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Sample records for intronic enhancers control

  1. Differentiation and fiber type-specific activity of a muscle creatine kinase intronic enhancer

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    Tai Phillip WL

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hundreds of genes, including muscle creatine kinase (MCK, are differentially expressed in fast- and slow-twitch muscle fibers, but the fiber type-specific regulatory mechanisms are not well understood. Results Modulatory region 1 (MR1 is a 1-kb regulatory region within MCK intron 1 that is highly active in terminally differentiating skeletal myocytes in vitro. A MCK small intronic enhancer (MCK-SIE containing a paired E-box/myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2 regulatory motif resides within MR1. The SIE's transcriptional activity equals that of the extensively characterized 206-bp MCK 5'-enhancer, but the MCK-SIE is flanked by regions that can repress its activity via the individual and combined effects of about 15 different but highly conserved 9- to 24-bp sequences. ChIP and ChIP-Seq analyses indicate that the SIE and the MCK 5'-enhancer are occupied by MyoD, myogenin and MEF2. Many other E-boxes located within or immediately adjacent to intron 1 are not occupied by MyoD or myogenin. Transgenic analysis of a 6.5-kb MCK genomic fragment containing the 5'-enhancer and proximal promoter plus the 3.2-kb intron 1, with and without MR1, indicates that MR1 is critical for MCK expression in slow- and intermediate-twitch muscle fibers (types I and IIa, respectively, but is not required for expression in fast-twitch muscle fibers (types IIb and IId. Conclusions In this study, we discovered that MR1 is critical for MCK expression in slow- and intermediate-twitch muscle fibers and that MR1's positive transcriptional activity depends on a paired E-box MEF2 site motif within a SIE. This is the first study to delineate the DNA controls for MCK expression in different skeletal muscle fiber types.

  2. The splicing of tiny introns of Paramecium is controlled by MAGO.

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    Contreras, Julia; Begley, Victoria; Marsella, Laura; Villalobo, Eduardo

    2018-07-15

    The exon junction complex (EJC) is a key element of the splicing machinery. The EJC core is composed of eIF4A3, MAGO, Y14 and MLN51. Few accessory proteins, such as CWC22 or UPF3, bind transiently to the EJC. The EJC has been implicated in the control of the splicing of long introns. To ascertain whether the EJC controls the splicing of short introns, we used Paramecium tetraurelia as a model organism, since it has thousands of very tiny introns. To elucidate whether EJC affects intron splicing in P. tetraurelia, we searched for EJC protein-coding genes, and silenced those genes coding for eIF4A3, MAGO and CWC22. We found that P. tetraurelia likely assembles an active EJC with only three of the core proteins, since MLN51 is lacking. Silencing of eIF4A3 or CWC22 genes, but not that of MAGO, caused lethality. Silencing of the MAGO gene caused either an increase, decrease, or no change in intron retention levels of some intron-containing mRNAs used as reporters. We suggest that a fine-tuning expression of EJC genes is required for steady intron removal in P. tetraurelia. Taking into consideration our results and those published by others, we conclude that the EJC controls splicing independently of the intron size. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Highly efficient expression of interleukin-2 under the control of rabbit β-globin intron II gene enhances protective immune responses of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS DNA vaccine in pigs.

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    Yijun Du

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV had caused catastrophic losses in swine industry in China. The current inactivated vaccine provided only limited protection, and the attenuated live vaccine could protect piglets against the HP-PRRSV but there was a possibility that the attenuated virus returned to high virulence. In this study, the eukaryotic expression vector pVAX1© was modified under the control of rabbit β-globin intron II gene and the modified vector pMVAX1© was constructed. Porcine interleukin-2 (IL-2 and GP3-GP5 fusion protein of HP-PRRSV strain SD-JN were highly expressed by pMVAX1©. Mice inoculated with pMVAX1©-GP35 developed significantly higher PRRSV-specific antibody responses and T cell proliferation than those vaccinated with pVAX1©-GP35. pMVAX1©-GP35 was selected as PRRS DNA vaccine candidate and co-administrated with pVAX1©-IL-2 or pMVAX1©-IL-2 in pigs. pMVAX1©-IL-2+pMVAX1©-GP35 could provide enhanced PRRSV-specific antibody responses, T cell proliferation, Th1-type and Th2-type cytokine responses and CTL responses than pMVAX1©-GP35 and pVAX1©-IL-2+pMVAX1©-GP35. Following homologous challenge with HP-PRRSV strain SD-JN, similar with attenuated PRRS vaccine group, pigs inoculated with pMVAX1©-IL-2+pMVAX1©-GP35 showed no clinical signs, almost no lung lesions and no viremia, as compared to those in pMVAX1©-GP35 and pVAX1©-IL-2+pMVAX1©-GP35 groups. It indicated that pMVAX1©-IL-2 effectively increases humoral and cell mediated immune responses of pMVAX1©-GP35. Co-administration of pMVAX1©-IL-2 and pMVAX1©-GP35 might be attractive candidate vaccines for preventing HP-PRRSV infections.

  4. Transcription Factor KLF5 Binds a Cyclin E1 Polymorphic Intronic Enhancer to Confer Increased Bladder Cancer Risk

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    Pattison, Jillian M.; Posternak, Valeriya; Cole, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that environmental toxins, such as exposure to arsenic, are risk factors in the development of urinary bladder cancer, yet recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) provide compelling evidence that there is a strong genetic component associated with disease predisposition. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs8102137, was identified on chromosome 19q12, residing 6 kb upstream of the important cell cycle regulator and proto-oncogene, Cyclin E1 (CCNE1). However, the functional role of this variant in bladder cancer predisposition has been unclear since it lies within a non-coding region of the genome. Here, it is demonstrated that bladder cancer cells heterozygous for this SNP exhibit biased allelic expression of CCNE1 with 1.5-fold more transcription occurring from the risk allele. Furthermore, using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, a novel enhancer element was identified within the first intron of CCNE1 that binds Kruppel-like Factor 5 (KLF5), a known transcriptional activator in bladder cancer. Moreover, the data reveal that the presence of rs200996365, a SNP in high linkage disequilibrium with rs8102137 residing in the center of a KLF5 motif, alters KLF5 binding to this genomic region. Through luciferase assays and CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing, a novel polymorphic intronic regulatory element controlling CCNE1 transcription is characterized. These studies uncover how a cancer-associated polymorphism mechanistically contributes to an increased predisposition for bladder cancer development. Implications A polymorphic KLF5 binding site near the CCNE1 gene explains genetic risk identified through genome wide association studies. PMID:27514407

  5. AML1/ETO trans-activates c-KIT expression through the long range interaction between promoter and intronic enhancer.

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    Tian, Ying; Wang, Genjie; Hu, Qingzhu; Xiao, Xichun; Chen, Shuxia

    2018-04-01

    The AML1/ETO onco-fusion protein is crucial for the genesis of t(8;21) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and is well documented as a transcriptional repressor through dominant-negative effect. However, little is known about the transactivation mechanism of AML1/ETO. Through large cohort of patient's expression level data analysis and a series of experimental validation, we report here that AML1/ETO transactivates c-KIT expression through directly binding to and mediating the long-range interaction between the promoter and intronic enhancer regions of c-KIT. Gene expression analyses verify that c-KIT expression is significantly high in t(8;21) AML. Further ChIP-seq analysis and motif scanning identify two regulatory regions located in the promoter and intronic enhancer region of c-KIT, respectively. Both regions are enriched by co-factors of AML1/ETO, such as AML1, CEBPe, c-Jun, and c-Fos. Further luciferase reporter assays show that AML1/ETO trans-activates c-KIT promoter activity through directly recognizing the AML1 motif and the co-existence of co-factors. The induction of c-KIT promoter activity is reinforced with the existence of intronic enhancer region. Furthermore, ChIP-3C-qPCR assays verify that AML1/ETO mediates the formation of DNA-looping between the c-KIT promoter and intronic enhancer region through the long-range interaction. Collectively, our data uncover a novel transcriptional activity mechanism of AML1/ETO and enrich our knowledge of the onco-fusion protein mediated transcription regulation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Recruitment of Staufen2 Enhances Dendritic Localization of an Intron-Containing CaMKIIα mRNA

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    Raúl Ortiz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of mRNA localization is a conserved cellular process observed in many types of cells and organisms. Asymmetrical mRNA distribution plays a particularly important role in the nervous system, where local translation of localized mRNA represents a key mechanism in synaptic plasticity. CaMKIIα is a very abundant mRNA detected in neurites, consistent with its crucial role at glutamatergic synapses. Here, we report the presence of CaMKIIα mRNA isoforms that contain intron i16 in dendrites, RNA granules, and synaptoneurosomes from primary neurons and brain. This subpopulation of unspliced mRNA preferentially localizes to distal dendrites in a synaptic-activity-dependent manner. Staufen2, a well-established marker of RNA transport in dendrites, interacts with intron i16 sequences and enhances its distal dendritic localization, pointing to the existence of intron-mediated mechanisms in the molecular pathways that modulate dendritic transport and localization of synaptic mRNAs.

  7. Sequence features responsible for intron retention in human

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    Sakabe Noboru

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the least common types of alternative splicing is the complete retention of an intron in a mature transcript. Intron retention (IR is believed to be the result of intron, rather than exon, definition associated with failure of the recognition of weak splice sites flanking short introns. Although studies on individual retained introns have been published, few systematic surveys of large amounts of data have been conducted on the mechanisms that lead to IR. Results TTo understand how sequence features are associated with or control IR, and to produce a generalized model that could reveal previously unknown signals that regulate this type of alternative splicing, we partitioned intron retention events observed in human cDNAs into two groups based on the relative abundance of both isoforms and compared relevant features. We found that a higher frequency of IR in human is associated with individual introns that have weaker splice sites, genes with shorter intron lengths, higher expression levels and lower density of both a set of exon splicing silencers (ESSs and the intronic splicing enhancer GGG. Both groups of retained introns presented events conserved in mouse, in which the retained introns were also short and presented weaker splice sites. Conclusion Although our results confirmed that weaker splice sites are associated with IR, they showed that this feature alone cannot explain a non-negligible fraction of events. Our analysis suggests that cis-regulatory elements are likely to play a crucial role in regulating IR and also reveals previously unknown features that seem to influence its occurrence. These results highlight the importance of considering the interplay among these features in the regulation of the relative frequency of IR.

  8. Identification of GATA2 and AP-1 activator elements within the enhancer VNTR occurring in intron 5 of the human SIRT3 gene

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    Human SIRT3 gene contains an intronic VNTR enhancer. A T > C transition occurring in the second repeat of each VNTR allele implies the presence/absence of a putative GATA binding motif. A partially overlapping AP-1 site, not affected by the transition, was also identified. Aims of the present study ...

  9. An evolutionarily conserved intronic region controls the spatiotemporal expression of the transcription factor Sox10

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    Pavan William J

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major challenge lies in understanding the complexities of gene regulation. Mutation of the transcription factor SOX10 is associated with several human diseases. The disease phenotypes reflect the function of SOX10 in diverse tissues including the neural crest, central nervous system and otic vesicle. As expected, the SOX10 expression pattern is complex and highly dynamic, but little is known of the underlying mechanisms regulating its spatiotemporal pattern. SOX10 expression is highly conserved between all vertebrates characterised. Results We have combined in vivo testing of DNA fragments in zebrafish and computational comparative genomics to identify the first regulatory regions of the zebrafish sox10 gene. Both approaches converged on the 3' end of the conserved 1st intron as being critical for spatial patterning of sox10 in the embryo. Importantly, we have defined a minimal region crucial for this function. We show that this region contains numerous binding sites for transcription factors known to be essential in early neural crest induction, including Tcf/Lef, Sox and FoxD3. We show that the identity and relative position of these binding sites are conserved between zebrafish and mammals. A further region, partially required for oligodendrocyte expression, lies in the 5' region of the same intron and contains a putative CSL binding site, consistent with a role for Notch signalling in sox10 regulation. Furthermore, we show that β-catenin, Notch signalling and Sox9 can induce ectopic sox10 expression in early embryos, consistent with regulatory roles predicted from our transgenic and computational results. Conclusion We have thus identified two major sites of sox10 regulation in vertebrates and provided evidence supporting a role for at least three factors in driving sox10 expression in neural crest, otic epithelium and oligodendrocyte domains.

  10. Reenacting the birth of an intron

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    Hellsten, Uffe; Aspden, Julie L.; Rio, Donald C.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.

    2011-07-01

    An intron is an extended genomic feature whose function requires multiple constrained positions - donor and acceptor splice sites, a branch point, a polypyrimidine tract and suitable splicing enhancers - that may be distributed over hundreds or thousands of nucleotides. New introns are therefore unlikely to emerge by incremental accumulation of functional sub-elements. Here we demonstrate that a functional intron can be created de novo in a single step by a segmental genomic duplication. This experiment recapitulates in vivo the birth of an intron that arose in the ancestral jawed vertebrate lineage nearly half a billion years ago.

  11. The function of introns

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    Liran eCarmel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The intron-exon architecture of many eukaryotic genes raises the intriguing question of whether this unique organization serves any function, or is it simply a result of the spread of functionless introns in eukaryotic genomes. In this review, we show that introns in contemporary species fulfill a broad spectrum of functions, and are involved in virtually every step of mRNA processing. We propose that this great diversity of intronic functions supports the notion that introns were indeed selfish elements in early eukaryotes, but then independently gained numerous functions in different eukaryotic lineages. We suggest a novel criterion of evolutionary conservation, dubbed intron positional conservation, which can identify functional introns.

  12. Inferring Invasion History of Red Swamp Crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) in China from Mitochondrial Control Region and Nuclear Intron Sequences

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    Li, Yanhe; Guo, Xianwu; Chen, Liping; Bai, Xiaohui; Wei, Xinlan; Zhou, Xiaoyun; Huang, Songqian; Wang, Weimin

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the dispersal pathways of an invasive species is useful for adopting the appropriate strategies to prevent and control its spread. However, these processes are exceedingly complex. So, it is necessary to apply new technology and collect representative samples for analysis. This study used Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) in combination with traditional genetic tools to examine extensive sample data and historical records to infer the invasion history of the red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, in China. The sequences of the mitochondrial control region and the proPOx intron in the nuclear genome of samples from 37 sites (35 in China and one each in Japan and the USA) were analyzed. The results of combined scenarios testing and historical records revealed a much more complex invasion history in China than previously believed. P. clarkii was most likely originally introduced into China from Japan from an unsampled source, and the species then expanded its range primarily into the middle and lower reaches and, to a lesser extent, into the upper reaches of the Changjiang River in China. No transfer was observed from the upper reaches to the middle and lower reaches of the Changjiang River. Human-mediated jump dispersal was an important dispersal pathway for P. clarkii. The results provide a better understanding of the evolutionary scenarios involved in the rapid invasion of P. clarkii in China. PMID:26132567

  13. Inferring Invasion History of Red Swamp Crayfish (Procambarus clarkii in China from Mitochondrial Control Region and Nuclear Intron Sequences

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    Yanhe Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the dispersal pathways of an invasive species is useful for adopting the appropriate strategies to prevent and control its spread. However, these processes are exceedingly complex. So, it is necessary to apply new technology and collect representative samples for analysis. This study used Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC in combination with traditional genetic tools to examine extensive sample data and historical records to infer the invasion history of the red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, in China. The sequences of the mitochondrial control region and the proPOx intron in the nuclear genome of samples from 37 sites (35 in China and one each in Japan and the USA were analyzed. The results of combined scenarios testing and historical records revealed a much more complex invasion history in China than previously believed. P. clarkii was most likely originally introduced into China from Japan from an unsampled source, and the species then expanded its range primarily into the middle and lower reaches and, to a lesser extent, into the upper reaches of the Changjiang River in China. No transfer was observed from the upper reaches to the middle and lower reaches of the Changjiang River. Human-mediated jump dispersal was an important dispersal pathway for P. clarkii. The results provide a better understanding of the evolutionary scenarios involved in the rapid invasion of P. clarkii in China.

  14. The fission yeast RNA binding protein Mmi1 regulates meiotic genes by controlling intron specific splicing and polyadenylation coupled RNA turnover.

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    Huei-Mei Chen

    Full Text Available The polyA tails of mRNAs are monitored by the exosome as a quality control mechanism. We find that fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, adopts this RNA quality control mechanism to regulate a group of 30 or more meiotic genes at the level of both splicing and RNA turnover. In vegetative cells the RNA binding protein Mmi1 binds to the primary transcripts of these genes. We find the novel motif U(U/C/GAAAC highly over-represented in targets of Mmi1. Mmi1 can specifically regulate the splicing of particular introns in a transcript: it inhibits the splicing of introns that are in the vicinity of putative Mmi1 binding sites, while allowing the splicing of other introns that are far from such sites. In addition, binding of Mmi1, particularly near the 3' end, alters 3' processing to promote extremely long polyA tails of up to a kilobase. The hyperadenylated transcripts are then targeted for degradation by the nuclear exonuclease Rrp6. The nuclear polyA binding protein Pab2 assists this hyperadenylation-mediated RNA decay. Rrp6 also targets other hyperadenylated transcripts, which become hyperadenylated in an unknown, but Mmi1-independent way. Thus, hyperadenylation may be a general signal for RNA degradation. In addition, binding of Mmi1 can affect the efficiency of 3' cleavage. Inactivation of Mmi1 in meiosis allows meiotic expression, through splicing and RNA stabilization, of at least 29 target genes, which are apparently constitutively transcribed.

  15. Origin of introns by 'intronization' of exonic sequences

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    Irimia, Manuel; Rukov, Jakob Lewin; Penny, David

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms of spliceosomal intron creation have proved elusive. Here we describe a new mechanism: the recruitment of internal exonic sequences ('intronization') in Caenorhabditis species. The numbers of intronization events and introns gained by other mechanisms are similar, suggesting that i...

  16. Introns: The Functional Benefits of Introns in Genomes

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    Bong-Seok Jo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The intron has been a big biological mystery since it was first discovered in several aspects. First, all of the completely sequenced eukaryotes harbor introns in the genomic structure, whereas no prokaryotes identified so far carry introns. Second, the amount of total introns varies in different species. Third, the length and number of introns vary in different genes, even within the same species genome. Fourth, all introns are copied into RNAs by transcription and DNAs by replication processes, but intron sequences do not participate in protein-coding sequences. The existence of introns in the genome should be a burden to some cells, because cells have to consume a great deal of energy to copy and excise them exactly at the correct positions with the help of complicated spliceosomal machineries. The existence throughout the long evolutionary history is explained, only if selective advantages of carrying introns are assumed to be given to cells to overcome the negative effect of introns. In that regard, we summarize previous research about the functional roles or benefits of introns. Additionally, several other studies strongly suggesting that introns should not be junk will be introduced.

  17. Introns: The Functional Benefits of Introns in Genomes.

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    Jo, Bong-Seok; Choi, Sun Shim

    2015-12-01

    The intron has been a big biological mystery since it was first discovered in several aspects. First, all of the completely sequenced eukaryotes harbor introns in the genomic structure, whereas no prokaryotes identified so far carry introns. Second, the amount of total introns varies in different species. Third, the length and number of introns vary in different genes, even within the same species genome. Fourth, all introns are copied into RNAs by transcription and DNAs by replication processes, but intron sequences do not participate in protein-coding sequences. The existence of introns in the genome should be a burden to some cells, because cells have to consume a great deal of energy to copy and excise them exactly at the correct positions with the help of complicated spliceosomal machineries. The existence throughout the long evolutionary history is explained, only if selective advantages of carrying introns are assumed to be given to cells to overcome the negative effect of introns. In that regard, we summarize previous research about the functional roles or benefits of introns. Additionally, several other studies strongly suggesting that introns should not be junk will be introduced.

  18. Intronic microRNAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying, S.-Y.; Lin, S.-L.

    2005-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small single-stranded regulatory RNAs capable of interfering with intracellular mRNAs that contain partial complementarity, are useful for the design of new therapies against cancer polymorphism and viral mutation. MiRNA was originally discovered in the intergenic regions of the Caenorhabditis elegans genome as native RNA fragments that modulate a wide range of genetic regulatory pathways during animal development. However, neither RNA promoter nor polymerase responsible for miRNA biogenesis was determined. Recent findings of intron-derived miRNA in C. elegans, mouse, and human have inevitably led to an alternative pathway for miRNA biogenesis, which relies on the coupled interaction of Pol-II-mediated pre-mRNA transcription and intron excision, occurring in certain nuclear regions proximal to genomic perichromatin fibrils

  19. Functional characterisation of an intron retaining K+ transporter of barley reveals intron-mediated alternate splicing

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzad, K.

    2015-01-01

    Intron retention in transcripts and the presence of 5 and 3 splice sites within these introns mediate alternate splicing, which is widely observed in animals and plants. Here, functional characterisation of the K+ transporter, HvHKT2;1, with stably retained introns from barley (Hordeum vulgare) in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), and transcript profiling in yeast and transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) is presented. Expression of intron-retaining HvHKT2;1 cDNA (HvHKT2;1-i) in trk1, trk2 yeast strain defective in K+ uptake restored growth in medium containing hygromycin in the presence of different concentrations of K+ and mediated hypersensitivity to Na+. HvHKT2;1-i produces multiple transcripts via alternate splicing of two regular introns and three exons in different compositions. HKT isoforms with retained introns and exon skipping variants were detected in relative expression analysis of (i) HvHKT2;1-i in barley under native conditions, (ii) in transgenic tobacco plants constitutively expressing HvHKT2;1-i, and (iii) in trk1, trk2 yeast expressing HvHKT2;1-i under control of an inducible promoter. Mixed proportions of three HKT transcripts: HvHKT2;1-e (first exon region), HvHKT2;1-i1 (first intron) and HvHKT2;1-i2 (second intron) were observed. The variation in transcript accumulation in response to changing K+ and Na+ concentrations was observed in both heterologous and plant systems. These findings suggest a link between intron-retaining transcripts and different splice variants to ion homeostasis, and their possible role in salt stress.

  20. The Biology of Intron Gain and Loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeffares, Daniel C; Mourier, Tobias; Penny, David

    2006-01-01

    Intron density in eukaryote genomes varies by more than three orders of magnitude, so there must have been extensive intron gain and/or intron loss during evolution. A favored and partial explanation for this range of intron densities has been that introns have accumulated stochastically in large...... on introns depending on the biology of the organism and the gene involved....

  1. An intronic single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs13217795) in FOXO3 is associated with asthma and allergic rhinitis: a case-case-control study.

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    Amarin, Justin Z; Naffa, Randa G; Suradi, Haya H; Alsaket, Yousof M; Obeidat, Nathir M; Mahafza, Tareq M; Zihlif, Malek A

    2017-11-15

    Asthma and allergic rhinitis are respiratory diseases with a significant global burden. Forkhead box O3 (FOXO3) is a gene involved in the etiology of a number of respiratory diseases. The objective of this study is to assess the association of rs13217795, an intronic FOXO3 single-nucleotide polymorphism, with asthma and allergic rhinitis. In this case-case-control genetic association study, genotyping was conducted using the PCR-RFLP method. Genotype-based associations were investigated under the general, recessive, and dominant models of disease penetrance using binomial logistic regression; and, allele-based associations were tested using Pearson's chi-squared test. The final study population consisted of 94 controls, 124 asthmatics, and 110 allergic rhinitis patients. The general and recessive models of disease penetrance were statistically significant for both case-control comparisons. Under the general model, the odds of the asthma phenotype were 1.46 (0.64 to 3.34) and 3.42 (1.37 to 8.57) times higher in heterozygotes and derived allele homozygotes, respectively, compared to ancestral allele homozygotes. The corresponding odds ratios for the allergic rhinitis phenotype were 1.05 (0.46 to 2.40) and 2.35 (0.96 to 5.73), respectively. The dominant model of disease penetrance was not statistically significant. The minor allele in all study groups was the ancestral allele, with a frequency of 0.49 in controls. There was no deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in controls. Both case-control allele-based associations were statistically significant. Herein we present the first report of the association between rs13217795 and allergic rhinitis, and the first independent verification of the association between rs13217795 and asthma. Marker selection in future genetic association studies of asthma and allergic rhinitis should include functional polymorphisms in linkage disequilibrium with rs13217795.

  2. 50/50 Expressional Odds of Retention Signifies the Distinction between Retained Introns and Constitutively Spliced Introns in Arabidopsis thaliana

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    Rui Mao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Intron retention, one of the most prevalent alternative splicing events in plants, can lead to introns retained in mature mRNAs. However, in comparison with constitutively spliced introns (CSIs, the relevantly distinguishable features for retained introns (RIs are still poorly understood. This work proposes a computational pipeline to discover novel RIs from multiple next-generation RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq datasets of Arabidopsis thaliana. Using this pipeline, we detected 3,472 novel RIs from 18 RNA-Seq datasets and re-confirmed 1,384 RIs which are currently annotated in the TAIR10 database. We also use the expression of intron-containing isoforms as a new feature in addition to the conventional features. Based on these features, RIs are highly distinguishable from CSIs by machine learning methods, especially when the expressional odds of retention (i.e., the expression ratio of the RI-containing isoforms relative to the isoforms without RIs for the same gene reaches to or larger than 50/50. In this case, the RIs and CSIs can be clearly separated by the Random Forest with an outstanding performance of 0.95 on AUC (the area under a receiver operating characteristics curve. The closely related characteristics to the RIs include the low strength of splice sites, high similarity with the flanking exon sequences, low occurrence percentage of YTRAY near the acceptor site, existence of putative intronic splicing silencers (ISSs, i.e., AG/GA-rich motifs and intronic splicing enhancers (ISEs, i.e., TTTT-containing motifs, and enrichment of Serine/Arginine-Rich (SR proteins and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoparticle proteins (hnRNPs.

  3. Enhanced Master Controller Unit Tester

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    Benson, Patricia; Johnson, Yvette; Johnson, Brian; Williams, Philip; Burton, Geoffrey; McCoy, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    The Enhanced Master Controller Unit Tester (EMUT) software is a tool for development and testing of software for a master controller (MC) flight computer. The primary function of the EMUT software is to simulate interfaces between the MC computer and external analog and digital circuitry (including other computers) in a rack of equipment to be used in scientific experiments. The simulations span the range of nominal, off-nominal, and erroneous operational conditions, enabling the testing of MC software before all the equipment becomes available.

  4. Imprecise intron losses are less frequent than precise intron losses but are not rare in plants.

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    Ma, Ming-Yue; Zhu, Tao; Li, Xue-Nan; Lan, Xin-Ran; Liu, Heng-Yuan; Yang, Yu-Fei; Niu, Deng-Ke

    2015-05-27

    In this study, we identified 19 intron losses, including 11 precise intron losses (PILs), six imprecise intron losses (IILs), one de-exonization, and one exon deletion in tomato and potato, and 17 IILs in Arabidopsis thaliana. Comparative analysis of related genomes confirmed that all of the IILs have been fixed during evolution. Consistent with previous studies, our results indicate that PILs are a major type of intron loss. However, at least in plants, IILs are unlikely to be as rare as previously reported. This article was reviewed by Jun Yu and Zhang Zhang. For complete reviews, see the Reviewers' Reports section.

  5. Degradation of YRA1 Pre-mRNA in the cytoplasm requires translational repression, multiple modular intronic elements, Edc3p, and Mex67p.

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    Shuyun Dong

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Intron-containing pre-mRNAs are normally retained and processed in the nucleus but are sometimes exported to the cytoplasm and degraded by the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD pathway as a consequence of their inclusion of intronic in-frame termination codons. When shunted to the cytoplasm by autoregulated nuclear export, the intron-containing yeast YRA1 pre-mRNA evades NMD and is targeted by a cytoplasmic decay pathway mediated by the decapping activator Edc3p. Here, we have elucidated this transcript-specific decay mechanism, showing that Edc3p-mediated YRA1 pre-mRNA degradation occurs independently of translation and is controlled through five structurally distinct but functionally interdependent modular elements in the YRA1 intron. Two of these elements target the pre-mRNA as an Edc3p substrate and the other three mediate transcript-specific translational repression. Translational repression of YRA1 pre-mRNA also requires the heterodimeric Mex67p/Mtr2p general mRNA export receptor, but not Edc3p, and serves to enhance Edc3p substrate specificity by inhibiting the susceptibility of this pre-mRNA to NMD. Collectively, our data indicate that YRA1 pre-mRNA degradation is a highly regulated process that proceeds through translational repression, substrate recognition by Edc3p, recruitment of the Dcp1p/Dcp2p decapping enzyme, and activation of decapping.

  6. Accurate, model-based tuning of synthetic gene expression using introns in S. cerevisiae.

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    Ido Yofe

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introns are key regulators of eukaryotic gene expression and present a potentially powerful tool for the design of synthetic eukaryotic gene expression systems. However, intronic control over gene expression is governed by a multitude of complex, incompletely understood, regulatory mechanisms. Despite this lack of detailed mechanistic understanding, here we show how a relatively simple model enables accurate and predictable tuning of synthetic gene expression system in yeast using several predictive intron features such as transcript folding and sequence motifs. Using only natural Saccharomyces cerevisiae introns as regulators, we demonstrate fine and accurate control over gene expression spanning a 100 fold expression range. These results broaden the engineering toolbox of synthetic gene expression systems and provide a framework in which precise and robust tuning of gene expression is accomplished.

  7. Functional characterisation of an intron retaining K+ transporter of barley reveals intron-mediated alternate splicing

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzad, K.; Rauf, M.; Ahmed, M.; Malik, Z. A.; Habib, I.; Ahmed, Z.; Mahmood, K.; Ali, R.; Masmoudi, K.; Lemtiri-Chlieh, Fouad; Gehring, Christoph A; Berkowitz, G. A.; Saeed, N. A.

    2015-01-01

    Intron retention in transcripts and the presence of 5 and 3 splice sites within these introns mediate alternate splicing, which is widely observed in animals and plants. Here, functional characterisation of the K+ transporter, HvHKT2;1, with stably

  8. Enhanced Engine Control for Emergency Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Jonathan S.

    2012-01-01

    C-MAPSS40k engine simulation has been developed and is available to the public. The authenticity of the engine performance and controller enabled the development of realistic enhanced control modes through controller modification alone. Use of enhanced control modes improved stability and control of an impaired aircraft. - Fast Response is useful for manual manipulation of the throttles - Use of Fast Response improved stability as part of a yaw rate feedback system. - Use of Overthrust shortened takeoff distance, but was generally useful in flight, too. Initial lack of pilot familiarity resulted in discomfort, especially with yaw rate feedback, but that was the only drawback, overall the pilot found the enhanced modes very helpful.

  9. Recurrent loss of specific introns during angiosperm evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous instances of presence/absence variations for introns have been documented in eukaryotes, and some cases of recurrent loss of the same intron have been suggested. However, there has been no comprehensive or phylogenetically deep analysis of recurrent intron loss. Of 883 cases of intron presence/absence variation that we detected in five sequenced grass genomes, 93 were confirmed as recurrent losses and the rest could be explained by single losses (652 or single gains (118. No case of recurrent intron gain was observed. Deep phylogenetic analysis often indicated that apparent intron gains were actually numerous independent losses of the same intron. Recurrent loss exhibited extreme non-randomness, in that some introns were removed independently in many lineages. The two larger genomes, maize and sorghum, were found to have a higher rate of both recurrent loss and overall loss and/or gain than foxtail millet, rice or Brachypodium. Adjacent introns and small introns were found to be preferentially lost. Intron loss genes exhibited a high frequency of germ line or early embryogenesis expression. In addition, flanking exon A+T-richness and intron TG/CG ratios were higher in retained introns. This last result suggests that epigenetic status, as evidenced by a loss of methylated CG dinucleotides, may play a role in the process of intron loss. This study provides the first comprehensive analysis of recurrent intron loss, makes a series of novel findings on the patterns of recurrent intron loss during the evolution of the grass family, and provides insight into the molecular mechanism(s underlying intron loss.

  10. Conserving and enhancing biological control of nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timper, Patricia

    2014-06-01

    Conservation biological control is the modification of the environment or existing practices to protect and enhance antagonistic organisms to reduce damage from pests. This approach to biological control has received insufficient attention compared with inundative applications of microbial antagonists to control nematodes. This review provides examples of how production practices can enhance or diminish biological control of plant-parasitic nematodes and other soilborne pests. Antagonists of nematodes can be enhanced by providing supplementary food sources such as occurs when organic amendments are applied to soil. However, some organic amendments (e.g., manures and plants containing allelopathic compounds) can also be detrimental to nematode antagonists. Plant species and genotype can strongly influence the outcome of biological control. For instance, the susceptibility of the plant to the nematode can determine the effectiveness of control; good hosts will require greater levels of suppression than poor hosts. Plant genotype can also influence the degree of rhizosphere colonization and antibiotic production by antagonists, as well the expression of induced resistance by plants. Production practices such as crop rotation, fallow periods, tillage, and pesticide applications can directly disrupt populations of antagonistic organisms. These practices can also indirectly affect antagonists by reducing their primary nematode host. One of the challenges of conservation biological control is that practices intended to protect or enhance suppression of nematodes may not be effective in all field sites because they are dependent on indigenous antagonists. Ultimately, indicators will need to be identified, such as the presence of particular antagonists, which can guide decisions on where it is practical to use conservation biological control. Antagonists can also be applied to field sites in conjunction with conservation practices to improve the consistency, efficacy, and

  11. Extensive intron gain in the ancestor of placental mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Genome-wide studies of intron dynamics in mammalian orthologous genes have found convincing evidence for loss of introns but very little for intron turnover. Similarly, large-scale analysis of intron dynamics in a few vertebrate genomes has identified only intron losses and no gains, indicating that intron gain is an extremely rare event in vertebrate evolution. These studies suggest that the intron-rich genomes of vertebrates do not allow intron gain. The aim of this study was to search for evidence of de novo intron gain in domesticated genes from an analysis of their exon/intron structures. Results A phylogenomic approach has been used to analyse all domesticated genes in mammals and chordates that originated from the coding parts of transposable elements. Gain of introns in domesticated genes has been reconstructed on well established mammalian, vertebrate and chordate phylogenies, and examined as to where and when the gain events occurred. The locations, sizes and amounts of de novo introns gained in the domesticated genes during the evolution of mammals and chordates has been analyzed. A significant amount of intron gain was found only in domesticated genes of placental mammals, where more than 70 cases were identified. De novo gained introns show clear positional bias, since they are distributed mainly in 5' UTR and coding regions, while 3' UTR introns are very rare. In the coding regions of some domesticated genes up to 8 de novo gained introns have been found. Intron densities in Eutheria-specific domesticated genes and in older domesticated genes that originated early in vertebrates are lower than those for normal mammalian and vertebrate genes. Surprisingly, the majority of intron gains have occurred in the ancestor of placentals. Conclusions This study provides the first evidence for numerous intron gains in the ancestor of placental mammals and demonstrates that adequate taxon sampling is crucial for reconstructing intron evolution. The

  12. Retroviral vectors encoding ADA regulatory locus control region provide enhanced T-cell-specific transgene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Alice T; Ball, Bret G; Weber, Erin; Gallaher, Timothy K; Gluzman-Poltorak, Zoya; Anderson, French; Basile, Lena A

    2009-12-30

    Murine retroviral vectors have been used in several hundred gene therapy clinical trials, but have fallen out of favor for a number of reasons. One issue is that gene expression from viral or internal promoters is highly variable and essentially unregulated. Moreover, with retroviral vectors, gene expression is usually silenced over time. Mammalian genes, in contrast, are characterized by highly regulated, precise levels of expression in both a temporal and a cell-specific manner. To ascertain if recapitulation of endogenous adenosine deaminase (ADA) expression can be achieved in a vector construct we created a new series of Moloney murine leukemia virus (MuLV) based retroviral vector that carry human regulatory elements including combinations of the ADA promoter, the ADA locus control region (LCR), ADA introns and human polyadenylation sequences in a self-inactivating vector backbone. A MuLV-based retroviral vector with a self-inactivating (SIN) backbone, the phosphoglycerate kinase promoter (PGK) and the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP), as a reporter gene, was generated. Subsequent vectors were constructed from this basic vector by deletion or addition of certain elements. The added elements that were assessed are the human ADA promoter, human ADA locus control region (LCR), introns 7, 8, and 11 from the human ADA gene, and human growth hormone polyadenylation signal. Retroviral vector particles were produced by transient three-plasmid transfection of 293T cells. Retroviral vectors encoding eGFP were titered by transducing 293A cells, and then the proportion of GFP-positive cells was determined using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Non T-cell and T-cell lines were transduced at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 0.1 and the yield of eGFP transgene expression was evaluated by FACS analysis using mean fluorescent intensity (MFI) detection. Vectors that contained the ADA LCR were preferentially expressed in T-cell lines. Further improvements

  13. Retroviral vectors encoding ADA regulatory locus control region provide enhanced T-cell-specific transgene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Murine retroviral vectors have been used in several hundred gene therapy clinical trials, but have fallen out of favor for a number of reasons. One issue is that gene expression from viral or internal promoters is highly variable and essentially unregulated. Moreover, with retroviral vectors, gene expression is usually silenced over time. Mammalian genes, in contrast, are characterized by highly regulated, precise levels of expression in both a temporal and a cell-specific manner. To ascertain if recapitulation of endogenous adenosine deaminase (ADA) expression can be achieved in a vector construct we created a new series of Moloney murine leukemia virus (MuLV) based retroviral vector that carry human regulatory elements including combinations of the ADA promoter, the ADA locus control region (LCR), ADA introns and human polyadenylation sequences in a self-inactivating vector backbone. Methods A MuLV-based retroviral vector with a self-inactivating (SIN) backbone, the phosphoglycerate kinase promoter (PGK) and the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP), as a reporter gene, was generated. Subsequent vectors were constructed from this basic vector by deletion or addition of certain elements. The added elements that were assessed are the human ADA promoter, human ADA locus control region (LCR), introns 7, 8, and 11 from the human ADA gene, and human growth hormone polyadenylation signal. Retroviral vector particles were produced by transient three-plasmid transfection of 293T cells. Retroviral vectors encoding eGFP were titered by transducing 293A cells, and then the proportion of GFP-positive cells was determined using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Non T-cell and T-cell lines were transduced at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 0.1 and the yield of eGFP transgene expression was evaluated by FACS analysis using mean fluorescent intensity (MFI) detection. Results Vectors that contained the ADA LCR were preferentially expressed in T

  14. Evolution of the Exon-Intron Structure in Ciliate Genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladyslav S Bondarenko

    Full Text Available A typical eukaryotic gene is comprised of alternating stretches of regions, exons and introns, retained in and spliced out a mature mRNA, respectively. Although the length of introns may vary substantially among organisms, a large fraction of genes contains short introns in many species. Notably, some Ciliates (Paramecium and Nyctotherus possess only ultra-short introns, around 25 bp long. In Paramecium, ultra-short introns with length divisible by three (3n are under strong evolutionary pressure and have a high frequency of in-frame stop codons, which, in the case of intron retention, cause premature termination of mRNA translation and consequent degradation of the mis-spliced mRNA by the nonsense-mediated decay mechanism. Here, we analyzed introns in five genera of Ciliates, Paramecium, Tetrahymena, Ichthyophthirius, Oxytricha, and Stylonychia. Introns can be classified into two length classes in Tetrahymena and Ichthyophthirius (with means 48 bp, 69 bp, and 55 bp, 64 bp, respectively, but, surprisingly, comprise three distinct length classes in Oxytricha and Stylonychia (with means 33-35 bp, 47-51 bp, and 78-80 bp. In most ranges of the intron lengths, 3n introns are underrepresented and have a high frequency of in-frame stop codons in all studied species. Introns of Paramecium, Tetrahymena, and Ichthyophthirius are preferentially located at the 5' and 3' ends of genes, whereas introns of Oxytricha and Stylonychia are strongly skewed towards the 5' end. Analysis of evolutionary conservation shows that, in each studied genome, a significant fraction of intron positions is conserved between the orthologs, but intron lengths are not correlated between the species. In summary, our study provides a detailed characterization of introns in several genera of Ciliates and highlights some of their distinctive properties, which, together, indicate that splicing spellchecking is a universal and evolutionarily conserved process in the biogenesis of short

  15. Enhancing training in the main control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuigan, K.; O'Leary, K.; Canavan, K.

    2004-01-01

    In 2003 Pickering B Nuclear of Ontario Power Generation installed a Desktop Simulator (DTS) in the Main Control Room (MCR) for training purposes. This paper will outline why this training enhancement was undertaken and the approach taken to secure its use in an active MCR environment while minimizing distractions to plant operations. (author)

  16. Analysis of ribosomal protein gene structures: implications for intron evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Many spliceosomal introns exist in the eukaryotic nuclear genome. Despite much research, the evolution of spliceosomal introns remains poorly understood. In this paper, we tried to gain insights into intron evolution from a novel perspective by comparing the gene structures of cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins (CRPs and mitochondrial ribosomal proteins (MRPs, which are held to be of archaeal and bacterial origin, respectively. We analyzed 25 homologous pairs of CRP and MRP genes that together had a total of 527 intron positions. We found that all 12 of the intron positions shared by CRP and MRP genes resulted from parallel intron gains and none could be considered to be "conserved," i.e., descendants of the same ancestor. This was supported further by the high frequency of proto-splice sites at these shared positions; proto-splice sites are proposed to be sites for intron insertion. Although we could not definitively disprove that spliceosomal introns were already present in the last universal common ancestor, our results lend more support to the idea that introns were gained late. At least, our results show that MRP genes were intronless at the time of endosymbiosis. The parallel intron gains between CRP and MRP genes accounted for 2.3% of total intron positions, which should provide a reliable estimate for future inferences of intron evolution.

  17. Enhancement of EAST plasma control capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Bingjia, E-mail: bjxiao@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Yuan, Qiping; Luo, Zhengping; Huang, Yao; Liu, Lei; Guo, Yong; Pei, Xiaofang; Chen, Shuliang [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Humphreys, D.A.; Hyatt, A.W. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Mueller, Dennis [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Calabró, G.; Crisanti, F. [ENEA UnitàTecnicaFusione, C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Albanese, R.; Ambrosino, R. [CREATE, Università di Napoli Federicao II, Università di Cassino and Università di Napoli Parthenope, Via Claudio 19, 80125 Napoli (Italy)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Parallel plasma equilibrium reconstruction using GPU for real-time control on EAST. • Vertical control using Bang-bang + PID method to improve the response and minimize the oscillation caused by the latency. • Quasi-snow flake divertor plasma configuration has been demonstrated on EAST. - Abstract: In order to improve the plasma control performance and enhance the capability for advanced plasma control, new algorithms such as PEFIT/ISOFLUX plasma shape feedback control, quasi-snowflake plasma shape development and vertical control under new vertical control power supply, have been implemented and experimentally tested and verified in EAST 2014 campaign. P-EFIT is a rewritten version of EFIT aiming at fast real-time equilibrium reconstruction by using GPU for parallelized computation. Successful control using PEFIT/ISOFLUX was established in dedicated experiment. Snowfldivertor plasma shape has the advantage of spreading heat over the divertor target and a quasi-snowflake (QSF) configuration was achieved in discharges with I{sub p} = 0.25 MA and B{sub t} = 1.8T, κ∼1.9, by plasma position feedback control. The shape feedback control to achieve QSF shape has been preliminary implemented by using PEFIT and the initial experimental test has been done. For more robust vertical instability control, the inner coil (IC) and its power supply have been upgraded. A new control algorithm with the combination of Bang-bang and PID controllers has been developed. It is shown that new vertical control power supply together with the new control algorithms results in higher vertical controllability.

  18. Inheritance of the group I rDNA intron in Tetrahymena pigmentosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik; Simon, E M; Engberg, J

    1992-01-01

    - strains looking for a strong polarity in the inheritance of the intron (intron homing). Based on the genetic analysis we find that the intron in T. pigmentosa is inherited as a neutral character and that intron+ and intron- alleles segregate in a Mendelian fashion with no sign of intron homing...

  19. Analysis of the intronic single nucleotide polymorphism rs#466452 of the nephrin gene in patients with diabetic nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODRIGO GONZÁLEZ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the analysis of an intronic polymorphism of the nephrin gene and its relationship to the development of diabetic nephropathy in a study of diabetes type 1 and type 2 patients. The frequency of the single nucleotide polymorphism rs#466452 in the nephrin gene was determined in 231 patients and control subjects. The C/T status of the polymorphism was assessed using restriction enzyme digestions and the nephrin transcript from a kidney biopsy was examined. Association between the polymorphism and clinical parameters was evaluated using multivaríate correspondence analysis. A bioinformatics analysis of the single nucleotide polymorphism rs#466452 suggested the appearance of a splicing enhancer sequence in intron 24 of the nephrin gene and a modification of proteins that bind to this sequence. However, no change in the splicing of a nephrin transcript from a renal biopsy was found. No association was found between the polymorphism and diabetes or degree of renal damage in diabetes type 1 or 2 patients. The single nucleotide polymorphism rs#466452 of the nephrin gene seems to be neutral in relation to diabetes and the development of diabetic nephropathy, and does not affect the splicing of a nephrin transcript, in spite of a splicing enhancer site.

  20. Bilingualism and Musicianship Enhance Cognitive Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott R. Schroeder

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Learning how to speak a second language (i.e., becoming a bilingual and learning how to play a musical instrument (i.e., becoming a musician are both thought to increase executive control through experience-dependent plasticity. However, evidence supporting this effect is mixed for bilingualism and limited for musicianship. In addition, the combined effects of bilingualism and musicianship on executive control are unknown. To determine whether bilingualism, musicianship, and combined bilingualism and musicianship improve executive control, we tested 219 young adults belonging to one of four groups (bilinguals, musicians, bilingual musicians, and controls on a nonlinguistic, nonmusical, visual-spatial Simon task that measured the ability to ignore an irrelevant and misinformative cue. Results revealed that bilinguals, musicians, and bilingual musicians showed an enhanced ability to ignore a distracting cue relative to controls, with similar levels of superior performance among bilinguals, musicians, and bilingual musicians. These results indicate that bilingualism and musicianship improve executive control and have implications for educational and rehabilitation programs that use music and foreign language instruction to boost cognitive performance.

  1. Bilingualism and Musicianship Enhance Cognitive Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Scott R; Marian, Viorica; Shook, Anthony; Bartolotti, James

    2016-01-01

    Learning how to speak a second language (i.e., becoming a bilingual) and learning how to play a musical instrument (i.e., becoming a musician) are both thought to increase executive control through experience-dependent plasticity. However, evidence supporting this effect is mixed for bilingualism and limited for musicianship. In addition, the combined effects of bilingualism and musicianship on executive control are unknown. To determine whether bilingualism, musicianship, and combined bilingualism and musicianship improve executive control, we tested 219 young adults belonging to one of four groups (bilinguals, musicians, bilingual musicians, and controls) on a nonlinguistic, nonmusical, visual-spatial Simon task that measured the ability to ignore an irrelevant and misinformative cue. Results revealed that bilinguals, musicians, and bilingual musicians showed an enhanced ability to ignore a distracting cue relative to controls, with similar levels of superior performance among bilinguals, musicians, and bilingual musicians. These results indicate that bilingualism and musicianship improve executive control and have implications for educational and rehabilitation programs that use music and foreign language instruction to boost cognitive performance.

  2. Patterns of intron gain and conservation in eukaryotic genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Yuri I

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The presence of introns in protein-coding genes is a universal feature of eukaryotic genome organization, and the genes of multicellular eukaryotes, typically, contain multiple introns, a substantial fraction of which share position in distant taxa, such as plants and animals. Depending on the methods and data sets used, researchers have reached opposite conclusions on the causes of the high fraction of shared introns in orthologous genes from distant eukaryotes. Some studies conclude that shared intron positions reflect, almost entirely, a remarkable evolutionary conservation, whereas others attribute it to parallel gain of introns. To resolve these contradictions, it is crucial to analyze the evolution of introns by using a model that minimally relies on arbitrary assumptions. Results: We developed a probabilistic model of evolution that allows for variability of intron gain and loss rates over branches of the phylogenetic tree, individual genes, and individual sites. Applying this model to an extended set of conserved eukaryotic genes, we find that parallel gain, on average, accounts for only ~8% of the shared intron positions. However, the distribution of parallel gains over the phylogenetic tree of eukaryotes is highly non-uniform. There are, practically, no parallel gains in closely related lineages, whereas for distant lineages, such as animals and plants, parallel gains appear to contribute up to 20% of the shared intron positions. In accord with these findings, we estimated that ancestral introns have a high probability to be retained in extant genomes, and conversely, that a substantial fraction of extant introns have retained their positions since the early stages of eukaryotic evolution. In addition, the density of sites that are available for intron insertion is estimated to be, approximately, one in seven basepairs. Conclusion: We obtained robust estimates of the contribution of parallel gain to the observed

  3. The peculiarities of large intron splicing in animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Shepard

    Full Text Available In mammals a considerable 92% of genes contain introns, with hundreds and hundreds of these introns reaching the incredible size of over 50,000 nucleotides. These "large introns" must be spliced out of the pre-mRNA in a timely fashion, which involves bringing together distant 5' and 3' acceptor and donor splice sites. In invertebrates, especially Drosophila, it has been shown that larger introns can be spliced efficiently through a process known as recursive splicing-a consecutive splicing from the 5'-end at a series of combined donor-acceptor splice sites called RP-sites. Using a computational analysis of the genomic sequences, we show that vertebrates lack the proper enrichment of RP-sites in their large introns, and, therefore, require some other method to aid splicing. We analyzed over 15,000 non-redundant, large introns from six mammals, 1,600 from chicken and zebrafish, and 560 non-redundant large introns from five invertebrates. Our bioinformatic investigation demonstrates that, unlike the studied invertebrates, the studied vertebrate genomes contain consistently abundant amounts of direct and complementary strand interspersed repetitive elements (mainly SINEs and LINEs that may form stems with each other in large introns. This examination showed that predicted stems are indeed abundant and stable in the large introns of mammals. We hypothesize that such stems with long loops within large introns allow intron splice sites to find each other more quickly by folding the intronic RNA upon itself at smaller intervals and, thus, reducing the distance between donor and acceptor sites.

  4. Man-machine enhancements to existing FFTF control panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, E.M.

    1984-01-01

    FFTF Project enhanced existing control panels with tape and labels to mitigate operator problems and to incorporate the guidance of NUREG-0700. The enhancements grouped displays and controls into meaningful units and labelled controls and displays to facilitate their identification and efficient use. The enhancements were inexpensive and well received by the facility's operations staff

  5. First intron of nestin gene regulates its expression during C2C12 myoblast ifferentiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Zhong; Zhigang Jin; Yongfeng Chen; Ting Zhang; Wei Bian; Xing Cui; Naihe Jing

    2008-01-01

    Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China Nestin is an intermediate filament protein expressed in neural progenitor cells and in developing skeletal muscle. Nestin has been widely used as a neural progenitor cell marker. It is well established that the specific expression of the nestin gene in neural progenitor cells is conferred by the neural-specific enhancer located in the second intron of the nestin gene. However, the transcriptional mechanism of nestin expression in developing muscle is still unclear. In this study, we identified a muscle cell-specific enhancer in the first intron of mouse nestin gene in mouse myoblast C2C12 cells.We localized the core enhancer activity to the 291-661 region of the first intron, and showed that the two E-boxes in the core enhancer region were important for enhancer activity in differentiating C2C12 cells. We also showed that MyoD protein was involved in the regulation of nestin expression in the myogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells.

  6. Advanced tools for enhancing control room collaborations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abla, G.; Flanagan, S.M.; Peng, Q.; Burruss, J.R.; Schissel, D.P.

    2006-01-01

    The US National Fusion Collaboratory (NFC) project has been exploring a variety of computer and network technologies to develop a persistent, efficient, reliable and convenient collaborative environment for magnetic fusion research. One goal is to enhance remote and collocated team collaboration by integrating collaboration software tools into control room operations as well as with data analysis tools. To achieve this goal, the NFC recently introduced two new collaboration technologies into the DIII-D tokamak control room. The first technology is a high-resolution, large format Shared Display Wall (SDW). By creating a shared public display space and providing real time visual information about the multiple aspects of complex experiment activity, the large SDW plays an important role in increasing the rate of information dissemination and promoting interaction among team members. The second technology being implemented is the 'tokamak control room aware' Instant Messaging (IM) service. In addition to providing text-chat capabilities for research scientists, it enables them to automatically receive information about experiment operations and data analysis processes to remotely monitor the status of ongoing tokamak experiment. As a result, the IM service has become a unified portal interface for team collaboration and remote participation

  7. Advanced tools for enhancing control room collaborations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abla, G. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186 5608 (United States)]. E-mail: abla@fusion.gat.com; Flanagan, S.M. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186 5608 (United States); Peng, Q. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186 5608 (United States); Burruss, J.R. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186 5608 (United States); Schissel, D.P. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186 5608 (United States)

    2006-07-15

    The US National Fusion Collaboratory (NFC) project has been exploring a variety of computer and network technologies to develop a persistent, efficient, reliable and convenient collaborative environment for magnetic fusion research. One goal is to enhance remote and collocated team collaboration by integrating collaboration software tools into control room operations as well as with data analysis tools. To achieve this goal, the NFC recently introduced two new collaboration technologies into the DIII-D tokamak control room. The first technology is a high-resolution, large format Shared Display Wall (SDW). By creating a shared public display space and providing real time visual information about the multiple aspects of complex experiment activity, the large SDW plays an important role in increasing the rate of information dissemination and promoting interaction among team members. The second technology being implemented is the 'tokamak control room aware' Instant Messaging (IM) service. In addition to providing text-chat capabilities for research scientists, it enables them to automatically receive information about experiment operations and data analysis processes to remotely monitor the status of ongoing tokamak experiment. As a result, the IM service has become a unified portal interface for team collaboration and remote participation.

  8. Remarkable interkingdom conservation of intron positions and massive, lineage-specific intron loss and gain in eukaryotic evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogozin, Igor B; Wolf, Yuri I; Sorokin, Alexander V; Mirkin, Boris G; Koonin, Eugene V

    2003-09-02

    Sequencing of eukaryotic genomes allows one to address major evolutionary problems, such as the evolution of gene structure. We compared the intron positions in 684 orthologous gene sets from 8 complete genomes of animals, plants, fungi, and protists and constructed parsimonious scenarios of evolution of the exon-intron structure for the respective genes. Approximately one-third of the introns in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum are shared with at least one crown group eukaryote; this number indicates that these introns have been conserved through >1.5 billion years of evolution that separate Plasmodium from the crown group. Paradoxically, humans share many more introns with the plant Arabidopsis thaliana than with the fly or nematode. The inferred evolutionary scenario holds that the common ancestor of Plasmodium and the crown group and, especially, the common ancestor of animals, plants, and fungi had numerous introns. Most of these ancestral introns, which are retained in the genomes of vertebrates and plants, have been lost in fungi, nematodes, arthropods, and probably Plasmodium. In addition, numerous introns have been inserted into vertebrate and plant genes, whereas, in other lineages, intron gain was much less prominent.

  9. Family of autocatalytic group I introns in bacteriophage T4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shub, D.A.; Xu, M.Q.; Gott, J.M.; Zeeh, A.; Wilson, L.D.

    1987-01-01

    The discovery of an intron in phage T4 encouraged the authors to look for additional group I introns in the T4 genome. Further examples would permit sequence and structural comparisons that might lend insight into their evolutionary origin. Additionally, they hoped that their locations within the T4 genome would infer a possible regulatory function in prokaryotic gene expression. They took advantage of the fact that, since G is added to the 5' end of the intron, autocatalytic group I introns could be specifically labeled in vitro for use as probes for DNA blotting experiments. If Group I introns were in more than just the td gene, multiple RNA species should be labeled when total RNA is extracted from T4-infected cells and incubated with [α- 32 P]GTP in vitro. When used as a probe for a Southern blot of T4 DNA, this RNA should hybridize to several DNA bands

  10. Introns Protect Eukaryotic Genomes from Transcription-Associated Genetic Instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Amandine; Grosso, Ana R; Elkaoutari, Abdessamad; Coleno, Emeline; Presle, Adrien; Sridhara, Sreerama C; Janbon, Guilhem; Géli, Vincent; de Almeida, Sérgio F; Palancade, Benoit

    2017-08-17

    Transcription is a source of genetic instability that can notably result from the formation of genotoxic DNA:RNA hybrids, or R-loops, between the nascent mRNA and its template. Here we report an unexpected function for introns in counteracting R-loop accumulation in eukaryotic genomes. Deletion of endogenous introns increases R-loop formation, while insertion of an intron into an intronless gene suppresses R-loop accumulation and its deleterious impact on transcription and recombination in yeast. Recruitment of the spliceosome onto the mRNA, but not splicing per se, is shown to be critical to attenuate R-loop formation and transcription-associated genetic instability. Genome-wide analyses in a number of distant species differing in their intron content, including human, further revealed that intron-containing genes and the intron-richest genomes are best protected against R-loop accumulation and subsequent genetic instability. Our results thereby provide a possible rationale for the conservation of introns throughout the eukaryotic lineage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The ability to form full-length intron RNA circles is a general property of nuclear group I introns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik; Fiskaa, Tonje; Birgisdottir, Asa Birna

    2003-01-01

    at the expense of the host. The circularization pathway has distinct structural requirements that differ from those of splicing and appears to be specifically suppressed in vivo. The ability to form full-length circles is found in all types of nuclear group I introns, including those from the Tetrahymena...... ribosomal DNA. The biological function of the full-length circles is not known, but the fact that the circles contain the entire genetic information of the intron suggests a role in intron mobility....

  12. Secondary Control for Voltage Quality Enhancement in Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savaghebi, Mehdi; Jalilian, Alireza; Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a hierarchical control scheme is proposed for enhancement of sensitive load bus (SLB) voltage quality in microgrids. The control structure consists of primary and secondary levels. The primary control level comprises distributed generators (DGs) local controllers. Each of these con......In this paper, a hierarchical control scheme is proposed for enhancement of sensitive load bus (SLB) voltage quality in microgrids. The control structure consists of primary and secondary levels. The primary control level comprises distributed generators (DGs) local controllers. Each...

  13. Drosophila polytene chromosome bands formed by gene introns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhimulev, I F; Boldyreva, L V; Demakova, O V; Poholkova, G V; Khoroshko, V A; Zykova, T Yu; Lavrov, S A; Belyaeva, E S

    2016-01-01

    Genetic organization of bands and interbands in polytene chromosomes has long remained a puzzle for geneticists. It has been recently demonstrated that interbands typically correspond to the 5'-ends of house-keeping genes, whereas adjacent loose bands tend to be composed of coding sequences of the genes. In the present work, we made one important step further and mapped two large introns of ubiquitously active genes on the polytene chromosome map. We show that alternative promoter regions of these genes map to interbands, whereas introns and coding sequences found between those promoters correspond to loose grey bands. Thus, a gene having its long intron "sandwiched" between to alternative promoters and a common coding sequence may occupy two interbands and one band in the context of polytene chromosomes. Loose, partially decompacted bands appear to host large introns.

  14. Characteristics of binding sites of intergenic, intronic and exonic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-03-06

    Mar 6, 2013 ... miR-1587). Such part of mRNA is very important for its regulation via several miRNA. Interaction of intronic miRNAs with mRNAs genes coding in-miRNA. Oncogenes (51) are host genes and target genes for in-. miRNAs. Majority of these in-miRNAs are encoded in intron. Five of the studied genes (ATF2, ...

  15. Cavity enhancement by controlled directional scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, R.

    1980-01-01

    A method for designing cavity enclosures is presented that can be applied to the design of a nonimaging concentrator. The method maintains high transmission at the expense of some concentration in the presence of a gap between the reflector and the receiver. The slight loss of concentration may be partly offset by enhanced absorption of radiation by the receiver, resulting from the cavity effect.

  16. Frequency of intron loss correlates with processed pseudogene abundance: a novel strategy to test the reverse transcriptase model of intron loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tao; Niu, Deng-Ke

    2013-03-05

    Although intron loss in evolution has been described, the mechanism involved is still unclear. Three models have been proposed, the reverse transcriptase (RT) model, genomic deletion model and double-strand-break repair model. The RT model, also termed mRNA-mediated intron loss, suggests that cDNA molecules reverse transcribed from spliced mRNA recombine with genomic DNA causing intron loss. Many studies have attempted to test this model based on its predictions, such as simultaneous loss of adjacent introns, 3'-side bias of intron loss, and germline expression of intron-lost genes. Evidence either supporting or opposing the model has been reported. The mechanism of intron loss proposed in the RT model shares the process of reverse transcription with the formation of processed pseudogenes. If the RT model is correct, genes that have produced more processed pseudogenes are more likely to undergo intron loss. In the present study, we observed that the frequency of intron loss is correlated with processed pseudogene abundance by analyzing a new dataset of intron loss obtained in mice and rats. Furthermore, we found that mRNA molecules of intron-lost genes are mostly translated on free cytoplasmic ribosomes, a feature shared by mRNA molecules of the parental genes of processed pseudogenes and long interspersed elements. This feature is likely convenient for intron-lost gene mRNA molecules to be reverse transcribed. Analyses of adjacent intron loss, 3'-side bias of intron loss, and germline expression of intron-lost genes also support the RT model. Compared with previous evidence, the correlation between the abundance of processed pseudogenes and intron loss frequency more directly supports the RT model of intron loss. Exploring such a correlation is a new strategy to test the RT model in organisms with abundant processed pseudogenes.

  17. Multiple splicing defects in an intronic false exon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, H; Chasin, L A

    2000-09-01

    Splice site consensus sequences alone are insufficient to dictate the recognition of real constitutive splice sites within the typically large transcripts of higher eukaryotes, and large numbers of pseudoexons flanked by pseudosplice sites with good matches to the consensus sequences can be easily designated. In an attempt to identify elements that prevent pseudoexon splicing, we have systematically altered known splicing signals, as well as immediately adjacent flanking sequences, of an arbitrarily chosen pseudoexon from intron 1 of the human hprt gene. The substitution of a 5' splice site that perfectly matches the 5' consensus combined with mutation to match the CAG/G sequence of the 3' consensus failed to get this model pseudoexon included as the central exon in a dhfr minigene context. Provision of a real 3' splice site and a consensus 5' splice site and removal of an upstream inhibitory sequence were necessary and sufficient to confer splicing on the pseudoexon. This activated context also supported the splicing of a second pseudoexon sequence containing no apparent enhancer. Thus, both the 5' splice site sequence and the polypyrimidine tract of the pseudoexon are defective despite their good agreement with the consensus. On the other hand, the pseudoexon body did not exert a negative influence on splicing. The introduction into the pseudoexon of a sequence selected for binding to ASF/SF2 or its replacement with beta-globin exon 2 only partially reversed the effect of the upstream negative element and the defective polypyrimidine tract. These results support the idea that exon-bridging enhancers are not a prerequisite for constitutive exon definition and suggest that intrinsically defective splice sites and negative elements play important roles in distinguishing the real splicing signal from the vast number of false splicing signals.

  18. Alteration of introns in a hyaluronan synthase 1 (HAS1 minigene convert Pre-mRNA [corrected] splicing to the aberrant pattern in multiple myeloma (MM: MM patients harbor similar changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitra Kriangkum

    Full Text Available Aberrant pre-mRNA splice variants of hyaluronan synthase 1 (HAS1 have been identified in malignant cells from cancer patients. Bioinformatic analysis suggests that intronic sequence changes can underlie aberrant splicing. Deletions and mutations were introduced into HAS1 minigene constructs to identify regions that can influence aberrant intronic splicing, comparing the splicing pattern in transfectants with that in multiple myeloma (MM patients. Introduced genetic variations in introns 3 and 4 of HAS1 as shown here can promote aberrant splicing of the type detected in malignant cells from MM patients. HAS1Vd is a novel intronic splice variant first identified here. HAS1Vb, an intronic splice variant previously identified in patients, skips exon 4 and utilizes the same intron 4 alternative 3'splice site as HAS1Vd. For transfected constructs with unaltered introns 3 and 4, HAS1Vd transcripts are readily detectable, frequently to the exclusion of HAS1Vb. In contrast, in MM patients, HAS1Vb is more frequent than HAS1Vd. In the HAS1 minigene, combining deletion in intron 4 with mutations in intron 3 leads to a shift from HAS1Vd expression to HAS1Vb expression. The upregulation of aberrant splicing, exemplified here by the expression of HAS1Vb, is shown here to be influenced by multiple genetic changes in intronic sequences. For HAS1Vb, this includes enhanced exon 4 skipping and increased usage of alternative 3' splice sites. Thus, the combination of introduced mutations in HAS1 intron3 with introduced deletions in HAS1 intron 4 promoted a shift to an aberrant splicing pattern previously shown to be clinically significant. Most MM patients harbor genetic variations in intron 4, and as shown here, nearly half harbor recurrent mutations in HAS1 intron 3. Our work suggests that aberrant intronic HAS1 splicing in MM patients may rely on intronic HAS1 deletions and mutations that are frequent in MM patients but absent from healthy donors.

  19. Enhanced Sleep Mode MAC Control for EPON

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Ying; Dittmann, Lars

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces sleep mode operations for EPON. New MAC control functions are proposed to schedule sleep periods. Traffic profiles are considered to optimize energy efficiency and network performances. Simulation results are analyzed in OPNET modeler.......This paper introduces sleep mode operations for EPON. New MAC control functions are proposed to schedule sleep periods. Traffic profiles are considered to optimize energy efficiency and network performances. Simulation results are analyzed in OPNET modeler....

  20. Newly evolved introns in human retrogenes provide novel insights into their evolutionary roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Li-Fang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retrogenes generally do not contain introns. However, in some instances, retrogenes may recruit internal exonic sequences as introns, which is known as intronization. A retrogene that undergoes intronization is a good model with which to investigate the origin of introns. Nevertheless, previously, only two cases in vertebrates have been reported. Results In this study, we systematically screened the human (Homo sapiens genome for retrogenes that evolved introns and analyzed their patterns in structure, expression and origin. In total, we identified nine intron-containing retrogenes. Alignment of pairs of retrogenes and their parents indicated that, in addition to intronization (five cases, retrogenes also may have gained introns by insertion of external sequences into the genes (one case or reversal of the orientation of transcription (three cases. Interestingly, many intronizations were promoted not by base substitutions but by cryptic splice sites, which were silent in the parental genes but active in the retrogenes. We also observed that the majority of introns generated by intronization did not involve frameshifts. Conclusions Intron gains in retrogenes are not as rare as previously thought. Furthermore, diverse mechanisms may lead to intron creation in retrogenes. The activation of cryptic splice sites in the intronization of retrogenes may be triggered by the change of gene structure after retroposition. A high percentage of non-frameshift introns in retrogenes may be because non-frameshift introns do not dramatically affect host proteins. Introns generated by intronization in human retrogenes are generally young, which is consistent with previous findings for Caenorhabditis elegans. Our results provide novel insights into the evolutionary role of introns.

  1. Using Servers to Enhance Control System Capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickley, M.; Bowling, B. A.; Bryan, D. A.; Zeijts, J. van; White, K. S.; Witherspoon, S.

    1999-01-01

    Many traditional control systems include a distributed collection of front end machines to control hardware. Backend tools are used to view, modify, and record the signals generated by these front end machines. Software servers, which are a middleware layer between the front and back ends, can improve a control system in several ways. Servers can enable on-line processing of raw data, and consolidation of functionality. It many cases data retrieved from the front end must be processed in order to convert the raw data into useful information. These calculations are often redundantly performance by different programs, frequently offline. Servers can monitor the raw data and rapidly perform calculations, producing new signals which can be treated like any other control system signal, and can be used by any back end application. Algorithms can be incorporated to actively modify signal values in the control system based upon changes of other signals, essentially producing feedback in a control system. Servers thus increase the flexibility of a control system. Lastly, servers running on inexpensive UNIXworkstations can relay or cache frequently needed information, reducing the load on front end hardware by functioning as concentrators. Rather than many back end tools connecting directly to the front end machines, increasing the work load of these machines, they instead connect to the server. Servers like those discussed above have been used successfully at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility to provide functionality such as beam steering, fault monitoring, storage of machine parameters, and on-line data processing. The authors discuss the potential uses of such servers, and share the results of work performed to date

  2. An intronic deletion in the PROM1 gene leads to autosomal recessive cone-rod dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidinger, Osnat; Leibu, Rina; Newman, Hadas; Rizel, Leah; Perlman, Ido; Ben-Yosef, Tamar

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the genetic basis for autosomal recessive cone-rod dystrophy (CRD) in a consanguineous Israeli Jewish family. Patients underwent a detailed ophthalmic evaluation, including eye examination, visual field testing, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and electrophysiological tests, electroretinography (ERG) and visual evoked potential (VEP). Genome-wide homozygosity mapping using a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array was performed to identify homozygous regions shared among two of the affected individuals. Mutation screening of the underlying gene was performed with direct sequencing. In silico and in vitro analyses were used to predict the effect of the identified mutation on splicing. The affected family members are three siblings who have various degrees of progressive visual deterioration, glare, color vision abnormalities, and night vision difficulties. Visual field tests revealed central scotomas of different extension. Cone and rod ERG responses were reduced, with cones more severely affected. Homozygosity mapping revealed several homozygous intervals shared among two of the affected individuals. One included the PROM1 gene. Sequence analysis of the 26 coding exons of PROM1 in one affected individual revealed no mutations in the coding sequence or in intronic splice sites. However, in intron 21, proximate to the intron-exon junction, we observed a homozygous 10 bp deletion between positions -26 and -17 (c.2281-26_-17del). The deletion was linked to a known SNP, c.2281-6C>G. The deletion cosegregated with the disease in the family, and was not detected in public databases or in 101 ethnically-matched control individuals. In silico analysis predicted that this deletion would lead to altered intron 21 splicing. Bioinformatic analysis predicted that a recognition site for the SRSF2 splicing factor is located within the deleted sequence. The in vitro splicing assay demonstrated that c.2281-26_-17del leads to complete exon 22 skipping. A novel

  3. Developing a set of strong intronic promoters for robust metabolic engineering in oleaginous Rhodotorula (Rhodosporidium) yeast species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanbin; Yap, Sihui Amy; Koh, Chong Mei John; Ji, Lianghui

    2016-11-25

    Red yeast species in the Rhodotorula/Rhodosporidium genus are outstanding producers of triacylglyceride and cell biomass. Metabolic engineering is expected to further enhance the productivity and versatility of these hosts for the production of biobased chemicals and fuels. Promoters with strong activity during oil-accumulation stage are critical tools for metabolic engineering of these oleaginous yeasts. The upstream DNA sequences of 6 genes involved in lipid biosynthesis or accumulation in Rhodotorula toruloides were studied by luciferase reporter assay. The promoter of perilipin/lipid droplet protein 1 gene (LDP1) displayed much stronger activity (4-11 folds) than that of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (GPD1), one of the strongest promoters known in yeasts. Depending on the stage of cultivation, promoter of acetyl-CoA carboxylase gene (ACC1) and fatty acid synthase β subunit gene (FAS1) exhibited intermediate strength, displaying 50-160 and 20-90% levels of GPD1 promoter, respectively. Interestingly, introns significantly modulated promoter strength at high frequency. The incorporation of intron 1 and 2 of LDP1 (LDP1in promoter) enhanced its promoter activity by 1.6-3.0 folds. Similarly, the strength of ACC1 promoter was enhanced by 1.5-3.2 folds if containing intron 1. The intron 1 sequences of ACL1 and FAS1 also played significant regulatory roles. When driven by the intronic promoters of ACC1 and LDP1 (ACC1in and LDP1in promoter, respectively), the reporter gene expression were up-regulated by nitrogen starvation, independent of de novo oil biosynthesis and accumulation. As a proof of principle, overexpression of the endogenous acyl-CoA-dependent diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 gene (DGA1) by LDP1in promoter was significantly more efficient than GPD1 promoter in enhancing lipid accumulation. Intronic sequences play an important role in regulating gene expression in R. toruloides. Three intronic promoters, LDP1in, ACC1in and FAS1in, are

  4. Significant association of interleukin-4 gene intron 3 VNTR polymorphism with susceptibility to knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigit, Serbulent; Inanir, Ahmet; Tekcan, Akın; Tural, Ercan; Ozturk, Gokhan Tuna; Kismali, Gorkem; Karakus, Nevin

    2014-03-01

    Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is a strong chondroprotective cytokine and polymorphisms within this gene may be a risk factor for osteoarthritis (OA). We aimed to investigate genotype and allele frequencies of IL-4 gene intron 3 variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism in patients with knee OA in a Turkish population. The study included 202 patients with knee OA and 180 healthy controls. Genomic DNA was isolated and IL-4 gene 70 bp VNTR polymorphism determined by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with specific primers followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Our result show that there was statistically significant difference between knee OA patients and control group with respect to IL-4 genotype distribution and allele frequencies (p=0.000, OR: 0.20, 95% CI: 0.10-0.41, OR: 0.22, 95% CI: 0.12-0.42, respectively). Our findings suggest that there is an association of IL-4 gene intron 3 VNTR polymorphism with susceptibility of a person for development of knee OA. As a result, IL-4 gene intron 3 VNTR polymorphism could be a genetic marker in OA in a Turkish study population. This is the first association study that evaluates the associations between IL-4 gene VNTR polymorphism and knee OA. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Host Factors Influencing the Retrohoming Pathway of Group II Intron RmInt1, Which Has an Intron-Encoded Protein Naturally Devoid of Endonuclease Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Nisa-Martínez

    Full Text Available Bacterial group II introns are self-splicing catalytic RNAs and mobile retroelements that have an open reading frame encoding an intron-encoded protein (IEP with reverse transcriptase (RT and RNA splicing or maturase activity. Some IEPs carry a DNA endonuclease (En domain, which is required to cleave the bottom strand downstream from the intron-insertion site for target DNA-primed reverse transcription (TPRT of the inserted intron RNA. Host factors complete the insertion of the intron. By contrast, the major retrohoming pathway of introns with IEPs naturally lacking endonuclease activity, like the Sinorhizobium meliloti intron RmInt1, is thought to involve insertion of the intron RNA into the template for lagging strand DNA synthesis ahead of the replication fork, with possible use of the nascent strand to prime reverse transcription of the intron RNA. The host factors influencing the retrohoming pathway of such introns have not yet been described. Here, we identify key candidates likely to be involved in early and late steps of RmInt1 retrohoming. Some of these host factors are common to En+ group II intron retrohoming, but some have different functions. Our results also suggest that the retrohoming process of RmInt1 may be less dependent on the intracellular free Mg2+ concentration than those of other group II introns.

  6. Introns in the genome of bacteriophage T4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gott, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    RNA from T4-infected cells yields multiple end-labeled species when incubated with [α- 32 P]GTP under self-splicing conditions. One of these corresponds to the previously characterized intron from the T4 td gene and, as shown in this work, the others represent additional group I introns in T4. Two loci distinct from the td gene were found to hybridize to the mixed GTP-labeled T4 RNA probe. These were mapped to the unlinked genes nrdB and sunY. Cloned DNA from the nrdB region that contained the intron was shown to generate characteristic group I splice products with RNA synthesized in vivo or in vitro. The splice junction of the nrdB gene was determined and the nature of the RNA reaction products characterized. In vivo expression of the nrdB gene and the open reading frame within the intron was studied using in-frame lacZ fusions and primer extension analyses. The data suggest that expression of the intron open reading frame is highly regulated during T4 infection. Possible regulatory mechanisms are discussed

  7. Intronic L1 retrotransposons and nested genes cause transcriptional interference by inducing intron retention, exonization and cryptic polyadenylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristel Kaer

    Full Text Available Transcriptional interference has been recently recognized as an unexpectedly complex and mostly negative regulation of genes. Despite a relatively few studies that emerged in recent years, it has been demonstrated that a readthrough transcription derived from one gene can influence the transcription of another overlapping or nested gene. However, the molecular effects resulting from this interaction are largely unknown.Using in silico chromosome walking, we searched for prematurely terminated transcripts bearing signatures of intron retention or exonization of intronic sequence at their 3' ends upstream to human L1 retrotransposons, protein-coding and noncoding nested genes. We demonstrate that transcriptional interference induced by intronic L1s (or other repeated DNAs and nested genes could be characterized by intron retention, forced exonization and cryptic polyadenylation. These molecular effects were revealed from the analysis of endogenous transcripts derived from different cell lines and tissues and confirmed by the expression of three minigenes in cell culture. While intron retention and exonization were comparably observed in introns upstream to L1s, forced exonization was preferentially detected in nested genes. Transcriptional interference induced by L1 or nested genes was dependent on the presence or absence of cryptic splice sites, affected the inclusion or exclusion of the upstream exon and the use of cryptic polyadenylation signals.Our results suggest that transcriptional interference induced by intronic L1s and nested genes could influence the transcription of the large number of genes in normal as well as in tumor tissues. Therefore, this type of interference could have a major impact on the regulation of the host gene expression.

  8. Enhancing Safety at Airline Operations Control Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Řasa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years a new term of Safety Management System (SMS has been introduced into aviation legislation. This system is being adopted by airline operators. One of the groundbased actors of everyday operations is Operations Control Centre (OCC. The goal of this article has been to identify and assess risks and dangers which occur at OCC and create a template for OCC implementation into SMS.

  9. Controlling enhanced absorption in graphene metamaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qihui; Liu, Peiguo; Bian, Li-an; Liu, Hanqing; Liu, Chenxi; Chen, Genghui

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a controllable terahertz (THz) metamaterial absorber (MA) is designed with the circuit analog method. Taking advantage of the patterned graphene on SiO2/doped Si/polyimide substrates with a gold reflector, the controllable MA achieves perfect absorption at 0.75 THz. The chemical potential of graphene is regulated by controlling the voltage between graphene and doped Si layers. As the chemical potential varies from 0 eV to 0.5 eV, the MA is changed from reflection (0.99). The distributions of surface current and electric field are illustrated to analyze the resonant characteristic of patterned graphene. According to the resonant characteristic, we introduce patterned graphene elements with different dimension in a unit cell, which effectively extends the effective absorption bandwidth (absorption > 0 . 9) from 0.67-0.93 THz to 0.52-0.95 THz. Moreover, replacing part of the graphene structure with gold, the switchable MA is turned into a frequency tunable MA. The absorption peak moves from 0.62 THz to 0.92 THz as the chemical potential increases from 0.1 eV to 0.5 eV. These designs overcome limitation of traditional absorbers and exhibit great potentials in many practical applications.

  10. Method for enhanced control of welding processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheaffer, Donald A.; Renzi, Ronald F.; Tung, David M.; Schroder, Kevin

    2000-01-01

    Method and system for producing high quality welds in welding processes, in general, and gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding, in particular by controlling weld penetration. Light emitted from a weld pool is collected from the backside of a workpiece by optical means during welding and transmitted to a digital video camera for further processing, after the emitted light is first passed through a short wavelength pass filter to remove infrared radiation. By filtering out the infrared component of the light emitted from the backside weld pool image, the present invention provides for the accurate determination of the weld pool boundary. Data from the digital camera is fed to an imaging board which focuses on a 100.times.100 pixel portion of the image. The board performs a thresholding operation and provides this information to a digital signal processor to compute the backside weld pool dimensions and area. This information is used by a control system, in a dynamic feedback mode, to automatically adjust appropriate parameters of a welding system, such as the welding current, to control weld penetration and thus, create a uniform weld bead and high quality weld.

  11. The association between Interleukin (IL)-4 gene intron 3 VNTR polymorphism and alopecia areata (AA) in Turkish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Göknur; Karakus, Nevin; Baş, Yalçın; Takçı, Zennure; Ozuğuz, Pınar; Ateş, Omer; Yigit, Serbulent

    2013-09-25

    Alopecia areata (AA) is hypothesized to be an organ-specific autoimmune disease of hair follicles mediated by T cells. As immunological and genetic factors have been implicated in the pathogenesis of AA, the purpose of the present study was to investigate possible associations between the functional Interleukin (IL)-4 gene intron 3 VNTR polymorphism and AA susceptibility and disease progression in Turkish population. The study group consisted of 116 unrelated patients with AA and 125 unrelated healthy controls. Genomic DNA was isolated and IL-4 gene 70 bp VNTR polymorphism determined by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with specific primers. No association was observed between AA patients and controls according to genotype distribution (p=0.051). The allele distribution of IL-4 gene intron 3 VNTR polymorphism was statistically different between AA patients and control group (p=0.026). The frequency of P1 allele in patients was significantly higher than that in the control group. When the P2P2 genotype was compared with P1P2+P1P1 genotypes, a statistically significant difference was observed between patients and controls (p=0.036). Intron 3 VNTR polymorphism in the IL-4 gene was found to be associated with AA susceptibility in Turkish population. The results suggest that IL-4 VNTR polymorphism in the intron 3 region may be a risk factor for the development of AA among Turkish population. This is the first to report that intron 3 VNTR polymorphism in the IL-4 gene is associated with AA susceptibility. © 2013.

  12. Naturally occuring nucleosome positioning signals in human exons and introns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldi, Pierre; Brunak, Søren; Chauvin, Yves

    1996-01-01

    We describe the structural implications of a periodic pattern found in human exons and introns by hidden Markov models. We show that exons (besides the reading frame) have a specific sequential structure in the form of a pattern with triplet consensus non-T(A/T)G, and a minimal periodicity of rou...

  13. Identification of novel intronic BRCA1 variants of uncertain ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    in a Thai hereditary breast cancer family. Adisorn Ratanaphan, Pornpen Panomwan, Bhutorn Canyuk and Tanaphon Maipang. J. Genet. 90, 327–331. Table 1. Oligodeoxyribonucleotide primers used for PCR amplification of BRCA1 exon–intron 7 boundary sequences. Primers. Nucleotide position. Primer sequence (5 –3 ).

  14. Frequent gain and loss of introns in fungal cytochrome b genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Fen Yin

    Full Text Available In this study, all available cytochrome b (Cyt b genes from the GOBASE database were compiled and the evolutionary dynamics of the Cyt b gene introns was assessed. Cyt b gene introns were frequently present in the fungal kingdom and some lower plants, but generally absent or rare in Chromista, Protozoa, and Animalia. Fungal Cyt b introns were found at 35 positions in Cyt b genes and the number of introns varied at individual positions from a single representative to 32 different introns at position 131, showing a wide and patchy distribution. Many homologous introns were present at the same position in distantly related species but absent in closely related species, suggesting that introns of the Cyt b genes were frequently lost. On the other hand, highly similar intron sequences were observed in some distantly related species rather than in closely related species, suggesting that these introns were gained independently, likely through lateral transfers. The intron loss-and-gain events could be mediated by transpositions that might have occurred between nuclear and mitochondria. Southern hybridization analysis confirmed that some introns contained repetitive sequences and might be transposable elements. An intron gain in Botryotinia fuckeliana prevented the development of QoI fungicide resistance, suggesting that intron loss-and-gain events were not necessarily beneficial to their host organisms.

  15. ADVANCED COMPRESSOR ENGINE CONTROLS TO ENHANCE OPERATION, RELIABILITY AND INTEGRITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary D. Bourn; Jess W. Gingrich; Jack A. Smith

    2004-03-01

    This document is the final report for the ''Advanced Compressor Engine Controls to Enhance Operation, Reliability, and Integrity'' project. SwRI conducted this project for DOE in conjunction with Cooper Compression, under DOE contract number DE-FC26-03NT41859. This report addresses an investigation of engine controls for integral compressor engines and the development of control strategies that implement closed-loop NOX emissions feedback.

  16. Color and Contrast Enhancement by Controlled Piecewise Affine Histogram Equalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose-Luis Lisani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simple contrast enhancement algorithm based on histogram equalization (HE. The proposed algorithm performs a piecewise affine transform of the intensity levels of a digital image such that the new cumulative distribution function will be approximately uniform (as with HE, but where the stretching of the range is locally controlled to avoid brutal noise enhancement. We call this algorithm Piecewise Affine Equalization (PAE. Several experiments show that, in general, the new algorithm improves HE results.

  17. Enhanced pid vs model predictive control applied to bldc motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaya, M. S.; Muhammad, Auwal; Aliyu Abdulkadir, Rabiu; Salim, S. N. S.; Madugu, I. S.; Tijjani, Aminu; Aminu Yusuf, Lukman; Dauda Umar, Ibrahim; Khairi, M. T. M.

    2018-01-01

    BrushLess Direct Current (BLDC) motor is a multivariable and highly complex nonlinear system. Variation of internal parameter values with environment or reference signal increases the difficulty in controlling the BLDC effectively. Advanced control strategies (like model predictive control) often have to be integrated to satisfy the control desires. Enhancing or proper tuning of a conventional algorithm results in achieving the desired performance. This paper presents a performance comparison of Enhanced PID and Model Predictive Control (MPC) applied to brushless direct current motor. The simulation results demonstrated that the PSO-PID is slightly better than the PID and MPC in tracking the trajectory of the reference signal. The proposed scheme could be useful algorithms for the system.

  18. Power system stability enhancement using facts controllers: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abido, M. A

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, power demand has increased substantially while the expansion of power generation and transmission has been severely limited due to limited resources and environmental restrictions. As a consequence, some transmission lines are heavily loaded and the system stability becomes a power transfer-limiting factor. Flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) controllers have been mainly used for solving various power system steady state control problems. However, recent studies reveal that FACTS controllers could be employed to enhance power system stability in addition to their main function of power flow control. The literature shows an increasing interest in this subject for the last two decades, where the enhancement of system stability using FACTS controllers has been extensively investigated. This paper presents a comprehensive review on the research and developments in the power system stability enhancement using FACTS damping controllers. Several technical issues related to FACTS installations have been highlighted and performance comparison of different FACTS controllers has been discussed. In addition, some of the utility experience, real-world installations, and semiconductor technology development have been reviewed and summarized. Applications of FACTS to other power system studies have also been discussed. About two hundred twenty seven research publications have been classified and appended for a quick reference. (author)

  19. Molecular characterization of a new member of the lariat capping twin-ribozyme introns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yunjia; Nielsen, Henrik; Masquida, Benoît

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Twin-ribozyme introns represent a complex class of mobile group I introns that harbour a lariat capping (LC) ribozyme and a homing endonuclease gene embedded in a conventional self-splicing group I ribozyme (GIR2). Twin-ribozyme introns have so far been confined to nucleolar DNA in Na...

  20. Remarkable sequence conservation of the last intron in the PKD1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodova, Marianna; Islam, M Rafiq; Peterson, Kenneth R; Calvet, James P

    2003-10-01

    The last intron of the PKD1 gene (intron 45) was found to have exceptionally high sequence conservation across four mammalian species: human, mouse, rat, and dog. This conservation did not extend to the comparable intron in pufferfish. Pairwise comparisons for intron 45 showed 91% identity (human vs. dog) to 100% identity (mouse vs. rat) for an average for all four species of 94% identity. In contrast, introns 43 and 44 of the PKD1 gene had average pairwise identities of 57% and 54%, and exons 43, 44, and 45 and the coding region of exon 46 had average pairwise identities of 80%, 84%, 82%, and 80%. Intron 45 is 90 to 95 bp in length, with the major region of sequence divergence being in a central 4-bp to 9-bp variable region. RNA secondary structure analysis of intron 45 predicts a branching stem-loop structure in which the central variable region lies in one loop and the putative branch point sequence lies in another loop, suggesting that the intron adopts a specific stem-loop structure that may be important for its removal. Although intron 45 appears to conform to the class of small, G-triplet-containing introns that are spliced by a mechanism utilizing intron definition, its high sequence conservation may be a reflection of constraints imposed by a unique mechanism that coordinates splicing of this last PKD1 intron with polyadenylation.

  1. A site-specific endonuclease encoded by a typical archaeal intron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Jacob; Garrett, Roger Antony; Belfort, Malene

    1993-01-01

    The protein encoded by the archaeal intron in the 23S rRNA gene of the hyperthermophile Desulfurococcus mobilis is a double-strand DNase that, like group I intron homing endonucleases, is capable of cleaving an intronless allele of the gene. This enzyme, I-Dmo I, is unusual among the intron...

  2. Enhancing Raman signals with an interferometrically controlled AFM tip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oron-Carl, Matti; Krupke, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the upgrade of a commercial confocal Raman microscope into a tip-enhanced Raman microscope/spectroscopy system (TERS) by integrating an interferometrically controlled atomic force microscope into the base of an existing upright microscope to provide near-field detection and thus signal enhancement. The feasibility of the system is demonstrated by measuring the Raman near-field enhancement on thin PEDOT:PSS films and on carbon nanotubes within a device geometry. An enhancement factor of 2–3 and of 5–6 is observed, respectively. Moreover, on a nanotube device we show local conductivity measurement and its correlation to Raman and topography recordings. Upgrading an existing upright confocal Raman microscope in the demonstrated way is significantly cheaper than purchasing a complete commercial TERS system. (paper)

  3. Financial Control Measures and the Enhancement of Administrative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was focused on the determination of the relationship between financial control measures and enhancement of administrative effectiveness of secondary school Principals in Akwa Ibom State. The choice of this topic was necessitated by the fact that despite the continuous personnel auditing conducted in the ...

  4. Guilt enhances the sense of control and drives risky judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouchaki, Maryam; Oveis, Christopher; Gino, Francesca

    2014-12-01

    In the present studies, we investigate the hypothesis that guilt influences risk taking by enhancing one's sense of control. Across multiple inductions of guilt, we demonstrate that experimentally induced guilt enhances optimism about risks for the self (Study 1), preferences for gambles versus guaranteed payoffs (Studies 2, 4, and 6), and the likelihood that one will engage in risk-taking behaviors (Study 5). In addition, we demonstrate that guilt enhances the sense of control over uncontrollable events, an illusory control (Studies 3, 4, and 5), and found that a model with illusory control as a mediator is consistent with the data (Studies 5 and 6). We also found that a model with feelings of guilt as a mediator but not generalized negative affect fits the data (Study 4). Finally, we examined the relative explanatory power of different appraisals and found that appraisals of illusory control best explain the influence of guilt on risk taking (Study 6). These results provide the first empirical demonstration of the influence of guilt on sense of control and risk taking, extend previous theorizing on guilt, and more generally contribute to the understanding of how specific emotions influence cognition and behavior. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Three distinct modes of intron dynamics in the evolution of eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmel, Liran; Wolf, Yuri I; Rogozin, Igor B; Koonin, Eugene V

    2007-07-01

    Several contrasting scenarios have been proposed for the origin and evolution of spliceosomal introns, a hallmark of eukaryotic genes. A comprehensive probabilistic model to obtain a definitive reconstruction of intron evolution was developed and applied to 391 sets of conserved genes from 19 eukaryotic species. It is inferred that a relatively high intron density was reached early, i.e., the last common ancestor of eukaryotes contained >2.15 introns/kilobase, and the last common ancestor of multicellular life forms harbored approximately 3.4 introns/kilobase, a greater intron density than in most of the extant fungi and in some animals. The rates of intron gain and intron loss appear to have been dropping during the last approximately 1.3 billion years, with the decline in the gain rate being much steeper. Eukaryotic lineages exhibit three distinct modes of evolution of the intron-exon structure. The primary, balanced mode, apparently, operates in all lineages. In this mode, intron gain and loss are strongly and positively correlated, in contrast to previous reports on inverse correlation between these processes. The second mode involves an elevated rate of intron loss and is prevalent in several lineages, such as fungi and insects. The third mode, characterized by elevated rate of intron gain, is seen only in deep branches of the tree, indicating that bursts of intron invasion occurred at key points in eukaryotic evolution, such as the origin of animals. Intron dynamics could depend on multiple mechanisms, and in the balanced mode, gain and loss of introns might share common mechanistic features.

  6. Correlation of PTPN11 polymorphism at intron 3 with gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li ZHANG

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the correlation of protein-tyrosine-phosphatase nonreceptor-type 11(PTPN11 polymorphism at intron 3 with gastric cancer in Chinese population,and the feasibility and accuracy of employing mastrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrogram(MALDI-TOF-MS in genotyping of this SNP.Methods Two hundred and forty-seven patients with gastric cancer,212 cancer-free patients and 160 cord blood samples were enrolled in present study.Genotypes of PTPN11 G/A polymorphism at intron 3 were determined by MALDI-TOF-MS analysis,and direct sequencing of PCR products with 20 samples of the gene locus was done for checking the accuracy of MALDI-TOF-MS.Histological examination,Helicobacter pylori culture,rapid urease test,serum anti-H.pylori antibodies(ELISA and urease colloidal gold test were performed to evaluate H.pylori infection.Results Direct sequencing of 20 random selected samples were well consistent with the MALDI-TOF-MS results.The rates of H.pylori infection were 73.68% in gastric cancer patients and 75.47% in cancer-free patients,implying no significant difference between the two groups.The distributions of genotypes were in Hardy Weinberg equilibrium in both gastric cancer patients and controls.There were no significant differences in the genotype frequencies between the 2 groups(P>0.05.Compared with the GG genotype,GA+AA genotype could not influence the risk of gastric cancer.When stratified for status,PTPN11 polymorphism was not associated with age,gender and H.pylori infection states in both cancer patients and controls.Conclusion It seems that PTPN11 G/A polymorphism at intron 3 has no affection on the risk of gastric cancer in Chinese population.

  7. PULSE MODULATION POWER AMPLIFIER WITH ENHANCED CASCADE CONTROL METHOD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    a single local feedback path A (7) with a lowpass characteristic and local forward blocks B¿1? or B (3, 4). The leads to a much improved system with a very low sensitivity to errors in the switching power stage. In the second preferred embodiment of the invention the control structure is extended...... and feedback path A to determine stable self-oscillating conditions. An implemented 250W example MECC digital power amplifier has proven superior performance in terms of audio performance (0.005 % distortion, 115 dB dynamic range) and efficiency (92 %).......A digital switching power amplifier with Multivariable Enhanced Cascade Controlled (MECC) includes a modulator, a switching power stage and a low pass filter. In the first preferred embodiment an enhanced cascade control structure local to the switching power stage is added, characterised by having...

  8. Design and control of a linearity-enhanced SMA actuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Hyung-Min; Tak, Chul-Gon; Lee, Yun-Jung; Kang, Seok-Won; Nam, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Jae-Il

    2010-01-01

    For the accurate and dexterous operation of mechanical systems, continuous-type actuation, rather than on/off-type actuation, is an indispensable function. However, conventional Ti-Ni alloys present difficulties for continuous positioning control, due to their hysteretic and abruptly changing relationship between strain and temperature. Therefore, this paper proposes a new linearity-enhanced SMA actuator using a temperature-gradient annealed alloy and an inverse hysteresis controller. In comparative experiments, the proposed controller and alloy exhibit superior performance for continuous actuation.

  9. Video game training enhances cognitive control in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguera, J A; Boccanfuso, J; Rintoul, J L; Al-Hashimi, O; Faraji, F; Janowich, J; Kong, E; Larraburo, Y; Rolle, C; Johnston, E; Gazzaley, A

    2013-09-05

    Cognitive control is defined by a set of neural processes that allow us to interact with our complex environment in a goal-directed manner. Humans regularly challenge these control processes when attempting to simultaneously accomplish multiple goals (multitasking), generating interference as the result of fundamental information processing limitations. It is clear that multitasking behaviour has become ubiquitous in today's technologically dense world, and substantial evidence has accrued regarding multitasking difficulties and cognitive control deficits in our ageing population. Here we show that multitasking performance, as assessed with a custom-designed three-dimensional video game (NeuroRacer), exhibits a linear age-related decline from 20 to 79 years of age. By playing an adaptive version of NeuroRacer in multitasking training mode, older adults (60 to 85 years old) reduced multitasking costs compared to both an active control group and a no-contact control group, attaining levels beyond those achieved by untrained 20-year-old participants, with gains persisting for 6 months. Furthermore, age-related deficits in neural signatures of cognitive control, as measured with electroencephalography, were remediated by multitasking training (enhanced midline frontal theta power and frontal-posterior theta coherence). Critically, this training resulted in performance benefits that extended to untrained cognitive control abilities (enhanced sustained attention and working memory), with an increase in midline frontal theta power predicting the training-induced boost in sustained attention and preservation of multitasking improvement 6 months later. These findings highlight the robust plasticity of the prefrontal cognitive control system in the ageing brain, and provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, of how a custom-designed video game can be used to assess cognitive abilities across the lifespan, evaluate underlying neural mechanisms, and serve as a powerful tool

  10. Localized Retroprocessing as a Model of Intron Loss in the Plant Mitochondrial Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca, Argelia; Ross, T Gregory; Graham, Sean W; Barrett, Craig F; Davis, Jerrold I; Seberg, Ole; Petersen, Gitte

    2016-08-03

    Loss of introns in plant mitochondrial genes is commonly explained by retroprocessing. Under this model, an mRNA is reverse transcribed and integrated back into the genome, simultaneously affecting the contents of introns and edited sites. To evaluate the extent to which retroprocessing explains intron loss, we analyzed patterns of intron content and predicted RNA editing for whole mitochondrial genomes of 30 species in the monocot order Alismatales. In this group, we found an unusually high degree of variation in the intron content, even expanding the hitherto known variation among angiosperms. Some species have lost some two-third of the cis-spliced introns. We found a strong correlation between intron content and editing frequency, and detected 27 events in which intron loss is consistent with the presence of nucleotides in an edited state, supporting retroprocessing. However, we also detected seven cases of intron loss not readily being explained by retroprocession. Our analyses are also not consistent with the entire length of a fully processed cDNA copy being integrated into the genome, but instead indicate that retroprocessing usually occurs for only part of the gene. In some cases, several rounds of retroprocessing may explain intron loss in genes completely devoid of introns. A number of taxa retroprocessing seem to be very common and a possibly ongoing process. It affects the entire mitochondrial genome. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  11. Lidar-Enhanced Wind Turbine Control: Past, Present, and Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholbrock, Andrew; Fleming, Paul; Schlipf, David; Wright, Alan; Johnson, Kathryn; Wang, Na

    2016-08-01

    The main challenges in harvesting energy from the wind arise from the unknown incoming turbulent wind field. Balancing the competing interests of reduction in structural loads and increasing energy production is the goal of a wind turbine controller to reduce the cost of producing wind energy. Conventional wind turbines use feedback methods to optimize these goals, reacting to wind disturbances after they have already impacted the wind turbine. Lidar sensors offer a means to provide additional inputs to a wind turbine controller, enabling new techniques to improve control methods, allowing a controller to actuate a wind turbine in anticipation of an incoming wind disturbance. This paper will look at the development of lidar-enhanced controls and how they have been used for various turbine load reductions with pitch actuation, as well as increased energy production with improved yaw control. Ongoing work will also be discussed to show that combining pitch and torque control using feedforward nonlinear model predictive control can lead to both reduced loads and increased energy production. Future work is also proposed on extending individual wind turbine controls to the wind plant level and determining how lidars can be used for control methods to further lower the cost of wind energy by minimizing wake impacts in a wind farm.

  12. Hybrid photovoltaic system control for enhancing sustainable energy. Economic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leva, Sonia; Roscia, Mariacristina; Zaninelli, Dario

    2005-01-01

    The paper introduces hybrid photovoltaic/diesel generation systems for supplying remote power plant taking into account the enhancement of sustainable energy on the economic point of view. In particular, a new monitoring and control device is presented in order to carry out the optimum energy flows and a cost evaluation is performed on a real plant showing the effect and weight of the economical sustainability and economical saving. (authors)

  13. Enhanced Maritime Safety through Diagnosis and Fault Tolerant Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, Mogens

    2001-01-01

    Faults in steering, navigation instruments or propulsion machinery are serious on a marine vessel since the consequence could be loss of maneuvering ability, and imply risk of damage to vessel personnel or environment. Early diagnosis and accomodation of faults could enhance safety. Fault...... of properties of a falty system; means to determine remedial actions. The paper illustrates the techniques by two marine examples, sensor fusion for automatic steering and control of the main engine....

  14. Optimization of nonlinear controller with an enhanced biogeography approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Salem

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to the optimization of nonlinear controllers basing of an enhanced Biogeography Based Optimization (BBO approach. Indeed, The BBO is combined to a predator and prey model where several predators are used with introduction of a modified migration operator to increase the diversification along the optimization process so as to avoid local optima and reach the optimal solution quickly. The proposed approach is used in tuning the gains of PID controller for nonlinear systems. Simulations are carried out over a Mass spring damper and an inverted pendulum and has given remarkable results when compared to genetic algorithm and BBO.

  15. Regulation of expression of two LY-6 family genes by intron retention and transcription induced chimerism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallya Meera

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regulation of the expression of particular genes can rely on mechanisms that are different from classical transcriptional and translational control. The LY6G5B and LY6G6D genes encode LY-6 domain proteins, whose expression seems to be regulated in an original fashion, consisting of an intron retention event which generates, through an early premature stop codon, a non-coding transcript, preventing expression in most cell lines and tissues. Results The MHC LY-6 non-coding transcripts have shown to be stable and very abundant in the cell, and not subject to Nonsense Mediated Decay (NMD. This retention event appears not to be solely dependent on intron features, because in the case of LY6G5B, when the intron is inserted in the artificial context of a luciferase expression plasmid, it is fully spliced but strongly stabilises the resulting luciferase transcript. In addition, by quantitative PCR we found that the retained and spliced forms are differentially expressed in tissues indicating an active regulation of the non-coding transcript. EST database analysis revealed that these genes have an alternative expression pathway with the formation of Transcription Induced Chimeras (TIC. This data was confirmed by RT-PCR, revealing the presence of different transcripts that would encode the chimeric proteins CSNKβ-LY6G5B and G6F-LY6G6D, in which the LY-6 domain would join to a kinase domain and an Ig-like domain, respectively. Conclusion In conclusion, the LY6G5B and LY6G6D intron-retained transcripts are not subjected to NMD and are more abundant than the properly spliced forms. In addition, these genes form chimeric transcripts with their neighbouring same orientation 5' genes. Of interest is the fact that the 5' genes (CSNKβ or G6F undergo differential splicing only in the context of the chimera (CSNKβ-LY6G5B or G6F-LY6G6C and not on their own.

  16. Use of probabilistic weights to enhance linear regression myoelectric control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lauren H; Kuiken, Todd A; Hargrove, Levi J

    2015-12-01

    Clinically available prostheses for transradial amputees do not allow simultaneous myoelectric control of degrees of freedom (DOFs). Linear regression methods can provide simultaneous myoelectric control, but frequently also result in difficulty with isolating individual DOFs when desired. This study evaluated the potential of using probabilistic estimates of categories of gross prosthesis movement, which are commonly used in classification-based myoelectric control, to enhance linear regression myoelectric control. Gaussian models were fit to electromyogram (EMG) feature distributions for three movement classes at each DOF (no movement, or movement in either direction) and used to weight the output of linear regression models by the probability that the user intended the movement. Eight able-bodied and two transradial amputee subjects worked in a virtual Fitts' law task to evaluate differences in controllability between linear regression and probability-weighted regression for an intramuscular EMG-based three-DOF wrist and hand system. Real-time and offline analyses in able-bodied subjects demonstrated that probability weighting improved performance during single-DOF tasks (p linear regression control. Use of probability weights can improve the ability to isolate individual during linear regression myoelectric control, while maintaining the ability to simultaneously control multiple DOFs.

  17. Cognitive control in auditory working memory is enhanced in musicians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Johanne Pallesen

    Full Text Available Musical competence may confer cognitive advantages that extend beyond processing of familiar musical sounds. Behavioural evidence indicates a general enhancement of both working memory and attention in musicians. It is possible that musicians, due to their training, are better able to maintain focus on task-relevant stimuli, a skill which is crucial to working memory. We measured the blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD activation signal in musicians and non-musicians during working memory of musical sounds to determine the relation among performance, musical competence and generally enhanced cognition. All participants easily distinguished the stimuli. We tested the hypothesis that musicians nonetheless would perform better, and that differential brain activity would mainly be present in cortical areas involved in cognitive control such as the lateral prefrontal cortex. The musicians performed better as reflected in reaction times and error rates. Musicians also had larger BOLD responses than non-musicians in neuronal networks that sustain attention and cognitive control, including regions of the lateral prefrontal cortex, lateral parietal cortex, insula, and putamen in the right hemisphere, and bilaterally in the posterior dorsal prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate gyrus. The relationship between the task performance and the magnitude of the BOLD response was more positive in musicians than in non-musicians, particularly during the most difficult working memory task. The results confirm previous findings that neural activity increases during enhanced working memory performance. The results also suggest that superior working memory task performance in musicians rely on an enhanced ability to exert sustained cognitive control. This cognitive benefit in musicians may be a consequence of focused musical training.

  18. Differential GC Content between Exons and Introns Establishes Distinct Strategies of Splice-Site Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maayan Amit

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available During evolution segments of homeothermic genomes underwent a GC content increase. Our analyses reveal that two exon-intron architectures have evolved from an ancestral state of low GC content exons flanked by short introns with a lower GC content. One group underwent a GC content elevation that abolished the differential exon-intron GC content, with introns remaining short. The other group retained the overall low GC content as well as the differential exon-intron GC content, and is associated with longer introns. We show that differential exon-intron GC content regulates exon inclusion level in this group, in which disease-associated mutations often lead to exon skipping. This group's exons also display higher nucleosome occupancy compared to flanking introns and exons of the other group, thus “marking” them for spliceosomal recognition. Collectively, our results reveal that differential exon-intron GC content is a previously unidentified determinant of exon selection and argue that the two GC content architectures reflect the two mechanisms by which splicing signals are recognized: exon definition and intron definition.

  19. A Bifunctional Intronic Element Regulates the Expression of the Arginine/Lysine Transporter Cat-1 via Mechanisms Involving the Purine-rich Element Binding Protein A (Purα)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Charlie C.; Chiribau, Calin-Bogdan; Majumder, Mithu; Chiang, Cheng-Ming; Wek, Ronald C.; Kelm, Robert J.; Khalili, Kamel; Snider, Martin D.; Hatzoglou, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Expression of the arginine/lysine transporter Cat-1 is highly induced in proliferating and stressed cells via mechanisms that include transcriptional activation. A bifunctional INE (intronic element) within the first intron of the Cat-1 gene was identified and characterized in this study. The INE had high sequence homology to an amino acid response element and was shown to act as a transcriptional enhancer in unstressed cells by binding the transcription factor, purine-rich element binding protein A (Purα). During endoplasmic reticulum stress, binding of Purα to the INE decreased; the element acted as a positive regulator in early stress by binding of the transcription factor ATF4 and as a negative regulator in prolonged stress by binding the stress-induced C/EBP family member, CHOP. We conclude that transcriptional control of the Cat-1 gene is tightly controlled by multiple cis-DNA elements, contributing to regulation of cationic amino acid transport for cell growth and proliferation. In addition, we propose that genes may use stress-response elements such as the INE to support basal expression in the absence of stress. PMID:19720825

  20. High job control enhances vagal recovery in media work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, Harri; Sinisalo, Juha; Ahlberg, Jari; Jahkola, Antti; Partinen, Markku; Hublin, Christer; Savolainen, Aslak

    2009-12-01

    Job strain has been linked to increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. In modern media work, time pressures, rapidly changing situations, computer work and irregular working hours are common. Heart rate variability (HRV) has been widely used to monitor sympathovagal balance. Autonomic imbalance may play an additive role in the development of cardiovascular diseases. To study the effects of work demands and job control on the autonomic nervous system recovery among the media personnel. From the cross-sectional postal survey of the employees in Finnish Broadcasting Company (n = 874), three age cohorts (n = 132) were randomly selected for an analysis of HRV in 24 h electrocardiography recordings. In the middle-aged group, those who experienced high job control had significantly better vagal recovery than those with low or moderate control (P work rather than low demands seemed to enhance autonomic recovery in middle-aged media workers. This was independent of poor health habits such as smoking, physical inactivity or alcohol consumption.

  1. Cognitive control in auditory working memory is enhanced in musicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Karen Johanne; Brattico, Elvira; Bailey, Christopher J

    2010-01-01

    focus on task-relevant stimuli, a skill which is crucial to working memory. We measured the blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) activation signal in musicians and non-musicians during working memory of musical sounds to determine the relation among performance, musical competence and generally...... hemisphere, and bilaterally in the posterior dorsal prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate gyrus. The relationship between the task performance and the magnitude of the BOLD response was more positive in musicians than in non-musicians, particularly during the most difficult working memory task....... The results confirm previous findings that neural activity increases during enhanced working memory performance. The results also suggest that superior working memory task performance in musicians rely on an enhanced ability to exert sustained cognitive control. This cognitive benefit in musicians may...

  2. Motivation enhances control of positive and negative emotional distractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Amy T; Carmel, David; Harper, David; Grimshaw, Gina M

    2018-01-03

    Using cognitive control to ignore distractions is essential for successfully achieving our goals. In emotionally-neutral contexts, motivation can reduce interference from irrelevant stimuli by enhancing cognitive control. However, attention is commonly biased towards emotional stimuli, making them potent distractors. Can motivation aid control of emotional distractions, and does it do so similarly for positive and negative stimuli? Here, we examined how task motivation influences control of distraction from positive, negative, and neutral scenes. Participants completed a simple perceptual task while attempting to ignore task-irrelevant images. One group received monetary reward for fast and accurate task performance; another (control) group did not. Overall, both negative (mutilation) and positive (erotic) images caused greater slowing of responses than neutral images of people, but emotional distraction was reduced with reward. Crucially, despite the different motivational directions associated with negative and positive stimuli, reward reduced negative and positive distraction equally. Our findings suggest that motivation may encourage the use of a sustained proactive control strategy that can effectively reduce the impact of emotional distraction.

  3. Semantically Enhanced Online Configuration of Feedback Control Schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milis, Georgios M; Panayiotou, Christos G; Polycarpou, Marios M

    2018-03-01

    Recent progress toward the realization of the "Internet of Things" has improved the ability of physical and soft/cyber entities to operate effectively within large-scale, heterogeneous systems. It is important that such capacity be accompanied by feedback control capabilities sufficient to ensure that the overall systems behave according to their specifications and meet their functional objectives. To achieve this, such systems require new architectures that facilitate the online deployment, composition, interoperability, and scalability of control system components. Most current control systems lack scalability and interoperability because their design is based on a fixed configuration of specific components, with knowledge of their individual characteristics only implicitly passed through the design. This paper addresses the need for flexibility when replacing components or installing new components, which might occur when an existing component is upgraded or when a new application requires a new component, without the need to readjust or redesign the overall system. A semantically enhanced feedback control architecture is introduced for a class of systems, aimed at accommodating new components into a closed-loop control framework by exploiting the semantic inference capabilities of an ontology-based knowledge model. This architecture supports continuous operation of the control system, a crucial property for large-scale systems for which interruptions have negative impact on key performance metrics that may include human comfort and welfare or economy costs. A case-study example from the smart buildings domain is used to illustrate the proposed architecture and semantic inference mechanisms.

  4. Enhanced Control for Local Helicity Injection on the Pegasus ST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierren, C.; Bongard, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Lewicki, B. T.; Perry, J. M.

    2017-10-01

    Local helicity injection (LHI) experiments on Pegasus rely upon programmable control of a 250 MVA modular power supply system that drives the electromagnets and helicity injection systems. Precise control of the central solenoid is critical to experimental campaigns that test the LHI Taylor relaxation limit and the coupling efficiency of LHI-produced plasmas to Ohmic current drive. Enhancement and expansion of the present control system is underway using field programmable gate array (FPGA) technology for digital logic and control, coupled to new 10 MHz optical-to-digital transceivers for semiconductor level device communication. The system accepts optical command signals from existing analog feedback controllers, transmits them to multiple devices in parallel H-bridges, and aggregates their status signals for fault detection. Present device-level multiplexing/de-multiplexing and protection logic is extended to include bridge-level protections with the FPGA. An input command filter protects against erroneous and/or spurious noise generated commands that could otherwise cause device failures. Fault registration and response times with the FPGA system are 25 ns. Initial system testing indicates an increased immunity to power supply induced noise, enabling plasma operations at higher working capacitor bank voltage. This can increase the applied helicity injection drive voltage, enable longer pulse lengths and improve Ohmic loop voltage control. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  5. Robust algebraic image enhancement for intelligent control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Bao-Ting; Morrelli, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Robust vision capability for intelligent control systems has been an elusive goal in image processing. The computationally intensive techniques a necessary for conventional image processing make real-time applications, such as object tracking and collision avoidance difficult. In order to endow an intelligent control system with the needed vision robustness, an adequate image enhancement subsystem capable of compensating for the wide variety of real-world degradations, must exist between the image capturing and the object recognition subsystems. This enhancement stage must be adaptive and must operate with consistency in the presence of both statistical and shape-based noise. To deal with this problem, we have developed an innovative algebraic approach which provides a sound mathematical framework for image representation and manipulation. Our image model provides a natural platform from which to pursue dynamic scene analysis, and its incorporation into a vision system would serve as the front-end to an intelligent control system. We have developed a unique polynomial representation of gray level imagery and applied this representation to develop polynomial operators on complex gray level scenes. This approach is highly advantageous since polynomials can be manipulated very easily, and are readily understood, thus providing a very convenient environment for image processing. Our model presents a highly structured and compact algebraic representation of grey-level images which can be viewed as fuzzy sets.

  6. The group II intron maturase: a reverse transcriptase and splicing factor go hand in hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chen; Pyle, Anna Marie

    2017-12-01

    The splicing of group II introns in vivo requires the assistance of a multifunctional intron encoded protein (IEP, or maturase). Each IEP is also a reverse-transcriptase enzyme that enables group II introns to behave as mobile genetic elements. During splicing or retro-transposition, each group II intron forms a tight, specific complex with its own encoded IEP, resulting in a highly reactive holoenzyme. This review focuses on the structural basis for IEP function, as revealed by recent crystal structures of an IEP reverse transcriptase domain and cryo-EM structures of an IEP-intron complex. These structures explain how the same IEP scaffold is utilized for intron recognition, splicing and reverse transcription, while providing a physical basis for understanding the evolutionary transformation of the IEP into the eukaryotic splicing factor Prp8. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Characteristic differences between the promoters of intron-containing and intronless ribosomal protein genes in yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vingron Martin

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More than two thirds of the highly expressed ribosomal protein (RP genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae contain introns, which is in sharp contrast to the genome-wide five percent intron-containing genes. It is well established that introns carry regulatory sequences and that the transcription of RP genes is extensively and coordinately regulated. Here we test the hypotheses that introns are innately associated with heavily transcribed genes and that introns of RP genes contribute regulatory TF binding sequences. Moreover, we investigate whether promoter features are significantly different between intron-containing and intronless RP genes. Results We find that directly measured transcription rates tend to be lower for intron-containing compared to intronless RP genes. We do not observe any specifically enriched sequence motifs in the introns of RP genes other than those of the branch point and the two splice sites. Comparing the promoters of intron-containing and intronless RP genes, we detect differences in number and position of Rap1-binding and IFHL motifs. Moreover, the analysis of the length distribution and the folding free energies suggest that, at least in a sub-population of RP genes, the 5' untranslated sequences are optimized for regulatory function. Conclusion Our results argue against the direct involvement of introns in the regulation of transcription of highly expressed genes. Moreover, systematic differences in motif distributions suggest that RP transcription factors may act differently on intron-containing and intronless gene promoters. Thus, our findings contribute to the decoding of the RP promoter architecture and may fuel the discussion on the evolution of introns.

  8. Parallel loss of plastid introns and their maturase in the genus Cuscuta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeal, Joel R; Kuehl, Jennifer V; Boore, Jeffrey L; Leebens-Mack, Jim; dePamphilis, Claude W

    2009-06-19

    Plastid genome content and arrangement are highly conserved across most land plants and their closest relatives, streptophyte algae, with nearly all plastid introns having invaded the genome in their common ancestor at least 450 million years ago. One such intron, within the transfer RNA trnK-UUU, contains a large open reading frame that encodes a presumed intron maturase, matK. This gene is missing from the plastid genomes of two species in the parasitic plant genus Cuscuta but is found in all other published land plant and streptophyte algal plastid genomes, including that of the nonphotosynthetic angiosperm Epifagus virginiana and two other species of Cuscuta. By examining matK and plastid intron distribution in Cuscuta, we add support to the hypothesis that its normal role is in splicing seven of the eight group IIA introns in the genome. We also analyze matK nucleotide sequences from Cuscuta species and relatives that retain matK to test whether changes in selective pressure in the maturase are associated with intron deletion. Stepwise loss of most group IIA introns from the plastid genome results in substantial change in selective pressure within the hypothetical RNA-binding domain of matK in both Cuscuta and Epifagus, either through evolution from a generalist to a specialist intron splicer or due to loss of a particular intron responsible for most of the constraint on the binding region. The possibility of intron-specific specialization in the X-domain is implicated by evidence of positive selection on the lineage leading to C. nitida in association with the loss of six of seven introns putatively spliced by matK. Moreover, transfer RNA gene deletion facilitated by parasitism combined with an unusually high rate of intron loss from remaining functional plastid genes created a unique circumstance on the lineage leading to Cuscuta subgenus Grammica that allowed elimination of matK in the most species-rich lineage of Cuscuta.

  9. Parallel loss of plastid introns and their maturase in the genus Cuscuta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel R McNeal

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Plastid genome content and arrangement are highly conserved across most land plants and their closest relatives, streptophyte algae, with nearly all plastid introns having invaded the genome in their common ancestor at least 450 million years ago. One such intron, within the transfer RNA trnK-UUU, contains a large open reading frame that encodes a presumed intron maturase, matK. This gene is missing from the plastid genomes of two species in the parasitic plant genus Cuscuta but is found in all other published land plant and streptophyte algal plastid genomes, including that of the nonphotosynthetic angiosperm Epifagus virginiana and two other species of Cuscuta. By examining matK and plastid intron distribution in Cuscuta, we add support to the hypothesis that its normal role is in splicing seven of the eight group IIA introns in the genome. We also analyze matK nucleotide sequences from Cuscuta species and relatives that retain matK to test whether changes in selective pressure in the maturase are associated with intron deletion. Stepwise loss of most group IIA introns from the plastid genome results in substantial change in selective pressure within the hypothetical RNA-binding domain of matK in both Cuscuta and Epifagus, either through evolution from a generalist to a specialist intron splicer or due to loss of a particular intron responsible for most of the constraint on the binding region. The possibility of intron-specific specialization in the X-domain is implicated by evidence of positive selection on the lineage leading to C. nitida in association with the loss of six of seven introns putatively spliced by matK. Moreover, transfer RNA gene deletion facilitated by parasitism combined with an unusually high rate of intron loss from remaining functional plastid genes created a unique circumstance on the lineage leading to Cuscuta subgenus Grammica that allowed elimination of matK in the most species-rich lineage of Cuscuta.

  10. Use of probabilistic weights to enhance linear regression myoelectric control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lauren H.; Kuiken, Todd A.; Hargrove, Levi J.

    2015-12-01

    Objective. Clinically available prostheses for transradial amputees do not allow simultaneous myoelectric control of degrees of freedom (DOFs). Linear regression methods can provide simultaneous myoelectric control, but frequently also result in difficulty with isolating individual DOFs when desired. This study evaluated the potential of using probabilistic estimates of categories of gross prosthesis movement, which are commonly used in classification-based myoelectric control, to enhance linear regression myoelectric control. Approach. Gaussian models were fit to electromyogram (EMG) feature distributions for three movement classes at each DOF (no movement, or movement in either direction) and used to weight the output of linear regression models by the probability that the user intended the movement. Eight able-bodied and two transradial amputee subjects worked in a virtual Fitts’ law task to evaluate differences in controllability between linear regression and probability-weighted regression for an intramuscular EMG-based three-DOF wrist and hand system. Main results. Real-time and offline analyses in able-bodied subjects demonstrated that probability weighting improved performance during single-DOF tasks (p < 0.05) by preventing extraneous movement at additional DOFs. Similar results were seen in experiments with two transradial amputees. Though goodness-of-fit evaluations suggested that the EMG feature distributions showed some deviations from the Gaussian, equal-covariance assumptions used in this experiment, the assumptions were sufficiently met to provide improved performance compared to linear regression control. Significance. Use of probability weights can improve the ability to isolate individual during linear regression myoelectric control, while maintaining the ability to simultaneously control multiple DOFs.

  11. Dynamic performance enhancement of microgrids by advanced sliding mode controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sofla, Mohammadhassan Abdollahi [Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Dept., University of Toledo, Ohio (United States); Gharehpetian, Gevorg B. [Electrical Engineering Dept., Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    Dynamics are the most important problems in the microgrid operation. In the islanded microgrid, the mismatch of parallel operations of inverters during dynamics can result in the instability. This paper considers severe dynamics which can occur in the microgrid. Microgrid can have different configurations with different load and generation dynamics which are facing voltage disturbances. As a result, microgrid has many uncertainties and is placed in the distribution network where is full of voltage disturbances. Moreover, characteristics of the distribution network and distributed energy resources in the islanded mode make microgrid vulnerable and easily lead to instability. The main aim of this paper is to discuss the suitable mathematical modeling based on microgrid characteristics and to design properly inner controllers to enhance the dynamics of microgrid with uncertain and changing parameters. This paper provides a method for inner controllers of inverter-based distributed energy resources to have a suitable response for different dynamics. Parallel inverters in distribution networks were considered to be controlled by nonlinear robust voltage and current controllers. Theoretical prove beyond simulation results, reveal evidently the effectiveness of the proposed controller. (author)

  12. Electrical stimulation enhances sensory recovery: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Joshua N; Olson, Jaret L; Morhart, Michael J; Chan, K Ming

    2015-06-01

    Brief postsurgical electrical stimulation (ES) has been shown to enhance peripheral nerve regeneration in animal models following axotomy and crush injury. However, whether this treatment is beneficial in humans with sensory nerve injury has not been tested. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that ES would enhance sensory nerve regeneration following digital nerve transection compared to surgery alone. Patients with complete digital nerve transection underwent epineurial nerve repair. After coaptation of the severed nerve ends, fine wire electrodes were implanted before skin closure. Postoperatively, patients were randomized to receiving either 1 hour of 20Hz continuous ES or sham stimulation in a double-blinded manner. Patients were followed monthly for 6 months by a blinded evaluator to monitor physiological recovery of spatial discrimination, pressure threshold, and quantitative small fiber sensory testing. Functional disability was measured using the Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire. A total of 36 patients were recruited, with 18 in each group. Those in the ES group showed consistently greater improvements in all sensory modalities by 5 to 6 months postoperatively compared to the controls. Although there was a trend of greater functional improvements in the ES group, it was not statistically significant (p > 0.01). Postsurgical ES enhanced sensory reinnervation in patients who sustained complete digital nerve transection. The conferred benefits apply to a wide range of sensory functions. © 2015 American Neurological Association.

  13. Control of climatics environments to enhance reliability of electronics systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekhon, K.S.

    1979-01-01

    The techniques to control temperature and humidity to reduce failures in semiconductor devices are presented. The maximum operating junction temperature affects the electronic system reliability, and the equation for the junction temperature of the device shows that internal and external thermal resistances affect component life. Junction temperature reductions up to 60 C were achieved by the development of heat pipes for microcircuits, which will enhance electronics life by 32 times. Humidity control by improved sealing and use of heaters to prevent moisture condensation proved difficult and costly, and high pressure dehydrators were heavy and expensive. Therefore, low pressure dehydrator was developed which is smaller, lighter, and less expensive. The development of low pressure dehumidifying system including test data is presented

  14. Electrical, control and information systems in the Enhanced CANDU 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Grosbois, J.; Raiskums, G.; Soulard, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the electrical, control, and information system (EC and I) design feature improvements of the Enhanced CANDU 6 (EC6). These additional features are carefully integrated into the EC6 design platform, and are engineered with consideration of operational feedback, human factors, and leveraging the advantages of digital instrumentation and control (I and C) technology to create a coherent I and C architecture in support of safe and high performance operation. The design drivers for the selection of advanced features are also discussed. The EC6 nuclear power plant is a mid-sized Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor design, based on the highly successful CANDU 6 family of power plants, and upgraded to meet today's Canadian and international safety requirements and to satisfy Generation 3 design expectations. (author)

  15. An ancient spliceosomal intron in the ribosomal protein L7a gene (Rpl7a of Giardia lamblia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray Michael W

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only one spliceosomal-type intron has previously been identified in the unicellular eukaryotic parasite, Giardia lamblia (a diplomonad. This intron is only 35 nucleotides in length and is unusual in possessing a non-canonical 5' intron boundary sequence, CT, instead of GT. Results We have identified a second spliceosomal-type intron in G. lamblia, in the ribosomal protein L7a gene (Rpl7a, that possesses a canonical GT 5' intron boundary sequence. A comparison of the two known Giardia intron sequences revealed extensive nucleotide identity at both the 5' and 3' intron boundaries, similar to the conserved sequence motifs recently identified at the boundaries of spliceosomal-type introns in Trichomonas vaginalis (a parabasalid. Based on these observations, we searched the partial G. lamblia genome sequence for these conserved features and identified a third spliceosomal intron, in an unassigned open reading frame. Our comprehensive analysis of the Rpl7a intron in other eukaryotic taxa demonstrates that it is evolutionarily conserved and is an ancient eukaryotic intron. Conclusion An analysis of the phylogenetic distribution and properties of the Rpl7a intron suggests its utility as a phylogenetic marker to evaluate particular eukaryotic groupings. Additionally, analysis of the G. lamblia introns has provided further insight into some of the conserved and unique features possessed by the recently identified spliceosomal introns in related organisms such as T. vaginalis and Carpediemonas membranifera.

  16. Genome-wide development and deployment of informative intron-spanning and intron-length polymorphism markers for genomics-assisted breeding applications in chickpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Rishi; Bajaj, Deepak; Sayal, Yogesh K; Meher, Prabina K; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Kumar, Rajendra; Tripathi, Shailesh; Bharadwaj, Chellapilla; Rao, Atmakuri R; Parida, Swarup K

    2016-11-01

    The discovery and large-scale genotyping of informative gene-based markers is essential for rapid delineation of genes/QTLs governing stress tolerance and yield component traits in order to drive genetic enhancement in chickpea. A genome-wide 119169 and 110491 ISM (intron-spanning markers) from 23129 desi and 20386 kabuli protein-coding genes and 7454 in silico InDel (insertion-deletion) (1-45-bp)-based ILP (intron-length polymorphism) markers from 3283 genes were developed that were structurally and functionally annotated on eight chromosomes and unanchored scaffolds of chickpea. A much higher amplification efficiency (83%) and intra-specific polymorphic potential (86%) detected by these markers than that of other sequence-based genetic markers among desi and kabuli chickpea accessions was apparent even by a cost-effective agarose gel-based assay. The genome-wide physically mapped 1718 ILP markers assayed a wider level of functional genetic diversity (19-81%) and well-defined phylogenetics among domesticated chickpea accessions. The gene-derived 1424 ILP markers were anchored on a high-density (inter-marker distance: 0.65cM) desi intra-specific genetic linkage map/functional transcript map (ICC 4958×ICC 2263) of chickpea. This reference genetic map identified six major genomic regions harbouring six robust QTLs mapped on five chromosomes, which explained 11-23% seed weight trait variation (7.6-10.5 LOD) in chickpea. The integration of high-resolution QTL mapping with differential expression profiling detected six including one potential serine carboxypeptidase gene with ILP markers (linked tightly to the major seed weight QTLs) exhibiting seed-specific expression as well as pronounced up-regulation especially in seeds of high (ICC 4958) as compared to low (ICC 2263) seed weight mapping parental accessions. The marker information generated in the present study was made publicly accessible through a user-friendly web-resource, "Chickpea ISM-ILP Marker Database

  17. Online naphazoline quality control by micellar-enhanced spectrofluorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Cecilia Mariana; Silva, Raúl Alejandro; Fernández, Liliana Patricia; Masi, Adriana Noemí

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a method for online spectrofluorimetric quality control of naphazoline (NPZ) in pharmaceuticals and raw drugs. A combination of a flow-injection analysis (FIA) system with micellar-enhanced fluorescence detection is presented as a powerful alternative for the rapid and sensitive analysis of naphazoline. Since NPZ shows low native fluorescence, the use of an anionic surfactant, such as sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), provides a considerable enhancement of fluorescence intensity and the nature of the technique allows a possible and easy adaptation to a FIA system. Using λ(exc) = 280 nm and λ(em) = 326 nm, a good linear relationship (LOL) was obtained in the range 0.003-10 µg mL(-1) with a detection limit (LOD) of 3 × 10(-4) µg mL(-1) (s/n = 3). Parameters related to the nature of the analytical signal and to the FIA manifold were optimized. Satisfactory recoveries were obtained in the analysis of commercial pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed method is simple, accurate and allows for high-speed sampling and considerably shorter analysis times. In addition, it requires inexpensive equipment and reagents and has easy operational conditions and no side effects, thus avoiding environmental pollution through toxic waste. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. ASSESSMENT OF A WIND TURBINE INTELLIGENT CONTROLLER FOR ENHANCED ENERGY PRODUCTION AND POLLUTION REDUCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study assessed the enhanced energy production which is possible when variable-speed wind turbines are electronically controlled by an intelligent controller for efficiency optimization and performance improvement. The control system consists of three fuzzy- logic controllers...

  19. Expected Enhancement of the Ship Monitoring and Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinko Tomas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The intemational legislation places strict requirements onthe safety of navigation and the marine environment. One ofthe solutions to the problem is to enhance the ship navigationcontrol and maintenance with extensive use of informationtechnology, which has largely contributed to the growth of communicationtechnology. On the basis of an analysis of ship systemsautomation in the past, this paper deals with the developmentsand improvements to be expected ill the near future.Four generations of shipboard automation are presented, includingthe characteristics and requirements that the automationof ship control and monitming systems must fulflll in orderto be classified under a particular generation. Fields of furtherenhancement are considered as these will be decisive in increasingthe efficiency of business operations and ship safety.For the pwpose of supporting the claims above, actual trends inthe development of standards, equipment and systems havebeen analysed as well as their impact Oil the ship owner and thecrew.

  20. Enhanced Voltage Control of VSC-HVDC Connected Offshore Wind Farms Based on Model Predictive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Yifei; Gao, Houlei; Wu, Qiuwei

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes an enhanced voltage control strategy (EVCS) based on model predictive control (MPC) for voltage source converter based high voltage direct current (VSCHVDC) connected offshore wind farms (OWFs). In the proposed MPC based EVCS, all wind turbine generators (WTGs) as well...... as the wind farm side VSC are optimally coordinated to keep voltages within the feasible range and reduce system power losses. Considering the high ratio of the OWF collector system, the effects of active power outputs of WTGs on voltage control are also taken into consideration. The predictive model of VSC...

  1. U12 type introns were lost at multiple occasions during evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartschat Sebastian

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two categories of introns are known, a common U2 type and a rare U12 type. These two types of introns are removed by distinct spliceosomes. The phylogenetic distribution of spliceosomal RNAs that are characteristic of the U12 spliceosome, i.e. the U11, U12, U4atac and U6atac RNAs, suggest that U12 spliceosomes were lost in many phylogenetic groups. We have now examined the distribution of U2 and U12 introns in many of these groups. Results U2 and U12 introns were predicted by making use of available EST and genomic sequences. The results show that in species or branches where U12 spliceosomal components are missing, also U12 type of introns are lacking. Examples are the choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis, Entamoeba histolytica, green algae, diatoms, and the fungal lineage Basidiomycota. Furthermore, whereas U12 splicing does not occur in Caenorhabditis elegans, U12 introns as well as U12 snRNAs are present in Trichinella spiralis, which is deeply branching in the nematode tree. A comparison of homologous genes in T. spiralis and C. elegans revealed different mechanisms whereby U12 introns were lost. Conclusions The phylogenetic distribution of U12 introns and spliceosomal RNAs give further support to an early origin of U12 dependent splicing. In addition, this distribution identifies a large number of instances during eukaryotic evolution where such splicing was lost.

  2. The strength of intron donor splice sites in human genes displays a bell-shaped pattern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Kai; Wernersson, Rasmus; Brunak, Søren

    2011-01-01

    introns. Interestingly, when analysing the intron containing gene pool from mouse consisting of >15 000 genes, we found the convex pattern to be conserved despite >75 million years of evolutionary divergence between the two organisms. We also analysed an interesting, novel class of chimeric genes which...

  3. Two CRM protein subfamilies cooperate in the splicing of group IIB introns in chloroplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, Yukari; Bayraktar, Omer Ali; Barkan, Alice

    2008-11-01

    Chloroplast genomes in angiosperms encode approximately 20 group II introns, approximately half of which are classified as subgroup IIB. The splicing of all but one of the subgroup IIB introns requires a heterodimer containing the peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase homolog CRS2 and one of two closely related proteins, CAF1 or CAF2, that harbor a recently recognized RNA binding domain called the CRM domain. Two CRS2/CAF-dependent introns require, in addition, a CRM domain protein called CFM2 that is only distantly related to CAF1 and CAF2. Here, we show that CFM3, a close relative of CFM2, associates in vivo with those CRS2/CAF-dependent introns that are not CFM2 ligands. Mutant phenotypes in rice and Arabidopsis support a role for CFM3 in the splicing of most of the introns with which it associates. These results show that either CAF1 or CAF2 and either CFM2 or CFM3 simultaneously bind most chloroplast subgroup IIB introns in vivo, and that the CAF and CFM subunits play nonredundant roles in splicing. These results suggest that the expansion of the CRM protein family in plants resulted in two subfamilies that play different roles in group II intron splicing, with further diversification within a subfamily to accommodate multiple intron ligands.

  4. Group II intron inhibits conjugative relaxase expression in bacteria by mRNA targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Carol Lyn; Smith, Dorie

    2018-01-01

    Group II introns are mobile ribozymes that are rare in bacterial genomes, often cohabiting with various mobile elements, and seldom interrupting housekeeping genes. What accounts for this distribution has not been well understood. Here, we demonstrate that Ll.LtrB, the group II intron residing in a relaxase gene on a conjugative plasmid from Lactococcus lactis, inhibits its host gene expression and restrains the naturally cohabiting mobile element from conjugative horizontal transfer. We show that reduction in gene expression is mainly at the mRNA level, and results from the interaction between exon-binding sequences (EBSs) in the intron and intron-binding sequences (IBSs) in the mRNA. The spliced intron targets the relaxase mRNA and reopens ligated exons, causing major mRNA loss. Taken together, this study provides an explanation for the distribution and paucity of group II introns in bacteria, and suggests a potential force for those introns to evolve into spliceosomal introns. PMID:29905149

  5. Functional comparison of three transformer gene introns regulating conditional female lethality

    Science.gov (United States)

    The trasformer gene plays a critical role in the sex determination pathways of many insects. We cloned two transformer gene introns from Anastrepha suspensa, the Caribbean fruit fly. These introns have sequences that putatively have a role in sex-specific splicing patterns that affect sex determinat...

  6. Comparative Analysis of Vertebrate Dystrophin Loci Indicate Intron Gigantism as a Common Feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzoli, Uberto; Elgar, Greg; Cagliani, Rachele; Riva, Laura; Comi, Giacomo P.; Bresolin, Nereo; Bardoni, Alessandra; Sironi, Manuela

    2003-01-01

    The human DMD gene is the largest known to date, spanning > 2000 kb on the X chromosome. The gene size is mainly accounted for by huge intronic regions. We sequenced 190 kb of Fugu rubripes (pufferfish) genomic DNA corresponding to the complete dystrophin gene (FrDMD) and provide the first report of gene structure and sequence comparison among dystrophin genomic sequences from different vertebrate organisms. Almost all intron positions and phases are conserved between FrDMD and its mammalian counterparts, and the predicted protein product of the Fugu gene displays 55% identity and 71% similarity to human dystrophin. In analogy to the human gene, FrDMD presents several-fold longer than average intronic regions. Analysis of intron sequences of the human and murine genes revealed that they are extremely conserved in size and that a similar fraction of total intron length is represented by repetitive elements; moreover, our data indicate that intron expansion through repeat accumulation in the two orthologs is the result of independent insertional events. The hypothesis that intron length might be functionally relevant to the DMD gene regulation is proposed and substantiated by the finding that dystrophin intron gigantism is common to the three vertebrate genes. [Supplemental material is available online at www.genome.org.] PMID:12727896

  7. Class I self-splicing introns are found in the T-even bacteriophage family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, F.K.; Maley, F.; Maley, G.F.

    1987-01-01

    The thymidylate synthase gene (td) and ribonucleotide reductase B2 subunit gene (nrdB) EMBO both of bacteriophage T4 in origin, are procaryotic intron-containing protein-encoding genes. To screen for other procaryotic introns, southern hybridization analysis of several procaryotic genomes was carried out, using T4 phage td DNA restriction fragments and synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides defining strategic td exon and intron regions. Furthermore, the labeling pattern of total RNA with [α- 32 P]GTP, a typical reaction of self-splicing RNAs (class I), was examined. Experimental data implicate multiple self-splicing introns only in the T-even phages: five (1, 0.9, 0.83, 0.75 and 0.6 kb) in T4 and three (1, 0.9 and 0.75 kb) each in T2 and T6 phages. Northern hybridization analysis of total RNA extracted from T-even phage-infected cells confirms that the 1 kb RNA from each phage is in fact the excised intron segment from the precursor RNA transcribed from an intron-containing td gene in each case. This RNA cyclizes to form a contiguous circular molecule. The 0.6 kb RNA is most likely the T4 phage nrdB intron which seems to be absent from the corresponding gene in T2 and T6. The remaining RNA species are candidates for other self-splicing introns in these phages

  8. Control of BTEX migration using a biologically enhanced permeable barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borden, R.C.; Goin, R.T.; Kao, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    A permeable barrier system, consisting of a line of closely spaced wells, was installed perpendicular to ground water flow to control the migration of a dissolved hydrocarbon plume. The wells were charged with concrete briquets that release oxygen and nitrate at a controlled rate, enhancing aerobic biodegradation in the downgradient aquifer. Laboratory batch reactor experiments were conducted to identify concrete mixtures that slowly released oxygen over an extended time period. A full-scale permeable barrier system using ORC was constructed at a gasoline-spill site. During the first 242 days of operation, total BTEX decreased from 17 to 3.4 mg/L and dissolved oxygen increased from 0.4 to 1.8 mg/L during transport through the barrier. Over time, BTEX treatment efficiencies declined, indicating the barrier system had become less effective in releasing oxygen and nutrients to the highly contaminated portion of the aquifer. Point dilution tests and sediment analyses performed at the conclusion of the project indicated that the aquifer in the vicinity of the remediation wells had been clogged by precipitation with iron minerals

  9. Malonyl CoA decarboxylase deficiency: C to T transition in intron 2 of the MCD gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendran, S; Sacksteder, K A; Gould, S J; Coldwell, J G; Rady, P L; Tyring, S K; Matalon, R

    2001-09-15

    Malonyl CoA decarboxylase (MCD) is an enzyme involved in the metabolism of fatty acids synthesis. Based on reports of MCD deficiency, this enzyme is particular important in muscle and brain metabolism. Mutations in the MCD gene result in a deficiency of MCD activity, that lead to psychomotor retardation, cardiomyopathy and neonatal death. To date however, only a few patients have been reported with defects in MCD. We report here studies of a patient with MCD deficiency, who presented with hypotonia, cardiomyopathy and psychomotor retardation. DNA sequencing of MCD revealed a homozygous intronic mutation, specifically a -5 C to T transition near the acceptor site for exon 3. RT-PCR amplification of exons 2 and 3 revealed that although mRNA from a normal control sample yielded one major DNA band, the mutant mRNA sample resulted in two distinct DNA fragments. Sequencing of the patient's two RT-PCR products revealed that the larger molecular weight fragments contained exons 2 and 3 as well as the intervening intronic sequence. The smaller size band from the patient contained the properly spliced exons, similar to the normal control. Western blotting analysis of the expressed protein showed only a faint band in the patient sample in contrast to a robust band in the control. In addition, the enzyme activity of the mutant protein was lower than that of the control protein. The data indicate that homozygous mutation in intron 2 disrupt normal splicing of the gene, leading to lower expression of the MCD protein and MCD deficiency. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. The mitochondrial LSU rRNA group II intron of Ustilago maydis encodes an active homing endonuclease likely involved in intron mobility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Pfeifer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The a2 mating type locus gene lga2 is critical for uniparental mitochondrial DNA inheritance during sexual development of Ustilago maydis. Specifically, the absence of lga2 results in biparental inheritance, along with efficient transfer of intronic regions in the large subunit rRNA gene between parental molecules. However, the underlying role of the predicted LAGLIDADG homing endonuclease gene I-UmaI located within the group II intron LRII1 has remained unresolved. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have investigated the enzymatic activity of I-UmaI in vitro based on expression of a tagged full-length and a naturally occurring mutant derivative, which harbors only the N-terminal LAGLIDADG domain. This confirmed Mg²⁺-dependent endonuclease activity and cleavage at the LRII1 insertion site to generate four base pair extensions with 3' overhangs. Specifically, I-UmaI recognizes an asymmetric DNA sequence with a minimum length of 14 base pairs (5'-GACGGGAAGACCCT-3' and tolerates subtle base pair substitutions within the homing site. Enzymatic analysis of the mutant variant indicated a correlation between the activity in vitro and intron homing. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that putatively functional or former functional I-UmaI homologs are confined to a few members within the Ustilaginales and Agaricales, including the phylogenetically distant species Lentinula edodes, and are linked to group II introns inserted into homologous positions in the LSU rDNA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present data provide strong evidence that intron homing efficiently operates under conditions of biparental inheritance in U. maydis. Conversely, uniparental inheritance may be critical to restrict the transmission of mobile introns. Bioinformatic analyses suggest that I-UmaI-associated introns have been acquired independently in distant taxa and are more widespread than anticipated from available genomic data.

  11. Phylogenetic distribution of intron positions in alpha-amylase genes of bilateria suggests numerous gains and losses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Luc Da Lage

    Full Text Available Most eukaryotes have at least some genes interrupted by introns. While it is well accepted that introns were already present at moderate density in the last eukaryote common ancestor, the conspicuous diversity of intron density among genomes suggests a complex evolutionary history, with marked differences between phyla. The question of the rates of intron gains and loss in the course of evolution and factors influencing them remains controversial. We have investigated a single gene family, alpha-amylase, in 55 species covering a variety of animal phyla. Comparison of intron positions across phyla suggests a complex history, with a likely ancestral intronless gene undergoing frequent intron loss and gain, leading to extant intron/exon structures that are highly variable, even among species from the same phylum. Because introns are known to play no regulatory role in this gene and there is no alternative splicing, the structural differences may be interpreted more easily: intron positions, sizes, losses or gains may be more likely related to factors linked to splicing mechanisms and requirements, and to recognition of introns and exons, or to more extrinsic factors, such as life cycle and population size. We have shown that intron losses outnumbered gains in recent periods, but that "resets" of intron positions occurred at the origin of several phyla, including vertebrates. Rates of gain and loss appear to be positively correlated. No phase preference was found. We also found evidence for parallel gains and for intron sliding. Presence of introns at given positions was correlated to a strong protosplice consensus sequence AG/G, which was much weaker in the absence of intron. In contrast, recent intron insertions were not associated with a specific sequence. In animal Amy genes, population size and generation time seem to have played only minor roles in shaping gene structures.

  12. Enhancing spill prevention and response preparedness through quality control techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, M.A.; Butts, R.L.; Pickering, T.H.; Lindsay, J.R.; McCully, B.S.

    1993-01-01

    The year 1990 saw passage of federal and state oil spill legislation directing the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation to require on shore bulk petroleum storage facilities to improve their oil spill response and prevention capabilities. The Florida Power ampersand Light Company (FPL), to address concerns arising out of several recent significant spills which had occurred worldwide, and to examine its current situation with regard compliance with the new laws, formed a quality improvement interdepartmental task team in July 1989. Its mission was to reduce the potential for oil spills during waterborne transportation between FPL's fuel oil terminals and its power plants and during transfer and storage of oil at these facilities. Another objective of the team was to enhance the company's spill response preparedness. Using quality control tools and reliability techniques, the team conducted a detailed analysis of seven coastal power plants and five fuel oil terminal facilities. This analysis began with the development of cause-and-effect diagrams designed to identify the root causes of spills so that corrective and preventive actions could be taken. These diagram are constructed by listing possible causes of oil spills under various major categories of possible system breakdown, such as man, method, equipment, and materials. Next, potential root causes are identified and then verified. The team identified the occurrence of surface water oil spill and reduced spill response capability as primary concerns and accordingly constructed cause-and-effect diagrams for both components. Lack of proper procedures, failure of control equipment, and inadequate facility design were identified as potential root causes leading to surface water oil spills. Lack of proper procedures, an inconsistent training program, and response equipment limitations were identified as potential root causes affecting oil spill response capabilities

  13. Cloud-Enhanced Robotic System for Smart City Crowd Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhlaqur Rahman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cloud robotics in smart cities is an emerging paradigm that enables autonomous robotic agents to communicate and collaborate with a cloud computing infrastructure. It complements the Internet of Things (IoT by creating an expanded network where robots offload data-intensive computation to the ubiquitous cloud to ensure quality of service (QoS. However, offloading for robots is significantly complex due to their unique characteristics of mobility, skill-learning, data collection, and decision-making capabilities. In this paper, a generic cloud robotics framework is proposed to realize smart city vision while taking into consideration its various complexities. Specifically, we present an integrated framework for a crowd control system where cloud-enhanced robots are deployed to perform necessary tasks. The task offloading is formulated as a constrained optimization problem capable of handling any task flow that can be characterized by a Direct Acyclic Graph (DAG. We consider two scenarios of minimizing energy and time, respectively, and develop a genetic algorithm (GA-based approach to identify the optimal task offloading decisions. The performance comparison with two benchmarks shows that our GA scheme achieves desired energy and time performance. We also show the adaptability of our algorithm by varying the values for bandwidth and movement. The results suggest their impact on offloading. Finally, we present a multi-task flow optimal path sequence problem that highlights how the robot can plan its task completion via movements that expend the minimum energy. This integrates path planning with offloading for robotics. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to evaluate cloud-based task offloading for a smart city crowd control system.

  14. The distribution, diversity, and importance of 16S rRNA gene introns in the order Thermoproteales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Zackary J; Inskeep, William P

    2015-07-09

    Intron sequences are common in 16S rRNA genes of specific thermophilic lineages of Archaea, specifically the Thermoproteales (phylum Crenarchaeota). Environmental sequencing (16S rRNA gene and metagenome) from geothermal habitats in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) has expanded the available datasets for investigating 16S rRNA gene introns. The objectives of this study were to characterize and curate archaeal 16S rRNA gene introns from high-temperature habitats, evaluate the conservation and distribution of archaeal 16S rRNA introns in geothermal systems, and determine which "universal" archaeal 16S rRNA gene primers are impacted by the presence of intron sequences. Several new introns were identified and their insertion loci were constrained to thirteen locations across the 16S rRNA gene. Many of these introns encode homing endonucleases, although some introns were short or partial sequences. Pyrobaculum, Thermoproteus, and Caldivirga 16S rRNA genes contained the most abundant and diverse intron sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of introns revealed that sequences within the same locus are distributed biogeographically. The most diverse set of introns were observed in a high-temperature, circumneutral (pH 6) sulfur sediment environment, which also contained the greatest diversity of different Thermoproteales phylotypes. The widespread presence of introns in the Thermoproteales indicates a high probability of misalignments using different "universal" 16S rRNA primers employed in environmental microbial community analysis.

  15. The brown algae Pl.LSU/2 group II intron-encoded protein has functional reverse transcriptase and maturase activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine Zerbato

    Full Text Available Group II introns are self-splicing mobile elements found in prokaryotes and eukaryotic organelles. These introns propagate by homing into precise genomic locations, following assembly of a ribonucleoprotein complex containing the intron-encoded protein (IEP and the spliced intron RNA. Engineered group II introns are now commonly used tools for targeted genomic modifications in prokaryotes but not in eukaryotes. We speculate that the catalytic activation of currently known group II introns is limited in eukaryotic cells. The brown algae Pylaiella littoralis Pl.LSU/2 group II intron is uniquely capable of in vitro ribozyme activity at physiological level of magnesium but this intron remains poorly characterized. We purified and characterized recombinant Pl.LSU/2 IEP. Unlike most IEPs, Pl.LSU/2 IEP displayed a reverse transcriptase activity without intronic RNA. The Pl.LSU/2 intron could be engineered to splice accurately in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and splicing efficiency was increased by the maturase activity of the IEP. However, spliced transcripts were not expressed. Furthermore, intron splicing was not detected in human cells. While further tool development is needed, these data provide the first functional characterization of the PI.LSU/2 IEP and the first evidence that the Pl.LSU/2 group II intron splicing occurs in vivo in eukaryotes in an IEP-dependent manner.

  16. Changes in exon–intron structure during vertebrate evolution affect the splicing pattern of exons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfman, Sahar; Burstein, David; Penn, Osnat; Savchenko, Anna; Amit, Maayan; Schwartz, Schraga; Pupko, Tal; Ast, Gil

    2012-01-01

    Exon–intron architecture is one of the major features directing the splicing machinery to the short exons that are located within long flanking introns. However, the evolutionary dynamics of exon–intron architecture and its impact on splicing is largely unknown. Using a comparative genomic approach, we analyzed 17 vertebrate genomes and reconstructed the ancestral motifs of both 3′ and 5′ splice sites, as also the ancestral length of exons and introns. Our analyses suggest that vertebrate introns increased in length from the shortest ancestral introns to the longest primate introns. An evolutionary analysis of splice sites revealed that weak splice sites act as a restrictive force keeping introns short. In contrast, strong splice sites allow recognition of exons flanked by long introns. Reconstruction of the ancestral state suggests these phenomena were not prevalent in the vertebrate ancestor, but appeared during vertebrate evolution. By calculating evolutionary rate shifts in exons, we identified cis-acting regulatory sequences that became fixed during the transition from early vertebrates to mammals. Experimental validations performed on a selection of these hexamers confirmed their regulatory function. We additionally revealed many features of exons that can discriminate alternative from constitutive exons. These features were integrated into a machine-learning approach to predict whether an exon is alternative. Our algorithm obtains very high predictive power (AUC of 0.91), and using these predictions we have identified and successfully validated novel alternatively spliced exons. Overall, we provide novel insights regarding the evolutionary constraints acting upon exons and their recognition by the splicing machinery. PMID:21974994

  17. Similar Ratios of Introns to Intergenic Sequence across Animal Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Warren R; Wörheide, Gert

    2017-06-01

    One central goal of genome biology is to understand how the usage of the genome differs between organisms. Our knowledge of genome composition, needed for downstream inferences, is critically dependent on gene annotations, yet problems associated with gene annotation and assembly errors are usually ignored in comparative genomics. Here, we analyze the genomes of 68 species across 12 animal phyla and some single-cell eukaryotes for general trends in genome composition and transcription, taking into account problems of gene annotation. We show that, regardless of genome size, the ratio of introns to intergenic sequence is comparable across essentially all animals, with nearly all deviations dominated by increased intergenic sequence. Genomes of model organisms have ratios much closer to 1:1, suggesting that the majority of published genomes of nonmodel organisms are underannotated and consequently omit substantial numbers of genes, with likely negative impact on evolutionary interpretations. Finally, our results also indicate that most animals transcribe half or more of their genomes arguing against differences in genome usage between animal groups, and also suggesting that the transcribed portion is more dependent on genome size than previously thought. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  18. Intron Retention and TE Exonization Events in ZRANB2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Je Park

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Zinc finger, RAN-binding domain-containing protein 2 (ZRANB2, contains arginine/serine-rich (RS domains that mediate its function in the regulation of alternative splicing. The ZRANB2 gene contains 2 LINE elements (L3b, Plat_L3 between the 9th and 10th exons. We identified the exonization event of a LINE element (Plat_L3. Using genomic PCR, RT-PCR amplification, and sequencing of primate DNA and RNA samples, we analyzed the evolutionary features of ZRANB2 transcripts. The results indicated that 2 of the LINE elements were integrated in human and all of the tested primate samples (hominoids: 3 species; Old World monkey: 8 species; New World monkey: 6 species; prosimian: 1 species. Human, rhesus monkey, crab-eating monkey, African-green monkey, and marmoset harbor the exon derived from LINE element (Plat_L3. RT-PCR amplification revealed the long transcripts and their differential expression patterns. Intriguingly, these long transcripts were abundantly expressed in Old World monkey lineages (rhesus, crab-eating, and African-green monkeys and were expressed via intron retention (IR. Thus, the ZRANB2 gene produces 3 transcript variants in which the Cterminus varies by transposable elements (TEs exonization and IR mechanisms. Therefore, ZRANB2 is valuable for investigating the evolutionary mechanisms of TE exonization and IR during primate evolution.

  19. Amino acid substitutions and intron polymorphism of acetylcholinesterase1 associated with mevinphos resistance in diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Shih-Chia; Lin, Chia-Li; Chang, Cheng; Feng, Hai-Tung; Dai, Shu-Mei

    2014-06-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L., is the most destructive insect pest of Brassica crops in the world. It has developed resistance rapidly to almost every insecticide used for its control. Mevinphos, a fast degrading and slow resistance evocating organophosphorus insecticide, has been recommended for controlling P. xylostella in Taiwan for more than 40years. SHM strain of P. xylostella, with ca. 22-fold resistance to this chemical, has been established from a field SH strain by selecting with mevinphos since 1997. Three mutations, i.e., G892T, G971C, and T1156T/G leading to A298S, G324A, and F386F/V amino acid substitutions in acetylcholinesterase1 (AChE1), were identified in these two strains; along with three haplotype pairs and a polymorphic intron in AChE1 gene (ace1). Two genetically pure lines, i.e., an SHggt wild type with intron AS and an SHMTCN mutant carrying G892T, G971C, T1156T/G mutations and intron AR in ace1, were established by single pair mating and haplotype determination. The F1 of SHMTCN strain had 52-fold resistance to mevinphos in comparison with the F1 of SHggt strain. In addition, AChE1 of this SHMTCN population, which exhibited lower maximum velocity (Vmax) and affinity (Km), was less susceptible to the inhibition of mevinphos, with an I50 32-fold higher than that of the SHggt F1 population. These results imply that amino acid substitutions in AChE1 of SHMTCN strain are associated with mevinphos resistance in this insect pest, and this finding is important for insecticide resistance management of P. xylostella in the field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Novel viral vectors utilizing intron splice-switching to activate genome rescue, expression and replication in targeted cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Andaloussi Samir

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The outcome of virus infection depends from the precise coordination of viral gene expression and genome replication. The ability to control and regulate these processes is therefore important for analysis of infection process. Viruses are also useful tools in bio- and gene technology; they can efficiently kill cancer cells and trigger immune responses to tumors. However, the methods for constructing tissue- or cell-type specific viruses typically suffer from low target-cell specificity and a high risk of reversion. Therefore novel and universal methods of regulation of viral infection are also important for therapeutic application of virus-based systems. Methods Aberrantly spliced introns were introduced into crucial gene-expression units of adenovirus vector and alphavirus DNA/RNA layered vectors and their effects on the viral gene expression, replication and/or the release of infectious genomes were studied in cell culture. Transfection of the cells with splice-switching oligonucleotides was used to correct the introduced functional defect(s. Results It was demonstrated that viral gene expression, replication and/or the release of infectious genomes can be blocked by the introduction of aberrantly spliced introns. The insertion of such an intron into an adenovirus vector reduced the expression of the targeted gene more than fifty-fold. A similar insertion into an alphavirus DNA/RNA layered vector had a less dramatic effect; here, only the release of the infectious transcript was suppressed but not the subsequent replication and spread of the virus. However the insertion of two aberrantly spliced introns resulted in an over one hundred-fold reduction in the infectivity of the DNA/RNA layered vector. Furthermore, in both systems the observed effects could be reverted by the delivery of splice-switching oligonucleotide(s, which corrected the splicing defects. Conclusions Splice-switch technology, originally developed for

  1. An intronic LINE-1 insertion in MERTK is strongly associated with retinopathy in Swedish Vallhund dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Everson

    Full Text Available The domestic dog segregates a significant number of inherited progressive retinal diseases, several of which mirror human retinal diseases and which are collectively termed progressive retinal atrophy (PRA. In 2014, a novel form of PRA was reported in the Swedish Vallhund breed, and the disease was mapped to canine chromosome 17. The causal mutation was not identified, but expression analyses of the retinas of affected Vallhunds demonstrated a 6-fold increased expression of the MERTK gene compared to unaffected dogs. Using 24 retinopathy cases and 97 controls with no clinical signs of retinopathy, we replicated the chromosome 17 association in Swedish Vallhunds from the UK and aimed to elucidate the causal variant underlying this association using whole genome sequencing (WGS of an affected dog. This revealed a 6-8 kb insertion in intron 1 of MERTK that was not present in WGS of 49 dogs of other breeds. Sequencing and BLASTN analysis of the inserted segment was consistent with the insertion comprising a full-length intact LINE-1 retroelement. Testing of the LINE-1 insertion for association with retinopathy in the UK set of 24 cases and 97 controls revealed a strong statistical association (P-value 6.0 x 10-11 that was subsequently replicated in the original Finnish study set (49 cases and 89 controls (P-value 4.3 x 10-19. In a pooled analysis of both studies (73 cases and 186 controls, the LINE-1 insertion was associated with a ~20-fold increased risk of retinopathy (odds ratio 23.41, 95% confidence intervals 10.99-49.86, P-value 1.3 x 10-27. Our study adds further support for regulatory disruption of MERTK in Swedish Vallhund retinopathy; however, further work is required to establish a functional overexpression model. Future work to characterise the mechanism by which this intronic mutation disrupts gene regulation will further improve the understanding of MERTK biology and its role in retinal function.

  2. Identification of a nuclear matrix attachment region like sequence in the last intron of PI3Kγ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Bingbing; Ying Lei; Cai Rong; Li Ying; Zhang Xingqian; Lu Jian; Qian Guanxiang

    2006-01-01

    MARs are not only the structure bases of chromatin higher order structure but also have much biological significance. In this study, the whole sequence of about 100 kb in length from BAC clone of GS1-223D4 (GI: 5931478), in which human PI3Kγ gene is localized, was analyzed by two online-based computer programs, MARFinder and SMARTest. A strong potential MAR was predicted in the last and largest intron of PI3Kγ. The predicted 2 kb MAR, we refer to PIMAR, was further analyzed through biochemical methods in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that the PIMAR could be associated with nuclear matrices from HeLa cells both in vitro and in vivo. Further reporter gene analysis showed that in the transient transfection the expression of reporter gene linked with reversed PIMAR was repressed slightly, while in stably integrated state, the luciferase reporter both linked with reversed and orientated PIMAR was enhanced greatly in NIH-3T3 and K-562. These results suggest that the PIMAR maybe has the capacity of shielding integrated heterogeneous gene from chromatin position effect. Through combination of computer program analysis with confirmation by biochemical methods, we identified, for First time, a 2 kb matrix attachment region like sequence in the last intron of human PI3Kγ

  3. Enhanced Reliability of Photovoltaic Systems with Energy Storage and Controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manz, D.; Schelenz, O.; Chandra, R.; Bose, S.; de Rooij, M.; Bebic, J.

    2008-02-01

    This report summarizes efforts to reconfigure loads during outages to allow individual customers the opportunity to enhance the reliability of their electric service through the management of their loads, photovoltaics, and energy storage devices.

  4. Novel intron markers to study the phylogeny of closely related mammalian species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castresana Jose

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multilocus phylogenies can be used to infer the species tree of a group of closely related species. In species trees, the nodes represent the actual separation between species, thus providing essential information about their evolutionary history. In addition, multilocus phylogenies can help in analyses of species delimitation, gene flow and genetic differentiation within species. However, few adequate markers are available for such studies. Results In order to develop nuclear markers that can be useful in multilocus studies of mammals, we analyzed the mammalian genomes of human, chimpanzee, macaque, dog and cow. Rodents were excluded due to their unusual genomic features. Introns were extracted from the mammalian genomes because of their greater genetic variability and ease of amplification from the flanking exons. To an initial set of more than 10,000 one-to-one orthologous introns we applied several filters to select introns that belong to single-copy genes, show neutral evolutionary rates and have an adequate length for their amplification. This analysis led to a final list of 224 intron markers randomly distributed along the genome. To experimentally test their validity, we amplified twelve of these introns in a panel of six mammalian species. The result was that seven of these introns gave rise to a PCR band of the expected size in all species. In addition, we sequenced these bands and analyzed the accumulation of substitutions in these introns in five pairs of closely related species. The results showed that the estimated genetic distances in the five species pairs was quite variable among introns and that this divergence cannot be directly predicted from the overall intron divergence in mammals. Conclusions We have designed a new set of 224 nuclear introns with optimal features for the phylogeny of closely related mammalian species. A large proportion of the introns tested experimentally showed a perfect amplification

  5. Asthma and COPD in cystic fibrosis intron-8 5T carriers. A population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Lange, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Carriers of cystic fibrosis intron-8 5T alleles with high exon-9 skipping could have increased annual lung function decline and increased risk for asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).......Carriers of cystic fibrosis intron-8 5T alleles with high exon-9 skipping could have increased annual lung function decline and increased risk for asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)....

  6. Characterization of the molecular basis of group II intron RNA recognition by CRS1-CRM domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren, Ido; Klipcan, Liron; Bezawork-Geleta, Ayenachew; Kolton, Max; Shaya, Felix; Ostersetzer-Biran, Oren

    2008-08-22

    CRM (chloroplast RNA splicing and ribosome maturation) is a recently recognized RNA-binding domain of ancient origin that has been retained in eukaryotic genomes only within the plant lineage. Whereas in bacteria CRM domains exist as single domain proteins involved in ribosome maturation, in plants they are found in a family of proteins that contain between one and four repeats. Several members of this family with multiple CRM domains have been shown to be required for the splicing of specific plastidic group II introns. Detailed biochemical analysis of one of these factors in maize, CRS1, demonstrated its high affinity and specific binding to the single group II intron whose splicing it facilitates, the plastid-encoded atpF intron RNA. Through its association with two intronic regions, CRS1 guides the folding of atpF intron RNA into its predicted "catalytically active" form. To understand how multiple CRM domains cooperate to achieve high affinity sequence-specific binding to RNA, we analyzed the RNA binding affinity and specificity associated with each individual CRM domain in CRS1; whereas CRM3 bound tightly to the RNA, CRM1 associated specifically with a unique region found within atpF intron domain I. CRM2, which demonstrated only low binding affinity, also seems to form specific interactions with regions localized to domains I, III, and IV. We further show that CRM domains share structural similarities and RNA binding characteristics with the well known RNA recognition motif domain.

  7. Evidence for intron length conservation in a set of mammalian genes associated with embryonic development

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2011-10-05

    Abstract Background We carried out an analysis of intron length conservation across a diverse group of nineteen mammalian species. Motivated by recent research suggesting a role for time delays associated with intron transcription in gene expression oscillations required for early embryonic patterning, we searched for examples of genes that showed the most extreme conservation of total intron content in mammals. Results Gene sets annotated as being involved in pattern specification in the early embryo or containing the homeobox DNA-binding domain, were significantly enriched among genes with highly conserved intron content. We used ancestral sequences reconstructed with probabilistic models that account for insertion and deletion mutations to distinguish insertion and deletion events on lineages leading to human and mouse from their last common ancestor. Using a randomization procedure, we show that genes containing the homeobox domain show less change in intron content than expected, given the number of insertion and deletion events within their introns. Conclusions Our results suggest selection for gene expression precision or the existence of additional development-associated genes for which transcriptional delay is functionally significant.

  8. Multilayer robust control for safety enhancement of reactor operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, R.M.; Lee, K.Y.; Ray, A.

    1991-01-01

    A novel concept of reactor power and temperature control has been recently reported in which a conventional output feedback controller is embedded within a state feedback setting. The embedded output feedback controller at the inner layer largely compensates for plant modeling uncertainties and external disturbances, and the outer layer generates an optimal control signal via feedback of the estimated plant states. A major advantage of this embedded architecture is the robustness of the control system relative to parametric and nonparametric uncertainties and thus the opportunity for designing fault-accommodating control algorithms to improve reactor operations and plant safety. The paper illustrates the architecture of the state-feedback-assisted classical (SFAC) control, which utilizes an embedded output feedback controller designed via classical techniques. It demonstrates the difference between the performance of conventional state feedback control and SFAC by examining the sensitivity of the dominant eigenvalues of the individual closed-loop systems

  9. The Half-Life of the HSV-1 1.5 kb LAT Intron is similar to the half-Life of the 2.0 kb LAT Intron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Kerry K.; Mishra, Prakhar; Fraser, Nigel W.

    2013-01-01

    Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) establishes a latent infection in the sensory neurons of the peripheral nervous system of humans. Although about 80 genes are expressed during the lytic cycle of the virus infection, essentially only one gene is expressed during the latent cycle. This gene is known as the latency associated transcript (LAT) and it appears to play a role in the latency cycle through an anti-apoptotic function in the 5’ end of the gene and miRNA encoded along the length of the transcript which down regulate some of the viral immediate early (IE) gene products. The LAT gene is about 8.3 kb long and consists of two exons separated by an unusual intron. The intron between the exons consists of two nested introns. This arrangement of introns has been called a twintron. Furthermore, the larger (2 kb) intron has been shown to be very stable. In this study we measure the stability of the shorter 1.5 kb nested intron and find its half-life is similar to the longer intron. This was achieved by deleting the 0.5 kb overlapping intron from a plasmid construct designed to express the LAT transcript from a tet-inducible promoter, and measuring the half-life of the 1.5 kb intron in tissue culture cells. This finding supports the hypothesis that it is the common branch-point region of these nested introns that is responsible for their stability. PMID:23335177

  10. Enhancing the Situational Awareness of Airfield Local Controllers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mowery, Samuel

    2002-01-01

    .... In air traffic control operations, situational awareness of a local controller at an airfield such as Marine Corps Air Station Camp Pendleton, California, is critical to prevention of catastrophic...

  11. Attributes Enhanced Role-Based Access Control Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood Rajpoot, Qasim; Jensen, Christian D.; Krishnan, Ram

    2015-01-01

    as an important area of research. In this paper, we propose an access control model that combines the two models in a novel way in order to unify their benefits. Our approach provides a fine-grained access control mechanism that not only takes contextual information into account while making the access control...... decisions but is also suitable for applications where access to resources is controlled by exploiting contents of the resources in the policy....

  12. Enhancing business collaborations with client-oriented process control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelov, S.A.; Vonk, J.; Grefen, P.W.P.J.; Vidyasankar, K.

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, business collaborations have to be highly dynamic and flexible to allow companies to operate efficiently and effectively in complex and volatile markets. To increase the business agility of service consumers, it is fundamental that service providers enhance the visibility of parts of their

  13. Exon sequence requirements for excision in vivo of the bacterial group II intron RmInt1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toro Nicolás

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Group II intron splicing proceeds through two sequential transesterification reactions in which the 5' and 3'-exons are joined together and the lariat intron is released. The intron-encoded protein (IEP assists the splicing of the intron in vivo and remains bound to the excised intron lariat RNA in a ribonucleoprotein particle (RNP that promotes intron mobility. Exon recognition occurs through base-pairing interactions between two guide sequences on the ribozyme domain dI known as EBS1 and EBS2 and two stretches of sequence known as IBS1 and IBS2 on the 5' exon, whereas the 3' exon is recognized through interaction with the sequence immediately upstream from EBS1 [(δ-δ' interaction (subgroup IIA] or with a nucleotide [(EBS3-IBS3 interaction (subgroup IIB and IIC] located in the coordination-loop of dI. The δ nucleotide is involved in base pairing with another intron residue (δ' in subgroup IIB introns and this interaction facilitates base pairing between the 5' exon and the intron. Results In this study, we investigated nucleotide requirements in the distal 5'- and 3' exon regions, EBS-IBS interactions and δ-δ' pairing for excision of the group IIB intron RmInt1 in vivo. We found that the EBS1-IBS1 interaction was required and sufficient for RmInt1 excision. In addition, we provide evidence for the occurrence of canonical δ-δ' pairing and its importance for the intron excision in vivo. Conclusions The excision in vivo of the RmInt1 intron is a favored process, with very few constraints for sequence recognition in both the 5' and 3'-exons. Our results contribute to understand how group II introns spread in nature, and might facilitate the use of RmInt1 in gene targeting.

  14. Effective augmentation of networked systems and enhancing pinning controllability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalili, Mahdi

    2018-06-01

    Controlling dynamics of networked systems to a reference state, known as pinning control, has many applications in science and engineering. In this paper, we introduce a method for effective augmentation of networked systems, while also providing high levels of pinning controllability for the final augmented network. The problem is how to connect a sub-network to an already existing network such that the pinning controllability is maximised. We consider the eigenratio of the augmented Laplacian matrix as a pinning controllability metric, and use graph perturbation theory to approximate the influence of edge addition on the eigenratio. The proposed metric can be effectively used to find the inter-network links connecting the disjoint networks. Also, an efficient link rewiring approach is proposed to further optimise the pinning controllability of the augmented network. We provide numerical simulations on synthetic networks and show that the proposed method is more effective than heuristic ones.

  15. Architecture and Distribution of Introns in Core Genes of Four Fusarium Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mmatshepho M. Phasha

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Removal of introns from transcribed RNA represents a crucial step during the production of mRNA in eukaryotes. Available whole-genome sequences and expressed sequence tags (ESTs have increased our knowledge of this process and revealed various commonalities among eukaryotes. However, certain aspects of intron structure and diversity are taxon-specific, which can complicate the accuracy of in silico gene prediction methods. Using core genes, we evaluated the distribution and architecture of Fusarium circinatum spliceosomal introns, and linked these characteristics to the accuracy of the predicted gene models of the genome of this fungus. We also evaluated intron distribution and architecture in F. verticillioides, F. oxysporum, and F. graminearum, and made comparisons with F. circinatum. Results indicated that F. circinatum and the three other Fusarium species have canonical 5′ and 3′ splice sites, but with subtle differences that are apparently not shared with those of other fungal genera. The polypyrimidine tract of Fusarium introns was also found to be highly divergent among species and genes. Furthermore, the conserved adenosine nucleoside required during the first step of splicing is contained within unique branch site motifs in certain Fusarium introns. Data generated here show that introns of F. circinatum, as well as F. verticillioides, F. oxysporum, and F. graminearum, are characterized by a number of unique features such as the CTHAH and ACCAT motifs of the branch site. Incorporation of such information into genome annotation software will undoubtedly improve the accuracy of gene prediction methods used for Fusarium species and related fungi.

  16. Algorithm Design and Validation for Adaptive Nonlinear Control Enhancement (ADVANCE) Technology Development for Resilient Flight Control, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SSCI proposes to develop and test a framework referred to as the ADVANCE (Algorithm Design and Validation for Adaptive Nonlinear Control Enhancement), within which...

  17. Using Statistical Process Control to Enhance Student Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Mark D.; Raichura, Nilesh; Bernardes, Ednilson

    2012-01-01

    Public interest in educational outcomes has markedly increased in the most recent decade; however, quality management and statistical process control have not deeply penetrated the management of academic institutions. This paper presents results of an attempt to use Statistical Process Control (SPC) to identify a key impediment to continuous…

  18. A Network Traffic Control Enhancement Approach over Bluetooth Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Son, L.T.; Schiøler, Henrik; Madsen, Ole Brun

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes network traffic control issues in Bluetooth data networks as convex optimization problem. We formulate the problem of maximizing of total network flows and minimizing the costs of flows. An adaptive distributed network traffic control scheme is proposed as an approximated solu...... as capacity limitations and flow requirements in the network. Simulation shows that the performance of Bluetooth networks could be improved by applying the adaptive distributed network traffic control scheme...... solution of the stated optimization problem that satisfies quality of service requirements and topologically induced constraints in Bluetooth networks, such as link capacity and node resource limitations. The proposed scheme is decentralized and complies with frequent changes of topology as well......This paper analyzes network traffic control issues in Bluetooth data networks as convex optimization problem. We formulate the problem of maximizing of total network flows and minimizing the costs of flows. An adaptive distributed network traffic control scheme is proposed as an approximated...

  19. A STAT6 Intronic Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism is Associated with Clinical Malaria in Ghanaian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Amoako-Sakyi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria pathogenesis may be influenced by IgE responses and cytokine cross-regulation. Several mutations in the IL-4/STAT6 signaling pathway can alter cytokine cross-regulation and IgE responses during a Plasmodium falciparum malarial infection. This study investigated the relationship between a STAT6 intronic single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs3024974, total IgE, cytokines, and malaria severity in 238 Ghanaian children aged between 0.5 and 13 years. Total IgE and cytokine levels were measured by ELISA, while genotyping was done by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP. Compared with healthy controls, heterozygosity protected against clinical malaria: uncomplicated malaria (odds ratios [OR] = 0.13, P < 0.001, severe malarial anemia (OR = 0.18, P < 0.001, and cerebral malaria (OR = 0.39, P = 0.022. Levels of total IgE significantly differed among malaria phenotypes (P = 0.044 and rs3024974 genotypes (P = 0.037. Neither cytokine levels nor IL-6/IL-10 ratios were associated with malaria phenotypes or rs3024974 genotypes. This study suggests a role for rs3024974 in malaria pathogenesis and offers further insights into an IL-4/STAT6 pathway mutation in malaria pathogenesis.

  20. Developmental continuity in reward-related enhancement of cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Nicole M; Pollak, Seth D

    2014-10-01

    Adolescents engage in more risky behavior than children or adults. The most prominent hypothesis for this phenomenon is that brain systems governing reward sensitivity and brain systems governing self-regulation mature at different rates. Those systems governing reward sensitivity mature in advance of those governing self-control. This hypothesis has substantial empirical support, however, the evidence supporting this theory has been exclusively derived from contexts where self-control systems are required to regulate reward sensitivity in order to promote adaptive behavior. In adults, reward promotes a shift to a proactive control strategy and better cognitive control performance. It is unclear whether children and adolescents will respond to reward in the same way. Using fMRI methodology, we explored whether children and adolescents would demonstrate a shift to proactive control in the context of reward. We tested 22 children, 20 adolescents, and 23 adults. In contrast to our hypothesis, children, adolescents, and adults all demonstrated a shift to proactive cognitive control in the context of reward. In light of the results, current neurobiological theories of adolescent behavior need to be refined to reflect that in certain contexts there is continuity in the manner reward and cognitive control systems interact across development. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Enhanced Performance Controller Design for Stochastic Systems by Adding Extra State Estimation onto the Existing Closed Loop Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yuyang; Zhang, Qichun; Wang, Hong

    2016-08-30

    To enhance the performance of the tracking property , this paper presents a novel control algorithm for a class of linear dynamic stochastic systems with unmeasurable states, where the performance enhancement loop is established based on Kalman filter. Without changing the existing closed loop with the PI controller, the compensative controller is designed to minimize the variances of the tracking errors using the estimated states and the propagation of state variances. Moreover, the stability of the closed-loop systems has been analyzed in the mean-square sense. A simulated example is included to show the effectiveness of the presented control algorithm, where encouraging results have been obtained.

  2. Enhanced vaccine control of epidemics in adaptive networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Leah B.; Schwartz, Ira B.

    2010-04-01

    We study vaccine control for disease spread on an adaptive network modeling disease avoidance behavior. Control is implemented by adding Poisson-distributed vaccination of susceptibles. We show that vaccine control is much more effective in adaptive networks than in static networks due to feedback interaction between the adaptive network rewiring and the vaccine application. When compared to extinction rates in static social networks, we find that the amount of vaccine resources required to sustain similar rates of extinction are as much as two orders of magnitude lower in adaptive networks.

  3. Active field control (AFC) -electro-acoustic enhancement system using acoustical feedback control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Hideo; Watanabe, Takayuki; Kishinaga, Shinji; Kawakami, Fukushi

    2003-10-01

    AFC is an electro-acoustic enhancement system using FIR filters to optimize auditory impressions, such as liveness, loudness, and spaciousness. This system has been under development at Yamaha Corporation for more than 15 years and has been installed in approximately 50 venues in Japan to date. AFC utilizes feedback control techniques for recreation of reverberation from the physical reverberation of the room. In order to prevent coloration problems caused by a closed loop condition, two types of time-varying control techniques are implemented in the AFC system to ensure smooth loop gain and a sufficient margin in frequency characteristics to prevent instability. Those are: (a) EMR (electric microphone rotator) -smoothing frequency responses between microphones and speakers by changing the combinations of inputs and outputs periodically; (b) fluctuating-FIR -smoothing frequency responses of FIR filters and preventing coloration problems caused by fixed FIR filters, by moving each FIR tap periodically on time axis with a different phase and time period. In this paper, these techniques are summarized. A block diagram of AFC using new equipment named AFC1, which has been developed at Yamaha Corporation and released recently in the US, is also presented.

  4. Enhancing SOEC system lifetime by controlling inlet gas composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    In a method for enhancing the lifetime of a solid oxide electrolysis cell system by counteracting nitridation of the threads of the in-line electrical heaters of the system, the start-up, shut-down and trip operations are done in a humidified nitrogen atmosphere on the fuel side to achieve a dew ...... point between -70 DEG C and 23 DEG C, and in air or in carbon dioxide on the oxygen side, securing that sufficiently oxidizing conditions are always present across the whole surface of the cells on the oxygen side in the stack....

  5. Towards barcode markers in Fungi: an intron map of Ascomycota mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria, Monica; Vicario, Saverio; Pappadà, Graziano; Scioscia, Gaetano; Scazzocchio, Claudio; Saccone, Cecilia

    2009-06-16

    A standardized and cost-effective molecular identification system is now an urgent need for Fungi owing to their wide involvement in human life quality. In particular the potential use of mitochondrial DNA species markers has been taken in account. Unfortunately, a serious difficulty in the PCR and bioinformatic surveys is due to the presence of mobile introns in almost all the fungal mitochondrial genes. The aim of this work is to verify the incidence of this phenomenon in Ascomycota, testing, at the same time, a new bioinformatic tool for extracting and managing sequence databases annotations, in order to identify the mitochondrial gene regions where introns are missing so as to propose them as species markers. The general trend towards a large occurrence of introns in the mitochondrial genome of Fungi has been confirmed in Ascomycota by an extensive bioinformatic analysis, performed on all the entries concerning 11 mitochondrial protein coding genes and 2 mitochondrial rRNA (ribosomal RNA) specifying genes, belonging to this phylum, available in public nucleotide sequence databases. A new query approach has been developed to retrieve effectively introns information included in these entries. After comparing the new query-based approach with a blast-based procedure, with the aim of designing a faithful Ascomycota mitochondrial intron map, the first method appeared clearly the most accurate. Within this map, despite the large pervasiveness of introns, it is possible to distinguish specific regions comprised in several genes, including the full NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6) gene, which could be considered as barcode candidates for Ascomycota due to their paucity of introns and to their length, above 400 bp, comparable to the lower end size of the length range of barcodes successfully used in animals. The development of the new query system described here would answer the pressing requirement to improve drastically the bioinformatics support to the DNA Barcode

  6. Enhancing Schistosomiasis Control Strategy for Zimbabwe: Building on Past Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses J. Chimbari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni are prevalent in Zimbabwe to levels that make schistosomiasis a public health problem. Following three national surveys to map the disease prevalence, a national policy on control of schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminths is being developed. This paper reviews the experiences that Zimbabwe has in the area of schistosomiasis control with a view to influence policy. A case study approach to highlight key experiences and outcomes was adopted. The benefits derived from intersectoral collaboration that led to the development of a model irrigation scheme that incorporates schistosomiasis control measures are highlighted. Similarly, the benefits of using plant molluscicides and fish and duck biological agents (Sargochromis codringtonii and Cairina moschata are highlighted. Emphasis was also placed on the importance of utilizing locally developed water and sanitation technologies and the critical human resource base in the area of schistosomiasis developed over years. After synthesis of the case studies presented, it was concluded that while there is a need to follow the WHO recommended guidelines for schistosomiasis control it is important to develop a control strategy that is informed by work already done in the country. The importance of having a policy and local guidelines for schistosomiasis control is emphasized.

  7. Evidence against the energetic cost hypothesis for the short introns in highly expressed genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niu Deng-Ke

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In animals, the moss Physcomitrella patens and the pollen of Arabidopsis thaliana, highly expressed genes have shorter introns than weakly expressed genes. A popular explanation for this is selection for transcription efficiency, which includes two sub-hypotheses: to minimize the energetic cost or to minimize the time cost. Results In an individual human, different organs may differ up to hundreds of times in cell number (for example, a liver versus a hypothalamus. Considered at the individual level, a gene specifically expressed in a large organ is actually transcribed tens or hundreds of times more than a gene with a similar expression level (a measure of mRNA abundance per cell specifically expressed in a small organ. According to the energetic cost hypothesis, the former should have shorter introns than the latter. However, in humans and mice we have not found significant differences in intron length between large-tissue/organ-specific genes and small-tissue/organ-specific genes with similar expression levels. Qualitative estimation shows that the deleterious effect (that is, the energetic burden of long introns in highly expressed genes is too negligible to be efficiently selected against in mammals. Conclusion The short introns in highly expressed genes should not be attributed to energy constraint. We evaluated evidence for the time cost hypothesis and other alternatives.

  8. Curcumin enhances human macrophage control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiyuan; Oberley-Deegan, Rebecca E; Bai, An; Ovrutsky, Alida R; Kinney, William H; Weaver, Michael; Zhang, Gong; Honda, Jennifer R; Chan, Edward D

    2016-07-01

    With the worldwide emergence of highly drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB), novel agents that have direct antimycobacterial effects or that enhance host immunity are urgently needed. Curcumin is a polyphenol responsible for the bright yellow-orange colour of turmeric, a spice derived from the root of the perennial herb Curcuma longa. Curcumin is a potent inducer of apoptosis-an effector mechanism used by macrophages to kill intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). An in vitro human macrophage infection model was used to determine the effects of curcumin on MTB survival. We found that curcumin enhanced the clearance of MTB in differentiated THP-1 human monocytes and in primary human alveolar macrophages. We also found that curcumin was an inducer of caspase-3-dependent apoptosis and autophagy. Curcumin mediated these anti-MTB cellular functions, in part, via inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB) activation. Curcumin protects against MTB infection in human macrophages. The host-protective role of curcumin against MTB in macrophages needs confirmation in an animal model; if validated, the immunomodulatory anti-TB effects of curcumin would be less prone to drug resistance development. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  9. Thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR intron 1 variants are major risk factors for Graves' disease in three European Caucasian cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Płoski

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR gene is an established susceptibility locus for Graves' disease (GD, with recent studies refining association to two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, rs179247 and rs12101255, within TSHR intron 1.We aimed to validate association of rs179247 and rs12101255 in Polish and UK Caucasian GD case-control subjects, determine the mode of inheritance and to see if association correlates with specific GD clinical manifestations. We investigated three case-control populations; 558 GD patients and 520 controls from Warsaw, Poland, 196 GD patients and 198 controls from Gliwice, Poland and 2504 GD patients from the UK National collection and 2784 controls from the 1958 British Birth cohort. Both rs179247 (P = 1.2×10(-2-6.2×10(-15, OR = 1.38-1.45 and rs12101255 (P = 1.0×10(-4-3.68×10(-21, OR = 1.47-1.87 exhibited strong association with GD in all three cohorts. Logistic regression suggested association of rs179247 is secondary to rs12101255 in all cohorts. Inheritance modeling suggested a co-dominant mode of inheritance in all cohorts. Genotype-phenotype correlations provided no clear evidence of association with any specific clinical characteristics.We have validated association of TSHR intron 1 SNPs with GD in three independent European cohorts and have demonstrated that the aetiological variant within the TSHR is likely to be in strong linkage disequilibrium with rs12101255. Fine mapping is now required to determine the exact location of the aetiological DNA variants within the TSHR.

  10. An Enhanced Control Scheme for Uninterruptible Power Supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Jinghang; Savaghebi, Mehdi; Wei, Baoze

    2017-01-01

    To address the active power feeding issue in the parallel Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) system, a DC-link Voltage Protection (DCVP) control strategy is proposed in this paper. The proposed control method only relies on local load information, which increases the system reliability...... and robustness. Moreover, virtual resistance based regulation strategies are proposed for solving the active power sharing imbalance caused by the active power feeding and harmonic power sharing imbalanced caused by the line resistance mismatching. In addition, an anti-windup based consensus distributed...

  11. RNA interference for performance enhancement and detection in doping control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Maxie; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2011-10-01

    RNA interference represents a comparably new route of regulating and manipulating specific gene expression. Promising results were obtained in experimental therapies aim at the treatment of different kinds of diseases including cancer, diabetes mellitus or Dychenne muscular dystrophy. While studies on down-regulation efficiency are often performed by analyzing the regulated protein, the direct detection of small, interfering RNA molecules and antisense oligonucleotides is of great interest for the investigation of the metabolism and degradation and also for the detection of a putative misuse of these molecules in sports. Myostatin down-regulation was shown to result in increased performance and muscle growth and the regulation of several other proteins could be relevant for performance enhancement. This mini-review summarizes current approaches for the mass spectrometric analysis of siRNA and antisense oligonucleotides from biological matrices and the available data on biodistribution, metabolism, and half-life of relevant substances are discussed. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Using a Nameserver to Enhance Control System Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joan Sage; Karen White; Matthew Bickley

    2001-01-01

    The Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility control system uses a nameserver to reduce system response time and to minimize the impact of client name resolution on front-end computers. The control system is based on the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS), which uses name-based broadcasts to initiate data communication. By default, when EPICS process variables are requested by client applications, all front-end computers receive the broadcasts and perform name resolution processing against local channel name lists. The nameserver is used to offload the name resolution task to a single node. This processing, formerly done on all front-end computers, is now done only by the nameserver. In a control system with heavily loaded front-end computers and high peak client connection loads, a significant performance improvement is seen. This paper describes the name server in more detail, and discusses the strengths and weaknesses of making name resolution a centralized service. This work was supported by the U.S. DOE contract No. DE-AC05-84ER40150

  13. A new strategy to enhance polysialic acid production by controlling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polysialic acid (PSA) is a new pharmaceutical material used in control release of protein drugs and as scaffold material in biomedical applications. It is also a vital source of sialic acid and its derivatives. In this paper, we demonstrated that the substrate sorbitol has significant effect on bacterial growth and PSA formation in ...

  14. A new strategy to enhance polysialic acid production by controlling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-04-19

    Apr 19, 2010 ... derivatives, PSA is also used in control release of drugs. *Corresponding ... Camino et al., 1990; Rodriguez-Aparicio et al., 1988;. Rode et al. ..... 68: 132-153. Wunder DE, Aaronson W, Hayes SF, Bliss J, Silver RP (1994).

  15. Control Design of VSIs to Enhance Transient Performance in Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federico, de Bosio; Antonio DeSouza Ribeiro, Luiz; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the control design for an islanded microgrid in order to ensure acceptable performance in terms of voltage quality and load sharing by focusing on transient conditions. To this aim, state feedback decoupling approach has been applied. Experimental tests have been performed...

  16. An intronic microRNA silences genes that are functionally antagonistic to its host gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Sailen

    2008-09-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short noncoding RNAs that down-regulate gene expression by silencing specific target mRNAs. While many miRNAs are transcribed from their own genes, nearly half map within introns of 'host' genes, the significance of which remains unclear. We report that transcriptional activation of apoptosis-associated tyrosine kinase (AATK), essential for neuronal differentiation, also generates miR-338 from an AATK gene intron that silences a family of mRNAs whose protein products are negative regulators of neuronal differentiation. We conclude that an intronic miRNA, transcribed together with the host gene mRNA, may serve the interest of its host gene by silencing a cohort of genes that are functionally antagonistic to the host gene itself.

  17. Enhanced attention to context: An intervention that increases perceived control in mild depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msetfi, R M; Brosnan, L; Cavus, H A

    2016-01-01

    People perceive that they have control over events to the extent that the same events do not occur outside of their control, randomly, in the environment or context. Therefore, perceived control should be enhanced if there is a large contrast between one's own control and the control that the context itself seems to exert over events. Given that depression is associated with low perceived control, we tested the hypothesis that enhanced attentional focus to context will increase perceived control in people with and without depression. A total of 106 non-depressed and mildly depressed participants completed a no control zero-contingency task with low and high outcome probability conditions. In the experimental context-focus group, participants were instructed to attend to the context, whereas in the control group, participants were instructed to attend to their thoughts. Irrespective of attentional focus, non-depressed participants displayed illusory control. However, people with mild depression responded strongly to the attention focus manipulation. In the control group, they evidenced low perceived control with classic depressive realism effects. In the experimental group, when asked to focus on the context in which events took place, participants with mild depression displayed enhanced perceived control or illusory control, similar to non-depressed participants. Findings are discussed in relation to whether depression effects on perceived control represent tendencies towards realism or attentional aspects of depressive thoughts.

  18. PLS-based memory control scheme for enhanced process monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi

    2017-01-20

    Fault detection is important for safe operation of various modern engineering systems. Partial least square (PLS) has been widely used in monitoring highly correlated process variables. Conventional PLS-based methods, nevertheless, often fail to detect incipient faults. In this paper, we develop new PLS-based monitoring chart, combining PLS with multivariate memory control chart, the multivariate exponentially weighted moving average (MEWMA) monitoring chart. The MEWMA are sensitive to incipient faults in the process mean, which significantly improves the performance of PLS methods and widen their applicability in practice. Using simulated distillation column data, we demonstrate that the proposed PLS-based MEWMA control chart is more effective in detecting incipient fault in the mean of the multivariate process variables, and outperform the conventional PLS-based monitoring charts.

  19. Optimized controllers for enhancing dynamic performance of PV interface system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud A. Attia

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic performance of PV interface system can be improved by optimizing the gains of the Proportional–Integral (PI controller. In this work, gravitational search algorithm and harmony search algorithm are utilized to optimal tuning of PI controller gains. Performance comparison between the PV system with optimized PI gains utilizing different techniques are carried out. Finally, the dynamic behavior of the system is studied under hypothetical sudden variations in irradiance. The examination of the proposed techniques for optimal tuning of PI gains is conducted using MATLAB/SIMULINK software package. The main contribution of this work is investigating the dynamic performance of PV interfacing system with application of gravitational search algorithm and harmony search algorithm for optimal PI parameters tuning. Keywords: Photovoltaic power systems, Gravitational search algorithm, Harmony search algorithm, Genetic algorithm, Artificial intelligence

  20. Macronuclear genome structure of the ciliate Nyctotherus ovalis: Single-gene chromosomes and tiny introns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landweber Laura F

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nyctotherus ovalis is a single-celled eukaryote that has hydrogen-producing mitochondria and lives in the hindgut of cockroaches. Like all members of the ciliate taxon, it has two types of nuclei, a micronucleus and a macronucleus. N. ovalis generates its macronuclear chromosomes by forming polytene chromosomes that subsequently develop into macronuclear chromosomes by DNA elimination and rearrangement. Results We examined the structure of these gene-sized macronuclear chromosomes in N. ovalis. We determined the telomeres, subtelomeric regions, UTRs, coding regions and introns by sequencing a large set of macronuclear DNA sequences (4,242 and cDNAs (5,484 and comparing them with each other. The telomeres consist of repeats CCC(AAAACCCCn, similar to those in spirotrichous ciliates such as Euplotes, Sterkiella (Oxytricha and Stylonychia. Per sequenced chromosome we found evidence for either a single protein-coding gene, a single tRNA, or the complete ribosomal RNAs cluster. Hence the chromosomes appear to encode single transcripts. In the short subtelomeric regions we identified a few overrepresented motifs that could be involved in gene regulation, but there is no consensus polyadenylation site. The introns are short (21–29 nucleotides, and a significant fraction (1/3 of the tiny introns is conserved in the distantly related ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia. As has been observed in P. tetraurelia, the N. ovalis introns tend to contain in-frame stop codons or have a length that is not dividable by three. This pattern causes premature termination of mRNA translation in the event of intron retention, and potentially degradation of unspliced mRNAs by the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay pathway. Conclusion The combination of short leaders, tiny introns and single genes leads to very minimal macronuclear chromosomes. The smallest we identified contained only 150 nucleotides.

  1. Enhanced methodology of focus control and monitoring on scanner tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Jen; Kim, Young Ki; Hao, Xueli; Gomez, Juan-Manuel; Tian, Ye; Kamalizadeh, Ferhad; Hanson, Justin K.

    2017-03-01

    As the demand of the technology node shrinks from 14nm to 7nm, the reliability of tool monitoring techniques in advanced semiconductor fabs to achieve high yield and quality becomes more critical. Tool health monitoring methods involve periodic sampling of moderately processed test wafers to detect for particles, defects, and tool stability in order to ensure proper tool health. For lithography TWINSCAN scanner tools, the requirements for overlay stability and focus control are very strict. Current scanner tool health monitoring methods include running BaseLiner to ensure proper tool stability on a periodic basis. The focus measurement on YIELDSTAR by real-time or library-based reconstruction of critical dimensions (CD) and side wall angle (SWA) has been demonstrated as an accurate metrology input to the control loop. The high accuracy and repeatability of the YIELDSTAR focus measurement provides a common reference of scanner setup and user process. In order to further improve the metrology and matching performance, Diffraction Based Focus (DBF) metrology enabling accurate, fast, and non-destructive focus acquisition, has been successfully utilized for focus monitoring/control of TWINSCAN NXT immersion scanners. The optimal DBF target was determined to have minimized dose crosstalk, dynamic precision, set-get residual, and lens aberration sensitivity. By exploiting this new measurement target design, 80% improvement in tool-to-tool matching, >16% improvement in run-to-run mean focus stability, and >32% improvement in focus uniformity have been demonstrated compared to the previous BaseLiner methodology. Matching control and monitoring on multiple illumination conditions, opens an avenue to significantly reduce Focus-Exposure Matrix (FEM) wafer exposure for new product/layer best focus (BF) setup.

  2. Multi-species comparative analysis of the equine ACE gene identifies a highly conserved potential transcription factor binding site in intron 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Natasha A; Tammen, Imke; Raadsma, Herman W

    2013-01-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is essential for control of blood pressure. The human ACE gene contains an intronic Alu indel (I/D) polymorphism that has been associated with variation in serum enzyme levels, although the functional mechanism has not been identified. The polymorphism has also been associated with cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, renal disease and elite athleticism. We have characterized the ACE gene in horses of breeds selected for differing physical abilities. The equine gene has a similar structure to that of all known mammalian ACE genes. Nine common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) discovered in pooled DNA were found to be inherited in nine haplotypes. Three of these SNPs were located in intron 16, homologous to that containing the Alu polymorphism in the human. A highly conserved 18 bp sequence, also within that intron, was identified as being a potential binding site for the transcription factors Oct-1, HFH-1 and HNF-3β, and lies within a larger area of higher than normal homology. This putative regulatory element may contribute to regulation of the documented inter-individual variation in human circulating enzyme levels, for which a functional mechanism is yet to be defined. Two equine SNPs occurred within the conserved area in intron 16, although neither of them disrupted the putative binding site. We propose a possible regulatory mechanism of the ACE gene in mammalian species which was previously unknown. This advance will allow further analysis leading to a better understanding of the mechanisms underpinning the associations seen between the human Alu polymorphism and enzyme levels, cardiovascular disease states and elite athleticism.

  3. Multi-species comparative analysis of the equine ACE gene identifies a highly conserved potential transcription factor binding site in intron 16.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha A Hamilton

    Full Text Available Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE is essential for control of blood pressure. The human ACE gene contains an intronic Alu indel (I/D polymorphism that has been associated with variation in serum enzyme levels, although the functional mechanism has not been identified. The polymorphism has also been associated with cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, renal disease and elite athleticism. We have characterized the ACE gene in horses of breeds selected for differing physical abilities. The equine gene has a similar structure to that of all known mammalian ACE genes. Nine common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs discovered in pooled DNA were found to be inherited in nine haplotypes. Three of these SNPs were located in intron 16, homologous to that containing the Alu polymorphism in the human. A highly conserved 18 bp sequence, also within that intron, was identified as being a potential binding site for the transcription factors Oct-1, HFH-1 and HNF-3β, and lies within a larger area of higher than normal homology. This putative regulatory element may contribute to regulation of the documented inter-individual variation in human circulating enzyme levels, for which a functional mechanism is yet to be defined. Two equine SNPs occurred within the conserved area in intron 16, although neither of them disrupted the putative binding site. We propose a possible regulatory mechanism of the ACE gene in mammalian species which was previously unknown. This advance will allow further analysis leading to a better understanding of the mechanisms underpinning the associations seen between the human Alu polymorphism and enzyme levels, cardiovascular disease states and elite athleticism.

  4. The Unspoken Consequence of Command, Control Communications Technology: Enhanced Micromanagement by Risk-Averse Commanders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carozza, John

    2004-01-01

    .... However, along with its benefits, this command, control and communications (C3) network includes the dangerous consequence of eroding the autonomy of tactical command through enhanced micromanagement by risk-averse operational commanders...

  5. Pest species diversity enhances control of spider mites and whiteflies by a generalist phytoseiid predator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messelink, G.J.; Maanen, van R.; Holstein-Saj, van R.; Sabelis, M.W.; Janssen, A.

    2010-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that pest species diversity enhances biological pest control with generalist predators, we studied the dynamics of three major pest species on greenhouse cucumber: Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum

  6. Security-Enhanced Push Button Configuration for Home Smart Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Junghee; Park, Taejoon

    2017-06-08

    With the emergence of smart and converged home services, the need for the secure and easy interplay of various devices has been increased. Push Button Configuration (PBC) is one of the technologies proposed for easy set-up of a secure session between IT and consumer devices. Although the Wi-Fi Direct specification explicitly states that all devices must support the PBC method, its applicability is very limited. This is because the security vulnerability of PBC can be maliciously exploited so that attackers can make illegitimate sessions with consumer devices. To address this problem, this paper proposes a novel Security-enhanced PBC (SePBC) scheme with which we can uncover suspicious or malicious devices. The proposed mechanism has several unique features. First, we develop a secure handshake distance measurement protocol by preventing an adversary sitting outside the region from maliciously manipulating its distance to be fake. Second, it is compatible with the original Wi-Fi PBC without introducing a brand-new methodology. Finally, SePBC uses lightweight operations without CPU-intensive cryptography computation and employs inexpensive H/W. Moreover, it needs to incur little overhead when there is no attack. This paper also designs and implements the proposed SePBC in the real world. Our experimental results and analysis show that the proposed SePBC scheme effectively defeats attacks on PBC while minimizing the modification of the original PBC equipment.

  7. Understanding and controlling transient enhanced dopant diffusion in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolk, P.A.; Gossmann, H.J.; Eaglesham, D.J.; Jacobson, D.C.; Poate, J.M.; Luftman, H.S.

    1995-01-01

    Implanted B and P dopants in Si exhibit transient enhanced diffusion (TED) during initial annealing which arises from the excess interstitials generated by the implant. In order to study the mechanisms of TED, the authors have used B doping marker layers in Si to probe the injection of interstitials from near-surface, non-amorphizing Si implants during annealing. The in-diffusion of interstitials is limited by trapping at impurities and has an activation energy of ∼3.5 eV. Substitutional C is the dominant trapping center with a binding energy of 2--2.5 eV. The high interstitial supersaturation adjacent to the implant damage drives substitutional B into metastable clusters at concentrations below the B solid solubility limit. Transmission electron microscopy shows that the interstitials driving TED are emitted from {311} defect clusters in the damage region at a rate which also exhibits an activation energy of 3.6 eV. The population of excess interstitials is strongly reduced by incorporating substitutional C in Si to levels of ∼10 19 /cm 3 prior to ion implantation. This provides a promising method for suppressing TED, thus enabling shallow junction formation in future Si devices through dopant implantation

  8. Mobile group II intron based gene targeting in Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasikumar, Ponnusamy; Paul, Eldho; Gomathi, Sivasamy; Abhishek, Albert; Sasikumar, Sundaresan; Selvam, Govindan Sadasivam

    2016-10-01

    The usage of recombinant lactic acid bacteria for delivery of therapeutic proteins to the mucosa has been emerging. In the present study, an attempt was made to engineer a thyA mutant of Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) using lactococcal group II intron Ll.LtrB for the development of biologically contained recombinant L. plantarum for prevention of calcium oxalate stone disease. The 3 kb Ll.LtrB intron donor cassettes from the source vector pACD4C was PCR amplified, ligated into pSIP series of lactobacillus vector pLp_3050sAmyA, yielding a novel vector pLpACD4C (8.6 kb). The quantitative real-time PCR experiment shows 94-fold increased expression of Ll.LtrB intron and 14-fold increased expression of ltrA gene in recombinant L. plantarum containing pLpACD4C. In order to target the thyA gene, the potential intron RNA binding sites in the thyA gene of L. plantarum was predicted with help of computer algorithm. The insertion location 188|189s of thyA gene (lowest E-0.134) was chosen and the wild type intron Ll.LtrB was PCR modified, yielding a retargeted intron of pLpACDthyA. The retargeted intron was expressed by using induction peptide (sppIP), subsequently the integration of intron in thyA gene was identified by PCR screening and finally ThyA - mutant of L. plantarum (ThyA18) was detected. In vitro growth curve result showed that in the absence of thymidine, colony forming units of mutant ThyA18 was decreased, whereas high thymidine concentration (10 μM) supported the growth of the culture until saturation. In conclusion, ThyA - mutant of L. plantarum (ThyA18) constructed in this study will be used as a biologically contained recombinant probiotic to deliver oxalate decarboxylase into the lumen for treatment of hyperoxaluria and calcium oxalate stone deposition. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Enhanced Temperature Control Method Using ANFIS with FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiung-Wei Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature control in etching process is important for semiconductor manufacturing technology. However, pressure variations in vacuum chamber results in a change in temperature, worsening the accuracy of the temperature of the wafer and the speed and quality of the etching process. This work develops an adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS using a field-programmable gate array (FPGA to improve the effectiveness. The proposed method adjusts every membership function to keep the temperature in the chamber stable. The improvement of the proposed algorithm is confirmed using a medium vacuum (MV inductively-coupled plasma- (ICP- type etcher.

  10. Applying Space Technology to Enhance Control of an Artificial Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Diane; Donovan, William H.; Novy, Mara; Abramczyk, Robert

    1997-01-01

    At the present time, myoelectric prostheses perform only one function of the hand: open and close with the thumb, index and middle finger coming together to grasp various shaped objects. To better understand the limitations of the current single-function prostheses and the needs of the individuals who use them, The Institute for Rehabilitation and Research (TIRR), sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (August 1992 - November 1994), surveyed approximately 2500 individuals with upper limb loss. When asked to identify specific features of their current electric prosthesis that needed improvement, the survey respondents overwhelmingly identified the lack of wrist and finger movement as well as poor control capability. Simply building a mechanism with individual finger and wrist motion is not enough. Individuals with upper limb loss tend to reject prostheses that require continuous visual monitoring and concentration to control. Robotics researchers at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) and Rice University have made substantial progress in myoelectric teleoperation. A myoelectric teleoperation system translates signals generated by an able-bodied robot operator's muscles during hand motions into commands that drive a robot's hand through identical motions. Farry's early work in myoelectric teleoperation used variations over time in the myoelectric spectrum as inputs to neural networks to discriminate grasp types and thumb motions. The resulting schemes yielded up to 93% correct classification on thumb motions. More recently, Fernandez achieved 100% correct non-realtime classification of thumb abduction, extension, and flexion on the same myoelectric data. Fernandez used genetic programming to develop functions that discriminate between thumb motions using myoelectric signal parameters. Genetic programming (GP) is an evolutionary programming method where the computer can modify the discriminating functions' form to improve its performance, not just adjust

  11. Software simulation: a tool for enhancing control system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sze, B.; Ridgway, G.H.

    2008-01-01

    The creation, implementation and management of engineering design tools are important to the quality and efficiency of any large engineering project. Some of the most complicated tools to develop are system simulators. The development and implementation of system simulators to support replacement fuel handling control systems is of particular interest to the Canadian nuclear industry given the current age of installations and the risk of obsolescence to many utilities. The use of such simulator tools has been known to significantly improve successful deployment of new software packages and maintenance-related software changes while reducing the time required for their overall development. Moreover, these simulation systems can also serve as operator training stations and provide a virtual environment for site engineers to test operational changes before they are uploaded to the actual system. (author)

  12. An approach to enhanced control room crew performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frye, S.R.

    1988-01-01

    The function of a nuclear power plant control room team is similar to that of an airline cockpit crew or a critical task military team such as a flight crew, tank crew, combat squad or platoon. These teams encounter many of the same problems or challenges in their environments when dealing with abnormal or emergency situations. The competency of these teams in bringing about successful conclusions in situations depends on their ability to coordinate their actions. This is often referred to as teamwork and includes the interactions between team members which must occur during highly critical situations. The purpose of this paper is to present team skills training and the advances made in this crucial area by utilizing both classroom and high fidelity simulator training

  13. Integration of Bass Enhancement and Active Noise Control System in Automobile Cabin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Wang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advancement of digital signal processing technologies, consumers are more concerned with the quality of multimedia entertainment in automobiles. In order to meet this demand, an audio enhancement system is needed to improve bass reproduction and cancel engine noise in the cabins. This paper presents an integrated active noise control system that is based on frequency-sampling filters to track and extract the bass information from the audio signal, and a multifrequency active noise equalizer to tune the low-frequency engine harmonics to enhance the bass reproduction. In the noise cancellation mode, a maximum of 3 dB bass enhancement can be achieved with significant noise suppression, while higher bass enhancement can be achieved in the bass enhance mode. The results show that the proposed system is effective for solving both the bass audio reproduction and the noise control problems in automobile cabins.

  14. Disentangling the Impact of Control-Enhancing Mechanisms on Firm Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zattoni, Alessandro; Pedersen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    shareholders to expropriate minority shareholders. The aim of this article is to contribute to the current debate investigating the implications of these control-enhancing mechanisms on firm performance. To reach this purpose, we collected ownership data on the (100) largest listed companies per capitalization......Governance scholars and investors traditionally advocate against the use of control enhancing mechanisms, i.e. mechanisms aimed at separating voting and cash flow rights. These mechanisms may, in fact, determine a deviation from the proportionality principle and may encourage large and controlling...... in five European countries (i.e. France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the UK). Then we tested the consequences of control-enhancing mechanisms for firm performance using 2SLS regression models. Our results show that (i) mechanisms that lock-in control do have a direct and negative impact on firm performance...

  15. Enhancement tuning and control for high dynamic range images in multi-scale locally adaptive contrast enhancement algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetkovic, Sascha D.; Schirris, Johan; de With, Peter H. N.

    2009-01-01

    For real-time imaging in surveillance applications, visibility of details is of primary importance to ensure customer confidence. If we display High Dynamic-Range (HDR) scenes whose contrast spans four or more orders of magnitude on a conventional monitor without additional processing, results are unacceptable. Compression of the dynamic range is therefore a compulsory part of any high-end video processing chain because standard monitors are inherently Low- Dynamic Range (LDR) devices with maximally two orders of display dynamic range. In real-time camera processing, many complex scenes are improved with local contrast enhancements, bringing details to the best possible visibility. In this paper, we show how a multi-scale high-frequency enhancement scheme, in which gain is a non-linear function of the detail energy, can be used for the dynamic range compression of HDR real-time video camera signals. We also show the connection of our enhancement scheme to the processing way of the Human Visual System (HVS). Our algorithm simultaneously controls perceived sharpness, ringing ("halo") artifacts (contrast) and noise, resulting in a good balance between visibility of details and non-disturbance of artifacts. The overall quality enhancement, suitable for both HDR and LDR scenes, is based on a careful selection of the filter types for the multi-band decomposition and a detailed analysis of the signal per frequency band.

  16. Oxygen enhances phosphine toxicity for postharvest pest control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Biao

    2011-10-01

    Phosphine fumigations under superatmospheric oxygen levels (oxygenated phosphine fumigations) were significantly more effective than the fumigations under the normal 20.9% atmospheric oxygen level against western flower thrips [Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande)] adults and larvae, leafminer Liriomyza langei Frick pupae, grape mealybug [Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn)] eggs, and Indianmeal moth [Plodia interpunctella (Hübner)] eggs and pupae. In 5-h fumigations with 1,000 ppm phosphine at 5 degrees C, mortalities of western flower thrips increased significantly from 79.5 to 97.7% when oxygen was increased from 20.9 to 40% and reached 99.3% under 80% O2. Survivorships of leafminer pupae decreased significantly from 71.2% under 20.9% O2 to 16.2% under 40% O2 and reached 1.1% under 80% O2 in 24-h fumigations with 500 ppm phosphine at 5 degrees C. Complete control of leafminer pupae was achieved in 24-h fumigations with 1,000 ppm phosphine at 5 degrees C under 60% O2 or higher. Survivorships of grape mealybug eggs also decreased significantly in 48-h fumigations with 1,000 ppm phosphine at 2 degrees C under 60% O2 compared with the fumigations under 20.9% O2. Indian meal moth egg survivorships decreased significantly from 17.4 to 0.5% in responses to an oxygen level increase from 20.9 to 40% in 48-h fumigations with 1,000 ppm phosphine at 10 degrees C and reached 0.2% in fumigations under 80% O2. When the oxygen level was reduced from 20.9 to 15 and 10% in fumigations, survivorships of Indianmeal moth eggs increased significantly from 17.4 to 32.9 and 39.9%, respectively. Increased O2 levels also resulted in significantly lower survival rates of Indianmeal moth pupae in response to 24-h fumigations with 500 and 1,000 ppm phosphine at 10 degrees C and a complete control was achieved in the 1,000 ppm phosphine fumigations under 60% O2. Oxygenated phosphine fumigations have marked potential to improve insecticidal efficacy. Advantages and limitations of oxygenated

  17. A CRM domain protein functions dually in group I and group II intron splicing in land plant chloroplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, Yukari; Barkan, Alice

    2007-12-01

    The CRM domain is a recently recognized RNA binding domain found in three group II intron splicing factors in chloroplasts, in a bacterial protein that associates with ribosome precursors, and in a family of uncharacterized proteins in plants. To elucidate the functional repertoire of proteins with CRM domains, we studied CFM2 (for CRM Family Member 2), which harbors four CRM domains. RNA coimmunoprecipitation assays showed that CFM2 in maize (Zea mays) chloroplasts is associated with the group I intron in pre-trnL-UAA and group II introns in the ndhA and ycf3 pre-mRNAs. T-DNA insertions in the Arabidopsis thaliana ortholog condition a defective-seed phenotype (strong allele) or chlorophyll-deficient seedlings with impaired splicing of the trnL group I intron and the ndhA, ycf3-int1, and clpP-int2 group II introns (weak alleles). CFM2 and two previously described CRM proteins are bound simultaneously to the ndhA and ycf3-int1 introns and act in a nonredundant fashion to promote their splicing. With these findings, CRM domain proteins are implicated in the activities of three classes of catalytic RNA: group I introns, group II introns, and 23S rRNA.

  18. Polymorphism in Mitochondrial Group I Introns among Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii Genotypes and Its Association with Drug Susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe E. E. S. Gomes

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcosis, one of the most important systemic mycosis in the world, is caused by different genotypes of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii, which differ in their ecology, epidemiology, and antifungal susceptibility. Therefore, the search for new molecular markers for genotyping, pathogenicity and drug susceptibility is necessary. Group I introns fulfill the requisites for such task because (i they are polymorphic sequences; (ii their self-splicing is inhibited by some drugs; and (iii their correct splicing under parasitic conditions is indispensable for pathogen survival. Here, we investigated the presence of group I introns in the mitochondrial LSU rRNA gene in 77 Cryptococcus isolates and its possible relation to drug susceptibility. Sequencing revealed two new introns in the LSU rRNA gene. All the introns showed high sequence similarity to other mitochondrial introns from distinct fungi, supporting the hypothesis of an ancient non-allelic invasion. Intron presence was statistically associated with those genotypes reported to be less pathogenic (p < 0.001. Further virulence assays are needed to confirm this finding. In addition, in vitro antifungal tests indicated that the presence of LSU rRNA introns may influence the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of amphotericin B and 5-fluorocytosine. These findings point to group I introns in the mitochondrial genome of Cryptococcus as potential molecular markers for antifungal resistance, as well as therapeutic targets.

  19. Intron retention regulates the expression of pectin methyl esterase inhibitor (Pmei) genes during wheat growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchi, V; Janni, M; Bellincampi, D; Giardina, T; D'Ovidio, R

    2012-03-01

    Pectin is an important component of the plant cell wall and its remodelling occurs during normal plant growth or following stress responses. Pectin is secreted into the cell wall in a highly methyl-esterified form and subsequently de-methyl-esterified by pectin methyl esterase (PME), whose activity is controlled by the pectin methyl esterase inhibitor protein (PMEI). Cereal cell wall contains a low amount of pectin; nonetheless the level and pattern of pectin methyl esterification play a primary role during development or pathogen infection. Since few data are available on the role of PMEI in plant development and defence of cereal species, we isolated and characterised three Pmei genes (Tdpmei2.1, Tdpmei2.2 and Tdpmei3) and their encoded products in wheat. Sequence comparisons showed a low level of intra- and inter-specific sequence conservation of PMEIs. Tdpmei2.1 and Tdpmei2.2 share 94% identity at protein level, but only 20% identity with the product of Tdpmei3. All three Tdpmei genes code for functional inhibitors of plant PMEs and do not inhibit microbial PMEs or a plant invertase. RT-PCR analyses demonstrated, for the first time to our knowledge, that Pmei genes are regulated by intron retention. Processed and unprocessed transcripts of Tdpmei2.1 and Tdpmei2.2 accumulated in several organs, but anthers contained only mature transcripts. Tdpmei3 lacks introns and its transcript accumulated mainly in stem internodes. These findings suggest that products encoded by these Tdpmei genes control organ- or tissue-specific activity of specific PME isoforms in wheat. © 2011 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  20. BIALLELIC POLYMORPHISM IN THE INTRON REGION OF B-TUBULIN GENE OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARASITES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nucleotide sequencing of polymerase chain reaction-amplified intron region of the Cryptosporidium parvum B-tubulin gene in 26 human and 15 animal isolates revealed distinct genetic polymorphism between the human and bovine genotypes. The separation of 2 genotypes of C. parvum is...

  1. Functional understanding of the diverse exon-intron structures of human GPCR genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Dorothy A; Olman, Victor; Xu, Ying

    2014-02-01

    The GPCR genes have a variety of exon-intron structures even though their proteins are all structurally homologous. We have examined all human GPCR genes with at least two functional protein isoforms, totaling 199, aiming to gain an understanding of what may have contributed to the large diversity of the exon-intron structures of the GPCR genes. The 199 genes have a total of 808 known protein splicing isoforms with experimentally verified functions. Our analysis reveals that 1301 (80.6%) adjacent exon-exon pairs out of the total of 1,613 in the 199 genes have either exactly one exon skipped or the intron in-between retained in at least one of the 808 protein splicing isoforms. This observation has a statistical significance p-value of 2.051762 * e(-09), assuming that the observed splicing isoforms are independent of the exon-intron structures. Our interpretation of this observation is that the exon boundaries of the GPCR genes are not randomly determined; instead they may be selected to facilitate specific alternative splicing for functional purposes.

  2. Updating rDNA restriction enzyme maps of Tetrahymena reveals four new intron-containing species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik; Simon, E M; Engberg, J

    1985-01-01

    an intron in the 26s rRNA coding region. The evolutionary relationship among the species of the T. pyriformis complex was examined on the basis of the rDNA maps with emphasis on similarities between two of the new species and the widely studied T. thermophila and T. pigmentosa. Examination of a large number...

  3. Domestication of self-splicing introns during eukaryogenesis : the rise of the complex spliceosomal machinery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vosseberg, Julian; Snel, Berend

    2017-01-01

    ᅟ: The spliceosome is a eukaryote-specific complex that is essential for the removal of introns from pre-mRNA. It consists of five small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) and over a hundred proteins, making it one of the most complex molecular machineries. Most of this complexity has emerged during

  4. Sequence comparison of the rDNA introns from six different species of Tetrahymena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik; Engberg, J

    1985-01-01

    model for the intron RNA of Cech et al. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 80, 3903 (83)). Most of the sequence variation in the four new sequences reported here is found in single stranded loops in the model. However, in four cases we found nucleotide substitutions in duplex stem regions, two of them...

  5. Genomewide analysis of intronic microRNAs in rice and Arabidopsis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-12-13

    Dec 13, 2012 ... Seventy-five miRNA stem– loop sequences for rice came from ... The A. thaliana genotype used in this study was Columbia. (Col-0) wildtype. ... sense strand of intronic regions of protein-coding gene, 40 were located in the ...

  6. Archaeal rRNA operons, intron splicing and homing endonucleases, RNA polymerase operons and phylogeny

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garrett, Roger Antony; Aagaard, Claus Sindbjerg; Andersen, Morten

    1994-01-01

    Over the past decade our laboratory has had a strong interest in defining the phylogenetic status of the archaea. This has involved determining and analysing the sequences of operons of both rRNAs and RNA polymerases and it led to the discovery of the first archaeal rRNA intron. What follows...

  7. Selection-driven extinction dynamics for group II introns in Enterobacteriales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Leclercq

    Full Text Available Transposable elements (TEs are one of the major driving forces of genome evolution, raising the question of the long-term dynamics underlying their evolutionary success. Some TEs were proposed to evolve under a pattern of periodic extinctions-recolonizations, in which elements recurrently invade and quickly proliferate within their host genomes, then start to disappear until total extinction. Depending on the model, TE extinction is assumed to be driven by purifying selection against colonized host genomes (Sel-DE model or by saturation of host genomes (Sat-DE model. Bacterial group II introns are suspected to follow an extinction-recolonization model of evolution, but whether they follow Sel-DE or Sat-DE dynamics is not known. Our analysis of almost 200 group II intron copies from 90 sequenced Enterobacteriales genomes confirms their extinction-recolonization dynamics: patchy element distributions among genera and even among strains within genera, acquisition of new group II introns through plasmids or other mobile genetic elements, and evidence for recent proliferations in some genomes. Distributions of recent and past proliferations and of their respective homing sites further provide strong support for the Sel-DE model, suggesting that group II introns are deleterious to their hosts. Overall, our observations emphasize the critical impact of host properties on TE dynamics.

  8. Genic regions of a large salamander genome contain long introns and novel genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryant Susan V

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The basis of genome size variation remains an outstanding question because DNA sequence data are lacking for organisms with large genomes. Sixteen BAC clones from the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum: c-value = 32 × 109 bp were isolated and sequenced to characterize the structure of genic regions. Results Annotation of genes within BACs showed that axolotl introns are on average 10× longer than orthologous vertebrate introns and they are predicted to contain more functional elements, including miRNAs and snoRNAs. Loci were discovered within BACs for two novel EST transcripts that are differentially expressed during spinal cord regeneration and skin metamorphosis. Unexpectedly, a third novel gene was also discovered while manually annotating BACs. Analysis of human-axolotl protein-coding sequences suggests there are 2% more lineage specific genes in the axolotl genome than the human genome, but the great majority (86% of genes between axolotl and human are predicted to be 1:1 orthologs. Considering that axolotl genes are on average 5× larger than human genes, the genic component of the salamander genome is estimated to be incredibly large, approximately 2.8 gigabases! Conclusion This study shows that a large salamander genome has a correspondingly large genic component, primarily because genes have incredibly long introns. These intronic sequences may harbor novel coding and non-coding sequences that regulate biological processes that are unique to salamanders.

  9. Deep intronic GPR143 mutation in a Japanese family with ocular albinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruto, Takuya; Okamoto, Nobuhiko; Masuda, Kiyoshi; Endo, Takao; Hatsukawa, Yoshikazu; Kohmoto, Tomohiro; Imoto, Issei

    2015-06-10

    Deep intronic mutations are often ignored as possible causes of human disease. Using whole-exome sequencing, we analysed genomic DNAs of a Japanese family with two male siblings affected by ocular albinism and congenital nystagmus. Although mutations or copy number alterations of coding regions were not identified in candidate genes, the novel intronic mutation c.659-131 T > G within GPR143 intron 5 was identified as hemizygous in affected siblings and as heterozygous in the unaffected mother. This mutation was predicted to create a cryptic splice donor site within intron 5 and activate a cryptic acceptor site at 41nt upstream, causing the insertion into the coding sequence of an out-of-frame 41-bp pseudoexon with a premature stop codon in the aberrant transcript, which was confirmed by minigene experiments. This result expands the mutational spectrum of GPR143 and suggests the utility of next-generation sequencing integrated with in silico and experimental analyses for improving the molecular diagnosis of this disease.

  10. Lidar-Enhanced Wind Turbine Control: Past, Present, and Future: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholbrock, Andrew; Fleming, Paul; Wright, Alan; Wang, Na; Schlipf, David; Johnson, Kathryn

    2016-07-01

    This paper will look at the development of lidar-enhanced controls and how they have been used for turbine load reduction with pitch actuation, as well as increased energy production with improved yaw control. Ongoing work will also be discussed to show that combining pitch and torque control using feedforward nonlinear model predictive control can lead to both reduced loads and increased energy production. Future work is also proposed on extending individual wind turbine controls to the wind plant level and determining how lidars can be used for control methods to further lower the cost of wind energy by minimizing wake impacts in a wind farm.

  11. Enhancing damping of gas bearings using linear parameter-varying control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theisen, Lukas Roy Svane; Niemann, Hans Henrik; Galeazzi, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    systems to regulate the injection pressure of the fluid. Due to the strong dependencies of system performance on system parameters, the sought controller should be robust over a large range of operational conditions. This paper addresses the damping enhancement of controllable gas bearings through robust...... control approaches. Through an extensive experimental campaign the paper evaluates two robust controllers, a linear parametervarying (LPV) controller and ∞ controller, on their capability to guarantee stability and performance of a gas bearing across the large operational envelopes in rotational speed...

  12. An Enhanced Instantaneous Circulating Current Control for Reactive power and Harmonic Load Sharing in Islanded Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorzadeh, Iman; Askarian Abyaneh, Hossein; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    To address inaccurate load demand sharing problems among parallel inverter-interfaced voltage-controlled distributed generation (DG) units in islanded microgrids with different DG power ratings and mismatched feeder impedances, an enhanced voltage control scheme based on actively compensation of ...

  13. An enhanced hierarchical control strategy for the Internet of Things-based home scale microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Yajuan; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    As the intelligent control and detection technology improving, more and more smart devices/sensors can be used to increase the living standard. In order to integrate the Internet of Things (IoT) with microgrid (MG), an enhanced hierarchical control strategy for IoT-based home scale MG is proposed...

  14. Proliferation of group II introns in the chloroplast genome of the green alga Oedocladium carolinianum (Chlorophyceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Simon Brouard

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background The chloroplast genome sustained extensive changes in architecture during the evolution of the Chlorophyceae, a morphologically and ecologically diverse class of green algae belonging to the Chlorophyta; however, the forces driving these changes are poorly understood. The five orders recognized in the Chlorophyceae form two major clades: the CS clade consisting of the Chlamydomonadales and Sphaeropleales, and the OCC clade consisting of the Oedogoniales, Chaetophorales, and Chaetopeltidales. In the OCC clade, considerable variations in chloroplast DNA (cpDNA structure, size, gene order, and intron content have been observed. The large inverted repeat (IR, an ancestral feature characteristic of most green plants, is present in Oedogonium cardiacum (Oedogoniales but is lacking in the examined members of the Chaetophorales and Chaetopeltidales. Remarkably, the Oedogonium 35.5-kb IR houses genes that were putatively acquired through horizontal DNA transfer. To better understand the dynamics of chloroplast genome evolution in the Oedogoniales, we analyzed the cpDNA of a second representative of this order, Oedocladium carolinianum. Methods The Oedocladium cpDNA was sequenced and annotated. The evolutionary distances separating Oedocladium and Oedogonium cpDNAs and two other pairs of chlorophycean cpDNAs were estimated using a 61-gene data set. Phylogenetic analysis of an alignment of group IIA introns from members of the OCC clade was performed. Secondary structures and insertion sites of oedogonialean group IIA introns were analyzed. Results The 204,438-bp Oedocladium genome is 7.9 kb larger than the Oedogonium genome, but its repertoire of conserved genes is remarkably similar and gene order differs by only one reversal. Although the 23.7-kb IR is missing the putative foreign genes found in Oedogonium, it contains sequences coding for a putative phage or bacterial DNA primase and a hypothetical protein. Intergenic sequences are 1.5-fold

  15. Enhanced situation awareness and decision making for an intelligent reconfigurable reactor power controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenney, S.J.; Edwards, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    A Learning Automata based intelligent reconfigurable controller has been adapted for use as a reactor power controller to achieve improved reactor temperature performance. The intelligent reconfigurable controller is capable of enforcing either a classical or an optimal reactor power controller based on control performance feedback. Four control performance evaluation measures: dynamically estimated average quadratic temperature error, power, rod reactivity and rod reactivity rate were developed to provide feedback to the control decision component of the intelligent reconfigurable controller. Fuzzy Logic and Neural Network controllers have been studied for inclusion in the bank of controllers that form the intermediate level of an enhanced intelligent reconfigurable reactor power controller (IRRPC). The increased number of alternatives available to the supervisory level of the IRRPC requires enhanced situation awareness. Additional performance measures have been designed and a method for synthesizing them into a single indication of the overall performance of the currently enforced reactor power controller has been conceptualized. Modification of the reward/penalty scheme implemented in the existing IRRPC to increase the quality of the supervisory level decision process has been studied. The logogen model of human memory (Morton, 1969) and individual controller design information could be used to allocate reward to the most appropriate controller. Methods for allocating supervisory level attention were also studied with the goal of maximizing learning rate

  16. Exon-primed intron-crossing (EPIC markers for non-model teleost fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riethoven Jean-Jack M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exon-primed intron-crossing (EPIC markers have three advantages over anonymous genomic sequences in studying evolution of natural populations. First, the universal primers designed in exon regions can be applied across a broad taxonomic range. Second, the homology of EPIC-amplified sequences can be easily determined by comparing either their exon or intron portion depending on the genetic distance between the taxa. Third, having both the exon and intron fragments could help in examining genetic variation at the intraspecific and interspecific level simultaneously, particularly helpful when studying species complex. However, the paucity of EPIC markers has hindered multilocus studies using nuclear gene sequences, particularly in teleost fishes. Results We introduce a bioinformatics pipeline for developing EPIC markers by comparing the whole genome sequences between two or more species. By applying this approach on five teleost fishes whose genomes were available in the Ensembl database http://www.ensembl.org, we identified 210 EPIC markers that have single-copy and conserved exon regions with identity greater than 85% among the five teleost fishes. We tested 12 randomly chosen EPIC markers in nine teleost species having a wide phylogenetic range. The success rate of amplifying and sequencing those markers varied from 44% to 100% in different species. We analyzed the exon sequences of the 12 EPIC markers from 13 teleosts. The resulting phylogeny contains many traditionally well-supported clades, indicating the usefulness of the exon portion of EPIC markers in reconstructing species phylogeny, in addition to the value of the intron portion of EPIC markers in interrogating the population history. Conclusions This study illustrated an effective approach to develop EPIC markers in a taxonomic group, where two or more genome sequences are available. The markers identified could be amplified across a broad taxonomic range of teleost

  17. Complex exon-intron marking by histone modifications is not determined solely by nucleosome distribution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawandeep Dhami

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available It has recently been shown that nucleosome distribution, histone modifications and RNA polymerase II (Pol II occupancy show preferential association with exons ("exon-intron marking", linking chromatin structure and function to co-transcriptional splicing in a variety of eukaryotes. Previous ChIP-sequencing studies suggested that these marking patterns reflect the nucleosomal landscape. By analyzing ChIP-chip datasets across the human genome in three cell types, we have found that this marking system is far more complex than previously observed. We show here that a range of histone modifications and Pol II are preferentially associated with exons. However, there is noticeable cell-type specificity in the degree of exon marking by histone modifications and, surprisingly, this is also reflected in some histone modifications patterns showing biases towards introns. Exon-intron marking is laid down in the absence of transcription on silent genes, with some marking biases changing or becoming reversed for genes expressed at different levels. Furthermore, the relationship of this marking system with splicing is not simple, with only some histone modifications reflecting exon usage/inclusion, while others mirror patterns of exon exclusion. By examining nucleosomal distributions in all three cell types, we demonstrate that these histone modification patterns cannot solely be accounted for by differences in nucleosome levels between exons and introns. In addition, because of inherent differences between ChIP-chip array and ChIP-sequencing approaches, these platforms report different nucleosome distribution patterns across the human genome. Our findings confound existing views and point to active cellular mechanisms which dynamically regulate histone modification levels and account for exon-intron marking. We believe that these histone modification patterns provide links between chromatin accessibility, Pol II movement and co-transcriptional splicing.

  18. Active and Inactive Enhancers Cooperate to Exert Localized and Long-Range Control of Gene Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proudhon, Charlotte; Snetkova, Valentina; Raviram, Ramya; Lobry, Camille; Badri, Sana; Jiang, Tingting; Hao, Bingtao; Trimarchi, Thomas; Kluger, Yuval; Aifantis, Iannis; Bonneau, Richard; Skok, Jane A

    2016-06-07

    V(D)J recombination relies on the presence of proximal enhancers that activate the antigen receptor (AgR) loci in a lineage- and stage-specific manner. Unexpectedly, we find that both active and inactive AgR enhancers cooperate to disseminate their effects in a localized and long-range manner. Here, we demonstrate the importance of short-range contacts between active enhancers that constitute an Igk super-enhancer in B cells. Deletion of one element reduces the interaction frequency between other enhancers in the hub, which compromises the transcriptional output of each component. Furthermore, we establish that, in T cells, long-range contact and cooperation between the inactive Igk enhancer MiEκ and the active Tcrb enhancer Eβ alters enrichment of CBFβ binding in a manner that impacts Tcrb recombination. These findings underline the complexities of enhancer regulation and point to a role for localized and long-range enhancer-sharing between active and inactive elements in lineage- and stage-specific control. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Active and Inactive Enhancers Cooperate to Exert Localized and Long-Range Control of Gene Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Proudhon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available V(DJ recombination relies on the presence of proximal enhancers that activate the antigen receptor (AgR loci in a lineage- and stage-specific manner. Unexpectedly, we find that both active and inactive AgR enhancers cooperate to disseminate their effects in a localized and long-range manner. Here, we demonstrate the importance of short-range contacts between active enhancers that constitute an Igk super-enhancer in B cells. Deletion of one element reduces the interaction frequency between other enhancers in the hub, which compromises the transcriptional output of each component. Furthermore, we establish that, in T cells, long-range contact and cooperation between the inactive Igk enhancer MiEκ and the active Tcrb enhancer Eβ alters enrichment of CBFβ binding in a manner that impacts Tcrb recombination. These findings underline the complexities of enhancer regulation and point to a role for localized and long-range enhancer-sharing between active and inactive elements in lineage- and stage-specific control.

  20. Control Strategies for Islanded Microgrid using Enhanced Hierarchical Control Structure with Multiple Current-Loop Damping Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Yang; Shen, Pan; Zhao, Xin

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the modeling, controller design, and stability analysis of the islanded microgrid (MG) using enhanced hierarchical control structure with multiple current loop damping schemes is proposed. The islanded MG is consisted of the parallel-connected voltage source inverters using LCL...... output filters, and the proposed control structure includes: the primary control with additional phase-shift loop, the secondary control for voltage amplitude and frequency restoration, the virtual impedance loops which contains virtual positive- and negative-sequence impedance loops at fundamental...... frequency, and virtual variable harmonic impedance loop at harmonic frequencies, and the inner voltage and current loop controllers. A small-signal model for the primary and secondary controls with additional phase-shift loop is presented, which shows an over-damped feature from eigenvalue analysis...

  1. Diversity in mRNA expression of the serine-type carboxypeptidase ocpG in Aspergillus oryzae through intron retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Ken; Kuboshima, Megumi; Morita, Hiroto; Maeda, Hiroshi; Okamoto, Ayako; Takeuchi, Michio; Yamagata, Youhei

    2014-01-01

    Alternative splicing is thought to be a means for diversification of products by mRNA modification. Although some intron retentions are predicted by transcriptome analysis in Aspergillus oryzae, its physiological significance remains unknown. We found that intron retention occurred occasionally in the serine-type carboxypeptidase gene, ocpG. Analysis under various culture conditions revealed that extracellular nitrogen conditions influence splicing patterns; this suggested that there might be a correlation between splicing efficiency and the necessity of OcpG activity for obtaining a nitrogen source. Since further analysis showed that splicing occurred independently in each intron, we constructed ocpG intron-exchanging strain by interchanging the positions of intron-1 and intron-2. The splicing pattern indicated the probability that ocpG intron retention was affected by the secondary structures of intronic mRNA.

  2. Enhanced photoelectrochemical water splitting performance using morphology-controlled BiVO4 with W doping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructures exhibit numerous merits to improve the efficiency in solar-to-energy conversion. These include shortened carrier collection pathways, an increased volume ratio between depletion layer and bulk, enhanced light capture due to multiple light scattering in nanostructures, and a high surface area for photochemical conversion reactions. In this study, we describe the synthesis of morphology-controlled W-doped BiVO4 by simply tuning the solvent ratio in precursor solutions. Planar and porous W-doped BiVO4 thin films were prepared and compared. The porous film, which exhibits increased surface area and enhanced light absorption, has displayed enhanced charge separation and interfacial charge injection. Our quantitative analysis showed an enhancement of about 50% of the photoelectrochemical performance for the porous structure compared to the planar structure. This enhancement is attributed to improved light absorption (13% increase, charge separation (14% increase, and interfacial charge injection (20% increase.

  3. Observer enhanced control for spin-stabilized tethered formation in earth orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guang, Zhai; Yuyang, Li; Liang, Bin

    2018-04-01

    This paper addresses the issues relevant to control of spin-stabilized tethered formation in circular orbit. Due to the dynamic complexities and nonlinear perturbations, it is challenging to promote the control precision for the formation deployment and maintenance. In this work, the formation dynamics are derived with considering the spinning rate of the central body, then major attention is dedicated to develop the nonlinear disturbance observer. To achieve better control performance, the observer-enhanced controller is designed by incorporating the disturbance observer into the control loop, benefits from the disturbance compensation are demonstrated, and also, the dependences of the disturbance observer performance on some important parameters are theoretically and numerically analyzed.

  4. Nanoscale control of Ag nanostructures for plasmonic fluorescence enhancement of near-infrared dyes

    KAUST Repository

    Xie, Fang

    2013-05-23

    Potential utilization of proteins for early detection and diagnosis of various diseases has drawn considerable interest in the development of protein-based detection techniques. Metal induced fluorescence enhancement offers the possibility of increasing the sensitivity of protein detection in clinical applications. We report the use of tunable plasmonic silver nanostructures for the fluorescence enhancement of a near-infrared (NIR) dye (Alexa Fluor 790). Extensive fluorescence enhancement of ∼2 orders of magnitude is obtained by the nanoscale control of the Ag nanostructure dimensions and interparticle distance. These Ag nanostructures also enhanced fluorescence from a dye with very high quantum yield (7.8 fold for Alexa Fluor 488, quantum efficiency (Qy) = 0.92). A combination of greatly enhanced excitation and an increased radiative decay rate, leading to an associated enhancement of the quantum efficiency leads to the large enhancement. These results show the potential of Ag nanostructures as metal induced fluorescence enhancement (MIFE) substrates for dyes in the NIR "biological window" as well as the visible region. Ag nanostructured arrays fabricated by colloidal lithography thus show great potential for NIR dye-based biosensing applications. [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2013 Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  5. Enhancing current density profile control in tokamak experiments using iterative learning control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felici, F.A.A.; Oomen, T.A.E.

    2015-01-01

    Tokamaks are toroidal devices to create and confine high-temperature plasmas, and are presently at the forefront of nuclear fusion research. Many parameters in a tokamak are feedback controlled, but some quantities that are either difficult to measure or difficult to control are still controlled by

  6. Impaired Feedforward Control and Enhanced Feedback Control of Speech in Patients with Cerebellar Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrell, Benjamin; Agnew, Zarinah; Nagarajan, Srikantan; Houde, John; Ivry, Richard B

    2017-09-20

    The cerebellum has been hypothesized to form a crucial part of the speech motor control network. Evidence for this comes from patients with cerebellar damage, who exhibit a variety of speech deficits, as well as imaging studies showing cerebellar activation during speech production in healthy individuals. To date, the precise role of the cerebellum in speech motor control remains unclear, as it has been implicated in both anticipatory (feedforward) and reactive (feedback) control. Here, we assess both anticipatory and reactive aspects of speech motor control, comparing the performance of patients with cerebellar degeneration and matched controls. Experiment 1 tested feedforward control by examining speech adaptation across trials in response to a consistent perturbation of auditory feedback. Experiment 2 tested feedback control, examining online corrections in response to inconsistent perturbations of auditory feedback. Both male and female patients and controls were tested. The patients were impaired in adapting their feedforward control system relative to controls, exhibiting an attenuated anticipatory response to the perturbation. In contrast, the patients produced even larger compensatory responses than controls, suggesting an increased reliance on sensory feedback to guide speech articulation in this population. Together, these results suggest that the cerebellum is crucial for maintaining accurate feedforward control of speech, but relatively uninvolved in feedback control. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Speech motor control is a complex activity that is thought to rely on both predictive, feedforward control as well as reactive, feedback control. While the cerebellum has been shown to be part of the speech motor control network, its functional contribution to feedback and feedforward control remains controversial. Here, we use real-time auditory perturbations of speech to show that patients with cerebellar degeneration are impaired in adapting feedforward control of

  7. Design and Demonstration of Emergency Control Modes for Enhanced Engine Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Litt, Jonathan S.; Guo, Ten-Huei

    2013-01-01

    A design concept is presented for developing control modes that enhance aircraft engine performance during emergency flight scenarios. The benefits of increased engine performance to overall vehicle survivability during these situations may outweigh the accompanied elevated risk of engine failure. The objective involves building control logic that can consistently increase engine performance beyond designed maximum levels based on an allowable heightened probability of failure. This concept is applied to two previously developed control modes: an overthrust mode that increases maximum engine thrust output and a faster response mode that improves thrust response to dynamic throttle commands. This paper describes the redesign of these control modes and presents simulation results demonstrating both enhanced engine performance and robust maintenance of the desired elevated risk level.

  8. Composition and dosage of a multipartite enhancer cluster control developmental expression of Ihh (Indian hedgehog).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Anja J; Cova, Giulia; Osterwalder, Marco; Chan, Wing-Lee; Wittler, Lars; Brieske, Norbert; Heinrich, Verena; de Villartay, Jean-Pierre; Vingron, Martin; Klopocki, Eva; Visel, Axel; Lupiáñez, Darío G; Mundlos, Stefan

    2017-10-01

    Copy number variations (CNVs) often include noncoding sequences and putative enhancers, but how these rearrangements induce disease is poorly understood. Here we investigate CNVs involving the regulatory landscape of IHH (encoding Indian hedgehog), which cause multiple, highly localized phenotypes including craniosynostosis and synpolydactyly. We show through transgenic reporter and genome-editing studies in mice that Ihh is regulated by a constellation of at least nine enhancers with individual tissue specificities in the digit anlagen, growth plates, skull sutures and fingertips. Consecutive deletions, resulting in growth defects of the skull and long bones, showed that these enhancers function in an additive manner. Duplications, in contrast, caused not only dose-dependent upregulation but also misexpression of Ihh, leading to abnormal phalanges, fusion of sutures and syndactyly. Thus, precise spatiotemporal control of developmental gene expression is achieved by complex multipartite enhancer ensembles. Alterations in the composition of such clusters can result in gene misexpression and disease.

  9. Robust enhancement of high harmonic generation via attosecond control of ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Barry D; Krüger, Michael; Pedatzur, Oren; Orenstein, Gal; Azoury, Doron; Dudovich, Nirit

    2018-04-02

    High-harmonic generation (HHG) is a powerful tool to generate coherent attosecond light pulses in the extreme ultraviolet. However, the low conversion efficiency of HHG at the single atom level poses a significant practical limitation for many applications. Enhancing the efficiency of the process defines one of the primary challenges in the application of HHG as an advanced XUV source. In this work, we demonstrate a new mechanism, which in contrast to current methods, enhances the HHG conversion efficiency purely on a single particle level. We show that using a bichromatic driving field, sub-optical-cycle control and enhancement of the tunnelling ionization rate can be achieved, leading to enhancements in HHG efficiency by up to two orders of magnitude. Our method advances the perspectives of HHG spectroscopy, where isolating the single particle response is an essential component, and offers a simple route toward scalable, robust XUV sources.

  10. Control, synchronization, and enhanced reliability of aperiodic oscillations in the Mercury Beating Heart system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pawan; Parmananda, P.

    2018-04-01

    Experiments involving the Mercury Beating Heart (MBH) oscillator, exhibiting irregular (aperiodic) dynamics, are performed. In the first set of experiments, control over irregular dynamics of the MBH oscillator was obtained via a superimposed periodic voltage signal. These irregular (aperiodic) dynamics were recovered once the control was switched off. Subsequently, two MBH oscillators were coupled to attain synchronization of their aperiodic oscillations. Finally, two uncoupled MBH oscillators were subjected, repeatedly, to a common stochastic forcing, resulting in an enhancement of their mutual phase correlation.

  11. Learning to live together: mutualism between self-splicing introns and their hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalamcharla Venkata R

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Group I and II introns can be considered as molecular parasites that interrupt protein-coding and structural RNA genes in all domains of life. They function as self-splicing ribozymes and thereby limit the phenotypic costs associated with disruption of a host gene while they act as mobile DNA elements to promote their spread within and between genomes. Once considered purely selfish DNA elements, they now seem, in the light of recent work on the molecular mechanisms regulating bacterial and phage group I and II intron dynamics, to show evidence of co-evolution with their hosts. These previously underappreciated relationships serve the co-evolving entities particularly well in times of environmental stress.

  12. The T -786C, G894T, and Intron 4 VNTR (4a/b) Polymorphisms of the Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene in Prostate Cancer Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diler, S B; Öden, A

    2016-02-01

    In previously conducted some studies it has been revealed that nitric oxide (NO) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) system play a significant role in carcinogenesis. Nitric oxide (NO) is regulated by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) enzyme which is one of the isoenzymes of NO synthase (NOS). In this study we have tried to come to a conclusion about whether eNOS gene T -786C, G894T and Intron 4 VNTR (4a/b) polymorphisms might be considered as a risk factor causing prostate cancer (PCa) or not. A total of 200 subjects were included in this research. 84 patients with PCa (mean age 70.0 ± 6.4) and 116 healthy controls (mean age 69.9 ± 7.5) were recruited in this case-control study. Genomic DNA was extracted using the QIAamp DNA Blood Mini Kit (QIAGEN GmbH, Maryland, USA), according to the manufacturer's guidelines. The T-786C, G894T and Intron 4 VNTR (4a/b) polymorphisms were amplified using polymerase chain reation (PCR), detected by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). For T -786C polymorphism CC genotype [odds ratio (OR): 0.34, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.15-0.78, P = 0.009)] and allele frequency (OR: 0.631, CI: 0.421-0.946, P = 0.026) is significant for control. In patients with PCa eNOS G894T polymorphism, both GT (OR: 0.069, CI: 0.027-0.174; P = 0.0001) and TT (OR: 0.040, CI: 0.013-0.123; P = = 0.0001) genotype distribution, and also T allele frequency (OR: 0.237, CI: 0.155-0.362, P = 0.0001) were considered significant statistically. While genotype distribution for the other polymorphism eNOS, intron 4 VNTR (4a/b), is insignificant statistically, "a" allele frequency was found out to be significant (OR: 2.223, CI: 1.311-3.769, P = 0.003). In this study we indicated that genotype and allele frequencies of eNOS T -786C and G894T polymorphisms are statistically significant in patients with PCa. eNOS T -786C and G894T polymorphisms may be associated with PCa susceptibility in the Turkish population. In contrast, intron 4 VNTR (4a

  13. Acute Caffeine Consumption Enhances the Executive Control of Visual Attention in Habitual Consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunye, Tad T.; Mahoney, Caroline R.; Lieberman, Harris R.; Giles, Grace E.; Taylor, Holly A.

    2010-01-01

    Recent work suggests that a dose of 200-400mg caffeine can enhance both vigilance and the executive control of visual attention in individuals with low caffeine consumption profiles. The present study seeks to determine whether individuals with relatively high caffeine consumption profiles would show similar advantages. To this end, we examined…

  14. Controlled release of glaucocalyxin - a self-nanoemulsifying system from osmotic pump tablets with enhanced bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanfei, Miao; Guoguang, Chen; Lili, Ren; Pingkai, Ouyang

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a new formulation to enhance the bioavailability simultaneously with controlled release of glaucocalyxin A (GLA). In this study, controlled release of GLA was achieved by the osmotic release strategy taking advantage of the bioavailability enhancing capacity of self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS). The formulation of GLA-SNEDDS was selected by the solubility and pseudoternary-phase diagrams studies. The prepared GLA-SNEDDS formulations were characterized for self-emulsification time, effect of pH and robustness to dilution, droplet size analysis and zeta potential. The optimized GLA-SNEDDS were used to prepare GLA-SNEDDS osmotic pump tablet via direct powder compression method. The effect of formulation variables on the release characteristic was investigated. GLA-SNEDDS osmotic pump tablets were administered to beagle dogs and their pharmacokinetics were compared to GLA and GLA-SNEDDS as a control. In vitro drug release studies indicated that the GLA-SNEDDS osmotic pump tablet showed sustained release profiles with 90% released within 12 h. Pharmacokinetic study showed steady blood GLA with prolonged T max and mean residence time (MRT), and enhanced bioavailability for GLA-SNEDDS osmotic pump tablet. It was concluded that simultaneous controlling on GLA release and enhanced bioavailability had been achieved by a combination of osmotic pump tablet and SNEDDS.

  15. Speciation of a group I intron into a lariat capping ribozyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Mélanie; Nielsen, Henrik; Oliéric, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    The lariat-capping (LC) ribozyme is a natural ribozyme isolated from eukaryotic microorganisms. Despite apparent structural similarity to group I introns, the LC ribozyme catalyzes cleavage by a 2',5' branching reaction, leaving the 3' product with a 3-nt lariat cap that functionally substitutes ....... The structures also show how conserved interactions twist residues, forming the lariat to join chemical groups involved in branching....

  16. Accumulation of Stable Full-Length Circular Group I Intron RNAs during Heat-Shock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kasper L.; Beckert, Bertrand; Masquida, Benoit

    2016-01-01

    the potential to linearize the circle. To understand the structural features that maintain circle integrity, we performed chemical and enzymatic probing of the splicing ribozyme combined with molecular modeling to arrive at models of the inactive circular form and its active linear counterpart. We show...... integration and thus supports the notion that the circular form is a biologically significant molecule possibly with a role in intron mobility...

  17. Computer Controlled Portable Greenhouse Climate Control System for Enhanced Energy Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datsenko, Anthony; Myer, Steve; Petties, Albert; Hustek, Ryan; Thompson, Mark

    2010-04-01

    This paper discusses a student project at Kettering University focusing on the design and construction of an energy efficient greenhouse climate control system. In order to maintain acceptable temperatures and stabilize temperature fluctuations in a portable plastic greenhouse economically, a computer controlled climate control system was developed to capture and store thermal energy incident on the structure during daylight periods and release the stored thermal energy during dark periods. The thermal storage mass for the greenhouse system consisted of a water filled base unit. The heat exchanger consisted of a system of PVC tubing. The control system used a programmable LabView computer interface to meet functional specifications that minimized temperature fluctuations and recorded data during operation. The greenhouse was a portable sized unit with a 5' x 5' footprint. Control input sensors were temperature, water level, and humidity sensors and output control devices were fan actuating relays and water fill solenoid valves. A Graphical User Interface was developed to monitor the system, set control parameters, and to provide programmable data recording times and intervals.

  18. Enhancing the stabilization of aircraft pitch motion control via intelligent and classical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukman, H.; Munawwarah, S.; Azizan, A.; Yakub, F.; Zaki, S. A.; Rasid, Z. A.

    2017-12-01

    The pitching movement of an aircraft is very important to ensure passengers are intrinsically safe and the aircraft achieve its maximum stability. The equations governing the motion of an aircraft are a complex set of six nonlinear coupled differential equations. Under certain assumptions, it can be decoupled and linearized into longitudinal and lateral equations. Pitch control is a longitudinal problem and thus, only the longitudinal dynamics equations are involved in this system. It is a third order nonlinear system, which is linearized about the operating point. The system is also inherently unstable due to the presence of a free integrator. Because of this, a feedback controller is added in order to solve this problem and enhance the system performance. This study uses two approaches in designing controller: a conventional controller and an intelligent controller. The pitch control scheme consists of proportional, integral and derivatives (PID) for conventional controller and fuzzy logic control (FLC) for intelligent controller. Throughout the paper, the performance of the presented controllers are investigated and compared based on the common criteria of step response. Simulation results have been obtained and analysed by using Matlab and Simulink software. The study shows that FLC controller has higher ability to control and stabilize the aircraft's pitch angle as compared to PID controller.

  19. Un gene con intrones en vez de exones / Envejecimiento Prematuro de la Piel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobías Mojica

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Un gene con intrones en vez de exones. La noción de que los genes son discontinuos (compuestos de exones e intrones en forma alterna y en cuya organización los exones representan regiones presentes, por medio del código genético en las proteínas, y los intrones nadie sabe todavía que representan produjo una cierta cantidad de desasosiego entre los genetistas mayores de edad, pero hoy día es ampliamente aceptada, con poco o ningún dolor, y se ha convertido en parte del cánon científico. / Envejecimiento Prematuro de la Piel. La exposición a largo plazo de la piel a la luz ultravioleta proveniente del sol resulta en daño al colágeno de la piel y a la elastina de la matriz extracelular; se cree que este daño es responsable de la apariencia típicamente arrugadita de la piel expuesta al sol por mucho tiempo (como en los vaqueros de los comerciales de la televisión.

  20. Enhanced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin I. Bayala

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Land Surface Temperature (LST is a key parameter in the energy balance model. However, the spatial resolution of the retrieved LST from sensors with high temporal resolution is not accurate enough to be used in local-scale studies. To explore the LST–Normalised Difference Vegetation Index relationship potential and obtain thermal images with high spatial resolution, six enhanced image sharpening techniques were assessed: the disaggregation procedure for radiometric surface temperatures (TsHARP, the Dry Edge Quadratic Function, the Difference of Edges (Ts∗DL and three models supported by the relationship of surface temperature and water stress of vegetation (Normalised Difference Water Index, Normalised Difference Infrared Index and Soil wetness index. Energy Balance Station data and in situ measurements were used to validate the enhanced LST images over a mixed agricultural landscape in the sub-humid Pampean Region of Argentina (PRA, during 2006–2010. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (EOS-MODIS thermal datasets were assessed for different spatial resolutions (e.g., 960, 720 and 240 m and the performances were compared with global and local TsHARP procedures. Results suggest that the Ts∗DL technique is the most adequate for simulating LST to high spatial resolution over the heterogeneous landscape of a sub-humid region, showing an average root mean square error of less than 1 K.

  1. Euglena gracilis chloroplast DNA: analysis of a 1.6 kb intron of the psb C gene containing an open reading frame of 458 codons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montandon, P E; Vasserot, A; Stutz, E

    1986-01-01

    We retrieved a 1.6 kbp intron separating two exons of the psb C gene which codes for the 44 kDa reaction center protein of photosystem II. This intron is 3 to 4 times the size of all previously sequenced Euglena gracilis chloroplast introns. It contains an open reading frame of 458 codons potentially coding for a basic protein of 54 kDa of yet unknown function. The intron boundaries follow consensus sequences established for chloroplast introns related to class II and nuclear pre-mRNA introns. Its 3'-terminal segment has structural features similar to class II mitochondrial introns with an invariant base A as possible branch point for lariat formation.

  2. Mutation analysis in Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy patients from Bulgaria shows a peculiar distribution of breakpoints by intron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todorova, A.; Bronzova, J.; Kremensky, I. [Univ. Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sofia (Bulgaria)] [and others

    1996-10-02

    For the first time in Bulgaria, a deletion/duplication screening was performed on a group of 84 unrelated Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy patients, and the breakpoint distribution in the dystrophin gene was analyzed. Intragenic deletions were detected in 67.8% of patients, and intragenic duplications in 2.4%. A peculiar distribution of deletion breakpoints was found. Only 13.2% of the deletion breakpoints fell in the {open_quotes}classical{close_quotes} hot spot in intron 44, whereas the majority (> 54%) were located within the segment encompassing introns 45-51, which includes intron 50, the richest in breakpoints (16%) in the Bulgarian sample. Comparison with data from Greece and Turkey points at the probable existence of a deletion hot spot within intron 50, which might be a characteristic of populations of the Balkan region. 17 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Enhancing the NCSU PULSTAR reactor control room with human factors considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glover, B.L.; Pupons, D.E.; Perez, P.B.

    1993-01-01

    The North Carolina PULSTAR research reactor was constructed to support teaching, training, and research. The training provided is not limited to academic students but encompasses plant operators, managers, engineers, designers, and supporting organizations in the nuclear industry. Our facility is under-going design changes to maximize teaching effectiveness and continued safe operation by providing current technology in the control room. The opportunity for the enhancements is a result of the generosity of neighboring utilities and the US Department of Energy instrumentation upgrade funds. Our objective, to provide a control room environment that conforms to selected industry practices, required human factors input. A human factors course, offered jointly between the industrial engineering and the psychology departments, included the PULSTAR control room enhancement as a case study

  4. Establishment of Systematic Design Control/Configuration Management Processes to Enhance Engineering Capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, T.; Hamada, T.; Ihara, T.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: After the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011, Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) launched various measures to enhance plant safety and safety culture of its employees. One of the important aspects of these measures is to enhance engineering capability and TEPCO is conducting actions to establish systematic design control and configuration management processes as an important foundation of such engineering capability. This paper describes how TEPCO is establishing systematic configuration management processes from three aspects, i.e., design requirement and bases management, facility configuration control, and configuration change management. It also provides brief information of the IT systems that are being introduced and will support the systematic design control and configuration management processes. (author

  5. Assessment of the MDNBR enhancement methodologies for the SMART control rods banks withdrawal event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Soo Hyung; Chung, Young-Jong; Kim, Hee Cheol

    2005-01-01

    For an electricity generation and seawater desalination, a 330 MW System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor (SMART) was developed by KAERI. The safety level of the SMART is enhanced when compared to that of the typical commercial reactors, with the aid of an elimination of a large break loss of coolant accident by placing the major components of the primary system in a reactor vessel and the adoption of a new technology and a passive design concept into the safety system. However, the events related to reactivity and power distribution anomalies have been evaluated as vulnerable points when compared to the other initiating events in the SMART, since the reactivity worth of the control rods (CR) banks is quite large due to the boron free core concept. Especially, safety margins, i.e., minimum departure from nucleate boiling ratio (MDNBR), are significantly threatened during the CR banks withdrawal event. Therefore, MDNBR enhancement methodology for the CR banks withdrawal event should be considered to further enhance the safety level of the SMART design. Two methodologies have been suggested to enhance the MDNBR during the CR banks withdrawal event: the application of a DNBR trip function into a core protection system and a turbine trip delay methodology. Sensitivity studies are performed to evaluate the two MDNBR enhancement methodologies and show that the suggested methodologies could enhance the MDNBR during the CR banks withdrawal event of the SMART

  6. Controlled precipitation for enhanced dissolution rate of flurbiprofen: development of rapidly disintegrating tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essa, Ebtessam A; Elmarakby, Amira O; Donia, Ahmed M A; El Maghraby, Gamal M

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the potential of controlled precipitation of flurbiprofen on solid surface, in the presence or absence of hydrophilic polymers, as a tool for enhanced dissolution rate of the drug. The work was extended to develop rapidly disintegrated tablets. This strategy provides simple technique for dissolution enhancement of slowly dissolving drugs with high scaling up potential. Aerosil was dispersed in ethanolic solution of flurbiprofen in the presence and absence of hydrophilic polymers. Acidified water was added as antisolvent to produce controlled precipitation. The resultant particles were centrifuged and dried at ambient temperature before monitoring the dissolution pattern. The particles were also subjected to FTIR spectroscopic, X-ray diffraction and thermal analyses. The FTIR spectroscopy excluded any interaction between flurbiprofen and excipients. The thermal analysis reflected possible change in the crystalline structure and or crystal size of the drug after controlled precipitation in the presence of hydrophilic polymers. This was further confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The modulation in the crystalline structure and size was associated with a significant enhancement in the dissolution rate of flurbiprofen. Optimum formulations were successfully formulated as rapidly disintegrating tablet with subsequent fast dissolution. Precipitation on a large solid surface area is a promising strategy for enhanced dissolution rate with the presence of hydrophilic polymers during precipitation process improving the efficiency.

  7. A voltage-controlled ring oscillator using InP full enhancement-mode HEMT logic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Rui; Dai Yang; Chen Yanling; Yang Fuhua, E-mail: ddrr@semi.ac.c [Research Center of Semiconductor Integration, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2009-03-15

    A voltage-controlled ring oscillator (VCO) based on a full enhancement-mode InAlAs/InGaAs/InP high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) logic is proposed. An enhancement-mode HEMT (E-HEMT) is fabricated, whose threshold is demonstrated to be 10 mV. The model of the E-HEMT is established and used in the SPICE simulation of the VCO. The result proves that the full E-HEMT logic technology can be applied to the VCO. And compared with the HEMT DCFL technology, the complexity of our fabrication process is reduced and the reliability is improved.

  8. The combination of colesevelam with sitagliptin enhances glycemic control in diabetic ZDF rat model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shang, Quan; Liu, Matthew K; Saumoy, Monica

    2012-01-01

    . In the present study, we tested whether adding sitagliptin (Januvia) (SIT), which prolongs bioactive GLP-1 half life, to COL would further enhance glycemic control. Male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats were assigned to four groups: diabetic model without treatment (the model), the model treated with 2% COL or 0...... to levels similar to the model. Histological examination of the pancreatic ß-cell islets showed that islet sizes were larger, proliferation enhanced, and cell apoptosis reduced in the COL+SIT but not the SIT alone group compared with the model. We hypothesize that the combination of COL with SIT extends...

  9. Multiple group I introns in the small-subunit rDNA of Botryosphaeria dothidea: implication for intraspecific genetic diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Xu

    Full Text Available Botryosphaeria dothidea is a widespread and economically important pathogen on various fruit trees, and it often causes die-back and canker on limbs and fruit rot. In characterizing intraspecies genetic variation within this fungus, group I introns, rich in rDNA of fungi, may provide a productive region for exploration. In this research, we analysed complete small subunit (SSU ribosomal DNA (rDNA sequences of 37 B. dothidea strains, and found four insertions, designated Bdo.S943, Bdo.S1199-A, Bdo.S1199-B and Bdo.S1506, at three positions. Sequence analysis and structure prediction revealed that both Bdo.S943 and Bdo.S1506 belonged to subgroup IC1 of group I introns, whereas Bdo.S1199-A and Bdo.S1199-B corresponded to group IE introns. Moreover, Bdo.S1199-A was found to host an open reading frame (ORF for encoding the homing endonuclease (HE, whereas Bdo.S1199-B, an evolutionary descendant of Bdo.S1199-A, included a degenerate HE. The above four introns were novel, and were the first group I introns observed and characterized in this species. Differential distribution of these introns revealed that all strains could be separated into four genotypes. Genotype III (no intron and genotype IV (Bdo.S1199-B were each found in only one strain, whereas genotype I (Bdo.S1199-A and genotype II (Bdo.S943 and Bdo.S1506 occurred in 95% of the strains. There is a correlation between B. dothidea genotypes and hosts or geographic locations. Thus, these newly discovered group I introns can help to advance understanding of genetic differentiation within B. dothidea.

  10. Phylogenetic inferences of Nepenthes species in Peninsular Malaysia revealed by chloroplast (trnL intron) and nuclear (ITS) DNA sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Bunawan, Hamidun; Yen, Choong Chee; Yaakop, Salmah; Noor, Normah Mohd

    2017-01-01

    Background The chloroplastic trnL intron and the nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region were sequenced for 11 Nepenthes species recorded in Peninsular Malaysia to examine their phylogenetic relationship and to evaluate the usage of trnL intron and ITS sequences for phylogenetic reconstruction of this genus. Results Phylogeny reconstruction was carried out using neighbor-joining, maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses. All the trees revealed two major clusters, a lowland group consi...

  11. TSHR intronic polymorphisms (rs179247 and rs12885526) and their role in the susceptibility of the Brazilian population to Graves' disease and Graves' ophthalmopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufalo, N E; Dos Santos, R B; Marcello, M A; Piai, R P; Secolin, R; Romaldini, J H; Ward, L S

    2015-05-01

    Intronic thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor polymorphisms have been associated with the risk for both Graves' disease and Graves' ophthalmopathy, but results have been inconsistent among different populations. We aimed to investigate the influence of thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor intronic polymorphisms in a large well-characterized population of GD patients. We studied 279 Graves' disease patients (231 females and 48 males, 39.80 ± 11.69 years old), including 144 with Graves' ophthalmopathy, matched to 296 healthy control individuals. Thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor genotypes of rs179247 and rs12885526 were determined by Real Time PCR TaqMan(®) SNP Genotyping. A multivariate analysis showed that the inheritance of the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor AA genotype for rs179247 increased the risk for Graves' disease (OR = 2.821; 95 % CI 1.595-4.990; p = 0.0004), whereas the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor GG genotype for rs12885526 increased the risk for Graves' ophthalmopathy (OR = 2.940; 95 % CI 1.320-6.548; p = 0.0083). Individuals with Graves' ophthalmopathy also presented lower mean thyrotropin receptor antibodies levels (96.3 ± 143.9 U/L) than individuals without Graves' ophthalmopathy (98.3 ± 201.9 U/L). We did not find any association between the investigated polymorphisms and patients clinical features or outcome. We demonstrate that thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor intronic polymorphisms are associated with the susceptibility to Graves' disease and Graves' ophthalmopathy in the Brazilian population, but do not appear to influence the disease course.

  12. A var gene promoter implicated in severe malaria nucleates silencing and is regulated by 3' untranslated region and intronic cis-elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhle, Rebecca A; Adjalley, Sophie; Falkard, Brie; Nkrumah, Louis J; Muhle, Michael E; Fidock, David A

    2009-11-01

    Questions surround the mechanism of mutually exclusive expression by which Plasmodium falciparum mediates activation and silencing of var genes. These encode PfEMP1 proteins, which function as cytoadherent and immunomodulatory molecules at the surface of parasitised erythrocytes. Current evidence suggests that promoter silencing by var introns might play a key role in var gene regulation. To evaluate the impact of cis-acting regulatory regions on var silencing, we generated P. falciparum lines in which luciferase was placed under the control of an UpsA var promoter. By utilising the Bxb1 integrase system, these reporter cassettes were targeted to a genomic region that was not in apposition to var subtelomeric domains. This eliminated possible effects from surrounding telomeric elements and removed the variability inherent in episomal systems. Studies with highly synchronised parasites revealed that the UpsA element possessed minimal activity in comparison with a heterologous (hrp3) promoter. This may result from the integrated UpsA promoter being largely silenced by the neighbouring cg6 promoter. Our analyses also revealed that the DownsA 3' untranslated region further decreased the luciferase activity from both cassettes, whereas the var A intron repressed the UpsA promoter specifically. By applying multivariate analysis over the entire cell cycle, we confirmed the significance of these cis-elements and found the parasite stage to be the major factor regulating UpsA-promoter activity. Additionally, we observed that the UpsA promoter was capable of nucleating reversible silencing that spread to a downstream promoter. We believe these studies are the first to analyse promoter activity of Group A var genes, which have been implicated in severe malaria, and support the model that var introns can further suppress var expression. These data also suggest an important suppressive role for the DownsA terminator. Our findings imply the existence of multiple levels of var

  13. Strategies for Enhancing Nonlinear Internal Model Control of pH Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Qiuping.; Rangaiah, G.P. [The National University of Singapore, Singapore (Singapore). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering

    1999-02-01

    Control of neutralization processes is very difficult due to nonlinear dynamics, different types of disturbances and modeling errors. The objective of the paper is to evaluate two strategies (augmented internal model control, AuIMC and adaptive internal model control, AdIMC) for enhancing pH control by nonlinear internal model control (NIMC). A NIMC controller is derived directly form input output linearization. The AuIMC is composed of NIMC and an additional loop through which the difference between the process and model outputs is fed back and added to the input of the controller. For the AdIMC, and adaptive law with two tuning parameters is proposed for estimating the unknown parameter. Both AuIMC and AdIMC are extensively tested via simulation for pH neutralization. The theoretical and simulation results show that both the proposed strategies can reduce the effect of modeling errors and disturbances, and thereby enhance the performance of NIMC for pH processes. (author)

  14. SVC control enhancement applying self-learning fuzzy algorithm for islanded microgrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam Gabbar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining voltage stability, within acceptable levels, for islanded Microgrids (MGs is a challenge due to limited exchange power between generation and loads. This paper proposes an algorithm to enhance the dynamic performance of islanded MGs in presence of load disturbance using Static VAR Compensator (SVC with Fuzzy Model Reference Learning Controller (FMRLC. The proposed algorithm compensates MG nonlinearity via fuzzy membership functions and inference mechanism imbedded in both controller and inverse model. Hence, MG keeps the desired performance as required at any operating condition. Furthermore, the self-learning capability of the proposed control algorithm compensates for grid parameter’s variation even with inadequate information about load dynamics. A reference model was designed to reject bus voltage disturbance with achievable performance by the proposed fuzzy controller. Three simulations scenarios have been presented to investigate effectiveness of proposed control algorithm in improving steady-state and transient performance of islanded MGs. The first scenario conducted without SVC, second conducted with SVC using PID controller and third conducted using FMRLC algorithm. A comparison for results shows ability of proposed control algorithm to enhance disturbance rejection due to learning process.

  15. Application and Evaluation of Control Modes for Risk-Based Engine Performance Enhancements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Litt, Jonathan S.; Sowers, T. Shane; Owen, A. Karl; Guo, Ten-Huei

    2015-01-01

    The engine control system for civil transport aircraft imposes operational limits on the propulsion system to ensure compliance with safety standards. However, during certain emergency situations, aircraft survivability may benefit from engine performance beyond its normal limits despite the increased risk of failure. Accordingly, control modes were developed to improve the maximum thrust output and responsiveness of a generic high-bypass turbofan engine. The algorithms were designed such that the enhanced performance would always constitute an elevation in failure risk to a consistent predefined likelihood. This paper presents an application of these risk-based control modes to a combined engine/aircraft model. Through computer and piloted simulation tests, the aim is to present a notional implementation of these modes, evaluate their effects on a generic airframe, and demonstrate their usefulness during emergency flight situations. Results show that minimal control effort is required to compensate for the changes in flight dynamics due to control mode activation. The benefits gained from enhanced engine performance for various runway incursion scenarios are investigated. Finally, the control modes are shown to protect against potential instabilities during propulsion-only flight where all aircraft control surfaces are inoperable.

  16. Control technique for enhancing the stable operation of distributed generation units within a microgrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrasa, Majid; Pouresmaeil, Edris; Mehrjerdi, Hasan; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard; Catalão, João P.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A control technique for enhancing the stable operation of distributed generation units is proposed. • Passivity-based control technique is considered to analyze the dynamic and steady-state behaviors. • The compensation of instantaneous variations in the reference current components is considered. • Simulation results confirm the performance of the control scheme within the microgrid. - Abstract: This paper describes a control technique for enhancing the stable operation of distributed generation (DG) units based on renewable energy sources, during islanding and grid-connected modes. The Passivity-based control technique is considered to analyze the dynamic and steady-state behaviors of DG units during integration and power sharing with loads and/or power grid, which is an appropriate tool to analyze and define a stable operating condition for DG units in microgrid technology. The compensation of instantaneous variations in the reference current components of DG units in ac-side, and dc-link voltage variations in dc-side of interfaced converters, are considered properly in the control loop of DG units, which is the main contribution and novelty of this control technique over other control strategies. By using the proposed control technique, DG units can provide the continuous injection of active power from DG sources to the local loads and/or utility grid. Moreover, by setting appropriate reference current components in the control loop of DG units, reactive power and harmonic current components of loads can be supplied during the islanding and grid-connected modes with a fast dynamic response. Simulation results confirm the performance of the control scheme within the microgrid during dynamic and steady-state operating conditions

  17. Development of EST Intron-Targeting SNP Markers for Panax ginseng and Their Application to Cultivar Authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongtao; Li, Guisheng; Kwon, Woo-Saeng; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2016-06-04

    Panax ginseng is one of the most valuable medicinal plants in the Orient. The low level of genetic variation has limited the application of molecular markers for cultivar authentication and marker-assisted selection in cultivated ginseng. To exploit DNA polymorphism within ginseng cultivars, ginseng expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were searched against the potential intron polymorphism (PIP) database to predict the positions of introns. Intron-flanking primers were then designed in conserved exon regions and used to amplify across the more variable introns. Sequencing results showed that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), as well as indels, were detected in four EST-derived introns, and SNP markers specific to "Gopoong" and "K-1" were first reported in this study. Based on cultivar-specific SNP sites, allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was conducted and proved to be effective for the authentication of ginseng cultivars. Additionally, the combination of a simple NaOH-Tris DNA isolation method and real-time allele-specific PCR assay enabled the high throughput selection of cultivars from ginseng fields. The established real-time allele-specific PCR assay should be applied to molecular authentication and marker assisted selection of P. ginseng cultivars, and the EST intron-targeting strategy will provide a potential approach for marker development in species without whole genomic DNA sequence information.

  18. Using Group II Introns for Attenuating the In Vitro and In Vivo Expression of a Homing Endonuclease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuhin Kumar Guha

    Full Text Available In Chaetomium thermophilum (DSM 1495 within the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA small ribosomal subunit (rns gene a group IIA1 intron interrupts an open reading frame (ORF encoded within a group I intron (mS1247. This arrangement offers the opportunity to examine if the nested group II intron could be utilized as a regulatory element for the expression of the homing endonuclease (HEase. Constructs were generated where the codon-optimized ORF was interrupted with either the native group IIA1 intron or a group IIB type intron. This study showed that the expression of the HEase (in vivo in Escherichia coli can be regulated by manipulating the splicing efficiency of the HEase ORF-embedded group II introns. Exogenous magnesium chloride (MgCl2 stimulated the expression of a functional HEase but the addition of cobalt chloride (CoCl2 to growth media antagonized the expression of HEase activity. Ultimately the ability to attenuate HEase activity might be useful in precision genome engineering, minimizing off target activities, or where pathways have to be altered during a specific growth phase.

  19. Genome-wide generation and use of informative intron-spanning and intron-length polymorphism markers for high-throughput genetic analysis in rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badoni, Saurabh; Das, Sweta; Sayal, Yogesh K.; Gopalakrishnan, S.; Singh, Ashok K.; Rao, Atmakuri R.; Agarwal, Pinky; Parida, Swarup K.; Tyagi, Akhilesh K.

    2016-01-01

    We developed genome-wide 84634 ISM (intron-spanning marker) and 16510 InDel-fragment length polymorphism-based ILP (intron-length polymorphism) markers from genes physically mapped on 12 rice chromosomes. These genic markers revealed much higher amplification-efficiency (80%) and polymorphic-potential (66%) among rice accessions even by a cost-effective agarose gel-based assay. A wider level of functional molecular diversity (17–79%) and well-defined precise admixed genetic structure was assayed by 3052 genome-wide markers in a structured population of indica, japonica, aromatic and wild rice. Six major grain weight QTLs (11.9–21.6% phenotypic variation explained) were mapped on five rice chromosomes of a high-density (inter-marker distance: 0.98 cM) genetic linkage map (IR 64 x Sonasal) anchored with 2785 known/candidate gene-derived ISM and ILP markers. The designing of multiple ISM and ILP markers (2 to 4 markers/gene) in an individual gene will broaden the user-preference to select suitable primer combination for efficient assaying of functional allelic variation/diversity and realistic estimation of differential gene expression profiles among rice accessions. The genomic information generated in our study is made publicly accessible through a user-friendly web-resource, “Oryza ISM-ILP marker” database. The known/candidate gene-derived ISM and ILP markers can be enormously deployed to identify functionally relevant trait-associated molecular tags by optimal-resource expenses, leading towards genomics-assisted crop improvement in rice. PMID:27032371

  20. Automatic control of the effluent turbidity from a chemically enhanced primary treatment with microsieving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väänänen, J; Memet, S; Günther, T; Lilja, M; Cimbritz, M; la Cour Jansen, J

    2017-10-01

    For chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT) with microsieving, a feedback proportional integral controller combined with a feedforward compensator was used in large pilot scale to control effluent water turbidity to desired set points. The effluent water turbidity from the microsieve was maintained at various set points in the range 12-80 NTU basically independent for a number of studied variations in influent flow rate and influent wastewater compositions. Effluent turbidity was highly correlated with effluent chemical oxygen demand (COD). Thus, for CEPT based on microsieving, controlling the removal of COD was possible. Thereby incoming carbon can be optimally distributed between biological nitrogen removal and anaerobic digestion for biogas production. The presented method is based on common automation and control strategies; therefore fine tuning and optimization for specific requirements are simplified compared to model-based dosing control.

  1. IPCS: An integrated process control system for enhanced in-situ bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Y.F.; Wang, G.Q.; Huang, G.H.; Xiao, H.N.; Chakma, A.

    2008-01-01

    To date, there has been little or no research related to process control of subsurface remediation systems. In this study, a framework to develop an integrated process control system for improving remediation efficiencies and reducing operating costs was proposed based on physical and numerical models, stepwise cluster analysis, non-linear optimization and artificial neural networks. Process control for enhanced in-situ bioremediation was accomplished through incorporating the developed forecasters and optimizers with methods of genetic algorithm and neural networks modeling. Application of the proposed approach to a bioremediation process in a pilot-scale system indicated that it was effective in dynamic optimization and real-time process control of the sophisticated bioremediation systems. - A framework of process control system was developed to improve in-situ bioremediation efficiencies and reducing operating costs

  2. Tip-Enhanced Raman Scattering Microscopy: A Step toward Nanoscale Control of Intrinsic Molecular Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Taka-aki; Hara, Masahiko

    2018-06-01

    Tip-enhanced Raman scattering microscopy, a family of scanning probe microscopy techniques, has been recognized as a powerful surface analytical technique with both single-molecule sensitivity and angstrom-scale spatial resolution. This review covers the current status of tip-enhanced Raman scattering microscopy in surface and material nanosciences, including a brief history, the basic principles, and applications for the nanoscale characterization of a variety of nanomaterials. The focus is on the recent trend of combining tip-enhanced Raman scattering microscopy with various external stimuli such as pressure, voltage, light, and temperature, which enables the local control of the molecular properties and functions and also enables chemical reactions to be induced on a nanometer scale.

  3. Might there be a link between intron 3 VNTR polymorphism in the XRCC4 DNA repair gene and the etiopathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlivan, Sacide; Balci, Sibel Oguzkan; Aydeniz, Ali; Pehlivan, Mustafa; Sever, Tugce; Gursoy, Savas

    2015-01-01

    DNA repair genes are involved in several diseases such as cancers and autoimmune diseases. Previous studies indicated that a DNA repair system was involved in the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this study, we aimed to examine whether four polymorphisms in the DNA repair genes (xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group D [XPD], X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 [XRCC1], and X-ray repair cross-complementing group 4 [XRCC4]) were associated with RA. Sixty-five patients with RA and 70 healthy controls (HCs) were examined for XPD (A-751G), XRCC1 (A399G), and XRCC4 (intron 3 VNTR and G-1394T) polymorphisms. All polymorphisms were genotyped by PCR and/or PCR-RFLP. The association between the polymorphisms and RA was analyzed using the chi-square test and de Finetti program. The intron 3 VNTR polymorphism in the XRCC4 gene showed an association with RA patients. The DI genotype was found lower in RA patients (χ(2)=8.227; p=0.0021), while the II genotype was higher in RA patients (χ(2)=5.285; p=0.010). There were deviations from the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) in both intron 3 VNTR and G-1394T polymorphisms in the XRCC4 gene and in the polymorphism in the XRCC1 gene, and the observed genotype counts deviated from those expected according to the HWE (p=0.027, 0.004, and 0.002, respectively); however, there was no deviation in the other gene polymorphisms. There is no statistical difference between the RA patients and HCs for XPD (A-751G), XRCC1 (A399G), and XRCC4 (G-1394T) gene polymorphisms (p>0.05). Although XPD (A-751G), XRCC1 (A399G), and XRCC4 (G-1394T) gene polymorphisms have been extensively investigated in different clinical pictures, this is the first study to evaluate the role of these polymorphisms in the genetic etiopathogenesis of RA in Turkish patients. In conclusion, we suggested that the intron 3 VNTR polymorphism in the XRCC4 gene may be associated with the etiopathogenesis of RA as a marker of immune aging.

  4. Radiosurgery for brain metastases: relationship of dose and pattern of enhancement to local control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiau, C.-Y.; Sneed, Penny K.; Shu, H.-K.G.; Lamborn, Kathleen R.; McDermott, Michael W.; Chang, Susan; Nowak, Peter; Petti, Paula L.; Smith, Vernon; Verhey, Lynn J.; Ho, Maria; Park, Elaine; Wara, William M.; Gutin, Philip H.; Larson, David A.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to analyze dose, initial pattern of enhancement, and other factors associated with freedom from progression (FFP) of brain metastases after radiosurgery (RS). Methods and Materials: All brain metastases treated with gamma-knife RS at the University of California, San Francisco, from 1991 to 1994 were reviewed. Evaluable lesions were those with follow-up magnetic resonance or computed tomographic imaging. Actuarial FFP was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, measuring FFP from the date of RS to the first imaging study showing tumor progression. Controlled lesions were censored at the time of the last imaging study. Multivariate analyses were performed using a stepwise Cox proportional hazards model. Results: Of 261 lesions treated in 119 patients, 219 lesions in 100 patients were evaluable. Major histologies included adenocarcinoma (86 lesions), melanoma (77), renal cell carcinoma (21), and carcinoma not otherwise specified (17). The median prescribed RS dose was 18.5 Gy (range, 10-22) and the median tumor volume was 1.3 ml (range, 0.02-30.9). The initial pattern of contrast enhancement was homogeneous in 68% of lesions, heterogeneous in 12%, and ring-enhancing in 19%. The actuarial FFP was 82% at 6 months and 77% at 1 year for all lesions, and 93 and 90%, respectively, for 145 lesions receiving ≥ 18 Gy. Multivariate analysis showed that longer FFP was significantly associated with higher prescribed RS dose, a homogeneous pattern of contrast enhancement, and a longer interval between primary diagnosis and RS. Adjusted for these factors, adenocarcinomas had longer FFP than melanomas. No significant differences in FFP were noted among lesions undergoing RS for recurrence after prior radiotherapy (119 lesions), RS alone as initial treatment (45), or RS boost (55). Conclusion: A minimum prescribed radiosurgical dose ≥ 18 Gy yields excellent local control of brain metastases. The influence of pattern of enhancement on local control, a

  5. Enhanced thermal expansion control rod drive lines for improving passive safety of fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelmann, M.; Baumann, W.; Kuechle, M.; Kussmaul, G.; Vaeth, W.; Bertram, A.

    1992-01-01

    The paper presents a device for increasing the thermal expansion effect of control rod drive lines on negative reactivity feedback in fast reactors. The enhanced thermal expansion of this device can be utilized for both passive rod drop and forced insertion of absorbers in unprotected transients, e.g. ULOF. In this way the reactor is automatically brought into a permanently subcritical state and temperatures are kept well below the boiling point of the coolant. A prototype of such a device called ATHENa (German: Shut-down by THermal Expansion of Na) is presently under construction and will be tested. The paper presents the principle, design features and thermal properties of ATHENs as well as results of reactor dynamics calculations of ULOF's for EFR with enhanced thermal expansion control rod drive lines. (author)

  6. Flight Simulator Evaluation of Enhanced Propulsion Control Modes for Emergency Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Jonathan, S; Sowers, T.; Owen, A., Karl; Fulton, Christopher, E.; Chicatelli, Amy, K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes piloted evaluation of enhanced propulsion control modes for emergency operation of aircraft. Fast Response and Overthrust modes were implemented to assess their ability to help avoid or mitigate potentially catastrophic situations, both on the ground and in flight. Tests were conducted to determine the reduction in takeoff distance achievable using the Overthrust mode. Also, improvements in Dutch roll damping, enabled by using yaw rate feedback to the engines to replace the function of a stuck rudder, were investigated. Finally, pilot workload and ability to handle the impaired aircraft on approach and landing were studied. The results showed that improvement in all aspects is possible with these enhanced propulsion control modes, but the way in which they are initiated and incorporated is important for pilot comfort and perceived benefit.

  7. MR Damper Controlled Vibration Absorber for Enhanced Mitigation of Harmonic Vibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Weber

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a semi-active vibration absorber (SVA concept based on a real-time controlled magnetorheological damper (MR-SVA for the enhanced mitigation of structural vibrations due to harmonic disturbing forces. The force of the MR damper is controlled in real-time to generate the frequency and damping controls according to the behaviour of the undamped vibration absorber for the actual frequency of vibration. As stiffness and damping emulations in semi-active actuators are coupled quantities the control is formulated to prioritize the frequency control by the controlled stiffness. The control algorithm is augmented by a stiffness correction method ensuring precise frequency control when the desired control force is constrained by the semi-active restriction and residual force of the MR damper. The force tracking task is solved by a model-based feed forward with feedback correction. The MR-SVA is numerically and experimentally validated for the primary structure with nominal eigenfrequency and when de-tuning of −10%, −5%, +5% and +10% is present. Both validations demonstrate that the MR-SVA improves the vibration reduction in the primary structure by up to 55% compared to the passive tuned mass damper (TMD. Furthermore, it is shown that the MR-SVA with only 80% of tuned mass leads to approximately the same enhanced performance while the associated increased relative motion amplitude of the tuned mass is more than compensated be the reduced dimensions of the mass. Therefore, the MR-SVA is an appropriate solution for the mitigation of tall buildings where the pendulum mass can be up to several thousands of metric tonnes and space for the pendulum damper is limited.

  8. Human Computer Collaboration at the Edge: Enhancing Collective Situation Understanding with Controlled Natural Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-06

    conversational agent with information exchange disabled until the end of the experiment run. The meaning of the indicator in the top- right of the agent... Human Computer Collaboration at the Edge: Enhancing Collective Situation Understanding with Controlled Natural Language Alun Preece∗, William...email: PreeceAD@cardiff.ac.uk †Emerging Technology Services, IBM United Kingdom Ltd, Hursley Park, Winchester, UK ‡US Army Research Laboratory, Human

  9. Control of ordered mesoporous titanium dioxide nanostructures formed using plasma enhanced glancing angle deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, Des [Institute of Thin Films, Sensors & Imaging, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, University of West of Scotland, Paisley, PA1 2BE (United Kingdom); Child, David, E-mail: david.child@uws.ac.uk [Institute of Thin Films, Sensors & Imaging, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, University of West of Scotland, Paisley, PA1 2BE (United Kingdom); Song, Shigeng; Zhao, Chao [Institute of Thin Films, Sensors & Imaging, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, University of West of Scotland, Paisley, PA1 2BE (United Kingdom); Alajiani, Yahya [Institute of Thin Films, Sensors & Imaging, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, University of West of Scotland, Paisley, PA1 2BE (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Jazan University, Jazan (Saudi Arabia); Waddell, Ewan [Thin Film Solutions Ltd, West of Scotland Science Park, Glasgow, G20 0TH (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-01

    Three dimensional nanostructures of mesoporous (pore diameter between 2-50 nm) nanocrystalline titania (TiO{sub 2}) were produced using glancing angle deposition combined with plasma ion assisted deposition, providing plasma enhanced glancing angle deposition eliminating the need for post-annealing to achieve film crystallinity. Electron beam evaporation was chosen to deposit nanostructures at various azimuthal angles, achieving designed variation in three dimensional nanostructure. A thermionic broad beam hollow cathode plasma source was used to enhance electron beam deposition, with ability to vary in real time ion fluxes and energies providing a means to modify and control TiO{sub 2} nanostructure real time with controlled density and porosity along and lateral to film growth direction. Plasma ion assisted deposition was carried out at room temperature using a hollow cathode plasma source, ensuring low heat loading to the substrate during deposition. Plasma enhanced glancing angle TiO{sub 2} structures were deposited onto borosilicate microscope slides and used to characterise the effects of glancing angle and plasma ion energy distribution function on the optical and nanostructural properties. Variation in TiO{sub 2} refractive index from 1.40 to 2.45 (@ 550 nm) using PEGLAD is demonstrated. Results and analysis of the influence of plasma enhanced glancing angle deposition on evaporant path and resultant glancing angle deviation from standard GLAD are described. Control of mesoporous morphology is described, providing a means of optimising light trapping features and film porosity, relevant to applications such as fabrication of dye sensitised solar cells. - Highlights: • Plasma assistance during glancing angle deposition enables control of morphology. • Ion energy variation during glancing angle deposition varies columnar angle • Column thickness of glancing angle deposition dependant on ion current density • Ion current density variation during

  10. Ab initio quantum-enhanced optical phase estimation using real-time feedback control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berni, Adriano; Gehring, Tobias; Nielsen, Bo Melholt

    2015-01-01

    of a quantum-enhanced and fully deterministic ab initio phase estimation protocol based on real-time feedback control. Using robust squeezed states of light combined with a real-time Bayesian adaptive estimation algorithm, we demonstrate deterministic phase estimation with a precision beyond the quantum shot...... noise limit. The demonstrated protocol opens up new opportunities for quantum microscopy, quantum metrology and quantum information processing....

  11. Multi-level Control Framework for Enhanced Flexibility of Active Distribution Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nainar, Karthikeyan; Pokhrel, Basanta Raj; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the control objectives of future active distribution networks with high penetration of renewables and flexible loads are analyzed and reviewed. From a state of the art review, the important control objectives seen from the perspective of a distribution system operator are identifie......-ordination and management of the network assets at different voltage levels and geographical locations. The paper finally shows the applicability of the multi-level control architecture to some of the key challenges in the distribution system operation by relevant scenarios....... to be hosting capacity improvement, high reliable operation and cost effective network management. Based on this review and a state of the art review concerning future distribution network control methods, a multi-level control architecture is constructed for an active distribution network, which satisfies...... the selected control objectives and provides enhanced flexibility. The control architecture is supported by generation/load forecasting and distribution state estimation techniques to improve the controllability of the network. The multi-level control architecture consists of three levels of hierarchical...

  12. Intelligent Control of UPFC for Enhancing Transient Stability on Multi-Machine Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Barati

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the benefit of FACTS devices is increase of stability in power systems with control active and reactive power at during the fault in power system. Although, the power system stabilizers (PSSs have been one of the most common controls used to damp out oscillations, this device may not produce enough damping especially to inter-area mode and therefore, there is an increasing interest in using FACTS devices to aid in damping of these oscillations. In This paper, UPFC is used for damping oscillations and to enhance the transient stability performance of power systems. The controller parameters are designed using an efficient version of the Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy control scheme. The function based Takagi-Sugeno-Kang (TSK fuzzy controller uses. For optimization parameters of fuzzy PI controller, the GA, PSO and HGAPSO algorithms are used. The computer simulation results, the effect of UPFC with conventional PI controller, fuzzy PI controller and intelligent controllers (GA, PSO and HGAPSO for damping the local-mode and inter-area mode of under large and small disturbances in the four-machine two-area power system evaluated and compared.

  13. Plasma position and current control system enhancements for the JET ITER-like wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Tommasi, G. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CREATE, Univ. di Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Maviglia, F. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CREATE, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Neto, A.C. [Ass. EURATOM-IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, IST, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Lomas, P.J.; McCullen, P.; Rimini, F.G. [Euratom-CCFE, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • JET plasma position and current control system enhanced for the JET ITER like wall. • Vertical stabilization system enhanced to speed up its response and to withstand larger perturbations. • Improved termination management system. • Implementation of the current limit avoidance system. • Implementation of PFX-on-early-task. - Abstract: The upgrade of Joint European Torus (JET) to a new all-metal wall, the so-called ITER-like wall (ILW), has posed a set of new challenges regarding both machine operation and protection. The plasma position and current control (PPCC) system plays a crucial role in minimizing the possibility that the plasma could permanently damage the ILW. The installation of the ILW has driven a number of upgrades of the two PPCC components, namely the Vertical Stabilization (VS) system and the Shape Controller (SC). The VS system has been enhanced in order to speed up its response and to withstand larger perturbations. The SC upgrade includes three new features: an improved termination management system, the current limit avoidance system, and the PFX-on-early-task. This paper describes the PPCC upgrades listed above, focusing on the implementation issues and on the experimental results achieved during the 2011–12 JET experimental campaigns.

  14. Why self-controlled feedback enhances motor learning: Answers from electroencephalography and indices of motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand, Kirk F; Bruzi, Alessandro T; Dyke, Ford B; Godwin, Maurice M; Leiker, Amber M; Thompson, Andrew G; Buchanan, Taylor L; Miller, Matthew W

    2015-10-01

    It was tested whether learners who choose when to receive augmented feedback while practicing a motor skill exhibit enhanced augmented feedback processing and intrinsic motivation, along with superior learning, relative to learners who do not control their feedback. Accordingly, participants were assigned to either self-control (Self) or yoked groups and asked to practice a non-dominant arm beanbag toss. Self participants received augmented feedback at their discretion, whereas Yoked participants were given feedback schedules matched to Self counterparts. Participants' visual feedback was occluded, and when they received augmented feedback, their processing of it was indexed with the electroencephalography-derived feedback-related negativity (FRN). Participants self-reported intrinsic motivation via the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI) after practice, and completed a retention and transfer test the next day to index learning. Results partially support the hypothesis. Specifically, Self participants reported higher IMI scores, exhibited larger FRNs, and demonstrated better accuracy on the transfer test, but not on the retention test, nor did they exhibit greater consistency on the retention or transfer tests. Additionally, post-hoc multiple regression analysis indicated FRN amplitude predicted transfer test accuracy (accounting for IMI score). Results suggest self-controlled feedback schedules enhance feedback processing, which enhances the transfer of a newly acquired motor skill. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A spinner-integrated wind lidar for enhanced wind turbine control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Torben; Angelou, Nikolas; Hansen, Kasper Hjorth

    2013-01-01

    A field test with a continuous wave wind lidar (ZephIR) installed in the rotating spinner of a wind turbine for unimpeded preview measurements of the upwind approaching wind conditions is described. The experimental setup with the wind lidar on the tip of the rotating spinner of a large 80 m roto...... of the spinner lidar data, is investigated. Finally, the potential for enhancing turbine control and performance based on wind lidar preview measurements in combination with feed-forward enabled turbine controllers is discussed. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  16. Enhanced squeezing of a collective spin via control of its qudit subsystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Leigh M; Trail, Collin M; Jessen, Poul S; Deutsch, Ivan H

    2012-10-26

    Unitary control of qudits can improve the collective spin squeezing of an atomic ensemble. Preparing the atoms in a state with large quantum fluctuations in magnetization strengthens the entangling Faraday interaction. The resulting increase in interatomic entanglement can be converted into metrologically useful spin squeezing. Further control can squeeze the internal atomic spin without compromising entanglement, providing an overall multiplicative factor in the collective squeezing. We model the effects of optical pumping and study the tradeoffs between enhanced entanglement and decoherence. For realistic parameters we see improvements of ~10 dB.

  17. Distributed Information and Control system reliability enhancement by fog-computing concept application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, E. V.; Klimenko, A. B.; Ivanov, D. Ya

    2018-03-01

    The paper focuses on the information and control system reliability issue. Authors of the current paper propose a new complex approach of information and control system reliability enhancement by application of the computing concept elements. The approach proposed consists of a complex of optimization problems to be solved. These problems are: estimation of computational complexity, which can be shifted to the edge of the network and fog-layer, distribution of computations among the data processing elements and distribution of computations among the sensors. The problems as well as some simulated results and discussion are formulated and presented within this paper.

  18. Enhancements to inventory control procedures used at Koeberg nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, M.P.; Adams, A.R.

    1991-01-01

    In industry today, industrial engineers are forced to seek new and innovative ideas to reduce costs. This can often be accomplished by simplified or modernized operational procedures. With the advancement in computer technology, operational procedures can be enhanced. Despite the fact that Eskom's Koeberg nuclear power station is one of a kind in Africa, it, like most other industries requires a large stock holding capacity. There are currently 25 000 stock items in the Koeberg Stores Information System. Controlling all of these items is no minor task and management is continually trying to optimise the inventory control procedures. One of these procedures is described. 3 refs., 1 fig

  19. Structural control of metamaterial oscillator strength and electric field enhancement at terahertz frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiser, G. R.; Seren, H. R.; Strikwerda, Andrew C.

    2014-01-01

    The design of artificial nonlinear materials requires control over internal resonant charge densities and local electric field distributions. We present a MM design with a structurally controllable oscillator strength and local electric field enhancement at terahertz frequencies. The MM consists...... of a split ring resonator (SRR) array stacked above an array of closed conducting rings. An in-plane, lateral shift of a half unit cell between the SRR and closed ring arrays results in an increase of the MM oscillator strength by a factor of 4 and a 40% change in the amplitude of the resonant electric field...

  20. A videotaped intervention to enhance child control and reduce anxiety of the pain of dental injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, P; Raadal, M; Naidu, S; Yoshida, T; Kvale, G; Milgrom, P

    2003-12-01

    While the psychological literature shows that perceptions of uncontrollability contribute to anxiety and other pathologies, interventions that enhance perceived control have been shown to reduce anxiety. This study attempted to assess a brief videotape to enhance child perceived control in a dental setting. 101 children aged 7-9 years completed warm-up procedures and viewed either: a) the experimental intervention, a 2 minutes video of a dentist explaining what an injection will feel like and proposing hand raising as a signal mechanism; or b) the control condition, a 2 minutes video of Disneyland. Fear of dental injections was assessed on a 10 cm visual analogue scale before and after the intervention. In the experimental group there was a significant fear reduction from pre- to post-intervention, while this was not the case in the control group. Children with higher pre-existing levels of fear benefited more from the intervention than children with lower levels of fear. The results of this pilot study suggest that intervention packages that impact child control have promise in lowering anxiety.

  1. Association analysis between a VNTR intron 8 polymorphism of the dopamine transporter gene (SLC6A3 and obsessive- compulsive disorder in a Brazilian sample Análise de associação entre um polimorfismo VNTR no intron 8 do gene do transportador de dopamina (SLC6A3 e transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo em uma amostra brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Miguita

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Family, twin and segregation analysis have provided evidences that genetic factors are implicated in the susceptibility for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. Several lines of research suggest that the dopaminergic system may be involved in the pathophysiology of OCD. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate a possible association between a polymorphism located in intron 8 of the dopamine transporter gene (SLC6A3 and OCD in a Brazilian sample composed by 208 patients and 865 healthy controls. No statistically differences were observed in allelic and genotype distributions between cases and controls. No association was also observed when the sample was divided according to specific phenotypic features such as gender, presence of tic disorders co-morbidity and age at onset of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS. Our results suggest that the intron 8 VNTR of the SLC6A3 investigated in this study is not related to the susceptibility for OCD in our Brazilian sample.Estudos de família, gêmeos e de segregação têm demonstrado que fatores genéticos estão envolvidos na susceptibilidade para o desenvolvimento do transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo (TOC. Várias linhas de pesquisa sugerem que o sistema dopaminérgico possa estar envolvido na fisiopatologia do TOC. Assim, o objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar uma possível associação entre o polimorfismo localizado no intron 8 do gene do transportador da dopamina (SLC6A3 e o TOC em uma amostra brasileira composta por 208 pacientes e 865 controles sadios. Nenhuma diferença estatisticamente significante foi observada nas distribuições alélicas e genotípicas entre os grupos de pacientes e controles. Nenhuma associação também foi observada quando as amostras foram divididas de acordo com características fenotípicas específicas, tais como gênero, presença de co-morbidade com tiques e idade de início dos sintomas obsessivo-compulsivo (SOC. Nossos resultados sugerem que o VNTR

  2. Active control of electromagnetic radiation through an enhanced thermo-optic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Chong; Liu, Hui; Zhu, Shining; Genov, Dentcho A.

    2015-01-01

    The control of electromagnetic radiation in transformation optical metamaterials brings the development of vast variety of optical devices. Of a particular importance is the possibility to control the propagation of light with light. In this work, we use a structured planar cavity to enhance the thermo-optic effect in a transformation optical waveguide. In the process, a control laser produces apparent inhomogeneous refractive index change inside the waveguides. The trajectory of a second probe laser beam is then continuously tuned in the experiment. The experimental results agree well with the developed theory. The reported method can provide a new approach toward development of transformation optical devices where active all-optical control of the impinging light can be achieved. PMID:25746689

  3. Controller Parameter Optimization for Nonlinear Systems Using Enhanced Bacteria Foraging Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Rajinikanth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An enhanced bacteria foraging optimization (EBFO algorithm-based Proportional + integral + derivative (PID controller tuning is proposed for a class of nonlinear process models. The EBFO algorithm is a modified form of standard BFO algorithm. A multiobjective performance index is considered to guide the EBFO algorithm for discovering the best possible value of controller parameters. The efficiency of the proposed scheme has been validated through a comparative study with classical BFO, adaptive BFO, PSO, and GA based controller tuning methods proposed in the literature. The proposed algorithm is tested in real time on a nonlinear spherical tank system. The real-time results show that, EBFO tuned PID controller gives a smooth response for setpoint tracking performance.

  4. tDCS over the left prefrontal cortex enhances cognitive control for positive affective stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhasselt, Marie-Anne; De Raedt, Rudi; Brunoni, Andre R; Campanhã, Camila; Baeken, Chris; Remue, Jonathan; Boggio, Paulo S

    2013-01-01

    Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is a neuromodulation technique with promising results for enhancing cognitive information processes. So far, however, research has mainly focused on the effects of tDCS on cognitive control operations for non-emotional material. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the effects on cognitive control considering negative versus positive material. For this sham-controlled, within-subjects study, we selected a homogeneous sample of twenty-five healthy participants. By using behavioral measures and event related potentials (ERP) as indexes, we aimed to investigate whether a single session of anodal tDCS of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) would have specific effects in enhancing cognitive control for positive and negative valenced stimuli. After tDCS over the left DLPFC (and not sham control stimulation), we observed more negative N450 amplitudes along with faster reaction times when inhibiting a habitual response to happy compared to sad facial expressions. Gender did not influence the effects of tDCS on cognitive control for emotional information. In line with the Valence Theory of side-lateralized activity, this stimulation protocol might have led to a left dominant (relative to right) prefrontal cortical activity, resulting in augmented cognitive control specifically for positive relative to negative stimuli. To verify that tDCS induces effects that are in line with all aspects of the well known Valence Theory, future research should investigate the effects of tDCS over the left vs. right DLPFC on cognitive control for emotional information.

  5. tDCS over the left prefrontal cortex enhances cognitive control for positive affective stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Anne Vanderhasselt

    Full Text Available Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS is a neuromodulation technique with promising results for enhancing cognitive information processes. So far, however, research has mainly focused on the effects of tDCS on cognitive control operations for non-emotional material. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the effects on cognitive control considering negative versus positive material. For this sham-controlled, within-subjects study, we selected a homogeneous sample of twenty-five healthy participants. By using behavioral measures and event related potentials (ERP as indexes, we aimed to investigate whether a single session of anodal tDCS of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC would have specific effects in enhancing cognitive control for positive and negative valenced stimuli. After tDCS over the left DLPFC (and not sham control stimulation, we observed more negative N450 amplitudes along with faster reaction times when inhibiting a habitual response to happy compared to sad facial expressions. Gender did not influence the effects of tDCS on cognitive control for emotional information. In line with the Valence Theory of side-lateralized activity, this stimulation protocol might have led to a left dominant (relative to right prefrontal cortical activity, resulting in augmented cognitive control specifically for positive relative to negative stimuli. To verify that tDCS induces effects that are in line with all aspects of the well known Valence Theory, future research should investigate the effects of tDCS over the left vs. right DLPFC on cognitive control for emotional information.

  6. Strong Signature of Natural Selection within an FHIT Intron Implicated in Prostate Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yan; Larson, Garrett; Rivas, Guillermo; Lundberg, Cathryn; Geller, Louis; Ouyang, Ching; Weitzel, Jeffrey; Archambeau, John; Slater, Jerry; Daly, Mary B.; Benson, Al B.; Kirkwood, John M.; O'Dwyer, Peter J.; Sutphen, Rebecca; Stewart, James A.; Johnson, David; Nordborg, Magnus; Krontiris, Theodore G.

    2008-01-01

    Previously, a candidate gene linkage approach on brother pairs affected with prostate cancer identified a locus of prostate cancer susceptibility at D3S1234 within the fragile histidine triad gene (FHIT), a tumor suppressor that induces apoptosis. Subsequent association tests on 16 SNPs spanning approximately 381 kb surrounding D3S1234 in Americans of European descent revealed significant evidence of association for a single SNP within intron 5 of FHIT. In the current study, re-sequencing and genotyping within a 28.5 kb region surrounding this SNP further delineated the association with prostate cancer risk to a 15 kb region. Multiple SNPs in sequences under evolutionary constraint within intron 5 of FHIT defined several related haplotypes with an increased risk of prostate cancer in European-Americans. Strong associations were detected for a risk haplotype defined by SNPs 138543, 142413, and 152494 in all cases (Pearson's χ2 = 12.34, df 1, P = 0.00045) and for the homozygous risk haplotype defined by SNPs 144716, 142413, and 148444 in cases that shared 2 alleles identical by descent with their affected brothers (Pearson's χ2 = 11.50, df 1, P = 0.00070). In addition to highly conserved sequences encompassing SNPs 148444 and 152413, population studies revealed strong signatures of natural selection for a 1 kb window covering the SNP 144716 in two human populations, the European American (π = 0.0072, Tajima's D = 3.31, 14 SNPs) and the Japanese (π = 0.0049, Fay & Wu's H = 8.05, 14 SNPs), as well as in chimpanzees (Fay & Wu's H = 8.62, 12 SNPs). These results strongly support the involvement of the FHIT intronic region in an increased risk of prostate cancer. PMID:18953408

  7. Nonsynonymous substitution in abalone sperm fertilization genes exceeds substitution in introns and mitochondrial DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Edward C.; Robles-Sikisaka, Refugio; Vacquier, Victor D.

    1998-01-01

    Strong positive Darwinian selection acts on two sperm fertilization proteins, lysin and 18-kDa protein, from abalone (Haliotis). To understand the phylogenetic context for this dramatic molecular evolution, we obtained sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (mtCOI), and genomic sequences of lysin, 18-kDa, and a G protein subunit. Based on mtDNA differentiation, four north Pacific abalone species diverged within the past 2 million years (Myr), and remaining north Pacific species diverged over a period of 4–20 Myr. Between-species nonsynonymous differences in lysin and 18-kDa exons exceed nucleotide differences in introns by 3.5- to 24-fold. Remarkably, in some comparisons nonsynonymous substitutions in lysin and 18-kDa genes exceed synonymous substitutions in mtCOI. Lysin and 18-kDa intron/exon segments were sequenced from multiple red abalone individuals collected over a 1,200-km range. Only two nucleotide changes and two sites of slippage variation were detected in a total of >29,000 nucleotides surveyed. However, polymorphism in mtCOI and a G protein intron was found in this species. This finding suggests that positive selection swept one lysin allele and one 18-kDa allele to fixation. Similarities between mtCOI and lysin gene trees indicate that rapid adaptive evolution of lysin has occurred consistently through the history of the group. Comparisons with mtCOI molecular clock calibrations suggest that nonsynonymous substitutions accumulate 2–50 times faster in lysin and 18-kDa genes than in rapidly evolving mammalian genes. PMID:9724763

  8. Power system security enhancement through direct non-disruptive load control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Badri Narayanan

    The transition to a competitive market structure raises significant concerns regarding reliability of the power grid. A need to build tools for security assessment that produce operating limit boundaries for both static and dynamic contingencies is recognized. Besides, an increase in overall uncertainty in operating conditions makes corrective actions at times ineffective leaving the system vulnerable to instability. The tools that are in place for stability enhancement are mostly corrective and suffer from lack of robustness to operating condition changes. They often pose serious coordination challenges. With deregulation, there have also been ownership and responsibility issues associated with stability controls. However, the changing utility business model and the developments in enabling technologies such as two-way communication, metering, and control open up several new possibilities for power system security enhancement. This research proposes preventive modulation of selected loads through direct control for power system security enhancement. Two main contributions of this research are the following: development of an analysis framework and two conceptually different analysis approaches for load modulation to enhance oscillatory stability, and the development and study of algorithms for real-time modulation of thermostatic loads. The underlying analysis framework is based on the Structured Singular Value (SSV or mu) theory. Based on the above framework, two fundamentally different approaches towards analysis of the amount of load modulation for desired stability performance have been developed. Both the approaches have been tested on two different test systems: CIGRE Nordic test system and an equivalent of the Western Electric Coordinating Council test system. This research also develops algorithms for real-time modulation of thermostatic loads that use the results of the analysis. In line with some recent load management programs executed by utilities, two

  9. The evaluation of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene I/D and IL-4 gene intron 3 VNTR polymorphisms in coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basol, Nursah; Celik, Atac; Karakus, Nevin; Ozturk, Sibel Demir; Ozsoy, Sibel Demir; Yigit, Serbulent

    2014-01-01

    Genetic polymorphism is a strong risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). In the present study, our aim was to evaluate angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene I/D polymorphism and interleukin-4 (IL-4) gene Intron 3 variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in CAD. One hundred and twenty-four CAD patients and one hundred and twenty-three controls were enrolled. Genomic DNA was isolated and genotyped using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses. The risk associated with inheriting the combined genotypes for the two polymorphisms were evaluated and it was found that the individuals who were P2P2-homozygous at IL-4 gene intron 3 VNTR and DD-homozygous at ACE gene I/D have a higher risk of developing CAD. Although, there is no correlation between IL4 VNTR polymorphism and ACE gene polymorphism and CAD, there is a strong association between CAD and co-existence of IL-4 VNTR and ACE gene polymorphisms in the Turkish population. Copyright © 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  10. The Dunaliella salina organelle genomes: large sequences, inflated with intronic and intergenic DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Duc

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dunaliella salina Teodoresco, a unicellular, halophilic green alga belonging to the Chlorophyceae, is among the most industrially important microalgae. This is because D. salina can produce massive amounts of β-carotene, which can be collected for commercial purposes, and because of its potential as a feedstock for biofuels production. Although the biochemistry and physiology of D. salina have been studied in great detail, virtually nothing is known about the genomes it carries, especially those within its mitochondrion and plastid. This study presents the complete mitochondrial and plastid genome sequences of D. salina and compares them with those of the model green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carteri. Results The D. salina organelle genomes are large, circular-mapping molecules with ~60% noncoding DNA, placing them among the most inflated organelle DNAs sampled from the Chlorophyta. In fact, the D. salina plastid genome, at 269 kb, is the largest complete plastid DNA (ptDNA sequence currently deposited in GenBank, and both the mitochondrial and plastid genomes have unprecedentedly high intron densities for organelle DNA: ~1.5 and ~0.4 introns per gene, respectively. Moreover, what appear to be the relics of genes, introns, and intronic open reading frames are found scattered throughout the intergenic ptDNA regions -- a trait without parallel in other characterized organelle genomes and one that gives insight into the mechanisms and modes of expansion of the D. salina ptDNA. Conclusions These findings confirm the notion that chlamydomonadalean algae have some of the most extreme organelle genomes of all eukaryotes. They also suggest that the events giving rise to the expanded ptDNA architecture of D. salina and other Chlamydomonadales may have occurred early in the evolution of this lineage. Although interesting from a genome evolution standpoint, the D. salina organelle DNA sequences will aid in the

  11. The Dunaliella salina organelle genomes: large sequences, inflated with intronic and intergenic DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, David R.; Lee, Robert W.; Cushman, John C.; Magnuson, Jon K.; Tran, Duc; Polle, Juergen E.

    2010-05-07

    Abstract Background: Dunaliella salina Teodoresco, a unicellular, halophilic green alga belonging to the Chlorophyceae, is among the most industrially important microalgae. This is because D. salina can produce massive amounts of β-carotene, which can be collected for commercial purposes, and because of its potential as a feedstock for biofuels production. Although the biochemistry and physiology of D. salina have been studied in great detail, virtually nothing is known about the genomes it carries, especially those within its mitochondrion and plastid. This study presents the complete mitochondrial and plastid genome sequences of D. salina and compares them with those of the model green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carteri. Results: The D. salina organelle genomes are large, circular-mapping molecules with ~60% noncoding DNA, placing them among the most inflated organelle DNAs sampled from the Chlorophyta. In fact, the D. salina plastid genome, at 269 kb, is the largest complete plastid DNA (ptDNA) sequence currently deposited in GenBank, and both the mitochondrial and plastid genomes have unprecedentedly high intron densities for organelle DNA: ~1.5 and ~0.4 introns per gene, respectively. Moreover, what appear to be the relics of genes, introns, and intronic open reading frames are found scattered throughout the intergenic ptDNA regions -- a trait without parallel in other characterized organelle genomes and one that gives insight into the mechanisms and modes of expansion of the D. salina ptDNA. Conclusions: These findings confirm the notion that chlamydomonadalean algae have some of the most extreme organelle genomes of all eukaryotes. They also suggest that the events giving rise to the expanded ptDNA architecture of D. salina and other Chlamydomonadales may have occurred early in the evolution of this lineage. Although interesting from a genome evolution standpoint, the D. salina organelle DNA sequences will aid in the development of a viable

  12. A novel control strategy for enhancing the LVRT and voltage support capabilities of DFIG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yangwu; Zhang, Bin; Liang, Liqing; Cui, Ting

    2018-02-01

    A novel integrated control strategy is proposed in this paper to enhance the low voltage ride through capacity for the double-fed induction generator by equipping an energy storage system. The energy storage system is installed into the DC-link capacitor of the DFIG and used to control the DC-link voltage during normal or transient operations. The energy storage device will absorb or compensate the power difference between the captured wind power and the power injected to the grid during the normal and transient period, and the grid side converter can be free from maintaining the voltage stability of the DC-link capacitor. Thus, the grid-side converter is changed to reactive power support while the rotor-side converter is used to control the maximum power production during normal operation. The grid-side converter and rotor-side converter will act as reactive power sources to further enhance the voltage support capability of double-fed induction generator during the transient period. Numerical Simulation are performed to validate the effectiveness of the proposed control designs.

  13. Validation of enhanced stabilization of municipal solid waste under controlled leachate recirculation using FTIR and XRD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Sapna; Kothiyal, N C; Nema, Arvind K

    2012-07-01

    Leachate recirculation at neutral PH accompanied with buffer/nutrients addition has been used successfully in earlier stabilization of municipal solid waste in bioreactor landfills. In the present study, efforts were made to enhance the stabilization rate of municipal solid waste (MSW) and organic solid waste (OSW) in simulated landfill bioreactors by controlling the pH of recirculated leachate towards slightly alkaline side in absence of additional buffer and nutrients addition. Enhanced stabilization in waste samples was monitored with the help of analytical tools like Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Predominance of bands assigned to inorganic compounds and comparatively lower intensities of bands for organic compounds in the FTIR spectra of waste samples degraded with leachate recirculation under controlled pH confirmed higher rate of biodegradation and mineralization of waste than the samples degraded without controlled leachate recirculation. XRD spectra also confirmed to a greater extent of mineralization in the waste samples degraded under leachate recirculation with controlled pH. Comparison of XRD spectra of two types of wastes pointed out higher degree of mineralization in organic solid waste as compared to municipal solid waste.

  14. Enhancement of control rod drive mechanism seating position detector for JRR-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohuchi, Satoshi; Kurumada, Osamu; Kamiishi, Eigo; Sato, Masayuki; Ikekame, Yoshinori; Wada, Shigeru

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the control rod drive mechanism seating position detector for JRR-3 is one of methods for confirming the shutdown condition of the reactor and sending out the seat position signal to other systems. The detector has been utilizing more than 25 years with maintenance regularly. However, some troubles occurred recently. Moreover, the detector has already been discontinued, and it is confirmed that the successor detector is unsuitable for the control rod drive mechanism of JRR-3. Therefore, it was necessary to select the adequate detector to the control rod drive mechanism of JRR-3. Accordingly, we built a test device with the aim of verifying several detectors for integrity and function. At the time of the test for performance confirmation, it was occurred unexpected problems. Nevertheless, we devise improvement of the problems and took measures. Thus we were able to make adequate detector for JRR-3 and replace to enhanced detector. This paper reports the Enhanced of Control rod drive mechanism seating position detector. (author)

  15. Enhanced Two-Stage Hierarchical Control for a Dual Mode WECS-Based Microgrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasool M. Imran

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Along with the great benefits of utilizing renewable energy (e.g., wind energy in the power system, there are also some issues, such as increasing the uncertainty and reducing the system inertia. Communication-based centralized control has started to play a significant role in reacting to the aforementioned issues, especially for relatively small systems, such as microgrids. In this context, in this paper, an enhanced communication-based hierarchical control for a dual mode wind energy conversion system-based microgrid is modeled and investigated. The primary stage utilized the P-V/Q-f droop method, which is the preferred droop method to be used in microgrids when the line impedance is mainly resistive. The secondary stage relied on an enhanced methodology for compensating the deviations of voltage and frequency and improving the performance of the microgrid during small and large signal disturbances. Moreover, as this microgrid operates in a dual mode, the mode transition cases from grid-tied mode to autonomous mode and vice versa have been addressed. Thereafter, an improved control scheme for the unplanned outage transition and a modified control scheme for the pre-synchronization and reconnection transition were proposed. Finally, the proposed work was evaluated by the simulation results in MATLAB environment.

  16. Training Working Memory in Childhood Enhances Coupling between Frontoparietal Control Network and Task-Related Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jessica J; Nobre, Anna Christina; Woolrich, Mark W; Baker, Kate; Astle, Duncan E

    2016-08-24

    Working memory is a capacity upon which many everyday tasks depend and which constrains a child's educational progress. We show that a child's working memory can be significantly enhanced by intensive computer-based training, relative to a placebo control intervention, in terms of both standardized assessments of working memory and performance on a working memory task performed in a magnetoencephalography scanner. Neurophysiologically, we identified significantly increased cross-frequency phase amplitude coupling in children who completed training. Following training, the coupling between the upper alpha rhythm (at 16 Hz), recorded in superior frontal and parietal cortex, became significantly coupled with high gamma activity (at ∼90 Hz) in inferior temporal cortex. This altered neural network activity associated with cognitive skill enhancement is consistent with a framework in which slower cortical rhythms enable the dynamic regulation of higher-frequency oscillatory activity related to task-related cognitive processes. Whether we can enhance cognitive abilities through intensive training is one of the most controversial topics of cognitive psychology in recent years. This is particularly controversial in childhood, where aspects of cognition, such as working memory, are closely related to school success and are implicated in numerous developmental disorders. We provide the first neurophysiological account of how working memory training may enhance ability in childhood, using a brain recording technique called magnetoencephalography. We borrowed an analysis approach previously used with intracranial recordings in adults, or more typically in other animal models, called "phase amplitude coupling." Copyright © 2016 Barnes et al.

  17. Energy Conservation in an Office Building Using an Enhanced Blind System Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edorta Carrascal-Lekunberri

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The two spaces office module is usually considered as a representative case-study to analyse the energetic improvement in office buildings. In this kind of buildings, the use of a model predictive control (MPC scheme for the climate system control provides energy savings over 15% in comparison to classic control policies. This paper focuses on the influence of solar radiation on the climate control of the office module under Belgian weather conditions. Considering MPC as main climate control, it proposes a novel distributed enhanced control for the blind system (BS that takes into account part of the predictive information of the MPC. In addition to the savings that are usually achieved by MPC, it adds a potential 15% improvement in global energy use with respect to the usually proposed BS hysteresis control. Moreover, from the simulation results it can be concluded that the thermal comfort is also improved. The proposed BS scheme increases the energy use ratio between the thermally activated building system (TABS and air-handling unit (AHU; therefore increasing the use of TABS and allowing economic savings, due to the use of more cost-effective thermal equipment.

  18. Controlling surface adsorption to enhance the selectivity of porphyrin based gas sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evyapan, M., E-mail: mevyapan@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Balikesir, Balikesir, 10145 (Turkey); Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Sheffield, Mappin Building, S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Dunbar, A.D.F. [Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Sheffield, Mappin Building, S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-30

    Graphical abstract: The enhancement in the selectivity of the vapor sensing properties of free base porphyrin by controlling the size of the pores in the surface structure was carried out. It can be used as a size selective surface layer which limits the diffusion of analyte molecules into the sensor and in extreme cases stopping the diffusion completely. - Highlights: • Surface of a thin film takes and important part for its sensing characteristics. • A systematic surface modification was carried out in order to control the vapor accessibility. • Size dependant surfaces were fabricated. • Vapor diffusion through into thin film was controlled by modifying the surface structure. • Remarkable quantitative results showed the control on selectivity of the sensor by controlling the surface. - Abstract: This study reports an enhancement in the selectivity of the vapor sensing properties of free base porphyrin 5,10,15,20-tetrakis[3,4-bis(2-ethylhexyloxy)phenyl]-21H,23H-porphine (EHO) Langmuir–Schaefer (LS) films. These sensors respond by changing color upon adsorption of the analyte gas to the sensor surface. The enhanced selectivity is achieved by adding selective barrier layers of 4-tert-Butylcalix[4]arene, 4-tert-Butylcalix[6]arene and 4-tert-Butylcalix[8]arene embedded in PMMA (Poly(methyl methacrylate)) on top of the porphyrin sensor films to control the gaseous adsorption onto the sensor surface. The Langmuir properties of EHO, PMMA and calix[n]arene monolayers were investigated by surface pressure–area (Π–A) isotherms in order to determine the most efficient transfer pressure. Six layer EHO films were transferred onto glass and silicon substrates to investigate their optical and structural characteristics. The three different calix[n]arenes were embedded within PMMA layers to act as the selective barrier layers which were deposited on top of the six layer EHO films. The different calix[n]arene molecules vary in size and each was mixed with PMMA in

  19. Determinism and randomness in the evolution of introns and sine inserts in mouse and human mitochondrial solute carrier and cytokine receptor genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianciulli, Antonia; Calvello, Rosa; Panaro, Maria A

    2015-04-01

    In the homologous genes studied, the exons and introns alternated in the same order in mouse and human. We studied, in both species: corresponding short segments of introns, whole corresponding introns and complete homologous genes. We considered the total number of nucleotides and the number and orientation of the SINE inserts. Comparisons of mouse and human data series showed that at the level of individual relatively short segments of intronic sequences the stochastic variability prevails in the local structuring, but at higher levels of organization a deterministic component emerges, conserved in mouse and human during the divergent evolution, despite the ample re-editing of the intronic sequences and the fact that processes such as SINE spread had taken place in an independent way in the two species. Intron conservation is negatively correlated with the SINE occupancy, suggesting that virus inserts interfere with the conservation of the sequences inherited from the common ancestor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Use of a Fluorescent Aptamer RNA as an Exonic Sequence to Analyze Self-Splicing Ability of a Group I Intron from Structured RNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airi Furukawa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Group I self-splicing intron constitutes an important class of functional RNA molecules that can promote chemical transformation. Although the fundamental mechanism of the auto-excision from its precursor RNA has been established, convenient assay systems for its splicing activity are still useful for a further understanding of its detailed mechanism and of its application. Because some host RNA sequences, to which group I introns inserted form stable three-dimensional (3D structures, the effects of the 3D structures of exonic elements on the splicing efficiency of group I introns are important but not a fully investigated issue. We developed an assay system for group I intron self-splicing by employing a fluorescent aptamer RNA (spinach RNA as a model exonic sequence inserted by the Tetrahymena group I intron. We investigated self-splicing of the intron from spinach RNA, serving as a model exonic sequence with a 3D structure.

  1. Chaos Enhanced Differential Evolution in the Task of Evolutionary Control of Discrete Chaotic LOZI Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Senkerik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, evolutionary technique Differential Evolution (DE is used for the evolutionary tuning of controller parameters for the stabilization of selected discrete chaotic system, which is the two-dimensional Lozi map. The novelty of the approach is that the selected controlled discrete dissipative chaotic system is used within Chaos enhanced heuristic concept as the chaotic pseudo-random number generator to drive the mutation and crossover process in the DE. The idea was to utilize the hidden chaotic dynamics in pseudo-random sequences given by chaotic map to help Differential evolution algorithm in searching for the best controller settings for the same chaotic system. The optimizations were performed for three different required final behavior of the chaotic system, and two types of developed cost function. To confirm the robustness of presented approach, comparisons with canonical DE strategy and PSO algorithm have been performed.

  2. An Islanding Microgrid Power Sharing Approach Using Enhanced Virtual Impedance Control Scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Jinwei; Li, Yun Wei; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2013-01-01

    In order to address the load sharing problem in islanding microgrids, this paper proposes an enhanced distributed generation (DG) unit virtual impedance control approach. The proposed method can realize accurate regulation of DG unit equivalent impedance at both fundamental and selected harmonic...... and PCC harmonic voltage compensation are achieved without using any fundamental and harmonic components extractions. Experimental results from a scaled single-phase microgrid prototype are provided to validate the feasibility of the proposed virtual impedance control approach....... frequencies. In contrast to conventional virtual impedance control methods, where only a line current feed-forward term is added to the DG voltage reference, the proposed virtual impedance at fundamental and harmonic frequencies is regulated using DG line current and point of common coupling (PCC) voltage...

  3. Available transfer capability evaluation and enhancement using various FACTS controllers: Special focus on system security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Venkateswara Rao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, because of the deregulation of the power industry the continuous increase of the load increases the necessity of calculation of available transfer capability (ATC of a system to analyze the system security. With this calculation, the scheduling of generator can be decided to decrease the system severity. Further, constructing new transmission lines, new substations are very cost effective to meet the increasing load and to increase the transfer capability. Hence, an alternative way to increase the transfer capability is use of flexible ac transmission system (FACTS controllers. In this paper, SSSC, STACOM and UPFC are considered to show the effect of these controllers in enhancing system ATC. For this, a novel current based modeling and optimal location strategy of these controllers are presented. The proposed methodology is tested on standard IEEE-30 bus and IEEE-57 bus test systems with supporting numerical and graphical results.

  4. Voltage-controlled colour-tunable microcavity OLEDs with enhanced colour purity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choy, Wallace C H; Niu, J H; Li, W L; Chui, P C

    2008-01-01

    The emission spectrum of single-unit voltage-controlled colour-tunable organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) has been theoretically and experimentally studied. Our results show that by introducing the microcavity structure, the colour purity of not only the destination colour but also the colour-tunable route can be enhanced, while colour purity is still an issue in typical single-unit voltage-controlled colour-tunable OLEDs. With the consideration of the periodical cycling of resonant wavelength and absorption loss of the metal electrodes, the appropriate change in the thickness of the microcavity structure has been utilized to achieve voltage-controlled red-to-green and red-to-blue colour-tunable OLEDs without adding dyes or other organic materials to the OLEDs

  5. Length and GC content variability of introns among teleostean genomes in the light of the metabolic rate hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Chaurasia

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis of five teleostean genomes, namely zebrafish, medaka, three-spine stickleback, fugu and pufferfish was performed with the aim to highlight the nature of the forces driving both length and base composition of introns (i.e., bpi and GCi. An inter-genome approach using orthologous intronic sequences was carried out, analyzing independently both variables in pairwise comparisons. An average length shortening of introns was observed at increasing average GCi values. The result was not affected by masking transposable and repetitive elements harbored in the intronic sequences. The routine metabolic rate (mass specific temperature-corrected using the Boltzmann's factor was measured for each species. A significant correlation held between average differences of metabolic rate, length and GC content, while environmental temperature of fish habitat was not correlated with bpi and GCi. Analyzing the concomitant effect of both variables, i.e., bpi and GCi, at increasing genomic GC content, a decrease of bpi and an increase of GCi was observed for the significant majority of the intronic sequences (from ∼ 40% to ∼ 90%, in each pairwise comparison. The opposite event, concomitant increase of bpi and decrease of GCi, was counter selected (from <1% to ∼ 10%, in each pairwise comparison. The results further support the hypothesis that the metabolic rate plays a key role in shaping genome architecture and evolution of vertebrate genomes.

  6. Regulation of mRNA Levels by Decay-Promoting Introns that Recruit the Exosome Specificity Factor Mmi1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Kilchert

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In eukaryotic cells, inefficient splicing is surprisingly common and leads to the degradation of transcripts with retained introns. How pre-mRNAs are committed to nuclear decay is unknown. Here, we uncover a mechanism by which specific intron-containing transcripts are targeted for nuclear degradation in fission yeast. Sequence elements within these “decay-promoting” introns co-transcriptionally recruit the exosome specificity factor Mmi1, which induces degradation of the unspliced precursor and leads to a reduction in the levels of the spliced mRNA. This mechanism negatively regulates levels of the RNA helicase DDX5/Dbp2 to promote cell survival in response to stress. In contrast, fast removal of decay-promoting introns by co-transcriptional splicing precludes Mmi1 recruitment and relieves negative expression regulation. We propose that decay-promoting introns facilitate the regulation of gene expression. Based on the identification of multiple additional Mmi1 targets, including mRNAs, long non-coding RNAs, and sn/snoRNAs, we suggest a general role in RNA regulation for Mmi1 through transcript degradation.

  7. Length and GC content variability of introns among teleostean genomes in the light of the metabolic rate hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaurasia, Ankita; Tarallo, Andrea; Bernà, Luisa; Yagi, Mitsuharu; Agnisola, Claudio; D'Onofrio, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    A comparative analysis of five teleostean genomes, namely zebrafish, medaka, three-spine stickleback, fugu and pufferfish was performed with the aim to highlight the nature of the forces driving both length and base composition of introns (i.e., bpi and GCi). An inter-genome approach using orthologous intronic sequences was carried out, analyzing independently both variables in pairwise comparisons. An average length shortening of introns was observed at increasing average GCi values. The result was not affected by masking transposable and repetitive elements harbored in the intronic sequences. The routine metabolic rate (mass specific temperature-corrected using the Boltzmann's factor) was measured for each species. A significant correlation held between average differences of metabolic rate, length and GC content, while environmental temperature of fish habitat was not correlated with bpi and GCi. Analyzing the concomitant effect of both variables, i.e., bpi and GCi, at increasing genomic GC content, a decrease of bpi and an increase of GCi was observed for the significant majority of the intronic sequences (from ∼ 40% to ∼ 90%, in each pairwise comparison). The opposite event, concomitant increase of bpi and decrease of GCi, was counter selected (from hypothesis that the metabolic rate plays a key role in shaping genome architecture and evolution of vertebrate genomes.

  8. Fog-computing concept usage as means to enhance information and control system reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, E. V.; Klimenko, A. B.; Ivanov, D. Ya

    2018-05-01

    This paper focuses on the reliability issue of information and control systems (ICS). The authors propose using the elements of the fog-computing concept to enhance the reliability function. The key idea of fog-computing is to shift computations to the fog-layer of the network, and thus to decrease the workload of the communication environment and data processing components. As for ICS, workload also can be distributed among sensors, actuators and network infrastructure facilities near the sources of data. The authors simulated typical workload distribution situations for the “traditional” ICS architecture and for the one with fogcomputing concept elements usage. The paper contains some models, selected simulation results and conclusion about the prospects of the fog-computing as a means to enhance ICS reliability.

  9. Nanoparticle enabled transdermal drug delivery systems for enhanced dose control and tissue targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Brian C.; DeLouise, Lisa A.

    2017-01-01

    Transdermal drug delivery systems have been around for decades, and current technologies (e.g. patches, ointments, and creams) enhance the skin permeation of low molecular weight, lipophilic drugs that are efficacious at low doses. The objective of current transdermal drug delivery research is to discover ways to enhance skin penetration of larger, hydrophilic drugs and macromolecules for disease treatment and vaccination. Nanocarriers made of lipids, metals, or polymers have been successfully used to increase penetration of drugs or vaccines, control drug release, and target drugs to specific areas of skin in vivo. While more research is needed to identify the safety of nanocarriers, this technology has the potential to expand the use of transdermal routes of administration to a wide array of therapeutics. Here, we review the current state of nanoparticle skin delivery systems with special emphasis on targeting skin diseases. PMID:27983701

  10. Nanoparticle-Enabled Transdermal Drug Delivery Systems for Enhanced Dose Control and Tissue Targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Brian C; DeLouise, Lisa A

    2016-12-15

    Transdermal drug delivery systems have been around for decades, and current technologies (e.g., patches, ointments, and creams) enhance the skin permeation of low molecular weight, lipophilic drugs that are efficacious at low doses. The objective of current transdermal drug delivery research is to discover ways to enhance skin penetration of larger, hydrophilic drugs and macromolecules for disease treatment and vaccination. Nanocarriers made of lipids, metals, or polymers have been successfully used to increase penetration of drugs or vaccines, control drug release, and target drugs to specific areas of skin in vivo. While more research is needed to identify the safety of nanocarriers, this technology has the potential to expand the use of transdermal routes of administration to a wide array of therapeutics. Here, we review the current state of nanoparticle skin delivery systems with special emphasis on targeting skin diseases.

  11. Nanoparticle-Enabled Transdermal Drug Delivery Systems for Enhanced Dose Control and Tissue Targeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C. Palmer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Transdermal drug delivery systems have been around for decades, and current technologies (e.g., patches, ointments, and creams enhance the skin permeation of low molecular weight, lipophilic drugs that are efficacious at low doses. The objective of current transdermal drug delivery research is to discover ways to enhance skin penetration of larger, hydrophilic drugs and macromolecules for disease treatment and vaccination. Nanocarriers made of lipids, metals, or polymers have been successfully used to increase penetration of drugs or vaccines, control drug release, and target drugs to specific areas of skin in vivo. While more research is needed to identify the safety of nanocarriers, this technology has the potential to expand the use of transdermal routes of administration to a wide array of therapeutics. Here, we review the current state of nanoparticle skin delivery systems with special emphasis on targeting skin diseases.

  12. Power system security enhancement with unified power flow controller under multi-event contingency conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ravindra

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Power system security analysis plays key role in enhancing the system security and to avoid the system collapse condition. In this paper, a novel severity function is formulated using transmission line loadings and bus voltage magnitude deviations. The proposed severity function and generation fuel cost objectives are analyzed under transmission line(s and/or generator(s contingency conditions. The system security under contingency conditions is analyzed using optimal power flow problem. An improved teaching learning based optimization (ITLBO algorithm has been presented. To enhance the system security under contingency conditions in the presence of unified power flow controller (UPFC, it is necessary to identify an optimal location to install this device. Voltage source based power injection model of UPFC, incorporation procedure and optimal location identification strategy based on line overload sensitivity indexes are proposed. The entire proposed methodology is tested on standard IEEE-30 bus test system with supporting numerical and graphical results.

  13. Methylphenidate, modafinil, and caffeine for cognitive enhancement in chess: A double-blind, randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Andreas G; Gränsmark, Patrik; Agricola, Alexandra; Schühle, Kai; Rommel, Thilo; Sebastian, Alexandra; Balló, Harald E; Gorbulev, Stanislav; Gerdes, Christer; Frank, Björn; Ruckes, Christian; Tüscher, Oliver; Lieb, Klaus

    2017-03-01

    Stimulants and caffeine have been proposed for cognitive enhancement by healthy subjects. This study investigated whether performance in chess - a competitive mind game requiring highly complex cognitive skills - can be enhanced by methylphenidate, modafinil or caffeine. In a phase IV, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 39 male chess players received 2×200mg modafinil, 2×20mg methylphenidate, and 2×200mg caffeine or placebo in a 4×4 crossover design. They played twenty 15-minute games during two sessions against a chess program (Fritz 12; adapted to players' strength) and completed several neuropsychological tests. Marked substance effects were observed since all three substances significantly increased average reflection time per game compared to placebo resulting in a significantly increased number of games lost on time with all three treatments. Treatment effects on chess performance were not seen if all games (n=3059) were analysed. Only when controlling for game duration as well as when excluding those games lost on time, both modafinil and methylphenidate enhanced chess performance as demonstrated by significantly higher scores in the remaining 2876 games compared to placebo. In conjunction with results from neuropsychological testing we conclude that modifying effects of stimulants on complex cognitive tasks may in particular result from more reflective decision making processes. When not under time pressure, such effects may result in enhanced performance. Yet, under time constraints more reflective decision making may not improve or even have detrimental effects on complex task performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  14. High-throughput sequencing of human plasma RNA by using thermostable group II intron reverse transcriptases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yidan; Yao, Jun; Wu, Douglas C.; Nottingham, Ryan M.; Mohr, Sabine; Hunicke-Smith, Scott; Lambowitz, Alan M.

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) has revolutionized transcriptome profiling, gene expression analysis, and RNA-based diagnostics. Here, we developed a new RNA-seq method that exploits thermostable group II intron reverse transcriptases (TGIRTs) and used it to profile human plasma RNAs. TGIRTs have higher thermostability, processivity, and fidelity than conventional reverse transcriptases, plus a novel template-switching activity that can efficiently attach RNA-seq adapters to target RNA sequences without RNA ligation. The new TGIRT-seq method enabled construction of RNA-seq libraries from RNA in RNA in 1-mL plasma samples from a healthy individual revealed RNA fragments mapping to a diverse population of protein-coding gene and long ncRNAs, which are enriched in intron and antisense sequences, as well as nearly all known classes of small ncRNAs, some of which have never before been seen in plasma. Surprisingly, many of the small ncRNA species were present as full-length transcripts, suggesting that they are protected from plasma RNases in ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes and/or exosomes. This TGIRT-seq method is readily adaptable for profiling of whole-cell, exosomal, and miRNAs, and for related procedures, such as HITS-CLIP and ribosome profiling. PMID:26554030

  15. Nonlinear Synergetic Governor Controllers for Steam Turbine Generators to Enhance Power System Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingbao Ju

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a decentralized nonlinear synergetic governor controller (NSGC for turbine generators to enhance power system stability by using synergetic control theory and the feedback linearization technique. The precise feedback linearization model of a turbine-generator with a steam valve control is obtained, at first, by using a feedback linearization technique. Then based on this model, a manifold is defined as a linear combination of the deviation of the rotor angle, speed deviation, and speed derivative. The control law of the proposed NSGC is deduced and the stability condition of the whole closed-loop system is subsequently analyzed. According to the requirement of the primary frequency regulation, an additional proportional integral (PI controller is designed to dynamically track the steady-state value of the rotor angle. Case studies are undertaken based on a single-machine infinite-bus system and the New England system, respectively. Simulation results show that the proposed NSGC can suppress the power oscillations and improve transient stability more effectively in comparison with the conventional proportional-integral-derivative (PID governor controller. Moreover, the proposed NSGC is robust to the variations of the system operating conditions.

  16. Output-Feedback Control of a Chaotic MEMS Resonator for Oscillation Amplitude Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Jimenez-Triana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work addresses the problem of chaos control in an electrostatic MEMS resonator by using an output-feedback control scheme. One of the unstable orbits immersed in the chaotic attractor is stabilized in order to produce a sustained oscillation of the movable plate composing the microstructure. The orbit is carefully chosen so as to produce a high amplitude oscillation. This approach allows the enhancement of oscillation amplitude of the resonator at a reduced control effort, since the unstable orbit already exists in the system and it is not necessary to spend energy to create it. Realistic operational conditions of the MEMS are considered including parametric uncertainties in the model and constraints due to the difficulty in measuring the speed of the plates of the microstructure. A control law is constructed recursively by using the technique of backstepping. Finally, numerical simulations are carried out to confirm the validity of the developed control scheme and to demonstrate the effect of controlling orbits immersed in the chaotic attractor.

  17. Enhancing Three-dimensional Movement Control System for Assemblies of Machine-Building Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzyakov, O. N.; Andreeva, M. A.

    2018-01-01

    Aspects of enhancing three-dimensional movement control system are given in the paper. Such system is to be used while controlling assemblies of machine-building facilities, which is a relevant issue. The base of the system known is three-dimensional movement control device with optical principle of action. The device consists of multi point light emitter and light receiver matrix. The processing of signals is enhanced to increase accuracy of measurements by switching from discrete to analog signals. Light receiver matrix is divided into four areas, and the output value of each light emitter in each matrix area is proportional to its luminance level. Thus, determing output electric signal value of each light emitter in corresponding area leads to determing position of multipoint light emitter and position of object tracked. This is done by using Case-based reasoning method, the precedent in which is described as integral signal value of each matrix area, coordinates of light receivers, which luminance level is high, and decision to be made in this situation.

  18. CTAB assisted hydrothermal preparation of YPO4:Tb3+ with controlled morphology, structure and enhanced photoluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Hua; Du, Ying; Zhao, Min; Sun, Kening; Yang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A simple and convenient method toward fabrication of YPO 4 :Tb 3+ with controlled structures and morphologies was proposed. • The crucial role of CTAB during the fabrication process that acts as complexing reagent and inducing agent and the mechanism was discussed. • The addition of CTAB enhances the green emission in YPO 4 :Tb phosphors. -- Abstract: In this paper, we report a simple and convenient method toward fabrication of YPO 4 :Tb 3+ with controlled structures, morphologies and enhanced luminescent properties. By simply controlling the amount of the cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) during the hydrothermal process, tetragonal YPO 4 :Tb 3+ and hexagonal YPO 4 ·0.8H 2 O:Tb 3+ with nanoparticle and olive-like nanoparticle can be obtained, respectively. Meanwhile, we find that the structures and morphologies can affect their luminescent properties obviously and the intensity of the samples with hexagonal phase is evidently higher than that with tetragonal phase. The variation of crystal structures, morphologies of the samples are ascribed to the crucial role of CTAB during the fabrication process that acts as complexing reagent and inducing agent and the mechanism was also discussed. We believe the method reported here will open a novel approach to rare earth phosphates with multiple structures

  19. Influence of IL-1RN intron 2 variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism on bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiei, A; Hosseini, S H; Taheri, M; Hosseni-khah, Z; Hajilooi, M; Mazaheri, Z

    2013-01-01

    Several lines of evidence point to the role of neurobiological mechanisms and genetic background in bipolar disorder (BD). The interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) is the principal regulator of IL-1α and IL-1β bioactivities. This study aimed to investigate the potential role of the variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphisms of the IL-1Ra gene (IL1RN) in conferring susceptibility to BD. In total, 217 patients meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for BD and 212 controls were recruited for the study. Genotyping of IL1RN was determined by polymerase chain reaction amplification of VNTR of 86 base pairs in intron 2 of IL1RN. The genotype distribution of IL1RN polymorphism was significantly different between BD patients and controls. The IL1RN*1/2 genotype was more prevalent in BD patients than in controls (44.2 vs. 30.2%, p = 0.003). Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that IL1RN*1/2 heterozygotes had a significantly higher risk for BD (OR 1.83 and 95% CI 1.22-2.74, p = 0.003). Further stratification of the BD patients into IL1RN*2 allele carrier and noncarrier subgroups revealed a strong association between IL1RN*2 carriage and prolongation of the disease (p = 0.02). These findings suggest a positive association between VNTR polymorphism in IL1RN and BD. Additional studies, particularly with a prospective approach, are necessary to clarify the precise role of the VNTR polymorphism on the disease in different ethnic populations. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Enhancement of Muramyldipeptide (MDP) Immunostimulatory Activity by Controlled Multimerization on Dendrimers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nanna Skall; Boas, Ulrik; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2011-01-01

    Peptidoglycan is a widespread bacterial PAMP molecule and a powerful initiator of innate immune responses. It consists of repeating units of MDP, which as a monomer is only weakly immunostimulatory. Here, MDP-coupled dendrimers were prepared and investigated for stimulation of pig blood mononuclear...... cells. Compared to monomeric MDP, MDP-dendrimers induced a markedly enhanced production of IL-12 p40, IL-1β and IL-6 and completely down-regulated surface expression of B7 and MHC class II. These results suggest a possible novel strategy based on controlled multimerization of minimal PAMP motifs...... on dendrimers for preparing molecularly defined immunostimulators with predictable bioactivities....

  1. Enhancing the photon-extraction efficiency of site-controlled quantum dots by deterministically fabricated microlenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaganskiy, Arsenty; Fischbach, Sarah; Strittmatter, André; Rodt, Sven; Heindel, Tobias; Reitzenstein, Stephan

    2018-04-01

    We report on the realization of scalable single-photon sources (SPSs) based on single site-controlled quantum dots (SCQDs) and deterministically fabricated microlenses. The fabrication process comprises the buried-stressor growth technique complemented with low-temperature in-situ electron-beam lithography for the integration of SCQDs into microlens structures with high yield and high alignment accuracy. The microlens-approach leads to a broadband enhancement of the photon-extraction efficiency of up to (21 ± 2)% and a high suppression of multi-photon events with g (2)(τ = 0) SPSs which, can be applied in photonic quantum circuits and advanced quantum computation schemes.

  2. Connectivity-Enhanced Route Selection and Adaptive Control for the Chevrolet Volt: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J.; Wood, E.; Rajagopalan, S.

    2014-09-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory and General Motors evaluated connectivity-enabled efficiency enhancements for the Chevrolet Volt. A high-level model was developed to predict vehicle fuel and electricity consumption based on driving characteristics and vehicle state inputs. These techniques were leveraged to optimize energy efficiency via green routing and intelligent control mode scheduling, which were evaluated using prospective driving routes between tens of thousands of real-world origin/destination pairs. The overall energy savings potential of green routing and intelligent mode scheduling was estimated at 5% and 3% respectively. These represent substantial opportunities considering that they only require software adjustments to implement.

  3. Performance of grid connected DFIG during recurring symmetrical faults using Internal Model Controller based Enhanced Field Oriented Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V.N.Ananth

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The modern grid rules forces DFIG to withstand and operate during single as well as multiple low voltage grid faults. The system must not lose synchronism during any type of fault for a given time period. This withstanding capacity is called low voltage ride through (LVRT. To improve performance during LVRT, enhanced field oriented control (EFOC method is adopted in rotor side converter. This method helps in improving power transfer capability during steady state and better dynamic and transient stability during abnormal conditions. In this technique, rotor flux reference change from synchronous speed to some smaller speed or zero during the fault for injecting current at the rotor slip frequency. In this process, DC-Offset component of flux is controlled beyond decomposing to a lower value during faults and maintaining it. This offset decomposition of flux will be oscillatory in conventional FOC, whereas in EFOC with internal model controller, flux can damp quickly not only for single fault but during multiple faults. This strategy can regulate stator and rotor current waveform to sinusoidal without distortion during and after fault. It has better damped torque oscillations, control in rotor speed and generator flux during and after fault. The fluctuations in DC bus voltage across capacitor are also controlled using proposed EFOC technique. The system performance with under-voltage grid fault of 30% and 60% of the rated voltage occurring at the point of common coupling during 1 to 1.25 and another fault between 1.6 to 1.85 seconds are analyzed using simulation studies.

  4. Phylogenetic inferences of Nepenthes species in Peninsular Malaysia revealed by chloroplast (trnL intron) and nuclear (ITS) DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunawan, Hamidun; Yen, Choong Chee; Yaakop, Salmah; Noor, Normah Mohd

    2017-01-26

    The chloroplastic trnL intron and the nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region were sequenced for 11 Nepenthes species recorded in Peninsular Malaysia to examine their phylogenetic relationship and to evaluate the usage of trnL intron and ITS sequences for phylogenetic reconstruction of this genus. Phylogeny reconstruction was carried out using neighbor-joining, maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses. All the trees revealed two major clusters, a lowland group consisting of N. ampullaria, N. mirabilis, N. gracilis and N. rafflesiana, and another containing both intermediately distributed species (N. albomarginata and N. benstonei) and four highland species (N. sanguinea, N. macfarlanei, N. ramispina and N. alba). The trnL intron and ITS sequences proved to provide phylogenetic informative characters for deriving a phylogeny of Nepenthes species in Peninsular Malaysia. To our knowledge, this is the first molecular phylogenetic study of Nepenthes species occurring along an altitudinal gradient in Peninsular Malaysia.

  5. Enhancing biological control of basal stem rot disease (Ganoderma boninense) in oil palm plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanto, A; Sudharto, P S; Purba, R Y

    2005-01-01

    Basal Stem Rot (BSR) disease caused by Ganoderma boninense is the most destructive disease in oil palm, especially in Indonesia and Malaysia. The available control measures for BSR disease such as cultural practices and mechanical and chemical treatment have not proved satisfactory due to the fact that Ganoderma has various resting stages such as melanised mycelium, basidiospores and pseudosclerotia. Alternative control measures to overcome the Ganoderma problem are focused on the use of biological control agents and planting resistant material. Present studies conducted at Indonesian Oil Palm Research Institute (IOPRI) are focused on enhancing the use of biological control agents for Ganoderma. These activities include screening biological agents from the oil palm rhizosphere in order to evaluate their effectiveness as biological agents in glasshouse and field trials, testing their antagonistic activities in large scale experiments and eradicating potential disease inoculum with biological agents. Several promising biological agents have been isolated, mainly Trichoderma harzianum, T. viride, Gliocladium viride, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Bacillus sp. A glasshouse and field trial for Ganoderma control indicated that treatment with T. harzianum and G. viride was superior to Bacillus sp. A large scale trial showed that the disease incidence was lower in a field treated with biological agents than in untreated fields. In a short term programme, research activities at IOPRI are currently focusing on selecting fungi that can completely degrade plant material in order to eradicate inoculum. Digging holes around the palm bole and adding empty fruit bunches have been investigated as ways to stimulate biological agents.

  6. Modulation of splicing of the preceding intron by antisense oligonucleotide complementary to intra-exon sequence deleted in dystrophin Kobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeshima, Y.; Matuso, M.; Sakamoto, H.; Nishio, H. [Kobe Univ. School of Medicine and Science (Japan)

    1994-09-01

    Molecular analysis of dystrophin Kobe showed that exon 19 of the dystrophin gene bearing a 52 bp deletion was skipped during splicing, although the known consensus sequences at the 5{prime} and 3{prime} splice site of exon 19 were maintained. These data suggest that the deleted sequence of exon 19 may function as a cis-acting factor for exact splicing for the upstream intron. To investigate this potential role, an in vitro splicing system using dystrophin precursors was established. A two-exon precursor containing exon 18, truncated intron 18, and exon 19 was accurately spliced. However, splicing of intron 18 was dramatically inhibited when wild exon 19 was replaced with mutated exon 19. Even though the length of exon 19 was restored to normal by replacing the deleted sequence with other sequence, splicing of intron 18 was not fully reactivated. Characteristically, splicing of intron 18 was inactivated more markedly when the replaced sequence contained less polypurine stretches. These data suggested that modification of the exon sequence would result in a splicing abnormality. Antisense 31 mer 2`-O-methyl ribonucleotide was targeted against 5{prime} end of deleted region of exon 19 to modulate splicing of the mRNA precursor. Splicing of intron 18 was inhibited in a dose- and time-dependent manner. This is the first in vitro evidence to show splicing of dystrophin pre-mRNA can be managed by antisense oligonucleotides. These experiments represent an approach in which antisense oligonucleotides are used to restore the function of a defective dystrophin gene in Duchenne muscular dystrophy by inducing skipping of certain exons during splicing.

  7. Semi-degradable poly(β-amino ester) networks with temporally controlled enhancement of mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safranski, David L; Weiss, Daiana; Clark, J Brian; Taylor, W Robert; Gall, Ken

    2014-08-01

    Biodegradable polymers are clinically used in numerous biomedical applications, and classically show a loss of mechanical properties within weeks of implantation. This work demonstrates a new class of semi-degradable polymers that show an increase in mechanical properties through degradation via a controlled shift in a thermal transition. Semi-degradable polymer networks, poly(β-amino ester)-co-methyl methacrylate, were formed from a low glass transition temperature crosslinker, poly(β-amino ester), and high glass transition temperature monomer, methyl methacrylate, which degraded in a manner dependent upon the crosslinker chemical structure. In vitro and in vivo degradation revealed changes in mechanical behavior due to the degradation of the crosslinker from the polymer network. This novel polymer system demonstrates a strategy to temporally control the mechanical behavior of polymers and to enhance the initial performance of smart biomedical devices. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Enhancement of vortex induced forces and motion through surface roughness control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernitsas, Michael M [Saline, MI; Raghavan, Kamaldev [Houston, TX

    2011-11-01

    Roughness is added to the surface of a bluff body in a relative motion with respect to a fluid. The amount, size, and distribution of roughness on the body surface is controlled passively or actively to modify the flow around the body and subsequently the Vortex Induced Forces and Motion (VIFM). The added roughness, when designed and implemented appropriately, affects in a predetermined way the boundary layer, the separation of the boundary layer, the level of turbulence, the wake, the drag and lift forces, and consequently the Vortex Induced Motion (VIM), and the fluid-structure interaction. The goal of surface roughness control is to increase Vortex Induced Forces and Motion. Enhancement is needed in such applications as harnessing of clean and renewable energy from ocean/river currents using the ocean energy converter VIVACE (Vortex Induced Vibration for Aquatic Clean Energy).

  9. Pragmatic Randomized, Controlled Trial of Patient Navigators and Enhanced Personal Health Records in CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaneethan, Sankar D; Jolly, Stacey E; Schold, Jesse D; Arrigain, Susana; Nakhoul, Georges; Konig, Victoria; Hyland, Jennifer; Burrucker, Yvette K; Dann, Priscilla Davis; Tucky, Barbara H; Sharp, John; Nally, Joseph V

    2017-09-07

    Patient navigators and enhanced personal health records improve the quality of health care delivered in other disease states. We aimed to develop a navigator program for patients with CKD and an electronic health record-based enhanced personal health record to disseminate CKD stage-specific goals of care and education. We also conducted a pragmatic randomized clinical trial to compare the effect of a navigator program for patients with CKD with enhanced personal health record and compare their combination compared with usual care among patients with CKD stage 3b/4. Two hundred and nine patients from six outpatient clinics (in both primary care and nephrology settings) were randomized in a 2×2 factorial design into four-study groups: ( 1 ) enhanced personal health record only, ( 2 ) patient navigator only, ( 3 ) both, and ( 4 ) usual care (control) group. Primary outcome measure was the change in eGFR over a 2-year follow-up period. Secondary outcome measures included acquisition of appropriate CKD-related laboratory measures, specialty referrals, and hospitalization rates. Median age of the study population was 68 years old, and 75% were white. At study entry, 54% of patients were followed by nephrologists, and 88% were on renin-angiotensin system blockers. After a 2-year follow-up, rate of decline in eGFR was similar across the four groups ( P =0.19). Measurements of CKD-related laboratory parameters were not significantly different among the groups. Furthermore, referral for dialysis education and vascular access placement, emergency room visits, and hospitalization rates were not statistically significant different between the groups. We successfully developed a patient navigator program and an enhanced personal health record for the CKD population. However, there were no differences in eGFR decline and other outcomes among the study groups. Larger and long-term studies along with cost-effectiveness analyses are needed to evaluate the role of patient navigators

  10. Implementation of an Enhanced Measurement Control Program for handling nuclear safety samples at WSRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boler-Melton, C.; Holland, M.K.

    1991-01-01

    In the separation and purification of nuclear material, nuclear criticality safety (NCS) is of primary concern. The primary nuclear criticality safety controls utilized by the Savannah River Site (SRS) Separations Facilities involve administrative and process equipment controls. Additional assurance of NCS is obtained by identifying key process hold points where sampling is used to independently verify the effectiveness of production control. Nuclear safety measurements of samples from these key process locations provide a high degree of assurance that processing conditions are within administrative and procedural nuclear safety controls. An enhanced procedure management system aimed at making improvements in the quality, safety, and conduct of operation was implemented for Nuclear Safety Sample (NSS) receipt, analysis, and reporting. All procedures with nuclear safety implications were reviewed for accuracy and adequate detail to perform the analytical measurements safely, efficiently, and with the utmost quality. Laboratory personnel worked in a ''Deliberate Operating'' mode (a systematic process requiring continuous expert oversight during all phases of training, testing, and implementation) to initiate the upgrades. Thus, the effort to revise and review nuclear safety sample procedures involved a team comprised of a supervisor, chemist, and two technicians for each procedure. Each NSS procedure was upgraded to a ''Use Every Time'' (UET) procedure with sign-off steps to ensure compliance with each step for every nuclear safety sample analyzed. The upgrade program met and exceeded both the long and short term customer needs by improving measurement reliability, providing objective evidence of rigid adherence to program principles and requirements, and enhancing the system for independent verification of representative sampling from designated NCS points

  11. Ring-enhancement pattern on contrast-enhanced CT predicts adenosquamous carcinoma of the pancreas: a matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaoka, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Mizuno, Nobumasa; Hara, Kazuo; Hijioka, Susumu; Tajika, Masahiro; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Ishihara, Makoto; Ogura, Takeshi; Obayashi, Tomohiko; Shinagawa, Akihide; Sakaguchi, Masafumi; Yamaura, Hidekazu; Kato, Mina; Niwa, Yasumasa; Yamao, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Adenosquamous carcinoma of the pancreas (ASC) is a rare malignant neoplasm of the pancreas, exhibiting both glandular and squamous differentiation. However, little is known about its imaging features. This study examined the imaging features of pancreatic ASC. We evaluated images of contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS). As controls, solid pancreatic neoplasms matched in a 2:1 ratio to ASC cases for age, sex and tumor location were also evaluated. Twenty-three ASC cases were examined, and 46 solid pancreatic neoplasms (43 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas, two pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors and one acinar cell carcinoma) were matched as controls. Univariate analysis demonstrated significant differences in the outline and vascularity of tumors on contrast-enhanced CT in the ASC and control groups (P outline, cystic changes, and the ring-enhancement pattern on contrast-enhanced CT were seen to have significant predictive powers by stepwise forward logistic regression analysis (P = 0.044, P = 0.010, and P = 0.001, respectively). Of the three, the ring-enhancement pattern was the most useful, and its predictive diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for diagnosis of ASC were 65.2%, 89.6%, 75.0% and 84.3%, respectively. These results demonstrate that presence of the ring-enhancement pattern on contrast-enhanced CT is the most useful predictive factor for ASC. Copyright © 2014 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Enhanced conflict-driven cognitive control by emotional arousal, not by valence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qinghong; Qi, Senqing; Li, Miaoyun; Yao, Shuxia; Ding, Cody; Yang, Dong

    2017-09-01

    Emotion is widely agreed to have two dimensions, valence and arousal. Few studies have explored the effect of emotion on conflict adaptation by considering both of these, which could have dissociate influence. The present study aimed to fill the gap as to whether emotional valence and arousal would exert dissociable influence on conflict adaptation. In the experiments, we included positive, neutral, and negative conditions, with comparable arousal between positive and negative conditions. Both positive and negative conditions have higher arousal than neutral ones. In Experiment 1, by using a two-colour-word Flanker task, we found that conflict adaptation was enhanced in both positive and negative contexts compared to a neutral context. Furthermore, this effect still existed when controlling stimulus-response repetitions in Experiment 2, which used a four-colour-word Flanker task. The findings suggest emotional arousal enhances conflict adaptation, regardless of emotional valence. Thus, future studies should consider emotional arousal when studying the effect of emotion on conflict adaptation. Moreover, the unique role of the emotional context in conflict-driven cognitive control is emphasised.

  13. Enhanced adhesion of osteoblastic cells on polystyrene films by independent control of surface topography and wettability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Seung Yun [National Creative Research Center for Block Copolymer Self-Assembly, Departments of Environmental Science and Engineering and Chemical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eung-Sam [School of Interdisciplinary Bioscience and Bioengineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Gumhye [National Creative Research Center for Block Copolymer Self-Assembly, Departments of Environmental Science and Engineering and Chemical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kwan Yong, E-mail: kchoi@postech.ac.kr [School of Interdisciplinary Bioscience and Bioengineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Life Science, Division of Molecular and Life Science, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Kon, E-mail: jkkim@postech.ac.kr [National Creative Research Center for Block Copolymer Self-Assembly, Departments of Environmental Science and Engineering and Chemical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-01

    We independently controlled surface topography and wettability of polystyrene (PS) films by CF{sub 4} and oxygen plasma treatments, respectively, to evaluate the adhesion and proliferation of human fetal osteoblastic (hFOB) cells on the films. Among the CF{sub 4} plasma-treated PS films with the average surface roughness ranging from 0.9 to 70 nm, the highest adhesion of hFOB cells was observed on a PS film with roughness of ∼ 11 nm. When this film was additionally treated by oxygen plasma to provide a hydrophilic surface with a contact angle less than 10°, the proliferation of bone-forming cell was further enhanced. Thus, the plasma-based independent modification of PS film into an optimum nanotexture for human osteoblast cells could be appplied to materials used in bone tissue engineering. Highlights: ► New approach based on plasma treatment to independently control the surface topography and wettability ► The adhesion of human fetal osteoblast (hFOB) was enhanced on a surface with an average roughness of ∼ 11 nm. ► The adhesion and proliferation of hFOB was maximized when nanotextured surface became highly hydrophilic.

  14. Coaxial PCL/PVA electrospun nanofibers: osseointegration enhancer and controlled drug release device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Wei; Shi, Tong; Ren, Weiping; Yu, Xiaowei; Markel, David C

    2013-01-01

    The failure of prosthesis after total joint replacement is mainly due to dysfunctional osseointegration and implant infection. There is a critical need for orthopedic implants that promote rapid osseointegration and prevent bacterial colonization, particularly when placed in bone compromised by disease or physiology of the patients. The aim of this study was to fabricate a novel coaxial electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) core-sheath nanofiber (NF) blended with both hydroxyapatite nanorods (HA) and type I collagen (Col) (PCL Col /PVA HA ). Doxycycline (Doxy) and dexamethasone (Dex) were successfully incorporated into the PCL Col /PVA HA NFs for controlled release. The morphology, surface hydrophilicity and mechanical properties of the PCL/PVA NF mats were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, water contact angle and atomic force microscopy. The PCL Col /PVA HA NFs are biocompatible and enhance the adhesion and proliferation of murine pre-osteoblastic MC3T3 cells. The release of Doxy and Dex from coaxial PCL Col /PVA HA NFs showed more controlled release compared with the blended NFs. Using an ex vivo porcine bone implantation model we found that the PCL Col /PVA HA NFs bind firmly on the titanium rod surface and the NFs coating remained intact on the surface of titanium rods after pullout. No disruption or delamination was observed after the pullout test. These findings indicate that PCL Col /PVA HA NFs encapsulating drugs have great potential in enhancing implant osseointegration and preventing implant infection. (paper)

  15. Coaxial PCL/PVA electrospun nanofibers: osseointegration enhancer and controlled drug release device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wei; Yu, Xiaowei; Markel, David C; Shi, Tong; Ren, Weiping

    2013-09-01

    The failure of prosthesis after total joint replacement is mainly due to dysfunctional osseointegration and implant infection. There is a critical need for orthopedic implants that promote rapid osseointegration and prevent bacterial colonization, particularly when placed in bone compromised by disease or physiology of the patients. The aim of this study was to fabricate a novel coaxial electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) core-sheath nanofiber (NF) blended with both hydroxyapatite nanorods (HA) and type I collagen (Col) (PCL(Col)/PVA(HA)). Doxycycline (Doxy) and dexamethasone (Dex) were successfully incorporated into the PCL(Col)/PVA(HA) NFs for controlled release. The morphology, surface hydrophilicity and mechanical properties of the PCL/PVA NF mats were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, water contact angle and atomic force microscopy. The PCL(Col)/PVA(HA) NFs are biocompatible and enhance the adhesion and proliferation of murine pre-osteoblastic MC3T3 cells. The release of Doxy and Dex from coaxial PCL(Col)/PVA(HA) NFs showed more controlled release compared with the blended NFs. Using an ex vivo porcine bone implantation model we found that the PCL(Col)/PVA(HA) NFs bind firmly on the titanium rod surface and the NFs coating remained intact on the surface of titanium rods after pullout. No disruption or delamination was observed after the pullout test. These findings indicate that PCL(Col)/PVA(HA) NFs encapsulating drugs have great potential in enhancing implant osseointegration and preventing implant infection.

  16. Improved CO sub 2 enhanced oil recovery -- Mobility control by in-situ chemical precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ameri, S.; Aminian, K.; Wasson, J.A.; Durham, D.L.

    1991-06-01

    The overall objective of this study has been to evaluate the feasibility of chemical precipitation to improve CO{sub 2} sweep efficiency and mobility control. The laboratory experiments have indicated that carbonate precipitation can alter the permeability of the core samples under reservoir conditions. Furthermore, the relative permeability measurements have revealed that precipitation reduces the gas permeability in favor of liquid permeability. This indicates that precipitation is occurring preferentially in the larger pores. Additional experimental work with a series of connected cores have indicated that the permeability profile can be successfully modified. However, Ph control plays a critical role in propagation of the chemical precipitation reaction. A numerical reservoir model has been utilized to evaluate the effects of permeability heterogeneity and permeability modification on the CO{sub 2} sweep efficiency. The computer simulation results indicate that the permeability profile modification can significantly enhance CO{sub 2} vertical and horizontal sweep efficiencies. The scoping studies with the model have further revealed that only a fraction of high permeability zones need to be altered to achieve sweep efficiency enhancement. 64 refs., 30 figs., 16 tabs.

  17. Virtual Reality for Enhanced Ecological Validity and Experimental Control in the Clinical, Affective and Social Neurosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    An essential tension can be found between researchers interested in ecological validity and those concerned with maintaining experimental control. Research in the human neurosciences often involves the use of simple and static stimuli lacking many of the potentially important aspects of real world activities and interactions. While this research is valuable, there is a growing interest in the human neurosciences to use cues about target states in the real world via multimodal scenarios that involve visual, semantic, and prosodic information. These scenarios should include dynamic stimuli presented concurrently or serially in a manner that allows researchers to assess the integrative processes carried out by perceivers over time. Furthermore, there is growing interest in contextually embedded stimuli that can constrain participant interpretations of cues about a target’s internal states. Virtual reality environments proffer assessment paradigms that combine the experimental control of laboratory measures with emotionally engaging background narratives to enhance affective experience and social interactions. The present review highlights the potential of virtual reality environments for enhanced ecological validity in the clinical, affective, and social neurosciences. PMID:26696869

  18. Enhanced adhesion of osteoblastic cells on polystyrene films by independent control of surface topography and wettability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Seung Yun; Kim, Eung-Sam; Jeon, Gumhye; Choi, Kwan Yong; Kim, Jin Kon

    2013-01-01

    We independently controlled surface topography and wettability of polystyrene (PS) films by CF 4 and oxygen plasma treatments, respectively, to evaluate the adhesion and proliferation of human fetal osteoblastic (hFOB) cells on the films. Among the CF 4 plasma-treated PS films with the average surface roughness ranging from 0.9 to 70 nm, the highest adhesion of hFOB cells was observed on a PS film with roughness of ∼ 11 nm. When this film was additionally treated by oxygen plasma to provide a hydrophilic surface with a contact angle less than 10°, the proliferation of bone-forming cell was further enhanced. Thus, the plasma-based independent modification of PS film into an optimum nanotexture for human osteoblast cells could be appplied to materials used in bone tissue engineering. Highlights: ► New approach based on plasma treatment to independently control the surface topography and wettability ► The adhesion of human fetal osteoblast (hFOB) was enhanced on a surface with an average roughness of ∼ 11 nm. ► The adhesion and proliferation of hFOB was maximized when nanotextured surface became highly hydrophilic

  19. Light storage in a doped solid enhanced by feedback-controlled pulse shaping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beil, F.; Buschbeck, M.; Heinze, G.; Halfmann, T.

    2010-01-01

    We report on experiments dealing with feedback-controlled pulse shaping to optimize the efficiency of light storage by electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in a Pr 3+ :Y 2 SiO 5 crystal. A learning loop in combination with an evolutionary algorithm permits the automatic determination of optimal temporal profiles of intensities and frequencies in the driving laser pulses (i.e., the probe and coupling pulses). As a main advantage, the technique finds optimal solutions even in the complicated multilevel excitation scheme of a doped solid, involving large inhomogeneous broadening. The learning loop experimentally determines optimal temporal intensity profiles of the coupling pulses for a given probe pulse. The optimized intensity pulse shapes enhance the light-storage efficiency in the doped solid by a factor of 2. The learning loop also determines a fast and efficient preparation pulse sequence, which serves to optically prepare the crystal prior to light-storage experiments. The optimized preparation sequence is 5 times faster than standard preparation sequences. Moreover, the optimized preparation sequence enhances the optical depth in the medium by a factor of 5. As a consequence, the efficiency of light storage also increases by another factor of 3. Our experimental data clearly demonstrate the considerable potential of feedback-controlled pulse shaping, applied to EIT-driven light storage in solid media.

  20. ENHANCE: Design and rationale of a randomized controlled trial for promoting enduring happiness & well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushlev, Kostadin; Heintzelman, Samantha J; Lutes, Lesley D; Wirtz, Derrick; Oishi, Shigehiro; Diener, Ed

    2017-01-01

    Individuals who are higher in subjective well-being not only feel happier, they are more likely have fulfilling relationships, increased work performance and income, better physical health, and longer lives. Over the past several decades, the science of subjective well-being has produced insights into these benefits of happiness, and-recognizing their importance-has begun to examine the factors that lead to greater well-being, from cultivating strong relationships to pursuing meaningful goals. However, studies to date have typically focused on improving subjective well-being by intervening with singular constructs, using primarily college student populations, and were short-term in nature. Moreover, little is understood about the impact of a well-being treatment delivered online vs. in-person. In the present article, we describe a comprehensive intervention program including 3-month initial treatment followed by a 3-month follow-up, ENHANCE: Enduring Happiness and Continued Self-Enhancement. One-hundred and sixty participants will be recruited from two different sites to participate in one of two versions of ENHANCE: in-person (n=30) vs. wait-list control (n=30); or online (n=50) vs. wait-list control (n=50). Assessments will be completed at baseline, three months and six months. Our primary outcome is change in subjective well-being across treatment (3months) and follow-up (6months). Secondary outcomes include self-report and objective measures of health, as well as a psychological mediators (e.g., psychological needs) and moderators (e.g., personality) of treatment outcomes. We hope to provide researchers, practitioners, and individuals with an evidence-based treatment to improve happiness and subjective well-being. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Molecular evolution of Adh and LEAFY and the phylogenetic utility of their introns in Pyrus (Rosaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaoyan; Hu, Chunyun; Spooner, David; Liu, Jing; Cao, Jiashu; Teng, Yuanwen

    2011-09-14

    The genus Pyrus belongs to the tribe Pyreae (the former subfamily Maloideae) of the family Rosaceae, and includes one of the most important commercial fruit crops, pear. The phylogeny of Pyrus has not been definitively reconstructed. In our previous efforts, the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) revealed a poorly resolved phylogeny due to non-concerted evolution of nrDNA arrays. Therefore, introns of low copy nuclear genes (LCNG) are explored here for improved resolution. However, paralogs and lineage sorting are still two challenges for applying LCNGs in phylogenetic studies, and at least two independent nuclear loci should be compared. In this work the second intron of LEAFY and the alcohol dehydrogenase gene (Adh) were selected to investigate their molecular evolution and phylogenetic utility. DNA sequence analyses revealed a complex ortholog and paralog structure of Adh genes in Pyrus and Malus, the pears and apples. Comparisons between sequences from RT-PCR and genomic PCR indicate that some Adh homologs are putatively nonfunctional. A partial region of Adh1 was sequenced for 18 Pyrus species and three subparalogs representing Adh1-1 were identified. These led to poorly resolved phylogenies due to low sequence divergence and the inclusion of putative recombinants. For the second intron of LEAFY, multiple inparalogs were discovered for both LFY1int2 and LFY2int2. LFY1int2 is inadequate for phylogenetic analysis due to lineage sorting of two inparalogs. LFY2int2-N, however, showed a relatively high sequence divergence and led to the best-resolved phylogeny. This study documents the coexistence of outparalogs and inparalogs, and lineage sorting of these paralogs and orthologous copies. It reveals putative recombinants that can lead to incorrect phylogenetic inferences, and presents an improved phylogenetic resolution of Pyrus using LFY2int2-N. Our study represents the first phylogenetic analyses based on LCNGs in Pyrus. Ancient and recent duplications lead

  2. Molecular evolution of Adh and LEAFY and the phylogenetic utility of their introns in Pyrus (Rosaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Jiashu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Pyrus belongs to the tribe Pyreae (the former subfamily Maloideae of the family Rosaceae, and includes one of the most important commercial fruit crops, pear. The phylogeny of Pyrus has not been definitively reconstructed. In our previous efforts, the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS revealed a poorly resolved phylogeny due to non-concerted evolution of nrDNA arrays. Therefore, introns of low copy nuclear genes (LCNG are explored here for improved resolution. However, paralogs and lineage sorting are still two challenges for applying LCNGs in phylogenetic studies, and at least two independent nuclear loci should be compared. In this work the second intron of LEAFY and the alcohol dehydrogenase gene (Adh were selected to investigate their molecular evolution and phylogenetic utility. Results DNA sequence analyses revealed a complex ortholog and paralog structure of Adh genes in Pyrus and Malus, the pears and apples. Comparisons between sequences from RT-PCR and genomic PCR indicate that some Adh homologs are putatively nonfunctional. A partial region of Adh1 was sequenced for 18 Pyrus species and three subparalogs representing Adh1-1 were identified. These led to poorly resolved phylogenies due to low sequence divergence and the inclusion of putative recombinants. For the second intron of LEAFY, multiple inparalogs were discovered for both LFY1int2 and LFY2int2. LFY1int2 is inadequate for phylogenetic analysis due to lineage sorting of two inparalogs. LFY2int2-N, however, showed a relatively high sequence divergence and led to the best-resolved phylogeny. This study documents the coexistence of outparalogs and inparalogs, and lineage sorting of these paralogs and orthologous copies. It reveals putative recombinants that can lead to incorrect phylogenetic inferences, and presents an improved phylogenetic resolution of Pyrus using LFY2int2-N. Conclusions Our study represents the first phylogenetic analyses based

  3. The Mitochondrial Genome of the Prasinophyte Prasinoderma coloniale Reveals Two Trans-Spliced Group I Introns in the Large Subunit rRNA Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pombert, Jean-François; Otis, Christian; Turmel, Monique; Lemieux, Claude

    2013-01-01

    Organelle genes are often interrupted by group I and or group II introns. Splicing of these mobile genetic occurs at the RNA level via serial transesterification steps catalyzed by the introns'own tertiary structures and, sometimes, with the help of external factors. These catalytic ribozymes can be found in cis or trans configuration, and although trans-arrayed group II introns have been known for decades, trans-spliced group I introns have been reported only recently. In the course of sequencing the complete mitochondrial genome of the prasinophyte picoplanktonic green alga Prasinoderma coloniale CCMP 1220 (Prasinococcales, clade VI), we uncovered two additional cases of trans-spliced group I introns. Here, we describe these introns and compare the 54,546 bp-long mitochondrial genome of Prasinoderma with those of four other prasinophytes (clades II, III and V). This comparison underscores the highly variable mitochondrial genome architecture in these ancient chlorophyte lineages. Both Prasinoderma trans-spliced introns reside within the large subunit rRNA gene (rnl) at positions where cis-spliced relatives, often containing homing endonuclease genes, have been found in other organelles. In contrast, all previously reported trans-spliced group I introns occur in different mitochondrial genes (rns or coxI). Each Prasinoderma intron is fragmented into two pieces, forming at the RNA level a secondary structure that resembles those of its cis-spliced counterparts. As observed for other trans-spliced group I introns, the breakpoint of the first intron maps to the variable loop L8, whereas that of the second is uniquely located downstream of P9.1. The breakpoint In each Prasinoderma intron corresponds to the same region where the open reading frame (ORF) occurs when present in cis-spliced orthologs. This correlation between the intron breakpoint and the ORF location in cis-spliced orthologs also holds for other trans-spliced introns; we discuss the possible implications

  4. The mitochondrial genome of the prasinophyte Prasinoderma coloniale reveals two trans-spliced group I introns in the large subunit rRNA gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Pombert

    Full Text Available Organelle genes are often interrupted by group I and or group II introns. Splicing of these mobile genetic occurs at the RNA level via serial transesterification steps catalyzed by the introns'own tertiary structures and, sometimes, with the help of external factors. These catalytic ribozymes can be found in cis or trans configuration, and although trans-arrayed group II introns have been known for decades, trans-spliced group I introns have been reported only recently. In the course of sequencing the complete mitochondrial genome of the prasinophyte picoplanktonic green alga Prasinoderma coloniale CCMP 1220 (Prasinococcales, clade VI, we uncovered two additional cases of trans-spliced group I introns. Here, we describe these introns and compare the 54,546 bp-long mitochondrial genome of Prasinoderma with those of four other prasinophytes (clades II, III and V. This comparison underscores the highly variable mitochondrial genome architecture in these ancient chlorophyte lineages. Both Prasinoderma trans-spliced introns reside within the large subunit rRNA gene (rnl at positions where cis-spliced relatives, often containing homing endonuclease genes, have been found in other organelles. In contrast, all previously reported trans-spliced group I introns occur in different mitochondrial genes (rns or coxI. Each Prasinoderma intron is fragmented into two pieces, forming at the RNA level a secondary structure that resembles those of its cis-spliced counterparts. As observed for other trans-spliced group I introns, the breakpoint of the first intron maps to the variable loop L8, whereas that of the second is uniquely located downstream of P9.1. The breakpoint In each Prasinoderma intron corresponds to the same region where the open reading frame (ORF occurs when present in cis-spliced orthologs. This correlation between the intron breakpoint and the ORF location in cis-spliced orthologs also holds for other trans-spliced introns; we discuss the

  5. Fox-2 Splicing Factor Binds to a Conserved Intron Motif to PromoteInclusion of Protein 4.1R Alternative Exon 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponthier, Julie L.; Schluepen, Christina; Chen, Weiguo; Lersch,Robert A.; Gee, Sherry L.; Hou, Victor C.; Lo, Annie J.; Short, Sarah A.; Chasis, Joel A.; Winkelmann, John C.; Conboy, John G.

    2006-03-01

    Activation of protein 4.1R exon 16 (E16) inclusion during erythropoiesis represents a physiologically important splicing switch that increases 4.1R affinity for spectrin and actin. Previous studies showed that negative regulation of E16 splicing is mediated by the binding of hnRNP A/B proteins to silencer elements in the exon and that downregulation of hnRNP A/B proteins in erythroblasts leads to activation of E16 inclusion. This paper demonstrates that positive regulation of E16 splicing can be mediated by Fox-2 or Fox-1, two closely related splicing factors that possess identical RNA recognition motifs. SELEX experiments with human Fox-1 revealed highly selective binding to the hexamer UGCAUG. Both Fox-1 and Fox-2 were able to bind the conserved UGCAUG elements in the proximal intron downstream of E16, and both could activate E16 splicing in HeLa cell co-transfection assays in a UGCAUG-dependent manner. Conversely, knockdown of Fox-2 expression, achieved with two different siRNA sequences resulted in decreased E16 splicing. Moreover, immunoblot experiments demonstrate mouse erythroblasts express Fox-2, but not Fox-1. These findings suggest that Fox-2 is a physiological activator of E16 splicing in differentiating erythroid cells in vivo. Recent experiments show that UGCAUG is present in the proximal intron sequence of many tissue-specific alternative exons, and we propose that the Fox family of splicing enhancers plays an important role in alternative splicing switches during differentiation in metazoan organisms.

  6. Antisense Oligonucleotide-based Splice Correction for USH2A-associated Retinal Degeneration Caused by a Frequent Deep-intronic Mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radulfus WN Slijkerman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Usher syndrome (USH is the most common cause of combined deaf-blindness in man. The hearing loss can be partly compensated by providing patients with hearing aids or cochlear implants, but the loss of vision is currently untreatable. In general, mutations in the USH2A gene are the most frequent cause of USH explaining up to 50% of all patients worldwide. The first deep-intronic mutation in the USH2A gene (c.7595-2144A>G was reported in 2012, leading to the insertion of a pseudoexon (PE40 into the mature USH2A transcript. When translated, this PE40-containing transcript is predicted to result in a truncated non-functional USH2A protein. In this study, we explored the potential of antisense oligonucleotides (AONs to prevent aberrant splicing of USH2A pre-mRNA as a consequence of the c.7595-2144A>G mutation. Engineered 2'-O-methylphosphorothioate AONs targeting the PE40 splice acceptor site and/or exonic splice enhancer regions displayed significant splice correction potential in both patient derived fibroblasts and a minigene splice assay for USH2A c.7595-2144A>G, whereas a non-binding sense oligonucleotide had no effect on splicing. Altogether, AON-based splice correction could be a promising approach for the development of a future treatment for USH2A-associated retinitis pigmentosa caused by the deep-intronic c.7595-2144A>G mutation.

  7. The Enhancement of Nuclear Control and Emergency Preparedness Systems in KAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Goan Yup; Lee, B. D.; Kim, J. S.; Park, H. J.

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this study is to foster international environment for peaceful nuclear technology based on the international transparency with respect to the control, management and surveillance system. In this regards, this study establishes, operates and upgrades the nuclear control and management information system of the KAERI that assumed the prerequisite means for Integrated Safeguards systems of the IAEA which is implemented from the July of 2008. It is also included the radiological emergency system that contains the safety information surveillance system in KAERI to meet the national legislative requirements. The nuclear control and management information system of the KAERI could be controlled and managed the accounting information of the nuclear facility with on-line manner. This system enhances transparency of accounting management of the KAERI in terms of effective ways for the Agency inspectors and national inspectors to implement the no-notice inspection under the Integrated Safeguards system. To complete the nuclear safety information collecting and monitoring system at EOF for KAERI, the real-time remote monitoring systems for RIPF, IMEF, PIEF were established. In addition, after the review of the abnormal condition of RMS data, the notification system for a radiation abnormal condition at nuclear facilities was operated. And also, the server of emergency management system was improved, the emergency situation notification system to all KAERI and KNF site was established

  8. Enhanced performance and control issues in JT-60U long pulse discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Y

    2005-01-01

    Recent experimental results are reported on control issues involved in long timescales and enhanced performance in JT-60U. The control issues in neoclassical tearing mode (NTM) suppression in the weak shear plasma regime include background optimization through decreasing β p (L q /L p ) at the rational surface and active stabilization of NTMs using ECCD. By optimizing β p (L q /L p ), a condition of β N ∼ 2.5 was sustained for 10 times the current profile relaxation time and one of β N ∼ 2.4 with q min ∼ 1.5 was sustained for 2.8 times the current profile relaxation time, with nearly full non-inductive current drive. In addition, a condition of β N ∼ 3 was sustained for 5.5 s through stabilization of NTMs using ECCD, and an EC driven current nearly equal to the bootstrap current was required for complete stabilization. In the reversed shear plasma regime, the issue is the existence of the steady state solution with a large f BS value. By controlling the pressure gradient at the internal transport barrier through toroidal rotation to avoid the disruption, a large f BS value of approximately 75% was sustained for 2.7 times the current profile relaxation time, with nearly full non-inductive current drive, and a steady-state solution with a large f BS value is confirmed. The control issues for the edge pedestal and edge localized modes (ELMs) are control of the pedestal pressure and the energy loss through ELMs. The pedestal pressure increases by >40% through the change in toroidal rotation. The type of ELM can be controlled by toroidal rotation from type-I to grassy

  9. Solving nucleic acid structures by molecular replacement: examples from group II intron studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcia, Marco; Humphris-Narayanan, Elisabeth; Keating, Kevin S.; Somarowthu, Srinivas; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta; Pyle, Anna Marie

    2013-01-01

    Strategies for phasing nucleic acid structures by molecular replacement, using both experimental and de novo designed models, are discussed. Structured RNA molecules are key players in ensuring cellular viability. It is now emerging that, like proteins, the functions of many nucleic acids are dictated by their tertiary folds. At the same time, the number of known crystal structures of nucleic acids is also increasing rapidly. In this context, molecular replacement will become an increasingly useful technique for phasing nucleic acid crystallographic data in the near future. Here, strategies to select, create and refine molecular-replacement search models for nucleic acids are discussed. Using examples taken primarily from research on group II introns, it is shown that nucleic acids are amenable to different and potentially more flexible and sophisticated molecular-replacement searches than proteins. These observations specifically aim to encourage future crystallographic studies on the newly discovered repertoire of noncoding transcripts

  10. An Intron 7 Polymorphism in APP Affects the Age of Onset of Dementia in Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma L. Jones

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available People with Down syndrome (DS develop Alzheimer's disease (AD with an early age of onset. A tetranucleotide repeat, attt5−8, in intron 7 of the amyloid precursor protein has been associated with the age of onset of AD in DS in a preliminary study. The authors examine the impact of this polymorphism in a larger cohort of individuals with DS. Adults with DS were genotyped for attt5−8 and APOE. The results were analysed with respect to the age of onset of dementia. The presence of three copies of the six-repeat allele resulted in onset of dementia seven years earlier than in the presence of other genotypes. Further study is essential to elucidate the mechanism by which this polymorphism functions, with an exciting opportunity to identify novel treatment targets relevant for people with DS and AD.

  11. Deep intronic mutation and pseudo exon activation as a novel muscular hypertrophy modifier in cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Bouyer

    Full Text Available Myostatin is essential for proper regulation of myogenesis, and inactivation of Myostatin results in muscle hypertrophy. Here, we identified an unexpected mutation in the myostatin gene which is almost fixed in Blonde d'Aquitaine cattle. In skeletal muscle, the mutant allele was highly expressed leading to an abnormal transcript consisting of a 41-bp inclusion and premature termination codons and to residual levels of a correctly spliced transcript. This expression pattern, caused by a leaky intronic mutation with regard to spliceosome activity and its apparent stability with regard to surveillance mechanisms, could contribute to the moderate muscle hypertrophy in this cattle breed. This finding is of importance for genetic counseling for meat quantity and quality in livestock production and possibly to manipulate myostatin pre-mRNA in human muscle diseases.

  12. Cytochrome oxidase subunit II gene in mitochondria of Oenothera has no intron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiesel, Rudolf; Brennicke, Axel

    1983-01-01

    The cytochrome oxidase subunit II gene has been localized in the mitochondrial genome of Oenothera berteriana and the nucleotide sequence has been determined. The coding sequence contains 777 bp and, unlike the corresponding gene in Zea mays, is not interrupted by an intron. No TGA codon is found within the open reading frame. The codon CGG, as in the maize gene, is used in place of tryptophan codons of corresponding genes in other organisms. At position 742 in the Oenothera sequence the TGG of maize is changed into a CGG codon, where Trp is conserved as the amino acid in other organisms. Homologous sequences occur more than once in the mitochondrial genome as several mitochondrial DNA species hybridize with DNA probes of the cytochrome oxidase subunit II gene. ImagesFig. 5. PMID:16453484

  13. Enhanced Control of Mercury and other HAPs by Innovative Modifications to Wet FGD Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hargrove, O.W.; Carey, T.R.; Richardson, C.F.; Skarupa, R.C.; Meserole, F.B.; Rhudy, R.G.; Brown, Thomas D.

    1997-01-01

    The overall objective of this project was to learn more about controlling emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from coal-fired power plants that are equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The project was included by FETC as a Phase I project in its Mega-PRDA program. Phase I of this project focused on three research areas. These areas in order of priority were: (1) Catalytic oxidation of vapor-phase elemental mercury; (2) Enhanced particulate-phase HAPs removal by electrostatic charging of liquid droplets; and (3) Enhanced mercury removal by addition of additives to FGD process liquor. Mercury can exist in two forms in utility flue gas--as elemental mercury and as oxidized mercury (predominant form believed to be HgCl 2 ). Previous test results have shown that wet scrubbers effectively remove the oxidized mercury from the gas but are ineffective in removing elemental mercury. Recent improvements in mercury speciation techniques confirm this finding. Catalytic oxidation of vapor-phase elemental mercury is of interest in cases where a wet scrubber exists or is planned for SO 2 control. If a loW--cost process could be developed to oxidize all of the elemental mercury in the flue gas, then the maximum achievable mercury removal across the existing or planned wet scrubber would increase. Other approaches for improving control of HAPs included a method for improving particulate removal across the FGD process and the use of additives to increase mercury solubility. This paper discusses results related only to catalytic oxidation of elemental mercury

  14. Enhancing Carbon Reactivity in Mercury Control in Lignite-Fired Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chad Wocken; Michael Holmes; John Pavlish; Jeffrey Thompson; Katie Brandt; Brandon Pavlish; Dennis Laudal; Kevin Galbreath; Michelle Olderbak

    2008-06-30

    This project was awarded through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory Program Solicitation DE-PS26-03NT41718-01. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) led a consortium-based effort to resolve mercury (Hg) control issues facing the lignite industry. The EERC team-the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); the URS Corporation; the Babcock & Wilcox Company; ADA-ES; Apogee; Basin Electric Power Cooperative; Otter Tail Power Company; Great River Energy; Texas Utilities; Montana-Dakota Utilities Co.; Minnkota Power Cooperative, Inc.; BNI Coal Ltd.; Dakota Westmoreland Corporation; the North American Coal Corporation; SaskPower; and the North Dakota Industrial Commission-demonstrated technologies that substantially enhanced the effectiveness of carbon sorbents to remove Hg from western fuel combustion gases and achieve a high level ({ge} 55% Hg removal) of cost-effective control. The results of this effort are applicable to virtually all utilities burning lignite and subbituminous coals in the United States and Canada. The enhancement processes were previously proven in pilot-scale and limited full-scale tests. Additional optimization testing continues on these enhancements. These four units included three lignite-fired units: Leland Olds Station Unit 1 (LOS1) and Stanton Station Unit 10 (SS10) near Stanton and Antelope Valley Station Unit 1 (AVS1) near Beulah and a subbituminous Powder River Basin (PRB)-fired unit: Stanton Station Unit 1 (SS1). This project was one of three conducted by the consortium under the DOE mercury program to systematically test Hg control technologies available for utilities burning lignite. The overall objective of the three projects was to field-test and verify options that may be applied cost-effectively by the lignite industry to reduce Hg emissions. The EERC, URS, and other team members tested sorbent injection technologies for plants equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and

  15. Enhancing a sustainable healthy working life: design of a clustered randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koolhaas Wendy

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To improve a sustainable healthy working life, we have developed the intervention 'Staying healthy at work', which endeavours to enhance work participation of employees aged 45 years and older by increasing their problem-solving capacity and stimulating their awareness of their role and responsibility towards a healthy working life. This research study aims to evaluate the process and the effectiveness of the intervention compared with care as usual. Methods/design The study is a cluster-randomized controlled trial design (randomized at the supervisor level, with a 1-year follow-up. Workers aged 45 years and older have been enrolled in the study. Workers in the intervention group are receiving the intervention 'Staying healthy at work'. The main focus of the intervention is to promote a healthy working life of ageing workers by: (1 changing workers awareness and behaviour, by emphasizing their own decisive role in attaining goals; (2 improving the supervisors' ability to support workers in taking the necessary action, by means of enhancing knowledge and competence; and (3 enhancing the use of the human resource professionals and the occupational health tools available within the organization. The supervisors in the intervention group have been trained how to present themselves as a source of support for the worker. Workers in the control group are receiving care as usual; supervisors in the control group have not participated in the training. Measurements have been taken at baseline and will be followed up at 3, 6 and 12 months. The primary outcome measures are vitality, work ability and productivity. The secondary outcomes measures include fatigue, job strain, work attitude, self-efficacy and work engagement. A process evaluation will be conducted at both the supervisor and the worker levels, and satisfaction with the content of the intervention will be assessed. Discussion The intervention 'Staying healthy at work' has the

  16. Complex group-I introns in nuclear SSU rDNA of red and green algae: evidence of homing-endonuclease pseudogenes in the Bangiophyceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugen, P; Huss, V A; Nielsen, Henrik

    1999-01-01

    on the complementary strand. A comparison between related group-I introns in the Bangiophyceae revealed homing-endonuclease-like pseudogenes due to frame-shifts and deletions in Porphyra and Bangia. The Scenedesmus and Porphyra introns provide new insights into the evolution and possible novel functions of nuclear...

  17. BCL2-like 11 intron 2 deletion polymorphism is not associated with non-small cell lung cancer risk and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eun Na; Kim, Eun Young; Jung, Ji Ye; Kim, Arum; Oh, In Jae; Kim, Young Chul; Chang, Yoon Soo

    2015-10-01

    BCL2-Like 11(BIM), which encodes a BH3-only protein, is a major pro-apoptotic molecule that facilitates cell death. We hypothesized that a BIM intron 2 deletion polymorphism increases lung cancer risk and predicts poor prognosis in non-small lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. We prospectively recruited 450 lung cancer patients and 1:1 age, sex, and smoking status matched control subjects from February 2013 to April 2014 among patients treated at Severance, Gangnam Severance, and Chonnam Hwasoon Hospital. The presence of a 2903-bp genomic DNA deletion polymorphism of intron 2 of BIM was analyzed by PCR and validated by sequencing. Odds ratios were calculated by chi-square tests and survival analysis with Kaplan-Meier estimation. Sixty-nine out of 450 (15.3%) lung cancer patients carried the BIM deletion polymorphism, while 66 out of 450 (14.7%) control subjects carried the BIM deletion polymorphism, with an odds ratio of for lung cancer of 1.054 (95% CI; 0.731-1.519). We categorized 406 NSCLC patients according to the presence of the polymorphism and found that there were no statistically significant differences in age, sex, histologic type, or stage between subjects with and without the deletion polymorphism. The BIM deletion polymorphism did not influence overall survival (OS) or progression free survival (PFS) in our sample (OS; 37.6 vs 34.4 months (P=0.759), PFS; 49.6 vs 26.0 months (P=0.434)). These findings indicate that the BIM deletion polymorphism is common in Korean NSCLC patients but does not significantly affect the intrinsic biologic function of BH3-only protein. Furthermore, the BIM deletion polymorphism did not predict clinical outcomes in patients with NSCLC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A neo-strategic planning approach to enhance local tobacco control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Malinda R; Carter, Sara Sally R; Wilson, Andrew P; Chan, Andie

    2015-01-01

    Research in tobacco control demonstrating best practices is widely disseminated; however, application at the local level is often difficult. Translating research into practice requires a concerted effort to develop an understanding of the evidence and how it can be applied within diverse contexts. A strategic planning infrastructure was developed to support the translation of evidence-based interventions into community practice. This paper highlights the strategic process of turning "know-what" into "know-how" to facilitate the strategic planning and implementation of tobacco control best practices at the local level. The purpose, people, process, and product strategies of knowledge management and translation provided a framework for the strategic planning infrastructure. The knowledge translation concepts of audience, motivations, and mechanisms were synergized in the neo-strategic planning component design. The participants were 20 community coalitions funded to implement local tobacco control programs. From 2004 to 2011, the strategic planners facilitated a cyclical process to translate research into practice using a trio of integrated tools, skill-building workshops on strategic planning, and grantee-driven technical assistance and consultation. In the short term, the usefulness of the strategic planning components to the programs was measured. The intermediate outcome was the successful movement of the community programs from the planning stage to the implementation stage. The achievement of community-level changes in planned tobacco control efforts was the overall outcome measure for the success of the local coalitions. Seventeen of 20 communities that began the planning process implemented strategic plans. All 17 of the programs implemented evidence-based practices, resulting in numerous tobacco-free policies, increased cessation, and increased support from the media and community. Bridging the gap between research and practice can enhance the practicality

  19. Hierarchical CuO hollow microspheres: Controlled synthesis for enhanced lithium storage performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Xiangfeng; Li Liping; Li Guangshe; Fu Zhengwei; Zheng Jing; Yan Tingjiang

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Hierarchical CuO microspheres with hollow interiors were formed through self-wrapping of a single layer of radically oriented CuO nanorods, and these microspheres showed excellent cycle performance and enhanced lithium storage capacity. Display Omitted Research highlights: → Hierarchical CuO hollow microspheres were prepared by a hydrothermal method. → The CuO hollow microspheres were assembled from radically oriented nanorods. → The growth mechanism was proposed to proceed via self-assembly and Ostwald's ripening. → The microspheres showed good cycle performance and enhanced lithium storage capacity. → Hierarchical microstructures with hollow interiors promote electrochemical property. - Abstract: In this work, hierarchical CuO hollow microspheres were hydrothermally prepared without use of any surfactants or templates. By controlling the formation reaction conditions and monitoring the relevant reaction processes using time-dependent experiments, it is demonstrated that hierarchical CuO microspheres with hollow interiors were formed through self-wrapping of a single layer of radically oriented CuO nanorods, and that hierarchical spheres could be tuned to show different morphologies and microstructures. As a consequence, the formation mechanism was proposed to proceed via a combined process of self-assembly and Ostwald's ripening. Further, these hollow microspheres were initiated as the anode material in lithium ion batteries, which showed excellent cycle performance and enhanced lithium storage capacity, most likely because of the synergetic effect of small diffusion lengths in building blocks of nanorods and proper void space that buffers the volume expansion. The strategy reported in this work is reproducible, which may help to significantly improve the electrochemical performance of transition metal oxide-based anode materials via designing the hollow structures necessary for developing lithium ion batteries and the relevant

  20. Predicting Bacteria Removal by Enhanced Stormwater Control Measures (SCMs) at the Watershed Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfand, J.; Bell, C. D.; Boehm, A. B.; Hogue, T. S.; Luthy, R. G.

    2017-12-01

    Urban stormwater is a major cause of water quality impairment, resulting in surface waters that fail to meet water quality standards and support their designated uses. Fecal indicator bacteria are present in high concentrations in stormwater and are strictly regulated in receiving waters; yet, their fate and transport in urban stormwater is poorly understood. Stormwater control measures (SCMs) are often used to treat, infiltrate, and release urban runoff, but field measurements show that the removal of bacteria by these structural solutions is limited (median log removal = 0.24, n = 370). Researchers have therefore looked to improve bacterial removal by enhancing SCMs through alterations in flow regimes or adding geomedia such as biochar. The present research seeks to develop a model to predict removal of fecal indicator bacteria by enhanced SCMs at the watershed scale in a semi-arid climate. Using the highly developed Ballona Creek watershed (290 km2) located in Los Angeles County as a case study, a hydrologic model is coupled with a stochastic water quality model to predict E. coli concentration near the outfall of the Ballona Creek, Santa Monica Bay. A hydrologic model was developed using EPA SWMM, calibrated for flow from water year 1998-2006 (NSE = 0.94; R2 = 0.94), and validated from water year 2007-2015 (NSE = 0.90; R2 = 0.93). This bacterial loading model was then linked to EPA SUSTAIN and a SCM bacterial removal script to simulate log removal of bacteria by various SCMs and predict bacterial concentrations in Ballona Creek. Preliminary results suggest small enhancements to SCMs that improve bacterial removal (<0.5 log removal) may offer large benefits to surface water quality and enable communities such as Los Angeles to meet their regulatory requirements.

  1. Enhancing Congruence between Implicit Motives and Explicit Goal Commitments: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roch, Ramona M; Rösch, Andreas G; Schultheiss, Oliver C

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Theory and research suggest that the pursuit of personal goals that do not fit a person's affect-based implicit motives results in impaired emotional well-being, including increased symptoms of depression. The aim of this study was to evaluate an intervention designed to enhance motive-goal congruence and study its impact on well-being. Method: Seventy-four German students (mean age = 22.91, SD = 3.68; 64.9% female) without current psychopathology, randomly allocated to three groups: motivational feedback (FB; n = 25; participants learned about the fit between their implicit motives and explicit goals), FB + congruence-enhancement training (CET; n = 22; participants also engaged in exercises to increase the fit between their implicit motives and goals), and a no-intervention control group ( n = 27), were administered measures of implicit motives, personal goal commitments, happiness, depressive symptoms, and life satisfaction 3 weeks before (T1) and 6 weeks after (T2) treatment. Results: On two types of congruence measures derived from motive and goal assessments, treated participants showed increases in agentic (power and achievement) congruence, with improvements being most consistent in the FB+CET group. Treated participants also showed a trend-level depressive symptom reduction, but no changes on other well-being measures. Although increases in overall and agentic motivational congruence were associated with increases in affective well-being, treatment-based reduction of depressive symptoms was not mediated by treatment-based agentic congruence changes. Conclusion: These findings document that motivational congruence can be effectively enhanced, that changes in motivational congruence are associated with changes in affective well-being, and they suggest that individuals' implicit motives should be considered when personal goals are discussed in the therapeutic process.

  2. A var gene promoter implicated in severe malaria nucleates silencing and is regulated by 3’ untranslated region and intronic cis-elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhle, Rebecca A.; Adjalley, Sophie; Falkard, Brie; Nkrumah, Louis J.; Muhle, Michael E.; Fidock, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Questions surround the mechanism of mutually exclusive expression by which Plasmodium falciparum mediates activation and silencing of var genes. These encode PfEMP1 proteins, which function as cytoadherent and immunomodulatory molecules at the surface of parasitized erythrocytes. Current evidence suggests that promoter silencing by var introns might play a key role in var gene regulation. To evaluate the impact of cis-acting regulatory regions on var silencing, we generated P. falciparum lines in which luciferase was placed under the control of an UpsA var promoter. By utilizing the Bxb1 integrase system, these reporter cassettes were targeted to a genomic region that was not in apposition to var sub-telomeric domains. This eliminated possible effects from surrounding telomeric elements and removed the variability inherent in episomal systems. Studies with highly synchronized parasites revealed that the UpsA element possessed minimal activity in comparison with a heterologous (hrp3) promoter. This may well result from the integrated UpsA promoter being largely silenced by the neighboring cg6 promoter. Our analyses also revealed that the DownsA 3’ untranslated region further decreased the luciferase activity from both cassettes, whereas the var A intron repressed the UpsA promoter specifically. By applying multivariate analysis over the entire cell cycle, we confirmed the significance of these cis-elements and found the parasite stage to be the major factor regulating UpsA promoter activity. Additionally, we observed that the UpsA promoter was capable of nucleating reversible silencing that spread to a downstream promoter. We believe these studies are the first to analyze promoter activity of Group A var genes which have been implicated in severe malaria, and support the model that var introns can further suppress var expression. These data also suggest an important suppressive role for the DownsA terminator. Our findings imply the existence of multiple levels of

  3. Exercise to Enhance Smoking Cessation: the Getting Physical on Cigarette Randomized Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prapavessis, Harry; De Jesus, Stefanie; Fitzgeorge, Lindsay; Faulkner, Guy; Maddison, Ralph; Batten, Sandra

    2016-06-01

    Exercise has been proposed as a useful smoking cessation aid. The purpose of the present study is to determine the effect of an exercise-aided smoking cessation intervention program, with built-in maintenance components, on post-intervention 14-, 26- and 56-week cessation rates. Female cigarette smokers (n = 413) participating in a supervised exercise and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) smoking cessation program were randomized to one of four conditions: exercise + smoking cessation maintenance, exercise maintenance + contact control, smoking cessation maintenance + contact control or contact control. The primary outcome was continuous smoking abstinence. Abstinence differences were found between the exercise and equal contact non-exercise maintenance groups at weeks 14 (57 vs 43 %), 26 (27 vs 21 %) and 56 (26 vs 23.5 %), respectively. Only the week 14 difference approached significance, p = 0.08. An exercise-aided NRT smoking cessation program with built-in maintenance components enhances post-intervention cessation rates at week 14 but not at weeks 26 and 56.

  4. Study on the Enhancement of Nuclear Control and Emergency Preparedness Systems in KAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    So, Dong Sup; Lee, T. Y.; Lee, B. D.; Yoo, J. G.; Lee, G. Y.; Lee, S. H.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, H. S.; Park, H. J

    2006-12-15

    The purposes of the study are: to implement obligations specified in treaties and domestic laws and to enhance the nuclear transparency suffered from a careless experiment, being issued in 2004, with nuclear material; and to prepare nuclear emergency and to settle down effectively the emergency situation. We established an infrastructure of the system of accounting for and control of nuclear material. and installed systematic measures to deal the cases of radiation accidents. In the first year (2006) the project is focused on the development of two systems: an information treatment system that controls and manages the nuclear material in facilities at KAERI; and a real-time surveillance system that integrates the safety system information of nuclear facilities in KAERI. The development of information treatment system for IAEA safeguards and facility-level accountancy has been initiated in October, 2006, and planned to complete by October 2007. Communication channels between the emergency control head-quarter and the briefing rooms of facilities and accident areas are established to implement an advanced supervision system for radiation accidents. Also, a surveillance system, that collects and supervises the facilities' safety system parameters in real time, is installed and confirmed that the display system of the safety parameters is stably operating.

  5. Blocking of an intronic splicing silencer completely rescues IKBKAP exon 20 splicing in familial dysautonomia patient cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Gitte H; Bang, Jeanne Mv; Christensen, Lise L

    2018-01-01

    designed splice switching oligonucleotides (SSO) that blocks the intronic hnRNP A1 binding site, and demonstrate that this completely rescues splicing of IKBKAP exon 20 in FD patient fibroblasts and increases the amounts of IKAP protein. We propose that this may be developed into a potential new specific...

  6. A Conserved Splicing Silencer Dynamically Regulates O-GlcNAc Transferase Intron Retention and O-GlcNAc Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Kyun Park

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Modification of nucleocytoplasmic proteins with O-GlcNAc regulates a wide variety of cellular processes and has been linked to human diseases. The enzymes O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT and O-GlcNAcase (OGA add and remove O-GlcNAc, but the mechanisms regulating their expression remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that retention of the fourth intron of OGT is regulated in response to O-GlcNAc levels. We further define a conserved intronic splicing silencer (ISS that is necessary for OGT intron retention. Deletion of the ISS in colon cancer cells leads to increases in OGT, but O-GlcNAc homeostasis is maintained by concomitant increases in OGA protein. However, the ISS-deleted cells are hypersensitive to OGA inhibition in culture and in soft agar. Moreover, growth of xenograft tumors from ISS-deleted cells is compromised in mice treated with an OGA inhibitor. Thus, ISS-mediated regulation of OGT intron retention is a key component in OGT expression and maintaining O-GlcNAc homeostasis.

  7. P53 family members modulate the expression of PRODH, but not PRODH2, via intronic p53 response elements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Raimondi

    Full Text Available The tumor suppressor p53 was previously shown to markedly up-regulate the expression of the PRODH gene, encoding the proline dehydrogenase (PRODH enzyme, which catalyzes the first step in proline degradation. Also PRODH2, which degrades 4-hydroxy-L-proline, a product of protein (e.g. collagen catabolism, was recently described as a p53 target. Here, we confirmed p53-dependent induction of endogenous PRODH in response to genotoxic damage in cell lines of different histological origin. We established that over-expression of TAp73β or TAp63β is sufficient to induce PRODH expression in p53-null cells and that PRODH expression parallels the modulation of endogenous p73 by genotoxic drugs in several cell lines. The p53, p63, and p73-dependent transcriptional activation was linked to specific intronic response elements (REs, among those predicted by bioinformatics tools and experimentally validated by a yeast-based transactivation assay. p53 occupancy measurements were validated in HCT116 and MCF7 human cell lines. Conversely, PRODH2 was not responsive to p63 nor p73 and, at best, could be considered a weak p53 target. In fact, minimal levels of PRODH2 transcript induction by genotoxic stress was observed exclusively in one of four p53 wild-type cell lines tested. Consistently, all predicted p53 REs in PRODH2 were poor matches to the p53 RE consensus and showed very weak responsiveness, only to p53, in the functional assay. Taken together, our results highlight that PRODH, but not PRODH2, expression is under the control of p53 family members, specifically p53 and p73. This supports a deeper link between proteins of the p53-family and metabolic pathways, as PRODH modulates the balance of proline and glutamate levels and those of their derivative alpha-keto-glutarate (α-KG under normal and pathological (tumor conditions.

  8. Controlled biomineralization of electrospun poly(ε-caprolactone) fibers to enhance their mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jingwei; Zhong, Shaoping; Ma, Bing; Shuler, Franklin D; Lim, Chwee Teck

    2013-03-01

    Electrospun polymeric fibers have been investigated as scaffolding materials for bone tissue engineering. However, their mechanical properties, and in particular stiffness and ultimate tensile strength, cannot match those of natural bones. The objective of the study was to develop novel composite nanofiber scaffolds by attaching minerals to polymeric fibers using an adhesive material - the mussel-inspired protein polydopamine - as a "superglue". Herein, we report for the first time the use of dopamine to regulate mineralization of electrospun poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) fibers to enhance their mechanical properties. We examined the mineralization of the PCL fibers by adjusting the concentration of HCO(3)(-) and dopamine in the mineralized solution, the reaction time and the surface composition of the fibers. We also examined mineralization on the surface of polydopamine-coated PCL fibers. We demonstrated the control of morphology, grain size and thickness of minerals deposited on the surface of electrospun fibers. The obtained mineral coatings render electrospun fibers with much higher stiffness, ultimate tensile strength and toughness, which could be closer to the mechanical properties of natural bone. Such great enhancement of mechanical properties for electrospun fibers through mussel protein-mediated mineralization has not been seen previously. This study could also be extended to the fabrication of other composite materials to better bridge the interfaces between organic and inorganic phases. Copyright © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Mobile phone SMS messages can enhance healthy behaviour: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Jayne A; King, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Healthy behaviour, such as smoking cessation and adherence to prescribed medications, mitigates illness risk factors but health behaviour change can be challenging. Mobile phone short-message service (SMS) messages are increasingly used to deliver interventions designed to enhance healthy behaviour. This meta-analysis used a random-effects model to synthesise 38 randomised controlled trials that investigated the efficacy of SMS messages to enhance healthy behaviour. Participants (N = 19,641) lived in developed and developing countries and were diverse with respect to age, ethnicity, socioeconomic background and health behaviours targeted for change. SMS messages had a small, positive, significant effect (g = 0.291) on a broad range of healthy behaviour. This effect was maximised when multiple SMS messages per day were used (g = 0.395) compared to using lower frequencies (daily, multiple per week and once-off) (g = 0.244). The low heterogeneity in this meta-analysis (I (2) = 38.619) supports reporting a summary effect size and implies that the effect of SMS messaging is robust, regardless of population characteristics or healthy behaviour targeted. SMS messaging is a simple, cost-effective intervention that can be automated and can reach any mobile phone owner. While the effect size is small, potential health benefits are well worth achieving.

  10. Enhanced Tobacco Control Initiative at Johns Hopkins Health System: Employee Fairness Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrani, Shabnum; Lucik, Meg; Safeer, Richard

    2018-02-01

    Organizations often fail to establish a clear awareness of what employees consider fair when implementing changes to employee benefits in the workplace. In 2016, the Johns Hopkins Health System (JHHS) enhanced their tobacco control efforts. In addition to enhanced smoking cessation benefits, employees were offered an increased reduction in their insurance premiums if they were nonsmokers. To qualify for the reduction, employees participated in testing rather than relying on self-reporting as had been done in the past. The shift to testing prompted a concern by some senior management at JHHS who did not want employees to feel they were not trusted. As the program unfolded at JHHS, the four-component model of procedural justice was applied to provide a framework for reviewing the implementation of the new voluntary tobacco testing at JHHS from a fairness lens. The purpose of this article is to illustrate the application of the four-component procedural model of justice to the tobacco testing process at JHHS. As approximately 75% of employees participated in the program, the experience at JHHS can be instructive to other employers who are looking to implement changes in their workplaces and how to minimize unintended consequences with their employees.

  11. Akt kinase C-terminal modifications control activation loop dephosphorylation and enhance insulin response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tung O; Zhang, Jin; Tiegs, Brian C; Blumhof, Brian; Yan, Linda; Keny, Nikhil; Penny, Morgan; Li, Xue; Pascal, John M; Armen, Roger S; Rodeck, Ulrich; Penn, Raymond B

    2015-10-01

    The Akt protein kinase, also known as protein kinase B, plays key roles in insulin receptor signalling and regulates cell growth, survival and metabolism. Recently, we described a mechanism to enhance Akt phosphorylation that restricts access of cellular phosphatases to the Akt activation loop (Thr(308) in Akt1 or protein kinase B isoform alpha) in an ATP-dependent manner. In the present paper, we describe a distinct mechanism to control Thr(308) dephosphorylation and thus Akt deactivation that depends on intramolecular interactions of Akt C-terminal sequences with its kinase domain. Modifications of amino acids surrounding the Akt1 C-terminal mTORC2 (mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2) phosphorylation site (Ser(473)) increased phosphatase resistance of the phosphorylated activation loop (pThr(308)) and amplified Akt phosphorylation. Furthermore, the phosphatase-resistant Akt was refractory to ceramide-dependent dephosphorylation and amplified insulin-dependent Thr(308) phosphorylation in a regulated fashion. Collectively, these results suggest that the Akt C-terminal hydrophobic groove is a target for the development of agents that enhance Akt phosphorylation by insulin. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  12. Mechanism of enhancement of controllable secondary-electron emission from fast single electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorikyan, M.P.; Kavalov, R.L.; Trofimchuk, N.N.; Arvanov, A.N.; Gavalyan, V.G.

    For porous KCl films (density approximately 2 percent, thickness 50-400 μm), the controllable secondary electron emission (CSEE) from fast single electrons with energies of 0.7-2 MeV was studied. An electric field E of approximately 10 4 -10 5 V/cm was set up inside the porous films and the emission curves anti sigma = f(E) and the energy spectra of the secondary electrons were measured. The mean emission coefficient anti sigma increases with increasing E, reaching a value of anti sigma approximately equal to 230. Internal enhancement of CSEE under the action of the E field is explained by a process similar to the Townsend semi-self-maintained discharge in gases. The mean free path L/sub e/ of the secondary electrons estimated on the basis of this mechanism of CSEE enhancement is in good agreement with the L/sub e/ value obtained independently from the energy spectra of the secondary electrons. The report examines the effect of the first critical potential U/sub il/ and of the electron affinity of the dielectric α on the formation of CSEE from a porous dielectric film. The possibility of using such films in particle detectors is discussed

  13. Microsystems for enhanced control of cell behavior fundamentals, design and manufacturing strategies, applications and challenges

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This handbook focuses on the entire development process of biomedical microsystems that promote special interactions with cells. Fundamentals of cell biology and mechanobiology are described as necessary preparatory input for design tasks. Advanced design, simulation, and micro/nanomanufacturing resources, whose combined use enables the development of biomedical microsystems capable of interacting at a cellular level, are covered in depth. A detailed series of chapters is then devoted to applications based on microsystems that offer enhanced cellular control, including microfluidic devices for diagnosis and therapy, cell-based sensors and actuators (smart biodevices), microstructured prostheses for improvement of biocompatibility, microstructured and microtextured cell culture matrices for promotion of cell growth and differentiation, electrophoretic microsystems for study of cell mechanics, microstructured and microtextured biodevices for study of cell adhesion and dynamics, and biomimetic microsystems (incl...

  14. Admixture enhanced controlled low-strength material for direct underwater injection with minimal cross-contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepworth, H.K.; Davidson, J.S.; Hooyman, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    Commercially available admixtures have been developed for placing traditional concrete products under water. This paper evaluates adapting anti-washout admixture (AWA) and high range water reducing admixture (HRWRA) products to enhance controlled low-strength materials (CLSMs) for underwater placement. A simple experimental scale model (based on dynamic and geometric similitude) of typical grout pump emplacement equipment has been developed to determine the percentage of cementing material washed out. The objective of this study was to identify proportions of admixtures and underwater CLSM emplacement procedures which would minimize the cross-contamination of the displaced water while maintaining the advantages of CLSM. Since the displaced water from radioactively contaminated systems must be subsequently treated prior to release to the environment, the amount of cross-contamination is important for cases in which cementing material could form hard sludges in a water treatment facility and contaminate the in-place CLSM stabilization medium

  15. Enhancing Piezoelectric Performance of CaBi2Nb2O9 Ceramics Through Microstructure Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huanbei; Zhai, Jiwei

    2012-08-01

    Calcium bismuth niobate (CaBi2Nb2O9, CBN) is a high-Curie-temperature ( T C) piezoelectric material with relatively poor piezoelectric performance. Attempts were made to enhance the piezoelectric and direct-current (DC) resistive properties of CBN ceramics by increasing their density and controlling their microstructural texture, which were achieved by combining the templated grain growth and hot pressing methods. The modified CBN ceramics with 97.5% relative density and 90.5% Lotgering factor had much higher piezoelectric constant ( d 33 = 20 pC/N) than those prepared by the normal sintering process ( d 33 = 6 pC/N). High-temperature alternating-current (AC) impedance spectroscopy of the CBN ceramics was measured by using an impedance/gain-phase analyzer. Their electrical resistivity was approximately 6.5 × 104 Ω cm at 600°C. Therefore, CBN ceramics can be used for high-temperature piezoelectric applications.

  16. Controlled Thermal-Mechanical Processing of Tubes and Pipes for Enhanced Manufacturing and Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolarik, Robert V.

    2005-11-11

    The Alloy Steel Business of The Timken Company won an award for the controlled thermo-mechanical processing (CTMP) project and assembled a strong international public/private partnership to execute the project. The premise of the CTMP work was to combine Timken's product understanding with its process expertise and knowledge of metallurgical and deformation fundamentals developed during the project to build a predictive process design capability. The CTMP effort succeeded in delivering a pc-based capability in the tube optimization model, with a virtual pilot plant (VPP) feature to represent the desired tube making process to predict the resultant microstructure tailored for the desired application. Additional tasks included a system for direct, online measurement of grain size and demonstration of application of CTMP via robotically enhanced manufacturing.

  17. Enhanced adhesion of osteoblastic cells on polystyrene films by independent control of surface topography and wettability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Seung Yun; Kim, Eung-Sam; Jeon, Gumhye; Choi, Kwan Yong; Kim, Jin Kon

    2013-04-01

    We independently controlled surface topography and wettability of polystyrene (PS) films by CF4 and oxygen plasma treatments, respectively, to evaluate the adhesion and proliferation of human fetal osteoblastic (hFOB) cells on the films. Among the CF4 plasma-treated PS films with the average surface roughness ranging from 0.9 to 70 nm, the highest adhesion of hFOB cells was observed on a PS film with roughness of ~11 nm. When this film was additionally treated by oxygen plasma to provide a hydrophilic surface with a contact angle less than 10°, the proliferation of bone-forming cell was further enhanced. Thus, the plasma-based independent modification of PS film into an optimum nanotexture for human osteoblast cells could be appplied to materials used in bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Dendrimer-assisted controlled growth of carbon nanotubes for enhanced thermal interface conductance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amama, Placidus B; Cola, Baratunde A; Sands, Timothy D; Xu, Xianfan; Fisher, Timothy S

    2007-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with systematically varied diameter distributions and defect densities were reproducibly grown from a modified catalyst structure templated in an amine-terminated fourth-generation poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Thermal interface resistances of the vertically oriented MWCNT arrays as determined by a photoacoustic technique reveal a strong correlation with the quality as assessed by Raman spectroscopy. This study contributes not only to the development of an active catalyst via a wet chemical route for structure-controlled MWCNT growth, but also to the development of efficient and low-cost MWCNT-based thermal interface materials with thermal interface resistances ≤10 mm 2 K W -1

  19. Sensitivity enhancement in NMR of macromolecules by application of optimal control theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frueh, Dominique P.; Ito, Takuhiro; Li, J.-S.; Wagner, Gerhard; Glaser, Steffen J.; Khaneja, Navin

    2005-01-01

    NMR of macromolecules is limited by large transverse relaxation rates. In practice, this results in low efficiency of coherence transfer steps in multidimensional NMR experiments, leading to poor sensitivity and long acquisition times. The efficiency of coherence transfer can be maximized by design of relaxation optimized pulse sequences using tools from optimal control theory. In this paper, we demonstrate that this approach can be adopted for studies of large biological systems, such as the 800 kDa chaperone GroEL. For this system, the 1 H- 15 N coherence transfer module presented here yields an average sensitivity enhancement of 20-25% for cross-correlated relaxation induced polarization transfer (CRIPT) experiments

  20. Environmental controls on stable isotopes of precipitation in Lanzhou, China: An enhanced network at city scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fenli; Zhang, Mingjun; Wang, Shengjie; Qiu, Xue; Du, Mingxia

    2017-12-31

    Stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in precipitation are very sensitive to environmental changes, and can record evolution of water cycle. The Lanzhou city in northwestern China is jointly influenced by the monsoon and westerlies, which is considered as a vital platform to investigate the moisture regime for this region. Since 2011, an observation network of stable isotopes in precipitation was established across the city, and four stations were included in the network. In 2013, six more sampling stations were added, and the enhanced network might provide more meaningful information on spatial incoherence and synoptic process. This study focused on the variations of stable isotopes (δ 18 O and δD) in precipitation and the environmental controls based on the 1432 samples in this enhanced network from April 2011 to October 2014. The results showed that the precipitation isotopes had great spatial diversity, and the neighboring stations may present large difference in δD and δ 18 O. Based on the observation at ten sampling sites, an isoscape in precipitation was calculated, and the method is useful to produce isoscape for small domains. The temperature effect and amount effect was reconsidered based on the dataset. Taking meteorological parameters (temperature, precipitation amount, relative humidity, water vapor pressure and dew point temperature) as variables in a multi-linear regression, the result of coefficients for these meteorological parameters were calculated. Some cases were also involved in this study, and the isotopic characteristics during one event or continuous days were used to understand the environmental controls on precipitation isotopes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Numerical analysis of the effect of plasma flow control on enhancing the aerodynamic characteristics of stratospheric screw propeller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Yufeng; Nie Wansheng

    2012-01-01

    Based on the body force aerodynamic actuation mechanism of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma, the effect of plasma flow control on enhancing the aerodynamic characteristics of ten blade elements equably along the stratospheric screw propeller blade was numerical studied. Then the effect of plasma flow control enhancing the aerodynamic characteristics of stratospheric screw propeller was compared that by the blade element theory method. The results show that the flow separate phenomena will easily happen in the root region and top end region of screw propeller, and the blade elements in the root region of screw propeller may work on the negative attack angle condition. DBD plasma flow control can entirely restrain the faintish flow separate phenomena in middle region of screw propeller. Although DBD plasma flow control can not entirely restrain the badly flow separate phenomena in top end region of screw propeller, it also can enhance the aerodynamic characteristics of blade elements in these regions in same degree. But effect of DBD plasma flow control on enhancing the aerodynamic characteristics of the blade elements working on the negative attack angle condition is ineffectively. It can be concluded that DBD plasma flow control can enhance the aerodynamic characteristics of stratospheric screw propeller, the thrust of the whole propeller and the propeller efficiency in the case of plasma on will increases by a factor of 28.27% and 12.3% respectively compared with that in the case of plasma off studied. (authors)

  2. Mutations in the Lactococcus lactis Ll.LtrB group II intron that retain mobility in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D'Souza Lisa M

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Group II introns are mobile genetic elements that form conserved secondary and tertiary structures. In order to determine which of the conserved structural elements are required for mobility, a series of domain and sub-domain deletions were made in the Lactococcus lactis group II intron (Ll.LtrB and tested for mobility in a genetic assay. Point mutations in domains V and VI were also tested. Results The largest deletion that could be made without severely compromising mobility was 158 nucleotides in DIVb(1–2. This mutant had a mobility frequency comparable to the wild-type Ll.LtrB intron (ΔORF construct. Hence, all subsequent mutations were done in this mutant background. Deletion of DIIb reduced mobility to approximately 18% of wild-type, while another deletion in domain II (nts 404–459 was mobile to a minor extent. Only two deletions in DI and none in DIII were tolerated. Some mobility was also observed for a DIVa deletion mutant. Of the three point mutants at position G3 in DV, only G3A retained mobility. In DVI, deletion of the branch-point nucleotide abolished mobility, but the presence of any nucleotide at the branch-point position restored mobility to some extent. Conclusions The smallest intron capable of efficient retrohoming was 725 nucleotides, comprising the DIVb(1–2 and DII(iia,b deletions. The tertiary elements found to be nonessential for mobility were alpha, kappa and eta. In DV, only the G3A mutant was mobile. A branch-point residue is required for intron mobility.

  3. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials on curative and health enhancement effects of forest therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamioka H

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Hiroharu Kamioka,1 Kiichiro Tsutani,2 Yoshiteru Mutoh,3 Takuya Honda,4 Nobuyoshi Shiozawa,5 Shinpei Okada,6 Sang-Jun Park,6 Jun Kitayuguchi,7 Masamitsu Kamada,8 Hiroyasu Okuizumi,9 Shuichi Handa91Faculty of Regional Environment Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Tokyo, 2Department of Drug Policy and Management, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 3Todai Policy Alternatives Research Institute, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 4Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo, 5Food Labeling Division, Consumer Affairs Agency, Cabinet Office, Government of Japan, Tokyo, 6Physical Education and Medicine Research Foundation, Nagano, 7Physical Education and Medicine Research Center Unnan, Shimane, 8Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Shimane University School of Medicine, Shimane, 9Mimaki Onsen (Spa Clinic, Tomi City, Nagano, JapanObjective: To summarize the evidence for curative and health enhancement effects through forest therapy and to assess the quality of studies based on a review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs.Study design: A systematic review based on RCTs.Methods: Studies were eligible if they were RCTs. Studies included one treatment group in which forest therapy was applied. The following databases – from 1990 to November 9, 2010 – were searched: MEDLINE via PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Ichushi-Web. All Cochrane databases and Campbell Systematic Reviews were also searched up to November 9, 2010.Results: Two trials met all inclusion criteria. No specific diseases were evaluated, and both studies reported significant effectiveness in one or more outcomes for health enhancement. However, the results of evaluations with the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials 2010 and CLEAR NPT (A Checklist to Evaluate a Report of a Nonpharmacological Trial checklists generally showed a remarkable lack of description in the studies. Furthermore, there was a

  4. Synthesis and photoluminescence enhancement of nano-PAA-ZnCl_2 with controllable dimension and morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jianguo; Wang, Kaige; Zhou, Yukun; Wang, Shuang; Zhang, Chen; Wang, Guiren

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • One kind of large area nano-PAA-ZnCl_2 composite film is fabricated, its dimension and morphology is controllable. The properties of nano-composite films have been heavily influenced by the concentration of initial ZnCl_2 solution, the depth of nano-PAAM substrate and the growth time of ZnCl_2 crystals. • At room temperature, the nano-PAA-ZnCl_2 film has the same excitation center (335 nm) and emission center (430 nm) as the nano-PAAM substrate, and the PL intensities can be doubly enhanced. • After annealing at 500 °C, the emission peak spectra of the nano-composite films stabilized at 385 nm, 402 nm, and 430 nm. - Abstract: One kind of ZnCl_2 nano-films with controllable dimension and morphology is successfully synthesized on the top surface of nano-porous anodic alumina membrane (nano-PAAM) by self-organized method. The nano-PAA-ZnCl_2 composite films are characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometer, and laser confocal Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that the concentration of initial ZnCl_2 solution, the depth of nano-PAAM substrate and the growth time of ZnCl_2 crystals have important influences on the properties of nano-composite films. Furthermore, the characteristics of nano-composites such as the photoluminescence (PL) spectra are investigated. Compared with the nano-PAAM substrate, at room temperature, all of the nano-PAA-ZnCl_2 composite films have both the same excitation center (335 nm) and emission center (430 nm), no matter what the nano-composite morphologies being; and the PL intensity of nano-PAA-ZnCl_2 composite films are all enhanced and the maximum enhancement is two times; after annealing at 500 °C, the emission spectra of the nano-composite films stabilized at the 385 nm, 402 nm and 430 nm. The research provides a new, simple, economical and practical technology to fabricate nano-PAA composite films with higher luminousintensity.

  5. Error-enhancing robot therapy to induce motor control improvement in childhood onset primary dystonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casellato Claudia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Robot-generated deviating forces during multijoint reaching movements have been applied to investigate motor control and to tune neuromotor adaptation. Can the application of force to limbs improve motor learning? In this framework, the response to altered dynamic environments of children affected by primary dystonia has never been studied. Methods As preliminary pilot study, eleven children with primary dystonia and eleven age-matched healthy control subjects were asked to perform upper limb movements, triangle-reaching (three directions and circle-writing, using a haptic robot interacting with ad-hoc developed task-specific visual interfaces. Three dynamic conditions were provided, null additive external force (A, constant disturbing force (B and deactivation of the additive external force again (C. The path length for each trial was computed, from the recorded position data and interaction events. Results The results show that the disturbing force affects significantly the movement outcomes in healthy but not in dystonic subjects, already compromised in the reference condition: the external alteration uncalibrates the healthy sensorimotor system, while the dystonic one is already strongly uncalibrated. The lack of systematic compensation for perturbation effects during B condition is reflected into the absence of after-effects in C condition, which would be the evidence that CNS generates a prediction of the perturbing forces using an internal model of the environment. The most promising finding is that in dystonic population the altered dynamic exposure seems to induce a subsequent improvement, i.e. a beneficial after-effect in terms of optimal path control, compared with the correspondent reference movement outcome. Conclusions The short-time error-enhancing training in dystonia could represent an effective approach for motor performance improvement, since the exposure to controlled dynamic alterations induces a refining

  6. The effect of gamma-enhancing binaural beats on the control of feature bindings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colzato, Lorenza S; Steenbergen, Laura; Sellaro, Roberta

    2017-07-01

    Binaural beats represent the auditory experience of an oscillating sound that occurs when two sounds with neighboring frequencies are presented to one's left and right ear separately. Binaural beats have been shown to impact information processing via their putative role in increasing neural synchronization. Recent studies of feature-repetition effects demonstrated interactions between perceptual features and action-related features: repeating only some, but not all features of a perception-action episode hinders performance. These partial-repetition (or binding) costs point to the existence of temporary episodic bindings (event files) that are automatically retrieved by repeating at least one of their features. Given that neural synchronization in the gamma band has been associated with visual feature bindings, we investigated whether the impact of binaural beats extends to the top-down control of feature bindings. Healthy adults listened to gamma-frequency (40 Hz) binaural beats or to a constant tone of 340 Hz (control condition) for ten minutes before and during a feature-repetition task. While the size of visuomotor binding costs (indicating the binding of visual and action features) was unaffected by the binaural beats, the size of visual feature binding costs (which refer to the binding between the two visual features) was considerably smaller during gamma-frequency binaural beats exposure than during the control condition. Our results suggest that binaural beats enhance selectivity in updating episodic memory traces and further strengthen the hypothesis that neural activity in the gamma band is critically associated with the control of feature binding.

  7. Enhanced Phase-Shifted Current Control for Harmonic Cancellation in Three-Phase Multiple Adjustable Speed Drive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Davari, Pooya; Zare, Firuz

    2017-01-01

    A phase-shifted current control can be employed to mitigate certain harmonics induced by the Diode Rectifiers (DR) and Silicon-Controlled Rectifiers (SCR) as the front-ends of multiple parallel Adjustable Speed Drive (ASD) systems. However, the effectiveness of the phase-shifted control relies...... on the loading condition of each drive unit as well as the number of drives in parallel. In order to enhance the harmonic cancellation by means of the phase-shifted current control, the currents drawn by the rectifiers should be maintained almost at the same level. Thus, this paper firstly analyzes the impact...... of unequal loading among the parallel drives, and a scheme to enhance the performance is introduced to improve the quality of the total grid current, where partial loading operation should be enabled. Simulation and experimental case studies on multidrive systems have demonstrated that the enhanced phase...

  8. Emotional and uncontrolled eating styles and chocolate chip cookie consumption. A controlled trial of the effects of positive mood enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Sally Ann; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Warner, Lisa; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2010-02-01

    The study tested the effects of positive mood enhancement on chocolate chip cookie consumption in the context of emotional and uncontrolled eating styles. The relationship between emotional eating style and chocolate chip cookie intake was assumed to be mediated by uncontrolled eating style. Further, it was hypothesized that the effectiveness of the positive mood enhancement may be more salient among those who have effective control of their eating. In this experimental study, respondents (N=106, 70% women, aged 16-45 years old) were assigned by means of cluster randomization to the control or positive mood enhancement condition (a comedy movie clip). Compared to the control condition, positive mood enhancement resulted in consuming on average 53.86 kcal less. Relationships between emotional eating style and cookie intake were mediated by uncontrolled eating. Moderated mediation analysis indicated that the effect of a mediator (uncontrolled eating) on cookie intake was moderated by the group assignment. Positive mood enhancement resulted in eating on average 3.3 cookies less among individuals with a more controlled eating style. By contrast, among those who presented uncontrolled eating, positive mood enhancement led to consuming an average of 1.7 cookies more. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Active and inactive enhancers co-operate to exert localized and long-range control of gene regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proudhon, Charlotte; Snetkova, Valentina; Raviram, Ramya; Lobry, Camille; Badri, Sana; Jiang, Tingting; Hao, Bingtao; Trimarchi, Thomas; Kluger, Yuval; Aifantis, Iannis; Bonneau, Richard; Skok, Jane A

    2016-01-01

    V(D)J recombination relies on the presence of proximal enhancers that activate the antigen receptor (AgR) loci in a lineage and stage specific manner. Unexpectedly we find that both active and inactive AgR enhancers co-operate to disseminate their effects in a localized and long-range manner. Here we demonstrate the importance of short-range contacts between active enhancers that constitute an Igk super-enhancer in B cells. Deletion of one element reduces the interaction frequency between other enhancers in the hub, which compromises the transcriptional output of each component. We further establish that in T cells long-range contact and co-operation between the inactive Igk enhancer, MiEκ and the active Tcrb enhancer, Eβ, alters enrichment of CBFβ binding in a manner that impacts Tcrb recombination. These findings underline the complexities of enhancer regulation and point to a role for localized and long-range enhancer-sharing between active and inactive elements in lineage and stage specific control. PMID:27239026

  10. Regulatory Initiatives for Control and Release of Technologically Enhanced Naturally-Occurring Radioactive Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egidi, P.V.

    1999-03-02

    Current drafts of proposed standards and suggested State regulations for control and release of technologically-enhanced naturally-occurring radioactive material (TENORM), and standards for release of volumetrically-contaminated material in the US are reviewed. These are compared to the recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Association (IAEA) Safety Series and the European Commission (EC) proposals. Past regulatory efforts with respect to TENORM in the US dealt primarily with oil-field related wastes. Currently, nine states (AK, GA, LA, MS, NM, OH, OR SC, TX) have specific regulations pertaining to TENORM, mostly based on uranium mill tailings cleanup criteria. The new US proposals are dose- or risk-based, as are the IAEA and EC recommendations, and are grounded in the linear no threshold hypothesis (LNT). TENORM wastes involve extremely large volumes, particularly scrap metal and mine wastes. Costs to control and dispose of these wastes can be considerable. The current debate over the validity of LNT at low doses and low dose rates is particularly germane to this discussion. Most standards setting organizations and regulatory agencies base their recommendations on the LNT. The US Environmental Protection Agency has released a draft Federal Guidance Report that recommends calculating health risks from low-level exposure to radionuclides based on the LNT. However, some scientific and professional organizations are openly questioning the validity of LNT and its basis for regulations, practices, and costs to society in general. It is not clear at this time how a non-linear regulatory scheme would be implemented.

  11. Controllable synthesis of palladium nanocubes/reduced graphene oxide composites and their enhanced electrocatalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuting; Huang, Qiwei; Chang, Gang; Zhang, Zaoli; Xia, Tiantian; Shu, Honghui; He, Yunbin

    2015-04-01

    Homogeneous distribution of cube-shaped Pd nanocrystals on the surface of reduced graphene oxide is obtained via a facile one-step method by employing AA and KBr as the reductant and capping agent, respectively. The experimental factors affecting the morphology and structure of Pd nanoparticles have been systematically investigated to explore the formation mechanism of Pd nanocubes (PdNCs). It is revealed that PdNCs enclosed by active {100} facets with an average side length of 15 nm were successfully synthesized on the surface of reduced graphene oxide. KBr plays the role for facet selection by surface passivation and AA controls the reduction speed of Pd precursors, both of which govern the morphology changes of palladium nanoparticles. In the further electrochemical evaluations, the Pd nanocubes/reduced graphene oxide composites show better electrocatalytic activity and stability towards the electro-oxidation of ethanol than both reduced graphene oxide supported Pd nanoparticles and free-standing PdNCs. It could be attributed to the high electrocatalytic activity of the dominated active {100} crystal facets of Pd nanocubes and the enhanced electron transfer of graphene. The developed approach provide a versatile way for shape-controlled preparation of noble metal nanoparticles, which can work as novel electrocatalysts in the application of direct alcohols fuel cells.

  12. Increased reward in ankle robotics training enhances motor control and cortical efficiency in stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Ronald N; Rietschel, Jeremy C; Roy, Anindo; Jung, Brian C; Diaz, Jason; Macko, Richard F; Forrester, Larry W

    2014-01-01

    Robotics is rapidly emerging as a viable approach to enhance motor recovery after disabling stroke. Current principles of cognitive motor learning recognize a positive relationship between reward and motor learning. Yet no prior studies have established explicitly whether reward improves the rate or efficacy of robotics-assisted rehabilitation or produces neurophysiologic adaptations associated with motor learning. We conducted a 3 wk, 9-session clinical pilot with 10 people with chronic hemiparetic stroke, randomly assigned to train with an impedance-controlled ankle robot (anklebot) under either high reward (HR) or low reward conditions. The 1 h training sessions entailed playing a seated video game by moving the paretic ankle to hit moving onscreen targets with the anklebot only providing assistance as needed. Assessments included paretic ankle motor control, learning curves, electroencephalograpy (EEG) coherence and spectral power during unassisted trials, and gait function. While both groups exhibited changes in EEG, the HR group had faster learning curves (p = 0.05), smoother movements (p

  13. Enhancement of Engine Oil Wear and Friction Control Performance Through Titanium Additive Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guevremont, J.; Guinther, G.; Szemenyei, D.; Devlin, M.; Jao, T.; Jaye, C.; Woicik, J.; Fischer, D.

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, wear protection and friction modification by engine oil is provided by zinc dithiophosphate (ZDDP) or other phosphorus compounds. These additives provide effective wear protection and friction control on engine parts through formation of a glassy polyphosphate antiwear film. However, the deposition of phosphorus species on automotive catalytic converters from lubricants has been known for some time to have a detrimental effect of poisoning the catalysts. To mitigate the situation, the industry has been making every effort to find ZDDP-replacement additives that are friendly to catalysts. Toward this goal we have investigated a titanium additive chemistry as a ZDDP replacement. Fully formulated engine oils incorporating this additive component have been found to be effective in reducing wear and controlling friction in a high-frequency reciprocating rig (HFRR), 4-ball bench wear, Sequence IIIG, and Sequence IVA engine tests. Surface analysis of the tested parts by Auger electron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) have shown that Ti species have been incorporated into the wear tracks and can only be found on the wear tracks. We used synchrotron based near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) to investigate the chemical bonding mechanism of the Ti additive with the metal surface that affects the wear improvement mechanism. We postulate that Ti provides antiwear enhancement through inclusion in the metal/metal oxide structure of the ferrous surface by forming FeTiO3.

  14. Regulatory Initiatives for Control and Release of Technologically Enhanced Naturally-Occurring Radioactive Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egidi, P.V.

    1999-01-01

    Current drafts of proposed standards and suggested State regulations for control and release of technologically-enhanced naturally-occurring radioactive material (TENORM), and standards for release of volumetrically-contaminated material in the US are reviewed. These are compared to the recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Association (IAEA) Safety Series and the European Commission (EC) proposals. Past regulatory efforts with respect to TENORM in the US dealt primarily with oil-field related wastes. Currently, nine states (AK, GA, LA, MS, NM, OH, OR SC, TX) have specific regulations pertaining to TENORM, mostly based on uranium mill tailings cleanup criteria. The new US proposals are dose- or risk-based, as are the IAEA and EC recommendations, and are grounded in the linear no threshold hypothesis (LNT). TENORM wastes involve extremely large volumes, particularly scrap metal and mine wastes. Costs to control and dispose of these wastes can be considerable. The current debate over the validity of LNT at low doses and low dose rates is particularly germane to this discussion. Most standards setting organizations and regulatory agencies base their recommendations on the LNT. The US Environmental Protection Agency has released a draft Federal Guidance Report that recommends calculating health risks from low-level exposure to radionuclides based on the LNT. However, some scientific and professional organizations are openly questioning the validity of LNT and its basis for regulations, practices, and costs to society in general. It is not clear at this time how a non-linear regulatory scheme would be implemented

  15. Transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS) enhances conflict-triggered adjustment of cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Rico; Ventura-Bort, Carlos; Hamm, Alfons; Weymar, Mathias

    2018-04-24

    Response conflicts play a prominent role in the flexible adaptation of behavior as they represent context-signals that indicate the necessity for the recruitment of cognitive control. Previous studies have highlighted the functional roles of the affectively aversive and arousing quality of the conflict signal in triggering the adaptation process. To further test this potential link with arousal, participants performed a response conflict task in two separate sessions with either transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS), which is assumed to activate the locus coeruleus-noradrenaline (LC-NE) system, or with neutral sham stimulation. In both sessions the N2 and P3 event-related potentials (ERP) were assessed. In line with previous findings, conflict interference, the N2 and P3 amplitude were reduced after conflict. Most importantly, this adaptation to conflict was enhanced under tVNS compared to sham stimulation for conflict interference and the N2 amplitude. No effect of tVNS on the P3 component was found. These findings suggest that tVNS increases behavioral and electrophysiological markers of adaptation to conflict. Results are discussed in the context of the potentially underlying LC-NE and other neuromodulatory (e.g., GABA) systems. The present findings add important pieces to the understanding of the neurophysiological mechanisms of conflict-triggered adjustment of cognitive control.

  16. EMPRESS: A European Project to Enhance Process Control Through Improved Temperature Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, J. V.; Edler, F.; Elliott, C. J.; Rosso, L.; Sutton, G.; Andreu, A.; Machin, G.

    2017-08-01

    A new European project called EMPRESS, funded by the EURAMET program `European Metrology Program for Innovation and Research,' is described. The 3 year project, which started in the summer of 2015, is intended to substantially augment the efficiency of high-value manufacturing processes by improving temperature measurement techniques at the point of use. The project consortium has 18 partners and 5 external collaborators, from the metrology sector, high-value manufacturing, sensor manufacturing, and academia. Accurate control of temperature is key to ensuring process efficiency and product consistency and is often not achieved to the level required for modern processes. Enhanced efficiency of processes may take several forms including reduced product rejection/waste; improved energy efficiency; increased intervals between sensor recalibration/maintenance; and increased sensor reliability, i.e., reduced amount of operator intervention. Traceability of temperature measurements to the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) is a critical factor in establishing low measurement uncertainty and reproducible, consistent process control. Introducing such traceability in situ (i.e., within the industrial process) is a theme running through this project.

  17. Results of coil closure of patent ductus arteriosus using a tapered tip catheter for enhanced control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devanagondi, Rajiv; Latson, Larry; Bradley-Skelton, Sharon; Prieto, Lourdes

    2016-08-01

    This article describes the efficacy and embolization rates of coil delivery via modified vertebral catheter (MVC) for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) closure. Various techniques have been devised to enhance coil control and prevent embolization during PDA closure. Since 1995, they have delivered coils via tapered vertebral catheters for improved coil control. Catheterization reports, angiograms, and echocardiograms were reviewed for patients with PDA occlusion via MVC from 2001 to 2014. Residual shunting was determined by angiography and echocardiogram within 24 hr post-procedure. Procedural success was defined as ≤ trivial angiographic and echocardiographic shunt, and no aortic nor LPA obstruction, after final coil delivery. About 125 coil occlusions were attempted in 103 patients. Minimal PDA diameter was 2 (0.6-6) mm. Four coils were removed with a snare/bioptome due to aortic/LPA obstruction following release. Seven were malpositioned while still held by the MVC of which three embolized while attempting withdrawal. Five embolized after full release from the MVC. The embolization rate was 6.4%. Embolizations were more likely in PDAs ≥ 2.5 mm (P closure with lower embolization rates, coil occlusion by MVC should still be considered for small PDAs, especially in resource limited regions. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Transient stability enhancement of modern power grid using predictive Wide-Area Monitoring and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefian, Reza

    This dissertation presents a real-time Wide-Area Control (WAC) designed based on artificial intelligence for large scale modern power systems transient stability enhancement. The WAC using the measurements available from Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) at generator buses, monitors the global oscillations in the system and optimally augments the local excitation system of the synchronous generators. The complexity of the power system stability problem along with uncertainties and nonlinearities makes the conventional modeling non-practical or inaccurate. In this work Reinforcement Learning (RL) algorithm on the benchmark of Neural Networks (NNs) is used to map the nonlinearities of the system in real-time. This method different from both the centralized and the decentralized control schemes, employs a number of semi-autonomous agents to collaborate with each other to perform optimal control theory well-suited for WAC applications. Also, to handle the delays in Wide-Area Monitoring (WAM) and adapt the RL toward the robust control design, Temporal Difference (TD) is proposed as a solver for RL problem or optimal cost function. However, the main drawback of such WAC design is that it is challenging to determine if an offline trained network is valid to assess the stability of the power system once the system is evolved to a different operating state or network topology. In order to address the generality issue of NNs, a value priority scheme is proposed in this work to design a hybrid linear and nonlinear controllers. The algorithm so-called supervised RL is based on mixture of experts, where it is initialized by linear controller and as the performance and identification of the RL controller improves in real-time switches to the other controller. This work also focuses on transient stability and develops Lyapunov energy functions for synchronous generators to monitor the stability stress of the system. Using such energies as a cost function guarantees the convergence

  19. Enhanced inhibitory control by neuropeptide Y Y5 receptor blockade in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, A; Dec, A; Lee, A W; Lee, J; Song, D; Dale, E; Peterson, J; Zorn, S; Huang, X; Campbell, B; Robbins, T W; West, A R

    2015-03-01

    The neuropeptide Y (NPY) system acts in synergy with the classic neurotransmitters to regulate a large variety of functions including autonomic, affective, and cognitive processes. Research on the effects of NPY in the central nervous system has focused on food intake control and affective processes, but growing evidence of NPY involvement in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and other psychiatric conditions motivated the present study. We tested the effects of the novel and highly selective NPY Y5 receptor antagonist Lu AE00654 on impulsivity and the underlying cortico-striatal circuitry in rats to further explore the possible involvement of the NPY system in pathologies characterized by inattention and impulsive behavior. A low dose of Lu AE00654 (0.03 mg/kg) selectively facilitated response inhibition as measured by the stop-signal task, whereas no effects were found at higher doses (0.3 and 3 mg/kg). Systemic administration of Lu AE00654 also enhanced the inhibitory influence of the dorsal frontal cortex on neurons in the caudate-putamen, this fronto-striatal circuitry being implicated in the executive control of behavior. Finally, by locally injecting a Y5 agonist, we observed reciprocal activation between dorsal frontal cortex and caudate-putamen neurons. Importantly, the effects of the Y5 agonist were attenuated by pretreatment with Lu AE00654, confirming the presence of Y5 binding sites modulating functional interactions within frontal-subcortical circuits. These results suggest that the NPY system modulates inhibitory neurotransmission in brain areas important for impulse control, and may be relevant for the treatment of pathologies such as ADHD and drug abuse.

  20. Vestibular control of standing balance is enhanced with increased cognitive load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeehan, Michael A; Woollacott, Marjorie H; Dalton, Brian H

    2017-04-01

    When cognitive load is elevated during a motor task, cortical inhibition and reaction time are increased; yet, standing balance control is often unchanged. This disconnect is likely explained by compensatory mechanisms within the balance system such as increased sensitivity of the vestibulomotor pathway. This study aimed to determine the effects of increased cognitive load on the vestibular control of standing balance. Participants stood blindfolded on a force plate with their head facing left and arms relaxed at their sides for two trials while exposed to continuous electrical vestibular stimulation (EVS). Participants either stood quietly or executed a cognitive task (double-digit arithmetic). Surface electromyography (EMG) and anterior-posterior ground-body forces (APF) were measured in order to evaluate vestibular-evoked balance responses in the frequency (coherence and gain) and time (cumulant density) domains. Total distance traveled for anterior-posterior center of pressure (COP) was assessed as a metric of balance variability. Despite similar distances traveled for COP, EVS-medial gastrocnemius (MG) EMG and EVS-APF coherence and EVS-TA EMG and EVS-MG EMG gain were elevated for multiple frequencies when standing with increased cognitive load. For the time domain, medium-latency peak amplitudes increased by 13-54% for EVS-APF and EVS-EMG relationships with the cognitive task compared to without. Peak short-latency amplitudes were unchanged. These results indicate that reliance on vestibular control of balance is enhanced when cognitive load is elevated. This augmented neural strategy may act to supplement divided cortical processing resources within the balance system and compensate for the acute neuromuscular modifications associated with increased cognitive demand.

  1. Nanoscale control of Ag nanostructures for plasmonic fluorescence enhancement of near-infrared dyes

    KAUST Repository

    Xie, Fang; Pang, Jing S.; Centeno, Anthony; Ryan, Mary P.; Riley, D. Jason; Alford, Neil M.

    2013-01-01

    of increasing the sensitivity of protein detection in clinical applications. We report the use of tunable plasmonic silver nanostructures for the fluorescence enhancement of a near-infrared (NIR) dye (Alexa Fluor 790). Extensive fluorescence enhancement of ∼2

  2. Multi-scale Control and Enhancement of Reactor Boiling Heat Flux by Reagents and Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manglik, R M; Athavale, A; Kalaikadal, D S; Deodhar, A; Verma, U

    2011-09-02

    The phenomenological characterization of the use of non-invasive and passive techniques to enhance the boiling heat transfer in water has been carried out in this extended study. It provides fundamental enhanced heat transfer data for nucleate boiling and discusses the associated physics with the aim of addressing future and next-generation reactor thermal-hydraulic management. It essentially addresses the hypothesis that in phase-change processes during boiling, the primary mechanisms can be related to the liquid-vapor interfacial tension and surface wetting at the solidliquid interface. These interfacial characteristics can be significantly altered and decoupled by introducing small quantities of additives in water, such as surface-active polymers, surfactants, and nanoparticles. The changes are fundamentally caused at a molecular-scale by the relative bulk molecular dynamics and adsorption-desorption of the additive at the liquid-vapor interface, and its physisorption and electrokinetics at the liquid-solid interface. At the micro-scale, the transient transport mechanisms at the solid-liquid-vapor interface during nucleation and bubblegrowth can be attributed to thin-film spreading, surface-micro-cavity activation, and micro-layer evaporation. Furthermore at the macro-scale, the heat transport is in turn governed by the bubble growth and distribution, macro-layer heat transfer, bubble dynamics (bubble coalescence, collapse, break-up, and translation), and liquid rheology. Some of these behaviors and processes are measured and characterized in this study, the outcomes of which advance the concomitant fundamental physics, as well as provide insights for developing control strategies for the molecular-scale manipulation of interfacial tension and surface wetting in boiling by means of polymeric reagents, surfactants, and other soluble surface-active additives.

  3. Comprehensive Surgical Coaching Enhances Surgical Skill in the Operating Room: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonrath, Esther M; Dedy, Nicolas J; Gordon, Lauren E; Grantcharov, Teodor P

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether individualized coaching improved surgical technical skill in the operating room to a higher degree than current residency training. Clinical training in the operating room is a valuable opportunity for surgeons to acquire skill and knowledge; however, it often remains underutilized. Coaching has been successfully used in various industries to enhance performance, but its role in surgery has been insufficiently investigated. This randomized controlled trial was conducted at one surgical training program. Trainees undergoing a minimally invasive surgery rotation were randomized to either conventional training (CT) or comprehensive surgical coaching (CSC). CT included ward and operating room duties, and regular departmental teaching sessions. CSC comprised performance analysis, debriefing, feedback, and behavior modeling. Primary outcome measures were technical performance as measured on global and procedure-specific rating scales, and surgical safety parameters, measured by error count. Operative performance was assessed by blinded video analysis of the first and last cases recorded by the participants during their rotation. Twenty residents were randomized and 18 completed the study. At posttraining the CSC group (n = 9) scored significantly higher on a procedure-specific skill scale compared with the CT group (n = 9) [median, 3.90 (interquartile range, 3.68-4.30) vs 3.60 (2.98-3.70), P = 0.017], and made fewer technical errors [10 (7-13) vs 18 (13-21), P = 0.003]. Significant within-group improvements for all skill metrics were only noted in the CSC group. Comprehensive surgical coaching enhances surgical training and results in skill acquisition superior to conventional training.

  4. Multi-scale Control and Enhancement of Reactor Boiling Heat Flux by Reagents and Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manglik, R.M.; Athavale, A.; Kalaikadal, D.S.; Deodhar, A.; Verma, U.

    2011-01-01

    The phenomenological characterization of the use of non-invasive and passive techniques to enhance the boiling heat transfer in water has been carried out in this extended study. It provides fundamental enhanced heat transfer data for nucleate boiling and discusses the associated physics with the aim of addressing future and next-generation reactor thermal-hydraulic management. It essentially addresses the hypothesis that in phase-change processes during boiling, the primary mechanisms can be related to the liquid-vapor interfacial tension and surface wetting at the solidliquid interface. These interfacial characteristics can be significantly altered and decoupled by introducing small quantities of additives in water, such as surface-active polymers, surfactants, and nanoparticles. The changes are fundamentally caused at a molecular-scale by the relative bulk molecular dynamics and adsorption-desorption of the additive at the liquid-vapor interface, and its physisorption and electrokinetics at the liquid-solid interface. At the micro-scale, the transient transport mechanisms at the solid-liquid-vapor interface during nucleation and bubblegrowth can be attributed to thin-film spreading, surface-micro-cavity activation, and micro-layer evaporation. Furthermore at the macro-scale, the heat transport is in turn governed by the bubble growth and distribution, macro-layer heat transfer, bubble dynamics (bubble coalescence, collapse, break-up, and translation), and liquid rheology. Some of these behaviors and processes are measured and characterized in this study, the outcomes of which advance the concomitant fundamental physics, as well as provide insights for developing control strategies for the molecular-scale manipulation of interfacial tension and surface wetting in boiling by means of polymeric reagents, surfactants, and other soluble surface-active additives.

  5. Enhanced control and sensing for the REMOTEC ANDROS Mk VI robot. CRADA final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spelt, P.F.; Harvey, H.W.

    1998-01-01

    This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., and REMOTEC, Inc., explored methods of providing operator feedback for various work actions of the ANDROS Mk VI teleoperated robot. In a hazardous environment, an extremely heavy workload seriously degrades the productivity of teleoperated robot operators. This CRADA involved the addition of computer power to the robot along with a variety of sensors and encoders to provide information about the robot's performance in and relationship to its environment. Software was developed to integrate the sensor and encoder information and provide control input to the robot. ANDROS Mk VI robots are presently used by numerous electric utilities to perform tasks in reactors where substantial exposure to radiation exists, as well as in a variety of other hazardous environments. Further, this platform has potential for use in a number of environmental restoration tasks, such as site survey and detection of hazardous waste materials. The addition of sensors and encoders serves to make the robot easier to manage and permits tasks to be done more safely and inexpensively (due to time saved in the completion of complex remote tasks). Prior research on the automation of mobile platforms with manipulators at Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research (CESAR, B ampersand R code KC0401030) Laboratory, a BES-supported facility, indicated that this type of enhancement is effective. This CRADA provided such enhancements to a successful working teleoperated robot for the first time. Performance of this CRADA used the CESAR laboratory facilities and expertise developed under BES funding

  6. PPARA intron polymorphism associated with power performance in 30-s anaerobic Wingate Test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Petr

    Full Text Available To date, polymorphisms in several genes have been associated with a strength/power performance including alpha 3 actinin, ciliary neurotrophic factor, vitamin D receptor, or angiotensin I converting enzyme, underlining the importance of genetic component of the multifactorial strength/power-related phenotypes. The single nucleotide variation in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha gene (PPARA intron 7 G/C (rs4253778; g.46630634G>C has been repeatedly found to play a significant role in response to different types of physical activity. We investigated the effect of PPARA intron 7 G/C polymorphism specifically on anaerobic power output in a group of 77 elite male Czech ice hockey players (18-36 y. We determined the relative peak power per body weight (Pmax.kg(-1 and relative peak power per fat free mass (W.kg(-1FFM during the 30-second Wingate Test (WT30 on bicycle ergometer (Monark 894E Peak bike, MONARK, Sweden. All WT30s were performed during the hockey season. Overall genotype frequencies were 50.6% GG homozygotes, 40.3% CG heterozygotes, and 9.1% CC homozygotes. We found statistically significant differences in Pmax.kg(-1 and marginally significant differences in Pmax.kg(-1FFM values in WT30 between carriers and non-carriers for C allele (14.6 ± 0.2 vs. 13.9 ± 0.3 W.kg(-1 and 15.8 ± 0.2 vs. 15.2 ± 0.3 W.kg(-1FFM, P = 0.036 and 0.12, respectively. Furthermore, Pmax.kg(-1FFM strongly positively correlated with the body weight only in individuals with GG genotypes (R = 0.55; p<0.001. Our results indicate that PPARA 7C carriers exhibited higher speed strength measures in WT30. We hypothesize that C allele carriers within the cohort of trained individuals may possess a metabolic advantage towards anaerobic metabolism.

  7. Applying Space Technology to Enhance Control of an Artificial Arm for Children and Adults With Amputations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Diane J.

    1998-01-01

    The first single function myoelectric prosthetic hand was introduced in the 1960's. This hand was controlled by the electric fields generated by muscle contractions in the residual limb of the amputee user. Electrodes and amplifiers, embedded in the prosthetic socket, measured these electric fields across the skin, which increase in amplitude as the individual contracts their muscle. When the myoelectric signal reached a certain threshold amplitude, the control unit activated a motor which opened or closed a hand-like prosthetic terminal device with a pincher grip. Late in the 1990's, little has changed. Most current myoelectric prostheses still operate in this same, single-function way. To better understand the limitations of the current single-function myoelectric hand and the needs of those who use them, The Institute for Rehabilitation and Research (TIRR), sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NUH), surveyed approximately 2,500 individuals with upper limb loss [1]. When asked to identify specific features of their current myoelectric prostheses that needed improvement, the survey respondents overwhelmingly identified the lack of wrist and finger movement, as well as poor control capability. However, simply building a mechanism with individual finger and wrist motion is not enough. In the 1960's and 1970's, engineers built a number of more dexterous prosthetic hands. Unfortunately, these were rejected during clinical trials due to a difficult and distracting control interface. The goal of this project, "Applying Space Technology to Enhance Control of an Artificial Arm for Children and Adults with Amputations," was to lay the foundation for a multi-function, intuitive myoelectric control system which requires no conscious thought to move the hand. We built an extensive myoelectric signal database for six motions from ten amputee volunteers, We also tested a control system based on new artificial intelligence techniques on the data from two of these

  8. Chelant-enhanced heavy metals uptake by Eucalyptus trees under controlled deficit irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Pinchas; Rathod, Paresh; Beriozkin, Anna; Ein-Gal, Oz; Hass, Amir

    2014-05-01

    Enhancement of phytoremediation of heavy metal polluted soils employs organic ligands, aimed to solubilize, phytoextract and translocate metals into the canopy. The use of more persistent chelants (e.g. EDTA) is phasing out due to concerns over their role in the environment. We tested the hypothesis that controlled deficit irrigation (CDI) of the fast growing, salinity resistant Eucalyptus camaldulensis coupled with timely EDTA application enhances sediment phytoremediation while minimizing leaching of metal complexes below the root-zone. This was tested in 220-L lysimeters packed with sand mixed with metals polluted biosolids. One year old trees were brought under CDI with tap or RO water for two growing seasons. EDTA, EDDS and citric acid fertigation at 2 mM started in each May for 2.5-3.5 months, and prescribed soil leaching and sampling of tree leaves started thereafter. While all 3 chelants solubilized biosolids metal in batch extraction (EDDS often being the more efficient), EDTA was the only to increased metal concentrations both in the soil solution and in the Eucalyptus leaves. The average concentrations in the soil solution and in the leaves, in the EDTA vs. control (chelant-free) treatments, all respectively, were: Cd - 200 mg L-1 vs. 1.0, and 67 vs. 21 mg kg-1; Cu: 90 vs. 1.5 mg L-1, and 17 vs. 3.0 mg kg-1; Cr: 4.0 vs. 1.4 mg L-1, and 3.0 vs. 1.0 mg kg-1; Ni: 60 mg L-1 vs. 14, and 20 vs. 6.0 mg kg-1; Pb: >44 vs. 0.1 mg L-1, and 9.0 vs. 1.0 mg kg-1; and Zn: 650 vs. 4.0 mg L-1 and 200 vs. 70 mg kg-1. While EDDS was undetectable in all the leachates, EDTA concentrated to up to 100 mM. At 10 mM soil solution concentration, EDDS half-life in acclimated lysimeter media was 5-11 days and that of EDTA was ≥27-d. The study suggests that sustainable phytostabilization and phytoextraction of heavy metals are achievable under CDI with EDTA augmentation at low dose. This was yet futile with the biodegradable EDDS and citric acid. CDI with RO water further widened

  9. Comprehensive simulation-enhanced training curriculum for an advanced minimally invasive procedure: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zevin, Boris; Dedy, Nicolas J; Bonrath, Esther M; Grantcharov, Teodor P

    2017-05-01

    There is no comprehensive simulation-enhanced training curriculum to address cognitive, psychomotor, and nontechnical skills for an advanced minimally invasive procedure. 1) To develop and provide evidence of validity for a comprehensive simulation-enhanced training (SET) curriculum for an advanced minimally invasive procedure; (2) to demonstrate transfer of acquired psychomotor skills from a simulation laboratory to live porcine model; and (3) to compare training outcomes of SET curriculum group and chief resident group. University. This prospective single-blinded, randomized, controlled trial allocated 20 intermediate-level surgery residents to receive either conventional training (control) or SET curriculum training (intervention). The SET curriculum consisted of cognitive, psychomotor, and nontechnical training modules. Psychomotor skills in a live anesthetized porcine model in the OR was the primary outcome. Knowledge of advanced minimally invasive and bariatric surgery and nontechnical skills in a simulated OR crisis scenario were the secondary outcomes. Residents in the SET curriculum group went on to perform a laparoscopic jejunojejunostomy in the OR. Cognitive, psychomotor, and nontechnical skills of SET curriculum group were also compared to a group of 12 chief surgery residents. SET curriculum group demonstrated superior psychomotor skills in a live porcine model (56 [47-62] versus 44 [38-53], Ppsychomotor skills in the live porcine model and in the OR in a human patient (56 [47-62] versus 63 [61-68]; P = .21). SET curriculum group demonstrated inferior knowledge (13 [11-15] versus 16 [14-16]; P<.05), equivalent psychomotor skill (63 [61-68] versus 68 [62-74]; P = .50), and superior nontechnical skills (41 [38-45] versus 34 [27-35], P<.01) compared with chief resident group. Completion of the SET curriculum resulted in superior training outcomes, compared with conventional surgery training. Implementation of the SET curriculum can standardize training

  10. Enhanced robust fractional order proportional-plus-integral controller based on neural network for velocity control of permanent magnet synchronous motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bitao; Pi, YouGuo

    2013-07-01

    The traditional integer order proportional-integral-differential (IO-PID) controller is sensitive to the parameter variation or/and external load disturbance of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM). And the fractional order proportional-integral-differential (FO-PID) control scheme based on robustness tuning method is proposed to enhance the robustness. But the robustness focuses on the open-loop gain variation of controlled plant. In this paper, an enhanced robust fractional order proportional-plus-integral (ERFOPI) controller based on neural network is proposed. The control law of the ERFOPI controller is acted on a fractional order implement function (FOIF) of tracking error but not tracking error directly, which, according to theory analysis, can enhance the robust performance of system. Tuning rules and approaches, based on phase margin, crossover frequency specification and robustness rejecting gain variation, are introduced to obtain the parameters of ERFOPI controller. And the neural network algorithm is used to adjust the parameter of FOIF. Simulation and experimental results show that the method proposed in this paper not only achieve favorable tracking performance, but also is robust with regard to external load disturbance and parameter variation. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Becker muscular dystrophy due to an intronic splicing mutation inducing a dual dystrophin transcript.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todeschini, Alice; Gualandi, Francesca; Trabanelli, Cecilia; Armaroli, Annarita; Ravani, Anna; Fanin, Marina; Rota, Silvia; Bello, Luca; Ferlini, Alessandra; Pegoraro, Elena; Padovani, Alessandro; Filosto, Massimiliano

    2016-10-01

    We describe a 29-year-old patient who complained of left thigh muscle weakness since he was 23 and of moderate proximal weakness of both lower limbs with difficulty in climbing stairs and running since he was 27. Mild weakness of iliopsoas and quadriceps muscles and muscle atrophy of both the distal forearm and thigh were observed upon clinical examination. He harboured a novel c.1150-3C>G substitution in the DMD gene, affecting the intron 10 acceptor splice site and causing exon 11 skipping and an out-of-frame transcript. However, protein of normal molecular weight but in reduced amounts was observed on Western Blot analysis. Reverse transcription analysis on muscle RNA showed production, via alternative splicing, of a transcript missing exon 11 as well as a low abundant full-length transcript which is enough to avoid the severe Duchenne phenotype. Our study showed that a reduced amount of full length dystrophin leads to a mild form of Becker muscular dystrophy. These results confirm earlier findings that low amounts of dystrophin can be associated with a milder phenotype, which is promising for therapies aiming at dystrophin restoration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Molecular evolution and diversification of snake toxin genes, revealed by analysis of intron sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimi, T J; Nakajyo, T; Nishimura, E; Ogura, E; Tsuchiya, T; Tamiya, T

    2003-08-14

    The genes encoding erabutoxin (short chain neurotoxin) isoforms (Ea, Eb, and Ec), LsIII (long chain neurotoxin) and a novel long chain neurotoxin pseudogene were cloned from a Laticauda semifasciata genomic library. Short and long chain neurotoxin genes were also cloned from the genome of Laticauda laticaudata, a closely related species of L. semifasciata, by PCR. A putative matrix attached region (MAR) sequence was found in the intron I of the LsIII gene. Comparative analysis of 11 structurally relevant snake toxin genes (three-finger-structure toxins) revealed the molecular evolution of these toxins. Three-finger-structure toxin genes diverged from a common ancestor through two types of evolutionary pathways (long and short types), early in the course of evolution. At a later stage of evolution in each gene, the accumulation of mutations in the exons, especially exon II, by accelerated evolution may have caused the increased diversification in their functions. It was also revealed that the putative MAR sequence found in the LsIII gene was integrated into the gene after the species-level divergence.

  13. Polymorphism of the aryl-hydrocarbon receptor gene in intron 10 of human cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rocas

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs and related halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g., PCDFs, often called "dioxins", are ubiquitously present environmental contaminants. Some of them, notably 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, are among the most toxic synthetic compounds known. The biological effects of dioxins are mediated via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR. Mutations in the AhR transactivation domain are linked to sensitivity to the acute lethality of TCDD. We present here a study of AhR gene polymorphism in normal and cancer human tissues affecting pre-mRNA splicing in the AhR gene-coding transactivation domain region (exon 10, intron 10, exon 11 region, previously shown to be associated with AhR dysfunction. We tested 126 pairs of normal and cancer tissue samples from liver, lung, stomach, kidney, mucous, breast, and pancreas of 49 males and 77 females (45-70 years of age. We used in vitro splicing assay, RT-PCR and sequencing methods. Our results showed that in an in vitro system it is possible to reconstitute cellular pre-mRNA splicing events. Tested cancer tissues did not contain mutations in the AhR transactivation domain region when the DNA sequences were compared with those from normal tissues. There were also no differences in AhR mRNA splice variants between normal and malignant breast tissues and no polymorphisms in the studied regions or cDNA.

  14. A distant cis acting intronic element induces site-selective RNA editing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daniel, Chammiran; Venø, Morten Trillingsgaard; Ekdahl, Ylva

    2012-01-01

    Transcripts have been found to be site selectively edited from adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) in the mammalian brain, mostly in genes involved in neurotransmission. While A-to-I editing occurs at double-stranded structures, other structural requirements are largely unknown. We have investigated...... shown to be important for A-to-I editing. We demonstrate that the element also can induce editing in related but normally not edited RNA sequences. In human, thousands of genes are edited in duplexes formed by inverted repeats in non-coding regions. It is likely that numerous such duplexes can induce...... the requirements for editing at the I/M site in the Gabra-3 transcript of the GABA(A) receptor. We identify an evolutionarily conserved intronic duplex, 150 nt downstream of the exonic hairpin where the I/M site resides, which is required for its editing. This is the first time a distant RNA structure has been...

  15. Facile biofunctionalization of silver nanoparticles for enhanced antibacterial properties, endotoxin removal, and biofilm control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambadi PR

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Paramesh Ramulu Lambadi,1,* Tarun Kumar Sharma,1,* Piyush Kumar,1 Priyanka Vasnani,2 Sitaramanjaneya Mouli Thalluri,2 Neha Bisht,1 Ranjana Pathania,1,2 Naveen Kumar Navani1,21Department of Biotechnology, 2Centre of Nanotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, Uttarakhand, India*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Infectious diseases cause a huge burden on healthcare systems worldwide. Pathogenic bacteria establish infection by developing antibiotic resistance and modulating the host’s immune system, whereas opportunistic pathogens like Pseudomonas aeruginosa adapt to adverse conditions owing to their ability to form biofilms. In the present study, silver nanoparticles were biofunctionalized with polymyxin B, an antibacterial peptide using a facile method. The biofunctionalized nanoparticles (polymyxin B-capped silver nanoparticles, PBSNPs were assessed for antibacterial activity against multiple drug-resistant clinical strain Vibrio fluvialis and nosocomial pathogen P. aeruginosa. The results of antibacterial assay revealed that PBSNPs had an approximately 3-fold higher effect than the citrate-capped nanoparticles (CSNPs. Morphological damage to the cell membrane was followed by scanning electron microscopy, testifying PBSNPs to be more potent in controlling the bacterial growth as compared with CSNPs. The bactericidal effect of PBSNPs was further confirmed by Live/Dead staining assays. Apart from the antibacterial activity, the biofunctionalized nanoparticles were found to resist biofilm formation. Electroplating of PBSNPs onto stainless steel surgical blades retained the antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa. Further, the affinity of polymyxin for endotoxin was exploited for its removal using PBSNPs. It was found that the prepared nanoparticles removed 97% of the endotoxin from the solution. Such multifarious uses of metal nanoparticles are an attractive means of enhancing the potency of antimicrobial

  16. FY98 Final Report Initial Interfacial Chemical Control for Enhancement of Composite Material Strength; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GE Fryxell; KL Alford; KL Simmons; RD Voise; WD Samuels

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Army Armament Research Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC) sponsored this research project to support the development of new self-assembled monolayer fiber coatings. These coatings can greatly increase the bond strength between the fiber and the resin matrix of a composite material. Composite ammunition components molded from such materials will exhibit higher strength than current materials, and will provide a major improvement in the performance of composites in military applications. Use of composite materials in military applications is desirable because of the lighter weight of the materials and their high strengths. The FY97 project investigated initial interfacial chemical control for enhancement of composite material strength. The core of the project was to modify the covalent interface of glass fibers (or other reinforcing fibers) to induce strong, uniform, defect-free adhesion between the fibers' surfaces and the polymer matrix. Installing a self-assembled monolayer tailored to the specific matrix resin accomplished this. Simply, the self-assembled monolayer modifies the fiber to make it appear to have the same chemical composition as the resin matrix. The self-assembled monolayer creates a receptive, hydrophobic interface that the thermoset resin (or polymer precursors) would wet more effectively, leading to a higher contact surface area and more efficient adhesion. The FY97 work phase demonstrated that it is possible to increase the adhesive strength, as well as increase the heat deflection temperature through the use of self-assembled monolayer

  17. Controlled surface diffusion in plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of GaN nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, W C; Hong, Franklin Chau-Nan

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the growth of GaN nanowires by controlling the surface diffusion of Ga species on sapphire in a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (CVD) system. Under nitrogen-rich growth conditions, Ga has a tendency to adsorb on the substrate surface diffusing to nanowires to contribute to their growth. The significance of surface diffusion on the growth of nanowires is dependent on the environment of the nanowire on the substrate surface as well as the gas phase species and compositions. Under nitrogen-rich growth conditions, the growth rate is strongly dependent on the surface diffusion of gallium, but the addition of 5% hydrogen in nitrogen plasma instantly diminishes the surface diffusion effect. Gallium desorbs easily from the surface by reaction with hydrogen. On the other hand, under gallium-rich growth conditions, nanowire growth is shown to be dominated by the gas phase deposition, with negligible contribution from surface diffusion. This is the first study reporting the inhibition of surface diffusion effects by hydrogen addition, which can be useful in tailoring the growth and characteristics of nanowires. Without any evidence of direct deposition on the nanowire surface, gallium and nitrogen are shown to dissolve into the catalyst for growing the nanowires at 900 deg. C.

  18. Controlled deposition of palladium nanodendrites on the tips of gold nanorods and their enhanced catalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Gaoxing; Jiang, Huaqiao; Zhu, Hongyan; Lv, Jing-Jing; Yang, Guohai; Yan, Bing; Zhu, Jun-Jie

    2017-08-31

    Plasmonic Au-Pd nanostructures have drawn significant attention for use in heterogeneous catalysis. In this study, palladium nanodendrite-tipped gold nanorods (PdND-T-AuNRs) were subjected to a facile fabrication under mild reaction conditions. The palladium amounts on the two tips were tunable. In the preparation of PdND-T-AuNRs, dense capped AuNRs, a low reaction temperature, and suitable stabilizing agents were identified as critical reaction parameters for controlling palladium nanodendrites deposited on both ends of AuNRs. After overgrowth with palladium nanodendrites, the longitudinal surface plasmonic resonance peaks of PdND-T-AuNRs were red-shifted from 810 nm to 980 nm. The electrocatalytic activity of PdND-T-AuNRs for ethanol oxidation was examined, which was a bit weaker than that of cuboid core-shell Au-Pd nanodendrites; however, PdND-T-AuNRs were more stable in ethanol electrooxidation. Moreover, the photocatalytic activity of PdND-T-AuNRs for Suzuki cross-coupling reactions was investigated. At room temperature, nearly 100% yield was obtained under laser irradiation. The results can further enhance our capability of fine-tuning the optical, electronic, and catalytic properties of the bimetallic Au-Pd nanostructures.

  19. Enhancing the control of force in putting by video game training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fery, Y A; Ponserre, S

    2001-10-10

    Even if golf video games provide no proprioceptive afferences on actual putting movement, they may give sufficient substitutive visual cues to enhance force control in this skill. It was hypothesized that this usefulness requires, however, two conditions: the video game must provide reliable demonstrations of actual putts, and the user must want to use the game to make progress in actual putting. Accordingly, a video game was selected on the basis of its fidelity to the real-world game. It allowed two different methods of adjusting the virtual player's putting force in order to hole a putt: an analogue method that consisted of focusing on the virtual player's movement and a symbolic method that consisted of focusing on the movement of a gauge on a scale representing the virtual player's putting force. The participants had to use one of these methods with either the intention of making progress in actual putting or in a second condition to simply enjoy the game. Results showed a positive transfer of video playing to actual putting skill for the learning group and also, to a lesser degree, for the enjoyment group; but only when they used the symbolic method. Results are discussed in the context of how vision may convey force cues in sports video games.

  20. Enhancement of mechanical properties of a TRIP-aided austenitic stainless steel by controlled reversion annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, A.S., E-mail: atef.hamada@suezuniv.edu.eg [Centre for Advanced Steels Research, Box 4200, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu (Finland); Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Petroleum & Mining Engineering, Suez University, Box 43721, Suez (Egypt); Kisko, A.P. [Centre for Advanced Steels Research, Box 4200, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu (Finland); Sahu, P. [Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India); Karjalainen, L.P. [Centre for Advanced Steels Research, Box 4200, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu (Finland)

    2015-03-25

    Controlled martensitic reversion annealing was applied to a heavily cold-worked metastable austenitic low-Ni Cr–Mn austenitic stainless steel (Type 201) to obtain different ultrafine austenite grain sizes to enhance the mechanical properties, which were then compared with the conventional coarse-grained steel. Characterization of the deformed and reversion annealed microstructures was performed by electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The steel with a reverted grain size ~1.5 μm due to annealing at 800 °C for 10 s showed significant improvements in the mechanical properties with yield stress ~800 MPa and tensile strength ~1100 MPa, while the corresponding properties of its coarse grained counterpart were ~450 MPa and ~900 MPa, respectively. However, the fracture elongation of the reversion annealed steel was ~50% as compared to ~70% in the coarse grained steel. A further advantage is that the anisotropy of mechanical properties present in work-hardened steels also disappears during reversion annealing.

  1. Control of waste well casing vent gas from a thermal enhanced oil recovery operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peavy, M.A.; Braun, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of a waste gas treatment system designed to control emissions from thermally enhanced oil recovery wells. This case study discusses the need, design, installation and operations of the system. Oryx Energy Company (Oryx) operates approximately 940 wells in the Midway-Sunset (MWSS) field under casing vapor recovery systems. The emissions collected from well casing vent gas cotaining hydrocarbons and hydrogen sulfide that are collected and processed through casing vapor recovery skids. These skids are composed of condensers, compressors, and pumps that separate fluids from the waste gas stream. The non-condensible gas is then disposed of in incinerators that reduce the hydrocarbon and sulfur emissions into the atmosphere. Approximately 91,000 lbs/day of hydrocarbon and 10,116 lbs/day of sulfur dioxide are removed from the atmosphere from wells contained within these systems operated by Oryx. These hydrocarbons yield approximately 550 barrels of oil per day (BOPD). The system helps manage the pressure differential from the reservoir into each wellbore and contributes to improved ambient air quality in Kern County, California

  2. Enhancement of beam pulse controllability for a single-pulse formation system of a cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurashima, Satoshi; Miyawaki, Nobumasa; Kashiwagi, Hirotsugu; Okumura, Susumu; Taguchi, Mitsumasa; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The single-pulse formation technique using a beam chopping system consisting of two types of high-voltage beam kickers was improved to enhance the quality and intensity of the single-pulse beam with a pulse interval over 1 μs at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency cyclotron facility. A contamination rate of neighboring beam bunches in the single-pulse beam was reduced to less than 0.1%. Long-term purification of the single pulse beam was guaranteed by the well-controlled magnetic field stabilization system for the cyclotron magnet. Reduction of the multi-turn extraction number for suppressing the neighboring beam bunch contamination was achieved by restriction of a beam phase width and precise optimization of a particle acceleration phase. In addition, the single-pulse beam intensity was increased by a factor of two or more by a combination of two types of beam bunchers using sinusoidal and saw-tooth voltage waveforms. Provision of the high quality intense single-pulse beam contributed to improve the accuracy of experiments for investigation of scintillation light time-profile and for neutron energy measurement by a time-of-flight method

  3. Extraordinary Effects in Quasi-Periodic Gold Nanocavities: Enhanced Transmission and Polarization Control of Cavity Modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhama, Rakesh; Caligiuri, Vincenzo; Petti, Lucia; Rashed, Alireza R; Rippa, Massimo; Lento, Raffaella; Termine, Roberto; Caglayan, Humeyra; De Luca, Antonio

    2018-01-23

    Plasmonic quasi-periodic structures are well-known to exhibit several surprising phenomena with respect to their periodic counterparts, due to their long-range order and higher rotational symmetry. Thanks to their specific geometrical arrangement, plasmonic quasi-crystals offer unique possibilities in tailoring the coupling and propagation of surface plasmons through their lattice, a scenario in which a plethora of fascinating phenomena can take place. In this paper we investigate the extraordinary transmission phenomenon occurring in specifically patterned Thue-Morse nanocavities, demonstrating noticeable enhanced transmission, directly revealed by near-field optical experiments, performed by means of a scanning near-field optical microscope (SNOM). SNOM further provides an intuitive picture of confined plasmon modes inside the nanocavities and confirms that localization of plasmon modes is based on size and depth of nanocavities, while cross talk between close cavities via propagating plasmons holds the polarization response of patterned quasi-crystals. Our performed numerical simulations are in good agreement with the experimental results. Thus, the control on cavity size and incident polarization can be used to alter the intensity and spatial properties of confined cavity modes in such structures, which can be exploited in order to design a plasmonic device with customized optical properties and desired functionalities, to be used for several applications in quantum plasmonics.

  4. Application of pentacene thin-film transistors with controlled threshold voltages to enhancement/depletion inverters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hajime; Hanafusa, Yuki; Kimura, Yoshinari; Kitamura, Masatoshi

    2018-03-01

    Oxygen plasma treatment has been carried out to control the threshold voltage in organic thin-film transistors (TFTs) having a SiO2 gate dielectric prepared by rf sputtering. The threshold voltage linearly changed in the range of -3.7 to 3.1 V with the increase in plasma treatment time. Although the amount of change is smaller than that for organic TFTs having thermally grown SiO2, the tendency of the change was similar to that for thermally grown SiO2. To realize different plasma treatment times on the same substrate, a certain region on the SiO2 surface was selected using a shadow mask, and was treated with oxygen plasma. Using the process, organic TFTs with negative threshold voltages and those with positive threshold voltages were fabricated on the same substrate. As a result, enhancement/depletion inverters consisting of the organic TFTs operated at supply voltages of 5 to 15 V.

  5. Electro—magnetic control of shear flow over a cylinder for drag reduction and lift enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hui; Fan Bao-Chun; Chen Zhi-Hua; Chen Shuai; Li Hong-Zhi

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the electro—magnetic control of a cylinder wake in shear flow is investigated numerically. The effects of the shear rate and Lorentz force on the cylinder wake, the distribution of hydrodynamic force, and the drag/lift phase diagram are discussed in detail. It is revealed that Lorentz force can be classified into the field Lorentz force and the wall Lorentz force and they affect the drag and lift forces independently. The drag/lift phase diagram with a shape of ''8'' consists of two closed curves, which correspond to the halves of the shedding cycle dominated by the upper and lower vortices respectively. The free stream shear (K > 0) induces the diagram to move downward and leftward, so that the average lift force directs toward the downside. With the upper Lorentz force, the diagram moves downwards and to the right by the field Lorentz force, thus resulting in the drag increase and the lift reduction, whereas it moves upward and to the left by the wall Lorentz force, leading to the drag reduction and the lift increase. Finally the diagram is dominated by the wall Lorentz force, thus moving upward and leftward. Therefore the upper Lorentz force, which enhances the lift force, can be used to overcome the lift loss due to the free stream shear, which is also obtained in the experiment. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  6. Nomadic enhancers: tissue-specific cis-regulatory elements of yellow have divergent genomic positions among Drosophila species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizem Kalay

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available cis-regulatory DNA sequences known as enhancers control gene expression in space and time. They are central to metazoan development and are often responsible for changes in gene regulation that contribute to phenotypic evolution. Here, we examine the sequence, function, and genomic location of enhancers controlling tissue- and cell-type specific expression of the yellow gene in six Drosophila species. yellow is required for the production of dark pigment, and its expression has evolved largely in concert with divergent pigment patterns. Using Drosophila melanogaster as a transgenic host, we examined the expression of reporter genes in which either 5' intergenic or intronic sequences of yellow from each species controlled the expression of Green Fluorescent Protein. Surprisingly, we found that sequences controlling expression in the wing veins, as well as sequences controlling expression in epidermal cells of the abdomen, thorax, and wing, were located in different genomic regions in different species. By contrast, sequences controlling expression in bristle-associated cells were located in the intron of all species. Differences in the precise pattern of spatial expression within the developing epidermis of D. melanogaster transformants usually correlated with adult pigmentation in the species from which the cis-regulatory sequences were derived, which is consistent with cis-regulatory evolution affecting yellow expression playing a central role in Drosophila pigmentation divergence. Sequence comparisons among species favored a model in which sequential nucleotide substitutions were responsible for the observed changes in cis-regulatory architecture. Taken together, these data demonstrate frequent changes in yellow cis-regulatory architecture among Drosophila species. Similar analyses of other genes, combining in vivo functional tests of enhancer activity with in silico comparative genomics, are needed to determine whether the pattern of

  7. Nuclear introns outperform mitochondrial DNA in inter-specific phylogenetic reconstruction: Lessons from horseshoe bats (Rhinolophidae: Chiroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dool, Serena E; Puechmaille, Sebastien J; Foley, Nicole M; Allegrini, Benjamin; Bastian, Anna; Mutumi, Gregory L; Maluleke, Tinyiko G; Odendaal, Lizelle J; Teeling, Emma C; Jacobs, David S

    2016-04-01

    Despite many studies illustrating the perils of utilising mitochondrial DNA in phylogenetic studies, it remains one of the most widely used genetic markers for this purpose. Over the last decade, nuclear introns have been proposed as alternative markers for phylogenetic reconstruction. However, the resolution capabilities of mtDNA and nuclear introns have rarely been quantified and compared. In the current study we generated a novel ∼5kb dataset comprising six nuclear introns and a mtDNA fragment. We assessed the relative resolution capabilities of the six intronic fragments with respect to each other, when used in various combinations together, and when compared to the traditionally used mtDNA. We focused on a major clade in the horseshoe bat family (Afro-Palaearctic clade; Rhinolophidae) as our case study. This old, widely distributed and speciose group contains a high level of conserved morphology. This morphological stasis renders the reconstruction of the phylogeny of this group with traditional morphological characters complex. We sampled multiple individuals per species to represent their geographic distributions as best as possible (122 individuals, 24 species, 68 localities). We reconstructed the species phylogeny using several complementary methods (partitioned Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian and Bayesian multispecies-coalescent) and made inferences based on consensus across these methods. We computed pairwise comparisons based on Robinson-Foulds tree distance metric between all Bayesian topologies generated (27,000) for every gene(s) and visualised the tree space using multidimensional scaling (MDS) plots. Using our supported species phylogeny we estimated the ancestral state of key traits of interest within this group, e.g. echolocation peak frequency which has been implicated in speciation. Our results revealed many potential cryptic species within this group, even in taxa where this was not suspected a priori and also found evidence for mt

  8. Plant hydraulic controls over ecosystem responses to climate-enhanced disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, D. S.; Ewers, B. E.; Reed, D. E.; Pendall, E.; McDowell, N. G.

    2012-12-01

    Climate-enhanced disturbances such as drought and insect infestation range in severity, contributing minor to severe stress to forests including forest mortality. While neither form of disturbance has been unambiguously implicated as a mechanism of mortality, both induce changes in water, carbon, and nutrient cycling that are key to understanding forest ecosystem response to, and recovery from, disturbance. Each disturbance type has different biophysical, ecohydrological, and biogeochemical signatures that potentially complicate interpretation and development of theory. Plant hydraulic function is arguably a unifying control over these responses to disturbance because it regulates stomatal conductance, leaf biochemistry, carbon (C) uptake and utilization, and nutrient cycling. We demonstrated this idea by focusing on water and C, including non-structural (NSC), resources, and nitrogen (N) uptake across a spectrum of forest ecosystems (e.g., northern temperate mixed forests, lodgepole pine forests in the Rocky Mountains, and pinon pine - juniper woodlands in New Mexico) using the Terrestrial Regional Ecosystem Exchange Simulator (TREES). TREES is grounded in the biophysics of water movement through soil and plants, respectively via hydraulic conductivity of the soil and cavitation of xylem. It combines this dynamic plant hydraulic conductance with canopy biochemical controls over photosynthesis, and the dynamics of structural and non-structural carbon through a carbon budget that responds to plant hydraulic status. As such, the model can be used to develop testable hypotheses on a multitude of disturbance and recovery responses including xylem dysfunction, stomatal and non-stomatal controls on photosynthesis and carbon allocation, respiration, and allocation to defense compounds. For each of the ecosystems we constrained and evaluated the model with allometry, sap flux and/or eddy covariance data, leaf gas exchange measurements, and vulnerability to cavitation data

  9. Controllable synthesis and enhanced photocatalytic properties of Cu2O/Cu31S16 composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xueqin; Li, Zhen; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Fei

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Facile sonochemical route. ► The content of Cu 31 S 16 in the Cu 2 O/Cu 31 S 16 can be easily controlled. ► Structure and optical properties of Cu 2 O/Cu 31 S 16 were discussed. ► Enhanced photocatalytic property of Cu 2 O/Cu 31 S 16 . ► Cu 2 O/Cu 31 S 16 core/shell structures were more stable than single Cu 2 O particles. -- Abstract: The controlled synthesis of Cu 2 O/Cu 31 S 16 microcomposites with hierarchical structures had been prepared via a convenient sonochemical route. Ultrasonic irradiation of a mixture of Cu 2 O and (NH 2 ) 2 CS in an aqueous medium yielded Cu 2 O/Cu 31 S 16 composites. The content of Cu 31 S 16 in the Cu 2 O/Cu 31 S 16 can be easily controlled by adjusting the synthesis time. The Cu 31 S 16 layer not only protected and stabilized Cu 2 O particles, but also prohibited the recombination of photogenerated electrons–holes pair between Cu 31 S 16 and Cu 2 O. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra, ultraviolet–visible (UV–Vis) spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy were used to characterize the products. Photocatalytic performance of the Cu 2 O/Cu 31 S 16 hierarchical structures was evaluated by measuring the decomposition rate of methyl orange solution under natural light. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the preparation and photocatalytic activity of Cu 2 O/Cu 31 S 16 microcomposite. Additionally, the Cu 2 O/Cu 31 S 16 core/shell structures were more stable than single Cu 2 O particles during photocatalytic process since the photocatalytic activity of the second reused architecture sample was much higher than that of pure Cu 2 O. The Cu 2 O/Cu 31 S 16 microcomposites may be a good promising candidate for wastewater treatment.

  10. Site-specific, insertional inactivation of incA in Chlamydia trachomatis using a group II intron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Cayla M; Fisher, Derek J

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate, intracellular bacterial pathogen that has until more recently remained recalcitrant to genetic manipulation. However, the field still remains hindered by the absence of tools to create selectable, targeted chromosomal mutations. Previous work with mobile group II introns demonstrated that they can be retargeted by altering DNA sequences within the intron's substrate recognition region to create site-specific gene insertions. This platform (marketed as TargeTron™, Sigma) has been successfully employed in a variety of bacteria. We subsequently modified TargeTron™ for use in C. trachomatis and as proof of principle used our system to insertionally inactivate incA, a chromosomal gene encoding a protein required for homotypic fusion of chlamydial inclusions. C. trachomatis incA::GII(bla) mutants were selected with ampicillin and plaque purified clones were then isolated for genotypic and phenotypic analysis. PCR, Southern blotting, and DNA sequencing verified proper GII(bla) insertion, while continuous passaging in the absence of selection demonstrated that the insertion was stable. As seen with naturally occurring IncA(-) mutants, light and immunofluorescence microscopy confirmed the presence of non-fusogenic inclusions in cells infected with the incA::GII(bla) mutants at a multiplicity of infection greater than one. Lack of IncA production by mutant clones was further confirmed by Western blotting. Ultimately, the ease of retargeting the intron, ability to select for mutants, and intron stability in the absence of selection makes this method a powerful addition to the growing chlamydial molecular toolbox.

  11. Functional examination of MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6 intronic mutations identified in Danish colorectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Sanne M; Dandanell, Mette; Rasmussen, Lene J; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Krogh, Lotte N; Bernstein, Inge; Okkels, Henrik; Wikman, Friedrik; Nielsen, Finn C; Hansen, Thomas V O

    2013-10-03

    Germ-line mutations in the DNA mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6 predispose to the development of colorectal cancer (Lynch syndrome or hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer). These mutations include disease-causing frame-shift, nonsense, and splicing mutations as well as large genomic rearrangements. However, a large number of mutations, including missense, silent, and intronic variants, are classified as variants of unknown clinical significance. Intronic MLH1, MSH2, or MSH6 variants were investigated using in silico prediction tools and mini-gene assay to asses the effect on splicing. We describe in silico and in vitro characterization of nine intronic MLH1, MSH2, or MSH6 mutations identified in Danish colorectal cancer patients, of which four mutations are novel. The analysis revealed aberrant splicing of five mutations (MLH1 c.588 + 5G > A, MLH1 c.677 + 3A > T, MLH1 c.1732-2A > T, MSH2 c.1276 + 1G > T, and MSH2 c.1662-2A > C), while four mutations had no effect on splicing compared to wild type (MLH1 c.117-34A > T, MLH1 c.1039-8 T > A, MSH2 c.2459-18delT, and MSH6 c.3439-16C > T). In conclusion, we classify five MLH1/MSH2 mutations as pathogenic, whereas four MLH1/MSH2/MSH6 mutations are classified as neutral. This study supports the notion that in silico prediction tools and mini-gene assays are important for the classification of intronic variants, and thereby crucial for the genetic counseling of patients and their family members.

  12. Characterization of a Canine Tetranucleotide Microsatellite Marker Located in the First Intron of the Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Gene

    OpenAIRE

    WATANABE, Masashi; TANAKA, Kazuaki; TAKIZAWA, Tatsuya; SEGAWA, Kazuhito; NEO, Sakurako; TSUCHIYA, Ryo; MURATA, Michiko; MURAKAMI, Masaru; HISASUE, Masaharu

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT A polymorphic tetranucleotide (GAAT)n microsatellite in the first intron of the canine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFA) gene was characterized in this study; 139 dogs were analyzed: 22 Beagles, 26 Chihuahuas, 20 Miniature Dachshunds, 24 Miniature Poodles, 22 Pembroke Welsh Corgis and 25 Shiba Inus. We detected the presence of the 4 alleles (GAAT)5, (GAAT)6, (GAAT)7 and (GAAT)8, including 9 of the 10 expected genotypes. The expected heterozygosity (He) and the polymorphic informatio...

  13. H2B ubiquitylation is part of chromatin architecture that marks exon-intron structure in budding yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shieh Grace S

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The packaging of DNA into chromatin regulates transcription from initiation through 3' end processing. One aspect of transcription in which chromatin plays a poorly understood role is the co-transcriptional splicing of pre-mRNA. Results Here we provide evidence that H2B monoubiquitylation (H2BK123ub1 marks introns in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A genome-wide map of H2BK123ub1 in this organism reveals that this modification is enriched in coding regions and that its levels peak at the transcribed regions of two characteristic subgroups of genes. First, long genes are more likely to have higher levels of H2BK123ub1, correlating with the postulated role of this modification in preventing cryptic transcription initiation in ORFs. Second, genes that are highly transcribed also have high levels of H2BK123ub1, including the ribosomal protein genes, which comprise the majority of intron-containing genes in yeast. H2BK123ub1 is also a feature of introns in the yeast genome, and the disruption of this modification alters the intragenic distribution of H3 trimethylation on lysine 36 (H3K36me3, which functionally correlates with alternative RNA splicing in humans. In addition, the deletion of genes encoding the U2 snRNP subunits, Lea1 or Msl1, in combination with an htb-K123R mutation, leads to synthetic lethality. Conclusion These data suggest that H2BK123ub1 facilitates cross talk between chromatin and pre-mRNA splicing by modulating the distribution of intronic and exonic histone modifications.

  14. Enzyme engineering through evolution: thermostable recombinant group II intron reverse transcriptases provide new tools for RNA research and biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Kathleen; Nilsen, Timothy W

    2013-08-01

    Current investigation of RNA transcriptomes relies heavily on the use of retroviral reverse transcriptases. It is well known that these enzymes have many limitations because of their intrinsic properties. This commentary highlights the recent biochemical characterization of a new family of reverse transcriptases, those encoded by group II intron retrohoming elements. The novel properties of these enzymes endow them with the potential to revolutionize how we approach RNA analyses.

  15. H2B ubiquitylation is part of chromatin architecture that marks exon-intron structure in budding yeast

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shieh, Grace S.

    2011-12-22

    Abstract Background The packaging of DNA into chromatin regulates transcription from initiation through 3\\' end processing. One aspect of transcription in which chromatin plays a poorly understood role is the co-transcriptional splicing of pre-mRNA. Results Here we provide evidence that H2B monoubiquitylation (H2BK123ub1) marks introns in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A genome-wide map of H2BK123ub1 in this organism reveals that this modification is enriched in coding regions and that its levels peak at the transcribed regions of two characteristic subgroups of genes. First, long genes are more likely to have higher levels of H2BK123ub1, correlating with the postulated role of this modification in preventing cryptic transcription initiation in ORFs. Second, genes that are highly transcribed also have high levels of H2BK123ub1, including the ribosomal protein genes, which comprise the majority of intron-containing genes in yeast. H2BK123ub1 is also a feature of introns in the yeast genome, and the disruption of this modification alters the intragenic distribution of H3 trimethylation on lysine 36 (H3K36me3), which functionally correlates with alternative RNA splicing in humans. In addition, the deletion of genes encoding the U2 snRNP subunits, Lea1 or Msl1, in combination with an htb-K123R mutation, leads to synthetic lethality. Conclusion These data suggest that H2BK123ub1 facilitates cross talk between chromatin and pre-mRNA splicing by modulating the distribution of intronic and exonic histone modifications.

  16. Fault ride-through enhancement using an enhanced field oriented control technique for converters of grid connected DFIG and STATCOM for different types of faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananth, D V N; Nagesh Kumar, G V

    2016-05-01

    With increase in electric power demand, transmission lines were forced to operate close to its full load and due to the drastic change in weather conditions, thermal limit is increasing and the system is operating with less security margin. To meet the increased power demand, a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) based wind generation system is a better alternative. For improving power flow capability and increasing security STATCOM can be adopted. As per modern grid rules, DFIG needs to operate without losing synchronism called low voltage ride through (LVRT) during severe grid faults. Hence, an enhanced field oriented control technique (EFOC) was adopted in Rotor Side Converter of DFIG converter to improve power flow transfer and to improve dynamic and transient stability. A STATCOM is coordinated to the system for obtaining much better stability and enhanced operation during grid fault. For the EFOC technique, rotor flux reference changes its value from synchronous speed to zero during fault for injecting current at the rotor slip frequency. In this process DC-Offset component of flux is controlled, decomposition during symmetric and asymmetric faults. The offset decomposition of flux will be oscillatory in a conventional field oriented control, whereas in EFOC it was aimed to damp quickly. This paper mitigates voltage and limits surge currents to enhance the operation of DFIG during symmetrical and asymmetrical faults. The system performance with different types of faults like single line to ground, double line to ground and triple line to ground was applied and compared without and with a STATCOM occurring at the point of common coupling with fault resistance of a very small value at 0.001Ω. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Occurrence of Can-SINEs and intron sequence evolution supports robust phylogeny of pinniped carnivores and their terrestrial relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Christiane; Bleidorn, Christoph; Hartmann, Stefanie; Tiedemann, Ralph

    2009-12-15

    Investigating the dog genome we found 178965 introns with a moderate length of 200-1000 bp. A screening of these sequences against 23 different repeat libraries to find insertions of short interspersed elements (SINEs) detected 45276 SINEs. Virtually all of these SINEs (98%) belong to the tRNA-derived Can-SINE family. Can-SINEs arose about 55 million years ago before Carnivora split into two basal groups, the Caniformia (dog-like carnivores) and the Feliformia (cat-like carnivores). Genome comparisons of dog and cat recovered 506 putatively informative SINE loci for caniformian phylogeny. In this study we show how to use such genome information of model organisms to research the phylogeny of related non-model species of interest. Investigating a dataset including representatives of all major caniformian lineages, we analysed 24 randomly chosen loci for 22 taxa. All loci were amplifiable and revealed 17 parsimony-informative SINE insertions. The screening for informative SINE insertions yields a large amount of sequence information, in particular of introns, which contain reliable phylogenetic information as well. A phylogenetic analysis of intron- and SINE sequence data provided a statistically robust phylogeny which is congruent with the absence/presence pattern of our SINE markers. This phylogeny strongly supports a sistergroup relationship of Musteloidea and Pinnipedia. Within Pinnipedia, we see strong support from bootstrapping and the presence of a SINE insertion for a sistergroup relationship of the walrus with the Otariidae.

  18. Virtual Genome Walking across the 32 Gb Ambystoma mexicanum genome; assembling gene models and intronic sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Teri; Johnson, Andrew D; Loose, Matthew

    2018-01-12

    Large repeat rich genomes present challenges for assembly using short read technologies. The 32 Gb axolotl genome is estimated to contain ~19 Gb of repetitive DNA making an assembly from short reads alone effectively impossible. Indeed, this model species has been sequenced to 20× coverage but the reads could not be conventionally assembled. Using an alternative strategy, we have assembled subsets of these reads into scaffolds describing over 19,000 gene models. We call this method Virtual Genome Walking as it locally assembles whole genome reads based on a reference transcriptome, identifying exons and iteratively extending them into surrounding genomic sequence. These assemblies are then linked and refined to generate gene models including upstream and downstream genomic, and intronic, sequence. Our assemblies are validated by comparison with previously published axolotl bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) sequences. Our analyses of axolotl intron length, intron-exon structure, repeat content and synteny provide novel insights into the genic structure of this model species. This resource will enable new experimental approaches in axolotl, such as ChIP-Seq and CRISPR and aid in future whole genome sequencing efforts. The assembled sequences and annotations presented here are freely available for download from https://tinyurl.com/y8gydc6n . The software pipeline is available from https://github.com/LooseLab/iterassemble .

  19. ENHANCING THE STABILITY OF UNMANNED GROUND SPORT UTILITY VEHICLES THROUGH COORDINATED CONTROL UNDER MU-SPLIT AND GUST OF WIND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FITRI YAKUB

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study describes a comparative study of steering and yaw moment control manoeuvres in model predictive control (MPC and linear quadratic control approaches for path following unmanned vehicles for different control manoeuvres: two-wheel steering, four-wheel steering, and direct yaw moment control. We then propose MPC with a proportional-integral (PI controller for the coordination of active front steering (AFS and active braking system, which particularly highlights direct yaw moment control (DYC manoeuvres. Based on the known trajectory, we tested a vehicle at middle forward speed with the disturbance consideration of the road surface adhesion and the wind for a double lane change scenario in order to follow the desired trajectory as close as possible, minimizing tracking errors, and enhancing vehicle stability and drivability. We compared two different controllers; i MPC with PI of an AFS and, ii MPC with PI for coordination of AFS and DYC. The operation of the proposed integrated control is demonstrated in a Matlab simulation environment by manoeuvring the vehicle along the desired trajectory. Simulation results showed that the proposed method had yielded better tracking performances, and were able to enhance the vehicle’s stability at a given speed even under road surface coefficient and wind.

  20. Controlling the resistivity gradient in aluminum-doped zinc oxide grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponomarev, M.; Verheijen, M.A.; Keuning, W.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.; Creatore, M.

    2012-01-01

    Aluminum-doped ZnO (ZnO:Al) grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) generally exhibit a major drawback, i.e., a gradient in resistivity extending over a large range of film thickness. The present contribution addresses the plasma-enhanced CVD deposition of ZnO:Al layers by focusing on the control

  1. Power flow control and damping enhancement of a large wind farm using a superconducting magnetic energy storage unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, S. S.; Wang, L.; Lee, W. J.

    2009-01-01

    A novel scheme using a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) unit to perform both power flow control and damping enhancement of a large wind farm (WF) feeding to a utility grid is presented. The studied WF consisting of forty 2 MW wind induction generators (IGs) is simulated...

  2. Eating to stop: Tyrosine supplementation enhances inhibitory control but not response execution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colzato, L.S.; Jongkees, B.J.; Sellaro, R.; van den Wildenberg, W.P.M.; Hommel, B.

    2014-01-01

    Animal studies and research in humans have shown that the supplementation of tyrosine, or tyrosine-containing diets, increase the plasma tyrosine and enhance brain dopamine (DA). However, the strategy of administering tyrosine (and the role of DA therein) to enhance cognition is unclear and heavily

  3. Air traffic control : FAA enhanced the controller-in-charge program, but more comprehensive evaluation is needed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-01

    In negotiating its 1998 collective bargaining agreement with its controllers' union (the National Air Traffic Controllers Association, or NATCA), the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) agreed to a national plan that would reduce by attrition the n...

  4. pH control for enhanced reductive bioremediation of chlorinated solvent source zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Clare; Barry, D.A.; McCarty, Perry L.; Gerhard, Jason I.; Kouznetsova, Irina

    2009-01-01

    Enhanced reductive dehalogenation is an attractive treatment technology for in situ remediation of chlorinated solvent DNAPL source areas. Reductive dehalogenation is an acid-forming process with hydrochloric acid and also organic acids from fermentation of the electron donors typically building up in the source zone during remediation. This can lead to groundwater acidification thereby inhibiting the activity of dehalogenating microorganisms. Where the soils' natural buffering capacity is likely to be exceeded, the addition of an external source of alkalinity is needed to ensure sustained dehalogenation. To assist in the design of bioremediation systems, an abiotic geochemical model was developed to provide insight into the processes influencing the groundwater acidity as dehalogenation proceeds, and to predict the amount of bicarbonate required to maintain the pH at a suitable level for dehalogenating bacteria (i.e., > 6.5). The model accounts for the amount of chlorinated solvent degraded, site water chemistry, electron donor, alternative terminal electron-accepting processes, gas release and soil mineralogy. While calcite and iron oxides were shown to be the key minerals influencing the soil's buffering capacity, for the extensive dehalogenation likely to occur in a DNAPL source zone, significant bicarbonate addition may be necessary even in soils that are naturally well buffered. Results indicated that the bicarbonate requirement strongly depends on the electron donor used and availability of competing electron acceptors (e.g., sulfate, iron (III)). Based on understanding gained from this model, a simplified model was developed for calculating a preliminary design estimate of the bicarbonate addition required to control the pH for user-specified operating conditions.

  5. pH control for enhanced reductive bioremediation of chlorinated solvent source zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Clare, E-mail: clare.robinson@epfl.ch [Laboratoire de technologie ecologique, Institut d' ingenierie de l' environnement, Station No. 2, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Now at: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada N6A 5B9 (Canada); Barry, D.A., E-mail: andrew.barry@epfl.ch [Laboratoire de technologie ecologique, Institut d' ingenierie de l' environnement, Station No. 2, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); McCarty, Perry L., E-mail: pmccarty@stanford.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4020 (United States); Gerhard, Jason I., E-mail: j.gerhard@ed.ac.uk [Now at: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada N6A 5B9 (Canada); Institute for Infrastructure and Environment, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JL (United Kingdom); Kouznetsova, Irina, E-mail: irina.kouznetsova@ed.ac.uk [Institute for Infrastructure and Environment, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JL (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-01

    Enhanced reductive dehalogenation is an attractive treatment technology for in situ remediation of chlorinated solvent DNAPL source areas. Reductive dehalogenation is an acid-forming process with hydrochloric acid and also organic acids from fermentation of the electron donors typically building up in the source zone during remediation. This can lead to groundwater acidification thereby inhibiting the activity of dehalogenating microorganisms. Where the soils' natural buffering capacity is likely to be exceeded, the addition of an external source of alkalinity is needed to ensure sustained dehalogenation. To assist in the design of bioremediation systems, an abiotic geochemical model was developed to provide insight into the processes influencing the groundwater acidity as dehalogenation proceeds, and to predict the amount of bicarbonate required to maintain the pH at a suitable level for dehalogenating bacteria (i.e., > 6.5). The model accounts for the amount of chlorinated solvent degraded, site water chemistry, electron donor, alternative terminal electron-accepting processes, gas release and soil mineralogy. While calcite and iron oxides were shown to be the key minerals influencing the soil's buffering capacity, for the extensive dehalogenation likely to occur in a DNAPL source zone, significant bicarbonate addition may be necessary even in soils that are naturally well buffered. Results indicated that the bicarbonate requirement strongly depends on the electron donor used and availability of competing electron acceptors (e.g., sulfate, iron (III)). Based on understanding gained from this model, a simplified model was developed for calculating a preliminary design estimate of the bicarbonate addition required to control the pH for user-specified operating conditions.

  6. Molecular study in children with hemophilia A in Colombia: analysis of Intron 1 and 22 inversion using long-distance PCR technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernanda Garcés

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions: Inversions of intron 22 and 1 were found in half of this group of patients. These results are reproducible and useful to identify the two most frequent mutations in severe hemophilia A patients.

  7. Enhancing sediment flux control and natural hazard risk mitigation through a structured conceptual planning approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoni, S.; Vignoli, G.; Mazzorana, B.

    2017-08-01

    Sediment fluxes from mountain rivers contribute to shape the geomorphologic features of lowland rivers and to establish the physical basis for an optimal set of ecosystem functions and related services to people. Through significant public funding, the hydro-morphological regimes of mountain rivers in the European Alps have been progressively altered over the last century, with the aim to provide a safe dwelling space, to boost transport, mobility and to support economic growth. We claim that the underlying planning weaknesses contribute to determine these inefficient resource allocations, since flood risk is still high and the ecosystem services are far from being optimal. Hence, with the overall aim to enhance sediment flux control and hazard risk mitigation in such heavily modified alpine streams, we propose a structured design workflow which guides the planner through system analysis and synthesis. As a first step the proposed workflow sets the relevant planning goals and assesses the protection structure functionality. Then a methodology is proposed to achieve the goals. This methodology consists in characterising the hydrologic basin of interest and the sediment availability and determining the sediment connectivity to channels. The focus is set on the detailed analysis of existing river cross sections where the sediment continuity is interrupted (e.g. slit and check dams). By retaining relevant sediment volumes these structures prevent the reactivation of hydro-morphological and associated ecological functionalities. Since their actual performance can be unsatisfying with respect to flood risk mitigation (e.g. mainly old structures), we introduce specific efficiency indicators as a support for the conceptual design stage to quantify effects related to sediment flux control and risk management. The proposed planning approach is then applied to the Gadria system (stream, slit dam, retention basin and culvert), located in South Tyrol, Italy. This case study

  8. Intron retention in mRNA encoding ancillary subunit of insect voltage-gated sodium channel modulates channel expression, gating regulation and drug sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline M Bourdin

    Full Text Available Insect voltage-gated sodium (Nav channels are formed by a well-known pore-forming α-subunit encoded by para-like gene and ancillary subunits related to TipE from the mutation "temperature-induced-paralysis locus E." The role of these ancillary subunits in the modulation of biophysical and pharmacological properties of Na(+ currents are not enough documented. The unique neuronal ancillary subunit TipE-homologous protein 1 of Drosophila melanogaster (DmTEH1 strongly enhances the expression of insect Nav channels when heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Here we report the cloning and functional expression of two neuronal DmTEH1-homologs of the cockroach, Periplaneta americana, PaTEH1A and PaTEH1B, encoded by a single bicistronic gene. In PaTEH1B, the second exon encoding the last 11-amino-acid residues of PaTEH1A is shifted to 3'UTR by the retention of a 96-bp intron-containing coding-message, thus generating a new C-terminal end. We investigated the gating and pharmacological properties of the Drosophila Nav channel variant (DmNav1-1 co-expressed with DmTEH1, PaTEH1A, PaTEH1B or a truncated mutant PaTEH1Δ(270-280 in Xenopus oocytes. PaTEH1B caused a 2.2-fold current density decrease, concomitant with an equivalent α-subunit incorporation decrease in the plasma membrane, compared to PaTEH1A and PaTEH1Δ(270-280. PaTEH1B positively shifted the voltage-dependences of activation and slow inactivation of DmNav1-1 channels to more positive potentials compared to PaTEH1A, suggesting that the C-terminal end of both proteins may influence the function of the voltage-sensor and the pore of Nav channel. Interestingly, our findings showed that the sensitivity of DmNav1-1 channels to lidocaine and to the pyrazoline-type insecticide metabolite DCJW depends on associated TEH1-like subunits. In conclusion, our work demonstrates for the first time that density, gating and pharmacological properties of Nav channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes can be

  9. The full-length microRNA cluster in the intron of large latency transcript is associated with the virulence of pseudorabies virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Zhang, Mei-Mei; Yan, Kai; Tang, Qi; Wu, Yi-Quan; He, Wen-Bo; Chen, Huan-Chun; Liu, Zheng-Fei

    2018-07-01

    Pseudorabies virus (PRV), the etiological pathogen of Aujeszky's disease, belongs to the Alphaherpesvirus subfamily. Large latency transcript (LLT), the most abundant PRV transcript, harbors a ~ 4.6 kb microRNA (miRNA) cluster-encoding intron. To investigate the function of the LLT miRNA cluster during the life cycle of PRV, we generated a miRNA cluster mutation virus (PRV-∆miR cluster) and revertant virus. Analysis of the growth kinetics of PRV-ΔmiR cluster-infected cells revealed significantly smaller plaques and lower titers than the wild-type and revertant viruses. The mutation virus exhibited increased IE180 and decreased EP0 expression. The clinical symptoms observed in mice infected with PRV-ΔmiR cluster revealed that the miRNA cluster is involved in the pathogenesis of PRV. Physical parameters, virus shedding assays, and the SN 50 titers revealed that the miRNA cluster enhances PRV virulence in pigs. Collectively, our findings suggest that the full-length miRNA cluster is involved in PRV replication and virulence. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Structure and conformational dynamics of the domain 5 RNA hairpin of a bacterial group II intron revealed by solution nuclear magnetic resonance and molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechlaner, Maria; Sigel, Roland K O; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F; Dolenc, Jožica

    2013-10-08

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) nuclear Overhauser enhancement (NOE) data obtained for a 35-nucleotide RNA segment of a bacterial group II intron indicate a helical hairpin structure in which three parts, a terminal pentaloop, a bulge, and a G-A mismatch, display no Watson-Crick base pairing. The 668 NOE upper distance bounds for atom pairs are insufficient to uniquely determine the conformation of these segments. Therefore, molecular dynamics simulations including time-averaged distance restraints have been used to obtain a conformational ensemble compatible with the observed NMR data. The ensemble shows alternating hydrogen bonding patterns for the mentioned segments. In particular, in the pentaloop and in the bulge, the hydrogen bonding networks correspond to distinct conformational clusters that could not be captured by using conventional single-structure refinement techniques. This implies that, to obtain a realistic picture of the conformational ensemble of such flexible biomolecules, it is necessary to properly account for the conformational variability in the structure refinement of RNA fragments.

  11. Intron-Mediated Alternative Splicing of WOOD-ASSOCIATED NAC TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR1B Regulates Cell Wall Thickening during Fiber Development in Populus Species1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunjun; Sun, Jiayan; Xu, Peng; Zhang, Rui; Li, Laigeng

    2014-01-01

    Alternative splicing is an important mechanism involved in regulating the development of multicellular organisms. Although many genes in plants undergo alternative splicing, little is understood of its significance in regulating plant growth and development. In this study, alternative splicing of black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) wood-associated NAC domain transcription factor (PtrWNDs), PtrWND1B, is shown to occur exclusively in secondary xylem fiber cells. PtrWND1B is expressed with a normal short-transcript PtrWND1B-s as well as its alternative long-transcript PtrWND1B-l. The intron 2 structure of the PtrWND1B gene was identified as a critical sequence that causes PtrWND1B alternative splicing. Suppression of PtrWND1B expression specifically inhibited fiber cell wall thickening. The two PtrWND1B isoforms play antagonistic roles in regulating cell wall thickening during fiber cell differentiation in Populus spp. PtrWND1B-s overexpression enhanced fiber cell wall thickening, while overexpression of PtrWND1B-l repressed fiber cell wall thickening. Alternative splicing may enable more specific regulation of processes such as fiber cell wall thickening during wood formation. PMID:24394777

  12. Intron-mediated alternative splicing of WOOD-ASSOCIATED NAC TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR1B regulates cell wall thickening during fiber development in Populus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunjun; Sun, Jiayan; Xu, Peng; Zhang, Rui; Li, Laigeng

    2014-02-01

    Alternative splicing is an important mechanism involved in regulating the development of multicellular organisms. Although many genes in plants undergo alternative splicing, little is understood of its significance in regulating plant growth and development. In this study, alternative splicing of black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) wood-associated NAC domain transcription factor (PtrWNDs), PtrWND1B, is shown to occur exclusively in secondary xylem fiber cells. PtrWND1B is expressed with a normal short-transcript PtrWND1B-s as well as its alternative long-transcript PtrWND1B-l. The intron 2 structure of the PtrWND1B gene was identified as a critical sequence that causes PtrWND1B alternative splicing. Suppression of PtrWND1B expression specifically inhibited fiber cell wall thickening. The two PtrWND1B isoforms play antagonistic roles in regulating cell wall thickening during fiber cell differentiation in Populus spp. PtrWND1B-s overexpression enhanced fiber cell wall thickening, while overexpression of PtrWND1B-l repressed fiber cell wall thickening. Alternative splicing may enable more specific regulation of processes such as fiber cell wall thickening during wood formation.

  13. Intronic variants in the dopa decarboxylase (DDC) gene are associated with smoking behavior in European-Americans and African-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yi; Panhuysen, Carolien; Kranzler, Henry R; Hesselbrock, Victor; Rounsaville, Bruce; Weiss, Roger; Brady, Kathleen; Farrer, Lindsay A; Gelernter, Joel

    2006-07-15

    We report here a study considering association of alleles and haplotypes at the DOPA decarboxylase (DDC) locus with the DSM-IV diagnosis of nicotine dependence (ND) or a quantitative measure for ND using the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND). We genotyped 18 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning a region of approximately 210 kb that includes DDC and the genes immediately flanking DDC in 1,590 individuals from 621 families of African-American (AA) or European-American (EA) ancestry. Evidence of association (family-based tests) was observed with several SNPs for both traits (0.0002DDC lacking exons 10-15. Haplotype analysis did not reveal any SNP combination with stronger evidence for association than rs12718541 alone. Although sequence analysis suggests that rs12718541 may be an intronic splicing enhancer, further studies are needed to determine whether a direct link exists between an alternatively spliced form of DDC and predisposition to ND. These findings confirm a previous report of association of DDC with ND, localize the causative variants to the 3' end of the coding region and extend the association to multiple population groups.

  14. Vitamin D-enhanced eggs are protective of wintertime serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a randomized controlled trial of adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayes, Aoife; Duffy, Sarah; O'Grady, Michael

    2016-01-01

    winter RCT in adults aged 45-70 y (n = 55) who were stratified into 3 groups and were requested to consume ≤2 eggs/wk (control group, in which status was expected to decline), 7 vitamin D3-enhanced eggs/wk, or seven 25(OH)D3-enhanced eggs/wk. Serum 25(OH)D was the primary outcome. Although...... there was no significant difference (P > 0.1; ANOVA) in the mean preintervention serum 25(OH)D in the 3 groups, it was ∼7-8 nmol/L lower in the control group than in the 2 groups who consumed vitamin D-enhanced eggs. With the use of an ANCOVA, in which baseline 25(OH)D was accounted for, vitamin D3-egg and 25(OH)D3-egg.......001), there was no change in the 2 groups who consumed vitamin D-enhanced eggs (P > 0.1 for both). Weekly consumption of 7 vitamin D-enhanced eggs has an important impact on winter vitamin D status in adults....

  15. Human factors methods for nuclear control room design. Volume I. Human factors enhancement of existing nuclear control rooms. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seminara, J.L.; Seidenstein, S.; Eckert, S.K.; Smith, D.L.

    1979-11-01

    Human factors engineering is an interdisciplinary specialty concerned with influencing the design of equipment systems, facilities, and operational environments to promote safe, efficient, and reliable operator performance. Human factors approaches were applied in the design of representative nuclear power plant control panels. First, methods for upgrading existing operational control panels were examined. Then, based on detailed human factors analyses of operator information and control requirements, designs of reactor, feedwater, and turbine-generator control panels were developed to improve the operator-control board interface, thereby reducing the potential for operator errors. In addition to examining present-generation concepts, human factors aspects of advanced systems and of hybrid combinations of advanced and conventional designs were investigated. Special attention was given to warning system designs. Also, a survey was conducted among control board designers to (1) develop an overview of design practices in the industry, and (2) establish appropriate measures leading to a more systematic concern for human factors in control board design

  16. Enhanced IMC based PID controller design for non-minimum phase (NMP) integrating processes with time delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghousiya Begum, K; Seshagiri Rao, A; Radhakrishnan, T K

    2017-05-01

    Internal model control (IMC) with optimal H 2 minimization framework is proposed in this paper for design of proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers. The controller design is addressed for integrating and double integrating time delay processes with right half plane (RHP) zeros. Blaschke product is used to derive the optimal controller. There is a single adjustable closed loop tuning parameter for controller design. Systematic guidelines are provided for selection of this tuning parameter based on maximum sensitivity. Simulation studies have been carried out on various integrating time delay processes to show the advantages of the proposed method. The proposed controller provides enhanced closed loop performances when compared to recently reported methods in the literature. Quantitative comparative analysis has been carried out using the performance indices, Integral Absolute Error (IAE) and Total Variation (TV). Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of ent-kaurene Oxidase-Based Conserved Intron Spanning Primers for Species Identification in the Genus Poa (Poaceae; Bluegrass)

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan M. LaMantia; Ambika Chandra; David R. Huff

    2018-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization has been attempted to combine the heat and drought of Poa arachnifera Torr. with the turf quality characteristics of several Poa species. Confirmation of an F1 hybrid through morphological analysis of vegetative and flowering characteristics is often time consuming and ambiguous. Ent-kaurene oxidase (KO) has been sequenced in rice, barley, and wheat. In rice, each of the five copies of KO gene has unique lengths for the first intron. Conserved intron spanning prime...

  18. [Reconstruction of the phylogenetic position of larch (Larix sukaczewii Dylis) by sequencing data for the trnK intron of chloroplast DNA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashalkhanov, S I; Konstantinov, Iu M; Verbitskiĭ, D S; Kobzev, V F

    2003-10-01

    To reconstruct the systematic relationships of larch Larix sukaczewii, we used the chloroplast trnK intron sequences of L. decidua, L. sukaczewii, L. sibirica, L. czekanovskii, and L. gmelinii. Analysis of phylogenetic trees constructed using the maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood methods showed a clear divergence of the trnK intron sequences between L. sukaczewii and L. sibirica. This divergence reaches intraspecific level, which supports a previously published hypothesis on the taxonomic isolation of L. sukaczewii.

  19. Interrupted thymidylate synthase gene of bacteriophages T2 and T6 and other potential self-splicing introns in the T-even bacteriophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, F.K.; Maley, F.; Martinez, J.; Maley, G.F.

    1987-01-01

    Southern hybridization analyses of procaryotic DNA from Escherchia coli, λ bacteriophage, and T1 to T7 phages were carried out. The hybridization probes used consisted of DNA restriction fragments derived from the T4 phage intron-containing thymidylate synthase gene (td) and short synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides defining specific exon and intron regions of the gene. It was shown that intact as well as restricted DNA from the T-even phages hybridized not only to both T4 phage td intron- and exon-specific probes but also to probes defining the td 5' (exon I-intron) and 3' (intron-exon II) presplice junctions. These data strongly suggest that, analogous to the T4 phage, only the T2 and T6 phages among the procaryotes tested contain interrupted td genes. The td intervening sequence in each phage is roughly 1 kilobase pair (kb) in size and interrupts the td gene at a site analogous to that in the T4 phage. This was confirmed by data from Northern (RNA) hybridization analysis of td-specific in vitro transcripts of these phage DNAs. [α- 32 P]GTP in vitro labeling of total RNA from T4 phage-infected cells produced five species of labeled RNAs that were 1, 0.9, 0.83, 0.75, and 0.6 kb in size. Only the 1-, 0.9-, and 0.75-kb species were labeled in RNA from T2- or T6-infected cells. The commonly present 1-kb RNA is the excised td intron, which exists in both linear and circular forms in the respective T-even-phage-infected cells, while the 0.6-kb RNA unique to T4 may be the excised intron derived from the ribonucleotide reductase small subunit gene (nrdB) of the phage. The remaining labeled RNA species are likely candidates for other self-splicing introns

  20. Fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) intron 1 methylation in blood predicts verbal cognitive impairment in female carriers of expanded FMR1 alleles: evidence from a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godler, David E; Slater, Howard R; Bui, Quang M; Storey, Elsdon; Ono, Michele Y; Gehling, Freya; Inaba, Yoshimi; Francis, David; Hopper, John L; Kinsella, Glynda; Amor, David J; Hagerman, Randi J; Loesch, Danuta Z

    2012-03-01

    Cognitive status in females with mutations in the FMR1 (fragile X mental retardation 1) gene is highly variable. A biomarker would be of value for predicting which individuals were liable to develop cognitive impairment and could benefit from early intervention. A detailed analysis of CpG sites bridging exon 1 and intron 1 of FMR1, known as fragile X-related epigenetic element 2 (FREE2), suggests that a simple blood test could identify these individuals. Study participants included 74 control females (Wechsler intelligence quotient (IQ) tests. We used MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry to determine the methylation status of FREE2 CpG sites that best identified low-functioning (IQ 200 CGG repeats), compared the results with those for Southern blot FMR1 activation ratios, and related these assessments to the level of production of the FMR1 protein product in blood. A methylation analysis of intron 1 CpG sites 10-12 showed the highest diagnostic sensitivity (100%) and specificity (98%) of all the molecular measures tested for detecting females with a standardized verbal IQ of <70 among the study participants. In the group consisting of only FM females, methylation of these sites was significantly correlated with full-scale IQ, verbal IQ, and performance IQ. Several verbal subtest scores showed strong correlation with the methylation of these sites (P = 1.2 × 10(-5)) after adjustment for multiple measures. The data suggest that hypermethylation of the FMR1 intron 1 sites in blood is predictive of cognitive impairment in FM females, with implications for improved fragile X syndrome diagnostics in young children and screening of the newborn population.

  1. Enhanced photocurrent in thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells via shape controlled three-dimensional nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilali, Mohamed M; Banerjee, Sanjay; Sreenivasan, S V; Yang Shuqiang; Miller, Mike; Xu, Frank

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we have explored manufacturable approaches to sub-wavelength controlled three-dimensional (3D) nano-patterns with the goal of significantly enhancing the photocurrent in amorphous silicon solar cells. Here we demonstrate efficiency enhancement of about 50% over typical flat a-Si thin-film solar cells, and report an enhancement of 20% in optical absorption over Asahi textured glass by fabricating sub-wavelength nano-patterned a-Si on glass substrates. External quantum efficiency showed superior results for the 3D nano-patterned thin-film solar cells due to enhancement of broadband optical absorption. The results further indicate that this enhanced light trapping is achieved with minimal parasitic absorption losses in the deposited transparent conductive oxide for the nano-patterned substrate thin-film amorphous silicon solar cell configuration. Optical simulations are in good agreement with experimental results, and also show a significant enhancement in optical absorption, quantum efficiency and photocurrent. (paper)

  2. Heads, Shoulders, Elbows, Knees, and Toes: Modular Gdf5 Enhancers Control Different Joints in the Vertebrate Skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Capellini, Terence D; Schoor, Michael; Mortlock, Doug P; Reddi, A Hari; Kingsley, David M

    2016-11-01

    Synovial joints are crucial for support and locomotion in vertebrates, and are the frequent site of serious skeletal defects and degenerative diseases in humans. Growth and differentiation factor 5 (Gdf5) is one of the earliest markers of joint formation, is required for normal joint development in both mice and humans, and has been genetically linked to risk of common osteoarthritis in Eurasian populations. Here, we systematically survey the mouse Gdf5 gene for regulatory elements controlling expression in synovial joints. We identify separate regions of the locus that control expression in axial tissues, in proximal versus distal joints in the limbs, and in remarkably specific sub-sets of composite joints like the elbow. Predicted transcription factor binding sites within Gdf5 regulatory enhancers are required for expression in particular joints. The multiple enhancers that control Gdf5 expression in different joints are distributed over a hundred kilobases of DNA, including regions both upstream and downstream of Gdf5 coding exons. Functional rescue tests in mice confirm that the large flanking regions are required to restore normal joint formation and patterning. Orthologs of these enhancers are located throughout the large genomic region previously associated with common osteoarthritis risk in humans. The large array of modular enhancers for Gdf5 provide a new foundation for studying the spatial specificity of joint patterning in vertebrates, as well as new candidates for regulatory regions that may also influence osteoarthritis risk in human populations.

  3. A Contracted DNA Repeat in LHX3 Intron 5 Is Associated with Aberrant Splicing and Pituitary Dwarfism in German Shepherd Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorbij, Annemarie M. W. Y.; van Steenbeek, Frank G.; Vos-Loohuis, Manon; Martens, Ellen E. C. P.; Hanson-Nilsson, Jeanette M.; van Oost, Bernard A.; Kooistra, Hans S.; Leegwater, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    Dwarfism in German shepherd dogs is due to combined pituitary hormone deficiency of unknown genetic cause. We localized the recessively inherited defect by a genome wide approach to a region on chromosome 9 with a lod score of 9.8. The region contains LHX3, which codes for a transcription factor essential for pituitary development. Dwarfs have a deletion of one of six 7 bp repeats in intron 5 of LHX3, reducing the intron size to 68 bp. One dwarf was compound heterozygous for the deletion and an insertion of an asparagine residue in the DNA-binding homeodomain of LHX3, suggesting involvement of the gene in the disorder. An exon trapping assay indicated that the shortened intron is not spliced efficiently, probably because it is too small. We applied bisulfite conversion of cytosine to uracil in RNA followed by RT-PCR to analyze the splicing products. The aberrantly spliced RNA molecules resulted from either skipping of exon 5 or retention of intron 5. The same splicing defects were observed in cDNA derived from the pituitary of dwarfs. A survey of similarly mutated introns suggests that there is a minimal distance requirement between the splice donor and branch site of 50 nucleotides. In conclusion, a contraction of a DNA repeat in intron 5 of canine LHX3 leads to deficient splicing and is associated with pituitary dwarfism. PMID:22132174

  4. A contracted DNA repeat in LHX3 intron 5 is associated with aberrant splicing and pituitary dwarfism in German shepherd dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie M W Y Voorbij

    Full Text Available Dwarfism in German shepherd dogs is due to combined pituitary hormone deficiency of unknown genetic cause. We localized the recessively inherited defect by a genome wide approach to a region on chromosome 9 with a lod score of 9.8. The region contains LHX3, which codes for a transcription factor essential for pituitary development. Dwarfs have a deletion of one of six 7 bp repeats in intron 5 of LHX3, reducing the intron size to 68 bp. One dwarf was compound heterozygous for the deletion and an insertion of an asparagine residue in the DNA-binding homeodomain of LHX3, suggesting involvement of the gene in the disorder. An exon trapping assay indicated that the shortened intron is not spliced efficiently, probably because it is too small. We applied bisulfite conversion of cytosine to uracil in RNA followed by RT-PCR to analyze the splicing products. The aberrantly spliced RNA molecules resulted from either skipping of exon 5 or retention of intron 5. The same splicing defects were observed in cDNA derived from the pituitary of dwarfs. A survey of similarly mutated introns suggests that there is a minimal distance requirement between the splice donor and branch site of 50 nucleotides. In conclusion, a contraction of a DNA repeat in intron 5 of canine LHX3 leads to deficient splicing and is associated with pituitary dwarfism.

  5. Graphical User Interface and Microprocessor Control Enhancement of a Pseudorandom Code Generator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kos, John

    1999-01-01

    .... This thesis addresses the issue of providing automated computer control to previously built, manually controlled hardware incorporating the Stanford Telecom STEL-1032 Pseudo-Random Number (PRN) Coder...

  6. Proportional-Resonant Control of Doubly-Fed Induction Generator Wind Turbines for Low-Voltage Ride-Through Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan-Feng Song

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A novel control strategy is proposed in this paper for the rotor side converter (RSC of doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG-based wind power generation systems. It is supposed to enhance the low-voltage ride-through (LVRT capability of DFIGs during great-level grid voltage dips. The strategy consists of a proportional-resonant (PR controller and auxiliary PR controllers. The auxiliary controllers compensate the output voltage of the RSC in case of grid faults, thus limiting the rotor inrush current of DFIG and meeting the requirements of LVRT. Sequential-component decompositions of current are not required in the control system to improve the response of system. Since the resonant compensator is a double-side integrator, the auxiliary controllers can be simplified through coordinate transformation. The feasibility of the control strategy is validated by simulation on a 1.5 MW wind-turbine driven DFIG system. The impact of the RSC converter voltage rating on the LVRT capability of DFIG is investigated. Meanwhile, the influence of angular frequency detection and control parameters are also discussed. Compared with traditional vector control schemes based on PI current controllers, the presented control strategy effectively suppress rotor current and reduce oscillations of DFIG power and torque under grid faults.

  7. Passive noise control by enhancing aeroacoustic interference due to structural discontinuities in close proximity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, R. C. K.; So, R. M. C.; Tang, S. K.; Wang, X. Q.

    2011-07-01

    In-duct devices are commonly installed in flow ducts for various flow management purposes. The structural construction of these devices indispensably creates disruption to smooth flow through duct passages so they exist as structural discontinuities in duct flow. The presence of these discontinuities provides additional possibility of noise generation. In real practice, in-duct devices do not exist alone in any duct system. Even though each in-duct device would generate its own noise, it might be possible that these devices could be properly arranged so as to strengthen the interference between individual noise; thus giving rise to an overall reduction of noise radiation in the in-duct far field. This concept of passive noise control is investigated by considering different configurations of two structural discontinuities of simple form (i.e., a cavity) in tandem in an unconfined flow and in opposing setting within a flow duct. It is known that noise generated by a cavity in unconfined domain (unconfined cavity) is strongly dependent on flow-resonant behavior within the cavity so the interference it produces is merely aeroacoustic. The objective of the present study is to verify the concept of passive noise reduction through enhancement of aeroacoustic interference due to two cavities by considering laminar flow only. A two-dimensional approach is adopted for the direct aeroacoustic calculations using a direct numerical simulation (DNS) technique. The position and geometries of the cavities and the Mach number are varied; the resultant aeroacoustic behavior and acoustic power are calculated. The numerical results are compared with a single cavity case to highlight the effect of introducing additional cavities to the aeroacoustic problem. Resonant flow oscillations occur when two unconfined cavities are very close and the associated acoustic field is very intense with no noise reduction possible. However, for duct aeroacoustics, it is found that a 7.9 db reduction

  8. Ingestion of High Molecular Weight Carbohydrate Enhances Subsequent Repeated Maximal Power: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan M Oliver

    Full Text Available Athletes in sports demanding repeat maximal work outputs frequently train concurrently utilizing sequential bouts of intense endurance and resistance training sessions. On a daily basis, maximal work within subsequent bouts may be limited by muscle glycogen availability. Recently, the ingestion of a unique high molecular weight (HMW carbohydrate was found to increase glycogen re-synthesis rate and enhance work output during subsequent endurance exercise, relative to low molecular weight (LMW carbohydrate ingestion. The effect of the HMW carbohydrate, however, on the performance of intense resistance exercise following prolonged-intense endurance training is unknown. Sixteen resistance trained men (23±3 years; 176.7±9.8 cm; 88.2±8.6 kg participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized 3-way crossover design comprising a muscle-glycogen depleting cycling exercise followed by ingestion of placebo (PLA, or 1.2 g•kg•bw-1 of LMW or HMW carbohydrate solution (10% with blood sampling for 2-h post-ingestion. Thereafter, participants performed 5 sets of 10 maximal explosive repetitions of back squat (75% of 1RM. Compared to PLA, ingestion of HMW (4.9%, 90%CI 3.8%, 5.9% and LMW (1.9%, 90%CI 0.8%, 3.0% carbohydrate solutions substantially increased power output during resistance exercise, with the 3.1% (90% CI 4.3, 2.0% almost certain additional gain in power after HMW-LMW ingestion attributed to higher movement velocity after force kinematic analysis (HMW-LMW 2.5%, 90%CI 1.4, 3.7%. Both carbohydrate solutions increased post-exercise plasma glucose, glucoregulatory and gut hormones compared to PLA, but differences between carbohydrates were unclear; thus, the underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. Ingestion of a HMW carbohydrate following prolonged intense endurance exercise provides superior benefits to movement velocity and power output during subsequent repeated maximal explosive resistance exercise. This study was registered

  9. Owning genetic information and gene enhancement techniques: why privacy and property rights may undermine social control of the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, A D

    2000-04-01

    In this article I argue that the proper subjects of intangible property claims include medical records, genetic profiles, and gene enhancement techniques. Coupled with a right to privacy these intangible property rights allow individuals a zone of control that will, in most cases, justifiably exclude governmental or societal invasions into private domains. I argue that the threshold for overriding privacy rights and intangible property rights is higher, in relation to genetic enhancement techniques and sensitive personal information, than is commonly suggested. Once the bar is raised, so-to-speak, the burden of overriding it is formidable. Thus many policy decisions that have been recently proposed or enacted--citywide audio and video surveillance, law enforcement DNA sweeps, genetic profiling, national bans on genetic testing and enhancement of humans, to name a few--will have to be backed by very strong arguments.

  10. Genetic algorithm-based fuzzy-PID control methodologies for enhancement of energy efficiency of a dynamic energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahedi, G.; Ardehali, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    The simplicity in coding the heuristic judgment of experienced operator by means of fuzzy logic can be exploited for enhancement of energy efficiency. Fuzzy logic has been used as an effective tool for scheduling conventional PID controllers gain coefficients (F-PID). However, to search for the most desirable fuzzy system characteristics that allow for best performance of the energy system with minimum energy input, optimization techniques such as genetic algorithm (GA) could be utilized and the control methodology is identified as GA-based F-PID (GA-F-PID). The objective of this study is to examine the performance of PID, F-PID, and GA-F-PID controllers for enhancement of energy efficiency of a dynamic energy system. The performance evaluation of the controllers is accomplished by means of two cost functions that are based on the quadratic forms of the energy input and deviation from a setpoint temperature, referred to as energy and comfort costs, respectively. The GA-F-PID controller is examined in two different forms, namely, global form and local form. For the global form, all possible combinations of fuzzy system characteristics in the search domain are explored by GA for finding the fittest chromosome for all discrete time intervals during the entire operation period. For the local form, however, GA is used in each discrete time interval to find the fittest chromosome for implementation. The results show that the global form GA-F-PID and local form GA-F-PID control methodologies, in comparison with PID controller, achieve higher energy efficiency by lowering energy costs by 51.2%, and 67.8%, respectively. Similarly, the comfort costs for deviation from setpoint are enhanced by 54.4%, and 62.4%, respectively. It is determined that GA-F-PID performs better in local from than global form.

  11. Modulation of mdm2 pre-mRNA splicing by 9-aminoacridine-PNA (peptide nucleic acid conjugates targeting intron-exon junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen Peter E

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modulation of pre-mRNA splicing by antisense molecules is a promising mechanism of action for gene therapeutic drugs. In this study, we have examined the potential of peptide nucleic acid (PNA 9-aminoacridine conjugates to modulate the pre-mRNA splicing of the mdm2 human cancer gene in JAR cells. Methods We screened 10 different 15 mer PNAs targeting intron2 at both the 5' - and the 3'-splice site for their effects on the splicing of mdm2 using RT-PCR analysis. We also tested a PNA (2512 targeting the 3'-splice site of intron3 with a complementarity of 4 bases to intron3 and 11 bases to exon4 for its splicing modulation effect. This PNA2512 was further tested for the effects on the mdm2 protein level as well as for inhibition of cell growth in combination with the DNA damaging agent camptothecin (CPT. Results We show that several of these PNAs effectively inhibit the splicing thereby producing a larger mRNA still containing intron2, while skipping of exon3 was not observed by any of these PNAs. The most effective PNA (PNA2406 targeting the 3'-splice site of intron2 had a complementarity of 4 bases to intron2 and 11 bases to exon3. PNA (2512 targeting the 3'-splice site of intron3 induced both splicing inhibition (intron3 skipping and skipping of exon4. Furthermore, treatment of JAR cells with this PNA resulted in a reduction in the level of MDM2 protein and a concomitant increase in the level of tumor suppressor p53. In addition, a combination of this PNA with CPT inhibited cell growth more than CPT alone. Conclusion We have identified several PNAs targeting the 5'- or 3'-splice sites in intron2 or the 3'-splice site of intron3 of mdm2 pre-mRNA which can inhibit splicing. Antisense targeting of splice junctions of mdm2 pre-mRNA may be a powerful method to evaluate the cellular function of MDM2 splice variants as well as a promising approach for discovery of mdm2 targeted anticancer drugs.

  12. Group I introns and associated homing endonuclease genes reveals a clinal structure for Porphyra spiralis var. amplifolia (Bangiales, Rhodophyta along the Eastern coast of South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matioli Sergio R

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Group I introns are found in the nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA of some species of the genus Porphyra (Bangiales, Rhodophyta. Size polymorphisms in group I introns has been interpreted as the result of the degeneration of homing endonuclease genes (HEG inserted in peripheral loops of intron paired elements. In this study, intron size polymorphisms were characterized for different Porphyra spiralis var. amplifolia (PSA populations on the Southern Brazilian coast, and were used to infer genetic relationships and genetic structure of these PSA populations, in addition to cox2-3 and rbcL-S regions. Introns of different sizes were tested qualitatively for in vitro self-splicing. Results Five intron size polymorphisms within 17 haplotypes were obtained from 80 individuals representing eight localities along the distribution of PSA in the Eastern coast of South America. In order to infer genetic structure and genetic relationships of PSA, these polymorphisms and haplotypes were used as markers for pairwise Fst analyses, Mantel's test and median joining network. The five cox2-3 haplotypes and the unique rbcL-S haplotype were used as markers for summary statistics, neutrality tests Tajima's D and Fu's Fs and for median joining network analyses. An event of demographic expansion from a population with low effective number, followed by a pattern of isolation by distance was obtained for PSA populations with the three analyses. In vitro experiments have shown that introns of different lengths were able to self-splice from pre-RNA transcripts. Conclusion The findings indicated that degenerated HEGs are reminiscent of the presence of a full-length and functional HEG, once fixed for PSA populations. The cline of HEG degeneration determined the pattern of isolation by distance. Analyses with the other markers indicated an event of demographic expansion from a population with low effective number. The different degrees of

  13. Group I introns and associated homing endonuclease genes reveals a clinal structure for Porphyra spiralis var. amplifolia (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) along the Eastern coast of South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Background Group I introns are found in the nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA) of some species of the genus Porphyra (Bangiales, Rhodophyta). Size polymorphisms in group I introns has been interpreted as the result of the degeneration of homing endonuclease genes (HEG) inserted in peripheral loops of intron paired elements. In this study, intron size polymorphisms were characterized for different Porphyra spiralis var. amplifolia (PSA) populations on the Southern Brazilian coast, and were used to infer genetic relationships and genetic structure of these PSA populations, in addition to cox2-3 and rbcL-S regions. Introns of different sizes were tested qualitatively for in vitro self-splicing. Results Five intron size polymorphisms within 17 haplotypes were obtained from 80 individuals representing eight localities along the distribution of PSA in the Eastern coast of South America. In order to infer genetic structure and genetic relationships of PSA, these polymorphisms and haplotypes were used as markers for pairwise Fst analyses, Mantel's test and median joining network. The five cox2-3 haplotypes and the unique rbcL-S haplotype were used as markers for summary statistics, neutrality tests Tajima's D and Fu's Fs and for median joining network analyses. An event of demographic expansion from a population with low effective number, followed by a pattern of isolation by distance was obtained for PSA populations with the three analyses. In vitro experiments have shown that introns of different lengths were able to self-splice from pre-RNA transcripts. Conclusion The findings indicated that degenerated HEGs are reminiscent of the presence of a full-length and functional HEG, once fixed for PSA populations. The cline of HEG degeneration determined the pattern of isolation by distance. Analyses with the other markers indicated an event of demographic expansion from a population with low effective number. The different degrees of degeneration of the HEG

  14. The efficacy of a brief motivational enhancement education program on CPAP adherence in OSA: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Agnes Y K; Fong, Daniel Y T; Lam, Jamie C M; Weaver, Terri E; Ip, Mary S M

    2014-09-01

    Poor adherence to CPAP treatment in OSA adversely affects the effectiveness of this therapy. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) examined the efficacy of a brief motivational enhancement education program in improving adherence to CPAP treatment in subjects with OSA. Subjects with newly diagnosed OSA were recruited into this RCT. The control group received usual advice on the importance of CPAP therapy and its care. The intervention group received usual care plus a brief motivational enhancement education program directed at enhancing the subjects' knowledge, motivation, and self-efficacy to use CPAP through the use of a 25-min video, a 20-min patient-centered interview, and a 10-min telephone follow-up. Self-reported daytime sleepiness adherence-related cognitions and quality of life were assessed at 1 month and 3 months. CPAP usage data were downloaded at the completion of this 3-month study. One hundred subjects with OSA (mean ± SD, age 52 ± 10 years; Epworth Sleepiness Scales [ESS], 9 ± 5; median [interquartile range] apnea-hypopnea index, 29 [20, 53] events/h) prescribed CPAP treatment were recruited. The intervention group had better CPAP use (higher daily CPAP usage by 2 h/d [Cohen d = 1.33, P motivational enhancement education in addition to usual care were more likely to show better adherence to CPAP treatment, with greater improvements in treatment self-efficacy and daytime sleepiness. ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT01173406; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.

  15. A proposed defect tracking model for classifying the inserted defect reports to enhance software quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Torky; Khedr, Ayman E; Sayed, Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    NONE DECLARED Defect tracking systems play an important role in the software development organizations as they can store historical information about defects. There are many research in defect tracking models and systems to enhance their capabilities to be more specifically tracking, and were adopted with new technology. Furthermore, there are different studies in classifying bugs in a step by step method to have clear perception and applicable method in detecting such bugs. This paper shows a new proposed defect tracking model for the purpose of classifying the inserted defects reports in a step by step method for more enhancement of the software quality.

  16. Enhanced invitation methods to increase uptake of NHS health checks: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Forster, Alice S; Burgess, Caroline; McDermott, Lisa; Wright, Alison J; Dodhia, Hiten; Conner, Mark; Miller, Jane; Rudisill, Caroline; Cornelius, Victoria; Gulliford, Martin C

    2014-01-01

    Background NHS Health Checks is a new program for primary prevention of heart disease, stroke, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and vascular dementia in adults aged 40 to 74 years in England. Individuals without existing cardiovascular disease or diabetes are invited for a Health Check every 5 years. Uptake among those invited is lower than anticipated. Method The project is a three-arm randomized controlled trial to test the hypothesis that enhanced invitation methods, using the Question-Be...

  17. Pronounced enhancement of exciton Rabi oscillation for a two-photon transition based on quantum dot coupling control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Jian; Lu Di; Du Chaoling; Liu Youwen; Shi Daning; Lai Wei; Guo Chunlei; Gong Shangqing

    2012-01-01

    We theoretically investigate how to control the Rabi oscillation of excitons of the coupling quantum dots by manipulating static electric fields. Our results show that, for a single-photon process, when direct excitons change into indirect excitons with a bias applied on the sample, the Rabi oscillation rarely alters. However, for the two-photon process, a pronounced enhancement of Rabi oscillation is observed, which can be utilized as the logic gate in quantum information. (paper)

  18. Problems of the inclusion of workplaces with enhanced radon and radon daughter concentrations into occupational radiation protection control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przyborowski, S.

    1993-01-01

    New international recommendations (ICRP-60) on inclusion of workplaces with enhanced radon and radon daughter concentrations into occupational control are expected. Based on present regulations in Germany the problems of their implementation into radiation protection practice will be discussed. For underground workplaces and workplaces in radon spas and waterworks problems may be exist in particular points, whereas inclusion of workplaces in buildings seems to be problematicly in general. (orig./HP) [de

  19. Enhancing transparent fuzzy controllers through temporal concepts : an application to computer games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acampora, G.; Loia, V.; Vitiello, A.

    2010-01-01

    In the last years, FML (Fuzzy Markup Language) is emerging as one of the most efficient and useful language to define a fuzzy control thanks to its capability of modeling Fuzzy Logic Controllers in a human-readable and hardware independent way, i.e. the so-called Transparent Fuzzy Controllers

  20. Comparison of model reference and map based control method for vehicle stability enhancement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baek, S.; Son, M.; Song, J.; Boo, K.; Kim, H.

    2012-01-01

    A map based controller method to improve a vehicle lateral stability is proposed in this study and compared with the conventional method, a model referenced controller. A model referenced controller to determine compensated yaw moment uses the sliding mode method, but the proposed map based