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Sample records for intrinsic work value-reward

  1. Intrinsic Work Value-Reward Dissonance and Work Satisfaction during Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfeli, Erik J.; Mortimer, Jeylan T.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research suggests that discrepancies between work values and rewards are indicators of dissonance that induce change in both to reduce such dissonance over time. The present study elaborates this model to suggest parallels with the first phase of the extension-and-strain curve. Small discrepancies or small increases in extension are…

  2. Positive consequences of intrinsically rewarding work: A model to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study sought to empirically test a theoretical model outlining the relationships between intrinsic rewards, intrinsic motivation, work engagement and intention to quit, in an attempt to empirically assess whether intrinsic rewards result in improved levels of motivation, engagement and retention. Using a sample of 587 ...

  3. Intrinsic work motivation and pension reform acceptance

    OpenAIRE

    Heinemann, Friedrich; Hennighausen, Tanja; Moessinger, Marc-Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Although demographic change leaves pay-as-you-go pension systems unsustainable, reforms, such as a higher pension age, are highly unpopular. This contribution looks into the role of intrinsic motivation as a driver for pension reform acceptance. Theoretical reasoning suggests that this driver should be relevant: The choice among different pension reform options (increasing pension age, increasing contributions, cutting pensions) can be analyzed within the framework of an optimal job separatio...

  4. Binding of intrinsic and extrinsic features in working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Ullrich K H; Maybery, Murray; Zimmer, Hubert D

    2013-02-01

    There is ongoing debate concerning the mechanisms of feature binding in working memory. In particular, there is controversy regarding the extent to which these binding processes are automatic. The present article demonstrates that binding mechanisms differ depending on whether the to-be-integrated features are perceived as forming a coherent object. We presented a series of experiments that investigated the binding of color and shape, whereby color was either an intrinsic feature of the shape or an extrinsic feature of the shape's background. Results show that intrinsic color affected shape recognition, even when it was incidentally studied and irrelevant for the recognition task. In contrast, extrinsic color did not affect shape recognition, even when the association of color and shape was encoded and retrievable on demand. This strongly suggests that binding of intrinsic intra-item information but not extrinsic contextual information is obligatory in visual working memory. We highlight links to perception as well as implicit and explicit long-term memory, which suggest that the intrinsic-extrinsic dimension is a principle relevant to multiple domains of human cognition. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  5. Intrinsic motivation as a predictor of work outcome after vocational rehabilitation in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saperstein, Alice M; Fiszdon, Joanna M; Bell, Morris D

    2011-09-01

    Intrinsic motivation is a construct commonly used in explaining goal-directed behavior. In people with schizophrenia, intrinsic motivation is usually subsumed as a feature of negative symptoms or underlying neurocognitive dysfunction. A growing literature reflects an interest in defining and measuring motivational impairment in schizophrenia and in delineating the specific role of intrinsic motivation as both an independent predictor and a mediator of psychosocial functioning. This cross-sectional study examined intrinsic motivation as a predictor of vocational outcomes for 145 individuals with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder participating in a 6-month work rehabilitation trial. Correlation and mediation analyses examined baseline intrinsic motivation and negative symptoms in relation to work hours and work performance. Data support a significant relationship between intrinsic motivation and negative symptoms and significant correlations with outcome variables, such that lower negative symptoms and greater intrinsic motivation were associated with better work functioning. Moreover, in this sample, intrinsic motivation fully mediated the relationships between negative symptoms, work productivity, and work performance. These results have significant implications on the design of work rehabilitation interventions for people with schizophrenia and support a role for targeting intrinsic motivation directly to influence vocational functioning. Future directions for research and intervention are discussed.

  6. Characteristics of the work environment related to older employees' willingness to continue working: intrinsic motivation as a mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Peter T

    2011-08-01

    The relationships between older employees' willingness to continue working and characteristics of the work environment for older workers were investigated, as well as a possible mediation by intrinsic motivation. 103 employees ages 50 to 65 years, from various sectors of the Dutch labor market, completed questionnaires that measured willingness to continue working, intrinsic motivation, organizational stimulation, work variety, work challenge, and job autonomy. Hierarchical regression analyses showed organizational stimulation, as well as the various job characteristics, were positively related to employees' willingness to continue working. Moreover, intrinsic motivation fully mediated the relationship of work variety with willingness to continue working and partially mediated the relationships of organizational stimulation, work challenge, and job autonomy with willingness to continue working. It was concluded that organizations can encourage older workers to work until age 65 and beyond by shifting their focus from extrinsic to intrinsic rewards.

  7. Intrinsic Motivation and Environmental Factors Affecting Research of Social Work Faculty on Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Janice G.; Short, Glenda F. Lester

    2010-01-01

    Within the context of Self-determination Theory, this research identifies intrinsic motivation and environmental factors that support social-work-faculty research in aging. Intrinsic factors include faculty's interest in gerontology as a field of practice, the desire to advance knowledge in the field of gerontology, including producing…

  8. Keep the fire burning: Reciprocal gains of basic need satisfaction, intrinsic motivation and innovative work behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devloo, T.; Anseel, F.; De Beuckelaer, A.; Salanova, M.

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on insights from self-determination theory, we explored the dynamic relationship between intrinsic motivation and innovative work behaviour (IWB) over time. Specifically, we investigated how basic need satisfaction influences IWB through its effect on intrinsic motivation and how IWB in turn

  9. Binding of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Features in Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Ullrich K. H.; Maybery, Murray; Zimmer, Hubert D.

    2013-01-01

    There is ongoing debate concerning the mechanisms of feature binding in working memory. In particular, there is controversy regarding the extent to which these binding processes are automatic. The present article demonstrates that binding mechanisms differ depending on whether the to-be-integrated features are perceived as forming a coherent…

  10. Workplace ostracism, self-regulation, and job performance: Moderating role of intrinsic work motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbauer, Robert; Renn, Robert W; Chen, H Shawna; Rhew, Nicholas

    2018-01-08

    Drawing from a self-regulation perspective, we examine how intrinsic work motivation changes the relation between workplace ostracism and employee job performance via self-leadership. We test a moderated mediated model with data collected from 101 employees at two points in time. Results provide support for the hypothesis that ostracized employees who are more intrinsically motivated use self-leadership strategies to a greater degree to improve their job performance than their counterparts who are not intrinsically motivated. The findings contribute to research regarding boundary conditions of ostracism theory and have important practical implications.

  11. Reciprocal Relations between Work-Related Authenticity and Intrinsic Motivation, Work Ability and Depressivity: A Two-Wave Study

    OpenAIRE

    Emmerich, Astrid I.; Rigotti, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the role of context-specific authenticity at work for work-related outcomes (intrinsic motivation, work ability) and depressivity. Furthermore reciprocal relations between work-related authenticity and healthy psychological functioning are investigated. Longitudinal data from 1,243 employees from 63 subsidiaries of a non-profit organization in the social sector were analyzed using multilevel structural equation modeling. Work-related authenticity at T1 predicted work a...

  12. Work-family and family-work conflict: does intrinsic-extrinsic satisfaction mediate the prediction of general job satisfaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Salguero, Antonia; Martínez-De-Lecea, José-María Salinas; Carrasco-González, Ana-María

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the mediating role of intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction in the relationship between the 2 dimensions of work-family conflict-family interfering with work (FIW) and work interfering with family (WIF)-and general job satisfaction. Step-by-step hierarchical regression analyses were carried out on a sample of 151 men and women from a Spanish public organization. The results confirmed the mediating role of intrinsic job satisfaction in the case of FIW. This highlights the importance of taking into account the level of satisfaction with the intrinsic facets of one's job as a measure for understanding why FIW has a negative impact on general job satisfaction.

  13. Reciprocal Relations between Work-Related Authenticity and Intrinsic Motivation, Work Ability and Depressivity: A Two-Wave Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerich, Astrid I; Rigotti, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the role of context-specific authenticity at work for work-related outcomes (intrinsic motivation, work ability) and depressivity. Furthermore reciprocal relations between work-related authenticity and healthy psychological functioning are investigated. Longitudinal data from 1,243 employees from 63 subsidiaries of a non-profit organization in the social sector were analyzed using multilevel structural equation modeling. Work-related authenticity at T1 predicted work ability and depressivity, but not intrinsic motivation at T2, about 6 months later. Work-related authenticity at T2 was predicted by intrinsic motivation and depressivity, but not by work ability at T1. We conclude that work-related authenticity and healthy psychological functioning are positively reinforcing each other. Thus, enabling employees to be authentic supposedly increases their well-being and is a pivotal opportunity for organizations to foster health and performance-related indicators like work ability and prevent negative health indicators like depressivity. At the same time, authenticity of employees can be fostered through workplace health promotion.

  14. Promoting Career Preparedness and Intrinsic Work-Goal Motivation: RCT Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Mutanen, Pertti; Vuori, Jukka

    2012-01-01

    We examined the role of an in-company training program aimed at enhancing employees' intrinsic work-goal motivation by increasing their career preparedness in a randomized field experimental study. The program activities were implemented using an organization-level two-trainer model with trainers from the human resources management and…

  15. Work Engagement, Intrinsic Motivation and Job Satisfaction among Employees of A Coal Mining Company in South Borneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Sartono

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to establish the relationships between three job characteristics constructs, namely work engagement, intrinsic motivation and job satisfaction in a workplace notorious for discord and conflict between workers and employers. A quantitative methodology was adopted using a cross-sectional survey. Respondents were selected from the workers at a mining company, with a final sample of 156 employees participating in the study. The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, Intrinsic Motivation Inventory and the Minnesota JobSatisfaction Questionnaire were used to collect data. The results of the study indicate positive relationships between job satisfaction, work engagement and intrinsic motivation among the workers. Age and marital status were found to be significant contributors to workers’ job satisfaction, intrinsic motivation and work engagement. Implications of these results are that human resource interventions are required in order to deal with enhancing work engagement, intrinsic motivation and job satisfaction. Furthermore, the results indicate that intrinsic motivation and work engagement can enhance job satisfaction. The current study adds to the research pointing at job satisfaction as a promising underlying mechanism for employees’ to be internally motivated and engaged at work. Keywords: Work engagement, Intrinsic motivation, Job satisfaction

  16. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation as predictors of work effort: the moderating role of achievement goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dysvik, Anders; Kuvaas, Bård

    2013-09-01

    This research explored the roles of intrinsic motivation (IM) and extrinsic motivation (EM) and the 2 × 2 model of achievement goals as predictors of increased work effort (WE). A cross-lagged field study was conducted among 1,441 employees from three large Norwegian service organizations across a 10-month time span. The results showed that the relationship between IM and increased WE was more positive for employees with high levels of mastery-approach goals. This observation suggests that having congruent goals may accentuate the positive relationship between IM and WE. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  17. Work Engagement, Intrinsic Motivation and Job Satisfaction among Employees of A Coal Mining Company in South Borneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Sartono

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to establish the relationships between three job characteristics constructs, namely work engagement, intrinsic motivation and job satisfaction in a workplace notorious for discord and conflict between workers and employers. A quantitative methodology was adopted using a cross-sectional survey. Respondents were selected from the workers at a mining company, with a final sample of 156 employees participating in the study. The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, Intrinsic Motivation Inventory and the Minnesota Job Satisfaction Questionnaire were used to collect data. The results of the study indicate positive relationships between job satisfaction, work engagement and intrinsic motivation among the workers. Age and marital status were found to be significant contributors to workers’ job satisfaction, intrinsic motivation and work engagement. Implications of these results are that human resource interventions are required in order to deal with enhancing work engagement, intrinsic motivation and job satisfaction. Furthermore, the results indicate that intrinsic motivation and work engagement can enhance job satisfaction. The current study adds to the research pointing at job satisfaction as a promising underlying mechanism for employees’ to be internally motivated and engaged at work.

  18. Work Engagement, Intrinsic Motivation and Job Satisfaction among Employees of A Coal Mining Company in South Borneo

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan Sartono; Mauliah Ardhani

    2016-01-01

    This paper seeks to establish the relationships between three job characteristics constructs, namely work engagement, intrinsic motivation and job satisfaction in a workplace notorious for discord and conflict between workers and employers. A quantitative methodology was adopted using a cross-sectional survey. Respondents were selected from the workers at a mining company, with a final sample of 156 employees participating in the study. The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, Intrinsic Motivation ...

  19. How can work be designed to be intrinsically rewarding? Qualitative insights from South African non-profit employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Renard

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Intrinsic rewards are personal, psychological responses to the work thatemployees perform, which stem from the manner in which their work is designed. Research purpose: This study sought to discover in what ways non-profit employees arepsychologically rewarded by the nature of their work tasks. The use of a qualitative approachto data collection and analysis ensured that in-depth responses from participants were gained. Motivation for the study: Intrinsic rewards are of particular importance to non-profitemployees, who tend to earn below-market salaries. This implies that their motivationoriginates predominantly from intrinsic as opposed to extrinsic rewards; yet, research into thisarea of rewards is lacking. Research approach, design and method: In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conductedusing a sample of 15 extrinsically rewarded non-profit employees working within South Africa.Thematic analysis was utilised in order to generate codes which led to the formation of fiveintrinsic rewards categories. Main findings: Intrinsic rewards were classified into five categories, namely (1 MeaningfulWork, (2 Flexible Work, (3 Challenging Work, (4 Varied Work and (5 Enjoyable Work.These rewards each comprise of various subcategories, which provide insight into why suchwork is rewarding to non-profit employees. Practical/managerial implications: Traditional performance management systems shouldbe re-evaluated in the non-profit sector to shift focus towards intrinsic rewards, asopposed to focusing only on the use of extrinsic rewards such as incentives to motivateemployees. Contribution/value-add: The study provides a qualitative understanding of how extrinsicallyrewarded non-profit employees perceive their work to be intrinsically rewarding, whichbridges the empirical gap pertaining to intrinsic rewards within this sector.

  20. How can work be designed to be intrinsically rewarding? Qualitative insights from South African non-profit employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Renard

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Intrinsic rewards are personal, psychological responses to the work thatemployees perform, which stem from the manner in which their work is designed.Research purpose: This study sought to discover in what ways non-profit employees arepsychologically rewarded by the nature of their work tasks. The use of a qualitative approachto data collection and analysis ensured that in-depth responses from participants were gained.Motivation for the study: Intrinsic rewards are of particular importance to non-profitemployees, who tend to earn below-market salaries. This implies that their motivationoriginates predominantly from intrinsic as opposed to extrinsic rewards; yet, research into thisarea of rewards is lacking.Research approach, design and method: In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conductedusing a sample of 15 extrinsically rewarded non-profit employees working within South Africa.Thematic analysis was utilised in order to generate codes which led to the formation of fiveintrinsic rewards categories.Main findings: Intrinsic rewards were classified into five categories, namely (1 MeaningfulWork, (2 Flexible Work, (3 Challenging Work, (4 Varied Work and (5 Enjoyable Work.These rewards each comprise of various subcategories, which provide insight into why suchwork is rewarding to non-profit employees.Practical/managerial implications: Traditional performance management systems shouldbe re-evaluated in the non-profit sector to shift focus towards intrinsic rewards, asopposed to focusing only on the use of extrinsic rewards such as incentives to motivateemployees.Contribution/value-add: The study provides a qualitative understanding of how extrinsicallyrewarded non-profit employees perceive their work to be intrinsically rewarding, whichbridges the empirical gap pertaining to intrinsic rewards within this sector.

  1. Predicting learning plateau of working memory from whole-brain intrinsic network connectivity patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Masahiro; Kawato, Mitsuo; Imamizu, Hiroshi

    2015-01-05

    Individual learning performance of cognitive function is related to functional connections within 'task-activated' regions where activities increase during the corresponding cognitive tasks. On the other hand, since any brain region is connected with other regions and brain-wide networks, learning is characterized by modulations in connectivity between networks with different functions. Therefore, we hypothesized that learning performance is determined by functional connections among intrinsic networks that include both task-activated and less-activated networks. Subjects underwent resting-state functional MRI and a short period of training (80-90 min) in a working memory task on separate days. We calculated functional connectivity patterns of whole-brain intrinsic networks and examined whether a sparse linear regression model predicts a performance plateau from the individual patterns. The model resulted in highly accurate predictions (R(2) = 0.73, p = 0.003). Positive connections within task-activated networks, including the left fronto-parietal network, accounted for nearly half (48%) of the contribution ratio to the prediction. Moreover, consistent with our hypothesis, connections of the task-activated networks with less-activated networks showed a comparable contribution (44%). Our findings suggest that learning performance is potentially constrained by system-level interactions within task-activated networks as well as those between task-activated and less-activated networks.

  2. Intrinsic Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    the activity. There has been very little research and theorizing which considers the topic of intrinsic motivation , yet there is a substantial amount...reported within the framework of intrinsic motivation , yet the paper reinterprets the work within that framework. It considers several approaches of

  3. Workers' intrinsic work motivation when job demands are high : The role of need for autonomy and perceived opportunity for blended working

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, Nico W.; Wörtler, Burkhard; de Jonge, Kiki M.M.

    2016-01-01

    Work overload or work pressure may undermine workers' intrinsic motivation. In the present research, we tested the conditions under which this may (not) occur, including the perceived opportunity to blend on-site and off-site working through the effective use of computers and modern information and

  4. An Investigation of the Relationship between Work Motivation (Intrinsic & Extrinsic) and Employee Engagement : A Study on Allied Bank of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Waseem; Iqbal, Yawar

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Work motivation (intrinsic & extrinsic) and employee engagement is the hot issues for today’s management. Employee’s motivation has been in discussion for years, different compensation plans and strategies were adopted over years to make employees more productive. Recently, the introduction of employee engagement as a new construct to business, management, and human resource management fields make it an imperative to adopt in organizational settings. Many studies made indire...

  5. Enhancing the intrinsic work motivation of community nutrition educators: how supportive supervision and job design foster autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickin, Katherine L; Dollahite, Jamie S; Habicht, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Mixed-methods research investigated the work motivation of paraprofessional community nutrition educators (CNEs) delivering a long-running public health nutrition program. In interviews, CNEs (n = 9) emphasized "freedom," supportive supervision, and "making a difference" as key sources of motivation. Community nutrition educator surveys (n = 115) confirmed high levels of autonomy, which was associated with supervisors' delegation and support, CNE decision-making on scheduling and curricula, and job satisfaction. Supervisors (n = 32) rated CNEs' job design as having inherently motivating characteristics comparable to professional jobs. Supervisory strategies can complement job design to create structured, supportive contexts that maintain fidelity, while granting autonomy to paraprofessionals to enhance intrinsic work motivation.

  6. Specific determinants of intrinsic work motivation, burnout and turnover intentions: A study among nurses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, P.P.M.; Jonge, J. de; Bakker, A.B.

    1999-01-01

    This study of 156 Dutch general hospital nurses tested a theoretically derived model of specific relationships between work stressors and stress reactions. The model proposes four central domains of the work situation, namely work content, working conditions, social and labour relations, and

  7. When health care workers perceive high-commitment HRM will they be motivated to continue working in health care? It may depend on their supervisor and intrinsic motivation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schopman, L.M.; Kalshoven, K.; Boon, C.

    2017-01-01

    In this health care field study, we examined the link between human resource management (HRM), transformational leadership, intrinsic motivation and motivation to continue to work. Based on the social exchange theory, we proposed a mediation model linking HRM to motivation to continue to work in

  8. When health care workers perceive high-commitment HRM will they be motivated to continue working in health care? It may depend on their supervisor and intrinsic motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    drs Limke Schopman; dr Corine Boon; dr Karianne Kalshoven

    2015-01-01

    In this health care field study, we examined the link between human resource management (HRM), transformational leadership, intrinsic motivation and motivation to continue to work. Based on the social exchange theory, we proposed a mediation model linking HRM to motivation to continue to work in

  9. Show them the money? The role of pay, managerial need support, and justice in a self-determination theory model of intrinsic work motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsen, Anja H; Halvari, Hallgeir; Forest, Jacques; Deci, Edward L

    2015-08-01

    The link between money and motivation has been a debated topic for decades, especially in work organizations. However, field studies investigating the amount of pay in relation to employee motivation is lacking and there have been calls for empirical studies addressing compensation systems and motivation in the work domain. The purpose of this study was to examine outcomes associated with the amount of pay, and perceived distributive and procedural justice regarding pay in relation to those for perceived managerial need support. Participants were 166 bank employees who also reported on their basic psychological need satisfaction and intrinsic work motivation. SEM-analyses tested a self-determination theory (SDT) model, with satisfaction of the competence and autonomy needs as an intervening variable. The primary findings were that amount of pay and employees' perceived distributive justice regarding their pay were unrelated to employees' need satisfaction and intrinsic work motivation, but procedural justice regarding pay did affect these variables. However, managerial need support was the most important factor for promoting need satisfaction and intrinsic work motivation both directly, indirectly, and as a moderator in the model. Hence, the results of the present organizational field study support earlier laboratory experiments within the SDT framework showing that monetary rewards did not enhance intrinsic motivation. This seems to have profound implications for organizations concerned about motivating their employees. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Does an intrinsic work value orientation strengthen the impact of job resources? A perspective from the Job Demands-Resources Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeck, A. van den; Ruysseveldt, J. van; Smulders, P.G.W.; Witte, H. de

    2011-01-01

    Based on assumptions of the Job Demands-Resources model and the Person-Environment fit literature, the present research conceptualizes an intrinsic relative to an extrinsic work value orientation as a personal resource. We examine whether such an orientation may strengthen the relations of classical

  11. Associations of Extrinsic and Intrinsic Components of Work Stress with Health: A Systematic Review of Evidence on the Effort-Reward Imbalance Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, Johannes; Li, Jian

    2016-04-19

    Mainstream psychological stress theory claims that it is important to include information on people's ways of coping with work stress when assessing the impact of stressful psychosocial work environments on health. Yet, some widely used respective theoretical models focus exclusively on extrinsic factors. The model of effort-reward imbalance (ERI) differs from them as it explicitly combines information on extrinsic and intrinsic factors in studying workers' health. As a growing number of studies used the ERI model in recent past, we conducted a systematic review of available evidence, with a special focus on the distinct contribution of its intrinsic component, the coping pattern "over-commitment", towards explaining health. Moreover, we explore whether the interaction of intrinsic and extrinsic components exceeds the size of effects on health attributable to single components. Results based on 51 reports document an independent explanatory role of "over-commitment" in explaining workers' health in a majority of studies. However, support in favour of the interaction hypothesis is limited and requires further exploration. In conclusion, the findings of this review support the usefulness of a work stress model that combines extrinsic and intrinsic components in terms of scientific explanation and of designing more comprehensive worksite stress prevention programs.

  12. Who wants to work in a rural health post? The role of intrinsic motivation, rural background and faith-based institutions in Ethiopia and Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serneels, Pieter; Montalvo, Jose G; Pettersson, Gunilla; Lievens, Tomas; Butera, Jean Damascene; Kidanu, Aklilu

    2010-05-01

    To understand the factors influencing health workers' choice to work in rural areas as a basis for designing policies to redress geographic imbalances in health worker distribution. A cohort survey of 412 nursing and medical students in Rwanda provided unique contingent valuation data. Using these data, we performed a regression analysis to examine the determinants of future health workers' willingness to work in rural areas as measured by rural reservation wages. These data were also combined with those from an identical survey in Ethiopia to enable a two-country analysis. Health workers with higher intrinsic motivation - measured as the importance attached to helping the poor - as well as those who had grown up in a rural area and Adventists who had participated in a local bonding scheme were all significantly more willing to work in a rural area. The main result for intrinsic motivation in Rwanda was strikingly similar to the result obtained for Ethiopia and Rwanda combined. Intrinsic motivation and rural origin play an important role in health workers' decisions to work in a rural area, in addition to economic incentives, while faith-based institutions can also influence the decision.

  13. Willingness to work in rural areas and the role of intrinsic versus extrinsic professional motivations - a survey of medical students in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Kotha, S Rani; Johnson, Jennifer C; Gyakobo, Mawuli; Asabir, Kwesi; Kwansah, Janet; Nakua, Emmanuel; Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli; Snow, Rachel C; Kruk, Margaret E

    2011-08-09

    Retaining health workers in rural areas is challenging for a number of reasons, ranging from personal preferences to difficult work conditions and low remuneration. This paper assesses the influence of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation on willingness to accept postings to deprived areas among medical students in Ghana. A computer-based survey involving 302 fourth year medical students was conducted from May-August 2009. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between students' willingness to accept rural postings and their professional motivations, rural exposure and family parental professional and educational status (PPES). Over 85% of students were born in urban areas and 57% came from affluent backgrounds. Nearly two-thirds of students reported strong intrinsic motivation to study medicine. After controlling for demographic characteristics and rural exposure, motivational factors did not influence willingness to practice in rural areas. High family PPES was consistently associated with lower willingness to work in rural areas. Although most Ghanaian medical students are motivated to study medicine by the desire to help others, this does not translate into willingness to work in rural areas. Efforts should be made to build on intrinsic motivation during medical training and in designing rural postings, as well as favour lower PPES students for admission.

  14. Willingness to work in rural areas and the role of intrinsic versus extrinsic professional motivations - a survey of medical students in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzodzomenyo Mawuli

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retaining health workers in rural areas is challenging for a number of reasons, ranging from personal preferences to difficult work conditions and low remuneration. This paper assesses the influence of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation on willingness to accept postings to deprived areas among medical students in Ghana. Methods A computer-based survey involving 302 fourth year medical students was conducted from May-August 2009. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between students' willingness to accept rural postings and their professional motivations, rural exposure and family parental professional and educational status (PPES. Results Over 85% of students were born in urban areas and 57% came from affluent backgrounds. Nearly two-thirds of students reported strong intrinsic motivation to study medicine. After controlling for demographic characteristics and rural exposure, motivational factors did not influence willingness to practice in rural areas. High family PPES was consistently associated with lower willingness to work in rural areas. Conclusions Although most Ghanaian medical students are motivated to study medicine by the desire to help others, this does not translate into willingness to work in rural areas. Efforts should be made to build on intrinsic motivation during medical training and in designing rural postings, as well as favour lower PPES students for admission.

  15. Work-related self-efficacy as a moderator of the impact of a worksite stress management training intervention: Intrinsic work motivation as a higher order condition of effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Joda; Bond, Frank W; Flaxman, Paul E

    2017-01-01

    Employees with low levels of work-related self-efficacy may stand to benefit more from a worksite stress management training (SMT) intervention. However, this low work-related self-efficacy/enhanced SMT benefits effect may be conditional on employees also having high levels of intrinsic work motivation. In the present study, we examined this proposition by testing three-way, or higher order, interaction effects. One hundred and fifty-three U.K. government employees were randomly assigned to a SMT intervention group (n = 68), or to a waiting list control group (n = 85). The SMT group received three half-day training sessions spread over two and a half months. Findings indicated that there were significant overall reductions in psychological strain, emotional exhaustion and depersonalization in the SMT group, in comparison to the control group. Furthermore, there were significant higher order Group (SMT vs. control) × Time 1 Work-Related Self-Efficacy × Time 1 Intrinsic Work Motivation interactions, such that reductions in emotional exhaustion and depersonalization at certain time points were experienced only by those who had low baseline levels of work-related self-efficacy and high baseline levels of intrinsic work motivation. Implications for work-related self-efficacy theory and research and SMT research and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. LEADERSHIP STYLE AND EMPLOYEES' INTRINSIC JOB ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. This study investigates the impact of leadership style on employees' intrinsic job satisfaction in the Cross River State Newspaper Corporation, Calabar,. Nigeria. The study examined the problem of dissatisfaction in the work place as far as intrinsic factors of job satisfaction are concerned. Structured questionnaire ...

  17. Acoustic resonance spectroscopy intrinsic seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olinger, C.T.; Burr, T.; Vnuk, D.R.

    1994-01-01

    We have begun to quantify the ability of acoustic resonance spectroscopy (ARS) to detect the removal and replacement of the lid of a simulated special nuclear materials drum. Conceptually, the acoustic spectrum of a container establishcs a baseline fingerprint, which we refer to as an intrinsic seal, for the container. Simply removing and replacing the lid changes some of the resonant frequencies because it is impossible to exactly duplicate all of the stress patterns between the lid and container. Preliminary qualitative results suggested that the ARS intrinsic seal could discriminate between cases where a lid has or has not been removed. The present work is directed at quantifying the utility of the ARS intrinsic seal technique, including the technique's sensitivity to ''nuisance'' effects, such as temperature swings, movement of the container, and placement of the transducers. These early quantitative tests support the potential of the ARS intrinsic seal application, but also reveal a possible sensitivity to nuisance effects that could limit environments or conditions under which the technique is effective

  18. Intrinsic contractures of the hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paksima, Nader; Besh, Basil R

    2012-02-01

    Contractures of the intrinsic muscles of the fingers disrupt the delicate and complex balance of intrinsic and extrinsic muscles, which allows the hand to be so versatile and functional. The loss of muscle function primarily affects the interphalangeal joints but also may affect etacarpophalangeal joints. The resulting clinical picture is often termed, intrinsic contracture or intrinsic-plus hand. Disruption of the balance between intrinsic and extrinsic muscles has many causes and may be secondary to changes within the intrinsic musculature or the tendon unit. This article reviews diagnosis, etiology, and treatment algorithms in the management of intrinsic contractures of the fingers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Predicting Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Rob; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2004-01-01

    Intrinsic motivation can be predicted from participants' perceptions of the social environment and the task environment (Ryan & Deci, 2000)in terms of control, relatedness and competence. To determine the degree of independence of these factors 251 students in higher vocational education (physiotherapy and hotel management) indicated the…

  20. Do intrinsic and extrinsic motivation relate differently to employee outcomes?

    OpenAIRE

    Kuvaas, Bard; Buch, Robert; Weibel, Antoinette; Dysvik, Anders; Nerstad, Christina

    2017-01-01

    In most theories that address how individual financial incentives affect work performance, researchers have assumed that two types of motivation—intrinsic and extrinsic—mediate the relationship between incentives and performance. Empirically, however, extrinsic motivation is rarely investigated. To explore the predictive validity of these theories of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in work settings, we tested how both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation affected supervisor-ra...

  1. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Roland Bénabou; Jean Tirole

    2003-01-01

    A central tenet of economics is that individuals respond to incentives. For psychologists and sociologists, in contrast, rewards and punishments are often counterproductive, because they undermine "intrinsic motivation". We reconcile these two views, showing how performance incentives offered by an informed principal (manager, teacher, parent) can adversely impact an agent's (worker, child) perception of the task, or of his own abilities. Incentives are then only weak reinforcers in the short...

  2. Intrinsic and extrinsic mortality reunited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koopman, Jacob J E; Wensink, Maarten J; Rozing, Maarten P

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsic and extrinsic mortality are often separated in order to understand and measure aging. Intrinsic mortality is assumed to be a result of aging and to increase over age, whereas extrinsic mortality is assumed to be a result of environmental hazards and be constant over age. However......, allegedly intrinsic and extrinsic mortality have an exponentially increasing age pattern in common. Theories of aging assert that a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic stressors underlies the increasing risk of death. Epidemiological and biological data support that the control of intrinsic as well...... as extrinsic stressors can alleviate the aging process. We argue that aging and death can be better explained by the interaction of intrinsic and extrinsic stressors than by classifying mortality itself as being either intrinsic or extrinsic. Recognition of the tight interaction between intrinsic and extrinsic...

  3. Leadership style and employees' intrinsic job satisfaction in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the impact of leadership style on employees' intrinsic job satisfaction in the Cross River State Newspaper Corporation, Calabar, Nigeria. The study examined the problem of dissatisfaction in the work place as far as intrinsic factors of job satisfaction are concerned. Structured questionnaire was used ...

  4. Intrinsic Chevrolets at the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.; Collins, J.C.; Ellis, S.D.; Gunion, J.F.; Mueller, A.H.

    1984-01-01

    The possibility of the production at high energy of heavy quarks, supersymmetric particles and other large mass colored systems via the intrinsic twist-six components in the proton wave function is discussed. While the existing data do not rule out the possible relevance of intrinsic charm production at present energies, the extrapolation of such intrinsic contributions to very high masses and energies suggests that they will not play an important role at the SSC

  5. Intrinsically dynamic population models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Schoen

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Intrinsically dynamic models (IDMs depict populations whose cumulative growth rate over a number of intervals equals the product of the long term growth rates (that is the dominant roots or dominant eigenvalues associated with each of those intervals. Here the focus is on the birth trajectory produced by a sequence of population projection (Leslie matrices. The elements of a Leslie matrix are represented as straightforward functions of the roots of the matrix, and new relationships are presented linking the roots of a matrix to its Net Reproduction Rate and stable mean age of childbearing. Incorporating mortality changes in the rates of reproduction yields an IDM when the subordinate roots are held constant over time. In IDMs, the birth trajectory generated by any specified sequence of Leslie matrices can be found analytically. In the Leslie model with 15 year age groups, the constant subordinate root assumption leads to reasonable changes in the age pattern of fertility, and equations (27 and (30 provide the population size and structure that result from changing levels of net reproduction. IDMs generalize the fixed rate stable population model. They can characterize any observed population, and can provide new insights into dynamic demographic behavior, including the momentum associated with gradual or irregular paths to zero growth.

  6. Exploring the link between intrinsic motivation and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christy, Steven M.

    1992-12-01

    This thesis proposes that it is workers' intrinsic motivation that leads them to produce quality work. It reviews two different types of evidence- expert opinion and empirical studies--to attempt to evaluate a link between intrinsic motivation and work quality. The thesis reviews the works of Total Quality writers and behavioral scientists for any connection they might have made between intrinsic motivation and quality. The thesis then looks at the works of Deming and his followers in an attempt to establish a match between Deming's motivational assumptions and the four task rewards in the Thomas/Tymon model of intrinsic motivation: choice, competence, meaningfulness, and progress. Based upon this analysis, it is proposed that the four Thomas/Tymon task rewards are a promising theoretical foundation for explaining the motivational basis of quality for workers in Total Quality organizations.

  7. Motivating crowding theory - opening the black box of intrinsic motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher

    2010-01-01

    Public employees work for many other reasons than because they are paid for it. In other words, intrinsic motivation is an important determinant for their performance. Nonetheless, public sector organizations increasingly rely on extrinsic motivation factors such as monetary incentives to motivate...... employees. Motivation crowding theory claims that this may be at the expense of intrinsic motivation, if the extrinsic motivation factor is perceived to be controlling. On the other hand, intrinsic motivation will be enhanced (crowded in), if the extrinsic motivation factor is perceived to be supportive....... Studies have found support for the motivation crowding claim, but have neglected intrinsic motivation. This study opens the black box of intrinsic motivation and finds a meaningful distinction between task motivation and public service motivation. Among 2,772 physiotherapists in the Danish public sector...

  8. Intrinsically Passive Handling and Grasping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stramigioli, Stefano; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.; Khodabandehloo, Koorosh

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents a control philosophy called Intrinsically Passive Control, which has the feature to properly behave during interaction with any passive objects. The controlled robot will never become unstable due to the physical structure of the controller.

  9. Moral Distress, Workplace Health, and Intrinsic Harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Elijah

    2016-05-01

    Moral distress is now being recognized as a frequent experience for many health care providers, and there's good evidence that it has a negative impact on the health care work environment. However, contemporary discussions of moral distress have several problems. First, they tend to rely on inadequate characterizations of moral distress. As a result, subsequent investigations regarding the frequency and consequences of moral distress often proceed without a clear understanding of the phenomenon being discussed, and thereby risk substantially misrepresenting the nature, frequency, and possible consequences of moral distress. These discussions also minimize the intrinsically harmful aspects of moral distress. This is a serious omission. Moral distress doesn't just have a negative impact on the health care work environment; it also directly harms the one who experiences it. In this paper, I claim that these problems can be addressed by first clarifying our understanding of moral distress, and then identifying what makes moral distress intrinsically harmful. I begin by identifying three common mistakes that characterizations of moral distress tend to make, and explaining why these mistakes are problematic. Next, I offer an account of moral distress that avoids these mistakes. Then, I defend the claim that moral distress is intrinsically harmful to the subject who experiences it. I conclude by explaining how acknowledging this aspect of moral distress should reshape our discussions about how best to deal with this phenomenon. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Documentation Requirements, Intrinsic Motivation, and Worker Absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pedersen, Lene Holm

    2015-01-01

    Command systems are widely used to monitor public service provision, but little is known about unintended effects on individual workers’ motivation and work effort. Using insights from motivation crowding theory, we estimate a SEM model that captures how Danish childcare assistants and social...... and higher sickness absence. The association is statistically significant, but very small in substantive terms. The result is nevertheless consistent with the expectation in motivation crowding theory and contributes to the literature by including a new, reliable behavioral variable—sickness absence....../healthcare assistants perceive documentation requirements. We analyze how this perception relates to intrinsic motivation measured in a survey and sickness absence as reported in administrative registers, and find that individuals who perceive documentation requirements as controlling have lower intrinsic motivation...

  11. Study of Intrinsic motivation in the Ministry for Foreign Affairs

    OpenAIRE

    Lehtimäki, Nora

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to investigate intrinsic motivation of the executive assistants and secretaries in the Ministry for Foreign Affairs. The objective in turn, was to examine how well intrinsic motivation has been achieved among these executive assistants and secretaries. How respondents evaluate their job satisfaction, work environment and motivation was also researched. Lastly, factors that increase or decrease motivation were studied, as well as if there is a need for additional...

  12. Characterization of Partial Intrinsic Symmetries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shehu, Aurela; Brunton, Alan; Wuhrer, Stefanie; Wand, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We present a mathematical framework and algorithm for characterizing and extracting partial intrinsic symmetries of surfaces, which is a fundamental building block for many modern geometry processing algorithms. Our goal is to compute all “significant” symmetry information of the shape, which we

  13. Reading: Intrinsic versus Extrinsic Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    Much debate centers on motivating student in reading achievement. Should students feel motivated from within (intrinsic motivation), or is it better to have extrinsic motivation whereby external stimuli are used to help learners achieve optimally in reading? This paper aims to analyze the two points of view about motivating students in reading…

  14. Intrinsic volumes of symmetric cones

    OpenAIRE

    Amelunxen, Dennis; Bürgisser, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We compute the intrinsic volumes of the cone of positive semidefinite matrices over the real numbers, over the complex numbers, and over the quaternions, in terms of integrals related to Mehta's integral. Several applications for the probabilistic analysis of semidefinite programming are given.

  15. Intrinsic Motivation in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Benjamin; Nambiar, Nathan; Hemphill, Caroline; Devietti, Elizabeth; Massengale, Alexandra; McCredie, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    This article describes ways in which educators can use Harter's perceived competence motivation theory, the achievement goal theory, and self-determination theory to develop students' intrinsic motivation to maintain physical fitness, as demonstrated by the Sound Body Sound Mind curriculum and proven effective by the 2013 University of…

  16. Comment on 'extrinsic versus intrinsic ferroelectric switching : experimental investigations using ultra-thin PVDF Langmuir-Blodgett films'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naber, R.C.G.; Blom, P.W.M.; de Leeuw, DM

    2006-01-01

    Previous work on ultra-thin P(VDF-TrFE) Langmuir-Blodgett films has indicated a transition from extrinsic to intrinsic ferroelectric switching. The lack of several key features of intrinsic switching in the experimental work reported by Kliem et al argues against intrinsic switching. In this Comment

  17. Detecting Nosocomial Intrinsic Infections through Relating Bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research ... Surgical procedures often lead to both intrinsic and extrinsic infections. ... This study demonstrated surgical procedures as precursory to intrinsic infections and that bacterial pathogens found on wounds and endogenous indicators of surgery are links to intrinsic infection.

  18. A tonoplast intrinsic protein in Gardenia jasminoides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lan; Li, Hao-Ming

    2017-08-01

    Physiological and molecular studies proved that plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) and tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs) subfamily of aquaporins play key functions in plant water homeostasis. Five specialized subgroups (TIP1-5) of TIPs have been found in higher plants, in which the TIP1 and TIP2 isoforms are the largest arbitrary groups. TIPs have high water-transport activity than PIPs, some TIPs can transport other small molecule such as urea, ammonia, hydrogen peroxide, and carbon dioxide. In this work, the structure of the putative tonoplast aquaporin from Gardenia jasminoides (GjTIP) was analyzed. Its transcript level has increased during fruit maturation. A phylogenetic analysis indicates that the protein belongs to TIP1 subfamily. A three-dimensional model structure of GjTIP was built based on crystal structure of an ammonia-permeable AtTIP2-1 from Arabidopsis thaliana. The model structure displayed as a homo-tetramer, each monomer has six trans-membrane and two half-membrane-spanning α helices. The data suggests that the GjTIP has tendency to be a mixed function aquaporin, might involve in water, urea and hydrogen peroxide transport, and the gating machanism founded in some AQPs involving pH and phosphorylation response have not been proved in GjTIP.

  19. Intrinsic regulation of enteroendocrine fate by Numb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallé, Jérémy; Gervais, Louis; Boumard, Benjamin; Stefanutti, Marine; Siudeja, Katarzyna; Bardin, Allison J

    2017-07-03

    How terminal cell fates are specified in dynamically renewing adult tissues is not well understood. Here we explore terminal cell fate establishment during homeostasis using the enteroendocrine cells (EEs) of the adult Drosophila midgut as a paradigm. Our data argue against the existence of local feedback signals, and we identify Numb as an intrinsic regulator of EE fate. Our data further indicate that Numb, with alpha-adaptin, acts upstream or in parallel of known regulators of EE fate to limit Notch signaling, thereby facilitating EE fate acquisition. We find that Numb is regulated in part through its asymmetric and symmetric distribution during stem cell divisions; however, its de novo synthesis is also required during the differentiation of the EE cell. Thus, this work identifies Numb as a crucial factor for cell fate choice in the adult Drosophila intestine. Furthermore, our findings demonstrate that cell-intrinsic control mechanisms of terminal cell fate acquisition can result in a balanced tissue-wide production of terminally differentiated cell types. © 2017 The Authors.

  20. Intrinsic cylindrical and spherical waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludlow, I K

    2008-01-01

    Intrinsic waveforms associated with cylindrical and spherical Bessel functions are obtained by eliminating the factors responsible for the inverse radius and inverse square radius laws of wave power per unit area of wavefront. The resulting expressions are Riccati-Bessel functions for both cases and these can be written in terms of amplitude and phase functions of order v and wave variable z. When z is real, it is shown that a spatial phase angle of the intrinsic wave can be defined and this, together with its amplitude function, is systematically investigated for a range of fixed orders and varying z. The derivatives of Riccati-Bessel functions are also examined. All the component functions exhibit different behaviour in the near field depending on the order being less than, equal to or greater than 1/2. Plots of the phase angle can be used to display the locations of the zeros of the general Riccati-Bessel functions and lead to new relations concerning the ordering of the real zeros of Bessel functions and the occurrence of multiple zeros when the argument of the Bessel function is fixed

  1. INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION - AN INVESTIGATION OF PERFORMANCE CORRELATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrudan Maria-Madela

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A series of research untaken in the last decade have revealed some interesting aspects regarding the effects of different types of motivation on performance. Among the researchers who have shown interest in this field we can number: Richard Ryan, Edward Deci, Sam Glucksberg, Dan Ariely, Robert Eisenhower, Linda Shanock, analysts from London School of Economics, and others. Their findings suggest that extrinsic incentives may have a negative impact on overall performance, but a general agreement in this respect has not been reached. In this paper we intend to shed some light upon the relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and performance. Experts define intrinsic motivation as being the execution of a task or activity because of the inherent satisfaction arising from it rather than due to some separate outcome. In contrast with intrinsic motivation, we speak of extrinsic motivation whenever an activity is done in order to attain some separable outcome. With the purpose of contributing to the clarification of the links between concepts, we initiated and conducted an explanatory research. The research is based on the analysis of the relations between the results obtained by third year students and their predominant type of motivation. For this, we formulated and tested four work hypotheses using a combination of quantitative methods (investigation and qualitative methods (focus group. After the validation of the questionnaires, the respondents were divided into four categories: intrinsically motivated, extrinsically motivated, both intrinsically and extrinsically motivated and unmotivated. To analyze the collected data, we made use of Excel and SPSS. Some of the primary conclusions of the research are as follows: as the average increases, the percent of individuals having both extrinsic and intrinsic motivation is decreasing; the highest percentage of unmotivated students is concentrated in the highest average category; Female

  2. Inhibition of Intrinsic Thrombin Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W. Stief MD

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The contact phase of coagulation is of physiologic/pathophysiologic importance, whenever unphysiologic polynegative substances such as cell fragments (microparticles get in contact with blood. There are several clinically used inhibitors of intrinsic thrombin generation. Here the inhibitory concentrations 50% (IC50 of these anticoagulants are measured by the highly specific thrombin generation assay INCA. Methods Unfrozen pooled normal citrated plasma in polystyrole tubes was supplemented at 23°C in duplicate with 0–2 IU/ml low molecular weight heparin (dalteparin, 0–2 IU/ml unfractionated heparin, 0–500 KIU/ml aprotinin, or 0–40 mM arginine. 50 μl plasma or 1 IU/ml thrombin standard were pipetted into a polystyrole microtiter plate with flat bottom. 5 μl SiO 2 /CaCl 2 - reagent (INCA activator were added and after 0–30 min incubation at 37°C 100 μl 2.5 M arginine, pH 8.6, were added; arginine inhibits hemostasis activation and depolymerizes generated fibrin within 20 min at 23°C. The in the physiologic 37°C incubation phase generated thrombin was then chromogenically detected. The intra-assay CV values were < 5%. Results and Discussion The approximate IC50 were 0.01 IU/ml dalteparin, 0.02 IU/ml heparin, 25 KIU/ml aprotinin, and 12 mM arginine. The efficiency of any anticoagulant on intrinsic thrombin generation should be measured for each individual patient. Abbreviations IIa, thrombin; δA, increase in absorbance; APTT, activated partial thromboplastin time; CRT, coagulation reaction time (at 37°C in water-bath; F-wells, polystyrole microtiter plates with flat bottom; IC50, inhibitory concentration 50%; INCA, intrinsic coagulation activity assay; IU, international units; KIU, kallikrein inhibiting unis; LMWH, low molecular weight heparin; mA, milli-absorbance units; PSL, pathromtin SL®; RT, room temperature (23°C; U-wells, polystyrole microtiter plates with round bottom.

  3. Where intrinsic job satisfaction fails to work : National moderators of intrinsic motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, X; Van de Vliert, E

    This study sought for national characteristics that moderate the individual-level relationship between job characteristics and job satisfaction. Data from two distinct questionnaire surveys administered to 107,292 employees in 49 countries was analyzed by employing multilevel modeling. Results

  4. Intrinsic rotation with gyrokinetic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, Felix I.; Barnes, Michael; Catto, Peter J.; Calvo, Iván

    2012-01-01

    The generation of intrinsic rotation by turbulence and neoclassical effects in tokamaks is considered. To obtain the complex dependences observed in experiments, it is necessary to have a model of the radial flux of momentum that redistributes the momentum within the tokamak in the absence of a preexisting velocity. When the lowest order gyrokinetic formulation is used, a symmetry of the model precludes this possibility, making small effects in the gyroradius over scale length expansion necessary. These effects that are usually small become important for momentum transport because the symmetry of the lowest order gyrokinetic formulation leads to the cancellation of the lowest order momentum flux. The accuracy to which the gyrokinetic equation needs to be obtained to retain all the physically relevant effects is discussed.

  5. Incentives and intrinsic motivation in healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikel Berdud

    2016-11-01

    Conclusions: The conclusions could act as a guide to support the optimal design of incentive policies and schemes within health organisations when healthcare professionals are intrinsically motivated.

  6. Algebraic description of intrinsic modes in nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leviatan, A. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

    1990-01-01

    We present a procedure for extracting normal modes in algebraic number-conserving systems of interacting bosons relevant for collective states in even-even nuclei. The Hamiltonian is resolved into intrinsic (bandhead related) and collective (in-band related) parts. Shape parameters are introduced through non-spherical boson bases. Intrinsic modes decoupled from the spurious modes are obtained from the intrinsic part of the Hamiltonian in the limit of large number of bosons. Intrinsic states are constructed and serve to evaluate electromagnetic transition rates. The method is illustrated for systems with one type of boson as well as with proton-neutron bosons. (author).

  7. Algebraic description of intrinsic modes in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leviatan, A.

    1990-01-01

    We present a procedure for extracting normal modes in algebraic number-conserving systems of interacting bosons relevant for collective states in even-even nuclei. The Hamiltonian is resolved into intrinsic (bandhead related) and collective (in-band related) parts. Shape parameters are introduced through non-spherical boson bases. Intrinsic modes decoupled from the spurious modes are obtained from the intrinsic part of the Hamiltonian in the limit of large number of bosons. Intrinsic states are constructed and serve to evaluate electromagnetic transition rates. The method is illustrated for systems with one type of boson as well as with proton-neutron bosons. (author)

  8. Geochemical indicators of intrinsic bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borden, R.C.; Gomez, C.A.; Becker, M.T.

    1995-01-01

    A detailed field investigation has been completed at a gasoline-contaminated aquifer near Rocky Point, NC, to examine possible indicators of intrinsic bioremediation and identify factors that may significantly influence the rae and extent of bioremediation. The dissolved plume of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) in ground water is naturally degrading. Toluene and o-xylene are most rapidly degraded followed by m-, p-xylene, and benzene. Ethylbenzene appears to degrade very slowly under anaerobic conditions present in the center of the plume. The rate and extent of biodegradation appears to be strongly influenced by the type and quantity of electron acceptors present in the aquifer. At the upgradient edge of the plume, nitrate, ferric iron, and oxygen are used as terminal electron acceptors during hydrocarbon biodegradation. The equivalent of 40 to 50 mg/l of hydrocarbon is degraded based on the increase in dissolved CO 2 relative to background ground water. Immediately downgradient of the source area, sulfate and iron are the dominant electron acceptors. Toluene and o-xylene are rapidly removed in this region. Once the available oxygen, nitrate, and sulfate are consumed, biodegradation is limited and appears to be controlled by mixing and aerobic biodegradation at the plume fringes

  9. Protein intrinsic disorder in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Florencio; Pietrosemoli, Natalia; García-Martín, Juan A; Solano, Roberto

    2013-09-12

    To some extent contradicting the classical paradigm of the relationship between protein 3D structure and function, now it is clear that large portions of the proteomes, especially in higher organisms, lack a fixed structure and still perform very important functions. Proteins completely or partially unstructured in their native (functional) form are involved in key cellular processes underlain by complex networks of protein interactions. The intrinsic conformational flexibility of these disordered proteins allows them to bind multiple partners in transient interactions of high specificity and low affinity. In concordance, in plants this type of proteins has been found in processes requiring these complex and versatile interaction networks. These include transcription factor networks, where disordered proteins act as integrators of different signals or link different transcription factor subnetworks due to their ability to interact (in many cases simultaneously) with different partners. Similarly, they also serve as signal integrators in signaling cascades, such as those related to response to external stimuli. Disordered proteins have also been found in plants in many stress-response processes, acting as protein chaperones or protecting other cellular components and structures. In plants, it is especially important to have complex and versatile networks able to quickly and efficiently respond to changing environmental conditions since these organisms cannot escape and have no other choice than adapting to them. Consequently, protein disorder can play an especially important role in plants, providing them with a fast mechanism to obtain complex, interconnected and versatile molecular networks.

  10. Protein intrinsic disorder in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencio ePazos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To some extent contradicting the classical paradigm of the relationship between protein 3D structure and function, now it is clear that large portions of the proteomes, especially in higher organisms, lack a fixed structure and still perform very important functions. Proteins completely or partially unstructured in their native (functional form are involved in key cellular processes underlain by complex networks of protein interactions. The intrinsic conformational flexibility of these disordered proteins allows them to bind multiple partners in transient interactions of high specificity and low affinity. In concordance, in plants this type of proteins has been found in processes requiring these complex and versatile interaction networks. These include transcription factor networks, where disordered proteins act as integrators of different signals or link different transcription factor subnetworks due to their ability to interact (in many cases simultaneously with different partners. Similarly, they also serve as signal integrators in signalling cascades, such as those related to response to external stimuli. Disordered proteins have also been found in plants in many stress-response processes, acting as protein chaperones or protecting other cellular components and structures. In plants, it is especially important to have complex and versatile networks able to quickly and efficiently respond to changing environmental conditions since these organisms can not escape and have no other choice than adapting to them. Consequently, protein disorder can play an especially important role in plants, providing them with a fast mechanism to obtain complex, interconnected and versatile molecular networks.

  11. Positive consequences of intrinsically rewarding work: A model to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Business Review. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 21, No 1 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  12. The effect of professional culture on intrinsic motivation among physicians in an academic medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janus, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    Today, most healthcare organizations aim to manage professionals' motivation through monetary incentives, such as pay for performance. However, addressing motivation extrinsically can involve negative effects, such as disturbed teamwork, gaming the system, and crowd-out of intrinsic motivation. To offset these side effects, it is crucial to support professionals' intrinsic motivation actively, which is largely determined by enjoyment- and obligation-based social norms that derive from professionals' culture. For this study, a professional culture questionnaire was designed and validated, the results of which uncovered three factors: relationship to work, relationship to colleagues, and relationship to organization. These factors served as independent variables for regression analyses. Second, Amabile's validated work preference inventory was used to measure intrinsic motivation as a dependent variable. The regression analysis was controlled for sex, age, and experience. The study revealed that relationship to work had the strongest (and a positive) impact on intrinsic motivation in general and on Amabile's intrinsic subscales, enjoyment and challenge. Relationship to organization had a negative impact on intrinsic motivation and both subscales, and relationship to colleagues showed a low positive significance for the intrinsic scale only. Healthcare organizations have mostly focused on targeting professionals' extrinsic motivation. However, managing dimensions of professional culture can help support professionals' intrinsic motivation without incurring the side effects of monetary incentives.

  13. Intrinsic bioremediation of landfills interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brigmon, R.L.; Fliermans, C.B.

    1997-01-01

    Intrinsic bioremediation is a risk management option that relies on natural biological and physical processes to contain the spread of contamination from a source. Evidence is presented in this report that intrinsic bioremediation is occurring at the Sanitary Landfill is fundamental to support incorportion into a Corrective Action Plan (CAP)

  14. Differential scanning microcalorimetry of intrinsically disordered proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permyakov, Sergei E

    2012-01-01

    Ultrasensitive differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is an indispensable thermophysical technique enabling to get direct information on enthalpies accompanying heating/cooling of dilute biopolymer solutions. The thermal dependence of protein heat capacity extracted from DSC data is a valuable source of information on intrinsic disorder level of a protein. Application details and limitations of DSC technique in exploration of protein intrinsic disorder are described.

  15. Intrinsic bioremediation of landfills interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States); Fliermans, C.B.

    1997-07-14

    Intrinsic bioremediation is a risk management option that relies on natural biological and physical processes to contain the spread of contamination from a source. Evidence is presented in this report that intrinsic bioremediation is occurring at the Sanitary Landfill is fundamental to support incorportion into a Corrective Action Plan (CAP).

  16. An Intrinsic Coordinate System for Fingerprint Matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazen, A.M.; Gerez, Sabih H.; Bigun, J.; Smeraldi, F.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, an intrinsic coordinate system is proposed for fingerprints. First the fingerprint is partitioned in regular regions, which are regions that contain no singular points. In each regular region, the intrinsic coordinate system is defined by the directional field. When using the

  17. Dynamic Neural Fields with Intrinsic Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strub, Claudius; Schöner, Gregor; Wörgötter, Florentin; Sandamirskaya, Yulia

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic neural fields (DNFs) are dynamical systems models that approximate the activity of large, homogeneous, and recurrently connected neural networks based on a mean field approach. Within dynamic field theory, the DNFs have been used as building blocks in architectures to model sensorimotor embedding of cognitive processes. Typically, the parameters of a DNF in an architecture are manually tuned in order to achieve a specific dynamic behavior (e.g., decision making, selection, or working memory) for a given input pattern. This manual parameters search requires expert knowledge and time to find and verify a suited set of parameters. The DNF parametrization may be particular challenging if the input distribution is not known in advance, e.g., when processing sensory information. In this paper, we propose the autonomous adaptation of the DNF resting level and gain by a learning mechanism of intrinsic plasticity (IP). To enable this adaptation, an input and output measure for the DNF are introduced, together with a hyper parameter to define the desired output distribution. The online adaptation by IP gives the possibility to pre-define the DNF output statistics without knowledge of the input distribution and thus, also to compensate for changes in it. The capabilities and limitations of this approach are evaluated in a number of experiments.

  18. Algebraic description of intrinsic modes in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leviatan, A.

    1989-01-01

    We present a procedure for extracting normal modes in algebraic number-conserving systems of interacting bosons relevant for collective states in even-even nuclei. The Hamiltonian is resolved into intrinsic (bandhead related) and collective (in-band related) parts. Shape parameters are introduced through non-spherical boson bases. Intrinsic modes decoupled from the spurious modes are obtained from the intinsic part of the Hamiltonian in the limit of large number of bosons. Intrinsic states are constructed and serve to evaluate electromagnetic transition rates. The method is illustrated for systems with one type of boson as well as with proton-neutron bosons. 28 refs., 1 fig

  19. Algebraic description of intrinsic modes in nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leviatan, A.

    1989-01-01

    We present a procedure for extracting normal modes in algebraic number-conserving systems of interacting bosons relevant for collective states in even-even nuclei. The Hamiltonian is resolved into intrinsic (bandhead related) and collective (in-band related) parts. Shape parameters are introduced through non-spherical boson bases. Intrinsic modes decoupled from the spurious modes are obtained from the intinsic part of the Hamiltonian in the limit of large number of bosons. Intrinsic states are constructed and serve to evaluate electromagnetic transition rates. The method is illustrated for systems with one type of boson as well as with proton-neutron bosons. 28 refs., 1 fig.

  20. Using seismic coda waves to resolve intrinsic and scattering attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W.; Shearer, P. M.

    2016-12-01

    Seismic attenuation is caused by two factors, scattering and intrinsic absorption. Characterizing scattering and absorbing properties and the power spectrum of crustal heterogeneity is a fundamental problem for informing strong ground motion estimates at high frequencies, where scattering and attenuation effects are critical. Determining the relative amount of attenuation caused by scattering and intrinsic absorption has been a long-standing problem in seismology. The wavetrain following the direct body wave phases is called the coda, which is caused by scattered energy. Many studies have analyzed the coda of local events to constrain crustal and upper-mantle scattering strength and intrinsic attenuation. Here we examine two popular attenuation inversion methods, the Multiple Lapse Time Window Method (MLTWM) and the Coda Qc Method. First, based on our previous work on California attenuation structure, we apply an efficient and accurate method, the Monte Carlo Approach, to synthesize seismic envelope functions. We use this code to generate a series of synthetic data based on several complex and realistic forward models. Although the MLTWM assumes a uniform whole space, we use the MLTWM to invert for both scattering and intrinsic attenuation from the synthetic data to test how accurately it can recover the attenuation models. Results for the coda Qc method depend on choices for the length and starting time of the coda-wave time window. Here we explore the relation between the inversion results for Qc, the windowing parameters, and the intrinsic and scattering Q structure of our synthetic model. These results should help assess the practicality and accuracy of the Multiple Lapse Time Window Method and Coda Qc Method when applied to realistic crustal velocity and attenuation models.

  1. Does intrinsic motivation fuel the prosocial fire? Motivational synergy in predicting persistence, performance, and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Adam M

    2008-01-01

    Researchers have obtained conflicting results about the role of prosocial motivation in persistence, performance, and productivity. To resolve this discrepancy, I draw on self-determination theory, proposing that prosocial motivation is most likely to predict these outcomes when it is accompanied by intrinsic motivation. Two field studies support the hypothesis that intrinsic motivation moderates the association between prosocial motivation and persistence, performance, and productivity. In Study 1, intrinsic motivation strengthened the relationship between prosocial motivation and the overtime hour persistence of 58 firefighters. In Study 2, intrinsic motivation strengthened the relationship between prosocial motivation and the performance and productivity of 140 fundraising callers. Callers who reported high levels of both prosocial and intrinsic motivations raised more money 1 month later, and this moderated association was mediated by a larger number of calls made. I discuss implications for theory and research on work motivation. 2008 APA

  2. Intrinsic endometriosis of ureter: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Myung Sun; Kim, Ho Chul; Yun, Ku Sup; Choi, Chul Soon; Bae, Sang Hoon; Kim, Sung Yong; Shin, Hyung Sik

    1995-01-01

    Endometriosis is a rare cause of an ureteral obstruction. We report a case of intrinsic ureteral endometriosis resulting in severe hydroureteronephrosis. The diagnosis of ureteral endometriosis may be considered in women with flank pain and ureteric obstruction within true pelvis

  3. The Intrinsic Dynamics of Psychological Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vallacher, Robin R.; van Geert, Paul; Nowak, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Psychological processes unfold on various timescales in accord with internally generated patterns. The intrinsic dynamism of psychological process is difficult to investigate using traditional methods emphasizing cause–effect relations, however, and therefore is rarely incorporated into social

  4. Deuterium NMR, induced and intrinsic cholesteric lyomesophases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcantara, M.R.

    1982-01-01

    Induced and intrinsic cholesteric lyotropic mesophases were studied. Induced cholesteric lyomesophases based on potassium laurate (KL) system, with small amounts of cholesterol added, were studied by deuterium NMR and by polarizing microscopy. Order profiles obtained from deuterium NMR of KL perdenderated chains in both induced cholesteric and normal mesophases were compared. The intrinsic cholesteric lyotropic mesophases were based on the amphiphile potassium N-lauroyl serinate (KLNS) in the resolved levo form. The study of the type I intrinsic cholesteric mesophase was made by optical microscopy under polarized light and the type II intrinsic cholesteric lyomesophase was characterized by deuterium NMR. The new texture was explained by the use of the theory of disclinations developed for thermotropic liquid crystals, specially for cholesteric type. (M.J.C.) [pt

  5. Intrinsic and acquired resistance mechanisms in enterococcus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenbeck, Brian L.; Rice, Louis B.

    2012-01-01

    Enterococci have the potential for resistance to virtually all clinically useful antibiotics. Their emergence as important nosocomial pathogens has coincided with increased expression of antimicrobial resistance by members of the genus. The mechanisms underlying antibiotic resistance in enterococci may be intrinsic to the species or acquired through mutation of intrinsic genes or horizontal exchange of genetic material encoding resistance determinants. This paper reviews the antibiotic resistance mechanisms in Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis and discusses treatment options. PMID:23076243

  6. The intrinsic resistome of bacterial pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Andrés Olivares Pacheco

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Intrinsically resistant bacteria have emerged as a relevant health problem in the last years. Those bacterial species, several of them with an environmental origin, present naturally a low-level susceptibility to several drugs. It has been proposed that intrinsic resistance is mainly the consequence of the impermeability of cellular envelopes, the activity of multidrug efflux pumps or the lack of appropriate targets for a given family of drugs. However, recently published articles indicate that the characteristic phenotype of susceptibility to antibiotics of a given bacterial species depends on the concerted activity of several elements, what has been named as intrinsic resistome. These determinants comprise not just classical resistance genes. Other elements, several of them involved in basic bacterial metabolic processes, are of relevance for the intrinsic resistance of bacterial pathogens. In the present review we analyse recent publications on the intrinsic resistomes of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We present as well information on the role that global regulators of bacterial metabolism, as Crc from P. aeruginosa, may have on modulating bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics. Finally, we discuss the possibility of searching inhibitors of the intrinsic resistome in the aim of improving the activity of drugs currently in use for clinical practice.

  7. Incentives and intrinsic motivation in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdud, Mikel; Cabasés, Juan M; Nieto, Jorge

    It has been established in the literature that workers within public organisations are intrinsically motivated. This paper is an empirical study of the healthcare sector using methods of qualitative analysis research, which aims to answer the following hypotheses: 1) doctors are intrinsically motivated; 2) economic incentives and control policies may undermine doctors' intrinsic motivation; and 3) well-designed incentives may encourage doctors' intrinsic motivation. We conducted semi-structured interviews à-la-Bewley with 16 doctors from Navarre's Healthcare Service (Servicio Navarro de Salud-Osasunbidea), Spain. The questions were based on current theories of intrinsic motivation and incentives to test the hypotheses. Interviewees were allowed to respond openly without time constraints. Relevant information was selected, quantified and analysed by using the qualitative concepts of saturation and codification. The results seem to confirm the hypotheses. Evidence supporting hypotheses 1 and 2 was gathered from all interviewees, as well as indications of the validity of hypothesis 3 based on interviewees' proposals of incentives. The conclusions could act as a guide to support the optimal design of incentive policies and schemes within health organisations when healthcare professionals are intrinsically motivated. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. A Modified Theoretical Model of Intrinsic Hardness of Crystalline Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Fu-Zhi; Zhou, Yanchun

    2016-01-01

    Super-hard materials have been extensively investigated due to their practical importance in numerous industrial applications. To stimulate the design and exploration of new super-hard materials, microscopic models that elucidate the fundamental factors controlling hardness are desirable. The present work modified the theoretical model of intrinsic hardness proposed by Gao. In the modification, we emphasize the critical role of appropriately decomposing a crystal to pseudo-binary crystals, which should be carried out based on the valence electron population of each bond. After modification, the model becomes self-consistent and predicts well the hardness values of many crystals, including crystals composed of complex chemical bonds. The modified model provides fundamental insights into the nature of hardness, which can facilitate the quest for intrinsic super-hard materials. PMID:27604165

  9. Intrinsic spin lifetimes in GaAs (110) quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Georg; Roemer, Michael; Huebner, Jens; Oestreich, Michael [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Hannover (Germany); Schuh, Dieter; Wegscheider, Werner [Institut fuer Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Regensburg (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    GaAs(110) quantum wells attract great attention due to the long spin lifetime for electron spins along the growth axis and are, therefore, of interest for future spin based optoelectronic devices. At low temperatures, optical injection of a finite spin polarization yields strongly enhanced spin dephasing due to the Bir Aronov Pikus mechanism that arises from the exchange interaction between electrons and holes. Thus, the intrinsic spin lifetime in GaAs(110) quantum wells has been unknown. In this work, the non-demolition technique of spin noise spectroscopy, which only relies on statistical spin fluctuations, is applied to GaAs(110) quantum wells in order to measure the intrinsic spin lifetimes. Furthermore, the Brownian motion of the electrons modifies the linewidth of the measured spin noise spectra due to time of flight broadening. This effect uniquely allows to study electronic motion at thermal equilibrium.

  10. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivational orientations in the competitive context: an examination of person-situation interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuhamdeh, Sami; Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly

    2009-10-01

    The current study examined Intrinsic Motivation Orientation and Extrinsic Motivation Orientation (Work Preference Inventory; Amabile, Hill, Hennessey, & Tighe, 1994) as potential trait-level moderators of the way Internet chess players responded to the intrinsic and extrinsic rewards of the chess games they played. On the basis of the defining characteristics of these 2 types of motivational orientations, we predicted that (a) Intrinsic Motivation Orientation would be associated with a stronger curvilinear relationship between challenge and enjoyment and (b) Extrinsic Motivation Orientation would be associated with a heightened affective responsivity to competitive outcome (i.e., winning vs. losing). Results supported the predictions. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  11. Longitudinal tests on the influence of achievement goals on effort and intrinsic interest in the workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Ayumi; Okuno, Takuhiro; Yamauchi, Hirotsugu

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates whether four types of achievement goals?mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance?influence effort and intrinsic interest at work. Cross-lagged panel analyses were applied to data from a two-wave survey conducted on 57 newly hired Japanese police officers. The results showed that performance-approach goals had significant positive influences on effort and intrinsic interest. In contrast, performance-avoidance goals had signifi...

  12. Hydrogen bonding lowers intrinsic nucleophilicity of solvated nucleophiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Brauman, John I

    2008-11-12

    The relationship between nucleophilicity and the structure/environment of the nucleophile is of fundamental importance in organic chemistry. In this work, we have measured nucleophilicities of a series of substituted alkoxides in the gas phase. The functional group substitutions affect the nucleophiles through ion-dipole, ion-induced dipole interactions and through hydrogen bonding whenever structurally possible. This set of alkoxides serves as an ideal model system for studying nucleophiles under microsolvation settings. Marcus theory was applied to analyze the results. Using Marcus theory, we separate nucleophilicity into two independent components, an intrinsic nucleophilicity and a thermodynamic driving force determined solely by the overall reaction exothermicity. It is found that the apparent nucleophilicities of the substituted alkoxides are always much lower than those of the unsubstituted ones. However, ion-dipole, ion-induced dipole interactions, by themselves, do not significantly affect the intrinsic nucleophilicity; the decrease in the apparent nucleophilicity results from a weaker thermodynamic driving force. On the other hand, hydrogen bonding not only stabilizes the nucleophile but also increases the intrinsic barrier height by 3 to approximately 4 kcal mol (-1). In this regard, the hydrogen bond is not acting as a perturbation in the sense of an external dipole but more directly affects the electronic structure and reactivity of the nucleophilic alkoxide. This finding offers a deeper insight into the solvation effect on nucleophilicity, such as the remarkably lower reactivities in nucleophilic substitution reactions in protic solvents than in aprotic solvents.

  13. Functions of intrinsic disorder in transmembrane proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergaard, Magnus; Kragelund, Birthe B.

    2017-01-01

    mechanisms. (3) Trafficking of membrane proteins. (4) Transient membrane associations. (5) Post-translational modifications most notably phosphorylation and (6) disorder-linked isoform dependent function. We finish the review by discussing the future challenges facing the membrane protein community regarding......Intrinsic disorder is common in integral membrane proteins, particularly in the intracellular domains. Despite this observation, these domains are not always recognized as being disordered. In this review, we will discuss the biological functions of intrinsically disordered regions of membrane...... proteins, and address why the flexibility afforded by disorder is mechanistically important. Intrinsically disordered regions are present in many common classes of membrane proteins including ion channels and transporters; G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), receptor tyrosine kinases and cytokine...

  14. Management Control, Intrinsic Motivation and Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godt Gregersen, Mikkel

    of the conclusion is that intrinsic motivation and management control can coexist under the conditions that all three basic needs, i.e. autonomy, competence and relatedness, are supported. This can happen when control takes point of departure in the individual employee. The second part of the conclusion......This thesis consists of a cape and three papers. The overall research question is: How can intrinsic motivation and management control coexist in a creative environment and how can coordination be possible in such a context? The cape ties together the research done in the three papers....... It is divided into six sections. The first section introduces the concepts of intrinsic motivation, creativity and management control. This is followed by a section on management control in a creative context. These two sections frame the thesis and introduce the setting in which the research has been done...

  15. Cell intrinsic control of axon regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mar, Fernando M; Bonni, Azad; Sousa, Mónica M

    2014-01-01

    Although neurons execute a cell intrinsic program of axonal growth during development, following the establishment of connections, the developmental growth capacity declines. Besides environmental challenges, this switch largely accounts for the failure of adult central nervous system (CNS) axons to regenerate. Here, we discuss the cell intrinsic control of axon regeneration, including not only the regulation of transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms, but also the modulation of local protein translation, retrograde and anterograde axonal transport, and microtubule dynamics. We further explore the causes underlying the failure of CNS neurons to mount a vigorous regenerative response, and the paradigms demonstrating the activation of cell intrinsic axon growth programs. Finally, we present potential mechanisms to support axon regeneration, as these may represent future therapeutic approaches to promote recovery following CNS injury and disease. PMID:24531721

  16. Intrinsic job satisfaction, overall satisfaction, and intention to leave the job among nursing assistants in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Frederic H; Harris-Kojetin, Lauren D; Bercovitz, Anita

    2009-10-01

    We examined predictors of intrinsic job satisfaction, overall satisfaction, and intention to leave the job among nursing assistants (NAs). The study focused on NAs who worked 30 or more hours per week in a nursing home. Data on 2,146 NAs meeting this criterion came from the 2004 National Nursing Assistant Survey, the first telephone interview survey of NAs nationwide. Regression equations were calculated in which intrinsic satisfaction, overall satisfaction, and intention to leave were dependent variables. NA attributes (e.g., job tenure and education) and extrinsic job factors (e.g., assessment of supervisor behavior, pay satisfaction, and benefits) were exogenous variables. A positive assessment of the supervisor's behavior had the strongest association with intrinsic satisfaction. Pay satisfaction had the second strongest association with intrinsic satisfaction. Predictors with the strongest associations with intention to leave were overall and intrinsic satisfaction. Assessment of the supervisor was not associated directly with intention to leave. Assessments of the supervisor and pay may affect overall satisfaction and intention to leave in part through their direct effects on intrinsic satisfaction. Some facility and NA attributes were related to intrinsic satisfaction but not to overall satisfaction, suggesting that intrinsic satisfaction may be an intervening variable in the impact of these attributes on overall satisfaction. Intrinsic satisfaction and extrinsic job factors amenable to change appear central to NAs' overall satisfaction and intention to leave. A facility may be able to improve extrinsic job factors that improve NAs' job-related affects, including intrinsic satisfaction.

  17. Nonlinear static and dynamic analysis of beam structures using fully intrinsic equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotoudeh, Zahra

    2011-07-01

    Beams are structural members with one dimension much larger than the other two. Examples of beams include propeller blades, helicopter rotor blades, and high aspect-ratio aircraft wings in aerospace engineering; shafts and wind turbine blades in mechanical engineering; towers, highways and bridges in civil engineering; and DNA modeling in biomedical engineering. Beam analysis includes two sets of equations: a generally linear two-dimensional problem over the cross-sectional plane and a nonlinear, global one-dimensional analysis. This research work deals with a relatively new set of equations for one-dimensional beam analysis, namely the so-called fully intrinsic equations. Fully intrinsic equations comprise a set of geometrically exact, nonlinear, first-order partial differential equations that is suitable for analyzing initially curved and twisted anisotropic beams. A fully intrinsic formulation is devoid of displacement and rotation variables, making it especially attractive because of the absence of singularities, infinite-degree nonlinearities, and other undesirable features associated with finite rotation variables. In spite of the advantages of these equations, using them with certain boundary conditions presents significant challenges. This research work will take a broad look at these challenges of modeling various boundary conditions when using the fully intrinsic equations. Hopefully it will clear the path for wider and easier use of the fully intrinsic equations in future research. This work also includes application of fully intrinsic equations in structural analysis of joined-wing aircraft, different rotor blade configuration and LCO analysis of HALE aircraft.

  18. Insulin aggregation tracked by its intrinsic TRES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Li Hung C.; Birch, David J. S.; Vyshemirsky, Vladislav; Ryadnov, Maxim G.; Rolinski, Olaf J.

    2017-12-01

    Time-resolved emission spectra (TRES) have been used to detect conformational changes of intrinsic tyrosines within bovine insulin at a physiological pH. The approach offers the ability to detect the initial stages of insulin aggregation at the molecular level. The data analysis has revealed the existence of at least three fluorescent species undergoing dielectric relaxation and significant spectral changes due to insulin aggregation. The results indicate the suitability of the intrinsic TRES approach for insulin studies and for monitoring its stability during storage and aggregation in insulin delivery devices.

  19. Intrinsic viscosity of a suspension of cubes

    KAUST Repository

    Mallavajula, Rajesh K.

    2013-11-06

    We report on the viscosity of a dilute suspension of cube-shaped particles. Irrespective of the particle size, size distribution, and surface chemistry, we find empirically that cubes manifest an intrinsic viscosity [η]=3.1±0.2, which is substantially higher than the well-known value for spheres, [η]=2.5. The orientation-dependent intrinsic viscosity of cubic particles is determined theoretically using a finite-element solution of the Stokes equations. For isotropically oriented cubes, these calculations show [η]=3.1, in excellent agreement with our experimental observations. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  20. Intrinsic entropy perturbations from the dark sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celoria, Marco; Comelli, Denis; Pilo, Luigi

    2018-03-01

    Perfect fluids are modeled by using an effective field theory approach which naturally gives a self-consistent and unambiguous description of the intrinsic non-adiabatic contribution to pressure variations. We study the impact of intrinsic entropy perturbation on the superhorizon dynamics of the curvature perturbation Script R in the dark sector. The dark sector, made of dark matter and dark energy is described as a single perfect fluid. The non-perturbative vorticity's dynamics and the Weinberg theorem violation for perfect fluids are also studied.

  1. A model of intrinsic symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge, Li; Li, Sheng; George, Thomas F.; Sun, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Different from the symmetry breaking associated with a phase transition, which occurs when the controlling parameter is manipulated across a critical point, the symmetry breaking presented in this Letter does not need parameter manipulation. Instead, the system itself suddenly undergoes symmetry breaking at a certain time during its evolution, which is intrinsic symmetry breaking. Through a polymer model, it is revealed that the origin of the intrinsic symmetry breaking is nonlinearity, which produces instability at the instance when the evolution crosses an inflexion point, where this instability breaks the original symmetry

  2. Intrinsic magnetic refrigeration of a single electron transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarelli, C.; Campion, R. P.; Gallagher, B. L.; Ferguson, A. J.

    2016-02-01

    In this work, we show that aluminium doped with low concentrations of magnetic impurities can be used to fabricate quantum devices with intrinsic cooling capabilities. We fabricate single electron transistors made of aluminium doped with 2% Mn by using a standard multi angle evaporation technique and show that the quantity of metal used to fabricate the devices generates enough cooling power to achieve a drop of 160 mK in the electron temperature at the base temperature of our cryostat (300 mK). The cooling mechanism is based on the magneto-caloric effect from the diluted Mn moments.

  3. Intrinsic magnetic refrigeration of a single electron transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciccarelli, C.; Ferguson, A. J.; Campion, R. P.; Gallagher, B. L.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we show that aluminium doped with low concentrations of magnetic impurities can be used to fabricate quantum devices with intrinsic cooling capabilities. We fabricate single electron transistors made of aluminium doped with 2% Mn by using a standard multi angle evaporation technique and show that the quantity of metal used to fabricate the devices generates enough cooling power to achieve a drop of 160 mK in the electron temperature at the base temperature of our cryostat (300 mK). The cooling mechanism is based on the magneto-caloric effect from the diluted Mn moments

  4. Intrinsic Electric Dipole Moments of Paramagnetic Atoms: Rubidium and Cesium

    OpenAIRE

    Nataraj, H. S.; Sahoo, B. K.; Das, B. P.; Mukherjee, D.

    2008-01-01

    The electric dipole moment (EDM) of paramagnetic atoms is sensitive to the intrinsic EDM contribution from that of its constituent electrons and a scalar--pseudo-scalar (S-PS) electron-nucleus interactions. The electron EDM and the S-PS EDM contribution to atomic EDM scales as Z^3. Thus, the heavy paramagnetic atomic systems will exhibit large enhancement factors. However, the nature of the coupling is so small that it becomes an interest of high precision atomic experiments. In this work, we...

  5. Frustration-induced protein intrinsic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Katsuyoshi; Kikuchi, Macoto

    2013-03-14

    Spontaneous folding into a specific native structure is the most important property of protein to perform their biological functions within organisms. Spontaneous folding is understood on the basis of an energy landscape picture based on the minimum frustration principle. Therefore, frustration seemingly only leads to protein functional disorder. However, frustration has recently been suggested to have a function in allosteric regulation. Functional frustration has the possibility to be a key to our deeper understanding of protein function. To explore another functional frustration, we theoretically examined structural frustration, which is designed to induce intrinsic disorder of a protein and its function through the coupled folding and binding. We extended the Wako-Saitô-Muñoz-Eaton model to take into account a frustration effect. With the model, we analyzed the binding part of neuron-restrictive silencer factor and showed that designed structural frustration in it induces intrinsic disorder. Furthermore, we showed that the folding and the binding are cooperative in interacting with a target protein. The cooperativity enables an intrinsically disordered protein to exhibit a sharp switch-like folding response to binding chemical potential change. Through this switch-like response, the structural frustration may contribute to the regulation function of interprotein interaction of the intrinsically disordered protein.

  6. Simple intrinsic defects in InAs :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Peter Andrew

    2013-03-01

    This Report presents numerical tables summarizing properties of intrinsic defects in indium arsenide, InAs, as computed by density functional theory using semi-local density functionals, intended for use as reference tables for a defect physics package in device models.

  7. INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION IN THE SELECTION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A psychological perspective is considered that applies intrinsic and extrinsic motivational concepts to communication phenomena. The paper also tries to develop an analytical understanding of human communication-related behavior with respect to the two types of motives. Proposals are also put forward to communication ...

  8. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation among Collegiate Instrumentalists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Frank M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gather and compare information on measures of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among instrumentalists enrolled in collegiate ensembles. A survey instrument was developed to gather information concerning demographic data and responses to questions on motivational preference. Participants were undergraduate and…

  9. A rotational integral formula for intrinsic volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Eva Bjørn Vedel; Rataj, J.

    2008-01-01

    A rotational version of the famous Crofton formula is derived. The motivation for deriving the formula comes from local stereology, a new branch of stereology based on sections through fixed reference points. The formula shows how rotational averages of intrinsic volumes measured on sections...

  10. Original Paper Detecting Nosocomial Intrinsic Infections through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-04-20

    Apr 20, 2011 ... Key Words: Bacterial pathogens, Endogenous indicators, NosocomiaI infection, Surgery. Received 30 October 2010/ Accepted 30 March 2011. INTRODUCTION. Micro-organisms from intrinsic and extrinsic sources have been known to cause nosocomial infections (CDC, 1991). The human body enables.

  11. Organisational Learning and Employees' Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remedios, Richard; Boreham, Nick

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the effects of organisational learning initiatives on employee motivation. Four initiatives consistent with theories of organisational learning were a priori ranked in terms of concepts that underpin intrinsic-motivation theory. Eighteen employees in a UK petrochemical company were interviewed to ascertain their experiences of…

  12. Intrinsic Motivation, Organizational Justice, and Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannam, Kalli; Narayan, Anupama

    2015-01-01

    For employees to generate creative ideas that are not only original, but also useful to their company, they must interact with their workplace environment to determine organizational needs. Therefore, it is important to consider aspects of the individual as well as their environment when studying creativity. Intrinsic motivation, a predictor of…

  13. Discovery of Intrinsic Primitives on Triangle Meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Solomon, Justin

    2011-04-01

    The discovery of meaningful parts of a shape is required for many geometry processing applications, such as parameterization, shape correspondence, and animation. It is natural to consider primitives such as spheres, cylinders and cones as the building blocks of shapes, and thus to discover parts by fitting such primitives to a given surface. This approach, however, will break down if primitive parts have undergone almost-isometric deformations, as is the case, for example, for articulated human models. We suggest that parts can be discovered instead by finding intrinsic primitives, which we define as parts that posses an approximate intrinsic symmetry. We employ the recently-developed method of computing discrete approximate Killing vector fields (AKVFs) to discover intrinsic primitives by investigating the relationship between the AKVFs of a composite object and the AKVFs of its parts. We show how to leverage this relationship with a standard clustering method to extract k intrinsic primitives and remaining asymmetric parts of a shape for a given k. We demonstrate the value of this approach for identifying the prominent symmetry generators of the parts of a given shape. Additionally, we show how our method can be modified slightly to segment an entire surface without marking asymmetric connecting regions and compare this approach to state-of-the-art methods using the Princeton Segmentation Benchmark. © 2011 The Author(s).

  14. Identifying the neural substrates of intrinsic motivation during task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woogul; Reeve, Johnmarshall

    2017-10-01

    Intrinsic motivation is the inherent tendency to seek out novelty and challenge, to explore and investigate, and to stretch and extend one's capacities. When people imagine performing intrinsically motivating tasks, they show heightened anterior insular cortex (AIC) activity. To fully explain the neural system of intrinsic motivation, however, requires assessing neural activity while people actually perform intrinsically motivating tasks (i.e., while answering curiosity-inducing questions or solving competence-enabling anagrams). Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, we found that the neural system of intrinsic motivation involves not only AIC activity, but also striatum activity and, further, AIC-striatum functional interactions. These findings suggest that subjective feelings of intrinsic satisfaction (associated with AIC activations), reward processing (associated with striatum activations), and their interactions underlie the actual experience of intrinsic motivation. These neural findings are consistent with the conceptualization of intrinsic motivation as the pursuit and satisfaction of subjective feelings (interest and enjoyment) as intrinsic rewards.

  15. Intrinsic Motivation in Open Source Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bitzer, J.; W., Schrettl,; Schröder, Philipp

    2004-01-01

    This papers sheds light on the puzzling evidence that even though open source software (OSS) is a public good, it is developed for free by highly qualified, young and motivated individuals, and evolves at a rapid pace. We show that once OSS development is understood as the private provision...... of a public good, these features emerge quite naturally. We adapt a dynamic private-provision-of-public-goods model to reflects key aspects of the OSS phenomenon. In particular, instead of relying on extrinsic motives for programmers (e.g. signaling) the present model is driven by intrinsic motives of OSS...... programmers, such as user-programmers, play value or \\emph{homo ludens} payoff, and gift culture benefits. Such intrinsic motives feature extensively in the wider OSS literature and turn out to add new insights to the economic analysis....

  16. Does Aerobic Exercise Influence Intrinsic Brain Activity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flodin, Pär; Jonasson, Lars S; Riklund, Katrin

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that aerobic exercise could reduce age related decline in cognition and brain functioning. Here we investigated the effects of aerobic exercise on intrinsic brain activity. Sixty sedentary healthy males and females (64-78 years) were randomized into either an aerobic...... exercise group or an active control group. Both groups recieved supervised training, 3 days a week for 6 months. Multimodal brain imaging data was acquired before and after the intervention, including 10 min of resting state brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and arterial spin labeling...... group improved more. Contrary to our hypothesis, we did not observe any significant group by time interactions with regard to any measure of intrinsic activity. To further probe putative relationships between fitness and brain activity, we performed post hoc analyses disregarding group belongings...

  17. Extrinsic and intrinsic determinants of nerve regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby A. Ferguson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available After central nervous system (CNS injury axons fail to regenerate often leading to persistent neurologic deficit although injured peripheral nervous system (PNS axons mount a robust regenerative response that may lead to functional recovery. Some of the failures of CNS regeneration arise from the many glial-based inhibitory molecules found in the injured CNS, whereas the intrinsic regenerative potential of some CNS neurons is actively curtailed during CNS maturation and limited after injury. In this review, the molecular basis for extrinsic and intrinsic modulation of axon regeneration within the nervous system is evaluated. A more complete understanding of the factors limiting axonal regeneration will provide a rational basis, which is used to develop improved treatments for nervous system injury.

  18. Intrinsic point defects in aluminum antimonide

    OpenAIRE

    Åberg, Daniel; Erhart, Paul; Williamson, Andrew J.; Lordi, Vincenzo

    2010-01-01

    Calculations within density functional theory on the basis of the local density approximation are carried out to study the properties of intrinsic point defects in aluminum antimonide. Special care is taken to address finite-size effects, band gap error, and symmetry reduction in the defect structures. The correction of the band gap is based on a set of GW calculations. The most important defects are identified to be the aluminum interstitial $Al_{i,Al}^{1+}$, the antimony antisites $Sb_{Al}^...

  19. Intrinsic luminescence of alkali silicate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbuzov, V.I.; Grabovskis, V.Y.; Tolstoi, M.N.; Vitol, I.K.

    1986-09-01

    This study obtains additional information on L centers and their role in electron excitation and intrinsic luminescence of a whole series. (Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs) of alkali silicate glasses. The authors compare the features of the interaction with radiation of specimens of glass and crystal of a similar chemical composition, since silicates of alkali metals can be obtained in both the glassy and crystalline states.

  20. A structural model of intrinsic motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar, Javier; González, Daniel; Aguilar, Amira

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of this research was to develop and test a structural model of intrinsic motivation among students of the University of Sonora to the curriculum of their careers. A secondary objective was to overcome the limitations of the model developed among students of the UNAM. Eight psychometric scales developed by the authors in previous studies were used, which showed satisfactory reliability and validity values. The model tested was similar to the sample of the UNAM, except for the ...

  1. Intrinsic electron trapping in amorphous oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Jack; Kaviani, Moloud; Afanas’ev, Valeri V.; Lisoni, Judit G.; Shluger, Alexander L.

    2018-03-01

    We demonstrate that electron trapping at intrinsic precursor sites is endemic in non-glass-forming amorphous oxide films. The energy distributions of trapped electron states in ultra-pure prototype amorphous (a)-HfO2 insulator obtained from exhaustive photo-depopulation experiments demonstrate electron states in the energy range of 2–3 eV below the oxide conduction band. These energy distributions are compared to the results of density functional calculations of a-HfO2 models of realistic density. The experimental results can be explained by the presence of intrinsic charge trapping sites formed by under-coordinated Hf cations and elongated Hf–O bonds in a-HfO2. These charge trapping states can capture up to two electrons, forming polarons and bi-polarons. The corresponding trapping sites are different from the dangling-bond type defects responsible for trapping in glass-forming oxides, such as SiO2, in that the traps are formed without bonds being broken. Furthermore, introduction of hydrogen causes formation of somewhat energetically deeper electron traps when a proton is immobilized next to the trapped electron bi-polaron. The proposed novel mechanism of intrinsic charge trapping in a-HfO2 represents a new paradigm for charge trapping in a broad class of non-glass-forming amorphous insulators.

  2. Learning intrinsic excitability in medium spiny neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheler, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    We present an unsupervised, local activation-dependent learning rule for intrinsic plasticity (IP) which affects the composition of ion channel conductances for single neurons in a use-dependent way. We use a single-compartment conductance-based model for medium spiny striatal neurons in order to show the effects of parameterization of individual ion channels on the neuronal membrane potential-curent relationship (activation function). We show that parameter changes within the physiological ranges are sufficient to create an ensemble of neurons with significantly different activation functions. We emphasize that the effects of intrinsic neuronal modulation on spiking behavior require a distributed mode of synaptic input and can be eliminated by strongly correlated input. We show how modulation and adaptivity in ion channel conductances can be utilized to store patterns without an additional contribution by synaptic plasticity (SP). The adaptation of the spike response may result in either "positive" or "negative" pattern learning. However, read-out of stored information depends on a distributed pattern of synaptic activity to let intrinsic modulation determine spike response. We briefly discuss the implications of this conditional memory on learning and addiction.

  3. Predictors of employment in schizophrenia: The importance of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, L Felice; Llerena, Katiah; Kern, Robert S

    2016-10-01

    Unemployment is a primary functional deficit for the majority of adults with schizophrenia. Research indicates that over two-thirds of adults living in the community with schizophrenia are unemployed. Despite effective programs to assist with job identification and placement, the ability to attain and maintain employment remains a pressing concern. A contributing factor that may be relevant but has received little attention in the work rehabilitation literature is motivation. People with schizophrenia show marked deficits in both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation but these deficits have not been directly examined in relation to work outcomes. The present study sought to examine the relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and work outcome among a sample of 65 adults with schizophrenia enrolled in a supported employment program. One-third of the participants in the study obtained work. Intrinsic motivation related to valuing and feeling useful in a work role significantly predicted who would obtain employment. Extrinsic motivation related to gaining rewards and avoiding obstacles showed a non-significant trend-level relationship such that workers had higher extrinsic motivation than nonworkers. These findings highlight the importance of considering both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in work-related interventions and supported employment for individuals with schizophrenia. The results are discussed in terms of clinical implications for improving rehabilitation and occupational outcomes in schizophrenia. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Relationship between cognitive function and prevalence of decrease in intrinsic academic motivation in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukuda Sanae

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decrease in intrinsic motivation is a common complaint among elementary and junior high school students, and is related to poor academic performance. Since grade-dependent development of cognitive functions also influences academic performance by these students, we examined whether cognitive functions are related to the prevalence of decrease in intrinsic academic motivation. Methods The study group consisted of 134 elementary school students from 4th to 6th grades and 133 junior high school students from 7th to 9th grades. Participants completed a questionnaire on intrinsic academic motivation. They also performed paper-and-pencil and computerized cognitive tests to measure abilities in motor processing, spatial construction, semantic fluency, immediate memory, short-term memory, delayed memory, spatial working memory, and selective, alternative, and divided attention. Results In multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusted for grade and gender, scores of none of the cognitive tests were correlated with the prevalence of decrease in intrinsic academic motivation in elementary school students. However, low digit span forward test score and score for comprehension of the story in the kana pick-out test were positively correlated with the prevalence of decrease in intrinsic academic motivation in junior high school students. Conclusions The present findings suggest that decrease in capacity for verbal memory is associated with the prevalence of decrease in intrinsic academic motivation among junior high school students.

  5. A comparison of South African and German extrinsic and intrinsic motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Snelgar

    2017-04-01

    Aim: The main objective of this study was to investigate similarities and differences concerning extrinsic and intrinsic motivation in the workplace between German and South African cultures by examining individuals with working experience and tertiary education specifically. In addition, the research investigated differences in the motivation of respondents with regard to demographics such as gender, age and income. Setting: The setting took place in South Africa and Germany. Methods: In the study, exploratory factor analysis was utilised to prove validity of Cinar, Bektas and Aslan’s two-dimensional measure of extrinsic and intrinsic motivation. Moreover, analysis of variance and t-tests were used to show differences among demographic variables. Descriptive statistics such as means, central tendency and Cronbach’s alpha were also utilised. Results: The results revealed preferences for intrinsic motivational factors for the whole sample with higher levels of intrinsic motivation for the South African respondents compared to German respondents. Demographic characteristics played a minor role in determining levels of intrinsic motivation within individuals. Culture, however, played the biggest role in determining one’s levels of intrinsic or extrinsic motivation. Conclusion: These findings play an important role in explaining differences in motivation between the two countries Germany and South Africa. It highlights the important role that cultural differences play in shaping one’s form of motivation.

  6. Relationship between cognitive function and prevalence of decrease in intrinsic academic motivation in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Kei; Tanaka, Masaaki; Fukuda, Sanae; Imai-Matsumura, Kyoko; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2011-01-14

    Decrease in intrinsic motivation is a common complaint among elementary and junior high school students, and is related to poor academic performance. Since grade-dependent development of cognitive functions also influences academic performance by these students, we examined whether cognitive functions are related to the prevalence of decrease in intrinsic academic motivation. The study group consisted of 134 elementary school students from 4th to 6th grades and 133 junior high school students from 7th to 9th grades. Participants completed a questionnaire on intrinsic academic motivation. They also performed paper-and-pencil and computerized cognitive tests to measure abilities in motor processing, spatial construction, semantic fluency, immediate memory, short-term memory, delayed memory, spatial working memory, and selective, alternative, and divided attention. In multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusted for grade and gender, scores of none of the cognitive tests were correlated with the prevalence of decrease in intrinsic academic motivation in elementary school students. However, low digit span forward test score and score for comprehension of the story in the kana pick-out test were positively correlated with the prevalence of decrease in intrinsic academic motivation in junior high school students. The present findings suggest that decrease in capacity for verbal memory is associated with the prevalence of decrease in intrinsic academic motivation among junior high school students.

  7. Intrinsic motivation in schizophrenia: relationships to cognitive function, depression, anxiety, and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barch, Deanna M; Yodkovik, Naomi; Sypher-Locke, Hannah; Hanewinkel, Melissa

    2008-11-01

    The goal of the current project was to assess subjective reports of intrinsic motivation and their relationship to cognitive function, mood, and personality in schizophrenia. The authors used the Motivational Trait Questionnaire to examine 3 components of intrinsic motivation (personal mastery, competitive excellence, motivation related to anxiety). They also examined fluid intelligence, context processing, and working memory, as well as self-reports of mood and personal traits related to motivation. Participants were 66 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 44 healthy controls. Self-reports of personal mastery and competitive excellence did not differ between controls and individuals with schizophrenia, though patients did report significantly higher motivation related to anxiety. Among controls, but not patients, self-reports of intrinsic motivation were strongly related to cognitive performance. In contrast, both controls and patients showed similar strong relationships between self-reports of intrinsic motivation and related measures of mood and personality. These results are not consistent with the hypothesis that motivational deficits in schizophrenia reflect impairments in intrinsic motivation. However, they do suggest that the normal relationship between self-reports of intrinsic motivation and cognitive function is disrupted in schizophrenia. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Intrinsic motivation and extrinsic incentives jointly predict performance: a 40-year meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerasoli, Christopher P; Nicklin, Jessica M; Ford, Michael T

    2014-07-01

    More than 4 decades of research and 9 meta-analyses have focused on the undermining effect: namely, the debate over whether the provision of extrinsic incentives erodes intrinsic motivation. This review and meta-analysis builds on such previous reviews by focusing on the interrelationship among intrinsic motivation, extrinsic incentives, and performance, with reference to 2 moderators: performance type (quality vs. quantity) and incentive contingency (directly performance-salient vs. indirectly performance-salient), which have not been systematically reviewed to date. Based on random-effects meta-analytic methods, findings from school, work, and physical domains (k = 183, N = 212,468) indicate that intrinsic motivation is a medium to strong predictor of performance (ρ = .21-45). The importance of intrinsic motivation to performance remained in place whether incentives were presented. In addition, incentive salience influenced the predictive validity of intrinsic motivation for performance: In a "crowding out" fashion, intrinsic motivation was less important to performance when incentives were directly tied to performance and was more important when incentives were indirectly tied to performance. Considered simultaneously through meta-analytic regression, intrinsic motivation predicted more unique variance in quality of performance, whereas incentives were a better predictor of quantity of performance. With respect to performance, incentives and intrinsic motivation are not necessarily antagonistic and are best considered simultaneously. Future research should consider using nonperformance criteria (e.g., well-being, job satisfaction) as well as applying the percent-of-maximum-possible (POMP) method in meta-analyses. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Importance and challenges of measuring intrinsic foot muscle strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Intrinsic foot muscle weakness has been implicated in a range of foot deformities and disorders. However, to establish a relationship between intrinsic muscle weakness and foot pathology, an objective measure of intrinsic muscle strength is needed. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of the anatomy and role of intrinsic foot muscles, implications of intrinsic weakness and evaluate the different methods used to measure intrinsic foot muscle strength. Method Literature was sourced from database searches of MEDLINE, PubMed, SCOPUS, Cochrane Library, PEDro and CINAHL up to June 2012. Results There is no widely accepted method of measuring intrinsic foot muscle strength. Methods to estimate toe flexor muscle strength include the paper grip test, plantar pressure, toe dynamometry, and the intrinsic positive test. Hand-held dynamometry has excellent interrater and intrarater reliability and limits toe curling, which is an action hypothesised to activate extrinsic toe flexor muscles. However, it is unclear whether any method can actually isolate intrinsic muscle strength. Also most methods measure only toe flexor strength and other actions such as toe extension and abduction have not been adequately assessed. Indirect methods to investigate intrinsic muscle structure and performance include CT, ultrasonography, MRI, EMG, and muscle biopsy. Indirect methods often discriminate between intrinsic and extrinsic muscles, but lack the ability to measure muscle force. Conclusions There are many challenges to accurately measure intrinsic muscle strength in isolation. Most studies have measured toe flexor strength as a surrogate measure of intrinsic muscle strength. Hand-held dynamometry appears to be a promising method of estimating intrinsic muscle strength. However, the contribution of extrinsic muscles cannot be excluded from toe flexor strength measurement. Future research should clarify the relative contribution of intrinsic and extrinsic muscles

  10. Length-dependent prediction of protein intrinsic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunker A Keith

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the functional importance of intrinsically disordered proteins or protein regions, prediction of intrinsic protein disorder from amino acid sequence has become an area of active research as witnessed in the 6th experiment on Critical Assessment of Techniques for Protein Structure Prediction (CASP6. Since the initial work by Romero et al. (Identifying disordered regions in proteins from amino acid sequences, IEEE Int. Conf. Neural Netw., 1997, our group has developed several predictors optimized for long disordered regions (>30 residues with prediction accuracy exceeding 85%. However, these predictors are less successful on short disordered regions (≤30 residues. A probable cause is a length-dependent amino acid compositions and sequence properties of disordered regions. Results We proposed two new predictor models, VSL2-M1 and VSL2-M2, to address this length-dependency problem in prediction of intrinsic protein disorder. These two predictors are similar to the original VSL1 predictor used in the CASP6 experiment. In both models, two specialized predictors were first built and optimized for short (≤30 residues and long disordered regions (>30 residues, respectively. A meta predictor was then trained to integrate the specialized predictors into the final predictor model. As the 10-fold cross-validation results showed, the VSL2 predictors achieved well-balanced prediction accuracies of 81% on both short and long disordered regions. Comparisons over the VSL2 training dataset via 10-fold cross-validation and a blind-test set of unrelated recent PDB chains indicated that VSL2 predictors were significantly more accurate than several existing predictors of intrinsic protein disorder. Conclusion The VSL2 predictors are applicable to disordered regions of any length and can accurately identify the short disordered regions that are often misclassified by our previous disorder predictors. The success of the VSL2 predictors

  11. The value of nature: Economic, intrinsic, or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    There has been a long standing argument that ecosystems have intrinsic value and therefore there is no need to put a price tag on Mother Nature. The concept of intrinsic value reflects the perspective that nature has value in its own right, independent of human uses. Intrinsic va...

  12. Personalizing Sample Databases with Facebook Information to Increase Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzo, Asier; Ardaiz, Oscar; Sanz de Acedo, María Teresa; Sanz de Acedo, María Luisa

    2017-01-01

    Motivation is fundamental for students to achieve successful and complete learning. Motivation can be extrinsic, i.e., driven by external rewards, or intrinsic, i.e., driven by internal factors. Intrinsic motivation is the most effective and must be inspired by the task at hand. Here, a novel strategy is presented to increase intrinsic motivation…

  13. Intrinsic Motivation: An Overlooked Component for Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustyniak, Robert A.; Ables, Adrienne Z.; Guilford, Philip; Lujan, Heidi L.; Cortright, Ronald N.; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2016-01-01

    Intrinsic motivation to learn involves engaging in learning opportunities because they are seen as enjoyable, interesting, or relevant to meeting one's core psychological needs. As a result, intrinsic motivation is associated with high levels of effort and task performance. Students with greater levels of intrinsic motivation demonstrate strong…

  14. The Development of Intrinsic Motivation for Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-01

    The Development of Intrinsic Motivation for Physical Activity by James Dunigan Beaty Bachelor of Science Central Washington...2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Development of Intrinsic Motivation for Physical Activity 5a. CONTRACT...Government." 3 ABSTRACT The Development of Intrinsic Motivation for Physical Activity by James Dunigan Beaty Cynthia Carruthers, Ph.D

  15. Elements of the Competitive Situation That Affect Intrinsic Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Johnmarshall; Deci, Edward L.

    1996-01-01

    Explores the effects of three elements of the competitive situation (competitive set, competitive outcome, and interpersonal context) on intrinsic motivation in a sample of college students (n=100). Competitive outcome and interpersonal context affected intrinsic motivation: winning increased intrinsic motivation, while pressured interpersonal…

  16. Intrinsic Fabry-Perot Sensors for Magnetic Field Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadway, Christian; Descamps, Frédéric; Kinet, Damien; Caucheteur, Christophe; Mégret, Patrice

    2018-01-01

    Within the context of ensuring stable nuclear fusion, it is important to monitor and control a number of parametersincluding the magnetic field associated with plasma circulation. Optical fibre sensing techniques have seen a surge in promulgation and research advances in recent years, due to their immunity to electromagnetic radiation and compact dimensions. Prior work has shown that fibre Bragg gratings are one method of recovering the induced magnetic field, with the main point of interest being their use as distributed point sensors. However, Bragg grating inscription leads to the creation of linear birefringence that increases detector noise and could obscure a given signal. We have hypothesised that by using an intrinsic Fabry-Perot cavity comprised of two identical Bragg gratings, we could obtain a more accurate detector with the removal of photo-induced birefringence in the detection region. We present a proof of concept optical fibre sensor based on an intrinsic Fabry-Perot cavity that shows spectrally visible amplitude modulation. Finally, we demonstrate faster data processing that allows real time monitoring of a given scenario.

  17. Gamma camera intrinsic uniformity in an unstable power supply environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejeh, John E; Adedapo, Kayode S; Akinlade, Bidemi I; Osifo, Bola O A

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to show that a gamma camera in a developing country could perform efficiently despite electricity outages using intrinsic flood uniformity tests as an index of performance. A total of 143 intrinsic uniformity test results for a new gamma camera in use in an environment with unstable power supply are presented. The integral uniformity for the central field of view (CFOV) was found to be between 3.43% and 1.49% (3.29% for acceptance test) while the integral uniformity for the useful field of view (UFOV) was between 4.51% and 1.9% (5.21% for acceptance test). The differential uniformity for the CFOV was between 1.99% and 1.04% (2.25% for acceptance test) while that of the UFOV was between 2.84% and 1.23% (2.63% for acceptance test). In conclusion, these results show that the uniformity of the gamma camera under this condition is within an acceptable range for both planar and SPET imaging.

  18. Intrinsic Scene Decomposition from RGB-D Images

    KAUST Repository

    Hachama, Mohammed

    2015-12-07

    In this paper, we address the problem of computing an intrinsic decomposition of the colors of a surface into an albedo and a shading term. The surface is reconstructed from a single or multiple RGB-D images of a static scene obtained from different views. We thereby extend and improve existing works in the area of intrinsic image decomposition. In a variational framework, we formulate the problem as a minimization of an energy composed of two terms: a data term and a regularity term. The first term is related to the image formation process and expresses the relation between the albedo, the surface normals, and the incident illumination. We use an affine shading model, a combination of a Lambertian model, and an ambient lighting term. This model is relevant for Lambertian surfaces. When available, multiple views can be used to handle view-dependent non-Lambertian reflections. The second term contains an efficient combination of l2 and l1-regularizers on the illumination vector field and albedo respectively. Unlike most previous approaches, especially Retinex-like techniques, these terms do not depend on the image gradient or texture, thus reducing the mixing shading/reflectance artifacts and leading to better results. The obtained non-linear optimization problem is efficiently solved using a cyclic block coordinate descent algorithm. Our method outperforms a range of state-of-the-art algorithms on a popular benchmark dataset.

  19. Training-induced bradycardia and intrinsic heart rate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylander, E; Sigvardsson, K; Kilbom, A

    1982-01-01

    After 10 weeks of treadmill training, female Sprague-Dawley rats had developed a bradycardia at exercise on submaximal work loads. This bradycardia was also present after autonomic denervation and in isolated perfused heart preparations. The heart weight/body weight ratio was increased in these trained animals compared to untrained littermates. Sympathectomized, trained rats developed the same degree of cardiac hypertrophy, but their heart rate after denervation and in the isolated heart was the same as in sympathectomized, untrained rats. It is concluded that the bradycardia of trained and thereafter denervated animals seen in this and a previous investigation represents an adaptation within the heart itself, since it was present in the isolated heart. These results thus provide further evidence for a non-neural component in training-induced bradycardia. Since the trained sympathectomized rats had a cardiac hypertrophy but no reduction of intrinsic heart rate, it seems likely that the myocardial mass is of minor importance for the level of intrinsic heart rate.

  20. Intrinsic half-metallicity in fractal carbon nitride honeycomb lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aizhu; Zhao, Mingwen

    2015-09-14

    Fractals are natural phenomena that exhibit a repeating pattern "exactly the same at every scale or nearly the same at different scales". Defect-free molecular fractals were assembled successfully in a recent work [Shang et al., Nature Chem., 2015, 7, 389-393]. Here, we adopted the feature of a repeating pattern in searching two-dimensional (2D) materials with intrinsic half-metallicity and high stability that are desirable for spintronics applications. Using first-principles calculations, we demonstrate that the electronic properties of fractal frameworks of carbon nitrides have stable ferromagnetism accompanied by half-metallicity, which are highly dependent on the fractal structure. The ferromagnetism increases gradually with the increase of fractal order. The Curie temperature of these metal-free systems estimated from Monte Carlo simulations is considerably higher than room temperature. The stable ferromagnetism, intrinsic half-metallicity, and fractal characteristics of spin distribution in the carbon nitride frameworks open an avenue for the design of metal-free magnetic materials with exotic properties.

  1. Effect of intrinsic rewards on task performance of employees: Mediating role of motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwan Qaiser Danish

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The basic purpose of this study was to examine the effect of reward management system, especially intrinsic rewards on task performance with the mediating role of extrinsic and intrinsic motivation of employees working in the banks in the capital of Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. The secondary purpose of this study was to explore what level of performance these employees demonstrate towards their organizations when they are rewarded intrinsically and when they are motivated due to these reward management system accordingly. In this study, we collected data through self-administered questionnaires applying correlational explanatory research design. We distributed 300 questionnaires among which 290 were returned resulting in a response rate of 96%. The analysis of the data revealed that intrinsic rewards have positive impact on task performance of employees working in banks and motivation and its dimensions, i.e., intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and job satisfaction mediated this relationship. Considering the importance of appreciations received by bankers in the form of rewards and their effect on extra role performance and sophisticated management, policy makers should take necessary steps for improving the reward management system which will increase the task performance of employees because they will be motivated by these performance appraisal techniques.

  2. Innate and intrinsic antiviral immunity in skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Tatsuyoshi; Ogawa, Youichi; Aoki, Rui; Shimada, Shinji

    2014-09-01

    As the body's most exposed interface with the environment, the skin is constantly challenged by potentially pathogenic microbes, including viruses. To sense the invading viruses, various types of cells resident in the skin express many different pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) such as C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), Toll-like receptors (TLRs), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs), retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs) and cytosolic DNA sensors, that can detect the pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) of the viruses. The detection of viral PAMPs initiates two major innate immune signaling cascades: the first involves the activation of the downstream transcription factors, such as interferon regulatory factors (IRFs), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and activator protein 1 (AP-1), which cooperate to induce the transcription of type I interferons and pro-inflammatory cytokines. The second signaling pathway involves the caspase-1-mediated processing of IL-1β and IL-18 through the formation of an inflammasome complex. Cutaneous innate immunity including the production of the innate cytokines constitutes the first line of host defence that limits the virus dissemination from the skin, and also plays an important role in the activation of adaptive immune response, which represents the second line of defence. More recently, the third immunity "intrinsic immunity" has emerged, that provides an immediate and direct antiviral defense mediated by host intrinsic restriction factors. This review focuses on the recent advances regarding the antiviral immune systems, highlighting the innate and intrinsic immunity against the viral infections in the skin, and describes how viral components are recognized by cutaneous immune systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Metacognitive mastery and intrinsic motivation in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohs, Jenifer L; Lysaker, Paul H

    2014-01-01

    Deficits in intrinsic motivation (IM) have been linked to poorer outcome in schizophrenia, but its proximal mechanisms remain poorly understood. This study examined whether metacognitive mastery, or the capacity to use knowledge of self, others, and context to identify and cope with psychological difficulties, predicted levels of IM for 6 months among 75 participants with prolonged schizophrenia. Repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed that high metacognitive mastery predicted consistently higher levels of IM; however, intermediate and low mastery did not produce unique IM profiles. The findings suggest that metacognitive mastery may have an important role in IM over time and could be a meaningful treatment target.

  4. Symplectic Structure of Intrinsic Time Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyo Eyo Ita

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Poisson structure of intrinsic time gravity is analysed. With the starting point comprising a unimodular three-metric with traceless momentum, a trace-induced anomaly results upon quantization. This leads to a revision of the choice of momentum variable to the (mixed index traceless momentric. This latter choice unitarily implements the fundamental commutation relations, which now take on the form of an affine algebra with SU(3 Lie algebra amongst the momentric variables. The resulting relations unitarily implement tracelessness upon quantization. The associated Poisson brackets and Hamiltonian dynamics are studied.

  5. Intrinsically conductive polymer thin film piezoresistors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillemose, Michael; Spieser, Martin; Christiansen, N.O.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the piezoresistive effect in the intrinsically conductive polymer, polyaniline. A process recipe for indirect patterning of thin film polyaniline has been developed. Using a specially designed chip, the polyaniline thin films have been characterised with respect to resistivity...... and strain sensitivity using two- and four-point measurement method. We have found that polyaniline has a negative gauge factor of K = -4.9, which makes it a candidate for piezoresistive read-out in polymer based MEMS-devices. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  6. Intrinsic chirp of single-cycle pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Qiang; Zheng Jian; Dai Jianming; Ho, I-Chen; Zhang, X.-C.

    2010-01-01

    The Fourier transform-limited electromagnetic pulse has been regarded to be free of chirps for a long time. This is no longer true if the pulse duration goes down to or less than one optical cycle. We report the experimental observation of intrinsic chirps in such pulses with the sub-single-cycle terahertz (THz) waveforms obtained with a standard THz time-domain spectroscopy system. The results confirm the break down of the carrier-envelope (CE) expression for single-cycle optical pulses, and may influence the experimental measurements and theoretical modeling with single-cycle pulses.

  7. Podcasting as Transformative Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Vivian Maria

    2015-01-01

    Although technology is most often heralded an intrinsic efficiency, the process of using technology to create a text is full of opportunities to learn new information, create and distribute knowledge, and engage in identity work. This article explores how the production of 1 such technological text, a podcast, offered students opportunities to…

  8. The Neglected Intrinsic Resistome of Bacterial Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, Alicia; Martínez-Martín, Nadia; Mercadillo, María; Galán, Juan C.; Ghysels, Bart; Matthijs, Sandra; Cornelis, Pierre; Wiehlmann, Lutz; Tümmler, Burkhard; Baquero, Fernando; Martínez, José L.

    2008-01-01

    Bacteria with intrinsic resistance to antibiotics are a worrisome health problem. It is widely believed that intrinsic antibiotic resistance of bacterial pathogens is mainly the consequence of cellular impermeability and activity of efflux pumps. However, the analysis of transposon-tagged Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutants presented in this article shows that this phenotype emerges from the action of numerous proteins from all functional categories. Mutations in some genes make P. aeruginosa more susceptible to antibiotics and thereby represent new targets. Mutations in other genes make P. aeruginosa more resistant and therefore define novel mechanisms for mutation-driven acquisition of antibiotic resistance, opening a new research field based in the prediction of resistance before it emerges in clinical environments. Antibiotics are not just weapons against bacterial competitors, but also natural signalling molecules. Our results demonstrate that antibiotic resistance genes are not merely protective shields and offer a more comprehensive view of the role of antibiotic resistance genes in the clinic and in nature. PMID:18286176

  9. Intrinsic position uncertainty impairs overt search performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semizer, Yelda; Michel, Melchi M

    2017-08-01

    Uncertainty regarding the position of the search target is a fundamental component of visual search. However, due to perceptual limitations of the human visual system, this uncertainty can arise from intrinsic, as well as extrinsic, sources. The current study sought to characterize the role of intrinsic position uncertainty (IPU) in overt visual search and to determine whether it significantly limits human search performance. After completing a preliminary detection experiment to characterize sensitivity as a function of visual field position, observers completed a search task that required localizing a Gabor target within a field of synthetic luminance noise. The search experiment included two clutter conditions designed to modulate the effect of IPU across search displays of varying set size. In the Cluttered condition, the display was tiled uniformly with feature clutter to maximize the effects of IPU. In the Uncluttered condition, the clutter at irrelevant locations was removed to attenuate the effects of IPU. Finally, we derived an IPU-constrained ideal searcher model, limited by the IPU measured in human observers. Ideal searchers were simulated based on the detection sensitivity and fixation sequences measured for individual human observers. The IPU-constrained ideal searcher predicted performance trends similar to those exhibited by the human observers. In the Uncluttered condition, performance decreased steeply as a function of increasing set size. However, in the Cluttered condition, the effect of IPU dominated and performance was approximately constant as a function of set size. Our findings suggest that IPU substantially limits overt search performance, especially in crowded displays.

  10. The neglected intrinsic resistome of bacterial pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Fajardo

    Full Text Available Bacteria with intrinsic resistance to antibiotics are a worrisome health problem. It is widely believed that intrinsic antibiotic resistance of bacterial pathogens is mainly the consequence of cellular impermeability and activity of efflux pumps. However, the analysis of transposon-tagged Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutants presented in this article shows that this phenotype emerges from the action of numerous proteins from all functional categories. Mutations in some genes make P. aeruginosa more susceptible to antibiotics and thereby represent new targets. Mutations in other genes make P. aeruginosa more resistant and therefore define novel mechanisms for mutation-driven acquisition of antibiotic resistance, opening a new research field based in the prediction of resistance before it emerges in clinical environments. Antibiotics are not just weapons against bacterial competitors, but also natural signalling molecules. Our results demonstrate that antibiotic resistance genes are not merely protective shields and offer a more comprehensive view of the role of antibiotic resistance genes in the clinic and in nature.

  11. Intrinsic terminators in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Tiago Ebert; Siqueira, Franciele Maboni; Schrank, Irene Silveira

    2015-04-08

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, an important pathogen of swine, exhibits a low guanine and cytosine (GC) content genome. M. hyopneumoniae genome is organised in long transcriptional units and promoter sequences have been mapped upstream of all transcription units. These analysis provided insights into the gene organisation and transcription initiation at the genome scale. However, the presence of transcriptional terminator sequences in the M. hyopneumoniae genome is poorly understood. In silico analyses demonstrated the presence of putative terminators in 82% of the 33 monocistronic units (mCs) and in 74% of the 116 polycistronic units (pCs) considering different classes of terminators. The functional activity of 23 intrinsic terminators was confirmed by RT-PCR and qPCR. Analysis of all terminators found by three software algorithms, combined with experimental results, allowed us to propose a pattern of RNA hairpin formation during the termination process and to predict the location of terminators in the M. hyopneumoniae genome sequence. The stem-loop structures of intrinsic terminators of mycoplasma diverge from the pattern of terminators found in other bacteria due the low content of guanine and cytosine. In M. hyopneumoniae, transcription can end after a transcriptional unit and before its terminator sequence and can also continue past the terminator sequence with RNA polymerases gradually releasing the RNA.

  12. Intrinsically disordered proteins drive membrane curvature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, David J; Houser, Justin R; Hayden, Carl C; Sherman, Michael B; Lafer, Eileen M; Stachowiak, Jeanne C

    2015-07-24

    Assembly of highly curved membrane structures is essential to cellular physiology. The prevailing view has been that proteins with curvature-promoting structural motifs, such as wedge-like amphipathic helices and crescent-shaped BAR domains, are required for bending membranes. Here we report that intrinsically disordered domains of the endocytic adaptor proteins, Epsin1 and AP180 are highly potent drivers of membrane curvature. This result is unexpected since intrinsically disordered domains lack a well-defined three-dimensional structure. However, in vitro measurements of membrane curvature and protein diffusivity demonstrate that the large hydrodynamic radii of these domains generate steric pressure that drives membrane bending. When disordered adaptor domains are expressed as transmembrane cargo in mammalian cells, they are excluded from clathrin-coated pits. We propose that a balance of steric pressure on the two surfaces of the membrane drives this exclusion. These results provide quantitative evidence for the influence of steric pressure on the content and assembly of curved cellular membrane structures.

  13. Zen and the Art of Intrinsic Perception: A Case of Haiku.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Heesoon

    2001-01-01

    Identifies the hyperactivity of linguistic conceptual consciousness (the discursive mind) as powering instrumentalism. Explains that the practices of Zen and art can counterbalance the discursive emphasis. Explores haiku as an illustration of how this resistance may work. Recommends anchoring arts education in a foundation of intrinsic perception.…

  14. The Relation between Mastery Goals and Intrinsic Motivation among University Students: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieg, Sonja; Reindl, Marion; Dresel, Markus

    2017-01-01

    The present work broadens previous research on students' mastery goals and intrinsic motivation by exploring their reciprocal effects using a longitudinal approach. To this end, a study using four measurement points was conducted during 10 weeks of one semester. The sample comprised 1156 students enrolled in psychology courses at a medium-sized…

  15. Intrinsically secure fast reactors with dense cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slessarev, Igor

    2007-01-01

    Secure safety, resistance to weapons material proliferation and problems of long-lived wastes remain the most important 'painful points' of nuclear power. Many innovative reactor concepts have been developed aimed at a radical enhancement of safety. The promising potential of innovative nuclear reactors allows for shifting accents in current reactor safety 'strategy' to reveal this worth. Such strategy is elaborated focusing on the priority for intrinsically secure safety features as well as on sure protection being provided by the first barrier of defence. Concerning the potential of fast reactors (i.e. sodium cooled, lead-cooled, etc.), there are no doubts that they are able to possess many favourable intrinsically secure safety features and to lay the proper foundation for a new reactor generation. However, some of their neutronic characteristics have to be radically improved. Among intrinsically secure safety properties, the following core parameters are significantly important: reactivity margin values, reactivity feed-back and coolant void effects. Ways of designing intrinsically secure safety features in fast reactors (titled hereafter as Intrinsically Secure Fast Reactors - ISFR) can be found in the frame of current reactor technologies by radical enhancement of core neutron economy and by optimization of core compositions. Simultaneously, respecting resistance to proliferation, by using non-enriched fuel feed as well as a core breeding gain close to zero, are considered as the important features (long-lived waste problems will be considered in a separate paper). This implies using the following reactor design options as well as closed fuel cycles with natural U as the reactor feed: ·Ultra-plate 'dense cores' of the ordinary (monolithic) type with negative total coolant void effects. ·Modular type cores. Multiple dense modules can be embedded in the common reflector for achieving the desired NPP total power. The modules can be used also independently (as

  16. The Neuroscience of Growth Mindset and Intrinsic Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Betsy

    2018-01-26

    Our actions can be triggered by intentions, incentives or intrinsic values. Recent neuroscientific research has yielded some results about the growth mindset and intrinsic motivation. With the advances in neuroscience and motivational studies, there is a global need to utilize this information to inform educational practice and research. Yet, little is known about the neuroscientific interplay between growth mindset and intrinsic motivation. This paper attempts to draw on the theories of growth mindset and intrinsic motivation, together with contemporary ideas in neuroscience, outline the potential for neuroscientific research in education. It aims to shed light on the relationship between growth mindset and intrinsic motivation in terms of supporting a growth mindset to facilitate intrinsic motivation through neural responses. Recent empirical research from the educational neuroscience perspective that provides insights into the interplay between growth mindset and intrinsic motivation will also be discussed.

  17. Charge mobility modification of semiconducting carbon nanotubes by intrinsic defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Hongcun; Ma, Yujia; Ma, Jinsuo; Mei, Jingnan; Tong, Yan; Ji, Yongqiang

    2017-01-01

    Charge carrier mobility is a central transport property in nanoscale electronics. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are supposed to have high carrier mobility. The preparation methods of CNTs have been greatly improved, but the defects always exist. This work presented first-principle investigations on the charge carrier mobility of carbon nanotubes containing several intrinsic defects. The charge carrier mobilities of zigzag (10, 0) tubes with Stone–Wales, mono vacant and 5/8/5 defects were studied as an example to explore the role of defects. Most carrier mobilities were decreased, but several values of mobility are unexpectedly increased upon the appearance of the defects. This interesting result is discussed based on the changes of the stretching modulus, the effective mass of the carrier and deformation potential constant induced by the defects. (paper)

  18. Intrinsic noise in aggressively scaled field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albareda, G; Jiménez, D; Oriols, X

    2009-01-01

    According to roadmap projections, nanoscale field-effect transistors (FETs) with channel lengths below 30 nm and several gates (for improving their gate control over the source–drain conductance) will come to the market in the next few years. However, few studies deal with the noise performance of these aggressively scaled FETs. In this work, a study of the effect of the intrinsic (thermal and shot) noise of such FETs on the performance of an analog amplifier and a digital inverter is carried out by means of numerical simulations with a powerful Monte Carlo (quantum) simulator. The numerical data indicate important drawbacks in the noise performance of aggressively scaled FETs that could invalidate roadmap projections as regards analog and digital applications

  19. Tunable Intrinsic Plasmons due to Band Inversion in Topological Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Furu; Zhou, Jianhui; Xiao, Di; Yao, Yugui

    2017-12-01

    Band inversion has led to rich physical effects in both topological insulators and topological semimetals. It has been found that the inverted band structure with the Mexican-hat dispersion could enhance the interband correlation leading to a strong intrinsic plasmon excitation. Its frequency ranges from several meV to tens of meV and can be effectively tuned by the external fields. The electron-hole asymmetric term splits the peak of the plasmon excitation into double peaks. The fate and properties of this plasmon excitation can also act as a probe to characterize the topological phases even in lightly doped systems. We numerically demonstrate the impact of band inversion on plasmon excitations in magnetically doped thin films of three-dimensional strong topological insulators, V- or Cr-doped (Bi ,Sb )2Te3 , which support the quantum anomalous Hall states. Our work thus sheds some new light on the potential applications of topological materials in plasmonics.

  20. Hospital nurses' work motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toode, Kristi; Routasalo, Pirkko; Helminen, Mika; Suominen, Tarja

    2015-06-01

    The knowledge surrounding nurses' work motivation is currently insufficient, and previous studies have rarely taken into account the role of many influential background factors. This study investigates the motivation of Estonian nurses in hospitals, and how individual and organisational background factors influence their motivation to work. The study is quantitative and cross-sectional. An electronically self-reported questionnaire was used for data collection. The sample comprised of 201 Registered Nurses working in various hospital settings in Estonia. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, two-sample Wilcoxon rank-sum (Mann-Whitney) test, Kruskal-Wallis equality-of-populations rank test and Spearman's correlation. Both extrinsic and intrinsic motivations were noted among hospital nurses. Nurses were moderately externally motivated (M = 3.63, SD = 0.89) and intrinsically strongly motivated (M = 4.98, SD = 1.03). A nurses' age and the duration of service were positively correlated with one particular area of extrinsic work motivation, namely introjected regulation (p motivation (p = 0.016) and intrinsic work motivation (p = 0.004). The findings expand current knowledge of nurses' work motivation by describing the amount and orientation of work motivation among hospital nurses and highlighting background factors which should be taken into account in order to sustain and increase their intrinsic work motivation. The instrument used in the study can be an effective tool for nurse managers to determine a nurse's reasons to work and to choose a proper motivational strategy. Further research and testing of the instrument in different countries and in different contexts of nursing is however required. © 2014 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  1. Job characteristic perception and intrinsic motivation in medical record department staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isfahani, Sakineh Saghaeiannejad; Bahrami, Soosan; Torki, Sedighe

    2013-01-01

    Human resources are key factors in service organizations like hospitals. Therefore, motivating human recourses to achieve the objectives of an organization is important. Job enrichment is a strategy used to increase job motivation in staffs. The goal of the current study is to determine the relationship between job characteristics and intrinsic motivation in medical record staff in hospitals related to Medical Science University in Isfahan in 2011-2012 academic year. The type of the study is descriptive and corelational of multi variables. The population of the study includes all the medical record staffs of medical record department working in Medical Science hospitals of Isfahan. One hundred twentyseven subjects were selected by conducting a census. In the present study, data collected by using two questionnaires of job characteristics devised by Hackman and Oldeham, and of intrinsic motivation. Content validity was confirmed by experts and its reliability was calculated through coefficient of Cronbach's alpha (r1 = 0.84- r2 = 0.94). The questionnaires completed were entered into SPSS(18) software; furthermore, statistical analysis done descriptively (frequency percent, mean, standard deviation, Pierson correlation coefficient,...) and inferentially (multiple regression, MANOVA, LSD). A significant relationship between job characteristics as well as its elements (skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy and feedback) and intrinsic motivation was noticed. (p motivation was significant and job feedback had the most impact upon the intrinsic motivation. No significant difference was noticed among the mean amounts of job characteristic perception according to age, gender, level of education, and the kind of educational degree in hospitals. However, there was a significant difference among the mean amounts of job characteristic perception according to the unit of service and the years of servicein hospitals. The findings show that all job

  2. Intrinsic ductility and environmental embrittlement of binary Ni3Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, E.P.; Liu, C.T.; Pope, D.P.

    1993-01-01

    Polycrystalline, B-free Ni 3 Al (23.4 at.% Al), produced by cold working and recrystallizing a single crystal, exhibits room temperature tensile ductilities of 3-5% in air and 13-16% in oxygen. These ductilities are considerably higher than anything previously reported, and demonstrate that the 'intrinsic' ductility of Ni 3 Al is much higher than previously thought. They also show that the moisture present in ordinary ambient air can severely embrittle Ni 3 Al (ductility decreasing from a high of 16% in oxygen to a low of 3% in air). Fracture is predominantly intergranular in both air and oxygen. This indicates that, while moisture can further embrittle the GBs in Ni 3 Al, they persist as weak links even in the absence of environmental embrittlement. However, they are not 'intrinsically brittle' as once thought, since they can withstand relatively large plastic deformations prior to fracture. Because B essentially eliminates environmental embrittlement in Ni 3 Al - and environmental embrittlement is a major cause of poor ductility in B-free Ni 3 Al - it is concluded that a significant portion of the so-called B effect must be related to suppression of moisture-induced environmental embrittlement. However, since B-doped Ni 3 Al fractures transgranularly, whereas B-free Ni 3 Al fractures predominantly intergranularly, B must have the added effect that it strengthens the GBs. A comparison with the earlier work on Zr-doped Ni 3 Al shows that Zr improves the ductility of Ni 3 Al, both in air and (and even more dramatically) in oxygen. While the exact mechanism of this ductility improvement is not clear at present, Zr appears to have more of an effect on (enhancing) GB strength than on (suppressing) environmental embrittlement

  3. Polymers of intrinsic microporosity with dinaphthyl and thianthrene segments

    KAUST Repository

    Du, Naiying

    2010-10-26

    Novel intrinsically microporous homopolymers and copolymers derived from PIM-1 monomers (5,5,6,6-tetrahydroxy-3,3,3,3-tetramethylspirobisindane and 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoroterephthalonitrile) with two additional monomers- tetrahydroxydinaphthyl and tetrafluorotetraoxide thianthrene-are reported as potential materials for membrane-based gas separations. The resulting copolymers prevent efficient space packing of the stiff polymer chains and consequently exhibit analogous behavior to that of PIM-1, the most widely reported polymer in this class of materials. In addition, the copolymerization provides high molecular weight copolymers and low polydispersity if the polymerization reactions were conducted at elevated temperature for an extended period of time. Detailed structural characterization of the new monomers and polymers was determined by 1H and 19F nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). The thermal properties were detected by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Polymer free volume was calculated from the polymer density and specific van der Waals volume. Under the same testing conditions, the homopolymer containing thianthrene units and most of the analogous copolymers have an excellent combination of properties with good film-forming characteristics. The gas transport properties show higher selectivity for gas pairs such as O 2/N2, CO2/N2, and H 2/N2 with a corresponding decrease in permeability compared to PIM-1. This work also demonstrates that significant improvements in properties may be obtained through copolymers of intrinsic microporosity (CoPIM)s. Furthermore, this work extends the spectrum of high molecular weight soluble PIMs beyond those reported previously. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  4. Patterns of intrinsic bioremediation at two U.S. Air Force bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedemeier, T.H.; Swanson, M.A.; Wilson, J.T.; Kampbell, D.H.

    1995-01-01

    Intrinsic bioremediation of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) occurs when indigenous microorganisms work to reduce the total mass of contamination in the subsurface without the addition of nutrients. A conservative tracer, such as trimethylbenzene, found commingled with the contaminant plume can be used to distinguish between attenuation caused by dispersion, dilution from recharge, volatilization, and sorption and attenuation caused by biodegradation. Patterns of intrinsic bioremediation can vary markedly from site to site depending on governing physical, biological, and chemical processes. Intrinsic bioremediation causes measurable changes in groundwater chemistry. Specifically, concentrations of contaminants, dissolved oxygen, nitrate, ferrous iron, sulfate, and methane in groundwater change both temporally and spatially as biodegradation proceeds Operations at Hill Air Force Base (AFB) and Patrick AFB resulted in fuel-hydrocarbon contamination of soil and groundwater. In both cases, trimethylbenzene data confirm that dissolved BTEX is biodegrading. Geochemical evidence from the Hill AFB site suggests that aerobic respiration, denitrification, iron reduction, sulfate reduction, and methanogenesis all are contributing to intrinsic bioremediation of dissolved BTEX. Sulfate reduction is the dominant biodegradation mechanism at this site. Geochemical evidence from Patrick AFB suggests that aerobic respiration, iron reduction, and methanogenesis are contributing to intrinsic bioremediation of dissolved BTEX. Methanogenesis is the dominant biodegradation mechanism at this site

  5. Quantum synchronization effects in intrinsic Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, M.; Kano, T.; Yamada, S.; Okumura, M.; Imamura, T.; Koyama, T.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate quantum dynamics of the superconducting phase in intrinsic Josephson junctions of layered high-T c superconductors motivated by a recent experimental observation for the switching rate enhancement in the low temperature quantum regime. We pay attention to only the capacitive coupling between neighboring junctions and perform large-scale simulations for the Schroedinger equation derived from the Hamiltonian considering the capacitive coupling alone. The simulation focuses on an issue whether the switching of a junction induces those of the other junctions or not. The results reveal that the superconducting phase dynamics show synchronous behavior with increasing the quantum character, e.g., decreasing the junction plane area and effectively the temperature. This is qualitatively consistent with the experimental result

  6. Intrinsic thermal expansion of crystal defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganne, J.-P.

    1981-02-01

    Although the phenomenon of thermal expansion has long been known, the intrinsic thermal expansion coefficient (ITEC) βsub(d) of a point defect, derived from its formation volume vsub(d), has never been measured directly. The differential dilatometer by interferometry built by ASTY and GILDER is described. It has allowed βsub(d) to be measured for several defects. Vacancies and small interstitial loops were produced in aluminium by low temperature (20 K) fast neutron irradiation followed by an anneal up to the beginning of stage III (160 K). The very high value of the measured ratio βsub(d)/β 0 (12+-4) is comparable with a lattice statics calculated (42) value (11.5 0 [fr

  7. Intrinsic topological superfluidity - fluctuations and response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, K.; Wu, Chien-Te; Anderson, Brandon; Boyack, Rufus

    Recent interest in topological superconductivity is based primarily on exploiting proximity effects to obtain this important phase. However, in cold gases it is possible to contemplate ``intrinsic'' topological superfluidity produced with a synthetic spin-orbit coupling and Zeeman field. It is important for such future experiments to establish how low in temperature one needs to go to reach the ordered phase. Similarly, it will be helpful to have a probe of the normal (pseudogap) phase to determine if the ultimate superfluid order will be topological or trivial. In this talk, we address these issues by considering fluctuation effects in such a superfluid, and calculate the critical transition temperature and response functions. We see qualitative signatures of topological superfluidity in spin and charge response functions. We also explore the suppression of superfluidity due to fluctuations, and importantly find that the temperature scales necessary to reach topological superfluidity are reasonably accessible

  8. Major Intrinsic Proteins in Biomimetic Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helix Nielsen, Claus

    2010-01-01

    will generally have finite permeabilities to both electrolytes and non-electrolytes. The feasibility of a biomimetic MIP device thus depends on the relative transport contribution from both protein and biomimetic support matrix. Also the biomimetic matrix must be encapsulated in order to protect it and make....../separation technology, a unique class of membrane transport proteins is especially interesting the major intrinsic proteins (MIPs). Generally, MIPs conduct water molecules and selected solutes in and out of the cell while preventing the passage of other solutes, a property critical for the conservation of the cells...... it sufficiently stable in a final application. Here, I specifically discuss the feasibility of developing osmotic biomimetic MIP membranes, but the technical issues are of general concern in the design of biomimetic membranes capable of supporting selective transmembrane fluxes....

  9. Intrinsic densitometry: In-plant evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, K.; Kurosawa, A.; Masui, J.; Hsue, S.T.

    1994-11-01

    A measurement of the plutonium concentration in a sample is always necessary for nuclear material control and accounting. This report describes the testing of the intrinsic densitometry (ID) technique for implant applications. The authors found that the ID method can determine the plutonium concentrations to between 2 and 3% at concentrations of 100 g/l to 200 g/l with quartz cells and a measurement time of 3600 s. The precision can be improved to 1 to 2% with a higher counting rate. The authors also found that nitric acid concentration and the impurity level of uranium in the product plutonium solution do not affect the concentration measurement. When this technique is applied to plutonium solutions in stainless steel pipes, they found that similar precision in plutonium concentration can be achieved using a high-count-rate detector. The precision, however, is reduced with aged plutonium solutions

  10. On the intrinsic colours of cepheids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efremov, Yu.N.

    1979-01-01

    Some consequences from new data on the photometrically obtained intrinsic colours are considered. It is shown that the small amplitude and almost sinusoidal light-curve cepheids (Cs-subtype) increase their pulsation amplitude towards the red instability strip edge, differing from the other galactic cepheids. This feature is discussed in connection with Efremov's (1968) hypothesis that the Cs-cepheids first cross the instability strip from left to right. The galactic cepheid period-colour relation obtained by Dean, Warren and Cousins (1978) satisfies rather well the LMC cepheid observations and, consequently, considerations for the period-luminosity relations are made. The residuals from the PL relation proposed by us correlate with the colour residuals from the DWC period-colour relation ΔV/delta(B-V) being equal to 2.7. The luminosity effect as a possible cause of the discrepancy between the spectroscopic cepheid colours and the photometric colours is briefly discussed. (Auth.)

  11. Intrinsic Dynamics of Quantum-Dash Lasers

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Cheng

    2011-10-01

    Temperature-dependent intrinsic modulation response of InAs/InAlGaAs quantum-dash lasers was investigated by using pulse optical injection modulation to minimize the effects of parasitics and self-heating. Compared to typical quantum-well lasers, the quantum-dash lasers were found to have comparable differential gain but approximately twice the gain compression factor, probably due to carrier heating by free-carrier absorption, as opposed to stimulated transition. Therefore, the narrower modulation bandwidth of the quantum-dash lasers than that of quantum-well lasers was attributed to their higher gain compression factor. In addition, as expected, quantum-dash lasers with relatively long and uniform dashes exhibit higher temperature stability than quantum-well lasers. However, the lasers with relatively short and nonuniform dashes exhibit stronger temperature dependence, probably due to their higher surface-to-volume ratio and nonuniform dash sizes. © 2011 IEEE.

  12. Intrinsic thermoelectric power of group VB metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunadhor Singh Okram

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We have reinvestigated the thermopower of group VB metals in polycrystalline forms in the temperature range of 6-300K, taking into account the critical nature of the sample surface and heat treatment especially for niobium. Strikingly small magnitude, negative sign, phonon drag dip and superconductivity not reported previously were observed in surface-cleaned single crystalline Nb. However, while thermopower magnitudes are small, mixed signs were found in the polycrystalline V, Nb and Ta samples. These properties were therefore interpreted as their intrinsic properties and were briefly discussed taking into account of the existing theory by fitting also the data that give the Fermi energies of 10.94 eV, 5.08 eV and 1.86eV, respectively.

  13. Computer Simulations of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Song-Ho; Chatterjee, Prathit; Ham, Sihyun

    2017-05-01

    The investigation of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) is a new frontier in structural and molecular biology that requires a new paradigm to connect structural disorder to function. Molecular dynamics simulations and statistical thermodynamics potentially offer ideal tools for atomic-level characterizations and thermodynamic descriptions of this fascinating class of proteins that will complement experimental studies. However, IDPs display sensitivity to inaccuracies in the underlying molecular mechanics force fields. Thus, achieving an accurate structural characterization of IDPs via simulations is a challenge. It is also daunting to perform a configuration-space integration over heterogeneous structural ensembles sampled by IDPs to extract, in particular, protein configurational entropy. In this review, we summarize recent efforts devoted to the development of force fields and the critical evaluations of their performance when applied to IDPs. We also survey recent advances in computational methods for protein configurational entropy that aim to provide a thermodynamic link between structural disorder and protein activity.

  14. Intrinsic Ambipolarity and Rotation in Stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helander, P.; Simakov, A. N.

    2008-01-01

    It is shown that collisional plasma transport is intrinsically ambipolar only in quasiaxisymmetric or quasihelically symmetric magnetic configurations. Only in such fields can the plasma rotate freely, and then only in the direction of quasisymmetry. In a non-quasi-symmetric magnetic field, the average radial electric field is determined by parallel viscosity, which in turn is usually governed by collisional processes. Locally, the radial electric field may be affected by turbulent Reynolds stress producing zonal flows, but on a radial average taken over several ion gyroradii, it is determined by parallel viscosity, at least if the turbulence is electrostatic and obeys the conventional gyrokinetic orderings. This differs from the situation in a tokamak, where there is no flow damping by parallel viscosity in the symmetry direction and the turbulent Reynolds stress may affect the global radial electric field

  15. IMPACT OF BARYONIC PHYSICS ON INTRINSIC ALIGNMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenneti, Ananth; Gnedin, Nickolay Y. [Particle Astrophysics Center, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Feng, Yu, E-mail: vat@andrew.cmu.edu [Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics, Department of Physics, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2017-01-10

    We explore the effects of specific assumptions in the subgrid models of star formation and stellar and active galactic nucleus feedback on intrinsic alignments of galaxies in cosmological simulations of the “MassiveBlack-II” family. Using smaller-volume simulations, we explore the parameter space of the subgrid star formation and feedback model and find remarkable robustness of the observable statistical measures to the details of subgrid physics. The one observational probe most sensitive to modeling details is the distribution of misalignment angles. We hypothesize that the amount of angular momentum carried away by the galactic wind is the primary physical quantity that controls the orientation of the stellar distribution. Our results are also consistent with a similar study by the EAGLE simulation team.

  16. Personality traits associated with intrinsic academic motivation in medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masaaki; Mizuno, Kei; Fukuda, Sanae; Tajima, Seiki; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2009-04-01

    Motivation is one of the most important psychological concepts in education and is related to academic outcomes in medical students. In this study, the relationships between personality traits and intrinsic academic motivation were examined in medical students. The study group consisted of 119 Year 2 medical students at Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine. They completed questionnaires dealing with intrinsic academic motivation (the Intrinsic Motivation Scale toward Learning) and personality (the Temperament and Character Inventory [TCI]). On simple regression analyses, the TCI dimensions of persistence, self-directedness, co-operativeness and self-transcendence were positively associated with intrinsic academic motivation. On multiple regression analysis adjusted for age and gender, the TCI dimensions of persistence, self-directedness and self-transcendence were positively associated with intrinsic academic motivation. The temperament dimension of persistence and the character dimensions of self-directedness and self-transcendence are associated with intrinsic academic motivation in medical students.

  17. Sources of intrinsic rotation in the low-flow ordering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, Felix I.; Barnes, Michael; Catto, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    A low flow, δf gyrokinetic formulation to obtain the intrinsic rotation profiles is presented. The momentum conservation equation in the low-flow ordering contains new terms, neglected in previous first-principles formulations, that may explain the intrinsic rotation observed in tokamaks in the absence of external sources of momentum. The intrinsic rotation profile depends on the density and temperature profiles and on the up-down asymmetry.

  18. Increased intrinsic mitochondrial function in humans with mitochondrial haplogroup H

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen; Díez-Sánchez, Carmen; Rabøl, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    and determined their mitochondrial haplogroup, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity (OXPHOS), mitochondrial content (citrate synthase (CS)) and VO2max. Intrinsic mitochondrial function is calculated as mitochondrial OXPHOS capacity divided by mitochondrial content (CS). Haplogroup H showed a 30......% higher intrinsic mitochondrial function compared with the other haplo group U. There was no relationship between haplogroups and VO2max. In skeletal muscle from men with mitochondrial haplogroup H, an increased intrinsic mitochondrial function is present....

  19. The effects of extrinsic rewards on children's intrinsic motivation

    OpenAIRE

    大槻, 千秋

    1981-01-01

    An experiment was conducted with preschool children to test whether a person's intrinsic motivation in an activity may be decreased by extrinsic salient rewards in Japan like in America. Children solved some jigsaw puzzles and received assorted candies, then they were observed how long they did other jigsaw puzzles. The results showed that the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation in an activity varied with the subject's social background. In uptown children's intrinsic motivat...

  20. Interventions for primary (intrinsic tracheomalacia in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Goyal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUNDTracheomalacia, a disorder of the large airways where the trachea is deformed or malformed during respiration, is commonly seen in tertiary paediatric practice. It is associated with a wide spectrum of respiratory symptoms from life-threatening recurrent apnoea to common respiratory symptoms such as chronic cough and wheeze. Current practice following diagnosis of tracheomalacia includes medical approaches aimed at reducing associated symptoms of tracheomalacia, ventilation modalities of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP and bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP, and surgical approaches aimed at improving the calibre of the airway (airway stenting, aortopexy, tracheopexy.OBJECTIVESTo evaluate the efficacy of medical and surgical therapies for children with intrinsic (primary tracheomalacia.METHODSSearchThe Cochrane Airways Group searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, the Cochrane Airways Group's Specialized Register, Medline and Embase databases. The Cochrane Airways Group performed the latest searches in March 2012.Selection criteriaAll randomized controlled trials (RCTs of therapies related to symptoms associated with primary or intrinsic tracheomalacia.Data collection and analysisTwo reviewers extracted data from the included study independently and resolved disagreements by consensus.MAIN RESULTSWe included one RCT that compared nebulized recombinant human deoxyribonuclease (rhDNase with placebo in 40 children with airway malacia and a respiratory tract infection. We assessed it to be a RCT with overall low risk of bias. Data analyzed in this review showed that there was no significant difference between groups for the primary outcome of proportion cough-free at two weeks (odds ratio (OR 1.38; 95% confidence interval (CI 0.37 to 5.14. However, the mean change in night time cough diary scores significantly favoured the placebo group (mean difference (MD 1.00; 95% CI 0.17 to 1.83, P = 0

  1. Extrinsic and Intrinsic Factors Influencing Employee Motivation: Lessons from AMREF Health Africa in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Morangi Nyambegera

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine the factors that influence employee motivation in Kenyan Organizations. The study was guided by the following research questions: (i what are the extrinsic factors that influence employee motivation in AMREF Health Africa in Kenya? (ii what intrinsic factors influence employee motivation in AMREF Health Africa in Kenya? A descriptive research design was adopted. Stratified random sampling technique was used to draw a sample size of 96 respondents. The data collection instrument was a structured questionnaire developed by the researchers.  A set of descriptive and correlation statistics were adopted for analysis. The study identified several intrinsic factors that influence employee motivation. These included employee achievements, recognition, work itself, responsibility and advancement, salary structure, the level to which the employees feel appreciated, and the employee perception of their jobs among other factors. The study further, established that the intrinsic factors that influence employee motivation include empowerment and autonomy, employees’ view of their work, organization trust, skill variety requirements among others. The study recommends that the organization should acknowledge and make use of a proper mix of extrinsic and intrinsic factors in their human resource management practices to ensure that employees are well motivated to perform their tasks.

  2. Understanding oceanic migrations with intrinsic biogeochemical markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raül Ramos

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Migratory marine vertebrates move annually across remote oceanic water masses crossing international borders. Many anthropogenic threats such as overfishing, bycatch, pollution or global warming put millions of marine migrants at risk especially during their long-distance movements. Therefore, precise knowledge about these migratory movements to understand where and when these animals are more exposed to human impacts is vital for addressing marine conservation issues. Because electronic tracking devices suffer from several constraints, mainly logistical and financial, there is emerging interest in finding appropriate intrinsic markers, such as the chemical composition of inert tissues, to study long-distance migrations and identify wintering sites. Here, using tracked pelagic seabirds and some of their own feathers which were known to be grown at different places and times within the annual cycle, we proved the value of biogeochemical analyses of inert tissue as tracers of marine movements and habitat use. Analyses of feathers grown in summer showed that both stable isotope signatures and element concentrations can signal the origin of breeding birds feeding in distinct water masses. However, only stable isotopes signalled water masses used during winter because elements mainly accumulated during the long breeding period are incorporated into feathers grown in both summer and winter. Our findings shed new light on the simple and effective assignment of marine organisms to distinct oceanic areas, providing new opportunities to study unknown migration patterns of secretive species, including in relation to human-induced mortality on specific populations in the marine environment.

  3. Exploiting intrinsic fluctuations to identify model parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Christoph; Sahle, Sven; Pahle, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    Parameterisation of kinetic models plays a central role in computational systems biology. Besides the lack of experimental data of high enough quality, some of the biggest challenges here are identification issues. Model parameters can be structurally non-identifiable because of functional relationships. Noise in measured data is usually considered to be a nuisance for parameter estimation. However, it turns out that intrinsic fluctuations in particle numbers can make parameters identifiable that were previously non-identifiable. The authors present a method to identify model parameters that are structurally non-identifiable in a deterministic framework. The method takes time course recordings of biochemical systems in steady state or transient state as input. Often a functional relationship between parameters presents itself by a one-dimensional manifold in parameter space containing parameter sets of optimal goodness. Although the system's behaviour cannot be distinguished on this manifold in a deterministic framework it might be distinguishable in a stochastic modelling framework. Their method exploits this by using an objective function that includes a measure for fluctuations in particle numbers. They show on three example models, immigration-death, gene expression and Epo-EpoReceptor interaction, that this resolves the non-identifiability even in the case of measurement noise with known amplitude. The method is applied to partially observed recordings of biochemical systems with measurement noise. It is simple to implement and it is usually very fast to compute. This optimisation can be realised in a classical or Bayesian fashion.

  4. Does intrinsic motivation enhance motor cortex excitability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radel, Rémi; Pjevac, Dusan; Davranche, Karen; d'Arripe-Longueville, Fabienne; Colson, Serge S; Lapole, Thomas; Gruet, Mathieu

    2016-11-01

    Intrinsic motivation (IM) is often viewed as a spontaneous tendency for action. Recent behavioral and neuroimaging evidence indicate that IM, in comparison to extrinsic motivation (EM), solicits the motor system. Accordingly, we tested whether IM leads to greater excitability of the motor cortex than EM. To test this hypothesis, we used two different tasks to induce the motivational orientation using either words representing each motivational orientation or pictures previously linked to each motivational orientation through associative learning. Single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation over the motor cortex was applied when viewing the stimuli. Electromyographic activity was recorded on the contracted first dorsal interosseous muscle. Two indexes of corticospinal excitability (the amplitude of motor-evoked potential and the length of cortical silent period) were obtained through unbiased automatic detection and analyzed using a mixed model that provided both statistical power and a high level of control over all important individual, task, and stimuli characteristics. Across the two tasks and the two indices of corticospinal excitability, the exposure to IM-related stimuli did not lead to a greater corticospinal excitability than EM-related stimuli or than stimuli with no motivational valence (ps > .20). While these results tend to dismiss the advantage of IM at activating the motor cortex, we suggest alternative hypotheses to explain this lack of effect, which deserves further research. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  5. Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma: poised for progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, Katherine E.

    2012-01-01

    Diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs) are amongst the most challenging tumors to treat. Surgery is not an option, the effects of radiation therapy are temporary, and no chemotherapeutic agent has demonstrated significant efficacy. Numerous clinical trials of new agents and novel therapeutic approaches have been performed over the course of several decades in efforts to improve the outcome of children with DIPG, yet without success. The diagnosis of DIPG is based on radiographic findings in the setting of a typical clinical presentation, and tissue is not routinely obtained as the standard of care. The paradigm for treating children with these tumors has been based on that for supratentorial high-grade gliomas in adults as the biology of these lesions were presumed to be similar. However, recent pivotal studies demonstrate that DIPGs appear to be their own entity. Simply identifying this fact releases a number of constraints and opens opportunities for biologic investigation of these lesions, setting the stage to move forward in identifying DIPG-specific treatments. This review will summarize the current state of knowledge of DIPG, discuss obstacles to therapy, and summarize results of recent biologic studies.

  6. Intrinsic gain modulation and adaptive neural coding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungho Hong

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In many cases, the computation of a neural system can be reduced to a receptive field, or a set of linear filters, and a thresholding function, or gain curve, which determines the firing probability; this is known as a linear/nonlinear model. In some forms of sensory adaptation, these linear filters and gain curve adjust very rapidly to changes in the variance of a randomly varying driving input. An apparently similar but previously unrelated issue is the observation of gain control by background noise in cortical neurons: the slope of the firing rate versus current (f-I curve changes with the variance of background random input. Here, we show a direct correspondence between these two observations by relating variance-dependent changes in the gain of f-I curves to characteristics of the changing empirical linear/nonlinear model obtained by sampling. In the case that the underlying system is fixed, we derive relationships relating the change of the gain with respect to both mean and variance with the receptive fields derived from reverse correlation on a white noise stimulus. Using two conductance-based model neurons that display distinct gain modulation properties through a simple change in parameters, we show that coding properties of both these models quantitatively satisfy the predicted relationships. Our results describe how both variance-dependent gain modulation and adaptive neural computation result from intrinsic nonlinearity.

  7. Toward a tripartite model of intrinsic motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonneau, Noémie; Vallerand, Robert J; Lafrenière, Marc-André K

    2012-10-01

    Intrinsic motivation (IM) refers to engaging in an activity for the pleasure inherent in the activity. The present article presents a tripartite model of IM consisting of IM to know (i.e., engaging in an activity to experience pleasure while learning and trying to understand something new), IM toward accomplishment (i.e., engaging in an activity for the pleasure experienced when attempting task mastery), and IM to experience stimulation (i.e., engaging in an activity for feelings of sensory pleasure). The tripartite model of IM posits that each type of IM can result from task, situational, and personality determinants and can lead to specific types of cognitive, affective, and behavioral outcomes. The purpose of this research was to test some predictions derived from this model. Across 4 studies (Study 1: N = 331; Study 2: N = 113; Study 3: N = 58; Study 4: N = 135), the 3 types of IM as well as potential determinants and consequences were assessed. Results revealed that experiencing one type of IM over the others depends in part on people's personality styles. Also, each type of IM was found to predict specific outcomes (i.e., affective states and behavioral choices). The implications of the tripartite model of IM for motivation research are discussed. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Rates, intrinsic linkages, and multistate population dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Demographic analyses of multistate populations are commonplace, as are situations where population stocks are known but population flows are not. Still, demographic models for multistate populations with changing rates remain at an early stage of development, limiting dynamic analyses and analytical projections. Here, a new approach, the Intrinsic Linkage-Rate Ratio (IL-RR) model, is presented and explored. The key IL parameter, w , is a simple weight for projecting populations. Using the ultimate state composition implied by the prevailing rates, the IL-RR model provides new relationships that connect multistate populations over time and allow analytical population projections. Parameter w reflects population metabolism and scales the level of the transfer rates. Compositional change is driven by the sequence of implicit stable population compositions. The IL-RR approach also provides a new method for estimating transfer rates within an interval from population numbers at the beginning and end of the interval. The new relationships developed advance the ability of demographers to model multistate populations with changing rates and to relate population stocks and flows.

  9. Surgical Treatment Guidelines for Digital Deformity Associated With Intrinsic Muscle Spasticity (Intrinsic Plus Foot) in Adults With Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffeli, Troy J; Collier, Rachel C

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsic plus foot deformity has primarily been associated with cerebral palsy and involves spastic contracture of the intrinsic musculature with resultant toe deformities. Digital deformity is caused by a dynamic imbalance between the intrinsic muscles in the foot and extrinsic muscles in the lower leg. Spastic contracture of the toes frequently involves curling under of the lesser digits or contracture of the hallux into valgus or plantarflexion deformity. Patients often present with associated pressure ulcers, deformed toenails, shoe or brace fitting challenges, and pain with ambulation or transfers. Four different patterns of intrinsic plus foot deformity have been observed by the authors that likely relate to the different patterns of muscle involvement. Case examples are provided of the 4 patterns of intrinsic plus foot deformity observed, including global intrinsic plus lesser toe deformity, isolated intrinsic plus lesser toe deformity, intrinsic plus hallux valgus deformity, and intrinsic plus hallux flexus deformity. These case examples are presented to demonstrate each type of deformity and our approach for surgical management according to the contracture pattern. The surgical approach has typically involved tenotomy, capsulotomy, or isolated joint fusion. The main goals of surgical treatment are to relieve pain and reduce pressure points through digital realignment in an effort to decrease the risk of pressure sores and allow more effective bracing to ultimately improve the patient's mobility. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Intrinsic motivation and organizational identification among on-demand workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockmann, Kevin W; Ballinger, Gary A

    2017-09-01

    On-demand firms provide services for clients through a network of on-demand workers ready to complete specific tasks for a set contractual price. Given such on-demand work is defined by payment on short-term contracts with no obligation for continued employment, there is little reason to believe on-demand workers experience more than extrinsic motivation and a transactional relationship with the on-demand firm. However, using self-determination theory, we argue that to the degree that on-demand work fulfills innate psychological needs individual on-demand workers will develop intrinsic motivation, which further leads to organizational identification with the on-demand firm. Across 2 survey-based studies we find support for this path to organizational identification. This adds to the literature on motivation and identification by strengthening the link between individual needs and the individual-organizational relationship. Implications for theory and for the management of on-demand workers are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Adolescents' Perceptions of Family Connectedness, Intrinsic Religiosity, and Depressed Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houltberg, Benjamin J.; Henry, Carolyn S.; Merten, Michael J.; Robinson, Linda C.

    2011-01-01

    Using a sample of 248 ninth and tenth grade students at public high schools, we examined adolescents' perceptions of family connectedness, intrinsic religiosity, and adolescents' gender in relation to depressed mood and whether intrinsic religiosity and gender moderated the association of aspects of family connectedness to adolescent depressed…

  12. Palatalization and Intrinsic Prosodic Vowel Features in Russian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordin, Mikhail

    2011-01-01

    The presented study is aimed at investigating the interaction of palatalization and intrinsic prosodic features of the vowel in CVC (consonant+vowel+consonant) syllables in Russian. The universal nature of intrinsic prosodic vowel features was confirmed with the data from the Russian language. It was found that palatalization of the consonants…

  13. Self-Determination Theory: Intrinsic Motivation and Behavioral Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Marie

    2017-03-01

    Motivation is a central concept in behavioral change. This article reviews the self-determination theory with an emphasis on "intrinsic motivation," which is facilitated when three basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness) are met. Intrinsic motivation is associated with improved well-being and sustained behavioral change.

  14. Elderly Taiwanese's Intrinsic Risk Factors for Fall-related Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Fun Li

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: Elderly Taiwanese inpatients with existing intrinsic conditions of cancer, vertigo, and lower leg weakness were at high risk of falling, resulting in severe injuries. Additional research including controlled trials is necessary to further identify treatable, causal intrinsic risk factors for this elderly group.

  15. Intrinsic antecedents of academic research productivity of a large ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kirstam

    Intrinsic antecedents of academic research productivity of a large South African university. 175 influences as given, certain theory predicts that individual intrinsic differences can be associated with differences in individual job performance. Positive affectivity, or affect, can contribute to job satisfaction, as a result of the fit.

  16. Intrinsic religiosity reduces intergroup hostility under mortality salience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Zavala, Agnieszka Golec; Cichocka, Aleksandra; Orehek, Edward; Abdollahi, Abdolhossein

    Results of three studies indicate that intrinsic religiosity and mortality salience interact to predict intergroup hostility. Study 1, conducted among 200 American Christians and Jews, reveals that under mortality salience, intrinsic (but not extrinsic or quest) religiosity is related to decreased

  17. Extrinsic Rewards and Intrinsic Motivation in Children. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepper, Mark R.

    Three experiments were conducted to examine the effects of providing extrinsic rewards for engaging in an activity on children's subsequent intrinsic interest in that activity. In each study, preschool children were asked to engage in an activity of initial intrinsic interest in individual experimental sessions. The children agreed to engage in…

  18. Creativity as Mediator for Intrinsic Motivation and Sales Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodla, Mahmood A.; Naeem, Basharat

    2014-01-01

    Substantial theoretical and empirical literature indicates inconsistent performance implications of intrinsic motivation, suggesting the possibility of some explanatory mechanisms. However, little is known about the factors that might explain intrinsic motivation and sales force performance relation, particularly in highly competitive and…

  19. Intrinsic Motivation and Flow Condition on the Music Teacher's Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Delgado, Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    The aim of these research is to identify if music teachers and teachers from other areas are intrinsically or extrinsically motivated, to identify the dimensions of the flow state, and to identify if there is a relationship between intrinsic motivation and flow state in these teachers. The sample was made up of 738 active teachers. The presence of…

  20. Intrinsic antecedents of academic research productivity of a large ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Across different contexts, the human resources literature suggests that a range of intrinsic factors – typically measured as psychographic, or intrinsic, variables – are antecedents of individual job performance. What is not clear from this literature, however, is the relative contribution of different dimensions of these factors to ...

  1. Senescence-associated intrinsic mechanisms of osteoblast dysfunctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassem, Moustapha; Trinquier, Anne Marie-Pierre Emilie

    2011-01-01

    factors, and intrinsic mechanisms caused by the osteoblast cellular senescence. The aim of this review is to provide a summary of the intrinsic senescence mechanisms affecting osteoblastic functions and how they can be targeted in order to abolish age-related osteoblastic dysfunction and bone loss...

  2. Cooperative motion of intrinsic and actuated semiflexible swimmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Llopis, I.; Pagonabarraga, I.; Lagomarsino, M.C.; Lowe, C.P.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the phenomenon of hydrodynamic-induced cooperativity for pairs of flagellated micro-organism swimmers, of which spermatozoa cells are an example. We consider semiflexible swimmers, where inextensible filaments are driven by an internal intrinsic force and torque-free mechanism (intrinsic

  3. Intrinsic motivation and sportsmanship: mediating role of interpersonal relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Juan L; Martín-Albo, José; Navarro, José G; Sánchez, Juana M; González-Cutre, David

    2009-06-01

    This study analyzed the mediating role of interpersonal relations between intrinsic motivation and sportsmanship. Athletes (98 men, 97 women), ages 11 to 43 years, completed measures of intrinsic motivation toward sports, self-concept of social and family relations, and sportsmanship orientation. A structural equation model indicated that self-concept of interpersonal relations mediated the relation between intrinsic motivation and sportsmanship. Also, intrinsic motivation was directly and positively associated with self-concept of interpersonal relations, which, in turn, was positively and significantly related to sportsmanship. Variances explained by self-concept of interpersonal relations and by sportsmanship were 32 and 56%, respectively. The motivational interaction between the context of interpersonal relations and the sports context proposed in the hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation was discussed.

  4. Intrinsic Evaporative Cooling by Hygroscopic Earth Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra R. Rempel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The phase change of water from liquid to vapor is one of the most energy-intensive physical processes in nature, giving it immense potential for cooling. Diverse evaporative cooling strategies have resulted worldwide, including roof ponds and sprinklers, courtyard fountains, wind catchers with qanats, irrigated green roofs, and fan-assisted evaporative coolers. These methods all require water in bulk liquid form. The evaporation of moisture that has been sorbed from the atmosphere by hygroscopic materials is equally energy-intensive, however, yet has not been examined for its cooling potential. In arid and semi-arid climates, hygroscopic earth buildings occur widely and are known to maintain comfortable indoor temperatures, but evaporation of moisture from their walls and roofs has been regarded as unimportant since water scarcity limits irrigation and rainfall; instead, their cool interiors are attributed to well-established mass effects in delaying the transmission of sensible gains. Here, we investigate the cooling accomplished by daily cycles of moisture sorption and evaporation which, requiring only ambient humidity, we designate as “intrinsic” evaporative cooling. Connecting recent soil science to heat and moisture transport studies in building materials, we use soils, adobe, cob, unfired earth bricks, rammed earth, and limestone to reveal the effects of numerous parameters (temperature and relative humidity, material orientation, thickness, moisture retention properties, vapor diffusion resistance, and liquid transport properties on the magnitude of intrinsic evaporative cooling and the stabilization of indoor relative humidity. We further synthesize these effects into concrete design guidance. Together, these results show that earth buildings in diverse climates have significant potential to cool themselves evaporatively through sorption of moisture from humid night air and evaporation during the following day’s heat. This finding

  5. Effects of simulated interpersonal touch and trait intrinsic motivation on the error-related negativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjew-A-Sin, Mandy; Tops, Mattie; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Koole, Sander L

    2016-03-23

    The error-related negativity (ERN or Ne) is a negative event-related brain potential that peaks about 20-100 ms after people perform an incorrect response in choice reaction time tasks. Prior research has shown that the ERN may be enhanced by situational and dispositional factors that promote intrinsic motivation. Building on and extending this work the authors hypothesized that simulated interpersonal touch may increase task engagement and thereby increase ERN amplitude. To test this notion, 20 participants performed a Go/No-Go task while holding a teddy bear or a same-sized cardboard box. As expected, the ERN was significantly larger when participants held a teddy bear rather than a cardboard box. This effect was most pronounced for people high (rather than low) in trait intrinsic motivation, who may depend more on intrinsically motivating task cues to maintain task engagement. These findings highlight the potential benefits of simulated interpersonal touch in stimulating attention to errors, especially among people who are intrinsically motivated. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Organizational commitment and intrinsic motivation of regular and contractual primary health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pawan; Mehra, Anu; Inder, Deep; Sharma, Nandini

    2016-01-01

    Motivated and committed employees deliver better health care, which results in better outcomes and higher patient satisfaction. To assess the Organizational Commitment and Intrinsic Motivation of Primary Health Care Providers (HCPs) in New Delhi, India. Study was conducted in 2013 on a sample of 333 HCPs who were selected using multistage stage random sampling technique. The sample includes medical officers, auxiliary nurses and midwives, and pharmacists and laboratory technicians/assistants among regular and contractual staff. Data were collected using the pretested structured questionnaire for organization commitment (OC), job satisfiers, and intrinsic job motivation. Analysis was done by using SPSS version 18 and appropriate statistical tests were applied. The mean score for OC for entire regular staff is 1.6 ± 0.39 and contractual staff is 1.3 ± 0.45 which has statistically significant difference (t = 5.57; P = 0.00). In both regular and contractual staff, none of them show high emotional attachment with the organization and does not feel part of the family in the organization. Contractual staff does not feel proud to work in a present organization for rest of their career. Intrinsic motivation is high in both regular and contractual groups but intergroup difference is significant (t = 2.38; P intrinsic motivation of contractual staff are lesser than the permanent staff. Appropriate changes are required in the predictors of organizational commitment and factors responsible for satisfaction in the organization to keep the contractual human resource motivated and committed to the organization.

  7. Validation of the intrinsic spatial efficiency method for non cylindrical homogeneous sources using MC simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz-Ramírez, Pablo, E-mail: rapeitor@ug.uchile.cl; Ruiz, Andrés [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile (Chile)

    2016-07-07

    The Monte Carlo simulation of the gamma spectroscopy systems is a common practice in these days. The most popular softwares to do this are MCNP and Geant4 codes. The intrinsic spatial efficiency method is a general and absolute method to determine the absolute efficiency of a spectroscopy system for any extended sources, but this was only demonstrated experimentally for cylindrical sources. Due to the difficulty that the preparation of sources with any shape represents, the simplest way to do this is by the simulation of the spectroscopy system and the source. In this work we present the validation of the intrinsic spatial efficiency method for sources with different geometries and for photons with an energy of 661.65 keV. In the simulation the matrix effects (the auto-attenuation effect) are not considered, therefore these results are only preliminaries. The MC simulation is carried out using the FLUKA code and the absolute efficiency of the detector is determined using two methods: the statistical count of Full Energy Peak (FEP) area (traditional method) and the intrinsic spatial efficiency method. The obtained results show total agreement between the absolute efficiencies determined by the traditional method and the intrinsic spatial efficiency method. The relative bias is lesser than 1% in all cases.

  8. Dependence of NaI(Tl) detector intrinsic efficiency on source ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this work the dependence of intrinsic efficiency of a NaI(Tl) detector of radius 3.82 cm and height 7.62 cm ... The results showed that, for a given off-axis distance, there exists a value of the ratio of source–detector ... This d/R value at which minimum efficiency occurs approaches zero as off- axis distance increases and it is ...

  9. When job performance is all relative: how family motivation energizes effort and compensates for intrinsic motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Menges, Jochen Immanuel; Tussing, DV; Wihler, A; Grant, A

    2017-01-01

    Supporting one's family is a major reason why many people work, yet surprisingly little research has examined the implications of family motivation. Drawing on theories of prosocial motivation and action identification, we propose that family motivation increases job performance by enhancing energy and reducing stress, and it is especially important when intrinsic motivation is lacking. Survey and diary data collected across multiple time points in a Mexican maquiladora generally support our ...

  10. In Vitro Intrinsic Permeability: A Transporter-Independent Measure of Caco-2 Cell Permeability in Drug Design and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredlund, Linda; Winiwarter, Susanne; Hilgendorf, Constanze

    2017-05-01

    In vitro permeability data have a central place in absorption risk assessments in drug discovery and development. For compounds where active efflux impacts permeability in vitro, the inherent passive membrane permeability ("intrinsic permeability") gives a concentration-independent measure of the compound's permeability. This work describes the validation of an in vitro intrinsic permeability assay and application of the data in a predictive in silico model. Apparent intrinsic permeability (P app ) across Caco-2 cell monolayers is determined in the presence of an optimized cocktail of chemical inhibitors toward the three major efflux transporters ABCB1, ABCC2, and ABCG2. The intrinsic P app value gives an estimate of passive permeability, which is independent of transporter expression levels and not limited by solubility or cell toxicity. An in silico model has been established to predict the Caco-2 intrinsic permeability and shown to consistently identify highly permeable compounds. The new intrinsic permeability assay is useful for early absorption estimates and suitable for absorption risk assessment in DMPK and pharmaceutical development.

  11. VELOCITY EVOLUTION AND THE INTRINSIC COLOR OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, Ryan J.; Sanders, Nathan E.; Kirshner, Robert P.

    2011-01-01

    To understand how best to use observations of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) to obtain precise and accurate distances, we investigate the relations between spectra of SNe Ia and their intrinsic colors. Using a sample of 1630 optical spectra of 255 SNe, based primarily on data from the CfA Supernova Program, we examine how the velocity evolution and line strengths of Si II λ6355 and Ca II H and K are related to the B – V color at peak brightness. We find that the maximum-light velocity of Si II λ6355 and Ca II H and K and the maximum-light pseudo-equivalent width of Si II λ6355 are correlated with intrinsic color, with intrinsic color having a linear relation with the Si II λ6355 measurements. Ca II H and K does not have a linear relation with intrinsic color, but lower-velocity SNe tend to be intrinsically bluer. Combining the spectroscopic measurements does not improve intrinsic color inference. The intrinsic color scatter is larger for higher-velocity SNe Ia—even after removing a linear trend with velocity—indicating that lower-velocity SNe Ia are more 'standard crayons'. Employing information derived from SN Ia spectra has the potential to improve the measurements of extragalactic distances and the cosmological properties inferred from them.

  12. Anisotropic intrinsic spin Hall effect in quantum wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, A W; Akis, R; Ferry, D K

    2011-01-01

    We use numerical simulations to investigate the spin Hall effect in quantum wires in the presence of both Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling. We find that the intrinsic spin Hall effect is highly anisotropic with respect to the orientation of the wire, and that the nature of this anisotropy depends strongly on the electron density and the relative strengths of the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit couplings. In particular, at low densities, when only one subband of the quantum wire is occupied, the spin Hall effect is strongest for electron momentum along the [1-bar 10] axis, which is the opposite of what is expected for the purely 2D case. In addition, when more than one subband is occupied, the strength and anisotropy of the spin Hall effect can vary greatly over relatively small changes in electron density, which makes it difficult to predict which wire orientation will maximize the strength of the spin Hall effect. These results help to illuminate the role of quantum confinement in spin-orbit-coupled systems, and can serve as a guide for future experimental work on the use of quantum wires for spin-Hall-based spintronic applications. (paper)

  13. Some chaotic features of intrinsically coupled Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolahchi, M.R.; Shukrinov, Yu.M.; Hamdipour, M.; Botha, A.E.; Suzuki, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Intrinsically coupled Josephson junctions model a high-T c superconductor. ► Intrinsically coupled Josephson junctions can act as a chaotic nonlinear system. ► Chaos could be due to resonance overlap. ► Avoiding parameters that lead to chaos is important for the design of resonators. -- Abstract: We look for chaos in an intrinsically coupled system of Josephson junctions. This study has direct applications for the high-T c resonators which require coherence amongst the junctions

  14. Congenital hypertrophy of multiple intrinsic muscles of the foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Tomohiro; Park, Susam; Niu, Atushi; Hasegawa, Hiromi

    2014-12-01

    Congenital hypertrophy of a single intrinsic muscle of the foot is rare, and as far as we know, only six cases have been reported. We describe a case of congenital anomaly that showed hypertrophy of multiple intrinsic muscles of the foot; the affected muscles were all the intrinsic muscles of the foot except the extensor digitorum brevis or extensor hallucis. Other tissues such as adipose tissue, nervous tissue, or osseous tissue showed no abnormalities. To reduce the volume of the foot we removed parts of the enlarged muscles.

  15. Simple intrinsic defects in GaAs : numerical supplement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Peter Andrew

    2012-04-01

    This Report presents numerical tables summarizing properties of intrinsic defects in gallium arsenide, GaAs, as computed by density functional theory. This Report serves as a numerical supplement to the results published in: P.A. Schultz and O.A. von Lilienfeld, 'Simple intrinsic defects in GaAs', Modelling Simul. Mater. Sci Eng., Vol. 17, 084007 (2009), and intended for use as reference tables for a defect physics package in device models. The numerical results for density functional theory calculations of properties of simple intrinsic defects in gallium arsenide are presented.

  16. Helical propensity in an intrinsically disordered protein accelerates ligand binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iesmantavicius, Vytautas; Dogan, Jakob; Jemth, Per

    2014-01-01

    domain of the activator for thyroid hormone and retinoid receptors (ACTR) is intrinsically disordered and folds upon binding to the nuclear coactivator binding domain (NCBD) of the CREB binding protein. A number of mutants was designed that selectively perturbs the amount of secondary structure......Many intrinsically disordered proteins fold upon binding to other macromolecules. The secondary structure present in the well-ordered complex is often formed transiently in the unbound state. The consequence of such transient structure for the binding process is, however, not clear. The activation...... the notion of preformed secondary structure as an important determinant for molecular recognition in intrinsically disordered proteins....

  17. Intrinsic and collective structure in the interacting boson model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leviatan, A.

    1987-01-01

    A general non-spherical boson basis is introduced to study the excitation modes in the interacting boson model (IBM). A prescription for construction of intrinsic states is presented. The general IBM Hamiltonian is resolved exactly into intrinsic and collective parts. The limit of large boson number is discussed analytically for spectrum and transitions. The method of analysis reveals an underlying intrinsic and collective structure closely linked with symmetry considerations. The suggested new approach seems to be adequate as a tool to obtain the physical content and normal modes in any number conserving algebraic bosonic system. copyright 1987 Academic Press, Inc

  18. Intrinsic and collective structure in the interacting boson model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leviatan, A.

    1987-11-01

    A general non-spherical boson basis is introduced to study the excitation modes in the interacting boson model (IBM). A prescription for construction of intrinsic states is presented. The general IBM Hamiltonian is resolved exactly into intrinsic and collective parts. The limit of large boson number is discussed analytically for spectrum and transitions. The method of analysis reveals an underlying intrinsic and collective structure closely linked with symmetry considerations. The suggested new approach seems to be adequate as a tool to obtain the physical content and normal modes in any number conserving algebraic bosonic system. copyright 1987 Academic Press, Inc.

  19. Intrinsic immunogenicity of rapidly-degradable polymers evolves during degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andorko, James I; Hess, Krystina L; Pineault, Kevin G; Jewell, Christopher M

    2016-03-01

    Recent studies reveal many biomaterial vaccine carriers are able to activate immunostimulatory pathways, even in the absence of other immune signals. How the changing properties of polymers during biodegradation impact this intrinsic immunogenicity is not well studied, yet this information could contribute to rational design of degradable vaccine carriers that help direct immune response. We use degradable poly(beta-amino esters) (PBAEs) to explore intrinsic immunogenicity as a function of the degree of polymer degradation and polymer form (e.g., soluble, particles). PBAE particles condensed by electrostatic interaction to mimic a common vaccine approach strongly activate dendritic cells, drive antigen presentation, and enhance T cell proliferation in the presence of antigen. Polymer molecular weight strongly influences these effects, with maximum stimulation at short degradation times--corresponding to high molecular weight--and waning levels as degradation continues. In contrast, free polymer is immunologically inert. In mice, PBAE particles increase the numbers and activation state of cells in lymph nodes. Mechanistic studies reveal that this evolving immunogenicity occurs as the physicochemical properties and concentration of particles change during polymer degradation. This work confirms the immunological profile of degradable, synthetic polymers can evolve over time and creates an opportunity to leverage this feature in new vaccines. Degradable polymers are increasingly important in vaccination, but how the inherent immunogenicity of polymers changes during degradation is poorly understood. Using common rapidly-degradable vaccine carriers, we show that the activation of immune cells--even in the absence of other adjuvants--depends on polymer form (e.g., free, particulate) and the extent of degradation. These changing characteristics alter the physicochemical properties (e.g., charge, size, molecular weight) of polymer particles, driving changes in

  20. The brain correlates of the effects of monetary and verbal rewards on intrinsic motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Konstanze; Abeler, Johannes; Weber, Bernd; Falk, Armin

    2014-01-01

    Apart from everyday duties, such as doing the laundry or cleaning the house, there are tasks we do for pleasure and enjoyment. We do such tasks, like solving crossword puzzles or reading novels, without any external pressure or force; instead, we are intrinsically motivated: we do the tasks because we enjoy doing them. Previous studies suggest that external rewards, i.e., rewards from the outside, affect the intrinsic motivation to engage in a task: while performance-based monetary rewards are perceived as controlling and induce a business-contract framing, verbal rewards praising one's competence can enhance the perceived self-determination. Accordingly, the former have been shown to decrease intrinsic motivation, whereas the latter have been shown to increase intrinsic motivation. The present study investigated the neural processes underlying the effects of monetary and verbal rewards on intrinsic motivation in a group of 64 subjects applying functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We found that, when participants received positive performance feedback, activation in the anterior striatum and midbrain was affected by the nature of the reward; compared to a non-rewarded control group, activation was higher while monetary rewards were administered. However, we did not find a decrease in activation after reward withdrawal. In contrast, we found an increase in activation for verbal rewards: after verbal rewards had been withdrawn, participants showed a higher activation in the aforementioned brain areas when they received success compared to failure feedback. We further found that, while participants worked on the task, activation in the lateral prefrontal cortex was enhanced after the verbal rewards were administered and withdrawn.

  1. Locking of intrinsic angular momentum in collision complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berengolts, Alexander.

    1995-04-01

    A concept of locking of the intrinsic angular momentum of a fragment of a collision complex to a body-fixed axis is widely used in the description of heavy-particle dynamics. The aim of this work is to provide a semiclassical description of the locking phenomenon which occur in diatomic and three atomic collision complexes. The first part of this work is devoted to the semiclassical study of the locking of the electronic angular momentum that occurs in slow collisions of two atoms, one in the spherically symmetric state and the other in state with j= 1. Here we calculate explicitly the complete locking matrix for different types of interatomic interactions. The elements of this matrix directly enter into the semiclassical expression for the different cross sections of polarized atoms. Limitations to the notion of the the locking radius and slipping probability are discussed in connection with the steepness of the interaction. Numerical calculations confirm analytical result: the optimal criterion for determination of the locking radius is a condition for the accumulated phase difference between two molecular states. Analytical expressions are suggested for the locking angle and the slipping probability. Implication of the locking approximation for calculation of the quasiclassical scattering matrix is discussed. The second part considers the locking of the rotational angular momentum of a diatom in the decomposition of a triatomic complexes. We discuss here cases J = 1,2,3 and 4, but restrict ourselves to calculation of the so-called dynamic orientation of the diatomic fragment. The letter represents one of the characteristics of the locking matrix which in principle can be measured experimentally. The orientation is created as a result of the interplay between the adiabatic interaction in the atom- diatom exit channel and the rotationally non adiabatic coupling in the perturbed rotor region

  2. Intrinsically motivated learning in natural and artificial systems

    CERN Document Server

    Baldassarre, Gianluca

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the state of the art in research on intrinsically motivated learning and presents novel tools for research. It also identifies related scientific and technological open challenges as well as promising research directions.

  3. Towards hardware-intrinsic security foundations and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Sadeghi, Ahmad-Reza; Tuyls, Pim

    2010-01-01

    Hardware-intrinsic security is a young field dealing with secure secret key storage. This book features contributions from researchers and practitioners with backgrounds in physics, mathematics, cryptography, coding theory and processor theory.

  4. Recent Advances in Intrinsic Self-Healing Cementitious Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenting; Dong, Biqin; Yang, Zhengxian; Xu, Jing; Chen, Qing; Li, Haoxin; Xing, Feng; Jiang, Zhengwu

    2018-03-25

    Self-healing is a natural phenomenon whereby living organisms respond to damage. Recently, considerable research efforts have been invested in self-healing cementitious materials that are capable of restoring structural integrity and mechanical properties after being damaged. Inspired by nature, a variety of creative approaches are explored here based on the intrinsic or extrinsic healing mechanism. Research on new intrinsic self-healing cementitious materials with biomimetic features is on the forefront of material science, which provides a promising way to construct resilient and sustainable concrete infrastructures. Here, the current advances in the development of the intrinsic healing cementitious materials are described, and a new definition of intrinsic self-healing discussed. The methods to assess the efficiency of different healing mechanisms are briefly summarized. The critical insights are emphasized to guide the future research on the development of new self-healing cementitious materials. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation for stereotypic and repetitive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Annette V; Bundy, Anita C; Einfeld, Stewart L

    2009-03-01

    This study provides evidence for intrinsic and extrinsic motivators for stereotypical and repetitive behavior in children with autism and intellectual disability and children with intellectual disability alone. We modified the Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) (1988b); dividing it into intrinsic and extrinsic measures and adding items to assess anxiety as an intrinsic motivator. Rasch analysis of data from 279 MASs (74 children) revealed that the items formed two unidimensional scales. Anxiety was a more likely intrinsic motivator than sensory seeking for children with dual diagnoses; the reverse was true for children with intellectual disability only. Escape and gaining a tangible object were the most common extrinsic motivators for those with dual diagnoses and attention and escape for children with intellectual disability.

  6. Values, Norms, and Intrinsic Motivation to Act Proenvironmentally

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steg, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Environmental problems can be reduced if people more consistently engage in proenvironmental actions. In this article, I discuss factors that motivate or inhibit individuals to act proenvironmentally. Many people are intrinsically motivated to engage in proenvironmental actions, because protecting

  7. What is Intrinsic Motivation? A Typology of Computational Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudeyer, Pierre-Yves; Kaplan, Frederic

    2007-01-01

    Intrinsic motivation, centrally involved in spontaneous exploration and curiosity, is a crucial concept in developmental psychology. It has been argued to be a crucial mechanism for open-ended cognitive development in humans, and as such has gathered a growing interest from developmental roboticists in the recent years. The goal of this paper is threefold. First, it provides a synthesis of the different approaches of intrinsic motivation in psychology. Second, by interpreting these approaches in a computational reinforcement learning framework, we argue that they are not operational and even sometimes inconsistent. Third, we set the ground for a systematic operational study of intrinsic motivation by presenting a formal typology of possible computational approaches. This typology is partly based on existing computational models, but also presents new ways of conceptualizing intrinsic motivation. We argue that this kind of computational typology might be useful for opening new avenues for research both in psychology and developmental robotics.

  8. Does displayed enthusiasm favour recall, intrinsic motivation and time estimation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moè, Angelica

    2016-11-01

    Displayed enthusiasm has been shown to relate to intrinsic motivation, vitality, and positive affect, but its effects on recall performance and time estimation have not yet been explored. This research aimed at studying the effects of a delivery style characterised by High Enthusiasm (HE) on recall, time estimation, and intrinsic motivation. In line with previous studies, effects on intrinsic motivation were expected. In addition, higher recall and lower time estimations were hypothesised. In two experiments, participants assigned to a HE condition or to a normal reading control condition listened to a narrative and to a descriptive passage. Then, they were asked to rate perceived time, enthusiasm, pleasure, interest, enjoyment and curiosity, before writing a free recall. Experiment 1 showed that in the HE condition, participants recalled more, were more intrinsically motivated, and expressed lower time estimations compared to the control condition. Experiment 2 confirmed the positive effects of HE reading compared to normal reading, using different passages and a larger sample.

  9. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors influencing large African herbivore movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venter, J.A.; Prins, H.H.T.; Mashanova, A.; Boer, de W.F.; Slotow, R.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding environmental as well as anthropogenic factors that influence large herbivore ecological patterns and processes should underpin their conservation and management. We assessed the influence of intrinsic, extrinsic environmental and extrinsic anthropogenic factors on movement behaviour

  10. The Development of Intrinsic Motivation for Physical Activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beaty, James D

    2005-01-01

    .... Having found this to be so, it is worthy of researchers' efforts to determine the constructs that will move individuals to become more intrinsically motivated to engage in regular exercise and/or physical activity...

  11. Intrinsic and enhanced biodegradation of benzene in strongly reduced aquifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiningen, W.N.M. van; Rijnaarts, H.H.M; Langenhoff, A.A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Laboratory microcosm studies were performed to examine intrinsic and enhanced benzene bioremediation using five different sediment and groundwater samples from three deeply anaerobic aquifers sited in northern Netherlands. The influence of addition of nitrate, sulfate, limited amounts of oxygen, and

  12. An empirical qualitative study of students’ perceived intrinsic motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Pals Svendsen, Lisbet; Mondahl, Margrethe S.; Faizi, Zaki

    2014-01-01

    Foreign language and culture learning suffers from a bad image in Danish Upper Secondary schools and German is not an exception. It means that the majority of Danish Upper Secondary school students are not particularly interested in learning the language. Therefore, intrinsic motivation plays a pivotal role in German language and culture learning in Denmark. One didactic initiative proposed to remedy the lack of intrinsic motivation is the introduction of various ICT (Information and Communic...

  13. A hierarchy of intrinsic timescales across primate cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, John D; Bernacchia, Alberto; Freedman, David J; Romo, Ranulfo; Wallis, Jonathan D; Cai, Xinying; Padoa-Schioppa, Camillo; Pasternak, Tatiana; Seo, Hyojung; Lee, Daeyeol; Wang, Xiao-Jing

    2014-12-01

    Specialization and hierarchy are organizing principles for primate cortex, yet there is little direct evidence for how cortical areas are specialized in the temporal domain. We measured timescales of intrinsic fluctuations in spiking activity across areas and found a hierarchical ordering, with sensory and prefrontal areas exhibiting shorter and longer timescales, respectively. On the basis of our findings, we suggest that intrinsic timescales reflect areal specialization for task-relevant computations over multiple temporal ranges.

  14. Intrinsic Losses Based on Information Geometry and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Rong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available One main interest of information geometry is to study the properties of statistical models that do not depend on the coordinate systems or model parametrization; thus, it may serve as an analytic tool for intrinsic inference in statistics. In this paper, under the framework of Riemannian geometry and dual geometry, we revisit two commonly-used intrinsic losses which are respectively given by the squared Rao distance and the symmetrized Kullback–Leibler divergence (or Jeffreys divergence. For an exponential family endowed with the Fisher metric and α -connections, the two loss functions are uniformly described as the energy difference along an α -geodesic path, for some α ∈ { − 1 , 0 , 1 } . Subsequently, the two intrinsic losses are utilized to develop Bayesian analyses of covariance matrix estimation and range-spread target detection. We provide an intrinsically unbiased covariance estimator, which is verified to be asymptotically efficient in terms of the intrinsic mean square error. The decision rules deduced by the intrinsic Bayesian criterion provide a geometrical justification for the constant false alarm rate detector based on generalized likelihood ratio principle.

  15. A dynamic birth-death model via Intrinsic Linkage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Schoen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Dynamic population models, or models with changing vital rates, are only beginning to receive serious attention from mathematical demographers. Despite considerable progress, there is still no general analytical solution for the size or composition of a population generated by an arbitrary sequence of vital rates. OBJECTIVE The paper introduces a new approach, Intrinsic Linkage, that in many cases can analytically determine the birth trajectory of a dynamic birth-death population. METHODS Intrinsic Linkage assumes a weighted linear relationship between (i the time trajectory of proportional increases in births in a population and (ii the trajectory of the intrinsic rates of growth of the projection matrices that move the population forward in time. Flexibility is provided through choice of the weighting parameter, w, that links these two trajectories. RESULTS New relationships are found linking implied intrinsic and observed population patterns of growth. Past experience is "forgotten" through a process of simple exponential decay. When the intrinsic growth rate trajectory follows a polynomial, exponential, or cyclical pattern, the population birth trajectory can be expressed analytically in closed form. Numerical illustrations provide population values and relationships in metastable and cyclically stable models. Plausible projection matrices are typically found for a broad range of values of w, although w appears to vary greatly over time in actual populations. CONCLUSIONS The Intrinsic Linkage approach extends current techniques for dynamic modeling, revealing new relationships between population structures and the changing vital rates that generate them.

  16. Intrinsic honesty and the prevalence of rule violations across societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gächter, Simon; Schulz, Jonathan F

    2016-03-24

    Deception is common in nature and humans are no exception. Modern societies have created institutions to control cheating, but many situations remain where only intrinsic honesty keeps people from cheating and violating rules. Psychological, sociological and economic theories suggest causal pathways to explain how the prevalence of rule violations in people's social environment, such as corruption, tax evasion or political fraud, can compromise individual intrinsic honesty. Here we present cross-societal experiments from 23 countries around the world that demonstrate a robust link between the prevalence of rule violations and intrinsic honesty. We developed an index of the 'prevalence of rule violations' (PRV) based on country-level data from the year 2003 of corruption, tax evasion and fraudulent politics. We measured intrinsic honesty in an anonymous die-rolling experiment. We conducted the experiments with 2,568 young participants (students) who, due to their young age in 2003, could not have influenced PRV in 2003. We find individual intrinsic honesty is stronger in the subject pools of low PRV countries than those of high PRV countries. The details of lying patterns support psychological theories of honesty. The results are consistent with theories of the cultural co-evolution of institutions and values, and show that weak institutions and cultural legacies that generate rule violations not only have direct adverse economic consequences, but might also impair individual intrinsic honesty that is crucial for the smooth functioning of society.

  17. Intrinsically Disordered Side of the Zika Virus Proteome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajanish Giri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, concepts of protein intrinsic disorder have been implicated in different biological processes. Recent studies have suggested that intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs provide structural plasticity and functional diversity to viral proteins that are involved in rapid replication and immune evasion in host cells. In case of Zika virus, the roles of protein intrinsic disorder in mechanisms of pathogenesis are not completely understood. In this study, we have analyzed the prevalence of intrinsic disorder in Zika virus proteome (strain MR 766. Our analyses revealed that Zika virus polyprotein is enriched with intrinsically disordered protein regions (IDPRs and this finding is consistent with previous reports on the involvement of IDPs in shell formation and virulence of the Flaviviridae family. We found abundant IDPRs in Capsid, NS2B, NS3, NS4A, and NS5 proteins that are involved in mature particle formation and replication. In our view, the intrinsic disorder-focused analysis of ZIKV proteins could be important for the development of new disorder-based drugs.

  18. Spectral and kinetic analysis of radiation induced optical attenuation in silica: towards intrinsic fibre optic dosimetry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgermans, P.

    2002-01-01

    The document is an abstract of a PhD thesis. The PhD work concerns the detailed investigation of the behaviour of optical fibres in radiation fields such as is the case for various nuclear and space application,s. The core of the work concerns the spectral and kinetic analysis of the radiation induced optical attenuation. Models describing underlying physical phenomena, both for the spectral and the time dimensions, have been developed. The potential of silica optical fibre waveguides for intrinsic dosimetry has been assessed by employing specific properties of radiation induced defects in the silica waveguide material

  19. Intrinsic Ferromagnetism in the Diluted Magnetic Semiconductor Co :TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadaoui, H.; Luo, X.; Salman, Z.; Cui, X. Y.; Bao, N. N.; Bao, P.; Zheng, R. K.; Tseng, L. T.; Du, Y. H.; Prokscha, T.; Suter, A.; Liu, T.; Wang, Y. R.; Li, S.; Ding, J.; Ringer, S. P.; Morenzoni, E.; Yi, J. B.

    2016-11-01

    Here we present a study of magnetism in Co0.05 Ti0.95 O2 -δ anatase films grown by pulsed laser deposition under a variety of oxygen partial pressures and deposition rates. Energy-dispersive spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy analyses indicate that a high deposition rate leads to a homogeneous microstructure, while a very low rate or postannealing results in cobalt clustering. Depth resolved low-energy muon spin rotation experiments show that films grown at a low oxygen partial pressure (≈10-6 torr ) with a uniform structure are fully magnetic, indicating intrinsic ferromagnetism. First principles calculations identify the beneficial role of low oxygen partial pressure in the realization of uniform carrier-mediated ferromagnetism. This work demonstrates that Co :TiO2 is an intrinsic diluted magnetic semiconductor.

  20. Intrinsic Ferromagnetism in the Diluted Magnetic Semiconductor Co:TiO_{2}.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadaoui, H; Luo, X; Salman, Z; Cui, X Y; Bao, N N; Bao, P; Zheng, R K; Tseng, L T; Du, Y H; Prokscha, T; Suter, A; Liu, T; Wang, Y R; Li, S; Ding, J; Ringer, S P; Morenzoni, E; Yi, J B

    2016-11-25

    Here we present a study of magnetism in Co_{0.05}Ti_{0.95}O_{2-δ} anatase films grown by pulsed laser deposition under a variety of oxygen partial pressures and deposition rates. Energy-dispersive spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy analyses indicate that a high deposition rate leads to a homogeneous microstructure, while a very low rate or postannealing results in cobalt clustering. Depth resolved low-energy muon spin rotation experiments show that films grown at a low oxygen partial pressure (≈10^{-6}  torr) with a uniform structure are fully magnetic, indicating intrinsic ferromagnetism. First principles calculations identify the beneficial role of low oxygen partial pressure in the realization of uniform carrier-mediated ferromagnetism. This work demonstrates that Co:TiO_{2} is an intrinsic diluted magnetic semiconductor.

  1. Intrinsic and adaptive myelination—A sequential mechanism for smart wiring in the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swire, Matthew; ffrench‐Constant, Charles

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The concept of adaptive myelination—myelin plasticity regulated by activity—is an important advance for the field. What signals set up the adaptable pattern in the first place? Here we review work that demonstrates an intrinsic pathway within oligodendrocytes requiring only an axon‐shaped substrate to generate multilayered and compacted myelin sheaths of a physiological length. Based on this, we discuss a model we proposed in 2015 which argues that myelination has two phases—intrinsic and then adaptive—which together generate “smart wiring,” in which active axons become more myelinated. This model explains why prior studies have failed to identify a signal necessary for central nervous system myelination and argues that myelination, like synapses, might contribute to learning by the activity‐dependent modification of an initially hard‐wired pattern. © 2017 The Authors. Developmental Neurobiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 78: 68–79, 2018 PMID:28834358

  2. Pressure effect in the X-ray intrinsic position resolution in noble gases and mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Azevedo, C.D.R.

    2016-12-13

    A study of the gas pressure effect in the position resolution of an interacting X- or gamma-ray photon in a gas medium is performed. The intrinsic position resolution for pure noble gases (Argon and Xenon) and their mixtures with CO2 and CH4 were calculated for several gas pressures (1-10bar) and for photon energies between 5.4 and 60.0 keV, being possible to establish a linear match between the intrinsic position resolution and the inverse of the gas pressure in that energy range. In order to evaluate the quality of the method here described, a comparison between the available experimental data and the calculated one in this work, is done and discussed. In the majority of the cases, a strong agreement is observed.

  3. Intrinsic Uncertainties in Modeling Complex Systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Curtis S; Bramson, Aaron L.; Ames, Arlo L.

    2014-09-01

    Models are built to understand and predict the behaviors of both natural and artificial systems. Because it is always necessary to abstract away aspects of any non-trivial system being modeled, we know models can potentially leave out important, even critical elements. This reality of the modeling enterprise forces us to consider the prospective impacts of those effects completely left out of a model - either intentionally or unconsidered. Insensitivity to new structure is an indication of diminishing returns. In this work, we represent a hypothetical unknown effect on a validated model as a finite perturba- tion whose amplitude is constrained within a control region. We find robustly that without further constraints, no meaningful bounds can be placed on the amplitude of a perturbation outside of the control region. Thus, forecasting into unsampled regions is a very risky proposition. We also present inherent difficulties with proper time discretization of models and representing in- herently discrete quantities. We point out potentially worrisome uncertainties, arising from math- ematical formulation alone, which modelers can inadvertently introduce into models of complex systems. Acknowledgements This work has been funded under early-career LDRD project #170979, entitled "Quantify- ing Confidence in Complex Systems Models Having Structural Uncertainties", which ran from 04/2013 to 09/2014. We wish to express our gratitude to the many researchers at Sandia who con- tributed ideas to this work, as well as feedback on the manuscript. In particular, we would like to mention George Barr, Alexander Outkin, Walt Beyeler, Eric Vugrin, and Laura Swiler for provid- ing invaluable advice and guidance through the course of the project. We would also like to thank Steven Kleban, Amanda Gonzales, Trevor Manzanares, and Sarah Burwell for their assistance in managing project tasks and resources.

  4. Selective inhibition of liver cancer growth realized by the intrinsic toxicity of a quantum dot-lipid complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shao, D.; Li, J.; Guan, F.; Pan, Y.; Xiao, X.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, H.; Chen, L.

    2014-01-01

    Using the intrinsic toxicity of nanomaterials for anticancer therapy is an emerging concept. In this work, we discovered that CdTe/CdS quantum dots, when coated with lipids (QD-LC) instead of popular liposomes, polymers, or dendrimers, demonstrated extraordinarily high specificity for cancer cells,

  5. Do high job demands increase intrinsic motivation or fatigue or both? The role of job control and job social support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, N.W.; Hagedoorn, M.

    2003-01-01

    Examined whether job control and job social support reduce signs of fatigue and enhance intrinsic motivation among employees facing high job demands. 555 nurses (mean age 35.5 yrs) working at specialized units for patients with different levels of mental deficiency completed surveys regarding: (1)

  6. Towards intrinsic MoS{sub 2} devices for high performance arsenite sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Peng, E-mail: pengli@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: dzzhang@upc.edu.cn [Department of Precision Instruments, State Key Laboratory of Precision Measurement Technology and Instruments, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Dongzhi, E-mail: pengli@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: dzzhang@upc.edu.cn; Sun, Yan' e; Chang, Hongyan; Liu, Jingjing; Yin, Nailiang [College of Information and Control Engineering, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266580 (China)

    2016-08-08

    Molybdenum disulphide (MoS{sub 2}) is one of the most attractive two dimensional materials other than graphene, and the exceptional properties make it a promising candidate for bio/chemical sensing. Nevertheless, intrinsic properties and sensing performances of MoS{sub 2} are easily masked by the presence of the Schottky barrier (SB) at source/drain electrodes, and its impact on MoS{sub 2} sensors remains unclear. Here, we systematically investigated the influence of the SB on MoS{sub 2} sensors, revealing the sensing mechanism of intrinsic MoS{sub 2}. By utilizing a small work function metal, Ti, to reduce the SB, excellent electrical properties of this 2D material were yielded with 2–3 times enhanced sensitivity. We experimentally demonstrated that the sensitivity of MoS{sub 2} is superior to that of graphene. Intrinsic MoS{sub 2} was able to realize rapid detection of arsenite down to 0.1 ppb without the influence of large SB, which is two-fold lower than the World Health Organization (WHO) tolerance level and better than the detection limit of recently reported arsenite sensors. Additionally, accurately discriminating target molecules is a great challenge for sensors based on 2D materials. This work demonstrates MoS{sub 2} sensors encapsulated with ionophore film which only allows certain types of molecules to selectively permeate through it. As a result, multiplex ion detection with superb selectivity was realized. Our results show prominent advantages of intrinsic MoS{sub 2} as a sensing material.

  7. Text Summarization Evaluation: Correlating Human Performance on an Extrinsic Task with Automatic Intrinsic Metrics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    President, Stacy F; Dorr, Bonnie J

    2006-01-01

    This research describes two types of summarization evaluation methods, intrinsic and extrinsic, and concentrates on determining the level of correlation between automatic intrinsic methods and human...

  8. Intrinsic and extrinsic spin-orbit torques from first principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geranton, Guillaume

    2017-01-01

    This thesis attempts to shed light on the microscopic mechanisms underlying the current-induced magnetic torques in ferromagnetic heterostructures. We have developed first principles methods aiming at the accurate and effcient calculation of the so-called spin-orbit torques (SOTs) in magnetic thin films. The emphasis of this work is on the impurity-driven extrinsic SOTs. The main part of this thesis is dedicated to the development of a formalism for the calculation of the SOTs within the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (KKR) method. The impurity-induced transitions rates are obtained from first principles and their effect on transport properties is treated within the Boltzmann formalism. The developed formalism provides a mean to compute the SOTs beyond the conventional constant relaxation time approximation. We first apply our formalism to the investigation of FePt/Pt and Co/Cu bilayers in the presence of defects and impurities. Our results hint at a crucial dependence of the torque on the type of disorder present in the films, which we explain by a complex interplay of several competing Fermi surface contributions to the SOT. Astonishingly, specific defect distributions or doping elements lead respectively to an increase or a sign change of the torque, which can not be explained on the basis of simple models. We also compute the intrinsic SOT induced by electrical and thermal currents within the full potential linearized augmented plane-wave method. Motivated by recent experimental works, we then investigate the microscopic origin of the SOT in a Ag 2 Bi-terminated Ag film grown on ferromagnetic Fe(110). We find that the torque in that system can not be explained solely by the spin-orbit coupling in the Ag 2 Bi alloy, and instead results from the spin-orbit coupling in all regions of the film.Finally, we predict a large SOT in Fe/Ge bilayers and suggest that semiconductor substrates might be a promising alternative to heavy metals for the development of SOT-based magnetic

  9. Intrinsic and extrinsic spin-orbit torques from first principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geranton, Guillaume

    2017-09-01

    This thesis attempts to shed light on the microscopic mechanisms underlying the current-induced magnetic torques in ferromagnetic heterostructures. We have developed first principles methods aiming at the accurate and effcient calculation of the so-called spin-orbit torques (SOTs) in magnetic thin films. The emphasis of this work is on the impurity-driven extrinsic SOTs. The main part of this thesis is dedicated to the development of a formalism for the calculation of the SOTs within the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (KKR) method. The impurity-induced transitions rates are obtained from first principles and their effect on transport properties is treated within the Boltzmann formalism. The developed formalism provides a mean to compute the SOTs beyond the conventional constant relaxation time approximation. We first apply our formalism to the investigation of FePt/Pt and Co/Cu bilayers in the presence of defects and impurities. Our results hint at a crucial dependence of the torque on the type of disorder present in the films, which we explain by a complex interplay of several competing Fermi surface contributions to the SOT. Astonishingly, specific defect distributions or doping elements lead respectively to an increase or a sign change of the torque, which can not be explained on the basis of simple models. We also compute the intrinsic SOT induced by electrical and thermal currents within the full potential linearized augmented plane-wave method. Motivated by recent experimental works, we then investigate the microscopic origin of the SOT in a Ag{sub 2}Bi-terminated Ag film grown on ferromagnetic Fe(110). We find that the torque in that system can not be explained solely by the spin-orbit coupling in the Ag{sub 2}Bi alloy, and instead results from the spin-orbit coupling in all regions of the film.Finally, we predict a large SOT in Fe/Ge bilayers and suggest that semiconductor substrates might be a promising alternative to heavy metals for the development of SOT

  10. Intrinsic Defense Mechanisms of the Intestinal Epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanan, Deepshika; Cadwell, Ken

    2016-04-13

    The intestinal epithelium is a single cell layer that facilitates the absorption of nutrients but also provides a tight barrier to prevent pathogen invasion and dissemination of commensal microbes. Specialized epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal tract achieve this frontline defense by working in concert with lymphoid, myeloid, and stromal cells to secrete an array of factors that limit direct contact between the epithelium and infectious agents. The importance of these mechanisms is underscored by the ability of enteric pathogens to target these mechanisms to achieve invasion and dissemination. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of these intricate molecular and cellular mechanisms adopted by these cells to promote spatial segregation and barrier maintenance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Ouabain enhances ADPKD cell apoptosis via the intrinsic pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo eBlanco

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Progression of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD is highly influenced by factors circulating in blood. We have shown that the hormone ouabain enhances several characteristics of the ADPKD cystic phenotype, including the rate of cell proliferation, fluid secretion and the capacity of the cells to form cysts. In this work, we found that physiological levels of ouabain (3nM also promote programmed cell death of renal epithelial cells obtained from kidney cysts of patients with ADPKD (ADPKD cells. This was determined by Alexa Fluor 488 labeled-Annexin-V staining and TUNEL assay, both biochemical markers of apoptosis. Ouabain-induced apoptosis also takes place when ADPKD cell growth is blocked; suggesting that the effect is not secondary to the stimulatory actions of ouabain on cell proliferation. Ouabain alters the expression of BCL family of proteins, reducing BCL-2 and increasing BAX expression levels, anti- and pro-apoptotic mediators respectively. In addition, ouabain caused the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. Moreover, ouabain activates caspase-3, a key executioner caspase in the cell apoptotic pathway, but did not affect caspase-8. This suggests that ouabain triggers ADPKD cell apoptosis by stimulating the intrinsic, but not the extrinsic pathway of programmed cell death. The apoptotic effects of ouabain are specific for ADPKD cells and do not occur in normal human kidney cells (NHK cells. Taken together with our previous observations, these results show that ouabain causes an imbalance in cell growth/death, to favor growth of the cystic cells. This event, characteristic of ADPKD, further suggests the importance of ouabain as a circulating factor that promotes ADPKD progression.

  12. Terminal twist-induced writhe of DNA with intrinsic curvature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kai

    2007-04-01

    Supercoiling of a closed circular DNA rod may result from an application of terminal twist to the DNA rod by cutting the rod, rotating one of the cut faces as the other being fixed and then sealing the cut. According to White's formula, DNA supercoiling is probably accompanied by a writhe of the DNA axis. Deduced from the elastic rod model for DNA structure, an intrinsically straight closed circular DNA rod does not writhe as subject to a terminal twist, until the number of rotation exceeds a rod-dependent threshold. By contrast, a closed circular DNA rod with intrinsic curvature writhes instantly as subject to a terminal twist. This noteworthy character in fact belongs to many intrinsically curved DNA rods. By solving the dynamic equations, the linearization of the Euler-Lagrange equations governing intrinsically curved DNA rods, this paper shows that almost every clamped-end intrinsically curved DNA rod writhes instantly when subject to a terminal twist (clamped-end DNA rods include closed circular DNA rods and topological domains of open DNA rods). In terms of physical quantities, the exceptions are identified with points in R(6) whose projections onto R(5) (through ignoring the total energy density of a rod) form a subset of a quadratic hypersurface. This paper also suggests that the terminal twist induced writhe is due to the elasticity and the clamped-end boundary conditions of the DNA rods.

  13. Informationally administered reward enhances intrinsic motivation in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeon-Seung; Jang, Seon-Kyeong; Lee, Ga-Young; Park, Seon-Cheol; Medalia, Alice; Choi, Kee-Hong

    2017-10-01

    Even when individuals with schizophrenia have an intact ability to enjoy rewarding moments, the means to assist them to translate rewarding experiences into goal-directed behaviors is unclear. The present study sought to determine whether informationally administered rewards enhance intrinsic motivation to foster goal-directed behaviors in individuals with schizophrenia (SZ) and healthy controls (HCs). Eighty-four participants (SZ=43, HCs=41) were randomly assigned to conditions involving either a performance-contingent reward with an informationally administered reward or a task-contingent reward with no feedback. Participants were asked to play two cognitive games of equalized difficulty. Accuracy, self-reported intrinsic motivation, free-choice intrinsic motivation (i.e., game play during a free-choice observation period), and perceived competency were measured. Intrinsic motivation and perceived competency in the cognitive games were similar between the two participant groups. The informationally administered reward significantly enhanced self-reported intrinsic motivation and perceived competency in both the groups. The likelihood that individuals with schizophrenia would play the game during the free-choice observation period was four times greater in the informationally administered reward condition than that in the no-feedback condition. Our findings suggest that, in the context of cognitive remediation, individuals with schizophrenia would benefit from informationally administered rewards. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of homework choices on achievement and intrinsic motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Emily Fast

    The purpose of this research was to test an intervention of choices in homework on the achievement and intrinsic motivation of seventh-grade science students at a middle school. The intervention was based on concepts from the cognitive evaluation theory of Edward L. Deci and Richard M. Ryan (1985). The subjects were sixteen heterogeneous classes of seventh-grade students, who were divided among four teachers. Two randomly chosen classes from each teacher received choices in their homework and the remaining two classes of each teacher received similar homework assignments without choices. Two hypotheses were developed for this study: (1) Seventh-grade science students given choices in their homework would show an increase in intrinsic motivation as measured on a motivation orientation measure, compared to students not given choices in their homework, and (2) Seventh-grade science students given choices in their homework would show an increase in achievement on an achievement measure, compared to students not given choices in their homework. Having choices in homework did not increase intrinsic motivation or achievement. However, students who did their homework did significantly better on the posttest, and students who were more intrinsically motivated did significantly better on the posttest. Just doing the homework was important for achievement, and intrinsic motivation was linked to achievement.

  15. Photovoltaic device comprising compositionally graded intrinsic photoactive layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffbauer, Mark A; Williamson, Todd L

    2013-04-30

    Photovoltaic devices and methods of making photovoltaic devices comprising at least one compositionally graded photoactive layer, said method comprising providing a substrate; growing onto the substrate a uniform intrinsic photoactive layer having one surface disposed upon the substrate and an opposing second surface, said intrinsic photoactive layer consisting essentially of In.sub.1-xA.sub.xN,; wherein: i. 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1; ii. A is gallium, aluminum, or combinations thereof; and iii. x is at least 0 on one surface of the intrinsic photoactive layer and is compositionally graded throughout the layer to reach a value of 1 or less on the opposing second surface of the layer; wherein said intrinsic photoactive layer is isothermally grown by means of energetic neutral atom beam lithography and epitaxy at a temperature of 600.degree. C. or less using neutral nitrogen atoms having a kinetic energy of from about 1.0 eV to about 5.0 eV, and wherein the intrinsic photoactive layer is grown at a rate of from about 5 nm/min to about 100 nm/min.

  16. Intrinsic motivation and amotivation in first episode and prolonged psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Lauren; Lysaker, Paul H; Firmin, Ruth L; Breier, Alan; Vohs, Jenifer L

    2015-12-01

    The deleterious functional implications of motivation deficits in psychosis have generated interest in examining dimensions of the construct. However, there remains a paucity of data regarding whether dimensions of motivation differ over the course of psychosis. Therefore, this study examined two motivation dimensions, trait-like intrinsic motivation, and the negative symptom of amotivation, and tested the impact of illness phase on the 1) levels of these dimensions and 2) relationship between these dimensions. Participants with first episode psychosis (FEP; n=40) and prolonged psychosis (n=66) completed clinician-rated measures of intrinsic motivation and amotivation. Analyses revealed that when controlling for group differences in gender and education, the FEP group had significantly more intrinsic motivation and lower amotivation than the prolonged psychosis group. Moreover, intrinsic motivation was negatively correlated with amotivation in both FEP and prolonged psychosis, but the magnitude of the relationship did not statistically differ between groups. These findings suggest that motivation deficits are more severe later in the course of psychosis and that low intrinsic motivation may be partially independent of amotivation in both first episode and prolonged psychosis. Clinically, these results highlight the importance of targeting motivation in early intervention services. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Semisupervised Support Vector Machines With Tangent Space Intrinsic Manifold Regularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shiliang; Xie, Xijiong

    2016-09-01

    Semisupervised learning has been an active research topic in machine learning and data mining. One main reason is that labeling examples is expensive and time-consuming, while there are large numbers of unlabeled examples available in many practical problems. So far, Laplacian regularization has been widely used in semisupervised learning. In this paper, we propose a new regularization method called tangent space intrinsic manifold regularization. It is intrinsic to data manifold and favors linear functions on the manifold. Fundamental elements involved in the formulation of the regularization are local tangent space representations, which are estimated by local principal component analysis, and the connections that relate adjacent tangent spaces. Simultaneously, we explore its application to semisupervised classification and propose two new learning algorithms called tangent space intrinsic manifold regularized support vector machines (TiSVMs) and tangent space intrinsic manifold regularized twin SVMs (TiTSVMs). They effectively integrate the tangent space intrinsic manifold regularization consideration. The optimization of TiSVMs can be solved by a standard quadratic programming, while the optimization of TiTSVMs can be solved by a pair of standard quadratic programmings. The experimental results of semisupervised classification problems show the effectiveness of the proposed semisupervised learning algorithms.

  18. Intrinsic thermodynamics of inhibitor binding to human carbonic anhydrase IX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkuvienė, Vaida; Matulienė, Jurgita; Juozapaitienė, Vaida; Michailovienė, Vilma; Jachno, Jelena; Matulis, Daumantas

    2016-04-01

    Human carbonic anhydrase 9th isoform (CA IX) is an important marker of numerous cancers and is increasingly interesting as a potential anticancer drug target. Various synthetic aromatic sulfonamide-bearing compounds are being designed as potent inhibitors of CA IX. However, sulfonamide compound binding to CA IX is linked to several reactions, the deprotonation of the sulfonamide amino group and the protonation of the CA active site Zn(II)-bound hydroxide. These linked reactions significantly affect the affinities and other thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpies and entropies of binding. The observed and intrinsic affinities of compound binding to CA IX were determined by the fluorescent thermal shift assay. The enthalpies and entropies of binding were determined by the isothermal titration calorimetry. The pKa of CA IX was determined to be 6.8 and the enthalpy of CA IX-Zn(II)-bound hydroxide protonation was -24 kJ/mol. These values enabled the analysis of intrinsic thermodynamics of a library of compounds binding to CA IX. The most strongly binding compounds exhibited the intrinsic affinity of 0.01 nM and the observed affinity of 2 nM. The intrinsic thermodynamic parameters of compound binding to CA IX helped to draw the compound structure to thermodynamics relationship. It is important to distinguish the intrinsic from observed parameters of any disease target protein interaction with its inhibitors as drug candidates when drawing detailed compound structure to thermodynamics correlations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Kinetics of agonist-induced intrinsic fluorescence changes in the Torpedo acetylcholine receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Hideki; Raftery, Michael A

    2010-05-01

    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor from Torpedo electric organs is a ligand-gated ion channel that undergoes conformational transitions for activation and/or desensitization. Earlier work suggested that intrinsic fluorescence changes of the receptor monitors kinetic transitions toward the high-affinity, desensitized state. Here, using highly purified membrane preparations to minimize contaminating fluorescence, we examined kinetic mechanisms of the receptor as monitored by its intrinsic fluorescence. Fluorescence changes were specific to the receptor as they were blocked by alpha-bungarotoxin and were induced by agonists, but not by the antagonist hexamethonium. Acetylcholine, carbamylcholine and suberyldicholine showed only one kinetic phase with relatively fast rates (t(1/2) = 0.2-1.2 s). Effective dissociation constants were at least an order of magnitude higher than the high affinity, equilibrium binding constants for these agonists. A semirigid agonist isoarecolone-methiodide, whose activation constant was approximately 3-fold lower than acetylcholine, induced an additional slow phase (t(1/2) = 4.5-9 s) with apparent rates that increased and then decreased in a concentration dependent manner, revealing a branched mechanism for conformational transitions. We propose that the intrinsic fluorescence changes of the receptor describe a process(es) toward a fast desensitization state prior to the formation of the high affinity state.

  20. Which is the best intrinsic motivation signal for learning multiple skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santucci, Vieri G; Baldassarre, Gianluca; Mirolli, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Humans and other biological agents are able to autonomously learn and cache different skills in the absence of any biological pressure or any assigned task. In this respect, Intrinsic Motivations (i.e., motivations not connected to reward-related stimuli) play a cardinal role in animal learning, and can be considered as a fundamental tool for developing more autonomous and more adaptive artificial agents. In this work, we provide an exhaustive analysis of a scarcely investigated problem: which kind of IM reinforcement signal is the most suitable for driving the acquisition of multiple skills in the shortest time? To this purpose we implemented an artificial agent with a hierarchical architecture that allows to learn and cache different skills. We tested the system in a setup with continuous states and actions, in particular, with a kinematic robotic arm that has to learn different reaching tasks. We compare the results of different versions of the system driven by several different intrinsic motivation signals. The results show (a) that intrinsic reinforcements purely based on the knowledge of the system are not appropriate to guide the acquisition of multiple skills, and (b) that the stronger the link between the IM signal and the competence of the system, the better the performance.

  1. Nurturing gerontology students' intrinsic motivation to cocreate: The design of a powerful learning environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukema, Jan S; Veerman, Mieke; Van Alphen, Jacqueline; Visser, Geraldine; Smits, Carolien; Kingma, Tineke

    2017-09-21

    Professionals such as gerontologists play an important role in the design, development and implementation of age-friendly services. and products, by using working methods and principles of co-creation. A Dutch undergraduate applied gerontology programme aims to train students in the why, how and what of co-creation. The degree to which students are intrinsically motivated to develop competencies depends on how their psychological needs are met. These needs are autonomy, an awareness of competence and a sense of relatedness, as described in the self-determination theory. To nurture the intrinsic motivation of the applied gerontology students, a realistic, powerful learning environment called the Living Lab Applied Gerontology was designed and implemented. The aim of this paper is to present the design of this powerful learning environment and to discuss its value for nurturing the students' intrinsic motivation for co-creation. Based on a focus group with eight students, we identify directions for further research and development of living labs.

  2. Learning an intrinsic-variable preserving manifold for dynamic visual tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Hong; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Bo; Zheng, Suiwu

    2010-06-01

    Manifold learning is a hot topic in the field of computer science, particularly since nonlinear dimensionality reduction based on manifold learning was proposed in Science in 2000. The work has achieved great success. The main purpose of current manifold-learning approaches is to search for independent intrinsic variables underlying high dimensional inputs which lie on a low dimensional manifold. In this paper, a new manifold is built up in the training step of the process, on which the input training samples are set to be close to each other if the values of their intrinsic variables are close to each other. Then, the process of dimensionality reduction is transformed into a procedure of preserving the continuity of the intrinsic variables. By utilizing the new manifold, the dynamic tracking of a human who can move and rotate freely is achieved. From the theoretical point of view, it is the first approach to transfer the manifold-learning framework to dynamic tracking. From the application point of view, a new and low dimensional feature for visual tracking is obtained and successfully applied to the real-time tracking of a free-moving object from a dynamic vision system. Experimental results from a dynamic tracking system which is mounted on a dynamic robot validate the effectiveness of the new algorithm.

  3. Which is the best intrinsic motivation signal for learning multiple skills?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieri Giuliano Santucci

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Humans and other biological agents are able to autonomously learn and cache different skills in the absence of any biological pressure or any assigned task. In this respect, Intrinsic Motivations (i.e. motivations not connected to reward-related stimuli play a cardinal role in animal learning, and can be considered as a fundamental tool for developing more autonomous and more adaptive artificial agents. In this work, we provide an exhaustive analysis of a scarcely investigated problem: which kind of IM reinforcement signal is the most suitable for driving the acquisition of multiple skills in the shortest time? To this purpose we implemented an artificial agent with a hierarchical architecture that allows to learn and cache different skills. We tested the system in a setup with continuous states and actions, in particular, with a cinematic robotic arm that has to learn different reaching tasks. We compare the results of different versions of the system driven by several different intrinsic motivation signals. The results show a that intrinsic reinforcements purely based on the knowledge of the system are not appropriate to guide the acquisition of multiple skills, and b that the stronger the link between the IM signal and the competence of the system, the better the performance.

  4. Intrinsic Optimal Control for Mechanical Systems on Lie Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The intrinsic infinite horizon optimal control problem of mechanical systems on Lie group is investigated. The geometric optimal control problem is built on the intrinsic coordinate-free model, which is provided with Levi-Civita connection. In order to obtain an analytical solution of the optimal problem in the geometric viewpoint, a simplified nominal system on Lie group with an extra feedback loop is presented. With geodesic distance and Riemann metric on Lie group integrated into the cost function, a dynamic programming approach is employed and an analytical solution of the optimal problem on Lie group is obtained via the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation. For a special case on SO(3, the intrinsic optimal control method is used for a quadrotor rotation control problem and simulation results are provided to show the control performance.

  5. Chimpanzees and bonobos differ in intrinsic motivation for tool use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koops, Kathelijne; Furuichi, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Chie

    2015-06-16

    Tool use in nonhuman apes can help identify the conditions that drove the extraordinary expansion of hominin technology. Chimpanzees and bonobos are our closest living relatives. Whereas chimpanzees are renowned for their tool use, bonobos use few tools and none in foraging. We investigated whether extrinsic (ecological and social opportunities) or intrinsic (predispositions) differences explain this contrast by comparing chimpanzees at Kalinzu (Uganda) and bonobos at Wamba (DRC). We assessed ecological opportunities based on availability of resources requiring tool use. We examined potential opportunities for social learning in immature apes. Lastly, we investigated predispositions by measuring object manipulation and object play. Extrinsic opportunities did not explain the tool use difference, whereas intrinsic predispositions did. Chimpanzees manipulated and played more with objects than bonobos, despite similar levels of solitary and social play. Selection for increased intrinsic motivation to manipulate objects likely also played an important role in the evolution of hominin tool use.

  6. Kinematical tests for the intrinsic shapes of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capaccioli, M.; Fasano, G.

    1984-01-01

    Determining the intrinsic shape of elliptical galaxies has been an illusive enterprise, but one fundamental to the understanding of their internal dynamics and formation. Here the problem is approached dynamically; noting that the velocity dispersion is largest when sighted down the longest axis, the correlations are derived of velocity dispersion with observed eccentricity expected, after the known trend of velocity dispersion with luminosity is removed. Using a compilation of published data, the relation between luminosity and velocity dispersion is determined more accurately. The residuals are examined as a function of axis ratio in order to construct a test for the intrinsic shape of galaxies. The effects of projection are modelled and possible intrinsic variations are examined. (author)

  7. The intrinsic shape of bulges in the CALIFA survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantin, L.; Méndez-Abreu, J.; Corsini, E. M.; Eliche-Moral, M. C.; Tapia, T.; Morelli, L.; Dalla Bontà, E.; Pizzella, A.

    2018-02-01

    Context. The intrinsic shape of galactic bulges in nearby galaxies provides crucial information to separate bulge types. Aims: We aim to derive accurate constraints to the intrinsic shape of bulges to provide new clues on their formation mechanisms and set new limitations for future simulations. Methods: We retrieved the intrinsic shape of a sample of CALIFA bulges using a statistical approach. Taking advantage of GalMer numerical simulations of binary mergers we estimated the reliability of the procedure. Analyzing the i-band mock images of resulting lenticular remnants, we studied the intrinsic shape of their bulges at different galaxy inclinations. Finally, we introduced a new (B/A, C/A) diagram to analyze possible correlations between the intrinsic shape and the properties of bulges. Results: We tested the method on simulated lenticular remnants, finding that for galaxies with inclinations of 25° ≤ θ ≤ 65° we can safely derive the intrinsic shape of their bulges. We found that our CALIFA bulges tend to be nearly oblate systems (66%), with a smaller fraction of prolate spheroids (19%), and triaxial ellipsoids (15%). The majority of triaxial bulges are in barred galaxies (75%). Moreover, we found that bulges with low Sérsic indices or in galaxies with low bulge-to-total luminosity ratios form a heterogeneous class of objects; additionally, bulges in late-type galaxies or in less massive galaxies have no preference for being oblate, prolate, or triaxial. On the contrary, bulges with high Sérsic index, in early-type galaxies, or in more massive galaxies are mostly oblate systems. Conclusions: We concluded that various evolutionary pathways may coexist in galaxies, with merging events and dissipative collapse being the main mechanisms driving the formation of the most massive oblate bulges and bar evolution reshaping the less massive triaxial bulges.

  8. Organizational commitment and intrinsic motivation of regular and contractual primary health care providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pawan; Mehra, Anu; Inder, Deep; Sharma, Nandini

    2016-01-01

    Background: Motivated and committed employees deliver better health care, which results in better outcomes and higher patient satisfaction. Objective: To assess the Organizational Commitment and Intrinsic Motivation of Primary Health Care Providers (HCPs) in New Delhi, India. Materials and Methods: Study was conducted in 2013 on a sample of 333 HCPs who were selected using multistage stage random sampling technique. The sample includes medical officers, auxiliary nurses and midwives, and pharmacists and laboratory technicians/assistants among regular and contractual staff. Data were collected using the pretested structured questionnaire for organization commitment (OC), job satisfiers, and intrinsic job motivation. Analysis was done by using SPSS version 18 and appropriate statistical tests were applied. Results: The mean score for OC for entire regular staff is 1.6 ± 0.39 and contractual staff is 1.3 ± 0.45 which has statistically significant difference (t = 5.57; P = 0.00). In both regular and contractual staff, none of them show high emotional attachment with the organization and does not feel part of the family in the organization. Contractual staff does not feel proud to work in a present organization for rest of their career. Intrinsic motivation is high in both regular and contractual groups but intergroup difference is significant (t = 2.38; P intrinsic motivation of contractual staff are lesser than the permanent staff. Appropriate changes are required in the predictors of organizational commitment and factors responsible for satisfaction in the organization to keep the contractual human resource motivated and committed to the organization. PMID:27453851

  9. Impact of visual repetition rate on intrinsic properties of low frequency fluctuations in the visual network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chia Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visual processing network is one of the functional networks which have been reliably identified to consistently exist in human resting brains. In our work, we focused on this network and investigated the intrinsic properties of low frequency (0.01-0.08 Hz fluctuations (LFFs during changes of visual stimuli. There were two main questions to be discussed in this study: intrinsic properties of LFFs regarding (1 interactions between visual stimuli and resting-state; (2 impact of repetition rate of visual stimuli. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed scanning sessions that contained rest and visual stimuli in various repetition rates with a novel method. The method included three numerical approaches involving ICA (Independent Component Analyses, fALFF (fractional Amplitude of Low Frequency Fluctuation, and Coherence, to respectively investigate the modulations of visual network pattern, low frequency fluctuation power, and interregional functional connectivity during changes of visual stimuli. We discovered when resting-state was replaced by visual stimuli, more areas were involved in visual processing, and both stronger low frequency fluctuations and higher interregional functional connectivity occurred in visual network. With changes of visual repetition rate, the number of areas which were involved in visual processing, low frequency fluctuation power, and interregional functional connectivity in this network were also modulated. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To combine the results of prior literatures and our discoveries, intrinsic properties of LFFs in visual network are altered not only by modulations of endogenous factors (eye-open or eye-closed condition; alcohol administration and disordered behaviors (early blind, but also exogenous sensory stimuli (visual stimuli with various repetition rates. It demonstrates that the intrinsic properties of LFFs are valuable to represent physiological states of human brains.

  10. Terahertz Responses of Intrinsic Josephson Junctions in High TC Superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H. B.; Wu, P. H.; Yamashita, T.

    2001-01-01

    High frequency responses of intrinsic Josephson junctions up to 2.5THz, including the observation of Shapiro steps under various conditions, are reported and discussed in this Letter. The sample was an array of intrinsic Josephson junctions singled out from inside a high T C superconducting Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+x single crystal, with a bow-tie antenna integrated to it. The number of junctions in the array was controllable, the junctions were homogeneous, the distribution of applied irradiation among the junctions was even, and the junctions could synchronously respond to high frequency irradiation

  11. Function and regulation of plant major intrinsic proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popovic, Milan

    detoxification. Plant Noduline 26-like Intrinsic Proteins (NIPs) can channel As(III) and consequently influence the detoxification process. The role of the Tonoplast Intrinsic Proteins (TIPs) in As(III) detoxification remains to be clarified, yet TIPs could have an impact on As(III) accumulation in plant cell...... to development of plants with levated arsenic tolerance. Plants with the ability to hyperaccumulate arsenic could find its use in soil remediation while crop plants with efficient arsenic detoxification mechanisms could be used for food production in areas polluted with arsenic....

  12. Theory of extrinsic and intrinsic heterojunctions in thermal equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Ross, O.

    1980-01-01

    A careful analysis of an abrupt heterojunction consisting of two distinct semiconductors either intrinsic or extrinsic is presented. The calculations apply to a one-dimensional, nondegenerate structure. Taking into account all appropriate boundary conditions, it is shown that the intrinsic Fermi level shows a discontinuity at the interface between the two materials which leads to a discontinuity of the valence band edge equal to the difference in the band gap energies of the two materials. The conduction band edge stays continuous however. This result is independent of possible charged interface states and in sharp contrast to the Anderson model. The reasons for this discrepancy are discussed.

  13. Organizational, Nonorganizational, and Intrinsic religiosity and academic dishonesty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, E A; Storch, J B

    2001-04-01

    The present study was a preliminary examination of the relations among the Organizational, Nonorganizational, and Intrinsic dimensions of religiosity and academic dishonesty. 244 college students completed the Duke Religion Index and nine questions assessing academic dishonesty. Analysis indicated that (1) regardless of sex, High Nonorganizational and Intrinsic religiosity was associated with lower reported rates of academic dishonesty, and (2) there was an interaction between Organizational religiosity and sex, with High Organizational women and men reporting similar rates of academic dishonesty. Furthermore, the frequency of academic dishonesty reported by High Organizational women was higher than the rates reported by Moderate and Minimal Organizational women.

  14. New intrinsic-colour calibration for uvby- β photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karataş, Yüksel; Schuster, William J.

    2010-07-01

    A new intrinsic-colour calibration ((b-y)o-β) is presented for the uvby- β photometric system, making use of re-calibrated Hipparcos parallaxes and published reddening maps. This new calibration for (b-y)o-β, our Eq. (1), has been based upon stars with dHipFIES/NOT databases, without detectable Na I lines, the average reddening value =-0.001±0.002 shows that any zero-point correction to our intrinsic-colour equation must be minuscule.

  15. Intrinsic charm and charmed particle production at Serpukhov energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zmushko, V.V.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the charmed particle production by protons on nuclei in the framework of two-component model at the Serpukhov energies. This model combines the leading-twist QCD and intrinsic charm contributions. It is shown that both contributions are comparable at 70 GeV energy of a proton, which makes possible the testing of the intrinsic charm predictions: the asymmetry between the leading and non-leading charm production and the A dependence of charm production. The asymmetry for D-bar/D mesons and Λ c + /Λ c - baryons and the cross section ratios for different nuclei are estimated [ru

  16. Intrinsic Defects and H Doping in WO3

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jiajie

    2017-01-18

    WO3 is widely used as industrial catalyst. Intrinsic and/or extrinsic defects can tune the electronic properties and extend applications to gas sensors and optoelectonics. However, H doping is a challenge to WO3, the relevant mechanisms being hardly understood. In this context, we investigate intrinsic defects and H doping by density functional theory and experiments. Formation energies are calculated to determine the lowest energy defect states. O vacancies turn out to be stable in O-poor environment, in agreement with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and O-H bond formation of H interstitial defects is predicted and confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  17. The Intrinsic Shape of Galaxies in SDSS/Galaxy Zoo

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Silvio; Padilla, Nelson D.

    2013-01-01

    By modelling the axis ratio distribution of SDSS DR8 galaxies we find the intrinsic 3D shapes of spirals and ellipticals. We use morphological information from the Galaxy Zoo project and assume a non-parametric distribution intrinsic of shapes, while taking into account dust extinction. We measure the dust extinction of the full sample of spiral galaxies and find a smaller value than previous estimations, with an edge-on extinction of $E_0 = 0.284^{+0.015}_{-0.026}$ in the SDSS r band. We als...

  18. Work Values of Lithuanian University Students: Internal Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincentas Lamanauskas

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Individual’s work values define his/her career purposefulness. Individual’s chosen work values allow foreseeing what activity context and career model is important for him/her, seeking to successfully realize oneself in professional activity. Planning his/her professional career an individual is searching for the activity sphere, which could conform not only to his/her personal features, but also to his/her value orientations. Work values important for the individual allow realizing if they form conditions for planning modern career (successfully solve constantly changing activity problems and to correspond to always new raised requirements for a person in the organisation or in labour market, the realisation of which in today’s constantly changing labour market and social context becomes more and more problematic. Empiric research was carried out seeking to discover the work (activity value structure. The research instrument was created by the authors of the research. Two hundred sixty five first-year students from three Lithuanian universities participated in the research. These are the main higher education institutions, preparing teachers in Lithuania. The obtained results show that work value structure of the first year students studying in social and humanitarian science programmes can be expressed by 6 main factors: responsible activity values, active work values, harmony values, reward values, activity style values, and social status values. Also, the main differences were ascertained between female and male work value structure. Responsible activity values, active work values and harmony values were much more important for female than male students.

  19. University Faculty and Work-Related Well-Being: The Importance of the Triple Work Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Maria; Salanova, Marisa; Martin, Beatriz

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The main aim of this study is to test whether different university faculty work profiles (i.e., teaching, research and management) relate with the experience of well-being at work (i.e., burnout, work engagement and intrinsic satisfaction). Method: Hypotheses were tested through a K-means cluster, ANOVA, and confirmatory factor…

  20. Extended depth of field in an intrinsically wavefront-encoded biometric iris camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergkoetter, Matthew D.; Bentley, Julie L.

    2014-12-01

    This work describes a design process which greatly increases the depth of field of a simple three-element lens system intended for biometric iris recognition. The system is optimized to produce a point spread function which is insensitive to defocus, so that recorded images may be deconvolved without knowledge of the exact object distance. This is essentially a variation on the technique of wavefront encoding, however the desired encoding effect is achieved by aberrations intrinsic to the lens system itself, without the need for a pupil phase mask.

  1. The Correlations between the Intrinsic Colors and Spectroscopic Metallicities of M31 Globular Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Zhou; Ma, Jun; Zhou, Xu; Jiang, Zhaoji

    2010-01-01

    We present the correlations between the spectroscopic metallicities and ninety-three different intrinsic colors of M31 globular clusters, including seventy-eight BATC colors and fifteen SDSS and near infrared ugrizK colors. The BATC colors were derived from the archival images of thirteen filters (from c to p), which were taken by Beijing-Arizona-Taiwan-Connecticut (BATC) Multicolor Sky Survey with a 60/90 cm f/3 Schmidt telescope. The spectroscopic metallicities adopted in our work were from...

  2. An All Fiber Intrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometer Based on an Air-Microcavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth I. Mata-Chávez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work an Intrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometer (IFPI based on an air-microcavity is presented. Here the air microcavity, with silica walls, is formed at a segment of a hollow core photonic crystal fiber (HCPCF, which is fusion spliced with a single mode fiber (SMF. Moreover, the spectral response of the IFPI is experimentally characterized and some results are provided. Finally, the viability to use the IFPI to implement a simple, compact size, and low cost refractive index sensor is briefly analyzed.

  3. Associations of personality with intrinsic motivation in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohs, Jenifer L; Lysaker, Paul H; Nabors, Lori

    2013-06-30

    Motivation is often disturbed in patients with schizophrenia, but little is known about how it relates to personality. We examined intrinsic motivation (IM), two personality domains from the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, and symptoms in 58 male patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Analyses revealed IM may be linked to Extraversion, Neuroticism, and negative symptoms. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  4. Essays on Intrinsic Motivation of Students and Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Lent (Max)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThis thesis focuses on intrinsic motivation. In the first part of the thesis I examine the effects of motivating university students to set goals on study performance. In particular I study whether encouraging students to set a grade goal and further motivating them to set a more

  5. Gompertz' survivorship law as an intrinsic principle of aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sas, Arthur A.; Snieder, Harold; Korf, Jakob

    We defend the hypothesis that life-spanning population survivorship curves, as described by Gompertz' law and composed from cross-sectional data (here mortality), reflect an intrinsic aging principle active in each subject of that population. In other words Gompertz' law reflects aging of a

  6. Intrinsic Religion and Internalized Homophobia in Sexual-Minority Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ream, Geoffrey L.

    This research investigates the development of conflict between sexual minority identity and religious identity in sexual minority youth, examining religion as both a risk factor and a protective factor. Intrinsic religion was expected to predict self reported conflict between religious and sexual minority identity. Retrospectively reported…

  7. On using intrinsic spectral analysis for low-resource languages

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sahraeian, R

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the application of Intrinsic Spectral Analysis (ISA) for low-resource Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR). State-of-the-art speech recognition systems that require large amounts of task specific training data fail to reliably...

  8. Definition and discussion of the intrinsic efficiency of winglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter SCHOLZ

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Three simple equations are derived to define the “Intrinsic Aerodynamic Efficiency of Winglets” independent of the horizontal extension of the winglet and independent of the winglet’s (relative height. This Intrinsic Aerodynamic Efficiency allows a quick comparison of purely the aerodynamic shape of winglets independent of the selected size chosen for a certain aircraft installation. The Intrinsic Aerodynamic Efficiency is calculated in 3 steps: STEP 1: The relative total drag reduction due to the winglet is converted into an assumed contribution of the winglet only on the span efficiency factor. STEP 2: If the winglet also increases span, its performance is converted into one without the effect of span increase. STEP 3: The winglet’s reduction in induced drag is compared to a horizontal wing extension. If the winglet needs e.g. to be three times longer than the horizontal extension to achieve the same induced drag reduction, its Intrinsic Aerodynamic Efficiency is the inverse or 1/3. Winglet metrics as defined are calculated from literature inputs. In order to evaluate winglets further, the mass increase due to winglets is estimated in addition to the reduction of drag on aircraft level and fuel burn.

  9. Ethnic Stigma, Academic Anxiety, and Intrinsic Motivation in Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen-O'Neel, Cari; Ruble, Diane N.; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research addressing the dynamics of stigma and academics has focused on African American adolescents and adults. The present study examined stigma awareness, academic anxiety, and intrinsic motivation among 451 young (ages 6-11) and diverse (African American, Chinese, Dominican, Russian, and European American) students. Results indicated…

  10. Representing Spatial Layout According to Intrinsic Frames of Reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chaoxiang; Li, Shiyi; Tao, Weidong; Wei, Yiping; Sun, Hong-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Mou and McNamara have suggested that object locations are represented according to intrinsic reference frames. In three experiments, we investigated the limitations of intrinsic reference frames as a mean to represent object locations in spatial memory. Participants learned the locations of seven or eight common objects in a rectangular room and then made judgments of relative direction based on their memory of the layout. The results of all experiments showed that when all objects were positioned regularly, judgments of relative direction were faster or more accurate for novel headings that were aligned with the primary intrinsic structure than for other novel headings; however, when one irregularly positioned object was added to the layout, this advantage was eliminated. The experiments further indicated that with a single view at study, participants could represent the layout from either an egocentric orientation or a different orientation, according to experimental instructions. Together, these results suggest that environmental reference frames and intrinsic axes can influence performance for novel headings, but their role in spatial memory depends on egocentric experience, layout regularity, and instructions.

  11. Intrinsic Value and the Genetic Engineering of Animals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, R.B.M. de

    2008-01-01

    The concept of intrinsic value is often invoked to articulate objections to the genetic engineering of animals, particularly those objections that are not directed at the negative effects the technique might have on the health and welfare of the modified animals. However, this concept was not

  12. Learning "Number Sense" through Digital Games with Intrinsic Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurillard, Diana

    2016-01-01

    The paper proposes a new interdisciplinary approach to helping low attaining learners in basic mathematics. It reports on the research-informed design and user testing of an adaptive digital game based on constructionist tasks with intrinsic feedback. The approach uses findings from the neuroscience of dyscalculia, cognitive science research on…

  13. Human intrinsic factor expressed in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedosov, Sergey N; Laursen, Niels B; Nexø, Ebba

    2003-01-01

    Intrinsic factor (IF) is the gastric protein that promotes the intestinal uptake of vitamin B12. Gastric IF from animal sources is used in diagnostic tests and in vitamin pills. However, administration of animal IF to humans becomes disadvantageous because of possible pathogenic transmission...

  14. Extrinsic photoresponse enhancement under additional intrinsic photoexcitation in organic semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kounavis, P., E-mail: pkounavis@upatras.gr [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece)

    2016-06-28

    Dual light beam photoresponse experiments are employed to explore the photoresponse under simultaneous extrinsic and intrinsic photoexcitation of organic semiconductors. The photoresponse of a red modulated light extrinsic photoexcitation is found that can be significantly enhanced under an additional blue bias-light intrinsic photoexcitation in two terminal pentacene films on glass substrates. From the frequency resolved photoresponse, it is deduced that the phenomenon of photoresponse enhancement can be attributed to an increase in the extrinsic photogeneration rate of the red modulated light and/or an improvement of the drift velocity of carriers under an additional blue light intrinsic photoexcitation. The possible predominant extrinsic photogeneration mechanism, which can be compatible with the observed dependence of the photoresponse enhancement on the frequency and on the light intensities of the red and blue light excitation, is the singlet exciton dissociation through electron transfer to acceptor-like traps. Moreover, an improvement in the drift velocity of carriers traversing grain boundaries with potential energy barriers, which may be reduced by trapping of minority carriers created from the intrinsic photoexcitation, may partly contribute to the photoresponse enhancement.

  15. Improving Students' Intrinsic Motivation in Piano Learning: Expert Teacher Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zijia; Southcott, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Many students learn to play the piano but some lack the motivation to continue learning. Many students learn for extrinsic reasons. This research will explore understandings about student motivation held by expert piano teachers who have developed strategies to improve their students' intrinsic motivation to begin and continue learning. This small…

  16. Muscle Bioenergetic Considerations for Intrinsic Laryngeal Skeletal Muscle Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandage, Mary J.; Smith, Audrey G.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Intrinsic laryngeal skeletal muscle bioenergetics, the means by which muscles produce fuel for muscle metabolism, is an understudied aspect of laryngeal physiology with direct implications for voice habilitation and rehabilitation. The purpose of this review is to describe bioenergetic pathways identified in limb skeletal muscle and…

  17. Intrinsic Value and the Genetic Engineering of Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, R.B.M. de

    2008-01-01

    The concept of intrinsic value is often invoked to articulate objections to the genetic engineering of animals, particularly those objections that are not directed at the negative effects the technique might have on the health and welfare of the modified animals. However, this concept was not

  18. Distinct molecular signatures of mild extrinsic and intrinsic atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martel, Britta Cathrina; Litman, Thomas; Hald, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common inflammatory skin disease with underlying defects in epidermal function and immune responses. In this study, we used microarray analysis to investigate differences in gene expression in lesional skin from patients with mild extrinsic or intrinsic AD compared...

  19. The sooner, the better: exercise outcome proximity and intrinsic motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M Blair; Cooke, Lisa M; Murray, Robyn A; Wilson, Anne E

    2014-11-01

    Despite evidence that outcomes are highly valued when they are expected sooner rather than further into the future (Ainslie, 1975), limited research effort has been devoted to understanding the role of exercise outcome proximity. The purpose of this study was to examine how temporal proximity to positive outcomes influences exercisers' intrinsic motivation. We expected that focusing people on temporally proximal exercise outcomes would increase intrinsic motivation, especially among low-frequency exercisers. This online experimental study was completed by 135 community exercisers (Mage  = 31.11, SD = 10.29; 62% female) who reported an average of 4.86 exercise bouts per week (SD = 2.12). Participants were randomly assigned to a condition that primed temporally proximal positive exercise outcomes (i.e. experienced during or directly following an exercise bout) or temporally distal outcomes (i.e. experienced after days, months, or years of regular exercise). Participants then reported perceptions of behavioral regulation in exercise. As expected, the proximal exercise outcome condition elicited increased intrinsic regulation among those participants who exercised less frequently (i.e. 1 SD below the mean). This study reveals the importance of considering proximity as an important dimension of exercise outcomes-particularly when promoting intrinsic motivation among relatively infrequent exercisers. © 2014 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  20. The Role of Teacher Behavior in Adolescents' Intrinsic Reading Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Naeghel, Jessie; Valcke, Martin; De Meyer, Inge; Warlop, Nele; van Braak, Johan; Van Keer, Hilde

    2014-01-01

    Given the weak intrinsic reading motivation of many adolescents on the one hand and the importance of this type of motivation for reading competence on the other hand, the aim of the present study is to identify the related role of teacher behavior. To pursue this aim, a secondary analysis was carried out on PISA 2009 data. More particularly, data…

  1. Teacher and Student Intrinsic Motivation in Project-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Shui-fong; Cheng, Rebecca Wing-yi; Ma, William Y. K.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we examined the relationship between teacher and student intrinsic motivation in project-based learning. The participants were 126 Hong Kong secondary school teachers and their 631 students who completed evaluation questionnaires after a semester-long project-based learning program. Both teachers and students were asked to indicate…

  2. Intrinsic viscosity of guar gum in sweeteners solutions | Samavati ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rheological methods were applied to study the effect of sweeteners on the rheological behavior of guar gum in dilute solutions. The concentration of the sweeteners were 0.1, 0.2%w/v for aspartame, acesulfame-k and cyclamate, and 0.001, 0.002%w/v for neotame. Gum was evaluated for intrinsic viscosity by various ...

  3. DEVELOPMENT AND SHAPING OF STUDENTS’ INTRINSIC MOTIVATION IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Krivokapić

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of the recent studies concerning the impact of psychological factors on the school success show that, in average, only 50% of the success rate could be ascribed to developmental level of intelligence, while the remainder of the variable is saturated with factors of non-intellectual nature. Among the factors unconditioned by intellectual characteristics, the special role in motivation for effective studying is played by motivation for learning - especially the intrinsic one. It is understood that, when it comes to physical education, the intrinsic motivation sources are in fact primary sources, especially if we are striving to maintain motivation at the necessary level for a longer period. The process of development and maintenance of intrinsic motivation is of vital importance, particularly due to the fact that absenteeism or inactivity in physical education classes is becoming increasingly pronounced among students in higher grades of elementary and high schools. It should be borne in mind that the number of children spending most of their time in sitting position in front of their computers or TV sets is increasing on a daily basis. Consequently, we have higher incidence of postural deformities in elementary school-age children. Development and shaping of intrinsic motivation in terms of increasing willingness to do physical exercise systematically and continuously could be a means of diminishing the above-mentioned problems.

  4. Intrinsic electric dipole moments of paramagnetic atoms : Rubidium and cesium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nataraj, H. S.; Sahoo, B. K.; Das, B. P.; Mukherjee, D.

    2008-01-01

    The electric dipole moment (EDM) of paramagnetic atoms is sensitive to the intrinsic EDM contribution from that of its constituent electrons and a scalar-pseudoscalar (S-PS) electron-nucleus interaction. The electron EDM and the S-PS contributions to the EDMs of these atoms scale as approximate to

  5. Searching for Variability of NV Intrinsic Narrow Absorption Line Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodruck, Michael; Charlton, Jane; Ganguly, Rajib

    2018-01-01

    The majority of quasar absorption line systems with NV detected are found within the associated region (within 5000 km/s of the quasar redshift) and many/most are believed to be related to the quasar accretion disk wind or outflows. The most definite evidence that these NV absorbers are "intrinsic" is partial covering of the quasar continuum source and/or broad line region. Over 75 quasars containing NV narrow absorption lines have observations obtained at different times with the Keck/HIRES and the VLT/UVES spectrographs at high resolution. The interval between these observations range from months to a decade in the quasar rest frame. While variability is common for intrinsic broad and mini-broad absorption lines, intrinsic narrow absorption lines have been found to be less likely to vary, though systematic studies with large, high quality datasets have been limited. The variability timescales are useful for deriving gas densities and thus the distances from the central engines. This is important in mapping the quasar surroundings, understanding the accretion disk wind mechanism, and assessing the effect the wind has on the galaxy surroundings. We report on the results of a systematic study of variability of NV NALs, exploiting the overlap of targets for observations in the archives of Keck and VLT, and discuss the consequences for interpretation of the origin of intrinsic narrow absorption lines.

  6. Repercussions of the intrinsic motivation on the determinants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multiple linear regression analyses show that the intrinsic motivation presents significant linear associations with respect to emotional organizational commitment and the job satisfaction and that association is stronger with this latter. With regard to the moderating effects, they prove to be not-significant. On the other hand, ...

  7. DSS1/Sem1, a multifunctional and intrinsically disordered protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Birthe Brandt; Schenstrøm, Signe Marie; Rebula, Caio A.

    2016-01-01

    DSS1/Sem1 is a versatile intrinsically disordered protein. Besides being a bona fide subunit of the 26S proteasome, DSS1 associates with other protein complexes, including BRCA2-RPA, involved in homologous recombination; the Csn12-Thp3 complex, involved in RNA splicing; the integrator, involved...

  8. Intrinsic gettering of nickel impuriy deep levels in silicon substrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intrinsic gettering of nickel impurity in p-type silicon substrate has been investigated. The density of electrically active nickel in intentionally contaminated silicon was determined before and after oxygen precipitation by means of resistivity measurements. These data, coupled with minority carrier lifetime and infrared ...

  9. Intrinsically Passive Control in Bilateral Teleoperation Mimo Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arcara, P.; Melchiorri, C.; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2001-01-01

    In the literature, a number of interesting control schemes has been proposed for telemanipulation robotic systems. Because of the intrinsically non constant and large time delay, due to the communication channel, passivity has been largely used in these schemes in order to achieve stability of the

  10. The restless brain: how intrinsic activity organizes brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raichle, Marcus E

    2015-05-19

    Traditionally studies of brain function have focused on task-evoked responses. By their very nature such experiments tacitly encourage a reflexive view of brain function. While such an approach has been remarkably productive at all levels of neuroscience, it ignores the alternative possibility that brain functions are mainly intrinsic and ongoing, involving information processing for interpreting, responding to and predicting environmental demands. I suggest that the latter view best captures the essence of brain function, a position that accords well with the allocation of the brain's energy resources, its limited access to sensory information and a dynamic, intrinsic functional organization. The nature of this intrinsic activity, which exhibits a surprising level of organization with dimensions of both space and time, is revealed in the ongoing activity of the brain and its metabolism. As we look to the future, understanding the nature of this intrinsic activity will require integrating knowledge from cognitive and systems neuroscience with cellular and molecular neuroscience where ion channels, receptors, components of signal transduction and metabolic pathways are all in a constant state of flux. The reward for doing so will be a much better understanding of human behaviour in health and disease.

  11. A note on intrinsic Conditional Autoregressive models for disconnected graphs

    KAUST Repository

    Freni-Sterrantino, Anna

    2017-05-13

    In this note we discuss (Gaussian) intrinsic conditional autoregressive (CAR) models for disconnected graphs, with the aim of providing practical guidelines for how these models should be defined, scaled and implemented. We show how these suggestions can be implemented in two examples on disease mapping.

  12. Intrinsic luminescence of YAlO.sub.3./sub. perovskites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zorenko, Y.; Voloshinovskii, A.; Gorbenko, V.; Zorenko, T.; Nikl, Martin; Nejezchleb, K.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 3 (2007), s. 963-967 ISSN 1862-6351 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/05/2471 Grant - others:INTAS(XE) 04-78-7083 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : intrinsic emission * perovskites * luminescence * exciton Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  13. Intrinsic low-frequency variability of the Gulf Stream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quattrocchi, G.; Pierini, S.; Dijkstra, H.A.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a process study aimed at analyzing the low-frequency variability of intrinsically oceanic origin of the Gulf Stream (GS) and GS extension (GSE) is presented. An eddy-permitting reduced-gravity nonlinear shallow water model is implemented in an idealized North Atlantic Ocean, with

  14. Detergent-induced aggregation of an amyloidogenic intrinsically ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shruti Arya

    2017-11-02

    Nov 2, 2017 ... Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) belong to an important class of proteins that do not fold up spontaneously. The conformational .... naphthalenesulfonic acid ammonium salt (ANS) and sodium hydrogen phosphate .... becomes fluorescent upon binding to hydrophobic pock- ets and undergoes a ...

  15. Intrinsic factors associated with medial tibial stress syndrome in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is the most common lower-leg injury in athletes, and is thought to be caused by bony overload. To prevent MTSS, both pathophysiological and aetiological factors specific to MTSS need to be identified. The intrinsic risk factors that contribute to the development of MTSS are ...

  16. Diffusion in Intrinsic and Highly Doped III-V Semiconductors

    CERN Multimedia

    Stolwijk, N

    2002-01-01

    %title\\\\ \\\\Diffusion plays a key role in the fabrication of semiconductor devices. The diffusion of atoms in crystals is mediated by intrinsic point defects. Investigations of the diffusion behaviour of self- and solute atoms on the Ga sublattice of gallium arsenide led to the conclusion that in intrinsic and n-type material charged Ga vacancies are involved in diffusion processes whereas in p-type material diffusion if governed by charged Ga self-interstitials. Concerning the As sublattice of gallium arsenide there is a severe lack of reliable diffusion data. The few available literature data on intrinsic GaAs are not mutually consistent. A systematic study of the doping dependence of diffusion is completely missing. The most basic diffusion process - self-diffusion of As and its temperature and doping dependence - is practically not known. For GaP a similar statement holds.\\\\ \\\\The aim of the present project is to perform a systematic diffusion study of As diffusion in intrinsic and doped GaAs and in GaP. P...

  17. Intrinsic properties of the knee extensor muscles after subacute stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horstman, A.M.H.; Gerrits, K.H.L.; Beltman, M.J.; Koppe, P.A.; Janssen, T.W.J.; de Haan, A.

    2010-01-01

    Horstman AM, Gerrits KH, Beltman MJ, Koppe PA, Janssen, TW, de Haan A. Intrinsic properties of the knee extensor muscles after subacute stroke. Objective: To characterize muscle properties of paretic lower-limb (PL) and nonparetic lower-limb (NL) knee extensors in patients with subacute stroke.

  18. Detergent-induced aggregation of an amyloidogenic intrinsically ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shruti Arya

    2017-11-02

    Nov 2, 2017 ... Abstract. Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) belong to an important class of proteins that do not fold up spontaneously. The conformational flexibility of IDPs allows them to adopt a wide range of conformations depending upon their biochemical environment. Many IDPs undergo profound conformational ...

  19. Intrinsic Contradictions of Entrepreneurship Development and Self-development

    OpenAIRE

    Revaz Gvelesiani

    2015-01-01

    The intrinsic contradictions of entrepreneurship development and self-development strategies complicate the task of reaching compliance between the state economic policy and the company entrepreneurship policy: on the one hand, there is a contradiction between the social and the competitive order within economic order policy and on the other hand, the contradiction exists between entrepreneurship strategy and entrepreneurship culture within entrepreneurship policy.

  20. Vibrating Intrinsic reverberation Chambers for shielding effectiveness measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Beek, G.S.; Vogt-Ardatjew, R.A.; Schipper, H.; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2012-01-01

    A new technique for shielding effectiveness measurements is the dual VIRC method. In this method two Vibrating Intrinsic Reverberation Chambers (VIRC) are combined together via a common wall with an aperture that forms the interface between them. This particular set-up makes it possible to achieve a

  1. A Rotational Crofton Formula for Flagged Intrinsic Volumes of Sets of Positive Reach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auneau, Jeremy Michel

    A rotational Crofton formula is derived relating the flagged intrinsic volumes of a compact set of positive reach with the flagged intrinsic volumes measured on sections passing through a fixed point. In particular cases, the flagged intrinsic volumes defined in the present paper are identical...... to the classical intrinsic volumes. The tight connection between our main result and other recent rotational integral formulae involving intrinsic volumes is pointed out....

  2. Transport of Intrinsic Plutonium Colloids in Saturated Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, D.; Abdel-Fattah, A.; Boukhalfa, H.; Ware, S. D.; Tarimala, S.; Keller, A. A.

    2011-12-01

    Actinide contaminants were introduced to the subsurface environment as a result of nuclear weapons development and testing, as well as for nuclear power generation and related research activities for defense and civilian applications. Even though most actinide species were believed to be fairly immobile once in the subsurface, recent studies have shown the transport of actinides kilometers away from their disposal sites. For example, the treated liquid wastes released into Mortandad Canyon at the Los Alamos National Laboratory were predicted to travel less than a few meters; however, plutonium and americium have been detected 3.4 km away from the waste outfall. A colloid-facilitated mechanism has been suggested to account for this unexpected transport of these radioactive wastes. Clays, oxides, organic matters, and actinide hydroxides have all been proposed as the possible mobile phase. Pu ions associated with natural colloids are often referred to as pseudo-Pu colloids, in contrast with the intrinsic Pu colloids that consist of Pu oxides. Significant efforts have been made to investigate the role of pseudo-Pu colloids, while few studies have evaluated the environmental behavior of the intrinsic Pu colloids. Given the fact that Pu (IV) has extremely low solubility product constant, it can be inferred that the transport of Pu in the intrinsic form is highly likely at suitable environmental conditions. This study investigates the transport of intrinsic Pu colloids in a saturated alluvium material packed in a cylindrical column (2.5-cm Dia. x 30-cm high) and compares the results to previous data on the transport of pseudo Pu colloids in the same material. A procedure to prepare a stable intrinsic Pu colloid suspension that produced consistent and reproducible electrokinetic and stability data was developed. Electrokinetic properties and aggregation stability were characterized. The Pu colloids, together with trillium as a conservative tracer, were injected into the

  3. Intrinsic quantum dots in InAs nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weis, Karl Martin Darius

    2013-01-01

    This work deals with InAs nanowire field effect transistors in back gate configuration. In such devices, quantum dots can form at low temperatures in the order of magnitude of a few Kelvin. These dots are henceforth referred to as intrinsic as they are not intentionally defined by electrodes. For the interpretation of their stability diagrams, a thorough knowledge of the structure and transport properties of the nanowires is required. Therefore, first of all, the influence of growth method and doping on the transport properties is studied at room temperature. The wires are grown by two types of metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy: a selective-area (SA-MOVPE) and an Au-catalyzed vapour-liquid-solid method (VLS-MOVPE). Transport data shows that the background doping of VLS-MOVPE wires is higher than for SA-MOVPE wires, but the variability of the transport properties is lower. The polytypism of the SA-MOVPE wires (they are composed of wurtzite and zinc blende segments) is a possible explanation for the second observation. Furthermore, it is shown that the measured transport properties significantly depend on the dielectric environment of the nanowires and on the way the electrical measurements are done (two- or four-terminal configuration). The conductivity is tunable via doping and the gate voltage. Conductivity measurements in the temperature range from 10 K to 300 K show that different transport regimes can occur (partially metallic behaviour for sufficiently high conductivity, otherwise purely semiconducting behaviour). This is attributed to different positions of the Fermi level and thus, a different effect of potential fluctuations. If conductivity and temperature are sufficiently low, the onset of Coulomb blockade is observed for semiconducting samples. It is even possible to tune the very same sample to different regimes via the gate voltage. The semiconducting behaviour observed in many samples contradicts the Thomas-Fermi theory. This is attributed to the

  4. Intrinsic Energy Dissipation Limits in Nano and Micromechanical Resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Srikanth Subramanian

    Resonant microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) have enabled miniaturization of high-performance inertial sensors, radio-frequency filters, timing references and mass-based chemical sensors. Despite the increasing prevalence of MEMS resonators for these applications, the energy dissipation in these structures is not well-understood. Accurate prediction of the energy loss and the resulting quality factor (Q) has significant design implications because it is directly related to device performance metrics including sensitivity for resonant sensors, bandwidth for radio-frequency filters and phase-noise for timing references. In order to assess the future potential for MEMS resonators it is critically important to evaluate the energy dissipation limits, which will dictate the ultimate performance resonant MEMS devices can achieve. This work focuses on the derivation and evaluation of the intrinsic mechanical energy dissipation limit for single-crystal nano and micromechanical resonators due to anharmonic phonon-phonon scattering in the Akhiezer regime. The energy loss is derived using perturbation theory and the linearized Boltzmann transport equation for phonons, and includes the direction and polarization dependent mode-Gruneisen parameters in order to capture the strain-induced anharmonicity among phonon branches. Evaluation of the quality factor limit reveals that Akhiezer damping, previously thought to depend only on material properties, has a strong dependence on crystal orientation and resonant mode shape. The robust model provides a dissipation limit for all resonant modes including shear-mode vibrations, which have significantly reduced energy loss because dissipative phonon-phonon scattering is restricted to volume-preserving phonon branches, indicating that Lame or wine-glass mode resonators will have the highest upper limit on mechanical efficiency. Finally, the analytical dissipation model is integrated with commercial finite element software in order to

  5. Differential expression of elastic fibre components in intrinsically aged skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langton, Abigail K; Sherratt, Michael J; Griffiths, Christopher E M; Watson, Rachel E B

    2012-02-01

    Intrinsic ageing of the skin is a subtle process resulting in some degree of skin laxity. The dermal elastic fibre network imbues skin with the capacity to recoil and loss of this property contributes to an aged, wrinkled appearance. Whilst elastic fibres have a complex, composite structure which allows them to fulfil multiple roles, the effects of intrinsic ageing on their discrete molecular components has not previously been explored. In this study, we have used a microarray-based approach to perform a novel survey of the changes in gene expression that occur in components of cutaneous elastic fibres as a result of intrinsic ageing. Age-related changes in gene expression were validated at the mRNA and protein levels using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and immunostaining, respectively. The microarray revealed that the majority of elastic fibre network components were unchanged with age. However, three differentially expressed genes were identified: latent TGFβ-binding protein (LTBP)-2 which was up-regulated with age (fold change +1.58, P = 0.041); LTBP3 (fold change -1.67, P = 0.025) and the lysyl oxidase-like enzyme (LOXL1, fold change -1.47, P = 0.008) which were both down-regulated with age. Although the changes in gene expression for LTBP3 were not confirmed by either qPCR or immunostaining, the expression and tissue deposition of both LTBP2 and LOXL1 were significantly enhanced in intrinsically aged skin. Whilst the functional implications of these altered expression profiles remains to be elucidated, LTBP2 and LOXL1 are thought to play important roles in controlling and maintaining elastic fibre deposition, assembly and structure via binding to fibulin-5. Consequently, any age-related perturbations in the expression of these components may have important consequences on remodelling of the extracellular matrix and hence on the mechanical properties of intrinsically aged skin.

  6. Intrinsic motivation and learning in a schizophrenia spectrum sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jimmy; Medalia, Alice

    2010-05-01

    A motivation is a telling hallmark of negative symptomatology in schizophrenia, and it impacts nearly every facet of behavior, including inclination to attempt the difficult cognitive tasks involved in cognitive remediation therapy. Experiences of external reward, reinforcement, and hedonic anticipatory enjoyment are diminished in psychosis, so therapeutics which instead target intrinsic motivation for cognitive tasks may enhance task engagement, and subsequently, remediation outcome. We examined whether outpatients could attain benefits from an intrinsically motivating instructional approach which (a) presents learning materials in a meaningful game-like context, (b) personalizes elements of the learning materials into themes of high interest value, and (c) offers choices so patients can increase their control over the learning process. We directly compared one learning method that incorporated the motivational paradigm into an arithmetic learning program against another method that carefully manipulated out the motivational variables in the same learning program. Fifty-seven subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were randomly assigned to one of the two learning programs for 10 thirty-minute sessions while an intent-to-treat convenience subsample (n=15) was used to account for practice effect. Outcome measures were arithmetic learning, attention, motivation, self competency, and symptom severity. Results showed the motivational group (a) acquired more arithmetic skill, (b) possessed greater intrinsic motivation for the task, (c) reported greater feelings of self competency post-treatment, and (d) demonstrated better post-test attention. Interestingly, baseline perception of self competency was a significant predictor of post-test arithmetic scores. Results demonstrated that incorporating intrinsically motivating instructional techniques into a difficult cognitive task promoted greater learning of the material, higher levels of intrinsic

  7. Intrinsic disorder in the BK channel and its interactome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenling Peng

    Full Text Available The large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BK channel is broadly expressed in various mammalian cells and tissues such as neurons, skeletal and smooth muscles, exocrine cells, and sensory cells of the inner ear. Previous studies suggest that BK channels are promiscuous binders involved in a multitude of protein-protein interactions. To gain a better understanding of the potential mechanisms underlying BK interactions, we analyzed the abundance, distribution, and potential mechanisms of intrinsic disorder in 27 BK channel variants from mouse cochlea, 104 previously reported BK-associated proteins (BKAPS from cytoplasmic and membrane/cytoskeletal regions, plus BK β- and γ-subunits. Disorder was evaluated using the MFDp algorithm, which is a consensus-based predictor that provides a strong and competitive predictive quality and PONDR, which can determine long intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs. Disorder-based binding sites or molecular recognition features (MoRFs were found using MoRFpred and ANCHOR. BKAP functions were categorized based on Gene Ontology (GO terms. The analyses revealed that the BK variants contain a number of IDRs. Intrinsic disorder is also common in BKAPs, of which ∼ 5% are completely disordered. However, intrinsic disorder is very differently distributed within BK and its partners. Approximately 65% of the disordered segments in BK channels are long (IDRs (>50 residues, whereas >60% of the disordered segments in BKAPs are short IDRs that range in length from 4 to 30 residues. Both α and γ subunits showed various amounts of disorder as did hub proteins of the BK interactome. Our analyses suggest that intrinsic disorder is important for the function of BK and its BKAPs. Long IDRs in BK are engaged in protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions, contain multiple post-translational modification sites, and are subjected to alternative splicing. The disordered structure of BK and its BKAPs suggests one of the underlying

  8. Study of the intrinsic dissipation associated to the plastic work induced by a ball impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouferra, R.; Pron, H.; Henry, J.F.; Bissieux, C.; Beaudoin, J.L. [Universite de Reims, Unite de Thermique et Analyse Physique, EA 2061, Laboratoire de Thermophysique (URCA/UTAP/LTP), UFR Sciences, Moulin de la Housse, B.P. 1039, 51687 Reims cedex 2 (France)

    2005-02-01

    This paper presents a measurement method of the thermal dissipation in metallic samples submitted to a plastic strain. Its interest is to extend the field of experimental investigation of the irreversible plastic transformations. The method is applied to the quantification of the thermal dissipation effects associated to the impact of a ball on a thin metallic sample. The final aim of the study consists in proposing a complementary method for controlling and monitoring the shot-peening process. The temperature rise at the rear face after the impact of the ball at the front-face is measured by infrared thermography. Then, the dissipated heat is deduced from the registered thermograms, via a parameter estimation procedure, by a comparison with a specially developed heat diffusion model. The first results presented here show that a preliminary shot-peening of the samples induces a reduction in the energy dissipated during the impact. Then, a specific study has been carried out in order to point out the diminution of the dissipated heat with the number of previous shots. (authors)

  9. Modeling effects of intrinsic and extrinsic rewards on the competition between striatal learning systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boedecker, Joschka; Lampe, Thomas; Riedmiller, Martin

    2013-01-01

    A common assumption in psychology, economics, and other fields holds that higher performance will result if extrinsic rewards (such as money) are offered as an incentive. While this principle seems to work well for tasks that require the execution of the same sequence of steps over and over, with little uncertainty about the process, in other cases, especially where creative problem solving is required due to the difficulty in finding the optimal sequence of actions, external rewards can actually be detrimental to task performance. Furthermore, they have the potential to undermine intrinsic motivation to do an otherwise interesting activity. In this work, we extend a computational model of the dorsomedial and dorsolateral striatal reinforcement learning systems to account for the effects of extrinsic and intrinsic rewards. The model assumes that the brain employs both a goal-directed and a habitual learning system, and competition between both is based on the trade-off between the cost of the reasoning process and value of information. The goal-directed system elicits internal rewards when its models of the environment improve, while the habitual system, being model-free, does not. Our results account for the phenomena that initial extrinsic reward leads to reduced activity after extinction compared to the case without any initial extrinsic rewards, and that performance in complex task settings drops when higher external rewards are promised. We also test the hypothesis that external rewards bias the competition in favor of the computationally efficient, but cruder and less flexible habitual system, which can negatively influence intrinsic motivation and task performance in the class of tasks we consider.

  10. An Evolutionarily Conserved Mechanism for Intrinsic and Transferable Polymyxin Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongchang; Wei, Wenhui; Lei, Sheng; Lin, Jingxia; Srinivas, Swaminath; Feng, Youjun

    2018-04-10

    Polymyxins, a family of cationic antimicrobial cyclic peptides, act as a last line of defense against severe infections by Gram-negative pathogens with carbapenem resistance. In addition to the intrinsic resistance to polymyxin E (colistin) conferred by Neisseria eptA , the plasmid-borne mobilized colistin resistance gene mcr-1 has been disseminated globally since the first discovery in Southern China, in late 2015. However, the molecular mechanisms for both intrinsic and transferable resistance to colistin remain largely unknown. Here, we aim to address this gap in the knowledge of these proteins. Structural and functional analyses of EptA and MCR-1 and -2 have defined a conserved 12-residue cavity that is required for the entry of the lipid substrate, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). The in vitro and in vivo data together have allowed us to visualize the similarities in catalytic activity shared by EptA and MCR-1 and -2. The expression of either EptA or MCR-1 or -2 is shown to remodel the surface of enteric bacteria (e.g., Escherichia coli , Salmonella enterica , Klebsiella pneumoniae , etc.), rendering them resistant to colistin. The parallels in the PE substrate-binding cavities among EptA, MCR-1, and MCR-2 provide a comprehensive understanding of both intrinsic and transferable colistin resistance. Domain swapping between EptA and MCR-1 and -2 reveals that the two domains (transmembrane [TM] region and p hospho e thanol a mine [PEA] transferase) are not functionally exchangeable. Taken together, the results represent a common mechanism for intrinsic and transferable PEA resistance to polymyxin, a last-resort antibiotic against multidrug-resistant pathogens. IMPORTANCE EptA and MCR-1 and -2 remodel the outer membrane, rendering bacteria resistant to colistin, a final resort against carbapenem-resistant pathogens. Structural and functional analyses of EptA and MCR-1 and -2 reveal parallel PE lipid substrate-recognizing cavities, which explains intrinsic and

  11. New Insights into Stability of Plutonium Intrinsic Colloids in the Presence of Clay at Elevated Temperatures: Experimental and Modeling Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, P.; Sun, Y.; Zavarin, M.; Dai, Z.; Carroll, S.; Kersting, A. B.

    2012-12-01

    affinity of Pu for the clay increases with temperature as an increased Kd is obtained at the higher temperature. This result suggests that sorption of Pu on montmorillonite clay minerals is endothermic. We conclude that Pu intrinsic colloids tend to dissolve in the presence of montmorillonite and yield Pu pseudo colloids. This fact may limit the migration of Pu intrinsic colloids. On the other hand, the more stable Pu-clay pseudo colloids may play more important role in Pu transport in the environment over significant temporal and spatial scales. This work was performed with funding from the Department of Energy, Nuclear Energy Used Fuel Disposition Program. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  12. INTRINSIC MOTIVATION VS. EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION: THE APPLICATION OF WPI SCALE IN THE CONTEXT OF PORTUGUESE PUBLIC SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Lira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Much of the literature focusing on the construct of ‘motivation’ in the public sector feeds the idea that organisational peculiarities of this sector and the individual circumstances of its employees translate into a prevalence of intrinsic motivation and, as a consequence, of the value of intrinsic rewards. However, this assumption has never been scrutinised within the Portuguese public sector; hence, the central goal of this work is, precisely, to offer a contribution to overcome this gap, that is, to provide an answer to the following question: ‘in general terms, what is the predominant type of motivation among Portuguese civil servants: intrinsic motivation or extrinsic motivation?’. So as to achieve this goal, we have carried out an empirical study based on the scale ‘The work preference inventory’, developed by Amabile, Hill, Hennessey and Tighe (1994. This study involved the survey, through a questionnaire, applied to the non-teaching staff of three public higher education institutions. Although the study, by its nature, is not be generalizable to all Portuguese civil servants, it clearly indicates the prevalence, among these, of intrinsic motivation and, as a consequence, of the value of intrinsic rewards. Yet, not negligible levels of appreciation of extrinsic rewards should be emphasised. This indication has led to a goal of a peripheral nature for the present study: to alert for the possible inadequacy of the performance appraisal system of most Portuguese civil servants, given that this system, in exchange for the performance, only offers extrinsic rewards.

  13. A. D. Alexandrov selected works

    CERN Document Server

    Kutateladze, SS

    2005-01-01

    A.D. Alexandrov is considered by many to be the father of intrinsic geometry, second only to Gauss in surface theory. That appraisal stems primarily from this masterpiece--now available in its entirely for the first time since its 1948 publication in Russian. Alexandrov''s treatise  begins with an outline of the basic concepts, definitions, and results relevant to intrinsic geometry. It reviews the general theory, then presents the requisite general theorems on rectifiable curves and curves of minimum length. Proof of some of the general properties of the intrinsic metric of convex surfaces follows. The study then splits into two almost independent lines: further exploration of the intrinsic geometry of convex surfaces and proof of the existence of a surface with a given metric. The final chapter reviews the generalization of the whole theory to convex surfaces in the Lobachevskii space and in the spherical space, concluding with an outline of the theory of nonconvex surfaces. Alexandrov''s work was both ...

  14. Bridging the gap between extrinsic and intrinsic motivation in the cognitive remediation of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Steven M

    2010-09-01

    An important development in cognitive remediation of schizophrenia is a focus on motivation. However, following a distinction between the concepts of intrinsic motivation (IM) and extrinsic motivation, discussions of IM-based methods have downplayed or misrepresented the role that extrinsic rewards can, and actually do, serve to promote positive treatment outcomes in cognitive remediation. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to explore the rationale for using techniques incorporating extrinsic rewards into cognitive treatment of people with schizophrenia. To do this, evidence is presented on each of the following points: (1) there is a long history of research demonstrating that delivery of extrinsic reward is associated with positive outcomes in both behavioral and cognitive rehabilitation; (2) basic human brain systems respond strongly to tangible rewards, and this can directly enhance attention, working memory, and other cognitive functions; (3) nearly all data on the negative effects of extrinsic reward on IM have come from studies of healthy children and adults in school or work settings who have adequate IM for target tasks; these findings do not generalize well to cognitive remediation settings for people with schizophrenia, who often have abnormally low levels of IM and low base rates of attentive behaviors; and (4) in real-world situations, cognitive remediation interventions already utilize a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic reinforcers. Future studies are needed to clarify state and trait factors responsible for individual differences in the extent to which extrinsic rewards are necessary to set the conditions under which IM can develop.

  15. Ionomers of intrinsic microporosity: in silico development of ionic-functionalized gas-separation membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Kyle E; Colina, Coray M

    2014-10-14

    This work presents the predictive molecular simulations of a functionalized polymer of intrinsic microporosity (PIM) with an ionic backbone (carboxylate) and extra-framework counterions (Na(+)) for CO2 gas storage and separation applications. The CO2-philic carboxylate-functionalized polymers are predicted to contain similar degrees of free volume to PIM-1, with Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas from 510 to 890 m(2)/g, depending on concentration of ionic groups from 100% to 17%. As a result of ionic groups enhancing the CO2 enthalpy of adsorption (to 42-50 kJ/mol), the uptake of the proposed polymers at 293 K exceeded 1.7 mmol/g at 10 kPa and 3.3 mmol/g at 100 kPa for the polymers containing 100% and 50% ionic functional groups, respectively. In addition, CO2/CH4 and CO2/N2 mixed-gas separation performance was evaluated under several industrially relevant conditions, where the IonomIMs are shown to increase both the working capacity and selection performance in certain pressure swing applications (e.g., natural gas separations). These simulations reveal that intrinsically microporous ionomers show great potential as the future of energy-efficient gas-separation polymeric materials.

  16. Intrinsic Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzyme Activities in Early Life Stages of Zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, Jens C; Schultz, Bernadette; Fruth, Daniela; Fabian, Eric; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Hidding, Björn; Salinas, Edward R

    2017-09-01

    Early life stages of zebrafish (Danio rerio, zf) are gaining attention as an alternative invivo test system for drug discovery, early developmental toxicity screenings and chemical testing in ecotoxicological and toxicological testing strategies. Previous studies have demonstrated transcriptional evidence for xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XME) during early zf development. However, elaborate experiments on XME activities during development are incomplete. In this work, the intrinsic activities of representative phase I and II XME were monitored by transformation of putative zf model substrates analyzed using photometry and high pressure liquid chromatography techniques. Six different defined stages of zf development (between 2.5 h postfertilization (hpf) to 120 hpf) were investigated by preparing a subcellular fraction from whole organism homogenates. We demonstrated that zf embryos as early as 2.5 hpf possess intrinsic metabolic activities for esterase, Aldh, Gst, and Cyp1a above the methodological detection limit. The activities of the enzymes Cyp3a and Nat were measurable during later stages in development. Activities represent dynamic patterns during development. The role of XME activities revealed in this work is relevant for the assessing toxicity in this test system and therefore contributes to a valuable characterization of zf embryos as an alternative testing organism in toxicology. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Parametric resonance of intrinsic localized modes in coupled cantilever arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Masayuki, E-mail: kimura.masayuki.8c@kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Electrical Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Matsushita, Yasuo [Advanced Mathematical Institute, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sughimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Hikihara, Takashi [Department of Electrical Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)

    2016-08-19

    In this study, the parametric resonances of pinned intrinsic localized modes (ILMs) were investigated by computing the unstable regions in parameter space consisting of parametric excitation amplitude and frequency. In the unstable regions, the pinned ILMs were observed to lose stability and begin to fluctuate. A nonlinear Klein–Gordon, Fermi–Pasta–Ulam-like, and mixed lattices were investigated. The pinned ILMs, particularly in the mixed lattice, were destabilized by parametric resonances, which were determined by comparing the shapes of the unstable regions with those in the Mathieu differential equation. In addition, traveling ILMs could be generated by parametric excitation. - Highlights: • Destabilization of intrinsic localized modes (ILMs) by parametric excitation is investigated for FPU, NKG, and mixed lattices. • Frequency and amplitude of parametric excitation is determined based on characteristic multipliers of ILMs. • Unstable regions for the mixed lattice case show very similar shape to those of the Mathieu equation. • ILMs become unstable by causing parametric resonance.

  18. Intrinsic pinning in superconductors with extremely small coherence lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schimmele, L.; Kronmueller, H.; Teichler, H.

    1988-01-01

    By means of a Ginsburg-Landau-type theory which takes into account the discrete lattice structure the variation of the energy ('Peierls potential') of an isolated flux line is calculated when shifted relatively to the crystal lattice. In particular, a primitive cubic lattice is considered with a straight flux line, aligned parallel to a cubic axis. The resulting Peierls potential may lead to intrinsic pinning if the coherence length is smaller than about two nearest neighbour distances. The coherence lengths at low temperatures determined for the recently discovered high T c superconductors of the YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 class come very close to this value so that intrinsic pinning might possibly be relevant for these superconductors. (author)

  19. Intrinsic Motivation versus Signaling in Open Source Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bitzer, J; Schrettl, W; Schröder, P

    This papers sheds light on the puzzling fact that even though open source software (OSS) is a public good, it is developed for free by highly qualified, young, motivated individuals, and evolves at a rapid pace. We show that when OSS development is understood as the private provision of a public...... good, these features emerge quite naturally. We adapt a dynamic private-provision-of-public-goods model to reflect key aspects of the OSS phenomenon. Apart from extrinsic motives (namely signaling), the present model also contains intrinsic motives of OSS programmers, such as play value or homo ludens...... payoff, userprogrammers' and gift culture benefits. Such intrinsic motives feature extensively in the wider OSS literature and contribute new insights to the economic analysis....

  20. Intrinsic flexor-tendon repair. A morphological study in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manske, P R; Gelberman, R H; Vande Berg, J S; Lesker, P A

    1984-03-01

    Rabbit flexor tendons with a 90 per cent mid-section transverse laceration demonstrated the intrinsic capacity to participate in the repair process in the absence of extrinsic cell sources and without the benefit of nutrition from a circulating blood supply or the influence of synovial fluid. Two cellular processes were involved in the in vitro repair process: (1) phagocytosis occurred by differentiation of fibroblasts from the epitenon--the cells migrated into the repair site and removed cellular debris and collagen fragments, and (2) collagen synthesis occurred primarily within the endotenon cells. The results of this experimental study support the concept that flexor tendons have the intrinsic capacity to phagocytize old collagen and synthesize new collagen fibrils. Consequently, clinical attempts to prevent or control the peripheral adhesions appear valid, since these adhesions do not appear to be an essential component of the repair process.

  1. Intrinsic periodicity: the forgotten lesson of quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolce, Donatello

    2013-01-01

    Wave-particle duality, together with the concept of elementary particles, was introduced by de Broglie in terms of intrinsically periodic phenomena. However, after nearly 90 years, the physical origin of such undulatory mechanics remains unrevealed. We propose a natural realization of the de Broglie periodic phenomenon in terms of harmonic vibrational modes associated to space-time periodicities. In this way we find that, similarly to a vibrating string or a particle in a box, the intrinsic recurrence imposed as a constraint to elementary particles represents a fully consistent quantization condition. The resulting cyclic dynamics formally match ordinary relativistic Quantum Mechanics in both the canonical and Feynman formulations. Interactions are introduced in a geometrodynamical way, similarly to general relativity, by simply considering that variations of kinematical state can be equivalently described in terms of modulations of space-time recurrences, as known from undulatory mechanics. We present this novel quantization prescription from an historical prospective.

  2. The intrinsic gettering in neutron irradiation Czochralski-silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Li Yang Xian; Niu Ping Juan; Liu Cai Chi; Xu Yue Sheng; Yang Deren; Que Duan Lin

    2002-01-01

    The intrinsic gettering in neutron irradiated Czochralski-silicon is studied. The result shows that a denuded zone at the surface of the neutron irradiated Czochralski-silicon wafer may be formed through one-step short-time annealing. The width of the denuded zone is dependent on the annealing temperature and the dose of neutron irradiation, while it is irrelated to the annealing time in case the denuded zone is formed. The authors conclude that the interaction between the defects induced by neutron irradiation and the oxygen in the silicon accelerates the oxygen precipitation in the bulk, and becomes the dominating factor of the quick formation of intrinsic gettering. It makes the effect of thermal history as the secondary factor

  3. Magnetic Alignment of Block Copolymer Microdomains by Intrinsic Chain Anisotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokhlenko, Yekaterina; Gopinadhan, Manesh; Osuji, Chinedum O; Zhang, Kai; O'Hern, Corey S; Larson, Steven R; Gopalan, Padma; Majewski, Paweł W; Yager, Kevin G

    2015-12-18

    We examine the role of intrinsic chain susceptibility anisotropy in magnetic field directed self-assembly of a block copolymer using in situ x-ray scattering. Alignment of a lamellar mesophase is observed on cooling across the disorder-order transition with the resulting orientational order inversely proportional to the cooling rate. We discuss the origin of the susceptibility anisotropy, Δχ, that drives alignment and calculate its magnitude using coarse-grained molecular dynamics to sample conformations of surface-tethered chains, finding Δχ≈2×10^{-8}. From field-dependent scattering data, we estimate that grains of ≈1.2  μm are present during alignment. These results demonstrate that intrinsic anisotropy is sufficient to support strong field-induced mesophase alignment and suggest a versatile strategy for field control of orientational order in block copolymers.

  4. Intrinsic self adjointness and the calculus of variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morsy, M.W.; Embaby, M.

    1986-07-01

    In the present paper, an attempt is made for generalizing the calculus of variations in such a way that the end points are left without being constrained, with the purpose of generating Sturm-Liouville differential operators and the like, that are intrinsically self-adjoint. This approach is not only different from the hermitization prescription, but also more superior in view of the fact that self-adjointness is built in naturally. The proposed generalization of the variational calculus provides an Euler-Lagrange differential equation with a differential boundary term, that is responsible for restoring self-adjointness. In this frame, functionals containing higher order derivatives, and multi-dimensional dependent as well as independent variables which may or may not be subjected to some integral constraints are extremized. As a typical example, the Sturm-Liouville problem is considered, in which intrinsic self adjointness is incorporated. (author)

  5. Intrinsic brightness temperatures of blazar jets at 15 GHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hovatta Talvikki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a new Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to deconvolve light curves of blazars into individual flares, including proper estimation of the fit errors. We use the method to fit 15GHzlight curves obtained within the OVRO 40-m blazar monitoring program where a large number of AGN have been monitored since 2008 in support of the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope mission. The time scales obtained from the fitted models are used to calculate the variability brightness temperature of the sources. Additionally, we have calculated brightness temperatures of a sample of these objects using Very Long Baseline Array data from the MOJAVE survey. Combining these two data sets enables us to study the intrinsic brightness temperature distribution in these blazars at 15 GHz. Our preliminary results indicate that the mean intrinsic brightness temperature in a sample of 14 sources is near the equipartition brightness temperature of ~ 1011K.

  6. Quarterly intrinsic disorder digest (January-February-March, 2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeForte, Shelly; Reddy, Krishna D; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2016-01-01

    This is the 5 th issue of the Digested Disorder series that represents a reader's digest of the scientific literature on intrinsically disordered proteins. We continue to use only 2 criteria for inclusion of a paper to this digest: The publication date (a paper should be published within the covered time frame) and the topic (a paper should be dedicated to any aspect of protein intrinsic disorder). The current digest issue covers papers published during the first quarter of 2014; i.e., during the period of January, February, and March of 2014. Similar to previous issues, the papers are grouped hierarchically by topics they cover, and for each of the included papers a short description is given on its major findings.

  7. Folding propensity of intrinsically disordered proteins by osmotic stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansouri, Amanda L.; Grese, Laura N.; Rowe, Erica L.

    2016-01-01

    Proteins imparted with intrinsic disorder conduct a range of essential cellular functions. To better understand the folding and hydration properties of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs), we used osmotic stress to induce conformational changes in nuclear co-activator binding domain (NCBD) and activator for thyroid hormone and retinoid receptor (ACTR). Osmotic stress was applied by the addition of small and polymeric osmolytes, where we discovered that water contributions to NCBD folding always exceeded those for ACTR. Both NCBD and ACTR were found to gain a-helical structure with increasing osmotic stress, consistent with their folding upon NCBD/ACTR complex formation. Using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), we further characterized NCBD structural changes with the osmolyte ethylene glycol. Here a large reduction in overall size initially occurred before substantial secondary structural change. In conclusion, by focusing on folding propensity, and linked hydration changes, we uncover new insights that may be important for how IDP folding contributes to binding.

  8. Intrinsic disorder in graphene on transition metal dichalcogenide heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankowitz, Matthew; Larentis, Stefano; Kim, Kyounghwam; Xue, Jiamin; McKenzie, Devin; Huang, Shengqiang; Paggen, Marina; Ali, Mazhar; Cava, Robert; Tutuc, Emanuel; Leroy, Brian J.

    2015-03-01

    Recently, semiconducting materials in the transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) family have gained great popularity for use in novel graphene-based heterostructure devices such as tunneling transistors, highly efficient flexible photovoltaic devices, and nonvolatile memory cells. TMDs have also been explored as alternatives to hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) as substrates for pristine graphene devices. However, their quality has thus far been significantly worse than comparable hBN devices. We examine graphene on numerous TMD substrates (MoS2, WS2, WSe2, MoTe2) with scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy and find that point and line defects intrinsic to all TMD crystals (both of natural and synthetic origin) result in scattering of electrons in graphene. Our findings suggest that the quality of graphene on TMD heterostructures is limited by the intrinsic crystalline quality of the TMDs.

  9. [Medical professionals on the subject of their core values: the importance of practice-based stories and intrinsic motivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witman, Yolande; van den Kerkhof, Peter C M; Braat, Didi D M

    2013-01-01

    In the current system for guaranteeing quality of care, emphasis is placed firmly on external control of professionals. We looked for a way to appeal to the intrinsic motivation of medical professionals and to discover what they mean by 'good work'. This was achieved with the aid of reflective sessions using the toolkit 'Good Work': in four sessions three different groups of medical professionals (medical department chairs, residents and interns) from a Dutch university hospital reflected on the topics 'excellence', 'moral responsibility' and 'personal engagement'. The participants exchanged practice-based stories during the sessions. The most important theme was moral responsibility, with its accompanying dilemmas. The sessions gave rise to feelings of mutual acknowledgement, recognition, inspiration and motivation. Sharing meaningful practice-based stories can be considered as a 'moment of learning', strengthening professional identity and stimulating intrinsic motivation. More space for this form of reflection might restore the balance with external control systems.

  10. Nursing Students' Intrinsic Motivation and Performance on the Licensure Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, Michele G

    Unsuccessful attempts at licensure adversely affect graduates, prelicensure nursing education programs, health care agencies, and ultimately, patient safety. The purpose of this quantitative, correlational study was to investigate the relationship between nursing students' intrinsic motivation and performance on the licensure examination. Nursing students responded to 12 questions related to reasons for learning as indicators of motivation type. Results indicated no statistically significant correlations between variables.

  11. Pilgrimage: Intrinsic Motivation and Active Behavior in the Eldery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eichberg Henning

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Can intrinsic religious motivation have relevant effects on the motor activity of older people? How are processions and pilgrimages related to the dominant imagination of old age as a period of fatigue and gray hair, suffering and loneliness, retirement and rest – and of waiting: waiting for a call from a loved one, waiting for the visit of a good companion, or, finally, expecting the end of life?

  12. Pilgrimage: Intrinsic Motivation and Active Behavior in the Eldery

    OpenAIRE

    Eichberg Henning; Kosiewicz Jerzy; Contiero Danilo

    2017-01-01

    Can intrinsic religious motivation have relevant effects on the motor activity of older people? How are processions and pilgrimages related to the dominant imagination of old age as a period of fatigue and gray hair, suffering and loneliness, retirement and rest – and of waiting: waiting for a call from a loved one, waiting for the visit of a good companion, or, finally, expecting the end of life?

  13. Pilgrimage:Intrinsic Motivation and Active Behavior in the Eldery

    OpenAIRE

    Eichberg, Henning; Kosiewicz, Jerzy; Contiero, Danilo

    2017-01-01

    Can intrinsic religious motivation have relevant effects on the motor activity of older people? How are processions and pilgrimages related to the dominant imagination of old age as a period of fatigue and gray hair, suffering and loneliness, retirement and rest - and of waiting: waiting for a call from a loved one, waiting for the visit of a good companion, or, finally, expecting the end of life? This study is based on interviews with people from different countries, cultures, and religions....

  14. Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cell function in relation to age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, Kristina; Sander, Birgit; Lund-Andersen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    The activity of melanopsin containing intrinsically photosensitive ganglion retinal cells (ipRGC) can be assessed by a means of pupil responses to bright blue (appr.480 nm) light. Due to age related factors in the eye, particularly, structural changes of the lens, less light reaches retina. The aim...... of this study was to examine how age and in vivo measured lens transmission of blue light might affect pupil light responses, in particular, mediated by the ipRGC....

  15. Dynamics of intrinsic electrophysiological properties in spinal cord neurones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Russo, R E; Hounsgaard, J

    1999-01-01

    The spinal cord is engaged in a wide variety of functions including generation of motor acts, coding of sensory information and autonomic control. The intrinsic electrophysiological properties of spinal neurones represent a fundamental building block of the spinal circuits executing these tasks. ....... Specialised, cell specific electrophysiological phenotypes gradually differentiate during development and are continuously adjusted in the adult animal by metabotropic synaptic interactions and activity-dependent plasticity to meet a broad range of functional demands....

  16. AICHA: An atlas of intrinsic connectivity of homotopic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joliot, Marc; Jobard, Gaël; Naveau, Mikaël; Delcroix, Nicolas; Petit, Laurent; Zago, Laure; Crivello, Fabrice; Mellet, Emmanuel; Mazoyer, Bernard; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie

    2015-10-30

    Atlases of brain anatomical ROIs are widely used for functional MRI data analysis. Recently, it was proposed that an atlas of ROIs derived from a functional brain parcellation could be advantageous, in particular for understanding how different regions share information. However, functional atlases so far proposed do not account for a crucial aspect of cerebral organization, namely homotopy, i.e. that each region in one hemisphere has a homologue in the other hemisphere. We present AICHA (for Atlas of Intrinsic Connectivity of Homotopic Areas), a functional brain ROIs atlas based on resting-state fMRI data acquired in 281 individuals. AICHA ROIs cover the whole cerebrum, each having 1-homogeneity of its constituting voxels intrinsic activity, and 2-a unique homotopic contralateral counterpart with which it has maximal intrinsic connectivity. AICHA was built in 4 steps: (1) estimation of resting-state networks (RSNs) using individual resting-state fMRI independent components, (2) k-means clustering of voxel-wise group level profiles of connectivity, (3) homotopic regional grouping based on maximal inter-hemispheric functional correlation, and (4) ROI labeling. AICHA includes 192 homotopic region pairs (122 gyral, 50 sulcal, and 20 gray nuclei). As an application, we report inter-hemispheric (homotopic and heterotopic) and intra-hemispheric connectivity patterns at different sparsities. ROI functional homogeneity was higher for AICHA than for anatomical ROI atlases, but slightly lower than for another functional ROI atlas not accounting for homotopy. AICHA is ideally suited for intrinsic/effective connectivity analyses, as well as for investigating brain hemispheric specialization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Motivational Climate and Intrinsic Motivation in the Rehabilitation Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman-Majewski, Rachel E; Weiss, Windee M

    2018-02-06

    The motivational climate created by the athletic trainer in rehabilitation may be critical in influencing athletes' intrinsic motivation and other psychosocial outcomes in the rehabilitation and the recovery process. The purpose of this study was to examine intercollegiate athletes' perceptions of the motivational climate in the rehabilitation setting. Specifically, examining if perceptions of the motivational climate can predict athletes' levels of intrinsic motivation with rehabilitation as well as the relationship between perceptions of the motivational climate and athlete demographics (gender, starter status, athletic trainer gender, etc). Cross-sectional, descriptive research. College sport team and athletic training center. NCAA Division II intercollegiate athletes from one institution (n = 187; 125 male, 62 female). Paper-based survey measuring: mastery and performance perceptions of the motivational climate in rehabilitation, athletes' goal orientation in sport, athletes' levels of motivation in rehabilitation. Perceptions of a performance climate was positively related to intrinsic motivation effort-improvement (effect size=25.34%). Perceptions of a mastery climate were positively related to interest-enjoyment and perceived competence and negatively related to tension-pressure (effect size=39.03%). In general, female athletes, as well as athletes with a female athletic trainer, had significantly higher perceptions of mastery motivational climate effort-improvement compared to male athletes and athletes with male athletic trainers. While male athletes and athletes with male athletic trainers had higher perceptions of intra-team member rivalry in rehabilitation. The athlete's gender and goal orientation, as well as the gender of the athletic trainer creating the motivational climate, can influence whether the environment is perceived as more mastery or performance. The recovering athletes' perceptions of the climate in rehabilitation can, in turn, affect

  18. Observation of narrowband intrinsic spectra of Brillouin dynamic gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kwang Yong; Yoon, Hyuk Jin

    2010-09-01

    We experimentally demonstrate that the reflection spectrum of a Brillouin dynamic grating in a polarization-maintaining fiber can be much narrower than the intrinsic linewidth of the stimulated Brillouin scattering, matching well with the theory of a fiber Bragg grating in terms of the linewidth and the reflectivity. A 3 dB bandwidth as narrow as 10.5 MHz is observed with the Brillouin dynamic grating generated in a 9 m uniform fiber.

  19. The Intrinsic Far-infrared Continua of Type-1 Quasars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyu, Jianwei; Rieke, George H., E-mail: jianwei@email.arizona.edu [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The range of currently proposed active galactic nucleus (AGN) far-infrared templates results in uncertainties in retrieving host galaxy information from infrared observations and also undermines constraints on the outer part of the AGN torus. We discuss how to test and reconcile these templates. Physically, the fraction of the intrinsic AGN IR-processed luminosity compared with that from the central engine should be consistent with the dust-covering factor. In addition, besides reproducing the composite spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of quasars, a correct AGN IR template combined with an accurate library of star-forming galaxy templates should be able to reproduce the IR properties of the host galaxies, such as the luminosity-dependent SED shapes and aromatic feature strengths. We develop tests based on these expected behaviors and find that the shape of the AGN intrinsic far-IR emission drops off rapidly starting at ∼20 μ m and can be matched by an Elvis et al.-like template with a minor modification. Despite the variations in the near- to mid-IR bands, AGNs in quasars and Seyfert galaxies have remarkably similar intrinsic far-IR SEDs at λ ∼ 20–100 μ m, suggesting a similar emission character of the outermost region of the circumnuclear torus. The variations of the intrinsic AGN IR SEDs among the type-1 quasar population can be explained by the changing relative strengths of four major dust components with similar characteristic temperatures, and there is evidence for compact AGN-heated dusty structures at sub-kiloparsec scales in the far-IR.

  20. Ethnic Stigma, Academic Anxiety, and Intrinsic Motivation in Middle Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Gillen-O’Neel, Cari; Ruble, Diane N.; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research addressing the dynamics of stigma and academics has focused on African-American adolescents and adults. The present study examined stigma awareness, academic anxiety, and intrinsic motivation among 451 young (ages 6–11) and diverse (African-American, Chinese, Dominican, Russian, and European-American) students. Results indicated that ethnic-minority children reported higher stigma awareness than European-American children. For all children, stigma awareness was associated wi...

  1. Restoration of four-dimensional diffeomorphism covariance in canonical general relativity: An intrinsic Hamilton-Jacobi approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, Donald; Renn, Jürgen; Sundermeyer, Kurt

    2016-02-01

    Classical background independence is reflected in Lagrangian general relativity through covariance under the full diffeomorphism group. We show how this independence can be maintained in a Hamilton-Jacobi approach that does not accord special privilege to any geometric structure. Intrinsic space-time curvature-based coordinates grant equal status to all geometric backgrounds. They play an essential role as a starting point for inequivalent semiclassical quantizations. The scheme calls into question Wheeler’s geometrodynamical approach and the associated Wheeler-DeWitt equation in which 3-metrics are featured geometrical objects. The formalism deals with variables that are manifestly invariant under the full diffeomorphism group. Yet, perhaps paradoxically, the liberty in selecting intrinsic coordinates is precisely as broad as is the original diffeomorphism freedom. We show how various ideas from the past five decades concerning the true degrees of freedom of general relativity can be interpreted in light of this new constrained Hamiltonian description. In particular, we show how the Kuchař multi-fingered time approach can be understood as a means of introducing full four-dimensional diffeomorphism invariants. Every choice of new phase space variables yields new Einstein-Hamilton-Jacobi constraining relations, and corresponding intrinsic Schrödinger equations. We show how to implement this freedom by canonical transformation of the intrinsic Hamiltonian. We also reinterpret and rectify significant work by Dittrich on the construction of “Dirac observables.”

  2. Intrinsic connectivity networks within cerebellum and beyond in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amianto, F; D'Agata, F; Lavagnino, L; Caroppo, P; Abbate-Daga, G; Righi, D; Scarone, S; Bergui, M; Mortara, P; Fassino, S

    2013-10-01

    Cerebellum seems to have a role both in feeding behavior and emotion regulation; therefore, it is a region that warrants further neuroimaging studies in eating disorders, severe conditions that determine a significant impairment in the physical and psychological domain. The aim of this study was to examine the cerebellum intrinsic connectivity during functional magnetic resonance imaging resting state in anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and healthy controls (CN). Resting state brain activity was decomposed into intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) using group spatial independent component analysis on the resting blood oxygenation level dependent time courses of 12 AN, 12 BN, and 10 CN. We extracted the cerebellar ICN and compared it between groups. Intrinsic connectivity within the cerebellar network showed some common alterations in eating disordered compared to healthy subjects (e.g., a greater connectivity with insulae, vermis, and paravermis and a lesser connectivity with parietal lobe); AN and BN patients were characterized by some peculiar alterations in connectivity patterns (e.g., greater connectivity with the insulae in AN compared to BN, greater connectivity with anterior cingulate cortex in BN compared to AN). Our data are consistent with the presence of different alterations in the cerebellar network in AN and BN patients that could be related to psychopathologic dimensions of eating disorders.

  3. Incremental learning of skill collections based on intrinsic motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzen, Jan H.; Kirchner, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Life-long learning of reusable, versatile skills is a key prerequisite for embodied agents that act in a complex, dynamic environment and are faced with different tasks over their lifetime. We address the question of how an agent can learn useful skills efficiently during a developmental period, i.e., when no task is imposed on him and no external reward signal is provided. Learning of skills in a developmental period needs to be incremental and self-motivated. We propose a new incremental, task-independent skill discovery approach that is suited for continuous domains. Furthermore, the agent learns specific skills based on intrinsic motivation mechanisms that determine on which skills learning is focused at a given point in time. We evaluate the approach in a reinforcement learning setup in two continuous domains with complex dynamics. We show that an intrinsically motivated, skill learning agent outperforms an agent which learns task solutions from scratch. Furthermore, we compare different intrinsic motivation mechanisms and how efficiently they make use of the agent's developmental period. PMID:23898265

  4. Incremental Learning of Skill Collections based on Intrinsic Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hendrik Metzen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Life-long learning of reusable, versatile skills is a key prerequisite forembodied agents that act in a complex, dynamic environment and are faced withdifferent tasks over their lifetime. We address the question of how an agentcan learn useful skills efficiently during a developmental period,i.e., when no task is imposed on him and no external reward signal is provided.Learning of skills in a developmental period needs to be incremental andself-motivated. We propose a new incremental, task-independent skill discoveryapproach that is suited for continuous domains. Furthermore, the agent learnsspecific skills based on intrinsic motivation mechanisms thatdetermine on which skills learning is focused at a given point in time. Weevaluate the approach in a reinforcement learning setup in two continuousdomains with complex dynamics. We show that an intrinsically motivated, skilllearning agent outperforms an agent which learns task solutions from scratch.Furthermore, we compare different intrinsic motivation mechanisms and howefficiently they make use of the agent's developmental period.

  5. Intrinsic low-frequency variability of the Gulf Stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Quattrocchi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a process study aimed at analyzing the low-frequency variability of intrinsically oceanic origin of the Gulf Stream (GS and GS extension (GSE is presented. An eddy-permitting reduced-gravity nonlinear shallow water model is implemented in an idealized North Atlantic Ocean, with schematic boundaries including the essential geometric features of the coastline and a realistic zonal basin width at all latitudes. The forcing is provided by a time-independent climatological surface wind stress obtained from 41 years of monthly ECMWF fields. The model response yields strong intrinsic low-frequency fluctuations on the interannual to decadal time scales. The modelled time-averaged GS/GSE flows are found to exhibit several features that can also be deduced from satellite altimeter data, such as the Florida Current seaward deflection, the GS separation at Cape Hatteras, and the overall structure of the GSE. The intrinsic low-frequency variability yields two preferred states of the GSE differing in latitudinal location that also have their counterpart in the altimeter data. A preliminary analysis of the variability in terms of dynamical systems theory is carried out by using the lateral eddy viscosity as the control parameter. A complex transition sequence from a steady state to irregular low-frequency variability emerges, in which Hopf and global bifurcations can be identified.

  6. Miniaturized INtrinsic DISsolution Screening (MINDISS) assay for preformulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsenz, Jochem; Haenel, Elisabeth; Anedda, Aline; Du Castel, Pauline; Cirelli, Giorgio

    2016-05-25

    This study describes a novel Miniaturized INtrinsic DISsolution Screening (MINDISS) assay for measuring disk intrinsic dissolution rates (DIDR). In MINDISS, compacted mini disks of drugs (2-5mg/disk) are prepared in custom made holders with a surface area of 3mm(2). Disks are immersed, pellet side down, into 0.35ml of appropriate dissolution media per well in 96-well microtiter plates, media are stirred and disk-holders are transferred to new wells after defined periods of time. After filtration, drug concentration in dissolution media is quantified by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC) and solid state property of the disk is characterized by Raman spectroscopy. MINDISS was identified as an easy-to-use tool for rapid, parallel determination of DIDR of compounds that requires only small amounts of compound and of dissolution medium. Results obtained with marketed drugs in MINDISS correlate well with large scale DIDR methods and indicate that MINDISS can be used for (1) rank-ordering of compounds by intrinsic dissolution in late phase discovery and early development, (2) comparison of polymorphic forms and salts, (3) screening and selection of appropriate dissolution media, and (4) characterization of the intestinal release behavior of compounds along the gastro intestinal tract by changing biorelevant media during experiments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of Intrinsic Ripples on Elasticity of the Graphene Monolayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungjun

    2015-12-01

    The effect of intrinsic ripples on the mechanical response of the graphene monolayer is investigated under uniaxial loading using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with a focus on nonlinear behavior at a small strain. The calculated stress-strain response shows a nonlinear relation through the entire range without constant slopes as a result of the competition between ripple softening and bond stretching hardening. For a small strain, entropic contribution is dominant due to intrinsic ripples, leading to elasticity softening. As the ripples flatten at increasing strain, the energetic term due to C-C bonds stretching competes with the entropic contribution, followed by energetic dominant deformation. Elasticity softening is enhanced at increased temperature as the ripple amplitude increases. The study shows that the intrinsic ripple of graphene affects elasticity. This result suggests that a change of ripple amplitudes due to various environmental conditions such as temperature, and substrate interactions can lead to a change of the mechanical properties of graphene. The understanding of the rippling effect on the mechanical behavior of 2D materials is useful for strain-based ripple manipulation for their engineering applications.

  8. In Search of the Neural Circuits of Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Frederic; Oudeyer, Pierre-Yves

    2007-01-01

    Children seem to acquire new know-how in a continuous and open-ended manner. In this paper, we hypothesize that an intrinsic motivation to progress in learning is at the origins of the remarkable structure of children's developmental trajectories. In this view, children engage in exploratory and playful activities for their own sake, not as steps toward other extrinsic goals. The central hypothesis of this paper is that intrinsically motivating activities correspond to expected decrease in prediction error. This motivation system pushes the infant to avoid both predictable and unpredictable situations in order to focus on the ones that are expected to maximize progress in learning. Based on a computational model and a series of robotic experiments, we show how this principle can lead to organized sequences of behavior of increasing complexity characteristic of several behavioral and developmental patterns observed in humans. We then discuss the putative circuitry underlying such an intrinsic motivation system in the brain and formulate two novel hypotheses. The first one is that tonic dopamine acts as a learning progress signal. The second is that this progress signal is directly computed through a hierarchy of microcortical circuits that act both as prediction and metaprediction systems. PMID:18982131

  9. Incremental learning of skill collections based on intrinsic motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzen, Jan H; Kirchner, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Life-long learning of reusable, versatile skills is a key prerequisite for embodied agents that act in a complex, dynamic environment and are faced with different tasks over their lifetime. We address the question of how an agent can learn useful skills efficiently during a developmental period, i.e., when no task is imposed on him and no external reward signal is provided. Learning of skills in a developmental period needs to be incremental and self-motivated. We propose a new incremental, task-independent skill discovery approach that is suited for continuous domains. Furthermore, the agent learns specific skills based on intrinsic motivation mechanisms that determine on which skills learning is focused at a given point in time. We evaluate the approach in a reinforcement learning setup in two continuous domains with complex dynamics. We show that an intrinsically motivated, skill learning agent outperforms an agent which learns task solutions from scratch. Furthermore, we compare different intrinsic motivation mechanisms and how efficiently they make use of the agent's developmental period.

  10. Comparing Intrinsic Connectivity Models for the Primary Auditory Cortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Khairiah Abdul; Yusoff, Ahmad Nazlim; Mohamad, Mazlyfarina; Hamid, Aini Ismafairus Abd; Manan, Hanani Abd

    2010-07-01

    This fMRI study is about modeling the intrinsic connectivity between Heschl' gyrus (HG) and superior temporal gyrus (STG) in human primary auditory cortices. Ten healthy male subjects participated and required to listen to white noise stimulus during the fMRI scans. Two intrinsic connectivity models comprising bilateral HG and STG were constructed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and dynamic causal modeling (DCM). Group Bayes factor (GBF), positive evidence ratio (PER) and Bayesian model selection (BMS) for group studies were used in model comparison. Group results indicated significant bilateral asymmetrical activation (puncorr < 0.001) in HG and STG. Comparison results showed strong evidence of Model 2 as the preferred model (STG as the input center) with GBF value of 5.77 × 1073 The model is preferred by 6 out of 10 subjects. The results were supported by BMS results for group studies. One-sample t-test on connection values obtained from Model 2 indicates unidirectional parallel connections from STG to bilateral HG (p<0.05). Model 2 was determined to be the most probable intrinsic connectivity model between bilateral HG and STG when listening to white noise.

  11. Stochastic synchronization of neuronal populations with intrinsic and extrinsic noise.

    KAUST Repository

    Bressloff, Paul C

    2011-05-03

    We extend the theory of noise-induced phase synchronization to the case of a neural master equation describing the stochastic dynamics of an ensemble of uncoupled neuronal population oscillators with intrinsic and extrinsic noise. The master equation formulation of stochastic neurodynamics represents the state of each population by the number of currently active neurons, and the state transitions are chosen so that deterministic Wilson-Cowan rate equations are recovered in the mean-field limit. We apply phase reduction and averaging methods to a corresponding Langevin approximation of the master equation in order to determine how intrinsic noise disrupts synchronization of the population oscillators driven by a common extrinsic noise source. We illustrate our analysis by considering one of the simplest networks known to generate limit cycle oscillations at the population level, namely, a pair of mutually coupled excitatory (E) and inhibitory (I) subpopulations. We show how the combination of intrinsic independent noise and extrinsic common noise can lead to clustering of the population oscillators due to the multiplicative nature of both noise sources under the Langevin approximation. Finally, we show how a similar analysis can be carried out for another simple population model that exhibits limit cycle oscillations in the deterministic limit, namely, a recurrent excitatory network with synaptic depression; inclusion of synaptic depression into the neural master equation now generates a stochastic hybrid system.

  12. In search of the neural circuits of intrinsic motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic Kaplan

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Children seem to acquire new know-how in a continuous and open-ended manner. In this paper, we hypothesize that an intrinsic motivation to progress in learning is at the origins of the remarkable structure of children's developmental trajectories. In this view, children engage in exploratory and playful activities for their own sake, not as steps toward other extrinsic goals. The central hypothesis of this paper is that intrinsically motivating activities correspond to expected decrease in prediction error. This motivation system pushes the infant to avoid both predictable and unpredictable situations in order to focus on the ones that are expected to maximize progress in learning. Based on a computational model and a series of robotic experiments, we show how this principle can lead to organized sequences of behavior of increasing complexity characteristic of several behavioral and developmental patterns observed in humans. We then discuss the putative circuitry underlying such an intrinsic motivation system in the brain and formulate two novel hypotheses. The first one is that tonic dopamine acts as a learning progress signal. The second is that this progress signal is directly computed through a hierarchy of microcortical circuits that act both as prediction and metaprediction systems.

  13. Logarithmic distributions prove that intrinsic learning is Hebbian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheler, Gabriele

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present data for the lognormal distributions of spike rates, synaptic weights and intrinsic excitability (gain) for neurons in various brain areas, such as auditory or visual cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum, striatum, midbrain nuclei. We find a remarkable consistency of heavy-tailed, specifically lognormal, distributions for rates, weights and gains in all brain areas examined. The difference between strongly recurrent and feed-forward connectivity (cortex vs. striatum and cerebellum), neurotransmitter (GABA (striatum) or glutamate (cortex)) or the level of activation (low in cortex, high in Purkinje cells and midbrain nuclei) turns out to be irrelevant for this feature. Logarithmic scale distribution of weights and gains appears to be a general, functional property in all cases analyzed. We then created a generic neural model to investigate adaptive learning rules that create and maintain lognormal distributions. We conclusively demonstrate that not only weights, but also intrinsic gains, need to have strong Hebbian learning in order to produce and maintain the experimentally attested distributions. This provides a solution to the long-standing question about the type of plasticity exhibited by intrinsic excitability.

  14. The circadian response of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Zele

    Full Text Available Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGC signal environmental light level to the central circadian clock and contribute to the pupil light reflex. It is unknown if ipRGC activity is subject to extrinsic (central or intrinsic (retinal network-mediated circadian modulation during light entrainment and phase shifting. Eleven younger persons (18-30 years with no ophthalmological, medical or sleep disorders participated. The activity of the inner (ipRGC and outer retina (cone photoreceptors was assessed hourly using the pupil light reflex during a 24 h period of constant environmental illumination (10 lux. Exogenous circadian cues of activity, sleep, posture, caffeine, ambient temperature, caloric intake and ambient illumination were controlled. Dim-light melatonin onset (DLMO was determined from salivary melatonin assay at hourly intervals, and participant melatonin onset values were set to 14 h to adjust clock time to circadian time. Here we demonstrate in humans that the ipRGC controlled post-illumination pupil response has a circadian rhythm independent of external light cues. This circadian variation precedes melatonin onset and the minimum ipRGC driven pupil response occurs post melatonin onset. Outer retinal photoreceptor contributions to the inner retinal ipRGC driven post-illumination pupil response also show circadian variation whereas direct outer retinal cone inputs to the pupil light reflex do not, indicating that intrinsically photosensitive (melanopsin retinal ganglion cells mediate this circadian variation.

  15. Inkjet-printed, intrinsically stretchable conductors and interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, U.; Molina-Lopez, F.; Zhu, C.; Wang, Y.; Bao, Z.; Murmann, B.

    2017-08-01

    In the future, a large variety of electronic devices will be wearable and operate in close contact with the skin. To accommodate deformations such as twisting and elongation, these devices should ideally be stretchable. One viable approach toward stretchable electronics is the development of intrinsically stretchable electronic materials, devices and circuits. Recently, the first intrinsically stretchable transistors have been demonstrated [1-7]. However, for the realization of stretchable circuits, stretchable interconnects are equally important. For the deployment of highly stretchable materials as interconnects and electrodes, patterning is crucial. Therefore, we developed a process for inkjet printing of intrinsically stretchable PEDOT:PSS-based interconnects and conductors. Ionic additives act as dopants and plasticisers in this approach [8]. A customized ink was printed on stretchable polymeric substrates (SEBS, styrene-ethylene-butadiene-styrene) and optimized to achieve a smooth morphology of the printed features by adjusting the surface tension and suppressing the coffee stain effect. The printed interconnects have a conductivity of 700 S/cm, sustain strains above 100% and show good stability in 1000-cycle stretching experiments. In addition to morphology, electrical properties and stretchability, we also investigated bias-stress stability, long-term stability in ambient air and cycling stability.

  16. The intrinsic geometry of the human brain connectome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Allen Q; Ajilore, Olusola A; Conte, Giorgio; GadElkarim, Johnson; Thomas-Ramos, Galen; Zhan, Liang; Yang, Shaolin; Kumar, Anand; Magin, Richard L; G Forbes, Angus; Leow, Alex D

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes novel methods for constructing the intrinsic geometry of the human brain connectome using dimensionality-reduction techniques. We posit that the high-dimensional, complex geometry that represents this intrinsic topology can be mathematically embedded into lower dimensions using coupling patterns encoded in the corresponding brain connectivity graphs. We tested both linear and nonlinear dimensionality-reduction techniques using the diffusion-weighted structural connectome data acquired from a sample of healthy subjects. Results supported the nonlinearity of brain connectivity data, as linear reduction techniques such as the multidimensional scaling yielded inferior lower-dimensional embeddings. To further validate our results, we demonstrated that for tractography-derived structural connectome more influential regions such as rich-club members of the brain are more centrally mapped or embedded. Further, abnormal brain connectivity can be visually understood by inspecting the altered geometry of these three-dimensional (3D) embeddings that represent the topology of the human brain, as illustrated using simulated lesion studies of both targeted and random removal. Last, in order to visualize brain's intrinsic topology we have developed software that is compatible with virtual reality technologies, thus allowing researchers to collaboratively and interactively explore and manipulate brain connectome data.

  17. Intrinsic properties of high-spin band structures in triaxial nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehangir, S.; Bhat, G. H.; Sheikh, J. A.; Palit, R.; Ganai, P. A.

    2017-12-01

    The band structures of 68,70Ge, 128,130,132,134Ce and 132,134,136,138Nd are investigated using the triaxial projected shell model (TPSM) approach. These nuclei depict forking of the ground-state band into several s-bands and in some cases, both the lowest two observed s-bands depict neutron or proton character. It was discussed in our earlier work that this anomalous behaviour can be explained by considering γ-bands based on two-quasiparticle configurations. As the parent band and the γ-band built on it have the same intrinsic structure, g-factors of the two bands are expected to be similar. In the present work, we have undertaken a detailed investigation of g-factors for the excited band structures of the studied nuclei and the available data for a few high-spin states are shown to be in fair agreement with the predicted values.

  18. Intrinsic Thermal Management Capabilities of Flexible Metal-Organic Frameworks for Carbon Dioxide Separation and Capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraide, Shotaro; Tanaka, Hideki; Ishikawa, Narutomo; Miyahara, Minoru T

    2017-11-22

    We show that flexible metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) exhibiting "gate openings/closings" for CO 2 can intrinsically suppress the exothermic heat released by adsorption and the endothermic heat gained by desorption, both of which reduce the working capacity of CO 2 in a separation process under near-adiabatic conditions. We use the elastic layer-structured metal-organic framework-11 (ELM-11) [Cu(4,4'-bipyridine) 2 (BF 4 ) 2 ], which exhibits a two-step gate-adsorption isotherm, as a model system for flexible MOFs, and perform free energy analyses with the aid of grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations for ELM-11 structures that were determined by the Rietveld method using in situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data. We demonstrate that the thermal management capabilities of ELM-11 showing the two-step gating for CO 2 at lower and higher pressures are nearly identical and quite effective (41% and 44% at 298 K, respectively). Moreover, we show that ELM-11 has an extremely high CO 2 selectivity for both CO 2 /N 2 and CO 2 /CH 4 mixtures at 298 K that, in addition to the intrinsic thermal management capability, is a crucial factor for application to carbon capture and storage (CCS). The multigate closing pressures of ELM-11 are not necessarily matched to the operating pressures used in CCS; however, our findings, and perspectives based on free energy analyses regarding modification of the host framework structure to tune the gating pressure, suggest that flexible MOFs exhibiting multigate openings/closings are promising materials for further development into systems with intrinsic thermal management mechanisms for CCS applications.

  19. Process-based monitoring and modeling of Karst springs - Linking intrinsic to specific vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epting, Jannis; Page, Rebecca M; Auckenthaler, Adrian; Huggenberger, Peter

    2018-06-01

    The presented work illustrates to what extent field investigations as well as monitoring and modeling approaches are necessary to understand the high discharge dynamics and vulnerability of Karst springs. In complex settings the application of 3D geological models is essential for evaluating the vulnerability of Karst systems. They allow deriving information on catchment characteristics, as the geometry of aquifers and aquitards as well as their displacements along faults. A series of Karst springs in northwestern Switzerland were compared and Karst system dynamics with respect to qualitative and quantitative issues were evaluated. The main objective of the studies was to combine information of catchment characteristics and data from novel monitoring systems (physicochemical and microbiological parameters) to assess the intrinsic vulnerability of Karst springs to microbiological contamination with simulated spring discharges derived from numerical modeling (linear storage models). The numerically derived relation of fast and slow groundwater flow components enabled us to relate different sources of groundwater recharge and to characterize the dynamics of the Karst springs. Our study illustrates that comparably simple model-setups were able to reproduce the overall dynamic intrinsic vulnerability of several Karst systems and that one of the most important processes involved was the temporal variation of groundwater recharge (precipitation, evapotranspiration and snow melt). Furthermore, we make a first attempt on how to link intrinsic to specific vulnerability of Karst springs, which involves activities within the catchment area as human impacts from agriculture and settlements. Likewise, by a more detailed representation of system dynamics the influence of surface water, which is impacted by release events from storm sewers, infiltrating into the Karst system, could be considered. Overall, we demonstrate that our approach can be the basis for a more flexible and

  20. Intrinsically restless: Unifying science, writing, and the human condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sissom, Matthew

    The field of physics has always fascinated me, but I never possessed the mathematical skills necessary to extend that interest past the point of curiosity. This thesis was set up to explore how I and other writers, specifically Walt Whitman, use(d) the skills we do have to ask and attempt to answer the same cosmic questions normally reserved for scientists overseeing particle collider experiments. In Tao of Physics, Fritjof Capra attempted to blend the principles of Eastern philosophy with the movements associated with modern physics. In doing so, he offers up a few insights into the human desire to "divide the world into separate objects and events" (117), which I believe, when it comes to fiction, greatly influences the audience's interpretive framework. Capra suggests, "To believe that our abstract concepts of separate `things' and `vents' are realities of nature is an illusion" (117). Humans use this division to cope with our everyday environment, yet it is not a fundamental feature of reality but, rather, an abstraction devised by our discriminating and categorizing intellect. It is a coping mechanism, as Capra refers to it, that pins writers in a corner, encouraging them to forms and styles set by their predecessors to better satisfy the "discriminating and categorizing intellect" of their audience. Writers often struggle to achieve a balance between accurately presenting the human condition that, like Capra's description of subatomic particles as "intrinsically restless" (117), changes based on myriad variables and properly structuring their writing to fit a predetermined model. Whitman, a fan of popular science, drew from the scientific world, using his understanding of the interpretive framework, to better craft his poems' metaphors. In "Song of Myself," Whitman suggests that the celebration of one's own existence cannot be separated from the celebration of the universe, "For every atom belonging to me as good belongs to you" (1-3). Whitman's writing

  1. Do points, levels and leaderboards harm intrinsic motivation? An empirical analysis of common gamification elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mekler, Elisa D.; Brühlmann, Florian; Opwis, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    It is heavily debated within the gamification community whether specific game elements may actually undermine users' intrinsic motivation. This online experiment examined the effects of three commonly employed game design elements - points, leaderboard, levels - on users' performance, intrinsic...

  2. Bottleneck congestion and distribution of work start times: The economics of staggered work hours revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Takayama, Yuki

    2014-01-01

    Since the seminal work of Henderson (1981), a number of studies examined the effect of staggered work hours by analyzing models of work start time choice that consider the trade-off between negative congestion externalities and positive production externalities. However, these studies described traffic congestion using flow congestion models. This study develops a model of work start time choice with bottleneck congestion and discloses the intrinsic properties of the model. To this end, this ...

  3. Effects of Personal Control, Extrinsic Rewards, and Competence on Intrinsic Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-07-01

    This report investigated three of the possible determinants of intrinsic motivation identified by Pritchard and Montagno (1978) in an earlier phase...literature review revealed that the effects of personal control on intrinsic motivation had never been evaluated, that a suggested interaction of... intrinsic motivation had produced conflicting results and conclusions. Further, most of the research reviewed had been conducted under laboratory

  4. Intrinsic and adaptive myelination-A sequential mechanism for smart wiring in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechler, Marie E; Swire, Matthew; Ffrench-Constant, Charles

    2018-02-01

    The concept of adaptive myelination-myelin plasticity regulated by activity-is an important advance for the field. What signals set up the adaptable pattern in the first place? Here we review work that demonstrates an intrinsic pathway within oligodendrocytes requiring only an axon-shaped substrate to generate multilayered and compacted myelin sheaths of a physiological length. Based on this, we discuss a model we proposed in 2015 which argues that myelination has two phases-intrinsic and then adaptive-which together generate "smart wiring," in which active axons become more myelinated. This model explains why prior studies have failed to identify a signal necessary for central nervous system myelination and argues that myelination, like synapses, might contribute to learning by the activity-dependent modification of an initially hard-wired pattern. © 2017 The Authors. Developmental Neurobiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 78: 68-79, 2018. © 2017 The Authors. Developmental Neurobiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Intrinsic factors of Peltigera lichens influence the structure of the associated soil bacterial microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, Diego; Clavero-León, Claudia; Carú, Margarita; Orlando, Julieta

    2016-11-01

    Definition of lichens has evolved from bi(tri)partite associations to multi-species symbioses, where bacteria would play essential roles. Besides, although soil bacterial communities are known to be affected by edaphic factors, when lichens grow upon them these could become less preponderant. We hypothesized that the structure of both the lichen microbiota and the microbiota in the soil underneath lichens is shaped by lichen intrinsic and extrinsic factors. In this work, intrinsic factors corresponded to mycobiont and cyanobiont identities of Peltigera lichens, metabolite diversity and phenoloxidase activity and extrinsic factors involved the site of the forest where lichens grow. Likewise, the genetic and metabolic structure of the lichen and soil bacterial communities were analyzed by fingerprinting. Among the results, metabolite diversity was inversely related to the genetic structure of bacterial communities of lichens and soils, highlighting the far-reaching effect of these substances; while phenoloxidase activity was inversely related to the metabolic structure only of the lichen bacterial microbiota, presuming a more limited effect of the products of these enzymes. Soil bacterial microbiota was different depending on the site and, strikingly, according to the cyanobiont present in the lichen over them, which could indicate an influence of the photobiont metabolism on the availability of soil nutrients. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Intrinsic motivation, curiosity, and learning: Theory and applications in educational technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudeyer, P-Y; Gottlieb, J; Lopes, M

    2016-01-01

    This chapter studies the bidirectional causal interactions between curiosity and learning and discusses how understanding these interactions can be leveraged in educational technology applications. First, we review recent results showing how state curiosity, and more generally the experience of novelty and surprise, can enhance learning and memory retention. Then, we discuss how psychology and neuroscience have conceptualized curiosity and intrinsic motivation, studying how the brain can be intrinsically rewarded by novelty, complexity, or other measures of information. We explain how the framework of computational reinforcement learning can be used to model such mechanisms of curiosity. Then, we discuss the learning progress (LP) hypothesis, which posits a positive feedback loop between curiosity and learning. We outline experiments with robots that show how LP-driven attention and exploration can self-organize a developmental learning curriculum scaffolding efficient acquisition of multiple skills/tasks. Finally, we discuss recent work exploiting these conceptual and computational models in educational technologies, showing in particular how intelligent tutoring systems can be designed to foster curiosity and learning. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Selective development of anticorrelated networks in the intrinsic functional organization of the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Xiaoqian J; Ofen, Noa; Gabrieli, John D E; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan

    2014-03-01

    We examined the normal development of intrinsic functional connectivity of the default network (brain regions typically deactivated for attention-demanding tasks) as measured by resting-state fMRI in children, adolescents, and young adults ages 8-24 years. We investigated both positive and negative correlations and employed analysis methods that allowed for valid interpretation of negative correlations and that also minimized the influence of motion artifacts that are often confounds in developmental neuroimaging. As age increased, there were robust developmental increases in negative correlations, including those between medial pFC (MPFC) and dorsolateral pFC (DLPFC) and between lateral parietal cortices and brain regions associated with the dorsal attention network. Between multiple regions, these correlations reversed from being positive in children to negative in adults. Age-related changes in positive correlations within the default network were below statistical threshold after controlling for motion. Given evidence in adults that greater negative correlation between MPFC and DLPFC is associated with superior cognitive performance, the development of an intrinsic anticorrelation between MPFC and DLPFC may be a marker of the large growth of working memory and executive functions that occurs from childhood to young adulthood.

  8. Classical emergence of intrinsic spin-orbit interaction of light at the nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Lozano, J. Enrique; Martínez, Alejandro

    2018-03-01

    Traditionally, in macroscopic geometrical optics intrinsic polarization and spatial degrees of freedom of light can be treated independently. However, at the subwavelength scale these properties appear to be coupled together, giving rise to the spin-orbit interaction (SOI) of light. In this work we address theoretically the classical emergence of the optical SOI at the nanoscale. By means of a full-vector analysis involving spherical vector waves we show that the spin-orbit factorizability condition, accounting for the mutual influence between the amplitude (spin) and phase (orbit), is fulfilled only in the far-field limit. On the other side, in the near-field region, an additional relative phase introduces an extra term that hinders the factorization and reveals an intricate dynamical behavior according to the SOI regime. As a result, we find a suitable theoretical framework able to capture analytically the main features of intrinsic SOI of light. Besides allowing for a better understanding into the mechanism leading to its classical emergence at the nanoscale, our approach may be useful to design experimental setups that enhance the response of SOI-based effects.

  9. Intrinsic point defects in inorganic perovskite CsPbI3 from first-principles prediction

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yifan

    2017-10-19

    Cubic inorganic perovskite CsPbI3 is a direct bandgap semiconductor, which is promising for optoelectronic applications, such as solar cells, light emitting diodes, and lasers. The intrinsic defects in semiconductors play crucial roles in determining carrier conductivity, the efficiency of carrier recombination, and so on. However, the thermodynamic stability and intrinsic defect physics are still unclear for cubic CsPbI3. By using the first-principles calculations, we study the thermodynamic process and find out that the window for CsPbI3 growth is quite narrow and the concentration of Cs is important for cubic CsPbI3 growth. Under Pb-rich conditions, VPb and VI can pin the Fermi energy in the middle of the bandgap, which results in a low carrier concentration. Under Pb-poor conditions, VPb is the dominant defect and the material has a high concentration of hole carriers with a long lifetime. Our present work gives an insight view of the defect physics of cubic CsPbI3 and will be beneficial for optoelectronic applications based on cubic CsPbI3 and other analogous inorganic perovskites.

  10. Temporal scaling law and intrinsic characteristic of laser induced damage on the dielectric coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Jiang, Youen; Wang, Chao; Wei, Hui; Zhang, Peng; Fan, Wei; Li, Xuechun

    2018-01-01

    High power laser is essential for optical manipulation and fabrication. When the laser travels through optics and to the target finally, irreversible damage on the dielectric coating is always accompanied without knowing the law and principle of laser induced damage. Here, an experimental study of laser induced damage threshold (LIDT) Fth of the dielectric coating under different pulse duration t is implemented. We observe that the temporal scaling law of square pulse for high-reflectivity (HR) coating and anti-reflectivity (AR) coating are Fth = 9.53t0.47 and Fth = 6.43t0.28 at 1064 nm, respectively. Moreover, the intrinsic LIDT of HR coating is 62.7 J/cm2 where the coating is just 100% damaged by gradually increasing the fluence densities of a 5ns-duration pulse, which is much higher than the actual LIDT of 18.6 J/cm2. Thus, a more robust and reliable high power laser system will be a reality, even working at very high fluence, if measures are taken to improve the actual LIDT to a considerable level near the intrinsic value.

  11. Uncovering intrinsic modular organization of spontaneous brain activity in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong He

    Full Text Available The characterization of topological architecture of complex brain networks is one of the most challenging issues in neuroscience. Slow (<0.1 Hz, spontaneous fluctuations of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signal in functional magnetic resonance imaging are thought to be potentially important for the reflection of spontaneous neuronal activity. Many studies have shown that these fluctuations are highly coherent within anatomically or functionally linked areas of the brain. However, the underlying topological mechanisms responsible for these coherent intrinsic or spontaneous fluctuations are still poorly understood. Here, we apply modern network analysis techniques to investigate how spontaneous neuronal activities in the human brain derived from the resting-state BOLD signals are topologically organized at both the temporal and spatial scales. We first show that the spontaneous brain functional networks have an intrinsically cohesive modular structure in which the connections between regions are much denser within modules than between them. These identified modules are found to be closely associated with several well known functionally interconnected subsystems such as the somatosensory/motor, auditory, attention, visual, subcortical, and the "default" system. Specifically, we demonstrate that the module-specific topological features can not be captured by means of computing the corresponding global network parameters, suggesting a unique organization within each module. Finally, we identify several pivotal network connectors and paths (predominantly associated with the association and limbic/paralimbic cortex regions that are vital for the global coordination of information flow over the whole network, and we find that their lesions (deletions critically affect the stability and robustness of the brain functional system. Together, our results demonstrate the highly organized modular architecture and associated topological properties in

  12. Evidence for The Domains Supporting The Construct of Intrinsic Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesari, Matteo; Araujo de Carvalho, Islene; Amuthavalli Thiyagarajan, Jotheeswaran; Cooper, Cyrus; Martin, Finbarr C; Reginster, Jean-Yves; Vellas, Bruno; Beard, John R

    2018-02-02

    Healthy ageing can be defined as "the process of developing and maintaining the functional ability that enables wellbeing in older age". Functional ability (i.e., the health-related attributes that enable people to be and to do what they have reason to value) is determined by intrinsic capacity (i.e., the composite of all the physical and mental capacities of an individual), the environment (i.e., all the factors in the extrinsic world that form the context of an individual's life), and the interactions between the two. This innovative model recently proposed by the World Health Organization has the potential to substantially modify the way in which clinical practice is currently conducted, shifting from disease-centered towards function-centered paradigms. By overcoming the multiple limitations affecting the construct of disease, this novel framework may allow the worldwide dissemination of a more proactive and function-based approach towards achieving optimal health status.In order to facilitate the translation of the current theoretical model into practice, it is important to identify the inner nature of its constituting constructs. In this paper, we consider intrinsic capacity. Using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework as background and taking into account available evidence, five domains (i.e., locomotion, vitality, cognition, psychological, sensory) are identified as pivotal for capturing the individual's intrinsic capacity (and therefore also reserves) and, through this, pave the way for its objective measurement. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. G+C content dominates intrinsic nucleosome occupancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hughes Timothy R

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relative preference of nucleosomes to form on individual DNA sequences plays a major role in genome packaging. A wide variety of DNA sequence features are believed to influence nucleosome formation, including periodic dinucleotide signals, poly-A stretches and other short motifs, and sequence properties that influence DNA structure, including base content. It was recently shown by Kaplan et al. that a probabilistic model using composition of all 5-mers within a nucleosome-sized tiling window accurately predicts intrinsic nucleosome occupancy across an entire genome in vitro. However, the model is complicated, and it is not clear which specific DNA sequence properties are most important for intrinsic nucleosome-forming preferences. Results We find that a simple linear combination of only 14 simple DNA sequence attributes (G+C content, two transformations of dinucleotide composition, and the frequency of eleven 4-bp sequences explains nucleosome occupancy in vitro and in vivo in a manner comparable to the Kaplan model. G+C content and frequency of AAAA are the most important features. G+C content is dominant, alone explaining ~50% of the variation in nucleosome occupancy in vitro. Conclusions Our findings provide a dramatically simplified means to predict and understand intrinsic nucleosome occupancy. G+C content may dominate because it both reduces frequency of poly-A-like stretches and correlates with many other DNA structural characteristics. Since G+C content is enriched or depleted at many types of features in diverse eukaryotic genomes, our results suggest that variation in nucleotide composition may have a widespread and direct influence on chromatin structure.

  14. The intrinsic shape of galaxies in SDSS/Galaxy Zoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Silvio; Padilla, Nelson D.

    2013-09-01

    By modelling the axis ratio distribution of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8 galaxies, we find the intrinsic 3D shapes of spirals and ellipticals. We use morphological information from the Galaxy Zoo project and assume a non-parametric distribution intrinsic of shapes, while taking into account dust extinction. We measure the dust extinction of the full sample of spiral galaxies and find a smaller value than previous estimations, with an edge-on extinction of E_0 = 0.284^{+0.015}_{-0.026} in the SDSS r band. We also find that the distribution of minor to major axis ratio has a mean value of 0.267 ± 0.009, slightly larger than previous estimates mainly due to the lower extinction used; the same affects the circularity of galactic discs, which are found to be less round in shape than in previous studies, with a mean ellipticity of 0.215 ± 0.013. For elliptical galaxies, we find that the minor to major axis ratio, with a mean value of 0.584 ± 0.006, is larger than previous estimations due to the removal of spiral interlopers present in samples with morphological information from photometric profiles. These interlopers are removed when selecting ellipticals using Galaxy Zoo data. We find that the intrinsic shapes of galaxies and their dust extinction vary with absolute magnitude, colour and physical size. We find that bright elliptical galaxies are more spherical than faint ones, a trend that is also present with galaxy size, and that there is no dependence of elliptical galaxy shape with colour. For spiral galaxies, we find that the reddest ones have higher dust extinction as expected, due to the fact that this reddening is mainly due to dust. We also find that the thickness of discs increases with luminosity and size, and that brighter, smaller and redder galaxies have less round discs.

  15. Perception of space by multiple intrinsic frames of reference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanlong Sun

    Full Text Available It has been documented that when memorizing a physical space, the person's mental representation of that space is biased with distortion and segmentation. Two experiments reported here suggest that distortion and segmentation arise due to a hierarchical organization of the spatial representation. The spatial relations associated with salient landmarks are more strongly encoded and easier to recall than those associated with non-salient landmarks. In the presence of multiple salient landmarks, multiple intrinsic frames of reference are formed and spatial relations are anchored to each individual frame of reference. Multiple such representations may co-exist and interactively determine a person's spatial performance.

  16. Intrinsic nonadiabatic topological torque in magnetic skyrmions and vortices

    KAUST Repository

    Akosa, Collins Ashu

    2017-03-01

    We propose that topological spin currents flowing in topologically nontrivial magnetic textures, such as magnetic skyrmions and vortices, produce an intrinsic nonadiabatic torque of the form Tt∼[(∂xm×∂ym)·m]∂ym. We show that this torque, which is absent in one-dimensional domain walls and/or nontopological textures, is responsible for the enhanced nonadiabaticity parameter observed in magnetic vortices compared to one-dimensional textures. The impact of this torque on the motion of magnetic skyrmions is expected to be crucial, especially to determine their robustness against defects and pinning centers.

  17. The Eurozone’s Flaws Are Not Intrinsic

    OpenAIRE

    Wren-Lewis, Simon

    2016-01-01

    There seem to be two typical responses to the failure of the euro project that the last five years have exposed. The first, mostly from those outside the eurozone, is that the whole project was doomed from the start and should be abandoned. The second is that the only way forward is further political integration. However, the problems of the eurozone are not intrinsic to any attempt at a monetary union, but rather reflect design flaws in the particular version of monetary union that was embod...

  18. Age-specific growth, reproductive values, and intrinsic r

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Schoen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The age-specific growth function of an observed population and the reproductive value function based on the population's current vital rates determine the intrinsic rate of growth implied by those vital rates through the simple relationship given in equation (1. That equation establishes the analytical significance of age-specific growth, and leads to relationships that quantify a population's approach to stability and that specify the extraordinarily close connection between reproductive values and population momentum.

  19. Intrinsic viscosity of bead models for macromolecules and bioparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmachowski, L

    2001-10-01

    A new method based on the fractal dimension dependence of the hydrodynamic radius is proposed for calculation of the intrinsic viscosity of bead models. The method describes properly the viscosity increment except for elongated structures such as linear aggregates and ellipsoids. It is expected to be useful for very compact structures, for which the volume correction does not improve the results calculated by the modified Oseen tensor. The results obtained for the viscosity increment lie between the volume corrected ones and those determined by the cubic substitution procedure. They are close to the values recalculated from the falling velocities of the models analyzed.

  20. Intrinsic Motivation of Organ Transplant Coordinators in Europe and Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Yoko Uryuhara; Norio Kambayashi; Tomoaki Shimada

    2009-01-01

    Deceased organ donation is much less prominent in Japan than it is in Western countries. Since organ shortage is a serious social problem in Japan, various solutions to the problem have been considered. Although it was believed that the most critical factor in the organ shortage was the absence of a well-established in-hospital system to convert potential donors into actual donors, no prior studies attempted to analyze the problem from the perspective of the intrinsic motivation of in-hospita...

  1. Alberta Consumers' Valuation of Extrinsic and Intrinsic Red Meat Attributes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Bodo; Gao, Fei; Unterschultz, Jim

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes Alberta consumers’ perceptions toward extrinsic and intrinsic attributes of bison and beef steaks. In contrast to published Canadian consumer studies on bison meat that were undertaken prior to May 2003, before the first BSE case of Canadian origin was identified in beef cattle......, this study provides a “post-BSE” assessment of consumer perceptions toward selected bison meat attributes. The results from an attribute-based choice experiment provide little support that simple traceability assurance schemes have value to consumers of bison and beef steaks, thus confirming similar findings...

  2. Older adults' intrinsic and extrinsic motivation toward physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacey, Marie; Baltzell, Amy; Zaichkowsky, Len

    2008-01-01

    To examine how motives discriminate 3 physical activity levels of inactive, active, and sustained maintainers. Six hundred forty-five adults (M age = 63.8) completed stage-of-change and Exercise Motivations Inventory (EMI-2) scales. Exploratory factor analysis established psychometric properties of the EMI-2 suitable for older adults. Six factors emerged in the EMI-2: health and fitness, social/emotional benefits, weight management, stress management, enjoyment, and appearance. Enjoyment contributed most to differentiating activity levels. Moderators of age and gender were delineated. Intrinsic motivation and self-determined extrinsic motivation distinguish older adults' activity levels.

  3. Intrinsic Stability of the Smallest Possible Silver Nanotube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autreto, P. A. S.; Lagos, M. J.; Sato, F.; Bettini, J.; Rocha, A. R.; Rodrigues, V.; Ugarte, D.; Galvao, D. S.

    2011-02-01

    Recently, Lagos et al. [Nature Nanotech. 4, 149 (2009)1748-338710.1038/nnano.2008.414] reported the discovery of the smallest possible Ag nanotube with a square cross section. Ab initio density functional theory calculations strongly support that the stability of these hollow structures is structurally intrinsic and not the result of contamination by light atoms. We also report the first experimental observation of the theoretically predicted corrugation of the hollow structure. Quantum conductance calculations predict a unique signature of 3.6G0 for this new family of nanotubes.

  4. Random coil chemical shift for intrinsically disordered proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Magnus; Brander, Søren; Poulsen, Flemming Martin

    2011-01-01

    Secondary chemical shift analysis is the main NMR method for detection of transiently formed secondary structure in intrinsically disordered proteins. The quality of the secondary chemical shifts is dependent on an appropriate choice of random coil chemical shifts. We report random coil chemical....... Temperature has a non-negligible effect on the (13)C random coil chemical shifts, so temperature coefficients are reported for the random coil chemical shifts to allow extrapolation to other temperatures. The pH dependence of the histidine random coil chemical shifts is investigated in a titration series...

  5. Automatic analysis of intrinsic positional verification films brachytherapy using MATLAB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quiros Higueras, J. D.; Marco Blancas, N. de; Ruiz Rodriguez, J. C.

    2011-01-01

    One of the essential tests in quality control of brachytherapy equipment is verification auto load intrinsic positional radioactive source. A classic method for evaluation is the use of x-ray film and measuring the distance between the marks left by autoradiography of the source with respect to a reference. In our center has developed an automated method of measurement by the radiochromic film scanning and implementation of a macro developed in Matlab, in order to optimize time and reduce uncertainty in the measurement. The purpose of this paper is to describe the method developed, assess their uncertainty and quantify their advantages over the manual method. (Author)

  6. The spin and flavor content of intrinsic sea quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bo-Qiang Ma; Brodsky, S.J.

    1997-07-01

    The intrinsic quark-antiquark pairs generated by the minimal energy nonperturbative meson-baryon fluctuations in the nucleon sea provide a consistent framework for understanding a number of empirical anomalies observed in the deep inelastic quark-parton structure of nucleons: the flavor asymmetry of the nucleon sea implied by the violation of Gottfried sum rule, the proton spin problem implied by the violation of the Ellis-Jaffe sum rule, and the outstanding conflict between two different determinations of the strange quark sea in the nucleon

  7. Intrinsic and extrinsic magnetic properties of the naturally layered manganites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, A.; Mitchell, J. F.; Miller, D. J.; Jiang, J. S.; Bader, S. D.

    1999-01-01

    Structural and magnetic properties of the two-layered Ruddlesden-Popper phase SrO(La 1-x Sr x MnO 3 ) 2 with x = 0.3--0.5 are highlighted. Intrinsic properties of these naturally layered manganites include a colossal magnetoresistance, a composition-dependent magnetic anisotropy, and almost no remanence. Above the Curie temperature there is a non-vanishing extrinsic magnetization attributed to intergrowths (stacking faults in the layered structure). These lattice imperfections consist of additional or missing manganite layers, as observed in transmission electron microscopy. Their role in influencing the properties of the host material is highlighted

  8. Intrinsic interface states in InAs-AlSb heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raouafi, F; Benchamekh, R; Nestoklon, M O; Jancu, J-M; Voisin, P

    2016-02-03

    We examine the formation of intrinsic interface states bound to the plane of In-Sb chemical bonds at InAs-AlSb interfaces. Careful parameterization of the bulk materials in the frame of the extended-basis spds (*)tight-binding model and recent progress in predictions of band offsets severely limit the span of tight-binding parameters describing this system. We find that a heavy-hole-like interface state bound to the plane of In-Sb bonds exists for a large range of values of the InSb-InAs band offset.

  9. Work values and their association with burnout/work engagement among nurses in long-term care hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yumiko; Igarashi, Ayumi; Noguchi-Watanabe, Maiko; Takai, Yukari; Yamamoto-Mitani, Noriko

    2018-03-23

    To examine burnout and work engagement among nurses in Japanese long-term care hospitals and their relation to nurses' and organisational work values, and nurse-organisation congruence of such values. Nursing managers must help improve nurses' well-being; however, no research has considered strategies to improve staff outcomes in long-term care hospitals. We propose that individual nurse's work values and the congruence of these values with those of their organisations may influence burnout and work engagement. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of nurses in long-term care hospitals. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the effects of nurses' work values and nurse-organisation congruence in these values on burnout and work engagement. Higher individual intrinsic and altruistic work values were associated with improvements in nurses' burnout and work engagement. Nurse-organisation non-congruence in altruistic values was associated with lower work engagement, whereas that of intrinsic work values was not associated with either outcome variable. Promoting intrinsic and altruistic work values among nurses could be effective for improving both burnout and work engagement. Opportunities such as case conferences could foster intrinsic and altruistic work values through the review of good care practices and communication between managers/colleagues about feelings and thoughts. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The role of intrinsic disorder and dynamics in the assembly and function of the type II secretion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Shuang; Shevchik, Vladimir E; Shaw, Rosie; Pickersgill, Richard W; Garnett, James A

    2017-10-01

    Many Gram-negative commensal and pathogenic bacteria use a type II secretion system (T2SS) to transport proteins out of the cell. These exported proteins or substrates play a major role in toxin delivery, maintaining biofilms, replication in the host and subversion of host immune responses to infection. We review the current structural and functional work on this system and argue that intrinsically disordered regions and protein dynamics are central for assembly, exo-protein recognition, and secretion competence of the T2SS. The central role of intrinsic disorder-order transitions in these processes may be a particular feature of type II secretion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Mobility Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Bossen, Claus

    2005-01-01

    of coordination necessary in cooperative work, but focuses, we argue, mainly on the temporal aspects of cooperative work. As a supplement, the concept of mobility work focuses on the spatial aspects of cooperative work. Whereas actors seek to diminish the amount of articulation work needed in collaboration......We posit the concept of Mobility Work to describe efforts of moving about people and things as part of accomplishing tasks. Mobility work can be seen as a spatial parallel to the concept of articulation work proposed by the sociologist Anselm Strauss. Articulation work describes efforts...... by constructing Standard Operation Procedures (SOPs), actors minimise mobility work by constructing Standard Operation Configurations (SOCs). We apply the concept of mobility work to the ethnography of hospital work, and argue that mobility arises because of the need to get access to people, places, knowledge and...

  12. Combined intrinsic elastocaloric and electrocaloric properties of ferroelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khassaf, H.; Patel, T.; Alpay, S. P.

    2017-04-01

    In multiferroic materials, adiabatic temperature changes can be obtained by the combined application of electric, stress, and magnetic fields. These external stimuli provide additional channels of entropy variations resulting in a multi-caloric response. In ferroelectric (FE) materials, caloric responses can be obtained with the application of electric and mechanical fields. Here, we compute the intrinsic elastocaloric and stress-mediated electrocaloric behavior of prototypical FE materials using the Landau-Devonshire theory of phase transformations with appropriate electrical and electro-mechanical boundary conditions. We show that an elastocaloric adiabatic temperature variation of 12.7 °C can be obtained in PbTiO3 with the application of uniaxial tensile stress of 500 MPa near its Curie point. This is 59% higher than its pure intrinsic electrocaloric response for an electric field difference of 100 kV/cm. Moreover, external stresses allow the maximum electro-elastocaloric response to be tuned towards room temperature. Our calculations show that relaxor FEs should exhibit large adiabatic temperature variations in relatively broad temperature ranges. These findings indicate that caloric responses in ferroic materials can be deterministically controlled and enhanced by utilizing a variety of external stimuli.

  13. Changing the Environment Based on Empowerment as Intrinsic Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Salge

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available One aspect of intelligence is the ability to restructure your own environment so that the world you live in becomes more beneficial to you. In this paper we investigate how the information-theoretic measure of agent empowerment can provide a task-independent, intrinsic motivation to restructure the world. We show how changes in embodiment and in the environment change the resulting behaviour of the agent and the artefacts left in the world. For this purpose, we introduce an approximation of the established empowerment formalism based on sparse sampling, which is simpler and significantly faster to compute for deterministic dynamics. Sparse sampling also introduces a degree of randomness into the decision making process, which turns out to beneficial for some cases. We then utilize the measure to generate agent behaviour for different agent embodiments in a Minecraft-inspired three dimensional block world. The paradigmatic results demonstrate that empowerment can be used as a suitable generic intrinsic motivation to not only generate actions in given static environments, as shown in the past, but also to modify existing environmental conditions. In doing so, the emerging strategies to modify an agent’s environment turn out to be meaningful to the specific agent capabilities, i.e., de facto to its embodiment.

  14. Wearable Intrinsically Soft, Stretchable, Flexible Devices for Memories and Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Krishna; Garofalo, Erik; Chiolerio, Alessandro

    2018-01-27

    A recent trend in the development of high mass consumption electron devices is towards electronic textiles (e-textiles), smart wearable devices, smart clothes, and flexible or printable electronics. Intrinsically soft, stretchable, flexible, Wearable Memories and Computing devices (WMCs) bring us closer to sci-fi scenarios, where future electronic systems are totally integrated in our everyday outfits and help us in achieving a higher comfort level, interacting for us with other digital devices such as smartphones and domotics, or with analog devices, such as our brain/peripheral nervous system. WMC will enable each of us to contribute to open and big data systems as individual nodes, providing real-time information about physical and environmental parameters (including air pollution monitoring, sound and light pollution, chemical or radioactive fallout alert, network availability, and so on). Furthermore, WMC could be directly connected to human brain and enable extremely fast operation and unprecedented interface complexity, directly mapping the continuous states available to biological systems. This review focuses on recent advances in nanotechnology and materials science and pays particular attention to any result and promising technology to enable intrinsically soft, stretchable, flexible WMC.

  15. Phosphorylation of Intrinsically Disordered Regions in Remorin Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macarena eMarín

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant-specific remorin proteins reside in subdomains of plasma membranes, originally termed membrane rafts. They probably facilitate cellular signal transduction by direct interaction with signalling proteins such as receptor-like kinases (RLKs and may dynamically modulate their lateral segregation within plasma membranes. Recent evidence suggests such functions of remorins during plant-microbe interactions and innate immune responses, where differential phosphorylation of some of these proteins has been described to be dependent on the perception of the microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP flg22 and the presence of the NBS-LRR resistance protein RPM1. A number of specifically phosphorylated residues in their highly variable and intrinsically disordered N-terminal regions have been identified. Sequence diversity of these evolutionary distinct domains suggests that remorins may serve a wide range of biological functions. Here, we describe patterns and features of intrinsic disorder in remorin protein and discuss possible functional implications of phosphorylation within these rapidly evolving domains.

  16. Intrinsic-mediated caspase activation is essential for cardiomyocyte hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putinski, Charis; Abdul-Ghani, Mohammad; Stiles, Rebecca; Brunette, Steve; Dick, Sarah A.; Fernando, Pasan; Megeney, Lynn A.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is the cellular response that mediates pathologic enlargement of the heart. This maladaptation is also characterized by cell behaviors that are typically associated with apoptosis, including cytoskeletal reorganization and disassembly, altered nuclear morphology, and enhanced protein synthesis/translation. Here, we investigated the requirement of apoptotic caspase pathways in mediating cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Cardiomyocytes treated with hypertrophy agonists displayed rapid and transient activation of the intrinsic-mediated cell death pathway, characterized by elevated levels of caspase 9, followed by caspase 3 protease activity. Disruption of the intrinsic cell death pathway at multiple junctures led to a significant inhibition of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy during agonist stimulation, with a corresponding reduction in the expression of known hypertrophic markers (atrial natriuretic peptide) and transcription factor activity [myocyte enhancer factor-2, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)]. Similarly, in vivo attenuation of caspase activity via adenoviral expression of the biologic effector caspase inhibitor p35 blunted cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in response to agonist stimulation. Treatment of cardiomyocytes with procaspase 3 activating compound 1, a small-molecule activator of caspase 3, resulted in a robust induction of the hypertrophy response in the absence of any agonist stimulation. These results suggest that caspase-dependent signaling is necessary and sufficient to promote cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. These results also confirm that cell death signal pathways behave as active remodeling agents in cardiomyocytes, independent of inducing an apoptosis response. PMID:24101493

  17. Mechanisms of rotator cuff tendinopathy: intrinsic, extrinsic, or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Amee L; McClure, Philip W; Finucane, Sheryl; Boardman, N Douglas; Michener, Lori A

    2011-01-01

    The etiology of rotator cuff tendinopathy is multi-factorial, and has been attributed to both extrinsic and intrinsic mechanisms. Extrinsic factors that encroach upon the subacromial space and contribute to bursal side compression of the rotator cuff tendons include anatomical variants of the acromion, alterations in scapular or humeral kinematics, postural abnormalities, rotator cuff and scapular muscle performance deficits, and decreased extensibility of pectoralis minor or posterior shoulder. A unique extrinsic mechanism, internal impingement, is attributed to compression of the posterior articular surface of the tendons between the humeral head and glenoid and is not related to subacromial space narrowing. Intrinsic factors that contribute to rotator cuff tendon degradation with tensile/shear overload include alterations in biology, mechanical properties, morphology, and vascularity. The varied nature of these mechanisms indicates that rotator cuff tendinopathy is not a homogenous entity, and thus may require different treatment interventions. Treatment aimed at addressing mechanistic factors appears to be beneficial for patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy, however, not for all patients. Classification of rotator cuff tendinopathy into subgroups based on underlying mechanism may improve treatment outcomes. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Statistical structure of intrinsic climate variability under global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiuhua; Bye, John; Fraedrich, Klaus

    2017-04-01

    Climate variability is often studied in terms of fluctuations with respect to the mean state, whereas the dependence between the mean and variability is rarely discussed. We propose a new climate metric to measure the relationship between means and standard deviations of annual surface temperature computed over non-overlapping 100-year segments. This metric is analyzed based on equilibrium simulations of the Max Planck Institute-Earth System Model (MPI-ESM): the last millennium climate (800-1799), the future climate projection following the A1B scenario (2100-2199), and the 3100-year unforced control simulation. A linear relationship is globally observed in the control simulation and thus termed intrinsic climate variability, which is most pronounced in the tropical region with negative regression slopes over the Pacific warm pool and positive slopes in the eastern tropical Pacific. It relates to asymmetric changes in temperature extremes and associates fluctuating climate means with increase or decrease in intensity and occurrence of both El Niño and La Niña events. In the future scenario period, the linear regression slopes largely retain their spatial structure with appreciable changes in intensity and geographical locations. Since intrinsic climate variability describes the internal rhythm of the climate system, it may serve as guidance for interpreting climate variability and climate change signals in the past and the future.

  19. Systolic Intrinsic Frequency and Various Measures of Left Ventricle Contractility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlevan, Niema

    2017-11-01

    There has been growing interest during past six decades to introduce new indices for quantifying left ventricular (LV) contractility. We have recently introduced a new method, called intrinsic frequency (IF), for analyzing the dynamics of systemic circulation. IF method models LV and arterial network as an object rotating around an origin where the angular velocity of the rotation during systole (when LV and arterial network are coupled) and diastole (when arterial network is decoupled) are intrinsic frequencies, ω1 and ω2 respectively. ω1 and ω2 can be extracted from a carotid pulse waveform using IF method. In this study, Huntington Medical Research Institutes heart study data have been used to compare ω1 with various measures of LV contractility such as ejection fraction, mean velocity of circumferential fiber shortening, LV end-systolic meridional wall stress, and maximal LV power corrected for end-diastolic volume. Here, LV contractility indices were computed noninvasively from cardiac MRI and tonometry data. The results indicate that ω1 can be used as a surrogate of LV contractility. This is clinically significant since ω1 can be accurately obtained by a standard iPhone camera.

  20. Measure of synchrony in the activity of intrinsic cardiac neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longpré, Jean-Philippe; Salavatian, Siamak; Jacquemet, Vincent; Beaumont, Eric; Armour, J Andrew; Ardell, Jeffrey L

    2014-01-01

    Recent multielectrode array recordings in ganglionated plexi of canine atria have opened the way to the study of population dynamics of intrinsic cardiac neurons. These data provide critical insights into the role of local processing that these ganglia play in the regulation of cardiac function. Low firing rates, marked non-stationarity, interplay with the cardiovascular and pulmonary systems and artifacts generated by myocardial activity create new constraints not present in brain recordings for which almost all neuronal analysis techniques have been developed. We adapted and extended the jitter-based synchrony index (SI) to (1) provide a robust and computationally efficient tool for assessing the level and statistical significance of SI between cardiac neurons, (2) estimate the bias on SI resulting from neuronal activity possibly hidden in myocardial artifacts, (3) quantify the synchrony or anti-synchrony between neuronal activity and the phase in the cardiac and respiratory cycles. The method was validated on firing time series from a total of 98 individual neurons identified in 8 dog experiments. SI ranged from −0.14 to 0.66, with 23 pairs of neurons with SI > 0.1. The estimated bias due to artifacts was typically <1%. Strongly cardiovascular- and pulmonary-related neurons (SI > 0.5) were found. Results support the use of jitter-based SI in the context of intrinsic cardiac neurons. (paper)

  1. Hot Carrier-Assisted Intrinsic Photoresponse in Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabor, Nathaniel; Song, Justin; Ma, Qiong; Nair, Nityan; Taychatanapat, Thiti; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Levitov, Leonid; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo

    2012-02-01

    Graphene is considered an excellent candidate for photodetection and energy harvesting applications due to its broadband optical response and high internal quantum efficiency, yet measurements have not clearly determined the photocurrent generation mechanism. Here, we report on the intrinsic photoresponse of dual-gated monolayer and bilayer graphene p-n junction devices. Local laser excitation of wavelength 850 nm at the p-n interface leads to striking six-fold photovoltage patterns as a function of bottom- and top-gate voltages. These patterns, together with the measured spatial and density dependence of the photoresponse, provide strong evidence that non-local hot carrier transport, rather than the photovoltaic effect, dominates the intrinsic photoresponse in graphene [1,2] The hot carrier regime manifests as a strong photo-thermoelectric effect in which the photogenerated carrier population remains hot while the lattice stays cool. [1] Science v. 334, p. 648-652 (2011). [2] Nano Lett. ASAP 10.1021/nl202318u (2011).

  2. Effects of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation on attention and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Lucy J; Stevens, Lucy H; Threapleton, Christopher J D; Vainiute, Jurgita; McAllister-Williams, R Hamish; Gallagher, Peter

    2012-10-01

    It is well recognised that motivational factors can influence neuropsychological performance. The aim of this study was to explore individual differences in intrinsic motivation and reward-seeking and the effect of these on attentional and mnemonic processes, in the presence or absence of financial incentives. Forty participants (18-35years) completed two testing sessions where the Attentional Network Test (ANT) and the Newcastle Spatial Memory Test (NSMT) were administered. After a baseline assessment, participants were re-tested after randomisation to a non-motivated (control) group or to a motivated group, where payment was contingent upon performance. Performance in the motivated group was significantly improved compared to the control group on the NSMT (condition by session; F(1,33)=4.52, p=0.041) and the ANT, with participants increasing performance to cued presentations within the alerting network (F(1,36)=5.48, p=0.025) and being less distracted by incongruent stimuli in the executive control network (F(1,36)=6.74, p=0.014). There were significant negative correlations between the 'Interest/ Enjoyment' Intrinsic Motivation Inventory subscale and both NSMT between-search errors and ANT(alerting). In the motivated group, those who had higher self-reported internal motivation were less susceptible to- or affected by- the external motivation of financial incentive. The effects of motivational factors should not be overlooked when interpreting absolute levels of performance in neuropsychological processes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Changing the Environment Based on Empowerment as Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salge, Christoph; Glackin, Cornelius; Polani, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    One aspect of intelligence is the ability to restructure your own environment so that the world you live in becomes more beneficial to you. In this paper we investigate how the information-theoretic measure of agent empowerment can provide a task-independent, intrinsic motivation to restructure the world. We show how changes in embodiment and in the environment change the resulting behaviour of the agent and the artefacts left in the world. For this purpose, we introduce an approximation of the established empowerment formalism based on sparse sampling, which is simpler and significantly faster to compute for deterministic dynamics. Sparse sampling also introduces a degree of randomness into the decision making process, which turns out to beneficial for some cases. We then utilize the measure to generate agent behaviour for different agent embodiments in a Minecraft-inspired three dimensional block world. The paradigmatic results demonstrate that empowerment can be used as a suitable generic intrinsic motivation to not only generate actions in given static environments, as shown in the past, but also to modify existing environmental conditions. In doing so, the emerging strategies to modify an agent's environment turn out to be meaningful to the specific agent capabilities, i.e., de facto to its embodiment.

  4. Shepherding intrinsic localized modes in micro-mechanical arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievers, Albert

    The energy profiles of intrinsic localized modes (ILMs) in periodic physical lattices with nonlinear forces resemble those of localized vibrational modes at defects in a harmonic lattice but, like solitons, they can propagate; however, in contrast with solitons they loose energy as they move through the lattice - the more localized the excitation the faster the energy loss. One of our experimental studies with micro-mechanical arrays involves steady state locking of ILMs, and their interactions with impurities. By measuring the linear response spectra of a driven array containing an ILM both the dynamics of bifurcation transitions and the hopping of vibrational energy have been connected to the transition properties of soft modes. Recently the search for a completely mobile ILM has focused attention on minimizing the resonance interaction that occurs between the localized excitation and small amplitude plane wave modes. Via simulations we demonstrate that when more than one type of nonlinear force is present their Fourier components can often be designed to cancel against each other in the k-space region of the plane wave dispersion curve, removing the resonance. The end result is super-transmission for an ILM in a discrete physical lattice. Such an engineered, intrinsic, low loss channel may prove to be a useful property for other physical systems treated within a tight binding approximation. In collaboration with M. Sato.

  5. The effect of intrinsic soil properties on soil quality assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Samuel-Rosa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of soil quality is based on indicators and indices derived from soil properties. However, intrinsic soil properties may interfere with other soil properties that vary under different land uses and are used to calculate the indices. The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which intrinsic soil properties (clay and iron oxide contents explain variable soil properties (sum of bases, potential acidity, organic carbon, total porosity, and bulk density under different land uses (native forest, no-tillage and conventional agriculture on small family farms in Southern Brazil. The results showed that the five properties evaluated can be included in soil quality assessments and are not influenced by the clay and iron oxide contents. It was concluded that for little weathered 1:1 and 2:1 phyllosilicate rich-soils, if the difference between the maximum and the minimum clay content under the different land uses is less than about 200 g kg-1 and the iron oxide content less than about 15 g kg-1, the physico-chemical soil properties in the surface layer are determined mostly by the land use.

  6. Intrinsic Charge Transport in Organic Field-Effect Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podzorov, Vitaly

    2005-03-01

    Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) are essential components of modern electronics. Despite the rapid progress of organic electronics, understanding of fundamental aspects of the charge transport in organic devices is still lacking. Recently, the OFETs based on highly ordered organic crystals have been fabricated with innovative techniques that preserve the high quality of single-crystal organic surfaces. This technological progress facilitated the study of transport mechanisms in organic semiconductors [1-4]. It has been demonstrated that the intrinsic polaronic transport, not dominated by disorder, with a remarkably high mobility of ``holes'' μ = 20 cm^2/Vs can be achieved in these devices at room temperature [4]. The signatures of the intrinsic polaronic transport are the anisotropy of the carrier mobility and an increase of μ with cooling. These and other aspects of the charge transport in organic single-crystal FETs will be discussed. Co-authors are Etienne Menard, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign; Valery Kiryukhin, Rutgers University; John Rogers, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign; Michael Gershenson, Rutgers University. [1] V. Podzorov et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1739 (2003); ibid. 83, 3504 (2003). [2] V. C. Sundar et al., Science 303, 1644 (2004). [3] R. W. I. de Boer et al., Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 201, 1302 (2004). [4] V. Podzorov et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 086602 (2004).

  7. Exact complexity: The spectral decomposition of intrinsic computation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crutchfield, James P., E-mail: chaos@ucdavis.edu [Complexity Sciences Center and Department of Physics, University of California at Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Ellison, Christopher J., E-mail: cellison@wisc.edu [Center for Complexity and Collective Computation, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Riechers, Paul M., E-mail: pmriechers@ucdavis.edu [Complexity Sciences Center and Department of Physics, University of California at Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2016-03-06

    We give exact formulae for a wide family of complexity measures that capture the organization of hidden nonlinear processes. The spectral decomposition of operator-valued functions leads to closed-form expressions involving the full eigenvalue spectrum of the mixed-state presentation of a process's ϵ-machine causal-state dynamic. Measures include correlation functions, power spectra, past-future mutual information, transient and synchronization informations, and many others. As a result, a direct and complete analysis of intrinsic computation is now available for the temporal organization of finitary hidden Markov models and nonlinear dynamical systems with generating partitions and for the spatial organization in one-dimensional systems, including spin systems, cellular automata, and complex materials via chaotic crystallography. - Highlights: • We provide exact, closed-form expressions for a hidden stationary process' intrinsic computation. • These include information measures such as the excess entropy, transient information, and synchronization information and the entropy-rate finite-length approximations. • The method uses an epsilon-machine's mixed-state presentation. • The spectral decomposition of the mixed-state presentation relies on the recent development of meromorphic functional calculus for nondiagonalizable operators.

  8. Plastic-casting intrinsic-surface unique identifier (tag)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palm, R.G.; De Volpi, A.

    1995-04-01

    This report describes the development of an authenticated intrinsic-surf ace tagging method for unique- identification of controlled items. Although developed for control of items limited by an arms control treaty, this method has other potential applications to keep track of critical or high-value items. Each tag (unique-identifier) consists of the intrinsic, microscopic surface topography of a small designated area on a controlled item. It is implemented by making a baseline plastic casting of the designated tag area and usually placing a cover (for example, a bar-code label) over this area to protect the surface from environmental alteration. The plastic casting is returned to a laboratory and prepared for high-resolution scanning electron microscope imaging. Several images are digitized and stored for use as a standard for authentication of castings taken during future inspections. Authentication is determined by numerically comparing digital images. Commercially available hardware and software are used for this tag. Tag parameters are optimized, so unique casting images are obtained from original surfaces, and images obtained from attempted duplicate surfaces are detected. This optimization uses the modulation transfer function, a first principle of image analysis, to determine the parameters. Surface duplication experiments confirmed the optimization

  9. Plastic-casting intrinsic-surface unique identifier (tag)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palm, R.G.; De Volpi, A.

    1995-04-01

    This report describes the development of an authenticated intrinsic-surf ace tagging method for unique- identification of controlled items. Although developed for control of items limited by an arms control treaty, this method has other potential applications to keep track of critical or high-value items. Each tag (unique-identifier) consists of the intrinsic, microscopic surface topography of a small designated area on a controlled item. It is implemented by making a baseline plastic casting of the designated tag area and usually placing a cover (for example, a bar-code label) over this area to protect the surface from environmental alteration. The plastic casting is returned to a laboratory and prepared for high-resolution scanning electron microscope imaging. Several images are digitized and stored for use as a standard for authentication of castings taken during future inspections. Authentication is determined by numerically comparing digital images. Commercially available hardware and software are used for this tag. Tag parameters are optimized, so unique casting images are obtained from original surfaces, and images obtained from attempted duplicate surfaces are detected. This optimization uses the modulation transfer function, a first principle of image analysis, to determine the parameters. Surface duplication experiments confirmed the optimization.

  10. Monitoring structural changes in intrinsically disordered proteins using QCM-D: application to the bacterial cell division protein ZipA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos-Gil, Pablo; Tsortos, Achilleas; Vélez, Marisela; Gizeli, Electra

    2016-05-05

    The sensitivity of QCM-D to molecular hydrodynamic properties is applied in this work to study conformational changes of the intrinsically disordered protein ZipA. Acoustic measurements can clearly follow ZipA's unstructured domain expansion and contraction with salt content and be correlated with changes in the hydrodynamic radius of 1.8 nm or less.

  11. Flow at work : A self-determination perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A.B.; van Woerkom, M.

    2017-01-01

    Flow at work refers to a short-term peak experience that is characterized by absorption, work enjoyment, and intrinsic work motivation, and is positively related to various indicators of job performance. In an organizational context, research has predominantly focused on situational predictors of

  12. Family Roles and Work Values: Processes of Selection and Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick Johnson, Monica

    2005-01-01

    This study focuses on whether marriage and parenthood influence work values after taking into account the influence of work values on family formation. In a recent panel of young adults (N=709), stronger extrinsic and weaker intrinsic work values during adolescence predicted marriage and parenthood 9 years out of high school. Controlling these…

  13. Faculty Work Practices in Material Environments: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, Aaron M.; Berger, Joseph B.

    2011-01-01

    There is an extensive and well-developed body of literature on the nature of faculty work (e.g., Blackburn & Lawrence, 1996; Schuster & Finkelstein, 2006) that has examined numerous aspects of faculty work and sources of influence on that work (e.g., intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, personal characteristics, disciplinary affiliation,…

  14. Intrinsic Efficiency Calibration Considering Geometric Factors in Gamma-ray Computed Tomography for Radioactive Waste Assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhe [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing 102413 (China); Zhang, Li [Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education, Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-07-01

    In radioactive waste assay with gamma-ray computed tomography, calibration for intrinsic efficiency of the system is important to the reconstruction of radioactivity distribution. Due to the geometric characteristics of the system, the non-uniformity of intrinsic efficiency for gamma-rays with different incident positions and directions are often un-negligible. Intrinsic efficiency curves versus geometric parameters of incident gamma-ray are obtained by Monte-Carlo simulation, and two intrinsic efficiency models are suggested to characterize the intrinsic efficiency determined by relative source-detector position and system geometry in the system matrix. Monte-Carlo simulation is performed to compare the different intrinsic efficiency models. Better reconstruction results of radioactivity distribution are achieved by both suggested models than by the uniform intrinsic efficiency model. And compared to model based on detector position, model based on point response increases reconstruction accuracy as well as complexity and time of calculation. (authors)

  15. Improving aerosolization of drug powders by reducing powder intrinsic cohesion via a mechanical dry coating approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qi Tony; Qu, Li; Larson, Ian; Stewart, Peter J; Morton, David A V

    2010-07-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of coating on the aerosolization of three model micronized powders. Three model powder materials (salbutamol sulphate, salmeterol xinafoate, triamcinolone acetonide) were chosen not only for their different chemical properties but also for their different physical properties such as shape and size distribution. Each powder was coated with 5% (w/w) magnesium stearate using two different dry mechanofusion approaches. After mechanofusion, both poured and tapped densities for all three model drug powders significantly increased. There were significant improvements in aerosolization behavior from an inhaler device for all model powders after mechanofusion. Such improvements in aerosolization were attributed to the reduction in agglomerate strength caused by decreasing powder intrinsic cohesion via surface modification. The work also indicated that the effect of the coating was dependant on the initial particle properties. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Impact of Personal Characteristics and Intrinsic Motivation on Creative Behavior among Indonesian Radio Station Managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugroho J. Setiadi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the article is to increase understanding in some personal characteristics affecting creative performance among Indonesian radio station managers’ leadership context. Using creativity-relevant personal characteristics and motivation as input model, the authors identified that both of these two variables are positively related to creative performance. The study hypothesized that Leader-member exchange (LMX moderate the relationship between personal characteristics and creative performance. Among a sample of 283 Indonesian radio station managers, results found that creativity-relevant personal characteristics and intrinsic motivation were positively related to creative performance when managers’ perception of followers’ work contribution toward them (as the second dimension of LMX was high.Keywords: Creativity; Personal characteristics; Motivation; Leader-member exchange.

  17. Intrinsic Sensing and Evolving Internal Model Control of Compact Elastic Module for a Lower Extremity Exoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Likun Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To achieve strength augmentation, endurance enhancement, and human assistance in a functional autonomous exoskeleton, control precision, back drivability, low output impedance, and mechanical compactness are desired. In our previous work, two elastic modules were designed for human–robot interaction sensing and compliant control, respectively. According to the intrinsic sensing properties of the elastic module, in this paper, only one compact elastic module is applied to realize both purposes. Thus, the corresponding control strategy is required and evolving internal model control is proposed to address this issue. Moreover, the input signal to the controller is derived from the deflection of the compact elastic module. The human–robot interaction is considered as the disturbance which is approximated by the output error between the exoskeleton control plant and evolving forward learning model. Finally, to verify our proposed control scheme, several experiments are conducted with our robotic exoskeleton system. The experiment shows a satisfying result and promising application feasibility.

  18. Seebeck rectification enabled by intrinsic thermoelectrical coupling in magnetic tunneling junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z H; Gui, Y S; Fu, L; Fan, X L; Cao, J W; Xue, D S; Freitas, P P; Houssameddine, D; Hemour, S; Wu, K; Hu, C-M

    2012-07-20

    An intrinsic thermoelectric coupling effect in the linear response regime of magnetic tunneling junctions (MTJ) is reported. In the dc response, it leads to a nonlinear correction to Ohm's law. Dynamically, it enables a novel Seebeck rectification and second harmonic generation, which apply for a broad frequency range and can be magnetically controlled. A phenomenological model on the footing of the Onsager reciprocal relation and the principle of energy conservation explains very well the experimental results obtained from both dc and frequency-dependent transport measurements performed up to GHz frequencies. Our work refines previous understanding of magnetotransport and microwave rectification in MTJs. It forms a new foundation for utilizing spin caloritronics in high-frequency applications.

  19. Intrinsic incompatibilities evolving as a by-product of divergent ecological selection: Considering them in empirical studies on divergence with gene flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulmuni, J; Westram, A M

    2017-06-01

    The possibility of intrinsic barriers to gene flow is often neglected in empirical research on local adaptation and speciation with gene flow, for example when interpreting patterns observed in genome scans. However, we draw attention to the fact that, even with gene flow, divergent ecological selection may generate intrinsic barriers involving both ecologically selected and other interacting loci. Mechanistically, the link between the two types of barriers may be generated by genes that have multiple functions (i.e., pleiotropy), and/or by gene interaction networks. Because most genes function in complex networks, and their evolution is not independent of other genes, changes evolving in response to ecological selection can generate intrinsic barriers as a by-product. A crucial question is to what extent such by-product barriers contribute to divergence and speciation-that is whether they stably reduce gene flow. We discuss under which conditions by-product barriers may increase isolation. However, we also highlight that, depending on the conditions (e.g., the amount of gene flow and the strength of selection acting on the intrinsic vs. the ecological barrier component), the intrinsic incompatibility may actually destabilize barriers to gene flow. In practice, intrinsic barriers generated as a by-product of divergent ecological selection may generate peaks in genome scans that cannot easily be interpreted. We argue that empirical studies on divergence with gene flow should consider the possibility of both ecological and intrinsic barriers. Future progress will likely come from work combining population genomic studies, experiments quantifying fitness and molecular studies on protein function and interactions. © 2017 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Relationship between intrinsic radiation sensitivity and metastatic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Anne M.; Mei, Su; Doty, Jay; Chen Yi; Pardo, Francisco S.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Prior studies emphasized genetic modulation of tumorigenicity, and experimental metastatic potential in cells transfected with oncogenes. Whether the intrinsic radiation sensitivity of cells might correlate with parallel changes in metastatic potential is unknown. Methods and Materials: Rat embryo cells (REC) were transfected with the following oncogenes, and where appropriate, with corresponding selection markers: pCMV neopEJ6.6ras, pEJ6.6ras/v-myc, pE1a, and pEJ6-.6ras/E1a. Individual transfectant clones and corresponding pooled cellular populations were propagated in selective medium. In vitro cellular radiation sensitivity was determined via clonogenic assays, a minimum of three, by standard techniques and individual SF 2 and MID parameters determined. Tumorigenicity was defined as the number of tumors forming following the injection of 1 x 10 5 - 1 x 10 6 cells into the axillary pouch of three different strains of immune-deficient mice. Animals were killed once resultant tumors reached a maximum size of 1.5-2.0 cm in maximum diameter. For determination of experimental metastatic potential, between 1 x 10 5 -1 x 10 6 cells were injected into the tail veins of litter-matched sibling mice in parallel to the tumorigenicity studies. Results: Radiobiologic studies indicate similar levels of radiation sensitivity among REC, mock-transfected REC, E1a, and combined E1a/ras transfectants. pEJ6.6ras, and combined ras/myc transfected pooled cellular populations demonstrated increases in radiation resistance when compared to the pooled radiobiologic data from untransfected and mock-transfected corresponding pooled cellular populations (p 2 , MID). Rat embryo cells, E1a, and mock-transfectants were relatively radiation sensitive and nontumorigenic. pE1a/ras was tumorigenic but demonstrated relatively low experimental metastatic potential. Ras, and ras/myc transfectants, demonstrated similar levels of experimental metastatic potential on lung colonization assays

  1. On the Contribution of Curl-Free Current Patterns to the Ultimate Intrinsic Signal-to-Noise Ratio at Ultra-High Field Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfrommer, Andreas; Henning, Anke

    2017-05-01

    The ultimate intrinsic signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is a coil independent performance measure to compare different receive coil designs. To evaluate this benchmark in a sample, a complete electromagnetic basis set is required. The basis set can be obtained by curl-free and divergence-free surface current distributions, which excite linearly independent solutions to Maxwell's equations. In this work, we quantitatively investigate the contribution of curl-free current patterns to the ultimate intrinsic SNR in a spherical head-sized model at 9.4 T. Therefore, we compare the ultimate intrinsic SNR obtained with having only curl-free or divergence-free current patterns, with the ultimate intrinsic SNR obtained from a combination of curl-free and divergence-free current patterns. The influence of parallel imaging is studied for various acceleration factors. Moreover results for different field strengths (1.5 T up to 11.7 T) are presented at specific voxel positions and acceleration factors. The full-wave electromagnetic problem is analytically solved using dyadic Green's functions. We show, that at ultra-high field strength (B 0 ⩾7T) a combination of curl-free and divergence-free current patterns is required to achieve the best possible SNR at any position in a spherical head-sized model. On 1.5- and 3T platforms, divergence-free current patterns are sufficient to cover more than 90% of the ultimate intrinsic SNR. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. An intrinsically asymmetric radio galaxy: 0500+630?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, D. J.; Thomasson, P.; Jackson, N.; Salter, C. J.; Junor, W.

    1996-10-01

    As part of a search for high-luminosity radio galaxies with one-sided structures, the radio galaxy 0500+630 has been imaged with both the VLA and MERLIN and its optical spectrum determined using the Isaac Newton Telescope on La Palma. The galaxy is found to have a redshift of 0.290+/-0.004. The radio observations show the source to be highly asymmetric, with an overall structure which cannot be understood easily by ascribing it either to orientation and relativistic beaming effects or to an asymmetric distribution of gas in the central region. A comparison of this source with objects of similar luminosity suggests that it is one of the best examples yet of a source with possibly an intrinsic asymmetry in either the collimation of its jets or the supply of energy from the central engine to opposite sides.

  3. Intrinsic barriers for H-atom transfer reactions involving hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camaioni, D.M.; Autrey, S.T.; Franz, J.A.

    1994-08-01

    Intrinsic barriers (formally the barrier in the absence of driving force) for H-atom transfer reactions are key parameters in Evans-Polyanyi and Marcus equations for estimating exothermic reaction barriers and are fundamentally significant for the insight they provide about bond reorganization energies for formation of transition state structures. Although knowable from experiment, relatively few of these barriers have been measured due to experimental difficulties in measuring rates for identity reactions. Thus, the authors have used semiempirical Molecular Orbital theoretical methods (MNDO/PM3) to calculate barriers for a series of H-atom transfer identity reactions involving alkyl, alkenyl, arylalkyl and hydroaryl radicals and donors. Briefly stated, they find that barriers decrease with the degree of alkyl substitution at the radical site whereas barriers increase with the degree of conjugation with the radical site. Details of the methodology and analyses of how these barrier heights correlate with reactant and transition state properties will be presented and discussed.

  4. Helimagnon Resonances in an Intrinsic Chiral Magnonic Crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Mathias; Aqeel, Aisha; Mostovoy, Maxim; Leonov, Andrey; Geprägs, Stephan; Gross, Rudolf; Huebl, Hans; Palstra, Thomas T. M.; Goennenwein, Sebastian T. B.

    2017-12-01

    We experimentally study magnetic resonances in the helical and conical magnetic phases of the chiral magnetic insulator Cu2OSeO3 at the temperature T =5 K . Using a broadband microwave spectroscopy technique based on vector network analysis, we identify three distinct sets of helimagnon resonances in the frequency range 2 GHz ≤f ≤20 GHz with low magnetic damping α ≤0.003 . The extracted resonance frequencies are in accordance with calculations of the helimagnon band structure found in an intrinsic chiral magnonic crystal. The periodic modulation of the equilibrium spin direction that leads to the formation of the magnonic crystal is a direct consequence of the chiral magnetic ordering caused by the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. The mode coupling in the magnonic crystal allows excitation of helimagnons with wave vectors that are multiples of the spiral wave vector.

  5. The transcriptional repressor domain of Gli3 is intrinsically disordered.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Tsanev

    Full Text Available The transcription factor Gli3 is acting mainly as a transcriptional repressor in the Sonic hedgehog signal transduction pathway. Gli3 contains a repressor domain in its N-terminus from residue G106 to E236. In this study we have characterized the intracellular structure of the Gli3 repressor domain using a combined bioinformatics and experimental approach. According to our findings the Gli3 repressor domain while being intrinsically disordered contains predicted anchor sites for partner interactions. The obvious interaction partners to test were Ski and DNA; however, with both of these the structure of Gli3 repressor domain remained disordered. To locate residues important for the repressor function we mutated several residues within the Gli3 repressor domain. Two of these, H141A and H157N, targeting predicted helical regions, significantly decreased transcriptional repression and thus identify important functional parts of the domain.

  6. Elements for Physics Quantities, Qualities, and Intrinsic Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Tarantola, Albert

    2006-01-01

    While usual presentations of physical theories emphasize the notion of physical quantity, this book shows that there is much to gain when introducing the notion of physical quality. The usual physical quantities simply appear as coordinates over the manifolds representing the physical qualities. This allows to develop physical theories that have a degree of invariance much deeper than the usual one. It is shown that properly developed physical theories contain logarithms and exponentials of tensors: their conspicuous absence in usual theories suggests, in fact, that the fundamental invariance principle stated in this book is lacking in present-day mathematical physics. The book reviews and extends the theory if Lie groups, develops differential geometry, proposing compact definitions of torsion and of curvature, and adapts the usual notion of linear tangent application to the intrinsic point of view proposed for physics. As an illustration, two simple theories are studied with some detail, the theory of heat ...

  7. Somatostatin receptors in rat hippocampus: localization to intrinsic neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, J.M.; Reubi, J.C.; Maurer, R.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of neurotoxic chemical and electrolytical lesions on somatostatin (SS) receptor binding in the septo-hippocampal afferents, pyramidal and granule cells of the rat hippocampus was examined by autoradiography using the stable SS analogue 125 I-204-090 as radioligand. Electrolytical lesions of the septum did not result in modification of SS binding in the hippocampus. In contrast, both granule cell lesion with colchicine and pyramidal or pyramidal and granule cell lesions with increasing kainic acid doses did result in a specific decrease of binding in the dentate gyrus and hippocampus (CA 1 and CA 3 ). These results suggest that SS receptors in the hippocampus are probably associated with elements from intrinsic neurons. (Author)

  8. Intrinsic oxygen fugacity measurements of some Allende Type B inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozul, Jean M.; Hewins, Roger H.; Ulmer, Gene C.

    1988-01-01

    The intrinsic oxygen fugacities (IOFs) of two type B Ca-rich and Al-rich inclusions (CAI) from the Allende meteorite were measured using the solid-electrolyte double-cell IOF technique of Ulmer et al. (1976). The measurements were compared to calculated and experimentally extrapolated fO2 of type B phases. It was found that the IOFs of the type B are 6-8 orders of magnitude more oxidized (H2/H2O = 1-10) than the canonical solar nebular gas (H2/H2O = 100-2000). It is suggested that some local fO2 enhancing mechanism, such as dust or gas concentrations, or the release of oxygen-rich vapors during CAI volatilization in the type B inclusions was in operation at temperatures higher than 700 C.

  9. Intrinsic inter- and intraspecific competition in parasitoid wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Jeffrey A; Poelman, Erik H; Tanaka, Toshiharu

    2013-01-01

    Immature development of parasitoid wasps is restricted to resources found in a single host that is often similar in size to the adult parasitoid. When two or more parasitoids of the same or different species attack the same host, there is competition for monopolization of host resources. The success of intrinsic competition differs between parasitoids attacking growing hosts and parasitoids attacking paralyzed hosts. Furthermore, the evolution of gregarious development in parasitoids reflects differences in various developmental and behavioral traits, as these influence antagonistic encounters among immature parasitoids. Fitness-related costs (or benefits) of competition for the winning parasitoid reveal that time lags between successive attacks influence the outcome of competition. Physiological mechanisms used to exclude competitors include physical and biochemical factors that originate with the ovipositing female wasp or her progeny. In a broader multitrophic framework, indirect factors, such as plant quality, may affect parasitoids through effects on immunity and nutrition.

  10. Intrinsically Disordered Proteins in a Physics-Based World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhan Chen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs are a newly recognized class of functional proteins that rely on a lack of stable structure for function. They are highly prevalent in biology, play fundamental roles, and are extensively involved in human diseases. For signaling and regulation, IDPs often fold into stable structures upon binding to specific targets. The mechanisms of these coupled binding and folding processes are of significant importance because they underlie the organization of regulatory networks that dictate various aspects of cellular decision-making. This review first discusses the challenge in detailed experimental characterization of these heterogeneous and dynamics proteins and the unique and exciting opportunity for physics-based modeling to make crucial contributions, and then summarizes key lessons from recent de novo simulations of the structure and interactions of several regulatory IDPs.

  11. Towards intrinsic magnetism of graphene sheets with irregular zigzag edges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lianlian; Guo, Liwei; Li, Zhilin; Zhang, Han; Lin, Jingjing; Huang, Jiao; Jin, Shifeng; Chen, Xiaolong

    2013-01-01

    The magnetism of graphene has remained divergent and controversial due to absence of reliable experimental results. Here we show the intrinsic magnetism of graphene edge states revealed based on unidirectional aligned graphene sheets derived from completely carbonized SiC crystals. It is found that ferromagnetism, antiferromagnetism and diamagnetism along with a probable superconductivity exist in the graphene with irregular zigzag edges. A phase diagram is constructed to show the evolution of the magnetism. The ferromagnetic ordering curie-temperature of the fundamental magnetic order unit (FMOU) is 820 ± 80 K. The antiferromagnetic ordering Neel temperature of the FMOUs belonging to different sublattices is about 54 ± 2 K. The diamagnetism is similar to that of graphite and can be well described by the Kotosonov's equation. Our experimental results provide new evidences to clarify the controversial experimental phenomena observed in graphene and contribute to a deeper insight into the nature of magnetism in graphene based system.

  12. Possible mechanism for d0 ferromagnetism mediated by intrinsic defects

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhenkui

    2014-01-01

    We examine the effects of several intrinsic defects on the magnetic behavior of ZnS nanostructures using hybrid density functional theory to gain insights into d0 ferromagnetism. Previous studies have predicted that the magnetism is due to a coupling between partially filled defect states. By taking into account the electronic correlations, we find an additional splitting of the defect states in Zn vacancies and thus the possibility of gaining energy by preferential filling of hole states, establishing ferromagnetism between spin polarized S 3p holes. We demonstrate a crucial role of neutral S vacancies in promoting ferromagnetism between positively charged S vacancies. S dangling bonds on the nanoparticle surface also induce ferromagnetism. This journal is

  13. Intrinsic mineral labeling of edible plants: methods and uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    The fate of minerals can be conveniently studied through intrinsic labeling techniques. The mineral of interest is biologically incorporated into the food in a form that can be distinguished analytically from the natural form of the element. Radiolabels have traditionally been used to study such problems as the uptake of minerals by plants, the gross and subcellular mineral distribution in plant tissues, the form and associations of the deposited mineral, and the bioavailability of minerals to animals and humans. The use of stable (nonradioactive) isotopes as a label offers the potential of safely studying bioavailability of minerals from individual foods in human population groups of all ages using foods processed in normal food handling and processing facilities. 114 references

  14. Human intrinsic factor expressed in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedosov, Sergey N; Laursen, Niels B; Nexø, Ebba

    2003-01-01

    Intrinsic factor (IF) is the gastric protein that promotes the intestinal uptake of vitamin B12. Gastric IF from animal sources is used in diagnostic tests and in vitamin pills. However, administration of animal IF to humans becomes disadvantageous because of possible pathogenic transmission...... and contamination by other B12 binders. We tested the use of recombinant plants for large-scale production of pathogen-free human recombinant IF. Human IF was successfully expressed in the recombinant plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Extract from fresh plants possessed high B12-binding capacity corresponding to 70 mg...... to recombinant IF and gastric IF were alike, as was the interaction of recombinant and native IF with the specific receptor cubilin. The data presented show that recombinant plants have a great potential as a large-scale source of human IF for analytical and therapeutic purposes....

  15. Altered intrinsic connectivity of the auditory cortex in congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveque, Yohana; Fauvel, Baptiste; Groussard, Mathilde; Caclin, Anne; Albouy, Philippe; Platel, Hervé; Tillmann, Barbara

    2016-07-01

    Congenital amusia, a neurodevelopmental disorder of music perception and production, has been associated with abnormal anatomical and functional connectivity in a right frontotemporal pathway. To investigate whether spontaneous connectivity in brain networks involving the auditory cortex is altered in the amusic brain, we ran a seed-based connectivity analysis, contrasting at-rest functional MRI data of amusic and matched control participants. Our results reveal reduced frontotemporal connectivity in amusia during resting state, as well as an overconnectivity between the auditory cortex and the default mode network (DMN). The findings suggest that the auditory cortex is intrinsically more engaged toward internal processes and less available to external stimuli in amusics compared with controls. Beyond amusia, our findings provide new evidence for the link between cognitive deficits in pathology and abnormalities in the connectivity between sensory areas and the DMN at rest. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  16. The dynamic multisite interactions between two intrinsically disordered proteins

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Shaowen

    2017-05-11

    Protein interactions involving intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) comprise a variety of binding modes, from the well characterized folding upon binding to dynamic fuzzy complex. To date, most studies concern the binding of an IDP to a structured protein, while the Interaction between two IDPs is poorly understood. In this study, we combined NMR, smFRET, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to characterize the interaction between two IDPs, the C-terminal domain (CTD) of protein 4.1G and the nuclear mitotic apparatus (NuMA) protein. It is revealed that CTD and NuMA form a fuzzy complex with remaining structural disorder. Multiple binding sites on both proteins were identified by MD and mutagenesis studies. Our study provides an atomic scenario in which two IDPs bearing multiple binding sites interact with each other in dynamic equilibrium. The combined approach employed here could be widely applicable for investigating IDPs and their dynamic interactions.

  17. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among adolescent ten-pin bowlers in kuala lumpur, malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Eng-Wah; Khoo, Selina; Wong, Rebecca; Wee, Eng-Hoe; Lim, Boon-Hooi; Rengasamy, Shabesan Sit

    2015-03-29

    Motivation has long been associated with sports engagement. However, to date no research has been performed to understand the domain of motivation among ten-pin bowlers. The purpose of this study was to investigate different types of motivation (i.e., intrinsic vs. extrinsic) based on self-determination theory from the perspective of gender and the bowler type (competitive vs. casual). A total of 240 bowlers (104 male, 136 female; 152 competitive, 88 casual) with a mean age of 16.61 ± 0.78 years were recruited in Kuala Lumpur. The Sport Motivation Scale, a 28-item self-report questionnaire measuring seven subscales (i.e., intrinsic motivation to know, intrinsic motivation to accomplish, intrinsic motivation to experience stimulation, extrinsic motivation to identify regulation, extrinsic motivation for introjection regulation, extrinsic motivation to external regulation, and amotivation) was administered. Results showed significant differences (t=10.43, df=239, p=0.01) between total scores of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among ten-pin bowlers. There were significant gender differences with respect to intrinsic motivation to know, intrinsic motivation to accomplish, intrinsic motivation to experience stimulation, and extrinsic motivation to identify regulation. However, no significant bowler type differences were found for either the intrinsic (t=-1.15, df=238, p=0.25) or extrinsic (t=-0.51, df=238, p=0.61) motivation dimensions. In conclusion, our study demonstrated substantial intrinsic motivation for gender effects, but no bowler type effects among adolescent ten-pin bowlers.

  18. The Emerging Neuroscience of Intrinsic Motivation: A New Frontier in Self-Determination Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Domenico, Stefano I; Ryan, Richard M

    2017-01-01

    Intrinsic motivation refers to people's spontaneous tendencies to be curious and interested, to seek out challenges and to exercise and develop their skills and knowledge, even in the absence of operationally separable rewards. Over the past four decades, experimental and field research guided by self-determination theory (SDT; Ryan and Deci, 2017) has found intrinsic motivation to predict enhanced learning, performance, creativity, optimal development and psychological wellness. Only recently, however, have studies begun to examine the neurobiological substrates of intrinsic motivation. In the present article, we trace the history of intrinsic motivation research, compare and contrast intrinsic motivation to closely related topics (flow, curiosity, trait plasticity), link intrinsic motivation to key findings in the comparative affective neurosciences, and review burgeoning neuroscience research on intrinsic motivation. We review converging evidence suggesting that intrinsically motivated exploratory and mastery behaviors are phylogenetically ancient tendencies that are subserved by dopaminergic systems. Studies also suggest that intrinsic motivation is associated with patterns of activity across large-scale neural networks, namely, those that support salience detection, attentional control and self-referential cognition. We suggest novel research directions and offer recommendations for the application of neuroscience methods in the study of intrinsic motivation.

  19. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation Among Adolescent Ten-Pin Bowlers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teo Eng-Wah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Motivation has long been associated with sports engagement. However, to date no research has been performed to understand the domain of motivation among ten-pin bowlers. The purpose of this study was to investigate different types of motivation (i.e., intrinsic vs. extrinsic based on self-determination theory from the perspective of gender and the bowler type (competitive vs. casual. A total of 240 bowlers (104 male, 136 female; 152 competitive, 88 casual with a mean age of 16.61 ± 0.78 years were recruited in Kuala Lumpur. The Sport Motivation Scale, a 28-item self-report questionnaire measuring seven subscales (i.e., intrinsic motivation to know, intrinsic motivation to accomplish, intrinsic motivation to experience stimulation, extrinsic motivation to identify regulation, extrinsic motivation for introjection regulation, extrinsic motivation to external regulation, and amotivation was administered. Results showed significant differences (t=10.43, df=239, p=0.01 between total scores of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among tenpin bowlers. There were significant gender differences with respect to intrinsic motivation to know, intrinsic motivation to accomplish, intrinsic motivation to experience stimulation, and extrinsic motivation to identify regulation. However, no significant bowler type differences were found for either the intrinsic (t=-1.15, df=238, p=0.25 or extrinsic (t=-0.51, df=238, p=0.61 motivation dimensions. In conclusion, our study demonstrated substantial intrinsic motivation for gender effects, but no bowler type effects among adolescent ten-pin bowlers.

  20. Lattice gas methods for predicting intrinsic permeability of porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, L.O.E.; Philippi, P.C. [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Lab. de Propriedades Termofisicas e Meios Porosos)]. E-mail: emerich@lmpt.ufsc.br; philippi@lmpt.ufsc.br; Damiani, M.C. [Engineering Simulation and Scientific Software (ESSS), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Parque Tecnologico]. E-mail: damiani@lmpt.ufsc.br

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents a method for predicting intrinsic permeability of porous media based on Lattice Gas Cellular Automata methods. Two methods are presented. The first is based on a Boolean model (LGA). The second is Boltzmann method (LB) based on Boltzmann relaxation equation. LGA is a relatively recent method developed to perform hydrodynamic calculations. The method, in its simplest form, consists of a regular lattice populated with particles that hop from site to site in discrete time steps in a process, called propagation. After propagation, the particles in each site interact with each other in a process called collision, in which the number of particles and momentum are conserved. An exclusion principle is imposed in order to achieve better computational efficiency. In despite of its simplicity, this model evolves in agreement with Navier-Stokes equation for low Mach numbers. LB methods were recently developed for the numerical integration of the Navier-Stokes equation based on discrete Boltzmann transport equation. Derived from LGA, LB is a powerful alternative to the standard methods in computational fluid dynamics. In recent years, it has received much attention and has been used in several applications like simulations of flows through porous media, turbulent flows and multiphase flows. It is important to emphasize some aspects that make Lattice Gas Cellular Automata methods very attractive for simulating flows through porous media. In fact, boundary conditions in flows through complex geometry structures are very easy to describe in simulations using these methods. In LGA methods simulations are performed with integers needing less resident memory capability and boolean arithmetic reduces running time. The two methods are used to simulate flows through several Brazilian reservoir petroleum rocks leading to intrinsic permeability prediction. Simulation is compared with experimental results. (author)

  1. Electrophysiological signatures of atypical intrinsic brain connectivity networks in autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou, Guofa; Mosconi, Matthew W.; Wang, Jun; Ethridge, Lauren E.; Sweeney, John A.; Ding, Lei

    2017-08-01

    Objective. Abnormal local and long-range brain connectivity have been widely reported in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), yet the nature of these abnormalities and their functional relevance at distinct cortical rhythms remains unknown. Investigations of intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) and their coherence across whole brain networks hold promise for determining whether patterns of functional connectivity abnormalities vary across frequencies and networks in ASD. In the present study, we aimed to probe atypical intrinsic brain connectivity networks in ASD from resting-state electroencephalography (EEG) data via characterizing the whole brain network. Approach. Connectivity within individual ICNs (measured by spectral power) and between ICNs (measured by coherence) were examined at four canonical frequency bands via a time-frequency independent component analysis on high-density EEG, which were recorded from 20 ASD and 20 typical developing (TD) subjects during an eyes-closed resting state. Main results. Among twelve identified electrophysiological ICNs, individuals with ASD showed hyper-connectivity in individual ICNs and hypo-connectivity between ICNs. Functional connectivity alterations in ASD were more severe in the frontal lobe and the default mode network (DMN) and at low frequency bands. These functional connectivity measures also showed abnormal age-related associations in ICNs related to frontal, temporal and motor regions in ASD. Significance. Our findings suggest that ASD is characterized by the opposite directions of abnormalities (i.e. hypo- and hyper-connectivity) in the hierarchical structure of the whole brain network, with more impairments in the frontal lobe and the DMN at low frequency bands, which are critical for top-down control of sensory systems, as well as for both cognition and social skills.

  2. Enzyme activation through the utilization of intrinsic dianion binding energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amyes, T L; Malabanan, M M; Zhai, X; Reyes, A C; Richard, J P

    2017-03-01

    We consider 'the proposition that the intrinsic binding energy that results from the noncovalent interaction of a specific substrate with the active site of the enzyme is considerably larger than is generally believed. An important part of this binding energy may be utilized to provide the driving force for catalysis, so that the observed binding energy represents only what is left over after this utilization' [Jencks,W.P. (1975) Adv. Enzymol. Relat. Areas. Mol. Biol. , , 219-410]. The large ~12 kcal/mol intrinsic substrate phosphodianion binding energy for reactions catalyzed by triosephosphate isomerase (TIM), orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase is divided into 4-6 kcal/mol binding energy that is expressed on the formation of the Michaelis complex in anchoring substrates to the respective enzyme, and 6-8 kcal/mol binding energy that is specifically expressed at the transition state in activating the respective enzymes for catalysis. A structure-based mechanism is described where the dianion binding energy drives a conformational change that activates these enzymes for catalysis. Phosphite dianion plays the active role of holding TIM in a high-energy closed active form, but acts as passive spectator in showing no effect on transition-state structure. The result of studies on mutant enzymes is presented, which support the proposal that the dianion-driven enzyme conformational change plays a role in enhancing the basicity of side chain of E167, the catalytic base, by clamping the base between a pair of hydrophobic side chains. The insight these results provide into the architecture of enzyme active sites and the development of strategies for the de novo design of protein catalysts is discussed.

  3. Altered Neutrophil Function in Localized Juvenile Periodontitis: Intrinsic or Induced?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Sudha; Huang, Jian Ping; Piesco, Nicholas P; Suzuki, Jon B; Riccelli, Angelina E; Johns, Lee P

    1996-03-01

    Localized juvenile periodontitis (LJP) is an aggressive periodontal disease of familial nature. Neutrophils from a majority of patients with this disease exhibit decreased Chemotaxis with increased adherence, oxidative burst, and degranulation in response to opsonized bacteria. It is proposed that the biological basis for these altered neutrophil functions in LJP may be due either to intrinsic cell abnormalities or to the effect of factors present in the sera of LJP patients, which can modulate neutrophil functions. LJP neutrophils exhibit a lower number of receptors for chemoattractants and GP-110 molecules which are known to facilitate Chemotaxis. Furthermore, these cells exhibit lower signal transduction in response to a biological stimulus. These observations suggest that intrinsic cellular defects may be responsible for altered neutrophil functions in LJP. However, healthy neutrophils, when treated with very low concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines, also exhibit the characteristics of altered or "defective" LJP neutrophils. Additionally, healthy neutrophils, when treated with LJP serum, also exhibit many of the characteristics associated with LJP neutrophils. Attempts to identify these factors have shown that cytokines like TNF-α and/or IL1 β in LJP sera may be at least partially responsible for modulating neutrophil functions in LJP. These cytokines are primarily produced by activated macrophages, indicating a role for these cells in the etiology of LJP. The hyper-responsiveness of these cells to an immunologic challenge can result in local increases in cytokines leading to excessive bone loss and tissue damage at the site of infection, while systemic elevations in cytokines would lead to decreased neutrophil Chemotaxis, both of which are observed in LJP. Present evidence indicates that neutrophil functions are indeed altered in the majority of LJP patients. However, the biological basis for the alteration may not be due to the neutrophils themselves

  4. Process development and tooling design for intrinsic hybrid composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemer, M.; Müller, R.; Drossel, W. G.; Landgrebe, D.

    2017-09-01

    Hybrid parts, which combine the advantages of different material classes, are moving into the focus of lightweight applications. This development is amplified by their high potential for usage in the field of crash relevant structures. By the current state of the art, hybrid parts are mainly made in separate, subsequent forming and joining processes. By using the concept of an intrinsic hybrid, the shaping of the part and the joining of the different materials are performed in a single process step for shortening the overall processing time and thereby the manufacturing costs. The investigated hybrid part is made from continuous fibre reinforced plastic (FRP), in which a metallic reinforcement structure is integrated. The connection between these layered components is realized by a combination of adhesive bonding and a geometrical form fit. The form fit elements are intrinsically generated during the forming process. This contribution regards the development of the forming process and the design of the forming tool for the single step production of a hybrid part. To this end a forming tool, which combines the thermo-forming and the metal forming process, is developed. The main challenge by designing the tool is the temperature management of the tool elements for the variothermal forming process. The process parameters are determined in basic tests and finite element (FE) simulation studies. On the basis of these investigations a control concept for the steering of the motion axes and the tool temperature is developed. Forming tests are carried out with the developed tool and the manufactured parts are analysed by computer assisted tomography (CT) scans.

  5. Chemical composition, crystal structure, and their relationships with the intrinsic properties of spinel-type crystals based on bond valences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Wang, Hao; Lavina, Barbara; Tu, Bingtian; Wang, Weimin; Fu, Zhengyi

    2014-06-16

    Spinel-type crystals may possess complex and versatile chemical composition and crystal structure, which leads to difficulty in constructing relationships among the chemical composition, crystal structure, and intrinsic properties. In this work, we develop new empirical methods based on bond valences to estimate the intrinsic properties, namely, compressibility and thermal expansion of complex spinel-type crystals. The composition-weighted average of bond force constants in tetrahedral and octahedral coordination polyhedra is derived as a function of the composition-weighted average of bond valences, which can be calculated according to the experimental chemical composition and crystal structural parameters. We discuss the coupled effects of tetrahedral and octahedral frameworks on the aforementioned intrinsic properties. The bulk modulus could be quantitatively calculated from the composition-weighted average of bond force constants in tetrahedral and octahedral coordination polyhedra. In contrast, a quantitative estimation of the thermal expansion coefficient could be obtained from the composition-weighted average of bond force constants in octahedral coordination polyhedra. These empirical methods have been validated by the results obtained for a new complex quaternary spinel-type oxynitride Mg0.268Al2.577O3.733N0.267 as well as MgAl2O4 and Al2.85O3.45N0.55 from the literature. Further, these empirical methods have the potential to be extensively applied in other types of complex crystals.

  6. Intrinsic Thermodynamics and Structures of 2,4- and 3,4-Substituted Fluorinated Benzenesulfonamides Binding to Carbonic Anhydrases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrienė, Asta; Smirnov, Alexey; Dudutienė, Virginija; Timm, David D; Matulienė, Jurgita; Michailovienė, Vilma; Zakšauskas, Audrius; Manakova, Elena; Gražulis, Saulius; Matulis, Daumantas

    2017-01-20

    The goal of rational drug design is to understand structure-thermodynamics correlations in order to predict the chemical structure of a drug that would exhibit excellent affinity and selectivity for a target protein. In this study we explored the contribution of added functionalities of benzenesulfonamide inhibitors to the intrinsic binding affinity, enthalpy, and entropy for recombinant human carbonic anhydrases (CA) CA I, CA II, CA VII, CA IX, CA XII, and CA XIII. The binding enthalpies of compounds possessing similar chemical structures and affinities were found to be very different, spanning a range from -90 to +10 kJ mol -1 , and are compensated by a similar opposing entropy contribution. The intrinsic parameters of binding were determined by subtracting the linked protonation reactions. The sulfonamide group pK a values of the compounds were measured spectrophotometrically, and the protonation enthalpies were measured by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Herein we describe the development of meta- or ortho-substituted fluorinated benzenesulfonamides toward the highly potent compound 10 h, which exhibits an observed dissociation constant value of 43 pm and an intrinsic dissociation constant value of 1.1 pm toward CA IX, an anticancer target that is highly overexpressed in various tumors. Fluorescence thermal shift assays, ITC, and X-ray crystallography were all applied in this work. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Intrinsic retrieval efficiency for quantum memories: A three-dimensional theory of light interaction with an atomic ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujarati, Tanvi P.; Wu, Yukai; Duan, Luming

    2018-03-01

    Duan-Lukin-Cirac-Zoller quantum repeater protocol, which was proposed to realize long distance quantum communication, requires usage of quantum memories. Atomic ensembles interacting with optical beams based on off-resonant Raman scattering serve as convenient on-demand quantum memories. Here, a complete free space, three-dimensional theory of the associated read and write process for this quantum memory is worked out with the aim of understanding intrinsic retrieval efficiency. We develop a formalism to calculate the transverse mode structure for the signal and the idler photons and use the formalism to study the intrinsic retrieval efficiency under various configurations. The effects of atomic density fluctuations and atomic motion are incorporated by numerically simulating this system for a range of realistic experimental parameters. We obtain results that describe the variation in the intrinsic retrieval efficiency as a function of the memory storage time for skewed beam configuration at a finite temperature, which provides valuable information for optimization of the retrieval efficiency in experiments.

  8. Working Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... working-parent families are no longer exceptional. The Impact of Working When both parents are occupied with ... and perform a relaxation exercise. Or during your coffee breaks, forgo coffee and doughnuts and take a ...

  9. An intrinsic energy conversion mechanism via telescopic extension and retraction of concentric carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhengrong; Zhang, Hongwei; Li, Jianxin; Leng, Jiantao; Zhang, Yingyan; Chang, Tienchong

    2018-03-08

    The conversion of other forms of energy into mechanical work through the geometrical extension and retraction of nanomaterials has a wide variety of potential applications, including for mimicking biomotors. Here, using molecular dynamics simulations, we demonstrate that there exists an intrinsic energy conversion mechanism between thermal energy and mechanical work in the telescopic motions of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs). A DWCNT can inherently convert heat into mechanical work in its telescopic extension process, while convert mechanical energy into heat in its telescopic retraction process. These two processes are nearly thermodynamically reversible. The underlying mechanism for this energy conversion is that the configurational entropy changes with the telescopic overlapping length of concentric individual tubes. We also find that the entropy effect enlarges with the decreasing intertube space of DWCNTs. As a result, the spontaneous telescopic motion of a condensed DWCNT can be switched to extrusion by increasing the system temperature above a critical value. These findings are important for fundamentally understanding the mechanical behavior of concentric nanotubes, and may have general implications in the application of DWCNTs as linear motors in nanodevices.

  10. Challenge and hindrance demands lead to employees' health and behaviours through intrinsic motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minseo; Beehr, Terry A

    2018-01-12

    Based on the job demand-resource theory, this study examined the differential relationships of two types of job demands, challenge and hindrance stressors, with three outcomes: ill health, organizational citizenship behaviour, and work engagement. These relationships were mediated by two personal resources: psychological empowerment and organization-based self-esteem (OBSE). Data were collected at two separate points, 2 weeks apart. With 336 full-time U.S. employees, results from path analysis indicated that the challenge stressor, workload, was positively related to psychological empowerment and OBSE, both of which were in turn positively related to good work behaviours as well as negatively related to ill health, an indication that employees experienced physical symptoms and psychological strains. In contrast, hindrance stressors (role stressors and interpersonal conflict) showed the opposite patterns of relationships with these intermediate outcomes, resulting in less empowerment and OBSE. Overall, findings suggested that psychological empowerment and OBSE were important intrinsic motivational mechanisms through which some stressors (especially hindrance demands) can promote employees' favourable work behaviours as well as alleviate the negative health outcomes. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Investigation of DEPFET as vertex detector at ILC. Intrinsic properties, radiation hardness and alternative readout schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rummel, Stefan

    2009-07-20

    with Correlated Double Sampling (CDS), to achieve even higher readout speeds this work investigates new readout schemes to reach this goal. The input parameters to judge the performance of the new readout methods are on the one hand the intrinsic properties of the DEPFET, internal amplification, charge handling capacity, noise and leakage current. Besides this conceptual investigations the new readout scheme is also experimentally validated on single pixel level. (orig.)

  12. Developmental Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels; Hvid, Helge; Kristensen, Tage Søndergaard

    2003-01-01

    Human Deveoplment and Working Life - Work for Welfare explores whether the development of human resources at company level can improve individuals' quality of life, companies' possibilities of development, and welfare and democracy in society. Chapter two discuss the concept "developmental work...

  13. Relationship Between Intrinsic Motivation and Undergraduate Students' Depression and Stress: The Moderating Effect of Interpersonal Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yunhui; Lv, Wei; Wu, Jiang

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the effect of intrinsic academic motivation and interpersonal conflict on the perceived depression and stress. Participants were 537 Chinese undergraduate students (191 males and 346 females; M age = 20.4 years, SD age = 1.3). They completed four scales measuring intrinsic academic motivation, interpersonal conflict, stress, and depression. Linear regressions were conducted with intrinsic academic motivation, interpersonal conflict, and their interaction as independent variables to predict depression and stress. Results showed that intrinsic academic motivation was negatively, while interpersonal conflict was positively, associated with depression and stress. Moreover, the interaction was significant: negative association of "intrinsic academic motivation and depression" and that of "intrinsic academic motivation and stress" was weaker among participants who reported higher (vs. lower) levels of interpersonal conflict. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Predictive features of persistent activity emergence in regular spiking and intrinsic bursting model neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriaki Sidiropoulou

    Full Text Available Proper functioning of working memory involves the expression of stimulus-selective persistent activity in pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex (PFC, which refers to neural activity that persists for seconds beyond the end of the stimulus. The mechanisms which PFC pyramidal neurons use to discriminate between preferred vs. neutral inputs at the cellular level are largely unknown. Moreover, the presence of pyramidal cell subtypes with different firing patterns, such as regular spiking and intrinsic bursting, raises the question as to what their distinct role might be in persistent firing in the PFC. Here, we use a compartmental modeling approach to search for discriminatory features in the properties of incoming stimuli to a PFC pyramidal neuron and/or its response that signal which of these stimuli will result in persistent activity emergence. Furthermore, we use our modeling approach to study cell-type specific differences in persistent activity properties, via implementing a regular spiking (RS and an intrinsic bursting (IB model neuron. We identify synaptic location within the basal dendrites as a feature of stimulus selectivity. Specifically, persistent activity-inducing stimuli consist of activated synapses that are located more distally from the soma compared to non-inducing stimuli, in both model cells. In addition, the action potential (AP latency and the first few inter-spike-intervals of the neuronal response can be used to reliably detect inducing vs. non-inducing inputs, suggesting a potential mechanism by which downstream neurons can rapidly decode the upcoming emergence of persistent activity. While the two model neurons did not differ in the coding features of persistent activity emergence, the properties of persistent activity, such as the firing pattern and the duration of temporally-restricted persistent activity were distinct. Collectively, our results pinpoint to specific features of the neuronal response to a given

  15. The relationship between motivational structure, sense of control, intrinsic motivation and university students' alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamloo, Zohreh Sepehri; Cox, W Miles

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how sense of control and intrinsic motivation are related to university students' motivational structure and alcohol consumption. Participants were 94 university students who completed the Personal Concerns Inventory, Shapiro Control Inventory, Helplessness Questionnaire, Intrinsic-Extrinsic Aspirations Scale, and Alcohol Use Questionnaire. Results showed that sense of control and intrinsic motivation were positively correlated with adaptive motivation and negatively correlated with alcohol consumption. Mediational analyses indicated that adaptive motivation fully mediated the relationship between sense of control/intrinsic motivation and alcohol consumption.

  16. Intrinsic motivation, neurocognition and psychosocial functioning in schizophrenia: testing mediator and moderator effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagami, Eri; Xie, Bin; Hoe, Maanse; Brekke, John S

    2008-10-01

    This study examined the nature of the relationships among neurocognition, intrinsic motivation, and psychosocial functioning for persons with schizophrenia. Hypotheses concerning both mediator and moderator mechanisms were tested. 120 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia were recruited as they entered outpatient psychosocial rehabilitation programs. Measures of psychosocial functioning and intrinsic motivation were administered at baseline. Measures of neurocognition were administered at baseline by testers blind to scores on other study variables. Data were analyzed using latent construct modeling to test for mediator and moderator effects. There were strong bivariate relationships between neurocognition, intrinsic motivation, and psychosocial functioning. The results demonstrated that intrinsic motivation strongly mediated the relationship between neurocognition and psychosocial functioning. This mediation was evidenced by: (i) the direct path from neurocognition to functional outcome no longer being statistically significant after the introduction of motivation into the model, (ii) the statistical significance of the indirect path from neurocognition through motivation to functional outcome. There was no support for the two moderation hypotheses: the level of neurocognition did not influence the relationship between intrinsic motivation and psychosocial functioning, nor did the level of intrinsic motivation influence the relationship between neurocognition and psychosocial functioning. Neurocognition influences psychosocial functioning through its relationship with intrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation is a critical mechanism for explaining the relationship between neurocognition and psychosocial functioning. Implications for the theoretical understanding and psychosocial treatment of intrinsic motivation in schizophrenia are discussed.

  17. Intrinsic profiles beyond the capillary wave theory: a Monte Carlo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón, E; Tarazona, P

    2003-10-17

    We develop and test an operational definition of the intrinsic surface for liquid-vapor interfaces. The application to the microscopic configurations along Monte Carlo computer simulations gives the statistical properties of the intrinsic surfaces and the intrinsic density profiles for simple fluid models. The results open a framework of quantitative description to close the gap between the mesoscopic capillary wave theory and the sharpest level of resolution for the intrinsic density distribution, relative to the first atomic layer in the liquid surface, as done in the interpretation of experimental x-ray reflectivity.

  18. Determination of Viscosity-Average Molecular Weight of Chitosan using Intrinsic Viscosity Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norzita Yacob; Norhashidah Talip; Maznah Mahmud

    2011-01-01

    Molecular weight of chitosan can be determined by different techniques such as Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC), Static Light Scattering (SLS) and intrinsic viscosity measurement. Determination of molecular weight by intrinsic viscosity measurement is a simple method for characterization of chitosan. Different concentrations of chitosan were prepared and measurement was done at room temperature. The flow time data was used to calculate the intrinsic viscosity by extrapolating the reduced viscosity to zero concentration. The value of intrinsic viscosity was then recalculated into the viscosity-average molecular weight using Mark-Houwink equation. (author)

  19. Work Experience and Work Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorence, Jon; Mortimer, Jeylan T.

    1981-01-01

    Examines the interrelations of work experience and psychological involvement in work among male college graduates over a 10-year period. Both the occupational socialization and the occupational selection hypotheses are supported by the data analysis. (Author/JOW)

  20. Intrinsic response of thoracic propriospinal neurons to axotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelzner Dennis J

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Central nervous system axons lack a robust regenerative response following spinal cord injury (SCI and regeneration is usually abortive. Supraspinal pathways, which are the most commonly studied for their regenerative potential, demonstrate a limited regenerative ability. On the other hand, propriospinal (PS neurons, with axons intrinsic to the spinal cord, have shown a greater regenerative response than their supraspinal counterparts, but remain relatively understudied in regards to spinal cord injury. Results Utilizing laser microdissection, gene-microarray, qRT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry, we focused on the intrinsic post-axotomy response of specifically labelled thoracic propriospinal neurons at periods from 3-days to 1-month following T9 spinal cord injury. We found a strong and early (3-days post injury, p.i upregulation in the expression of genes involved in the immune/inflammatory response that returned towards normal by 1-week p.i. In addition, several regeneration associated and cell survival/neuroprotective genes were significantly up-regulated at the earliest p.i. period studied. Significant upregulation of several growth factor receptor genes (GFRa1, Ret, Lifr also occurred only during the initial period examined. The expression of a number of pro-apoptotic genes up-regulated at 3-days p.i. suggest that changes in gene expression after this period may have resulted from analyzing surviving TPS neurons after the cell death of the remainder of the axotomized TPS neuronal population. Conclusions Taken collectively these data demonstrate that thoracic propriospinal (TPS neurons mount a very dynamic response following low thoracic axotomy that includes a strong regenerative response, but also results in the cell death of many axotomized TPS neurons in the first week after spinal cord injury. These data also suggest that the immune/inflammatory response may have an important role in mediating the early strong

  1. Intrinsically Microporous Polymer Membranes for High Performance Gas Separation

    KAUST Repository

    Swaidan, Raja

    2014-11-01

    This dissertation addresses the rational design of intrinsically microporous solutionprocessable polyimides and ladder polymers for highly permeable and highly selective gas transport in cornerstone applications of membrane-based gas separation – that is, air enrichment, hydrogen recovery and natural gas sweetening. By virtue of rigid and contorted chains that pack inefficiently in the solid state, polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs) have the potential to unite the solution-processability, mechanical flexibility and organic tunability of commercially relevant polymers with the microporosity characteristics of porous crystalline materials. The performance enhancements of PIMs over conventional low-free-volume polymers have been primarily permeability-driven, compromising the selectivity essential to commercial viability. An approach to unite high permeability with high selectivity for performance transcending the state-of-the-art in air and hydrogen separations was demonstrated via a fused-ring integration of a three-dimensional, shape persistent triptycene moiety optimally substituted with short, branched isopropyl chains at the 9,10-bridgeheads into a highly inflexible backbone. The resulting polymers exhibited selectivities (i.e., O2/N2, H2/N2, H2/CH4) similar to or higher than commercial materials matched with permeabilities up to three hundred times higher. However, the intra-chain rigidity central to such conventional PIM-design principles was not a singular solution to suppression of CO2-induced plasticization in CO2/CH4 mixedgas separations. Plasticization diminishes the sieving capacity of the membrane, resulting in costly hydrocarbon losses that have significantly limited the commercialization of new polymers. Unexpectedly, the most permeable and selective PIMs designed for air and hydrogen separations strongly plasticized in 50:50 CO2/CH4 mixtures, enduring up to three-fold increases in mixed-gas CH4 permeability by 30 bar and strong drops in

  2. Brain Structural Integrity and Intrinsic Functional Connectivity Forecast 6 Year Longitudinal Growth in Children's Numerical Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Tanya M; Kochalka, John; Ngoon, Tricia J; Wu, Sarah S; Qin, Shaozheng; Battista, Christian; Menon, Vinod

    2015-08-19

    Early numerical proficiency lays the foundation for acquiring quantitative skills essential in today's technological society. Identification of cognitive and brain markers associated with long-term growth of children's basic numerical computation abilities is therefore of utmost importance. Previous attempts to relate brain structure and function to numerical competency have focused on behavioral measures from a single time point. Thus, little is known about the brain predictors of individual differences in growth trajectories of numerical abilities. Using a longitudinal design, with multimodal imaging and machine-learning algorithms, we investigated whether brain structure and intrinsic connectivity in early childhood are predictive of 6 year outcomes in numerical abilities spanning childhood and adolescence. Gray matter volume at age 8 in distributed brain regions, including the ventrotemporal occipital cortex (VTOC), the posterior parietal cortex, and the prefrontal cortex, predicted longitudinal gains in numerical, but not reading, abilities. Remarkably, intrinsic connectivity analysis revealed that the strength of functional coupling among these regions also predicted gains in numerical abilities, providing novel evidence for a network of brain regions that works in concert to promote numerical skill acquisition. VTOC connectivity with posterior parietal, anterior temporal, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices emerged as the most extensive network predicting individual gains in numerical abilities. Crucially, behavioral measures of mathematics, IQ, working memory, and reading did not predict children's gains in numerical abilities. Our study identifies, for the first time, functional circuits in the human brain that scaffold the development of numerical skills, and highlights potential biomarkers for identifying children at risk for learning difficulties. Children show substantial individual differences in math abilities and ease of math learning. Early

  3. Drawing works

    OpenAIRE

    Healey, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Michael Healey is an excellent example of a Renaissance artist: that is, someone who doesn’t limit himself to one medium and whose work crosses over many artistic disciplines. A very well known painter and an award winning designer, his work encompasses drawing, painting and printmaking. A recent collaborative research project even involves sculpture; working with a distinguished academic colleague in Australia, Professor Mike Esson, Healey won a prestigious UK research gran...

  4. The Work Values of First Year Spanish University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Pascual, P. A.; Cano-Escoriaza, J.; Orejudo, S.

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes the work values of 2,951 first-year university students in Spain enrolled in degree programs within the five major areas of university studies. For our research, participants were asked to respond to a Scale of Work Values in which intrinsic, social, and pragmatic extrinsic values as well as extrinsic values related to…

  5. Case work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Ian Frank

    2016-01-01

    Answers to the question just what is the ?case? partly defined the fields of sociology and social work in early 20th century Chicago. Drawing on the archives of the University of Chicago, I describe and appraise the way the ?case? figured in social work at Chicago and elsewhere. I ask...... the corresponding question of sociology. Finally, I briefly consider why not much came of social work and sociology ploughing similar territory in ways that served for a time to hallmark their identities. This analysis opens up ways of rethinking how social work and sociological research are distinctive...

  6. The effects of intrinsic enrichment on captive felids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasceno, Juliana; Genaro, Gelson; Quirke, Thomas; McCarthy, Shannen; McKeown, Sean; O'Riordan, Ruth

    2017-05-01

    Environmental enrichment is a well-known technique, which has been used to enhance the welfare of captive animals. The aim of this study is to investigate how three different forms of intrinsic enrichment, namely, a hay ball without scent, a hay ball with catnip, and a hay ball with cinnamon, influenced the behavior of six cheetah and two Sumatran tigers at Fota Wildlife Park, Ireland. Enrichment-directed behaviors, as well as pacing, locomotion, inactive, and exploratory behaviors were investigated. The results indicated that the three forms of enrichment had similar effects, in terms of enrichment-directed behavior, with cinnamon resulting in the highest levels of enrichment-directed behaviors. The cinnamon treatment resulted in a significant decrease in pacing behavior when compared with baseline observations. No evidence of habituation (i.e., a significant reduction in enrichment-directed behaviors) was observed for any of the three enrichments. This means that these low cost, easy to apply, practical forms of enrichment could be frequently applied for these species as part of an enrichment regime. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. High GC content causes orphan proteins to be intrinsically disordered.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Basile

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available De novo creation of protein coding genes involves the formation of short ORFs from noncoding regions; some of these ORFs might then become fixed in the population. These orphan proteins need to, at the bare minimum, not cause serious harm to the organism, meaning that they should for instance not aggregate. Therefore, although the creation of short ORFs could be truly random, the fixation should be subjected to some selective pressure. The selective forces acting on orphan proteins have been elusive, and contradictory results have been reported. In Drosophila young proteins are more disordered than ancient ones, while the opposite trend is present in yeast. To the best of our knowledge no valid explanation for this difference has been proposed. To solve this riddle we studied structural properties and age of proteins in 187 eukaryotic organisms. We find that, with the exception of length, there are only small differences in the properties between proteins of different ages. However, when we take the GC content into account we noted that it could explain the opposite trends observed for orphans in yeast (low GC and Drosophila (high GC. GC content is correlated with codons coding for disorder promoting amino acids. This leads us to propose that intrinsic disorder is not a strong determining factor for fixation of orphan proteins. Instead these proteins largely resemble random proteins given a particular GC level. During evolution the properties of a protein change faster than the GC level causing the relationship between disorder and GC to gradually weaken.

  8. DNA methylation supports intrinsic epigenetic memory in mammalian cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the role of DNA methylation in the initiation and maintenance of silenced chromatin in somatic mammalian cells. We found that a mutated transgene, in which all the CpG dinucleotides have been eliminated, underwent transcriptional silencing to the same extent as the unmodified transgene. These observations demonstrate that DNA methylation is not required for silencing. The silenced CpG-free transgene exhibited all the features of heterochromatin, including silencing of transcriptional activity, delayed DNA replication, lack of histone H3 and H4 acetylation, lack of H3-K4 methylation, and enrichment in tri-methyl-H3-K9. In contrast, when we tested for transgene reactivation using a Cre recombinase-mediated inversion assay, we observed a marked difference between a CpG-free and an unmodified transgene: the CpG-free transgene resumed transcription and did not exhibit markers of heterochromatin whereas the unmodified transgene remained silenced. These data indicate that methylation of CpG residues conferred epigenetic memory in this system. These results also suggest that replication delay, lack of histone H3 and H4 acetylation, H3-K4 methylation, and enrichment in tri-methyl-H3-K9 are not sufficient to confer epigenetic memory. We propose that DNA methylation within transgenes serves as an intrinsic epigenetic memory to permanently silence transgenes and prevent their reactivation.

  9. Transverse intrinsic localized modes in monatomic chain and in graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hizhnyakov, V. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ravila 14c, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Klopov, M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate 5, 19086 Tallinn (Estonia); Shelkan, A., E-mail: shell@ut.ee [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ravila 14c, 50411 Tartu (Estonia)

    2016-03-06

    In this paper an analytical and numerical study of anharmonic vibrations of monatomic chain and graphene in transverse (perpendicular) with respect to the chain/plane direction is presented. Due to the lack of odd anharmonicities and presence of hard quartic anharmonicity for displacements in this direction, there may exist localized anharmonic transverse modes with the frequencies above the spectrum of the corresponding phonons. Although these frequencies are in resonance with longitudinal (chain) or in-plane (graphene) phonons, the modes can decay only due to a weak anharmonic process. Therefore the lifetime of these vibrations may be very long. E.g. in the chain, according to our theoretical and numerical calculations it may exceed 10{sup 10} periods. We call these vibrations as transverse intrinsic localized modes. - Highlights: • In a stretched monatomic chain, long-living nonlinear transverse localized modes may exist. • Transverse vibrations of a chain slowly decay due to creation of longitudinal phonons. • Lifetime of transverse vibrations of a chain may exceed billion periods of vibrations. • In stretched graphene, long-living out-of-plain localized vibrations may exist.

  10. Techniques for intrinsically labeling wheat with /sup 65/Zn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starks, T.L.; Johnson, P.E.

    Several techniques of intrinsically labeling wheat with /sup 65/Zn were compared: stem injection of /sup 65/Zn, stem injection of /sup 65/Zn + ZnSO/sub 4/, foliar application of /sup 65/Zn, and the addition of /sup 65/Zn to a hydroponic solution. Incorporation levels of /sup 65/Zn into the grain were 62.6% stem injection, 45.2% stem-injected /sup 65/Zn + ZnSO/sub 4/, 57.5% foliar application, and 2.3% hydroponic solution. Four protein fractions were extracted from fat-free whole wheat flour. Distribution of /sup 65/Zn into the protein fractions for all treatments, was 8.5-20.3% in albumins and globulins, 47.4-60.3% in glutenins, 1-2.6% in gliadins, and 9.8-28.3% in the remaining proteins. Separation of the fractions by gel chromatography showed that protein and Zn distributions were similar among the treatments and when compared to the controls. Zinc-65 distribution was similar to the natural Zn distribution. These data illustrate that stem-injected /sup 65/Zn is incorporated in the same manner and ratios as Zn naturally utilized by wheat.

  11. Surface electromyography assessment of back muscle intrinsic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larivière, Christian; Arsenault, A Bertrand; Gravel, Denis; Gagnon, Denis; Loisel, Patrick

    2003-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess (1) the reliability and (2) the sensitivity to low back pain status and gender of different EMG indices developed for the assessment of back muscle weakness, muscle fiber composition and fatigability. Healthy subjects (men and women) and chronic low back pain patients (men only) performed, in a static dynamometer, maximal and submaximal static trunk extension tasks (short and long duration) to assess weakness, fiber composition and fatigue. Surface EMG signals were recorded from four (bilateral) pairs of back muscles and three pairs of abdominal muscles. To assess reliability of the different EMG parameters, 40 male volunteers (20 controls and 20 chronic low back pain patients) were assessed on three occasions. Reliable EMG indices were achieved for both healthy and chronic low back pain subjects when specific measurement strategies were applied. The EMG parameters used to quantify weakness and fiber composition were insensitive to low back status and gender. The EMG fatigue parameters did not detect differences between genders but unexpectedly, healthy men showed higher fatigability than back pain patients. This result was attributed to the smaller absolute load that was attributed to the patients, a load that was defined relative to their maximal strength, a problematic measure with this population. An attempt was made to predict maximal back strength from anthropometric measurements but this prediction was prone to errors. The main difficulties and some potential solutions related to the assessment of back muscle intrinsic properties were discussed.

  12. On the development of an intrinsic hybrid composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kießling, R; Ihlemann, J; Riemer, M; Drossel, W-G; Scharf, I; Lampke, T; Sharafiev, S; Pouya, M; Wagner, M F-X

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid parts, which combine low weight with high strength, are moving into the focus of the automotive industry, due to their high potential for usage in the field of crash-relevant structures. In this contribution, the development of an intrinsic hybrid composite is presented, with a focus on the manufacturing process, complex simulations of the material behaviour and material testing. The hybrid composite is made up of a continuous fibre- reinforced plastic (FRP), in which a metallic insert is integrated. The mechanical behaviour of the individual components is characterised. For material modelling, an approach is pointed out that enables modelling at large strains by directly connected rheological elements. The connection between the FRP and the metallic insert is realised by a combination of form fit and adhesive bonds. On the one hand, adhesive bonds are generated within a sol gel process. On the other hand, local form elements of the metallic insert are pressed into the FRP. We show how these form elements are generated during the macroscopic forming process. In addition, the applied sol gel process is explained. Finally, we consider design concepts for a specimen type for high strain testing of the resulting interfaces. (paper)

  13. Sex differences in intrinsic brain functional connectivity underlying human shyness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xun; Wang, Siqi; Kendrick, Keith Maurice; Wu, Xi; Yao, Li; Lei, Du; Kuang, Weihong; Bi, Feng; Huang, Xiaoqi; He, Yong; Gong, Qiyong

    2015-12-01

    Shyness is a fundamental trait associated with social-emotional maladaptive behaviors, including many forms of psychopathology. Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that hyper-responsivity to social and emotional stimuli occurs in the frontal cortex and limbic system in shy individuals, but the relationship between shyness and brain-wide functional connectivity remains incompletely understood. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, we addressed this issue by exploring the relationship between regional functional connectivity strength (rFCS) and scores of shyness in a cohort of 61 healthy young adults and controlling for the effects of social and trait anxiety scores. We observed that the rFCS of the insula positively correlated with shyness scores regardless of sex. Furthermore, we found that there were significant sex-by-shyness interactions in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and insula (two core nodes of the salience network) as well as the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex: the rFCS values of these regions positively correlated with shyness scores in females but negatively correlated in males. Taken together, we provide evidence for intrinsic functional connectivity differences in individuals with different degrees of shyness and that these differences are sex-dependent. These findings might have important implications on the understanding of biological mechanisms underlying emotional and cognitive processing associated with shyness. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Personality is reflected in the brain's intrinsic functional architecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan S Adelstein

    Full Text Available Personality describes persistent human behavioral responses to broad classes of environmental stimuli. Investigating how personality traits are reflected in the brain's functional architecture is challenging, in part due to the difficulty of designing appropriate task probes. Resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC can detect intrinsic activation patterns without relying on any specific task. Here we use RSFC to investigate the neural correlates of the five-factor personality domains. Based on seed regions placed within two cognitive and affective 'hubs' in the brain--the anterior cingulate and precuneus--each domain of personality predicted RSFC with a unique pattern of brain regions. These patterns corresponded with functional subdivisions responsible for cognitive and affective processing such as motivation, empathy and future-oriented thinking. Neuroticism and Extraversion, the two most widely studied of the five constructs, predicted connectivity between seed regions and the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and lateral paralimbic regions, respectively. These areas are associated with emotional regulation, self-evaluation and reward, consistent with the trait qualities. Personality traits were mostly associated with functional connections that were inconsistently present across participants. This suggests that although a fundamental, core functional architecture is preserved across individuals, variable connections outside of that core encompass the inter-individual differences in personality that motivate diverse responses.

  15. Mechanisms of polymyxin resistance: acquired and intrinsic resistance in bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiola Olumuyiwa Olaitan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Polymyxins are polycationic antimicrobial peptides that are currently the last-resort antibiotics for the treatment of multidrug-resistant, Gram-negative bacterial infections. The reintroduction of polymyxins for antimicrobial therapy has been followed by an increase in reports of resistance among Gram-negative bacteria. Some bacteria, such as Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii, develop resistance to polymyxins in a process referred to as acquired resistance, whereas other bacteria, such as Proteus spp., Serratia spp. and Burkholderia spp., are naturally resistant to these drugs. Reports of polymyxin resistance in clinical isolates have recently increased, including acquired and intrinsically resistant pathogens. This increase is considered a serious issue, prompting concern due to the low number of currently available effective antibiotics. This review summarizes current knowledge concerning the different strategies bacteria employ to resist the activities of polymyxins.Gram-negative bacteria employ several strategies to protect themselves from polymyxin antibiotics (polymyxin B and colistin, including a variety of lipopolysaccharide (LPS modifications, such as modifications of lipid A with phosphoethanolamine and 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose, in addition to the use of efflux pumps, the formation of capsules and overexpression of the outer membrane protein OprH, which are all effectively regulated at the molecular level. The increased understanding of these mechanisms is extremely vital and timely to facilitate studies of antimicrobial peptides and find new potential drugs targeting clinically relevant Gram-negative bacteria.

  16. The pace of aging: Intrinsic time scales in demography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Wrycza

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pace of aging is a concept that captures the time-related aspect of aging. It formalizesthe idea of a characteristic life span or intrinsic population time scale. In the rapidly developing field of comparative biodemography, measures that account for inter-speciesdifferences in life span are needed to compare how species age. Objective: We aim to provide a mathematical foundation for the concept of pace. We derive desiredmathematical properties of pace measures and suggest candidates which satisfy these properties. Subsequently, we introduce the concept of pace-standardization, which reveals differences in demographic quantities that are not due to pace. Examples and consequences are discussed. Conclusions: Mean life span (i.e., life expectancy from birth or from maturity is intuitively appealing,theoretically justified, and the most appropriate measure of pace. Pace-standardizationprovides a serviceable method for comparative aging studies to explore differences indemographic patterns of aging across species, and it may considerably alter conclusionsabout the strength of aging.

  17. Binding mechanisms of intrinsically disordered proteins: theory, simulation, and experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Mollica

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, protein science has been revolutionized by the discovery of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs. In contrast to the classical paradigm that a given protein sequence corresponds to a defined structure and an associated function, we now know that proteins can be functional in the absence of a stable three-dimensional structure. In many cases, disordered proteins or protein regions become structured, at least locally, upon interacting with their physiological partners. Many, sometimes conflicting, hypotheses have been put forward regarding the interaction mechanisms of IDPs and the potential advantages of disorder for protein-protein interactions. Whether disorder may increase, as proposed e.g. in the fly-casting hypothesis, or decrease binding rates, increase or decrease binding specificity, or what role pre-formed structure might play in interactions involving IDPs (conformational selection vs. induced fit, are subjects of intense debate. Experimentally, these questions remain difficult to address. Here, we review experimental studies of binding mechanisms of IDPs using NMR spectroscopy and transient kinetic techniques, as well as the underlying theoretical concepts and numerical methods that can be applied to describe these interactions at the atomic level. The available literature suggests that the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters characterizing interactions involving IDPs can vary widely and that there may be no single common mechanism that can explain the different binding modes observed experimentally. Rather, disordered proteins appear to make combined use of features such as pre-formed structure and flexibility, depending on the individual system and the functional context.

  18. submitter Measurement of LYSO Intrinsic Light Yield Using Electron Excitation

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez Turtos, Rosana; Pizzichemi, Marco; Ghezzi, Alessio; Pauwels, Kristof; Auffray, Etiennette; Lecoq, Paul; Paganoni, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The determination of the intrinsic light yield $(LY_{int})$ of scintillating crystals, i.e. number of optical photons created per amount of energy deposited, constitutes a key factor in order to characterize and optimize their energy and time resolution. However, until now measurements of this quantity are affected by large uncertainties and often rely on corrections for bulk absorption and surface/edge state. The novel idea presented in this contribution is based on the confinement of the scintillation emission in the central upper part of a 10 mm cubic crystal using a 1.5 MeV electron beam with diameter of 1 mm. A black non-reflective pinhole aligned with the excitation point is used to fix the light extraction solid angle (narrower than total reflection angle), which then sets a light cone travel path through the crystal. The final number of photoelectrons detected using a Hamamatsu R2059 photomultiplier tube (PMT) was corrected for the extraction solid angle, the Fresnel reflection coefficient and quantum...

  19. Novel diagnostic approaches and biological therapeutics for intrinsic asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vennera MC

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available María del Carmen Vennera,1–3 César Picado1–3 1Department of Pneumology and Respiratory Allergy, Hospital Clínic, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 2Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS, Barcelona, Spain; 3Centro de Investigaciones Biomédicas en Red de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES, Spain Abstract: Intrinsic asthma has been considered as a specific disease entity for a long time, although many controversies have emerged in relation to this concept. Of note, not finding specific allergen sensitization in an asthmatic patient neither excludes an allergic component nor the essential role that immunoglobulin E may play in asthma. The diagnostic approach should be similar in any patient suspected to have asthma. The atopic status is one among many other questions. Omalizumab, the only monoclonal anti-immunoglobulin E antibody commercialized for asthma, should be tried in patients with uncontrolled severe asthma independent of their atopic status. Keywords: nonatopic asthma, immunoglobulin E, omalizumab

  20. State-dependent intrinsic predictability of cortical network dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Fakhraei

    Full Text Available The information encoded in cortical circuit dynamics is fleeting, changing from moment to moment as new input arrives and ongoing intracortical interactions progress. A combination of deterministic and stochastic biophysical mechanisms governs how cortical dynamics at one moment evolve from cortical dynamics in recently preceding moments. Such temporal continuity of cortical dynamics is fundamental to many aspects of cortex function but is not well understood. Here we study temporal continuity by attempting to predict cortical population dynamics (multisite local field potential based on its own recent history in somatosensory cortex of anesthetized rats and in a computational network-level model. We found that the intrinsic predictability of cortical dynamics was dependent on multiple factors including cortical state, synaptic inhibition, and how far into the future the prediction extends. By pharmacologically tuning synaptic inhibition, we obtained a continuum of cortical states with asynchronous population activity at one extreme and stronger, spatially extended synchrony at the other extreme. Intermediate between these extremes we observed evidence for a special regime of population dynamics called criticality. Predictability of the near future (10-100 ms increased as the cortical state was tuned from asynchronous to synchronous. Predictability of the more distant future (>1 s was generally poor, but, surprisingly, was higher for asynchronous states compared to synchronous states. These experimental results were confirmed in a computational network model of spiking excitatory and inhibitory neurons. Our findings demonstrate that determinism and predictability of network dynamics depend on cortical state and the time-scale of the dynamics.