Bond, Rucha; Donohoe, Krista L; Jakeman, Berrnadette; Davis, Herbert T; Morgan, Laura
To implement a mock rounds activity designed to introduce and develop patient presentation skills in pharmacy students. The sample population included third-year pharmacy students enrolled at the University of New Mexico (UNM) and Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU) during Fall 2011, 2012, and 2013. A mock rounds activity was developed and implemented in the Pharmaceutical Care Lab setting. Students were assigned an infectious disease case and asked to create an assessment and plan to present orally to an acting preceptor in a small group laboratory setting. Summative assessment of student performance was evaluated using a standardized rubric. A total of 621 students (VCU: 371; UNM: 250) from both universities participated in the mock rounds activity. Data was collected using the rubric. Students scored highest in the areas of respectfulness (94.8% exceeds expectations) and completion time (86.9% exceeds expectations). The lowest ratings were in the areas of logical flow and organization (73.7% exceeds expectations) and ability to answer preceptors' questions (73.3% exceeds expectations). A simulated mock rounds activity enabled students to practice patient case presentation skills and receive summative feedback prior to Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
C Ezeala, Christian; A Ram, Arnold; Vulakouvaki, Napolioni
Active learning methods such as problem-based learning have been widely adopted in health professions education, although guided inquiry learning has been used only in limited settings. The objective of this study was to determine students' learning gain when guided inquiry learning was combined with computer simulation in a basic pharmacology course. The second-year pharmacy students from Fiji National University participated in the study. Following classroom lectures on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, the students used tutor-prepared practice problems in groups of 3-4 to explore their concepts with Cyber Patient and Virtual Organ Bath software. Pre- and posttest assessments were administered to determine the learning gain from the exercises based on Hake's criteria. Forty-two students participated in the study. The average normalized learning gain from the pharmacokinetics exercises was 0.68. Thirty-seven participants (88.1%) achieved a significant learning gain, while 5 (11.90%) did not. The average normalized learning gain from the pharmacodynamics exercises was 0.76. Forty-one participants (97.6%) achieved a significant learning gain, while one participant (2.4%) did not. These results demonstrated that use of guided inquiry learning with computer simulations could produce significant learning gains with improvement in students' understanding of basic pharmacology.
1 ABSTRACT PHARMACY STUDENTS' QUALITY OF LIFE Student: Karolína Horáková Tutor: PharmDr. Jitka Pokladníková, Ph.D. Dept. of Social and Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové, Charles University, Czech Republic Introduction: The quality of life of pharmacy students may change throughout their university life and differ from the quality of life of the general population. In the Czech Republic, quality of life of pharmacy students was not yet examined. Aim: The aim was to deter...
Objective: To evaluate pharmacy students' perception of the application of learning management system (LMS) in their education in a Doctor of Pharmacy program in Benin City. Method: In a special ICT class, 165 pharmacy students were introduced to LMS using an open source program, DoceboÓ after which a ...
Flaherty, Anne Guerin
This study investigates the relationship between student engagement (as measured by the National Survey of Student Engagement benchmarks) and pharmacy student professionalism (as measured by the Pharmacy Professionalism Domain instrument) in first and third year pharmacy students at seven different schools of pharmacy. Engagement provides the…
Dominick P Trombetta, Pharm.D
Full Text Available Chronic diseases are the main contributor to both health care costs and mortality in the United States, with medication non-adherence and lifestyle modifications being leading causes. To motivate patients with several co-morbidities, the longitudinal care class was used to educate on maintaining adherence to prescribed regimens. Twenty pharmacy students were trained in health coaching and motivational interviewing methods. Specifically, students were to provide patients with education sheets, apply the teach-back method, and motivate the patient to develop and reach SMART goals made with the pharmacy student over a course of one academic school year. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have in any product or service discussed in the manuscript, including grants (pending or received, employment, gifts, stock holdings or options, honoraria, consultancies, expert testimony, patents and royalties. Type: Note
Norose, Takahiko; Ito, Mika; Endo, Kikutaro; Fujimoto, Tetsuya; Moriya, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Miho
In recent years, the number of high school graduates has decreased, whereas the number of new pharmacy schools has increased substantially. Therefore, pharmacy schools these days accommodate students from diverse backgrounds in terms of basic knowledge, study skills, and/or their motivation to be pharmacists. To address this issue, we developed a mandatory 10-day course named "Pharmacy experiential practice" for the first-year students. The program trains students in basic pharmacy calculation skills and communication skills, and provides an insight into how these skills can be applied in actual pharmacy practice. The program includes 5 themes, namely, "Compounds", "Solutions", "Infusions", "Nutrition" and "Communication". Each theme, except "Communication", was conducted for 2 days 3 hour calculation practice in class and 3 hour pharmacy experiential practice each day. In the calculation class, we introduced team-based learning, which enhanced the students for interactive learning in the classes. In the pharmacy experiential practices, the students were trained not only to apply their calculation skills to pharmacy practice in each theme, but also to understand the importance of basic science knowledge in strengthening the foundations for their calculation skills. Course evaluation showed that students experienced the effectiveness of interactive study and that they realized the importance of pharmacy practice and the basic sciences that they had learnt. Some students commented that their motivation to become pharmacists increased after this course.
Conclusion: Fourth year students believed that pharmacy education and practice affect the health care system. Their favorite career areas were clinical pharmacy, industrial pharmacy, and hospital pharmacy. Personal interest was the most important factor involved in this selection. Most of them were interested in pharmacy-related research activities.
Prescott, Julie; Wilson, Sarah Ellen; Wan, Kai-Wai
To determine the level of importance pharmacy students placed on science and mathematics subjects for pursuing a career in pharmacy. Two hundred fifty-four students completed a survey instrument developed to investigate students' perceptions of the relevance of science and mathematics subjects to a career in pharmacy. Pharmacy students in all 4 years of a master of pharmacy (MPharm) degree program were invited to complete the survey instrument. Students viewed chemistry-based and biology-based subjects as relevant to a pharmacy career, whereas mathematics subjects such as physics, logarithms, statistics, and algebra were not viewed important to a career in pharmacy. Students' experience in pharmacy and year of study influenced their perceptions of subjects relevant to a pharmacy career. Pharmacy educators need to consider how they can help students recognize the importance of scientific knowledge earlier in the pharmacy curriculum.
Oliver, Wesley; McGuffey, Grant; Westrick, Salisa C; Jungnickel, Paul W; Correia, Christopher J
To identify reasons for drinking, determine the patterns of alcohol abuse, and explore relationships between drinking motives and alcohol abuse patterns in pharmacy students. A cross-sectional anonymous, voluntary, self-administered paper survey instrument was administered to first-year (P1) through third-year (P3) pharmacy students as part of a professional seminar. Survey instruments were completed by 349 pharmacy students (95.9% cooperation rate). Using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test criteria, 23.2% of students reported hazardous or harmful use and 67.2% of students reported consuming alcohol at hazardous levels during the past year. Students who were male (37.0%), single (25.3%), and attended the main campus (26.2%) were more likely than their counterparts to report hazardous or harmful alcohol use. Pharmacy students reported social motives as the most common reason for drinking; however, coping and enhancement motives were more predictive of harmful or hazardous alcohol use. Approximately 1 in 4 pharmacy students (23%) reported hazardous or harmful alcohol use. Education about the dangers of alcohol abuse and intervention programs from colleges and schools of pharmacy are recommended to help address this issue.
Oliver, Wesley; McGuffey, Grant; Westrick, Salisa C.; Jungnickel, Paul W.; Correia, Christopher J.
Objective. To identify reasons for drinking, determine the patterns of alcohol abuse, and explore relationships between drinking motives and alcohol abuse patterns in pharmacy students. Methods. A cross-sectional anonymous, voluntary, self-administered paper survey instrument was administered to first-year (P1) through third-year (P3) pharmacy students as part of a professional seminar. Results. Survey instruments were completed by 349 pharmacy students (95.9% cooperation rate). Using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test criteria, 23.2% of students reported hazardous or harmful use and 67.2% of students reported consuming alcohol at hazardous levels during the past year. Students who were male (37.0%), single (25.3%), and attended the main campus (26.2%) were more likely than their counterparts to report hazardous or harmful alcohol use. Pharmacy students reported social motives as the most common reason for drinking; however, coping and enhancement motives were more predictive of harmful or hazardous alcohol use. Conclusion. Approximately 1 in 4 pharmacy students (23%) reported hazardous or harmful alcohol use. Education about the dangers of alcohol abuse and intervention programs from colleges and schools of pharmacy are recommended to help address this issue. PMID:24672063
Haight, Robert C; Kolar, Claire; Nelson, Michael H; Fierke, Kerry K; Sucher, Brandon J; Janke, Kristin K
Objective. To determine the frequency distribution of pharmacy students across Emotionally Intelligent Leadership Inventory (EILI) measures. Methods. The EILI was administered to 235 pharmacy students at two schools. The instrument was systematically compared to the 2013 CAPE Outcomes and analyzed by confirmatory factor analysis. Results. The EILI has primary connections with pharmacy competencies related to interprofessional communication and leadership. The three facets of the EILI were verified for internal consistency (Context, α=.78; Self, α=.74; Others, α=.79). Student scores were the highest for the consciousness of self facet, with a mean score of 31.4 out of 40. Conclusion. The EILI shows promise as an instrument for use in assessing pharmacy students' emotional intelligence and leadership skills.
Corkern, Sheree M.; Morgan, Mark I.
This paper informs business instructors and educators about XBRL (Extensible Business Reporting Language) so that they can introduce it to their students and expand their students' understanding of how it relates to the accounting profession. Even though the financial community has entered a new age with this standardized reporting language, many…
Hasan, Syed Shahzad; Kwai Chong, David Weng; Ahmadi, Keivan; Se, Wong Pei; Hassali, Mohammed Azmi; Hata, Ernieda Mohammed; Hadi, Muhammed Abdul; Sridhar, Sathvik Belagodu; Ahmed, Syed Imran; Yean, Low Bee; Efendie, Benny
To identify and evaluate factors affecting the career preferences of fourth-year bachelor of pharmacy (BPharm) students in Malaysia in the presence of a 4-year period of mandatory government service. A validated self-administered questionnaire was used in this cross-sectional study to collect data from final-year BPharm students enrolled at 3 government-funded universities and 1 private university in Malaysia. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis. Three hundred fourteen students responded (213 from public universities and 101 from the private university). Approximately 32% of public university students and 37% of private university students ranked their own interest in pharmacy as the reason for undertaking pharmacy degree studies; 40.4% of public and 19.8% of private university respondents stated that they would enter a nonpharmacy-related career upon graduation if given the choice. Public university students ranked hospital pharmacy as their choice of first career setting (4.39, p = 0.001), while private students ranked community pharmacy first (4.1, p = 0.002). On a scale of 1 to 5, salary received the highest mean score (3.9 and 4.0, p = 0.854) as the extrinsic factor most influencing their career choice. Final-year students at Malaysian public universities were most interested in hospital pharmacy practice as their first career step upon graduation, while private university students were most interested in community pharmacy. The top 3 extrinsic factors rated as significant in selecting a career destination were salary, benefits, and geographical location.
Hammond, Drayton A; Oyler, Douglas R; Devlin, John W; Painter, Jacob T; Bolesta, Scott; Swanson, Joseph M; Bailey, Brett J; Branan, Trisha; Barletta, Jeffrey F; Dunn, Brianne; Haney, Jason S; Juang, Paul; Kane-Gill, Sandra L; Kiser, Tyree H; Shafeeq, Hira; Skaar, Debra; Smithburger, Pamela; Taylor, Jodi
Objective. To examine perceived motivating factors and barriers (MFB) to postgraduate training (PGT) pursuit among pharmacy students. Methods. Third-year pharmacy students at 13 schools of pharmacy provided demographics and their plan and perceived MFBs for pursuing PGT. Responses were characterized using descriptive statistics. Kruskal-Wallis equality-of-proportions rank tests determined if differences in perceived MFBs existed between students based on plan to pursue PGT. Results. Among 1218 (69.5%) respondents, 37.1% planned to pursue PGT (32.9% did not, 30% were undecided). Students introduced to PGT prior to beginning pharmacy school more frequently planned to pursue PGT. More students who planned to pursue PGT had hospital work experience. The primary PGT rationale was, "I desire to gain more knowledge and experience." Student debt was the most commonly cited barrier. Conclusion. Introducing pharmacy students early to PGT options and establishing work experiences in the hospital setting may increase students' desire to pursue PGT.
Bruno, Christine B; Ip, Eric; Shah, Bijal; Linn, William D
To introduce pharmacy students to a patient-centered mnemonic to aid them in remembering the most important parameters when assessing a patient's drug therapy and to determine whether use of the device improved students' clinical examination scores. Second-year pharmacy students were randomized to an intervention group or a control group. A 30-minute presentation on the rationale of the mnemonic and how to apply it to clinical scenarios was given to the intervention group and then a case-based multiple-choice clinical examination was administered. Students in the control group completed the same examination first and then were given the mnemonic. Ninety-five students completed the examination. Examination scores of students in the intervention group were 6% higher than those of students in the control group (p = 0.04). A 6-question survey instrument was administered to both groups and the majority of students agreed that they would use the mnemonic when assessing patients during their upcoming practice experiences. One-hundred percent of the students stated that the mnemonic definitely or probably helped them (or would have helped them) think critically when assessing the patient cases. Pharmacy students who used a mnemonic device for pharmacotherapy assessment exhibited better decision-making skills and made fewer errors than students who did not use the mnemonic.
Svensberg, Karin; Brandlistuen, Ragnhild Eek; Björnsdottir, Ingunn; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark
Good communication skills are essential for pharmacy students to help patients with their medicines. Students' attitudes towards communication skills learning will influence their willingness to engage in communication training, and their skills when dealing with patients later on in their professional life. The aim of this study was to explore Nordic pharmacy students' attitudes to communication skills learning, and the associations between those attitudes and various student characteristics. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted in 11 Nordic pharmacy schools between April 2015 and January 2016. The overall response rate for the final study population was 77% (367 out of 479 students). Pharmacy students who had fulfilled all mandatory communication training and most of their pharmacy practical experience periods were included. The communication skills attitudes scale was the main outcome. Linear regression models were fitted with the outcome variable and various student characteristics as the predictors, using generalized estimating equations to account for clustering within pharmacy schools. Nordic pharmacy students in general have moderately positive attitudes towards learning communication skills. Positive attitudes towards learning communication skills among pharmacy students were associated with being female (β adjusted 0.42, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.63, p communication skills improvement (β adjusted 0.50, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.71, pcommunication skills are not the result of personality (β adjusted -0.24, 95% CI -0.44 to -0.04, p=0.017). The study provides important information for faculty members responsible for curriculum improvements and teachers to refine their teaching of communication skills. From this, the teaching can be better tailored to suit different students. The students' chances of being able to effectively help patients in the future will be increased by that. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Methods: A cross-sectional survey of pharmacy students and pharmacists (n = 523) to assess discriminatory attitudes towards PLWHA was conducted using a self completed questionnaire. Correlation and ... negative perception items, namely, (a) people who got HIV through sex deserve it (p = 0.003), (b). PLWHA would ...
Goggin, Kathy; Hawes, Starlyn M; Duval, Elizabeth R; Spresser, Carrie D; Martínez, David A; Lynam, Ian; Barnes, Amy; Hinton-Dampf, Amber M; Murphy, Meghan E; Marken, Patricia A; Catley, Delwyn
To create, implement, and evaluate a pharmacy course on motivational interviewing. A 3-hour elective course was created to train doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students in brief patient-centered motivational interviewing counseling strategies that have proven effective with the types of health issues most commonly addressed in pharmacy settings. Students were assisted in developing their skills through required readings, interactive lectures, in-class demonstrations and practice sessions, out of class skills practice, one-on-one supervision provided by doctoral level clinical health psychology students, and written reflections on each class session. Students demonstrated significant improvement in motivational interviewing skills and a high level of motivation for and confidence in using these skills in their future practice. Students overall assessment of the course and supervision process was highly positive. This patient-centered counseling skills course was feasible and produced improvements in PharmD students' counseling skills and increased their motivation and confidence to use motivational interviewing skills in their future communications with patients.
P. Avila Jr
Full Text Available The knowledge of scientific method provides stimulus and development of critical thinking and logical analysis of information besides the training of continuous formulation of hypothesis to be applied in formal scientific issues as well as in everyday facts. The scientific education, useful for all people, is indispensable for the experimental science students. Aiming at the possibility to offer a systematic learning of the scientific principles, we developed a undergraduate course designed to approximate the students to the procedures of scientific production and publication. The course was developed in a 40 hours, containing two modules: I. Introducing Scientific Articles (papers and II. Writing Research Project. The first module deals with: (1 the difference between scientific knowledge and common sense; (2 scientific methodology; (3 scientific publishing categories; (4 logical principles; (5 deduction and induction approach and (6 paper analysis. The second module includes (1 selection of problem to be solved by experimental procedures; (2 bibliography revision; (3 support agencies; (4 project writing and presentation and (5 critical analysis of experimental results. The course used a Collaborative Learning strategy with each topic being developed through activities performed by the students. Qualitative and quantitative (through Likert questionnaires evaluation were carried out in each step of the course, the results showing great appreciation by the students. This is also the opinion of the staff responsible for the planning and development of the course, which is now in its second and improved version.
Hidayat, Levita; Vansal, Sandeep; Kim, Esther; Sullivan, Maureen; Salbu, Rebecca
To assess the association of pharmacy students' personal characteristics with absenteeism and academic performance. A survey instrument was distributed to first- (P1) and second-year (P2) pharmacy students to gather characteristics including employment status, travel time to school, and primary source of educational funding. In addition, absences from specific courses and reasons for not attending classes were assessed. Participants were divided into "high" and "low" performers based on grade point average. One hundred sixty survey instruments were completed and 135 (84.3%) were included in the study analysis. Low performers were significantly more likely than high performers to have missed more than 8 hours in therapeutics courses. Low performers were significantly more likely than high performers to miss class when the class was held before or after an examination and low performers were significantly more likely to believe that participating in class did not benefit them. There was a negative association between the number of hours students' missed and their performance in specific courses. These findings provide further insight into the reasons for students' absenteeism in a college or school of pharmacy setting.
Khan, Muhammad Umair; Ahmad, Akram; Fayyaz, Muhammad; Ashraf, Nida; Bhagavathula, Akshaya
The objective of this study was to assess the association of the constructs of theory of planned behaviour (behavioural beliefs, normative beliefs, control beliefs) and demographic variables with the intentions of pharmacy students to become pharmacy owner. A cross sectional study was conducted between October and November, 2014, using a pretested, self-administered questionnaire delivered to a sample of 350 pharmacy students at a private university of Pakistan. Behavioural beliefs, normative beliefs and control beliefs were assessed on four point Likert scale of agreement. The scores were summed and dichotomized based on an arbitrary 50% cut-off score to assess positive and negative beliefs. Binary logistic regression was used to analyse the data. A total of 313 participants (89.4%) responded to the questionnaire. Participants' behavioural beliefs, normative beliefs and control beliefs were negative towards pharmacy ownership with the mean scores of 13.90 ± 0.41 (score range: 6-24), 9.66 ± 0.49 (score range: 4-16) and 16.88 ± 0.40 (score range: 7-28) respectively. Professional year and family business were significantly associated with intentions of pharmacy students to own a pharmacy (p Behavioural beliefs, normative beliefs and control beliefs were negative towards pharmacy ownership. Implementation of entrepreneurship course in pharmacy school may transform the beliefs of pharmacy students towards pharmacy ownership.
Full Text Available Hazardous use of alcohol continues to be recognized as a problem at the university level. Knowledge regarding alcohol consumption in healthcare professional students is limited, especially in regards to pharmacy students. Much of the information available focuses on pharmacy student drinking patterns in specific geographic regions or is simply outdated.Objectives: This study was designed to assess levels of alcohol consumption and estimate the level of hazardous drinking among pharmacy students in a larger sample size that is representative of US pharmacy schools.Methods: An anonymous survey regarding alcohol usage was offered to students at nine school of pharmacy across the United States. The survey consisted of demographic questions, the World Health Organization Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT, and questions that assess particular alcohol-induced behaviorsResults: More than 25% of 1161 respondents had a total AUDIT score = 8, which indicates a risk of alcohol-related problems. Students that were male, in their first or second professional year of school, not married, and without children were statistically more likely to have AUDIT scores in the hazardous drinking range. Grade point average and student housing did not statistically affect student’s AUDIT scores.Conclusion: These results indicate that over one-fourth of pharmacy students surveyed have indicators of harmful alcohol use. Pharmacy schools should continue to address and confront hazardous alcohol use on campuses in order to curtail heavy alcohol consumption and reduce the risk of alcohol-related problems in pharmacy students.
Laverty, Garry; Hanna, Lezley-Anne; Haughey, Sharon; Hughes, Carmel
Objective. To create, implement, and evaluate a workshop that teaches undergraduate pharmacy students about entrepreneurship. Design. Workshops with 3 hours of contact time and 2 hours of self-study time were developed for final-year students. Faculty members and students evaluated peer assessment, peer development, communication, critical evaluation, creative thinking, problem solving, and numeracy skills, as well as topic understanding. Student evaluation of the workshops was done primarily via a self-administered, 9-item questionnaire. Assessment. One hundred thirty-four students completed the workshops. The mean score was 50.9 out of 65. Scores ranged from 45.9 to 54.1. The questionnaire had a 100% response rate. Many students agreed that workshops about entrepreneurship were a useful teaching method and that key skills were fostered. Conclusion. Workshops effectively delivered course content about entrepreneurship and helped develop relevant skills. This work suggests students value instruction on entrepreneurship.
Hanna, Lezley-Anne; Haughey, Sharon; Hughes, Carmel
Objective. To create, implement, and evaluate a workshop that teaches undergraduate pharmacy students about entrepreneurship. Design. Workshops with 3 hours of contact time and 2 hours of self-study time were developed for final-year students. Faculty members and students evaluated peer assessment, peer development, communication, critical evaluation, creative thinking, problem solving, and numeracy skills, as well as topic understanding. Student evaluation of the workshops was done primarily via a self-administered, 9-item questionnaire. Assessment. One hundred thirty-four students completed the workshops. The mean score was 50.9 out of 65. Scores ranged from 45.9 to 54.1. The questionnaire had a 100% response rate. Many students agreed that workshops about entrepreneurship were a useful teaching method and that key skills were fostered. Conclusion. Workshops effectively delivered course content about entrepreneurship and helped develop relevant skills. This work suggests students value instruction on entrepreneurship. PMID:27168619
Syed Abdul, Majid Mufaqam
Today's pharmacists are likely to encounter questions about nutritional products sold in the pharmacy. This is due, in part, to the increased number of pharmacies attached to grocery stores and the availability of pharmacists. Many pharmacists report they lack nutritional knowledge and believe the best time to educate pharmacists about nutrition is during pharmacy school. This study was conducted to determine if today's pharmacy students receive education in nutrition and if they realize the importance of nutrition education. Two hundred and twenty five students from India and ninety five students from the United States currently attending pharmacy school were surveyed. Results showed only 3.5% of students from India and 13.6% of students from the United States received nutrition education during their pharmacy degree curriculum. In addition, 81.8% of students from India and 82.9% of students from the United States who had taken a course in nutrition believed a nutrition course should be incorporated into the pharmacy degree curriculum. When pharmacy-related experience was taken into account, 92.9% of students from India and 73.3% of students from the United States also believed a nutrition course should be incorporated into the pharmacy degree curriculum. Overall, 88% of students from India and 70.5% of students from the United States believed nutrition education was important and should be included in the pharmacy degree curriculum. Results of this study suggest the majority of today's pharmacy students believe a nutrition course should be incorporated into the pharmacy degree curriculum regardless of past nutrition education or pharmacy-related experience.
Thurston, Maria Miller; Harris, Elaine C.; Ryan, Gina J.
Objective. To assess and compare interprofessional education (IPE) naive pharmacy and nursing student stereotypes prior to completion of an IPE activity. Methods. Three hundred and twenty-three pharmacy students and 275 nursing students at Mercer University completed the Student Stereotypes Rating Questionnaire. Responses from pharmacy and nursing students were compared, and responses from different level learners within the same profession also were compared. Results. Three hundred and fifty-six (59.5%) students completed the survey. Pharmacy students viewed pharmacists more favorably than nursing students viewed pharmacists for all attributes except the ability to work independently. Additionally, nursing students viewed nurses less favorably than pharmacy students viewed nurses for academic ability and practical skills. There was some variability in stereotypes between professional years. Conclusion. This study confirms the existence of professional stereotypes, although overall student perceptions of their own profession and the other were generally positive. PMID:28720912
Muhammad Umair Khan
Full Text Available Purpose: In Pakistan, courses in pharmacy practice, which are an essential component of the PharmD curriculum, were launched with the aim of strengthening pharmacy practice overall and enabling pharmacy students to cope with the challenges involved in meeting real-world healthcare needs. Since very little research has assessed the efficacy of such courses, we aimed to evaluate students’ perceptions of pharmacy practice courses and their opinions about whether their current knowledge of the topics covered in pharmacy practice courses is adequate for future practice. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted over two months among the senior pharmacy students of two pharmacy colleges. A content- and face-validated questionnaire was used to collect data, which were then analysed using SPSS version 20. Descriptive analysis and logistic regression were performed. Results: Research in pharmacy practice (30.2%, applied drug information (34.4%, health policy (38.1%, public health and epidemiology (39.5%, pharmacovigilance (45.6%, and pharmacoeconomics (47.9% were the major courses that were covered to the least extent in the PharmD curriculum. However, hospital pharmacy practice (94.4%, pharmacotherapeutics (88.8%, and community pharmacy practice (82.8% were covered well. Although 94% of students considered these courses important, only 37.2% considered themselves to be competent in the corresponding topics. Of the participants, 87.9% agreed that the pharmacy courses in the present curriculum should be redesigned. Conclusion: Our results showed that the pharmacy practice courses in the current PharmD curriculum do not encompass some important core subjects. A nationwide study is warranted to further establish the necessity for remodelling pharmacy practice courses in Pakistan.
Siracuse, Mark V; Schondelmeyer, Stephen W; Hadsall, Ronald S; Schommer, Jon C
To describe PharmD students' work experiences and activities; examine their attitudes towards their work; examine perceptions of preceptor pharmacists they worked with; and determine important issues associated with career preference. A written survey was administered to third-year doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students at 8 colleges and schools of pharmacy in the Midwest. Five hundred thirty-three students (response rate = 70.4%) completed the survey instrument. Nearly 100% of PharmD students reported working in a pharmacy by the time their advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) began. Seventy-eight percent reported working in a community pharmacy, and 67% had worked in a chain community pharmacy. For all practice settings, students reported spending 69% of their time on activities such as compounding, dispensing, and distribution of drug products. Most students are working in community pharmacy (mainly chain) positions where their primary function is traditional drug product dispensing and distribution. Having a controllable work schedule was the variable most strongly associated with career choice for all students.
Christensen, Søren Troels; Søndergaard, Birthe; Honoré, Per Hartvig
of pharmacists in ADR reporting, although varies significantly among countries. Pharmacists in community pharmacies are in a unique position for detection of experienced ADRs by the drug users. The study reports from a study on community pharmacy internship students' proactive role in ADR detection through...
Mathys, Monica; Neyland-Turner, Elizabeth; Hamouie, Keenan; Kim, Emily
The effect of pharmacy students as primary pharmacy members on inpatient interdisciplinary mental health teams was investigated. This retrospective study used Veterans Affairs data from veterans who were admitted to an inpatient mental health unit from January 1, 2010, through December 31, 2012. Eligible veterans had to have been hospitalized for at least five days and treated with at least five scheduled medications during the hospitalization. Information collected by the investigators included patient age, psychiatric diagnoses, accuracy of medication reconciliation on admission and at discharge, and readmission rates within six months and one year. Additional information collected included monitoring parameters for lithium, divalproex, first-generation antipsychotics, and second-generation antipsychotics. The primary outcome was the percentage of accurate medication reconciliations for treatment teams with a fourth-year pharmacy student and without a pharmacy student. Clinical monitoring and readmission rates were also compared. A total of 526 patients were eligible for study inclusion. Medication reconciliation was performed on admission for all patients followed by a team involving a pharmacy student (experimental group), but only 51% of patients in the control group had documented medication reconciliations in the medical chart. Of the medication reconciliations completed, 82% were performed correctly in the experimental group, compared with 61% when a pharmacy student was not involved (p = 0.006). There were no significant differences between groups in psychotropic monitoring and readmission rates. The presence of fourth-year pharmacy students on inpatient mental health interdisciplinary teams was associated with more frequent interventions, patient counseling, and medication reconciliation, compared with rates for teams without a pharmacy student. Medication reconciliation was performed more consistently and accurately when the teams had a pharmacy student
Spies, Alan R; Wilkin, Noel E; Bentley, John P; Bouldin, Alicia S; Wilson, Marvin C; Holmes, Erin R
To adapt and evaluate an instrument that measures perceived psychological contract violations in pharmacy students by schools and colleges of pharmacy. A psychological contract violations measure was developed from existing literature and the 1997 ACPE Guidelines and pilot-tested with second-year pharmacy students at 2 schools of pharmacy. A revised measure then was administered to second-year pharmacy students at 6 schools of pharmacy. Using a 5-point Likert-type scale, participants were asked to indicate the level of obligations they received compared to what was promised by the school of pharmacy. Exploratory factor analysis on the psychological contract violations measure was conducted using principal components analysis resulting in 7 factors, which led to a revised measure with 26 items. Using a sample of 339 students, the proposed 7-factor measurement model was tested using confirmatory factor analysis. In general, the results supported the hypothesized model. The final 23-item scale demonstrated both reliability and validity. Some students perceived certain aspects of the psychological contract that exists with their school of pharmacy were being violated. The psychological contract violations measure may serve as a valuable tool in helping to identify areas where their students believe that schools/colleges of pharmacy have not fulfilled promised obligations.
Parkes, Jacqueline; O'Dell, Cindy
It is more than a decade since the UK Central Council for Nursing Midwifery and Health Visiting said that engaging with clinical audit is 'the business of every registered practitioner', yet there appears to be little evidence that nursing has embraced the process. To address this issue, Northampton General Hospital and the University of Northampton implemented a pilot project in which two third-year adult nursing students worked on a 'real life' audit. Supported by the hospital's audit department, and supervised by academic tutors with the relevant experience, the students worked on a pressure-ulcer care audit for their final year dissertation. This article describes the process undertaken by the hospital audit team and the university academic team to develop the pilot project and support the students. Based on the positive evaluations, the university has extended the project to a second phase, incorporating two new partner organisations.
Using a Web-based program he developed, one educator is helping students understand how their career and lifestyle choices are linked. MyLife, a Web-based life-planning program for young people, offers comprehensive budget activity in which participants develop simulations of their fantasy futures and calculate their future monthly…
Purpose: To assess pharmacy students' knowledge of communicating medication errors in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods: The study design was cross-sectional and conducted from February to May 2014. A previously validated questionnaire was adopted, modified and distributed to final year pharmacy students in four ...
Canales-Gonzales, Patricia L.; Kranz, Peter L.
This study evaluated stress levels experienced by students in a pharmacy curriculum. A survey was used to evaluate perceived levels of stress, factors that contribute to stress, and mechanisms used to cope with stress. Participants were first, second, and third year students enrolled in pharmacy school. Data were collected using an individual…
Purpose: To identify the prevalence as well as determine gender differences in overweight and obesity among undergraduate pharmacy students of the University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria. Methods: Undergraduate pharmacy students (n = 172) of University of Benin, aged 18 years and above, were recruited for the study ...
Jeffres, Meghan N.; Barclay, Sean M.; Stolte, Scott K.
Objectives. To determine a measurable definition of academic entitlement, measure academic entitlement in graduating doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students, and compare the academic performance between students identified as more or less academically entitled.
Warholak, Terri L; Queiruga, Caryn; Roush, Rebecca; Phan, Hanna
To assess and compare prescribing error-identification rates by health professional students. Medical, pharmacy, and nursing students were asked to complete a questionnaire on which they evaluated the accuracy of 3 prescriptions and indicated the type of error found, if any. The number of correctly identified prescribing errors and the number of correct types of errors identified were compared and error identification rates for each group were calculated. One hundred seventy-five questionnaires were returned (87% response rate). Pharmacy students had a significantly higher error-identification rate than medical and nursing students (p medical and nursing students (p = 0.88). Compared to medical students, pharmacy students more often were able to identify correctly the error type for each prescription (p error-identification rate, which may be associated with the greater number of pharmacology and pharmacotherapeutics course hours that pharmacy students complete.
Academic entitlement and student consumerism have been described as a cause for unprofessional behavior in higher education. Colleges and schools of pharmacy may inadvertently encourage student consumerism and academic entitlement by misunderstanding who is the primary customer of pharmacy education. Pharmacy colleges and schools who view students as the primary customer can unintentionally pressure faculty members to relax expectations for professionalism and academic performance and thereby cause a general downward spiral in the quality of pharmacy graduates. In contrast, this paper argues that the primary customer of pharmacy education is the patient. Placing the patient at the center of the educational process is consistent with the concepts of pharmaceutical care, medication therapy management, the patient-centered home, and the oath of the pharmacist. Emphasizing the patient as the primary customer discourages academic entitlement and student consumerism and encourages an emphasis on learning how to serve the medication-related needs of the patient. PMID:24558271
Sobota, Kristen Finley; Barnes, Jeremiah; Fitzpatrick, Alyse; Sobota, Micah J
The Ohio Northern University American Society of Consultant Pharmacists chapter provides students the opportunity to apply classroom knowledge with learning through community service. One such program took place at the Lima Towers Apartment Community from September 18, 2014, to October 2, 2014, in Lima, Ohio. Three evening educational sessions focused on a different health topic: 1) mental health, 2) medication adherence/brown bag, and 3) healthy lifestyle choices/nutrition/smoking cessation. All three programs were structured identically, starting with dinner, followed by educational intervention, survey, blood pressure checks, and medication reviews. Two pharmacists and 16 pharmacy students implemented the program. Participants completed a total of 76 satisfaction surveys for the three programs, which were included in the data analysis. The average age of the participants was 65 years; 82% (n = 63) were female. Data demonstrated that 94% (n = 72) "learned something new," while 96% (n = 74) would "recommend the program to a friend/family member." The collected data showed the vast majority of participants from the surrounding community found value in the presentations performed by students, especially with regard to the new information they received and its perceived benefits. In light of such successes, we encourage other student chapters to implement similar community outreach events. ASCP student members can make a strong, positive impact in the community while learning in a nontraditional environment.
Senuma, Kayoko; Unezaki, Sakae; Takeuchi, Hironori; Hayashi, Masahiro
The six-year curriculum has been introduced into all pharmacy schools in Japan since April 2006. Those schools are currently preparing for an additional two years of pharmacy education and are in the process of reading the necessary educational infrastructure. However, students' expectations of the new curriculum and understanding of the professional roles of a pharmacist have yet to be investigated. Therefore we surveyed the first group of students on their expectations of the new curriculum and on their understandings of the newly emerging roles of pharmacists in general. Our questionnaire consisted of six questions, and we further had the students conduct self-evaluations using the admission interview items of a pharmacy school from the USA. Of the 440 first-year students, 89.1% responded. Based on the results of the survey, we found that the majority of students did not believe that pharmacists will have a respected role in multidisciplinary teams or in public. Approximately half of the students also said that they had no confidence in taking leadership roles or thinking logically when compared with the average person. We therefore believe that schools and pharmacy educators need to teach students pharmaceutical care and the various roles pharmacists can play in the future. Schools and pharmacy educators should also support students by providing training and introducing new methods of learning to develop their professional attitude and leadership skills.
Full Text Available As a unique and versatile undergraduate degree program, a Bachelor of Science in Pharmaceutical Sciences (BSPS is offered by a number of colleges/schools of pharmacy. These provide a bachelor's degree concentrated in pharmaceutical sciences, and can be a non-Doctor of Pharmacy option, possibly before progressing to graduate degree studies. Recently implemented at the University of Toledo College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences (UTCPPS, one such BSPS major is Cosmetic Science and Formulation Design. This new undergraduate major was created to serve the needs of the cosmetic and personal care industry, with a great need identified for well-trained new professionals with basic knowledge in the sciences and business. This Cosmetic Science and Formulation Design major was added to four other BSPS majors at UTCPPS. Introduced in 2013, this major is the only functioning undergraduate degree in Cosmetic Science and Formulation Design in the United States. Preliminary job placement data provides promising evidence that this undergraduate major has helped graduates launch a career in the cosmetic and personal care, or pharmaceutical industries. Based on our experience from the past three years, we believe that this cosmetic science major has been worth its resource investment. We hope others designing new undergraduate pharmaceutical sciences programs might integrate advice from this experience into their impending programs. Type: Idea Paper
Pharmacy as a health profession has major responsibilities and contributions in maintaining health of the society. Thus, pharmacists have to maintain professional behaviour and attitude that is worthy of the respect the public has for the profession. Studies on pharmacy students' attitude and career choice are important to ...
Jun 2, 2008 ... semester for internet access. Over 92% of them felt that LMS will make teaching and learning more exciting and effective when combined with the traditional teaching approach. Conclusion: The use of LMS will improve the teaching and learning of pharmacy students. Keywords: LMS, e-Learning, pharmacy ...
Rodis, Jennifer; Aungst, Timothy Dy; Brown, Nicole V; Cui, Yan; Tam, Leonard
Background The use of mobile apps in health care is growing. Current and future practitioners must be equipped with the skills to navigate and utilize apps in patient care, yet few strategies exist for training health care professional students on the usage of apps. Objective To characterize first-year pharmacy student use of medical apps, evaluate first-year pharmacy student's perception of skills in finding, evaluating, and using medical apps before and after a focused learning experience, ...
Owen, Chelsea; Breheny, Patrick; Ingram, Richard; Pfeifle, William; Cain, Jeff; Ryan, Melody
OBJECTIVES. To examine the interest of pharmacy students in international study, the demographic factors and involvement characteristics associated with that interest, and the perceived advantages and barriers of engaging in international opportunities during pharmacy school. METHODS. A self-administered electronic survey instrument was distributed to first-, second-, and third-year pharmacy students at the University of Kentucky College of Pharmacy. RESULTS. There were 192 total respondents, for a response rate of 50.9%. Seventy-two percent reported interest in international study. Previous international study experience (p=0.001), previous international travel experience (p=0.002), year in pharmacy school (p=0.03), level of academic involvement (pearly in the curriculum when interest in study-abroad opportunities is highest and seek to alleviate concerns about expenses as a primary influence on study-abroad decisions through provision of financial assistance.
Westrick, Salisa C; Helms, Kristen L; McDonough, Sharon K; Breland, Michelle L
To identify reasons for pharmacy student attendance and absenteeism in large lectures and to determine whether certain student characteristics affect student absenteeism. Pharmacy students' reasons to attend and not attend 3 large lecture courses were identified. Using a Web-based survey instrument, second-year pharmacy students were asked to rate to what degree various reasons affected their decision to attend or not attend classes for 3 courses. Bivariate analyses were used to assess the relationships between student characteristics and degree of absenteeism. Ninety-eight students (75%) completed the survey instrument. The degree of student absenteeism differed among the 3 courses. Most student demographic characteristics examined were not related to the degree of absenteeism. Different reasons to attend and not to attend class were identified for each of the 3 courses, suggesting that attendance decisions were complex. Respondents wanted to take their own notes and the instructor highlighted what was important to know were the top 2 common reasons for pharmacy students to attend classes. Better understanding of factors influencing student absenteeism may help pharmacy educators design effective interventions to facilitate student attendance.
Katoue, Maram G; Awad, Abdelmoneim I; Schwinghammer, Terry L; Kombian, Samuel B
Pharmaceutical care is defined as the responsible provision of medication therapy to achieve definite outcomes that improve patients' quality of life. Pharmacy education should equip students with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes they need to practise pharmaceutical care competently. To investigate pharmacy students' attitudes towards pharmaceutical care, perceptions of their preparedness to perform pharmaceutical care competencies, opinions about the importance of the various pharmaceutical care activities, and the barriers to its implementation in Kuwait. A descriptive, cross-sectional survey of pharmacy students (n=126) was conducted at Faculty of Pharmacy, Kuwait University. Data were collected via a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics including percentages, medians and means Likert scale rating (SD) were calculated and compared using SPSS, version 19. Statistical significance was accepted at a p value of 0.05 or lower. The response rate was 99.2%. Pharmacy students expressed overall positive attitudes towards pharmaceutical care. They felt prepared to implement the various aspects of pharmaceutical care, with the least preparedness in the administrative/management aspects. Perceived pharmaceutical care competencies grew as students progressed through the curriculum. The students also appreciated the importance of the various pharmaceutical care competencies. They agreed/strongly agreed that the major barriers to the integration of pharmaceutical care into practice were lack of private counseling areas or inappropriate pharmacy layout (95.2%), lack of pharmacist time (83.3%), organizational obstacles (82.6%), and pharmacists' physical separation from patient care areas (82.6%). Pharmacy students' attitudes and perceived preparedness can serve as needs assessment tools to guide curricular change and improvement. Student pharmacists at Kuwait University understand and advocate implementation of pharmaceutical care while also
Knapp, Katherine; Shane, Patricia; Sasaki-Hill, Debra; Yoshizuka, Keith; Chan, Paul; Vo, Thuy
To determine whether bullying is a significant factor in the clinical training of pharmacy students. The literature as well as the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) Standards and American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) surveys were reviewed for mention and/or measurement of bullying behaviors in the clinical training of pharmacy students. The authors used a Delphi process to define bullying behavior. The consensus definition was used to analyze 2,087 in-house student evaluations of preceptors for evidence of bullying behaviors. The authors mapped strings of text from in-house student comments to different, established categories of bullying behaviors. The ACPE Standards and AACP surveys contained no mention or measures of bullying. The 2013 AACP survey data reported overwhelmingly positive preceptor ratings. Of the 2,087 student evaluations of preceptors, 119 (5.7%) had at least 1 low rating. Within those 119 survey instruments, 34 comments were found describing bullying behaviors. Students' responses to the AACP survey were similar to data from the national cohort. Given the evidence that bullying behaviors occur in pharmacy education and that bullying has long-term and short-term damaging effects, more attention should be focused on this problem. Efforts should include addressing bullying in ACPE Standards and AACP survey tools developing a consensus definition for bullying and conducting more research into bullying in the clinical training of pharmacy students.
Department of Homeland Security — Pharmacies in the United States and Territories A pharmacy is a facility whose primary function is to store, prepare and legally dispense prescription drugs under...
Gustafsson, Maria; Mattsson, Sofia; Gallego, Gisselle
In response to the shortage of pharmacists in Northern Sweden, a web-based Bachelor of Science in Pharmacy program was established at Umeå University in 2003. In 2009, the Swedish pharmacy market was re-regulated from a state monopoly to an open market, but it is unknown what impact this has had on education satisfaction. The objectives of this study were to examine the level of satisfaction among graduates from a web-based pharmacy program and to describe what subjects and skills students would have liked more or less of in their education. A secondary objective was to compare the level of satisfaction before and after the Swedish pharmacy market was re-regulated. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2015 with all alumni who had graduated from the pharmacy program between 2006 and 2014 ( n = 511), and responses to questions about graduates' satisfaction with the program were analyzed ( n = 200). Most graduates (88%) agreed or strongly agreed that the knowledge and skills acquired during their education were useful in their current job. The graduates stated that they would have wanted more applied pharmacy practice and self-care counselling, and fewer social pharmacy and histology courses. Further, 82% stated that they would start the same degree program if they were to choose again today, and 92% agreed or strongly agreed that they would recommend the program to a prospective student. Graduates were more likely to recommend the program after the re-regulation ( p = 0.007). In conclusion, pharmacy graduates were very satisfied with their education, and no negative effects of the re-regulation could be observed on program satisfaction.
Shane, Patricia; Sasaki-Hill, Debra; Yoshizuka, Keith; Chan, Paul; Vo, Thuy
Objective. To determine whether bullying is a significant factor in the clinical training of pharmacy students. Methods. The literature as well as the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) Standards and American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) surveys were reviewed for mention and/or measurement of bullying behaviors in the clinical training of pharmacy students. The authors used a Delphi process to define bullying behavior. The consensus definition was used to analyze 2,087 in-house student evaluations of preceptors for evidence of bullying behaviors. The authors mapped strings of text from in-house student comments to different, established categories of bullying behaviors. Results. The ACPE Standards and AACP surveys contained no mention or measures of bullying. The 2013 AACP survey data reported overwhelmingly positive preceptor ratings. Of the 2,087 student evaluations of preceptors, 119 (5.7%) had at least 1 low rating. Within those 119 survey instruments, 34 comments were found describing bullying behaviors. Students’ responses to the AACP survey were similar to data from the national cohort. Conclusions. Given the evidence that bullying behaviors occur in pharmacy education and that bullying has long-term and short-term damaging effects, more attention should be focused on this problem. Efforts should include addressing bullying in ACPE Standards and AACP survey tools developing a consensus definition for bullying and conducting more research into bullying in the clinical training of pharmacy students. PMID:25147389
Shakeel, Sadia; Iffat, Wajiha; Khan, Madeeha
A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to August 2015 to assess the knowledge of pharmacy students towards Naegleria fowleri infection. A questionnaire was distributed to senior pharmacy students in different private and public sector universities of Karachi. Descriptive statistics were used to demonstrate students' demographic information and their responses to the questionnaire. Pearson chi-square test was adopted to assess the relationship between independent variables and responses of students. The study revealed that pharmacy students were having adequate awareness of Naegleria fowleri infection and considered it as a serious health issue that necessitates instantaneous steps by the government to prevent the general public from the fatal neurological infection. The students recommended that appropriate methods should be projected in the community from time to time that increases public awareness about the associated risk factors. PMID:26981318
Degeeter, Michelle; Harris, Kira; Kehr, Heather; Ford, Carolyn; Lane, Daniel C; Nuzum, Donald S; Compton, Cynthia; Gibson, Whitney
Objective. To determine if an educational intervention in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degree program increases pharmacy students' ability to identify plagiarism. Methods. First-year (P1), second-year (P2), and third-year (P3) pharmacy students attended an education session during which types of plagiarism and methods for avoiding plagiarism were reviewed. Students completed a preintervention assessment immediately prior to the session and a postintervention assessment the following semester to measure their ability. Results. Two hundred fifty-two students completed both preintervention and postintervention assessments. There was a 4% increase from preintervention to postintervention in assessment scores for the overall student sample (pplagiarism can significantly improve students' ability to identify plagiarism.
Kristina, Susi Ari; Yulianto, Yulianto; Prabandari, Yayi Suryo
Objective: To implement a new health promotion course as part of pharmacy public health practices and to identify pharmacy students' knowledge, perceived role and self-efficacy with respect to what was learned through this. Method: A total of 119 fifth-year pharmacy students undertook a new health promotion course in a pharmacy school in…
Crawford, Stephanie Y; Alhreish, Suhail K; Popovich, Nicholas G
To compare dominant learning styles of pharmacy students and faculty members and between faculty members in different tracks. Gregorc Style Delineator (GSD) and Zubin's Pharmacists' Inventory of Learning Styles (PILS) were administered to students and faculty members at an urban, Midwestern college of pharmacy. Based on responses from 299 students (classes of 2008, 2009, and 2010) and 59 faculty members, GSD styles were concrete sequential (48%), abstract sequential (18%), abstract random (13%), concrete random (13%), and multimodal (8%). With PILS, dominant styles were assimilator (47%) and converger (30%). There were no significant differences between faculty members and student learning styles nor across pharmacy student class years (p>0.05). Learning styles differed between men and women across both instruments (pstyles (p=0.01). Learning styles differed among respondents based on gender and faculty track.
Pittenger, Amy L; Lounsbery, Jody L
To develop a formative assessment strategy for use in an online pharmacy orientation course that fosters student engagement with the course content and facilitates a manageable grading workload for the instructor. A formative assessment strategy involving student-generated, multiple-choice questions was developed for use in a high-enrollment, online course. Three primary outcomes were assessed: success of the assessment in effectively engaging students with the content, interrater reliability of the grading rubric, and instructor perception of grading workload. The project also evaluated whether this metacognitive strategy transferred to other aspects of the students' academic lives. The instructor perception was that the grading workload was manageable. Using student-generated multiple-choice questions is an effective approach to assessment in an online course introducing students to and informing them about the profession of pharmacy.
Kim, Sylvia E; Whittington, Jalene I; Nguyen, Lynda M; Ambrose, Peter J; Corelli, Robin L
To determine pharmacy students' perceptions of a required research project in a doctor of pharmacy curriculum. A survey instrument was administered to senior pharmacy students to determine their perceptions of the project advisor and overall project experience and their postgraduation employment plans. Two-hundred twenty-nine (81.5%) students completed a survey instrument. The majority agreed or strongly agreed that the project provided a valuable learning experience (88.2%), provided a competitive advantage for postgraduate job opportunities (73.2%), and should be a continued graduation requirement (74.2%). Respondents with plans for a residency or fellowship were more likely than those entering a community or hospital/institutional pharmacy to agree that completion of the project made them more qualified or marketable and should be continued as a graduation requirement (p research project was perceived by pharmacy students to be a beneficial experience. Students pursuing residency or fellowship were more likely to feel the project was beneficial than students entering the workforce.
Hussain, Shahzad; Malik, Farnaz; Hameed, Abdul; Ahmed, Safia; Riaz, Humayun; Abbasi, Naila; Malik, Muhammad
To assess Pakistani pharmacy students' perceptions of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), the frequency with which they use CAM, and barriers to use of CAM. A CAM health belief questionnaire was administered to 595 students enrolled in a 5-year doctor of pharmacy program (PharmD) in Pakistan. Attitudes of students towards CAM were positive. Lack of evidence supporting CAM practices was considered to be the major barrier toward more students using CAM. A majority of students (79%) agreed that clinical care should integrate conventional medicine and CAM practices. Many CAM-based therapies, such as dietary supplements, massage, herbal medicines, and homoeopathic medicines were used by the students. Significant gender differences in attitude were observed, with male students having more conservative attitudes toward CAM use. A high percentage of students desired more training in CAM. Pakistani students exhibited positive attitudes about the value of CAM and most felt that CAM should be included in the PharmD curriculum.
Sholy, Lydia; Zeenny, Rony
To develop, implement, and assess student-learning outcomes from an assignment designed to expose first-year pharmacy students (P1) to a wide range of pharmacy career pathways. Students enrolled in a required Pharmacy Practice and Ethics course at the Lebanese American University chose 1 pharmacist career to investigate from a suggested list of 28 career pathways. Students completed a literature review on the selected career, interviewed a pharmacist practicing that career path in Lebanon, wrote a paper, and prepared and delivered a summary presentation to their classmates about the career pathway. Students peer evaluated their classmates after each presentation. More than 85% of the students scored ≥70% on the assignment based on their achievement of student learning outcomes. Responses on an anonymous questionnaire showed that more than 94.6% of students were satisfied with the extent to which the course allowed them to meet the established learning outcomes. A career exploration assignment provided pharmacy students with an opportunity to widen their knowledge and understanding of the different career pathways that are available for them.
Atkinson, Jeffrey; De Paepe, Kristien; Sánchez Pozo, Antonio; Rekkas, Dimitrios; Volmer, Daisy; Hirvonen, Jouni; Bozic, Borut; Skowron, Agnieska; Mircioiu, Constantin; Marcincal, Annie; Koster, Andries; Wilson, Keith; van Schravendijk, Chris; Hočevar, Sandra
European students (n = 370), academics (n = 241) and community pharmacists (n = 258) ranked 13 clusters of 68 personal and patient care competences for pharmacy practice. The results show that ranking profiles for all three groups as a rule were similar. This was especially true of the comparison between students and community pharmacists concerning patient care competences suggesting that students have a good idea of their future profession. A comparison of first and fifth (final) year students shows more awareness of patient care competences in the final year students. Differences do exist, however, between students and community pharmacists. Students—like academics—ranked competences concerned with industrial pharmacy and the quality aspects of preparing drugs, as well as scientific fundamentals of pharmacy practice, well above the rankings of community pharmacists. There were no substantial differences amongst rankings of students from different countries although some countries have more “medicinal” courses than others. This is to our knowledge the first paper to look at how, within a healthcare sectoral profession such as pharmacy, the views on the relative importance of different competences for practice of those educating the future professionals and their students, are compared to the views of working professionals. PMID:28970381
The purpose of this study was to design, develop, and administer an Objective, Structured Management Exam (OSME) on management skills for pharmacy students. Pharmacy preceptors for the University of Arizona College of Pharmacy participated in focus groups that identified business, management, and human resource skills needed by pharmacy graduates.…
Rattinger, Gail B; Jain, Rahul; Ju, Jing; Mullins, C Daniel
Many pharmacy schools have increased the amount of economics coursework to which pharmacy students are exposed in their prepharmacy and pharmacy curriculums. Students obtain competencies aimed at understanding the basic concepts of microeconomic theory, such as supply and demand. However, pharmacy students often have trouble applying these principles to real world pharmaceuticals or healthcare markets. Our objective is to make economics more relevant for pharmacy students. Specifically, we detail and provide pharmacy-relevant examples of the effects of monopoly power, barriers to marketplace entry, regulatory environment, third party insurance, information asymmetry and unanticipated changes in the marketplace on the supply and demand for pharmaceuticals and healthcare services.
Full Text Available Objective: To promote first year (P1 pharmacy students’ awareness of medication error prevention and to support student learning in biomedical and pharmaceutical sciences. Innovation: A novel curricular activity was created and referred to as “Medication Errors and Sciences Applications (MESA”. The MESA activity encouraged discussions of patient safety among students and faculty to link medication errors to biomedical and pharmaceutical sciences, which ultimately reinforced student learning in P1 curricular topics. Critical Analysis: Three P1 cohorts implemented the MESA activity and approximately 75% of students from each cohort completed a reliable assessment instrument. Each P1 cohort had at least 14 student teams who generated professional reports analyzing authentic medication errors. The quantitative assessment results indicated that 70-85% of students believed that the MESA activity improved student learning in biomedical and pharmaceutical sciences. More than 95% of students agreed that the MESA activity introduced them to medication errors. Approximately 90% of students agreed that the MESA activity integrated the knowledge and skills they developed through the P1 curriculum, promoted active learning and critical thinking, and encouraged students to be self-directed learners. Furthermore, our data indicated that approximately 90% of students stated that the achievement of Bloom’s taxonomy's six learning objectives was promoted by completing the MESA activity. Next Steps: Pharmacy students’ awareness of medication errors is a critical component of pharmacy education, which pharmacy educators can integrate with biomedical and pharmaceutical sciences to enhance student learning in the P1 year. Treatment of Human Subjects: IRB exemption granted Type: Note License: CC BY
Nuffer, Wesley; McCollum, Marianne; Ellis, Samuel L; Turner, Christopher J
To further develop and evaluate a diabetes disease state management (DSM) program that provided direct patient care responsibilities to advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) students as members of healthcare teams. Nine new clinics and 3 established sites that provide self-care management education to patients with diabetes were established and maintained in rural Colorado pharmacies and supported by students in APPE training for 48 weeks per year. The 12 clinics provided 120 APPE student placements in 2010-2011. Students' perceptions of their experiences were positive. Patients who completed the student-supported diabetes self-management education program had improvements in blood glucose, blood pressure, and lipid values. Twelve diabetes DSM clinics provided direct patient care opportunities to APPE students working as part of healthcare teams while expanding healthcare resources in underserved communities in Colorado.
Full Text Available A pharmacy degree in Finland includes a six-month obligatory internship. The internship is integrated with theoretical studies and adds up to 30 European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS credits of the BSc (Pharm degree. Learning is supported by reflective assignments from the university. The preceptors have an important role in organizing the internship and tutoring students successfully in community pharmacy settings. Objective: to assess whether the preceptors of University of Helsinki’s teaching pharmacies need pedagogic support in tutoring and if so, in which core pharmaceutical tasks or tutoring skills. Methods: The survey was sent to all preceptors of University of Helsinki´s teaching pharmacies (n=326 in 2011 (response rate 58%, n=190. The data was analyzed statistically using Excel (version 12.3.6. The open-ended questions were analyzed by qualitative content analysis. Results: The majority of preceptors found their skills in tutoring the students mainly good. However, assessment of learning (27% of the respondents, giving feedback (23% and organizing the learning situations supportive for learning (23% were the areas in which the preceptors mostly indicated a need for support. Teaching current care guidelines and pharmaceutical care (36% and multi-professional collaboration (28% were the areas in which the preceptors expressed that they needed to update their skills. Conclusions: The faculty should focus the support on the pedagogic skills of preceptors, particularly in improving their skills in assessment of learning and in reflective dialogue. In addition, their skills in teaching clinical and patient care aspects of pharmacy practice should be enhanced. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have in any product or service discussed in the manuscript, including grants (pending or received, employment, gifts, stock holdings
Scott, Mollie Ashe; McLaughlin, Jacqueline; Shepherd, Greene; Williams, Charlene; Zeeman, Jackie; Joyner, Pamela
Objective. To evaluate the structure and impact of student organizations on pharmacy school satellite campuses. Methods. Primary administrators from satellite campuses received a 20-question electronic survey. Quantitative data analysis was conducted on survey responses. Results. The most common student organizations on satellite campuses were the American Pharmacists Association (APhA) (93.1%), American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) (89.7%), Christian Pharmacists Fellowship International (CPFI) (60.0%), state organizations (51.7%), and local organizations (58.6%). Perceived benefits of satellite campus organizations included opportunities for professional development, student engagement, and service. Barriers to success included small enrollment, communication between campuses, finances, and travel. Conclusion. Student organizations were an important component of the educational experience on pharmacy satellite campuses and allowed students to develop professionally and engage with communities. Challenges included campus size, distance between campuses, and communication.
Background. Patient care is significantly affected by doctors and pharmacists, who have specialised knowledge and skills. In establishing an interprofessional undergraduate learning environment, medical and pharmacy students have the opportunity to start working in a collaborative manner early on in their careers.
St. Onge, Erin L.; Hoehn, Katie
Social media sites are widely used among professional students and may offer an alternative means of communication for professors to utilize within their courses. Social media site usage has been characterized within healthcare education, however, data is lacking on its use within pharmacy programs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate social…
Cavaco, Afonso Miguel; Madeira, Filipe
To describe how virtual patients are being used to simulate real-life clinical scenarios in undergraduate pharmacy education in Europe. One hundred ninety-four participants at the 2011 Congress of the European Pharmaceutical Students Association (EPSA) completed an exploratory cross-sectional survey instrument. Of the 46 universities and 23 countries represented at the EPSA Congress, only 12 students from 6 universities in 6 different countries reported having experience with virtual patient technology. The students were satisfied with the virtual patient technology and considered it more useful as a teaching and learning tool than an assessment tool. Respondents who had not used virtual patient technology expressed support regarding its potential benefits in pharmacy education. French and Dutch students were significantly less interested in virtual patient technology than were their counterparts from other European countries. The limited use of virtual patients in pharmacy education in Europe suggests the need for initiatives to increase the use of virtual patient technology and the benefits of computer-assisted learning in pharmacy education.
Bittoun, Renee; Saini, Bandana
Objective. To develop, implement, and evaluate a targeted educational intervention focusing on smoking cessation with final-year undergraduate pharmacy students. Design. A smoking-cessation educational workshop entitled Smoking Cessation in Pharmacy (SCIP) was designed on the principles of adult learning and implemented with a full cohort of final-year undergraduate pharmacy students at the University of Sydney. A previously validated questionnaire testing the knowledge and attitudes of respondents was administered both before and after implementation of the designed workshop to evaluate changes resulting from the intervention. Informal feedback was obtained from students. Assessment. Pre-course mean total knowledge and attitude scores calculated were 65.8±9.1 and 86.4±12.1, respectively. The post-course mean total knowledge score was 74.9±8.1, and the attitude score was 88.8±9.1 Improvement in knowledge and attitudes was significant (p<0.05). Conclusion. Educational interventions for pharmacy students designed with careful attention to pedagogic principles can improve knowledge about evidence-based smoking-cessation strategies and enhance positive attitudes to pharmacist roles in smoking cessation. PMID:24249860
Lakesha M Butler; Radhika Devraj; Catherine Santanello
Objectives: 1) To describe the development of a health literacy video tailored for pharmacy students. 2) To compare the use of a health literacy video as an instructional method to a previously used health literacy instructional strategy by using both and: a) assessing pharmacy students' perceptions of their ability to communicate with low health literacy patients and b) assessing pharmacy students' perceptions of their overall understanding of the role of health literacy in a pharmacy settin...
Awaisu, Ahmed; Mottram, David; Rahhal, Alaa; Alemrayat, Bayan; Ahmed, Afif; Stuart, Mark; Khalifa, Sherief
Objective. To assess pharmacy students’ knowledge and perceptions of doping and anti-doping in sports and to explore the curricular needs for undergraduate pharmacy in the field of sports pharmacy. Methods. A cross-sectional, descriptive, web-based survey of pharmacy students was conducted at Qatar University College of Pharmacy from March to May 2014. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results. Eighty respondents completed the online survey (80% response...
Full Text Available Background: Sleep is an essential element for adolescent mental and physical growth and development, but today′s young adolescents are deprived of this. Earlier studies in Europe and America showed pitiable sleep quality of young college students, which affect their academic growth. However, as per our literature search there is a lack of such studies in Indian context especially, within pharmacy education. Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the interrelation between the demographic characteristics, life-style, and academic progress with sleep quality and sleep problems along with daytime and nighttime habits in young female pharmacy students of India. Materials and Methods: Questionnaire on sleep and daytime habits (QS and DH was prepared. Our sample survey consists of 226 female pharmacy students of Banasthali University. QS and DH of multiple choice type, covered demographic characteristic (3 questions sleep and daytime habits (25 questions, life-style and academic progress (3 questions, and one question of course curriculum. Parameters were co-related by point scale method using the SPSS 16.0 software. Results: Data derived and analyze from survey illustrated that quality of sleep was as: Excellent - 20.4%, good - 38.5%, satisfactory - 35.8%, poor - 4%, and very poor - 1.3% of participants. Living condition (ρ=0.168, P =0.011, academic progress (ρ=0.151, P=0.023, leisure activity (ρ=0.133, P<0.05, and daytime naps (ρ=0.160, P=0.016 were significantly correlated with sleep quality. In addition, daytime sleepiness caused a significant problem for students and created a number of sleep disorders. Nevertheless, Sleep quality was not associated with age, body mass index, and coffee in the late evening. Conclusion: Study reported that sleep associated problems were common complaints in female pharmacy students.
Loo, Jason S E; Lim, Shiao Wei; Ng, Yew Keong; Tiong, John J L
To identify factors influencing the decisions of Malaysian first-year pharmacy undergraduate students in private higher education when choosing to pursue a degree in pharmacy as well as their choice of private university. This cross-sectional study employed a validated, self-administered questionnaire which was administered to 543 first-year pharmacy students from nine different private universities. Factor analysis was utilised to extract key factors from the responses. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the data. Eight factors motivating students' decision to study pharmacy emerged from the responses, accounting for 63.8% of the variance observed. Students were primarily motivated by intrinsic interests, with work conditions and profession attributes also exerting significant influence. In terms of choice of private university, nine factors were identified, accounting for 73.8% of the variance observed. The image of the school and university were most influential factors in this context, followed by university safety, programme attributes and financial factors. First-year pharmacy students in the private higher education sector are motivated by intrinsic interest when choosing to study pharmacy over other courses, while their choice of private university is influenced primarily by the image of the school and university. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
Miquel, Laia; Rodamilans, Miquel; Giménez, Rosa; Cambras, Trinitat; Canudas, Ana María; Gual, Antoni
Alcohol consumption is highly prevalent in university students. Early detection in future health professionals is important: their consumption might not only influence their own health but may determine how they deal with the implementation of preventive strategies in the future. The aim of this paper is to detect the prevalence of risky alcohol consumption in first- and last-degree year students and to compare their drinking patterns.Risky drinking in pharmacy students (n=434) was assessed and measured with the AUDIT questionnaire (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test). A comparative analysis between college students from the first and fifth years of the degree in pharmacy, and that of a group of professors was carried to see differences in their alcohol intake patterns.Risky drinking was detected in 31.3% of students. The highest prevalence of risky drinkers, and the total score of the AUDIT test was found in students in their first academic year. Students in the first academic level taking morning classes had a two-fold risk of risky drinking (OR=1.9 (IC 95%1.1-3.1)) compared with students in the fifth level. The frequency of alcohol consumption increases with the academic level, whereas the number of alcohol beverages per drinking occasion falls.Risky drinking is high during the first year of university. As alcohol consumption might decrease with age, it is important to design preventive strategies that will strengthen this tendency.
Chang, Huan Ying; Wong, Li Lian; Yap, Kai Zhen; Yap, Kevin Yi-Lwern
Serious games are becoming popular in various healthcare domains. However, they should be designed to cater toward learners' perspectives, needs, and specifications in order to be used to their full potential in education. This study investigated the gaming experiences, motivations, and preferences of pharmacy students. An anonymous self-administered survey obtained participant demographics, gaming experiences (enjoyment level of different game genres, years of experience, gaming frequency and duration, and motivations), and gaming preferences (on in-game rewards, settings, storylines, perspectives, and styles). Descriptive statistics, t tests, analysis of variance, chi-squared tests, and Fisher's exact tests were used for analysis. The response rate was 69.1 percent (465/673 undergraduates). Role-playing games (RPGs) (4.12 ± 1.07) and massively multiplayer online RPGs (MMORPGs) (3.81 ± 1.26) had the highest enjoyment ratings. Males enjoyed imagination games (e.g., RPGs, MMORPGs) more than females, whereas females enjoyed simulation games more. Top motivating factors for respondents were progressing to the next level (3.63 ± 1.19), excitement (3.33 ± 1.33), and a feeling of efficacy when playing (3.02 ± 1.16). Unlocking mechanisms (25.2 percent) and experience points (17.6 percent) were the most popular in-game reward systems. Most respondents preferred a fantasy/medieval/mythic setting (59.8 percent) and an adventurer storyline (41.3 percent), with similar proportions preferring competitive (35.3 percent), cooperative (33.3 percent), and collaborative (30.8 percent) game styles. Different groups of pharmacy students differ in their gaming experiences, motivating factors, and preferences. There is no "one size fits all" game that is suitable for all pharmacy education. Such differences should be considered when developing a pharmacy game in order to cater to the diverse student population.
Gillette, Chris; Rudolph, Michael; Rockich-Winston, Nicole; Stanton, Robert; Anderson, H Glenn
Objective. To examine whether standardized patient encounters led to an improvement in a student pharmacist-patient communication assessment compared to traditional active-learning activities within a classroom setting. Methods. A quasi-experimental study was conducted with second-year pharmacy students in a drug information and communication skills course. Student patient communication skills were assessed using high-stakes communication assessment. Results. Two hundred and twenty students' data were included. Students were significantly more likely to have higher scores on the communication assessment when they had higher undergraduate GPAs, were female, and taught using standardized patients. Similarly, students were significantly more likely to pass the assessment on the first attempt when they were female and when they were taught using standardized patients. Conclusion. Incorporating standardized patients within a communication course resulted in improved scores as well as first-time pass rates on a communication assessment than when using different methods of active learning.
Moore, R Joel; Ginsburg, Diane B
Objective. To understand what motivates student pharmacists to seek a leadership position while in the professional pharmacy program and why these students choose to lead in a particular organization. Methods. A qualitative study was used to answer the research questions. Current student leaders were recruited to participate, and each completed a pre-interview questionnaire and a one-hour interview. All interviews were transcribed, and an interpretive phenomenological approach was used to describe, code, and analyze the experiences. Results. Student leaders were motivated to serve in a leadership position for four reasons: networking opportunities, belief in an organization's mission, ability to affect change, and legacy. Additionally, prior leadership experience and influence played major roles in these student leaders' pursuit of a position. Conclusion. Networking, belief in an organization's mission, ability to affect change, and legacy are the four primary motivating factors for student leadership while in the professional pharmacy program. Knowing these factors should help direct resources in organizational and college efforts to produce qualified and impactful pharmacist leaders.
Scott, Doneka R.; Akers, Paige
Objective To assess pharmacy students' Facebook activity and opinions regarding accountability and e-professionalism and determine effects of an e-professionalism education session on pharmacy students' posting behavior. Methods A 21-item questionnaire was developed, pilot-tested, revised, and administered to 299 pharmacy students at 3 colleges of pharmacy. Following a presentation regarding potential e-professionalism issues with Facebook, pharmacy students with existing profiles answered an additional question concerning changes in online posting behavior. Results Incoming first-year pharmacy students' Facebook usage is consistent with that of the general college student population. Male students are opposed to authority figures' use of Facebook for character and professionalism judgments and are more likely to present information they would not want faculty members, future employers, or patients to see. More than half of the pharmacy students planned to make changes to their online posting behavior as a result of the e-professionalism presentation. Conclusions There is high social media usage among pharmacy students and many do not fully comprehend the issues that arise from being overly transparent in online settings. Attitudes toward accountability for information supplied via social networking emphasize the need for e-professionalism training of incoming pharmacy students. PMID:19885073
Cain, Jeff; Scott, Doneka R; Akers, Paige
To assess pharmacy students' Facebook activity and opinions regarding accountability and e-professionalism and determine effects of an e-professionalism education session on pharmacy students' posting behavior. A 21-item questionnaire was developed, pilot-tested, revised, and administered to 299 pharmacy students at 3 colleges of pharmacy. Following a presentation regarding potential e-professionalism issues with Facebook, pharmacy students with existing profiles answered an additional question concerning changes in online posting behavior. Incoming first-year pharmacy students' Facebook usage is consistent with that of the general college student population. Male students are opposed to authority figures' use of Facebook for character and professionalism judgments and are more likely to present information they would not want faculty members, future employers, or patients to see. More than half of the pharmacy students planned to make changes to their online posting behavior as a result of the e-professionalism presentation. There is high social media usage among pharmacy students and many do not fully comprehend the issues that arise from being overly transparent in online settings. Attitudes toward accountability for information supplied via social networking emphasize the need for e-professionalism training of incoming pharmacy students.
Ellis, Robert A.; Bliuc, Ana-Maria; Goodyear, Peter
This article reports on research into the student experience of enquiry in two tasks in a university pharmacy course. Students were required to investigate through a field trip how a community pharmacy operated to meet customer needs and the requirements of the Health System in which it operated. Students were also required to investigate…
Miller, Christina Jarvis; And Others
A study of substance use and abuse habits and attitudes of pharmacy students in eight institutions found substances used, in descending order of frequency, were alcohol, marijuana, amphetamines, and then all other drugs. Except for tranquilizers and heroin, all substances were used less by pharmacy students than by other students. (Author/MSE)
Simon-Dack, Stephanie L.
For this simple active learning technique for teaching, students are assigned "roles" and act out the process of the action potential (AP), including the firing threshold, ion-specific channels for ions to enter and leave the cell, diffusion, and the refractory period. Pre-post test results indicated that students demonstrated increased…
Theresa L. Charrois
Full Text Available Several jurisdictions throughout the world, such as the UK and Canada, now have independent prescribing by pharmacists. In some areas of Canada, initial access prescribing can be done by pharmacists. In contrast, Australian pharmacists have no ability to prescribe either in a supplementary or independent model. Considerable research has been completed regarding attitudes towards pharmacist prescribing from the perspective of health care professionals, however currently no literature exists regarding pharmacy student views on prescribing. The primary objective of this study is to examine pharmacy student’s opinions and attitudes towards pharmacist prescribing in two different settings. Focus groups were conducted with selected students from two universities (one in Canada and one in Australia. Content analysis was conducted. Four main themes were identified: benefits, fears, needs and pharmacist roles. Students from the Australian University were more accepting of the role of supplementary prescribing. In contrast, the Canadian students felt that independent prescribing was moving the profession in the right direction. There were a number of similarities with the two groups with regards to benefits and fears. Although the two cohorts differed in terms of their beliefs on many aspects of prescribing, there were similarities in terms of fears of physician backlash and blurring of professional roles.
Wilkinson, J M; Simpson, M D
Attitudes towards the use of complementary therapies by students of undergraduate Bachelor of Nursing, Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences were determined using a self-administered questionnaire. Overall, 78% of students had used a complementary therapy in the past year and 56% had visited a complementary therapy practitioner. The therapies most used were those involving vitamins, mineral and other supplements. Practitioners specializing in this area were the most visited, followed by chiropractors. Commonly used products included vitamin C, multivitamins, B group vitamins, garlic, iron and echinacea. Most students thought complementary therapies improved quality of life, with friends and family providing the main sources of information. There were few differences attributable to course or gender. The results suggest that these students have favorable attitudes towards complementary therapies and that many choose to use them as part of normal health care.
Shen, Grace; Fois, Romano; Nissen, Lisa; Saini, Bandana
In Australia, the profession of pharmacy has undergone many changes to adapt to the needs of the community. In recent years, concerns have been raised with evidence emerging of workforce saturation in traditional pharmacy practice sectors. It is not known how current final year pharmacy students' perceive the different pharmacy career paths in this changing environment. Hence investigating students' current experiences with their pharmacy course, interaction with the profession and developing an understanding of their career intentions would be an important step, as these students would make up a large proportion of future pharmacy workforce. The objective of this study was thus to investigate final year students' career perspectives and the reasons for choosing pharmacy, satisfaction with this choice of pharmacy as a tertiary course and a possible future career, factors affecting satisfaction and intention of future career paths. A quantitative cross sectional survey of final year students from 3 Australian universities followed by a qualitative semi-structured interview of a convenience sample of final year students from the University of Sydney. 'Interest in health and medicine' was the most important reason for choosing pharmacy (n=238). The majority of students were 'somewhat satisfied' with the choice of pharmacy (35.7%) as a course and possible future career. Positive associations were found between satisfaction and reasons for joining pharmacy such as 'felt pharmacy is a good profession' (p=0.003) while negative associations included 'joined pharmacy as a gateway to medicine or dentistry' (p=0.001). Quantitate and qualitative results showed the most frequent perception of community pharmacy was 'changing' while hospital and pharmaceutical industry was described as 'competitive' and 'research' respectively. The highest career intention was community followed by hospital pharmacy. Complex factors including university experiences are involved in shaping
Awaisu, Ahmed; Mottram, David; Rahhal, Alaa; Alemrayat, Bayan; Ahmed, Afif; Stuart, Mark; Khalifa, Sherief
Objective. To assess pharmacy students' knowledge and perceptions of doping and anti-doping in sports and to explore the curricular needs for undergraduate pharmacy in the field of sports pharmacy. Methods. A cross-sectional, descriptive, web-based survey of pharmacy students was conducted at Qatar University College of Pharmacy from March to May 2014. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results. Eighty respondents completed the online survey (80% response rate). Sixty percent were unaware of the World Anti-Doping Agency, and 85% were unaware of the International Pharmaceutical Federation's statement on the pharmacist's role in anti-doping. Students' knowledge score regarding the prohibited status of drugs that may be used by athletes was around 50%. Fourth-year pharmacy students had significantly higher knowledge scores than the other groups of students. Respondents acknowledged the important role of health care professionals, including pharmacists, as advisors on the safe and effective use of drugs in sports. Ninety percent of the students supported the inclusion of sports pharmacy in the curriculum. Conclusion. Pharmacy students indicated a strong desire to play a role in doping prevention and ensure safe and rational use of drugs among athletes. They suggested requiring an education and training strategy for sports pharmacy in undergraduate pharmacy curricula.
Murtaza,G.; Khan,S.A.; Murtaza (Junior),G.; Javed,K.; Akram,F.; Hamid,A.A.; Hussain,I.
Food and Drug Administration delivers the black box warnings (BBW) which should appear on the leaflets of medicines for patient awareness and the prescription of drugs indicating its highly fatal adverse effects to human body. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge of Pakistani pharmacy and medical students about BBW. A questionnaire containing contents about BBW was given to the 1st, 2nd and 3rd professional year pharmacy and medical students from different pharmacy and medical in...
Joan Bryant*1, Manjunatha Goud BK2, Anand Srinivasan3 and Vijayalakshmi SB3
Human Anatomy and Physiology is an important core component for all allied healthcare professional education. At our university, we offer an integrated Human Anatomy and Physiology course (HAP) to the first year Pharmacy students. The main objective of this study was to ascertain and compare Pharmacy undergraduate students’ opinions and attitudes towards the integrated course of human anatomy and physiology. A pre-validated questionnaire was given to students of first year pharmacy at ...
Aungst, Timothy Dy; Brown, Nicole V; Cui, Yan; Tam, Leonard
Background The use of mobile apps in health care is growing. Current and future practitioners must be equipped with the skills to navigate and utilize apps in patient care, yet few strategies exist for training health care professional students on the usage of apps. Objective To characterize first-year pharmacy student use of medical apps, evaluate first-year pharmacy student's perception of skills in finding, evaluating, and using medical apps before and after a focused learning experience, and assess student satisfaction and areas for improvement regarding the learning experience. Methods Students listened to a recorded, Web-based lecture on finding, evaluating, and using mobile apps in patient care. A 2-hour, interactive workshop was conducted during which students were led by an instructor through a discussion on strategies for finding and using apps in health care. The students practiced evaluating 6 different health care–related apps. Surveys were conducted before and after the focused learning experience to assess students' perceptions of medical apps and current use and perspectives on satisfaction with the learning experience and role of technology in health care. Results This educational intervention is the first described formal, interactive method to educate student pharmacists on medical apps. With a 99% response rate, surveys conducted before and after the learning experience displayed perceived improvement in student skills related to finding (52/119, 44% before vs 114/120, 95% after), evaluating (18/119, 15% before vs 112/120, 93% after), and using medical apps in patient care (31/119, 26% before vs 108/120, 90% after) and the health sciences classroom (38/119, 32% before vs 104/120, 87% after). Students described satisfaction with the educational experience and agreed that it should be repeated in subsequent years (89/120, 74% agreed or strongly agreed). Most students surveyed possessed portable electronic devices (107/119, 90% mobile phone) and
Adkins, Donna; Gavaza, Paul; Deel, Sharon
All Appalachian College of Pharmacy second-year students undertake the longitudinal geriatric early pharmacy practice experiences (EPPE) 2 course, which involves interacting with geriatric residents in two nursing facilities over two semesters. The study investigated the nursing staff's perceptions about the rotation and the pharmacy students' interaction with nursing facility residents. Cross-sectional study. Academic setting. 63 nursing facility staff. A 10-item attitude survey administered to nursing staff. Nursing staff attitude toward pharmacy students' interaction with geriatric residents during the course. Sixty-three responses were received (84% response rate). Most respondents were female (95.2%), who occasionally interacted with pharmacy students (54.8%) and had worked at the facilities for an average of 6.8 years (standard deviation [SD] = 6.7) years. Staff reported that pharmacy students practiced interacting with geriatric residents and nursing facility staff, learned about different medications taken by residents as well as their life as a nursing facility resident. In addition, the student visits improved the mood of residents and staff's understanding of medicines, among others. Staff suggested that students spend more time with their residents in the facility as well as ask more questions of staff. The nursing facility staff generally had favorable attitudes about pharmacy students' visits in their nursing facility. Nursing facility staff noted that the geriatric rotation was a great learning experience for the pharmacy students.
Griffiths, Barry J.
For countries to remain competitive in the global economy, it is important to cultivate the next generation of native mathematicians. However, this goal has been increasingly challenging in the United States where, despite the tremendous increase in university enrollment during recent decades, the number of students studying mathematics has…
Wehle, Sarah; Decker, Michael
Objective. To investigate German pharmacy students' attitudes toward the relevance of organic chemistry training in Julius Maximilian University (JMU) of Würzburg with regard to subsequent courses in the curricula and in later prospective career options. Methods. Surveys were conducted in the second-year organic chemistry course (50 participants) as well as during the third-year and fourth-year lecture cycle on medicinal and pharmaceutical chemistry (66 participants) in 2014. Results. Students' attitudes were surprisingly consistent throughout the progress of the degree course. Students considered organic chemistry very relevant to the pharmacy study program (95% junior and 97% senior students), and of importance for their future pharmacy program (88% junior and 94% senior students). With regard to prospective career options, the perceived relevance was considerably lower and attitudes were less homogenous. Conclusions. German pharmacy students at JMU Würzburg consider organic chemistry of high relevance for medicinal chemistry and other courses in JMU's pharmacy program.
Shen, Grace; Fois, Romano; Nissen, Lisa; Saini, Bandana
Background In Australia, the profession of pharmacy has undergone many changes to adapt to the needs of the community. In recent years, concerns have been raised with evidence emerging of workforce saturation in traditional pharmacy practice sectors. It is not known how current final year pharmacy students’ perceive the different pharmacy career paths in this changing environment. Hence investigating students’ current experiences with their pharmacy course, interaction with the profession and developing an understanding of their career intentions would be an important step, as these students would make up a large proportion of future pharmacy workforce. Objective The objective of this study was thus to investigate final year students’ career perspectives and the reasons for choosing pharmacy, satisfaction with this choice of pharmacy as a tertiary course and a possible future career, factors affecting satisfaction and intention of future career paths. Methods A quantitative cross sectional survey of final year students from 3 Australian universities followed by a qualitative semi-structured interview of a convenience sample of final year students from the University of Sydney. Results ‘Interest in health and medicine’ was the most important reason for choosing pharmacy (n=238). The majority of students were ‘somewhat satisfied’ with the choice of pharmacy (35.7%) as a course and possible future career. Positive associations were found between satisfaction and reasons for joining pharmacy such as ‘felt pharmacy is a good profession’ (p=0.003) while negative associations included ‘joined pharmacy as a gateway to medicine or dentistry’ (p=0.001). Quantitate and qualitative results showed the most frequent perception of community pharmacy was ‘changing’ while hospital and pharmaceutical industry was described as ‘competitive’ and ‘research’ respectively. The highest career intention was community followed by hospital pharmacy
Full Text Available Background: In Australia, the profession of pharmacy has undergone many changes to adapt to the needs of the community. In recent years, concerns have been raised with evidence emerging of workforce saturation in traditional pharmacy practice sectors. It is not known how current final year pharmacy students’ perceive the different pharmacy career paths in this changing environment. Hence investigating students’ current experiences with their pharmacy course, interaction with the profession and developing an understanding of their career intentions would be an important step, as these students would make up a large proportion of future pharmacy workforce Objective: The objective of this study was thus to investigate final year students’ career perspectives and the reasons for choosing pharmacy, satisfaction with this choice of pharmacy as a tertiary course and a possible future career, factors affecting satisfaction and intention of future career paths. Methods: A quantitative cross sectional survey of final year students from 3 Australian universities followed by a qualitative semi-structured interview of a convenience sample of final year students from the University of Sydney. Results: ‘Interest in health and medicine’ was the most important reason for choosing pharmacy (n=238. The majority of students were ‘somewhat satisfied’ with the choice of pharmacy (35.7% as a course and possible future career. Positive associations were found between satisfaction and reasons for joining pharmacy such as ‘felt pharmacy is a good profession’ (p=0.003 while negative associations included ‘joined pharmacy as a gateway to medicine or dentistry’ (p=0.001. Quantitate and qualitative results showed the most frequent perception of community pharmacy was ‘changing’ while hospital and pharmaceutical industry was described as ‘competitive’ and ‘research’ respectively. The highest career intention was community followed by hospital
Richard, Craig A H; Hastings, Justine F; Bryant, Jennifer E
To examine pharmacy students' ownership of, use of, and preference for using a mobile device in a practice setting. Eighty-one pharmacy students were recruited and completed a pretest that collected information about their demographics and mobile devices and also had them rank the iPhone, iPad mini, and iPad for preferred use in a pharmacy practice setting. Students used the 3 devices to perform pharmacy practice-related tasks and then completed a posttest to again rank the devices for preferred use in a pharmacy practice setting. The iPhone was the most commonly owned mobile device (59.3% of students), and the iPad mini was the least commonly owned (18.5%). About 70% of the students used their mobile devices at least once a week in a pharmacy practice setting. The iPhone was the most commonly used device in a practice setting (46.9% of students), and the iPod Touch was the least commonly used device (1.2%). The iPad mini was the most preferred device for use in a pharmacy practice setting prior to performing pharmacy practice-related tasks (49.4% of students), and was preferred by significantly more students after performing the tasks (70.4%). Pharmacy students commonly use their mobile devices in pharmacy practice settings and most selected the iPad mini as the preferred device for use in a practice setting even though it was the device owned by the fewest students.
Chisholm-Burns, Marie A; Spivey, Christina A; Jaeger, Melanie C; Williams, Jennifer
Objective. To assess graduating pharmacy students' attitudes toward debt and determine associations with stress, student loan debt, financial need, current employment, post-graduation plans, and expected length of time to repay loans. Methods. Survey was conducted using an attitudes-toward-debt scale (sub-scales: tolerant attitudes toward debt; contemplation and knowledge about loans; fear of debt), Perceived Stress Scale, and questions concerning current employment, estimated total student loan debt, post-graduation plans, and expected length of time to repay loans. Federal loan data were collected using financial aid records. Independent samples t -test, ANOVA, and Pearson's r correlations were conducted. Results. There were 147 students (96.7%) who participated. The majority were female (59.2%), white (69.4%), and had federal student loans (90.5%). Mean total loan amount was $153,276 (SD $59,810), which included federal students loans accumulated before and during pharmacy school. No significant differences were noted on attitudes toward debt or stress based on whether respondents had federal student loans. Greater "fear of debt" was correlated with increased stress, estimated total student loan debt, total federal loan debt, and pharmacy school loan debt. Greater "contemplation and knowledge about loans" was correlated with lower estimated total student loan debt, total federal loan amount, and pharmacy school loan amount. Students with higher "contemplation and knowledge" scores expected to repay loans within a shorter time frame than students with lower scores. Conclusion. Increased fear of debt was related to greater perceived stress and higher student loan amounts borrowed, while increased contemplation and knowledge about loans was associated with lower amounts borrowed. Educational programming concerning loans, debt, and personal financial management may help reduce stress and amount borrowed.
Richardson, Alan; Curtis, Anthony D M; Moss, Gary P; Pearson, Russell J; White, Simon; Rutten, Frank J M; Perumal, Dhaya; Maddock, Katie
OBJECTIVE. To implement and assess a task-based learning exercise that prompts pharmacy students to integrate their understanding of different disciplines. DESIGN. Master of pharmacy (MPharm degree) students were provided with simulated information from several preclinical science and from clinical trials and asked to synthesize this into a marketing authorization application for a new drug. Students made a link to pharmacy practice by creating an advice leaflet for pharmacists. ASSESSMENT. Students' ability to integrate information from different disciplines was evaluated by oral examination. In 2 successive academic years, 96% and 82% of students demonstrated an integrated understanding of their proposed new drug. Students indicated in a survey that their understanding of the links between different subjects improved. CONCLUSION. Simulated drug discovery provides a learning environment that emphasizes the connectivity of the preclinical sciences with each other and the practice of pharmacy.
Pace, Adam C.; Greene, Joy; Deweese, Joseph E.; Brown, Dana A.; Cameron, Ginger; Nesbit, James M.; Wensel, Terri
The objective of this study was to develop and validate an instrument to assess the attitude of student pharmacists toward prayer in general and in particular as it relates to their academic performance. To fulfill the study objective, faculty from seven colleges of pharmacy located at Christian universities collaboratively developed the Student…
Bilger, Rhonda; Chereson, Rasma; Salama, Noha Nabil
Objective. To determine the types of balances used in compounding pharmacies: torsion or digital. Methods. A survey was mailed to the pharmacist-in-charge at 698 pharmacies, representing 47% of the pharmacies in Missouri as of July 2013. The pharmacies were randomly selected and stratified by region into eight regions to ensure a representative sample. Information was gathered regarding the type and use of balances and pharmacists' perspectives on the need to teach torsion balance technique to pharmacy students. Results. The response rate for the survey was 53.3%. Out of the total responses received, those pharmacies having a torsion balance, digital balance or both were 46.8%, 27.4% and 11.8%, respectively. About 68.3% of respondents compound prescriptions. The study showed that 52% of compounding pharmacies use torsion balances in their practice. Of those with a balance in their pharmacy, 65.6% favored continuation of torsion balance instruction. Conclusions. Digital balances have become increasingly popular and have replaced torsion balances in some pharmacies, especially those that compound a significant number of prescriptions. The results of this study indicate that torsion balances remain integral to compounding practice. Therefore, students should continue being taught torsion balance technique at the college.
Raja Durai; B S Roopa; J Ravindra; T H Indu; G Gokul; Ponnusankar Sivasankaran
Context: People tend to use social networking sites (SNSs) often as a means of communication. Aim: This study was designed to find out the view, trend, and influence of SNSs among students and faculties of a Pharmacy School in India. Subjects and Methods: One hundred and eighty pharmacy students and 45 faculties received the questionnaire, out of which 132 students and 20 faculties provided their response. The questionnaire was framed using SurveyMonkey, an online paid survey tool to gather i...
McElhaney, Ashley; Weber, Robert J
Pharmacy students typically become more focused on career planning and assessment in the final year of their PharmD training. Weighing career options in the advanced pharmacy practice experience year can be both exciting and stressful. The goal of this article is to provide a primer on how pharmacy students can assess how a residency can fit into career planning. This article will describe the various career paths available to graduating students, highlight ways in which a residency can complement career choices, review the current state of the job market for pharmacists, discuss the current and future plans for residency programs, and present thoughts from some current and former residents on why they chose to complete a residency. Most career paths require some additional training, and a residency provides appropriate experience very quickly compared to on-the-job training. Alternative plans to residency training must also be considered, as there are not enough residency positions for candidates. Directors of pharmacy must consider several factors when giving career advice on pharmacy residency training to pharmacy students; they should provide the students with an honest assessment of their work skills and their abilities to successfully complete a residency. This assessment will help the students to set a plan for improvement and give them a better chance at being matched to a pharmacy residency.
Bloom, Timothy J; Smith, Jennifer D; Rich, Wesley
Objective. To determine the benefit of pharmacy work experience on the development of student pharmacists' professional identity. Methods. Students in all four professional years were surveyed using a validated Professional Self-identity Questionnaire (PSIQ). They were also asked about pharmacy experience prior to matriculation and their performance on Drug Information tests given midway through the P1 year and at the beginning of the P3 year. PSIQ responses and test results were compared based on pharmacy experience. Results. The PSIQ was completed by 293 student pharmacists, for a 67% response rate, with 76% of respondents reporting pharmacy experience prior to matriculation. Statistically higher scores on responses to 6 of the 9 PSIQ Likert-type items were observed from students in the first professional year for those with pharmacy experience; however, only one item in the second year showed differences with none in the third and fourth years. No impact of experience was observed on Top 100 or Top 300 grades. Conclusion. Pre-matriculation pharmacy experience may increase development of professional identity early in the student experience but may have little impact on academic readiness. Schools and colleges of pharmacy hoping to recruit students with an early sense of professional identity should consider adding such experience to their admissions requirements.
Wallman, Andy; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark; Gustavsson, Maria; Lindblad, Asa Kettis; Johansson, Markus; Ring, Lena
To identify what pharmacy students learn during the 6-month advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) in Sweden. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 pharmacy APPE students and 17 pharmacist preceptors and analyzed in a qualitative directed content analysis using a defined workplace learning typology for categories. The Swedish APPE provides students with task performance skills for work at pharmacies and social and professional knowledge, such as teamwork, how to learn while in a work setting, self-evaluation, understanding of the pharmacist role, and decision making and problem solving skills. Many of these skills and knowledge are not accounted for in the curricula in Sweden. Using a workplace learning typology to identify learning outcomes, as in this study, could be useful for curricula development. Exploring the learning that takes place during the APPE in a pharmacy revealed a broad range of skills and knowledge that students acquire.
Clarke, Cheryl; Sedlacek, Renee K; Watson, Susan B
Objective. To evaluate the impact of a simulation on pharmacy student attitudes toward poverty using the Attitude toward Poverty (ATP) Short Form scale. Methods. Second-year pharmacy students participated in the 3-hour Missouri Association for Community Action Poverty Simulation. Students completed a survey of the ATP Short Form scale prior to and following participation in the simulation. Results. Significant improvements in attitude were noted in 15 of 21 ATP Short Form items. Improvements in the stigma and structural domains were significant while improvement in the personal deficiency domain was not significant. Conclusions. This poverty simulation exercise positively altered pharmacy student attitudes toward poverty. When combined with didactic and experiential curriculum, this simulation may enhance student achievement of the 2013 Center for the Advancement of Pharmacy Education (CAPE) outcome subdomain of cultural sensitivity.
Rabi, Suzanne M; Patton, Lynn R; Fjortoft, Nancy; Zgarrick, David P
To ascertain background factors that influence pharmacy students' willingness to cheat, describe attitudes regarding methods of cheating, assess prevalence of cheating and determine atmospheres that may aid in preventing academic dishonesty. Third-professional year PharmD students at 4 institutions participated in a survey administered by a class representative. Of the 296 students who completed survey instruments, 16.3% admitted to cheating during pharmacy school. Approximately 74% admitted that either they or their classmates had worked on an individual assignment with a friend. Students who cheated during high school or in a prepharmacy program were more likely to cheat during pharmacy school (p Academic dishonesty is prevalent among pharmacy students. While few respondents directly admitted to cheating, many admitted to activities traditionally defined as dishonest.
Jeon, Soohyun; Cho, Eun
To validate the Korean-translated Jefferson Scale of Empathy-Health Professions Student version (JSE-HPS) and to investigate the empathy levels of pharmacy students in South Korea. The JSE-HPS and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) were administered to 452 pharmacy students in their second and third years at 5 Korean universities. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), correlations, and one-way ANOVAs were conducted for data analyses. The final sample size comprised 447 responses. The 3-factor model of the JSE-HPS was confirmed by CFA and the convergent validity was also supported by its correlations with the IRI subscales. The overall mean score was 80.3. Pharmacy students enrolled in women's or private universities reported significantly higher levels of overall empathy than their counterparts in co-ed or national universities. Our findings empirically support the psychometric soundness of the Korean JSE-HPS for pharmacy students.
Williams, Jennifer; Feild, Carinda; James, Kristina
To examine how students entering a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program used Facebook privacy settings before and after the college's social media policy was presented to them. The Facebook profiles of all entering first-year pharmacy students across 4 campuses of a college of pharmacy were evaluated. Ten dichotomous variables of interest were viewed and recorded for each student's Facebook account at 3 time points: before the start of the semester, after presentation of the college's social media policy, and at the end of the semester. Data on whether a profile could be found and what portions of the profile were viewable also were collected. After introduction of the policy, a significant number of students increased their security settings (made information not visible to the public) related to Facebook walls, information pages, and links. Making pharmacy students aware of a college's social media policy had a positive impact on their behaviors regarding online security and privacy.
Okubo, Masato; Takahashi, Yuka; Yamashita, Jun; Takahashi, Hideyo; Miyata, Okiko; Suzuki, Takaaki; Ishii, Itsuko
Pharmacy education comprises basic pharmacy (organic chemistry, biochemistry, and physical chemistry) and applied pharmacy (clinical pharmacy, pharm aceutics, and chemical hygiene). Students are expected to apply these subjects studied in pharmacy school during their practical pharmacy training. However, knowledge gained in university does not appear to be fully utilized in practice. We hypothesized that this is due to a lack of connection between pre-practical training education and actual practical training. Thus, we conducted a questionnaire study among pharmacy students to verify this hypothesis. We sent a questionnaire to 601 students in their sixth year of the pharmacy course at Chiba University, Teikyo University, or Kobe Pharmaceutical University who had undergone long-term practical training. The questionnaire asked about the utility of each subject of study and the reason for the judgement regarding the utility. Four hundred and forty-two students replied (response rate, 73.5%). A small proportion of students found the basic pharmacy subjects useful: physical chemistry, 5%; organic chemistry, 10%; and biochemistry, 24%. In contrast, more than half of the students found the clinical pharmacy subjects useful: pharmacology, 85%; pharmaceutics, 55%; pathophysiology, 75%; pharmacotherapeutics, 84%; and pharmaceutical regulations, 58%. Analysis of the comments left in the free-description section on the questionnaire revealed that most students did not have any opportunity to use their knowledge of the basic subjects during practical training, and furthermore, did not learn the processes involving the use of such subjects to solve clinical problems. Universities and pharmacists need to collaborate so that students can learn such processes.
Bhagavathula, Akshaya Srikanth; Bandari, Deepak Kumar; Tefera, Yonas Getaye; Jamshed, Shazia Qasim; Elnour, Asim Ahmed; Shehab, Abdulla
Aim: To assess the attitude of medical and pharmacy students in Asian and African universities towards scholarly research activities. Methods: An anonymous, cross-sectional, self-reported online survey questionnaire was administered to medical and pharmacy students studying in various Asian and African universities through social media between May and July 2016. A 68-item close-ended questionnaire consisting of Likert-scale options assessed the students' research-specific experiences, and their attitudes towards scholarly research publications. Results: A total of 512 questionnaires were completed, with a response rate of 92% from Asia and 94% from Africa. More pharmacy students (70.8%) participated than medical students (29.2%). Overall 52.2% of the pharmacy students and 40% of medical students believed that research activities provided a means of gaining respect from their faculty members. Lack of encouragement, paucity of time, gaps in research activities and practices, and lack of research funding were some of the most common barriers acknowledged by the students. A nonparametric Mann-Whitney test showed that a statistically significant difference was observed, in that more than 80% of the pharmacy students viewed scientific writing and research activities as valuable experiences ( p = 0.001) and would like to involve their co-students in scholarly research activities ( p = 0.002); whereas the majority of the medical students desired to be involved more in scholarly research publications ( p = 0.033). Conclusion: Pharmacy students had good attitudes towards research activities and a higher number of medical students desired to be involved more in research publications. Faculties may consider taking special research initiatives to address the barriers and improve the involvement of medical and pharmacy students in scholarly research activities.
Ali, Fatima Ramzan; Hassan, Fouzia; Hasan, Sm Farid; Israr, Fouzia; Shafiq, Yusra; Arshad, Hafiz Muhammad
Use of technology in education has increased worldwide. Teaching methodologies are shifting from traditional classroom lectures to e-learning and computer-based learning. Pakistani students are also now fathoming necessity of acquiring tools for strengthening their knowledge and skills. The objective of present study was to analyze the shifting trends (perception and attitudes) of Pakistani Pharmacy students towards learning tools. A survey based study conducted on 296 students from various years of Pharmacy, studying in a state owned university, Karachi, Pakistan. This study was initially piloted and Cronbach's-alpha was computed for evaluation of internal consistency of questionnaire (for perception; 0.660, for attitude; 0.777 respectively). Data was computed by SPSS, version 16 (Crosstab) and Chisquare (P=0.05). Most of the students strongly agreed (53%; χ² =495;P<0.05) that introducing technology will improve learning; books are reliable reading source (53%; χ² =437.23; P<0.05) or book-reading is essential (50%; χ² =360.36; P<0.05) while others disagreed that they only study from class lectures (31%; χ² =17.22; P<0.05); not take classes (41%; χ² =48.21; P<0.05); have used software (44%; χ² =46.54; P<0.05). Majority of the students agreed on incorporating technology to improve learning. Other factors such as unavailability and expenditure of books influenced their ability to learn. This study might assist policy makers in developing policies that could improve learning.
Alrakaf, Saleh; Sainsbury, Erica; Rose, Grenville; Smith, Lorraine
Objectives. To compare the achievement goal orientations of first-year with those of third-year undergraduate Australian pharmacy students and to examine the relationship of goal orientations to academic achievement.
Shi Wei Lee
Conclusion: The findings highlight that pharmacy students needs a better understanding of the principles and concepts of bioavailability and bioequivalence if they are to contribute appropriately to generic medicine use.
Yorra, Mark L
To identify the experiential and demographic factors affecting the self-efficacy and self-esteem of third-year pharmacy (P3) students. A 25-item survey that included the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the General Self-Efficacy Scale, as well as types and length of pharmacy practice experiences and demographic information was administered to doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students from 5 schools of pharmacy in New England at the completion of their P3 year. The survey response rate was approximately 50% of the total target population (399/820). Students with a grade point average (GPA)≥3.0 demonstrated a higher significant effect from unpaid introductory pharmacy practice experiences (IPPEs) on their self-efficacy scores (pself-esteem (pself-esteem. Self-efficacy and self-esteem are two important factors in pharmacy practice. Colleges and schools of pharmacy should ensure that students complete enough practice experiences, beyond the minimum of 300 IPPE hours, as one way to improve their self-efficacy and self-esteem.
Mansell, Kerry; Mansell, Holly; Neubeker, Wendell; Drake, Haley
To determine the amount of diabetes content taught at Canadian schools of pharmacy, and students' perceptions of diabetes education. Between September 23 and October 23, 2015, faculty members at each pharmacy school were asked to provide the amount of didactic, interactive, and elective hours devoted to diabetes education. These faculty members subsequently emailed an electronic web-survey to all fourth year pharmacy students to ascertain their perceptions of the amount of diabetes-related material they received and comfort level pertaining to diabetes education. Representatives from each pharmacy school (10/10; 100%) reported the amount of diabetes education provided at their schools (range of 18-43.5hours; mean 25.3hours). Student responses were obtained from 90% (9/10) of pharmacy schools; a total of 313/1216 (25.7%) students completed the questionnaire. The majority of pharmacy students (53.2%; 166/313) reported feeling the overall amount of diabetes content in their curriculum was just right while 46.2% (144/313) felt there was too little. 95.6% (299/313) disagreed diabetes received too much attention in the curriculum. A post-hoc analysis revealed that students who attended schools with more contact hours or a diabetes-specific elective felt more comfortable with dealing with certain diabetes patients and situations. Pharmacy schools vary in the amount of diabetes content taught in their curriculum. Students were split between feeling they received enough diabetes education or too little; students who received more content reported greater comfort in dealing with most diabetes patients and situations. This information is useful for pharmacy schools looking to evaluate their curricular diabetes content. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wright, David; Wickham, Jane; Sach, Tracey
Problem-based learning (PBL) was introduced into the first 3 years of the undergraduate degree course at the University of East Anglia (UEA) to both enhance the student learning experience and to enable it to meet external course accreditation criteria. Evidence to support both of these assertions is required. The objective was to determine student opinions on the value of PBL and the PBL learning process at one UK school of pharmacy. Utilising the professional accreditation criteria for UK schools of pharmacy a questionnaire was devised and piloted before being given to all UEA undergraduate pharmacy students for self-completion. The most appropriate method of dissemination was determined from a student-led focus group. A total of 201/329 (61.1%) students responded. The majority of students agreed that PBL improved their team working (83.1%), oral communication (89.1%) and problem-solving skills (61.7%). Additionally PBL improved students' ability to identify and address ethical dilemmas (74.5%) as well as enhancing their ability to manage their own learning (67.6%). Male students and those with a stated preference for team working were found to prefer PBL. Students generally believe that PBL develops a number of key skills and consequently inclusion of PBL alongside traditional teaching methods enables the school to meet a number of degree accreditation criteria. Male students, those who enjoyed team working and working with their current group were more positive about PBL. Further work is required to improve the experience for all students. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
Vogler, Carrie; Arnoldi, Jennifer; Moose, Helen; Hingle, Susan T
The transition of care from hospital to home is susceptible to clinical errors and adverse drug events. Despite this risk and the benefits of an interprofessional approach to patient care, medicine and pharmacy do not often collaborate during transitions of care. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of an interprofessional education experience consisting of medical and pharmacy students performing transitions of care. A total of 88 students (13 pharmacy students and 75 medical students) participated and were surveyed before and after the experience, to evaluate their confidence in performing aspects of the transition of care process as well as their attitudes towards interprofessional care. Pharmacy students had higher baseline levels of confidence compared with the medical students, and both student groups revealed a significantly greater level of confidence in their abilities after the experience. The impact of the experience on students' attitudes towards interprofessional care varied, with medical students showing very little change from baseline and pharmacy students showing improved attitudes in several areas. The results of this study have positive implications for an interprofessional approach to transitions of care while highlighting potential future areas of study.
Osemene, Kanayo P; Afolabi, Margaret O
The use of the modified-prescription event monitoring technique has facilitated the understanding and reporting of pharmacovigilance (PV). However, in Nigeria, PV activities are largely misunderstood. Furthermore, there is a dearth of information on the knowledge and perceptions of pharmacy students on PV activities in relation to demographics. This study investigated and assessed the knowledge and perceptions of pharmacy students about pharmacovigilance as well as the demographic factors that are related to pharmacovigilance activities. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among final year pharmacy students in three universities in months of January and February, 2016 with permission from the institutions and with written consents from 342 respondents. Pre-tested questionnaire was used to elicit information on the study objectives. Data were analysed using appropriate descriptive and inferential statistical techniques. The study revealed that the mean score on knowledge of pharmacy students on pharmacovigilance activities was 4.3 ± 0.18 which was significant according to gender (P marketing phase of drug assessment. About 204 (59.7%) of the respondents erroneously believed that adverse reactions caused by cosmetics should not be reported. Respondents have inadequate knowledge of PV activities. Therefore, pharmacy student educators should enhance students' knowledge about PV through training, during clerkship, and lay more emphasis on relevant PV courses in the Pharmacy Curriculum.
Strohfeldt, Katja; Khutoryanskaya, Olga
To introduce a new approach to problem-based learning (PBL) used in a medicinal chemistry practical class for pharmacy students. The chemistry practical class was based on independent studies by small groups of undergraduate students (4-5), who designed their own practical work, taking relevant professional standards into account. Students were guided by feedback and acquired a set of skills important for health-care professionals. The model was tailored to the application of PBL in a chemistry practical class setting for a large student cohort (150 students). The achievement of learning outcomes was based on the submission of relevant documentation, including a certificate of analysis, in addition to peer assessment. Some of the learning outcomes also were assessed in the final written examination. The practical was assessed at several time points using detailed marking schemes in order to provide the students with feedback. Students were required to engage with the feedback to succeed in the practical. A novel PBL chemistry laboratory course for pharmacy students was successful in that self-reflective learning and engagement with feedback were encouraged, and students enjoyed the challenging learning experience. Essential skills for health-care professionals were also promoted.
Keijsers, Carolina J P W; Brouwers, Jacobus R B J; de Wildt, Dick J; Custers, Eugene J F M; Ten Cate, Olle Th J; Hazen, Ankie C M; Jansen, Paul A F
Pharmacotherapy might be improved if future pharmacists and physicians receive a joint educational programme in pharmacology and pharmacotherapeutics. This study investigated whether there are differences in the pharmacology and pharmacotherapy knowledge and skills of pharmacy and medical students after their undergraduate training. Differences could serve as a starting point from which to develop joint interdisciplinary educational programmes for better prescribing. In a cross-sectional design, the knowledge and skills of advanced pharmacy and medical students were assessed, using a standardized test with three domains (basic pharmacology knowledge, clinical or applied pharmacology knowledge and pharmacotherapy skills) and eight subdomains (pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, interactions and side-effects, Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification groups, prescribing, prescribing for special groups, drug information, regulations and laws, prescription writing). Four hundred and fifty-one medical and 151 pharmacy students were included between August 2010 and July 2012. The response rate was 81%. Pharmacy students had better knowledge of basic pharmacology than medical students (77.0% vs. 68.2% correct answers; P pharmacology (73.8% vs. 72.2%, P = 0.124, δ = 0.15). Pharmacy students have better knowledge of basic pharmacology, but not of the application of pharmacology knowledge, than medical students, whereas medical students are better at writing prescriptions. Professional differences in knowledge and skills therefore might well stem from their undergraduate education. Knowledge of these differences could be harnessed to develop a joint interdisciplinary education for both students and professionals. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.
Hess, Rick; Hagemeier, Nicholas E; Blackwelder, Reid; Rose, Daniel; Ansari, Nasar; Branham, Tandy
Objective. To evaluate the impact of an interprofessional blended learning course on medical and pharmacy students' patient-centered interpersonal communication skills and to compare precourse and postcourse communication skills across first-year medical and second-year pharmacy student cohorts. Methods. Students completed ten 1-hour online modules and participated in five 3-hour group sessions over one semester. Objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) were administered before and after the course and were evaluated using the validated Common Ground Instrument. Nonparametric statistical tests were used to examine pre/postcourse domain scores within and across professions. Results. Performance in all communication skill domains increased significantly for all students. No additional significant pre/postcourse differences were noted across disciplines. Conclusion. Students' patient-centered interpersonal communication skills improved across multiple domains using a blended learning educational platform. Interview abilities were embodied similarly between medical and pharmacy students postcourse, suggesting both groups respond well to this form of instruction.
Ness, Genevieve Lynn; Sheehan, Amy Heck; Snyder, Margie E; Jordan, Joseph; Cunningham, Jean E; Gettig, Jacob P
To determine the use patterns of social media among graduating pharmacy students, characterize students' views and opinions of professionalism on popular social media sites, and compare responses about social media behavior among students seeking different types of employment. All graduating pharmacy students (n=516) at Purdue University, The University of Findlay, Butler University, and Midwestern University were invited to complete a survey instrument during the fall semester of 2011. Of 212 (41%) students who responded to the survey, 93% (194/209) had a social media profile. Seventy-four percent (120/162) of participants felt they should edit their social media profiles prior to applying for a job. Many graduating pharmacy students use social media; however, there appears to be a growing awareness of the importance of presenting a more professional image online as they near graduation and begin seeking employment as pharmacists.
To promote graduate students' active learning, deep reading of high quality papers was done by graduate students enrolled in biochemistry and microbiology pharmacy curriculum offered by college of life science, Jiangxi Normal University from 2013 to 2015. The number of graduate students, who participated in the course in 2013, 2014, and 2015 were…
Feller, Tara T; Doucette, William R; Witry, Matthew J
Objective. To summarize student pharmacist leadership development opportunities delivered by pharmacy programs, to describe selected opportunities, and to assess how these opportunities meet leadership development competencies. Methods. A multi-method study was conducted that comprised a systematic content analysis of pharmacy education journals, pharmacy program websites, and telephone interviews with key informants, which included open-ended questions and scaled responses. Results. Review of six articles, 37 American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) Annual Meeting abstracts, and 138 websites resulted in the identification of 191 leadership development opportunities. These consisted of courses, projects/programs, and events/speaker series. Interviews with 12 key informants detailed unique events that developed leadership competencies. Formal assessments of student leadership development were limited and primarily focused on informal feedback and course evaluations. Conclusion. Most US pharmacy programs offer their students an array of opportunities to develop leadership abilities. Pharmacy programs should consider expanding opportunities beyond elective courses, learn from the successes of others to implement new leadership development opportunities, and bolster the assessment of student leadership competencies and outcomes.
Hancock, Dale; Funnell, Alister; Jack, Briony; Johnston, Jill
An experiment is conducted, which in four 3 h laboratory sessions, introduces third year undergraduate Biochemistry students to the technique of real-time PCR in a biological context. The model used is a murine erythroleukemia cell line (MEL cells). These continuously cycling, immature red blood cells, arrested at an early stage in erythropoiesis,…
Gupchup, Gireesh V.; Borrego, Matthew E.; Konduri, Niranjan
The purpose of this study was to examine the association between student-life stress and health related quality of life (HRQOL) among Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm.D.) students. Data were collected for 166 students in the first three years of a Pharm.D. curriculum. Student-Life Stress Inventory scores were significantly negatively correlated to mental…
Clauson, Kevin A; Singh-Franco, Devada; Sircar-Ramsewak, Feroza; Joseph, Shine; Sandars, John
Social media may offer a means to engage students, facilitate collaborative learning, and tailor educational delivery for diverse learning styles. The purpose of this study is to characterize social media awareness among pharmacy students and determine perceptions toward integrating these tools in education. A 23-item survey was administered to 1st-year students at a multicampus college of pharmacy. Students (95% response rate; N = 196) most commonly used wikis (97%), social networking (91%), and videosharing (84%). Tools reported as never used or unknown included social bookmarking (89%), collaborative writing (84%), and RSS readers (73%). Respondents indicated that educational integration of social media would impact their ability to learn in a positive/very positive manner (75%) and make them feel connected/very connected (68%). Selectively targeting social media for educational integration and instructing pharmacy students how to employ a subset of these tools may be useful in engaging them and encouraging lifelong learning.
Hickerson, Stephen C; Fleming, Marc L; Sawant, Ruta V; Ordonez, Nancy D; Sansgiry, Sujit S
The current literature has identified many motivating factors and barriers influencing pharmacy students' decision to apply for residency training. Despite a growing need for residency trained pharmacists to advance the profession, it is not clear why only about one in four pharmacy students decide to pursue a residency, and which of these factors have the most influence on student decision-making. The study examines the factors associated with pharmacy students' intention to apply for a postgraduate residency using the theory of planned behavior (TPB) framework. Second and third-year students from four Texas pharmacy schools were surveyed using an online questionnaire based on the TPB. Descriptive statistics and multiple linear regression analyses were utilized to assess the study objectives. A total of 251 completed responses were received. Attitude, subjective norms (SN), and perceived behavioral control (PBC) were significant predictors of intention to apply for a pharmacy residency (β = 0.32, 0.58, and 0.36, respectively, p social influence of faculty members (β = 0.10, p = 0.003) and family (β = 0.08, p = 0.02); believing financial obligations (β = 0.20, p = 0.006), feeling afraid of the competition and/or not matching (β = 0.24, p make it more difficult to apply for a residency. The TPB model was useful in predicting pharmacy students' intention to apply for a residency, and all TPB constructs were significant predictors. Therefore, interventions that target students' attitude, SN, and PBC may be valuable to increase their intention, especially the specific beliefs identified to significantly predict intention. Future research into methods in which these motivating factors can be encouraged and perceived barriers can be addressed by pharmacy stakeholders will increase interest and participation in residency training. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lupu, Ana M.; Stewart, Autumn L.; O'Neil, Christine
Objective. To compare 3 strategies for pharmacy student learning of motivational interviewing skills, knowledge of motivational interviewing principles, and confidence in and attitudes toward their application.
Sawyer, Barbara G; Hubbard, Joel; Rice-Spearman, Lori
The profession of clinical laboratory science (CLS) is in dire need of increased exposure to young people. By introducing the clinical laboratory sciences to students at a critical point in their science education and by making it relevant to their lives, more choices are made available to them when considering future career options. With this in mind, the CLS faculty at Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center (TTUHSC) redesigned a recruitment program and developed it into one making use of CLS student knowledge, enthusiasm, and professionalism. CLS students were given the assignment of designing an entire curriculum for a ten day presentation of clinical laboratory science topics to middle and secondary school students. Following the presentations, participants in the program were asked to provide feedback regarding CLS student performance and overall opinion of their interest in clinical laboratory science. The objectives of this study were twofold: 1) to determine if educational methodologies could be appropriately applied by CLS students to present CLS disciplines to middle and high school students; and 2) to determine if the student presentation was successful in initiating interest in the CLS profession based on outcome measures. As a component of the CLS laboratory management course, CLS students were instructed in education methodologies including objective writing, teaching-unit preparation, and evaluation tool design. In the following semester, these students were divided into groups and assigned a specific CLS discipline that would then be presented to middle and secondary school students in a two week, 30 hour educational program. This program was offered by the TTUHSC CLS program in cooperation with the Institute for the Development and Enrichment of Advanced Learners (IDEAL) at Texas Tech University. The curriculum prepared by the CLS students (with faculty supervision) provided the framework for the present study. Didactic instruction of the CLS
Japan's Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare published "the required function and the desired operating form of a pharmacy" and proposed that "a pharmacy should demonstrate a positive role for the promotion of self-medication". In the future, it will be indispensable to pharmacies that pharmacists play a role not only in dispensing medicine but also in serving a central health-station role in the community, including promoting the self-selection of proper OTC medications for the maintenance of health. My pharmacy in a traditional area in Tokyo carries OTC drugs, health and nursing care goods, medical supplies, etc. besides dispensing medicine by prescription. Moreover, a "sample measurement room" where a person can conduct a blood test by self-puncture was prepared in April of 2014. In addition, my pharmacy has held "health consultation meetings" for patients in collaboration with a registered dietitian, as well as "meetings for briefing sessions on how to better take or administer medicines" for parents of infants, etc. These activities have been useful to local residents in the prevention of lifestyle-related diseases and in promoting a better understanding of medicine. Moreover, on-site student trainees from schools of pharmacy are helping with planning, data collection, and explanation on the days of these meetings. For trainees from schools of pharmacy, participating in these activities is important to becoming a pharmacist trusted at the community level in the future.
Kerr, Jessica L; Stahnke, Amanda M; Behnen, Erin M
To assess the impact of a 6-week patient/provider interaction simulation on empathy and self-efficacy levels of diabetes management skills in third-year pharmacy students. Pharmacy students enrolled in a diabetes elective course were paired to act as a patient with diabetes or as a provider assisting in the management of that patient during a 6-week simulation activity. After 3 weeks, students switched roles. The simulation was designed with activities to build empathy. The Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE) and a self-efficacy survey were administered to assess change in empathy and confidence levels from baseline to the end of the activity. Completion of the activity resulted in significant improvement in total JSE scores. Additionally, significant improvements in overall self-efficacy scores regarding diabetes management were noted. The 6-week patient/provider interaction simulation improved empathy and self-efficacy levels in third-year pharmacy students.
Wargo, Kurt A; Owens, Ryan E
While gender transition is a very exciting time for most students embarking upon this personal journey, it is not without its stressors as well. For students choosing to further their education and become pharmacists, the complexity and demands of pharmacy education during the transition period can be one such additive stressor. As pharmacy educators and administrators, we have the ability to help shape this professional journey and alleviate stress by maintaining our obligation to provide a safe and non-discriminatory learning environment for all students. Therefore, this two-part commentary will serve as a means to provide information and insights to administrators and faculty advisors in order to ensure transgender students, including those actively undergoing gender transition, achieve both a successful transition and pharmacy school career. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Horsburgh, Margaret; Perkins, Rod; Coyle, Barbara; Degeling, Pieter
This study sought to determine the attitudes, beliefs and values towards clinical work organization of students entering undergraduate medicine, nursing and pharmacy programmes in order to frame questions for a wider study. In the Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland students entering medicine, nursing and pharmacy programmes completed a questionnaire based on that used by Degeling et al. in studies of the professional subcultures working in the health system in Australia, New Zealand, England and elsewhere. Findings indicate that before students commence their education and training medical, nursing and pharmacy students as groups or sub-cultures differ in how they believe clinical work should be organized. Medical students believe that clinical work should be the responsibility of individuals in contrast to nursing students who have a collective view and believe that work should be systemized. Pharmacy students are at a mid-point in this continuum. There are many challenges for undergraduate programmes preparing graduates for modern healthcare practice where the emphasis is on systemized work and team based approaches. These include issues of professional socialization which begins before students enter programmes, selection of students, attitudinal shifts and interprofessional education.
Kiersma, Mary E; Plake, Kimberly S; Mason, Holly L
To assess pharmacy student involvement in leadership and service roles and to evaluate the association between admissions data and student involvement. Doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students were invited to complete a 56-item online survey instrument containing questions regarding leadership and service involvement, work experiences, perceived contribution of involvement to skill development, and perceived importance of involvement. Responses were linked to admissions data to identify possible associations. Five hundred fourteen (82.4%) pharmacy students completed the survey instrument. Students with higher admissions application and interview scores were more likely to be involved in organizations and hold leadership roles, while students with higher admissions grade point averages were less likely to be involved in organizations and leadership roles. Assessing students' involvement in leadership and service roles can assist in the evaluation of students' leadership skills and lead to modification of curricular and co-curricular activities to provide development opportunities. Student involvement in extracurricular activities may encourage future involvement in and commitment to the pharmacy profession.
Comboroure, J-C; Mueller, J-E
In France, the « HPST » law of 21 July 2009 assigns new responsibilities to pharmacists. Given the fact that the majority of vaccination coverage targets set by the Public Health Act of August 9, 2004 is not met, the question arises in how far pharmacies in town can contribute to better promotion and accessibility of vaccination. The objective of this investigation was to describe the perception of vaccination by final year pharmacy students and how they see their future professional contribution to improving vaccination coverage. A cross-sectional study was conducted in February 2013 using a questionnaire sent by email to all final year students enrolled in a French school of pharmacy. Among the 293 responding student (9.8% of the target population), 96% declared to be in favor of vaccination somewhat or strongly. The results for students in favor (not in favor) were as follows: the most frequently sources of influence for opinion on vaccination were university training 84% (83%), the personal doctor 38% (50%), health authorities 31% (33%). Ninety percent (83%) and over were fully vaccinated against diphtheria, tetanus, polio, measles and hepatitis B, and 43% (27%) were satisfied with their medical school training on vaccination. Eighty-six percent of students were in favor of transmitting customers pharmaceutical sales data (« Dossier Pharmaceutique ») to individual electronic vaccination records. With regard to vaccination in pharmacies, 69% (42%) of students were in favor given medical prescription, 54% (33%) upon prescription by the pharmacist, 43% (50%) if administered by a nurse and 69% (42%) within the context of certification system for vaccination in pharmacies. Within the limits of bias possibly introduced by the low response rate, the results of this survey suggest that future pharmacists can be considered strategic partners improving vaccination coverage. The influence which university training can on vaccination perception have should be
Volino, Lucio R.; Das, Rolee Pathak
The objectives of this study were to develop a student self-assessment activity of a video-recorded counseling session and evaluate its impact on student self-perceptions of specific communication skills. This activity was incorporated into a core-communications course within the third professional year of a Doctor of Pharmacy curriculum. Student…
Kaartinen-Koutaniemi, Minna; Lindblom-Ylanne, Sari
This study examines interdisciplinary differences in final-year psychology, pharmacy and theology students' academic thinking and personal epistemology. The semi-structured interviews (n = 52) were analysed using content analysis to assess students' individual perspectives of the cognitive process of thinking, knowing and reasoning. The three…
Holdford, David A.; Stratton, Timothy P.
Outlines a marketing plan for recruiting students into pharmacy school-based graduate programs, particularly into social and administrative sciences. Addresses challenges and opportunities when recruiting, the need to clearly define the "product" that graduate programs are trying to sell to potential students, types of students…
Luiz Adrian, Julie Ann; Zeszotarski, Paula; Ma, Carolyn
To evaluate the impact on pharmacy students of a communication course, which used role-playing to develop active-learning skills. Students role-playing pharmacists in patient care scenarios were critiqued by students and pharmacist faculty members. Grading was performed using the rubric inspired by Bruce Berger's Communication Skills for Pharmacists. Written skills were evaluated using student written critique questionnaires. Students completed precourse and postcourse self-assessment surveys. Preceptor evaluations were analyzed for course impact. Students demonstrated improvement in oral skills based on role-play scores (45.87/50) after practice sessions. The average score based on the student questionnaire was 9.31/10. Gain was demonstrated in all defined course objectives. Impact on introductory pharmacy practice experience (IPPE) communication objectives was insignificant. Student evaluations for course and teaching strategy reflected a high average. Study results demonstrated improvement in oral and written communication skills that may help improve interprofessional teamwork between pharmacists and other health care providers.
Childress, Bc; Bosler, Julie N; Beck, Morgan
To assess the impact of an advanced pharmacy practice rotation on student therapeutic knowledge, confidence in performing medication therapy management (MTM), and ability to use MTM documentation platforms. Pretest/post-test quasi-experiment. This study was conducted at the InterNational Center for Advanced Pharmacy Services (INCAPS), a licensed pharmacy that provides MTM services to geriatric patients in Louisville, Kentucky. This research evaluated 37 advanced pharmacy practice students who participated in the five-week learning rotation at INCAPS between October 1, 2011, and June 30, 2012. Thirty-seven students were tested before (pretest) beginning the rotation. During the rotation, students performed daily MTM consultations and participated in weekly topic discussions pertaining to relevant areas of chronic disease management and geriatric pharmacotherapy. Following the five-week rotation, a post-test was administered to these 37 students to analyze the changes in their knowledge. The primary outcome measure was the test score for the assessment of chronic disease management and geriatric pharmacotherapy. Compared with baseline, post-test scores showed a statistically significant improvement in the areas that were assessed-osteoporosis, hypertension, diabetes, asthma/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and inappropriate medication use in the elderly. A post-rotation survey also reflected positive improvements in student confidence when performing MTM consults for geriatric patients. The five-week MTM-focused rotation at INCAPS with weekly topic discussions and daily MTM consults showed a positive impact on students' ability to manage medication therapy for chronically ill and geriatric patients.
The acceptance and recognition of African traditional medicine (ATM) by the government compels health care professionals to be aware and knowledgeable about ATM. The aim was of the study to determine the perceptions and knowledge of University of Limpopo (UL), Medunsa Campus, undergraduate Pharmacy ...
Employing ANOVA, factorial experimental analysis, and the theory of error, reliability studies were conducted on the assessment of the drug product chloroquine phosphate tablets. The G–Study employed equal numbers of the factors for uniform control, and involved three analysts (randomly selected final year Pharmacy ...
Antworth, Allen; Maffeo, Carrie
To assess the accuracy of pharmacy students' self-assessment of body mass index (BMI) and determine the relationship of this to comfort level in counseling patients regarding lifestyle modification. A prospective, observational, cohort study was conducted that included first-, second-, and third-year pharmacy students who had previously undergone training in BMI self-assessment. Data on students' weight and height were collected and a survey that contained questions on self-perception of body weight and comfort with lifestyle counseling was conducted. Perceived BMI categories (underweight, normal, overweight, and obese) were then compared to actual calculated BMI to determine the accuracy of the student's self-perception. At baseline, participants' accuracy in self-assessment of BMI was 74%, 73.3%, and 75.6% respectively, for first-, second-, and third-year students (p=0.911). Students accuracy increased but not significantly as they progressed through the curriculum (7.2% and 13.3%, respectively; p=0.470 and p=0.209). Neither accuracy in self-assessment of BMI nor students' actual BMI significantly affected students' comfort level with lifestyle modification counseling within healthy weight, overweight, or obese patient categories. However, as the patients' BMI category increased, comfort level differences were observed among students of normal and overweight categories. Patients' BMI category may be a significant barrier to pharmacy students' comfort level in providing lifestyle modification counseling. This finding suggests the need to implement curriculum changes to better prepare students for lifestyle modification counseling.
Krass, Ines; Sainsbury, Erica; Rose, Grenville
Objectives To compare longitudinal data with previous cross-sectional data regarding Australian undergraduate pharmacy students' approaches to learning, and explore the differences in approaches to learning between undergraduate and postgraduate cohorts. Methods Longitudinal, repeated measures design using a validated self-report survey instrument were used to gather data. Results Undergraduate students' preferences for meaning directed, undirected, and reproduction-directed approaches to learning displayed the same pattern across the 2 studies; however, application-directed scores increased significantly in the second half of the undergraduate degree program. Commencing postgraduate students' approaches to learning were similar to finishing undergraduate students, and this group was significantly more oriented towards meaning-directed learning compared to undergraduate students. Conclusions Pharmacy students' maturation in approach to their learning was evident and this bodes well for pharmacists' engaging in life-long learning and capacity to work in increasingly complex health settings. PMID:21045948
DiVall, Margarita V; Hayney, Mary S; Marsh, Wallace; Neville, Michael W; O'Barr, Stephen; Sheets, Erin D; Calhoun, Larry D
To gather and evaluate the perceptions of students, faculty members, and administrators regarding the frequency and appropriateness of classroom technology use. Third-year pharmacy students and faculty members at 6 colleges and schools of pharmacy were surveyed to assess their perceptions about the type, frequency, and appropriateness of using technology in the classroom. Upper-level administrators and information technology professionals were also interviewed to ascertain overall technology goals and identify criteria used to adopt new classroom technologies. Four hundred sixty-six students, 124 faculty members, and 12 administrators participated in the survey. The most frequently used and valued types of classroom technology were course management systems, audience response systems, and lecture capture. Faculty members and students agreed that faculty members appropriately used course management systems and audience response systems. Compared with their counterparts, tech-savvy, and male students reported significantly greater preference for increased use of classroom technology. Eighty-six percent of faculty members reported having changed their teaching methodologies to meet student needs, and 91% of the students agreed that the use of technology met their needs. Pharmacy colleges and schools use a variety of technologies in their teaching methods, which have evolved to meet the needs of the current generation of students. Students are satisfied with the appropriateness of technology, but many exhibit preferences for even greater use of technology in the classroom.
Spivey, Christina A.; Jaeger, Melanie C.; Williams, Jennifer
Objective. To assess graduating pharmacy students’ attitudes toward debt and determine associations with stress, student loan debt, financial need, current employment, post-graduation plans, and expected length of time to repay loans. Methods. Survey was conducted using an attitudes-toward-debt scale (sub-scales: tolerant attitudes toward debt; contemplation and knowledge about loans; fear of debt), Perceived Stress Scale, and questions concerning current employment, estimated total student loan debt, post-graduation plans, and expected length of time to repay loans. Federal loan data were collected using financial aid records. Independent samples t-test, ANOVA, and Pearson’s r correlations were conducted. Results. There were 147 students (96.7%) who participated. The majority were female (59.2%), white (69.4%), and had federal student loans (90.5%). Mean total loan amount was $153,276 (SD $59,810), which included federal students loans accumulated before and during pharmacy school. No significant differences were noted on attitudes toward debt or stress based on whether respondents had federal student loans. Greater “fear of debt” was correlated with increased stress, estimated total student loan debt, total federal loan debt, and pharmacy school loan debt. Greater “contemplation and knowledge about loans” was correlated with lower estimated total student loan debt, total federal loan amount, and pharmacy school loan amount. Students with higher “contemplation and knowledge” scores expected to repay loans within a shorter time frame than students with lower scores. Conclusion. Increased fear of debt was related to greater perceived stress and higher student loan amounts borrowed, while increased contemplation and knowledge about loans was associated with lower amounts borrowed. Educational programming concerning loans, debt, and personal financial management may help reduce stress and amount borrowed. PMID:29109558
Douglass, Mark A; Casale, Jillian P; Skirvin, J Andrew; DiVall, Margarita V
To implement and assess the impact of a virtual patient pilot program on pharmacy students' clinical competence skills. Pharmacy students completed interactive software-based patient case scenarios embedded with drug-therapy problems as part of a course requirement at the end of their third year. Assessments included drug-therapy problem competency achievement, performance on a pretest and posttest, and pilot evaluation survey instrument. Significant improvements in students' posttest scores demonstrated advancement of clinical skills involving drug-therapy problem solving. Students agreed that completing the pilot program improved their chronic disease management skills and the program summarized the course series well. Using virtual patient technology allowed for assessment of student competencies and improved learning outcomes.
Ryan, Greg; Bonanno, Helen; Krass, Ines; Scouller, Karen; Smith, Lorraine
To assess undergraduate and postgraduate pharmacy students' perceptions of plagiarism and academic honesty. A questionnaire was administered to undergraduate and postgraduate pharmacy students to determine their levels of awareness of university policy concerning academic honesty; attitudes to plagiarism by rating the acceptability of a range of plagiarizing and cheating practices; and choice of appropriate penalties for a first and second occurrence. The choice of behaviors in response to a scenario about the preparation of a reading-based written assignment and the strategies that students would be prepared to use in order to submit the assignment on time were also assessed. Findings indicated widespread deficiencies in student knowledge of, and attitudes towards, plagiarism. Students did not perceive plagiarism as a serious issue and the use of inappropriate strategies for sourcing and acknowledging material was common. The study highlights the importance of achieving a balance among the 3 dimensions of plagiarism management: prevention, detection and penalty.
Hardigan, Patrick C.; Cohen, Stanley R.
This study compared personality traits of students in five health professions. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator was completed by 1,508 osteopathic students, 654 pharmacy students, 165 physical therapy students, 211 physician assistant students, and 70 occupational therapy students. Comparing the extrovert/introvert dimension revealed that pharmacy…
Ford, Kentya C.; Olotu, Busuyi S.; Thach, Andrew V.; Roberts, Rochelle; Davis, Patrick
Objective: The purpose of this study was to report on perceived stress levels, identify its contributing factors, and evaluate the association between perceived stress and usage of university resources to cope with stress among a cross-section of Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) students. Methods: Perceived stress was measured via a web-based survey of…
Nagge, Jeff J; Lee-Poy, Michael F; Richard, Cynthia L
Objective. To measure changes in interprofessional competencies among pharmacy and medical students following a half-day event focusing on interprofessional learning. Methods. There were 118 pharmacy students and 28 medical students who participated in the Healthcare Interprofessional Education Day (HIPED) which consisted of three stations (communication, patient interviewing, and prescribing) in which pharmacy and medical students had to work collaboratively. The standardized Interprofessional Collaborative Competency Attainment Survey (ICCAS) was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the program. Results. There were 133 surveys completed for a response rate of 91%. All 20 items measured by the ICCAS showed a significant improvement. The strongest effect sizes were in the collaboration, roles & responsibilities, and collaborative practice/family-centered approach categories. The least robust effects were in the conflict management/resolution category. Conclusion. The HIPED activity was an effective IPE experience. The strong and consistent improvement in all ICCAS scores suggest a framework for pharmacy and medical school training to move from siloed educational experiences to synergistic learning opportunities.
Dipaula, Bethany A; Qian, Jingjing; Mehdizadegan, Niki; Simoni-Wastila, Linda
To determine whether an elective course on mental health could reduce pharmacy students' social distance toward people with severe mental illness. Course activities included assigned readings, class discussions, student presentations, review of video and other media for examples of social distance, presentations by patients with mental illness, and visits to hospitalized patients in a variety of psychiatric settings. The Social Distance Scale (SDS) was administered at the beginning and end of the semester to students enrolled in the elective and to a comparator group of students not enrolled in the course. Pharmacy students who did not complete the elective had significantly higher SDS scores than students who completed the elective (18.7 vs. 15.6, p Students enrolled in the course had lower precourse SDS scores, were more likely than their peers to have a personal association with mental illness, and had a decrease in precourse to postcourse scores. A course designed to reduce stigma towards the mentally ill can reduce pharmacy students' social distance.
Chen, Judy T.; LaLopa, Joseph
Objective To determine the impact of the Patient Empathy Modeling pedagogy on students' empathy towards caring for the underserved during an advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE). Design Pharmacy students completing an APPE at 2 primary care clinics participated in a Patient Empathy Modeling assignment for 10 days. Each student “became the patient,” simulating the life of an actual patient with multiple chronic diseases who was coping with an economic, cultural, or communication barrier to optimal healthcare. Students completed the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE) before and after completing the assignment, and wrote daily journal entries and a reflection paper. Assessment Twenty-six students completed the PEM exercises from 2005-2006. Scores on the JSPE improved. Students' comments in journals and reflection papers revealed 3 major themes: greater appreciation of the difficulty patients have with adherence to medication and treatment regimens, increased empathy for patients from different backgrounds and patients with medical and psychosocial challenges, and improved ability to apply the lessons learned in the course to their patient care roles. Conclusion A Patient Empathy Modeling assignment improved pharmacy students' empathy toward underserved populations. Integrating the assignment within an APPE allowed students to immediately begin applying the knowledge and insight gained from the exercise. PMID:18483606
Full Text Available This study aimed to assess pharmacy students’ knowledge about doping substances used in sport, explore their attitudes toward doping and investigate their misuse of doping drugs. A questionnaire was developed and employed to collect data from bachelor of pharmacy (BPharm students at the International University for Science and Technology (IUST. Two-hundred and eighty students participated in this self-administrated, paper-based survey. Around 90% of the students did not appear to know that narcotics, β-blockers and diuretics were used in sport as doping agents. Additionally, proportions between 60% and 80% considered vitamins, energy drinks and amino acids as substances that possess performance-enhancing effects. The main reason for doping, based on students’ response, was to improve muscular body appearance. The vast majority of students agreed that pharmacists should play a major role in promoting awareness about risks of doping. While students showed negative attitudes toward doping, approximately 15% of them, primarily males, had already tried a doping drug or might do so in the future. More than 60% of the students believed that sports-mates and friends are the most influential in encouraging them to take a doping agent. The study highlights the need to provide pharmacy students with advanced theoretical background and practical training concerning doping. This can be achieved by adopting simple, but essential, changes to the current curricula.
Hall, Maurice; Hanna, Lezley-Anne; Huey, Gwyneth
Objective. To investigate students' use and views on social networking sites and assess differences in attitudes between genders and years in the program.Methods. All pharmacy undergraduate students were invited via e-mail to complete an electronic questionnaire consisting of 21 questions relating to social networking.Results. Most (91.8%) of the 377 respondents reported using social networking Web sites, with 98.6% using Facebook and 33.7% using Twitter. Female students were more likely than male students to agree that they had been made sufficiently aware of the professional behavior expected of them when using social networking sites (76.6% vs 58.1% p=0.002) and to agree that students should have the same professional standards whether on placement or using social networking sites (76.3% vs 61.6%; pnetworking use and potentially inappropriate attitudes towards professionalism were found among pharmacy students. Further training may be useful to ensure pharmacy students are aware of how to apply codes of conduct when using social networking sites.
Hanna, Lezley-Anne; Huey, Gwyneth
Objective. To investigate students' use and views on social networking sites and assess differences in attitudes between genders and years in the program. Methods. All pharmacy undergraduate students were invited via e-mail to complete an electronic questionnaire consisting of 21 questions relating to social networking. Results. Most (91.8%) of the 377 respondents reported using social networking Web sites, with 98.6% using Facebook and 33.7% using Twitter. Female students were more likely than male students to agree that they had been made sufficiently aware of the professional behavior expected of them when using social networking sites (76.6% vs 58.1% p=0.002) and to agree that students should have the same professional standards whether on placement or using social networking sites (76.3% vs 61.6%; psocial networking use and potentially inappropriate attitudes towards professionalism were found among pharmacy students. Further training may be useful to ensure pharmacy students are aware of how to apply codes of conduct when using social networking sites. PMID:23459621
Rose, Tyler M
To develop and evaluate a board game designed to increase students' enjoyment of learning metabolic pathways; their familiarity with pathway reactions, intermediates, and regulation; and, their understanding of how pathways relate to one another and to selected biological conditions. The board game, entitled Race to Glucose, was created as a team activity for first-year pharmacy students in the biochemistry curriculum. A majority of respondents agreed that the game was helpful for learning regulation, intermediates, and interpathway relationships but not for learning reactions, formation of energetic molecules, or relationships, to biological conditions. There was a significant increase in students' scores on game-related examination questions (68.8% pretest vs. 81.3% posttest), but the improvement was no greater than that for examination questions not related to the game (12.5% vs. 10.9%). First-year pharmacy students considered Race to Glucose to be an enjoyable and helpful tool for learning intermediates, regulation, and interpathway relationships.
Ross, Leigh Ann; Janke, Kristin K; Boyle, Cynthia J; Gianutsos, Gerald; Lindsey, Cameron C; Moczygemba, Leticia R; Whalen, Karen
To identify characteristics and quality indicators of best practices for leadership and advocacy development in pharmacy education, a national task force on leadership development in pharmacy invited colleges and schools to complete a phone survey to characterize the courses, processes, and noteworthy practices for leadership and advocacy development at their institution. The literature was consulted to corroborate survey findings and identify additional best practices. Recommendations were derived from the survey results and literature review, as well as from the experience and expertise of task force members. Fifty-four institutions provided information about lecture-based and experiential curricular and noncurricular components of leadership and advocacy development. Successful programs have a supportive institutional culture, faculty and alumni role models, administrative and/or financial support, and a cocurricular thread of activities. Leadership and advocacy development for student pharmacists is increasingly important. The recommendations and suggestions provided can facilitate leadership and advocacy development at other colleges and schools of pharmacy.
Carter, Stephen R; Moles, Rebekah J; Krass, Ines; Kritikos, Vicki S
Objective. To develop and test a conceptual model that hypothesized student intention to undertake a higher degree in pharmacy practice research (PPR) would be increased by self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and the social influence of faculty members. Methods. Cross-sectional surveys were completed by 387 final-year pharmacy undergraduates enrolled in 2012 and 2013. Structural equation modeling was used to explore relationships between variables and intention. Results. Fit indices were good. The model explained 55% of the variation in intention. As hypothesized, faculty social influence increased self-efficacy and indirectly increased outcome expectancy and intention. Conclusion. To increase pharmacy students' orientation towards a career in PPR, faculty members could use their social influence by highlighting PPR in their teaching.
Dahiya, Sunita; Dahiya, Rajiv
Theory and practicals are two essential components of pharmacy course curriculum; but in addition to appearing and passing examination with good score grades, pharmacy post graduation (PG) pursuing students are essentially required to develop some professional skills which might not be attained solely by conventional class room programs. This…
Donnelly, Amy; Shah, Smita; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia
Objectives: The aim of this study was: (1) to investigate the feasibility of incorporating the Triple A programme into the undergraduate pharmacy curriculum; (2) to compare the effect of the Triple A programme versus problem-based learning methods on the asthma knowledge of final-year pharmacy students and their perceived confidence in dealing…
Yorra, Mark L.
This doctoral thesis contributes to the literature on self-efficacy and self-esteem and the relationship to a student's school, age, gender, ethnicity, GPA, paid and introductory pharmacy practice experiences in a Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) program. Graduates with a high level of self-efficacy and self-esteem are more desirable as pharmacists…
Collins, Andrea; Broeseker, Amy; Cunningham, Jill; Cortes, Cyndi; Beall, Jennifer; Bigham, Amy; Chang, Jongwha
Interprofessional education (IPE) continues to gain traction worldwide. Challenges integrating IPE into health profession programmes include finding convenient times, meeting spaces, and level-appropriate assignments for each profession. This article describes the implementation of a 21-month prospective cohort study pilot programme for the Master of Science in nursing family nurse practitioner (FNP) and doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students at a private university in the United States. This IPE experience utilised a blended approach for the learning activities; these students had initial and final sessions where they met face-to-face, with asynchronous online activities between these two sessions. The online assignments, discussions, and quizzes during the pilot programme involved topics such as antimicrobial stewardship, hormone replacement therapy, human papilloma virus vaccination, prenatal counselling, emergency contraception, and effects of the Affordable Care Act on practice. The results suggested that the FNP students held more favourable attitudes about online IPE and that the PharmD students reported having a clearer understanding of their own roles and those of the other participating healthcare students. However, the students also reported wanting more face-to-face interaction during their online IPE experience. Implications from this study suggest that effective online IPE can be supported by ensuring educational parity between students regarding the various topics discussed and a consistent approach of the required involvement for all student groups is needed. In addition, given the students desire for more face-to-face interaction, it may be beneficial to offer online IPE activities for a shorter time period. It is anticipated that this study may inform other programmes that are exploring innovative approaches to provide IPE to promote effective collaboration in patient care.
Czepula, Alexandra I; Bottacin, Wallace E; Hipólito, Edson; Baptista, Deise R; Pontarolo, Roberto; Correr, Cassyano J
Learning styles are cognitive, emotional, and physiological traits, as well as indicators of how learners perceive, interact, and respond to their learning environments. According to Honey-Mumford, learning styles are classified as active, reflexive, theoretical, and pragmatic. The purpose of this study was to identify the predominant learning styles among pharmacy students at the Federal University of Paraná, Brazil. An observational, cross-sectional, and descriptive study was conducted using the Honey-Alonso Learning Style Questionnaire. Students in the Bachelor of Pharmacy program were invited to participate in this study. The questionnaire comprised 80 randomized questions, 20 for each of the four learning styles. The maximum possible score was 20 points for each learning style, and cumulative scores indicated the predominant learning styles among the participants. Honey-Mumford (1986) proposed five preference levels for each style (very low, low, moderate, high, and very high), called a general interpretation scale, to avoid student identification with one learning style and ignoring the characteristics of the other styles. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0. This study included 297 students (70% of all pharmacy students at the time) with a median age of 21 years old. Women comprised 77.1% of participants. The predominant style among pharmacy students at the Federal University of Paraná was the pragmatist, with a median of 14 (high preference). The pragmatist style prevails in people who are able to discover techniques related to their daily learning because such people are curious to discover new strategies and attempt to verify whether the strategies are efficient and valid. Because these people are direct and objective in their actions, pragmatists prefer to focus on practical issues that are validated and on problem situations. There was no statistically significant difference
Kalata, Lindsay R; Abate, Marie A
Objective. To evaluate pharmacy students' self-assessment skills with an electronic portfolio program using mentor evaluators. Design. First-year (P1) and second-year (P2) pharmacy students used online portfolios that required self-assessments of specific graded class assignments. Using a rubric, faculty and alumni mentors evaluated students' self-assessments and provided feedback. Assessment. Eighty-four P1 students, 74 P2 students, and 59 mentors participated in the portfolio program during 2010-2011. Both student groups performed well overall, with only a small number of resubmissions required. P1 students showed significant improvements across semesters for 2 of the self-assessment questions; P2 students' scores did not differ significantly. The P1 scores were significantly higher than P2 scores for 3 questions during spring 2011. Mentors and students had similar levels of agreement with the extent to which students put forth their best effort on the self-assessments. Conclusion. An electronic portfolio using mentors based inside and outside the school provided students with many opportunities to practice their self-assessment skills. This system represents a useful method of incorporating self-assessments into the curriculum that allows for feedback to be provided to the students.
Cassandra A. Tamayo
Full Text Available Introduction: Empathy is an essential trait for pharmacists and is recognized as a core competency that can be developed in the classroom. There is a growing body of data regarding levels of empathy in pharmacy students; however, these studies have not measured differences in behavioral, cognitive, and emotional empathy. The goal of this study was to parse the underlying components of empathy and correlate them to psychosocial attributes, with the overall goal of identifying curriculum modifications to enhance levels of empathy in pharmacy students.Methods: IRB approval was obtained to measure empathy levels in pharmacy students attending Midwestern University. An online, anonymous survey administered through a secure website (REDCap was used. This survey utilized the Jefferson Scale of Empathy (Medical Student version and included questions regarding demographics and personality traits. Empathy questions were sub-divided into behavioral, cognitive, and emotional categories. Data are presented as mean ± SEM with significance set at P < 0.05.Results: Three hundred and four pharmacy students at Midwestern University participated in a fall survey with an overall response rate of 37%. The average empathy score was 110.4 ± 0.8 on a scale of 20-140; which is comparable to empathy scores found by Fjortoft et al. and Van Winkle et al. Validating prior research, females scored significantly higher than males in empathy as well as behavioral, cognitive, and emotional subcomponents. For the entire population, emotional empathy was significantly higher than cognitive and behavioral empathy (P < 0.05. Furthermore, negative correlations to empathy were observed for self-serving behavior (R = 0.490, P < 0.001, medical authoritarianism (R = 0.428, P < 0.001, and experience of coercion (R = 0.344, P < 0.001. Conclusion: Overall, empathy levels in pharmacy students are similar to prior studies with females scoring higher than males. Emotional empathy may play a
Awé, Clara; Gaither, Caroline A; Crawford, Stephanie Y; Tieman, Jami
Objective. To compare perceived levels of stress, stressors, and academic self-efficacy among students at two multicampus colleges of pharmacy. Methods. A survey instrument using previously validated items was developed and administered to first-year, second-year, and third-year pharmacy students at two universities with multiple campuses in spring 2013. Results. Eight hundred twenty students out of 1115 responded (73.5% response rate). Institutional differences were found in perceived student stress levels, self-efficacy, and stress-related causes. An interaction effect was demonstrated between institution and campus type (main or branch) for perceived stress and self-efficacy although campus type alone did not demonstrate a direct effect. Institutional and campus differences existed in awareness of campus counseling services, as did a few differences in coping methods. Conclusion. Stress measures were similar for pharmacy students at main or branch campuses. Institutional differences in student stress might be explained by instructional methods, campus support services, institutional climate, and nonuniversity factors.
Czepula, Alexandra I.; Bottacin, Wallace E.; Hipólito, Edson; Baptista, Deise R.; Pontarolo, Roberto; Correr, Cassyano J.
Background: Learning styles are cognitive, emotional, and physiological traits, as well as indicators of how learners perceive, interact, and respond to their learning environments. According to Honey-Mumford, learning styles are classified as active, reflexive, theoretical, and pragmatic. Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify the predominant learning styles among pharmacy students at the Federal University of Paraná, Brazil. Methods: An observational, cross-sectional, and descriptive study was conducted using the Honey-Alonso Learning Style Questionnaire. Students in the Bachelor of Pharmacy program were invited to participate in this study. The questionnaire comprised 80 randomized questions, 20 for each of the four learning styles. The maximum possible score was 20 points for each learning style, and cumulative scores indicated the predominant learning styles among the participants. Honey-Mumford (1986) proposed five preference levels for each style (very low, low, moderate, high, and very high), called a general interpretation scale, to avoid student identification with one learning style and ignoring the characteristics of the other styles. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0. Results: This study included 297 students (70% of all pharmacy students at the time) with a median age of 21 years old. Women comprised 77.1% of participants. The predominant style among pharmacy students at the Federal University of Paraná was the pragmatist, with a median of 14 (high preference). The pragmatist style prevails in people who are able to discover techniques related to their daily learning because such people are curious to discover new strategies and attempt to verify whether the strategies are efficient and valid. Because these people are direct and objective in their actions, pragmatists prefer to focus on practical issues that are validated and on problem situations. There was no
Full Text Available Background: Learning styles are cognitive, emotional, and physiological traits, as well as indicators of how learners perceive, interact, and respond to their learning environments. According to Honey-Mumford, learning styles are classified as active, reflexive, theoretical, and pragmatic. Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify the predominant learning styles among pharmacy students at the Federal University of Paraná, Brazil. Methods: An observational, cross-sectional, and descriptive study was conducted using the Honey-Alonso Learning Style Questionnaire. Students in the Bachelor of Pharmacy program were invited to participate in this study. The questionnaire comprised 80 randomized questions, 20 for each of the four learning styles. The maximum possible score was 20 points for each learning style, and cumulative scores indicated the predominant learning styles among the participants. Honey-Mumford (1986 proposed five preference levels for each style (very low, low, moderate, high, and very high, called a general interpretation scale, to avoid student identification with one learning style and ignoring the characteristics of the other styles. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 20.0. Results: This study included 297 students (70% of all pharmacy students at the time with a median age of 21 years old. Women comprised 77.1% of participants. The predominant style among pharmacy students at the Federal University of Paraná was the pragmatist, with a median of 14 (high preference. The pragmatist style prevails in people who are able to discover techniques related to their daily learning because such people are curious to discover new strategies and attempt to verify whether the strategies are efficient and valid. Because these people are direct and objective in their actions, pragmatists prefer to focus on practical issues that are validated and on problem situations
Bryant, Jennifer E; Richard, Craig A H
To describe pharmacy students' use of mobile devices in a basic health science laboratory and to report the students' perceptions on how solving cases with their mobile devices influenced their attitudes, abilities, and view on the use of mobile devices as tools for pharmacists. First-year pharmacy students utilized mobile devices to solve clinical case studies in a basic health sciences laboratory. A pre-survey and two post-surveys were administered to assess the students' comfort, awareness, use, and perceptions on the use of their mobile devices and apps. The pre-survey and first post-survey each had a response rate of 99%, and the second post-survey had a response rate of 100%. In comparing the pre-survey and first post-survey data, there was a statistically significant increase in the number of students that agreed or strongly agreed that they were more comfortable utilizing their mobile device (p = 0.025), they were more aware of apps for pharmacists (p mobile devices, to be more aware of apps that can be useful for pharmacists, and to be more agreeable with mobile device utilization by pharmacists in improving patient care. In addition, the second post-survey also demonstrated that 84% of students responded that using their mobile devices to solve the cases influenced them to either use their mobile device in a clinical setting for a clinical and/or pharmacy-related purpose for the first time or to use it more frequently for this purpose. The use of mobile devices to solve clinical cases in a first-year basic health science laboratory course was perceived as beneficial by students and influenced them to utilize their mobile device even more in a pharmacy practice setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Anderson, R. S.
While we subject our students to math and physics and chemistry courses to complement their geological studies, we rarely allow them to experience the joys of modeling earth systems. Given the degree to which modern earth sciences relies upon models of complex systems, it seems appropriate to allow our students to develop some experience with this activity. In addition, as modeling is an unforgivingly logical exercise, it demands the student absorb the fundamental concepts, the assumptions behind them, and the means of constraining the relevant parameters in a problem. These concepts commonly include conservation of some quantity, the fluxes of that quantity, and careful prescription of the boundary and initial conditions. I have used MATLAB as an entrance to this world, and will illustrate the products of the exercises we have worked. This software is platform-independent, and has a wonderful graphics package (including movies) that is embedded intimately as one-to-several line calls. The exercises should follow a progression from simple to complex, and serve to introduce the many discrete tasks within modeling. I advocate full immersion in the first exercise. Example exercises include: growth of spatter cones (summation of parabolic trajectories of lava bombs); response of thermal profiles in the earth to varying surface temperature (thermal conduction); hillslope or fault scarp evolution (topographic diffusion); growth and subsidence of volcanoes (flexure); and coral growth on a subsiding platform in the face of sealevel fluctuations (coral biology and light extinction). These exercises can be motivated by reading a piece in the classical or modern literature that either describes a model, or better yet serves to describe the system well, but does not present a model. I have found that the generation of movies from even the early simulation exercises serves as an additional motivator for students. We discuss the models in each class meeting, and learn that there
Full Text Available Background: Pharmacists are under pressure to provide patient centered care within increasingly culturally diverse settings. Pharmacy schools play an important role in educating learners regarding culture and its impact on patient care. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine if a novel cultural competency learning activity, which involved students from two culturally and ethnically different pharmacy schools learning together using videoconference education activities, improved: (1 student knowledge and confidence pertaining to cultural competency concepts, (2 attitudes and perceptions towards being a culturally competent pharmacist, and (3 academic performance related to cultural competency case studies. Methods: Pharmacy students from Qatar University in Doha, Qatar (n=25 and the University of Saskatchewan in Saskatoon, Canada (n=85 participated in a cultural competency activity comprised of small group work on a patient case study, followed by tutorial discussions. Some Canadian students (n=31/85 worked collaboratively (via video conference with the students from Qatar. The evaluation used a convergent mixed methods design comprised of: (1 a pre and post session survey measuring student knowledge and confidence; (2 pre and post session student self-reflections; and, (3 student academic performance on care plans and an observed structured clinical exam (OSCE. Results: The survey identified small but statistically significant (p<0.05 improvements in knowledge and confidence with respect to 11 of the 12 questionnaire items in the students from Canada and 2 of the 12 items in the students from Qatar. The self-reflections found that 44.4% (n=36/81 of students who completed the pre and post reflective questions reported a change in knowledge and attitudes regarding cultural competency, but a reason for the change was not evident. Student grades on the cultural competency care plans and the OSCE were not different between the
Objectives This paper describes the use of service scripts to teach pharmacy students how to manage specific practice situations by learning and following scripted behaviors. Design Based upon role theory, service scripts require specific behaviors for a broad range of practice problems and communicate consistent messages about the responsibilities of all people involved. Service scripts are developed by (1) identifying scenarios for the script, (2) eliciting the script's structure and content, and (3) documenting the reasoning behind the steps in the script. Assessment Students in a nontraditional doctor of pharmacy program developed scripts for their practice settings. They concluded that scripts were useful for quickly learning new, routine tasks, but expressed concern that scripts could be misused by pharmacists and managers. The process of script development itself was useful in gaining feedback about common practice problems. Conclusion By mastering managerial, clinical, and communication scripts, students can develop capabilities to provide professional services. PMID:17136145
Garber, Mathew C
Objective. To assess the coping mechanisms used by pharmacy students and their relationship to perceived stress. Methods. Data were gathered utilizing the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS10) and Brief COPE with the additional coping mechanisms of exercise and use of prescribed medications. Results. A survey that was sent to 368 students had an 81% response rate. Perceived stress was significantly higher than standard populations, but consistent with other pharmacy student populations. The most frequently reported coping mechanisms were the adaptive strategies of active coping, acceptance and planning. Maladaptive strategies of behavioral disengagement, venting and self-blame were significantly associated with higher perceived stress scores and the new addition of an exercise coping mechanism significantly associated with lower perceived stress scores. Use of prescribed medications was not significantly associated with perceived stress levels. Conclusion. Inclusion of exercise as a coping mechanism may be beneficial in similar populations.
Dopp, Anna Legreid; Dopp, John M.; Vardeny, Orly; Sims, J. Jason
Objectives To assess pharmacy students' retention of knowledge about appropriate automated external defibrillator use and counseling points following didactic training and simulated experience. Design Following a lecture on sudden cardiac arrest and automated external defibrillator use, second-year doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students were assessed on their ability to perform basic life support and deliver a shock at baseline, 3 weeks, and 4 months. Students completed a questionnaire to evaluate recall of counseling points for laypeople/the public. Assessment Mean time to shock delivery at baseline was 74 ± 25 seconds, which improved significantly at 3 weeks (50 ± 17 seconds, p defibrillator counseling points was diminished after 4 months. Conclusion Pharmacy students can use automated external defibrillators to quickly deliver a shock and are able to retain this ability after 4 months. Refresher training/courses will be required to improve students' retention of automated external defibrillator counseling points to ensure their ability to deliver appropriate patient education. PMID:21045951
Tam, Ai May; Chaw, Siew Ling; Ang, May Jing; Yong, Mei Wan
Objective To measure pharmacy students' anxiety towards research and how academic support, academic effort, attitude and self-efficacy influence their research anxiety. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with undergraduate final year students of pharmacy using a convenient sampling method. A validated self-administered questionnaire was used. Results Response rate for this study was 85.9% (128 students from a population of 149). The participants agreed that they read literature to understand research, but did not attend research-related coursework. Most participants (91.4%) felt that they were under stress while doing research. Almost all participants (97.6%) felt that they were doing very badly during their data analysis or they may fail their research projects. The majority of participants agreed that help from the lecturers' and friends in research give emotional support for their research activities. Conclusion Academic support for pharmacy students, along with their additional academic effort will improve the students' self-efficacy and reduce research anxiety. PMID:28419167
Howard, Meredith L; Steuber, Taylor D; Nisly, Sarah A; Wilhoite, Jessica; Saum, Lindsay
Formalized mentoring programs are often credited for influencing professional development of mentees. Unfortunately, little information exists regarding advancement of mentoring skills. We report the development and evaluation of a program to cultivate mentoring skills in pharmacy residents. Advanced pharmacy practice experience students and pharmacy residents were contacted for program participation. Resident mentors were paired with a student mentee for the program. Mentors were provided resources and support throughout the program. Sessions were held to facilitate mentoring relationships and to discuss professional development topics. Pre- and post-perception surveys were administered to mentors to measure changes in mentoring comfort and ability. Only matched pre- and post-surveys were included for analysis. The program was held and evaluated over two separate academic years FINDINGS: Fifty-three residents mentored 54 students over two cycles of the program. Mentors' matched perception surveys (n = 26) reported increased comfort in mentoring (p effectiveness in provision of written and oral feedback (p = 0.004 and p = 0.013 respectively). Mentors also reported heightened belief that serving as a student mentor will be beneficial to their long-term career goals (p = 0.034). Overall, this formal resident-led student mentoring program improved resident comfort serving in a mentoring role. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Pharmacists and medical doctors are two professional groups that very often receive their education and practice in the same environment. However, their approach to patient care and collaboration tends to be different and this may lead to both frustration and conflict which may adversely affect patient care. Personality has been identified as a psychological issue that could contribute to conflict in a work situation. Objective: To study the personality traits of a cohort of students studying pharmacy and medicine at the University of Malta in their first and final year. Methods: The Gordon Personal Profile – Inventory was administered to a cohort of pharmacy and medical students in their first year and once again administered to the same cohort who completed their course of study in their final year. Basic demographic data was also collected. Results: In first year the most pronounced traits for both student groups were those of Emotional Stability and Personal Relations. Over a period of five years, there were shifts in personality traits. In their final year pharmacy students were characterized by high scores for Cautiousness and Personal Relations while medical students exhibited medium scores in Cautiousness and Emotional Stability. Conclusion: The changes in personality traits over the duration of the course were not radical changes but rather that of traits becoming more pronounced.
Alrakaf, Saleh; Sainsbury, Erica; Rose, Grenville; Smith, Lorraine
To compare the achievement goal orientations of first-year with those of third-year undergraduate Australian pharmacy students and to examine the relationship of goal orientations to academic achievement. The Achievement Goal Questionnaire was administered to first-year and third-year students during class time. Students' grades were obtained from course coordinators. More first-year students adopted performance-approach and mastery-approach goals than did third-year students. Performance-approach goals were positively correlated with academic achievement in the first year. Chinese Australian students scored the highest in adopting performance-approach goals. Vietnamese Australian students adopted mastery-avoidance goals more than other ethnicities. First-year students were more strongly performance approach goal-oriented than third-year students. Adopting performance-approach goals was positively correlated with academic achievement, while adopting avoidance goals was not. Ethnicity has an effect on the adoption of achievement goals and academic achievement.
Lussiana, Cristina; Floridia, Marco; Martinho do Rosário, Joana; Fortes, Filomeno; Allan, Richard
Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) against malaria are subsidized in many African countries, but the impact of subsidy programs in reducing the sales of concomitantly available antimalarial monotherapies is poorly defined. Data from The MENTOR initiative, that introduced subsidized artemether-lumefantrine (sAL) in the private sector of Huambo province, Angola, were used. The main response variable was represented by sales of sAL and of monotherapies, measured as number of treatment courses. Sales in private pharmacies of sAL and four antimalarial monotherapies between 2009 and 2013 were organized in four time-periods, and analyzed using generalized linear models for repeated measures. A secondary analysis evaluated changes in relative market share. We analyzed data from 34 pharmacies at four time points, taken from a larger survey that involved 165 pharmacies between June 2009 and March 2013. The sAL, following its introduction, became the dominant antimalarial treatment in the private sector, usually exceeding the total sales of all antimalarial monotherapies combined (1480/2800 total treatment courses, 52.8% of all sales in March 2013). Sales of monotherapies decreased significantly, but did not stop, representing 36.7% (1028/2800) of sales at the end of the survey. Subsidized ACTs can attain rapidly a high relative market share. Their introduction reduced, but did not eliminate the demand for less effective monotherapies, that might favor parasite resistance. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Objective. To assess second-year pharmacy students’ acquisition of pharmacotherapy knowledge and clinical competence from participation in a high-fidelity simulation, and to determine the impact on the simulation experience of implementing feedback from previous students. Design. A high-fidelity simulation was used to present a patient case scenario of drug-induced dyspepsia with gastrointestinal bleeding. The simulation was revised based on feedback from a previous class of students to include a smaller group size, provision of session material to students in advance, and an improved learning environment. Assessment. Student performance on pre- and post-simulation knowledge and clinical competence tests documented significant improvements in students' knowledge of dyspepsia and associated symptoms, with the greatest improvement on questions relating to the hemodynamic effects of gastrointestinal bleeding. Students were more satisfied with the simulation experience compared to students in the earlier study. Conclusion. Participation in a high-fidelity simulation allowed pharmacy students to apply knowledge and skills learned in the classroom. Improved student satisfaction with the simulation suggests that implementing feedback obtained through student course evaluations can be an effective means of improving the curriculum. PMID:23519773
Emerson, Mitchell R.
The initial courses in didactic pharmacy curriculum are designed to provide core scientific knowledge and develop learning skills that are the basis for highly competent application and practice of pharmacy. Commonly, students interpret this scientific base as ancillary to the practice of pharmacy. Physiology courses present a natural opportunity for the instructor to introduce basic pharmaceutical principles that form the foundation of pharmacological application early in the professional cu...
Guérin, A; Bussières, J-F
The main objective was to assess the position of Quebec pharmaceutical community about pharmaceutical ethics statements. The second objective was to compare the level of agreement of pharmacy students and hospitals pharmacists. Survey conducted one day given in 2012 and 2013 for students in 2013 and from 29/08/2014 to 02/09/2014 for pharmacists. A questionnaire of eight themes and 43 statements was developed: training and education (5 questions), clinical research (7) advertising and marketing (5) evaluation (5) dispensing medication (4), pharmaceutical care (9) economic aspect (6) and code of ethics (2). A Likert scale with four choices was used to measure the level of agreement. The primary outcome was the difference between the level of agreement of pharmacy students and hospital pharmacists. The Chi 2 test was used. A total of 347 students and 398 pharmacists responded to the survey. There was a statistically significant difference regarding the level of agreement with 28 statements on 43. The differences focused on eight themes of the questionnaire, or training and education (3/5 significantly different questions), clinical research (2/7), advertising and marketing (2/5), Evaluation (4/5) dispensing medication (4/4), pharmaceutical care (5/9), economic aspect (6/6) and ethics (2/2). This study shows that there is a difference between pharmacists and pharmacy students about pharmaceutical ethics statements. Copyright © 2016 Académie Nationale de Pharmacie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Dalal, Kavita; McCall, Kenneth L; Fike, David S; Horton, Niambi; Allen, April
To evaluate whether student participation in ambulatory clinics influenced the percentage of therapeutic international normalized ratio (INR) results among patients on chronic warfarin therapy. Medical records in outpatient anticoagulation clinics managed by pharmacists under physician protocol were reviewed retrospectively in 2 university-affiliated clinics in Amarillo and Lubbock, TX. Pharmacy student activities included patient interviews, vital sign measurements, fingersticks, counseling, and documentation. Patient visits were conducted by a precepted pharmacy student or a pharmacist without a student, and the INR was measured at the subsequent patient visit. Records of 1,958 anticoagulation patient visits were reviewed; 865 patients were treated by pharmacists, and 1093 were treated by precepted students. The follow-up INR was therapeutic for 48.5% of third-year (P3) students' patients, 45.6% of fourth-year (P4) students' patients, 51.2% of residents' patients, and 44.7% of pharmacists's patients (p = 0.23). Eight variables were associated with the follow-up INR (baseline INR, warfarin noncompliance, held warfarin doses, a warfarin dosage adjustment, diet change, alcohol use, tobacco use, and any medication changes). Student participation in the patient-care process did not compromise patient care and no significant difference in patient outcomes was found between patients in an anticoagulation clinic cared for by precepted students and those cared for by pharmacists.
Huynh, Donna; Haines, Stuart T; Plaza, Cecilia M; Sturpe, Deborah A; Williams, Greg; Rodriguez de Bittner, Magaly A; Roffman, David S
To evaluate the impact of advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) on doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students' readiness for self-directed learning. The Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale (SDLRS) was administered to students prior to and after completing their APPEs. SDLRS is a validated instrument that determines the relative degree to which students have the attitudes and motivation to engage in self-directed learning. Seventy-seven (64%) students completed the SDLRS prior to starting their APPEs and 80 (67%) students completed the instrument after completing their APPEs. Forty-six (38%) students completed both. Prior to starting their APPEs, 74% of students scored greater than 150 on the SDLRS, indicating a high level of readiness for self-directed learning. No significant difference was found between the mean scores of students who took the SDLRS both prior to (159 +/- 20) and after completing their APPEs (159 +/- 24; p > 0.05). Students at our institution appear to be ready for self-directed learning but APPEs had a minimal impact on their readiness for self-directed learning.
Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Aziz, Noorizan Abdul
Objective To evaluate the level of knowledge, attitudes, and risk perceptions of University Sains Malaysia final-year pharmacy students regarding human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunity deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Method A cross-sectional study among pharmacy students. Data were analyzed with Chi-square to find difference at p value students (83.07%) responded showing a difference in gender and race. Students showed low willingness (9.2%) to assist patients and low confidence (36.1%) in their education about HIV/AIDS patients. Students recommended HIV testing for health care professionals (69.4%) and patients (75.9%) before surgical procedures. Students knew little about Post Exposure Prophylaxis (18.5%) or about the time for HIV to develop into AIDS (57.4%). About 40% of students were unaware of the inability of antivirals to treat HIV/AIDS. Students had low awareness for opportunistic infections (18.5%), and low agreement on competency to treat and counsel HIV patients (12.9%). Conclusion The study highlighted students' misconceptions, negative attitudes, and risk perceptions towards HIV/AIDS. PMID:19513153
LaRochelle, Joseph M; Karpinski, Aryn C
To examine racial differences in communication apprehension and interprofessional socialization in fourth-year PharmD students and to investigate the relationship between the two constructs. Two measures with reliability and validity psychometric evidence were administered to fourth-year pharmacy students at a single historically black university with a large racial minority population. The Personal Report of Communication Apprehension (PRCA-24) measures level of fear or anxiety associated with communication. The Interprofessional Socialization and Valuing Scale (ISVS) measures beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors towards interprofessional collaborative practice. One hundred fourteen students completed the survey. This produced a 77.4% response rate and 45.6% of the participants were African American. There were significant differences between races (ie, White, African-American, and Asian) on both measures. The PCRA-24 and ISVS were significantly correlated in each racial group. As pharmacy education moves to more interprofessional collaborations, the racial differences need to be considered and further explored. Pharmacy curricula can be structured to promote students' comfort when communicating interprofessionally across racial groups. Understanding of culture and early education in cultural competence may need to be emphasized to navigate racial or cultural differences.
W. D. Basson
Full Text Available The personality preferences and resulting temperament types of lecturers and students play an important role in their teaching and learning respectively. The objective of this research was to compare the temperament types of pharmacy lecturers and students at a tertiary education institution. Opsomming Die pcrsoonlikheidsvoorkeure en gevolglike temperamcnt tipes van studente en dosente sped onderskeidelik 'n belangrike rol in hulle leer en onderrig. Die doelstelling van hierdie navorsing was om die temperamenttipes van aptekertudente en -dosente aan 'n tersiere inrigting te vergelyk.
Zeszotarski, Paula; Ma, Carolyn
Objective. To evaluate the impact on pharmacy students of a communication course, which used role-playing to develop active-learning skills. Design. Students role-playing pharmacists in patient care scenarios were critiqued by students and pharmacist faculty members. Grading was performed using the rubric inspired by Bruce Berger’s Communication Skills for Pharmacists. Written skills were evaluated using student written critique questionnaires. Students completed precourse and postcourse self-assessment surveys. Preceptor evaluations were analyzed for course impact. Assessment. Students demonstrated improvement in oral skills based on role-play scores (45.87/50) after practice sessions. The average score based on the student questionnaire was 9.31/10. Gain was demonstrated in all defined course objectives. Impact on introductory pharmacy practice experience (IPPE) communication objectives was insignificant. Student evaluations for course and teaching strategy reflected a high average. Conclusion. Study results demonstrated improvement in oral and written communication skills that may help improve interprofessional teamwork between pharmacists and other health care providers. PMID:25995519
Broeseker, Amy E.
Objectives To assess pharmacy students' attitudes toward death and end-of-life care. Methods Third-year pharmacy students enrolled in the Ethics in Christianity and Health Care course were administered a survey instrument prior to introduction of the topic of end-of-life care. Students' attitudes toward different professions' roles in end-of-life care and their comfort in discussing end-of-life issues were assessed. The survey instrument was readministered to the same students at the end of their fourth year. Results On most survey items, female students responded more favorably toward death and end-of-life care than male students. One exception was the perceived emotional ability to be in the room of a dying patient or loved one. Post-experiential survey responses were generally more favorable toward death and end-of-life care than were pre-discussion responses. Conclusions In general, when surveyed concerning death and end-of-life care, female students responded more favorably than male students, and responses at the end of the fourth year were more favorable than at the beginning of the course. PMID:21045946
Mylrea, Martina F; Sen Gupta, Tarun; Glass, Beverley D
Self-determination theory (SDT), which describes a continuum of motivation regulators, is proposed as an appropriate framework to study pharmacy student motivation. The aim was to develop a Pharmacy Motivation Scale (Pharm-S) to determine motivation regulators in undergraduate students and explore a possible link to professional identity development. The Pharm-S was adapted from the SDT-based, Sports Motivation Scale (SMS-II), and administered to undergraduate students in an Australian pharmacy course. Convergent validity was assessed by conducting a correlation analysis between the Pharm-S and MacLeod Clark Professional Identity Scale (MCPIS-9). Face, content and construct validity were established for the Pharm-S through the analysis of 327 survey responses. Factor analysis extracted four of the six theoretical subscales as proposed by SDT (variance explained: 65.7%). Support for the SDT structure was confirmed by high factor loadings in each of the subscales and acceptable reliability coefficients. Subscale correlations revealed a simplex pattern, supporting the presence of a motivation continuum, as described by SDT. A moderate positive correlation (0.64) between Pharm-S responses and the validated professional identity instrument, MCPIS-9, indicated a possible link between levels of motivation and professional identity. and conclusions: Content and structural validity and internal consistency of the Pharm-S confirmed the reliability of the Pharm-S as a valid tool to assess motivational regulators. Pharm-S and the MCPIS-9 were positively correlated, lending support to a link between motivation and professional identity. This suggests a potential role for the Pharm-S as a valid tool to measure pharmacy student professional identity development. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bhagavathula, Akshaya Srikanth; Bandari, Deepak Kumar; Gogikar, Sudhir Kumar; Elnour, Asim Ahmed; Shehab, Abdulla
Objective. To investigate the overall experience of pharmacy students in India during their clinical rotations and their assessment of primary mentors in imparting the intended clinical skills. Methods. A prospective cross-sectional study using a self-administered survey instrument containing 34 items to obtain feedback from senior PharmD students in the latter three years of their six-year program from November 2014 to February 2015. Results. Of the 415 PharmD students invited for this survey, 261(63% response rate) completed the survey (54% males and 46% females). Of the surveyed participants, 74% were fifth- and final-year interns undertaking clinical training in private hospitals (60.9%). Interestingly, 37.9% of the students ranked their clinical training as "least satisfactory" and remarked that their clinical pharmacy services were not recognized or appreciated in their respective hospitals (42.9%). However, 20% of the students expressed that their site "definitely" provided them with the opportunity to hone clinical pharmacy skills. Only 10% of the students strongly agreed that their mentors encouraged them to use resource materials and learn on their own, met with them regularly to review their work and to provide feedback, and encouraged them to express their opinion in patient-care issues. Conclusion. Majority of PharmD students who completed the survey were "least satisfied" with their clinical training program. Mentors should take more effort to demonstrate practice-based clinical training and provide patient-centered education to PharmD students at their clinical sites.
Md. Omar Reza Seam
Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the perceptions and extent of practicing self-medication among undergraduate pharmacy students. Methods: This cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was conducted over a six month period (January to June 2016 among undergraduate pharmacy students in five reputable public universities of Bangladesh. It involved face-to-face interviews regarding self-medication of 250 respondents selected by simple random sampling. Results: Self-medication was reported by 88.0% of students. Antipyretics (58.40% were mostly preferred for the treatment of fever and headaches. The major cause for self-medication was minor illness (59.60%, p = 0.73 while previous prescriptions were the main source of knowledge as well as the major factor (52.80%, p = 0.94 dominating the self-medication practice. The results also demonstrated 88.80% of students had previous knowledge on self-medication and 83.60% of students always checked the information on the label; mainly the expiry date before use (85.60%. A significant (p < 0.05 portion of the students (51% male and 43% female perceived it was an acceptable practice as they considered self-medication to be a segment of self-care. Furthermore, students demonstrated differences in their response level towards the adverse effect of drugs, the health hazard by a higher dose of drug, a physician’s help in case of side effects, taking medicine without proper knowledge, and stopping selling medicine without prescription. Conclusions: Self-medication was commonly used among pharmacy students primarily for minor illnesses using over-the-counter medications. Although it is an inevitable practice for them it should be considered an important public health problem as this practice may increase the misuse or irrational use of medicines.
Full Text Available Background: Recently, the European Union has introduced the Falsified Medicines Directive (FMD. Additionally, in early 2016, a Delegated Act (DA related to the FMD was published. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of external audits in the context of implementing new regulations provided by the FMD in the secondary care environment. Methods: The external, in-person workflow audits were performed by an authentication company in three Polish hospital pharmacies. Each audit consisted of a combination of supervision (non-participant observation, secondary data analysis, and expert interviews with the use of an independently designed authorial Diagnostic Questionnaire. The questionnaire included information about hospital drug distribution procedures, data concerning drug usage, IT systems, medication order systems, the processes of medication dispensing, and the preparation and administration of hazardous drugs. Data analysis included a thorough examination of hospital documentation in regard to drug management. All data were subjected to qualitative analysis, with the aim of generating meaningful information through inductive inference. Results: Only one dispensing location in the Polish hospitals studied has the potential to be a primary authentication area. In the audited hospitals, an Automated Drug Dispensing System and unit dose were not identified during the study. Hospital wards contained an enclosed place within the department dedicated to drug storage under the direct supervision of senior nursing staff. An electronic order system was not available. In the largest center, unused medications are re-dispensed to different hospital departments, or may be sold to various institutions. Additionally, in one hospital pharmacy, pharmacists prepared parenteral nutrition and chemotherapeutic drugs for patients admitted to the hospital. Conclusions: External audits might prove beneficial in the course of introducing new
A three-sectioned 37-item questionnaire was designed using previously validated constructs. Student's t-test and ANOVA was carried out to evaluate the effect of the factors on academic performance. Results showed that students who were less anxious had significantly higher cumulative grade point average M±SD (CGPA ...
Hoan Linh Banh
Full Text Available Purpose: Type 2 diabetes is a major condition impacting morbidity, mortality, and health care costs in Canada. Pharmacists are very accessible and are in an ideal position to promote public health education. The primary goal of this study was to incorporate public health promotion and education into a community pharmacy experiential education rotation for fourth year pharmacy students to screen for the risk of pre-diabetes/diabetes in adults. A secondary goal was to determine the frequency of common risk factors for pre-diabetes/diabetes in adults in the community setting. Method: Fourth year pharmacy students were invited to recruit all adults 25 years or older attending community pharmacies to complete a pre-diabetes/diabetes risk assessment questionnaire. If the participants were at risk, the participants were provided education about risk reduction for developing pre-diabetes/diabetes. Results: A total of 340 participants completed a risk assessment questionnaire. Over 90% of people approached agreed to complete a risk assessment questionnaire. The common risk factors were overweight (154/45%, hypertension (102/30%, taking medications for hypertension (102/30%, and having symptoms of diabetes (111/33%. The ethnic minorities have 2.56 (confidence interval = 1.48–44.1 times greater odds of having a family history of diabetes compared to non-minority subjects. Conclusion: Pharmacy students are able to screen community-based patients for pre-diabetes/diabetes risks. The most common risk factors presented were overweight, hypertension, and taking medications for hypertension.
Henning, Marcus A; Ram, Sanya; Malpas, Phillipa; Shulruf, Boaz; Kelly, Fiona; Hawken, Susan J
There is ample evidence to suggest that academic dishonesty remains an area of concern and interest for academic and professional bodies. There is also burgeoning research in the area of moral reasoning and its relevance to the teaching of pharmacy and medicine. To explore the associations between self-reported incidence of academic dishonesty and ethical reasoning in a professional student body. Responses were elicited from 433 pharmacy and medicine students. A questionnaire eliciting responses about academic dishonesty (copying, cheating, and collusion) and their decisions regarding an ethical dilemma was distributed. Multivariate analysis procedures were conducted. The findings suggested that copying and collusion may be linked to the way students make ethical decisions. Students more likely to suggest unlawful solutions to the ethical dilemma were more likely to disclose engagement in copying information and colluding with other students. These findings imply that students engaging in academic dishonesty may be using different ethical frameworks. Therefore, employing ethical dilemmas would likely create a useful learning framework for identifying students employing dishonest strategies when coping with their studies. Increasing understanding through dialog about engagement in academic honesty will likely construct positive learning outcomes in the university with implications for future practice.
Jennifer W. Beall
Full Text Available The primary purpose of this study was to examine perceived stress in doctor of pharmacy students during their first, second, and third years of their program in a fully implemented new curriculum. The secondary objectives were to determine if there is a relationship between perceived stress and certain demographic variables, to compare student pharmacist perceived stress to the perceived stress in the general population, and to examine student reported stressors during pharmacy school and coping strategies employed for those stressors. A previously validated survey (Perceived Stress Scale-10 was given to first, second, and third year student pharmacists. Females exhibited higher mean stress scores than males. The under 22 years and over 32 years age categories exhibited higher mean stress scores than the 22 to 26 year old student population. There was no significant difference in perceived stress scores between classes of the program. Only a portion of the variation in stress scores was predicted by gender, age, marital status, race, and year in curriculum. Stress scores among these student pharmacists are higher overall than those in previously published probability samples in the general population. Class assignments and completing electronic portfolios were the top stressors reported. Spending time with family and friends was the most frequent coping mechanism reported. Programming related to stress reduction (particularly among female and nontraditional age students appears warranted.
Beall, Jennifer W; DeHart, Renee M; Riggs, Robert M; Hensley, John
The primary purpose of this study was to examine perceived stress in doctor of pharmacy students during their first, second, and third years of their program in a fully implemented new curriculum. The secondary objectives were to determine if there is a relationship between perceived stress and certain demographic variables, to compare student pharmacist perceived stress to the perceived stress in the general population, and to examine student reported stressors during pharmacy school and coping strategies employed for those stressors. A previously validated survey (Perceived Stress Scale-10) was given to first, second, and third year student pharmacists. Females exhibited higher mean stress scores than males. The under 22 years and over 32 years age categories exhibited higher mean stress scores than the 22 to 26 year old student population. There was no significant difference in perceived stress scores between classes of the program. Only a portion of the variation in stress scores was predicted by gender, age, marital status, race, and year in curriculum. Stress scores among these student pharmacists are higher overall than those in previously published probability samples in the general population. Class assignments and completing electronic portfolios were the top stressors reported. Spending time with family and friends was the most frequent coping mechanism reported. Programming related to stress reduction (particularly among female and nontraditional age students) appears warranted.
Kasanda, C D; Mitonga, K H; Veii, K; Zimba, R F
Many students at the University of Namibia have frequently complained about ineffective assessment practices used at the institution. On many occasions, these complaints have not been substantiated with evidence of any kind. The purpose of this study was to obtain some empirical evidence that would ascertain undergraduate students' perceptions of the University of Namibia's grading and assessment practices. Using a structured scaled questionnaire, data were obtained from a representative sample of the University's undergraduate students studying for Medical and Pharmacy degrees. The questionnaire items covered matters related to students' experiences of assessment practices, feedback on assessment tasks, reliability and validity of assessment tools used by lecturers, efficacy of processes of administering examinations, perceptions of irregular and unfair assessment practices, impact of assessment regimes on students' cost of studies, motivation, morale, rate of progression in studies and graduation, the degree of compliance with assessment ethics and on academic quality assurance. According to the data reported in this article, the majority of the respondents perceived that the Schools of Medicine and Pharmacy at the University of Namibia applied assessment practices that yielded reliable and valid results. This was the case because most lecturers in the two schools used appropriate assessment tools and provided their students with prompt and informative feedback on the results of assignments, tests and examinations. In addition, most respondents reported that whereas examination procedures used in the two schools were efficient and effective, lecturers graded examination scripts fairly. These and other results are discussed in the article to communicate the message that the assessment procedures used in the Schools of Medicine and Pharmacy at the University of Namibia would promote effective learning and understanding amongst students as they were of high quality.
Seam, Md Omar Reza; Bhatta, Rita; Saha, Bijoy Laxmi; Das, Abhijit; Hossain, Md Monir; Uddin, S M Naim; Karmakar, Palash; Choudhuri, M Shahabuddin Kabir; Sattar, Mohammad Mafruhi
Objectives: To evaluate the perceptions and extent of practicing self-medication among undergraduate pharmacy students. Methods: This cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was conducted over a six month period (January to June 2016) among undergraduate pharmacy students in five reputable public universities of Bangladesh. It involved face-to-face interviews regarding self-medication of 250 respondents selected by simple random sampling. Results: Self-medication was reported by 88.0% of students. Antipyretics (58.40%) were mostly preferred for the treatment of fever and headaches. The major cause for self-medication was minor illness (59.60%, p = 0.73) while previous prescriptions were the main source of knowledge as well as the major factor (52.80%, p = 0.94) dominating the self-medication practice. The results also demonstrated 88.80% of students had previous knowledge on self-medication and 83.60% of students always checked the information on the label; mainly the expiry date before use (85.60%). A significant ( p self-medication to be a segment of self-care. Furthermore, students demonstrated differences in their response level towards the adverse effect of drugs, the health hazard by a higher dose of drug, a physician's help in case of side effects, taking medicine without proper knowledge, and stopping selling medicine without prescription. Conclusions: Self-medication was commonly used among pharmacy students primarily for minor illnesses using over-the-counter medications. Although it is an inevitable practice for them it should be considered an important public health problem as this practice may increase the misuse or irrational use of medicines.
Ohtani, Hisakazu; Mitsui, Rieko; Akiyoshi, Takeshi; Imaoka, Ayuko; Abe, Yoshihiro; Kanke, Motoko; Nakamura, Tomonori; Foster, Patrick; Mochizuki, Mayumi
Internationalization of pharmacists, as well as pharmacy students, in terms of both the knowledge to care for international patients and to have medical information literacy, is a current concern in Japan. Keio University Faculty of Pharmacy has developed an elective course for pharmacy students, based on written agreements with the United States and Thailand that establish a student clinical rotation exchange program. The exchange program lasts for four to six weeks and involves clinical rotations in hospitals abroad during the students' sixth year. Rotations follow a four-week didactic preparatory course. The course objectives are to acquire the knowledge, skills, and attitude needed to function as leading pharmacists with an international perspective. We asked students to complete a feedback survey inquiring about the usefulness of preparatory courses, self-evaluation pre- and post-rotation satisfaction with the program, and overall self-assessment. Twenty-four out of 41, i.e., 58.5% of the students replied with feedback. All respondents replied that the preparatory course was useful. They also replied that, based on their self-evaluation, they were satisfied with their level of English language skill improvement after the rotation. Pharmaceutical knowledge satisfaction, however, was slightly decreased. All respondents replied that this program was of a satisfactory nature, with 71%, 63%, and 92% of the respondents replying that they could acquire the knowledge, skills, and attitude program objectives respectively. It is possible to successfully develop an overseas clinical rotation program. Students were quite satisfied upon completion and achieved the expected objectives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Moultry, Aisha Morris
To develop a relationship between a pharmacy management course and a mass merchandiser and to determine whether involving pharmacy managers from the mass merchandiser in the course would enhance student skills in developing a business plan for medication therapy management services. The pharmacy managers from the mass merchandiser participated in lectures, provided panel discussions, and conducted a business plan competition. Learning was assessed by means of 4 examinations and 1 project (ie, the business plan). At the conclusion of the semester, surveys were administered to solicit student input and gain insight from pharmacy managers on the perceived value of this portion of the course. Students' average grade on the business plan assignment, which included the oral presentation, the peer assessment, and the written proposal, was 92.2%. Approximately 60% (n=53) of surveyed students agreed or strongly agreed that their management skills had improved because of the participation of pharmacy managers from the mass merchandiser. All of the managers enjoyed participating in the experience. The involvement of pharmacy managers from a mass merchandiser enhanced student learning in the classroom, and managers felt that their participation was an important contribution to the development of future pharmacists.
Crawford, Stephanie Y
To develop and implement a seminar course for graduate students in the social and administrative pharmaceutical sciences to enhance knowledge and confidence with respect their abilities to demonstrate appropriate business etiquette. A 1-credit graduate seminar course was designed based on learner-centered constructivist theory and application of Fink's Taxonomy for Significant Learning.Assessment. Eleven students participated in the spring 2011 seminar course presentations and activities. Students completed pre- and post-assessment instruments, which included knowledge and attitudinal questions. Formative and summative assessments showed gains in student knowledge, perceived skills, and confidence based on observation and student-reported outcomes. Graduate student reaction to the course was overwhelmingly positive. The etiquette course has potential application in doctor of pharmacy education, other graduate disciplines, undergraduate education, and continuing professional development.
Opoku-Acheampong, Adomah; Kretchy, Irene A; Acheampong, Franklin; Afrane, Barima A; Ashong, Sharon; Tamakloe, Bernice; Nyarko, Alexander K
Stress among pharmacy students could greatly affect their learning activities and general well-being. It is therefore necessary to investigate how stress relates with the quality of life of students to maintain and/or improve their personal satisfaction and academic performance. A school-based longitudinal study was used to investigate the relationship between stress and quality of life of undergraduate pharmacy students. The 10-item perceived stress scale and the shorter version of the WHO quality of life scale were administered to the same participants at two time points i.e. Time 1 (4 weeks into the semester) and Time 2 (8 weeks afterwards). The correlations and differences between the study variables were tested using the Pearson's coefficient and independent sample t test. The mean stress scores were higher at Time 2 compared to Time 1 for the first and second years. However, there was no significant difference in stress for different year groups-Time 1 [F (3) = 0.410; p = 0.746] and Time 2 [F(3) = 0.909; p = 0.439]. Female students had higher stress scores at Time 2 compared to male students. The main stressors identified in the study were; large volume of material to be studied (88.2%), laboratory report writing (78.2%), constant pressure to maintain good grades (66.4%) and the lack of leisure time (46.4%). Even though most students employed positive stress management strategies such as time management (68.2%), other students resorted to emotional eating (9.1%) and alcohol/substance use (1.8%). At Time 2, perceived stress scores were significantly negatively correlated with social relationship (r = -0.40, p ≤ 0.0001), environmental health (r = -0.37, p ≤ 0.0001), physical health (r = -0.49, p ≤ 0.0001) and psychological health (r = -0.51, p ≤ 0.0001). The study reported significant correlations between stress and various domains of quality of life of undergraduate pharmacy students. It is thus necessary to institute some
Abd Rahman, Norny Syafinaz; Nik Mohamed, Mohamad Haniki; Bux Rahman Bux, Siti Halimah; Mohamed Nazar, Nor Ilyani
Objective To implement and determine the effectiveness of an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) to assess fourth-year pharmacy students' skills in a clinical pharmacy course. Design A 13-station OSCE was designed and implemented in the 2007-2008 academic year as part of the assessment methods for a clinical pharmacy course. The broad competencies tested in the OSCE included: patient counseling and communication, clinical pharmacokinetics (CPK), identification and resolution of drug-related problems (DRPs), and literature evaluation/drug information provision. Assessment Immediately after all students completed the OSCE, a questionnaire containing items on the clarity of written instructions, difficulty of the tasks, perceived degree of learning gained and needed, and the suitability of the references or literature resources provided was administered. More than 70% of the students felt that a higher degree of learning was needed to accomplish the tasks at the 2 DRP stations and 2 CPK stations and the majority felt the written instructions provided at the phenytoin CPK station were difficult to understand. Although about 60% of the students rated OSCE as a difficult form of assessment, 75% said it should be used more and 81% perceived they learned a lot from it. Conclusion Although most students felt that the OSCE accurately assessed their skills, a majority felt the tasks required in some stations required a higher degree of learning than they had achieved. This may indicate deficiencies in the students' learning abilities, the course curriculum, or the OSCE station design. Future efforts should include providing clearer instructions at OSCE stations and balancing the complexity of the competencies assessed. PMID:20414449
Hussainy, Safeera Yasmeen; Styles, Kim; Duncan, Greg
To develop communication skills in second-year pharmacy students using a virtual practice environment (VPE) and to assess students' and tutors' (instructors') experiences. A VPE capable of displaying life-sized photographic and video images and representing a pharmacy setting was constructed. Students viewed prescriptions and practiced role-playing with each other and explored the use of nonverbal communication in patient-pharmacist interactions. The VPE experiences were complemented with lectures, reflective journaling, language and learning support, and objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs). Most students believed the VPE was a useful teaching resource (87%) and agreed that the video component enabled them to contextualize patient problems (73%). While 45% of students questioned the usefulness of watching the role plays between students after they were video recorded, most (90%) identified improvement in their own communication as a result of participating in the tutorials. Most tutors felt comfortable using the technology. Focus group participants found the modified tutorials more engaging and aesthetically positive than in their previous experience. The VPE provided an effective context for communication skills development classes.
Mohamed, Moataz Ehab; Mohy, Nagla; Salah, Sarah
The survey aimed to capture the perceptions of undergraduate pharmacy students towards plagiarism in three major public universities in Cairo, Egypt: Helwan, Ain-Shams, and Cairo Universities. This was a paper-based self-administrated survey study. The questionnaire was validated by both content and face validation. The final survey form captured the knowledge of the students on plagiarism in terms of definitions, attitudes, and practices. Four hundred and fourteen students, 320 females and 94 males, participated in the study. There was a significant difference between the students who knew the definition of plagiarism among the three universities with p-value = .01. More than half of the participants (67%) claimed that they had no previous education or training on plagiarism. However, after being informed about plagiarism, most of them agreed that plagiarism should be regarded as stealing and a punishment. Additionally, poor study skills and the ease of copying and pasting from the Internet were identified by the majority of the students to be the leading causes of plagiarism. Pharmacy students need to be more educated on plagiarism and its consequences on research and educational ethics. Finally, more strict policies should be incorporated to monitor and control plagiarism in undergraduate sections.
Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of the study was to evaluate a live and online training program for first year pharmacy students in implementing Continuing Professional Development (CPD principles (Reflect, Plan, Act, and Evaluate, writing SMART learning objectives, and documenting learning activities prior to and during a hospital introductory professional practice experience. Design: Cohort Study. Setting: Introductory professional practice experience. Participants: First year (PY1 students at the University of North Carolina Eshelman School of Pharmacy. Intervention: Live training or online training to introduce the concept of Continuing Professional Development in practice. Main Outcomes: Implementation of CPD principles through 1 completed pre-rotation education action plans with specific, measurable, achievable, relevant and time-bound (SMART learning objectives; and 2 completed learning activity worksheets post-rotation indicating stimuli for learning, resources used and accomplished learning. objectives; and 3 documented suggestions and content feedback for future lectures and pharmaceutical care lab experiences. Results:Out of the whole cohort (N=154, 14 (87.5% live (in person trainees and 122 (88% online trainees submitted an education action plan. Objectives were scored using a rubric on a scale of 1-5. A rating of 5 means "satisfactory", 3 means "work in progress" and 1 means "unacceptable". There were significant differences between the mean live trainee scores and the mean online trainee scores for the following respective section comparisons: Specific 4.7 versus 3.29 (p Conclusion: Live trainees performed significantly better than online trainees in writing SMART learning objectives. With focused training, students are more capable of implementing principles of CPD. Type: Original Research
Ferrone, Marcus; Kebodeaux, Clark; Fitzgerald, Jill; Holle, Lisa
A key element for pharmacy practice defined by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) is medication use systems management. A web-based community pharmacy simulation originally created for Australian pharmacy students was adapted for pharmacy students in the United States (US). The objective of this study was to collaboratively adapt an existing international simulation program for utility in the US and measure student perceptions of a web-based community pharmacy simulation program in three US schools of pharmacy. An Australian development team in collaboration with US pharmacy school faculty modified the existing MyDispense software to create a virtual environment that accurately represented US community pharmacy practice. Students at three US schools of pharmacy used the newly adapted version of MyDispense and were surveyed on their prior experience in community pharmacy and their perceptions of MyDispense as a learning tool. Overall 241 (44%) students completed the satisfaction survey. Approximately 40% of these students worked in a community pharmacy before starting pharmacy school. Most students agreed or strongly agreed that MyDispense was straightforward to learn (76%), was more realistic than addressing similar paper cases (73%), and offered a learning opportunity to safely make errors (84%). Qualitative thematic analysis revealed that MyDispense allowed students to practice how to gather patient information and ask appropriate questions, counsel patients, and practice the dispensing process. Response to the US version of My Dispense is positive and proves to be a viable option for introducing and reinforcing community pharmacy practice skills to students during in their pharmacy education. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Scholarly discussion has recently been directed toward the negative effects of consumerism in pharmacy education. Frequently in these discussions, the metaphor of student-as-customer is cited as an indicator of such consumer mentality. However, the customer metaphor is more deeply entangled in the thinking on this matter than has been acknowledged, even for those who roundly criticize its use. A richer understanding of the power of metaphor and of the fiducial obligations that underlie professionalism can help to create educational paradigms more likely to meet the best interests of students, faculty members, and the general public. PMID:25657362
Wilbur, Kerry; Kelly, Isabelle
Medical care is increasingly complex and must draw upon the distinct, yet complementary skills of various health disciplines. Healthcare student integration through interprofessional education (IPE) activity is considered one way to promote early, and subsequently sustain, the principles of teamwork. However, It has been demonstrated that each profession has distinct profession-based subcultures, or common attitudes, beliefs and values, even among undergraduate students before commencing their training. We sought to evaluate if undergraduate pharmacy and nursing student in the Middle East had similarly formed attitudes and perceptions of each others' roles. Focus group and semi-structured interviews were conducted with undergraduate pharmacy and nursing students enrolled at Qatar University College of Pharmacy and University of Calgary - Qatar Nursing programs. An eight-question topic guide was developed following comprehensive literature review of reports of other interdisciplinary assessments (either quantitative and qualitative). Working theories were drawn by the two primary investigators based on relevant topic characteristics such as expressed roles and purposes for interacting with one other, patients, and physicians, to develop explanatory constructs for the findings and identify patterns in the data. Qualitative analysis of interviews were supported by NVivo10 (©) (QSR International 2013) software. One shared themes across both health professional groups evolved during data analysis: perceptions of collaborative roles. Discipline specific themes included pharmacist knowledge and visibility (nursing students) and nurses as informants and roles in total patient care (pharmacy students). As expected, students with little or no curricular-based structured experiential training yet largely drew upon personal experiences, whereas senior students, who did have some amount of professional context, often mirrored those that have been found in other studies
Zlatic, Thomas D
Scholarly discussion has recently been directed toward the negative effects of consumerism in pharmacy education. Frequently in these discussions, the metaphor of student-as-customer is cited as an indicator of such consumer mentality. However, the customer metaphor is more deeply entangled in the thinking on this matter than has been acknowledged, even for those who roundly criticize its use. A richer understanding of the power of metaphor and of the fiducial obligations that underlie professionalism can help to create educational paradigms more likely to meet the best interests of students, faculty members, and the general public.
Metzger, Anne H; Finley, Kristen N; Ulbrich, Timothy R; McAuley, James W
To describe pharmacy faculty members' use of the online social network Facebook and compare the perspectives of faculty members with and without Facebook profiles regarding student/faculty relationships. An electronic survey instrument was sent to full-time faculty members (n = 183) at 4 colleges of pharmacy in Ohio seeking their opinions on student/faculty relationships on Facebook. If respondents answered "yes" to having a Facebook profile, they were asked 14 questions on aspects of being "friends" with students. If respondents answered "no," they were asked 4 questions. Of the 95 respondents (52%) to the survey instrument, 44 faculty members (46%) had a Facebook profile, while 51 faculty members (54%) did not. Those who had a profile had been faculty members for an average of 8.6 years, versus 11.4 years for those who did not have a Facebook profile. Seventy-nine percent of faculty members who used Facebook were not "friends" with their students. The majority of respondents reported that they would decline/ignore a "friend" request from a student, or decline until after the student graduated. Although a limited number of faculty members had used Facebook for online discussions, teaching purposes, or student organizations, the majority of universities did not have policies on the use of social networking sites. Online social network sites are used widely by students and faculty members, which may raise questions regarding professionalism and appropriate faculty/student relationships. Further research should address the student/preceptor relationship, other online social networking sites, and whether students are interested in using these sites within the classroom and/or professional organizations.
Interprofessional education is central to the development of collaborative practice among healthcare professionals. It. 'occurs when two or more professions learn with, from and about each other to improve collaboration and the quality of care' and includes the training of undergraduate students from different disciplines ...
To determine whether students' experience of field trips influenced their perceptions regarding a management module as part of their training as future pharmacists. Methods. A mixed-method sequential exploratory research design was used. Data were gathered through written narratives and focus group interviews, ...
To promote graduate students' active learning, deep reading of high quality papers was done by graduate students enrolled in biochemistry and microbiology pharmacy curriculum offered by college of life science, Jiangxi Normal University from 2013 to 2015. The number of graduate students, who participated in the course in 2013, 2014, and 2015 were eleven, thirteen and fifteen, respectively. Through deep reading of papers, presentation, and group discussion in the lecture, these graduate students have improved their academic performances effectively, such as literature search, PPT document production, presentation management, specialty document reading, academic inquiry, and analytical and comprehensive ability. The graduate students also have increased their understanding level of frontier research, scientific research methods, and experimental methods. © 2017 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(4):305-312, 2017. © 2017 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
Congdon, Heather Brennan; Morgan, Jill A; Lebovitz, Lisa
To assess how students from 2 campuses spent their time during P1-P3 (first through third) years, and whether that time allocation impacted their APPE grades and NAPLEX performance. Data from 2 graduating classes were gathered, including baseline student demographics, academic performance, licensing examination scores and pass rates, and an annual internal student survey. For the survey, students were asked how much time they spent each week on class attendance, watching recorded lectures, studying and course-related activities, school-sponsored extracurricular activities, and work. Data was analyzed by campus for the 3 years (P1-P3) and then evaluated separately as individual academic years. There were statistical differences between campuses in attending class, watching recorded lectures, and participating in school activities. However, there was no statistical difference between the 2 campuses in APPE grades, NAPLEX scores, or pass rates. How students from these 2 campuses spent their time during pharmacy school was not predictive of academic success.
Yamamura, Shigeo; Takehira, Rieko
Purpose To establish a model of Japanese pharmacy students’ learning motivation profile and investigate the effects of pharmaceutical practical training programs on their learning motivation. Methods The Science Motivation Questionnaire II was administered to pharmacy students in their 4th (before practical training), 5th (before practical training at clinical sites), and 6th (after all practical training) years of study at Josai International University in April, 2016. Factor analysis and mu...
Buck, Alison; Parrotta, Kylie
In this paper, we describe an exercise that challenges hetero-normative and sexist notions of sexuality, allowing students to envision alternative models. Research shows how active learning eases student anxiety over challenging or threatening material. After reading Jessica Fields' "Risky Lessons" and Waskul, Vannini, and Weisen's…
Phillips, Jennifer; Gettig, Jacob; Goliak, Kristen; Allen, Sheila; Fjortoft, Nancy
The objective of this study was to gain an understanding of whether pharmacy students are using Facebook ® to create formal or informal workplace-based peer groups to learn from each other and share information while completing their advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). Fourth-year pharmacy students from two colleges of pharmacy in the same geographical area were recruited by email to participate. Inclusion criteria were: completion of two or more APPEs, current assignment to an APPE rotation in the local area, and a Facebook ® profile. Two focus groups, of eight students each were conducted on each of the two colleges' campuses. An incentive to participate was provided. Thematic analysis was used to analyze responses. Students reported using Facebook ® to learn about rotation expectations, roles/responsibilities, and preceptors. However, frequency and depth of interactions varied among the participants. Most participants noted that they prefer more private methods of communication to learn about APPE experiences. Students found Facebook ® to be a good source of motivation and support during experiential learning. The use of social media sites like Facebook ® may help students form "virtual" workplace-based peer groups during APPEs. Pharmacy schools interested in providing support for formal workplace-based learning groups should consider using social media sites as one component of this program. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ahmad, Akram; Khan, Muhammad Umair; Kumar, Bandari Deepak; Kumar, Gogikar Sudhir; Rodriguez, Stephanie Perez; Patel, Isha
To assess the beliefs, attitudes and self-use of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy (AYUSH) medicines among senior pharmacy students. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted among pharmacy students in four pharmacy schools located in Andhra Pradesh in South India. This study was conducted from the August to September 2014. The study population included all pharmacy students enrolled in Doctor of Pharmacy, Bachelor of Pharmacy and Diploma in Pharmacy programs in studied pharmacy schools. The pretested AYUSH survey had 8 questions on AYUSH related beliefs and 8 question on AYUSH related attitudes. The survey also asked participants about AYUSH related knowledge, frequency of use of AYUSH and the reason for using AYUSH. The data analysis was performed using SPSS Version 20. Chi-square test and Mann-Whitney U-test were employed to study the association between the independent and dependent variables. A total of 428 pharmacy students participated in the survey. 32.2% of the study population was females and 32.5% of the population resided in rural areas. Males were more likely to have positive beliefs about AYUSH when compared to females (odd ratio [OR] = 4.62, confidence interval [CI] = 2.37-8.99, P < 0.001). Similarly, students living in hostels were more positive in their beliefs about AYUSH compared with students living at home (OR = 2.14, CI = 1.12-4.07, P < 0.05). Students living in hostel also had a positive attitude about AYUSH use (OR = 1.74, CI = 1.03-2.93, P < 0.05). Pharmacy students held favorable attitude and beliefs about AYUSH use. This baseline survey provides important information about the pharmacy student's perception about AYUSH. Further research is needed to explore the reasons that shape the pharmacy student's beliefs and attitudes about AYUSH.
Ernst, Hardy; Colthorpe, Kay
To expand voluntary active-learning opportunities for bachelor of pharmacy students enrolled in a third-year human physiology and pharmacology course and determine whether the additional course components improved learning outcomes. Additional voluntary active-learning opportunities including a large-class tutorial, additional formative assessment, and an online discussion were added to the Respiratory Physiology Module of the course. Examination scores were compared with those from previous years. A questionnaire was administered to assess students' perception of the active-learning components. Mean examination scores increased from 69.3% +/- 24.4% in 2003 to 88.9% +/- 13.4% in 2004 and 86.9% +/- 17.6% in 2005, after the addition of the active-learning components. Students' overall perception of the value of the active-learning activities was positive. The addition of voluntary active-learning course components to a required pharmacy course resulted in improved student examination scores, and decreased failure rate, and were accomplished at low cost and with little additional staff time.
Chisholm-Burns, Marie A; Spivey, Christina A; Jaeger, Melanie C; Williams, Jennifer; George, Christa
Objectives. To develop and validate a scale measuring pharmacy students' attitudes toward social media professionalism, and assess the impact of an educational presentation on social media professionalism. Methods. A social media professionalism scale was used in a pre- and post-survey to determine the effects of a social media professionalism presentation. The 26-item scale was administered to 197 first-year pharmacy (P1) students during orientation. Exploratory factor analysis was applied to determine the number of underlying factors responsible for covariation of the data. Principal components analysis was used as the extraction method. Varimax was selected as the rotation method. Cronbach's alpha was estimated. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare pre- and post-scores of each item, subscale, and total scale. Results. There were 187 (95%) students who participated. The final scale had five subscales and 15 items. Subscales were named according to the professionalism tenet they best represented. Scores of items addressing reading/posting to social media during class, an employer's use of social media when making hiring decisions, and a college/university's use of social media as a measure of professional conduct significantly increased from pre-test to post-test. The "honesty and integrity" subscale score also significantly increased. Conclusion. The social media professionalism scale measures five tenets of professionalism and exhibits satisfactory reliability. The presentation improved P1 students' attitudes regarding social media professionalism.
Happe, Laura E; Walker, Desiree'
To assess the impact of using "grey literature" (information internally produced in print or electronic format by agencies such as hospitals, government, businesses, etc) rather than a textbook in a course on healthcare delivery systems on students' perception of the relevance of healthcare delivery system topics and their ability to identify credible sources of this information. A reading from the grey literature was identified and assigned to the students for each topic in the course. Pre- and post-course survey instruments were used for the assessment. Students reported healthcare delivery systems topics to be moderately relevant to the profession of pharmacy on both the pre- and post-course survey instruments. Students' knowledge of current and credible sources of information on healthcare delivery system topics significantly improved based on self-reports and scores on objective assessments (pgrey literature in a course on healthcare delivery systems can be used to ensure that information in the pharmacy school curriculum is the most current and credible information available.
Janke, Kristin K; Nelson, Michael H; Bzowyckyj, Andrew S; Fuentes, David G; Rosenberg, Ettie; DiCenzo, Robert
The CAPE 2013 Outcomes answered the call for increased student leadership development (SLD) by identifying leadership as a desired curricular goal. To meet this outcome, colleges and schools of pharmacy are advised to first identify a set of SLD competencies aligned with their institution's mission and goals and then organize these competencies into a SLD framework/model. Student leadership development should be integrated vertically and horizontally within the curriculum in a deliberate and longitudinal manner. It should include all student pharmacists, begin at the point of admission, and extend beyond extracurricular activities. The school's assessment plan should be aligned with the identified SLD competencies so student learning related to leadership is assessed. To accomplish these recommendations, a positive environment for SLD should be cultivated within the school, including administrative backing and resources, as well as support among the broader faculty for integrating SLD into the curriculum.
Full Text Available Traditional medicine therapies are historically used worldwide for disease prevention and treatment purposes. Apitherapy is part of the traditional medicine based on bee product use. Complementary medicine practices which incorporate use of some traditional herbal, mineral, or animal kind substances very often are discussed with pharmacy professionals because these products are often sold in pharmacies as dietary supplements. This study is aimed at determining the attitude, knowledge, and practices of apitherapy among undergraduated pharmacy students (Master of Pharmacy who already have a pharmacy technician diploma and from 1 to 20 years of practice working in a community pharmacy as pharmacy assistants. A method of questionnaire was chosen. The questions about attitudes, experience, knowledge, and practices for disease prevention and treatment of different bee products, their safety, and informational sources were included. Respondents shared opinion that use of bee product is part of the traditional medicine. Most of them had experience on honey product use for treatment and disease prevention for themselves and their family members (62% although the need of more evidence based information was expressed. The most known bee products were honey, propolis, and royal jelly. They are widely used for enhancing the immune system and prevention of respiratory tract infection.
Othman, Gamil Qasem; Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham Mohamed; Alshakka, Mohammed; Ansari, Mukhtar; Al-Qadasi, Farouk; Halboup, Abdulsalam M
Pharmacists in community or hospital setting play a key role in reporting Adverse Drug Reaction (ADRs) during practice. Under reporting is considered as a profession malpractice worldwide. To determine the level of knowledge and perception about phramacovigilance and ADRs reporting among final year pharmacy students of Universities in Sana'a Yemen. A cross-sectional study design was conducted among 385 final year pharmacy students. One public and four private universities were selected randomly using a validated self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire contained data about student demographic data, knowledge and perception about the ADRs. The data was analysed by SPSS program and Chi-square tests were used to assess the significance of association. The male students were more knowledgeable than female (p=0.035), as well as private university students had better ideas on how to report ADRs than public university students (p=0.009). Private university students reported that pharmacovigilance topic is well covered in their curriculum compared to public university students (p≤0.001). A significant difference was seen amongst the students of public and private universities when asked about reporting ADRs in future, former found more confident (p≤0.001). Furthermore, the private university students also had more command on the concept of post-marketing surveillance than public university students (p≤0.001). The private university students in Yemen were more known to causality assessment of ADRs as compared to the students of public universities (p≤0.001). The results of perception revealed regarding perception toward ADRs and pharmacovigilance. Female students (p≤0.018) and private universities students (p≤0.001) had positive perception than male and public university students respectively. The findings showed poor knowledge among students in Sana'a Universities and positive perception towards pharmacovigilance and ADRs reporting. A poor knowledge
Nornoo, Adwoa O; Jackson, Jonathan; Axtell, Samantha
Objective. To determine whether there is a correlation between pharmacy students' scores on the Health Science Reasoning Test (HSRT) and their grade on a package insert assignment designed to assess critical thinking. Methods. The HSRT was administered to first-year pharmacy students during a critical-thinking course in the spring semester. In the same semester, a required package insert assignment was completed in a pharmacokinetics course. To determine whether there was a relationship between HSRT scores and grades on the assignment, a Spearman's rho correlation test was performed. Results. A very weak but significant positive correlation was found between students' grades on the assignment and their overall HSRT score (r=0.19, p thinking skills in pharmacy students.
Kokkinn, Beverley; Stupans, Ieva
The pilot project, described in this paper, targeted English as an additional language (EAL) students to facilitate their development of patient counselling communication skills. An interdisciplinary content-based model was developed drawing on an interactional sociolinguistic framework to map language use valued in pharmacy counselling. Evaluation included analysis of successive self-assessments and surveys of students, surveys of teaching staff and final test results. Evaluation indicated that the interdisciplinary model was highly successful in improving EAL students' competency in pharmacy counselling. The model may have possible wider application for education in health professional programmes. © 2011 The Authors. IJPP © 2011 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
DellaVecchia, Matthew J; Claudio, Alyssa M; Fairclough, Jamie L
To describe 1) a pharmacy student's teaching assistant (TA) role in an undergraduate medicinal chemistry course, 2) an active learning module co-developed by the TA and instructor, and 3) the unexpected opportunities for pharmacy educational outreach that resulted from this collaboration. Medicinal Chemistry (CHM3413) is an undergraduate course offered each fall at Palm Beach Atlantic University (PBA). As a TA for CHM3413, a pharmacy student from the Gregory School of Pharmacy (GSOP) at PBA co-developed and implemented an active learning module emphasizing foundational medicinal chemistry concepts as they pertain to performance enhancing drugs (PEDs). Surveys assessed undergraduate students' perceived knowledge of medicinal chemistry concepts, PEDs, and TA involvement. Students' (total n = 60, three fall semesters) perceived confidence in knowledge of medicinal chemistry concepts and PEDs increased significantly (p medicinal chemistry course. An advanced pharmacy practice experience elective in sports pharmacy (based on Ambrose's model) begins Fall 2017. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cathy H Ficzere
Full Text Available Objectives: The project purpose was to evaluate pharmacy students’ reading levels using the Nelson-Denney Reading Test (NDRT and compare these results with the reading level of primary literature to investigate incongruities between student’s comprehension ability and the readability level of assigned reading in the curriculum. Methods: The NDRT was administered to first- through third-year student pharmacists to determine grade equivalents (GE for vocabulary and reading comprehension. Twenty articles previously identified as Patient-Oriented Evidence that Matters (POEMs were analyzed to determine the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level and Gunning-Fog Score. Student demographics, information regarding language spoken, and reading habits, were also assessed. Pearson product moment correlations, t-tests, ANOVA, and descriptive statistics were used to assess relationships between demographic data and NDRT scores. Results: One hundred students participated. The mean NDRT total grade equivalent (±SD was 16.95 ± 2.1 (median = 17.3. NDRT grade equivalents were statistically different for students with different racial or ethnic backgrounds (t(98=3.74, p=0.026, English as a second language (ESL students (t(98=5.19, p=0.021, and students that read works of fiction for pleasure (t(98=4.31, p=0.002. The average Gunning-Fog Score for all primary literature articles was 11.48, with the introduction section being the most complex. The average Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level was 17.04, with the results section scoring the lowest average grade level. Implications: While the overall reading grade level of our pharmacy students suggests that they are capable of comprehending reading assigned in the pharmacy curriculum, minority students and students for whom English is a second language may struggle with comprehending complex text. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have
Full Text Available Background: This study sought to investigate the evaluation of academic achievement, academic motivation and hope for the future and life satisfaction of Pharmacy Students of the Medical Sciences University of Ahvaz and their relationship with the school years passed.Methods: The samples in this study were all pharmacy students studying in the College of Pharmacy, the Medical University of Ahvaz in the year 93-94. Moreover, standard questionnaires were used by this study for collecting data. In order to collect data with regard to hope, life satisfaction, motivation and academic satisfaction, the questionnaire of Snyder hope Scale (1991, Satisfaction with Life Scale questionnaire (SWLS, lepper motivation scale (2005 and Bahrani and Jokar questionnaire (1378 were used respectively.Moreover, data on Academic performance were acquired using the score of the students and the number of students dropping out in each entry and the data were analysed by using SPSS 20.Results: The results did not indicate any significant different in an investigation of five class of students and from four variables of hope, Academic motivation, academic achievement, life satisfaction. But contrast test for combined group showed that academic motivation and academic performance in freshmen students are significantly higher than the other four inputs.Third-year students possess less Academic motivation than other students.Senior students' Academic performance was also significantly lower than of students from other school years.Conclusion: freshmen students face challenges of the new environment, and this affects their academic performance. Besides in the third year of pharmacy school curriculum, pharmacy students pass the basic exam and the main pharmaceutical courses start for them, this might be the reason that their intrinsic motivation increase.
Mantzourani, Efi; Deslandes, Rhian; Ellis, Laura; Williams, Greg
Embedding opportunities for undergraduate pharmacy students to move between academic and practice environments is key to transform their perception of patient care and to facilitate learning of the skills required for the changing profession (Smith and Darracott, 2011). An approach adopted by many health care professions to prepare students for…
Clavier, Cheri Whitehead
With the increase of students applying to pharmacy programs, it is imperative that admissions committees choose appropriate measures to analyze student readiness. The purpose of this research was to identify significant factors that predict the academic performance, defined as grade point average (GPA) at the end of the first professional year, of…
Gubbiyappa, Kumar Shiva; Barua, Ankur; Das, Biswadeep; Vasudeva Murthy, C R; Baloch, Hasnain Zafar
Flipped classroom (FC) is a pedagogical model to engage students in learning process by replacing the didactic lectures. Using technology, lectures are moved out of the classroom and delivered online as means to provide interaction and collaboration. Poll Everywhere is an audience response system (ARS) which can be used in an FC to make the activities more interesting, engaging, and interactive. This study aims to study the perception of undergraduate pharmacy students on FC activity using Poll Everywhere ARS and to study the effectiveness of FC activity as a teaching-learning tool for delivering complementary medicine module in the undergraduate pharmacy program. In this nonrandomized trial on interrupted time series study, flipped class was conducted on group of 112 students of bachelor of pharmacy semester V. The topic selected was popular herbal remedies of the complementary medicine module. Flipped class was conducted with audio and video presentation in the form of a quiz using ten one-best-answer type of multiple-choice questions covering the learning objectives. Audience response was captured using web-based interaction with Poll Everywhere. Feedback was obtained from participants at the end of FC activity and debriefing was done. Randomly selected 112 complete responses were included in the final analysis. There were 47 (42%) male and 65 (58%) female respondents. The overall Cronbach's alpha of feedback questionnaire was 0.912. The central tendencies and dispersions of items in the questionnaire indicated the effectiveness of FC. The low or middle achievers of quiz session (pretest) during the FC activity were three times (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1-8.9) at the risk of providing neutral or negative feedback than high achievers ( P = 0.040). Those who gave neutral or negative feedback on FC activity were 3.9 times (95% CI = 1.3-11.8) at the risk of becoming low or middle achievers during the end of semester examination ( P = 0.013). The multivariate
The circular flow of income diagram is a simplified representation of the functioning of a free-market economic system. It illustrates how businesses interact with the other economic participants within the key macroeconomic markets that coordinate the flow of income through the national economy. Therefore, it can provide students of business with…
Wells, Dominic D.; Nemire, Nathan A.
This exercise introduces students to the application of statistics and its investigative methods in political science. It helps students gain a better understanding and a greater appreciation of statistics through a real world application.
Johnson Segun Showande
Full Text Available Adverse drug reaction (ADR is poorly reported globally but more in developing countries with poor participation by health professionals. Currently, there is no known literature on the Nigerian pharmacy students’ knowledge on ADR reporting. Hence the purpose of this study was to find out the level of knowledge of pharmacy students on the concept of pharmacovigilance and adverse drug reaction reporting and also to evaluate their opinions on the National Pharmacovigilance Centre guidelines on adverse drug reaction reporting. A pretested 34-item semi-structured questionnaire was administered among 69 pharmacy undergraduate students in their penultimate and final years that consented to take part in the study, in one of the universities in Nigeria. The study was carried out strictly adhering to the principles outlined in the Helsinki declaration of 1964, which was revised in 1975. The questionnaire used had four sections which included a section on biographical data, a section which evaluated the students knowledge on the concept of pharmacovigilance and adverse drug reaction reporting, a section on students personal experiences of adverse drug reactions and modes of reporting them and the final section of the questionnaire evaluated the students’ opinions on the National Pharmacovigilance Centre guidelines for reporting adverse drug reactions. Descriptive statistics, Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal Wallis statistical tests were used to analyze the data obtained. None of the participants knew the sequence of reporting ADR. More than half, 40(58.0% had heard about pharmacovigilance at symposiums, 7(10.1% during clinical clerkship program and 18(26.1% from media jingles. Twenty nine (42.0% agreed that pharmacovigilance was in their curriculum, however only 16(23.2% could define the term correctly. None of the participants had seen or used an ADR form prior to the study, but the students could easily identify and describe the type of ADR they had
To implement and assess the effectiveness of an assignment requiring doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students to write examination questions for the medicinal chemistry sections of a pharmacotherapeutics course. Students were divided into groups of 5-6 and given detailed instructions and grading rubrics for writing multiple-choice examination questions on medicinal chemistry topics. The compiled student-written questions for each examination were provided to the entire class as a study aid. Approximately 5% of the student-written questions were used in course examinations. Student appreciation of and performance in the medicinal chemistry portion of the course was significantly better than that of the previous year's class. Also, students' responses on a qualitative survey instrument indicated that the assignment provided students' guidance on which concepts to focus on, helped them retain knowledge better, and fostered personal exploration of the content, which led to better performance on examinations. Adding an active-learning assignment in which students write examination questions for the medicinal chemistry portion of a pharmacotherapeutics course was an effective means of increasing students engagement in the class and knowledge of the course material.
Ekong, Gladys; Kavookjian, Jan; Hutchison, Amber
Objective. To assess first-year pharmacy (P1) students' predispositions (eg, perceptions for empathy, intercultural sensitivity, and motivational interviewing (MI) as a patient-centered communication skillset) and identify potential curricula content/communication skills training needs. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was used to collect students' self-reported perceptions for empathy, intercultural sensitivity, counseling contexts, and projected future MI use. Relationships between variables were explored and logistic regression was used to evaluate intention for using MI in future patient encounters. Results. There were 134 students who participated. Higher predisposition for empathy and for intercultural sensitivity were significantly correlated. Significant predictors for applying MI in future patient encounters were sex, confidence with counseling skills, and current use of MI. Conclusion. Results suggest the need to incorporate innovative training strategies in communication skills curricula. Potential areas include empathy, intercultural sensitivity and significant predictor variables for future MI use. Further investigation in other schools is needed.
Bykhovsky, Margarita; Meier, Mary Frances K; Mager, Natalie A DiPietro
Pharmacy students must receive adequate training regarding folic acid for the prevention of neural tube defects (NTDs). Pharmacy students' knowledge should be evaluated and effective methods utilized to improve it, if needed. The objective of this study was to assess baseline knowledge among third-year students in a 0-6 Doctor of Pharmacy program and to evaluate the impact of an online educational video. Baseline knowledge was assessed by a pretest adapted with permission from the March of Dimes (MOD). Students watched a 30-minute MOD video and completed a posttest. Nine months later, students completed a longitudinal posttest. Analysis of variance was used to assess differences in the percentage of correct responses to each question. A total of 133 (90.5%) students completed the educational program and 105 (78.9%) completed the longitudinal test. Statistically significant improvements in knowledge from baseline were seen for 9 of 10 questions on the posttest and for 6 of 10 questions on the longitudinal test. Online videos are tools to teach pharmacy students key information regarding folic acid and NTD; however, material should be reinforced in experiential education as well. Counseling women of childbearing potential about folic acid fulfills an important public health need. © The Author(s) 2014.
Elmore, Donald E
Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations play an increasingly important role in many aspects of biochemical research but are often not part of the biochemistry curricula at the undergraduate level. This article discusses the pedagogical value of exposing students to MD simulations and provides information to help instructors consider what software and hardware resources are necessary to successfully introduce these simulations into their courses. In addition, a brief review of the MD-based activities in this issue and other sources are provided. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
Jane R. Mort
Full Text Available Objective: To describe a longitudinal leadership program involving all students and report the perceived impact. Design: The program included a first year Leadership Interview, a third year Report of Leadership, and a fourth year Professional Business Meeting Attendance. Activities involved guided reflection. Assessment: Students (n=138 indicated the activities helped them recognize the importance of leadership and their leadership potential (e.g., 72.5% and 62.3% of students due to meeting attendance, respectively. Students participated in leadership activities that they would not have pursued otherwise, either in response to the activity (27.7% due to interview or as a requirement of the activity (51.1% for leadership report. Students reported developing specific leadership skills through the activities. Most students planned to be involved in a district/regional (72.5%, state (84.1%, and national (51.4% meeting in the five years following graduation. Conclusion: Students reported a positive impact on leadership perceptions and participation. The report is a preliminary step in the development and assessment of a longitudinal curricular initiative involving all pharmacy students. Type: Case Study
Cone, Catherine; Godwin, Donald; Salazar, Krista; Bond, Rucha; Thompson, Megan; Myers, Orrin
Objective. The Health Sciences Reasoning Test (HSRT) is a validated instrument to assess critical-thinking skills. The objective of this study was to determine if HSRT results improved in second-year student pharmacists after exposure to an explicit curriculum designed to develop critical-thinking skills. Methods. In December 2012, the HSRT was administered to students who were in their first year of pharmacy school. Starting in August 2013, students attended a 16-week laboratory curriculum using simulation, formative feedback, and clinical reasoning to teach critical-thinking skills. Following completion of this course, the HSRT was readministered to the same cohort of students. Results. All students enrolled in the course (83) took the HSRT, and following exclusion criteria, 90% of the scores were included in the statistical analysis. Exclusion criteria included students who did not finish more than 60% of the questions or who took less than 15 minutes to complete the test. Significant changes in the HSRT occurred in overall scores and in the subdomains of deduction, evaluation, and inference after students completed the critical-thinking curriculum. Conclusions. Significant improvement in HSRT scores occurred following student immersion in an explicit critical-thinking curriculum. The HSRT was useful in detecting these changes, showing that critical-thinking skills can be learned and then assessed over a relatively short period using a standardized, validated assessment tool like the HSRT.
Sainsbury, Erica; Rose, Grenville; Smith, Lorraine
Objectives. To compare the achievement goal orientations of first-year with those of third-year undergraduate Australian pharmacy students and to examine the relationship of goal orientations to academic achievement. Methods. The Achievement Goal Questionnaire was administered to first-year and third-year students during class time. Students’ grades were obtained from course coordinators. Results. More first-year students adopted performance-approach and mastery-approach goals than did third-year students. Performance-approach goals were positively correlated with academic achievement in the first year. Chinese Australian students scored the highest in adopting performance-approach goals. Vietnamese Australian students adopted mastery-avoidance goals more than other ethnicities. First-year students were more strongly performance approach goal-oriented than third-year students. Conclusion. Adopting performance-approach goals was positively correlated with academic achievement, while adopting avoidance goals was not. Ethnicity has an effect on the adoption of achievement goals and academic achievement. PMID:25258438
McLaughlin, Jacqueline E; Griffin, LaToya M; Esserman, Denise A; Davidson, Christopher A; Glatt, Dylan M; Roth, Mary T; Gharkholonarehe, Nastaran; Mumper, Russell J
To determine whether "flipping" a traditional basic pharmaceutics course delivered synchronously to 2 satellite campuses would improve student academic performance, engagement, and perception. In 2012, the basic pharmaceutics course was flipped and delivered to 22 satellite students on 2 different campuses. Twenty-five condensed, recorded course lectures were placed on the course Web site for students to watch prior to class. Scheduled class periods were dedicated to participating in active-learning exercises. Students also completed 2 course projects, 3 midterm examinations, 8 graded quizzes, and a cumulative and comprehensive final examination. Results of a survey administered at the beginning and end of the flipped course in 2012 revealed an increase in students' support for learning content prior to class and using class time for more applied learning (p=0.01) and in the belief that learning key foundational content prior to coming to class greatly enhanced in-class learning (p=0.001). Significantly more students preferred the flipped classroom format after completing the course (89.5%) than before completing the course (34.6%). Course evaluation responses and final examination performance did not differ significantly for 2011 when the course was taught using a traditional format and the 2012 flipped-course format. Qualitative findings suggested that the flipped classroom promoted student empowerment, development, and engagement. The flipped pharmacy classroom can enhance the quality of satellite students' experiences in a basic pharmaceutics course through thoughtful course design, enriched dialogue, and promotion of learner autonomy.
Hobbs, N Thompson; Ogle, Kiona
Quantitative training for students of ecology has traditionally emphasized two sets of topics: mathematical modeling and statistical analysis. Until recently, these topics were taught separately, modeling courses emphasizing mathematical techniques for symbolic analysis and statistics courses emphasizing procedures for analyzing data. We advocate the merger of these traditions in ecological education by outlining a curriculum for an introductory course in data-model assimilation. This course replaces the procedural emphasis of traditional introductory material in statistics with an emphasis on principles needed to develop hierarchical models of ecological systems, fusing models of data with models of ecological processes. We sketch nine elements of such a course: (1) models as routes to insight, (2) uncertainty, (3) basic probability theory, (4) hierarchical models, (5) data simulation, (6) likelihood and Bayes, (7) computational methods, (8) research design, and (9) problem solving. The outcome of teaching these combined elements can be the fundamental understanding and quantitative confidence needed by students to create revealing analyses for a broad array of research problems.
Croker, Anne; Smith, Tony; Fisher, Karin; Littlejohns, Sonja
Similar to other professions, pharmacy educators use workplace learning opportunities to prepare students for collaborative practice. Thus, collaborative relationships between educators of different professions are important for planning, implementing and evaluating interprofessional learning strategies and role modelling interprofessional collaboration within and across university and workplace settings. However, there is a paucity of research exploring educators' interprofessional relationships. Using collaborative dialogical inquiry we explored the nature of educators' interprofessional relationships in a co-located setting. Data from interprofessional focus groups and semi-structured interviews were interpreted to identify themes that transcended the participants' professional affiliations. Educators' interprofessional collaborative relationships involved the development and interweaving of five interpersonal behaviours: being inclusive of other professions; developing interpersonal connections with colleagues from other professions; bringing a sense of own profession in relation to other professions; giving and receiving respect to other professions; and being learner-centred for students' collaborative practice . Pharmacy educators, like other educators, need to ensure that interprofessional relationships are founded on positive experiences rather than vested in professional interests.
Sawant, Ruta V; Beatty, Collin R; Sansgiry, Sujit S
Objective. To assess the effect of communication style, and frequency and severity of medication side-effects, on pharmacy students' perception of risk of experiencing side effects. Methods. One hundred responses from pharmacy students were obtained using an online survey. Participants were presented with a drug information box containing drug name, drug usage, and one side-effect associated with the drug. Information on side-effect for each drug was presented in one of eight experimental conditions, in a 2 (side-effect frequency: low, high), X2 (side-effect severity: mild, severe) X2 (communication style: verbal, verbal + natural frequency) factorial design. Risk perception of experiencing side effects was measured. Results. Communication style was found to have a significant impact on risk perception depending on the context of frequency and severity associated with the side effect. Conclusion. Communication style plays a significant role in formulating risk perceptions of medication side effects. Training in pharmaceutical counseling should include special emphasis on effective language use.
Spivey, Christina A.; Jaeger, Melanie C.; Williams, Jennifer; George, Christa
Objectives. To develop and validate a scale measuring pharmacy students’ attitudes toward social media professionalism, and assess the impact of an educational presentation on social media professionalism. Methods. A social media professionalism scale was used in a pre- and post-survey to determine the effects of a social media professionalism presentation. The 26-item scale was administered to 197 first-year pharmacy (P1) students during orientation. Exploratory factor analysis was applied to determine the number of underlying factors responsible for covariation of the data. Principal components analysis was used as the extraction method. Varimax was selected as the rotation method. Cronbach’s alpha was estimated. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare pre- and post-scores of each item, subscale, and total scale. Results. There were 187 (95%) students who participated. The final scale had five subscales and 15 items. Subscales were named according to the professionalism tenet they best represented. Scores of items addressing reading/posting to social media during class, an employer’s use of social media when making hiring decisions, and a college/university’s use of social media as a measure of professional conduct significantly increased from pre-test to post-test. The “honesty and integrity” subscale score also significantly increased. Conclusion. The social media professionalism scale measures five tenets of professionalism and exhibits satisfactory reliability. The presentation improved P1 students’ attitudes regarding social media professionalism. PMID:28630506
Okuyan, B; Sancar, M; Ay, P; Demirkan, K; Apikoglu-Rabus, S; Vehbi Izzettin, F
The aim of the study is to conduct the psychometric evaluation of the Turkish version of the Pharmacy Students' Perceptions of Preparedness to Provide Pharmaceutical Care (PREP) scale. The present study was conducted at three faculties of pharmacy among fifth-year students during a three-month period in 2015. After the translation process, the Turkish version was developed. Psychometric evaluation consisted of the calculation of inter-rater and test-retest reliability and factor analysis. The mean age of 184 students (71.2% of female) was 23.74±1.07. The mean score of the Pharmacy Students' PREP scale was 4.54±1.00 and the Cronbach's alpha was 0.971. Inter-rater and test-retest reliability and factor analysis were also in concordance with the literature. In the present study, the Turkish version of Pharmacy Students' Perceptions of Preparedness to Provide Pharmaceutical Care Scale has been determined to be a reliable and validated tool to assess students' perceptions of preparedness to provide pharmaceutical care.
Patten Scott B
Full Text Available Abstract Background A strategy for reducing mental illness-related stigma in health-profession students is to include contact-based sessions in their educational curricula. In such sessions students are able to interact socially with a person that has a mental illness. We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of this strategy in a multi-centre study of pharmacy students. Methods The study was a randomized controlled trial conducted at three sites. Because it was necessary that all students receive the contact-based sessions, the students were randomized either to an early or late intervention, with the late intervention group not having participated in the contact-based education at the time when the primary outcome was assessed. The primary outcome, stigma, was assessed using an attitudes scale called the Opening Minds Survey for Health Care Providers (OMS-HC. Results We initially confirmed that outcomes were homogeneous across study centres, centre by group interaction, p = 0.76. The results were pooled across the three study centres. A significant reduction in stigma was observed in association with the contact-based sessions (mean change 4.3 versus 1.5, t=2.1, p=0.04. The effect size (Cohen’s d was 0.45. A similar reduction was seen in the control group when they later received the intervention. Conclusions Contact-based education is an effective method of reducing stigma during pharmacy education. These results add to a growing literature confirming the effectiveness of contact-based strategies for stigma reduction in health profession trainees.
Basson, Mariëtta J; Rothmann, Sebastiaan
Self-determination theory (SDT) provides a model to improve pharmacy students' well-being or functioning in their study context. According to SDT, students need a context that satisfies their needs for autonomy, relatedness and competence in order to function optimally. Contextual factors that could have an impact on a student's functioning are lecturers, family, peers and workload. To investigate whether there is a difference between the contributions family, lecturers, peers and workload make towards the satisfaction of pharmacy students' basic psychological needs within a university context. An electronic survey was administered amongst students registered with the North-West University's School of Pharmacy. Registered pharmacy students, 779, completed said electronic survey comprised of a questionnaire on demographics, BMPN (Balanced Measure of Psychological Needs) and self-developed ANPNS (Antecedents of Psychological Need-satisfaction Scale). Data derived from the afore-going was analysed with the aid of structural equation modelling (SEM). Structural equation modelling explained 46%, 25% and 30% respectively of the total group's variances in autonomy, competence and relatedness satisfaction, and 26% of the variance in psychological need frustration. Peers and family played a significant role in the satisfaction of students' need for autonomy, relatedness and competence, whilst workload seemingly hampered satisfaction with regards to relatedness and autonomy. Workload contributed towards frustration with regards to psychological need satisfaction. The role played by lecturers in satisfying pharmacy students' need for autonomy, relatedness and competence will also be highlighted. This study added to the body of knowledge regarding contextual factors and the impact those factors have on pharmacy students' need satisfaction by illustrating that not all factors (family, lecturers, peers and workload) can be considered equal. Lecturers ought to recognise the
Hawboldt, John; Nash, Rose; FitzPatrick, Beverly
International standards of pharmacy curricula are necessary to ensure student readiness for international placements. This paper explores whether curricula from two pharmacy programs, in Australia and Canada, are congruent with international standards and if students feel prepared for international placements. Nationally prescribed educational standards for the two schools were compared to each other and then against the International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP) Global Competency Framework. Written student reflections complemented this analysis. Mapping results suggested substantial agreement between the FIP framework and Australia and Canada, with two gaps being identified. Moreover, the students felt their programs prepared them for their international placements. Despite differences in countries, pharmacy programs, and health-systems all students acclimatized to their new practice sites. Implications are that if pharmacy programs align well with FIP, pharmacists should be able to integrate and practise in other jurisdictions that also align with the FIP. This has implications for the mobility of pharmacy practitioners to countries not of their origin of training.
Eukel, Heidi N; Frenzel, Jeanne E; Cernusca, Dan
Objective. To design an educational game that will increase third-year professional pharmacy students' knowledge of diabetes mellitus disease management and to evaluate their perceived value of the game. Methods. Faculty members created an innovative educational game, the diabetes escape room. An authentic escape room gaming environment was established through the use of a locked room, an escape time limit, and game rules within which student teams completed complex puzzles focused on diabetes disease management. To evaluate the impact, students completed a pre-test and post-test to measure the knowledge they've gained and a perception survey to identify moderating factors that could help instructors improve the game's effectiveness and utility. Results. Students showed statistically significant increases in knowledge after completion of the game. A one-sample t -test indicated that students' mean perception was statistically significantly higher than the mean value of the evaluation scale. This statically significant result proved that this gaming act offers a potential instructional benefit beyond its novelty. Conclusion. The diabetes escape room proved to be a valuable educational game that increased students' knowledge of diabetes mellitus disease management and showed a positive perceived overall value by student participants.
Toyin Tofade, MS, PharmD, BCPS, CPCC, Pharmacotherapy Director, Wake Area Health Education Center and Clinical Associate Professor, Division of Pharmacy Practice and Experiential Education
Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of the study was to evaluate a live and online training program for first year pharmacy students in implementing Continuing Professional Development (CPD principles (Reflect, Plan, Act, and Evaluate, writing SMART learning objectives, and documenting learning activities prior to and during a hospital introductory professional practice experience.Design: Cohort Study. Setting: Introductory professional practice experience. Participants: First year (PY1 students at the University of North Carolina Eshelman School of Pharmacy. Intervention: Live training or online training to introduce the concept of Continuing Professional Development in practice. Main Outcomes: Implementation of CPD principles through 1 completed pre-rotation education action plans with specific, measurable, achievable, relevant and time-bound (SMART learning objectives; and 2 completed learning activity worksheets post-rotation indicating stimuli for learning, resources used and accomplished learning. objectives; and 3 documented suggestions and content feedback for future lectures and pharmaceutical care lab experiences. Results: Out of the whole cohort (N=154, 14 (87.5% live (in person trainees and 122 (88% online trainees submitted an education action plan. Objectives were scored using a rubric on a scale of 1-5. A rating of 5 means “satisfactory”, 3 means “work in progress” and 1 means “unacceptable”. There were significant differences between the mean live trainee scores and the mean online trainee scores for the following respective section comparisons: Specific 4.7 versus 3.29 (p<0.001; Measurable 3.9 versus 2.05 (p<0.001; number of objectives 3.6 versus 4.6 (p<0.001; and average grade 92.9 versus 77.7 (p<0.001. Of the 396 learning activity worksheets reviewed, 75% selected discussion with peers and/or health providers as a stimulus for learning. Students reported spending an average of 50.2 hours completing the learning objectives. All
Objective measures for assessing teaching effectiveness and learning outcomes in the pharmacy curriculum are needed for improving quality of instruction and faculty development. The purpose of this article is to introduce a new teaching assessment method that focuses on self-assessed change in student comfort with the topics taught rather than evaluation of the instructor and to evaluate its performance in comparison to conventional student evaluations of teaching (SET). Six successive cohorts of first-year pharmacy students were surveyed regarding their comfort level at the beginning and end of a 10-week pharmacology course. The change in self-assessed comfort level (ΔSACL) was interpreted as the amount of learning that occurred. This indicator was compared to ratings of a statement from SET designed to obtain the same information. An increasing ΔSACL suggests an increase in learning over time. Differences were observed between ΔSACL and corresponding results from SET, suggesting that there could be extrinsic factors influencing the results. The use of ΔSACL could provide an alternative or complementary approach to assess teaching effectiveness that focuses less on the instructor and more on the actual student learning outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Miller, Danielle M; Khalil, Karen; Iskaros, Olivia; Van Amburgh, Jenny A
Pharmacy students need to develop critical thinking and problem-solving skills as well as be a valuable team member. The use of team based learning (TBL) fosters effective team collaboration, enables continuous active and self-directed learning, and requires both individual and team accountability. The purpose was to evaluate pharmacy students' perceptions and experiences related to TBL in different years of the pharmacy curriculum. Two classes, Introduction to the Profession of Pharmacy (intro), a required course, and Self-Care/Non-Prescription Medications (self-care), an elective course, utilize the TBL approach. Students enrolled in both courses were recruited to complete a validated questionnaire during the last class. There was 100% participation; the majority of students, regardless of course, expressed positive attitudes towards TBL. Variations, relevance of TBL activities and the use of TBL as a learning strategy, between the required intro class and the elective self-care class were observed using a Mann-Whitney U test (peffectiveness. It's important to consider the differences in professional development in these students and how this may impact their perceptions of TBL. TBL imparts more responsibility and accountability on the individual student allowing for the development of self-directed learners. Students, regardless of their year, found TBL to be an effective learning strategy. Third professional year (P3) pharmacy students further along in the curriculum are more accepting of TBL and are better able to appreciate the benefits of active and self-directed learning as well as working within a team. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jamshed, Shazia Qasim; Elkalmi, Ramadan; Rajiah, Kingston; Al-Shami, Abdul Kareem; Shamsudin, Siti Hadijah; Siddiqui, Mohammad Jamshed Ahmad; Abdul Aziz, Mohamad Akram Bin; Hanafi, Muhammad Badrulsyam Bin; Mohammad Shariff, Najwa Izzati Bt; Ramlan, Nasrul Hakim Bin; Jamil, Normunirah Bt; Mustapha, Nur Hayatul Akmal Bt; Hasman Yusri, Nuratiqah Bt; Shahri, Nurul Anisah Bt; Ismail, Radhiyah Bt; Zamri, Siti Maryam Bt
This study is aimed to investigate the understanding of antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance and its correlate factors among final-year medical and pharmacy students at International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM). This was a cross-sectional study. The study instrument was developed by extensive literature search and was subjected to face validity and content validity to medical and pharmacy academics. A pilot study was conducted to ascertain the reliability coefficient. Data was entered to SPSS version 17 and descriptive and inferential statistics were applied. A total of 123 questionnaires were included in the study. Out of 123 respondents, 58.5% (n = 72) were final-year medical students, while 41.5% (n = 51) were final-year pharmacy students. The majority of the respondents showed adequate knowledge regarding the course contents related to antibiotics (n = 116; 94.3%). Almost all the respondents correctly reported the difference between bactericidal and bacteriostatic antibiotics. Only 15.4% (n = 19) and 27.6% (n = 34) of students were able to recognize Streptococcus pyogenes as non-pencillin resistant bacterium and Enterococcus as vancomycin-resistant bacterium, respectively. The students showed good understanding regarding antibiotic resistance. In comparison to medical students, pharmacy students showed better understanding and more adequate knowledge, as the mean value for each domain was slightly higher for pharmacy students. Extensively improving the curriculum and educating healthcare professionals, especially physicians and pharmacists, right from the time of their educational training can inculcate a moral responsibility toward the judicious use of antibiotics, which can serve to eradicate antibiotic resistance.
Kubota, Yoshie; Yano, Yoshitaka; Seki, Susumu; Takada, Kaori; Sakuma, Mio; Morimoto, Takeshi; Akaike, Akinori; Hiraide, Atsushi
To determine the value of using the Roter Interaction Analysis System during objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) to assess pharmacy students' communication competence. As pharmacy students completed a clinical OSCE involving an interview with a simulated patient, 3 experts used a global rating scale to assess students' overall performance in the interview, and both the student's and patient's languages were coded using the Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS). The coders recorded the number of utterances (ie, units of spoken language) in each RIAS category. Correlations between the raters' scores and the number and types of utterances were examined. There was a significant correlation between students' global rating scores on the OSCE and the number of utterances in the RIAS socio-emotional category but not the RIAS business category. The RIAS proved to be a useful tool for assessing the socio-emotional aspect of students' interview skills.
P. Avila Jr.
Full Text Available Exponential growing of scientific and technological knowledge of nowadayssociety demands new abilities and competences of theirs citizens. In the otherhand, the development of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTsand the low cost of equipments provide a new teaching strategy, namely distanceeducation, through intranet or internet. The familiarity with of scientific methodstimulates autonomy in obtaining information, critical thinking and logical analysisof data. These are useful abilities for science students as well as for commoncitizens. Aiming the development of such abilities a distance course wasdeveloped in 45 hours, using mainly forum and chat in the Claroline platform withtechnical support of the Centro Nacional de Supercomputação da UFRGS. All thestudents attending the course were from Fundação Faculdade Federal deCiências Médicas de Porto Alegre. In this course the following topics wereexplored: (1 scientific knowledge x common sense, (2 different conceptions ofscience, (3 scientific method, (4 different categories of science publications, (5principles of Logic, (6 deduction x induction (7 paper analysis simulation.Scientific project writing was taught/learned through the following items: (1 choiceof a problem, (2 bibliography revision, (3 agencies for funding, (4 projectpresentation by videoconference and (5 analysis of results.The course was evaluated by Likert-type questionnaire and the results fromstudents and teachers indicate a very successful outcome.
Fiangga, S.; Azizah, M. A. N.; Rini, R. N. K.; Hidayanti, A. N.
The concept of circles is an ancient concept that has appeared since Ancient Egypt from which this concept gives many significant contributions in mathematics’ development until now. Nevertheless, the concept of circles hides many uncover mysterious features that are of applications in mathematics. One of the mysterious features is the Nine-Point Circle. This Nine-point circle is also known as Euler’s circle, six-point circle, Feuerbach’s circle, the twelve-point circle, and many others. Because of these different names, there have been misunderstand among mathematicians about the Nine-Point Circle’s history. Besides, the discussion of Nine-Point Circle can be used to be an initial material to explain elementary geometry topic in junior high school’s level curriculum of 2013. Therefore, this concept needs to be delivered to the students as a geometry introduction. A possible form of the integration historical aspect of Nine-point circle is suggested in this paper as well as its importance in the curriculum of 2013.
Stebbins, Marilyn R; Frear, Meghan E; Cutler, Timothy W; Lightwood, James M; Fingado, Amanda R; Lai, Cindy J; Lipton, Helene Levens
The rising costs of health care and, in particular, prescription drugs remains a challenge. Health professionals' ability to promote cost-effective prescription drug use is critical, yet this subject is not included consistently in the curriculum of most health professional schools. As experts in prescription drug selection, use, and cost, pharmacists are in a unique position to help manage prescription drug regimens for the best therapeutic outcome, while also helping to keep patients' out-of-pocket (OOP) prescription drug costs low. In addition to promoting interprofessional collaboration, pharmacy student-led lectures may provide an effective means to teach prescription drug cost-savings strategies to other health professional students and current prescribers. To describe and evaluate the impact of a 60- to 90-minute standardized, case-based lecture on prescribers' attitudes and knowledge about drug cost-containment strategies. Four trained pharmacy students delivered a lecture that focused on strategies to help underserved patients with their OOP prescription drug costs. This lecture was given to health professional students and prescribers across disciplines. For purposes of this study, underserved patients included those with no drug insurance, those with limited financial resources who were unable to pay for their prescription drugs, and those whose drug insurance had significant gaps in coverage (e.g., Medicare Part D patients). Lectures targeted future and current prescribers and were delivered in multiple settings (e.g., residents' seminars, medical grand rounds, required health policy courses for medical and nursing students). Pretest/posttest surveys were administered to assess the impact of the lecture on learners' (a) knowledge of strategies to improve underserved patients' access to needed prescription drugs; (b) willingness to address and discuss cost issues with patients; (c) likelihood of collaborating with other health care professionals; and (d
Higuchi, Yuji; Inagaki, Masatoshi; Koyama, Toshihiro; Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Sendo, Toshiaki; Fujimori, Maiko; Kataoka, Hitomi; Hayashibara, Chinatsu; Uchitomi, Yosuke; Yamada, Norihito
Objective. To measure whether Emotional intelligence (EI) would minimize the negative association between autistic-like traits (ALT) and empathic behavior and enhance the positive association between ALT and psychological distress. Methods. Our sample population included 823 hospital pharmacists belonging to a district society, and 378 pharmacy students. Analyses were performed to examine relationships between scores on the Emotional Intelligence Scale (EQS), Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ), Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE), and General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ). Results. Complete answers were obtained from 373 pharmacists, and 341 students. EQS partially intervened the associations between AQ and JSE and between AQ and GHQ. Conclusion. EI partially intervened the relationships between ALT and empathy, and between ALT and mental health, both of which are necessary for optimal pharmaceutical practice.
Whitley, Heather P; Parton, Jason M
To adapt a classroom assessment technique (CAT) from an anthropology course to a diabetes module in a clinical pharmacy skills laboratory and to determine student knowledge retention from baseline. Diabetes item stems, focused on module objectives, replaced anthropology terms. Answer choices, coded to Bloom's Taxonomy, were expanded to include higher-order thinking. Students completed the online 5-item probe 4 times: prelaboratory lecture, postlaboratory, and at 6 months and 12 months after laboratory. Statistical analyses utilized a single factor, repeated measures design using rank transformations of means with a Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test. The CAT revealed a significant increase in knowledge from prelaboratory compared to all postlaboratory measurements (panthropology assessment tool was effectively adapted using Bloom's Taxonomy as a guide and, when used repeatedly, demonstrated knowledge retention. Minimal time was devoted to application of the probe making it an easily adaptable CAT.
Buhler, Amber V; Karimi, Reza M
To create a doctor of pharmacy curricular experience that will decrease students' social barriers to interaction with and treatment of mentally-ill patients. We created a survey instrument to measure 4 aspects of students' conceptions of schizophrenia and clinical depression: (1) understanding of the medical nature of each disease, (2) understanding of patient behavior, (3) belief in the efficacy of treatment, and (4) social distance. We delivered this instrument before and after a neuropsychiatry curriculum including "peer-level patient presenters" in addition to the traditional first-year pharmacy curriculum. Social-distance scores significantly decreased in first-year pharmacy students who attended peer-level patient presentations, indicating increased willingness to interact with persons with schizophrenia and clinical depression. In addition, students' understanding of the causes of illness, behavior of patients, and most importantly, efficacy of drug counseling for these diseases increased. Changes to the curriculum including the addition of peer-level patient presentations can quantitatively decrease pharmacy students' social barriers to the treatment of mentally-ill patients.
Curso: Auxiliar de Farmacia. Guia. Farmacia Teorica: Manual del Estudiante. Matematica General: Manual del Estudiante. Documento de Trabajo (Pharmacy Assistant Course Guide. Theoretical Pharmacy Student Manual. General Mathematics Student Manual. Working Document).
Puerto Rico State Dept. of Education, Hato Rey. Area for Vocational and Technical Education.
The three parts of this document are intended for a 3-semester course for pharmacy assistants. The course guide contains the following sections: occupational description; educational philosophy; general objectives; tasks/competencies for each unit; course organization; brief description of the topics; student standards; and evaluation methods.…
Rees, C E; Monrouxe, L V; Ternan, E; Endacott, R
Previous healthcare student abuse research typically employs quantitative surveys that fail to explore contributory factors for abuse and students' action in the face of abuse. Following a recent qualitative study of medical students' abuse narratives, the current study explores dental, nursing, pharmacy and physiotherapy students' abuse narratives to better understand healthcare workplace abuse. We conducted three individual and 11 group interviews with 69 healthcare students in three Universities to elicit professionalism dilemma narratives. Of 226 professionalism dilemmas elicited, 79 were coded as student abuse. Secondary-level thematic analysis of the abuse narratives addressed the following questions: What types of abuse experiences do healthcare students narrate? What factors do they cite as contributing to abuse and their responses to abuse? Healthcare students reported mostly covert abuse in their narratives. Although narrators described individual, relational, work and organisational factors contributing to abuse, they mostly cited factors relating to perpetrators. Most participants stated that they acted in the face of their abuse, and they mostly cited factors relating to themselves for acting. Students who did nothing in the face of abuse typically cited the perpetrator-recipient relationship as the main contributory factor. There are many similarities across the narratives of the five healthcare student groups, suggesting that complex interactional/organisational factors are all-important when considering how abuse is perpetuated within the healthcare workplace. Although some organisational factors may be difficult to change, we recommend that educational initiatives are a key starting point to tackle healthcare workplace abuse. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
This activity book, designed for student use, introduces environmental concepts to the primary student. The basic concept around which the guide is developed is the idea that the environment contains many interdependent things. Water, wind, clouds, non-living objects, plants, animals, and pollution are dealt with as part of the primary student's…
Full Text Available Bethany M Shelvey,1 Sion A Coulman,2 Dai N John2 1School of Medicine, 2School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales, UK Background: The current literature on undergraduate interprofessional education (IPE for pharmacy and medical students highlights a range of positive outcomes, although to date IPE has focused predominantly on student views and experiences of IPE sessions with these opinions being sought at the end of the sessions. This study aimed to evaluate medical students’ experiences of therapeutics and prescribing IPE, with pharmacy students, 1 year following the session. Methods: Following ethics committee approval, 3rd year medical students at Cardiff University were invited to participate using non-probability sampling. Topic guide development was informed by the literature and research team discussions, including a review of the materials used in the IPE session. Semi-structured one-to-one interviews explored experiences, prior to, during, and after the IPE session. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed thematically. Results: Eighteen medical students were interviewed; 11 were females. Seven themes were identified, namely 1 refinement of pre-session preparation, 2 session value, 3 learning with a pharmacy student, 4 learning about a pharmacist, 5 learning from a pharmacy student, 6 importance and application of what was learnt into practice, and 7 suggestions for change. Conclusion: This study provides a valuable insight into medical students’ experiences of a therapeutics and prescribing IPE session and emphasizes the value they placed on interaction with pharmacy students. Medical students were able to recall clear learning experiences from the IPE session that had taken place 12 months earlier, which itself is an indicator of the impact of the session on the students. Furthermore, they were able to describe how knowledge and skills learnt had been applied to
Davey, Andrew K; Grant, Gary D; Anoopkumar-Dukie, Shailendra
To assess the academic performance and experiences of local, international, and collaborative exchange students enrolled in a 4-year Australian bachelor of pharmacy degree program. Survey instruments exploring the demographics, background, and academic and cultural experiences of students during the program were administered in 2005 to students in all 4 years. Additionally, grades from each semester of the program for students (406 local, 70 international, 155 exchange) who graduated between 2002 and 2006 were analyzed retrospectively. The main differences found in the survey responses among the 3 groups were in students' motivations for choosing the degree program and school, with international and collaborative exchange students having put more thought into these decisions than local students. The average grades over the duration of the program were similar in all 3 demographic groups. However, local students slightly outperformed international students, particularly at the start of the year, whereas collaborative exchange students' grades mirrored those of local students during the 2 years prior to leaving their home country of Malaysia but more closely mirrored those of international students in the final 2 years after arriving on campus in Australia. Despite differences in academic backgrounds and culture, international and exchange students can perform well compared to local students in a bachelor of pharmacy program and were actually more satisfied than local students with the overall experience. Studying in a foreign country can negatively influence academic grades to a small extent and this is probably related to adjusting to the new environment.
Echeverri, Margarita; Brookover, Cecile; Kennedy, Kathleen
While most of the more frequently used self-report measures of cultural competence in health professionals are targeted to practicing physicians and mental health providers from the majority-white population, no measures have been specifically developed for minority pharmacy students. With the objective to find a suitable tool to be used for…
O'Reilly, Claire L; Bell, J Simon; Kelly, Patrick J; Chen, Timothy F
The aim of this study was to assess the impact of delivering Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training for pharmacy students on their mental health literacy and stigma towards mental illness. A non-randomized controlled design was used, with all third year pharmacy students at the University of Sydney (n = 272) in 2009 invited to participate in one of two MHFA training courses, each of 12 hours duration. Of these, 174 students applied for MHFA training, of whom 60 were randomly selected and offered MHFA training. Outcome measures that were completed by all participants in the MHFA and non-MHFA groups before and after the MHFA training included an evaluation of mental health literacy, the 7-item social distance scale, and 16 items related to self-reported behaviour. The survey instrument was completed by 258 participants at baseline (59 MHFA and 199 non-MHFA) and 223 participants at follow up (53 MHFA and 170 non-MHFA). The MHFA training improved the participants' ability to correctly identify a mental illness (p = 0.004). There was a significant mean decrease in total social distance of 2.18 (SD 3.35) p training. This study demonstrated that MHFA training can reduce pharmacy students' mental health stigma, improve recognition of mental disorders and improve confidence in providing services to consumers with a mental illness in the pharmacy setting.
Jacob, Bobby; White, Annesha; Shogbon, Angela
Objective: To measure student pharmacists' spirituality utilizing validated survey instruments and to determine perceptions regarding the anticipated role of spirituality in academic course work and professional practice. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study. The survey was offered to all first-year student pharmacists during the first week of the fall semester (2012-2015). Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze data. Results: A total of 580 students (98%) participated. The majority of students reported having each of the spiritual experiences on most days of the week or more frequently (58% to 89% based on individual item). Furthermore, 57% of students anticipate that matters of spirituality would be significant components of academic course work and 75% anticipate they would be incorporated into eventual professional practice settings. These perceptions were positively correlated to measures of spirituality and religiosity. Conclusion: These findings suggest that faculty should evaluate current and future incorporation of topics related to spirituality and health in pharmacy curriculum.
White, Annesha; Shogbon, Angela
Objective: To measure student pharmacists’ spirituality utilizing validated survey instruments and to determine perceptions regarding the anticipated role of spirituality in academic course work and professional practice. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study. The survey was offered to all first-year student pharmacists during the first week of the fall semester (2012-2015). Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze data. Results: A total of 580 students (98%) participated. The majority of students reported having each of the spiritual experiences on most days of the week or more frequently (58% to 89% based on individual item). Furthermore, 57% of students anticipate that matters of spirituality would be significant components of academic course work and 75% anticipate they would be incorporated into eventual professional practice settings. These perceptions were positively correlated to measures of spirituality and religiosity. Conclusion: These findings suggest that faculty should evaluate current and future incorporation of topics related to spirituality and health in pharmacy curriculum. PMID:28970609
Saha, Bijoy Laxmi; Seam, Md Omar Reza; Islam, Md Mainul; Das, Abhijit; Ahamed, Sayed Koushik; Karmakar, Palash; Islam, Md Fokhrul; Kundu, Sukalyan Kumar
Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is a combination of herbal medicine, traditional therapies, and mind-body intervention. This descriptive study was designed to assess the knowledge, attitudes, perception and self-use of CAM among Bangladeshi undergraduate pharmacy students. The study also evaluated their opinions about its integration into the pharmacy course curriculum. It was a cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study conducted on 250 pharmacy students of five reputed public universities of Bangladesh. This study revealed that majority of the pharmacy students were using or had previously used at least one type of CAM. Among the students, 59% had used homeopathy followed by Ayurveda (30%), meditation (29%), massage (13%), Unani (9%), yoga (6%) and acupuncture (2%). Students' attitudes towards CAM were influenced by family and friends, books and journals, the internet and to a lesser degree by health practitioners. A significant (p students had knowledge about CAM. A majority of the students (90%) had positive, while 10% had negative attitudes towards CAM. Lack of knowledge and trained professionals were found to be the major interruptions to CAM use. 84.45% acknowledged the importance of knowledge about CAM for them as future healthcare practitioners. Furthermore, the majority of the students also believed that ideas and methods of CAM would be beneficial for conventional medicine. From the findings of the study, it can be recommended that an approach should be taken to educate the students about the fundamentals of CAM use so that it may fulfill the professional needs of our future pharmacists.
Yorra, Mark L.
This doctoral thesis contributes to the literature on self-efficacy and self-esteem and the relationship to a student's school, age, gender, ethnicity, GPA, paid and introductory pharmacy practice experiences in a Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) program. Graduates with a high level of self-efficacy and self-esteem are more desirable as pharmacists upon graduation. A quantitative survey, which includes two standardized instruments, the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE) and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), was administered to students at five schools of pharmacy in the northeast United States, resulting in a total of 399 responses. The findings confirm the significance of paid experiences and increased levels of a student's self-efficacy in a pharmacy setting. The other finding was related to ethnicity where the Asian/Pacific Islander students showed lower self-efficacy than other ethnic groups, which may be due to a cultural difference in displaying traits of high self-efficacy. Self-esteem also showed a positive finding for students with paid experiences and students who were older. There was an ethnicity finding where Asian/Pacific Islanders scored lower on the self-esteem scale, while the African-Americans scored higher than all the other groups. The results show that students improve their levels of self-efficacy and self-esteem through extended practical experiences. Schools should provide structured experiences of a sufficient length, beyond the present 300 hours, to prepare students for their transition into a professional role. Educators should be aware of the difference in Asian/Pacific Islander culture and encourage students to demonstrate their self-efficacy and self-esteem so other professionals can recognize them for their attributes.
Chuang, Chih; Khatri, Siddique H; Gill, Manpal S; Trehan, Naveen; Masineni, Silpa; Chikkam, Vineela; Farah, Guillaume G; Khan, Amber; Levine, Diane L
International Service Learning Trips (ISLT) provide health professional students the opportunity to provide healthcare, under the direction of trained faculty, to underserved populations in developing countries. Despite recent increases in international service learning trips, there is scant literature addressing concerns students have prior to attending such trips. This study focuses on identifying concerns before and after attending an ISLT and their impact on students. A survey comprised of closed and open-ended questions was developed to elucidate student concerns prior to attending an ISLT and experiences which might influence concerns. A five-point Likert-scale (extremely concerned = 1, minimally concerned = 5) was used to rate apprehension and satisfaction. Paired t-test was used to compare pre- and post-trip concerns; Chi-Square test was used to compare groups. Thirty-five students (27 medical, 8 pharmacy) attended ISLTs in December 2013. All completed pre and post-trip surveys. Significant decreases were seen in concerns related to cultural barriers (4.14 vs 4.46, P = .047), disease/epidemics (3.34 vs 4.60, P Language and group dynamics remained concerns post-trip. On open-ended questions, students described benefits of attending an ISLT. Students had multiple concerns prior to attending an ISLT. Most decreased upon return. Addressing concerns has the potential to decrease student apprehension. The results of this study highlight the benefits of providing ISLTs and supporting development of a curriculum incorporating trip-related concerns.
Saima P Iqbal
Full Text Available Background: The respiratory module at Shifa College of Medicine (SCM is delivered in third year with emphasis on respiratory pathophysiology and respiratory medicine. Smoking as a topic was introduced to emphasize the preventive aspects of respiratory illnesses. An innovative approach to involve students in their learning was developed. To determine whether this innovation would be well received and effective for students′ learning about smoking, we carried out this study. Materials and Methods: This is a one group post-test quasi-experiment. Two days were assigned for a smoking seminar. The class of 106 students was divided into 10 batches, and each batch was assigned a theme related to smoking. These themes were developed by the faculty, and each theme was related to a different perspective on smoking. A post-test questionnaire was distributed at the end of the seminar for feedback to see what aspects of students′ learning were highlighted and what needed to be improved upon. Questions related to the usefulness of the activity were incorporated into the questionnaire and the students were asked to agree or disagree on a five-point Likert scale. Results: Most (68.3% students agreed that this activity improved their knowledge regarding smoking, and 54.8% agreed that it also helped in application of this knowledge. Improvement in presentation and counseling skills (59.8%, evidence-based medicine (47.6%, and softer skills, such as teamwork (72% and creativity (63.4%, were also reported to be enhanced. Conclusion: Seminars led by the students have shown to be effective in breaking the monotony and generating an interest of the topic. Such an activity serves as a small step to make our graduates more empathic, humane, competent, and skilful.
O'Sullivan, Teresa A; Lau, Carmen; Patel, Mitul; Mac, Chi; Krueger, Janelle; Danielson, Jennifer; Weber, Stanley S
To identify specific preceptor teaching-coaching, role modeling, and facilitating behaviors valued by pharmacy students and to develop measures of those behaviors that can be used for an experiential education quality assurance program. Using a qualitative research approach, we conducted a thematic analysis of student comments about excellent preceptors to identify behaviors exhibited by those preceptors. Identified behaviors were sorted according to the preceptor's role as role model, teacher/coach, or learning facilitator; measurable descriptors for each behavior were then developed. Data analysis resulted in identification of 15 measurable behavior themes, the most frequent being: having an interest in student learning and success, making time for students, and displaying a positive preceptor attitude. Measureable descriptors were developed for 5 role-modelpan>ing behaviors, 6 teaching-coaching behaviors, and 4 facilitating behaviors. Preceptors may need to be evaluated in their separate roles as teacher-coach, role model, and learning facilitator. The developed measures in this report could be used in site quality evaluation.
Wong, Terri H; Ip, Eric J; Lopes, Ingrid; Rajagopalan, Vanishree
To implement the flipped teaching method in a 3-class pilot on cardiac arrhythmias and to assess the impact of the intervention on academic performance and student perceptions. An intervention group of 101 first-year pharmacy students, who took the class with the flipped teaching method, were supplied with prerecorded lectures prior to their 3 classes (1 class in each of the following subjects: basic sciences, pharmacology, and therapeutics) on cardiac arrhythmias. Class time was focused on active-learning and case-based exercises. Students then took a final examination that included questions on cardiac arrhythmias. The examination scores of the intervention group were compared to scores of the Spring 2011 control group of 105 first-year students who took the class with traditional teaching methods. An online survey was conducted to assess student feedback from the intervention group. The mean examination scores of the intervention group were significantly higher than the mean examination scores of the control group for the cardiac arrhythmia classes in pharmacology (with 89.6 ± 2.0% vs 56.8 ± 2.2%, respectively) and therapeutics (89.2 ± 1.4% vs 73.7 ± 2.1%, respectively). The survey indicated higher student satisfaction for flipped classes with highly rated learning objectives, recordings, and in-class activities. Use of the flipped teaching method in a 3-class pilot on cardiac arrhythmias improved examination scores for 2 of the 3 classes (pharmacology and therapeutics). Student satisfaction was influenced by the quality of the learning objectives, prerecorded lectures, and inclass active-learning activities.
Hanson, Mark J.
A three-day ethics seminar introduced ethics to undergraduate environmental chemistry students in the Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) program. The seminar helped students become sensitive to and understand the ethical and values dimensions of their work as researchers. It utilized a variety of resources to supplement lectures and…
Bonnema, Gerrit Maarten; Lutters-Weustink, Ilanit F.; van Houten, Frederikus J.A.M.; Selvaraj, H.; Muthukumar, V.
The article presents an innovative educational project to introduce systems engineering to third year students in industrial design engineering at the University of Twente. In a short period the students are confronted with new technology, namely sensors and actuators. They have to apply this
Abughosh, Susan; Wang, Xin; Serna, Omar; Esse, Tara; Mann, Amanda; Masilamani, Santhi; Holstad, Marcia McDonnell; Essien, Ekere James; Fleming, Marc
Diabetes mellitus (DM) patients with comorbid hypertension (HTN) are at a higher risk of developing microvascular and macrovascular DM complications. Through guideline-driven recommendations, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are highly recommended for these patients. Unfortunately, medication adherence to these products, though crucial to achieving therapeutic benefit, is frequently suboptimal. Motivational interviewing (MI) is a patient-centered collaborative communication style that is used to strengthen internal motivation for change that may prove effective in enhancing adherence. To examine the effect of an MI telephone intervention conducted by pharmacy students in improving adherence to ACEIs/ARBs among Medicare Advantage Plan (MAP) patients with both DM and HTN. A prospective study was conducted among patients enrolled in a Texas MAP. Medical claims data were used to identify patients with DM and HTN, and pharmacy claims were observed to recognize those who filled either an ACEI or an ARB during June 2014. Patients with a 6-month proportion of days covered (PDC) sustainability of the intervention effect for longer time periods and its influence on associated clinical outcomes. This project was supported by the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America Foundation (PhRMA). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of PhRMA. The funding agency was not involved in research design, analysis, or reporting results. Funding was obtained by Abughosh. Holstad provided a consultation regarding the MI guide and provided the MI training. Study concept and design were contributed by Abughosh and Fleming, along with Serna, Esse, and Holstad. Serna, Esse, Mann, Holstad, and Masilamani collected the data, and data interpretation was performed by Abughosh, Wong, and Esse. The manuscript was written by Abughosh, Wong, and Esse and revised
Bedouch, Pierrick; Nguyen, Thi-Hoai; Nguyen, Thi-Lien-Huong; Hoang, Thi-Kim-Huyen; Calop, Jean; Allenet, Benoît
Pharmacy education programs in Vietnam are complex and offer various career pathways. All include theory and laboratory modules in general, foundation, and pharmaceutical knowledge; placements in health facilities; and a final examination. The various pharmacy degree programs allow specialization in 1 or more of 5 main fields: (1) drug management and supply, (2) drug development and production, (3) pharmacology and clinical pharmacy, (4) traditional medicine and pharmacognosy, and (5) drug quality control, which are offered as main specialization options during the reformed undergraduate and postgraduate programs. However, pharmacy education in Vietnam in general remains product oriented and clinical pharmacy training has not received adequate attention. Only students who have obtained the bachelor of pharmacy degree, which requires a minimum of 5 years of study, are considered as fully qualified pharmacists. In contrast, an elementary diploma in pharmacy awarded after 1 year of pharmacy study permits entry into more junior pharmacy positions. Since the 2000s, there has been a surge in the number and types of schools offering pharmacy qualifications at various levels. PMID:23966717
Aljinović-Vucić, Vedrana; Trkulja, Vladimir; Lacković, Zdravko
To evaluate the content of household drug supplies and self-medication practice among medical and pharmacy students at Zagreb University in 2001, and to relate the findings to a previous survey in 1977. A cross-sectional anonymous questionnaire-based survey included 287 students who inventoried drug supplies in their family households and interviewed the household members on drug keeping and self-medication practice. An identical methodology was used in 1977 (n=225). In 2001, healthcare professionals were present in 37% of the surveyed households (33% in 1977). At least one drug was found in every household. Drugs were kept at a designated place ("home pharmacy") in 68% of the households (65% in 1977). Drugs past expiry dates and/or with purpose unknown to the household members were reported in 27% of the households (32% in 1977). The most frequently found drugs were non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) that were present in 97% of the households (93% in 1977), and were followed by antibiotics found in 46% of the households (40% in 1977). Self-medication of NSAIDs was practiced in 88% of the households in which they were found (95% in 1977), whereas self-medication of antibiotics was practiced in 37% of the households in which they were found (41% in 1977). Accumulation of drugs was common in the surveyed households. Self-medication of over-the-counter drugs was a routine practice, and self-medication of prescription drugs was practiced in many households. No major difference in this respect was found between the 2001 and 1977 surveys.
Neville, Michael W; Palmer, Russ; Elder, Deborah; Fulford, Michael; Morris, Steve; Sappington, Kellie
To evaluate how flexible learning via online video review affects the ability and confidence of first-year (P1) pharmacy students to accurately compound aseptic preparations. Customary instructions and assignments for aseptic compounding were provided to students, who were given unlimited access to 5 short review videos in addition to customary instruction. Student self-confidence was assessed online, and faculty members evaluated students' aseptic technique at the conclusion of the semester. No significant difference on final assessment scores was observed between those who viewed videos and those who did not. Student self-confidence scores increased significantly from baseline, but were not significantly higher for those who viewed videos than for those who did not. First-year students performed well on final aseptic compounding assessments, and those who viewed videos had a slight advantage. Student self-confidence improved over the semester regardless of whether or not students accessed review videos.
Yamamura, Shigeo; Takehira, Rieko
To establish a model of Japanese pharmacy students' learning motivation profile and investigate the effects of pharmaceutical practical training programs on their learning motivation. The Science Motivation Questionnaire II was administered to pharmacy students in their 4th (before practical training), 5th (before practical training at clinical sites), and 6th (after all practical training) years of study at Josai International University in April, 2016. Factor analysis and multiple-group structural equation modeling were conducted for data analysis. A total of 165 students participated. The learning motivation profile was modeled with 4 factors (intrinsic, career, self-determination, and grade motivation), and the most effective learning motivation was grade motivation. In the multiple-group analysis, the fit of the model with the data was acceptable, and the estimated mean value of the factor of 'self-determination' in the learning motivation profile increased after the practical training programs (P= 0.048, Cohen's d = 0.43). Practical training programs in a 6-year course were effective for increasing learning motivation, based on 'self-determination' among Japanese pharmacy students. The results suggest that practical training programs are meaningful not only for providing clinical experience but also for raising learning motivation.
Etzler, Frank M; Madden, Michael
To investigate the correlation of scores on the Test of Logical Thinking (TOLT) with first-year pharmacy students' performance in selected courses. The TOLT was administered to 130 first-year pharmacy students. The examination was administered during the first quarter in a single session. The TOLT scores correlated with grades earned in Pharmaceutical Calculations, Physical Pharmacy, and Basic Pharmacokinetics courses. Performance on the TOLT has been correlated to performance in courses that required the ability to use quantitative reasoning to complete required tasks. In the future, it may be possible to recommend remediation, retention, and/or admission based in part on the results from the TOLT.
Linzi J. Kemp
Full Text Available The cultural dimension of Uncertainty Avoidance is analysed in this study of an introduction to blended learning for international students. Content analysis was conducted on the survey narratives collected from three cohorts of management undergraduates in the United Arab Emirates. Interpretation of certainty with blended learning was found in: student skills with technology; student acknowledgement of course organisation; and student appreciation of online feedback. Uncertainty with the introduction of blended learning was found: when membership was assigned for group work, higher quality research methods were introduced; where course structure lacked detail, increased time was required for new and different online activities. These international students, from countries with a high score on Uncertainty Avoidance, exhibited that dimension when introduced to blended learning. The implications of these findings are discussed, and strategies suggested for introducing blended learning to international students. The limitations of the study are considered, and a direction for future research is suggested. This is the first study on undergraduates in the Middle East for the effects of a cultural dimension when introducing blended learning. The findings increase the body of knowledge that relates to learning technology in the international business classroom.
White-Means, Shelley; Zhiyong Dong; Hufstader, Meghan; Brown, Lawrence T
The Institute of Medicine report, Unequal Treatment, asserts that conscious and unconscious bias of providers may affect treatments delivered and contribute to health disparities. The primary study objective is to measure, compare, and contrast objective and subjective cognitive processes among pharmacy, nursing, and medical students to discern potential implications for health disparities. Data were collected using a cultural competency questionnaire and two implicit association tests (IATs). Race and skin tone IATs measure unconscious bias. Cultural competency scores were significantly higher for non-Hispanic Blacks and Hispanics in medicine and pharmacy compared with non-Hispanic Whites. Multiracial nursing students also had significantly higher cultural competency scores than non-Hispanic Whites. The IAT results indicate that these health care preprofessionals exhibit implicit race and skin tone biases: preferences for Whites versus Blacks and light skin versus dark skin. Cultural competency curricula and disparities research will be advanced by understanding the factors contributing to cultural competence and bias.
Purpose It aimed at testing the validity and reliability of a validated team-based learning student assessment instrument (TBL-SAI) to assess United Kingdom pharmacy students’ attitude toward TBL. Methods TBL-SAI, consisting of 33 items, was administered to undergraduate pharmacy students from two schools of pharmacy each at University of Wolverhampton and University of Bradford were conducted on the data, along with comparison between the two schools. Results Students’ response rate was 80.0% (138/173) in completion of the instrument. Overall, the instrument demonstrated validity and reliability when used with pharmacy students. Sub-analysis between schools of pharmacy did, however, show that four items from Wolverhampton data, had factor loadings of less than 0.40. No item in the Bradford data had factor loadings less than 0.40. Cronbach’s alpha score was reliable at 0.897 for the total instrument: Wolverhampton, 0.793 and Bradford, 0.902. Students showed preference to TBL, with Bradford’s scores being statistically higher (P<0.005). Conclusion This validated instrument has demonstrated reliability and validity when used with pharmacy students. Furthermore students at both schools preferred TBL compared to traditional teaching. PMID:27568493
Ezeala, Christian Chinyere; Siyanga, Nalucha
It aimed to compare the study skills of two groups of undergraduate pharmacy students in the School of Medicine, University of Zambia using the Study Skills Assessment Questionnaire (SSAQ), with the goal of analysing students’ study skills and identifying factors that affect study skills. A questionnaire was distributed to 67 participants from both programs using stratified random sampling. Completed questionnaires were rated according to participants study skill. The total scores and scores ...
Full Text Available A medication safety survey was created during our first year pharmacy rotations in order to assess and gain insight to how safe patients are with their medications at home. The patient population was from the nursing units and emergency department of Moses Cone Hospital in Greensboro, NC. The survey questions covered the topics including how the patients take their medications, medication storage, medication disposal, as well as medication adherence. Type: Student Project
Full Text Available Purpose To establish a model of Japanese pharmacy students’ learning motivation profile and investigate the effects of pharmaceutical practical training programs on their learning motivation. Methods The Science Motivation Questionnaire II was administered to pharmacy students in their 4th (before practical training, 5th (before practical training at clinical sites, and 6th (after all practical training years of study at Josai International University in April, 2016. Factor analysis and multiple-group structural equation modeling were conducted for data analysis. Results A total of 165 students participated. The learning motivation profile was modeled with 4 factors (intrinsic, career, self-determination, and grade motivation, and the most effective learning motivation was grade motivation. In the multiple-group analysis, the fit of the model with the data was acceptable, and the estimated mean value of the factor of ‘self-determination’ in the learning motivation profile increased after the practical training programs (P= 0.048, Cohen’s d= 0.43. Conclusion Practical training programs in a 6-year course were effective for increasing learning motivation, based on ‘self-determination’ among Japanese pharmacy students. The results suggest that practical training programs are meaningful not only for providing clinical experience but also for raising learning motivation.
Full Text Available Excessive sedentary behavior has been associated with many negative health outcomes. While an understudied health topic, there is evidence that university students are excessively sedentary. Sit-stand desks have been shown to reduce sedentary time among pre-university students (ages 5–18years and sedentary workers but have not been tested in university classrooms. This study tested the effects of introducing sit-stand desks into a university classroom on student's classroom sitting and standing behaviors. Using a cross-over design, students received access to both traditional seated desks and sit-stand desks for six weeks. Data were collected between September and December, 2016. We recruited 304 healthy undergraduate university students enrolled in one of two small (25 seats classrooms at a large Midwestern university during the fall of 2016. Average minutes of standing/hour/student, average percent class time spent standing, and the number of sit-stand transitions/student/hour were directly observed with video camera surveillance. Participants stood significantly more (p<0.001 when provided access to sit-stand desks (7.2min/h/student; 9.3% of class time spent standing compared to when they had access to seated desks (0.7min/h/student; 1.6% of class time spent standing but no differences were observed for the number of sit-stand transitions (p=0.47. Students reported high favorability for the sit-stand desks and improvements in several student engagement and affective outcomes while using the sit-stand desks. These findings support introducing sit-stand desks in university classrooms as an approach to reduce sedentary behaviors of university students. Keywords: Sedentary, University students, Sit-stand desk
Czabak-Garbacz, Róza; Skibniewska, Agnieszka; Mazurkiewicz, Piotr; Gdula, Agnieszka
The aim of the study was the assessment of leisure time among third-year students from the Faculty of Pharmacy of the Medical University of Lublin. It analysed quantity of time devoted to school activity and ways of spending free time. The study involved 114 students (82 women and 32 men). The study revealed that women had less free time than men, who, most probably did not attend some lectures. The most popular activities among the questioned students were: sleeping (average 6.8 hours a day), studying (average 3.6 hours a day), listening to the radio (average 2.9 hours a day), talking with friends (average 1.9 hours a day), personal hygiene (average 1.1 hours a day), watching TV (average 1.1 hours a day), housework. Students devoted the least of their free time on active rest, for example walking (women did it more often than men) or practising sport (more popular among men). Cultural life of the students consisted only of meetings with friends and going to the cinema (women did it more often). The least popular way of spending free time was going to the theatre, opera, concerts and exhibitions. Few students spent their time working. Their number increased significantly during holidays. The way of spending free time by third-year students from the Faculty of Pharmacy (both men and women) during the day was similar, differences related only to the amount of time devoted to each activity.
Wang, Jun; Hu, Xiamin; Liu, Juan; Li, Lei
The aim of this study was to evaluate the attitudes towards physician-pharmacist collaboration among pharmacy students in order to develop an interprofessional education (IPE) opportunity through integrating cooperative learning (CL) into a team-based student-supported community service event. The study also aimed to assess the change in students' attitudes towards interprofessional collaboration after participation in the event. A bilingual version of the Scale of Attitudes Toward Physician-Pharmacist Collaboration (SATP(2)C) in English and Chinese was completed by pharmacy students enrolled in Wuhan University of Science and Technology, China. Sixty-four students (32 pharmacy students and 32 medical students) in the third year of their degree volunteered to participate in the IPE opportunity for community-based diabetes and hypertension self-management education. We found the mean score of SATP(2)C among 235 Chinese pharmacy students was 51.44. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.90. Our key finding was a significant increase in positive attitudes towards interprofessional collaboration after participation in the IPE activity. These data suggest that there is an opportunity to deliver IPE in Chinese pharmacy education. It appears that the integration of CL into an interprofessional team-based community service offers a useful approach for IPE.
McClain, Stephen S.
Popular music can be used to study many subjects and issues related to the social sciences. "Geographies of American Popular Music" was a workshop that not only examined the history and development of select genres of American music, it also introduced students to basic geographic concepts such as the culture hearth and spatial diffusion. Through…
Testa, I.; Lombardi, S.; Monroy, G.; Sassi, E.
A context-based module to introduce secondary school students to the study of the optical properties of materials and geometric optics is presented. The module implements an innovative teaching approach in which the behaviour of the chosen application, in this article, the optical fibre, is iteratively explored and modelled by means of a…
Alrakaf, Saleh; Anderson, Claire; Coulman, Sion A; John, Dai N; Tordoff, June; Sainsbury, Erica; Rose, Grenville; Smith, Lorraine
To identify pharmacy students' preferred achievement goals in a multi-national undergraduate population, to investigate achievement goal preferences across comparable degree programs, and to identify relationships between achievement goals, academic performance, and assessment type. The Achievement Goal Questionnaire was administered to second year students in 4 universities in Australia, New Zealand, England, and Wales. Academic performance was measured using total scores, multiple-choice questions, and written answers (short essay). Four hundred eighty-six second year students participated. Students showed an overall preference for the mastery-approach goal orientation across all sites. The predicted relationships between goal orientation and multiple-choice questions, and written answers scores, were significant. This study is the first of its kind to examine pharmacy students' achievement goals at a multi-national level and to differentiate between assessment type and measures of achievement motivation. Students adopting a mastery-approach goal are more likely to gain high scores in assessments that measure understanding and depth of knowledge.
Murphy, Bethany L; Dipietro, Natalie A; Kier, Karen L
As pharmacists and pharmacy students are increasingly called upon to assume roles in public health activities, it is important to recognize unique opportunities to educate community members on health, wellness, and disease prevention. To evaluate the impact of a pilot health promotion program on college women's knowledge regarding folic acid and prevention of neural tube defects (NTD) and frequency of multivitamin use. A health promotion program was developed by a pharmacy student and two pharmacy faculty members that included an oral presentation and reminder messages. A multiple-choice test assessing knowledge of folic acid and NTD and frequency of multivitamin use was given to participants before and immediately after the presentation. Participants then received a reminder message regarding folic acid once a week for three weeks. Knowledge and multivitamin use were reassessed four weeks post-intervention. Thirty-two college women voluntarily attended the oral presentation. Twenty-five women (78.2%) completed the four-week post-test. Compared to the pre-test, there were statistically significant increases in average test score (pfolic acid and NTD (pknowledge about folic acid and frequency of multivitamin use. A similarly-modeled health promotion program may be an effective way of increasing folic acid and NTD knowledge and changing behaviors of multivitamin use in college women.
Keijsers, Carolina J P W; Brouwers, Jacobus R B J; de Wildt, Dick J; Custers, Eugene J F M; Ten Cate, Olle Th J; Hazen, Ankie C M; Jansen, Paul A F
AIM: Pharmacotherapy might be improved if future pharmacists and physicians receive a joint educational programme in pharmacology and pharmacotherapeutics. This study investigated whether there are differences in the pharmacology and pharmacotherapy knowledge and skills of pharmacy and medical
Chisholm-Burns, Marie A.; Spivey, Christina A.; Jaeger, Melanie C.; Williams, Jennifer; George, Christa
Objectives. To develop and validate a scale measuring pharmacy students��� attitudes toward social media professionalism, and assess the impact of an educational presentation on social media professionalism.
Bamgbade, Benita A; Barner, Jamie C; Ford, Kentya H
Third-year pharmacy students (n = 88) participated in an anti-stigma intervention program consisting of presentations, videos, discussion and active-learning exercises. Willingness to counsel (WTC) people with mental illness (MI) was evaluated using immediate pre and post-tests comparing diabetes, depression and schizophrenia. At pre-test, WTC diabetes was highest (higher = increased WTC) while schizophrenia was the lowest. There were no statistically significant differences between pre/post-test WTC for diabetes and depression, while schizophrenia WTC increased significantly (p WTC was significantly higher than depression and schizophrenia (p WTC depression showed that comfortability and gender were significant (p WTC schizophrenia showed that comfortability was a significant (p WTC. Colleges of pharmacy may consider instituting policies that support experiential education involving counseling people living with MI, as this may increase comfortability.
Chuzaimah Dahlan Diem
Full Text Available To see the relationship between the age at which EFL is introduced in some Indonesian public schools and student outcomes a survey involving 229 students both from elementary and junior high schools in Palembang is conducted. These students are given the test comprising vocabulary, reading comprehension, and grammar. It is hypothesized that those who start learning English earlier have better achievement. Factors such as school and home environments are also considered in the analysis. Stepwise regression analysis is applied to identify which variable contributes to students outcomes. The results show that there is no correlation between age alone and the students EFL achievement. However, significant influence is found when teacher education level and teacher ELT experience are added to the prediction model predicting EFL achievement from age.
Fernández-Alemán, José Luis; López-González, Laura; González-Sequeros, Ofelia; Jayne, Chrisina; López-Jiménez, Juan José; Carrillo-de-Gea, Juan Manuel; Toval, Ambrosio
This paper presents an empirical study of a formative neural network-based assessment approach by using mobile technology to provide pharmacy students with intelligent diagnostic feedback. An unsupervised learning algorithm was integrated with an audience response system called SIDRA in order to generate states that collect some commonality in responses to questions and add diagnostic feedback for guided learning. A total of 89 pharmacy students enrolled on a Human Anatomy course were taught using two different teaching methods. Forty-four students employed intelligent SIDRA (i-SIDRA), whereas 45 students received the same training but without using i-SIDRA. A statistically significant difference was found between the experimental group (i-SIDRA) and the control group (traditional learning methodology), with T (87) = 6.598, p SIDRA and the methodology used during the process of learning anatomy (M = 4.59). The new empirical contribution presented in this paper allows instructors to perform post hoc analyses of each particular student's progress to ensure appropriate training.
Fuentes, David; Deguire, Nancy; Patel, Rajul; Boyce, Eric
To implement and assess a first-year pharmacy student group research project that provided practical hands-on application and reinforced the curricula of concurrent didactic courses. Groups of 6 to 7 students chose a public health topic based on the Healthy People 2010 Priority Areas and created a survey instrument. Faculty facilitated mock institutional review board (IRB) review sessions which provided teams with ongoing feedback and refinement recommendations before each team administered their survey instrument to a predefined population. Data analysis, formal written reports, and oral presentations were presented to peers and project faculty members. Teams complied with the requirements of the mock IRB, effectively applied basic research principles learned in class, collected survey data, performed inferential statistical analyses on the data, , and presented their project findings. Two-hundred six of 210 students (98%) reported feeling satisfied with both the results of their project and the accomplishments of their team. Teams applied a varied skill set including primary literature evaluation, basic research principles, statistics, public speaking, and peer collaboration in conducting a public health research project. First-year pharmacy students may benefit from participation in a collaborative research project that provides hands-on application of material being taught in didactic courses.
Cates, Marshall E.; Hogue, Michael D.
Substance use and abuse among pharmacy students is a concern of pharmacy schools, boards of pharmacy, and training sites alike. Pharmacy students must complete approximately 30% of their academic coursework in experiential settings such as community pharmacies, hospitals, and other health systems as part of any accredited pharmacy school's…
Néstor V. Torres Darias
Full Text Available Systems Biology, one of the current approaches to the understanding of living things, aims to understand the behaviour of living systems through the creation of mathematical models that integrate the available knowledge of the system’s component parts and the relations among them. Accordingly, model building should play a central part in any biology degree program. One difficulty that we face when confronted with this task, however, is that the mathematical background of undergraduate students is very often deficient in essential concepts required for dynamic mathematical modelling. In this practical module, students are introduced to the basic techniques of mathematical modelling and computer simulation from a Systems Biology perspective.
Fassouliotis, Dimitris; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Vourakis, Stylianos
Several EU outreach projects have been running for a few years now and have created a large number of inquiry based educational resources for highschool teachers and students. Their goal is the promotion of science education in schools though new methods built on the inquiry based education techniques, involving large consortia of European partners and implementation of largescale pilots in a very large number of European schools. Until recently there has been a shortage of educational scenaria addressed to university students to be implemented in the framework of the laboratory courses. Two such scenaria were introduced recently at the National and Kapodistrian University undergraduate labs and are described below.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Cervical cancer in women can be effectively prevented by HPV vaccine. Healthcare professionals including pharmacists have a role in creating awareness about this vaccine to public. In this context, it was decided to study awareness level about HPV among pharmacy students. The aim of the study is to study the knowledge and attitude towards human papilloma virus and it’s vaccine among pharmacy students of tertiary teaching university hospital in South India. MATERIALS AND METHODS Cross sectional, questionnaire-based study among pharmacy students. RESULTS 229 pharmacy students participated in the study. The mean total knowledge score among participants was 2.69 (SD=2.260 out of the possible maximum of 11 and the mean total attitude score was 2.67 (SD=2.437 out of the possible maximum of 10. Lack of knowledge about vaccine was the main reason for not taking the vaccine. Knowledge about the vaccines improves the attitude towards it (p<0.0001. CONCLUSION There is a need to design education program for pharmacy students to increase awareness about HPV, which in turn will increase the awareness among public positively.
Chuzaimah Dahlan Diem
Full Text Available This study tries to see the relationship between the age at which EFL is introduced in public schools and educational processes and outcomes. A survey involving 229 students from elementary and junior high schools in Palembang is conducted. The population consists of those who have never taken extra non-formal English courses. These students are given the same English tests comprising mostly vocabulary and reading comprehension followed by a small portion of grammar. It is hypothesized that those who start learning English earlier have better achievement. Curriculum, intensity of instruction, teacher education level, years of ELT experience are considered in the analysis, in addition to class size, students' SES and gender. Stepwise regression analysis is applied to identify which variable contributes to students' outcomes. The results show there is no correlation between age alone and the students' EFL achievement. However, negative significant correlation is found between the students' achievement and teacher education level and also between the students' achievement and SES. Finally, some implications of research for theory, policy, and practice are suggested.
Ried, L Douglas; Motycka, Carol; Mobley, Cary; Meldrum, Michael
To compare burnout among students: (1) assigned to the founding campus and those assigned to distance campuses and (2) in different academic years of the curriculum. The third objective was to determine the relative ability of each factor to predict burnout among pharmacy students. Students in Gainesville (founding campus) and the Jacksonville, Orlando, and St. Petersburg distance campuses were surveyed using the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Internet-based survey methods were used to evaluate the emotional exhaustion, personal accomplishment, and depersonalization domains. Students responded using a Likert-type scale (1 = do not feel this way to 7 = feel this extremely strongly). Among 18 items, 8 significant differences were revealed. Within the emotional exhaustion domain, Gainesville students responded that they were more likely to "feel fatigued in the morning" (p distance students. Gainesville students had the highest average score on the item "I feel as though I treat my student colleagues impersonally" (p = 0.02). Academic year was the best predictor of burnout. Campus assignment was significant for emotional exhaustion, with the highest levels occurring on the founding campus. With few exceptions, students at the founding campus in Gainesville reported more emotional burnout than students attending classes at the distance campuses.
Nuffer, Wesley; Duke, Jodi
To compare the effectiveness of an internet-based training series with a traditional live classroom session in preparing pharmacy students to oversee a diabetes management program in community settings. Two cohorts of students were identified that prepared by utilizing a recorded online training exclusively, and two separate cohorts of students…
Traynor, Andrew P.; Boyle, Cynthia J.
Objective. To assist curriculum committees and leadership instructors by gathering expert opinion to define student leadership development competencies for pharmacy curricula. Methods. Twenty-six leadership instructors participated in a 3-round, online, modified Delphi process to define competencies for student leadership development in pharmacy curricula. Round 1 asked open-ended questions about leadership knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Round 2 grouped responses for agreement rating and comment. Round 3 allowed rating and comment on competencies not yet meeting consensus, which was prospectively set at 80%. Results. Eleven competencies attained 80% consensus or higher and were grouped into 3 areas: leadership knowledge, personal leadership commitment, and leadership skill development. Connections to contemporary leadership development literature were outlined for each competency as a means of verifying the panel’s work. Conclusions. The leadership competencies will aid students in addressing: What is leadership? Who am I as a leader? What skills and abilities do I need to be effective? The competencies will help curriculum committees and leadership instructors to focus leadership development opportunities, identify learning assessments, and define program evaluation. PMID:24371346
Janke, Kristin K; Traynor, Andrew P; Boyle, Cynthia J
To assist curriculum committees and leadership instructors by gathering expert opinion to define student leadership development competencies for pharmacy curricula. Twenty-six leadership instructors participated in a 3-round, online, modified Delphi process to define competencies for student leadership development in pharmacy curricula. Round 1 asked open-ended questions about leadership knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Round 2 grouped responses for agreement rating and comment. Round 3 allowed rating and comment on competencies not yet meeting consensus, which was prospectively set at 80%. Eleven competencies attained 80% consensus or higher and were grouped into 3 areas: leadership knowledge, personal leadership commitment, and leadership skill development. Connections to contemporary leadership development literature were outlined for each competency as a means of verifying the panel's work. The leadership competencies will aid students in addressing: What is leadership? Who am I as a leader? What skills and abilities do I need to be effective? The competencies will help curriculum committees and leadership instructors to focus leadership development opportunities, identify learning assessments, and define program evaluation.
Development of an instrument to assess the impact of an enhanced experiential model on pharmacy students' learning opportunities, skills and attitudes: A retrospective comparative-experimentalist study
Collins John B
Full Text Available Abstract Background Pharmacy schools across North America have been charged to ensure their students are adequately skilled in the principles and practices of pharmaceutical care. Despite this mandate, a large percentage of students experience insufficient opportunities to practice the activities, tasks and processes essential to pharmaceutical care. The objective of this retrospective study of pharmacy students was to: (1 as "proof of concept", test the overall educational impact of an enhanced advanced pharmacy practice experiential (APPE model on student competencies; (2 develop an instrument to measure students' and preceptors' experiences; and (3 assess the psychometric properties of the instrument. Methods A comparative-experimental design, using student and preceptor surveys, was used to evaluate the impact of the enhanced community-based APPE over the traditional APPE model. The study was grounded in a 5-stage learning model: (1 an enhanced learning climate leads to (2 better utilization of learning opportunities, including (3 more frequent student/patient consultation, then to (4 improved skills acquisition, thence to (5 more favorable attitudes toward pharmaceutical care practice. The intervention included a one-day preceptor workshop, a comprehensive on-site student orientation and extending the experience from two four-week experiences in different pharmacies to one eight-week in one pharmacy. Results The 35 student and 38 preceptor survey results favored the enhanced model; with students conducting many more patient consultations and reporting greater skills improvement. In addition, the student self-assessment suggested changes in attitudes favoring pharmaceutical care principles. Psychometric testing showed the instrument to be sensitive, valid and reliable in ascertaining differences between the enhanced and traditional arms. Conclusion The enhanced experiential model positively affects learning opportunities and competency
Flipped classroom is basically a reversed way of learning in classroom. Lecture is brought outside classroom and available online in many forms such as video lecture and e-books. In-class time is focused more on discussions and practices such as exercises and projects. Flipped classroom was introduced to Mechanical Engineering students in Mechanics of Materials course in 2016 academic year at Mahasarakham University, Thailand. The course was still taught in traditional way and series of video lecture were used as additional class materials outside classroom. There were 2 groups of students that enrolled in the course in 2 different semesters. Students in 1st semester were taught in traditional way (control group) and students in 2nd semester were used flipped classroom (experiment group). Students' grades between 2 groups were compared and analyzed. Satisfaction survey of using flipped classroom was carried out and evaluated. There were 3 aspects of evaluation which were content, varieties of activity, and functions. Results showed that the course's GPA of experiment group was 1.92 which was greater than the control group of 1.68. The greatly reduction of failed students in experiment group was noticeable. The percentages of failed students of control and experiment groups were 17% and 6%. Satisfaction survey evaluation results showed that the students satisfied in high level in every aspect. The comments pointed out that flipped classroom were easy to use and promoted self-study outside classroom. Those qualities would help students develop more skills in lifelong learning and learning to learn.
The aim of the paper is to explain how poetry reading can be used to teach interpretive analysis of qualitative data. A number of studies were located in the nursing literature that focused on using poetry to help students develop empathy for patients, to teach students to reflect on their own practice, and to assist them in developing self-understanding. No studies were found that described the use of poetry reading as a way of teaching the skill of interpretive analysis. There are, however, a number of parallels between the principles of poetry reading and qualitative analysis that suggest that this method of teaching would be successful. International papers published on PubMed, Medline, and CINAHL were reviewed to identify challenges facing educators and ways of teaching the process of qualitative data analysis using poetry reading. Using poetry reading to teach skills of qualitative data analysis helps motivate students, cultivates a reflective mindset, and develops the skill of working as a member of an interpretive group. Framing interpretive work as being like reading poetry helps students pick up more quickly on the art that is a major component of the work. This approach also helps students learn the importance of cultural and contextual particulars as they begin analyzing qualitative data. Using poetry reading to introduce students to the complex skill of qualitative data analysis is an effective pedagogical strategy.
Kostka-Rokosz, Maria D; Dvorkin-Camiel, Lana; Asabigi, Amina-Louise
Consumer use of natural products is a mainstay in our society and continues to grow in prevalence. As pharmacists are viewed as drug experts and are easily accessible to patients, it is important for them to have basic knowledge of natural products. Students and faculty members participating in a natural product elective were surveyed upon completion of the course about their perspectives regarding incorporation of covered information into the required curriculum. The majority of students and faculty members agree with the necessity of natural product content in the pharmacy curriculum. Their ideas for ways of incorporating this information, however, differ. Healthcare students and faculty are beginning to recognize the need for incorporation of Natural Product information into the curriculum and healthcare programs in the country should begin to rise to the occasion.
Lucas, Kristy H; Testman, Julie A; Hoyland, Marcella N; Kimble, Angel M; Euler, Mary L
To implement an active-learning approach in a pharmacotherapy course sequence in the second year (P2) and third (P3) year of a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program and determine whether the pedagogical changes correlated with retention of core content in the fourth year (P4). Class sessions were transitioned from slides-based lectures to discussion-based active-learning pedagogy. A comprehensive examination was created and administered to assess student retention of therapeutic topics taught. Students demonstrated significantly improved overall scores on questions derived from the active-learning pedagogy used in Pharmacotherapy II and III compared to those derived from Pharmacotherapy I in which content was delivered by lecture. The use of active-learning strategies over lecture-based methods in pharmacotherapy courses resulted in higher retention of core content. Students' performance in areas taught using the discussion-based methodology was superior to that which was taught using lecture-based slide presentations.
Yusuff, Kazeem B
The patient-centered focus of clinical pharmacy practice which demands nuanced application of specialized knowledge and skills targeted to meeting patient-specific therapeutic needs warrant that the training strategy used for PharmD graduates must empower with the ability to use the higher level cognitive processes and critical thinking effectively in service delivery. However, the historical disposition to learning in the Middle East and among Saudi students appeared heavily focused on rote memorization and recall of memorized facts. To assess the impact of active pedagogic strategies such as self-reflection and peer assessment on pharmacy students' academic performance and metacognitive skills, and evaluate students' feedback on the impact of these active pedagogic strategies on their overall learning experience. An exploratory prospective cohort study was conducted among 4th year students at the College of Clinical Pharmacy, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia to assess the impact of self-reflection and peer-assessment in a semester-wide assessment tasks in two compulsory first semester 4th year courses (Therapeutics-3 and Pharmacoeconomics). An end-of-course evaluation survey with a pre-tested 5-item open-ended questionnaire was also conducted to evaluate students' feedback on the impact of active pedagogic strategies on their overall learning experience. Male students (study group) constituted 40.7% of the cohort while 59.3% were females (control group) with mean ± SD age of 23.2 ± 5.6 and 22.1 ± 4.9 years respectively. The mean ± SD scores for quizzes, mid-term and final exams, and the overall percentage pass were significantly higher in the study group for both courses (P pedagogic strategies enabled them to improve their use of critical thinking, facilitated deeper engagement with their learning and improved their clinical decision-making and discussion skills. The use of active pedagogic strategies such as self-reflection and peer
Douglas, Charles Allen
The scope of pharmacy practice and the training of future pharmacists have undergone a strategic shift over the last few decades. The pharmacy profession recognizes greater pharmacist involvement in patient care activities. Towards this strategic objective, pharmacy schools are training future pharmacists to meet these new clinical demands. Pharmacy students have clerkships called Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences (APPEs), and these clerkships account for 30% of the professional curriculum. APPEs provide the only opportunity for students to refine clinical skills under the guidance of an experienced pharmacist. Nationwide, schools of pharmacy need to evaluate whether students have successfully completed APPEs and are ready treat patients. Schools are left to their own devices to develop assessment programs that demonstrate to the public and regulatory agencies, students are clinically competent prior to graduation. There is no widely accepted method to evaluate whether these assessment programs actually discriminate between the competent and non-competent students. The central purpose of this study is to demonstrate a rigorous method to evaluate the validity and reliability of APPE assessment programs. The method introduced in this study is applicable to a wide variety of assessment programs. To illustrate this method, the study evaluated new performance criteria with a novel rating scale. The study had two main phases. In the first phase, a Delphi panel was created to bring together expert opinions. Pharmacy schools nominated exceptional preceptors to join a Delphi panel. Delphi is a method to achieve agreement of complex issues among experts. The principal researcher recruited preceptors representing a variety of practice settings and geographical regions. The Delphi panel evaluated and refined the new performance criteria. In the second phase, the study produced a novel set of video vignettes that portrayed student performances based on recommendations of
Full Text Available As pharmacists and pharmacy students are increasingly called upon to assume roles in public health activities, it is important to recognize unique opportunities to educate community members on health, wellness, and disease prevention. Objective: To evaluate the impact of a pilot health promotion program on college women’s knowledge regarding folic acid and prevention of neural tube defects (NTD and frequency of multivitamin use. Methods: A health promotion program was developed by a pharmacy student and two pharmacy faculty members that included an oral presentation and reminder messages. A multiple-choice test assessing knowledge of folic acid and NTD and frequency of multivitamin use was given to participants before and immediately after the presentation. Participants then received a reminder message regarding folic acid once a week for three weeks. Knowledge and multivitamin use were re-assessed four weeks post-intervention. Results: Thirty-two college women voluntarily attended the oral presentation. Twenty-five women (78.2% completed the four-week post-test. Compared to the pre-test, there were statistically significant increases in average test score (p<0.0001 and correct responses to questions regarding folic acid and NTD (p<0.05 for each question. Participants reported a statistically significant increase in regular (≥4 times/week multivitamin use (p=0.023. Conclusion: Participants in the pilot health promotion program demonstrated a statistically significant increase in knowledge about folic acid and frequency of multivitamin use. A similarly-modeled health promotion program may be an effective way of increasing folic acid and NTD knowledge and changing behaviors of multivitamin use in college women.
Christian Chinyere Ezeala
Full Text Available It aimed to compare the study skills of two groups of undergraduate pharmacy students in the School of Medicine, University of Zambia using the Study Skills Assessment Questionnaire (SSAQ, with the goal of analysing students’ study skills and identifying factors that affect study skills. A questionnaire was distributed to 67 participants from both programs using stratified random sampling. Completed questionnaires were rated according to participants study skill. The total scores and scores within subscales were analysed and compared quantitatively. Questionnaires were distributed to 37 students in the regular program, and to 30 students in the parallel program. The response rate was 100%. Students had moderate to good study skills: 22 respondents (32.8% showed good study skills, while 45 respondents (67.2% were found to have moderate study skills. Students in the parallel program demonstrated significantly better study skills (mean SSAQ score, 185.4±14.5, particularly in time management and writing, than the students in the regular program (mean SSAQ score 175±25.4; P<0.05. No significant differences were found according to age, gender, residential or marital status, or level of study. The students in the parallel program had better time management and writing skills, probably due to their prior work experience. The more intensive training to students in regular program is needed in improving time management and writing skills.
Henning, Marcus A; Ram, Sanya; Malpas, Phillipa; Sisley, Richard; Thompson, Andrea; Hawken, Susan J
This paper presents students' views about honest and dishonest actions within the pharmacy and medical learning environments. Students also offered their views on solutions to ameliorating dishonest action. Three research questions were posed in this paper: (1) what reasons would students articulate in reference to engaging in dishonest behaviours? (2) What reasons would students articulate in reference to maintaining high levels of integrity? (3) What strategies would students suggest to decrease engagement in dishonest behaviours and/or promote honest behaviours? The design of the study incorporated an initial descriptive analysis to interpret students' responses to an 18-item questionnaire about justifications for dishonest action. This was followed by a qualitative analysis of students' commentaries in reference to why students would engage in either honest or dishonest action. Finally a qualitative analysis was conducted on students' views regarding solutions to dishonest action. The quantitative results showed that students were more likely to use time management and seriousness justifications for dishonest actions. The qualitative findings found that students' actions (honest or dishonest) were guided by family and friends, the need to do well, issues of morality and institutional guidelines. Students suggested that dishonest action could be ameliorated by external agencies and polarised views between punitive and rewards-based mechanisms were offered. These results suggest that these students engaged in dishonest action for various reasons and solutions addressing dishonest action need to consider diverse mechanisms that likely extend beyond the educational institution. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
McCloughen, Andrea; Foster, Kim
To identify challenging interpersonal interactions experienced by nursing and pharmacy students during clinical placement, and strategies used to manage those situations. Healthcare students and staff experience elevated stress when exposed to dynamic clinical environments, complex care and challenging professional relationships. Emotionally intelligent behaviours are associated with appropriate recognition and management of emotions evoked by stressful experiences and development of effective relationships. Nursing and pharmacy students' use of emotionally intelligent behaviours to manage challenging interpersonal situations is not well known. A qualitative design, using semi-structured interviews to explore experiences of challenging interpersonal situations during clinical placement (Phase two of a larger mixed-methods study). Final-year Australian university nursing and pharmacy students (n = 20) were purposefully recruited using a range of Emotional Intelligence scores (derived in Phase one), measured using the GENOS Emotional intelligence Inventory (concise version). Challenging interpersonal situations involving student-staff and intrastaff conflict, discourteous behaviour and criticism occurred during clinical placement. Students used personal and relational strategies, incorporating emotionally intelligent behaviours, to manage these encounters. Strategies included reflecting and reframing, being calm, controlling discomfort and expressing emotions appropriately. Emotionally intelligent behaviours are effective to manage stressful interpersonal interactions. Methods for strengthening these behaviours should be integrated into education of nursing and pharmacy students and qualified professionals. Education within the clinical/workplace environment can incorporate key interpersonal skills of collaboration, social interaction and reflection, while also attending to sociocultural contexts of the healthcare setting. Students and staff are frequently exposed
Gilliam, Eric; Nuffer, Wesley; Thompson, Megan; Vande Griend, Joseph
The newly implemented Advanced-Introductory Pharmacy Practice Experience (aIPPE) course at the University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences was designed to assess student readiness for Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience (APPE) and provide formative feedback regarding skills and abilities needed to be successful during subsequent coursework and practice experiences. The aIPPE is a full-time, six week (240hours) direct patient care rotation occurring in the spring semester of the third-professional year following a longitudinal integrated IPPE program. Required aIPPE course elements mimic the activities and expectations students should anticipate encountering during APPE training. All students participating in the initial aIPPE course offering were described as APPE-Ready. Students and preceptors described the aIPPE course as successful in achieving the primary outcome of preparing students for improved downstream performance. The aIPPE provided students opportunities to demonstrate readiness to enter advanced pharmacy practice experience. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hsu, Pei-Ling; Roth, Wolff-Michael
Most academic science educators encourage teachers to provide their students with access to more authentic science activities. What can and do teachers say to increase students’ interests in participating in opportunities to do real science? What are the discursive resources they draw on to introduce authentic science to students? The purpose of this ethnographic and discourse-analytic study is to investigate the ways in which the activities of scientists are discursively presented to high school students in a biology/career preparation course. Data sources were collected by means of observation, field notes, interviews, and videotaped lessons in an eleventh-grade biology/career preparation course. Drawing on discourse analysis, we investigate the discursive resources—or, more specifically and technically, the interpretative repertoires—teachers used to explain and promote opportunities to engage students in real science activities. Our analysis identifies and characterizes six types of interpretative repertoires: specialized, a-stereotypical, relevant, empirical, emotive, and rare-opportunity. To better understand the “big picture” of how these discursive resources are drawn on in the classroom, we also report on the frequencies of the repertoires in the discourse and the ways in which repertoires changed in the course of teacher-student interactions. The findings of this case study offer teachers and researchers with a better understanding of how specific forms of discourse—i.e., the repertoires—can serve as resources to enhance teacher-introduction of authentic science to students and provide students a bridge between school and authentic science.
Iglesias, S L; Granchetti, H; Azzara, S; Carpineta, M; Pappalardo, M; Argibay, J C; Lagomarsino, E
The beneficial results of a theory-practice pilot stress management program for Pharmacy and Biochemistry professionals and students. Its importance as a complement of traditional academic education, as well as its potential for Pharmaceutical Care is also discussed. A total of 27 students and 26 professionals took part in a program of 10 sessions, aimed at improving stress management. Ten of the students and 10 professionals were randomly assigned to control groups. Salivary cortisol levels and anxiety level tests before and after the program were used to assess efficacy. Both the cortisol and the anxiety levels significantly decreased among students and professionals after the program, whereas it significantly increased in the student control group. Anxiety levels significantly decreased in both students and professionals. This type of pilot program proved effective for students. In the case of health professionals, the sample size needs to be increased in order to achieve an acceptable level of statistical power. Considering the shift of the pharmaceutical profession towards Pharmaceutical Care, the training of competences and attitudes like those described in this work could be of value. Copyright © 2013 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Ahrenkiel, Linda; Worm-Leonhard, Martin
In this article, we present details of a one-week interdisciplinary science camp for high school students in Denmark, “Criminal Camp”. We describe the use of forensic science and simulated crimes as a common foundation for teaching the theory and practice of concepts in chemistry, physics......’ attitudes toward science in general and the applications within forensic science in particular. From the free-response answers given in the survey, it was furthermore inferred that the participants enjoyed working with science in an interdisciplinary context, and that they gained both concrete knowledge......, and medicine or biology. The main goal of the science camp program was to introduce the participants to the nature of science and what scientists do as the students experience easily understandable real-world scenarios. Results from a survey indicate that Criminal Camp had a positive effect on the participants...
Full Text Available Objectives: More and more countries introduce a total ban on smoking tobacco in public places. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of “The Act of 8 April 2010 on amendment of the act on protection of health against the consequences of consumption of tobacco and tobacco products and act on National Sanitary Inspectorate” and assess the frequency of complying with the smoking bans by the students of the Medical University of Lodz, Poland. Material and Methods: Between 2007–2011, at the Social Medicine Institute of the Medical University of Lodz, a study using random survey was carried out involving students who were starting their studies at the Health Department of the Medical University of Lodz. The analysis of the collected material showed that 1038 people reported being smokers at the time of the study. Among that group, 530 students were included in the study prior to, and 508 after the introduction of the amendment. In order to verify their compliance with the smoking ban, the respondents were asked whether they smoked only in designated areas or wherever they wanted to. Results: The ratio of people claiming they smoked anywhere they wanted to, disregarding the smoking ban, was 60% (N = 318 and after the amendment had been introduced, this ratio was 62.2% (N = 316, it increased by 2.2 percentage points. The observed difference was statistically irrelevant (Chi2 = 0.530, p > 0.05. Conclusions: The Act ”On amendment of the act on protection of health against the consequences of consumption of tobacco and tobacco products and Act on National Sanitary Inspectorate” in Poland did not result in the expected changes in the frequency of complying with the smoking ban by the 1st year students.
Full Text Available Compared to the nursing and medical professions, simulation-based pharmacy education is a relatively new mode of supporting learning, although one that is growing rapidly to meet the training needs of a new generation of healthcare professionals. Within the UK (and particularly Scotland, access to the clinical environment through the more traditional route of placement is limited, and simulation offers a partial solution to this problem. As is well-established, simulation—if used appropriately—also offers excellent opportunities for enhancing patient safety, including allowing the exploration of the science of human factors. Given the high incidence of medication errors, pharmacists need to be included in any intervention for improvement of patient safety. It is true, however, that the “clinical environment” experienced by the practising pharmacist (especially in community pharmacy is different from the typical nursing or medical situation. This, combined with a lack of understanding of the role of the pharmacist as a member of the wider healthcare team, means that there are additional considerations required when designing simulation-based learning activities. This commentary undertakes a narrative review of the current situation for pharmacy simulation, and considers how this may be developed to support the Scottish healthcare vision, whilst recognising that the issues raised are likely to be relevant across the sector.
Schrader, Susan L; Brechtelsbauer, David; Heins, Jodi; Holland, Peter; Schroeder, Pamela A
Interdisciplinary education among health professions has been recommended, and related evaluation can be found in the literature. However questions remain on how effective interdisciplinary education is and what impact it has. The objective of this study was to determine changes in student attitudes and perceptions upon completion of a 5-week interdisciplinary palliative care seminar. Pre-test and post-test instruments were administered at three five-week Interdisciplinary Palliative Care Seminars in Sioux Falls, SD during 2009-2010. The central hypotheses were that, at the conclusion of the seminar, students will have greater familiarity with their role in a team and more understanding of the roles of other disciplines in palliative care, and will identify positive contributions to professional practice and patient care using the team approach. Both quantitative and qualitative data were analyzed. Participating students in medicine, nursing, pharmacy, social work, and chaplaincy (N = 88) completed surveys. Quantitative data suggest that interdisciplinary education enhances students' understanding of their discipline and the work of other disciplines. Data show students perceive the team approach as enhancing patient outcomes, goal setting, and communication among colleagues. Qualitative data reinforced the importance of interdisciplinary education while revealing strains among disciplines in hierarchy and valuing. Playing one's part in the team strengthens students' confidence and comfort in interdisciplinary settings. Yet, the hazard of experiencing the limitations of teamwork in action must be acknowledged for some.
El-Ahmady, Sherweit; El-Wakeel, Lamia
A cross-sectional study was conducted on a group of pharmacy students to assess the relation between nutritional knowledge and awareness of university students and their nutrition habits and health related performance and indicators. The students were subjected to a questionnaire designed to approach four health related topics including nutrition literacy, health awareness, nutritional habits and health related performance. Answers on each topic were collected and statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad Prism 5 software including a measure of gender differences and correlative studies. No significant difference between genders in the overall responses but discrepancies in certain questions were observed. Female students showed higher awareness of nutrition concepts and practices but poor implementation from their side was observed. The study revealed that a positive and significant correlation existed between health related performance and nutrition literacy (r = 0.32). Healthier eating habits and lifestyle were associated more with nutrition conscious students (r = 0.73) than knowledgeable students (r = 0.56). It was concluded that knowledge alone is not enough to stimulate individuals to practice healthy habits. Other implementations are required to raise awareness of the issues at hand.
Halkett, Georgia K.B.; McKay, Janice; Shaw, Therese
Background: Radiographers can have a marked impact on the way patients deal with their illness because they are often one of the first health professionals that patients see. Therefore, it is essential that radiographers have effective communication skills and are able to provide patients with the information they require. The purpose of this study was to test whether the introduction of additional education on communication and history taking improved students' communication skills. Methods: A short program on communication skills and history taking was introduced to third year undergraduate students prior to a clinical placements period. Three workshops were run; the third included a role play exercise using professional actors as simulated patients. Students completed questionnaires at baseline, following the three workshops and after their subsequent clinical placement. Descriptive statistics were calculated and logistic regression Generalized Estimating Equations models were fitted to test for differences over time in students' confidence levels. Results: Twenty-seven out of 36 students completed the baseline and final surveys. Students indicated they were highly satisfied with the workshops provided. Statistically significant differences were observed for seven items relating to student's confidence levels in communicating with patients after they had participated in the workshops and their subsequent clinical placement. Conclusion: The use of communication skills workshops involving actor/patients is an effective method of assisting students to develop their communication and history taking skills. This program has now been implemented into the mentioned undergraduate course and it is recommended that radiography students at other institutions be provided with the opportunity to develop their communication and history taking skills.
Halkett, Georgia K.B., E-mail: email@example.com [WA Centre for Cancer and Palliative Care/Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); McKay, Janice [Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Shaw, Therese [Child Health Promotion Research Centre, School of Exercise, Biomedical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Perth, Western Australia (Australia)
Background: Radiographers can have a marked impact on the way patients deal with their illness because they are often one of the first health professionals that patients see. Therefore, it is essential that radiographers have effective communication skills and are able to provide patients with the information they require. The purpose of this study was to test whether the introduction of additional education on communication and history taking improved students' communication skills. Methods: A short program on communication skills and history taking was introduced to third year undergraduate students prior to a clinical placements period. Three workshops were run; the third included a role play exercise using professional actors as simulated patients. Students completed questionnaires at baseline, following the three workshops and after their subsequent clinical placement. Descriptive statistics were calculated and logistic regression Generalized Estimating Equations models were fitted to test for differences over time in students' confidence levels. Results: Twenty-seven out of 36 students completed the baseline and final surveys. Students indicated they were highly satisfied with the workshops provided. Statistically significant differences were observed for seven items relating to student's confidence levels in communicating with patients after they had participated in the workshops and their subsequent clinical placement. Conclusion: The use of communication skills workshops involving actor/patients is an effective method of assisting students to develop their communication and history taking skills. This program has now been implemented into the mentioned undergraduate course and it is recommended that radiography students at other institutions be provided with the opportunity to develop their communication and history taking skills.
Fatimah Ali Albusalih
Full Text Available Pharmacy and medical students are expected to be more knowledgeable regarding rational use of medications as compared to the general public. A cross-sectional study was conducted among students of pharmacy and medicine colleges of Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University in Dammam, Saudi Arabia using a survey questionnaire. The duration of the study was six months. The aim was to report self-medication prevalence of prescription and non-prescription drugs among pharmacy and medical students. The prevalence of self-medication in the pharmacy college was reported at 19.61%. Prevalence of self-medication at the medical college was documented at 49.3%. The prevalence of multivitamin use was reported at 30.53%, analgesics; 72.35%, antihistamines; 39.16%, and antibiotic use at 16.59%. The prevalence of anti-diarrheal medicines and antacids use among students was found to be 8.63% and 6.64%, respectively. The variable of college and study year was statistically associated with the nature of the medicines. The most common justifications given by students indulging in self-medication were ‘mild problems’ and ‘previous experience with medicines’. Our study reported that prevalence of self-medication in the College of Clinical Pharmacy was low, i.e., 19.61%. The figure has been reported for the first time. Students were mostly observed self-medicating with OTC drugs, however, some reported using corticosteroids and isotretenoin, which are quite dangerous if self-medicated. Students have a positive outlook towards pharmacists as drug information experts.
Omar Saad Saleh Abrika
Full Text Available The present study aims to explore the perceptions among pharmacy practitioners in Libya on the importance of social pharmacy education. A qualitative methodology was employed to conduct this study. Using a purposive sampling technique, a total of ten Libyan registered pharmacists were interviewed. Based on the content analysis of the interviews, two major themes emerged, namely the understanding of social pharmacy education and the need for incorporating social pharmacy courses into the pharmacy education curriculum. The majority of the respondents knew about the concept. Of those that had no prior knowledge of this term, half of them expressed interest in knowing more about it. There was a positive perception of introducing social pharmacy into the undergraduate curricula among the respondents, and they believed that it is necessary for future pharmacists to know about social pharmacy components. The findings from the pharmacy practitioners??evaluation suggest the need to incorporate social pharmacy courses into the curricula of all pharmacy schools in Libya.
By law, medical faculties are mandated to have a designated partner hospital for the purposes of student practical training. In contrast, pharmacy faculties do not have such a legal requirement for student training in a community pharmacy setting. Nevertheless, there are several public and private universities that do have community pharmacies. However, there is no national university that has established both an educational hospital and a community pharmacy. When Kanazawa University (KU) established a graduate school with a clinical pharmacy course, the faculty of KU deemed it necessary to set up an independent community pharmacy for the purpose of practical training. Thus, in 2003, the Acanthus Pharmacy was set up as the first educational community pharmacy in Japan, managed by a nonprofit organization, with the permission of the Ishikawa Pharmaceutical Association and local community pharmacists. Since that time, Acanthus has managed a clinical pharmacy practice for students from both the undergraduate and graduate schools of KU. From 2006, the undergraduate pharmacy program was changed to a 6-year program, and the Acanthus Pharmacy has continued its roles in educating undergraduate pharmaceutical students, medical students, and as a site of early exposure for KU freshmen. From our experience, it is important to have a real clinical environment available to university pharmacy faculty and students, especially in training for community pharmacy practices.
Rupp, Michael T
In a possible future of supply-demand imbalance in pharmacy education, a brand that positively differentiates a college or school of pharmacy from its competitors may be the key to its survival. The nominal group technique, a structured group problem-solving and decision-making process, was used during a faculty retreat to identify and agree on the core qualities that define the brand image of Midwestern University's College of Pharmacy in Glendale, AZ. Results from the retreat were provided to the faculty and students, who then proposed 168 mottos that embodied these qualities. Mottos were voted on by faculty members and pharmacy students. The highest ranked 24 choices were submitted to the faculty, who then selected the top 10 finalists. A final vote by students was used to select the winning motto. The methods described here may be useful to other colleges and schools of pharmacy that want to better define their own brand image and strengthen their organizational culture.
Chaitin, Chava; Velasquez, Jaimie; Khanfar, Nile M; Chassange, Stephanie; Perez Torres, Rennie; Loan Pham, Ngoc; Rodriguez, Martha M; Hale, Genevieve M
The American Diabetes Association announced in 2012 that 86 million Americans were diagnosed with prediabetes compared to 79 million in 2010. Prediabetes + Me (PreDiaMe) is an innovative educational programme developed by pharmacy students at Nova Southeastern University College of Pharmacy, which provides collaborative interprofessional care for patients with prediabetes. A literature review using EBSCOhost, EMBASE, and MEDLINE databases searching the terms education, health services, interprofessional team, and prediabetes was conducted. Human studies published in English between 2006 and 2016 were included. Investigators interviewed a community pharmacist and a consultant pharmacist certified in diabetes education. Based on these interviews and the literature found, PreDiaMe was created to unite healthcare professionals through a three-step community outreach programme. The goal of PreDiaMe is to identify patients at risk of prediabetes, to decrease the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), to reduce healthcare costs, and to improve the quality of life for patients with prediabetes. PreDiaMe benefits patients with prediabetes, the healthcare system, and pedagogy as it aims to decrease in the prevalence and economic burden and increase health outcomes of patients with prediabetes while being used as a tool to provide integrative education in health professional programmes.
Rehg, Ellen; SmithBattle, Lee
Doctoral programmes in nursing are charged with developing the next generation of nurse scholars, scientists, and healthcare leaders. The American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) endorses the inclusion of philosophy of science content in research-focused doctoral programmes. Because a philosophy course circumscribed to the natural or social sciences does not address the broad forms of knowledge that are relevant to nursing practice, we have developed and co-taught a course on the philosophy of knowledge that introduces students to competing claims regarding the nature of knowledge, truth, and rationality. In addressing broad themes related to science and knowledge of the body, health and illness, and ethics, the course equips students to tread the rough and shifting ground of nursing scholarship and practice. Providing doctoral students with this philosophical footing is intended to give future scholars, researchers, and healthcare leaders the intellectual skills to critically reflect on knowledge claims, to challenge the hegemony of science, and to recognize the disciplinary forms of knowledge that are left out or trivialized. Our pedagogical approach to knowledge development does not denigrate scientific knowledge, but elevates forms of inquiry and notions of clinical knowledge that are too often marginalized in doctoral education and the academy in general. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lonie, John M; Rahim, Hamid
The objective of this study was to determine if the addition of a reflective writing component in a fourth year (P-2) pharmacy communication skills course would significantly affect 2 measures of learning: (1) objective multiple choice examination questions and (2) a patient counseling Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) score. Using a nonequivalent group quasi-experimental retrospective comparison design, 98 randomly selected final examination scores from students taking a non-writing intensive (NWI) communication skills course were compared with 112 randomly selected final examination scores from students that took a communication skills course in which students engaged in several reflective writing assignments. In addition, 91 randomly selected patient counseling OSCE scores from a NWI course were statistically compared with 112 scores from students that took the writing intensive (WI) course. There were statistically significant improvements in multiple choice examination scores in the group that took the reflective writing communication skills course. There was not a statistically significant difference in patient counseling OSCE scores after students completed the WI course. Studying the effects of using reflective writing assignments in communication skills courses may improve the retention and retrieval of information presented within the course.
Chang, Huan Ying; Poh, David Yan Hong; Wong, Li Lian; Yap, John Yin Gwee; Yap, Kevin Yi-Lwern
Serious games are motivating and provide a safe environment for students to learn from their mistakes without experiencing any negative consequences from their actions. However, little is known about students' gaming preferences and the types of serious games they like to play for education. This study aims to determine the types of gaming aspects that students would like to play in a pharmacy-related serious game. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administered survey, which obtained students' responses on their preferences regarding various gaming aspects (reward systems, game settings, storylines, viewing perspectives, and gaming styles) and for a hypothetical gaming scenario (authentic simulation or post-apocalyptic fantasy). Descriptive statistics, chi-square, and Fisher's exact tests were used for statistical analyses. Response rate was 72.7% (497/684 undergraduates). The most popular game reward systems were unlocking mechanisms (112/497, 22.5%) and experience points (90/497, 18.1%). Most students preferred fantasy/medieval/mythic (253/497, 50.9%) and modern (117/497, 23.5%) settings, but lower year undergraduates preferred modern settings less than upper year seniors (47/236, 19.9% vs 70/242, 28.9%, P=.022). Almost one-third (147/497, 29.6%) preferred an adventurer storyline or an authentic pharmacy-related plot (119/497, 23.9%), and a collaborative game style was most preferred by the students (182/497, 36.6%). Three-dimensional game perspectives (270/497, 54.3%) were more popular than two-dimensional perspectives (221/497, 44.5%), especially among males than females (126/185, 68.1% vs 142/303, 46.9%, Pgame, a post-apocalyptic fantasy game (scenario B, 287/497, 57.7%) was more popular than an authentic simulation game (scenario A, 209/497, 42.1%). More males preferred the post-apocalyptic fantasy scenario than females (129/187, 69.0% vs 155/306, 50.7%, Pgame, based on an adventurer storyline with an unlocking mechanism reward system. A
Nakagawa, Naoto; Murai, Yuriko; Yoshida, Makiko; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Mano, Nariyasu
Drug literature evaluation has been taught at pharmacy schools in the United States, allowing pharmacy students to learn how to read clinical literature critically. In advanced pharmacy practice experiences, preceptors often assign pharmacy students to journal clubs in which they repeatedly train how to read such literature. This enables them to understand the importance of reading clinical literature prior to graduation. The objective of this study was to create evidence-based medicine (EBM) workshop that would enhance Japanese pharmacy students' awareness regarding the importance of reading up-to-date clinical literature. The EBM workshop were designed as a one-day workshop consisting of student presentations regarding their opinions about reading clinical literature, a lecture on methods for reading required literature critically, and small group discussions using the KJ (Kawakita Jiro) Method. To evaluate the effectiveness of the EBM workshop, students were administered questionnaire surveys both before and after the workshop. The students also took a 15-question test on EBM. Regarding the questionnaires, students were asked to respond to dichotomous items (yes/no) and to indicate on a 7-point Likert scale the extent to which they agreed with statements about clinical literature. Student responses to both the pre- and post-workshop questionnaires were then compared to evaluate the effectiveness of the EBM workshop. A total of 37 students participated in the EBM workshop. Significant improvement was seen between the pre- and post-workshop questionnaires in responses regarding whether they thought that pharmacists should read clinical literature regularly (pre-workshop: 5.70 ± 0.17 versus 6.51 ± 0.13 post-workshop; p read clinical literature (1.81 ± 0.15 versus 3.92 ± 0.18; p importance of reading up-to-date clinical literature. It is therefore expected that students who participated in our EBM workshop will contribute to improvements in
Jishnu, V; Gilhotra, Rm; Mishra, Dn
In this world of specialization and globalization the pharmacy education in India is suffering from serious backdrops and flaws. There is an urgent need to initiate an academic exercise aimed at attaining revamping of curriculum, keeping in pace with current and emerging trends in the field of pharmacy. Unfortunately all these years, enough emphasis was not laid on strengthening the components of Community Pharmacy, Hospital and Clinical pharmacy, while designing curriculum at diploma and degree levels of teaching. The curriculum followed by almost all universities in India are no were up to the world standards and students are still getting the 20-30 yrs older compounding practical exposure in labs during the graduation level. The article emphasises the concept of innovation ecosystems and quality management. Application of TQM to the educational system improves the present situation. The counseling system which serves to be the gateway of the students for entry into the profession should be brought under the scanner. Introducing specializations at the graduation level will result in professional expertise and excellence. Education is a customer focused industry and every student should be capable of evaluating themselves for continuously improving their quality and professionalism. Teacher focused mastery learning should give away to student focused smart learning. An educational institution should provide the student with a stress-free atmosphere for learning and developing his intellectual capabilities. Every college should have a counseling centre to address the problems of students in their academic and personal life. An emphasis on the concept of quality teacher is included. Revival of the pharmacy education in India is the need of the hour which in turn will pave the way for the up gradation of the pharmacy profession in the country.
Weber, Robert J.
Issues facing pharmacy leaders in 2015 include practice model growth and the role of pharmacy students, clinical privileging of health-system pharmacists and provider status, medication error prevention, and specialty pharmacy services. The goal of this article is to provide practical approaches to 4 issues facing pharmacy leaders in 2015 to help them focus their department’s goals. This article will address (1) advances in the pharmacy practice model initiative and the role of pharmacy students, (2) the current thinking of pharmacists being granted clinical privileges in health systems, (3) updates on preventing harmful medication errors, and (4) the growth of specialty pharmacy services. The sample template of a strategic plan may be used by a pharmacy department in 2015 in an effort to continue developing patient-centered pharmacy services. PMID:25717212
Weber, Robert J
Issues facing pharmacy leaders in 2015 include practice model growth and the role of pharmacy students, clinical privileging of health-system pharmacists and provider status, medication error prevention, and specialty pharmacy services. The goal of this article is to provide practical approaches to 4 issues facing pharmacy leaders in 2015 to help them focus their department's goals. This article will address (1) advances in the pharmacy practice model initiative and the role of pharmacy students, (2) the current thinking of pharmacists being granted clinical privileges in health systems, (3) updates on preventing harmful medication errors, and (4) the growth of specialty pharmacy services. The sample template of a strategic plan may be used by a pharmacy department in 2015 in an effort to continue developing patient-centered pharmacy services.
Full Text Available Purpose: Team-based learning (TBL has been shown to be a very useful active learning tool in a variety of disciplines and educational settings. The objectives of this study in a Global Health elective course within a PharmD curriculum were to (1 determine whether TBL contributes to performance (as measured by iRAT scores, tRAT scores, and grades; and (2 evaluate students' perceptions of TBL as an instructional strategy. Case Study: TBL sessions were incorporated into a new elective course in Global Health along with other teaching methodologies. Student performance was evaluated during the TBL sessions and course team projects, among others. An anonymous student qualitative survey explored their perceptions of and experiences with TBL at the end of the course. Students' performance in the TBL sessions improved as reflected in the comparison of individual Readiness Assurance Tests (iRATs and the team Readiness Assurance Tests (tRATs scores. Overall students' performance in the course resulted in over 88% earning the letter grade A. Students' performance in the TBL sessions, especially their iRATs, was reflected in their overall course grades. Over 75% of the students believed that TBL increased their analytical skills and nearly 50% believed that learning utilizing TBL would have the most lasting effect on their careers. Conclusion: TBL was successfully implemented in a Global Health elective course in a PharmD curriculum and students perceived it as a beneficial instructional strategy. This study adds to the TBL literature by providing some evidence of the applicability of TBL in a course not traditionally taught in the PharmD curriculum (i.e., Global Health. Future research and intervention(s leading to the development and growth of TBL in pharmacy education are recommended. Type: Case Study
Felder, E; Fauler, M; Geiler, S
Retrieval of information has substantially changed within the last two decades. Naturally, this has also affected learning/teaching techniques, and methods that are commonly referred to as "e-learning" have become an important part in modern education. Institutions have to decide if (and how) to implement this new form of teaching but face the problem that little subject-specific research has been published for different teaching modes and methods. The present study compares a course module of the physiology laboratory course for medical students in the preclinical phase before and after the introduction of computer-aided course instructions (CACI). Students were provided with an online questionnaire containing Likert items evaluating workspace redesign, acceptance of course instructions, incentive to actively participate in the course, and subjective gain of knowledge. CACI was clearly preferred over the previously used paper workbook. However, the questionnaire also revealed that the gain in knowledge, as subjectively perceived by the students, had not improved, which is in agreement with several studies that neglected a beneficial effect of e-learning on learning success. We conclude that the CACI meet today's student's expectations and that introducing this system seems justified from this perspective.
Jessica W. Skelley
Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the baseline knowledge of fourth year student pharmacists on their ability to properly identify and categorize medication related problems (MRP during their Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience (APPE in the ambulatory care setting, and to assess the efficacy of a written resource designed to educate and train users on identification and documentation of MRP's and used for this purpose with participating students on their ambulatory care APPE. Methods: A pretest consisting of ten multiple-choice questions was administered electronically to fourth year student pharmacists (N=18 at the start of their ambulatory care APPE. The test was designed to assess both the students' baseline knowledge regarding MRP's, and their ability to identify a wide variety of medication-related problems. Students then received a written copy of The Medication Therapy Intervention & Safety Documentation Program training manual and were asked to read it in its entirety in the first week of their APPE. Finally, students were given a posttest survey (identical to the pretest to complete to assess if their knowledge had increased from baseline. Results: The average score for the 18 students taking the baseline knowledge pre-test was 63.33%, indicating limited baseline knowledge regarding the identification and classification of MRP's. In assessing the effectiveness of the written training document, the overall posttest results compared to pretest results did not indicate improvement in students' knowledge or ability to properly identify and classify medication related problems (MRP after reviewing the training manual. The average scores declined from 63.33% on the pretest to 62.78% on the posttest, although this was not found to be statistically significant (p = 0.884. However, a statistically significant decline in students' knowledge occurred on one specific question, which tested their ability to classify MRP's (p = 0.029. Conclusions: Based on the
Leelamma, Sreelekha; Indira, Uma Devi
This paper introduces the Mobile Assisted Inquiry Learning Environment (MAILE), an Experimental Instructional Strategy (EIS) which employs an inquiry-based learning approach to guide secondary school students to learn environmental science in an engaging way supported by mobile phones. The students are situated in both the real world and the…
Stanley, Simone; Ymele-Leki, Patrick
A community outreach project was integrated in a District of Columbia public schools summer internship program for students from underrepresented minorities in STEM. The project introduced these students to fundamental engineering principles by leveraging a smartphone application (App) so readily accessible and attractive to them that it boosted…
Pfennig, Brian W.; Schaefer, Amy K.
A general chemistry laboratory experiment is described that introduces students to instrumental analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), while simultaneously reinforcing the concepts of mass percent and the calculation of atomic mass. Working in small groups, students use the GC to separate and quantify the percent composition…
Gleason, Brenda L; Gaebelein, Claude J; Grice, Gloria R; Crannage, Andrew J; Weck, Margaret A; Hurd, Peter; Walter, Brenda; Duncan, Wendy
To determine the feasibility of using a validated set of assessment rubrics to assess students' critical-thinking and problem-solving abilities across a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum. Trained faculty assessors used validated rubrics to assess student work samples for critical-thinking and problem-solving abilities. Assessment scores were collected and analyzed to determine student achievement of these 2 ability outcomes across the curriculum. Feasibility of the process was evaluated in terms of time and resources used. One hundred sixty-one samples were assessed for critical thinking, and 159 samples were assessed for problem-solving. Rubric scoring allowed assessors to evaluate four 5- to 7-page work samples per hour. The analysis indicated that overall critical-thinking scores improved over the curriculum. Although low yield for problem-solving samples precluded meaningful data analysis, it was informative for identifying potentially needed curricular improvements. Use of assessment rubrics for program ability outcomes was deemed authentic and feasible. Problem-solving was identified as a curricular area that may need improving. This assessment method has great potential to inform continuous quality improvement of a PharmD program.
Sowing the seeds for improved Pharmacy education in Nigeria: development of ICT at university of Benin Faculty of Pharmacy. ... For today\\'s pharmacy graduates to function effectively in an ever increasing technological world, pharmacy students must be trained to use computer facilities as they will always encounter the ...
Full Text Available Opening an independent pharmacy is a process that involves multiple components. The rationale of this project is to discuss different issues that must be investigated prior to opening a new independency pharmacy. This includes the location, structure of the corporation, start-up cost, picking a wholesaler, fulfilling state board requirements and Philadelphia requirements, having a valid license, making professional relationships, and knowing basic marketing research. Methods used include using the knowledge and expertise from an independent pharmacy owner, visiting pharmacies, and interviewing neighbors for basic marketing research. Many aspects of opening an independent pharmacy differ significantly from a retail pharmacy, as there are various issues within the pharmacy and outside the pharmacy that must be extensively researched prior to opening in order to be successful. Type: Student Project
Mar, Ellena; T-L Tang, Terrill; Sasaki-Hill, Debra; Kuperberg, James R.; Knapp, Katherine
Objectives To determine whether students' previous pharmacy-related work experience was associated with their pharmacy school performance (academic and clinical). Methods The following measures of student academic performance were examined: pharmacy grade point average (GPA), scores on cumulative high-stakes examinations, and advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) grades. The quantity and type of pharmacy-related work experience each student performed prior to matriculation was solicited through a student survey instrument. Survey responses were correlated with academic measures, and demographic-based stratified analyses were conducted. Results No significant difference in academic or clinical performance between those students with prior pharmacy experience and those without was identified. Subanalyses by work setting, position type, and substantial pharmacy work experience did not reveal any association with student performance. A relationship was found, however, between age and work experience, ie, older students tended to have more work experience than younger students. Conclusions Prior pharmacy work experience did not affect students' overall academic or clinical performance in pharmacy school. The lack of significant findings may have been due to the inherent practice limitations of nonpharmacist positions, changes in pharmacy education, and the limitations of survey responses. PMID:20498735
Battaglia, Jessica N; Kieser, Mara A; Bruskiewitz, Ruth H; Pitterle, Michael E; Thorpe, Joshua M
To develop, implement, and assess the effectiveness of an online medication therapy management (MTM) program to train pharmacists and pharmacy students in providing MTM services for patients with diabetes and to increase their intent to perform these services. An online program was created using an Internet-based learning platform to simulate 4 MTM meetings between a pharmacist and a virtual patient diagnosed with diabetes. Eighty students and 42 pharmacists completed the program. After completing the program, scores on post-intervention assessments showed significant improvement in 2 areas: control over performing MTM, and knowledge of how to perform MTM. Students had a significantly less-positive attitude about MTM and a decline in their perception of the social expectation that MTM is part of the practice of pharmacy, while pharmacists' attitudes did not change significantly in these areas. This online program using a virtual patient improved both participants' belief that they have control over performing MTM, and their knowledge of how to perform MTM for diabetic patients, which may increase the likelihood that pharmacists and pharmacy students will perform MTM in the future.
Marchand, Jon-Paul; Pearson, Marion L; Albon, Simon P
To examine faculty members' and students' use and perceptions of lecture recordings in a previously implemented lecture-capture initiative. Patterns of using lecture recordings were determined from software analytics, and surveys were conducted to determine awareness and usage, effect on attendance and other behaviors, and learning impact. Most students and faculty members were aware of and appreciated the recordings. Students' patterns of use changed as the novelty wore off. Students felt that the recordings enhanced their learning, improved their in-class engagement, and had little effect on their attendance. Faculty members saw little difference in students' grades or in-class engagement but noted increased absenteeism. Students made appropriate use of recordings to support their learning, but faculty members generally did not make active educational use of the recordings. Further investigation is needed to understand the effects of lecture recordings on attendance. Professional development activities for both students and faculty members would help maximize the learning benefits of the recordings.
Joyce Addo-Atuah, PhD
Full Text Available Purpose: Team-based learning (TBL has been shown to be a very useful active learning tool in a variety of disciplines and educational settings. The objectives of this study in a Global Health elective course within a PharmD curriculum were to (1 determine whether TBL contributes to performance (as measured by iRAT scores, tRAT scores, and grades; and (2 evaluate students’ perceptions of TBL as an instructional strategy. Case Study: TBL sessions were incorporated into a new elective course in Global Health along with other teaching methodologies. Student performance was evaluated during the TBL sessions and course team projects, among others. An anonymous student qualitative survey explored their perceptions of and experiences with TBL at the end of the course. Students’ performance in the TBL sessions improved as reflected in the comparison of individual Readiness Assurance Tests (iRATs and the team Readiness Assurance Tests (tRATs scores. Overall students’ performance in the course resulted in over 88% earning the letter grade A. Students’ performance in the TBL sessions, especially their iRATs, was reflected in their overall course grades. Over 75% of the students believed that TBL increased their analytical skills and nearly 50% believed that learning utilizing TBL would have the most lasting effect on their careers. Conclusion: TBL was successfully implemented in a Global Health elective course in a PharmD curriculum and students perceived it as a beneficial instructional strategy. This study adds to the TBL literature by providing some evidence of the applicability of TBL in a course not traditionally taught in the PharmD curriculum (i.e., Global Health. Future research and intervention(s leading to the development and growth of TBL in pharmacy education are recommended.
... common source for obtaining prescriptions is the local pharmacy. Usually the pharmacy is located in a drug or grocery store. ... some insurance companies have chosen is mail-order pharmacy. Once a pharmacy has been chosen it is ...
Decker, Andrew S; Cipriano, Gabriela C; Tsouri, Gill; Lavigne, Jill E
Objective. To assess and improve student adherence to hand hygiene indications using radio frequency identification (RFID) enabled hand hygiene stations and performance report cards. Design. Students volunteered to wear RFID-enabled hospital employee nametags to monitor their adherence to hand-hygiene indications. After training in World Health Organization (WHO) hand hygiene methods and indications, student were instructed to treat the classroom as a patient care area. Report cards illustrating individual performance were distributed via e-mail to students at the middle and end of each 5-day observation period. Students were eligible for individual and team prizes consisting of Starbucks gift cards in $5 increments. Assessment. A hand hygiene station with an RFID reader and dispensing sensor recorded the nametag nearest to the station at the time of use. Mean frequency of use per student was 5.41 (range: 2-10). Distance between the student's seat and the dispenser was the only variable significantly associated with adherence. Student satisfaction with the system was assessed by a self-administered survey at the end of the study. Most students reported that the system increased their motivation to perform hand hygiene as indicated. Conclusion. The RFID-enabled hand hygiene system and benchmarking reports with performance incentives was feasible, reliable, and affordable. Future studies should record video to monitor adherence to the WHO 8-step technique.
Fadi M. Alkhateeb
Conclusions: There has been a huge growth in the number and the use of SNS. Students, if they choose to, can take advantage of this revolutionary communication tool to advance professionally. However, the majority of students still choose to use Facebook for social purposes rather than professional or educational purposes.
Majima, Takashi; Ohara, Hiroshi
The scope of pharmaceutical education in Japan has been expanding, and with it an awareness of the importance of team medical care. However, pharmaceutical education still gives little attention to the psychosocial aspects of care, instead focusing on the structures and functions of drugs. In contrast, nursing education emphasizes the fact that medical care involves patients' family and significant others as much as the patients themselves, and thus nursing students are taught the basic needs and developmental stages of those people requiring care alongside their practical nursing skills. In this study, we examined the effect of incorporating certain aspects of introductory nursing education into pharmaceutical education on the self-efficacy of pharmaceutical students. We thus ran an introduction to nursing education course for fourth-year pharmaceutical students (n=86). After the course had finished, we surveyed students about the course. Approximately 94.2% of the students became more interested in team medical care and nearly all (98.8%) thought that what they had learned in the course would be useful in their career. The results indicated that the introduction to nursing education course offered students an opportunity to acquire different viewpoints on clinical situations because the lectures were given by a pharmacist with a nurse license and they were based on his clinical experiences. We therefore propose that more facets of introductory nursing education be incorporated into pharmaceutical education to help students develop their ability to consider patients' psychosocial backgrounds.
Panjasaram V. Naidoo
Full Text Available Background: Male circumcision is currently being promoted in South Africa as a HumanImmunodeficiency Virus (HIV prevention method. Effective implementation requires thathealthcare providers should believe in the procedure’s efficacy and should possess a positiveattitude. A study was undertaken amongst pharmacy and nursing students with differentobjectives.Objectives: To ascertain students’ knowledge, attitudes and perceptions regarding malecircumcision and (HIV prevention.Method: A descriptive cross-sectional study using anonymous questionnaires was undertakenamongst 4th year pharmacy and nursing students studying at a university in KwaZulu-Natal,after obtaining their consent. Data were captured and analysed using SPSS version 15.Results: A response rate of 83.18% and a mean knowledge score of 66.43% with relativelypositive attitudes (62.7 were obtained; 85.4% of the respondents felt that promoting malecircumcision is appropriate, with all Muslim students (n < 11 supporting the promotion ofmale circumcision. Even though all Muslim students supported male circumcision, only 3students were willing to perform the procedure if adequately trained (p < 0.03. The majorityof the female students were unwilling to perform the procedure (p < 0.005. A third of therespondents indicated that male circumcision would both undermine existing protectivebehaviours and strategies as well as increase riskier sexual behaviour. Over 54% of therespondents believed that the South African Health System would be able to cope with themassive male circumcision drive. The majority of the respondents favoured the procedure tobe done at birth. Pain was cited as the most important reason for not wanting to be circumcised.Conclusion: Pharmacy and nursing students have a moderate knowledge of male circumcisionand HIV prevention with relatively positive attitudes. The majority felt that promoting malecircumcision is appropriate and should be encouraged.
Dickins, Thomas E.; Donovan, Peter
In this paper we discuss the development and running of a residential animal behaviour field trip. The trip has a number of elements that challenge and develop the students. First, this trip is open to students at levels two, three and M. This allows us to engineer a certain amount of peer assisted learning. Second, the students live together and…
Wojdak, Jeremy M.
Argumentation and basic logic are foundations of scientific inquiry, and thus should be foundations of science education. Students often are uninterested in formal logic, and do not understand the connection to science or society. I describe a way to engage students in the study of argumentation and to help develop student's ability to critically…
Brocks, Dion R
Pharmacokinetics can be a challenging topic to teach due to the complex relationships inherent between physiological parameters, mathematical descriptors and equations, and their combined impact on shaping the blood fluid concentration vs. time curves of drugs. A computer program was developed within Microsoft Excel for Windows, designed to assist in the instruction of basic pharmacokinetics within an entry-to-practice pharmacy class environment. The program is composed of a series of spreadsheets (modules) linked by Visual Basic for Applications, intended to illustrate the relationships between pharmacokinetic and in some cases physiological parameters, doses and dose rates and the drug blood fluid concentration vs. time curves. Each module is accompanied by a simulation user's guide, prompting the user to change specific independent parameters and then observe the impact of the change(s) on the drug concentration vs. time curve and on other dependent parameters. "Slider" (or "scroll") bars can be selected to readily see the effects of repeated changes on the dependencies. Topics covered include one compartment single dose administration (iv bolus, oral, short infusion), intravenous infusion, repeated doses, renal and hepatic clearance, nonlinear elimination, two compartment model, plasma protein binding and the relationship between pharmacokinetics and drug effect. The program has been used in various forms in the classroom over a number of years, with positive ratings generally being received from students for its use in the classroom. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chen, Aleda M H; Kiersma, Mary E; Yehle, Karen S; Plake, Kimberly S
To evaluate changes in empathy and perceptions as well as game experiences among student pharmacists participating in an aging simulation game. First-year student pharmacists participated in an aging simulation game. Changes were measured pre/post-activity using the Kiersma-Chen Empathy Scale (KCES) and Jefferson Scale of Empathy--Health Professions Scale (JSE-HPS) for empathy and the Aging Simulation Experience Survey (ASES) for perceptions of older adults' experiences and game experiences. Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to determine changes. One hundred fifty-six student pharmacists completed the instruments. Empathy using the KCES and JSE-HPS improved significantly. Of the 13 items in the ASES, 9 significantly improved. Simulation games may help students overcome challenges demonstrating empathy and positive attitudes toward elderly patients.
Crawford, Stephanie Y.
Objectives. To develop and implement a seminar course for graduate students in the social and administrative pharmaceutical sciences to enhance knowledge and confidence with respect their abilities to demonstrate appropriate business etiquette.
Kasanda, C. D.; Mitonga, K. H.; Veii, K.; Zimba, R. F.
Many students at the University of Namibia have frequently complained about ineffective assessment practices used at the institution. On many occasions, these complaints have not been substantiated with evidence of any kind. The purpose of this study was to obtain some empirical evidence that would ascertain undergraduate students' perceptions of the University of Namibia's grading and assessment practices. Using a structured scaled questionnaire, data were obtained from a representative samp...
Wilby, Kyle John; Taylor, Jeff; Khalifa, Sherief I; Jorgenson, Derek
To develop, implement, and evaluate a course-based, cross-cultural student interaction using real-time videoconferencing between universities in Canada and Qatar. A professional skills simulation practice session on smoking cessation was run for students in Qatar (n=22) and Canada (n=22). Students role played cases in small group situations and then interacted with colleagues from the other country regarding culturally challenging situations and communication strategies. Students were assessed on analytical content and communication skills through faculty member and peer evaluation. Cultural competency outcomes were assessed using a postsession survey. Overall, 92.3% of respondents agreed that learning was enhanced through the cross-cultural exchange, and 94.9% agreed that insight was gained into the health-related issues and needs of people from another culture. A course-based, cross-cultural interaction was an effective method to incorporate cultural competency principles into student learning. Future initiatives should increase direct student interaction and focus on culturally sensitive topics.
An investigation on the level of awareness, attitude, and interest among medicine, dentistry, and pharmacy students toward their majors on entering university: The case of Islamic Azad University, Tehran medical sciences branch
Farhad Adhami Moghadam
Full Text Available Introduction: Having awareness, interest, and positive attitude toward one's fields of study leads to the development of a compatibility between demands and expectations on the one hand and future career on the other hand. This study was carried out to determine the level of awareness, attitude, and interest of medicine, dentistry, and pharmacy students of Islamic Azad University, Tehran Medical Sciences Branch toward their own field of study on entering university. Materials and Methods: This research is a basic descriptive study conducted on 273 students who had just entered university. This study was performed using census. Data collection instrument was a four-part questionnaire which included demographic information, and questions measuring students' awareness, attitude, and interest. Results: With regard to their field of study, there was no statistically significant difference in the average of students' awareness (P = 0.731. The attitude of medicine students was significantly more positive than pharmacy and dentistry students (P < 0.001, and the attitude of dentistry students was significantly more positive than that of pharmacy students (P = 0.460. Medical students' interest level was significantly higher than that of pharmacy and dentistry students (P < 0.05, and the interest level of dentistry students was significantly greater than the interest level of pharmacy students (P = 024/0. There was a statistically significant positive relationship between awareness and attitude and between awareness and interest in all of the study subjects (P < 0.001. Conclusion: The study results indicated that having a high level of awareness toward one's major led students studying in medicine, dentistry, and pharmacy to experience a more positive attitude and a higher level of interest. Thus, before entering the university, academic counseling will be beneficial for acquiring a better understanding of most majors, a goal which could be provided
Woska, Joseph R., Jr.; Collins, Danielle M.; Canney, Brian J.; Arcario, Erin L.; Reilly, Patricia L.
"Partners in Science" is a cooperative program between Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and area high schools in the community surrounding our Connecticut campus. It is a two-phase program that introduces high school students and teachers to the world of drug discovery and leading-edge pharmaceutical research. Phase 1 involves…
Montanes, Maria T.; Palomares, Antonio E.
In this work we show how specific challenges related to sustainable development can be integrated into chemical engineering education by introducing an environmental management system in the laboratory where the students perform their experimental lessons. It is shown how the system has been developed and implemented in the laboratory, what role…
Kalludi, Shivananda; Maradi, Ravindra; Dhar, Murali; Babu, Raghavendra; Sathyanarayanachar, Manjunath
Introduction: Combination of didactic lecture, practical demonstration and performing experiments by students is followed in medicine, dentistry and bachelor of pharmaceutical sciences. The purpose of this study was to assess the attitudes of nursing students towards practical demonstration in physiology. Material and Methods: Seventy three nursing students of the first year underwent practical demonstration of Physiology experiments. Students indicated their agreement or disagreement with the 8 items by ticking one of the five alternative responses. Mean attitude scores were calculated for each item and for the total scale. Results: The overall mean attitude score of 3.76 was towards the favourable side. Eighty seven percent of students agreed that practical demonstration reinforces concepts. Eighty nine percent of students found practical demonstration is a good form of learning experience. Conclusion: The introduction of practical demonstration in addition to didactic lectures may help the students in understanding concepts in Physiology. PMID:24179917
Ferrer-Vinent, Ignacio J.; Bruehl, Margaret; Pan, Denise; Jones, Galin L.
This paper describes the methodology and implementation of a case study introducing the scientific literature and creative experiment design to honors general chemistry laboratory students. The purpose of this study is to determine whether first-year chemistry students can develop information literacy skills while they engage with the primary…
Field, T S; Baldor, R A; Casey, L M; Chuman, A; Lasser, D; Ehrlich, A; Gurwitz, J H
In order to assess the effect of clinical training and didactic instruction on medical student attitudes toward managed care, we conducted a survey of all medical students at the midpoint of their third year clerkships at the University of Massachusetts Medical School. The students were exposed to clinical training in managed care settings and a 2-day required course on the principles underlying managed care. The main outcome measures were student attitudes toward the concepts of managed care, managed care organizations, and future careers in managed care. Students also assessed the attitudes of medical faculty toward managed care. Attitudes of students with previous clinical training in managed care settings did not differ from those of students without such exposure toward the concepts underlying managed care or managed care organizations and were less positive about careers in managed care. Student responses before and after the 2-day course on managed care demonstrated that attitudes moved in a significantly positive direction. Seventy-one percent of students reported that the opinions they had heard from medical faculty about managed care were negative. Preparing medical students to practice medicine effectively in managed care settings will require focused attention on managed care issues in the medical school curriculum and the combined efforts of academic health centers and managed care organizations.
Koeneman, Marcel; Goedhart, Martin; Ossevoort, Miriam
Primary scientific literature is one of the most important means of communication in science, written for peers in the scientific community. Primary literature provides an authentic context for showing students how scientists support their claims. Several teaching strategies have been proposed using (adapted) scientific publications, some for secondary education, but none of these strategies focused specifically on scientific argumentation. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a strategy for teaching pre-university students to read unadapted primary scientific literature, translated into students' native language, based on a new argumentation analysis framework. This framework encompasses seven types of argumentative elements: motive, objective, main conclusion, implication, support, counterargument and refutation. During the intervention, students studied two research articles. We monitored students' reading comprehension and their opinion on the articles and activities. After the intervention, we measured students' ability to identify the argumentative elements in a third unadapted and translated research article. The presented framework enabled students to analyse the article by identifying the motive, objective, main conclusion and implication and part of the supports. Students stated that they found these activities useful. Most students understood the text on paragraph level and were able to read the article with some help for its vocabulary. We suggest that primary scientific literature has the potential to show students important aspects of the scientific process and to learn scientific vocabulary in an authentic context.
Peter Bai James
Full Text Available Most low-income nations have national medicine policy that emphasized the use of generic medicines in the public health sector. However, the use of generics is often debatable as there are concerns over its efficacy, quality, and safety compared to their branded counterparts. This study was conducted to compare the knowledge and perception of generic medicines among final year undergraduate medical, pharmacy, and nursing students in Sierra Leone. We conducted a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study among these students at the College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences University of Sierra Leone. Out of the 62 students, only two (2/62, 3.2% knew about the acceptable bioequivalence limit. At least half of respondents in all three groups agreed that all generics are therapeutically equivalent to their innovator brand. At least half of the medicine (21/42, 50% and nursing (6/9, 66.6% students, compared to pharmacy students (5/11, 45.5%, believed that higher safety standards are required for proprietary medicines than for generic medicines. Most of them agreed that they need more information on the safety, quality, and efficacy aspects of generics (59/62, 95.2%. All three groups of healthcare students, despite variations in their responses, demonstrated a deficiency in knowledge and misconception regarding generic medicines. Training on issues surrounding generic drugs in healthcare training institutions is highly needed among future healthcare providers in Sierra Leone.
Ellis, Robert A; Goodyear, Peter; Brillant, Martha; Prosser, Michael
This study investigates fourth-year pharmacy students' experiences of problem-based learning (PBL). It adopts a phenomenographic approach to the evaluation of problem-based learning, to shed light on the ways in which different groups of students conceive of, and approach, PBL. The study focuses on the way students approach solving problem scenarios in class, and using professional pharmacy databases on-line. Qualitative variations in student approaches to solving problem scenarios in both learning situations are identified. These turn out to be associated with qualitatively different conceptions of PBL and also with levels of achievement. Conceptions and approaches that emphasis learning for understanding correlate with attaining higher course marks. The outcomes of the study reinforce arguments that we need to know more about how students interpret the requirements of study in a PBL context if we are to unravel the complex web of influences upon study activities, academic achievement and longer-term professional competence. Such knowledge is crucial to any theoretical model of PBL and has direct practical implications for the design of learning tasks and the induction of students into a PBL environment.
Lapkin, Samuel; Levett-Jones, Tracy; Gilligan, Conor
The current status of interprofessional education (IPE) in Australian and New Zealand universities is largely unexamined despite its generally acknowledged benefit. Data are also limited about the use of IPE in teaching medication safety to nursing, pharmacy and medical students. For this reason a web-based cross-sectional survey was used to gather information from Australian and New Zealand universities offering nursing, pharmacy or medical programs. Responses were received from 31 of the 43 (72%) target universities. Eighty percent of the participants indicated that they currently offer IPE experiences, but only 24% of these experiences met the accepted definition of IPE. Of the participants who offer IPE as defined by Center for the Advancement of Interprofessional Education, only 50% use it to teach medication safety. Timetabling restrictions and lack of appropriate teaching and learning resources were identified as the main barriers to implementation of IPE. All participants reported that staff development, multi-media and e-learning resources would be beneficial to IPE initiatives and the teaching of medication safety. Innovative approaches will be needed to overcome the barriers and facilitate the uptake of quality IPE more broadly. Web-based and e-learning options promise a possible way forward, particularly in the teaching of medication safety to nursing, pharmacy and medical students.
Kassam, Rosemin; Collins, John B; Berkowitz, Jonathan
To compare patients' expectations and experiences at pharmacies offering traditional APPE learning opportunities with those offering enhanced APPEs that incorporate pharmaceutical care activities. A survey of anchored measures of patient satisfaction was conducted in 2 groups of APPE- affiliated community pharmacies: those participating in an enhanced APPE model versus those participating in the traditional model. The enhanced intervention included preceptor training, a comprehensive student orientation, and an extended experience at a single pharmacy rather than the traditional 2 x 4-week experience at different pharmacies. While patient expectations were similar in both traditional and enhanced APPE pharmacies, patients in enhanced pharmacies reported significantly higher in-store satisfaction and fewer service gaps. Additionally, satisfaction was significantly higher for patients who had received any form of consultation, from either pharmacist or students, than those reporting no consultations. Including provision of pharmaceutical care services as part of APPEs resulted in direct and measurable improvements in patient satisfaction.
Palmer, Laura K.
This lesson uses characters from the Harry Potter series of novels as a "hook" to stimulate students' interest in introductory forensic science. Students are guided through RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) analysis using inexpensive materials and asked to interpret data from a mock crime scene. Importantly, the lesson provides an…
The growing field of energy assessment for buildings presents opportunities for teachers to engage students in topics related to current issues, science, technology, and communication skills. Students who find satisfaction in energy auditing can expand their interests into careers as the demand to stop wasteful practices in homes and businesses…
Eshach, Haim; Hwang, Fu-Kwun; Wu, Hsin-Kai; Hsu, Ying-Shao
Although there is a broad agreement among scientists and science educators that students should not only learn science, but also acquire some sense of its nature, it has been reported that undergraduate students possess an inadequate grasp of the nature of science (NOS). The study presented here examined the potential and effectiveness of Nobel…
Yan, Qiu; Ma, Li; Zhu, Lina; Zhang, Wenli
A biochemistry course is a fundamental but important subject in medical education in China. In recent years, the number of international medical students has increased. Curriculum reform in biochemistry teaching is needed because of the knowledge limitations of students, a close linkage of biochemical content with clinics, the shortcomings of…
Gougeon, Thomas D.
Deborah Tannen's framework for interpersonal communication between males and females (published in 1990) was used to explore how male and female distance education students meet their primary needs through communication. The study population consisted of the 19 female and 6 male students enrolled in a 13-week computer conferencing course at the…
Larwin, Karen H.; Larwin, David A.
Bootstrapping methods and random distribution methods are increasingly recommended as better approaches for teaching students about statistical inference in introductory-level statistics courses. The authors examined the effect of teaching undergraduate business statistics students using random distribution and bootstrapping simulations. It is the…
Mena, Irene B.; Schmitz, Sven; McLaughlin, Dennis
This paper describes the implementation and assessment of an aerospace engineering course in which undergraduate students worked on research projects with graduate research mentors. The course was created using the principles from cooperative learning and project-based learning, and consisted of students working in small groups on a complex,…
Anicic, Katarina Pažur; Mekovec, Renata
This paper describes the implementation of problem-based learning (PBL) principles in an undergraduate IT service management course, followed by the results about student satisfaction and work performance. The results indicate the students' general satisfaction with the course implementation, as well as some challenges regarding the…
Nuffer, Wesley; Duke, Jodi
To compare the effectiveness of an internet-based training series with a traditional live classroom session in preparing pharmacy students to oversee a diabetes management program in community settings. Two cohorts of students were identified that prepared by utilizing a recorded online training exclusively, and two separate cohorts of students prepared by receiving only live classroom instruction. All students in the four cohorts were given a survey to evaluate the training sessions, and results were analyzed using the analysis of variance statistical test (ANOVA). Preceptors at the sites who interacted with students in all four cohorts were surveyed to evaluate which students appeared more prepared; these data were compared using paired t tests. Final assessment data for students in all four cohorts were analyzed using ANOVA. There were statistical differences between the two live training groups, with the second group finding the training to be more beneficial for preparing them, feeling the training length was appropriate and preferring the live modality for delivery. The two internet training cohorts were similar except for perceptions regarding the length of the online training. Comparing responses from those students who received live training with those receiving internet instruction demonstrated a statistical difference with the live groups rating the trainings as more helpful in preparing them for the clinics, rating the training as necessary, and rating their confidence higher in seeing patients. Preceptors rated the live training statistically higher than online training in preparing students. There was no difference between groups on their final site assessments. Live classroom training appears to be superior to the recorded internet training in preparing pharmacy students to oversee a diabetes management program in community settings.
Choudhary, Anjali; Gupta, Vineeta
Like many other people based professions, communications skills are essential to medical practice also. Traditional medical teaching in India does not address communication skills which are most essential in dealing with patients. Communication skills can be taught to medical students to increase clinical competence. To teach basic communication and counseling skills to fourth-year undergraduate students to increase their clinical competence. A total of 48, fourth-year MBBS students participated in the study. They were given training in basic communication and counseling skills and taught the patient interview technique according to Calgary-Cambridge guide format. Improvement in communication was assessed by change in pre- and post-training multiple choice questions, clinical patient examination, and Standardized Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire (SPSQ) scores. About 88% of the students in the sample were convinced of the importance of learning communication skills for effective practice. Almost 90% students were communicating better after training, as tested by improved SPSQ. As judged by Communication Skill Attitude Scale, student's positive attitude toward learning communication skill indicated that there is a necessity of communication skill training during undergraduate years. The ability to communicate effectively is a core competency for medical practitioners. Inculcating habits of good communications skill during formative years will help the medical students and future practitioners. Regular courses on effective communication should be included in the medical school curriculum.
Larsen, Eva Ladekjær; Andsager Smorawski, Gitte; Lund Krabak, Katrine
Background High alcohol consumption among university students is a well-researched health concern in many countries. At universities in Denmark, policies of alcohol consumption are a new phenomenon if existing at all. However, little is known of how students perceive campus alcohol policies...... topics such as experiences and attitudes towards alcohol consumption among students, regulations, and norms of alcohol use on campus. The analysis followed a pre-determined codebook. Results Alcohol consumption is an integrated practice on campus. Most of the participants found it unnecessary to make...
Barbara J. May
Full Text Available Bioinformatics spans many fields of biological research and plays a vital role in mining and analyzing data. Therefore, there is an ever-increasing need for students to understand not only what can be learned from this data, but also how to use basic bioinformatics tools. This activity is designed to provide secondary and undergraduate biology students to a hands-on activity meant to explore and understand gene structure with the use of basic bioinformatic tools. Students are provided an “unknown” sequence from which they are asked to use a free online gene finder program to identify the gene. Students then predict the putative function of this gene with the use of additional online databases.
Santulli, Carlo; Langella, Carla
In recent years, bio-inspired approach to design has gained considerable interest between designers, engineers and end-users. However, there are difficulties in introducing bio-inspiration concepts in the university curriculum in that they involve multi-disciplinary work, which can only possibly be successfully delivered by a team with integrated…
Background. This article reports on the introduction of an innovative 'blended learning' approach in the Paediatric Dentistry Department at the. University of the Western Cape (UWC) in Cape Town, South Africa. This intervention was the first of its kind to be introduced at UWC's dentistry faculty. Methods. Educational ...
Pattin, Anthony J; Kelling, Sarah E; Szyskowski, Jim; Izor, Michelle L; Findley, Susan
Pharmacy internships provide students with practical experiences that lead to enhancement of clinical skills and personal growth. To describe the design and implementation of a structured 10-week summer pharmacy internship program in a supermarket chain pharmacy. The pharmacy leadership team developed and piloted a new format of the pharmacy internship during the summer of 2013. Pharmacy students in professional year 1 (P1), 2 (P2), and 4 (P4) were invited to apply for a paid internship. Pharmacy students were recruited from all colleges of pharmacy in the state of Michigan. The goal of the new program was to create a focused learning opportunity that encouraged students to develop knowledge, skills, and abilities about patient care, pharmacy management, and working within a team. A total of 19 interns were recruited (P1 = 7, P2 = 7, and P4 = 5). Students practiced 40 hours per week and participated in the medication dispensing process and employee biometrics screening program. Interns provided approximately 500 assessments on pharmacy employees and all P1 and P2 interns completed a patient care project. The restructured internship program provided pharmacy students with a 10-week program that exposed them to many aspects of community pharmacy practice. The program needs future refinement and assessment measures to verify interns improve skills throughout the program. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available Multiple medical records may exist for a particular individual based on the various health services he or she receives. Maintaining updated, accurate records remains the responsibility of both practitioners and patients. Medication reconciliation, defined as the process to accurately depict the patient’s current orders and medications, 2 seeks to avoid errors in duplicity, interactions and dosing errors. Medication histories at Moses Cone Hospital are currently recorded by pharmacy technicians who follow specific standards, for instance they cannot remove “house meds”, which are prescribed medications with an active prescription attached. Technicians instead mark these medications for removal, leaving reconciliation to the physician. The physicians in the emergency department are not required to complete a full reconciliation for patient's profiles as this is a task left for the admitting physician. This leads to the question whether the reconciliation process in the emergency department (ED needs to be re-evaluated. Patients’ “After Visit Summary” reports were used to analyze patient profiles in determining medication reconciliation statuses (whether fully reconciled, partially reconciled, or unreconciled. 280 patients’ profiles were used. 243 records (86.79% were found unreconciled, 18 (6.43% were partially reconciled, and 19 (6.79% were fully reconciled. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have in any product or service discussed in the manuscript, including grants (pending or received, employment, gifts, stock holdings or options, honoraria, consultancies, expert testimony, patents and royalties Type: Student Project
Cain, Jeff; Fink, Joseph L
Widespread use of social media applications like Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter has introduced new complexities to the legal and ethical environment of higher education. Social communications have traditionally been considered private; however, now that much of this information is published online to the public, more insight is available to students' attitudes, opinions, and character. Pharmacy educators and administrators may struggle with the myriad of ethical and legal issues pertaining to social media communications and relationships with and among students. This article seeks to clarify some of these issues with a review of the legal facets and pertinent court cases related to social media. In addition, 5 core ethical issues are identified and discussed. The article concludes with recommendations for pharmacy educators with regard to preparing for and addressing potential legal issues pertaining to social media.
Riaz, Fatima; Yasmin, Shahina; Yasmin, Raheela
To evaluate the effectiveness of Formative Assessment in enhancing learning among dental students, and to interpret the assessment from students' perspective in this regard. The experimental non-randomised controlled study was conducted from January to June 2013 at Islamic International Dental College, Islamabad, and comprised first year Bachelor of Dental Surgery students attending regular physiology lectures and tutorials. Summative assessments conducted at the end of each unit were included as pre-intervention tests. After one month's planning, central nervous system unit was delivered in a month's trial with four formative assessment and feedback sessions (one per week). Likert scale-based student feedback questionnaire was administered. Post-intervention summative assessment was done by Multiple Choice and Short Essay Questions. Data was analysed using SPSS 17. Out of 68 students, 64(94.1%) agreed that a conducive environment was maintained and 62(90%) agreed that such sessions should be continued throughout the year; 59(87%) reflected that the feedback provided by the teacher was timely and positive and ensured equitable participation; 56(82%)agreed that it enhanced their interest in the subject; 56(68%) agreed that they were now more focussed; and43(63%)were of the opinion that they have progressed in the subject through these sessions. There was highly significant improvement in the monthly post-intervention test scores compared to pre-intervention test (p=0.000). Formative assessment sessions enhanced motivation and learning in first year dental students. Organised regular sessions with students' feedback may contribute to the development of pedagogic practice.
Yan, Qiu; Ma, Li; Zhu, Lina; Zhang, Wenli
A biochemistry course is a fundamental but important subject in medical education in China. In recent years, the number of international medical students has increased. Curriculum reform in biochemistry teaching is needed because of the knowledge limitations of students, a close linkage of biochemical content with clinics, the shortcomings of lecture-centered teaching, and the requirements for early clinical practice training and competence. In this study, we analyzed a novel curriculum reform, "Hybrid-PBL," which combined problem-based learning (PBL) with biochemistry lectures and was implemented for biochemical teaching at Dalian Medical University (DMU) in China. The change in curriculum affected 189 international medical students. This study selected two PBL cases concerning the basic biochemical issues of carbohydrate metabolism and liver biochemistry for the analysis, and ten examples of learning issues for each case were reported by the international students. A questionnaire was utilized to evaluate students' perceptions of the Hybrid-PBL, and examination scores were analyzed to assess the curriculum reform in biochemistry teaching. A statistical analysis revealed that the Hybrid-PBL curriculum was well accepted by the international students as an effective supplement to lecture-centered teaching programs. The students obtained more abilities, higher examination scores, and an improved understanding of biomedical information from the Hybrid-PBL program than from conventional teaching methods. Our study was an innovative trial that applied a PBL curriculum to the specific discipline of biochemistry and may provide a potential and promising new teaching method that can be widely utilized. © 2017 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(4):336-342, 2017. © 2017 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
Boyle, Cynthia J.; Janke, Kristin K.
Objective. To assist administrators and faculty members in colleges and schools of pharmacy by gathering expert opinion to frame, direct, and support investments in student leadership development. Methods. Twenty-six leadership instructors participated in a 3-round, online, modified Delphi process to define doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) student leadership instruction. Round 1 asked open-ended questions about leadership knowledge, skills, and attitudes to begin the generation of student leadership development guiding principles and competencies. Statements were identified as guiding principles when they were perceived as foundational to the instructional approach. Round 2 grouped responses for agreement rating and comment. Group consensus with a statement as a guiding principle was set prospectively at 80%. Round 3 allowed rating and comment on guidelines, modified from feedback in round 2, that did not meet consensus. The principles were verified by identifying common contemporary leadership development approaches in the literature. Results. Twelve guiding principles, related to concepts of leadership and educational philosophy, were defined and could be linked to contemporary leadership development thought. These guiding principles describe the motivation for teaching leadership, the fundamental precepts of student leadership development, and the core tenets for leadership instruction. Conclusions. Expert opinion gathered using a Delphi process resulted in guiding principles that help to address many of the fundamental questions that arise when implementing or refining leadership curricula. The principles identified are supported by common contemporary leadership development thought. PMID:24371345
Traynor, Andrew P; Boyle, Cynthia J; Janke, Kristin K
To assist administrators and faculty members in colleges and schools of pharmacy by gathering expert opinion to frame, direct, and support investments in student leadership development. Twenty-six leadership instructors participated in a 3-round, online, modified Delphi process to define doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) student leadership instruction. Round 1 asked open-ended questions about leadership knowledge, skills, and attitudes to begin the generation of student leadership development guiding principles and competencies. Statements were identified as guiding principles when they were perceived as foundational to the instructional approach. Round 2 grouped responses for agreement rating and comment. Group consensus with a statement as a guiding principle was set prospectively at 80%. Round 3 allowed rating and comment on guidelines, modified from feedback in round 2, that did not meet consensus. The principles were verified by identifying common contemporary leadership development approaches in the literature. Twelve guiding principles, related to concepts of leadership and educational philosophy, were defined and could be linked to contemporary leadership development thought. These guiding principles describe the motivation for teaching leadership, the fundamental precepts of student leadership development, and the core tenets for leadership instruction. Expert opinion gathered using a Delphi process resulted in guiding principles that help to address many of the fundamental questions that arise when implementing or refining leadership curricula. The principles identified are supported by common contemporary leadership development thought.
Diane M Calinski
Full Text Available Objective: The goals of the interdisciplinary laboratory were to educate and engage pharmacy and physician assistant (PA students in a discussion focused on the collection, interpretation, and application of pharmacogenetic data. Design: Interdisciplinary teams participated in a one-hour, case-based discussion and provided a therapeutic recommendation using the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium guidelines. Assessment: All students were surveyed before and after the laboratory on knowledge and application of pharmacogenetics and working in interdisciplinary teams. The interdisciplinary laboratory successfully enhanced the student’s knowledge about sample collection and interpretation of pharmacogenetic information. Additionally, the laboratory improved student confidence in working in interdisciplinary teams to apply pharmacogenetic information to clinical decision making. Furthermore, the majority of students indicated that the interdisciplinary laboratory is valuable and useful in healthcare curriculums. Conclusion: The laboratory highlighted the differences between pharmacy and PA education regarding PGt, and brought to light several important uncertainties: (1 What is the depth of PGt knowledge that healthcare practitioners need? (2 What are best practices for conveying PGt information? Type: Case Study
Cummins, Allison M; Wight, Raechel; Watts, Nicole; Catling, Christine
first year midwifery students learn early in semester about situations in midwifery where a high level of emotion is expressed, such as taking a sexual history, being faced with the body image changes of pregnancy and working with women in the extreme pain of labour. Commencing students usually have not had exposure to the realities of studying and working in midwifery, and often have an idealised view of midwifery that may lead to attrition from the course. We aimed to equip students with personal and professional tools to discuss sensitive issues in midwifery and promote self-care through the development of two workshops. The first workshop focussed on sensitive issues in midwifery and the second on self-care strategies. quantitative and qualitative data were collected pre and post workshops using a survey. the workshops were developed at one university in New South Wales, Australia. Beginning first year midwifery students MEASUREMENTS: feeling more comfortable, confident and knowledgeable was measured using a paired t-test from the responses on a pre and post workshop survey. Content analysis was performed on the qualitative survey responses. there were significant increases in the students feeling more comfortable to discuss sensitive issues in midwifery following the first workshop. They found meeting new people, respecting opinions, normalizing confronting topics to be valuable and useful. The second workshop found significant differences in being more confident and knowledgeable to access and try new self-care strategies in both their personal and professional life. Students discussed learning to be more mindful in order to prepare for stressful situations. They became aware of their feeling and thoughts when under stress and said they would practice techniques including meditation. the workshops assisted the students to develop peer support, self-care strategies and coping mechanisms when faced with the intimate and sometimes confronting nature of midwifery
Full Text Available Although there is a broad agreement among scientists and science educators that students should not only learn science, but also acquire some sense of its nature, it has been reported that undergraduate students possess an inadequate grasp of the nature of science (NOS. The study presented here examined the potential and effectiveness of Nobel Prize stories as a vehicle for teaching NOS. For this purpose, a 36-hour course, “Albert Einstein’s Nobel Prize and the Nature of Science,” was developed and conducted in Taiwan Normal University. Ten undergraduate physics students participated in the course. Analysis of the Views of Nature of Science questionnaires completed by the students before and after the course, as well as the students’ own presentations of Nobel Prize stories (with an emphasis on how NOS characteristics are reflected in the story, showed that the students who participated in the course enriched their views concerning all aspects of NOS. The paper concludes with some suggestions for applying the novel idea of using Nobel Prize stories in physics classrooms.
David A. Walczak
Full Text Available This paper describes the process of developing and implementing a comprehensive, school-wide, and sustainable information literacy program at a commercial art and design school. The program requires that information literacy student learning outcomes be included in specific General Education and art and design courses across the curriculum. The results of this multi-year effort indicate that while the program is sound, teaching information literacy is an on-going effort requiring much more training of faculty and students. Best practices in information literacy in library science and art and design literature are reviewed
Keresztes, Jan M
Public perception of a profession is extremely important, but even more vital is the actual worth the profession provides to those who partake of its services. As pharmacy recreates itself as a consultative profession, many changes are occurring in the college of pharmacy students' education. The onset of the Introductory Pharmacy Practice Experience (IPPE), the continued rotations in the Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience (APPE), and the proposal to have mandatory residencies occurring by 2020 show the steps that pharmacy will take to move forward. But pharmacy continues to miss the first rung of the ladder as the profession climbs to its future success by not addressing the mandatory education of the primary workforce in day-to-day activities: that of standardized education and training of pharmacy technicians. While IPPE, APPE, and residencies will strengthen the pharmacy "dwelling," its foundation does not have solid ground. A deadline needs to be established for mandatory education, training, and certification for all technicians entering the profession today and, only after achieving these goals, should the pharmacy technicians be licensed to practice. With even more forethought, pharmacy might require that potential college of pharmacy students, as well as those not fortunate enough to be admitted to a college of pharmacy, become pharmacy technicians first. Only then can the pharmacy profession conquer the top rung of the ladder in a strong, upright fashion.
Worthen, Dennis B
Rufus Ashley Lyman, a physician, was one of the most prominent leaders in US pharmacy education during the first half of the 20th century. He remains the only individual to be the founding dean at colleges of pharmacy at 2 state universities. His role in the creation and sustenance of the American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education provided a platform for a national community and a sounding board for faculty members and others interested in professional education. His efforts to increase pharmacy educational standards were instrumental in the abandonment of the 2-year graduate in pharmacy (PhG) degree and the universal acceptance of the 4-year bachelor of science (BS) degree. Lyman's simple approach and fierce championship of his beliefs led to his recognition as a lamplighter for the profession.Curt P. Wimmer, chair of the New York Branch of the American Pharmaceutical Association (now the American Pharmacists Association (APhA), introduced the 1947 Remington Honor Medalist, Rufus Ashley Lyman. Wimmer mentioned that Lyman worked as a lamplighter in Omaha, Nebraska, during medical school. Continuing the lamplighter analogy, Wimmer cited Lyman's work as a pharmacy educator and editor: "in the councils of your colleagues, your lamp became a torch emitting red hot sparks that often burnt and seared and scorched -- but always made for progress."1 This description provides an evocative image of one of the most prominent pharmacy educators and leaders of the first half of the 20th century.
Ahrenkiel, Linda; Worm-Leonhard, Martin
In this article, we present details of a one-week interdisciplinary science camp for high school students in Denmark, "Criminal Camp". We describe the use of forensic science and simulated crimes as a common foundation for teaching the theory and practice of concepts in chemistry, physics, and medicine or biology. The main goal of the…
Kucan, Linda; Cho, Byeong-Young; Han, Hyeju
This article describes the design of a social studies unit about the Johnstown Flood of 1889 with a particular emphasis on how specific unit resources engaged middle school students in learning about the geographical and historical context of Johnstown, Pennsylvania. We also report on how the resources supported the teaching and learning of the…
Flurkey, William H.; Inlow, Jennifer K.
An inexpensive enzyme kinetics laboratory exercise for undergraduate biochemistry students is described utilizing tyrosinase from white button mushrooms. The exercise can be completed in one or two three-hour lab sessions. The optimal amounts of enzyme, substrate (catechol), and inhibitor (kojic acid) are first determined, and then kinetic data is…
Rutt, L.; Gray, C.; Turner, R.; Swain, J.; Hulme, S.; Pomeroy, R.
Expectations for higher education providers to produce graduates ready for the workplace have shaped provision, with the introduction of the Foundation Degree, and expectations of an employability component within higher education programmes. This paper reports on an intervention for three groups of foundation degree students, which introduces…
Wood, Andrew; Struthers, Kate; Whiten, Susan; Jackson, David; Herrington, C. Simon
Pathology and anatomy are both sciences that contribute to the foundations of a successful medical career. In the past decade, medical education has undergone profound changes with the development of a core curriculum combined with student selected components. There has been a shift from discipline-based teaching towards problem-based learning.…
Koeneman, Marcel; Goedhart, Martin; Ossevoort, Miriam
Primary scientific literature is one of the most important means of communication in science, written for peers in the scientific community. Primary literature provides an authentic context for showing students how scientists support their claims. Several teaching strategies have been proposed using
Kaye, Kathryn E; Berns, Alyssa L; Cress, Lyndsi R; Nazar, Andrea M
Mini-medical school programs are designed to give participants, usually high school students, a more realistic perception of medicine and to leave students with a stronger desire to pursue a career in medicine. To determine if the annual High School Mini-Medical School program hosted by the West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine increased interest in osteopathic medicine among high school students. A survey was conducted before and after the program to test the program's effectiveness. West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine's Clinical Education Center. High school students from Charleston, Fairmont, and the Greenbrier Valley in West Virginia. The participants attended an outreach program designed to interest them in a career in medicine and specifically osteopathic medicine. Sixty-nine participants came away with an improved understanding of a physician's life and medical school after the program. There was a mean increase in positive responses for the survey items "I understand what medical school life is truly like" (P=.0066) and "I understand what life as a doctor is really like" (P=.0004). PARTICIPANTS left the program with a stronger desire to pursue a career in medicine (Posteopathic medicine.
Gordon, Michael E.; Newburry, William E.
Despite a recognized need for a global mindset, opportunities for US business school students to gain hands-on diversity training regarding intercultural issues remain rare. The reasons for this neglect include a lack of agreement on how to teach intercultural awareness and a paucity of faculty qualified to do so. In order to introduce…
Gómez-de-Gabriel, Jesús Manuel; Mandow, Anthony; Fernández-Lozano, Jesús; García-Cerezo, Alfonso
This paper proposes lab work for learning fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) in mechatronic systems. These skills are important for engineering education because FDD is a key capability of competitive processes and products. The intended outcome of the lab work is that students become aware of the importance of faulty conditions and learn to…
Rice-Bailey, Tammy; Baker, Kimberly S.
This article describes an interdisciplinary partnership that resulted in the introduction of a writing coach into an MBA class on critical and analytical thinking. By examining the response to this role by the writing coaches themselves and by the students enrolled in three sections of this new course, this exploratory study endeavors to answer…
Thieman, Thomas J.; Clary, E. Gil; Olson, Andrea M.; Dauner, Rachel C.; Ring, Erin E.
For 6 years, we have offered an integrated weekly laboratory focusing on research methods as part of our general psychology course. Through self-report measures and controlled comparisons, we found that laboratory projects significantly increase students' knowledge and comfort level with scientific approaches and concepts, sustain interest in…
Kamei, Miwako; Imoto, Yumi; Otowa, Ryo; Shida, Miharu; Hirai, Yumi; Nakamura, Akihiro
In August 2013, the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan held the Third National Student Workshop in Tokyo. A total of 88 people-70 sixth-year undergraduate students from 70 universities, and 18 alumni who had participated in the First and the Second Workshops-attended this Workshop. The theme of this Workshop was "Contribution to medical care and society: How will I act as a pharmacist in the future?" The first day took the form of a World Café, with participants exchanging information on such topics as, "The purpose for choosing a pharmacy major, and my achievement status", "My favorite aspects of my college", and "My dreams and paths: Painting my future image". Later that day, participants discussed and gave presentations on the ways they would be contributing as pharmacists to society and medical care. On the second day, participants discussed and gave presentations on the efforts they would like to make as pharmacists to contribute to society and medical care. The final session was a general assembly for discussion on the ways they would be contributing as pharmacists to society and medical care. Throughout the two days, attendees participated in discussions with an awareness of their common ground, in that they all had national qualification in spite of different intended paths. In this article, 4 sixth-year students (their status at the time of the symposium) from the Workshop introduce outlines of the discussions and products from each group.
Takahashi, Katsuyuki; Suda, Yasuki; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Yasutaka; Kawabata, Shiho; Kawakami, Noriko; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Nagayama, Katsuya
Long-term clinical training based on a model core curriculum was conducted to nurture highly competent pharmacists in the clinical field. Pharmacists' responsibilities are expanding, and a system has been developed to help pharmacists gain accreditation, identify specialties, and improve their training. However, this system requires research competency. Therefore clinical research should be considered a part of clinical training to encourage high competency among pharmacists. Because the model core curriculum does not include a section on clinical research. Osaka City University Hospital introduced a hands-on clinical research experience program and evaluated its usefulness. A significant improvement in the level of knowledge and awareness of clinical research was seen among students who underwent the clinical research experience program. In addition, the level of student satisfaction was higher. These findings suggest that a clinical research experience program may be useful to nurture a greater awareness of clinical research and knowledge acquisition among pharmacists.
Katarina Pažur Aničić; Renata Mekovec
This paper describes the implementation of problem-based learning (PBL) principles in an undergraduate IT service management course, followed by the results about student satisfaction and work performance. The results indicate the students’ general satisfaction with the course implementation, as well as some challenges regarding the self-assessment and peer assessment of their work. The findings also reveal the students’ better work performance in project results than in traditional knowledge...
Leung, Gilberto Ka Kit; Patil, Nivritti Gajanan; Ip, Mary Sau Man
Identifying informed and interested staff to teach patient safety can be difficult. We report our experiences with a lecture-based program on patient safety delivered by health care administrators. A self-administered questionnaire survey on patient safety culture was given to 130 third-year medical students before ('pre-test') and at 3 months after ('post-test') the program. The latter consisted of two 60-minute whole-class lectures using contemporary medical incidents in this locality as illustrative cases. Thirteen of the 23 questionnaire items (56.5%) showed statistically significant changes at the post-test. Students became more appreciative of the notions that errors were inevitable, and that disciplinary actions and 'being more careful' may not be the most effective strategies for the prevention of error. Issues concerning error reporting were more resistant to our educational intervention. Students regarded patient safety as an important topic that should be included in undergraduate teaching and professional examinations. The implementation of a patient safety curriculum should be tailored to an institution's needs, limitations, and culture. Health care administrators were found to be effective faculties. A brief lecture-based program could be integrated readily into an existing curriculum, and was found to produce at least short-term, positive changes.
Cisneros, Robert M; Jawaid, Sarah Parnapy; Kendall, Debra A; McPherson, Charles E; Mu, Keli; Weston, Grady Scott; Roberts, Kenneth B
To identify reasons for inclusion of international practice experiences in pharmacy curricula and to understand the related structure, benefits, and challenges related to the programs. A convenience sample of 20 colleges and schools of pharmacy in the United States with international pharmacy education programs was used. Telephone interviews were conducted by 2 study investigators. University values and strategic planning were among key driving forces in the development of programs. Global awareness and cultural competency requirements added impetus to program development. Participants' advice for creating an international practice experience program included an emphasis on the value of working with university health professions programs and established travel programs. Despite challenges, colleges and schools of pharmacy value the importance of international pharmacy education for pharmacy students as it increases global awareness of health needs and cultural competencies.
Vrabec, Marko; Dolžan, Erazem
The undergraduate field course in Geological Mapping at the University of Ljubljana involves 20-40 students per year, which precludes the use of specialized rugged digital field equipment as the costs would be way beyond the capabilities of the Department. A different mapping area is selected each year with the aim to provide typical conditions that a professional geologist might encounter when doing fieldwork in Slovenia, which includes rugged relief, dense tree cover, and moderately-well- to poorly-exposed bedrock due to vegetation and urbanization. It is therefore mandatory that the digital tools and workflows are combined with classical methods of fieldwork, since, for example, full-time precise GNSS positioning is not viable under such circumstances. Additionally, due to the prevailing combination of complex geological structure with generally poor exposure, students cannot be expected to produce line (vector) maps of geological contacts on the go, so there is no need for such functionality in hardware and software that we use in the field. Our workflow therefore still relies on paper base maps, but is strongly complemented with digital tools to provide robust positioning, track recording, and acquisition of various point-based data. Primary field hardware are students' Android-based smartphones and optionally tablets. For our purposes, the built-in GNSS chips provide adequate positioning precision most of the time, particularly if they are GLONASS-capable. We use Oruxmaps, a powerful free offline map viewer for the Android platform, which facilitates the use of custom-made geopositioned maps. For digital base maps, which we prepare in free Windows QGIS software, we use scanned topographic maps provided by the National Geodetic Authority, but also other maps such as aerial imagery, processed Digital Elevation Models, scans of existing geological maps, etc. Point data, like important outcrop locations or structural measurements, are entered into Oruxmaps as
Banerjee, Arna; Slagle, Jason M; Mercaldo, Nathaniel D; Booker, Ray; Miller, Anne; France, Daniel J; Rawn, Lisa; Weinger, Matthew B
Failures of teamwork and interpersonal communication have been cited as a major patient safety issue. Although healthcare is increasingly being provided in interdisciplinary teams, medical school curricula have traditionally not explicitly included the specific knowledge, skills, attitudes, and behaviors required to function effectively as part of such teams. As part of a new "Foundations" core course for beginning medical students that provided a two-week introduction to the most important themes in modern healthcare, a multidisciplinary team, in collaboration with the Center for Experiential Learning and Assessment, was asked to create an experiential introduction to teamwork and interpersonal communication. We designed and implemented a novel, all-day course to teach second-week medical students basic teamwork and interpersonal principles and skills using immersive simulation methods. Students' anonymous comprehensive course evaluations were collected at the end of the day. Through four years of iterative refinement based on students' course evaluations, faculty reflection, and debriefing, the course changed and matured. Four hundred twenty evaluations were collected. Course evaluations were positive with almost all questions having means and medians greater than 5 out of 7 across all 4 years. Sequential year comparisons were of greatest interest for examining the effects of year-to-year curricular improvements. Differences were not detected among any of the course evaluation questions between 2007 and 2008 except that more students in 2008 felt that the course further developed their "Decision Making Abilities" (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.07-2.67). With extensive changes to the syllabus and debriefer selection/assignment, concomitant improvements were observed in these aspects between 2008 and 2009 (OR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.28-3.50). Substantive improvements in specific exercises also yielded significant improvements in the evaluations of those exercises. This
Al-Wazaify, Mayyada; Matowe, Lloyd; Albsoul-Younes, Abla; Al-Omran, Ola A
The practice of pharmacy, as well as pharmacy education, varies significantly throughout the world. In Jordan, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia, the profession of pharmacy appears to be on the ascendance. This is demonstrated by an increase in the number of pharmacy schools and the number of pharmacy graduates from pharmacy programs. One of the reasons pharmacy is on the ascendance in these countries is government commitment to fund and support competitive, well-run pharmacy programs. In this report we describe pharmacy education in 3 Middle East countries: Jordan, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia. All 3 countries offer bachelor of pharmacy (BPharm) degrees. In addition, 2 universities in Jordan and 1 in Saudi Arabia offer PharmD degree programs. The teaching methods in all 3 countries combine traditional didactic lecturing and problem-based learning. Faculties of pharmacy in all 3 countries are well staffed and offer competitive remuneration. All 3 countries have a policy of providing scholarships to local students for postgraduate training abroad. The majority of students in Jordan and Kuwait are female, while the ratio of male to female students in Saudi Arabia is even. Students' attitudes towards learning are generally positive in all 3 countries. In Saudi Arabia and Kuwait, most pharmacy graduates work in the public sector, while in Jordan, the majority work in the private sector.
Mayberry, G. C.; Mattietti, G. K.
The Washington DC area has interesting geology and a multitude of agencies that deal with the geosciences, yet K-12 public school students in DC, most of whom are minorities, have limited exposure to the geosciences. Geoscience agencies in the DC area have a unique opportunity to address this by introducing the geosciences to local students who otherwise may not have such an opportunity, by highlighting the geology in the students' "backyard," and by leveraging partnerships among DC-based geoscience-related agencies. The USGS and George Mason University are developing a project called DC Rocks, which will give DC's students an exciting introduction into the world of geoscience with place-based learning opportunities that will make geoscience relevant to their lives and their futures. Both the need in DC and the potential for lasting impact are great; the geosciences have the lowest racial diversity of all the science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields, 89% of students in DC public schools are minorities, and there is no dedicated geoscience curriculum in DC. DC Rocks aims to give these students early exposure to the earth sciences, and encourage them to consider careers in the profession. DC Rocks will work with partner agencies to apply several methods that are recommended by researchers to increase the participation of minority students in the geosciences, including providing profoundly positive experiences that spark interest in the geosciences (Levine et al., 2007); increasing students' sense of belonging in the geosciences (Huntoon, et al, 2016); and place-based teaching practices that emphasize the study of local sites (Semken, 2005), such as DC's Rock Creek Park. DC Rocks will apply these methods by coordinating local geoscientists and resources to provide real-world examples of the geosciences' impact on students' lives. Through the DC Rocks website, educators will be able to request geoscience-related resources such as class presentations by
Full Text Available Abstract Background Failures of teamwork and interpersonal communication have been cited as a major patient safety issue. Although healthcare is increasingly being provided in interdisciplinary teams, medical school curricula have traditionally not explicitly included the specific knowledge, skills, attitudes, and behaviors required to function effectively as part of such teams. Methods As part of a new “Foundations” core course for beginning medical students that provided a two-week introduction to the most important themes in modern healthcare, a multidisciplinary team, in collaboration with the Center for Experiential Learning and Assessment, was asked to create an experiential introduction to teamwork and interpersonal communication. We designed and implemented a novel, all-day course to teach second-week medical students basic teamwork and interpersonal principles and skills using immersive simulation methods. Students’ anonymous comprehensive course evaluations were collected at the end of the day. Through four years of iterative refinement based on students’ course evaluations, faculty reflection, and debriefing, the course changed and matured. Results Four hundred twenty evaluations were collected. Course evaluations were positive with almost all questions having means and medians greater than 5 out of 7 across all 4 years. Sequential year comparisons were of greatest interest for examining the effects of year-to-year curricular improvements. Differences were not detected among any of the course evaluation questions between 2007 and 2008 except that more students in 2008 felt that the course further developed their “Decision Making Abilities” (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.07–2.67. With extensive changes to the syllabus and debriefer selection/assignment, concomitant improvements were observed in these aspects between 2008 and 2009 (OR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.28–3.50. Substantive improvements in specific exercises also yielded
Nguyen, Kathy; Shah, Bijal M.; Doroudgar, Shadi; Bidwal, Monica K.
Objective. To assess the prevalence, methods, and motivations for didactic cheating among pharmacy students and to determine predictive factors for cheating in pharmacy colleges and schools. Methods. A 45-item cross-sectional survey was conducted at all four doctor of pharmacy programs in Northern California. For data analysis, t test, Fisher exact test, and logistic regression were used. Results. Overall, 11.8% of students admitted to cheating in pharmacy school. Primary motivations for cheating included fear of failure, procrastination, and stress. In multivariate analysis, the only predictor for cheating in pharmacy school was a history of cheating in undergraduate studies. Conclusion. Cheating occurs in pharmacy schools and is motivated by fear of failure, procrastination, and stress. A history of past cheating predicts pharmacy school cheating. The information presented may help programs better understand their student population and lead to a reassessment of ethical culture, testing procedures, and prevention programs. PMID:27899829
Ip, Eric J; Nguyen, Kathy; Shah, Bijal M; Doroudgar, Shadi; Bidwal, Monica K
Objective. To assess the prevalence, methods, and motivations for didactic cheating among pharmacy students and to determine predictive factors for cheating in pharmacy colleges and schools. Methods. A 45-item cross-sectional survey was conducted at all four doctor of pharmacy programs in Northern California. For data analysis, t test, Fisher exact test, and logistic regression were used. Results. Overall, 11.8% of students admitted to cheating in pharmacy school. Primary motivations for cheating included fear of failure, procrastination, and stress. In multivariate analysis, the only predictor for cheating in pharmacy school was a history of cheating in undergraduate studies. Conclusion. Cheating occurs in pharmacy schools and is motivated by fear of failure, procrastination, and stress. A history of past cheating predicts pharmacy school cheating. The information presented may help programs better understand their student population and lead to a reassessment of ethical culture, testing procedures, and prevention programs.
Leah M. Courtland
Full Text Available The Tephra2 numerical model for tephra fallout from explosive volcanic eruptions is specifically designed to enable students to probe ideas in model literacy, including code validation and verification, the role of simplifying assumptions, and the concepts of uncertainty and forecasting. This numerical model is implemented on the VHub.org website, a venture in cyberinfrastructure that brings together volcanological models and educational materials. The VHub.org resource provides students with the ability to explore and execute sophisticated numerical models like Tephra2. We present a strategy for using this model to introduce university students to key concepts in the use and evaluation of Tephra2 for probabilistic forecasting of volcanic hazards. Through this critical examination students are encouraged to develop a deeper understanding of the applicability and limitations of hazard models. Although the model and applications are intended for use in both introductory and advanced geoscience courses, they could easily be adapted to work in other disciplines, such as astronomy, physics, computational methods, data analysis, or computer science.
Saleem, Fahad; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Ibrahim, Zehan Shahnaz; Rasheedy, Alian A L; Aljadhey, Hisham
The present study aims to explore the perceptions and understanding of future pharmacists towards volunteerism in health promotional activities. The study was designed as a cross sectional, descriptive survey. All pharmacy undergraduates (n = 293) from the first, second and third professional years enrolled at the School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia were targeted for the study. A pre validated, 15-itemed questionnaire was used for data collection and was analysed by using SPSS. Dichotomous groups were compared with Mann-Whitney U test. The Jonckheere-Terpstra test was used to evaluate the trend of association. Where significant associations were reported, effect size was calculated by using Kendall tau correlation coefficient. p value of <0.05 was considered to be of statistical significance. Out of 200 respondents, 185 completed the study with a response rate of 92.5 %. Agreement with mandatory status of volunteerism at community services was significant with gender (p = 0.003) and year of study (p = 0.045). Confidence in performing health promotional activities (p = 0.001, τ = 0.155) and needed communication skills during health promotional activities (p = 0.022, τ = 0.322) were also significantly associated with year of study with a moderate positive trend from junior to senior classes. Although pharmacy undergraduates showed positive interest and will to volunteer at the health promotional programs, certain issues were also highlighted. Therefore, in order to address these challenges, pharmacy curriculum needs to include a greater emphasis on role of pharmacists in public health. This can be achieved by having a dedicated core course as part of pharmacy curriculum.
Full Text Available Virtual learning is a type of electronic learning system based on the web. It models traditional in- person learning by providing virtual access to classes, tests, homework, feedbacks and etc. Students and teachers can interact through chat rooms or other virtual environments. Web 2.0 services are usually used for this method. Internet audio-visual tools, multimedia systems, a disco CD-ROMs, videotapes, animation, video conferencing, and interactive phones can all be used to deliver data to the students. E-learning can occur in or out of the classroom. It is time saving with lower costs compared to traditional methods. It can be self-paced, it is suitable for distance learning and it is flexible. It is a great learning style for continuing education and students can independently solve their problems but it has its disadvantages too. Thereby, blended learning (combination of conventional and virtual education is being used worldwide and has improved knowledge, skills and confidence of pharmacy students.The aim of this study is to review, discuss and introduce different methods of virtual learning for pharmacy students.Google scholar, Pubmed and Scupus databases were searched for topics related to virtual, electronic and blended learning and different styles like computer simulators, virtual practice environment technology, virtual mentor, virtual patient, 3D simulators, etc. are discussed in this article.Our review on different studies on these areas shows that the students are highly satisfied withvirtual and blended types of learning.
Full Text Available The PHARMINE (“Pharmacy Education in Europe” project examined the organisation of pharmacy practice and education in the European Union (EU. An electronic survey was sent out to representatives of different sectors (community, hospital, industrial pharmacists, university staff, and students in each individual EU member state. This paper presents the results of the PHARMINE survey on pharmacy practice and education in Romania. In the light of this data we examine to what extent harmonisation of practice and education with EU norms has occurred, whether this has promoted mobility of pharmacy professionals, academics and students, and what impact it has had on healthcare in Romania. The survey reveals the substantial changes in Romanian pharmacy practice and education since the 1989 change in government and Romania joining the EU in 2007. Romania remains, however, a poor country with expenditure on healthcare less than one-third of the EU average. This factor also impacts pharmacy practice. Although practice seems aligned with EU norms, this masks the substantial imbalance between the situation in the richer capital, Bucharest, and that of the poorer countryside. Harmonisation to EU norms in pharmacy education has not promoted student exchange and mobility but, rather, a brain drain in pharmaceutical graduates to other EU countries. Specialisation in industrial practice has been lost since 1989 with pharmacists being replaced by chemists. In hospitals the hospital pharmacist is being replaced by the clinical pharmacist.
Kendler, Barry S.; And Others
Ethnobotany is the scientific investigation of plant use by indigenous cultures for food, medicine, pesticides, and other purposes. Discusses the significance of ethnobotany and provides resources and laboratory activities suitable for use in biology and botany courses at the high school and college levels. (MDH)
Mohamed Hassan Elnaem
Full Text Available Pharmacy informatics is demonstrated to have a positive effect on pharmacy practice. The incorporation of pharmacy informatics in academic programs is a common feature in the pharmacy curriculum. This work aims to provide an overview of the current and potential role of mobile applications (apps in pharmacy education and practice. Mobile apps are the most common informatics tools used by medical and pharmacy practitioners as well as students. Both students and practitioners have overall positive perceptions toward using mobile apps in their daily clinical training and practice although the fact that the number of pharmacy apps is still small relatively in comparison with other medical-related apps. There are many potential roles for mobile apps in pharmacy practice and education. The future efforts of educational uses of mobile apps in pharmacy should target playing a role in the provision of customized tools for clinical pharmacy education.
Rogers, Erica R; King, Sean R
To evaluate first-year doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students' communication apprehension, outcome expectations, and self-efficacy for communication over the duration of a 15-week patient-counseling course. First-year PharmD students (n=94) were asked to complete a 47-item, self-administered questionnaire on 3 occasions over the duration of the Nonprescription Drugs/Patient-Counseling course during the fall 2009 and 2010 semesters. Eighty-seven of 94 students completed the survey instrument across data collection periods. There were significant reductions in total communication apprehension scores and in the communication apprehension subscores for meetings and public speaking, and significant increases in self-efficacy over time. No differences were found for outcome expectations of communication scores or the subscores for interpersonal conversations and group discussion. Communication apprehension may be decreased and self-efficacy for communication increased in first-year PharmD students through a 15-week Nonprescription Drugs/Patient-Counseling course using small-group practice sessions, case studies, and role-play exercises in conjunction with classroom lectures.
Woska, Joseph R., Jr.; Collins, Danielle M.; Canney, Brian J.; Arcario, Erin L.; Reilly, Patricia L.
Partners in Science is a cooperative program between Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and area high schools in the community surrounding our Connecticut campus. It is a two-phase program that introduces high school students and teachers to the world of drug discovery and leading-edge pharmaceutical research. Phase 1 involves a series of lectures, tours, and demonstrations given by scientists within our research and development division (R&D). Phase 2 involves the selection of a small group of participants to intern for the summer in a research laboratory, working side by side with a scientist within R&D. In this manuscript, the specific aims, goals, and development of the Partners in Science program are described, as well as the syllabus/agenda, the logistics surrounding the operation of the program, and our shared personal experiences with students and teachers who have participated. Some of the pitfalls/problems associated with the program will be presented, and finally, the future direction of the program including areas of improvement and expansion are described.
Describes a business-school partnership involving gifted students in the design and cultivation of a medicinal garden. Students studied the uses of native plants for medicine, food, shelter, clothing, and landscaping, and developed portfolios and presentations through their work on the community garden site and an outdoor classroom. (PB)
Chanakit, Teeraporn; Low, Bee Yean; Wongpoowarak, Payom; Moolasarn, Summana; Anderson, Claire
To explore the current status of pharmacy education in Thailand. The International Pharmaceutical Federation of the World Health Organization's (FIP-WHO) Global Survey of Pharmacy Schools was used for this study. The survey instrument was distributed to the deans of the 19 faculties (colleges) of pharmacy in Thailand. More than half the colleges have been in existence less than 20 years, and the government owns 80% of them. There were 2 paths of admission to study pharmacy: direct admission and central admission system. The doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) programs can be divided into 4 types. Approximately 60% of all teaching staff holds a doctoral degree. Regarding the work balance among teaching staff, around 60% focus on teaching activities, 20% focus on research, and less than 20% focus on patient care services concurrent with real practice teaching. The proportion of student time dedicated to theory, practice, and research in PharmD programs is 51.5%, 46.7%, and 1.8%, respectively. Sites owned by the colleges or by others were used for student training. Colleges followed the Office of the National Education Standards' Internal Quality Assurance (IQA) and External Quality Assurance (EQA), and the Pharmacy Council's Quality Assessment (ONESQA). This study provides a picture of the current status of curriculum, teaching staff, and students in pharmacy education in Thailand. The curriculum was adapted from the US PharmD program with the aim of meeting the country's needs and includes industrial pharmacy and public health tracks as well as clinical tracks. However, this transition in pharmacy education in Thailand needs to be monitored and evaluated.
D. Todd Bess
Full Text Available A thorough understanding of pharmacy law by students is important in the molding of future pharmacy practitioners, but a standardized template for the best way to educate students in this area has not been created. A mock Board of Pharmacy meeting was designed and incorporated into the Pharmacy Law course at the University of Tennessee College of Pharmacy. Students acted as Board of Pharmacy members and utilized technology to decide outcomes of cases and requests addressed in a typical 2 day Tennessee Board of Pharmacy meeting. The actual responses to those cases, as well as similar cases and requests addressed over a 5 year period, were revealed to students after they made motions on mock scenarios. The mock Board of Pharmacy meeting engages the students in a way that lectures alone often fail to achieve with some initial evidence of successful student learning. Utilizing this teaching format as a law education tool challenges the status quo of pharmacy education and may serve as an impetus and catalyst for future innovations. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have in any product or service discussed in the manuscript, including grants (pending or received, employment, gifts, stock holdings or options, honoraria, consultancies, expert testimony, patents, and royalties. Dr. Wang’s time was partly supported by the National Institute on Aging of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number R01AG040146 and R01AG049696. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health. Type: Idea Paper
Evaluating the effectiveness of a peer-led education intervention to improve the patient safety attitudes of junior pharmacy students: a cross-sectional study using a latent growth curve modelling approach.
Walpola, Ramesh L; Fois, Romano A; McLachlan, Andrew J; Chen, Timothy F
Despite the recognition that educating healthcare students in patient safety is essential, changing already full curricula can be challenging. Furthermore, institutions may lack the capacity and capability to deliver patient safety education, particularly from the start of professional practice studies. Using senior students as peer educators to deliver practice-based education can potentially overcome some of the contextual barriers in training junior students. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a peer-led patient safety education programme for junior pharmacy students. A repeat cross-sectional design utilising a previously validated patient safety attitudinal survey was used to evaluate attitudes prior to, immediately after and 1 month after the delivery of a patient safety education programme. Latent growth curve (LGC) modelling was used to evaluate the change in attitudes of first-year students using second-year students as a comparator group. Undergraduate university students in Sydney, Australia. 175 first-year and 140 second-year students enrolled in the Bachelor of Pharmacy programme at the University of Sydney. An introductory patient safety programme was implemented into the first-year Bachelor of Pharmacy curriculum at the University of Sydney. The programme covered introductory patient safety topics including teamwork, communication skills, systems thinking and open disclosure. The programme consisted of 2 lectures, delivered by a senior academic, and a workshop delivered by trained final-year pharmacy students. A full LGC model was constructed including the intervention as a non-time-dependent predictor of change (χ(2) (51)=164.070, root mean square error of approximation=0.084, comparative fit index=0.913, standardised root mean square=0.056). First-year students' attitudes significantly improved as a result of the intervention, particularly in relation to internalising errors (p=0.010), questioning behaviours (pimprove
Koster, Ellen S; Blom, Lyda; Philbert, Daphne; Rump, Willem; Bouvy, Marcel L
Practice-based networks can serve as effective mechanisms for the development of the profession of pharmacists, on the one hand by supporting student internships and on the other hand by collection of research data and implementation of research outcomes among public health practice settings. This paper presents the characteristics and benefits of the Utrecht Pharmacy Practice network for Education and Research, a practice based research network affiliated with the Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Utrecht University. Yearly, this network is used to realize approximately 600 student internships (in hospital and community pharmacies) and 20 research projects. To date, most research has been performed in community pharmacy and research questions frequently concerned prescribing behavior or adherence and subjects related to uptake of regulations in the pharmacy setting. Researchers gain access to different types of data from daily practice, pharmacists receive feedback on the functioning of their own pharmacy and students get in depth insight into pharmacy practice.
Microplastic pollution is becoming an increasing concern in oceanographic and environmental studies, and offers an opportunity to engage undergraduate students in environmental research using a highly relevant field of investigation. For instance, a majority of environmental science majors not only know about the Great Pacific Garbage Patch, but can also list off several statistics about its size and impact on marine life. Building on this enthusiasm for understanding the impact of microplastics on the environment, a laboratory class was designed to introduce environmental science majors to the rigors of scientific investigation using microplastic pollution in urban waterways as the focus of their laboratory experience. Over a seven-week period, students worked in small groups to design an experiment, collect samples in the field, analyze the samples in the lab, and present their findings in a university-wide forum. Their research questions focused on developing a better understanding of the transportation and fate of microplastics in the urban waterways of Washington, D.C. This presentation will explore the benefits and challenges associated with a student guided field study for environmental science undergraduates, and will describe results and student feedback from their urban microplastic field study.
Twigg, Michael J.; Wright, David; Kirkdale, Charlotte L.; Desborough, James A.; Thornley, Tracey
Introduction The UK government advocates person-centred healthcare which is ideal for supporting patients to make appropriate lifestyle choices and to address non-adherence. The Community Pharmacy Future group, a collaboration between community pharmacy companies and independents in the UK, introduced a person-centred service for patients with multiple long-term conditions in 50 pharmacies in Northern England. Objective Describe the initial findings from the set up and delivery of a novel com...
Kaae, Susanne; Traulsen, Janine M; Nørgaard, Lotte S
of counselling services with respect to medicine. The pharmacy staff does not seem to realize these barriers. CONCLUSIONS: For pharmacies to encourage customer interest in pharmacy counselling, the staff should start taking the identified barriers into account when planning communication strategies....... counselling at the present time, in order to develop the patient-pharmacy relationship for the benefit of both patients and pharmacies. DESIGN: Short semi-structured interviews were carried out with pharmacy customers by pharmacy internship students. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: One hundred and eight customers...... in 35 independent pharmacies across Denmark were interviewed during the spring of 2011. MAIN VARIABLES STUDIED: Customers were interviewed about their expectations of pharmacies in general and their experiences with medical counselling in particular. RESULTS: Customers perceive community pharmacies very...
Khan, M O Faruk; Deimling, Michael J; Philip, Ashok
The origins and advancements of pharmacy, medicinal chemistry, and drug discovery are interwoven in nature. Medicinal chemistry provides pharmacy students with a thorough understanding of drug mechanisms of action, structure-activity relationships (SAR), acid-base and physicochemical properties, and absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADMET) profiles. A comprehensive understanding of the chemical basis of drug action equips pharmacy students with the ability to answer rationally the "why" and "how" questions related to drug action and it sets the pharmacist apart as the chemical expert among health care professionals. By imparting an exclusive knowledge base, medicinal chemistry plays a vital role in providing critical thinking and evidence-based problem-solving skills to pharmacy students, enabling them to make optimal patient-specific therapeutic decisions. This review highlights the parallel nature of the history of pharmacy and medicinal chemistry, as well as the key elements of medicinal chemistry and drug discovery that make it an indispensable component of the pharmacy curriculum.
Kaae, Susanne; Traulsen, Janine M; Nørgaard, Lotte S
Despite pharmacists' extensive knowledge in the optimization of patients' medical treatments, community pharmacies are still fighting to earn patients' trust with respect to medicinal counselling at the counter. The aim was to investigate how patients perceive pharmacy counselling at the present time, in order to develop the patient-pharmacy relationship for the benefit of both patients and pharmacies. Short semi-structured interviews were carried out with pharmacy customers by pharmacy internship students. One hundred and eight customers in 35 independent pharmacies across Denmark were interviewed during the spring of 2011. Customers were interviewed about their expectations of pharmacies in general and their experiences with medical counselling in particular. Customers perceive community pharmacies very differently in terms of both expectations of and positive experiences with counselling. They appear to be in favour of pharmacy counselling with respect to over-the-counter medicine and first-time prescription medicine in contrast to refills. Customers find it difficult to express the health-care role of pharmacies even when experiencing and appreciating it. Lack of appreciation of pharmacy counselling for refill prescription medicine and the difficulty in defining the role of pharmacies might stem from the difficulties that customers have in understanding medicine and thus the role of counselling services with respect to medicine. The pharmacy staff does not seem to realize these barriers. For pharmacies to encourage customer interest in pharmacy counselling, the staff should start taking the identified barriers into account when planning communication strategies. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Smith Danielle M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Pharmacies are venues in which patients seek out products and professional advice in order to improve overall health. However, many pharmacies in the United States continue to sell tobacco products, which are widely known to cause detrimental health effects. This conflict presents a challenge to pharmacists, who are becoming increasingly more involved in patient health promotion activities. This study sought to assess Western New York (WNY area pharmacists’ opinions about the sale of tobacco products in pharmacies, and pharmacists’ opinions on their role in patient smoking cessation. Methods Participants responded to two parallel surveys; a web-based survey was completed by 148 university-affiliated pharmacist preceptors via a list based sample, and a mail-based survey was completed by the supervising pharmacist in 120 area pharmacies via a list-based sample. The combined response rate for both surveys was 31%. Univariate and bivariate analyses were performed to determine any significant differences between the preceptor and supervising pharmacist survey groups. Results Over 75% of respondents support legislation banning the sale of tobacco products in pharmacies. Over 86% of respondents would prefer to work in a pharmacy that does not sell tobacco products. Differences between preceptor and supervising pharmacist groups were observed. Action regarding counseling patients was uncommon among both groups. Conclusions Pharmacists support initiatives that increase their role in cessation counseling and initiatives that restrict the sale of tobacco products in pharmacies. These data could have important implications for communities and pharmacy practice.
Crawford, Stephanie Y
Internet pharmacy has been the focus of heightened interest over the past 3 years since the first major Web site was introduced in the United States. This paper addresses issues pertaining to Internet pharmacies that sell prescriptions and other products to consumers at the retail level. The Internet pharmacy industry has shifted rapidly in the short time span. This paper begins with a summary of historical considerations and the shifting organization of Internet pharmacy. The advantages and disadvantages of online pharmacy practice are listed. Issues of access, quality, and cost are described. The challenges in regulation at the state and federal levels are presented. Advice to consumers is offered regarding the use of Internet pharmacy sites for purchasing prescription drug products.
Cordell, Ralph L; Cordeira, Kelly L; Cohen, Laurence P; Bensyl, Diana M
This report describes Centers for Disease Control and Prevention programs that expose students to epidemiology and public health sciences (EPHS). The Science Ambassador workshop targets middle and high school teachers and promotes teaching EPHS in the classroom. The National Science Olympiad Disease Detectives event is an extracurricular science competition for middle and high school students based on investigations of outbreaks and other public health problems. The Epidemiology Elective Program provides experiential learning activities for veterinary and medical students. As of 2016, 234 teachers from 37 states and territories and three other countries participated in SA workshops. Several are teaching units or entire courses in EPHS. The National Science Olympiad Disease Detectives event exposed approximately 15,000 middle and high school students to EPHS during the 2015-2016 school year. The Epidemiology Elective Program has exposed 1,795 veterinary and medical students to EPHS. Students can master fundamental concepts of EPHS as early as middle school and educators are finding ways to introduce this material into their classrooms. Programs to introduce veterinary and medical students to EPHS can help fill the gap in exposing older students to the field. Professional organizations can assist by making their members aware of these programs. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Hilliard, N.L.; Pickett, M.; Thaxton, P.; Norenberg, J.P.; Wittstrom, K.; Rhodes, B.
Aim: (1) Increase the nuclear pharmacy education opportunities across the United States and the around the world. (2) Establish collaborative educational agreements between colleges of pharmacy and local nuclear pharmacy preceptors. (3) Decrease the shortage of radio pharmacists. 4) Provide nuclear education courses to supplement existing educational programs. Materials and Methods: Nuclear Education Online (www.nuclearonline.org) is an educational consortium between the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences and the University of New Mexico. The faculty members from each institution have collaborated to design an online didactic curriculum and experiential training materials. The didactic portion is delivered via WebCT (www.webct.com) and involves interactive studies with faculty from UNM and UAMS. The student-centered curriculum is based on the APhA Syllabus for Nuclear Pharmacy Training and includes interactive web-based course materials, discussion groups, preceptor-led activities and problem-based learning (PBL) case studies based upon actual clinical studies and real-life pharmacy situations. Individual units of study include Nuclear Physics, Radiation Biology, Radiation Safety, Instrumentation, and Radiochemistry/Radiopharmacology. Students can begin the program at anytime. Once a cohort of students is established, the students proceed through the PBL cases, working interactively as a group. Results: Since June 2001, over 26 students have completed the 10-week certificate program. These students have been located across the U.S. and in Saudi Arabia. Fifteen students have completed individual courses in nuclear physics and instrumentation through colleges of pharmacy course offerings using the NEO faculty as instructors. Student evaluations revealed that 78% of the students thought that the NEO program was a 'great way to learn' (highest rating). When comparing PBL to a traditional classroom setting, two thirds of students preferred problem
Full Text Available Michael A Veronin,1,2 Lacy Daniels,1,2 Elaine Demps21Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Texas A&M Health Science Center, Kingsville, TX, 2Irma Lerma Rangel College of Pharmacy, Texas A&M Health Science Center, Kingsville, TX, USAAbstract: Interactive pharmacy case studies are an essential component of the pharmacy curriculum. We recently developed an elective course at the Rangel College of Pharmacy in pharmacy case studies for second- and third-year Doctor of Pharmacy students using Second Life® (SL, an interactive three-dimensional virtual environment that simulates the real world. This course explored the use of SL for education and training in pharmacy, emphasizing a case-based approach. Virtual worlds such as SL promote inquiry-based learning and conceptual understanding, and can potentially develop problem-solving skills in pharmacy students. Students were presented ten case scenarios that primarily focused on drug safety and effective communication with patients. Avatars, representing instructors and students, reviewed case scenarios during sessions in a virtual classroom. Individually and in teams, students participated in active-learning activities modeling both the pharmacist’s and patient’s roles. Student performance and learning were assessed based on SL class participation, activities, assignments, and two formal, essay-type online exams in Blackboard 9. Student course-evaluation results indicated favorable perceptions of content and delivery. Student comments included an enhanced appreciation of practical issues in pharmacy practice, flexibility of attendance, and an increased ability to focus on course content. Excellent student participation and performance in weekly active-learning activities translated into positive performance on subsequent formal assessments. Students were actively engaged and exposed to topics pertinent to pharmacy practice that were not covered in the required pharmacy curriculum. The multiple
Introducing Organic Chemistry Students to Natural Product Isolation Using Steam Distillation and Liquid Phase Extraction of Thymol, Camphor, and Citral, Monoterpenes Sharing a Unified Biosynthetic Precursor
McLain, Katherine A.; Miller, Kenneth A.; Collins, William R.
Plants have provided and continue to provide the inspiration and foundation for modern medicines. Natural product isolation is a key component of the process of drug discovery from plants. The purpose of this experiment is to introduce first semester undergraduate organic chemistry students, who have relatively few lab techniques at their…
Fox, Brent I; Flynn, Allen; Clauson, Kevin A; Seaton, Terry L; Breeden, Elizabeth
Computerization is transforming health care. All clinicians are users of health information technology (HIT). Understanding fundamental principles of informatics, the field focused on information needs and uses, is essential if HIT is going to support improved patient outcomes. Informatics education for clinicians is a national priority. Additionally, some informatics experts are needed to bring about innovations in HIT. A common approach to pharmacy informatics education has been slow to develop. Meanwhile, accreditation standards for informatics in pharmacy education continue to evolve. A gap remains in the implementation of informatics education for all pharmacy students and it is unclear what expert informatics training should cover. In this article, we propose the first of two complementary approaches to informatics education in pharmacy: to incorporate fundamental informatics education into pharmacy curricula for all students. The second approach, to train those students interested in becoming informatics experts to design, develop, implement, and evaluate HIT, will be presented in a subsequent issue of the Journal .
Narui, Koji; Samizo, Kazuo; Inoue, Michiko; Watanabe, Kinzo
The promotion of self-medication by pharmacies, with the aim of encouraging a patient's self-selection of proper OTC drug, is written about in the national action plan "Japan is Back". The subject of self-medication has been improved in the 2013 revised edition of "Model Core Curriculum for Pharmaceutical Education". At Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, the systematic education of self-medication was started from the onset of the six-year course in the third, fourth and fifth grade. We introduce here a new approach in our systematic education of self-medication. In the practice of the fourth grade, groups of around 5-6 students are formed. The pharmacy students assume various roles-of pharmacist, rater, observer, and chairman-and perform role-playing. We prepared a standardized patient (SP) showing various symptoms. The student of the role of pharmacist asks about the SP's symptoms, chooses an OTC drug suitable for the SP, and explains the OTC drug to the SP. After the role-playing, those in the roles of rater, observer, SP, and faculty give feedback to the student who played the role of pharmacist. Because we conduct this role-playing using SPs with a variety of symptoms, we can create a situation similar to a real drugstore.
Ubaka, Chukwuemeka M; Sansgiry, Sujit S; Ukwe, Chinwe V
Objective. To evaluate cognitive factors that might influence academic performance of students in Nigerian pharmacy schools. Methods. A cross-sectional, multi-center survey of Nigerian pharmacy students from 7 schools of pharmacy was conducted using 2 validated questionnaires measuring cognitive constructs such as test anxiety, academic competence, test competence, time management, and strategic study habits. Results. Female students and older students scored significantly better on time management skills and study habits, respectively. Test anxiety was negatively associated with academic performance while test competence, academic competence, and time management were positively associated with academic performance. These 4 constructs significantly discriminated between the lower and higher performing students, with the first 2 contributing to the most differences. Conclusion. Test and academic competence, test anxiety, and time management were significant factors associated with low and high academic performance among Nigerian pharmacy students. The study also demonstrated the significant effects of age, gender, and marital status on these constructs.
Objective. To determine pharmacy students’ knowledge of and attitudes toward medical marijuana and to determine if pharmacy students need additional education on the topic. Methods. Pharmacy students were asked to complete a survey on medical marijuana that assessed their knowledge of, medical uses of, adverse effects with, and attitudes toward medical marijuana through 23 Likert-scale questions. Results. Three hundred eleven students completed the survey. Fifty-eight percent of the students felt that medical marijuana should be legalized in all states. However, the majority of students did not feel comfortable answering consumers’ questions regarding efficacy, safety, or drug interactions related to the substance. Accurate responses for diseases or conditions for permitted medical marijuana use was low, with only cancer (91%) and glaucoma (57%) identified by more than half the students. Conclusion. With an increasing number of states adopting medical marijuana use, pharmacy schools need to evaluate the adequacy of medical marijuana education in their curriculum. PMID:26430272
Baldwin, Jeffrey N.; Scott, David M.; DeSimone, Edward M., II; Forrester, Joy H.; Fankhauser, Martha P.
The objective of this study was to profile and compare alcohol and other drug (AOD) use attitudes and behaviors in three pharmacy colleges. Student surveys of AOD use attitudes and behaviors were conducted at one southwestern and two midwestern pharmacy colleges. Response was 86.5% (566/654). Reported past-year use included alcohol 82.8%, tobacco…
Sera, Leah; Wheeler, Erin
Gamification is the use of game mechanics to promote engagement and enjoyment of problem-solving in non-game situations. Gamification has been used widely in recent years in industry and academia as a tool for training and education. The aims of this paper are to provide an overview of gamification and digital game-based learning (DGBL), review the use of digital games in health professional education, and provide suggestions for future use in pharmacy curricula. Many examples of game-based learning in pharmacy and other health professional curricula have been published, however the body of literature on DGBL is less developed. Overall, evaluations of these techniques show that students find them engaging and enjoyable. A recent meta-analysis of studies comparing DGBL to non-game based learning in primary, secondary, post-secondary education found that DGBL significantly enhances learning. Challenges to implementing game-based learning are financial, cultural, and technological. Many areas of the pharmacy curriculum could be appropriate for digital gamification. With more students entering pharmacy school familiar with video games and game-based living the time has come for pharmacy educators to explore how these instructional technologies could benefit a new generation of pharmacy students. As serious games are developed and researched in pharmacy curricula, test scores, student confidence in knowledge and skills, and retention of knowledge and skills are all outcomes that, if published, will help advance the adoption of DGBL into the pharmacy school classroom. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Katoue, Maram G.; Awad, Abdelmoneim I.; Schwinghammer, Terry L.; Kombian, Samuel B.
Background: Pharmaceutical care is defined as the responsible provision of medication therapy to achieve definite outcomes that improve patients’ quality of life. Pharmacy education should equip students with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes they need to practise pharmaceutical care competently. Objective: To investigate pharmacy students’ attitudes towards pharmaceutical care, perceptions of their preparedness to perform pharmaceutical care competencies, opinions about the importance...
The world is changing. Where before you needed to purchase and install big and expensive programs on your computer in order to create stunning images, you can now do it all online for free using Aviary. Aviary is an online collection of applications that enable you to upload and modify your own photographs and images, and create new imagery from scratch. It includes a powerful photo-manipulation tool called Phoenix, a vector-drawing application called Raven, an effects suite for creating eye-watering image effects called Peacock, and much more. Introducing Aviary takes you through all of these
One of the first books on Autodesk's new Mudbox 3D modeling and sculpting tool!. Autodesk's Mudbox was used to create photorealistic creatures for The Dark Knight , The Mist , and others films. Now you can join the crowd interested in learning this exciting new digital modeling and sculpting tool with this complete guide. Get up to speed on all of Mudbox's features and functions, learn how sculpt and paint, and master the art of using effective workflows to make it all go easier.: Introduces Autodesk's Mudbox, an exciting 3D modeling and sculpting tool that enables you to create photorealistic
Yee, Gary C; Janke, Kristin K; Fuller, Patrick D; Kelley, Katherine A; Scott, Steven A; Sorensen, Todd D
StrengthsFinder ® is a widely-used assessment that can be used to help student pharmacists discover their talents (i.e., signature themes [STs]) and develop their leadership skills. The assessment has also been used in pharmacy residents, but the prevalence of various STs in that group has not been compared to those in student pharmacists. Residents from four midwestern pharmacy institutions completed StrengthsFinder ® 2.0 and received their top five STs. STs were organized and examined by domains (executing, influencing, relationship building, and strategic thinking). StrengthsFinder ® data on student pharmacists were obtained from a previously published study. The distribution of the themes and domains was compared between residents and student pharmacists. Responses from 31 residency program cohorts, including 290 pharmacy residents from a pool of 304 (95.4%) possible respondents, were included in the study. The learner ST was more frequently reported in the top five in pharmacy residents versus student pharmacists (42.8% versus 35.5%, p = 0.022). The woo and communication STs were also more frequently reported in the top five, while the consistency ST was reported less frequently in the top five in pharmacy residents versus student pharmacists (p marketing and design of programs and ranking of candidates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A suit was filed by an HIV-positive man against a pharmacy that inadvertently disclosed his HIV status to his ex-wife and children. His ex-wife tried to use the information in a custody battle for their two children. The suit against the pharmacy was settled, but the terms of the settlement remain confidential.
Ofstad, William; Brunner, Lane J
Instructors wanting to engage students in the classroom seek methods to augment the delivery of factual information and help students move from being passive recipients to active participants in their own learning. One such method that has gained interest is team-based learning. This method encourages students to be prepared before class and has students work in teams while in the classroom. Key benefits to this pedagogy are student engagement, improved communication skills, and enhanced critical-thinking abilities. In most cases, student satisfaction and academic performance are also noted. This paper reviews the fundamentals of team-based learning in pharmacy education and its implementation in the classroom. Literature reports from medical, nursing, and pharmacy programs are also discussed.
This column presents ideas and techniques to enhance science teaching. In today's classrooms, teachers face numerous challenges. They are preparing students for jobs and careers that are not even conceived of yet. Assessments are being used to address students' college and career readiness and to promote critical thinking and problem solving.…
Allen, Susan; Waterfield, Jon; Rivers, Peter
This is an Open Access Journal. The Objective Structured Clinical Exercise (OSCE) is the mainstay of clinical competence evaluation of healthcare professionals. The iSED® (individualised Skills Evaluation and Development) program, developed by Leicester School of Pharmacy, embraces various learning theories and was conceived to enhance the OSCE experience and facilitate students’ self-regulation in developing clinical competence. Aim: To explore pharmacy students’ experienc...
Davies, Michael J; Fleming, Hannah; Jones, Richard; Menzie, Kate; Smallwood, Christine; Surendar, Sebastian
Over the past decade the profession of pharmacy has steadily evolved. The New Pharmacy Contract exposed pharmacists to a fundamental change in traditional pharmacy business models. This study will consider whether community pharmacists, pharmacy undergraduates and academic staff within the United Kingdom believe it would be beneficial to incorporate a business management module within the Master of Pharmacy (MPharm) undergraduate degree along with potential mechanisms of delivery. Further to ethical approval, the questionnaire was distributed to UK registered pharmacists (n=600), MPharm undergraduates (n=441) and academic staff at Liverpool John Moores University (n=44). The questions were formatted as multiple choice questions, Likert scales or the open answer type. On questionnaire completion and return, data were analysed using simple frequencies, cross tabulations and non-parametric techniques in the SPSS (v18). The majority of pharmacists (84.9%) confirmed that business skills affect their everyday responsibilities to a considerable extent. A high proportion of undergraduate students (92.8%) believed that business management skills will impact on their future role. In total, 64.3% of this cohort declared that if a module were introduced they would study it. The majority of staff (79%) agreed that business skills are gaining increased importance within the field of pharmacy. Data suggest that business skills are of relevance to the practice of pharmacy. Appropriate staff to deliver the taught material would include business owners / lecturers and teaching practitioners covering topics including management, leadership, interpersonal skills and regulation. We suggest the inclusion of a business module with the MPharm degree would be of great value in preparing individuals for practice within a modern day healthcare setting.
Full Text Available Background: Over the past decade the profession of pharmacy has steadily evolved. The New Pharmacy Contract exposed pharmacists to a fundamental change in traditional pharmacy business models. Objective: This study will consider whether community pharmacists, pharmacy undergraduates and academic staff within the United Kingdom believe it would be beneficial to incorporate a business management module within the Master of Pharmacy (MPharm undergraduate degree along with potential mechanisms of delivery.Methods: Further to ethical approval, the questionnaire was distributed to UK registered pharmacists (n=600, MPharm undergraduates (n=441 and academic staff at Liverpool John Moores University (n=44. The questions were formatted as multiple choice questions, Likert scales or the open answer type. On questionnaire completion and return, data were analysed using simple frequencies, cross tabulations and non-parametric techniques in the SPSS (v18.Results: The majority of pharmacists (84.9% confirmed that business skills affect their everyday responsibilities to a considerable extent. A high proportion of undergraduate students (92.8% believed that business management skills will impact on their future role. In total, 64.3% of this cohort declared that if a module were introduced they would study it. The majority of staff (79% agreed that business skills are gaining increased importance within the field of pharmacy. Conclusions: Data suggest that business skills are of relevance to the practice of pharmacy. Appropriate staff to deliver the taught material would include business owners / lecturers and teaching practitioners covering topics including management, leadership, interpersonal skills and regulation. We suggest the inclusion of a business module with the MPharm degree would be of great value in preparing individuals for practice within a modern day healthcare setting.
Davies, Michael J.; Fleming, Hannah; Jones, Richard; Menzie, Kate; Smallwood, Christine; Surendar, Sebastian
Background Over the past decade the profession of pharmacy has steadily evolved. The New Pharmacy Contract exposed pharmacists to a fundamental change in traditional pharmacy business models. Objective This study will consider whether community pharmacists, pharmacy undergraduates and academic staff within the United Kingdom believe it would be beneficial to incorporate a business management module within the Master of Pharmacy (MPharm) undergraduate degree along with potential mechanisms of delivery. Methods Further to ethical approval, the questionnaire was distributed to UK registered pharmacists (n=600), MPharm undergraduates (n=441) and academic staff at Liverpool John Moores University (n=44). The questions were formatted as multiple choice questions, Likert scales or the open answer type. On questionnaire completion and return, data were analysed using simple frequencies, cross tabulations and non-parametric techniques in the SPSS (v18). Results The majority of pharmacists (84.9%) confirmed that business skills affect their everyday responsibilities to a considerable extent. A high proportion of undergraduate students (92.8%) believed that business management skills will impact on their future role. In total, 64.3% of this cohort declared that if a module were introduced they would study it. The majority of staff (79%) agreed that business skills are gaining increased importance within the field of pharmacy. Conclusions Data suggest that business skills are of relevance to the practice of pharmacy. Appropriate staff to deliver the taught material would include business owners / lecturers and teaching practitioners covering topics including management, leadership, interpersonal skills and regulation. We suggest the inclusion of a business module with the MPharm degree would be of great value in preparing individuals for practice within a modern day healthcare setting. PMID:24155858
Stamper, Brendan D; Buhler, Amber V; Harrelson, John P; Roberts, Sigrid C; Malhotra, Ashim; Elbarbry, Fawzy A; Rao, Deepa; Karimi, Reza; Turner, R Brigg; Marlow, Catherine; Devaud, Leslie L
Online prerequisite review (OPR) tutorials were designed and implemented to reinforce foundational scientific material in order to protect in-class time, foster self-directed learning, and ensure all students have similar baseline knowledge. Twenty-one tutorials covering undergraduate prerequisite material were developed by faculty and organized into six core modules, comprising basic biology, chemistry, and physiology topics. A quiz on this material was given on the first day of each course. This score was correlated with the final exam score at course completion. Additional student and faculty feedback was collected through surveys. 2372 quiz-exam pairings were collected over three consecutive fall semesters. A one point increase in the quiz score was associated with a 3.6 point (95% confidence interval 3.1-4.0) higher exam score, as well as a greater probability of passing the exam (Pstudent survey data revealed an overwhelmingly positive perception of the OPR tutorials, and surveyed faculty reported better use of class time and improved student competency and participation. Implementation of OPR tutorials may give faculty more efficient use of class time, and their associated quizzes serve as an early indicator for students at-risk of not passing who are candidates for early interventions. Furthermore, the OPR tutorial design gives it great transferability to biomedical post-graduate programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tolomiczenko, George; Sanger, Terry
Medical students are attracted by the prospect of a meaningful addition to their clinical work. Engineering students are excited by a unique opportunity to learn directly alongside their medical student peers. For both, as well as the scientific community at large, the boutique program at the University of Southern California (USC) linking engineering and medical training at the graduate level is instructive of a new way of approaching engineering education that can potentially provide benefits to both students and society. Students who have grown up in an era of ?mass customization? in the retail and service industries can enjoy that same degree of flexibility also in the realm of education. At the same time, society gains engineers who have developed an increased empathy and awareness of the clinical contexts in which their innovations will be implemented.
Bowers, Riley; Tunney, Robert; Kelly, Kim; Mills, Beth; Trotta, Katie; Wheeless, C Neil; Drew, Richard
Objective. To compare pre- and post-intervention test scores assessing insulin injection technique and counseling skills among P1 students with (intervention) or without (control) simulated patients, and to compare counseling checklist and knowledge retention test scores between groups. Methods. This study utilized cluster randomization. In addition to traditional instruction, the intervention group counseled a simulated patient on the use of insulin using the teach-back method. Test score changes from baseline were analyzed via two-sample t-test. Results. The intervention group exhibited a significantly greater increase in knowledge test scores from baseline compared to the control group. Similar changes were seen in post-instruction counseling checklist scores and knowledge retention test scores from baseline. Conclusion. Simulated patient interactions, when added to traditional coursework within a P1 skills lab, improve student counseling aptitude and knowledge retention scores.
Brownell, Sara E.; Khalfan, Waheeda; Bergmann, Dominique; Simoni, Robert
Undergraduate biology majors are often overwhelmed by and underinformed about the diversity and complexity of biological research that is conducted on research-intensive campuses. We present a program that introduces undergraduates to the diversity and scope of biological research and also provides unique teaching opportunities for graduate…
Full Text Available Objective: To meet the needs of patients with behavioral health problems, health professional students require training in helping patients contemplate and move towards behavior change. Motivational Interviewing (MI is one such intervention. This novel online training module was developed for groups of interprofessional education (IPE students. Design: Thirty-eight first-year health-professions students were trained using an online introduction to MI. This was followed by cases with questions where students were asked to provide MI consistent responses. Case participation was done through an online discussion board, where all students could respond to case questions, and to their peers. The discussion board was monitored by a faculty member skilled in the practice of MI and another skilled in interprofessional education/development. Conclusions: Students reported the course to be valuable and an acceptable way to begin learning new communication skills, and about other health-professions. Students’ self-rating of empathy and understanding of patients who do not readily commit to behavior change improved significantly from pre-module to post-module. This online MI module for IPE appeared to be a success. Conflict of Interest None to report Treatment of Human Subjects: IRB review/approval required and obtained Type: Note
Cowen, D L
The development of pharmacy in Western civilization has been influenced by ideas of individual liberty; the impact of these ideas is traced. For a short time during the French Revolution, individuals without qualifications could practice pharmacy, but abuses prompted return of regulation; from 1803, pharmacy was closely regulated by the state. Liberal thinking in 19th-century Britain left control of pharmacy mainly within the profession; regulation was definitive rather than restrictive. With the influence of Jacksonian Democracy and freedom of trade in the United States, there were no effective pharmacy regulations until the late 19th century and few educational requirements for licensure until the 1920s. In Germany, the old system of concessions and privileges was upset after World War II when any qualified pharmacist was allowed to open a shop wherever desired in the American-occupied zone; the courts upheld this policy as the basis for establishment of pharmacies in West Germany. Liberty in dispensing drugs has been limited out of concern for the well-being of individuals and of society as a whole. In Great Britain and the U.S., restrictions on dispensing antedated laws establishing qualifications for pharmacists. The history of pharmacy demonstrates that there are moral and social barriers to realization of the ideals of liberty. History also suggests that if pharmacists assume responsibilities that use their specialized training, they can defend against inroads by nonpharmacists.
Zuhriyah, Lilik; Setijowati, Nanik; Andarini, Sri
Some diseases in the community have a relationship with the environment. Therefore, medical students need to be exposed early to environmental problems in the community. The aim of this paper is to explain the role of field studies for medical students in introducing environmental health problems at an early stage. Field studies were applied by the Department of Public Health in 2005-2006 and 164 students from Semester II, which come from two classes, were required to join it. The portion score of the field study was 10%. Each class consisted of ten groups. Each group consisted of approximately eight students. Each group took different topics/targets of observation. These included ecological farming, household waste management, communal waste management, family medicine plants, food home industry, food street vendors, slaughterhouses, traditional markets, management of communal waste water, and recycling home industry. Each group observed in a community and interviewed related informants. Students were required to make a report and present it in their class. At the end of the exam, students were required to assess the benefit of this activity using a range of 1 (minimal) to 5 (maximal). The students considered the benefits of the field study method, giving an average score of 3.9 and 3.95 for presentation