozone has been removed, due to mixing processes. Back trajectories indicate that the two other ozone peaks observed at higher altitudes are associated with the dynamics of the subtropical jet stream and the lower stratosphere. The observations confirm the recent stratospheric origins. The highest ozone peak is explained by the horizontal distribution of the intrusion. Use of a Lagrangian Reverse Domain Filling model and of the Meso-NH Eulerian mesoscale model with a passive stratospheric tracer allow to further document the stratosphere-troposphere transport processes and to describe the detailed potential vorticity and ozone structures in which are embedded in the observed multiple stratospheric intrusions.

  20. Groundwater Vulnerability to Seawater Intrusion along Coastal Urban Areas: A Quantitative Comparative Assessment of EPIK and DRASTIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momjian, Nanor; Abou Najm, Majdi; Alameddine, Ibrahim; El-Fadel, Mutasem

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater vulnerability assessment models are invariably coupled with Geographic Information Systems to provide decision makers with easier visualization of complex systems. In this study, we examine the uncertainty associated with such models (DRASTIC, EPIK) in assessing seawater intrusion, a growing threat along coastal urban cities due to overexploitation of groundwater resources associated with population growth and more recently, exacerbated by climate change impacts. For this purpose, a mapping of groundwater vulnerability was first conducted at a country level (Lebanon) and coupled with a groundwater quality monitoring program in three coastal cities for cross-validation. Then, six water quality categories were defined and mapped based on water quality standards ranging from drinking to seawater with weighted scores assigned for each category in both DRASTIC and EPIK for cross-validation. Finally, the results of groundwater quality tests were compared with vulnerability predictions at sampling points using two indicators (Chloride and TDS). While field measurements demonstrated the high vulnerability to seawater intrusion in coastal urbanized areas, the modelling results exhibited variations from field measurements reaching up to two water quality categories. Vertical-based vulnerability models demonstrated poor correlation when the anthropogenic impact was introduced through a process that depends on lateral groundwater flow thus highlighting (1) the limited ability of such models to capture vulnerability to lateral seawater intrusion induced primarily by vertical groundwater withdrawal, and (2) the need to incorporate depth and underlying lithology into the layers of groundwater vulnerability models when examining horizontally induced contamination such as seawater intrusion.

  1. Intrusion detection in wireless ad-hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chaki, Nabendu

    2014-01-01

    Presenting cutting-edge research, Intrusion Detection in Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks explores the security aspects of the basic categories of wireless ad-hoc networks and related application areas. Focusing on intrusion detection systems (IDSs), it explains how to establish security solutions for the range of wireless networks, including mobile ad-hoc networks, hybrid wireless networks, and sensor networks.This edited volume reviews and analyzes state-of-the-art IDSs for various wireless ad-hoc networks. It includes case studies on honesty-based intrusion detection systems, cluster oriented-based

  2. User's guide to the repository intrusion risk evaluation code INTRUDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nancarrow, D.J.; Thorne, M.C.

    1986-05-01

    The report, commissioned by the Department of the Environment as part of its radioactive waste management research programme, constitutes the user's guide to the repository intrusion risk evaluation code INTRUDE. It provides an explanation of the mathematical basis of the code, the database used and the operation of the code. INTRUDE is designed to facilitate the estimation of individual risks arising from the possibility of intrusion into shallow land burial facilities for radioactive wastes. It considers a comprehensive inventory of up to 65 long-lived radionuclides and produces risk estimates for up to 20 modes of intrusion and up to 50 times of evaluation. (author)

  3. Investigation of a dynamic seawater intrusion event using strontium isotopes (87Sr/86Sr)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Niels Oluf; Andersen, Martin S.; Engesgaard, Peter Knudegaard

    2008-01-01

    of Palaeocene (Danian) limestone. Stable isotopes (18O and 2H), strontium isotopes (87Sr/86Sr) and the elements Sr and Cl were measured to delineate the mixing of seawater and groundwater in the shallow aquifer and to determine the contribution from different water sources along the flow paths. The stable...... and lower part of the water body in the shallow sandy aquifer. The leakage of deep groundwater increased during the intrusion experiment as a result of the large abstraction of groundwater. Following the ceasing of the groundwater pumping, the interface went from being vertical to being predominantly...

  4. Simulating spatial adaption of groundwater pumping on seawater intrusion in coastal regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundmann, Jens; Ladwig, Robert; Schütze, Niels; Walther, Marc

    2016-04-01

    Coastal aquifer systems are used intensively to meet the growing demands for water in those regions. They are especially at risk for the intrusion of seawater due to aquifer overpumping, limited groundwater replenishment and unsustainable groundwater management which in turn also impacts the social and economical development of coastal regions. One example is the Al-Batinah coastal plain in northern Oman where irrigated agriculture is practiced by lots of small scaled farms in different distances from the sea, each of them pumping their water from coastal aquifer. Due to continuous overpumping and progressing saltwater intrusion farms near the coast had to close since water for irrigation got too saline. For investigating appropriate management options numerical density dependent groundwater modelling is required which should also portray the adaption of groundwater abstraction schemes on the water quality. For addressing this challenge a moving inner boundary condition is implemented in the numerical density dependent groundwater model which adjusts the locations for groundwater abstraction according to the position of the seawater intrusion front controlled by thresholds of relative chloride concentration. The adaption process is repeated for each management cycle within transient model simulations and allows for considering feedbacks with the consumers e.g. the agriculture by moving agricultural farms more inland or towards the sea if more fertile soils at the coast could be recovered. For finding optimal water management strategies efficiently, the behaviour of the numerical groundwater model for different extraction and replenishment scenarios is approximated by an artificial neural network using a novel approach for state space surrogate model development. Afterwards the derived surrogate is coupled with an agriculture module within a simulation based water management optimisation framework to achieve optimal cropping pattern and water abstraction schemes

  5. Geophysical and geochemical studies to delineate seawater intrusion in Bagoush area, Northwestern coast, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissa, Mustafa A.; Mahmoud, Hussein Hosni; Shouakar-Stash, Orfan; El-Shiekh, Abdelfattah; Parker, Beth

    2016-09-01

    Coastal aquifers are the main source for sustainable freshwater in many arid and semi-arid regions around the earth. In such regions, groundwater extraction far exceeds the natural replenishment rates due to additional demands on groundwater resources especially in the last few decades. The characterization of the seawater intrusion in the Baghoush area along the northwestern coast of Egypt assesses the risk of seawater intrusion for the purpose of managing the groundwater resources in coastal areas. The (SI) in the oolitic Pleistocene aquifer is affected by several natural factors, including the drainage patterns, geological structures, distance from the sea and the manipulation of groundwater. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) has been implemented to identify the geometry of the brackish/saline water interface and to map the distribution of brackish water zone floating over the denser saline water. Seven 2-D resistivity imaging profiles were conducted using a Wenner array with different electrode distance spacings. The inverse resistivity models of these profiles indicate that these profiles are composed of three zones: the upper dry zone, the middle brackish water zone, and the lower saline water zone. The thickness of the brackish groundwater zone decreases toward the sea and the resistivity decreases with depth due to increase in water salinity. Water table along these profiles decreases from south to north, which indicates that groundwater flow is from south (inland) to north (sea). Groundwater chemistry and stable isotopes were used to determine the fresh groundwater recharge source(s), to identify mixing of different groundwaters, to evaluate seawater intrusion zone along the coast, and to investigate the upwelling of deep saline groundwater underneath the brackish zone. The recharge of fresh groundwater originates from the mountain watershed located upstream as well as the annual rainfall; however, seawater is the main source of groundwater

  6. Intrusion signature creation via clustering anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Gilbert R.; Yang, Shanchieh J.

    2008-03-01

    Current practices for combating cyber attacks typically use Intrusion Detection Systems (IDSs) to detect and block multistage attacks. Because of the speed and impacts of new types of cyber attacks, current IDSs are limited in providing accurate detection while reliably adapting to new attacks. In signature-based IDS systems, this limitation is made apparent by the latency from day zero of an attack to the creation of an appropriate signature. This work hypothesizes that this latency can be shortened by creating signatures via anomaly-based algorithms. A hybrid supervised and unsupervised clustering algorithm is proposed for new signature creation. These new signatures created in real-time would take effect immediately, ideally detecting new attacks. This work first investigates a modified density-based clustering algorithm as an IDS, with its strengths and weaknesses identified. A signature creation algorithm leveraging the summarizing abilities of clustering is investigated. Lessons learned from the supervised signature creation are then leveraged for the development of unsupervised real-time signature classification. Automating signature creation and classification via clustering is demonstrated as satisfactory but with limitations.

  7. A Review of Vapor Intrusion Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yijun; Suuberg, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    A complete vapor intrusion (VI) model, describing vapor entry of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) into buildings located on contaminated sites, generally consists of two main parts-one describing vapor transport in the soil and the other its entry into the building. Modeling the soil vapor transport part involves either analytically or numerically solving the equations of vapor advection and diffusion in the subsurface. Contaminant biodegradation must often also be included in this simulation, and can increase the difficulty of obtaining a solution, especially when explicitly considering coupled oxygen transport and consumption. The models of contaminant building entry pathway are often coupled to calculations of indoor air contaminant concentration, and both are influenced by building construction and operational features. The description of entry pathway involves consideration of building foundation characteristics, while calculation of indoor air contaminant levels requires characterization of building enclosed space and air exchange within this. This review summarizes existing VI models, and discusses the limits of current screening tools commonly used in this field. PMID:23360069

  8. Abstracting audit data for lightweight intrusion detection

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Wei

    2010-01-01

    High speed of processing massive audit data is crucial for an anomaly Intrusion Detection System (IDS) to achieve real-time performance during the detection. Abstracting audit data is a potential solution to improve the efficiency of data processing. In this work, we propose two strategies of data abstraction in order to build a lightweight detection model. The first strategy is exemplar extraction and the second is attribute abstraction. Two clustering algorithms, Affinity Propagation (AP) as well as traditional k-means, are employed to extract the exemplars, and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is employed to abstract important attributes (a.k.a. features) from the audit data. Real HTTP traffic data collected in our institute as well as KDD 1999 data are used to validate the two strategies of data abstraction. The extensive test results show that the process of exemplar extraction significantly improves the detection efficiency and has a better detection performance than PCA in data abstraction. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  9. A Fusion of Multiagent Functionalities for Effective Intrusion Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanalakshmi Krishnan Sadhasivan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Provision of high security is one of the active research areas in the network applications. The failure in the centralized system based on the attacks provides less protection. Besides, the lack of update of new attacks arrival leads to the minimum accuracy of detection. The major focus of this paper is to improve the detection performance through the adaptive update of attacking information to the database. We propose an Adaptive Rule-Based Multiagent Intrusion Detection System (ARMA-IDS to detect the anomalies in the real-time datasets such as KDD and SCADA. Besides, the feedback loop provides the necessary update of attacks in the database that leads to the improvement in the detection accuracy. The combination of the rules and responsibilities for multiagents effectively detects the anomaly behavior, misuse of response, or relay reports of gas/water pipeline data in KDD and SCADA, respectively. The comparative analysis of the proposed ARMA-IDS with the various existing path mining methods, namely, random forest, JRip, a combination of AdaBoost/JRip, and common path mining on the SCADA dataset conveys that the effectiveness of the proposed ARMA-IDS in the real-time fault monitoring. Moreover, the proposed ARMA-IDS offers the higher detection rate in the SCADA and KDD cup 1999 datasets.

  10. Assessing the risk of saltwater intrusion in coastal aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, J.; Allen, D. M.

    2017-08-01

    In coastal regions, the quality of groundwater can be compromised due to saltwater intrusion (SWI) caused by natural (sea level rise (SLR) and storm surge) and anthropogenic (pumping) hazards. The goal of this research was to develop and test an approach for assessing the risk of SWI in coastal aquifers. The Gulf Islands in British Columbia (BC) was the case study area. The vulnerability of the bedrock aquifers to SWI was assessed spatially by mapping hazards in combination with the aquifer susceptibility. Climate change related hazards, including SLR and storm surge overwash, were integrated into floodplain maps for each island using projected SLR data for 2100 in combination with estimated storm surge levels based on data collected over a forty year period. When combined with maps showing the density of pumping wells, coastal zones that may be at higher risk of SWI were identified for this particular coastal area of BC. Hazards due to pumping have the greatest influence on the vulnerability. Risk was evaluated spatially using an economic valuation of loss - here replacement of a water supply. The combination of chemical indicators of SWI and risk assessment maps are potentially useful tools for identifying areas vulnerable to SWI, and these tools can be used to improve decision-making related to monitoring and community development for coastal areas, thereby increasing resilience.

  11. Towards Reliable Evaluation of Anomaly-Based Intrusion Detection Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Arun

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the results of research into the effects of environment-induced noise on the evaluation process for anomaly detectors in the cyber security domain. This research was conducted during a 10-week summer internship program from the 19th of August, 2012 to the 23rd of August, 2012 at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. The research performed lies within the larger context of the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) Smart Grid cyber security project, a Department of Energy (DoE) funded effort involving the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology and the University of Southern California/ Information Sciences Institute. The results of the present effort constitute an important contribution towards building more rigorous evaluation paradigms for anomaly-based intrusion detectors in complex cyber physical systems such as the Smart Grid. Anomaly detection is a key strategy for cyber intrusion detection and operates by identifying deviations from profiles of nominal behavior and are thus conceptually appealing for detecting "novel" attacks. Evaluating the performance of such a detector requires assessing: (a) how well it captures the model of nominal behavior, and (b) how well it detects attacks (deviations from normality). Current evaluation methods produce results that give insufficient insight into the operation of a detector, inevitably resulting in a significantly poor characterization of a detectors performance. In this work, we first describe a preliminary taxonomy of key evaluation constructs that are necessary for establishing rigor in the evaluation regime of an anomaly detector. We then focus on clarifying the impact of the operational environment on the manifestation of attacks in monitored data. We show how dynamic and evolving environments can introduce high variability into the data stream perturbing detector performance. Prior research has focused on understanding the impact of this

  12. Simulating the influence of groundwater table fluctuation on vapor intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, J.

    2017-12-01

    The migration of volatile chemicals from groundwater to an overlying building is a commonly existing phenomenon around the world. Due to the distinction of hydrologic conditions among vapor intrusion sites, it is necessary to consider the effect of dominant hydrologic factors in order to obtain a precise site evaluation and a health risk assessment during the screening process. This study mainly discusses the impact of groundwater table fluctuation and other hydrological factors including porosity, permeability and soil moisture on the vapor intrusion transport. A two-dimensional model is configured to inject different typical volatile organic contaminants from EPA's Vapor Intrusion Database. Through quantifying the contaminant vapor concentration attenuation factors under the effect of groundwater table fluctuation, this study provides suggestions for indoor air sample and vapor intrusion assessment.

  13. Security Enrichment in Intrusion Detection System Using Classifier Ensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma R. Salunkhe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the era of Internet and with increasing number of people as its end users, a large number of attack categories are introduced daily. Hence, effective detection of various attacks with the help of Intrusion Detection Systems is an emerging trend in research these days. Existing studies show effectiveness of machine learning approaches in handling Intrusion Detection Systems. In this work, we aim to enhance detection rate of Intrusion Detection System by using machine learning technique. We propose a novel classifier ensemble based IDS that is constructed using hybrid approach which combines data level and feature level approach. Classifier ensembles combine the opinions of different experts and improve the intrusion detection rate. Experimental results show the improved detection rates of our system compared to reference technique.

  14. Ensemble of classifiers based network intrusion detection system performance bound

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mkuzangwe, Nenekazi NP

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a performance bound of a network intrusion detection system (NIDS) that uses an ensemble of classifiers. Currently researchers rely on implementing the ensemble of classifiers based NIDS before they can determine the performance...

  15. Intrusion resistant underground structure (IRUS) - safety assessment and licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, B. A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the safety goals, human exposure scenarios and critical groups, the syvac-nsure performance assessment code, groundwater pathway safety results, and inadvertent human intrusion of the IRUS. 2 tabs

  16. Novel Non-Intrusive Vibration Monitoring System for Turbopumps Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ASRI proposes to develop an advanced and commercially viable Non-Intrusive Vibration Monitoring System (NI-VMS) which can provide effective on-line/off-line engine...

  17. Implementing an Intrusion Detection System in the Mysea Architecture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tenhunen, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    .... The objective of this thesis is to design an intrusion detection system (IDS) architecture that permits administrators operating on MYSEA client machines to conveniently view and analyze IDS alerts from the single level networks...

  18. Slick: An Intrusion Detection System for Virtualized Storage Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bacs, A.; Giuffrida, C.; Grill, B.; Bos, H.J.; Ossowski, Sascha

    2016-01-01

    Cloud computing is rapidly reshaping the server administration landscape. The widespread use of virtualization and the increasingly high server consolidation ratios, in particular, have introduced unprecedented security challenges for users, increasing the exposure to intrusions and opening up new

  19. Information Assurance Intrusion Detection Sensor Database Design: Lessons Learned

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spink, Brian

    2001-01-01

    Current architectural trends in information assurance for the DOD focuses on the fusion and correlation of large volumes of data collected across several intrusion detection systems and boundary devices...

  20. How Intrusion Detection Can Improve Software Decoy Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Monteiro, Valter

    2003-01-01

    This research concerns information security and computer-network defense. It addresses how to handle the information of log files and intrusion-detection systems to recognize when a system is under attack...

  1. Probabilistic risk assessment for six vapour intrusion algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Provoost, J.; Reijnders, L.; Bronders, J.; Van Keer, I.; Govaerts, S.

    2014-01-01

    A probabilistic assessment with sensitivity analysis using Monte Carlo simulation for six vapour intrusion algorithms, used in various regulatory frameworks for contaminated land management, is presented here. In addition a deterministic approach with default parameter sets is evaluated against

  2. Some reflections on human intrusion into a nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerlind, M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper summarises some of the Swedish nuclear regulators' requirements and views related to intrusion into a repository for spent nuclear fuel, in the post-closure phase. The focus is however on experiences from the interaction with various stakeholders in the Swedish process for siting a repository. It is recognised that intrusion is not a major concern but that it is regularly raised in the debate, often in connection with issues related to retrievability. It is pointed out that more attention should be paid to the repository performance after an intrusion event, both in safety assessments and in communication with stakeholders, and not only address the immediate impacts to intruders. It is believed that international co-operation would be useful for developing methodologies for defining intrusion scenarios. (author)

  3. Hydraulic barrier against seawater intrusion in the main aquifer of Delta del Llobregat; Barrera hidraulica contra la intrusion marina en el acuifero principal del Delta del Llobregat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortuno Gobern, F.; Ninerola Pla, J. M.; Fraile, J.; Juarez, I.; Molinero Huguet, J.; Arcos, D.; Pitarch, J. L.

    2009-07-01

    The main aquifer of Delta del Llobregat (Barcelona, Spain) is affected by seawater intrusion from 1970. For stopping its advance, the Catalan Water Agency is carrying out the construction of a positive hydraulic barrier through the injection of water in 14 wells. This is the first project of these characteristic that it is carried out in Spain and pioneer in Europe. The barrier elevates the groundwater level of the aquifer near the coast and avoids that the seawater penetrates inland, using reclaimed water of Baix Llobregat WWTP with several treatments. The first phase brings already more than 2 years of functioning, with highly positive results since a substantial improvement of the quality of the groundwater has been observed. The second phase is at present under construction. (Author)

  4. The design about the intrusion defense system for IHEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Baoxu; Xu Rongsheng; Yu Chuansong; Wu Chunzhen

    2003-01-01

    With the development of network technologies, limitations on traditional methods of network security protection are becoming more and more obvious. An individual network security product or the simple combination of several products can hardly complete the goal of keeping from hackers' intrusion. Therefore, on the basis of the analyses about the security problems of IHEPNET which is an open and scientific research network, the author designs an intrusion defense system especially for IHEPNET

  5. Classification of Intrusion Detection Dataset using machine learning Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Neethu B

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes about a method of intrusion detection that uses machine learning algorithms. Here we discuss about the combinational use of two machine learning algorithms called Principal Component Analysis and Naive Bayes classifier. The dimensionality of the dataset is reduced by using the principal component analysis and the classification of the dataset in to normal and attack classes is done by using Naïve Bayes Classifier. The experiments were conducted on the intrusion detection d...

  6. Passive Barriers to Inadvertent Human Intrusion for Use at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2007-01-01

    In July1996, BN transmitted Passive Barriers to Inadvertent Human Intrusion for Use at the Nevada Test Site to the United States Department of Energy, under Contract DE-AC08-91NV10833. The 1996 paper had a limited distribution and was not reviewed for public release. In 2007, National Security Technologies LLC (NSTec) made minor revisions to conform to current editorial standards of the NNSA/NSO and to meet current security requirements for public release. The primary purpose of this study was to identify types of engineered passive barriers that could deter future intrusion into buried low-level radioactive waste, particularly intrusion by drilling water wells. The study considered drilling technology, many natural and man-made materials, and both underground and above-ground barriers. Based on cost and effectiveness, the report recommended underground barriers consisting of a layer of rubble or tires. An aboveground barrier mound might also prove effective, but would cost more, and may become an attractive nuisance (e.g., might, after their purpose has been forgotten, encourage exploration for the sake of satisfying curiosity). Advances in drilling technology could render any engineered barriers ineffective if there is motivation to penetrate the barriers

  7. Seasonal fluctuations of ichthyoplankton assemblage in the northeastern South China Sea influenced by the Kuroshio intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Delian; Zhang, Xia; Jiang, Zhijian; Zhang, Jingping; Arbi, Iman; Jiang, Xin; Huang, Xiaoping; Zhang, Wenjing

    2017-09-01

    The distribution and assemblage of ichthyoplankton related to local hydrographic features, especially intrusion of the Kuroshio Current (KC) and Guangdong Coastal Current (GCC) in the northeastern South China Sea (NESCS) were investigated in this study. A total of 193 species of ichthyoplankton belonging to 141 genera and 66 families were recognized in summer 2015 and late-winter 2016. The ichthyoplankton assemblage was identified with distinct seasonal differences, and the differences were responded well with the oceanography conditions. In summer, the assemblages were identified into offshore and inshore groups, as controlled by the South China Sea Warm Current (SCSWC) in off-shelf, upwelling, and the diluted water from the Pearl River in inshore. In winter, three groups were divided, representing the southwestern inshore, intrusion of the KC in the eastern offshore, and the GCC in the northern inshore area, respectively. Furthermore, Sigmops gracilis and Vinciguerria sp.3 were probably brought into the NESCS by intrusion of the KC from the eastern Luzon Strait. In addition, high ichthyoplankton abundance was found in high chlorophyll a located in upwelling areas in the northern coastal area in summer and in the southwestern Taiwan Bank in winter, respectively. The nutrition outcropped by the upwelling together, and those brought from the Pearl River probably supported high food availability of the ichthyoplankton in the northern coast of the NESCS.

  8. Saltwater intrusion as potential driver of phosphorus release from limestone bedrock in a coastal aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower, Hilary; Rains, Mark; Lewis, David; Zhang, Jia-Zhong; Price, René

    2017-01-01

    An important but often overlooked consequence of saltwater intrusion is the potential increase of groundwater soluble reactive phosphorus concentrations. The phosphorus sorption dynamics of two limestone rocks of different composition were investigated by simulating seawater intrusion over a wide range of mixing ratios between freshwater and saltwater. Both rocks exhibited a logarithmic loss of sorption efficiency in mixtures containing more than approximately 3 mM Cl- concentration (100 mg Cl-/L; about saltwater). We infer that aquifer solids immersed in freshwater would undergo phosphorus desorption in response to the introduction of this minor amount of seawater. This Cl- concentration is within the range designated as fresh water. Thus we conclude that increased soluble reactive phosphorus availability from saltwater-induced desorption may occur at the ion exchange front, which is actually landward of the saltwater intrusion front as it is commonly defined. Sorption efficiency in our experiments continued to decline as salinity increased, until Cl- concentration reached a second threshold of 50 or 200 mM (1700 or 7700 mg Cl-/L), depending on the rock composition, particularly iron content. Further increase in salinity would produce little increase in groundwater soluble reactive phosphorus concentration. Our results have implications for soluble reactive phosphorus availability in estuaries that receive mixing zone groundwater discharge.

  9. Intrusion Detection in Control Systems using Sequence Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuchi, Mai; Onoda, Takashi

    Intrusion detection is considered effective in control systems. Sequences of the control application behavior observed in the communication, such as the order of the control device to be controlled, are important in control systems. However, most intrusion detection systems do not effectively reflect sequences in the application layer into the detection rules. In our previous work, we considered utilizing sequences for intrusion detection in control systems, and demonstrated the usefulness of sequences for intrusion detection. However, manually writing the detection rules for a large system can be difficult, so using machine learning methods becomes feasible. Also, in the case of control systems, there have been very few observed cyber attacks, so we have very little knowledge of the attack data that should be used to train the intrusion detection system. In this paper, we use an approach that combines CRF (Conditional Random Field) considering the sequence of the system, thus able to reflect the characteristics of control system sequences into the intrusion detection system, and also does not need the knowledge of attack data to construct the detection rules.

  10. Impact of the bottom drag coefficient on saltwater intrusion in the extremely shallow estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Hanghang; Zhu, Jianrong

    2018-02-01

    The interactions between the extremely shallow, funnel-shaped topography and dynamic processes in the North Branch (NB) of the Changjiang Estuary produce a particular type of saltwater intrusion, saltwater spillover (SSO), from the NB into the South Branch (SB). This dominant type of saltwater intrusion threatens the winter water supplies of reservoirs located in the estuary. Simulated SSO was weaker than actual SSO in previous studies, and this problem has not been solved until now. The improved ECOM-si model with the advection scheme HSIMT-TVD was applied in this study. Logarithmic and Chézy-Manning formulas of the bottom drag coefficient (BDC) were established in the model to investigate the associated effect on saltwater intrusion in the NB. Modeled data and data collected at eight measurement stations located in the NB from February 19 to March 1, 2017, were compared, and three skill assessment indicators, the correlation coefficient (CC), root-mean-square error (RMSE), and skill score (SS), of water velocity and salinity were used to quantitatively validate the model. The results indicated that the water velocities modeled using the Chézy-Manning formula of BDC were slightly more accurate than those based on the logarithmic BDC formula, but the salinities produced by the latter formula were more accurate than those of the former. The results showed that the BDC increases when water depth decreases during ebb tide, and the results based on the Chézy-Manning formula were smaller than those based on the logarithmic formula. Additionally, the landward net water flux in the upper reaches of the NB during spring tide increases based on the Chézy-Manning formula, and saltwater intrusion in the NB was enhanced, especially in the upper reaches of the NB. At a transect in the upper reaches of the NB, the net transect water flux (NTWF) is upstream in spring tide and downstream in neap tide, and the values produced by the Chézy-Manning formula are much larger than

  11. Non-Intrusive Battery Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajewski Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The “Non-intrusive battery health monitoring”, developed by Airbus Defence and Space (ADS in cooperation with the CIRIMAT-CNRS laboratory and supported by CNES, aims at providing a diagnosis of the battery ageing in flight, called State of Health (SOH, using only the post-treatment of the battery telemetries. The battery current and voltage telemetries are used by a signal processing tool on ground to characterize and to model the battery at low frequencies which allows monitoring the evolution of its degradation with great accuracy. The frequential behaviour estimation is based on inherent disturbances on the current during the nominal functioning of the battery. For instance, on-board thermal control or equipment consumption generates random disturbances on battery current around an average current. The battery voltage response to these current random disturbances enables to model the low frequency impedance of the battery by a signal processing tool. The re-created impedance is then compared with the evolution model of the low frequencies impedance as a function of the battery ageing to estimate accurately battery degradation. Hence, this method could be applied to satellites which are already in orbit and whose battery telemetries acquisition system fulfils the constraints determined in the study. This innovative method is an improvement of present state-of-the-art and is important to have a more accurate in-flight knowledge of battery ageing which is crucial for mission and operation planning and also for possible satellite mission extension or deorbitation. This method is patented by Airbus Defence and Space and CNES.

  12. Groundwater salinity in a floodplain forest impacted by saltwater intrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, David A; Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael

    2014-11-15

    Coastal wetlands occupy a delicate position at the intersection of fresh and saline waters. Changing climate and watershed hydrology can lead to saltwater intrusion into historically freshwater systems, causing plant mortality and loss of freshwater habitat. Understanding the hydrological functioning of tidally influenced floodplain forests is essential for advancing ecosystem protection and restoration goals, however finding direct relationships between hydrological inputs and floodplain hydrology is complicated by interactions between surface water, groundwater, and atmospheric fluxes in variably saturated soils with heterogeneous vegetation and topography. Thus, an alternative method for identifying common trends and causal factors is required. Dynamic factor analysis (DFA), a time series dimension reduction technique, models temporal variation in observed data as linear combinations of common trends, which represent unexplained common variability, and explanatory variables. DFA was applied to model shallow groundwater salinity in the forested floodplain wetlands of the Loxahatchee River (Florida, USA), where altered watershed hydrology has led to changing hydroperiod and salinity regimes and undesired vegetative changes. Long-term, high-resolution groundwater salinity datasets revealed dynamics over seasonal and yearly time periods as well as over tidal cycles and storm events. DFA identified shared trends among salinity time series and a full dynamic factor model simulated observed series well (overall coefficient of efficiency, Ceff=0.85; 0.52≤Ceff≤0.99). A reduced multilinear model based solely on explanatory variables identified in the DFA had fair to good results (Ceff=0.58; 0.38≤Ceff≤0.75) and may be used to assess the effects of restoration and management scenarios on shallow groundwater salinity in the Loxahatchee River floodplain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Predicting salt intrusion into freshwater aquifers resulting from CO2 injection – A study on the influence of conservative assumptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Lena; Binning, Philip John; Class, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Brine migration and saltwater intrusion into freshwater aquifers are among the hazards which may result from injecting CO2 into deep saline formations. Comprehensive risk assessment should include estimates of the salinization of freshwater aquifers, preferably based on numerical simulation results...... to an underestimation of hazards. This study compares two conceptual model approaches for the numerical simulation of brine-migration scenarios through a vertical fault and salt intrusion into a fresh water aquifer. The first approach calculates salt discharge into freshwater using an immiscible two-phase model......-phase model is applied in the CO2 storage reservoir and spatially coupled to a single-phase (water) two-component (water, salt) model, where salt mass fraction is a variable. A Dirichlet–Neumann technique is used for the coupling conditions at the interface of the two models. The results show...

  14. Environmental Characteristics of Carbonatite and Alkaline Intrusion-related Rare Earth Element (REE) Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, R. R., II; Piatak, N. M.

    2017-12-01

    Carbonatites and alkaline intrusions are important sources of REEs. Environmental risks related to these deposit types have been assessed through literature review and evaluation of the geochemical properties of representative samples of mill tailings and their leachates. The main ore mineral in carbonatite deposits is bastnasite [(Ce,La)(CO3)F], which is found with dolomite and calcite ( 65 %), barite (20 - 25 %), plus a number of minor accessory minerals including sulfides such as galena and pyrite. Generally, alkaline intrusion-related REE deposits either occur in layered complexes or with dikes and veins cutting alkaline intrusions. Such intrusions have a more diverse group of REE ore minerals that include fluorcarbonates, oxides, silicates, and phosphates. Ore also can include minor calcite and iron (Fe), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) sulfides. The acid-generating potential of both deposit types is low because of a predominance of carbonate minerals in the carbonatite deposits, the presence of feldspars and minor calcite in alkaline intrusion-related deposits, and to only minor to trace occurrence of potentially acid-generating sulfide minerals. Both deposit types, however, are produced by igneous and hydrothermal processes that enrich high-field strength, incompatible elements, which typically are excluded from common rock-forming minerals. Elements such as yttrium (Y), niobium Nb), zirconium (Zr), hafnium (Hf), tungsten (W), titanium (Ti), tantalum (Ta), scandium (Sc), thorium (Th), and uranium (U) can be characteristic of these deposits and may be of environmental concern. Most of these elements, including the REEs, but with the exception of U, have low solubilities in water at the near-neutral pH values expected around these deposits. Mill tailings from carbonatite deposits can exceed residential soil and sediment criteria for Pb, and leachates from mill tailings can exceed drinking water guidelines for Pb. The greatest environmental challenges, however, are

  15. FuGeIDS: Fuzzy Genetic paradigms in Intrusion Detection Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Borgohain, Rajdeep

    2012-01-01

    With the increase in the number of security threats, Intrusion Detection Systems have evolved as a significant countermeasure against these threats. And as such, the topic of Intrusion Detection Systems has become one of the most prominent research topics in recent years. This paper gives an overview of the Intrusion Detection System and looks at two major machine learning paradigms used in Intrusion Detection System, Genetic Algorithms and Fuzzy Logic and how to apply them for intrusion dete...

  16. Number of Waste Package Hit by Igneous Intrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M. Wallace

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this scientific analysis report is to document calculations of the number of waste packages that could be damaged in a potential future igneous event through a repository at Yucca Mountain. The analyses include disruption from an intrusive igneous event and from an extrusive volcanic event. This analysis supports the evaluation of the potential consequences of future igneous activity as part of the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). Igneous activity is a disruptive event that is included in the TSPA-LA analyses. Two igneous activity scenarios are considered: (1) The igneous intrusion groundwater release scenario (also called the igneous intrusion scenario) considers the in situ damage to waste packages or failure of waste packages that occurs if they are engulfed or otherwise affected by magma as a result of an igneous intrusion. (2) The volcanic eruption scenario depicts the direct release of radioactive waste due to an intrusion that intersects the repository followed by a volcanic eruption at the surface. An igneous intrusion is defined as the ascent of a basaltic dike or dike system (i.e., a set or swarm of multiple dikes comprising a single intrusive event) to repository level, where it intersects drifts. Magma that does reach the surface from igneous activity is an eruption (or extrusive activity) (Jackson 1997 [DIRS 109119], pp. 224, 333). The objective of this analysis is to develop a probabilistic measure of the number of waste packages that could be affected by each of the two scenarios

  17. How Significant is the Slope of the Sea-side Boundary for Modelling Seawater Intrusion in Coastal Aquifers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Marc; Graf, Thomas; Kolditz, Olaf; Lield, Rudolf; Post, Vincent

    2017-04-01

    A large number of people live in coastal areas using the available water resources, which in (semi-)arid regions are often taken from groundwater resources as the only sufficient source. Compared to surface water, these usually provide a safe water supply due to the remediation and retention capabilities of the subsurface, their high yield, and potentially longer term stability. With a water withdrawal from a coastal aquifer, coastal water management, however, has to ensure that seawater intrusion is retained in order to keep the water salinity at an acceptable level for all water users (e.g. agriculture, industry, households). Besides monitoring of water levels and saline intrusion, it has become a common practice to use numerical modeling for evaluating the coastal water resources and projecting future scenarios. When applying a model, it is necessary for the simplifications implied during the conceptualization of the setup to include the relevant processes (here variable-density flow and mass transport) and sensitive parameters (for a steady state commonly hydraulic conductivity, density ratio, dispersivity). Additionally, the model's boundary conditions are essential to the simulation results. In order to reduce the number of elements, and thus, the computational burden, one simplification that is made in most regional scale saltwater intrusion applications, is to represent the sea-side boundary with a vertical geometry, contrary to the natural conditions, that usually show a very shallow decent of the interface between the aquifer and the open seawater. We use the scientific open-source modeling toolbox OpenGeoSys [1] to quantify the influence of this simplification on the saline intrusion, submarine groundwater discharge, and groundwater residence times. Using an ensemble of different shelf shapes for a steady state setup, we identified a significant dependency of saline intrusion length on the geometric parameters of the sea-side boundary. Results show that

  18. A modeling study of saltwater intrusion in the Andarax delta area using multiple data sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonsson, Arni Valur; Engesgaard, Peter Knudegaard; Jorreto, Sara

    In groundwater model development, construction of the conceptual model is one of the (initial and) critical aspects that determines the model reliability and applicability in terms of e.g. system (hydrogeological) understanding, groundwater quality predictions, and general use in water resources...... reaching saltwater intrusion in the area. Furthermore, the geological information obtained from these boreholes laid a foundation for a new hydrogeological conceptual model of the area, which we aim to assess in this simulation study.Appraisal of the conceptual model of the Andarax delta area is conducted...

  19. Management of aquifer recharge in Lebanon by removing seawater intrusion from coastal aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masciopinto, Costantino

    2013-11-30

    This study investigates the feasibility of management of aquifer recharge (MAR) in Lebanon by designing well barriers to remove seawater intrusion from the fractured carbonate aquifers. Groundwater flow and saltwater/freshwater 50% sharp interface have been modeled along the coastal area using the Ghyben-Herzberg theory. The groundwater flow simulations have been supported by field transmissivity estimations and depth measurements carried out on 44 wells during 2003. Results have shown the seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers at Jieh and Damour regions. Three well-injection barriers have been proposed. The water volumes for recharge and the barrier positions have been defined by means of groundwater flow simulations. MAR can provide a valuable contribution to colloid (even pathogen) removal from injectant water, although during water infiltration in subsoil the reduction of aquifer permeability causes clogging. A simple new model for estimating the soil-rock permeability reduction due to the well clogging has been presented. The MAR, including the soil aquifer treatment at Damour and Jieh regions, has been studied by considering aquifer transmissivity (and soil porosity) reduction caused by clogging. Furthermore, the appropriate mixing of the injectant water by using reclaimed water, groundwater and surface water can be simulated using the proposed models. The time required to achieve 5% of rock permeability reduction at the proposed well barriers ranged from 71 to 935 d, by changing water quality and flow rate for recharge. This study can assist regional governments with water management in areas affected by scarcity of freshwater by implementing appropriate well-barrier projects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Intrusão dentária utilizando mini-implantes Orthodontic intrusion with mini-implant anchorage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Martins de Araújo

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: dentre os diversos tipos de movimentos dentários induzidos ortodonticamente, o de intrusão é, sem dúvida, um dos mais difíceis de serem conseguidos. A mecânica intrusiva convencional, apesar de viável, é complexa, no que diz respeito ao controle de seus efeitos colaterais. Isso, em grande parte, refere-se à dificuldade em se obter uma ancoragem satisfatória. Neste contexto, os mini-implantes, por oferecerem efetiva ancoragem esquelética, têm se mostrado de extrema valia para os ortodontistas, tornando a intrusão, tanto de dentes anteriores quanto posteriores, um procedimento cada vez mais simples, do ponto de vista mecânico. OBJETIVO: pretende-se, então, neste artigo, descrever e demonstrar, clinicamente, as diversas possibilidades de utilização dos mini-implantes como recurso de ancoragem para o movimento de intrusão.INTRODUCTION: Among all different varieties of orthodontically induced tooth movement, intrusion is, without doubt, one of the most difficult movements to be reached. Conventional intrusive biomechanics, although possible, may lead to undesirable side-effects. These events, in most cases, are related to the difficulty in obtaining an efficient anchorage unit. Then, mini-implants, because of their high success rates of effective skeletal anchorage, are valuable devices to orthodontists, transforming the intrusion movement, both at the anterior and the posterior regions, a more and more uncomplicated biomechanical procedure. AIM: to describe and show, clinically, different ways of using mini-implants as an anchorage system to intrusion movement.

  1. Seismic signature of active intrusions in mountain chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Luccio, Francesca; Chiodini, Giovanni; Caliro, Stefano; Cardellini, Carlo; Convertito, Vincenzo; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Tolomei, Cristiano; Ventura, Guido

    2018-01-01

    Intrusions are a ubiquitous component of mountain chains and testify to the emplacement of magma at depth. Understanding the emplacement and growth mechanisms of intrusions, such as diapiric or dike-like ascent, is critical to constrain the evolution and structure of the crust. Petrological and geological data allow us to reconstruct magma pathways and long-term magma differentiation and assembly processes. However, our ability to detect and reconstruct the short-term dynamics related to active intrusive episodes in mountain chains is embryonic, lacking recognized geophysical signals. We analyze an anomalously deep seismic sequence (maximum magnitude 5) characterized by low-frequency bursts of earthquakes that occurred in 2013 in the Apennine chain in Italy. We provide seismic evidences of fluid involvement in the earthquake nucleation process and identify a thermal anomaly in aquifers where CO 2 of magmatic origin dissolves. We show that the intrusion of dike-like bodies in mountain chains may trigger earthquakes with magnitudes that may be relevant to seismic hazard assessment. These findings provide a new perspective on the emplacement mechanisms of intrusive bodies and the interpretation of the seismicity in mountain chains.

  2. Railway clearance intrusion detection method with binocular stereo vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xingfang; Guo, Baoqing; Wei, Wei

    2018-03-01

    In the stage of railway construction and operation, objects intruding railway clearance greatly threaten the safety of railway operation. Real-time intrusion detection is of great importance. For the shortcomings of depth insensitive and shadow interference of single image method, an intrusion detection method with binocular stereo vision is proposed to reconstruct the 3D scene for locating the objects and judging clearance intrusion. The binocular cameras are calibrated with Zhang Zhengyou's method. In order to improve the 3D reconstruction speed, a suspicious region is firstly determined by background difference method of a single camera's image sequences. The image rectification, stereo matching and 3D reconstruction process are only executed when there is a suspicious region. A transformation matrix from Camera Coordinate System(CCS) to Track Coordinate System(TCS) is computed with gauge constant and used to transfer the 3D point clouds into the TCS, then the 3D point clouds are used to calculate the object position and intrusion in TCS. The experiments in railway scene show that the position precision is better than 10mm. It is an effective way for clearance intrusion detection and can satisfy the requirement of railway application.

  3. Orthodontic intrusive movement to reduce infrabony defects in periodontal pacients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldrieli Regina Ambrósio

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The adult tends to be an excellent orthodontic patient, because he/she is motivated and cooperative. Nevertheless, many adult patientspresent periodontal problems. Intrusive movement is usually necessary against an area with infrabony defects, and in order for treatmentto be successful, it is necessary for all related aspects to be well understood. The aim of this study was to discuss the feasibility and efficacy of orthodontic intrusion as a means of reducing infrabony defects caused by periodontal disease. The methodology used was reviewed in the literature, from which articles were selected using the MEDLINE, LILACS and BBO databases. After periodontal treatment and maintenance with suitable bacterial plaque control has been performed, orthodontic treatment with intrusive tooth movement can be performed in case of pathological tooth migration and extrusion. The segmented arch technique is the most indicated for intruding teeth with infrabony defects because it is capable of developing light and continuous forces. Furthermore, although studies did not confirm, they suggested that orthodontic intrusion could lead to the formation of new periodontal support tissue. With a multidisciplinary approach, it is possible to successfully perform intrusion movements in teeth that present infrabony defects, provided that periodontal inflammation has been treated and the patient presents an excellent level of plaque control. Among the benefits of this approach are: better appearance, better access to dental hygiene, restitution of incisal occlusion and reduction in non axial load.

  4. Effects of Sleep after Experimental Trauma on Intrusive Emotional Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleim, Birgit; Wysokowsky, Julia; Schmid, Nuria; Seifritz, Erich; Rasch, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate sleep's effect in the immediate aftermath of experiencing an analog trauma in the laboratory on reducing intrusive emotional memory formation. Methods: Sixty-five healthy women were exposed to an experimental laboratory trauma. They viewed a neutral and a trauma film in the laboratory and were randomly allocated to either a group that slept following film viewing or a group that remained awake. Sleep was recorded with electroencephalogram in a subgroup of participants in the sleep group. All participants recorded intrusive memories in the week following the film. Results: The sleep group experienced fewer and less distressing intrusive trauma memories compared to the wake group. These effects were particularly evident toward the end of the week. Duration spent in stage N2 as opposed to light N1 sleep, a higher number of fast parietal sleep spindles and a lower rapid eye movement sleep density predicted intrusion frequency. Conclusions: Our results have clinical implications and set the ground for early-intervention sleep studies following trauma and prevention of chronic posttrauma disorders. Citation: Kleim B, Wysokowsky J, Schmid N, Seifritz E, Rasch B. Effects of sleep after experimental trauma on intrusive emotional memories. SLEEP 2016;39(12):2125–2132. PMID:27748249

  5. Distress and Recurrence of Intrusive Thoughts in Younger and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Joshua C.; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2011-01-01

    The current study incorporated a lifespan perspective into existing theories of intrusive thoughts to examine age-related differences in the difficulty controlling intrusive thoughts, the distress following intrusive thought recurrences, and the meanings assigned to these recurrences. Younger (N = 51) and older (N = 49) community adults were randomly assigned to suppress (i.e., keep out of mind) or monitor an intrusive thought. Participants rated their positive and negative affect throughout engagement with the intrusive thought, and also rated the meanings they gave to recurrences of their everyday intrusive thoughts. The results demonstrated that older adults tended to perceive greater difficulty with controlling the intrusive thought than younger adults, despite not differing in the actual recurrence of the intrusive thought. With regard to distress, ooHAcrosslder adults experienced steadier levels of positive affect than younger adults throughout engagement with the intrusive thought. However, older adults also reported greater residual negative affect after engaging with the intrusive thought than younger adults. Finally, older and younger adults appeared to assign meanings to recurrences of intrusive thoughts in line with age-relevant concerns. Specifically, older adults were prone to interpret the recurrence of intrusive thoughts as a sign of cognitive decline, but were less likely than younger adults to see intrusive thoughts as a sign of moral failure. Together, these results highlight a range of potential risk and protective factors in older adults for experiencing emotion dysregulation after intrusive thoughts. PMID:21707184

  6. Distress and recurrence of intrusive thoughts in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Joshua C; Teachman, Bethany A

    2012-03-01

    The current study incorporated a life span perspective into existing theories of intrusive thoughts to examine age-related differences in the difficulty controlling intrusive thoughts, the distress following intrusive thought recurrences, and the meanings assigned to these recurrences. Younger (N = 51) and older (N = 49) community adults were randomly assigned to suppress (i.e., keep out of mind) or monitor an intrusive thought. Participants rated their positive and negative affect throughout engagement with the intrusive thought, and they also rated the meanings they gave to recurrences of their everyday intrusive thoughts. The results demonstrated that older adults tended to perceive greater difficulty with controlling the intrusive thought than younger adults despite the fact that they did not differ in the actual recurrence of the intrusive thought. With regard to distress, older adults experienced steadier levels of positive affect than younger adults throughout engagement with the intrusive thought. However, older adults also reported greater residual negative affect after engaging with the intrusive thought than younger adults. Finally, older and younger adults appeared to assign meanings to recurrences of intrusive thoughts in line with age-relevant concerns. Specifically, older adults were prone to interpret the recurrence of intrusive thoughts as a sign of cognitive decline, but they were less likely than younger adults to see intrusive thoughts as a sign of moral failure. Together, these results highlight a range of potential risk and protective factors in older adults for experiencing emotion dysregulation after intrusive thoughts.

  7. Topographic Beta Spiral and Onshore Intrusion of the Kuroshio Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, De-Zhou; Huang, Rui Xin; Yin, Bao-shu; Feng, Xing-Ru; Chen, Hai-ying; Qi, Ji-Feng; Xu, Ling-jing; Shi, Yun-long; Cui, Xuan; Gao, Guan-Dong; Benthuysen, Jessica A.

    2018-01-01

    The Kuroshio intrusion plays a vitally important role in carrying nutrients to marginal seas. However, the key mechanism leading to the Kuroshio intrusion remains unclear. In this study we postulate a mechanism: when the Kuroshio runs onto steep topography northeast of Taiwan, the strong inertia gives rise to upwelling over topography, leading to a left-hand spiral in the stratified ocean. This is called the topographic beta spiral, which is a major player regulating the Kuroshio intrusion; this spiral can be inferred from hydrographic surveys. In the world oceans, the topographic beta spirals can be induced by upwelling generated by strong currents running onto steep topography. This is a vital mechanism regulating onshore intruding flow and the cross-shelf transport of energy and nutrients from the Kuroshio Current to the East China Sea. This topographic beta spiral reveals a long-term missing link between the oceanic general circulation theory and shelf dynamic theory.

  8. The Effects of Saltwater Intrusion to Flood Mitigation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azida Abu Bakar, Azinoor; Khairudin Khalil, Muhammad

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the effects of saltwater intrusion to flood mitigation project located in the flood plains in the district of Muar, Johor. Based on the studies and designs carried out, one of the effective flood mitigation options identified is the Kampung Tanjung Olak bypass and Kampung Belemang bypass at the lower reaches of Sungai Muar. But, the construction of the Kampung Belemang and Tanjung Olak bypass, while speeding up flood discharges, may also increase saltwater intrusion during drought low flows. Establishing the dynamics of flooding, including replicating the existing situation and the performance with prospective flood mitigation interventions, is most effectively accomplished using computer-based modelling tools. The finding of this study shows that to overcome the problem, a barrage should be constructed at Sungai Muar to solve the saltwater intrusion and low yield problem of the river.

  9. When Intrusion Detection Meets Blockchain Technology: A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Weizhi; Tischhauser, Elmar Wolfgang; Wang, Qingju

    2018-01-01

    With the purpose of identifying cyber threats and possible incidents, intrusion detection systems (IDSs) are widely deployed in various computer networks. In order to enhance the detection capability of a single IDS, collaborative intrusion detection networks (or collaborative IDSs) have been...... developed, which allow IDS nodes to exchange data with each other. However, data and trust management still remain two challenges for current detection architectures, which may degrade the effectiveness of such detection systems. In recent years, blockchain technology has shown its adaptability in many...... fields such as supply chain management, international payment, interbanking and so on. As blockchain can protect the integrity of data storage and ensure process transparency, it has a potential to be applied to intrusion detection domain. Motivated by this, this work provides a review regarding...

  10. Alerts Visualization and Clustering in Network-based Intrusion Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Dr. Li [University of Tennessee; Gasior, Wade C [ORNL; Dasireddy, Swetha [University of Tennessee

    2010-04-01

    Today's Intrusion detection systems when deployed on a busy network overload the network with huge number of alerts. This behavior of producing too much raw information makes it less effective. We propose a system which takes both raw data and Snort alerts to visualize and analyze possible intrusions in a network. Then we present with two models for the visualization of clustered alerts. Our first model gives the network administrator with the logical topology of the network and detailed information of each node that involves its associated alerts and connections. In the second model, flocking model, presents the network administrator with the visual representation of IDS data in which each alert is represented in different color and the alerts with maximum similarity move together. This gives network administrator with the idea of detecting various of intrusions through visualizing the alert patterns.

  11. Activating attachment representations during memory retrieval modulates intrusive traumatic memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Richard A; Chan, Iris

    2017-10-01

    Although priming mental representations of attachment security reduces arousal, research has not examined the effect of attachment on the retrieval of emotionally arousing memories. This study investigated the effect of priming attachment security on the retrieval of emotional memories. Seventy-five participants viewed negative and neutral images, and two days later received either an attachment prime or a control prime immediately prior to free recall of the images. Two days later, participants reported how frequently they experienced intrusions of the negative images. The attachment group had less distress, and reported fewer subsequent intrusions than the control group. Attachment style moderated these effects such that individuals with an avoidant attachment style were not impacted by the attachment prime. These findings suggest that priming attachment security decreases distress during memory reactivation, and this may reduce subsequent intrusive memories. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Why seawater intrusion has not yet occurred in the Kaluvelli-Pondicherry basin, Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Aude; Violette, Sophie

    2017-09-01

    Worldwide, coastal aquifers are threatened by seawater intrusion. The threat is greatest when aquifers are overexploited or when recharge is low due to a semi-arid or arid climate. The Kaluvelli-Pondicherry sedimentary basin in Tamil Nadu (India) presents both these characteristics. Groundwater levels in the Vanur aquifer can reach 50 m below sea level at less than 20 km inland. This groundwater depletion is due to an exponential increase in extraction for irrigation over 35 years. No seawater intrusion has yet been detected, but a sulphate-rich mineralization is observed, the result of upward vertical leakage from the underlying Ramanathapuram aquifer. To characterize the mechanisms involved, and to facilitate effective water management, hydrogeological numerical modelling of this multi-layered system has been conducted. Existing and acquired geological and hydrodynamic data have been applied to a quasi-3D hydrogeological model, NEWSAM. Recharge had been previously quantified through the inter-comparison of hydrological models, based on climatological and surface-flow field measurements. Sensitivity tests on parameters and boundary conditions associated with the sea were performed. The resulting water balances for each aquifer led to hypotheses of (1) an offshore fresh groundwater stock, and (2) a reversal and increase of the upward leakage from the Ramanathapuram aquifer, thus corroborating the hypothesis proposed to explain geochemical results of the previous study, and denying a seawater intrusion. Palaeo-climate review supports the existence of favourable hydro-climatological conditions to replenish an offshore groundwater stock of the Vanur aquifer in the past. The extent of this fresh groundwater stock was calculated using the Kooi and Groen method.

  13. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  14. An Approach for Cross-Domain Intrusion Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    supported by open source software (i.e., BASE, snort, PostgreSQL and pgpool-II). Our prototype enables an analyst to view and manipulate network trace data...multilevel (trusted) components, supported by open source software (i.e., BASE, snort, PostgreSQL and pgpool-II). Our prototype enables an analyst to view...component is implemented by the open source object-relational database system PostgreSQL 0). 4.4.3 Intrusion analysis engine The intrusion analysis

  15. A subtractive approach to interior intrusion detection system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sons, R.J.; Graham, R.H. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the subtractive approach to interior intrusion detection system design which assumes that all sensors are viable candidates until they are subjected to the constraints imposed by a particular facility. The constraints are determined by a sequence of questions concerning parameters such as threat definition, facility description and operation, environment, assets to be protected, security system capabilities, and cost. As a result of the questioning, some sensors will be eliminated from the candidate list, and the ''best'' set of sensors for the facility will remain. This form of questioning could be incorporated into an expert system aiding future intrusion detection system designs

  16. Sulfide Intrusion and Detoxification in the Seagrass Zostera marina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Holmer, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Gaseous sulfide intrusion into seagrasses growing in sulfidic sediments causes little or no harm to the plant, indicating the presence of an unknown sulfide tolerance or detoxification mechanism. We assessed such mechanism in the seagrass Zostera marina in the laboratory and in the field...... as sulfate throughout the plant. We conclude that avoidance of sulfide exposure by reoxidation of sulfide in the rhizosphere or aerenchyma and tolerance of sulfide intrusion by incorporation of sulfur in the plant are likely major survival strategies of seagrasses in sulfidic sediments....

  17. A national inventory of seawater intrusion vulnerability for Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanne K. Morgan

    2015-09-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: The combination of methods identified areas of highest risk to SWI including unconfined aquifers at Derby (WA and Esperance (WA, and confined aquifers at Esperance (WA and Adelaide (SA. The combination of analytic and qualitative approaches offers a more comprehensive and less subjective seawater intrusion characterization than arises from applying the methods in isolation, thereby imparting enhanced confidence in the outcomes. Importantly, active seawater intrusion conditions occur in many of Australia’s confined coastal aquifers, obviating the use of the analytical solution, and suggesting that offshore groundwater resources provide significant contributions to these systems.

  18. Application of Time-Domain Electromagnetic Method in Investigating Saltwater Intrusion of Santiago Island (Cape Verde)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Rui; Farzamian, Mohammad; Monteiro Santos, Fernando A.; Represas, Patrícia; Mota Gomes, A.; Lobo de Pina, A. F.; Almeida, Eugénio P.

    2017-11-01

    Santiago Island, the biggest and most populated island of the Cape Verde Republic, is characterised by limited surface waters and strong dependence on groundwater sources as the primary source of natural water supply for extensive agricultural activity and human use. However, as a consequence of the scarce precipitation and high evaporation as well as the intense overexploitation of the groundwater resources, the freshwater management is also in a delicate balance with saltwater at coastal areas. The time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) method is used to locate the extent of saltwater intrusion in four important agricultural regions in Santiago Island; São Domingos, Santa Cruz, São Miguel, and Tarrafal. The application of this method in Santiago Island proves it to be a successful tool in imaging the fresh/saltwater interface location. Depths to the saline zones and extensions of saline water are mapped along eight TDEM profiles.

  19. Analysis of Salinity Intrusion in the Waccamaw River and Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway near Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, 1995-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrads, Paul; Roehl, Edwin A.

    2007-01-01

    Six reservoirs in North Carolina discharge into the Pee Dee River, which flows 160 miles through South Carolina to the coastal communities near Myrtle Beach, South Carolina. During the Southeast's record-breaking drought from 1998 to 2003, salinity intrusions inundated a coastal municipal freshwater intake, limiting water supplies. To evaluate the effects of regulated flows of the Pee Dee River on salinity intrusion in the Waccamaw River and Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, the South Carolina Department of Natural Resources and a consortium of stakeholders entered into a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Geological Survey to apply data-mining techniques to the long-term time series to analyze and simulate salinity dynamics near the freshwater intakes along the Grand Strand of South Carolina. Salinity intrusion in tidal rivers results from the interaction of three principal forces?streamflow, mean tidal water levels, and tidal range. To analyze, model, and simulate hydrodynamic behaviors at critical coastal gages, data-mining techniques were applied to over 20 years of hourly streamflow, coastal water-quality, and water-level data. Artificial neural network models were trained to learn the variable interactions that cause salinity intrusions. Streamflow data from the 18,300-square-mile basin were input to the model as time-delayed variables and accumulated tributary inflows. Tidal inputs to the models were obtained by decomposing tidal water-level data into a 'periodic' signal of tidal range and a 'chaotic' signal of mean water levels. The artificial neural network models were able to convincingly reproduce historical behaviors and generate alternative scenarios of interest. To make the models directly available to all stakeholders along the Pee Dee and Waccamaw Rivers and Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, an easy-to-use decision support system (DSS) was developed as a spreadsheet application that integrates the historical database, artificial neural network models

  20. Enhancing collaborative intrusion detection networks against insider attacks using supervised intrusion sensitivity-based trust management model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Wenjuan; Meng, Weizhi; Kwok, Lam-For

    2017-01-01

    To defend against complex attacks, collaborative intrusion detection networks (CIDNs) have been developed to enhance the detection accuracy, which enable an IDS to collect information and learn experience from others. However, this kind of networks is vulnerable to malicious nodes which...... are utilized by insider attacks (e.g., betrayal attacks). In our previous research, we developed a notion of intrusion sensitivity and identified that it can help improve the detection of insider attacks, whereas it is still a challenge for these nodes to automatically assign the values. In this article, we...... of intrusion sensitivity based on expert knowledge. In the evaluation, we compare the performance of three different supervised classifiers in assigning sensitivity values and investigate our trust model under different attack scenarios and in a real wireless sensor network. Experimental results indicate...

  1. A Numerical Investigation of Vapor Intrusion — the Dynamic Response of Contaminant Vapors to Rainfall Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Rui; Pennell, Kelly G.; Suuberg, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. government and various agencies have published guidelines for field investigation of vapor intrusion, most of which suggest soil gas sampling as an integral part of the investigation. Contaminant soil gas data are often relatively more stable than indoor air vapor concentration measurements, but meteorological conditions might influence soil gas values. Although a few field and numerical studies have considered some temporal effects on soil gas vapor transport, a full explanation of the contaminant vapor concentration response to rainfall events is not available. This manuscript seeks to demonstrate the effects on soil vapor transport during and after different rainfall events, by applying a coupled numerical model of fluid flow and vapor transport. Both a single rainfall event and seasonal rainfall events were modeled. For the single rainfall event models, the vapor response process could be divided into three steps: namely, infiltration, water redistribution, and establishment of a water lens atop the groundwater source. In the infiltration step, rainfall intensity was found to determine the speed of the wetting front and wash-out effect on the vapor. The passage of the wetting front led to an increase of the vapor concentration in both the infiltration and water redistribution steps and this effect is noted at soil probes located 1 m below the ground surface. When the mixing of groundwater with infiltrated water was not allowed, a clean water lens accumulated above the groundwater source and led to a capping effect which can reduce diffusion rates of contaminant from the source. Seasonal rainfall with short time intervals involved superposition of the individual rainfall events. This modeling results indicated that for relatively deeper soil that the infiltration wetting front could not flood, the effects were damped out in less than a month after rain; while in the long term (years), possible formation of a water lens played a larger role in

  2. Episodic intrusion, internal differentiation, and hydrothermal alteration of the miocene tatoosh intrusive suite south of Mount Rainier, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Bray, E.A.; Bacon, C.R.; John, D.A.; Wooden, J.L.; Mazdab, F.K.

    2011-01-01

    The Miocene Tatoosh intrusive suite south of Mount Rainier is composed of three broadly granodioritic plutons that are manifestations of ancestral Cascades arc magmatism. Tatoosh intrusive suite plutons have individually diagnostic characteristics, including texture, mineralogy, and geochemistry, and apparently lack internal contacts. New ion-microprobe U-Pb zircon ages indicate crystallization of the Stevens pluton ca. 19.2 Ma, Reflection-Pyramid pluton ca. 18.5 Ma, and Nisqually pluton ca. 17.5 Ma. The Stevens pluton includes rare, statistically distinct ca. 20.1 Ma zircon antecrysts. Wide-ranging zircon rare earth element (REE), Hf, U, and Th concentrations suggest late crystallization from variably evolved residual liquids. Zircon Eu/Eu*-Hf covariation is distinct for each of the Reflection-Pyramid, Nisqually, and Stevens plutons. Although most Tatoosh intrusive suite rocks have been affected by weak hydrothermal alteration, and sparse mineralized veins cut some of these rocks, significant base or precious metal mineralization is absent. At the time of shallow emplacement, each of these magma bodies was largely homogeneous in bulk composition and petrographic features, but, prior to final solidification, each of the Tatoosh intrusive suite plutons developed internal compositional variation. Geochemical and petrographic trends within each pluton are most consistent with differential loss of residual melt, possibly represented by late aplite dikes or erupted as rhyolite, from crystal-rich magma. Crystal-rich magma that formed each pluton evidently accumulated in reservoirs below the present level of exposure and then intruded to a shallow depth. Assembled by episodic intrusion, the Tatoosh intrusive suite may be representative of midsized composite plutonic complexes beneath arc volcanoes. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  3. Optimal pumping scenarios for the estimation of the saltwater intrusion front in the coastal aquifer of Tympaki, Crete - Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettoraki, M. D.; Dokou, Z.; Varouchakis, E. A.; Karatzas, G. P.

    2012-04-01

    This study examines the saltwater intrusion problem, a naturally occurring phenomenon that is often augmented by human activity through the over-exploitation of the groundwater reserves. Saltwater intrusion occurs in most coastal aquifers due to the constant contact with the saltwater and the imbalance of the freshwater / saltwater that occurs under intense pumping conditions. The present study focuses on the Municipality of Tympaki aquifer in Heraklion, Crete, where the phenomenon is particularly intense. The main source of income in the region is agriculture, an activity that demands large amounts of water, especially during the summer. In the Tympaki basin there are 27 pumping wells with the majority of them located at the centre of the basin. The purpose of this study is to investigate the current extent of saltwater intrusion as well as to find the optimal pumping scheme, for which the saltwater intrusion will retreat, while meeting the irrigation needs of the region. A mathematical model that simulates the groundwater flow is used, in order to study the size, extent and rate of the phenomenon. MODFLOW was chosen for this purpose, which is a three-dimensional finite-difference groundwater flow model. Initial conditions, boundary conditions, hydraulic conductivity values and precipitation data for the basin were used in order to perform the model calibration and simulation. The optimization of the pumping sheme was performed using the GWM (Ground-Water Management) model, which utilizes the simplex method. The optimization problem at hand is slightly nonlinear because of the nonlinear relation of the free surface groundwater system to the pumping stress. GWM solves the nonlinear problem using a sequential linearization approach. At each step, the aquifer is considered confined and the response matrix of the system is calculated for an initial set of pumping rates. The Simplex method is then used in order to solve this linear problem and compute the optimal

  4. Intrusion detection systems: complement to firewall security system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intrusion detection systems: complement to firewall security system. ... Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management. Journal Home ... If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs.

  5. Intrusive Thoughts: A Primary Variable in Breakup Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Pelaez, Martha; Deeds, Osvelia; Delgado, Jeannette

    2013-01-01

    University students who were high versus low on breakup distress scores were given self-report measures to assess their intrusive thoughts about the romantic breakup and their somatic symptoms that followed the breakup as well as their extracurricular activities and social support that might alleviate their breakup distress. In a regression…

  6. Depressed mood mediates the relationship between rumination and intrusions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smets, Jorien; Luyckx, Koen; Wessel, Ineke; Raes, Filip

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that rumination is a causal factor for intrusive memories. These are disturbing autobiographical memories that pop into one's mind involuntarily, spontaneously, and repetitively. A three-wave longitudinal study was conducted to replicate this finding and to test whether one route

  7. Sensitivity analysis on parameters and processes affecting vapor intrusion risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Picone, S.; Valstar, J.R.; Gaans, van P.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    A one-dimensional numerical model was developed and used to identify the key processes controlling vapor intrusion risks by means of a sensitivity analysis. The model simulates the fate of a dissolved volatile organic compound present below the ventilated crawl space of a house. In contrast to the

  8. Fast Content-Based Packet Handling for Intrusion Detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fisk, Mike

    2001-01-01

    ... use of Royer-Moore currently used in the popular intrusion detection platform Snort. We then measure the actual performance of several search algorithms on actual packet traces and rulesets. Our results provide lessons on the structuring of content-based handlers.

  9. Psychological Intrusion – An Overlooked Aspect of Dental Fear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen R. Chapman

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Dental fear/anxiety is a widely recognised problem affecting a large proportion of the population. It can result in avoidance and/or difficulty accepting dental care. We believe that psychological intrusion may play a role in the aetiology and maintenance of dental fear for at least some individuals. In this narrative review we will take a developmental perspective in order to understand its impact across the lifespan. We will consider the nature of ‘self,’ parenting styles, the details of intrusive parenting or parental psychological control, and briefly touch upon child temperament and parental anxiety. Finally, we draw together the supporting (largely unrecognised evidence available in the dental literature. We illustrate the paper with clinical examples and discuss possibly effective ways of addressing the problem. We conclude that psychological intrusion appears to play an important role in dental fear, for at least some individuals, and we call for detailed research into the extent and exact nature of the problem. A simple means of identifying individuals who are vulnerable to psychological intrusion would be useful for dentists.

  10. Semantic intrusion detection with multisensor data fusion using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... A multisensor-based IDS enables identification of the intrusion patterns semantically by correlating the events and context information provided by multiple sensors. ... R Bhargavi1 V Vaidehi1. Department of Information Technology, Madras Institute of Technology, Anna University, Chennai 600 044, India ...

  11. A bagging approach to network intrusion detection | Adetunmbi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presences of these flaws make a secured system a mirage for now, hence the need for intrusion detection system. In this paper, an ensemble approach – Bagging was used on five different machine learning techniques to improve accuracy of classifiers. Machine learning seeks for methods of extracting hidden pattern ...

  12. Attenuating fearful memories: effect of cued extinction on intrusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Elizabeth H; Zoellner, Lori A

    2014-12-01

    Exposure-based therapies for posttraumatic stress disorder are thought to reduce intrusive memories through extinction processes. Methods that enhance extinction may translate to improved treatment. Rat research suggests retrieving a memory via a conditioned stimulus (CS) cue, and then modifying the retrieved memory within a specific reconsolidation window may enhance extinction. In humans, studies (e.g., Kindt & Soeter, 2013; Schiller et al., 2010) using basic learning paradigms show discrepant findings. Using a distressing film paradigm, participants (N = 148) completed fear acquisition and extinction. At extinction, they were randomized to 1 of 3 groups: CS cue within reconsolidation window, CS cue outside window, or non-CS cue within window. Intrusions were assessed 24 hr after extinction. Participants receiving the CS cue and completing extinction within the reconsolidation window had more intrusions (M = 2.40, SD = 2.54) than those cued outside (M = 1.65, SD = 1.70) or those receiving a non-CS cue (M = 1.24, SD = 1.26), F(2, 145) = 4.52, p = .01, d = 0.55. Consistent with the reconsolidation hypothesis, presenting a CS cue does appear to activate a specific period of time during which a memory can be updated. However, the CS cue caused increased, rather than decreased, frequency of intrusions. Understanding parameters of preextinction cueing may help us better understand reconsolidation as a potential memory updating mechanism.

  13. Petrography of some altered intrusive rocks from the Lower Benue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Petrography of some altered intrusive rocks from the Lower Benue Trough, Nigeria. Smart C Obiora, Alphonso C Umeji. Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of Mining and Geology 2005, Vol 41(1): 1-9. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  14. Revisiting Anomaly-based Network Intrusion Detection Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolzoni, D.

    2009-01-01

    Intrusion detection systems (IDSs) are well-known and widely-deployed security tools to detect cyber-attacks and malicious activities in computer systems and networks. A signature-based IDS works similar to anti-virus software. It employs a signature database of known attacks, and a successful match

  15. 1420 Ma diabasic intrusives from the Mesoproterozoic Singhora ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the Earth that includes accretion and dispersal of supercontinents, viz., Columbia (Rogers and. Santosh 2002; Zhao et al 2004) and Rodinia. Keywords. Chhattisgarh Supergroup; Singhora Group; diabasic intrusive; geochemistry and age. J. Earth Syst. Sci. 120, No. 2, April 2011, pp. 223–236 c Indian Academy of Sciences.

  16. Saltwater Intrusion Simulation in Heterogeneous Aquifer Using Lattice Boltzmann Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servan-Camas, B.; Tsai, F. T.

    2006-12-01

    This study develops a saltwater intrusion simulation model using a lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) in a two- dimensional coastal confined aquifer. The saltwater intrusion phenomenon is described by density-varied groundwater flow and mass transport equations, where a freshwater-saltwater mixing zone is considered. Although primarily developed using the mesoscopic approach to solve macroscopic fluid dynamic problems (e.g. Navier-Stoke equation), LBM is able to be adopted to solve physical-based diffusion-type governing equations as for the groundwater flow and mass transport equations. The challenge of using LBM in saltwater intrusion modeling is to recover hydraulic conductivity heterogeneity. In this study, the Darcy equation and the advection-dispersion equation (ADE) are recovered in the lattice Boltzmann modeling. Specifically, the hydraulic conductivity heterogeneity is represented by the speed of sound in LBM. Under the consideration on the steady-state groundwater flow due to low storativity, in each time step the flow problem is modified to be a Poisson equation and solved by LBM. Nevertheless, the groundwater flow is still a time-marching problem with spatial-temporal variation in salinity concentration as well as density. The Henry problem is used to compare the LBM results against the Henry analytic solution and SUTRA result. Also, we show that LBM is capable of handling the Dirichlet, Neumann, and Cauchy concentration boundary conditions at the sea side. Finally, we compare the saltwater intrusion results using LBM in the Henry problem when heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity is considered.

  17. Extension by faulting, stretching and magma intrusion in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastow, I. D.; Keir, D.

    2012-12-01

    The 2001-2004 Ethiopia Afar Geoscientific Lithospheric Experiment showed that high seismic wavespeed, dense, mafic crustal intrusions exist beneath many zones of Quaternary magmatism in the Main Ethiopian rift, and that crustal thinning is minimal. From these observations, a consensus quickly emerged that extension presently occurs not by ductile stretching and brittle faulting but by magma intrusion. Striking InSAR images and accompanying seismic data from the 2005 Afar diking episode provided further compelling evidence in support of the magma assisted rifting hypothesis. Patterns of mantle seismic anisotropy, constrained by a combination of body and surface-wave analysis showed that melt intrusion likely also plays an important role in accommodating extension at greater depths in the extending plate. Evidence from further north in Afar, however, where crustal thickness decreases abruptly into the Danakil Depression, is not so easily explained by the magma assisted rifting hypothesis. Subsidence of the newly forming margin towards and below sea level, and eruption of voluminous basalt flows, is likely the result of late-stage thinning of the heavily intruded, weakened plate just before the onset of seafloor spreading. Faulting, stretching and magma intrusion are thus each important, but at different times during breakup. Combining, not isolating, these mechanisms of strain in new rifting models and appreciating how plate strength varies during rifting is essential in developing a clearer understanding of the incomplete geological record that documents continental breakup over time.

  18. Saltwater Intrusion Appraisal of Shallow Aquifer in Burutu Area of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The abandonment of shallow boreholes is presumed to have been caused by saltwater intrusion from the ocean. ... The evidence revealed by the 2D electrical resistivity tomography investigation combined with geochemistry of groundwater from literature suggested that abandonment of shallow boreholes are probably not ...

  19. Simulation of seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers: Some typical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Springer Verlag Heidelberg #4 2048 1996 Dec 15 10:16:45

    2Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur. 208 016, India. e-mail: adas wrpm@yahoo.com; bithin@iitk.ac.in. MS received 1 March 1999; revised 9 April 2001. Abstract. Seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers is generally three dimensional. (3-D) in nature. In the literature, there is a general lack ...

  20. Boosting Web Intrusion Detection Systems by Inferring Positive Signatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolzoni, D.; Etalle, Sandro

    2008-01-01

    We present a new approach to anomaly-based network intrusion detection for web applications. This approach is based on dividing the input parameters of the monitored web application in two groups: the "regular" and the "irregular" ones, and applying a new method for anomaly detection on the

  1. SSHCure: A Flow-Based SSH Intrusion Detection System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellemons, Laurens; Hendriks, Luuk; Hendriks, Luuk; Hofstede, R.J.; Sperotto, Anna; Sadre, R.; Pras, Aiko

    SSH attacks are a main area of concern for network managers, due to the danger associated with a successful compromise. Detecting these attacks, and possibly compromised victims, is therefore a crucial activity. Most existing network intrusion detection systems designed for this purpose rely on the

  2. Poseidon: A 2-tier Anomaly-based Intrusion Detection System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolzoni, D.; Zambon, Emmanuele; Etalle, Sandro; Hartel, Pieter H.

    2005-01-01

    We present Poseidon, a new anomaly based intrusion detection system. Poseidon is payload-based, and presents a two-tier architecture: the first stage consists of a Self-Organizing Map, while the second one is a modified PAYL system. Our benchmarks on the 1999 DARPA data set show a higher detection

  3. An Overview of IP Flow-Based Intrusion Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sperotto, Anna; Schaffrath, Gregor; Sadre, R.; Morariu, Cristian; Pras, Aiko; Stiller, Burkhard

    2010-01-01

    Intrusion detection is an important area of research. Traditionally, the approach taken to find attacks is to inspect the contents of every packet. However, packet inspection cannot easily be performed at high-speeds. Therefore, researchers and operators started investigating alternative approaches,

  4. A Labeled Data Set For Flow-based Intrusion Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sperotto, Anna; Sadre, R.; van Vliet, Frank; Pras, Aiko; Nunzi, Giorgio; Scoglio, Caterina; Li, Xing

    2009-01-01

    Flow-based intrusion detection has recently become a promising security mechanism in high speed networks (1-10 Gbps). Despite the richness in contributions in this field, benchmarking of flow-based IDS is still an open issue. In this paper, we propose the first publicly available, labeled data set

  5. Intrusion of beach-disposed dredger spoil into the Mhlathuze ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sediment intrusion and its impact on the beds of the seagrass Zostera capensis in the estuary were monitored from 1996 to 1999. Fine sediment did enter the estuary from the marine environment and was deposited mainly in its lower reaches, where its settling on the leaves of Zostera resulted in a major die-back. However ...

  6. Simulation of seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers: Some typical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Springer Verlag Heidelberg #4 2048 1996 Dec 15 10:16:45

    1Department of Civil Engineering, Regional Engineering College, Durgapur. 713 209, India. 2Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur. 208 016, India. e-mail: adas wrpm@yahoo.com; bithin@iitk.ac.in. MS received 1 March 1999; revised 9 April 2001. Abstract. Seawater intrusion in coastal ...

  7. Effects of Sleep after Experimental Trauma on Intrusive Emotional Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleim, Birgit; Wysokowsky, Julia; Schmid, Nuria; Seifritz, Erich; Rasch, Björn

    2016-12-01

    To investigate sleep's effect in the immediate aftermath of experiencing an analog trauma in the laboratory on reducing intrusive emotional memory formation. Sixty-five healthy women were exposed to an experimental laboratory trauma. They viewed a neutral and a trauma film in the laboratory and were randomly allocated to either a group that slept following film viewing or a group that remained awake. Sleep was recorded with electroencephalogram in a subgroup of participants in the sleep group. All participants recorded intrusive memories in the week following the film. The sleep group experienced fewer and less distressing intrusive trauma memories compared to the wake group. These effects were particularly evident toward the end of the week. Duration spent in stage N2 as opposed to light N1 sleep, a higher number of fast parietal sleep spindles and a lower rapid eye movement sleep density predicted intrusion frequency. Our results have clinical implications and set the ground for early-intervention sleep studies following trauma and prevention of chronic posttrauma disorders. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  8. Intrusion detection for the solution of security problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchmueller, R.

    1982-01-01

    Constantly growing security problems in public as well as private sectors can no longer be solved without the use of modern intrusion detection systems. BBC, as general contractor, offers the system solutions to fully meet these problems. These solutions include analysis of the site to be protected, installation, commissioning and maintenance of the security system. (orig.) [de

  9. 1420 Ma diabasic intrusives from the Mesoproterozoic Singhora ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 120; Issue 2. 1420 Ma diabasic intrusives from the Mesoproterozoic Singhora Group, Chhattisgarh ... Zr, Y and Nb ternary diagrams plot in the fields of within plate basalt. Selected HFSE ratios indicate a non-plume source with crustal assimilation/sediment mixing.

  10. Brief exercise enhances intrusive memories of traumatic stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyan, Dharani; Bryant, Richard A

    2017-05-01

    Brief physical exercise enhances memories for neutral events, and recently has been shown to modulate fear learning in animals. To date there is no evidence pertaining to the impact of exercise on emotional memories in humans. Accordingly, this study investigated the role of brief exercise in the development of emotional intrusive memories. Forty-nine university students (18-29year olds) viewed a car accident film depicting accident and injury, and were then randomly assigned to engage in either 10min of intense exercise or easy walking. Two days following the experiment participants were assessed for both intrusive memories of the film and intentional recall of film details. Results indicated that participants in the exercise relative to the walking condition reported more intrusive memories, but not voluntarily recalled memories, of the car accident film two days later. These findings are consistent with recent evidence of exercise-induced emotional learning in animals, and point to the potential for physical activity to contribute to the development of intrusions in the context of encoding emotionally-laden information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Pre-Stressor Interference Control and Intrusive Memories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwoerd, J.; Wessel, I.; De Jong, P.J.; Nieuwenhuis, Maurice; Huntjens, R.J.C.

    Although intrusive imagery is a common response in the aftermath of a stressful or traumatic event, only a minority of trauma victims show persistent re-experiencing and related psychopathology. Individual differences in pre-trauma executive control possibly play a critical role. Therefore, this

  12. Climate Change and Saltwater Intrusion along the Eastern ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Eastern Mediterranean is highly vulnerable to saltwater intrusion into the freshwater aquifers along its coasts. The degradation of these aquifers would result in serious socioeconomic consequence to people living there. This project will investigate how climate change is affecting the salinity of coastal aquifers at several ...

  13. Intrusion detection systems: complement to firewall security system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main purpose with firewall is to protect against unauthorized external attacks but it will normally leave the network unprotected from internal attacks or intrusions. Fire walls and access control have been the most important components used in order to secure network and its resources. They work to prevent attacks from ...

  14. Melanite garnet-bearing nepheline syenite minor intrusion in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (Chattopadhyay and Hashmi 1984; Maitra 1992;. Srivastava et al 2005; Srivastava ... Keywords. Melanite garnet; nepheline syenite minor intrusion; Mesozoic magmatism; Mawpyut complex; Meghalaya plateau. J. Earth Syst. Sci. 120, No. 6, December 2011, pp. ... dated 110–120 Ma (Coffin et al 2002; Srivastava et al 2005).

  15. Microstructure in hardened cement pastes measured by mercury intrusion porosimetry and low temperature microcalorimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Baroghel, V.B.; Künzel, H.M.

    1996-01-01

    , image analysis, mercury intrusion porosimetry and low temperature microcalorimetry.The present paper is dealing with cumulated pore size distributions measured by mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) from two laboratories (LCPC, IBP) and low temperature microcalorimetry (CAL) from one laboratory (BKM...

  16. Why do close partners snoop? Predictors of intrusive behavior in newlywed couples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinkers, C. D. W.; Finkenauer, C.; Hawk, S. T.

    2011-01-01

    Existing research shows that intrusive behavior has detrimental consequences for relationships. Surprisingly, little is known about why close relationship partners snoop. This study examined why romantic partners engage in intrusive behavior among newlywed couples in the Netherlands. As predicted,

  17. Report: Lack of Final Guidance on Vapor Intrusion Impedes Efforts to Address Indoor Air Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #10-P-0042, December 14, 2009. EPA’s efforts to protect human health at sites where vapor intrusion risks may occur have been impeded by the lack of final Agency guidance on vapor intrusion risks.

  18. Potential consequences of saltwater intrusion associated with Hurricanes Katrina and Rita: Chapter 6C in Science and the storms-the USGS response to the hurricanes of 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyer, Gregory D.; Perez, Brian C.; Piazza, Sarai C.; Suir, Glenn

    2007-01-01

    Hurricanes Katrina and Rita pushed salt water from the Gulf of Mexico well inland into freshwater marsh communities in coastal Louisiana. This paper describes the spatial extent of saltwater intrusion and provides an initial assessment of impacts (salt stress) to coastal marsh vegetation communities.

  19. Intrusions of a drowsy mind: Neural markers of phenomenological unpredictability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdas eNoreika

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The transition from a relaxed to a drowsy state of mind is often accompanied by hypnagogic experiences: most commonly, perceptual imagery, but also linguistic intrusions, i.e. the sudden emergence of unpredictable anomalies in the stream of inner speech. This study has sought to describe the contents of such intrusions, to verify their association with the progression of sleep onset, and to investigate the electroencephalographic processes associated with linguistic intrusions as opposed to more common hypnagogic perceptual imagery. A single participant attended 10 experimental sessions in the EEG laboratory, where he was allowed to drift into a drowsy state of mind, while maintaining metacognition of his own experiences. Once a linguistic intrusion or a noticeable perceptual image occurred, the participant pressed a button and reported it verbally. An increase in the EEG-defined depth of drowsiness as assessed by the Hori system of sleep onset was observed in the last 20 sec before a button press. Likewise, EEG Dimension of Activation values decreased before the button press, indicating that the occurrence of cognitively incongruous experiences coincides with the rapid change of EEG predictability patterns. EEG hemispheric asymmetry analysis showed that linguistic intrusions had a higher alpha and gamma power in the left hemisphere electrodes, whereas perceptual imagery reports were associated with a higher beta power over the right hemisphere. These findings indicate that the modality as well as the incongruence of drowsiness-related hypnagogic experiences is strongly associated with distinct EEG signatures in this participant. Sleep onset may provide a unique possibility to study the neural mechanisms accompanying the fragmentation of the stream of consciousness in healthy individuals.

  20. Igneous Intrusion Impacts on Waste Packages and Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Bernot

    2004-08-16

    The purpose of this model report is to assess the potential impacts of igneous intrusion on waste packages and waste forms in the emplacement drifts at the Yucca Mountain Repository. The model is based on conceptual models and includes an assessment of deleterious dynamic, thermal, hydrologic, and chemical impacts. This constitutes the waste package and waste form impacts submodel of the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) model assessing the impacts of a hypothetical igneous intrusion event on the repository total system performance. This submodel is carried out in accordance with Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Modeling, Testing, and Analyses in Support of SR and LA (BSC 2003a) and Total System Performance Assessment-License Application Methods and Approaches (BSC 2002a). The technical work plan is governed by the procedures of AP-SIII.10Q, Models. Any deviations from the technical work plan are documented in the TSPA-LA approach to implementing the models for waste package and waste form response during igneous intrusion is based on identification of damage zones. Zone 1 includes all emplacement drifts intruded by the basalt dike, and Zone 2 includes all other emplacement drifts in the repository that are not in Zone 1. This model report will document the following model: (1) Impacts of magma intrusion on the components of engineered barrier system (e.g., drip shields and cladding) of emplacement drifts in Zone 1, and the fate of waste forms. (2) Impacts of conducting magma heat and diffusing magma gases on the drip shields, waste packages, and cladding in the Zone 2 emplacement drifts adjacent to the intruded drifts. (3) Impacts of intrusion on Zone 1 in-drift thermal and geochemical environments, including seepage hydrochemistry. The scope of this model only includes impacts to the components stated above, and does not include impacts to other engineered barrier system (EBS) components such as the invert and

  1. Intrusions of autobiographical memories in individuals reporting childhood emotional maltreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Spinhoven

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available During childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM negative attitudes are provided to the child (e.g., “you are worthless”. These negative attitudes may result in emotion inhibition strategies in order to avoid thinking of memories of CEM, such as thought suppression. However, thought suppression may paradoxically enhance occurrences (i.e., intrusions of these memories, which may occur immediately or sometime after active suppression of these memories.Until now, studies that examined suppressive coping styles in individuals reporting CEM have utilized self-report questionnaires. Therefore, it is unclear what the consequences will be of emotion inhibition styles on the intrusion of autobiographical memories in individuals reporting CEM.Using a thought suppression task, this study aimed to investigate the experience of intrusions during suppression of, and when no longer instructed to actively suppress, positive and negative autobiographical memories in individuals reporting Low, Moderate, and Severe CEM compared to No Abuse (total N = 83.We found no group differences during active suppression of negative and positive autobiographical memories. However, when individuals reporting Severe CEM were no longer instructed to suppress thinking about the memory, individuals reporting No Abuse, Low CEM, or Moderate CEM reported fewer intrusions of both positive and negative autobiographical memories than individuals reporting Severe CEM. Finally, we found that intrusions of negative memories are strongly related with psychiatric distress.The present study results provide initial insights into the cognitive mechanisms that may underlie the consequences of childhood emotional maltreatment and suggests avenues for successful interventions.For the abstract or full text in other languages, please see Supplementary files under Reading Tools online

  2. Detection of stratospheric ozone intrusions by windprofiler radars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, W K; Carey-Smith, T; Tarasick, D W; Argall, P S; Strong, K; Rochon, Y; Zawadzki, I; Taylor, P A

    2007-11-08

    Stratospheric ozone attenuates harmful ultraviolet radiation and protects the Earth's biosphere. Ozone is also of fundamental importance for the chemistry of the lowermost part of the atmosphere, the troposphere. At ground level, ozone is an important by-product of anthropogenic pollution, damaging forests and crops, and negatively affecting human health. Ozone is critical to the chemical and thermal balance of the troposphere because, via the formation of hydroxyl radicals, it controls the capacity of tropospheric air to oxidize and remove other pollutants. Moreover, ozone is an important greenhouse gas, particularly in the upper troposphere. Although photochemistry in the lower troposphere is the major source of tropospheric ozone, the stratosphere-troposphere transport of ozone is important to the overall climatology, budget and long-term trends of tropospheric ozone. Stratospheric intrusion events, however, are still poorly understood. Here we introduce the use of modern windprofiler radars to assist in such transport investigations. By hourly monitoring the radar-derived tropopause height in combination with a series of frequent ozonesonde balloon launches, we find numerous intrusions of ozone from the stratosphere into the troposphere in southeastern Canada. On some occasions, ozone is dispersed at altitudes of two to four kilometres, but on other occasions it reaches the ground, where it can dominate the ozone density variability. We observe rapid changes in radar tropopause height immediately preceding these intrusion events. Such changes therefore serve as a valuable diagnostic for the occurrence of ozone intrusion events. Our studies emphasize the impact that stratospheric ozone can have on tropospheric ozone, and show that windprofiler data can be used to infer the possibility of ozone intrusions, as well as better represent tropopause motions in association with stratosphere-troposphere transport.

  3. Effects of climate variability on saltwater intrusions in coastal aquifers in Southern Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Rena; Sonnenborg, Torben; Engesgaard, Peter; Høyer, Anne-Sophie; Jørgensen, Flemming; Hisnby, Klaus; Hansen, Birgitte; Jensen, Jørn Bo; Piotrowski, Jan A.

    2016-04-01

    As in many other regions of the world fresh water supply in Denmark is based on groundwater resources. Aquifers in the low-lying areas in the south-west of Jutland are particularly vulnerable to saltwater intrusions which are likely to intensify due to relative sea level rise. To understand the dynamics and development of this complex flow system, the initial hydrodynamic conditions imposed by the last Scandinavian Ice Sheet (SIS) must be taken into account. The whole region has undergone changes in climatic and hydraulic conditions within the last 15000 years that may show influence on the present flow conditions. It is likely that the groundwater-flow dynamics, driven by the postglacial hydraulic head drop and the relative sea level rise are not yet equilibrated. Enhanced by the potential future sea level rise due to climate change, contamination of fresh-water aquifers will continue. The 2800-km2 - large coast-to-coast study area located in the southern part of Jutland was partly overridden by the Weichselian ice sheet. Geophysical and geological mapping shows salt water intrusions up to 20 km inland from the present coast. Based on a geological voxel model spanning Miocene through Quaternary deposits a large-scale 3D numerical groundwater flow and salt water transport model has been developed. It includes density-driven flow and simulates the distribution of the current saltwater intrusions and their evolution during the last 15000 years. Particle tracking and direct age simulations are performed to identify recharge areas and constrain groundwater ages. The simulated ages are compared to ages derived from isotope analysis of groundwater samples both from Miocene and Quaternary aquifers. The origin of the groundwater is determined based on isotopic and chemical composition. Additionally, heavy noble gas analysis is carried out to estimate recharge temperatures and mechanisms at locations where groundwater recharge during the last glaciation is indicated. This

  4. 10 CFR 63.321 - Individual protection standard for human intrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Individual protection standard for human intrusion. 63.321... Standards Human Intrusion Standard § 63.321 Individual protection standard for human intrusion. (a) DOE must determine the earliest time after disposal that the waste package would degrade sufficiently that a human...

  5. Assessing the impact of sea level rise due to climate change on seawater intrusion in Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, D T; Yamada, T; Ishidaira, H

    2018-03-01

    In the context of climate change, salinity intrusion into rivers has been, and will be, one of the most important issues for coastal water resources management. A combination of changes, including increased temperature, change in regional rainfall, especially sea level rise (SLR) related to climate change, will have significant impacts on this phenomenon. This paper presents the outcomes of a study conducted in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam (MKD) for evaluating the effect of sea water intrusion under a new SLR scenario. Salinity intrusion was simulated by one-dimensional (1D) modeling. The relative sea level projection was constructed corresponding to the RCP 6.0 emission scenario for MKD based on the statistical downscaling method. The sea level in 2050 is projected to increase from 25 cm to 30 cm compared to the baseline period (in 2000). Furthermore, the simulated results suggested that salinity greater than 4 g/l, which affects rice yield, will intrude up to 50-60 km into the river. Approximately 30,000 ha of agricultural area will be affected if the sea level rise is 30 cm.

  6. Identification of marine intrusion in the plain of Collo, northeastern Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saaidia Bachir

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The population increase, urbanization and intensification of agriculture and demands for water supply in the coastal plain of Collo led to excessive pumping of the unconfined aquifer with limited dimensions. This study aimed to characterize the effect of the overexploitation of the groundwater from the only unconfined aquifer in the region, what resulted in the inversion of the groundwater flow and the rise the possible seawater pollution that is shown in the water table map. The causes and effects of the saltwater intrusion were discussed. The interpretation of the electrical conductivity measurements, chloride and sodium maps have shown clearly the areas where values were the highest with tighter curves towards the sea, the wadis Guebli and Cherka. These values distribution indicated a marine source of salinity in wells and boreholes close to the sea and wadis.

  7. Microstructural evolution of cemented paste backfill: Mercury intrusion porosimetry test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serge Ouellet; Bruno Bussiere; Michel Aubertin; Mostafa Benzaazoua [Universite du Quebec en Abitibi-Temiscamingue, Rouyn-Noranda, PQ (Canada)

    2007-12-15

    The microstructural evolution of different cemented paste backfill (CPB) samples made with ground silica was evaluated using mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP). The influence of three binders (OPC, OPC with fly ash, and OPC with blast furnace slag) and of three types of water (one deionised and two sulphated) on the microstructure was studied over the curing time. Uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) tests were also performed to relate MIP results to the backfill mechanical strength. Among other findings, the MIP analyses indicate that the slag based binder combined with a mixing water having a high sulphate content (of 7549 ppm) showed the highest percentage of fine pores and the highest strength. This behaviour is related to the potential precipitation of sulphate phases in pores, which may contribute to strength enhancement. Based on MIP pore size distributions and UCS results, the authors propose a general relationship applicable for CPB.

  8. The first field-based descriptions of pumping-induced saltwater intrusion and upconing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houben, Georg; Post, Vincent E. A.

    2016-09-01

    Development of the ideas about the equilibrium between freshwater and saline water has received considerable attention in the literature, but little has been written so far about the earliest scientific works about well salinization. Based on a review of the literature from the second half of the 19th century and the early 20th century, this historical note explores how insights into groundwater abstraction and saltwater intrusion developed, and examples of the earliest field studies are provided. Fundamental research was driven by the need for increasing water supply, but the progress of science did not lead to sustainable management practices everywhere. Research outcomes were shared between scientists of different countries, marking the beginning of coastal hydrogeology as a scientific specialization in the first decade of the 20th century.

  9. THE ELEVATION NET FOR THE SALTWATER INTRUSION PHENOMENON ANALYSIS IN THE COASTAL PLAIN OF PISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Caroti

    2014-01-01

    The essential foundation to reconstruct the freshwater/saltwater interface, and therefore also for the recognition of the phenomenon of seawater intrusion, is represented by piezometric reconstructions integrated with hydrogeochemical information that can be obtained directly from in-well measurements and indirectly through laboratory tests carried out on samples of water. A serious limitation of the piezometric reconstructions is mostly represented by the margin of approximation with which the elevation of water points has been established, which in turn result in uncertainty in the relationship between piezometric and hydrometric elevation. This paper presents various methodologies, GNSS and conventional, to determine the elevation of piezometers, also evaluating the accuracy obtainable and the requirements in terms of time, personnel and equipment.

  10. Seasonal Characteristics and Dynamic Mechanism of the Surface Kuroshio Branch intrusion into the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jingsong; Zhang, Zhixin; Xia, Changshui; Qiao, Fangli

    2017-04-01

    Using the observational data of the Argos satellite-tracked drifters from 1988 to 2012, we analyzed the surface Kuroshio Branch (KB) intrusion into the South China Sea (SCS). The analysis results are as follows. The surface KB mostly originates from the southern Balintang Channel (SBLTC) and the southern Babuyan Channel (BBYC). It starts in late September, reaches its peak (in terms of both speed and intrusion probability) in December-January and declines at the end of March. The mean speed of the drifters during traversing the Luzon Strait (LS) was 43% faster than that during the two days before entering the LS when the flow originated from the SBLTC, but there was no significant increase in speed when the flow came from the BBYC. The observations showed that in wintertime the monthly-mean sea-level anomalies (SLAs) were positive southwest of Taiwan Island and extended to the northern LS, and were negative northwest of Luzon Island and extended to the southern LS. The SLAs were accompanied by an anticyclonic circulation and a cyclonic circulation, which acted like a pump, forcing a part of the Kuroshio water westward into the SCS, especially for the water originated from the SBLTC. The condition under which the KB forms is solved by the equations of motion. The theoretical results indicate that whether the Kuroshio Surface Water can cross the LS into the SCS depends upon the sea-level gradient at the central LS and the region to the west, as well as the position, velocity and direction of the Kuroshio Surface Water when it enters the LS. Key words: surface Kuroshio Branch, Luzon Strait, dynamic mechanism

  11. Imaging Saltwater Intrusion Along the Coast of Monterey Bay Using Long-Offset Electrical Resistivity Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, M.; Knight, R. J.; Pidlisecky, A.

    2016-12-01

    Coastal regions represent a complex dynamic interface where saltwater intrusion moves seawater landward and groundwater discharge moves freshwater seaward. These processes can have a dramatic impact on water quality, affecting both humans and coastal ecosystems. The ability to map the subsurface distribution of fresh and salt water is a critical step in predicting and managing water quality in coastal regions. This is commonly accomplished using wells, which are expensive and provide point information, which may fail to capture the spatial complexity in subsurface conditions. We present an alternate method for acquiring data, long-offset Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), which is non-invasive, cost effective, and can address the problem of poor spatial sampling. This geophysical method can produce continuous profiles of subsurface electrical resistivity to a depth of 300 m, with spatial resolution on the order of tens of meters. Our research focuses on the Monterey Bay region, where sustained groundwater extraction over the past century has led to significant saltwater intrusion. ERT was acquired along 40 kilometers of the coast using the roll along method, allowing for continuous overlap in data acquisition. Electrodes were spaced every 22.2 m, with a total of 81 electrodes along the 1.8 km active cable length. The data show a complex distribution of fresh and salt water, influenced by geology, groundwater pumping, recharge, and land-use. While the inverted ERT resistivity profiles correspond well with existing data sets and geologic interpretations in the region, the spatial complexity revealed through the ERT data goes beyond what is known from traditional data sources alone. This leads us to conclude that this form of data can be extremely useful in informing and calibrating groundwater flow models, making targeted management decisions, and monitoring changes in subsurface salinities over time.

  12. Groundwater Modeling in Coastal Arid Regions Under the Influence of Marine Saltwater Intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Marc; Kolditz, Olaf; Grundmann, Jens; Liedl, Rudolf

    2010-05-01

    The optimization of an aquifer's "safe yield", especially within agriculturally used regions, is one of the fundamental tasks for nowaday's groundwater management. Due to the limited water ressources in arid regions, conflict of interests arise that need to be evaluated using scenario analysis and multicriterial optimization approaches. In the context of the government-financed research project "International Water Research Alliance Saxony" (IWAS), the groundwater quality for near-coastal, agriculturally used areas is investigated under the influence of marine saltwater intrusion. Within the near-coastal areas of the study region, i.e. the Batinah plains of Northern Oman, an increasing agricultural development could be observed during the recent decades. Simultaneously, a constant lowering of the groundwater table was registered, which is primarily due to the uncontrolled and unsupervised mining of the aquifers for the local agricultural irrigation. Intensively decreased groundwater levels, however, cause an inversion of the hydraulic gradient which is naturally aligned towards the coast. This, in turn,leads to an intrusion of marine saltwater flowing inland, endangering the productivity of farms near the coast. Utilizing the modeling software package OpenGeoSys, which has been developed and constantly enhanced by the Department of Environmental Informatics at the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig (UFZ; Kolditz et al., 2008), a three-dimensional, density-dependent model including groundwater flow and mass transport is currently being built up. The model, comprehending three selected coastal wadis of interest, shall be used to investigate different management scenarios. The main focus of the groundwater modelling are the optimization of well positions and pumping schemes as well as the coupling with a surface runoff model, which is also used for the determination of the groundwater recharge due to wadi runoff downstream of retention dams. Based on

  13. Contributions of non-intrusive coupling in nonlinear structural mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duval, Mickael

    2016-01-01

    This PhD thesis, part of the ANR ICARE project, aims at developing methods for complex analysis of large scale structures. The scientific challenge is to investigate very localised areas, but potentially critical as of mechanical systems resilience. Classically, representation models, discretizations, mechanical behaviour models and numerical tools are used at both global and local scales for simulation needs of graduated complexity. Global problem is handled by a generic code with topology (plate formulation, geometric approximation...) and behaviour (homogenization) simplifications while local analysis needs implementation of specialized tools (routines, dedicated codes) for an accurate representation of the geometry and behaviour. The main goal of this thesis is to develop an efficient non-intrusive coupling tool for multi-scale and multi-model structural analysis. Constraints of non-intrusiveness result in the non-modification of the stiffness operator, connectivity and the global model solver, allowing to work in a closed source software environment. First, we provide a detailed study of global/local non-intrusive coupling algorithm. Making use of several relevant examples (cracking, elastic-plastic behaviour, contact...), we show the efficiency and the flexibility of such coupling method. A comparative analysis of several optimisation tools is also carried on, and the interacting multiple patches situation is handled. Then, non-intrusive coupling is extended to globally non-linear cases, and a domain decomposition method with non-linear re-localization is proposed. Such methods allowed us to run a parallel computation using only sequential software, on a high performance computing cluster. Finally, we apply the coupling algorithm to mesh refinement with patches of finite elements. We develop an explicit residual based error estimator suitable for multi-scale solutions arising from the non-intrusive coupling, and apply it inside an error driven local mesh

  14. Experimental and numerical study for seawater intrusion remediation in heterogeneous coastal aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Abdelkader T

    2017-08-01

    The contamination of fresh groundwater by saltwater intrusion (SWI) becomes a worldwide alarming problem, which threatens all countries depending on groundwater abstraction from coastal areas. Various control and treatment strategies have been suggested to prevent SWI. The construction of subsurface physical barriers is one of the most practical implementation methods to prevent SWI. In this work, the use of subsurface dam as a remediation and protection tool was investigated in a heterogeneous aquifer via lab scale experiments and numerical simulation. The experiments depended on a novel automated imaged analysis method for SWI measurements. Glass beads of different grain sizes were used in sandbox experiments. The simulation works adopted the SEAWAT code for validation of the experimental results and making numerical sensitivity analyses for affecting parameters. Results proved the significant impact of using sub water dams with heterogonous aquifers. The remediation impacts of the dam was captured clearly in preventing and backwashing of the existed SWI. The results revealed also that the heterogeneous aquifers with high permeability in the bottom boundary behave closer to the homogenous aquifers in SWI than those having low hydraulic conductivity in the bottom. Sensitivity analyses results showed that the closer dam to seawater boundary led to the quicker and more effective backwashing process. Results exhibited also that the dam height with 50% of the aquifer dam has the ability to hold the seawater so long as the hydraulic gradient is high and dams with 67% of aquifer height prevent the saltwater intrusion completely. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Current challenges using models to forecast seawater intrusion: lessons from the Eastern Shore of Virginia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Ward E.; Pope, Jason P.

    2010-01-01

    A three-dimensional model of the aquifer system of the Eastern Shore of Virginia, USA was calibrated to reproduce historical water levels and forecast the potential for saltwater intrusion. Future scenarios were simulated with two pumping schemes to predict potential areas of saltwater intrusion. Simulations suggest that only a few wells would be threatened with detectable salinity increases before 2050. The objective was to examine whether salinity increases can be accurately forecast for individual wells with such a model, and to address what the challenges are in making such model forecasts given current (2009) simulation capabilities. The analysis suggests that even with current computer capabilities, accurate simulations of concentrations within a regional-scale (many km) transition zone are computationally prohibitive. The relative paucity of data that is typical for such regions relative to what is needed for accurate transport simulations suggests that even with an infinitely powerful computer, accurate forecasting for a single well would still be elusive. Useful approaches may include local-grid refinement near wells and geophysical surveys, but it is important to keep expectations for simulated forecasts at wells in line with chloride concentration and other data that can be obtained at that local scale.

  16. Semi-non-intrusive objective intelligibility measure using spatial filtering in hearing aids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Charlotte; Boldt, Jesper Bünsow; Gran, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    Reliable non-intrusive online assessment of speech intelligibility can play a key role for the functioning of hearing aids, e.g. as guidance for adjusting the hearing aid settings to the environment. While existing intrusive metrics can provide a precise and reliable measure, the current non......-intrusive metrics have not been able to achieve acceptable intelligibility predictions. This paper presents a new semi-non-intrusive intelligibility measure based on an existing intrusive measure, STOI, where an estimate of the clean speech is extracted using spatial filtering in the hearing aid. The results...

  17. Repeated cortisol administration does not reduce intrusive memories - A double blind placebo controlled experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graebener, Alexandra Heike; Michael, Tanja; Holz, Elena; Lass-Hennemann, Johanna

    2017-11-01

    PTSD is a severe mental disorder, which may develop after exposure to traumatic events and is characterized by intrusive memories. Intrusions are sudden brief sensory memories of the traumatic event, that cause immense distress and impairment in every day functioning. Thus, the reduction of intrusive memories is one of the main aims of PTSD therapy. Recently, the glucocorticoid cortisol has been proposed as a pharmacological option to reduce intrusive memories, because cortisol is known to have memory retrieval inhibiting effects. However, the research on the effects of cortisol administration on intrusive memories is not conclusive. The aim of the present study was to examine if repeated cortisol administration inhibits intrusions and recognition memory in an experimental study using the trauma film paradigm. In a randomized double-blind placebo controlled design participants were exposed to a traumatic film (known to induce intrusions in healthy participants) and received either a low dose of cortisol (20mg) or placebo on the three days following "trauma exposure". Intrusive memories were assessed with an Electronic Diary and an Intrusion Triggering Task. Furthermore, we assessed explicit memory for the traumatic film clip with a recognition test. Contrary to our predictions, the cortisol group did not report fewer intrusions than the placebo group nor did it show diminished performance on the recognition test. Our results show that sole cortisol administration after a traumatic experience cannot reduce intrusive re-experiencing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  18. Hybrid Intrusion Forecasting Framework for Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sehun; Shin, Seong-Jun; Kim, Hyunwoo; Kwon, Ki Hoon; Han, Younggoo

    Recently, cyber attacks have become a serious hindrance to the stability of Internet. These attacks exploit interconnectivity of networks, propagate in an instant, and have become more sophisticated and evolutionary. Traditional Internet security systems such as firewalls, IDS and IPS are limited in terms of detecting recent cyber attacks in advance as these systems respond to Internet attacks only after the attacks inflict serious damage. In this paper, we propose a hybrid intrusion forecasting system framework for an early warning system. The proposed system utilizes three types of forecasting methods: time-series analysis, probabilistic modeling, and data mining method. By combining these methods, it is possible to take advantage of the forecasting technique of each while overcoming their drawbacks. Experimental results show that the hybrid intrusion forecasting method outperforms each of three forecasting methods.

  19. Waste Management Policy Framework to Mitigate Terrorist Intrusion Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redus, Kenneth S.

    2003-01-01

    A policy-directed framework is developed to support US Department of Energy (DOE) counterterrorism efforts, specifically terrorist intrusion activities that affect of Environmental Management (EM) programs. The framework is called the Security Effectiveness and Resource Allocation Definition Forecasting and Control System (SERAD-FACS). Use of SERAD-FACS allows trade-offs between resources, technologies, risk, and Research and Development (R and D) efforts to mitigate such intrusion attempts. Core to SERAD-FACS is (1) the understanding the perspectives and time horizons of key decisionmakers and organizations, (2) a determination of site vulnerabilities and accessibilities, and (3) quantifying the measures that describe the risk associated with a compromise of EM assets. The innovative utility of SERAD-FACS is illustrated for three integrated waste management and security strategies. EM program risks, time delays, and security for effectiveness are examined to demonstrate the significant cost and schedule impact terrorist activities can have on cleanup efforts in the DOE complex

  20. Non-intrusive Load Disaggregation Based on Kernel Density Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Wang; Dongsheng, Yang; Chuchen, Guo; Shengxian, Du

    2017-05-01

    Aiming at the problem of high cost and difficult implementation of high frequency non-intrusive load decomposition method, this paper proposes a new method based on kernel density estimation(KDE) for low frequency NILM (Non-intrusive load monitoring). The method establishes power reference model of electricity load in different working conditions and appliance’s possible combinations first, then probability distribution is calculated as appliances features by kernel density estimation. After that, target power data is divided by step changes, whose distributions will be compared with reference models, and the most similar reference model will be chosen as the decomposed consequence. The proposed approach was tested with data from the GREEND public data set, it showed better performance in terms of energy disaggregation accuracy compared with many traditional NILM approaches. Our results show good performance which can achieve more than 93% accuracy in simulation.

  1. Non intrusive check valve diagnostics at Bruce A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsch, S.P.

    1997-01-01

    Bruce A purchased non intrusive check valve diagnostic equipment in 1995 to ensure operability and availability of critical check valves in the Station. Diagnostics can be used to locate and monitor check valve degradation modes. Bruce A initiated a pilot program targeting check valves with flow through them and ones that completed open or close cycles. Approaches to determine how to confirm operability of passive check valves using non intrusive techniques were explored. A sample population of seventy-three check valves was selected to run the pilot program on prior to complete implementation. The pilot program produced some significant results and some inconclusive results. The program revealed a major finding that check valve performance modeling is required to ensure continuous operability of check valves. (author)

  2. Non intrusive check valve diagnostics at Bruce A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsch, S.P. [Ontario Hydro, Bruce Nuclear Generating Station A, Tiverton, ON (Canada)

    1997-07-01

    Bruce A purchased non intrusive check valve diagnostic equipment in 1995 to ensure operability and availability of critical check valves in the Station. Diagnostics can be used to locate and monitor check valve degradation modes. Bruce A initiated a pilot program targeting check valves with flow through them and ones that completed open or close cycles. Approaches to determine how to confirm operability of passive check valves using non intrusive techniques were explored. A sample population of seventy-three check valves was selected to run the pilot program on prior to complete implementation. The pilot program produced some significant results and some inconclusive results. The program revealed a major finding that check valve performance modeling is required to ensure continuous operability of check valves. (author)

  3. A Partially Distributed Intrusion Detection System for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eung Jun; Hong, Choong Seon; Lee, Sungwon; Jeon, Seokhee

    2013-01-01

    The increasing use of wireless sensor networks, which normally comprise several very small sensor nodes, makes their security an increasingly important issue. They can be practically and efficiently secured using intrusion detection systems. Conventional security mechanisms are not usually applicable due to the sensor nodes having limitations of computational power, memory capacity, and battery power. Therefore, specific security systems should be designed to function under constraints of energy or memory. A partially distributed intrusion detection system with low memory and power demands is proposed here. It employs a Bloom filter, which allows reduced signature code size. Multiple Bloom filters can be combined to reduce the signature code for each Bloom filter array. The mechanism could then cope with potential denial of service attacks, unlike many previous detection systems with Bloom filters. The mechanism was evaluated and validated through analysis and simulation.

  4. A Partially Distributed Intrusion Detection System for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eung Jun Cho

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasing use of wireless sensor networks, which normally comprise several very small sensor nodes, makes their security an increasingly important issue. They can be practically and efficiently secured using intrusion detection systems. Conventional security mechanisms are not usually applicable due to the sensor nodes having limitations of computational power, memory capacity, and battery power. Therefore, specific security systems should be designed to function under constraints of energy or memory. A partially distributed intrusion detection system with low memory and power demands is proposed here. It employs a Bloom filter, which allows reduced signature code size. Multiple Bloom filters can be combined to reduce the signature code for each Bloom filter array. The mechanism could then cope with potential denial of service attacks, unlike many previous detection systems with Bloom filters. The mechanism was evaluated and validated through analysis and simulation.

  5. An artificial bioindicator system for network intrusion detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Christian; Lozano, José A; Davidson, Pedro Pinacho

    2015-01-01

    An artificial bioindicator system is developed in order to solve a network intrusion detection problem. The system, inspired by an ecological approach to biological immune systems, evolves a population of agents that learn to survive in their environment. An adaptation process allows the transformation of the agent population into a bioindicator that is capable of reacting to system anomalies. Two characteristics stand out in our proposal. On the one hand, it is able to discover new, previously unseen attacks, and on the other hand, contrary to most of the existing systems for network intrusion detection, it does not need any previous training. We experimentally compare our proposal with three state-of-the-art algorithms and show that it outperforms the competing approaches on widely used benchmark data.

  6. Securing Cloud Computing from Different Attacks Using Intrusion Detection Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Achbarou

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a new way of integrating a set of old technologies to implement a new paradigm that creates an avenue for users to have access to shared and configurable resources through internet on-demand. This system has many common characteristics with distributed systems, hence, the cloud computing also uses the features of networking. Thus the security is the biggest issue of this system, because the services of cloud computing is based on the sharing. Thus, a cloud computing environment requires some intrusion detection systems (IDSs for protecting each machine against attacks. The aim of this work is to present a classification of attacks threatening the availability, confidentiality and integrity of cloud resources and services. Furthermore, we provide literature review of attacks related to the identified categories. Additionally, this paper also introduces related intrusion detection models to identify and prevent these types of attacks.

  7. Men’s stranger intrusions : rethinking street harassment.

    OpenAIRE

    Vera-Gray, F.

    2016-01-01

    Women's experiences of intrusive men in public space, popularly termed ‘street harassment’, are the most understudied yet commonly experienced forms of violence against women. Despite acknowledgement of its importance, an explicit debate on naming – with an exploration of how language creates both openings and restrictions of what can be said – is yet to be had in the literature. This paper begins this conversation, detailing the benefits and challenges in current terminology, and exploring t...

  8. A Fusion of Multiagent Functionalities for Effective Intrusion Detection System

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan Sadhasivan, Dhanalakshmi; Balasubramanian, Kannapiran

    2017-01-01

    Provision of high security is one of the active research areas in the network applications. The failure in the centralized system based on the attacks provides less protection. Besides, the lack of update of new attacks arrival leads to the minimum accuracy of detection. The major focus of this paper is to improve the detection performance through the adaptive update of attacking information to the database. We propose an Adaptive Rule-Based Multiagent Intrusion Detection System (ARMA-IDS) to...

  9. Research on chronicles correlation based network intrusion detection techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Zhengping; Jin Yan; Chen Taiwei; Xu Rongsheng

    2007-01-01

    According to some problems existed in network intrusion detection technique, such as alerts overwhelming, false-positives and lack of alert description, this paper introduces chronicle correlation method to alert events analysis by some correlative examples. With designed chronicle recognition language, portscan's alerts can be reduced, false-positives in buffer overflow's alerts can be detected, and NetBios DCERPC attack's alerts semantics can be improved. (authors)

  10. Intrusion Detection System for Applications using Linux Containers

    OpenAIRE

    Abed, Amr S.; Clancy, Charles; Levy, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Linux containers are gaining increasing traction in both individual and industrial use, and as these containers get integrated into mission-critical systems, real-time detection of malicious cyber attacks becomes a critical operational requirement. This paper introduces a real-time host-based intrusion detection system that can be used to passively detect malfeasance against applications within Linux containers running in a standalone or in a cloud multi-tenancy environment. The demonstrated ...

  11. Intrusion of anterior teeth to improve smile esthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekharan, Deepak; Balaji, S M

    2010-03-01

    A gummy smile is probably one of the most common causes of an unaesthetic smile. Causes include overeruption of maxillary anterior teeth and maxillary vertical excess. Intrusion of maxillary anterior teeth with Orthodontics and Le forte I superior repositioning may form a part of the solution. Of late the use of micro implants have improved the smile esthetics of borderline surgical cases by allowing the Orthodontist to intrude teeth more than what was possible with conventional Orthodontics.

  12. Mass memory formatter subsystem of the adaptive intrusion data system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corlis, N.E.

    1980-09-01

    The Mass Memory Formatter was developed as part of the Adaptive Intrusion Data System (AIDS) to control a 2.4-megabit mass memory. The data from a Memory Controlled Processor is formatted before it is stored in the memory and reformatted during the readout mode. The data is then transmitted to a NOVA 2 minicomputer-controlled magnetic tape recorder for storage. Techniques and circuits are described

  13. Mechanisms of extrusion and intrusion formation in fatigued crystalline materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polák, Jaroslav; Man, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 596, FEB (2014), s. 15-24 ISSN 0921-5093 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/10/2371; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-23652S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Fatigue * Extrusion * Intrusion * Persistent slip band * Fatigue crack initiation Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 2.567, year: 2014

  14. Data mining approach to web application intrusions detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalicki, Arkadiusz

    2011-10-01

    Web applications became most popular medium in the Internet. Popularity, easiness of web application script languages and frameworks together with careless development results in high number of web application vulnerabilities and high number of attacks performed. There are several types of attacks possible because of improper input validation: SQL injection Cross-site scripting, Cross-Site Request Forgery (CSRF), web spam in blogs and others. In order to secure web applications intrusion detection (IDS) and intrusion prevention systems (IPS) are being used. Intrusion detection systems are divided in two groups: misuse detection (traditional IDS) and anomaly detection. This paper presents data mining based algorithm for anomaly detection. The principle of this method is the comparison of the incoming HTTP traffic with a previously built profile that contains a representation of the "normal" or expected web application usage sequence patterns. The frequent sequence patterns are found with GSP algorithm. Previously presented detection method was rewritten and improved. Some tests show that the software catches malicious requests, especially long attack sequences, results quite good with medium length sequences, for short length sequences must be complemented with other methods.

  15. Treatment of Intrusive Suicidal Imagery Using Eye Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaël S. van Bentum

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Suicide and suicidal behavior are major public health concerns, and affect 3–9% of the population worldwide. Despite increased efforts for national suicide prevention strategies, there are still few effective interventions available for reducing suicide risk. In this article, we describe various theoretical approaches for suicide ideation and behavior, and propose to examine the possible effectiveness of a new and innovative preventive strategy. A model of suicidal intrusion (mental imagery related to suicide, also referred to as suicidal flash-forwards is presented describing one of the assumed mechanisms in the etiology of suicide and the mechanism of therapeutic change. We provide a brief rationale for an Eye Movement Dual Task (EMDT treatment for suicidal intrusions, describing techniques that can be used to target these suicidal mental images and thoughts to reduce overall behavior. Based on the available empirical evidence for the mechanisms of suicidal intrusions, this approach appears to be a promising new treatment to prevent suicidal behavior as it potentially targets one of the linking pins between suicidal ideation and suicidal actions.

  16. Kissing Bug ( spp. Intrusion into Homes: Troublesome Bites and Domiciliation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A. Klotz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Kissing bugs ( Triatoma spp. frequently enter homes and bite human and pet occupants. Bites may lead to severe allergic reactions and, in some cases, death. Kissing bugs are also vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi , the cause of Chagas disease. In general, modern houses in the United States are not conducive to domiciliation of kissing bugs (bugs living out their entire life within the home with the presence of eggs, nymphs, adults, and exuviae. Construction features such as concrete foundations, solid walls and ceilings, window screens, tight thresholds for doors and windows, and other measures impede bug entry into homes, and air conditioning reduces the need for open doors and windows. Where Chagas disease is endemic in Mexico and Central and South America, homes often have thatch roofs, adobe walls, and open doors and windows. We investigated numerous instances of kissing bug intrusions into homes in Southern Arizona, California, and Louisiana and documented the reactions to kissing bug bites. Our work confirms the importance of modern home construction in limiting kissing bug intrusions. Older homes, especially those lacking modern screening, caulking, and weather stripping to reduce air leakage, may be subject to kissing bug intrusions and domiciliation. We describe a community in Southern Arizona where domiciliation of homes by Triatoma recurva is common. We also provide recent data regarding kissing bug bites and allergic reactions to the bites.

  17. Respon Konsumen pada Mobile Advergames: Intrusiveness dan Irritation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sony Kusumasondjaja

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Increasing adoption of mobile advergames to deliver marketing messages has not been followed by empirical findings to support its effectiveness. This research attempts to examine the effect of mobile advergames intrusiveness on consumer irritation, attitudes, and purchase intention. This investigation on mobile advergame effectiveness was based on the increasing use of mobile media to deliver marketing messages to consumers from different demographic background. Conceptual framework was developed based on Advertising Avoidance Theory. For data collection, self-administered survey was conducted by adopting purposive sampling involving 213 respondents residing in Surabaya who have had experience in playing mobile game as respondents. Results indicate that intrusiveness positively affects consumer irritation. Consumer irritation negatively affects attitude towards the mobile advergames and attitude towards the advertised product. The better the consumer attitude towards the mobile advergames, the more positive the attitude towards the advertised product. Moreover, the more positive the attitude towards the advertised product, the greater the consumer intention to purchase. Interestingly, consumer attitude toward the mobile advergames has insignificant influence on purchase intention. Findings of the study offer significant contribution to marketing practices using mobile advergames as media placement in their advertising strategy. Keywords: intrusiveness, irritation, mobile advergames, attitude, advertising

  18. Data Mining Usage in Corporate Information Security: Intrusion Detection Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Quhtani Masoud

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The globalization era has brought with it the development of high technology, and therefore new methods of preserving and storing data. New data storing techniques ensure data are stored for longer periods of time, more efficiently and with a higher quality, but also with a higher data abuse risk. Objective: The goal of the paper is to provide a review of the data mining applications for the purpose of corporate information security, and intrusion detection in particular. Methods/approach: The review was conducted using the systematic analysis of the previously published papers on the usage of data mining in the field of corporate information security. Results: This paper demonstrates that the use of data mining applications is extremely useful and has a great importance for establishing corporate information security. Data mining applications are directly related to issues of intrusion detection and privacy protection. Conclusions: The most important fact that can be specified based on this study is that corporations can establish a sustainable and efficient data mining system that will ensure privacy and successful protection against unwanted intrusions.

  19. Intrusive imagery in people with a specific phobia of vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Katy; Veale, David; Brewin, Chris R

    2012-03-01

    AND OBJECTIVES: Specific phobia of vomiting (SPOV) is a chronic, pervasive and debilitating disorder which is clinically regarded as difficult to treat. Research into its development, maintenance and treatment has been limited. This study explored the prevalence and characteristics of intrusive mental imagery in people with SPOV. It investigated the relationship between presence of imagery and severity of phobia. Thirty-six participants meeting DSM-IV criteria for SPOV were recruited from online support groups and outpatient clinics. A semi-structured quantitative interview was administered. Twenty-nine (81%) participants reported multi-sensory intrusive imagery of adult (52%) and childhood memories (31%) and worst case scenarios ("flashforwards") of vomiting (17%). Extent of imagery was significantly related to severity of phobia. Participants primarily fearing others vomiting had less severe phobic symptoms. No control group was used and a heterogeneous sample of clinical and community participants was recruited. Correlational data comparing extent of imagery with severity of SPOV symptoms were derived from as yet unvalidated measures. Intrusive mental imagery is a clinically important feature of SPOV and may contribute to its maintenance. Causality needs to be demonstrated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Dimensionality reduction using Principal Component Analysis for network intrusion detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Keerthi Vasan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Intrusion detection is the identification of malicious activities in a given network by analyzing its traffic. Data mining techniques used for this analysis study the traffic traces and identify hostile flows in the traffic. Dimensionality reduction in data mining focuses on representing data with minimum number of dimensions such that its properties are not lost and hence reducing the underlying complexity in processing the data. Principal Component Analysis (PCA is one of the prominent dimensionality reduction techniques widely used in network traffic analysis. In this paper, we focus on the efficiency of PCA for intrusion detection and determine its Reduction Ratio (RR, ideal number of Principal Components needed for intrusion detection and the impact of noisy data on PCA. We carried out experiments with PCA using various classifier algorithms on two benchmark datasets namely, KDD CUP and UNB ISCX. Experiments show that the first 10 Principal Components are effective for classification. The classification accuracy for 10 Principal Components is about 99.7% and 98.8%, nearly same as the accuracy obtained using original 41 features for KDD and 28 features for ISCX, respectively.

  1. AdaBoost-based algorithm for network intrusion detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weiming; Hu, Wei; Maybank, Steve

    2008-04-01

    Network intrusion detection aims at distinguishing the attacks on the Internet from normal use of the Internet. It is an indispensable part of the information security system. Due to the variety of network behaviors and the rapid development of attack fashions, it is necessary to develop fast machine-learning-based intrusion detection algorithms with high detection rates and low false-alarm rates. In this correspondence, we propose an intrusion detection algorithm based on the AdaBoost algorithm. In the algorithm, decision stumps are used as weak classifiers. The decision rules are provided for both categorical and continuous features. By combining the weak classifiers for continuous features and the weak classifiers for categorical features into a strong classifier, the relations between these two different types of features are handled naturally, without any forced conversions between continuous and categorical features. Adaptable initial weights and a simple strategy for avoiding overfitting are adopted to improve the performance of the algorithm. Experimental results show that our algorithm has low computational complexity and error rates, as compared with algorithms of higher computational complexity, as tested on the benchmark sample data.

  2. Anomaly-based intrusion detection for SCADA systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, D.; Usynin, A.; Hines, J. W.

    2006-01-01

    Most critical infrastructure such as chemical processing plants, electrical generation and distribution networks, and gas distribution is monitored and controlled by Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Systems (SCADA. These systems have been the focus of increased security and there are concerns that they could be the target of international terrorists. With the constantly growing number of internet related computer attacks, there is evidence that our critical infrastructure may also be vulnerable. Researchers estimate that malicious online actions may cause $75 billion at 2007. One of the interesting countermeasures for enhancing information system security is called intrusion detection. This paper will briefly discuss the history of research in intrusion detection techniques and introduce the two basic detection approaches: signature detection and anomaly detection. Finally, it presents the application of techniques developed for monitoring critical process systems, such as nuclear power plants, to anomaly intrusion detection. The method uses an auto-associative kernel regression (AAKR) model coupled with the statistical probability ratio test (SPRT) and applied to a simulated SCADA system. The results show that these methods can be generally used to detect a variety of common attacks. (authors)

  3. An Automata Based Intrusion Detection Method for Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulong Fu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet of Things (IoT transforms network communication to Machine-to-Machine (M2M basis and provides open access and new services to citizens and companies. It extends the border of Internet and will be developed as one part of the future 5G networks. However, as the resources of IoT’s front devices are constrained, many security mechanisms are hard to be implemented to protect the IoT networks. Intrusion detection system (IDS is an efficient technique that can be used to detect the attackers when cryptography is broken, and it can be used to enforce the security of IoT networks. In this article, we analyzed the intrusion detection requirements of IoT networks and then proposed a uniform intrusion detection method for the vast heterogeneous IoT networks based on an automata model. The proposed method can detect and report the possible IoT attacks with three types: jam-attack, false-attack, and reply-attack automatically. We also design an experiment to verify the proposed IDS method and examine the attack of RADIUS application.

  4. Abstracting massive data for lightweight intrusion detection in computer networks

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Wei

    2016-10-15

    Anomaly intrusion detection in big data environments calls for lightweight models that are able to achieve real-time performance during detection. Abstracting audit data provides a solution to improve the efficiency of data processing in intrusion detection. Data abstraction refers to abstract or extract the most relevant information from the massive dataset. In this work, we propose three strategies of data abstraction, namely, exemplar extraction, attribute selection and attribute abstraction. We first propose an effective method called exemplar extraction to extract representative subsets from the original massive data prior to building the detection models. Two clustering algorithms, Affinity Propagation (AP) and traditional . k-means, are employed to find the exemplars from the audit data. . k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN), Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and one-class Support Vector Machine (SVM) are used for the detection. We then employ another two strategies, attribute selection and attribute extraction, to abstract audit data for anomaly intrusion detection. Two http streams collected from a real computing environment as well as the KDD\\'99 benchmark data set are used to validate these three strategies of data abstraction. The comprehensive experimental results show that while all the three strategies improve the detection efficiency, the AP-based exemplar extraction achieves the best performance of data abstraction.

  5. Reduction of saltwater intrusion by modifying hydraulic conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strack, O. D. L.; Stoeckl, L.; Damm, K.; Houben, G.; Ausk, B. K.; de Lange, W. J.

    2016-09-01

    We present an approach for reducing saltwater intrusion in coastal aquifers by artificially reducing the hydraulic conductivity in the upper part of selected areas by using a precipitate. We apply a previously presented analytical approach to develop formulas useful for the design of artificial barriers. Equations for the location of the tip of the saltwater wedge are presented and verified through a sand-tank experiment. The analysis is capable of computing discharges exactly, but requires the Dupuit-Forchheimer approximation to compute points of the interface between flowing fresh and stationary saltwater. We consider a vertical coastline and boundaries in the freshwater zone of either given discharge or given head. We demonstrate in the paper that reduction of the hydraulic conductivity in the upper part of a coastal aquifer will result in a decrease of saltwater intrusion, and present analytic expressions that can be used for design purposes. The previously presented analytical approach can be applied to design systems to reduce saltwater intrusion caused by pumping inland from the zone that contains saline groundwater.

  6. Stratigraphic controls on saltwater intrusion in the Dominguez Gap area of coastal Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, B.D.; Ehman, K.D.; Ponti, D.J.; Reichard, E.G.; Tinsley, J.C.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Land, M.

    2009-01-01

    The Los Angeles Basin is a densely populated coastal area that significantly depends on groundwater. A part of this groundwater supply is at risk from saltwater intrusion-the impetus for this study. High-resolution seismic-reflection data collected from the Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbor Complex have been combined with borehole geophysical and descriptive geological data from four nearby ??400-m-deep continuously cored wells and with borehole geophysical data from adjacent water and oil wells to characterize the Pliocene to Holocene stratigraphy of the Dominguez Gap coastal aquifer system. The new data are shown as a north-south, two- dimensional, sequence-stratigraphic model that is compared to existing lithostratigraphic models of the Los Angeles Basin in an attempt to better understand pathways of saltwater intrusion into coastal aquifers. Intrusion of saltwater into the coastal aquifer system generally is attributed to over-pumping that caused the hydraulic gradient to reverse during the mid-1920s. Local water managers have used the existing lithostratigraphic model to site closely spaced injection wells of freshwater (barrier projects) attempting to hydraulically control the saltwater intrusion. Improved understanding of the stratigraphic relationships can guide modifications to barrier design that will allow more efficient operation. Allostratigraphic nomenclature is used to define a new sequence-stratigraphic model for the area because the existing lithostratigraphic correlations that have been used to define aquifer systems are shown not to be time-correlative. The youngest sequence, the Holocene Dominguez sequence, contains the Gaspur aquifer at its base. The Gaspur aquifer is intruded with saltwater and consists of essentially flat-lying gravelly sands deposited by the ancestral Los Angeles River as broad channels that occupied a paleovalley incised into the coastal plain during the last glacio-eustatic highstand. The underlying sequences are deformed into

  7. Use of major ions to evaluate the hydrogeochemistry of groundwater influenced by reclamation and seawater intrusion, West Nile Delta, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Zenhom El-Said; Osman, Osman M

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this research is to evaluate the groundwater geochemistry in western Nile Delta area as an example of an aquifer influenced by reclamation and seawater intrusion. To conduct this study, 63 groundwater samples and one surface water sample from El Nubaria Canal were collected. To estimate the origin of dissolved ions and the geochemical processes influencing this groundwater, integration between land use change, pedological, hydrogeological, hydrogeochemical, and statistical approaches was considered. Results suggest that the groundwater flow regime changed from northeast and southwest directions around El Nubaria canal before 1966 to northern and northeastern directions due to newly constructed channel network. Soil salinity and mineral contents, seepage from irrigation canal, and seawater intrusion are the main factors controlling the groundwater chemistry. Statistically, the groundwater samples were classified into eight groups, one to four for the deep groundwater and five to eight for the shallow groundwater. The deep groundwater is characterized by two groups of chemicals (SO 4 -HCO 3 -Mg-Ca-K and Cl-Na), while the shallow groundwater groups of chemicals are Na-Cl-SO 4 and K-HCO 3 -Ca-Mg. Both shallow groundwater and deep groundwater are mostly saturated with respect to carbonate minerals and undersaturated with respect to chloride minerals. Sulfate minerals are above the saturation limit in the shallow groundwater, but in the deep samples, these minerals are under the saturation limit. Ion exchange, carbonate production, mineral precipitation, and seawater intrusion are the geochemical processes governing the groundwater chemistry in the study area.

  8. Geochemical and isotopic evidence for palaeo-seawater intrusion into the south coast aquifer of Laizhou Bay, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han Dongmei [Key Laboratory of Water Cycle and Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Kohfahl, Claus [Instituto Geologico y Minero de Espana, Plaza de Espana, 41013 Seville (Spain); Song, Xianfang, E-mail: songxf@igsnrr.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Water Cycle and Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Xiao Guoqiang; Yang Jilong [Tianjin Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources, Tianjin 300170 (China)

    2011-05-15

    Highlights: > Hydrochemistry, multi-isotopes, and hydraulic data were used to study saltwater intrusion. > Salt sources and their contributions to the salinity distribution are identified. > Groundwater age and mixing behavior are estimated. > Hydrogeochemical evolution of different types of groundwater is determined. > Multi-approach study can improve the understanding of reactive transport processes. - Abstract: This research aims to improve the current knowledge of groundwater salinisation processes in coastal aquifers using combined hydrochemical and isotopic parameters and inverse hydrochemical modelling. Field investigations were conducted in Laizhou Bay, which is the area most seriously affected by seawater intrusion in north China. During three sampling campaigns along a vertical transect in the Changyi-Liutuan area, 95 ground- and surface-water samples were collected for major ion and isotope analysis ({sup 2}H/{sup 18}O, {sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 34}S). The groundwater changes along the general flowpath towards the coast from fresh (<1 g/L), brackish (1-10 g/L), saline (10-100 g/L) to brine water (>100 g/L). Molar Cl/Br ratios are close to those of seawater in almost all groundwater samples, indicating that brines and deep seawater evolved from different events of palaeo-seawater intrusion. Depleted isotopic signatures of brines and deep saline water point to a former, initially depleted seawater reservoir due to runoff dilution. Tritium and {sup 14}C activities in deep saline water below confining units indicate isolation from modern precipitation and significant residence times. Brine water shows a wide range of {sup 3}H and {sup 14}C ages due to the complex conditions of mixing without isolation from modern groundwater. Sulphur-34 isotope ratios support seawater intrusion as a possible salt origin, although this parameter does not exclude gypsum dissolution. The combined use of Cl and {sup 18}O yields four different end-members of groundwater, and

  9. Aspects of cold intrusions over Greece during autumn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, Constantina; Marinaki, Aggeliki; Zeini, Konstantina; Konstantara, Metaxia

    2010-05-01

    This study is focused on the description of atmospheric disturbances that caused intense cold intrusions over Greece during autumn for a period of 25 years (1982-2006). The study was based on data analysis from the meteorological station network of the Hellenic National Meteorological Service (HNMS) and the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). Initially, the days with temperature at the isobaric surface of 850 hPa less or equal to the mean temperature for the 10-day period the day under investigation belongs to are isolated, composing a new confined data set which was further used. An event of intense cold intrusion is identified based on a subjective set of criteria, considering the temperature decrease at the level of 850 hPa and its duration. In particular, the criteria that were used to identify a cold intrusion were: temperature variation between two successive days at the isobaric level of 850 hPa being equal or greater than 50 C at least once during the event and duration of the event of at least two successive days with continuous temperature decrease. Additionally, the synoptic analysis of the atmospheric disturbances involved using weather charts from ECMWF, revealed that all cases were related to low pressure systems at the level of 500 hPa, accompanied by cold air masses. Moreover, a methodology proposed to classify the cold intrusions based on general circulation characteristics of the atmosphere, resulted in seven major categories. More than half of the events belong in two categories, originated northwest of the greater Greek area (Greece and parts of neighbouring countries), between 400 and 600 N. Further analysis indicated that the frequency of events increases from September to November and the majority of the events lasted two to three days. Additionally, the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test was used for the investigation of the statistical significance of the trends appearing in the results. The tests revealed that over

  10. An investigation of potential neural correlates of intrusive retrieval of distressing memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglini, Eva; Liddell, Belinda J; Das, Pritha; Malhi, Gin S; Felmingham, Kim; Bryant, Richard A

    2018-03-01

    Despite the prevalence of intrusive memories across psychological disorders, little is known about the neural networks that underpin this form of memory. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify neural circuits associated with the retrieval of intrusive memories. Participants with moderate levels of anxiety (N = 30) underwent a cold pressor task to induce a physiological stress response, after which they viewed 10 neutral and 10 negative film clips. In a method designed to induce intrusive memories, participants then completed an fMRI scan in which they viewed short (2 s) depictions of neutral components from the original film clips. There were no significant differences in activations during intrusion and non-intrusion responses. Exploratory analyses comparing intrusive responses to neutral stimuli found the insula, inferior frontal gyrus, precuneus, right cerebellum and bilateral supplementary motor area were uniquely activated during experience of intrusions (compared to the neutral cue baseline), whereas no significant activations were in response to negative scenes that did not trigger intrusions. This study did not compare the different neural processes implicated in intrusive and intentional emotional memories. The limited intrusions that could be elicited in the scanning environment restricted the number of trials that could be employed. Although no differences in neural activations were observed between intrusive and non-intrusive responses, the observation of precuneus involvement is consistent with models that propose that intrusive memories are impacted by the extent to which there is contextual integration of the relevant memories. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Radon 222 and Tritium in the identification and quantification of NAPL contamination in ground water. 2. 222RN, 3H and CL patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molerio Leon, LF; Fernandez Gomez, IM; Carrazana Gonzalez, J A

    2012-01-01

    This is a second and last paper on these theme and presents the typical behavior of Rn 222a nd 3H at the Northern Havana-Matanzas Heavy Oil Belt for the following cases: a) fresh ground waters (unaffected by sea water intrusion), b) fresh ground water affected by isolated advances of sea water intrusion, c) fresh ground water intruded by sea water, d) ground water affected by oil spill and e) ground water affected by produced water spill

  12. Identification of Soil Salinity Due to Seawater Intrusion on Rice Field in the Northern Coast of Indramayu, West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deddy Erfandi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The rice fields in Indramayu district is 55% of the district area. The average rainfall is 1590 mm per year. Most lands on the North Coast of Java (northern were potentially affected by sea water intrusion. Extensive observations were 102.321 ha. Field observations were done by survey method. Observations had been conducted on rice fields Pantura, Indramayu, West Java. Soil salinity was measured by using the electromagnetic conductivity meter (EM-38. The results revealed that area had very high salinity which was 22.57%, closest to the beach Indramayu. In the South Region, soil salinity was lower, in accordance with the distance from the coastline. Some areas had a low, medium, and high salinity status in which 58.41%, 8.54% and 10.49%, respectively. Much of the research area had very high Sodium (Na and ECe (0 - 30 cm was between 1.37 to 16.38 dS m-1, while the ECe (30 - 70 cm was between 1.11 to 17.40 dS m-1. This research was expected to assist in the agricultural development planning, especially in wetlands which have been affected by the intrusion of sea water (salinity. Planning for the implementation of the development of rice varieties that are sensitive to high and very high salinity. Planning and improvement of irrigation networks as sources of clean water for washing the salts or pushing salt water into the sea.

  13. Geochemical and isotopic evidence for palaeo-seawater intrusion into the south coast aquifer of Laizhou Bay, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Dongmei; Kohfahl, Claus; Song, Xianfang; Xiao Guoqiang; Yang Jilong

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Hydrochemistry, multi-isotopes, and hydraulic data were used to study saltwater intrusion. → Salt sources and their contributions to the salinity distribution are identified. → Groundwater age and mixing behavior are estimated. → Hydrogeochemical evolution of different types of groundwater is determined. → Multi-approach study can improve the understanding of reactive transport processes. - Abstract: This research aims to improve the current knowledge of groundwater salinisation processes in coastal aquifers using combined hydrochemical and isotopic parameters and inverse hydrochemical modelling. Field investigations were conducted in Laizhou Bay, which is the area most seriously affected by seawater intrusion in north China. During three sampling campaigns along a vertical transect in the Changyi-Liutuan area, 95 ground- and surface-water samples were collected for major ion and isotope analysis ( 2 H/ 18 O, 3 H, 14 C, 34 S). The groundwater changes along the general flowpath towards the coast from fresh ( 100 g/L). Molar Cl/Br ratios are close to those of seawater in almost all groundwater samples, indicating that brines and deep seawater evolved from different events of palaeo-seawater intrusion. Depleted isotopic signatures of brines and deep saline water point to a former, initially depleted seawater reservoir due to runoff dilution. Tritium and 14 C activities in deep saline water below confining units indicate isolation from modern precipitation and significant residence times. Brine water shows a wide range of 3 H and 14 C ages due to the complex conditions of mixing without isolation from modern groundwater. Sulphur-34 isotope ratios support seawater intrusion as a possible salt origin, although this parameter does not exclude gypsum dissolution. The combined use of Cl and 18 O yields four different end-members of groundwater, and three different mixing scenarios were identified explaining the hydrochemical composition of

  14. Assessing impacts of climate change, sea level rise, and drainage canals on saltwater intrusion to coastal aquifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Rasmussen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater abstraction from coastal aquifers is vulnerable to climate change and sea level rise because both may potentially impact saltwater intrusion and hence groundwater quality depending on the hydrogeological setting. In the present study the impacts of sea level rise and changes in groundwater recharge are quantified for an island located in the Western Baltic Sea. The low-lying central area of the investigated part of the island was extensively drained and reclaimed during the second half of the 19th century by a system of artificial drainage canals that significantly affects the flow dynamics of the area. The drinking water, mainly for summer cottages, is abstracted from 11 wells drilled to a depth of around 20 m into the upper 5–10 m of a confined chalk aquifer, and the total pumping is only 5–6% of the drainage pumping. Increasing chloride concentrations have been observed in several abstraction wells and in some cases the WHO drinking water standard has been exceeded. Using the modeling package MODFLOW/MT3D/SEAWAT the historical, present and future freshwater-sea water distribution is simulated. The model is calibrated against hydraulic head observations and validated against geochemical and geophysical data from new investigation wells, including borehole logs, and from an airborne transient electromagnetic survey. The impact of climate changes on saltwater intrusion is found to be sensitive to the boundary conditions of the investigated system. For the flux-controlled aquifer to the west of the drained area only changes in groundwater recharge impacts the freshwater–sea water interface whereas sea level rise does not result in increasing sea water intrusion. However, on the barrier islands to the east of the reclaimed area, below which the sea is hydraulically connected to the drainage canals, and the boundary of the flow system therefore controlled, the projected changes in sea level, groundwater recharge and stage of the

  15. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... environment and your health: Green living Sun Water Health effects of water pollution How to protect yourself from water pollution Air ... can hurt your health. Learn more about the health effects of polluted water. You can also learn more ... Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Here are ...

  16. A numerical investigation of vapor intrusion--the dynamic response of contaminant vapors to rainfall events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Rui; Pennell, Kelly G; Suuberg, Eric M

    2012-10-15

    The U.S. government and various agencies have published guidelines for field investigation of vapor intrusion, most of which suggest soil gas sampling as an integral part of the investigation. Contaminant soil gas data are often relatively more stable than indoor air vapor concentration measurements, but meteorological conditions might influence soil gas values. Although a few field and numerical studies have considered some temporal effects on soil gas vapor transport, a full explanation of the contaminant vapor concentration response to rainfall events is not available. This manuscript seeks to demonstrate the effects on soil vapor transport during and after different rainfall events, by applying a coupled numerical model of fluid flow and vapor transport. Both a single rainfall event and seasonal rainfall events were modeled. For the single rainfall event models, the vapor response process could be divided into three steps: namely, infiltration, water redistribution, and establishment of a water lens atop the groundwater source. In the infiltration step, rainfall intensity was found to determine the speed of the wetting front and wash-out effect on the vapor. The passage of the wetting front led to an increase of the vapor concentration in both the infiltration and water redistribution steps and this effect is noted at soil probes located 1m below the ground surface. When the mixing of groundwater with infiltrated water was not allowed, a clean water lens accumulated above the groundwater source and led to a capping effect which can reduce diffusion rates of contaminant from the source. Seasonal rainfall with short time intervals involved superposition of the individual rainfall events. This modeling results indicated that for relatively deeper soil that the infiltration wetting front could not flood, the effects were damped out in less than a month after rain; while in the long term (years), possible formation of a water lens played a larger role in determining

  17. Computational benefits using artificial intelligent methodologies for the solution of an environmental design problem: saltwater intrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Maria P; Nikolos, Ioannis K; Karatzas, George P

    2010-01-01

    Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) comprise a powerful tool to approximate the complicated behavior and response of physical systems allowing considerable reduction in computation time during time-consuming optimization runs. In this work, a Radial Basis Function Artificial Neural Network (RBFN) is combined with a Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm to solve a water resources management problem, using an optimization procedure. The objective of the optimization scheme is to cover the daily water demand on the coastal aquifer east of the city of Heraklion, Crete, without reducing the subsurface water quality due to seawater intrusion. The RBFN is utilized as an on-line surrogate model to approximate the behavior of the aquifer and to replace some of the costly evaluations of an accurate numerical simulation model which solves the subsurface water flow differential equations. The RBFN is used as a local approximation model in such a way as to maintain the robustness of the DE algorithm. The results of this procedure are compared to the corresponding results obtained by using the Simplex method and by using the DE procedure without the surrogate model. As it is demonstrated, the use of the surrogate model accelerates the convergence of the DE optimization procedure and additionally provides a better solution at the same number of exact evaluations, compared to the original DE algorithm.

  18. The assessment of human intrusion into underground repositories for radioactive waste Volume 1: Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nancarrow, D.J.; Little, R.H.; Asthon, J.; Staunton, G.M.

    1990-01-01

    This report has been prepared with the primary objective of establishing a methodology for the assessment of human intrusion into deep underground repositories for radioactive wastes. The disposal concepts considered are those studied in the performance assessment studies Pagis and Pacoma, coordinated by the CEC. These comprise four types of host rock, namely: clay, granite, salt and the sub-seabed. Following a review of previous assessments of human intrusion, a list of relevant human activities is derived. This forms the basis for detailed characterization of groundwater abstraction and of exploitation of mineral and other resources. Approaches to assessment of intrusion are reviewed and consideration is given to the estimation of probabilities for specific types of intrusion events. Calculational schemes are derived for specific intrusion events and dosimetric factors are presented. A review is also presented of the capacity for reduction of the risks associated with intrusions. Finally, conclusions from the study are presented

  19. The assessment of human intrusion into underground repositories for radioactive waste Volume 2: Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nancarrow, D.J.; Little, R.H.; Ashton, J.; Staunton, G.M.

    1990-01-01

    This report has been prepared with the primary objective of establishing a methodology for the assessment of human intrusion into deep underground repositories for radioactive wastes. The disposal concepts considered are those studied in the performance assessment studies Pagis and Pacoma, coordinated by the CEC. These comprise four types of host rock, namely: clay, granite, salt and the sub-seabed. Following a review of previous assessments of human intrusion, a list of relevant human activities is derived. This forms the basis for detailed characterization of groundwater abstraction and of exploitation of mineral and other resources. Approaches to assessment of intrusion are reviewed and consideration is given to the estimation of probabilities for specific types of intrusion events. Calculational schemes are derived for specific intrusion events and dosimetric factors are presented. A review is also presented of the capacity for reduction of the risks associated with intrusions. Finally, conclusions from the study are presented

  20. Review on assessment methodology for human intrusion into a repository for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Dong Keun; Kim, Jung Woo; Jeong, Jong Tae; Baik, Min Hoon

    2016-01-01

    An approach to assess inadvertent human intrusion into radwaste repository was proposed with the assumption that the intrusion occurs after a loss of knowledge of the hazardous nature of the disposal facility. The essential boundary conditions were derived on the basis of international recommendations, followed by an overall approach to deal with inadvertent human intrusion. The interrelation between societal factors, human intrusion scenarios, and protective measures is described to provide a concrete explanation of the approach, including the detailed procedures to set up the human intrusion scenario. The procedure for deriving protective measures is also explained with four steps, including how to derive a safety framework, general measures, potential measures, and eventual protective measures on the basis of stylized scenarios. It is expected that the approach proposed in this study will be used effectively to reduce the potential for and/or the consequences of human intrusion during the entire process of realizing a disposal facility

  1. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Luna Bergere; Baldwin, Helene L.

    1962-01-01

    What do you use water for?If someone asked you this question you would probably think right away of water for drinking. Then you would think of water for bathing, brushing teeth, flushing the toilet. Your list would get longer as you thought of water for cooking, washing the dishes, running the garbage grinder. Water for lawn watering, for play pools, for swimming pools, for washing the car and the dog. Water for washing machines and for air conditioning. You can hardly do without water for fun and pleasure—water for swimming, boating, fishing, water-skiing, and skin diving. In school or the public library, you need water to wash your hands, or to have a drink. If your home or school bursts into flames, quantities of water are needed to put it out.In fact, life to Americans is unthinkable without large supplies of fresh, clean water. If you give the matter a little thought, you will realize that people in many countries, even in our own, may suffer from disease and dirt simply because their homes are not equipped with running water. Imagine your own town if for some reason - an explosion, perhaps - water service were cut off for a week or several weeks. You would have to drive or walk to a neighboring town and bring water back in pails. Certainly if people had to carry water themselves they might not be inclined to bathe very often; washing clothes would be a real chore.Nothing can live without water. The earth is covered by water over three-fourths of its surface - water as a liquid in rivers, lakes and oceans, and water as ice and snow on the tops of high mountains and in the polar regions. Only one-quarter of our bodies is bone and muscle; the other three-fourths is made of water. We need water to live, and so do plants and animals. People and animals can live a long time without food, but without water they die in a few days. Without water, everything would die, and the world would turn into a huge desert.

  2. DUNDRUM Restriction-Intrusion of Liberty Ladders (DRILL) Audit Toolkit

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kennedy, Harry G

    2011-09-01

    This series of rating \\'ladders\\' is intended to allow a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the use of restrictive and intrusive interventions as part of the therapeutic management of violence and aggression in psychiatric hospital settings. This is an evolving handbook. The ladders are currently organised to facilitate a behavioural analysis. Context, antecedents, behaviour, interventions, consequences are conceptualised as a series of events organised in temporal sequence so that causes, interactions and effects can be considered. The complexity of analysis possible is limited by the statistical power of the numbers of cases and events available. \\r\

  3. Network Intrusion Detection System – A Novel Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krish Pillai

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Network intrusion starts off with a series of unsuccessful breakin attempts and results eventually with the permanent or transient failure of an authentication or authorization system. Due to the current complexity of authentication systems, clandestine attempts at intrusion generally take considerable time before the system gets compromised or damaging change is affected to the system giving administrators a window of opportunity to proactively detect and prevent intrusion. Therefore maintaining a high level of sensitivity to abnormal access patterns is a very effective way of preventing possible break-ins. Under normal circumstances, gross errors on the part of the user can cause authentication and authorization failures on all systems. A normal distribution of failed attempts should be tolerated while abnormal attempts should be recognized as such and flagged. But one cannot manage what one cannot measure. This paper proposes a method that can efficiently quantify the behaviour of users on a network so that transient changes in usage can be detected, categorized based on severity, and closely investigated for possible intrusion. The author proposes the identification of patterns in protocol usage within a network to categorize it for surveillance. Statistical anomaly detection, under which category this approach falls, generally uses simple statistical tests such as mean and standard deviation to detect behavioural changes. The author proposes a novel approach using spectral density as opposed to using time domain data, allowing a clear separation or access patterns based on periodicity. Once a spectral profile has been identified for network, deviations from this profile can be used as an indication of a destabilized or compromised network. Spectral analysis of access patterns is done using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT, which can be computed in Θ(N log N operations. The paper justifies the use of this approach and presents preliminary

  4. Attack Pattern Analysis Framework for a Multiagent Intrusion Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Juszczyszyn

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes the use of attack pattern ontology and formal framework for network traffic anomalies detection within a distributed multi-agent Intrusion Detection System architecture. Our framework assumes ontology-based attack definition and distributed processing scheme with exchange of communicates between agents. The role of traffic anomalies detection was presented then it has been discussed how some specific values characterizing network communication can be used to detect network anomalies caused by security incidents (worm attack, virus spreading. Finally, it has been defined how to use the proposed techniques in distributed IDS using attack pattern ontology.

  5. Neuroscientific Prediction and the Intrusion of Intuitive Metaphysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, David; Buckwalter, Wesley; Nichols, Shaun

    2017-03-01

    How might advanced neuroscience-in which perfect neuro-predictions are possible-interact with ordinary judgments of free will? We propose that peoples' intuitive ideas about indeterminist free will are both imported into and intrude into their representation of neuroscientific scenarios and present six experiments demonstrating intrusion and importing effects in the context of scenarios depicting perfect neuro-prediction. In light of our findings, we suggest that the intuitive commitment to indeterminist free will may be resilient in the face of scientific evidence against such free will. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  6. Environnements de tests d’intrusion pour mobiles et tablettes

    OpenAIRE

    Vianin, Jérémie; Bocchi, Yann

    2017-01-01

    L’objectif de ce travail est de réaliser une recherche des possibilités actuelles de tests d’intrusion mobiles. Après avoir recherché les technologies existantes, nous les analysons et les comparons afin de proposer un outil complet. Dans ce travail, nous analysons les possibilités de pentesting mobile avec l’aide d’une tablette de la marque Nexus et un smartphone de la gamme One d’HTC. Nous voyons le pentest mobile sous trois grands angles : OS, package et application.

  7. The role of extrusions and intrusions in fatigue crack initiation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polák, Jaroslav; Mazánová, Veronika; Heczko, Milan; Petráš, Roman; Kuběna, Ivo; Casalena, L.; Man, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 185, NOV (2017), s. 46-60 ISSN 0013-7944 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601; GA MŠk LM2015069; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-23652S; GA ČR GA15-08826S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Extrusion * Fatigue crack initiation * Intrusion * Persistent slip marking * Stainless steel Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics OBOR OECD: Audio engineering, reliability analysis Impact factor: 2.151, year: 2016

  8. A graphical feature generation approach for intrusion detection

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Shi; Zuo Zhen; Huang Zhi Ping; Guo Xiao Jun

    2016-01-01

    In order to develop a novel effective and efficient intrusion detection system, a novel hybrid method based on a graphical features-based k-nearest neighbor approach, namely GFNN, is proposed in this paper. In GFNN, k-means clustering algorithm is used to extract cluster centre of each class in the given dataset. Then, the distance between a specific data sample and each cluster centre is calculated, and a radar chart is plotted based on the new data composed of distance based features. The s...

  9. Seawater intrusion barrier and artificial recharge in the deltaic Llobregat aquifer (Barcelona, Spain); La barrera hidraulica contra la intrusion marina y la recarga artificial en el acuifero del Llobregat (Barcelona, Espana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortuno Gobern, F.; Ninerola Pla, J. M.; Armenter Ferrando, J. L.; Molinero Huguet, J.

    2009-07-01

    The main aquifer of the Llobregat Delta (Barcelona, Spain) is affected by seawater intrusion processes since 1970. The Catalan Water Agency is currently promoting several actions of enhanced aquifer recharge, including the construction of a positive hydraulic barrier in order to stop the advance of the seawater intrusion. Such a positive hydraulic barrier works by injecting reclaimed water in 14 wells. This is the first time that a project of this type is performed in Spain, and it is also pioneer in Europe. The positive hydraulic barrier produces the rise of the groundwater head near the coast and avoids seawater penetration inland. The injected reclaimed water comes from the WWTP of the Baix Llobregat after passing through several treatments (ultrafiltration, osmosis and disinfection). The pilot phase of the project has been working during the last 2 years, showing highly positive results. Substantial improvement of the groundwater quality has been observed in wells surrounding the injection points and no clogging has been appeared. The second phase of the project is currently under construction. (Author) 13 refs.

  10. Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chovanec, A.; Grath, J.; Kralik, M.; Vogel, W.

    2002-01-01

    An up-date overview of the situation of the Austrian waters is given by analyzing the status of the water quality (groundwater, surface waters) and water protection measures. Maps containing information of nitrate and atrazine in groundwaters (analyses at monitoring stations), nitrate contents and biological water quality of running waters are included. Finally, pollutants (nitrate, orthophosphate, ammonium, nitrite, atrazine etc.) trends in annual mean values and median values for the whole country for the years 1992-1999 are presented in tables. Figs. 5. (nevyjel)

  11. Water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available to explore desalination for future capacity. Water is essential to life: the human body is about 75 percent water, with up to 85 percent of brain cells liquid. Around 71 percent of the planet is covered in water, but 97,5 percent of it is salt water... risen to 90 percent, leaving only 10 percent for animals and plants. Yet 40 percent of the water used globally is for sanitation and other uses in buildings. The operation of buildings places a strain on raw water reserves, while wastewater and sewage...

  12. The role of compassion, suffering, and intrusive thoughts in dementia caregiver depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Richard; Savla, Jyoti; Czaja, Sara J; Monin, Joan

    2017-09-01

    Exposure to suffering of a relative or friend increases the risk for psychological and physical morbidity. However, little is known about the mechanisms that account for this effect. We test a theoretical model that identifies intrusive thoughts as a mediator of the relation between perceived physical and psychological suffering of the care recipient and caregiver depression. We also assess the role of compassion as a moderator of the relation between perceived suffering and intrusive thoughts. Hispanic and African American caregivers (N = 108) of persons with dementia were assessed three times within a one-year period. Using multilevel modeling, we assessed the mediating role of intrusive thoughts in the relation between perceived physical and psychological suffering and CG depression, and we tested moderated mediation to assess the role of caregiver compassion in the relation between perceived suffering and intrusive thoughts. The effects of perceived physical suffering on depression were completely mediated through intrusive thoughts, and compassion moderated the relation between physical suffering and intrusive thoughts. Caregivers who had greater compassion reported more intrusive thoughts even when perceived physical suffering of the CR was low. For perceived psychological suffering, the effects of suffering on depression were partially mediated through intrusive thoughts. Understanding the role of intrusive thoughts and compassion in familial relationships provides new insights into mechanisms driving caregiver well-being and presents new opportunities for intervention.

  13. Exploring machine-learning-based control plane intrusion detection techniques in software defined optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huibin; Wang, Yuqiao; Chen, Haoran; Zhao, Yongli; Zhang, Jie

    2017-12-01

    In software defined optical networks (SDON), the centralized control plane may encounter numerous intrusion threatens which compromise the security level of provisioned services. In this paper, the issue of control plane security is studied and two machine-learning-based control plane intrusion detection techniques are proposed for SDON with properly selected features such as bandwidth, route length, etc. We validate the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed techniques by simulations. Results show an accuracy of 83% for intrusion detection can be achieved with the proposed machine-learning-based control plane intrusion detection techniques.

  14. Cultural differences in the relationship between intrusions and trauma narratives using the trauma film paradigm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Jobson

    Full Text Available Two studies explored the influence of culture on the relationship between British and East Asian adults' autobiographical remembering of trauma film material and associated intrusions. Participants were shown aversive film clips to elicit intrusive images. Then participants provided a post-film narrative of the film content (only Study 1. In both studies, participants reported intrusive images for the film in an intrusion diary during the week after viewing. On returning the diary, participants provided a narrative of the film (delayed. The trauma film narratives were scored for memory-content variables. It was found that for British participants, higher levels of autonomous orientation (i.e. expressions of autonomy and self-determination and self-focus in the delayed narratives were correlated significantly with fewer intrusions. For the East Asian group, lower levels of autonomous orientation and greater focus on others were correlated significantly with fewer intrusions. Additionally, Study 2 found that by removing the post-film narrative task there was a significant increase in the number of intrusions relative to Study 1, suggesting that the opportunity to develop a narrative resulted in fewer intrusions. These findings suggest that the greater the integration and contextualization of the trauma memory, and the more the trauma memory reflects culturally appropriate remembering, the fewer the intrusions.

  15. Cultural Differences in the Relationship between Intrusions and Trauma Narratives Using the Trauma Film Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobson, Laura; Dalgleish, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Two studies explored the influence of culture on the relationship between British and East Asian adults’ autobiographical remembering of trauma film material and associated intrusions. Participants were shown aversive film clips to elicit intrusive images. Then participants provided a post-film narrative of the film content (only Study 1). In both studies, participants reported intrusive images for the film in an intrusion diary during the week after viewing. On returning the diary, participants provided a narrative of the film (delayed). The trauma film narratives were scored for memory-content variables. It was found that for British participants, higher levels of autonomous orientation (i.e. expressions of autonomy and self-determination) and self-focus in the delayed narratives were correlated significantly with fewer intrusions. For the East Asian group, lower levels of autonomous orientation and greater focus on others were correlated significantly with fewer intrusions. Additionally, Study 2 found that by removing the post-film narrative task there was a significant increase in the number of intrusions relative to Study 1, suggesting that the opportunity to develop a narrative resulted in fewer intrusions. These findings suggest that the greater the integration and contextualization of the trauma memory, and the more the trauma memory reflects culturally appropriate remembering, the fewer the intrusions. PMID:25203300

  16. Forecast, observation and modelling of a deep stratospheric intrusion event over Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Zanis

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of measurements was carried out in central and southeastern Europe within the framework of the EU project STACCATO (Influence of Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange in a Changing Climate on Atmospheric Transport and Oxidation Capacity with the principle goal to create a comprehensive data set on stratospheric air intrusions into the troposphere along a rather frequently observed pathway over central Europe from the North Sea to the Mediterranean Sea. The measurements were based on predictions by suitable quasi-operational trajectory calculations using ECMWF forecast data. A predicted deep Stratosphere to Troposphere Transport (STT event, encountered during the STACCATO period on 20-21 June 2001, was followed by the measurements network almost from its inception. Observations provide evidence that the intrusion affected large parts of central and southeastern Europe. Especially, the ozone lidar observations on 20-21 June 2001 at Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany captured the evolution of two marked tongues of high ozone with the first one descending to nearly 2 km, thus providing an excellent data set for model intercomparisons and validation. In addition, for the first time to our knowledge concurrent surface measurements of the cosmogenic radionuclides 10Be and 7Be and their ratio 10Be/7Be are presented together as stratospheric tracers in a case study of a stratospheric intrusion. The ozone tracer columns calculated with the FLEXPART model were found to be in good agreement with water vapour satellite images, capturing the evolution of the observed dry streamers of stratospheric origin. Furthermore, the time-height cross section of ozone tracer simulated with FLEXPART over Garmisch-Partenkirchen captures many details of the evolution of the two observed high-ozone filaments measured with the IFU lidar, thus demonstrating the considerable progress in model simulations. Finally, the modelled ozone (operationally available since October

  17. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marion County, Indiana Salt Lake County, Utah Seattle-King County, Washington Tools and Training CLPPP CAP Healthy ... wish to use tap water for drinking or cooking, especially when the water has been off and ...

  18. The use of data-mining techniques for developing effective decisionsupport systems: A case study of simulating the effects ofclimate change on coastal salinity intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrads, Paul; Edwin Roehl, Jr.

    2017-01-01

    Natural-resource managers and stakeholders face difficult challenges when managing interactions between natural and societal systems. Potential changes in climate could alter interactions between environmental and societal systems and adversely affect the availability of water resources in many coastal communities. The availability of freshwater in coastal streams can be threatened by saltwater intrusion. Even though the collective interests and computer skills of the community of managers, scientists and other stakeholders are quite varied, there is an overarching need for equal access by all to the scientific knowledge needed to make the best possible decisions. This paper describes a decision support system, PRISM-2, developed to evaluate salinity intrusion due to potential climate change along the South Carolina coast in southeastern USA. The decision support system is disseminated as a spreadsheet application and integrates the output of global circulation models, watershed models and salinity intrusion models with real-time databases for simulation, graphical user interfaces, and streaming displays of results. The results from PRISM-2 showed that a 31-cm and 62-cm increase in sea level reduced the daily availability of freshwater supply to a coastal municipal intake by 4% and 12% of the time, respectively. Future climate change projections by a global circulation model showed a seasonal change in salinity intrusion events from the summer to the fall for the majority of events.

  19. Ghost Forest Rising: A Hyperspectral Approach to Assessing Vegetation Health and Tree Die-Off in Response to Saltwater Intrusion in a Coastal Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightning, L.; Jass, T. L.; McGirt, A.; Emanuel, R. E.

    2016-12-01

    In coastal areas, saltwater intrusion is a natural occurrence that can affect the quality of groundwater and surface water. Saltwater intrusion can also affect the health of vegetation that depends on fresh water. We studied the effects of saltwater on vegetation with particular focus on loblolly pine trees (Pinus taeda). Our study took place on the Albemarle-Pamlico Peninsula (APP), a 6,000 km2 region of North Carolina's Outer Coastal Plain surrounded on three sides by estuarine coastline. Years of local, anecdotal observations suggest that stands of dead pine trees known as "Ghost Forest," are spreading along coastal waterways. We investigated the health of pine trees in this region to explore potential links between saltwater intrusion and die-off, particularly where artificial ditches and canals allow saltwater to flow deep into the interior of the peninsula. Using a handheld spectroradiometer, we collected hyperspectral reflectance data in visible and near infrared wavebands (350-1000 nm) from more than 100 individual canopy and leaf samples across the APP. We accompanied these measurements with GPS coordinates, measurements of tree height and circumference, distances from nearby waterways, and specific conductance measurements (as a salinity proxy) of these waters. We used reflectance spectra to calculate the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the Red-Green Index (RGI), and site-specific indices to determine the health of particular trees and canopies. Using this information in conjunction with ancillary data, we explored the correlations between the health of vegetation and the salinity of nearby water sources.

  20. Effect of ultramafic intrusions and associated mineralized rocks on the aqueous geochemistry of the Tangle Lakes Area, Alaska: Chapter C in Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bronwen; Gough, Larry P.; Wanty, Richard B.; Lee, Gregory K.; Vohden, James; O’Neill, J. Michael; Kerin, L. Jack

    2013-01-01

    Stream water was collected at 30 sites within the Tangle Lakes area of the Delta mineral belt in Alaska. Sampling focused on streams near the ultramafic rocks of the Fish Lake intrusive complex south of Eureka Creek and the Tangle Complex area east of Fourteen Mile Lake, as well as on those within the deformed metasedimentary, metavolcanic, and intrusive rocks of the Specimen Creek drainage and drainages east of Eureka Glacier. Major, minor, and trace elements were analyzed in aqueous samples for this reconnaissance aqueous geochemistry effort. The lithologic differences within the study area are reflected in the major-ion chemistry of the water. The dominant major cation in streams draining mafic and ultramafic rocks is Mg2+; abundant Mg and low Ca in these streams reflect the abundance of Mg-rich minerals in these intrusions. Nickel and Cu are detected in 84 percent and 87 percent of the filtered samples, respectively. Nickel and Cu concentrations ranged from Ni colloidal, phase.

  1. Nuclear-power-plant perimeter-intrusion alarm systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsey, D.J.

    1982-04-01

    Timely intercept of an intruder requires the examination of perimeter barriers and sensors in terms of reliable detection, immediate assessment and prompt response provisions. Perimeter security equipment and operations must at the same time meet the requirements of the Code of Federal Regulations, 10 CFR 73.55 with some attention to the performance and testing figures of Nuclear Regulatory Guide 5.44, Revision 2, May 1980. A baseline system is defined which recommends a general approach to implementing perimeter security elements: barriers, lighting, intrusion detection, alarm assessment. The baseline approach emphasizes cost/effectiveness achieved by detector layering and logic processing of alarm signals to produce reliable alarms and low nuisance alarm rates. A cost benefit of layering along with video assessment is reduction in operating expense. The concept of layering is also shown to minimize testing costs where detectability performance as suggested by Regulatory Guide 5.44 is to be performed. Synthesis of the perimeter intrusion alarm system and limited testing of CCTV and Video Motion Detectors (VMD), were performed at E-Systems, Greenville Division, Greenville, Texas during 1981

  2. Nuclear-power-plant perimeter-intrusion alarm systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsey, D.J.

    1982-04-01

    Timely intercept of an intruder requires the examination of perimeter barriers and sensors in terms of reliable detection, immediate assessment and prompt response provisions. Perimeter security equipment and operations must at the same time meet the requirements of the Code of Federal Regulations, 10 CFR 73.55 with some attention to the performance and testing figures of Nuclear Regulatory Guide 5.44, Revision 2, May 1980. A baseline system is defined which recommends a general approach to implementing perimeter security elements: barriers, lighting, intrusion detection, alarm assessment. The baseline approach emphasizes cost/effectiveness achieved by detector layering and logic processing of alarm signals to produce reliable alarms and low nuisance alarm rates. A cost benefit of layering along with video assessment is reduction in operating expense. The concept of layering is also shown to minimize testing costs where detectability performance as suggested by Regulatory Guide 5.44 is to be performed. Synthesis of the perimeter intrusion alarm system and limited testing of CCTV and Video Motion Detectors (VMD), were performed at E-Systems, Greenville Division, Greenville, Texas during 1981.

  3. Doses resulting from intrusion into uranium tailings areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, M.L.

    1986-02-01

    In the future, it is conceivable that institutional controls of uranium tailings areas may cease to exist and individuals may intrude into these areas unaware of the potential radiation hazards. The objective of this study was to estimate the potential doses to the intruders for a comprehensive set of intrusion scenarios. Reference tailings areas in the Elliot Lake region of northern Ontario and in northern Saskatchewan were developed to the extent required to calculate radiation exposures. The intrusion scenarios for which dose calculations were performed, were categorized into the following classes: habitation of the tailings, agricultural activities, construction activities, and recreational activities. Realistic exposure conditions were specified and annual doses were calculated by applying standard dose conversion factors. The exposure estimates demonstrated that the annual doses resulting from recreational activities and from construction activities would be generally small, less than twenty millisieverts, while the habitational and agricultural activities could hypothetically result in doses of several hundred millisieverts. However, the probability of occurrence of these latter classes of scenarios is considered to be much lower than scenarios involving either construction or recreational activities

  4. A Retroactive-Burst Framework for Automated Intrusion Response System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Shameli-Sendi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present an adaptive and cost-sensitive model to prevent security intrusions. In most automated intrusion response systems, response selection is performed locally based on current threat without using the knowledge of attacks history. Another challenge is that a group of responses are applied without any feedback mechanism to measure the response effect. We address these problems through retroactive-burst execution of responses and a Response Coordinator (RC mechanism, the main contributions of this work. The retroactive-burst execution consists of several burst executions of responses with, at the end of each burst, a mechanism for measuring the effectiveness of the applied responses by the risk assessment component. The appropriate combination of responses must be considered for each burst execution to mitigate the progress of the attack without necessarily running the next round of responses, because of the impact on legitimate users. In the proposed model, there is a multilevel response mechanism. To indicate which level is appropriate to apply based on the retroactive-burst execution, we get help from a Response Coordinator mechanism. The applied responses can improve the health of Applications, Kernel, Local Services, Network Services, and Physical Status. Based on these indexes, the RC gives a general overview of an attacker’s goal in a distributed environment.

  5. ESTIMATION OF INTRUSION DETECTION PROBABILITY BY PASSIVE INFRARED DETECTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Volkhonskiy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The paper deals with estimation of detection probability of intruder by passive infrared detector in different conditions of velocity and direction for automated analyses of physical protection systems effectiveness. Method. Analytic formulas for detection distance distribution laws obtained by means of experimental histogram approximation are used. Main Results. Applicability of different distribution laws has been studied, such as Rayleigh, Gauss, Gamma, Maxwell and Weibull distribution. Based on walk tests results, approximation of experimental histograms of detection distance probability distribution laws by passive infrared detectors was done. Conformity of the histograms to the mentioned analytical laws according to fitting criterion 2 has been checked for different conditions of velocity and direction of intruder movement. Mean and variance of approximate distribution laws were equal to the same parameters of experimental histograms for corresponding intruder movement parameters. Approximation accuracy evaluation for above mentioned laws was done with significance level of 0.05. According to fitting criterion 2, the Rayleigh and Gamma laws are corresponded mostly close to the histograms for different velocity and direction of intruder movement. Dependences of approximation accuracy for different conditions of intrusion have been got. They are usable for choosing an approximation law in the certain condition. Practical Relevance. Analytic formulas for detection probability are usable for modeling of intrusion process and objective effectiveness estimation of physical protection systems by both developers and users.

  6. The role of human intrusion in the dutch safety study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prij, J.; Weers, A.W.v.; Glasbergen, P.; Slot, A.F.M.

    1989-01-01

    In the Netherlands the OPLA research program in which a large number of possible disposal concepts for radioactive waste is investigated has been carried out recently. The disposal concepts concern three different waste strategies, two disposal techiques and three different types of salt formations. In the OPLA program the post-closure safety of the disposal concepts has been investigated. The paper reviews the role of the human intrusion in this safety study. The hydrological consequences of human activities in the underground are discussed and it has been demonstrated that these effects could be taken into account during the groundwater transport calculations. Four different scenario's for human intrusion in the repository have been studied to obtain an indication of the radiological effects. The results show that extremely high doses may result if, after several hundred years, human beings come into direct contact with highly active waste. For the final assessment the probability that the doses will be received should be calculated. This should be done in a subsequent research

  7. Features extraction algorithm about typical railway perimeter intrusion event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jieyun; Wang, Chaodong; Liu, Lihai

    2017-10-01

    Research purposes: Optical fiber vibration sensing system has been widely used in the oil, gas, frontier defence, prison and power industries. But, there are few reports about the application in railway defence. That is because the surrounding environment is complicated and there are many challenges to be overcomed in the optical fiber vibration sensing system application. For example, how to eliminate the effects of vibration caused by train, the natural environments such as wind and rain and how to identify and classify the intrusion events. In order to solve these problems, the feature signals of these events should be extracted firstly. Research conclusions: (1) In optical fiber vibration sensing system based on Sagnac interferometer, the peak-to-peak value, peak-to-average ratio, standard deviation, zero-crossing rate, short-term energy and kurtosis may serve as feature signals. (2) The feature signals of resting state, climbing concrete fence, breaking barbed wire, knocking concrete fence and rainstorm have been extracted, which shows significant difference among each other. (3) The research conclusions can be used in the identification and classification of intrusion events.

  8. Hybrid feature selection for supporting lightweight intrusion detection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jianglong; Zhao, Wentao; Liu, Qiang; Wang, Xin

    2017-08-01

    Redundant and irrelevant features not only cause high resource consumption but also degrade the performance of Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS), especially when coping with big data. These features slow down the process of training and testing in network traffic classification. Therefore, a hybrid feature selection approach in combination with wrapper and filter selection is designed in this paper to build a lightweight intrusion detection system. Two main phases are involved in this method. The first phase conducts a preliminary search for an optimal subset of features, in which the chi-square feature selection is utilized. The selected set of features from the previous phase is further refined in the second phase in a wrapper manner, in which the Random Forest(RF) is used to guide the selection process and retain an optimized set of features. After that, we build an RF-based detection model and make a fair comparison with other approaches. The experimental results on NSL-KDD datasets show that our approach results are in higher detection accuracy as well as faster training and testing processes.

  9. Effective approach toward Intrusion Detection System using data mining techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Nadiammai

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available With the tremendous growth of the usage of computers over network and development in application running on various platform captures the attention toward network security. This paradigm exploits security vulnerabilities on all computer systems that are technically difficult and expensive to solve. Hence intrusion is used as a key to compromise the integrity, availability and confidentiality of a computer resource. The Intrusion Detection System (IDS plays a vital role in detecting anomalies and attacks in the network. In this work, data mining concept is integrated with an IDS to identify the relevant, hidden data of interest for the user effectively and with less execution time. Four issues such as Classification of Data, High Level of Human Interaction, Lack of Labeled Data, and Effectiveness of Distributed Denial of Service Attack are being solved using the proposed algorithms like EDADT algorithm, Hybrid IDS model, Semi-Supervised Approach and Varying HOPERAA Algorithm respectively. Our proposed algorithm has been tested using KDD Cup dataset. All the proposed algorithm shows better accuracy and reduced false alarm rate when compared with existing algorithms.

  10. Ameliorating intrusive memories of distressing experiences using computerized reappraisal training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woud, Marcella L; Holmes, Emily A; Postma, Peggy; Dalgleish, Tim; Mackintosh, Bundy

    2012-08-01

    The types of appraisals that follow traumatic experiences have been linked to the emergence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Could changing reappraisals following a stressful event reduce the emergence of PTSD symptoms? The present proof-of-principle study examined whether a nonexplicit, systematic computerized training in reappraisal style following a stressful event (a highly distressing film) could reduce intrusive memories of the film, and symptoms associated with posttraumatic distress over the subsequent week. Participants were trained to adopt a generally positive or negative poststressor appraisal style using a series of scripted vignettes after having been exposed to highly distressing film clips. The training targeted self-efficacy beliefs and reappraisals of secondary emotions (emotions in response to the emotional reactions elicited by the film). Successful appraisal induction was verified using novel vignettes and via change scores on the post traumatic cognitions inventory. Compared with those trained negatively, those trained positively reported in a diary fewer intrusive memories of the film during the subsequent week, and lower scores on the Impact of Event Scale (a widely used measure of posttraumatic stress symptoms). Results support the use of computerized, nonexplicit, reappraisal training after a stressful event has occurred and provide a platform for future translational studies with clinical populations that have experienced significant real-world stress or trauma.

  11. Nuclear data needs for non-intrusive inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D. L.; Michlich, B. J.

    2000-01-01

    Various nuclear-based techniques are being explored for use in non-intrusive inspection. Their development is motivated by the need to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons, to thwart trafficking in illicit narcotics, to stop the transport of explosives by terrorist organizations, to characterize nuclear waste, and to deal with various other societal concerns. Non-intrusive methods are sought in order to optimize inspection speed, to minimize damage to packages and containers, to satisfy environmental, health and safety requirements, to adhere to legal requirements, and to avoid inconveniencing the innocent. These inspection techniques can be grouped into two major categories: active and passive. They almost always require the use of highly penetrating radiation and therefore are generally limited to neutrons and gamma rays. Although x-rays are widely employed for these purposes, their use does not constitute nuclear technology and therefore is not discussed here. This paper examines briefly the basic concepts associated with nuclear inspection and investigates the related nuclear data needs. These needs are illustrated by considering four of the methods currently being developed and tested

  12. Marshes on the Move: Testing effects of seawater intrusion on ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Northeastern United States is a hotspot for sea level rise (SLR), subjecting coastal salt marshes to erosive loss, shifts in vegetation communities, and altered biogeochemistry due to seawater intrusion. Salt marsh plant community zonation is driven by tradeoffs in stress tolerance and interspecific interactions. As seawater inundates progressively higher marsh elevations, shifts in marsh vegetation communities landward may herald salt marsh “migration”, which could allow continuity of marsh function and ecosystem service provision. To elucidate possible effects of seawater intrusion on marsh-upland edge plant communities, a space-for-time approach was replicated at two Rhode Island salt marshes. At each site, peat blocks (0.5 m x 0.5 m x 0.5 m, n=6) with intact upland-marsh edge vegetation were transplanted downslope into the regularly-inundated mid-marsh. Procedural controls (n=3) were established at each elevation by removing and replacing peat blocks, and natural controls (n=3) consisted of undisturbed plots. During peak productivity, each plot was assessed for species composition, percent cover and average height. Results demonstrate stunting of marsh-upland edge vegetation in response to increased inundation, and the beginnings of colonization of the transplanted plots by salt marsh species. The extent of colonization differed between the two sites, suggesting that site-specific factors govern vegetation responses to increased inundation.

  13. Assessment of seawater intrusion and nitrate contamination on the groundwater quality in the Korba coastal plain of Cap-Bon (North-east of Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zghibi, Adel; Tarhouni, Jamila; Zouhri, Lahcen

    2013-11-01

    In recent years, seawater intrusion and nitrate contamination of groundwater have become a growing concern for people in rural areas in Tunisia where groundwater is always used as drinking water. The coastal plain of Korba (north-east of Tunisia) is a typical area where the contamination of the aquifer in the form of saltwater intrusion and high nitrate concentrations is very developed and represents the major consequence of human activities. The objective of this study is to evaluate groundwater resource level, to determine groundwater quality and to assess the risk of NO3- pollution in groundwater using hydrogeochemical tools. Groundwater were sampled and analyzed for physic-chemical parameters: Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Cl-, SO42-, HCO3-, NO3-, Total Dissolved Solid and of the physical parameters (pH, electrical conductivity and the temperature). The interpretation of the analytical results is shown numerically and graphically through the ionic deviations, Piper Diagram, seawater fractions and binary diagrams. Moreover, electrical conductivity investigations have been used to identify the location of the major intrusion plumes in this coastal area and to obtain new information on the spatial scales and dynamics of the fresh water-seawater interface. Those processes can be used as indicators of seawater intrusion progression. First, the hydrogeochemical investigation of this aquifer reveals the major sources of contamination, represented by seawater intrusion. Thus, the intensive extraction of groundwater from aquifer reduces freshwater outflow to the sea, creates several drawdown cones and lowering of the water table to as much as 12 m below mean sea level in the center part of the study area especially between Diarr El Hojjej and Tafelloun villages, causing seawater migration inland and rising toward the wells. Moreover, the results of this study revealed the presence of direct cation exchange linked to seawater intrusion and dissolution processes associated with

  14. Vulnerability and Risk of Agro-ecosystems Facing Increased Salinity Intrusion in the Mekong Delta, Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, F.; Sebesvari, Z.; Nguyen, M. T.; Hagenlocher, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Vietnamese portion of the Mekong Delta increasingly suffers from salinity intrusion in its freshwater system, as exemplified by the historically high salinity levels recorded during the 2016 dry season. Although this exceptional situation was linked to the El Niño phenomena, many factors contribute to an increasing salinization of coastal areas. Salinity intrusion is a natural process in this tidal area but its extent is increasing and projected to worsen due to increased demand for water, diversion/storage of water flows in the Mekong river and its tributaries, land subsidence linked to groundwater over-abstraction, changes in land use and water management in coastal areas, and sea level rise. The Mekong Delta remains predominantly an agricultural landscape which contributes the majority of the rice, aquaculture, and fruit production of the country. These systems will need to be adapted to increased salinity levels. We will present results from two research projects, DeltAdapt and DELTAS, which were designed to allow understanding of, respectively (1) the main drivers of change of agro-ecosystems in coastal areas of the delta and (2) the relative vulnerabilities and risks deltaic social-ecological systems face with respect to various environmental hazards. We used the Global Delta Vulnerability Index developed within the DELTAS project to characterize the vulnerabilities and risks faced by coastal provinces of the delta with respect to salinity intrusion. The analysis allows us to understand which social, economic, and ecological variables index explain the relative vulnerability of the provinces. In addition, drivers of change (e.g. policy, economic, social, environmental) of coastal agro-ecosystems were systematically analyzed through 80 interviews and 7 focus group discussions in the provinces of Kien Giang and Soc Trang within the DeltAdapt project. This was combined with the analysis of Vietnamese policies to determine which are the important drivers of

  15. Sediment Resuspension and Deposition on Seagrass Leaves Impedes Internal Plant Aeration and Promotes Phytotoxic H2S Intrusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper E. Brodersen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available HIGHLIGHTS:Sedimentation of fine sediment particles onto seagrass leaves severely hampers the plants' performance in both light and darkness, due to inadequate internal plant aeration and intrusion of phytotoxic H2S.Anthropogenic activities leading to sediment re-suspension can have adverse effects on adjacent seagrass meadows, owing to reduced light availability and the settling of suspended particles onto seagrass leaves potentially impeding gas exchange with the surrounding water. We used microsensors to determine O2 fluxes and diffusive boundary layer (DBL thickness on leaves of the seagrass Zostera muelleri with and without fine sediment particles, and combined these laboratory measurements with in situ microsensor measurements of tissue O2 and H2S concentrations. Net photosynthesis rates in leaves with fine sediment particles were down to ~20% of controls without particles, and the compensation photon irradiance increased from a span of 20–53 to 109–145 μmol photons m−2 s−1. An ~2.5-fold thicker DBL around leaves with fine sediment particles impeded O2 influx into the leaves during darkness. In situ leaf meristematic O2 concentrations of plants exposed to fine sediment particles were lower than in control plants and exhibited long time periods of complete meristematic anoxia during night-time. Insufficient internal aeration resulted in H2S intrusion into the leaf meristematic tissues when exposed to sediment resuspension even at relatively high night-time water-column O2 concentrations. Fine sediment particles that settle on seagrass leaves thus negatively affect internal tissue aeration and thereby the plants' resilience against H2S intrusion.

  16. Mitigation of saltwater intrusion by 'integrated fresh-keeper' wells combined with high recovery reverse osmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadra, Wisam M; Stuyfzand, Pieter J; Khadra, Ibrahim M

    2017-01-01

    Most countermeasures to mitigate saltwater intrusion in coastal, karstic or fractured aquifers are hindered by anisotropy, high transmissivities and complex dynamics. A coupled strategy is introduced here as a localized remedy to protect shallow freshwater reserves while utilizing the deeper intercepted brackish water. It is a double sourcing application where fresh-keeper wells are installed at the bottom of a deepened borehole of selected salinized wells, and then supported by high recovery RO desalination. The RO design has <1kWh/m 3 energy consumption, and up to 96% recovery in addition to low scaling propensity without use of any anti-scalant. A feasibility study is presented as an example for a salinizing, brackish well (TDS ~1600mg/L) in the Damour coastal aquifer in Lebanon. The concept is expected to produce ca. 1000m 3 /d of freshwater from this well by pumping 250m 3 /d of fresh groundwater from the top well screen and 800m 3 /d of brackish groundwater (to be later desalinized) from the fresh-keeper well screen below. Cost analysis shows that the capital cost could be returned back in 1 to 4years depending on the choice of produced water (bottled or tap) and available market. As an alternative, water from the RO plant could be blended with lower quality water, for instance untreated brackish groundwater (if unpolluted), to supply 3 more volumes for domestic use. The usage of brackish groundwater from integrated fresh-keeper wells thus serves 3 purposes: production of high quality drinking water, financial gain and mitigation of water stress by overpumping. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Source characteristics and tectonic setting of mafic-ultramafic intrusions in North Xinjiang, NW China: Insights from the petrology and geochemistry of the Lubei mafic-ultramafic intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bao-Yun; Yu, Jin-Jie; Liu, Shuai-Jie

    2018-05-01

    The newly discovered Lubei sulfide-bearing mafic-ultramafic intrusion forms the western extension of the Huangshan-Jin'erquan mafic-ultramafic intrusion belt in East Tianshan, NW China. The Lubei intrusion comprises hornblende peridotite, lherzolite, and harzburgite in its southern portion, gabbro in its middle portion, and hornblende gabbro in its northern portion. Intrusive relationships indicate that three magma pulses were involved in the formation of the intrusion, and that they were likely evolved from a common primitive magma. Estimated compositions of the Lubei primitive magma are similar to those of island arc calc-alkaline basalt except for the low Na2O and CaO contents of the Lubei primitive magma. This paper reports on the mineral compositions, whole-rock major and trace element contents, and Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic compositions of the Lubei intrusion, and a zircon LA-MC-ICP-MS U-Pb age for hornblende gabbro. The Lubei intrusion is characterized by enrichment in large-ion lithophile elements, depletion in high-field-strength elements, and marked negative Nb and Ta anomalies, with enrichment in chondrite-normalized light rare earth elements. It exhibits low (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios of 0.70333-0.70636 and low (143Nd/144Nd)i ratios of 0.51214-0.51260, with positive εNd values of +4.01 to +6.33. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon ages yielded a weighted-mean age of 287.9 ± 1.6 Ma for the Lubei intrusion. Contemporaneous mafic-ultramafic intrusions in different tectonic domains in North Xinjiang show similar geological and geochemical signatures to the Lubei intrusion, suggesting a source region of metasomatized mantle previously modified by hydrous fluids from the slab subducted beneath the North Xinjiang region in the early Permian. Metasomatism of the mantle was dominated by hydrous fluids and was related to subduction of the Paleo-Asian oceanic lithosphere during the Paleozoic. Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions suggest that the mantle source was a mixture of depleted mid

  18. Effect of water impurities on stress corrosion cracking in a boiling water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljungbery, L.G.; Cubicciotti, D

    1985-01-01

    A series of stress corrosion tests, including corrosion potential and water chemistry measurements, has been performed in the Swedish Ringhals-1 boiling water reactor. Tests have been run under reactor start-up and reactor power operation with normal reactor water conditions and with alternate water chemistry in which hydrogen is added to the feedwater to suppress stress corrosion cracking. During one alternate water chemistry test, there was significant intergranular corrosion cracking of sensitized stainless specimens. It is shown that nitrate and sulfate, arising from an accidental resin intrusion, are likely causes. Nitrate increases the oxidizing power of the water, and sulfate enhances cracking under oxidizing conditions. During another test under start-up conditions, enhanced transgranular stress corrosion cracking in low alloy steels and possibly initiation of cracking in a nickel base alloy was observed as a result of resin intrusion into the reactor water. The intrusion produced acid and sulfate, which are believed to enhance hydrogen cracking conditions

  19. ASSESSMENT OF VAPOR INTRUSION USING INDOOR AND SUB-SLAB AIR SAMPLING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this investigation was to develop a method for evaluating vapor intrusion using indoor and sub-slab air measurement and at the same time directly assist EPA’s New England Regional Office in evaluating vapor intrusion in 15 homes and one business near the former R...

  20. Watchdog Sensor Network with Multi-Stage RF Signal Identification and Cooperative Intrusion Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    143] Nadkarni , K. and A. Mishra. Intrusion detection in MANETS - the second wall of defence. in Industrial Electronics Society, 2003. IECON ’03...2002) [161] Mishra, A.; Nadkarni , K.; Patcha, A.; Intrusion Detection in Wireless Ad hoc networks, in Wireless Communications, IEEE, Volume 11

  1. Pukala intrusion, its age and connection to hydrothermal alteration in Orivesi, southwestern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matti Talikka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Pukala intrusion is situated in the Paleoproterozoic Svecofennian domain of the Fennoscandian Shield in the contact region between the Central Finland Granitoid Complex and the Tampere Belt. The acid subvolcanic intrusion, which is in contact or close to severalaltered domains, mainly consists of porphyritic granodiorite and trondhjemite. The Pukala intrusion was emplaced into volcanic sequence in an island-arc or fore-arc setting before or during the early stages of the main regional deformation phase of the Svecofennian orogeny. On the basis of the geochemical data, the Pukala intrusion is a peraluminous volcanic-arc granitoid. After crystallisation at 1896±3 Ma, multiphase deformation and metamorphismcaused alteration, recrystallisation, and orientation of the minerals, and tilted the intrusion steeply towards south. The 1851±5 Ma U-Pb age for titanite is connected to the late stages of the Svecofennian tectonometamorphic evolution of the region. Several hydrothermally altered domains are located in the felsic and intermediate metavolcanic rocks of the Tampere Belt within less than one kilometre south of the Pukala intrusion. Alteration is divided into three basic types: partial silica alteration, chlorite-sericite±silica alteration, and sericite alteration in shear zones. The first two types probably formed during the emplacement and crystallisation of the Pukala intrusion, and the third is linked to late shearing. Intense sericitisation and comb quartz bands in the contact of theintrusion and the altered domain at Kutemajärvi suggest that the hydrothermal system was driven by the Pukala intrusion.

  2. Passive intrusion detection in wireless networks by exploiting clustering-based learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Chen, Yingying; Desai, Sachi; Quoraishee, Shafik

    2010-04-01

    The large-scale wireless sensing data collected from wireless networks can be used for detecting intruders (e.g., enemies in tactical fields), and further facilitating real-time situation awareness in Army's networkcentric warfare applications such as intrusion detection, battlefield protection and emergency evacuation. In this work, we focus on exploiting Received Signal Strength (RSS) obtained from the existing wireless infrastructures for performing intrusion detection when the intruders or objects do not carry any radio devices. This is also known as passive intrusion detection. Passive intrusion detection based on the RSS data is an attractive approach as it reuses the existing wireless environmental data without requiring a specialized infrastructure. We propose a clustering-based learning mechanism for passive intrusion detection in wireless networks. Specifically, our detection scheme utilizes the clustering method to analyze the changes of RSS, caused by intrusions, at multiple devices to diagnose the presence of intrusions collaboratively. Our experimental results using an IEEE 802.15.4 (Zigbee) network in a real office environment show that our clustering-based learning can effectively detect the presence of intrusions.

  3. Developing advanced fingerprint attacks on challenge-based collaborative intrusion detection networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Wenjuan; Meng, Weizhi; Kwok, Lam-For

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, an isolated intrusion detection system (IDS) is vulnerable to various types of attacks. In order to enhance IDS performance, collaborative intrusion detection networks (CIDNs) are developed through enabling a set of IDS nodes to communicate with each other. Due to the distributed...

  4. First-Year Community College Students' Perceptions of and Attitudes toward Intrusive Academic Advising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Paul; McKinney, Lyle; Lee, Mimi; Pino, Diana

    2016-01-01

    For this study, we analyzed the relationship between intrusive academic advising and community college student success. Utilizing a qualitative, single-case study design, we conducted interviews with 12 students who participated in an intrusive advising program at a large, urban community college in Texas. Analysis of the interview data revealed…

  5. RePIDS: a multi tier real-time payload-based intrusion detection system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamdagni, Aruna; Tan, Zhiyuan; Nanda, Priyadarsi; He, Xiangjian; Liu, Ren Ping

    2013-01-01

    Intrusion Detection System (IDS) deals with huge amount of network traffic and uses large feature set to discriminate normal pattern and intrusive pattern. However, most of existing systems lack the ability to process data for real-time anomaly detection. In this paper, we propose a 3-Tier Iterative

  6. Context-aware local Intrusion Detection in SCADA systems : a testbed and two showcases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chromik, Justyna Joanna; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; Remke, Anne Katharina Ingrid; Pilch, Carina; Brackmann, Pascal; Duhme, Christof; Everinghoff, Franziska; Giberlein, Artur; Teodorowicz, Thomas; Wieland, Julian

    2017-01-01

    This paper illustrates the use of a testbed that we have developed for context-aware local intrusion detection. This testbed is based on the co-simulation framework Mosaik and allows for the validation of local intrusion detection mechanisms at field stations in power distribution networks. For two

  7. Evidence of a sewer vapor transport pathway at the USEPA vapor intrusion research duplex

    Science.gov (United States)

    The role of sewer lines as preferential pathways for vapor intrusion is poorly understood. Although the importance of sewer lines for volatile organic compound (VOC) transport has been documented at a small number of sites with vapor intrusion, sewer lines are not routinely sampl...

  8. Numerical Simulations, Mean Field Theory and Modulational Stability Analysis of Thermohaline Intrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    the temporal and spatial variability of the ocean circulation (Schmitt, 2003). This signifies that these thermohaline intrusions cannot be ignored...still calculating the net effects of double diffusion via crude parameterizations, the study showed that the thermohaline circulations in the model...SIMULATIONS, MEAN FIELD THEORY AND MODULATIONAL STABLITY ANALYSIS OF THERMOHALINE INTRUSIONS by Mark A. Hebert September 2011 Thesis Advisor

  9. Multi-Objective Management of Saltwater Intrusion in Groundwater. Optimization under Uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, T.M.

    2004-01-01

    Coastal aquifers are very vulnerable to seawater intrusion through, for example, the overdraft of groundwater exploitation or insufficient recharge from upstream. Problems of salt-intrusion into groundwater have become a considerable concern in many countries with coastal areas. There have been a

  10. Associations between intrusive thoughts, reality discrimination and hallucination-proneness in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smailes, David; Meins, Elizabeth; Fernyhough, Charles

    2015-01-01

    People who experience intrusive thoughts are at increased risk of developing hallucinatory experiences, as are people who have weak reality discrimination skills. No study has yet examined whether these two factors interact to make a person especially prone to hallucinatory experiences. The present study examined this question in a non-clinical sample. Participants were 160 students, who completed a reality discrimination task, as well as self-report measures of cannabis use, negative affect, intrusive thoughts and auditory hallucination-proneness. The possibility of an interaction between reality discrimination performance and level of intrusive thoughts was assessed using multiple regression. The number of reality discrimination errors and level of intrusive thoughts were independent predictors of hallucination-proneness. The reality discrimination errors × intrusive thoughts interaction term was significant, with participants who made many reality discrimination errors and reported high levels of intrusive thoughts being especially prone to hallucinatory experiences. Hallucinatory experiences are more likely to occur in people who report high levels of intrusive thoughts and have weak reality discrimination skills. If applicable to clinical samples, these findings suggest that improving patients' reality discrimination skills and reducing the number of intrusive thoughts they experience may reduce the frequency of hallucinatory experiences.

  11. Water

    OpenAIRE

    Hertie School of Governance

    2010-01-01

    All human life depends on water and air. The sustainable management of both is a major challenge for today's public policy makers. This issue of Schlossplatz³ taps the streams and flows of the current debate on the right water governance.

  12. Modelling The Environmental Impact of Controlling Saline Intrusion In The Mekong River Delta, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, E.; Gowing, J.; Payton, R.

    The delta at the mouth of the Mekong River extends over 50,000 km2 in Vietnam and Cambodia. It is a highly productive environment both for rice and fish, but conflicts arise between their water quality demands. In this paper we focus on an investigation of this conflict in the Ca Mau peninsula, which lies entirely within Vietnam at the southern tip of the delta. The study area is a highly modified environment in which the natural mangrove veg- etation has been removed and a complex network of natural and man-made channels has been created. In an attempt to manage salinity intrusion into this environment, a number of tidal sluices have been constructed in recent years leading to progressive expansion of the area suitable for intensification of rice production. However, this has also led to negative impact on fish and shrimp production due to the change from brackish to fresh water conditions. The impact of this change is further exacerbated by the existence throughout a large part of the Ca Mau peninsula of acid sulphate soils. These are old marine sediments which are sulphur rich and have the potential to release sulphuric acid once they be- come oxidised. This has serious implications for productivity of rice fields and also for severe impacts on the aquatic environment. This paper reports an interdisciplinary investigation of the environmental impact of these changes. We identify the sources of acidity, which include rice fields, shrimp ponds and excavated channel sediments. We add different water quality modules to an existing hydraulic and transport model to allow simulation of temporal and spatial variation of water quality within the study area. We show a special interest on the water exchange between the fields and the canals as the area suffers from floods and dry spells.

  13. Dike intrusions during rifting episodes obey scaling relationships similar to earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    L., Passarelli; E., Rivalta; A., Shuler

    2014-01-01

    As continental rifts evolve towards mid-ocean ridges, strain is accommodated by repeated episodes of faulting and magmatism. Discrete rifting episodes have been observed along two subaerial divergent plate boundaries, the Krafla segment of the Northern Volcanic Rift Zone in Iceland and the Manda-Hararo segment of the Red Sea Rift in Ethiopia. In both cases, the initial and largest dike intrusion was followed by a series of smaller intrusions. By performing a statistical analysis of these rifting episodes, we demonstrate that dike intrusions obey scaling relationships similar to earthquakes. We find that the dimensions of dike intrusions obey a power law analogous to the Gutenberg-Richter relation, and the long-term release of geodetic moment is governed by a relationship consistent with the Omori law. Due to the effects of magma supply, the timing of secondary dike intrusions differs from that of the aftershocks. This work provides evidence of self-similarity in the rifting process. PMID:24469260

  14. Nuisance alarm suppression techniques for fibre-optic intrusion detection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Seedahmed S.; Visagathilagar, Yuvaraja; Katsifolis, Jim

    2012-02-01

    The suppression of nuisance alarms without degrading sensitivity in fibre-optic intrusion detection systems is important for maintaining acceptable performance. Signal processing algorithms that maintain the POD and minimize nuisance alarms are crucial for achieving this. A level crossings algorithm is presented for suppressing torrential rain-induced nuisance alarms in a fibre-optic fence-based perimeter intrusion detection system. Results show that rain-induced nuisance alarms can be suppressed for rainfall rates in excess of 100 mm/hr, and intrusion events can be detected simultaneously during rain periods. The use of a level crossing based detection and novel classification algorithm is also presented demonstrating the suppression of nuisance events and discrimination of nuisance and intrusion events in a buried pipeline fibre-optic intrusion detection system. The sensor employed for both types of systems is a distributed bidirectional fibre-optic Mach Zehnder interferometer.

  15. Time to face it! Facebook intrusion and the implications for romantic jealousy and relationship satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elphinston, Rachel A; Noller, Patricia

    2011-11-01

    Young people's exposure to social network sites such as Facebook is increasing, along with the potential for such use to complicate romantic relationships. Yet, little is known about the overlaps between the online and offline worlds. We extended previous research by investigating the links between Facebook intrusion, jealousy in romantic relationships, and relationship outcomes in a sample of undergraduates currently in a romantic relationship. A Facebook Intrusion Questionnaire was developed based on key features of technological (behavioral) addictions. An eight-item Facebook Intrusion Questionnaire with a single-factor structure was supported; internal consistency was high. Facebook intrusion was linked to relationship dissatisfaction, via jealous cognitions and surveillance behaviors. The results highlight the possibility of high levels of Facebook intrusion spilling over into romantic relationships, resulting in problems such as jealousy and dissatisfaction. The results have implications for romantic relationships and for Facebook users in general.

  16. Cultural and Personality Predictors of Facebook Intrusion: A Cross-Cultural Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błachnio, Agata; Przepiorka, Aneta; Benvenuti, Martina; Cannata, Davide; Ciobanu, Adela M.; Senol-Durak, Emre; Durak, Mithat; Giannakos, Michail N.; Mazzoni, Elvis; Pappas, Ilias O.; Popa, Camelia; Seidman, Gwendolyn; Yu, Shu; Wu, Anise M. S.; Ben-Ezra, Menachem

    2016-01-01

    The increase in the number of users of social networking sites (SNS) has inspired intense efforts to determine intercultural differences between them. The main aim of the study was to investigate the cultural and personal predictors of Facebook intrusion. A total of 2628 Facebook users from eight countries took part in the study. The Facebook Intrusion Questionnaire, the Ten-Item Personality Inventory, and the Singelis Scale were used. We found that two variables related to Country were significantly related to Facebook intrusion: uniqueness (negatively) and low context (positively); of the personality variables, conscientiousness, and emotional stability were negatively related to the dependent variable of Facebook intrusion across different countries, which may indicate the universal pattern of Facebook intrusion. The results of the study will contribute to the international debate on the phenomenon of SNS. PMID:27994566

  17. THE GEOMORPHOLOGIC FEATURES OF INTRUSIVE MAGMATIC STRUCTURES FROM BÂRGĂU MOUNTAINS (EASTERN CARPATHIANS, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Bâca

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Igneous intrusive structures from Bârgău Mountains belong to the group of central Neogene volcanic chain of the Eastern Carpathians of Romania. The evolution of the relief developed on these structures are three main stages: the stage of injection of structures (Pannonian, the stage of uncovering of igneous intrusive bodies from Oligo-Miocene sedimentary cover (Pliocene, and the stage of subaerial modeling of magmatic bodies (Pliocene-current.In those circumstances, the geodiversity of intrusive magmatic structures from Bârgău Mountains is represented by several types of landforms such as: polycyclic landforms (erosional levels, structural landforms (the configuration of igneous intrusive structures, petrographic landforms (andesites, lithological contact, fluvial landforms (valleys, slopes, ridges, periglacial landforms (cryogenic and crionival landforms, biogenic and anthropogenic landforms. This study highlights certain features of the landforms modeled on igneous intrusive bodies with the aim of developing some strategy for tourism recovery by local and county authorities.

  18. Facebook intrusion, fear of missing out, narcissism, and life satisfaction: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błachnio, Agata; Przepiórka, Aneta

    2018-01-01

    Facebook is one of the most popular social networking sites. The present paper examines the relations between fear of missing out, narcissism, Facebook intrusion, and life satisfaction. We hypothesized that the fear of missing out and narcissism would play a significant role in Facebook intrusion. The participants in the study were 360 Polish users of Facebook. We administered the Facebook Intrusion Scale, the Fear of Missing Out Scale, the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. The results showed that a high level of fear of missing out and high narcissism are predictors of Facebook intrusion, while a low level of fear of missing out and high narcissism are related to satisfaction with life. Our findings provide a more comprehensive picture of the predictors of Facebook intrusion and reveal interesting patterns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Cultural and Personality Predictors of Facebook Intrusion: A Cross-Cultural Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błachnio, Agata; Przepiorka, Aneta; Benvenuti, Martina; Cannata, Davide; Ciobanu, Adela M; Senol-Durak, Emre; Durak, Mithat; Giannakos, Michail N; Mazzoni, Elvis; Pappas, Ilias O; Popa, Camelia; Seidman, Gwendolyn; Yu, Shu; Wu, Anise M S; Ben-Ezra, Menachem

    2016-01-01

    The increase in the number of users of social networking sites (SNS) has inspired intense efforts to determine intercultural differences between them. The main aim of the study was to investigate the cultural and personal predictors of Facebook intrusion. A total of 2628 Facebook users from eight countries took part in the study. The Facebook Intrusion Questionnaire, the Ten-Item Personality Inventory, and the Singelis Scale were used. We found that two variables related to Country were significantly related to Facebook intrusion: uniqueness (negatively) and low context (positively); of the personality variables, conscientiousness, and emotional stability were negatively related to the dependent variable of Facebook intrusion across different countries, which may indicate the universal pattern of Facebook intrusion. The results of the study will contribute to the international debate on the phenomenon of SNS.

  20. Non-intrusive Quality Analysis of Monitoring Data

    CERN Document Server

    Brightwell, M; Suwalska, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Any large-scale operational system running over a variety of devices requires a monitoring mechanism to assess the health of the overall system. The Technical Infrastructure Monitoring System (TIM) at CERN is one such system, and monitors a wide variety of devices and their properties, such as electricity supplies, device temperatures, liquid flows etc. Without adequate quality assurance, the data collected from such devices leads to false-positives and false-negatives, reducing the effectiveness of the monitoring system. The quality must, however, be measured in a non-intrusive way, so that the critical path of the data flow is not affected by the quality computation. The quality computation should also scale to large volumes of incoming data. To address these challenges, we develop a new statistical module, which monitors the data collected by TIM and reports its quality to the operators. The statistical module uses Oracle RDBMS as the underlying store, and builds hierarchical summaries on the basic events ...

  1. Medical image of the week: alpha intrusion into REM sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shetty S

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A 45-year-old woman with a past medical history of hypertension and chronic headaches was referred to the sleep laboratory for high clinical suspicion for sleep apnea based on a history of snoring, witnessed apnea and excessive daytime sleepiness. An overnight sleep study was performed. Images during N3 Sleep and REM sleep are shown (Figures 1 and 2. Alpha intrusion in delta sleep is seen in patients with fibromyalgia, depression, chronic fatigue syndrome, anxiety disorder, and primary sleep disorders like psychophysiological insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea, circadian disorders and narcolepsy (1. Bursts of alpha waves during REM sleep may be more common during phasic REM than tonic REM. The REM alpha bursts (alpha activity lasting at least 3 seconds without an increase in EMG amplitude may represent microarousals (2. Hypersynchronous theta activity should be differentiated from the spike and waveform activity seen in seizures.

  2. INTRUSION DETECTION PREVENTION SYSTEM (IDPS PADA LOCAL AREA NETWORK (LAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didit Suhartono

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini berjudul “Intrusion Detection Prevention System Local Area Network (LAN” yang bertujuan untuk memproteksi jaringan dari usaha- usaha penyusupan yang dilakukan oleh seorang intruder. Metode yang digunakan pada penelitian ini adalah menggunakan metode kerangka pikir sebagai acuan dari tahap- tahap penelitian yang penulis lakukan. IDS difungsikan sebagai pendeteksi adanya serangan sesuai rule yang ada kemudian pesan peringatan disimpan dalam database dan dikirim via sms kepada seorang network administrator, sedangkan Firewall digunakan sebagai packet filtering dengan cara menentukan security policy yang dinilai penting. Hasilnya adalah ketika IDS memberikanpesan peringatan ketika ada serangan, seorang network administrator dapat memblok adanya serangan tersebut dengan cara manual dengan firewall, ataupun firewall akan memblok sendiri serangan tersebut sesuai dengan security policy yang diterapkan oleh network adminisrator sebelumnya

  3. Fusion of Heterogeneous Intrusion Detection Systems for Network Attack Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayakumar Kaliappan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An intrusion detection system (IDS helps to identify different types of attacks in general, and the detection rate will be higher for some specific category of attacks. This paper is designed on the idea that each IDS is efficient in detecting a specific type of attack. In proposed Multiple IDS Unit (MIU, there are five IDS units, and each IDS follows a unique algorithm to detect attacks. The feature selection is done with the help of genetic algorithm. The selected features of the input traffic are passed on to the MIU for processing. The decision from each IDS is termed as local decision. The fusion unit inside the MIU processes all the local decisions with the help of majority voting rule and makes the final decision. The proposed system shows a very good improvement in detection rate and reduces the false alarm rate.

  4. Messaging Attacks on Android: Vulnerabilities and Intrusion Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodor Hamandi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, Android is the leading mobile operating system in number of users worldwide. On the security side, Android has had significant challenges despite the efforts of the Android designers to provide a secure environment for apps. In this paper, we present numerous attacks targeting the messaging framework of the Android system. Our focus is on SMS, USSD, and the evolution of their associated security in Android and accordingly the development of related attacks. Also, we shed light on the Android elements that are responsible for these attacks. Furthermore, we present the architecture of an intrusion detection system (IDS that promises to thwart SMS messaging attacks. Our IDS shows a detection rate of 87.50% with zero false positives.

  5. Fusion of Heterogeneous Intrusion Detection Systems for Network Attack Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliappan, Jayakumar; Thiagarajan, Revathi; Sundararajan, Karpagam

    2015-01-01

    An intrusion detection system (IDS) helps to identify different types of attacks in general, and the detection rate will be higher for some specific category of attacks. This paper is designed on the idea that each IDS is efficient in detecting a specific type of attack. In proposed Multiple IDS Unit (MIU), there are five IDS units, and each IDS follows a unique algorithm to detect attacks. The feature selection is done with the help of genetic algorithm. The selected features of the input traffic are passed on to the MIU for processing. The decision from each IDS is termed as local decision. The fusion unit inside the MIU processes all the local decisions with the help of majority voting rule and makes the final decision. The proposed system shows a very good improvement in detection rate and reduces the false alarm rate.

  6. A Survey of Artificial Immune System Based Intrusion Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the area of computer security, Intrusion Detection (ID is a mechanism that attempts to discover abnormal access to computers by analyzing various interactions. There is a lot of literature about ID, but this study only surveys the approaches based on Artificial Immune System (AIS. The use of AIS in ID is an appealing concept in current techniques. This paper summarizes AIS based ID methods from a new view point; moreover, a framework is proposed for the design of AIS based ID Systems (IDSs. This framework is analyzed and discussed based on three core aspects: antibody/antigen encoding, generation algorithm, and evolution mode. Then we collate the commonly used algorithms, their implementation characteristics, and the development of IDSs into this framework. Finally, some of the future challenges in this area are also highlighted.

  7. A survey of artificial immune system based intrusion detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hua; Li, Tao; Hu, Xinlei; Wang, Feng; Zou, Yang

    2014-01-01

    In the area of computer security, Intrusion Detection (ID) is a mechanism that attempts to discover abnormal access to computers by analyzing various interactions. There is a lot of literature about ID, but this study only surveys the approaches based on Artificial Immune System (AIS). The use of AIS in ID is an appealing concept in current techniques. This paper summarizes AIS based ID methods from a new view point; moreover, a framework is proposed for the design of AIS based ID Systems (IDSs). This framework is analyzed and discussed based on three core aspects: antibody/antigen encoding, generation algorithm, and evolution mode. Then we collate the commonly used algorithms, their implementation characteristics, and the development of IDSs into this framework. Finally, some of the future challenges in this area are also highlighted.

  8. A model for anomaly classification in intrusion detection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, V. O.; Galhardi, V. V.; Gonçalves, L. B. L.; Silva, R. C.; Cansian, A. M.

    2015-09-01

    Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) are traditionally divided into two types according to the detection methods they employ, namely (i) misuse detection and (ii) anomaly detection. Anomaly detection has been widely used and its main advantage is the ability to detect new attacks. However, the analysis of anomalies generated can become expensive, since they often have no clear information about the malicious events they represent. In this context, this paper presents a model for automated classification of alerts generated by an anomaly based IDS. The main goal is either the classification of the detected anomalies in well-defined taxonomies of attacks or to identify whether it is a false positive misclassified by the IDS. Some common attacks to computer networks were considered and we achieved important results that can equip security analysts with best resources for their analyses.

  9. Intrusion Prevention and Detection in Grid Computing - The ALICE Case

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00416173; Kebschull, Udo

    2015-01-01

    Grids allow users flexible on-demand usage of computing resources through remote communication networks. A remarkable example of a Grid in High Energy Physics (HEP) research is used in the ALICE experiment at European Organization for Nuclear Research CERN. Physicists can submit jobs used to process the huge amount of particle collision data produced by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Grids face complex security challenges. They are interesting targets for attackers seeking for huge computational resources. Since users can execute arbitrary code in the worker nodes on the Grid sites, special care should be put in this environment. Automatic tools to harden and monitor this scenario are required. Currently, there is no integrated solution for such requirement. This paper describes a new security framework to allow execution of job payloads in a sandboxed context. It also allows process behavior monitoring to detect intrusions, even when new attack methods or zero day vulnerabilities are exploited, by a Machin...

  10. Hybrid Intrusion Detection System for DDoS Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özge Cepheli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Distributed denial-of-service (DDoS attacks are one of the major threats and possibly the hardest security problem for today’s Internet. In this paper we propose a hybrid detection system, referred to as hybrid intrusion detection system (H-IDS, for detection of DDoS attacks. Our proposed detection system makes use of both anomaly-based and signature-based detection methods separately but in an integrated fashion and combines the outcomes of both detectors to enhance the overall detection accuracy. We apply two distinct datasets to our proposed system in order to test the detection performance of H-IDS and conclude that the proposed hybrid system gives better results than the systems based on nonhybrid detection.

  11. Forecasting deflation, intrusion and eruption at inflating volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Stephen; Cortés, Joaquín A.

    2018-01-01

    A principal goal of volcanology is to successfully forecast the start of volcanic eruptions. This paper introduces a general forecasting method, which relies on a stream of monitoring data and a statistical description of a given threshold criterion for an eruption to start. Specifically we investigate the timing of intrusive and eruptive events at inflating volcanoes. The gradual inflation of the ground surface is a well-known phenomenon at many volcanoes and is attributable to pressurised magma accumulating within a shallow chamber. Inflation usually culminates in a rapid deflation event caused by magma escaping from the chamber to produce a shallow intrusion and, in some cases, a volcanic eruption. We show that the ground elevation during 15 inflation periods at Krafla volcano, Iceland, increased with time towards a limiting value by following a decaying exponential with characteristic timescale τ. The available data for Krafla, Kilauea and Mauna Loa volcanoes show that the duration of inflation (t*) is approximately equal to τ. The distribution of t* / τ values follows a log-logistic distribution in which the central 60% of the data lie between 0.99 deflation event starting during a specified time interval to be estimated. The time window in which there is a specified probability of deflation starting can also be forecast, and forecasts can be updated after each new deformation measurement. The method provides stronger forecasts than one based on the distribution of repose times alone and is transferable to other types of monitoring data and/or other patterns of pre-eruptive unrest.

  12. Continental crust formation on early Earth controlled by intrusive magmatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozel, A B; Golabek, G J; Jain, C; Tackley, P J; Gerya, T

    2017-05-18

    The global geodynamic regime of early Earth, which operated before the onset of plate tectonics, remains contentious. As geological and geochemical data suggest hotter Archean mantle temperature and more intense juvenile magmatism than in the present-day Earth, two crust-mantle interaction modes differing in melt eruption efficiency have been proposed: the Io-like heat-pipe tectonics regime dominated by volcanism and the "Plutonic squishy lid" tectonics regime governed by intrusive magmatism, which is thought to apply to the dynamics of Venus. Both tectonics regimes are capable of producing primordial tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) continental crust but lithospheric geotherms and crust production rates as well as proportions of various TTG compositions differ greatly, which implies that the heat-pipe and Plutonic squishy lid hypotheses can be tested using natural data. Here we investigate the creation of primordial TTG-like continental crust using self-consistent numerical models of global thermochemical convection associated with magmatic processes. We show that the volcanism-dominated heat-pipe tectonics model results in cold crustal geotherms and is not able to produce Earth-like primordial continental crust. In contrast, the Plutonic squishy lid tectonics regime dominated by intrusive magmatism results in hotter crustal geotherms and is capable of reproducing the observed proportions of various TTG rocks. Using a systematic parameter study, we show that the typical modern eruption efficiency of less than 40 per cent leads to the production of the expected amounts of the three main primordial crustal compositions previously reported from field data (low-, medium- and high-pressure TTG). Our study thus suggests that the pre-plate-tectonics Archean Earth operated globally in the Plutonic squishy lid regime rather than in an Io-like heat-pipe regime.

  13. SALVAGE D2.2 Description of the developed algorithms for intrusion detection in smart grid components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosek, Anna Magdalena; Korman, Matus; Heussen, Kai

    2016-01-01

    This report presents developed model-based anomaly detection techniques used for intrusion detection in smart grid.......This report presents developed model-based anomaly detection techniques used for intrusion detection in smart grid....

  14. Water surface capturing by image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    An alternative means of measuring the water surface interface during laboratory experiments is processing a series of sequentially captured images. Image processing can provide a continuous, non-intrusive record of the water surface profile whose accuracy is not dependent on water depth. More trad...

  15. Reactive and multiphase modelling for the identification of monitoring parameters to detect CO2 intrusion into freshwater aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrner, S.; Schaefer, D.; Wiegers, C.; Köber, R.; Dahmke, A.

    2011-12-01

    A monitoring at geological CO2 storage sites has to meet environmental, regulative, financial and public demands and thus has to enable the detection of CO2 leakages. Current monitoring concepts for the detection of CO2 intrusion into freshwater aquifers located above saline storage formations in course of leakage events lack the identification of monitoring parameters. Their response to CO2 intrusion still has to be enlightened. Scenario simulations of CO2 intrusion in virtual synthetic aquifers are performed using the simulators PhreeqC and TOUGH2 to reveal relevant CO2-water-mineral interactions and multiphase behaviour on potential monitoring parameters. The focus is set on pH, total dissolved inorganic carbon (TIC) and the hydroelectric conductivity (EC). The study aims at identifying at which conditions the parameters react rapidly, durable and in a measurable degree. The depth of the aquifer, the mineralogy, the intrusion rates, the sorption specification and capacities, and groundwater flow velocities are varied in the course of the scenario modelling. All three parameters have been found suited in most scenarios. However, in case of a lack of calcite combined with low saturation of the water with respect to CO2 and shallow conditions, changes are close to the measurement resolution. Predicted changes in EC result from the interplay between carbonic acid production and its dissociation, and pH buffering by mineral dissolution. The formation of a discrete gas phase in cases of full saturation of the groundwater in confined aquifers illustrates the potential bipartite resistivity response: An increased hydroelectric conductivity at locations with dissolved CO2, and a high resistivity where the gas phase dominates the pore volume occupation. Increased hydrostatic pressure with depth and enhanced groundwater flow velocities enforce gas dissolution and diminish the formation of a discrete gas phase. Based on the results, a monitoring strategy is proposed which

  16. Will subglacial rhyolite eruptions be explosive or intrusive? Some insights from analytical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuffen, H.; McGarvie, D. W.; Gilbert, J. S.

    Simple analytical models of subglacial eruptions are presented, which simulate evolving subglacial cavities and volcanic edifices during rhyolitic eruptions beneath temperate glaciers. They show that the relative sizes of cavity and edifice may strongly influence the eruption mechanisms. Intrusive eruptions will occur if the edifice fills the cavity, with rising magma quenched within the edifice and slow melting of ice. Explosive magma-water interaction may occur if a water- or steam-filled gap develops above the edifice. Meltwater is assumed to drain away continuously, but any gap above the edifice will be filled by meltwater or steam. Ductile roof closure will occur if the glacier weight exceeds the cavity pressure and is modelled here using Nye's law. The results show that the effusion rate is an important control on the eruption style, with explosive eruptions favoured by large effusion rates. The models are used to explain contrasting eruption mechanisms during various Quaternary subglacial rhyolite eruptions at Torfajökull, Iceland. Although the models are simplistic, they are first attempts to unravel the complex feedbacks between subglacial eruption mechanisms and glacier response that can lead to a variety of eruptive scenarios and associated hazards.

  17. Electrical Resistivity Imaging of Seawater Intrusion into the Monterey Bay Aquifer System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidlisecky, A; Moran, T; Hansen, B; Knight, R

    2016-03-01

    We use electrical resistivity tomography to obtain a 6.8-km electrical resistivity image to a depth of approximately 150 m.b.s.l. along the coast of Monterey Bay. The resulting image is used to determine the subsurface distribution of saltwater- and freshwater-saturated sediments and the geologic controls on fluid distributions in the region. Data acquisition took place over two field seasons in 2011 and 2012. To maximize our ability to image both vertical and horizontal variations in the subsurface, a combination of dipole-dipole, Wenner, Wenner-gamma, and gradient measurements were made, resulting in a large final dataset of approximately 139,000 data points. The resulting resistivity section extends to a depth of 150 m.b.s.l., and is used, in conjunction with the gamma logs from four coastal monitoring wells to identify four dominant lithologic units. From these data, we are able to infer the existence of a contiguous clay layer in the southern portion of our transect, which prevents downward migration of the saltwater observed in the upper 25 m of the subsurface to the underlying freshwater aquifer. The saltwater and brackish water in the northern portion of the transect introduce the potential for seawater intrusion into the hydraulically connected freshwater aquifer to the south, not just from the ocean, but also laterally from north to south. © 2015, National Ground Water Association.

  18. Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sanmuga Priya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation through aquatic macrophytes treatment system (AMATS for the removal of pollutants and contaminants from various natural sources is a well established environmental protection technique. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes, a worst invasive aquatic weed has been utilised for various research activities over the last few decades. The biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in minimising various contaminants present in the industrial wastewater is well studied. The present review quotes the literatures related to the biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in reducing the concentration of dyestuffs, heavy metals and minimising certain other physiochemical parameters like TSS (total suspended solids, TDS (total dissolved solids, COD (chemical oxygen demand and BOD (biological oxygen demand in textile wastewater. Sorption kinetics through various models, factors influencing the biosorption capacity, and role of physical and chemical modifications in the water hyacinth are also discussed.

  19. Analytical and numerical study of the salinity intrusion in the Sebou river estuary (Morocco) - effect of the "Super Blood Moon" (total lunar eclipse) of 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddout, Soufiane; Igouzal, Mohammed; Maslouhi, Abdellatif

    2016-09-01

    The longitudinal variation of salinity and the maximum salinity intrusion length in an alluvial estuary are important environmental concerns for policy makers and managers since they influence water quality, water utilization and agricultural development in estuarine environments and the potential use of water resources in general. The supermoon total lunar eclipse is a rare event. According to NASA, they have only occurred 5 times in the 1900s - in 1910, 1928, 1946, 1964 and 1982. After the 28 September 2015 total lunar eclipse, a Super Blood Moon eclipse will not recur before 8 October 2033. In this paper, for the first time, the impact of the combination of a supermoon and a total lunar eclipse on the salinity intrusion along an estuary is studied. The 28 September 2015 supermoon total lunar eclipse is the focus of this study and the Sebou river estuary (Morocco) is used as an application area. The Sebou estuary is an area with high agricultural potential, is becoming one of the most important industrial zones in Morocco and it is experiencing a salt intrusion problem. Hydrodynamic equations for tidal wave propagation coupled with the Savenije theory and a numerical salinity transport model (HEC-RAS software "Hydrologic Engineering Center River Analysis System") are applied to study the impact of the supermoon total lunar eclipse on the salinity intrusion. Intensive salinity measurements during this extreme event were recorded along the Sebou estuary. Measurements showed a modification of the shape of axial salinity profiles and a notable water elevation rise, compared with normal situations. The two optimization parameters (Van der Burgh's and dispersion coefficients) of the analytical model are estimated based on the Levenberg-Marquardt's algorithm (i.e., solving nonlinear least-squares problems). The salinity transport model was calibrated and validated using field data. The results show that the two models described very well the salt intrusion during the

  20. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of the Feshark intrusion (NE Isfahan city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kananian

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Granitic rocks are the most abundant rock types in various tectonic settings and they have originated from mantle-derived magmas and/or partial melting of crustal rocks. The Oligo-Miocene Feshark intrusion is situated in the northeast of the city of Isfahan, and a small part of Urumieh–Dokhtar Magmatic Arc is between 52º21' E to 52º26'E and 32º50' N to - 32º53' N. The pluton has intruded into lower Eocene volcanic rocks such as rhyolite, andesite, and dacite and limestone. Analytical methods Fifteen representative samples from the Feshark intrusion were selected on the basis of their freshness. The major elements and some trace elements were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF at Naruto University in Japan and the trace-element compositions were determined at the ALS Chemex lab. Results The Feshark intrusion can be divided into two phases, namely granodiorite with slightly granite and tonalite composition and quartz diorite with various quartz diorite and quartz monzodiorite abundant enclaves according to Middlemost (1994 classification. The quartz diorite show dark grey and are abundant at the western part of the intrusive rocks. Granodiorite are typically of white-light grey in color and change gradually into granite and tonalite. The granodiorite and granite rocks consist of quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclase, biotite, and amphibole, whereas in the quartz diorites the mineral assemblages between different minerals are very similar to those observed in the granodiorite. However, amphibole and plagioclase are more abundant and quartz and K-feldspar modal contents are lower than in the granodiorite whereas pyroxene occurs as rare grains. They are characterized as metaluminous to mildly peraluminous based on alumina saturation index (e.g. Shand, 1943 and are mostly medium-K calc-alkaline in nature (Rickwood, 1989. Discussion In the Yb vs. La/Yb and Tb/Yb variation diagrams (He et al., 2009, the studied samples show small