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Sample records for intrinsic tli surface

  1. Intrinsic and extrinsic geometry of random surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, T.

    1992-01-01

    We prove that the extrinsic Hausdorff dimension is always greater than or equal to the intrinsic Hausdorff dimension in models of triangulated random surfaces with action which is quadratic in the separation of vertices. We furthermore derive a few naive scaling relations which relate the intrinsic Hausdorff dimension to other critical exponents. These relations suggest that the intrinsic Hausdorff dimension is infinite if the susceptibility does not diverge at the critical point. (orig.)

  2. Intrinsic Diophantine approximation on general polynomial surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiljeset, Morten Hein

    2017-01-01

    We study the Hausdorff measure and dimension of the set of intrinsically simultaneously -approximable points on a curve, surface, etc, given as a graph of integer polynomials. We obtain complete answers to these questions for algebraically “nice” manifolds. This generalizes earlier work done...

  3. President Rüütli viis aastat

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Ülevaade president Arnold Rüütli viie ametisoldud aasta tegevusest. Vt. samas: Rainer Kerge intervjuud Ingrid Rüütliga; Urmo Soonvald. Presidendilossist lahkub ka Arnold Rüütli meeskond; Villu Reiljan. Kolm märksõna president Rüütli kohta; Lühilood president Rüütlist

  4. Characterization of the intrinsic density profiles for liquid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacon, Enrique; Tarazona, Pedro

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents recent advances in the characterization of the intrinsic structures in computer simulations of liquid surfaces. The use of operational definitions for the intrinsic surface, associated with each molecular configuration of a liquid slab, gives direct access to the intrinsic profile and to the wavevector dependent surface tension. However, the characteristics of these functions depend on the definition used for the intrinsic surface. We discuss the pathologies associated with a local Gibbs dividing surface definition, and consider the alternative definition of a minimal area surface, going though a set of surface pivots, self-consistently chosen to represent the first liquid layer

  5. Tahame Ilvest, saame Rüütli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    BNS-i tellimusel korraldatud OÜ Faktum & Ariko küsitluse kohaselt eelistab 37 protsenti vastanuist presidendina Toomas Hendrik Ilvest, president Arnold Rüütli toetajaid oli 27 protsenti. Lisa: Kes valiks keda. Allk.: BNS/LL

  6. Intrinsic geometry of biological surface growth

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Philip H

    1986-01-01

    1.1 General Introduction The work which comprises this essay formed part of a multidiscip­ linary project investigating the folding of the developing cerebral cortex in the ferret. The project as a whole combined a study, at the histological level, of the cytoarchitectural development concom­ itant with folding and a mathematical study of folding viewed from the perspective of differential geometry. We here concentrate on the differential geometry of brain folding. Histological results which have some significance to the geometry of the cortex are re­ ferred to, but are not discussed in any depth. As with any truly multidisciplinary work, this essay has objectives which lie in each of its constituent disciplines. From a neuroana­ tomical point of view, the work explores the use of the surface geo­ metry of the developing cortex as a parameter for the underlying growth process. Geometrical parameters of particular interest and theoretical importance are surface curvatures. Our experimental portion reports...

  7. Plastic-casting intrinsic-surface unique identifier (tag)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palm, R.G.; De Volpi, A.

    1995-04-01

    This report describes the development of an authenticated intrinsic-surf ace tagging method for unique- identification of controlled items. Although developed for control of items limited by an arms control treaty, this method has other potential applications to keep track of critical or high-value items. Each tag (unique-identifier) consists of the intrinsic, microscopic surface topography of a small designated area on a controlled item. It is implemented by making a baseline plastic casting of the designated tag area and usually placing a cover (for example, a bar-code label) over this area to protect the surface from environmental alteration. The plastic casting is returned to a laboratory and prepared for high-resolution scanning electron microscope imaging. Several images are digitized and stored for use as a standard for authentication of castings taken during future inspections. Authentication is determined by numerically comparing digital images. Commercially available hardware and software are used for this tag. Tag parameters are optimized, so unique casting images are obtained from original surfaces, and images obtained from attempted duplicate surfaces are detected. This optimization uses the modulation transfer function, a first principle of image analysis, to determine the parameters. Surface duplication experiments confirmed the optimization

  8. Immunosuppression and tolerance after total lymphoid irradiation (TLI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strober, S.; Gottlieb, M.; Slavin, S.; King, D.P.; Hoppe, R.T.; Fuks, Z.; Bieber, C.P.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1980-01-01

    The immunosuppressive effects of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) in humans and in several species of inbred and outbred laboratory animals have been investigated. A unique property of TLI, the prevention of the graft vs. host disease, was used to induce transplantation tolerance in order to study the mechanism of altered immunity when the celluar basis of the TLI-induced immunosuppression was examined by means of the mixed lymphocyte response (MLR), no suppression of the MLR was observed when spleen cells from unirradiated or whole body-irradiated donors were used instead of donors given TLI. These results indicated that TLI induces a population of cells in the spleen that can nonspecifically suppress the MLR

  9. Rüütli platsi konkursi võitsid tallinlased

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Pärnu Rüütli platsi ideekavandi konkursi esimese preemia (25 000 krooni) saavad Andrus Mark ja Jan Skolimowski (töö "Plaag-in"), teise preemia (10 000 krooni) saab Kristjan Naarits("Skulps"), kolmanda preemia (5000 krooni) saavad Ott Kadarik ja Rene Valner þ("Ookean")

  10. Kui punane oli Arnold Rüütli punaminevik / Toomas Kümmel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kümmel, Toomas

    2001-01-01

    EKP tippjuhtkonda kuulunud peatselt presidendi ametisse astuva Arnold Rüütli punaminevikust. Samas: Arnold Rüütli stiilinäiteid: 1987. a. avaldatud mõtted Eesti ajaloost ja 1989. a. eesti keelest

  11. An intrinsic algorithm for parallel Poisson disk sampling on arbitrary surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Xiang; Xin, Shi-Qing; Sun, Qian; He, Ying

    2013-09-01

    Poisson disk sampling has excellent spatial and spectral properties, and plays an important role in a variety of visual computing. Although many promising algorithms have been proposed for multidimensional sampling in euclidean space, very few studies have been reported with regard to the problem of generating Poisson disks on surfaces due to the complicated nature of the surface. This paper presents an intrinsic algorithm for parallel Poisson disk sampling on arbitrary surfaces. In sharp contrast to the conventional parallel approaches, our method neither partitions the given surface into small patches nor uses any spatial data structure to maintain the voids in the sampling domain. Instead, our approach assigns each sample candidate a random and unique priority that is unbiased with regard to the distribution. Hence, multiple threads can process the candidates simultaneously and resolve conflicts by checking the given priority values. Our algorithm guarantees that the generated Poisson disks are uniformly and randomly distributed without bias. It is worth noting that our method is intrinsic and independent of the embedding space. This intrinsic feature allows us to generate Poisson disk patterns on arbitrary surfaces in IR(n). To our knowledge, this is the first intrinsic, parallel, and accurate algorithm for surface Poisson disk sampling. Furthermore, by manipulating the spatially varying density function, we can obtain adaptive sampling easily.

  12. An Intrinsic Algorithm for Parallel Poisson Disk Sampling on Arbitrary Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Xiang; Xin, Shi-Qing; Sun, Qian; He, Ying

    2013-03-08

    Poisson disk sampling plays an important role in a variety of visual computing, due to its useful statistical property in distribution and the absence of aliasing artifacts. While many effective techniques have been proposed to generate Poisson disk distribution in Euclidean space, relatively few work has been reported to the surface counterpart. This paper presents an intrinsic algorithm for parallel Poisson disk sampling on arbitrary surfaces. We propose a new technique for parallelizing the dart throwing. Rather than the conventional approaches that explicitly partition the spatial domain to generate the samples in parallel, our approach assigns each sample candidate a random and unique priority that is unbiased with regard to the distribution. Hence, multiple threads can process the candidates simultaneously and resolve conflicts by checking the given priority values. It is worth noting that our algorithm is accurate as the generated Poisson disks are uniformly and randomly distributed without bias. Our method is intrinsic in that all the computations are based on the intrinsic metric and are independent of the embedding space. This intrinsic feature allows us to generate Poisson disk distributions on arbitrary surfaces. Furthermore, by manipulating the spatially varying density function, we can obtain adaptive sampling easily.

  13. Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in aplastic anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanashi, Syunji; Yamashita, Takashi; Mochizuki, Sachio; Hoshi, Masataka

    1985-01-01

    We used TLI as immunosuppression for BMT in a patient with aplastic anemia. He recieved high dose cyclophosphamide and single dose TLI with 750 cGy, 12 cGy/min at his midplane, and bone marrow from HLA-matched twin brother. He is surviving without complications at 15 months. This procedure is well tolerated regimen. (author)

  14. Kadriorg ostis 115 500 krooni eest president Rüütli raamatuid / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees: na russkom jazõke 14. juuni, lk. 4. Presidendi kantselei ostis 500 eksemplari raamatut " Eesti Vabariigi president Arnold Rüütel", mis kajastab president Arnold Rüütli senist ametitegevust. Samas ka: Väljavõtteid president Rüütli elulooraamatust

  15. Maandatud pinged igavas provintsiriigis - Arnold Rüütli viis aastat Kadriorus / Ivar Tallo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tallo, Ivar, 1964-

    2006-01-01

    Avaliku halduse ekspert analüüsib president Arnold Rüütli tegevust. Võrdlus president Lennart Meriga. Presidendi kantseleist. Vt. samas: Eesti Vabariigi president on meie põhiseaduse järgi Eesti riigipea, kellel on 20 konkreetset ametiülesannet. Lisa: President Rüütli tähtsamad abilised esimesel ametiajal

  16. Kadriorg ostis 115 500 krooni eest president Rüütli raamatuid / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2006-01-01

    Vt. ka Postimees : na russkom jazõke 14. juuni lk. 4. Presidendi kantselei on ostnud 500 president Arnold Rüütli seniseid ametiaastaid kajastava raamatut "Eesti Vabariigi President Arnold Rüütel", mille algtiraazh on 850 eksemplari, makstes nende eest üle saja tuhande krooni. Vt. samas: Väljavõtteid president Rüütli elulooraamatust

  17. Rüütli valimist presidendiks peab õigeks kolmveerand rahvast / Rasmus Kagge

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kagge, Rasmus

    2001-01-01

    Uuringufirma Emor küsitlusest selgus, et 74% Eesti elanikest peab Rüütli valimist presidendiks õigeks. Tabel: Rahva toetus ja ootused Rüütlile on kõrged. A. Rüütli tugevad ja nõrgad küljed. Ilmunud ka lüh. Meie Maa (2001/Oct/23) lk. 2

  18. Intrinsic anomalous surface roughening of TiN films deposited by reactive sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auger, M. A.; Vazquez, L.; Sanchez, O.; Cuerno, R.; Castro, M.; Jergel, M.

    2006-01-01

    We study surface kinetic roughening of TiN films grown on Si(100) substrates by dc reactive sputtering. The surface morphology of films deposited for different growth times under the same experimental conditions were analyzed by atomic force microscopy. The TiN films exhibit intrinsic anomalous scaling and multiscaling. The film kinetic roughening is characterized by a set of local exponent values α loc =1.0 and β loc =0.39, and global exponent values α=1.7 and β=0.67, with a coarsening exponent of 1/z=0.39. These properties are correlated to the local height-difference distribution function obeying power-law statistics. We associate this intrinsic anomalous scaling with the instability due to nonlocal shadowing effects that take place during thin-film growth by sputtering

  19. Intrinsic stress evolution during amorphous oxide film growth on Al surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flötotto, D.; Wang, Z. M.; Jeurgens, L. P. H.; Mittemeijer, E. J.

    2014-01-01

    The intrinsic stress evolution during formation of ultrathin amorphous oxide films on Al(111) and Al(100) surfaces by thermal oxidation at room temperature was investigated in real-time by in-situ substrate curvature measurements and detailed atomic-scale microstructural analyses. During thickening of the oxide a considerable amount of growth stresses is generated in, remarkably even amorphous, ultrathin Al 2 O 3 films. The surface orientation-dependent stress evolutions during O adsorption on the bare Al surfaces and during subsequent oxide-film growth can be interpreted as a result of (i) adsorption-induced surface stress changes and (ii) competing processes of free volume generation and structural relaxation, respectively

  20. Üle poole rahvast toetab Rüütli teist ametiaega

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    BNS/Faktumi korraldatud telefoniküsitluse andmetel toetaksid enam kui pooled inimesed president Arnold Rüütli kandideerimist teiseks ametiajaks 2006. aastal. Lisa: Eelistatuimad presidendikandidaadid. Ilmunud ka Pärnu Postimees, 2005/May/25, lk. 7

  1. Presidendi kantselei tellis Arnold Rüütli büsti / Kadri Paas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paas, Kadri, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Presidendi kantselei sõlmis kunstnik Endel Tanilooga 31. oktoobril 2007 lepingu president Arnold Rüütli pronksbüsti tegemiseks. Kuju valmib 2008. a. jaanuaris ja paigutatakse tulevikus kantselei roosiaeda

  2. Solvent extraction of Tl(I) with 2-mercaptobenzothiazole into chloroform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itawi, R.K.; Turel, Z.R.

    1984-01-01

    The extraction of Tl(I) with 2-mercaptobenzothiazole into chloroform was studied. The effect of various parameters on the extraction coefficient value was evaluated. The stoichiometry of the extracted species obtained from the substoichiometric extraction was found to be 1:1. This was further supported by the slope ratio method. Decontamination factors of a number of elements in the substoichiometric extraction of Tl(I) were also obtained. (author)

  3. Excellent Silicon Surface Passivation Achieved by Industrial Inductively Coupled Plasma Deposited Hydrogenated Intrinsic Amorphous Silicon Suboxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Ge

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an alternative method of depositing a high-quality passivation film for heterojunction silicon wafer solar cells, in this paper. The deposition of hydrogenated intrinsic amorphous silicon suboxide is accomplished by decomposing hydrogen, silane, and carbon dioxide in an industrial remote inductively coupled plasma platform. Through the investigation on CO2 partial pressure and process temperature, excellent surface passivation quality and optical properties are achieved. It is found that the hydrogen content in the film is much higher than what is commonly reported in intrinsic amorphous silicon due to oxygen incorporation. The observed slow depletion of hydrogen with increasing temperature greatly enhances its process window as well. The effective lifetime of symmetrically passivated samples under the optimal condition exceeds 4.7 ms on planar n-type Czochralski silicon wafers with a resistivity of 1 Ωcm, which is equivalent to an effective surface recombination velocity of less than 1.7 cms−1 and an implied open-circuit voltage (Voc of 741 mV. A comparison with several high quality passivation schemes for solar cells reveals that the developed inductively coupled plasma deposited films show excellent passivation quality. The excellent optical property and resistance to degradation make it an excellent substitute for industrial heterojunction silicon solar cell production.

  4. A surface evolution scheme to identify nanoscale intrinsic geometry from AFM experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Hong-Lae; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Park, Youmie; Cho, Seonho

    2013-01-01

    The geometrical properties of metallic nanoparticles such as the size and morphology have significant impacts on the structure and stability of the adsorbed biological entities as well as the nanoscale structural performances. To identify the nanoscale intrinsic geometry from the height images by atomic force microscopy (AFM), we developed a curvature-dependent evolution scheme that can eliminate the noise and smoothen the surfaces. The principal curvatures are computed directly from the first and second derivatives of the discrete AFM height data. The principal curvatures and directions correspond to the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of shape operator matrix, respectively. The evolution equation using the principal curvature flows smoothens the images in the corresponding principal directions. For an idealized model, κ 2 flow successfully identifies the major valley lines to represent the boundary of nanoparticles without referring to the phase information, whereas the mean curvature flow eliminates all the minor ones leaving only the major feature of the boundary. To demonstrate the capability of noise removal, smoothing surfaces, the identification of ridge and valley lines, and the extraction of intrinsic geometry, the developed numerical scheme is applied to real AFM data that include the silver nanoparticles of 24 nm diameter and the gold nanoparticles of 33–56 nm diameters

  5. Intrinsic two-dimensional states on the pristine surface of tellurium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengke; Appelbaum, Ian

    2018-05-01

    Atomic chains configured in a helical geometry have fascinating properties, including phases hosting localized bound states in their electronic structure. We show how the zero-dimensional state—bound to the edge of a single one-dimensional helical chain of tellurium atoms—evolves into two-dimensional bands on the c -axis surface of the three-dimensional trigonal bulk. We give an effective Hamiltonian description of its dispersion in k space by exploiting confinement to a virtual bilayer, and elaborate on the diminished role of spin-orbit coupling. These intrinsic gap-penetrating surface bands were neglected in the interpretation of seminal experiments, where two-dimensional transport was otherwise attributed to extrinsic accumulation layers.

  6. Protective capping of topological surface states of intrinsically insulating Bi2Te3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Hoefer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We have identified epitaxially grown elemental Te as a capping material that is suited to protect the topological surface states of intrinsically insulating Bi2Te3. By using angle-resolved photoemission, we were able to show that the Te overlayer leaves the dispersive bands of the surface states intact and that it does not alter the chemical potential of the Bi2Te3 thin film. From in-situ four-point contact measurements, we observed that the conductivity of the capped film is still mainly determined by the metallic surface states and that the contribution of the capping layer is minor. Moreover, the Te overlayer can be annealed away in vacuum to produce a clean Bi2Te3 surface in its pristine state even after the exposure of the capped film to air. Our findings will facilitate well-defined and reliable ex-situ experiments on the properties of Bi2Te3 surface states with nontrivial topology.

  7. Immunosuppression prior to marrow transplantation for sensitized aplastic anemia patients: comparison of TLI with TBI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shank, B.; Brochstein, J.A.; Castro-Malaspina, H.; Yahalom, J.; Bonfiglio, P.; O'Reilly, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    From May 1980 through July 1986, 26 patients with severe aplastic anemia, sensitized with multiple transfusions of blood products, were treated on either of two immunosuppressive regimens in preparation for bone marrow transplantation from a matched donor. There were 10 patients treated with total body irradiation (TBI), 200 cGy/fraction X 4 daily fractions (800 cGy total dose), followed by cyclophosphamide, 60 mg/kg/d X 2 d. An additional 16 patients were treated with total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) [or, if they were infants, a modified TLI or thoracoabdominal irradiation (TAI)], 100 cGy/fraction, 3 fractions/d X 2 d (600 cGy total dose), followed by cyclophosphamide, 40 mg/kg/d X 4 d. The extent of immunosuppression was similar in both groups as measured by peripheral blood lymphocyte depression at the completion of the course of irradiation (5% of initial concentration for TBI and 24% for TLI), neutrophil engraftment (10/10 for TBI and 15/16 for TLI), and time to neutrophil engraftment (median of 22 d for TBI and 17 d for TLI). Marrow and peripheral blood cytogenetic analysis for assessment of percent donor cells was also compared in those patients in whom it was available. 2/2 patients studied with TBI had 100% donor cells, whereas 6/11 with TLI had 100% donor cells. Of the five who did not, three were stable mixed chimeras with greater than or equal to 70% donor cells, one became a mixed chimera with about 50% donor cells, but became aplastic again after Cyclosporine A cessation 5 mo post-transplant, and the fifth reverted to all host cells by d. 18 post-transplant. Overall actuarial survival at 2 years was 56% in the TLI group compared with 30% in the TBI group although this was not statistically significant. No survival decrement has been seen after 2 years in either group

  8. Alloying Au surface with Pd reduces the intrinsic activity in catalyzing CO oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Qian, Kun

    2016-03-30

    © 2016. Various Au-Pd/SiO2 catalysts with a fixed Au loading but different Au:Pd molar ratios were prepared via deposition-precipitation method followed by H2 reduction. The structures were characterized and the catalytic activities in CO oxidation were evaluated. The formation of Au-Pd alloy particles was identified. The Au-Pd alloy particles exhibit enhanced dispersions on SiO2 than Au particles. Charge transfer from Pd to Au within Au-Pd alloy particles. Isolated Pd atoms dominate the surface of Au-Pd alloy particles with large Au:Pd molar ratios while contiguous Pd atoms dominate the surface of Au-Pd alloy particles with small Au:Pd molar ratios. Few synergetic effect of Au-Pd alloy occurs on catalyzing CO oxidation under employed reaction conditions. Alloying Au with Pd reduces the intrinsic activity in catalyzing CO oxidation, and contiguous Pd atoms on the Au-Pd alloy particles are capable of catalyzing CO oxidation while isolated Pd atoms are not. These results advance the fundamental understandings of Au-Pd alloy surfaces in catalyzing CO oxidation.

  9. Doubly Reentrant Cavities Prevent Catastrophic Wetting Transitions on Intrinsically Wetting Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Domingues, Eddy

    2017-06-05

    Omniphobic surfaces, i.e. which repel all known liquids, have proven of value in applications ranging from membrane distillation to underwater drag reduction. A limitation of currently employed omniphobic surfaces is that they rely on perfluorinated coatings, increasing cost and environmental impact, and preventing applications in harsh environments. There is, thus, a keen interest in rendering conventional materials, such as plastics, omniphobic by micro/nano-texturing rather than via chemical make-up, with notable success having been achieved for silica surfaces with doubly reentrant micropillars. However, we found a critical limitation of microtextures comprising of pillars that they undergo catastrophic wetting transitions (apparent contact angles, θr → 0° from θr > 90°) in the presence of localized physical damages/defects or on immersion in wetting liquids. In response, a doubly reentrant cavity microtexture is introduced, which can prevent catastrophic wetting transitions in the presence of localized structural damage/defects or on immersion in wetting liquids. Remarkably, our silica surfaces with doubly reentrant cavities could exhibited apparent contact angles, θr ≈ 135° for mineral oil, where the intrinsic contact angle, θo ≈ 20°. Further, when immersed in mineral oil or water, doubly reentrant microtextures in silica (θo ≈ 40° for water) were not penetrated even after several days of investigation. Thus, microtextures comprising of doubly reentrant cavities might enable applications of conventional materials without chemical modifications, especially in scenarios that are prone to localized damages or immersion in wetting liquids, e.g. hydrodynamic drag reduction and membrane distillation.

  10. Kidney allograft tolerance in diabetic patients after total lymphoid irradiation (TLI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ang, K.K.; Vanrenterighem, Y.; Waer, M.; Michielsen, P.; Schueren, E. van der (University Hospital St. Rafael, Leuven (Belgium)); Vandeputte, M. (Louvain Univ. (Belgium). Rega Institute for Medical Research)

    1985-04-01

    The value of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) combined with low dose prednisone as sole immunosuppressive regimen in renal allograft transplantation in humans has been investigated. Seventeen patients with end-stage diabetic nephropathy received TLI to a cumulative dose of 20-30 Gy in fractions of 1 Gy. Cadaver kidneys were grafted as soon as they were available after completion of TLI. Profound and long-term immunosuppression has been achieved in 17 patients. Six patients live already more than one year and 7 for less than one year with a functioning kidney graft. One patient returned to chronic hemodialysis 11 months after transplantation and died of pericardial tamponade one month later. One patient had severe acute rejection for which cyclosporine A was administered; he died of septic shock as a consequence of immune deficiency a month later. The other two patients succumbed to other causes (myocardial infarction and hyperglycemia).

  11. On the intrinsic timescales of temporal variability in measurements of the surface solar radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengulescu, Marc; Blanc, Philippe; Wald, Lucien

    2018-01-01

    This study is concerned with the intrinsic temporal scales of the variability in the surface solar irradiance (SSI). The data consist of decennial time series of daily means of the SSI obtained from high-quality measurements of the broadband solar radiation impinging on a horizontal plane at ground level, issued from different Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) ground stations around the world. First, embedded oscillations sorted in terms of increasing timescales of the data are extracted by empirical mode decomposition (EMD). Next, Hilbert spectral analysis is applied to obtain an amplitude-modulation-frequency-modulation (AM-FM) representation of the data. The time-varying nature of the characteristic timescales of variability, along with the variations in the signal intensity, are thus revealed. A novel, adaptive null hypothesis based on the general statistical characteristics of noise is employed in order to discriminate between the different features of the data, those that have a deterministic origin and those being realizations of various stochastic processes. The data have a significant spectral peak corresponding to the yearly variability cycle and feature quasi-stochastic high-frequency variability components, irrespective of the geographical location or of the local climate. Moreover, the amplitude of this latter feature is shown to be modulated by variations in the yearly cycle, which is indicative of nonlinear multiplicative cross-scale couplings. The study has possible implications on the modeling and the forecast of the surface solar radiation, by clearly discriminating the deterministic from the quasi-stochastic character of the data, at different local timescales.

  12. Enam kui pool eestlastest peab Rüütli otsust õigeks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    President Arnold Rüütli otsust mitte sõita 9. mail Moskvasse peab õigeks 61 protsensti eestlastest ja kõigest 6,1 protsensti mitteeestlastest. Kommentaarid Tartu Ülikooli politoloogiaosakonna teadurilt Vello Pettai'lt ja sotsioloog Andrus Saar'elt

  13. Johannes Hindi abil Arnold Rüütli vastu / Aare Vets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vets, Aare

    2006-01-01

    President Arnold Rüütli vastastest rünnakutest presidendivalimiste kampaanias, näitena Eesti Ekspressis ilmunud artikkel, mille järgi Arnold Rüütel on vastutav Johannes Hindi vangistamises. J. Hindi tegevusest silikaltsiidi tootmisel ja Desintegraatori direktorina, kriminaalasja algatamisest ja karistamisest Eesti NSV-s

  14. Ando Lepsi sõnavõtt Arnold Rüütli juubelil / Ando Leps

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leps, Ando, 1935-

    2008-01-01

    10. mail 2008 Eesti Rahvusraamatukogu konverentsisaalis Rahvusliku Arengu Fondi ettekandehommikul peetud tervituskõne president Arnold Rüütli 80. sünnipäeva puhul. Kõnes saavad kriitika osaliseks presidendid Konstantin Päts, Lennart Meri ja Toomas Hendrik Ilves

  15. Molecular modeling and in silico characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis TlyA: Possible misannotation of this tubercle bacilli-hemolysin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vizcaíno Carolina

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The TlyA protein has a controversial function as a virulence factor in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis. At present, its dual activity as hemolysin and RNA methyltransferase in M. tuberculosis has been indirectly proposed based on in vitro results. There is no evidence however for TlyA relevance in the survival of tubercle bacilli inside host cells or whether both activities are functionally linked. A thorough analysis of structure prediction for this mycobacterial protein in this study shows the need for reevaluating TlyA's function in virulence. Results Bioinformatics analysis of TlyA identified a ribosomal protein binding domain (S4 domain, located between residues 5 and 68 as well as an FtsJ-like methyltranferase domain encompassing residues 62 and 247, all of which have been previously described in translation machinery-associated proteins. Subcellular localization prediction showed that TlyA lacks a signal peptide and its hydrophobicity profile showed no evidence of transmembrane helices. These findings suggested that it may not be attached to the membrane, which is consistent with a cytoplasmic localization. Three-dimensional modeling of TlyA showed a consensus structure, having a common core formed by a six-stranded β-sheet between two α-helix layers, which is consistent with an RNA methyltransferase structure. Phylogenetic analyses showed high conservation of the tlyA gene among Mycobacterium species. Additionally, the nucleotide substitution rates suggested purifying selection during tlyA gene evolution and the absence of a common ancestor between TlyA proteins and bacterial pore-forming proteins. Conclusion Altogether, our manual in silico curation suggested that TlyA is involved in ribosomal biogenesis and that there is a functional annotation error regarding this protein family in several microbial and plant genomes, including the M. tuberculosis genome.

  16. Interannual Variation of Surface Circulation in the Japan/East Sea due to External Forcings and Intrinsic Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Byoung-Ju; Cho, Seong Hun; Jung, Hee Seok; Lee, Sang-Ho; Byun, Do-Seong; Kwon, Kyungman

    2018-03-01

    The interannual variation of surface ocean currents can be as large as seasonal variation in the Japan/East Sea (JES). To identify the major factors that cause such interannual variability of surface ocean circulation in the JES, surface circulation was simulated from 1998 to 2009 using a three-dimensional model. Contributions of atmospheric forcing (ATM), open boundary data (OBC), and intrinsic variability (ITV) of the surface flow in the JES on the interannual variability of surface ocean circulation were separately examined using numerical simulations. Variability in surface circulation was quantified in terms of variance in sea surface height, 100-m depth water temperature, and surface currents. ITV was found to be the dominant factor that induced interannual variabilities of surface circulation, the main path of the East Korea Warm Current (EKWC), and surface kinetic energy on a time scale of 2-4 years. OBC and ATM were secondary factors contributing to the interannual variation of surface circulation. Interannual variation of ATM changed the separation latitude of EKWC and increased the variability of surface circulation in the Ulleung Basin. Interannual variation of OBC enhanced low-frequency changes in surface circulation and eddies in the Yamato Basin. It also modulated basin-wide uniform oscillations of sea level. This study suggests that precise estimation of initial conditions using data assimilation is essential for long-term prediction of surface circulation in the JES.

  17. Use of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) in studies of the T cell dependence of autoantibody production in rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanay, A.; Strober, S.; Logue, G.L.; Schiffman, G.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) on T cell-dependent and -independent humoral immune responses was studied in patients with intractable rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The serum levels of several autoantibodies and of antibodies to diphtheria (DT) and tetanus (TT) toxoids and to pneumococcal polysaccharide (PPS; 12 antigenic types) were studied before and after TLI. In addition, the patients were given a booster injection of DT and TT and a single injection of pneumococcal vaccine after radiotherapy. Antibody levels to DT and TT decreased about twofold after TLI and did not rise significantly after a booster injection. However, there was no reduction in antibody levels to PPS after TLI, and a significant rise in titers was observed after a single vaccination. The serum levels of rheumatoid factor (RF), anti-nuclear antibody (ANA), and granulocyte associated IgG rose slightly after TLI. Thus, the autoantibodies and antibodies to polysaccharides appear to be relatively independent of helper T cell function, which is markedly reduced after TLI. On the other hand, antibodies to protein antigens such as DT and TT appear to be more closely dependent upon T helper function in man, as has been reported in rodents. The findings suggest that T cell-independent autoantibody responses alone do not maintain the joint disease activity in RA, because improvement in joint disease after TLI has been reported

  18. Putin kutsus Rüütli järgmise aasta 9. maiks Moskvasse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Venemaa president Vladimir Putin kutsus president Arnold Rüütli järgmise aasta 9. maiks Moskvasse, kus toimuvad natsi-Saksamaa üle saavutatud võidu 60. aastapäeva üritused. Ilmunud ka Hiiu Leht, 2004/Aug/24, lk. 1 ; Virumaa Teataja, 2004/Aug/24, lk. 1 ; Koit, 2004/Aug/24, lk. 2 ; Põhjarannik, 2004/Aug/24, lk. 3

  19. The neutron diffraction of molten TlCl, TlBr, and TlI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satow, T.; Uemura, O.; Hoshino, K.; Watanabe, T.

    1984-01-01

    Structure factors S(K) for liquid TlCl, TlBr, and TlI are determined by neutron diffraction measurements. Atomic radial distribution functions (RDF) derived from S(K) are presented. All RDF values are slightly smaller than those of their solid state counter parts. Results show that TlX has a tendency not to retain cesium-chloride type local order, but to take sodium-chloride type order when melting

  20. Effect of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and donor bone marrow (BM) on islet transplantation in baboons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, J.R.; Smit, J.A.; Myburgh, M.A.; Bell, P.R.F.

    1981-01-01

    The susceptibility of isolated islet allografts to rejection and the limited success of established immunosuppressive technique in influencing it is well known. However, the recent demonstration of the efficacy of TLI and BM in the induction of transplantation tolerance has been a major advance. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of similar irradiation schedules on the prolongation of islet allograft survival in the same animal model

  1. Tülli pööranud riigijuhid arutavad Rüütli kutsel armeereformi / Kai Kalamees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalamees, Kai

    2003-01-01

    President Arnold Rüütli kutsel koguneb Kadriorus riigikaitsenõukogu, et otsida ühist keelt armeereformi küsimuses, mis on lükanud eri leeridesse nii poliitikud kui militaarspetsialistid. Kommenteerib presidendi pressiesindaja Kaidi Aher

  2. Riemannian metric optimization on surfaces (RMOS) for intrinsic brain mapping in the Laplace-Beltrami embedding space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahm, Jin Kyu; Shi, Yonggang

    2018-05-01

    Surface mapping methods play an important role in various brain imaging studies from tracking the maturation of adolescent brains to mapping gray matter atrophy patterns in Alzheimer's disease. Popular surface mapping approaches based on spherical registration, however, have inherent numerical limitations when severe metric distortions are present during the spherical parameterization step. In this paper, we propose a novel computational framework for intrinsic surface mapping in the Laplace-Beltrami (LB) embedding space based on Riemannian metric optimization on surfaces (RMOS). Given a diffeomorphism between two surfaces, an isometry can be defined using the pullback metric, which in turn results in identical LB embeddings from the two surfaces. The proposed RMOS approach builds upon this mathematical foundation and achieves general feature-driven surface mapping in the LB embedding space by iteratively optimizing the Riemannian metric defined on the edges of triangular meshes. At the core of our framework is an optimization engine that converts an energy function for surface mapping into a distance measure in the LB embedding space, which can be effectively optimized using gradients of the LB eigen-system with respect to the Riemannian metrics. In the experimental results, we compare the RMOS algorithm with spherical registration using large-scale brain imaging data, and show that RMOS achieves superior performance in the prediction of hippocampal subfields and cortical gyral labels, and the holistic mapping of striatal surfaces for the construction of a striatal connectivity atlas from substantia nigra. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Mycobacterium tuberculosis TlyA Protein Negatively Regulates T Helper (Th) 1 and Th17 Differentiation and Promotes Tuberculosis Pathogenesis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Aejazur; Sobia, Parveen; Dwivedi, Ved Prakash; Bhawsar, Aakansha; Singh, Dhiraj Kumar; Sharma, Pawan; Moodley, Prashini; Van Kaer, Luc; Bishai, William R; Das, Gobardhan

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, is an ancient pathogen and a major cause of death worldwide. Although various virulence factors of M. tuberculosis have been identified, its pathogenesis remains incompletely understood. TlyA is a virulence factor in several bacterial infections and is evolutionarily conserved in many Gram-positive bacteria, but its function in M. tuberculosis pathogenesis has not been elucidated. Here, we report that TlyA significantly contributes to the pathogenesis of M. tuberculosis. We show that a TlyA mutant M. tuberculosis strain induces increased IL-12 and reduced IL-1β and IL-10 cytokine responses, which sharply contrasts with the immune responses induced by wild type M. tuberculosis. Furthermore, compared with wild type M. tuberculosis, TlyA-deficient M. tuberculosis bacteria are more susceptible to autophagy in macrophages. Consequently, animals infected with the TlyA mutant M. tuberculosis organisms exhibited increased host-protective immune responses, reduced bacillary load, and increased survival compared with animals infected with wild type M. tuberculosis. Thus, M. tuberculosis employs TlyA as a host evasion factor, thereby contributing to its virulence. PMID:25847237

  4. Comparison of the immunosuppressive effect of fractionated total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) vs conventional immunosuppression (CI) in renal cadaveric allotransplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waer, M.; Vanrenterghem, Y.; Ang, K.K.; van der Schueren, E.; Michielsen, P.; Vandeputte, M.

    1984-01-01

    Beginning in November 1981, eight patients with end stage diabetic nephropathy underwent renal cadaveric transplantation after TLI. Transplantation was done between 2 to 11 days after the end of a fractionated TLI to a total dose of 20 to 30 Gy. During the same observation period, 60 nondiabetic patients with end stage renal disease of different origin also received a cadaveric kidney graft, with a conventional regimen of immunosuppression that consists of anti-lymphocyte-globulin, tapering high doses of prednisone, and azathioprine. Phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-, concanavalin A (con A)-, and pokeweed mitogen (PWM)-induced blastogenesis, as well as the mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) and the cell-mediated lympholysis (CML) decreased progressively during the first months after conventional immunosuppression to 50% of the pretransplantation level, and remained there for the first year after transplantation. These tests were much more impaired after TLI and again no recovery occurred during the first year. In the clinic, the more profound immunosuppression in TLI patients was more frequently associated with viral infections (cytomegalovirus and herpes zoster). The incidence of rejections, however, was somewhat less frequent in the TLI-treated group and occurred significantly later. After TLI, the mean cumulative dose of steroids needed for kidney transplantation during the first year after transplantation could be substantially reduced

  5. Intrinsic conduction through topological surface states of insulating Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} epitaxial thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoefer, Katharina; Becker, Christoph; Rata, Diana; Thalmeier, Peter; Tjeng, Liu Hao [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Dresden (Germany); Swanson, Jesse [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Dresden (Germany); University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    Topological insulators represent a new state of matter that open up new opportunities to create unique quantum particles. Many exciting experiments have been proposed by theory, yet, the main obstacle for their execution is material quality and cleanliness of the experimental conditions. The presence of tiny amounts of defects in the bulk or contaminants at the surface already mask these phenomena. We present the preparation, structural and spectroscopic characterisation of MBE-grown Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} thin films that are insulating in the bulk. Moreover, temperature dependent four-point-probe resistivity measurements of the Dirac states on surfaces that are intrinsically clean were conducted. The total amount of surface charge carries is in the order of 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2} and mobilities up to 4600 cm{sup 2}/Vs are observed. Importantly, these results are achieved by carrying out the preparation and characterisation all in-situ under ultra-high-vacuum conditions.

  6. Over a Decade of recA and tly Gene Sequence Typing of the Skin Bacterium Propionibacterium acnes: What Have We Learnt?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew McDowell

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Gram-positive, anaerobic bacterium Propionibacterium acnes forms part of the normal microbiota on human skin and mucosal surfaces. While normally associated with skin health, P. acnes is also an opportunistic pathogen linked with a range of human infections and clinical conditions. Over the last decade, our knowledge of the intraspecies phylogenetics and taxonomy of this bacterium has increased tremendously due to the introduction of DNA typing schemes based on single and multiple gene loci, as well as whole genomes. Furthermore, this work has led to the identification of specific lineages associated with skin health and human disease. In this review we will look back at the introduction of DNA sequence typing of P. acnes based on recA and tly loci, and then describe how these methods provided a basic understanding of the population genetic structure of the bacterium, and even helped characterize the grapevine-associated lineage of P. acnes, known as P. acnes type Zappe, which appears to have undergone a host switch from humans-to-plants. Particular limitations of recA and tly sequence typing will also be presented, as well as a detailed discussion of more recent, higher resolution, DNA-based methods to type P. acnes and investigate its evolutionary history in greater detail.

  7. Probing the intrinsically oil-wet surfaces of pores in North Sea chalk at subpore resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassenkam, Tue; Skovbjerg, Lone Lindbæk; Stipp, Susan Louise Svane

    2009-01-01

    been drilled in a water-bearing formation. At this site, the chalk has never seen oil, though at other locations, the same stratigraphic horizon with the same rock properties is known to be a productive oil reservoir. Thus the properties of the investigated particle surfaces are inherent to the chalk......Ultimate Oil recovery from chalk reservoirs is limited by many factors - including the grain size and the surface properties of the small mainly biogenic calcite particles that chalk is made off . Wettability, the tendency for water or oil to spread over a surface, of the particle surfaces is one...... of the controlling factors for the effectiveness of water flooding, one of the most common methods to improve oil recovery in Chalk reservoirs. Understanding surface wetting and its variability at scales smaller than the pore dimension will potentially provide clues for more effective oil production methods. We used...

  8. Resistance to mycobacteria in mice treated with fractionated total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and in mice reconstituted with allogeneic bone marrow cells following radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mor, N.; Lutsky, I.; Weiss, L.; Morecki, S.; Slavin, S.

    1985-01-01

    The increased clinical use of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) as an immunosuppressive adjunct in transplantation suggested the need for determining the effects of TLI on the in vivo susceptibility of animals to infections controlled by cell-mediated immunity. TLI-treated, TLI-treated and splenectomized, and chimeric mice prepared with TLI were inoculated in the hind foot pad with Mycobacterium marinum or Mycobacterium leprae. Although M. marinum organisms multiplied in greater numbers in the TLI mice, ultimately they were destroyed as effectively in TLI mice as in the non-irradiated control mice. M. leprae multiplied at the same rate and to the same maximum in TLI mice as in controls. Mice previously challenged with M. marinum in one hind foot pad, and challenged subsequently with the same organism in the opposite hind foot pad, showed a solid immunity against this reinfection. It appears that upon recovery from the immediate effects of radiotherapy TLI-treated mice are able to mount an effective immune response to experimental infection with M. marinum and M. leprae

  9. Resistance to mycobacteria in mice treated with fractionated total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and in mice reconstituted with allogeneic bone marrow cells following radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mor, N.; Lutsky, I.; Weiss, L.; Morecki, S.; Slavin, S.

    1985-01-01

    The increased clinical use of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) as an immunosuppressive adjunct in transplantation suggested the need for determining the effects of TLI on the in vivo susceptibility of animals to infections controlled by cell-mediated immunity. TLI-treated, TLI-treated and splenectomized, and chimeric mice prepared with TLI were inoculated in the hind foot pad with Mycobacterium marinum or Mycobacterium leprae. Although M. marinum organisms multiplied in greater numbers in the TLI mice, ultimately they were destroyed as effectively in TLI mice as in the non-irradiated control mice. M. leprae multiplied at the same rate and to the same maximum in TLI mice as in controls. Mice previously challenged with M. marinum in one hind foot pad, and challenged subsequently with the same organism in the opposite hind foot pad, showed a solid immunity against this reinfection. It appears that upon recovery from the immediate effects of radiotherapy TLI-treated mice are able to mount an effective immune response to experimental infection with M. marinum and M. leprae.

  10. Alloying Au surface with Pd reduces the intrinsic activity in catalyzing CO oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Qian, Kun; Luo, Liangfeng; Jiang, Zhiquan; Huang, Weixin

    2016-01-01

    were evaluated. The formation of Au-Pd alloy particles was identified. The Au-Pd alloy particles exhibit enhanced dispersions on SiO2 than Au particles. Charge transfer from Pd to Au within Au-Pd alloy particles. Isolated Pd atoms dominate the surface

  11. Intrinsically water-repellent copper oxide surfaces; An electro-crystallization approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Raziyeh; Ramos Chagas, Gabriela; Godeau, Guilhem; Mohammadizadeh, Mohammadreza; Guittard, Frédéric; Darmanin, Thierry

    2018-06-01

    Use of metal oxide thin layers is increased due to their good durability under environmental conditions. In this work, the repeatable nanostructured crystalite Cu2O thin films, developed by electrodeposition method without any physical and chemical modifications, demonstrate good hydrophobicity. Copper (I) oxide (Cu2O) layers were fabricated on gold/Si(1 0 0) substrates by different electrodeposition methods i.e. galvanostatic deposition, cyclic voltammetry, and pulse potentiostatic deposition and using copper sulfate (in various concentrations) as a precursor. The greatest crystalline face on prepared Cu2O samples is (1 1 1) which is the most hydrophobic facet of Cu2O cubic structure. Indeed, different crystallite structures such as nanotriangles and truncated octahedrons were formed on the surface for various electrodeposition methods. The increase of the contact angle (θw) measured by the rest time, reaching to about 135°, was seen at different rates and electrodeposition methods. In addition, two-step deposition surfaces were also prepared by applying two of the mentioned methods, alternatively. In general, the morphology of the two-step deposition surfaces showed some changes compared to that of one-step samples, allowing the formation of different crystallite shapes. Moreover, the wettability behavior showd the larger θw of the two-step deposition layers compared to the related one-step deposition layers. Therefore, the highest observed θw was related to the one of two-step deposition layers due to the creation of small octahedral structures on the surface, having narrow and deep valleys. However, there was an exception which was due to the resulted big structures and broad valleys on the surface. So, it is possible to engineer different crystallites shapes using the proposed two-step deposition method. It is expected that hydrophobic crystallite thin films can be used in environmental and electronic applications to save energy and materials properties.

  12. Determination of the plastic deformation and residual stress tensor distribution using surface and bulk intrinsic magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hristoforou, E.; Svec, P. Sr.

    2015-01-01

    We have developed an unique method to provide the stress calibration curve in steels: performing flaw-less welding in the under examination steel, we obtained to determine the level of the local plastic deformation and the residual stress tensors. These properties where measured using both the X-ray and the neutron diffraction techniques, concerning their surface and bulk stresses type II (intra-grain stresses) respectively, as well as the stress tensor type III by using the electron diffraction technique. Measuring the distribution of these residual stresses along the length of a welded sample or structure, resulted in determining the local stresses from the compressive to tensile yield point. Local measurement of the intrinsic surface and bulk magnetic property tensors allowed for the un-hysteretic correlation. The dependence of these local magnetic tensors with the above mentioned local stress tensors, resulting in a unique and almost un-hysteretic stress calibration curve of each grade of steel. This calibration integrated the steel's mechanical and thermal history, as well as the phase transformations and the presence of precipitations occurring during the welding process.Additionally to that, preliminary results in different grade of steels reveal the existence of a universal law concerning the dependence of magnetic and magnetostrictive properties of steels on their plastic deformation and residual stress state, as they have been accumulated due to their mechanical and thermal fatigue and history. This universality is based on the unique dependence of the intrinsic magnetic properties of steels normalized with a certain magnetoelastic factor, upon the plastic deformation or residual stress state, which, in terms, is normalized with their yield point of stress. (authors)

  13. Bending of marble with intrinsic length scales: a gradient theory with surface energy and size effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vardoulakis, I.; Kourkoulis, S.K.; Exadaktylos, G.

    1998-01-01

    A gradient bending theory is developed based on a strain energy function that includes the classical Bernoulli-Euler term, the shape correction term (microstructural length scale) introduced by Timoshenko, and a term associated with surface energy (micromaterial length scale) accounting for the bending moment gradient effect. It is shown that the last term is capable to interpret the size effect in three-point bending (3PB), namely the decrease of the failure load with decreasing beam length for the same aspect ratio. This theory is used to describe the mechanical behaviour of Dionysos-Pentelikon marble in 3PB. Series of tests with prismatic marble beams of the same aperture but with different lengths were conducted and it was concluded that the present theory predicts well the size effect. (orig.)

  14. Eesti keele õpik ja töövihik vene õppekeelega gümnaasiumi 11. klassile / Malle Rüütli, Ele Viilipus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rüütli, Malle, 1952-

    2008-01-01

    Raamatutest: Rüütli, Malle; Viilipus, Ele. Eesti keele õpik vene õppekeelega gümnaasiumi 11. klassile. Rüütli, Malle; Viilipus, Ele. Eesti keele töövihik vene õppekeelega gümnaasiumi 11. klassile

  15. Effect of surface potential and intrinsic magnetic field on resistance of a body in a supersonic flow of rarefied partially ionized gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuvalov, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    The character of flow over a body, structure of the perturbed zone, and flow resistance in a supersonic flow of rarefied partially ionized gas are determined by the intrinsic magnetic field and surface potential of the body. There have been practically no experimental studies of the effect of intrinsic magnetic field on flow of a rarefied plasma. Studies of the effect of surface potential have been limited to the case R/λd 10 2 (where R is the characteristic dimension of the body and λd is the Debye radius). At the same time R/λd > 10 2 , the regime of flow over a large body, is of the greatest practical interest. The present study will consider the effect of potential and intrinsic magnetic field on resistance of a large (R/λd > 10 2 ) axisymmetric body (disk, sphere) in a supersonic flow of rarefield partially ionized gas

  16. Toward intrinsic graphene surfaces: a systematic study on thermal annealing and wet-chemical treatment of SiO2-supported graphene devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zengguang; Zhou, Qiaoyu; Wang, Chenxuan; Li, Qiang; Wang, Chen; Fang, Ying

    2011-02-09

    By combining atomic force microscopy and trans-port measurements, we systematically investigated effects of thermal annealing on surface morphologies and electrical properties of single-layer graphene devices fabricated by electron beam lithography on silicon oxide (SiO(2)) substrates. Thermal treatment above 300 °C in vacuum was required to effectively remove resist residues on graphene surfaces. However, annealing at high temperature was found to concomitantly bring graphene in close contact with SiO(2) substrates and induce increased coupling between them, which leads to heavy hole doping and severe degradation of mobilities in graphene devices. To address this problem, a wet-chemical approach employing chloroform was developed in our study, which was shown to enable both intrinsic surfaces and enhanced electrical properties of graphene devices. Upon the recovery of intrinsic surfaces of graphene, the adsorption and assisted fibrillation of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ1-42) on graphene were electrically measured in real time.

  17. Intrinsic Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deci, Edward L.

    The paper draws together a wide variety of research which relates to the topic of intrinsic motivation; intrinsically motivated activities are defined as those which a person does for no apparent reward except the activity itself or the feelings which result from the activity. Most of this research was not originally reported within the framework…

  18. Limit to mass sensitivity of nanoresonators with random rough surfaces due to intrinsic sources and interactions with the surrounding gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palasantzas, G.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate initially the influence of thermomechanical and momentum exchange noise on the limit to mass sensitivity Delta m of nanoresonators with random rough surfaces, which are characterized by the roughness amplitude w, the correlation length xi, and the roughness exponent 0

  19. Variable-focus microscopy and UV surface dissolution imaging as complementary techniques in intrinsic dissolution rate determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ward, Adam; Walton, Karl; Box, Karl

    2017-01-01

    -SDI run, have been measured using a non-contact, optical, three-dimensional microscope based on focus variation, the Alicona Infinite Focus Microscope, with the aim of correlating the IDRs to the surface properties. Ibuprofen (IBU) was used as a model poorly-soluble drug. DSC and XRD were used to monitor...... possible polymorphic changes that may have occurred post-compaction and post-SDI run. IBUs IDR decreased from 0.033mg/min/cm(2) to 0.022mg/min/cm(2) from 10 to 20min, respectively, during the experiment. XRD and DSC showed no form changes during the SDI run. The surface topography images showed...

  20. Influence of radiation field and fractionation schedule of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) on the induction of suppressor cells and stable chimerism after bone marrow transplantation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waer, M.; Ang, K.K.; van der Schueren, E.; Vandeputte, M.

    1984-01-01

    When BALB/c mice received 17 daily fractions of 2 Gy each of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI, total dose 34 Gy) and 30 x 10 6 C 57 B1 bone marrow cells (BM) on the day after the last fraction, stable bone marrow chimerism without signs of graft-vs-host disease (GVHD) was obtained in 84% of the animals. On the contrary, in BALB/c mice receiving only seven fractions of TLI (total dose 14 Gy), all bone marrow grafts were rejected. When the last two fractions of a 14-Gy TLI course were given without shielding the extra lymphatic tissues (combined total lymphoid + total body irradiation, TLBI), chimerism could be induced in 53% of the animals. When this 14-Gy TLBI schedule was used, it was even possible to administer four fractions per day (multiple fractions per day schedule, MFD), thus reducing the overall treatment time to 2 consecutive days. After this concentrated form of TLBI, chimerism was detected in 35% of the animals. As in the 34-Gy TLI schedule, graft-vs-host reaction could not be prevented in the 14-Gy TLBI schedule when spleen lymphocytes (10 x 10 6 ) were added to the BM inocolum. Leucopenia or suppression of the phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-induced blastogenesis could not predict which schedule would result in a successful allogeneic bone marrow take. Suppressor cells of the mixed lymphocyte reaction, on the other hand, were only found in the spleen of BALB/c mice treated with the TLI or TLBI schedules, which also resulted in stable bone marrow chimerism

  1. Molecular characterization of tlyA gene product, Rv1694 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A non-conventional hemolysin and a ribosomal RNA methyl transferase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Neesar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a virulent bacillus causing tuberculosis, a disease responsible for million deaths each year worldwide. In order to understand its mechanism of pathogenesis in humans and to help control tuberculosis, functions of numerous Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes are being characterized. In this study we report the dual functionality of tlyA gene product of Mycobacterium tuberculosis annotated as Rv1694, a 268 amino acid long basic protein. Results The recombinant purified Rv1694 protein was found to exhibit hemolytic activity in vitro. It showed concentration and time-dependent hemolysis of rabbit and human erythrocytes. Multiple oligomeric forms (dimers to heptamers of this protein were seen on the membranes of the lysed erythrocytes. Like the oligomers of conventional, well-known, pore-forming toxins, the oligomers of Rv1694 were found to be resistant to heat and SDS, but were susceptible to reducing agents like β-mercaptoethanol as it had abolished the hemolytic activity of Rv1694 indicating the role of disulfide bond(s. The Rv1694 generated de novo by in vitro transcription and translation also exhibited unambiguous hemolysis confirming the self assembly and oligomerization properties of this protein. Limited proteolytic digestion of this protein has revealed that the amino terminus is susceptible while in solution but is protected in presence of membrane. Striking feature of Rv1694 is its presence on the cell wall of E. coli as visualized by confocal microscopy. The surface expression is consistent with the contact dependent haemolytic ability of E. coli expressing this protein. Also, immune serum specific to this protein inhibits the contact dependent hemolysis. Moreover, Rv1694 protein binds to and forms stable oligomers on the macrophage phagosomal membranes. In addition to all these properties, E. coli expressing Rv1694 was found to be susceptible to the antibiotic capreomycin as its growth

  2. Strong intrinsic motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Dessi, Roberta; Rustichini, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    A large literature in psychology, and more recently in economics, has argued that monetary rewards can reduce intrinsic motivation. We investigate whether the negative impact persists when intrinsic motivation is strong, and test this hypothesis experimentally focusing on the motivation to undertake interesting and challenging tasks, informative about individual ability. We find that this type of task can generate strong intrinsic motivation, that is impervious to the effect of monetary incen...

  3. Intrinsic work function of molecular films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivančo, Ján

    2012-01-01

    The electronic properties of molecular films are analysed with the consideration of the molecular orientation. The study demonstrates that surfaces of electroactive oligomeric molecular films can be classified—analogously to the elemental surfaces—by their intrinsic work functions. The intrinsic work function of molecular films is correlated with their ionisation energies; again, the behaviour is analogous to the correlation existing between the first ionisation energy of elements and the work function of the corresponding elemental surfaces. The proposed intrinsic work-function concept suggests that the mechanism for the energy-level alignment at the interfaces associated with molecular films is virtually controlled by work functions of materials brought into the contact. - Highlights: ► Molecular films exhibit their own (intrinsic) work function. ► Intrinsic work function is correlated with ionisation energy of molecular films. ► Intrinsic work function determines dipole at interface with a particular surface. ► Surface vacuum-level change upon film growth does not relate to interfacial dipole.

  4. Convex surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Busemann, Herbert

    2008-01-01

    This exploration of convex surfaces focuses on extrinsic geometry and applications of the Brunn-Minkowski theory. It also examines intrinsic geometry and the realization of intrinsic metrics. 1958 edition.

  5. Intrinsic-density functionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, J.

    2007-01-01

    The Hohenberg-Kohn theorem and Kohn-Sham procedure are extended to functionals of the localized intrinsic density of a self-bound system such as a nucleus. After defining the intrinsic-density functional, we modify the usual Kohn-Sham procedure slightly to evaluate the mean-field approximation to the functional, and carefully describe the construction of the leading corrections for a system of fermions in one dimension with a spin-degeneracy equal to the number of particles N. Despite the fact that the corrections are complicated and nonlocal, we are able to construct a local Skyrme-like intrinsic-density functional that, while different from the exact functional, shares with it a minimum value equal to the exact ground-state energy at the exact ground-state intrinsic density, to next-to-leading order in 1/N. We briefly discuss implications for real Skyrme functionals

  6. Intrinsic Time Quantum Geometrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Ita III, Eyo Eyo; Soo, Chopin; Yu, Hoi-Lai

    2015-01-01

    Quantum Geometrodynamics with intrinsic time development and momentric variables is presented. An underlying SU(3) group structure at each spatial point regulates the theory. The intrinsic time behavior of the theory is analyzed, together with its ground state and primordial quantum fluctuations. Cotton-York potential dominates at early times when the universe was small; the ground state naturally resolves Penrose's Weyl Curvature Hypothesis, and thermodynamic and gravitational `arrows of tim...

  7. The Role of Intrinsic and Surface States on the Emission Properties of Colloidal CdSe and CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morello Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractTime Resolved Photoluminescence (TRPL measurements on the picosecond time scale (temporal resolution of 17 ps on colloidal CdSe and CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dots (QDs were performed. Transient PL spectra reveal three emission peaks with different lifetimes (60 ps, 460 ps and 9–10 ns, from the bluest to the reddest peak. By considering the characteristic decay times and by comparing the energetic separations among the states with those theoretically expected, we attribute the two higher energy peaks to ± 1Uand ± 1L bright states of the fine structure picture of spherical CdSe QDs, and the third one to surface states emission. We show that the contribution of surface emission to the PL results to be different for the two samples studied (67% in the CdSe QDs and 32% in CdSe/ZnS QDs, confirming the decisive role of the ZnS shell in the improvement of the surface passivation.

  8. Intrinsic contractures of the hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paksima, Nader; Besh, Basil R

    2012-02-01

    Contractures of the intrinsic muscles of the fingers disrupt the delicate and complex balance of intrinsic and extrinsic muscles, which allows the hand to be so versatile and functional. The loss of muscle function primarily affects the interphalangeal joints but also may affect etacarpophalangeal joints. The resulting clinical picture is often termed, intrinsic contracture or intrinsic-plus hand. Disruption of the balance between intrinsic and extrinsic muscles has many causes and may be secondary to changes within the intrinsic musculature or the tendon unit. This article reviews diagnosis, etiology, and treatment algorithms in the management of intrinsic contractures of the fingers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Predicting Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Rob; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2004-01-01

    Intrinsic motivation can be predicted from participants' perceptions of the social environment and the task environment (Ryan & Deci, 2000)in terms of control, relatedness and competence. To determine the degree of independence of these factors 251 students in higher vocational education (physiotherapy and hotel management) indicated the…

  10. Concepts of intrinsic safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    A newly introduced Japanese reactor concept, ISER (Intrinsically Safe and Economical Reactor), is intended to be a reference intrinsically safe light water reactor. ISER is designed similarly to PIUS but with greater economy in mind such that any utility in any country can choose it for its power system. Social assimilation and acceptability in the Asia Pacific Region including the United States are the keys to the ISER with the hope of dramatic reductions of social costs due to safeguards, reliability, financiability, and infrastructure building, particularly in the third world, as well as reactor safety itself. In this respect and others, the ISER proposal is different from other vendor-proposed reactor concepts and is unique

  11. The adsorption of Tl(I), Au(III), Cu(II) and the separation of 199Tl from alpha bombardment of gold target with PDB-18C6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Dehai; Zhou Jimeng

    1989-01-01

    The adsorptive behavior of polymer of methyl aldehyde of dibenzo-18-crown-6 (PDB-18C6) in hydrochloric acid medium is studied and it is shown that the adsorption of T1(I), Au(III), and Cu(II) depends on the particle size of the crown ether resins, hydrochloric acid concentration and amount of the crown ether resins used. The difference in the adsorption behavior of different particle sizes of crown ether resins may be used for separating Tl(I), Au(III), and Cu(II) ions. The best eluant of Tl(I) and Au(III) is 0.4 mol/l perchloric acid and 2-ethoxy-ethanol. The recovery for Tl(I) is 82-98.8%. The gold target is bombarded in a 1.2 m cyclotron with 25-27 MeV α-particle with a cumulative beam intensities of 27μA·h, and 199 Tl is separated from the gold target with PDB-18C6. γ-spectrometry has shown that the Tl obtained is 199 Tl of high purity containing only about 0.50% 200 Tl

  12. Intrinsic viscosity of a suspension of cubes

    KAUST Repository

    Mallavajula, Rajesh K.

    2013-11-06

    We report on the viscosity of a dilute suspension of cube-shaped particles. Irrespective of the particle size, size distribution, and surface chemistry, we find empirically that cubes manifest an intrinsic viscosity [η]=3.1±0.2, which is substantially higher than the well-known value for spheres, [η]=2.5. The orientation-dependent intrinsic viscosity of cubic particles is determined theoretically using a finite-element solution of the Stokes equations. For isotropically oriented cubes, these calculations show [η]=3.1, in excellent agreement with our experimental observations. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  13. Intrinsic and extrinsic mortality reunited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koopman, Jacob J E; Wensink, Maarten J; Rozing, Maarten P

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsic and extrinsic mortality are often separated in order to understand and measure aging. Intrinsic mortality is assumed to be a result of aging and to increase over age, whereas extrinsic mortality is assumed to be a result of environmental hazards and be constant over age. However......, allegedly intrinsic and extrinsic mortality have an exponentially increasing age pattern in common. Theories of aging assert that a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic stressors underlies the increasing risk of death. Epidemiological and biological data support that the control of intrinsic as well...... as extrinsic stressors can alleviate the aging process. We argue that aging and death can be better explained by the interaction of intrinsic and extrinsic stressors than by classifying mortality itself as being either intrinsic or extrinsic. Recognition of the tight interaction between intrinsic and extrinsic...

  14. Phytotoxicity of thallium (Tl) in culture solution. Pt. 1. Effects of Tl(I) on the growth and heavy metal contents of pea and field bean plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poetsch, U; Austenfeld, F A

    1985-01-01

    The effects of TlNO/sub 3/ and Tl(I)EDTA on growth and heavy metal contents of pea plants and field bean plants were compared in hydroponic culture experiments. In the presence of TlNO/sub 3/, the essential heavy metals were available to the plants in their ionic forms. When Tl(I)EDTA was present the essential heavy metals were available as chelated complexes. With increasing concentration of TlNO/sub 3/ dry matter production of pea plants was lowered and the Tl content of each organ was increased. The highest Tl content was found within the stems. The increased Tl contents were accompanied by depressed Mn, Zn, and Cu contents of the roots and depressed Mn contents of the stems, but increased Fe contents of the stems. Substitution of TlNO/sub 3/ by Tl(I)EDTA resulted in a stronger growth inhibition of the pea plants, and higher Tl contents of each organ. The highest Tl content was found within the stems. Tl(I)EDTA depressed Mn in the roots, but increased Fe and Mn in the stems, and Fe, Zn and Cu in the leaves. The increases may due to concentration by growth inhibition. The growth of the field bean was not effected by TlNO/sub 3/ nor by Tl(I)EDTA. The field bean contained most of the Tl within the roots and translocated only relatively small amounts to the shoots. This pattern was independent of the Tl compound. Increasing concentrations of TlNO/sub 3/ resulted in depressed Mn and Zn contents of the roots, and Mn contents of the stems. Chelation of Tl(I) resulted in a decrease of the Tl content of each organ. Tl(I)EDTA depressed only the Mn content of the roots.

  15. Intrinsic superspin Hall current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Jacob; Amundsen, Morten; Risinggârd, Vetle

    2017-09-01

    We discover an intrinsic superspin Hall current: an injected charge supercurrent in a Josephson junction containing heavy normal metals and a ferromagnet generates a transverse spin supercurrent. There is no accompanying dissipation of energy, in contrast to the conventional spin Hall effect. The physical origin of the effect is an antisymmetric spin density induced among transverse modes ky near the interface of the superconductor arising due to the coexistence of p -wave and conventional s -wave superconducting correlations with a belonging phase mismatch. Our predictions can be tested in hybrid structures including thin heavy metal layers combined with strong ferromagnets and ordinary s -wave superconductors.

  16. Discovery of Intrinsic Primitives on Triangle Meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Solomon, Justin

    2011-04-01

    The discovery of meaningful parts of a shape is required for many geometry processing applications, such as parameterization, shape correspondence, and animation. It is natural to consider primitives such as spheres, cylinders and cones as the building blocks of shapes, and thus to discover parts by fitting such primitives to a given surface. This approach, however, will break down if primitive parts have undergone almost-isometric deformations, as is the case, for example, for articulated human models. We suggest that parts can be discovered instead by finding intrinsic primitives, which we define as parts that posses an approximate intrinsic symmetry. We employ the recently-developed method of computing discrete approximate Killing vector fields (AKVFs) to discover intrinsic primitives by investigating the relationship between the AKVFs of a composite object and the AKVFs of its parts. We show how to leverage this relationship with a standard clustering method to extract k intrinsic primitives and remaining asymmetric parts of a shape for a given k. We demonstrate the value of this approach for identifying the prominent symmetry generators of the parts of a given shape. Additionally, we show how our method can be modified slightly to segment an entire surface without marking asymmetric connecting regions and compare this approach to state-of-the-art methods using the Princeton Segmentation Benchmark. © 2011 The Author(s).

  17. Intrinsic Chevrolets at the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.; Collins, J.C.; Ellis, S.D.; Gunion, J.F.; Mueller, A.H.

    1984-01-01

    The possibility of the production at high energy of heavy quarks, supersymmetric particles and other large mass colored systems via the intrinsic twist-six components in the proton wave function is discussed. While the existing data do not rule out the possible relevance of intrinsic charm production at present energies, the extrapolation of such intrinsic contributions to very high masses and energies suggests that they will not play an important role at the SSC

  18. Intrinsic defects in ZnO varistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahan, G.D.

    1983-01-01

    Theoretical calculations are presented for equilibrium concentrations of zinc and oxygen vacancies in ZnO. Results are presented at the sintering temperature, and also at room temperature. Theoretical calculations of reaction constants show that the intrinsic donor is the oxygen vacancy, rather than the zinc interstitial. The depletion of vacancies in the surface region, as the ZnO is cooled from the sintering temperature, is also calculated. Homojunction effects which are caused by such depletion are shown to be small

  19. Intrinsic and extrinsic mortality reunited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Jacob J E; Wensink, Maarten J; Rozing, Maarten P; van Bodegom, David; Westendorp, Rudi G J

    2015-07-01

    Intrinsic and extrinsic mortality are often separated in order to understand and measure aging. Intrinsic mortality is assumed to be a result of aging and to increase over age, whereas extrinsic mortality is assumed to be a result of environmental hazards and be constant over age. However, allegedly intrinsic and extrinsic mortality have an exponentially increasing age pattern in common. Theories of aging assert that a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic stressors underlies the increasing risk of death. Epidemiological and biological data support that the control of intrinsic as well as extrinsic stressors can alleviate the aging process. We argue that aging and death can be better explained by the interaction of intrinsic and extrinsic stressors than by classifying mortality itself as being either intrinsic or extrinsic. Recognition of the tight interaction between intrinsic and extrinsic stressors in the causation of aging leads to the recognition that aging is not inevitable, but malleable through the environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Intrinsic rotation produced by ion orbit loss and X-loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stacey, W. M. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Boedo, J. A. [University of California - San Diego, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Evans, T. E.; Groebner, R. J. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186 (United States); Grierson, B. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08453 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    A practical calculation model for the intrinsic rotation imparted to the edge plasma by the directionally preferential loss of ions on orbits that cross the last closed flux surface is presented and applied to calculate intrinsic rotation in several DIII-D [J. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)] discharges. The intrinsic rotation produced by ion loss is found to be sensitive to the edge temperature and radial electric field profiles, which has implications for driving intrinsic rotation in future large tokamaks.

  1. Intrinsic Depletion or Not

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klösgen, Beate; Bruun, Sara; Hansen, Søren

    carrier and biomimetic membranes deposited thereupon and exposed to bulk water. While monitoring the sequential build-up of the sandwiched composite structure by continuous neutron reflectivity experiments the formation of an unexpected additional layer was detected (1). Located at the polystyrene surface...

  2. Intrinsically Passive Handling and Grasping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stramigioli, Stefano; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.; Khodabandehloo, Koorosh

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents a control philosophy called Intrinsically Passive Control, which has the feature to properly behave during interaction with any passive objects. The controlled robot will never become unstable due to the physical structure of the controller.

  3. Photovoltaic device comprising compositionally graded intrinsic photoactive layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffbauer, Mark A; Williamson, Todd L

    2013-04-30

    Photovoltaic devices and methods of making photovoltaic devices comprising at least one compositionally graded photoactive layer, said method comprising providing a substrate; growing onto the substrate a uniform intrinsic photoactive layer having one surface disposed upon the substrate and an opposing second surface, said intrinsic photoactive layer consisting essentially of In.sub.1-xA.sub.xN,; wherein: i. 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1; ii. A is gallium, aluminum, or combinations thereof; and iii. x is at least 0 on one surface of the intrinsic photoactive layer and is compositionally graded throughout the layer to reach a value of 1 or less on the opposing second surface of the layer; wherein said intrinsic photoactive layer is isothermally grown by means of energetic neutral atom beam lithography and epitaxy at a temperature of 600.degree. C. or less using neutral nitrogen atoms having a kinetic energy of from about 1.0 eV to about 5.0 eV, and wherein the intrinsic photoactive layer is grown at a rate of from about 5 nm/min to about 100 nm/min.

  4. Intrinsic thermoelectric power of group VB metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunadhor Singh Okram

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We have reinvestigated the thermopower of group VB metals in polycrystalline forms in the temperature range of 6-300K, taking into account the critical nature of the sample surface and heat treatment especially for niobium. Strikingly small magnitude, negative sign, phonon drag dip and superconductivity not reported previously were observed in surface-cleaned single crystalline Nb. However, while thermopower magnitudes are small, mixed signs were found in the polycrystalline V, Nb and Ta samples. These properties were therefore interpreted as their intrinsic properties and were briefly discussed taking into account of the existing theory by fitting also the data that give the Fermi energies of 10.94 eV, 5.08 eV and 1.86eV, respectively.

  5. Intrinsic Motivation in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Benjamin; Nambiar, Nathan; Hemphill, Caroline; Devietti, Elizabeth; Massengale, Alexandra; McCredie, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    This article describes ways in which educators can use Harter's perceived competence motivation theory, the achievement goal theory, and self-determination theory to develop students' intrinsic motivation to maintain physical fitness, as demonstrated by the Sound Body Sound Mind curriculum and proven effective by the 2013 University of…

  6. Acoustic resonance spectroscopy intrinsic seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olinger, C.T.; Burr, T.; Vnuk, D.R.

    1994-01-01

    We have begun to quantify the ability of acoustic resonance spectroscopy (ARS) to detect the removal and replacement of the lid of a simulated special nuclear materials drum. Conceptually, the acoustic spectrum of a container establishcs a baseline fingerprint, which we refer to as an intrinsic seal, for the container. Simply removing and replacing the lid changes some of the resonant frequencies because it is impossible to exactly duplicate all of the stress patterns between the lid and container. Preliminary qualitative results suggested that the ARS intrinsic seal could discriminate between cases where a lid has or has not been removed. The present work is directed at quantifying the utility of the ARS intrinsic seal technique, including the technique's sensitivity to ''nuisance'' effects, such as temperature swings, movement of the container, and placement of the transducers. These early quantitative tests support the potential of the ARS intrinsic seal application, but also reveal a possible sensitivity to nuisance effects that could limit environments or conditions under which the technique is effective

  7. Intrinsic Turbulence Stabilization in a Stellarator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Xanthopoulos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The magnetic surfaces of modern stellarators are characterized by complex, carefully optimized shaping and exhibit locally compressed regions of strong turbulence drive. Massively parallel computer simulations of plasma turbulence reveal, however, that stellarators also possess two intrinsic mechanisms to mitigate the effect of this drive. In the regime where the length scale of the turbulence is very small compared to the equilibrium scale set by the variation of the magnetic field, the strongest fluctuations form narrow bandlike structures on the magnetic surfaces. Thanks to this localization, the average transport through the surface is significantly smaller than that predicted at locations of peak turbulence. This feature results in a numerically observed upshift of the onset of turbulence on the surface towards higher ion temperature gradients as compared with the prediction from the most unstable regions. In a second regime lacking scale separation, the localization is lost and the fluctuations spread out on the magnetic surface. Nonetheless, stabilization persists through the suppression of the large eddies (relative to the equilibrium scale, leading to a reduced stiffness for the heat flux dependence on the ion temperature gradient. These fundamental differences with tokamak turbulence are exemplified for the QUASAR stellarator [G. H. Neilson et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 42, 489 (2014].

  8. Effect of nano-scale curvature on the intrinsic blood coagulation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushida, Takashi; Saha, Krishnendu; Subramani, Chandramouleeswaran; Nandwana, Vikas; Rotello, Vincent M.

    2014-01-01

    The intrinsic coagulation activity of silica nanoparticles strongly depends on their surface curvature. Nanoparticles with higher surface curvature do not denature blood coagulation factor XII on its surface, providing a coagulation ‘silent’ surface, while nanoparticles with lower surface curvature shows denaturation and concomitant coagulation. PMID:25341004

  9. Direct measurement of the intrinsic ankle stiffness during standing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlutters, Mark; Vlutters, M.; Boonstra, Tjitske; Schouten, Alfred Christiaan; van der Kooij, Herman

    2015-01-01

    Ankle stiffness contributes to standing balance, counteracting the destabilizing effect of gravity. The ankle stiffness together with the compliance between the foot and the support surface make up the ankle-foot stiffness, which is relevant to quiet standing. The contribution of the intrinsic

  10. Effect of nano-scale curvature on the intrinsic blood coagulation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushida, Takashi; Saha, Krishnendu; Subramani, Chandramouleeswaran; Nandwana, Vikas; Rotello, Vincent M.

    2014-11-01

    The intrinsic coagulation activity of silica nanoparticles strongly depends on their surface curvature. Nanoparticles with higher surface curvature do not denature blood coagulation factor XII on its surface, providing a coagulation `silent' surface, while nanoparticles with lower surface curvature show denaturation and concomitant coagulation.The intrinsic coagulation activity of silica nanoparticles strongly depends on their surface curvature. Nanoparticles with higher surface curvature do not denature blood coagulation factor XII on its surface, providing a coagulation `silent' surface, while nanoparticles with lower surface curvature show denaturation and concomitant coagulation. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Physical properties and scanning electron micrographs (SEM) of silica NPs, intrinsic coagulation activity after 3 h. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04128c

  11. Intrinsic graphene field effect transistor on amorphous carbon films

    OpenAIRE

    Tinchev, Savcho

    2013-01-01

    Fabrication of graphene field effect transistor is described which uses an intrinsic graphene on the surface of as deposited hydrogenated amorphous carbon films. Ambipolar characteristic has been demonstrated typical for graphene devices, which changes to unipolar characteristic if the surface graphene was etched in oxygen plasma. Because amorphous carbon films can be growth easily, with unlimited dimensions and no transfer of graphene is necessary, this can open new perspective for graphene ...

  12. Intrinsic Dynamics of Quantum-Dash Lasers

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Cheng; Djie, Hery Susanto; Hwang, James C. M.; Koch, Thomas L.; Lester, Luke F.; Ooi, Boon S.; Wang, Yang

    2011-01-01

    Temperature-dependent intrinsic modulation response of InAs/InAlGaAs quantum-dash lasers was investigated by using pulse optical injection modulation to minimize the effects of parasitics and self-heating. Compared to typical quantum-well lasers, the quantum-dash lasers were found to have comparable differential gain but approximately twice the gain compression factor, probably due to carrier heating by free-carrier absorption, as opposed to stimulated transition. Therefore, the narrower modulation bandwidth of the quantum-dash lasers than that of quantum-well lasers was attributed to their higher gain compression factor. In addition, as expected, quantum-dash lasers with relatively long and uniform dashes exhibit higher temperature stability than quantum-well lasers. However, the lasers with relatively short and nonuniform dashes exhibit stronger temperature dependence, probably due to their higher surface-to-volume ratio and nonuniform dash sizes. © 2011 IEEE.

  13. Intrinsic Dynamics of Quantum-Dash Lasers

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Cheng

    2011-10-01

    Temperature-dependent intrinsic modulation response of InAs/InAlGaAs quantum-dash lasers was investigated by using pulse optical injection modulation to minimize the effects of parasitics and self-heating. Compared to typical quantum-well lasers, the quantum-dash lasers were found to have comparable differential gain but approximately twice the gain compression factor, probably due to carrier heating by free-carrier absorption, as opposed to stimulated transition. Therefore, the narrower modulation bandwidth of the quantum-dash lasers than that of quantum-well lasers was attributed to their higher gain compression factor. In addition, as expected, quantum-dash lasers with relatively long and uniform dashes exhibit higher temperature stability than quantum-well lasers. However, the lasers with relatively short and nonuniform dashes exhibit stronger temperature dependence, probably due to their higher surface-to-volume ratio and nonuniform dash sizes. © 2011 IEEE.

  14. Intrinsic stability of technical superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veringa, H.J.

    1981-10-01

    For the operation of technical superconductors under high current density conditions, the superconducting wires composing high current cables should be intrinsically stabilized. In this report the various important stability criteria are derived and investigated on their validity. An experimental set up is made to check the occurrence of magnetic instabilities if the different applicable criteria are violated. It is found that the observed instabilities can be predicted on the basis of the model given in this report. Production of high current cables based upon composites made by the ECN technique seems to be possible. (Auth.)

  15. Nuclear Filtering of Intrinsic Charm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Potashnikova, I. K.; Schmidt, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Nuclei are transparent for a heavy intrinsic charm (IC) component of the beam hadrons, what leads to an enhanced nuclear dependence of open charm production at large Feynman x F . Indeed, such an effect is supported by data from the SELEX experiment published recently [1]. Our calculations reproduce well the data, providing strong support for the presence of IC in hadrons in amount less than 1%. Moreover, we performed an analysis of nuclear effects in J/Ψ production and found at large x F a similar, albeit weaker effect, which does not contradict data.

  16. Speciation of Tl(III and Tl(I in hair samples by dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic droplet prior to flame atomic absorption spectrometry determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Z. Mohammadi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic droplet was successfully used as a sample preparation method prior to flame atomic absorption determination of trace amounts of Tl(III and Tl(I in hair samples. In the proposed method, 1-(2-pyridylazo-2-naphthol, 1-dodecanol and ethanol were used as chelating agent, extraction and dispersive solvent, respectively. Several factors that may be affected in the extraction process, such as type and volume of extraction and disperser solvents, pH, salting out effect, ionic strength and extraction time were studied. Under the optimal conditions, linearity was maintained between 6.0 and 900.0 ng mL−1 for Tl(III. The relative standard deviation for seven replicate determinations of 0.2 μg mL−1 Tl(III was 2.5%. The detection limit based on 3Sb for Tl(III in the original solution was 2.1 ng mL−1. The proposed method has been applied for the determination of trace amounts of thallium in hair samples and satisfactory results were obtained.

  17. Interaction of In(I) and Tl(I) cations with 2,6-diaryl pyridine ligands: cation encapsulation within a very weakly interacting N/arene host environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansaray, Hassanatu B; Tang, Christina Y; Vidovic, Dragoslav; Thompson, Amber L; Aldridge, Simon

    2012-12-03

    The interaction of 2,6-dimesitylpyridine with Tl(I) and In(I) cations has been investigated with a view to developing tractable molecular M(I) compounds which are soluble in organic media. In stark contrast to isosteric and isoelectronic terphenyl systems, complexes featuring the [(2,6-Mes(2)py)M](+) fragment feature very weak metal-ligand interactions in the solid state, as revealed by M-N distances of the order of 2.45 Å (M = In) and 2.64 Å (M = Tl). While additional weak π interactions are observed with arene solvate molecules in these systems, the related 2:1 complex [(2,6-Mes(2)py)(2)In][BAr(f)(4)] features an In(I) center wholly encapsulated by the bulky Mes(2)py donors, and even longer In-N distances [2.586(6) and 2.662(5) Å]. These contacts are about 0.5 Å greater than the sum of the respective covalent radii (2.13 Å) and provide evidence for an effectively "naked" In(I) cation stabilized to a minor extent by orbital interactions.

  18. Direct measurement of the intrinsic ankle stiffness during standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlutters, M; Boonstra, T A; Schouten, A C; van der Kooij, H

    2015-05-01

    Ankle stiffness contributes to standing balance, counteracting the destabilizing effect of gravity. The ankle stiffness together with the compliance between the foot and the support surface make up the ankle-foot stiffness, which is relevant to quiet standing. The contribution of the intrinsic ankle-foot stiffness to balance, and the ankle-foot stiffness amplitude dependency remain a topic of debate in the literature. We therefore developed an experimental protocol to directly measure the bilateral intrinsic ankle-foot stiffness during standing balance, and determine its amplitude dependency. By applying fast (40 ms) ramp-and-hold support surface rotations (0.005-0.08 rad) during standing, reflexive contributions could be excluded, and the amplitude dependency of the intrinsic ankle-foot stiffness was investigated. Results showed that reflexive activity could not have biased the torque used for estimating the intrinsic stiffness. Furthermore, subjects required less recovery action to restore balance after bilateral rotations in opposite directions compared to rotations in the same direction. The intrinsic ankle-foot stiffness appears insufficient to ensure balance, ranging from 0.93±0.09 to 0.44±0.06 (normalized to critical stiffness 'mgh'). This implies that changes in muscle activation are required to maintain balance. The non-linear stiffness decrease with increasing rotation amplitude supports the previous published research. With the proposed method reflexive effects can be ruled out from the measured torque without any model assumptions, allowing direct estimation of intrinsic stiffness during standing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Intrinsic periodic and aperiodic stochastic resonance in an electrochemical cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Ishant; Phogat, Richa; Parmananda, P.; Ocampo-Espindola, J. L.; Rivera, M.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we show the interaction of a composite of a periodic or aperiodic signal and intrinsic electrochemical noise with the nonlinear dynamics of an electrochemical cell configured to study the corrosion of iron in an acidic media. The anodic voltage setpoint (V0) in the cell is chosen such that the anodic current (I ) exhibits excitable fixed point behavior in the absence of noise. The subthreshold periodic (aperiodic) signal consists of a train of rectangular pulses with a fixed amplitude and width, separated by regular (irregular) time intervals. The irregular time intervals chosen are of deterministic and stochastic origins. The amplitude of the intrinsic internal noise, regulated by the concentration of chloride ions, is then monotonically increased, and the provoked dynamics are analyzed. The signal to noise ratio and the cross-correlation coefficient versus the chloride ions' concentration curves have a unimodal shape indicating the emergence of an intrinsic periodic or aperiodic stochastic resonance. The abscissa for the maxima of these unimodal curves correspond to the optimum value of intrinsic noise where maximum regularity of the invoked dynamics is observed. In the particular case of the intrinsic periodic stochastic resonance, the scanning electron microscope images for the electrode metal surfaces are shown for certain values of chloride ions' concentrations. These images, qualitatively, corroborate the emergence of order as a result of the interaction between the nonlinear dynamics and the composite signal.

  20. Intrinsic and extrinsic measurement for Brownian motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro-Villarreal, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Based upon the Smoluchowski equation on curved manifolds, three physical observables are considered for Brownian displacement, namely geodesic displacement s, Euclidean displacement δR, and projected displacement δR ⊥ . The Weingarten–Gauss equations are used to calculate the mean-square Euclidean displacements in the short-time regime. Our findings show that from an extrinsic point of view the geometry of the space affects the Brownian motion in such a way that the particle’s diffusion is decelerated, contrasting with the intrinsic point of view where dynamics is controlled by the sign of the Gaussian curvature (Castro-Villarreal, 2010 J. Stat. Mech. P08006). Furthermore, it is possible to give exact formulas for 〈δR〉 and 〈δR 2 〉 on spheres and minimal surfaces, which are valid for all values of time. In the latter case, surprisingly, Brownian motion corresponds to the usual diffusion in flat geometries, albeit minimal surfaces have non-zero Gaussian curvature. Finally, the two-dimensional case is emphasized due to its close relation to surface self-diffusion in fluid membranes. (paper)

  1. Symmetries of collective models in intrinsic frame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozdz, A.; Pedrak, A.; Szulerecka, A.; Dobrowolski, A.; Dudek, J.

    2013-01-01

    In the paper a very general definition of intrinsic frame, by means of group theoretical methods, is introduced. It allows to analyze nuclear properties which are invariant in respect to the group which defines the intrinsic frame. For example, nuclear shape is a well determined feature in the intrinsic frame defined by the Euclidean group. It is shown that using of intrinsic frame gives an opportunity to consider intrinsic nuclear symmetries which are independent of symmetries observed in the laboratory frame. An importance of the notion of partial symmetries is emphasized. (author)

  2. Intrinsic cylindrical and spherical waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludlow, I K

    2008-01-01

    Intrinsic waveforms associated with cylindrical and spherical Bessel functions are obtained by eliminating the factors responsible for the inverse radius and inverse square radius laws of wave power per unit area of wavefront. The resulting expressions are Riccati-Bessel functions for both cases and these can be written in terms of amplitude and phase functions of order v and wave variable z. When z is real, it is shown that a spatial phase angle of the intrinsic wave can be defined and this, together with its amplitude function, is systematically investigated for a range of fixed orders and varying z. The derivatives of Riccati-Bessel functions are also examined. All the component functions exhibit different behaviour in the near field depending on the order being less than, equal to or greater than 1/2. Plots of the phase angle can be used to display the locations of the zeros of the general Riccati-Bessel functions and lead to new relations concerning the ordering of the real zeros of Bessel functions and the occurrence of multiple zeros when the argument of the Bessel function is fixed

  3. Display of a thermostable lipase on the surface of a solvent-resistant bacterium, Pseudomonas putida GM730, and its applications in whole-cell biocatalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon Seok-Joon

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whole-cell biocatalysis in organic solvents has been widely applied to industrial bioprocesses. In two-phase water-solvent processes, substrate conversion yields and volumetric productivities can be limited by the toxicity of solvents to host cells and by the low mass transfer rates of the substrates from the solvent phase to the whole-cell biocatalysts in water. Results To solve the problem of solvent toxicity, we immobilized a thermostable lipase (TliA from Pseudomonas fluorescens on the cell surface of a solvent-resistant bacterium, Pseudomonas putida GM730. Surface immobilization of enzymes eliminates the mass-transfer limitation imposed by the cell wall and membranes. TliA was successfully immobilized on the surface of P. putida cells using the ice-nucleation protein (INP anchoring motif from Pseudomonas syrinage. The surface location was confirmed by flow cytometry, protease accessibility and whole-cell enzyme activity using a membrane-impermeable substrate. Three hundred and fifty units of whole-cell hydrolytic activity per gram dry cell mass were obtained when the enzyme was immobilized with a shorter INP anchoring motif (INPNC. The surface-immobilized TliA retained full enzyme activity in a two-phase water-isooctane reaction system after incubation at 37°C for 12 h, while the activity of the free form enzyme decreased to 65% of its initial value. Whole cells presenting immobilized TliA were shown to catalyze three representative lipase reactions: hydrolysis of olive oil, synthesis of triacylglycerol and chiral resolution. Conclusion In vivo surface immobilization of enzymes on solvent-resistant bacteria was demonstrated, and appears to be useful for a variety of whole-cell bioconversions in the presence of organic solvents.

  4. Intrinsic irreversibility in quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prigogine, I.; Petrosky, T.Y.

    1987-01-01

    Quantum theory has a dual structure: while solutions of the Schroedinger equation evolve in a deterministic and time reversible way, measurement introduces irreversibility and stochasticity. This presents a contrast to Bohr-Sommerfeld-Einstein theory, in which transitions between quantum states are associated with spontaneous and induced transitions, defined in terms of stochastic processes. A new form of quantum theory is presented here, which contains an intrinsic form of irreversibility, independent of observation. This new form applies to situations corresponding to a continuous spectrum and to quantum states with finite life time. The usual non-commutative algebra associated to quantum theory is replaced by more general algebra, in which operators are also non-distributive. Our approach leads to a number of predictions, which hopefully may be verified or refuted in the next years. (orig.)

  5. Intrinsic rotation with gyrokinetic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, Felix I.; Barnes, Michael; Catto, Peter J.; Calvo, Iván

    2012-01-01

    The generation of intrinsic rotation by turbulence and neoclassical effects in tokamaks is considered. To obtain the complex dependences observed in experiments, it is necessary to have a model of the radial flux of momentum that redistributes the momentum within the tokamak in the absence of a preexisting velocity. When the lowest order gyrokinetic formulation is used, a symmetry of the model precludes this possibility, making small effects in the gyroradius over scale length expansion necessary. These effects that are usually small become important for momentum transport because the symmetry of the lowest order gyrokinetic formulation leads to the cancellation of the lowest order momentum flux. The accuracy to which the gyrokinetic equation needs to be obtained to retain all the physically relevant effects is discussed.

  6. Lifetime of charge carriers in intrinsic indium antimonide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruhns, H.; Kruse, H.

    1980-01-01

    The lifetime of additional photoinjected electron-hole pairs in intrinsic InSb at 291 K is investigated by measuring the photoconductive (PC) decay. Apart from studying the usual PC-decay an arangement is used with superimposed magnetic field transverse to the electric field. Depending on the direction of the magnetic field the photoinjected plasma is either driven into the sample's bulk or travels parallel to the illuminated surface. The Auger-lifetime is evaluated from the measurements by a numerical magnetohydrodynamical simulation taking into account surface recombination as well as the Suhl profile of the intrinsic plasma. A lifetime of tau = (57+-3) ns is found which is independent of the magnetic field up to 2.3 T. (author)

  7. Experiences matter: Positive emotions facilitate intrinsic motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Løvoll, Helga Synnevåg; Røysamb, Espen; Vittersø, Joar

    2017-01-01

    This paper has two major aims. First, to investigate how positive emotions and intrinsic motivation affect each other over time. Second, to test the effect of positive emotions and intrinsic motivation on subsequent educational choices. Through two ordinary study semesters, 64 sport students in Norway reported on their intrinsic motivation for outdoor activities (twice) as well as positive emotions after two three-day outdoor events (four times). Next autumn, students study choice was collect...

  8. Experiences matter: Positive emotions facilitate intrinsic motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Løvoll, Helga Synnevåg; Røysamb, Espen; Vittersø, Joar

    2017-01-01

    https://doi.org/10.1080/23311908.2017.1340083 This paper has two major aims. First, to investigate how positive emotions and intrinsic motivation affect each other over time. Second, to test the effect of positive emotions and intrinsic motivation on subsequent educational choices. Through two ordinary study semesters, 64 sport students in Norway reported on their intrinsic motivation for outdoor activities (twice) as well as positive emotions after two three-day outdoor e...

  9. Incentives and intrinsic motivation in healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikel Berdud

    2016-11-01

    Conclusions: The conclusions could act as a guide to support the optimal design of incentive policies and schemes within health organisations when healthcare professionals are intrinsically motivated.

  10. Protein intrinsic disorder in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Florencio; Pietrosemoli, Natalia; García-Martín, Juan A; Solano, Roberto

    2013-09-12

    To some extent contradicting the classical paradigm of the relationship between protein 3D structure and function, now it is clear that large portions of the proteomes, especially in higher organisms, lack a fixed structure and still perform very important functions. Proteins completely or partially unstructured in their native (functional) form are involved in key cellular processes underlain by complex networks of protein interactions. The intrinsic conformational flexibility of these disordered proteins allows them to bind multiple partners in transient interactions of high specificity and low affinity. In concordance, in plants this type of proteins has been found in processes requiring these complex and versatile interaction networks. These include transcription factor networks, where disordered proteins act as integrators of different signals or link different transcription factor subnetworks due to their ability to interact (in many cases simultaneously) with different partners. Similarly, they also serve as signal integrators in signaling cascades, such as those related to response to external stimuli. Disordered proteins have also been found in plants in many stress-response processes, acting as protein chaperones or protecting other cellular components and structures. In plants, it is especially important to have complex and versatile networks able to quickly and efficiently respond to changing environmental conditions since these organisms cannot escape and have no other choice than adapting to them. Consequently, protein disorder can play an especially important role in plants, providing them with a fast mechanism to obtain complex, interconnected and versatile molecular networks.

  11. Geochemical indicators of intrinsic bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borden, R.C.; Gomez, C.A.; Becker, M.T.

    1995-01-01

    A detailed field investigation has been completed at a gasoline-contaminated aquifer near Rocky Point, NC, to examine possible indicators of intrinsic bioremediation and identify factors that may significantly influence the rae and extent of bioremediation. The dissolved plume of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) in ground water is naturally degrading. Toluene and o-xylene are most rapidly degraded followed by m-, p-xylene, and benzene. Ethylbenzene appears to degrade very slowly under anaerobic conditions present in the center of the plume. The rate and extent of biodegradation appears to be strongly influenced by the type and quantity of electron acceptors present in the aquifer. At the upgradient edge of the plume, nitrate, ferric iron, and oxygen are used as terminal electron acceptors during hydrocarbon biodegradation. The equivalent of 40 to 50 mg/l of hydrocarbon is degraded based on the increase in dissolved CO 2 relative to background ground water. Immediately downgradient of the source area, sulfate and iron are the dominant electron acceptors. Toluene and o-xylene are rapidly removed in this region. Once the available oxygen, nitrate, and sulfate are consumed, biodegradation is limited and appears to be controlled by mixing and aerobic biodegradation at the plume fringes

  12. Protein intrinsic disorder in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencio ePazos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To some extent contradicting the classical paradigm of the relationship between protein 3D structure and function, now it is clear that large portions of the proteomes, especially in higher organisms, lack a fixed structure and still perform very important functions. Proteins completely or partially unstructured in their native (functional form are involved in key cellular processes underlain by complex networks of protein interactions. The intrinsic conformational flexibility of these disordered proteins allows them to bind multiple partners in transient interactions of high specificity and low affinity. In concordance, in plants this type of proteins has been found in processes requiring these complex and versatile interaction networks. These include transcription factor networks, where disordered proteins act as integrators of different signals or link different transcription factor subnetworks due to their ability to interact (in many cases simultaneously with different partners. Similarly, they also serve as signal integrators in signalling cascades, such as those related to response to external stimuli. Disordered proteins have also been found in plants in many stress-response processes, acting as protein chaperones or protecting other cellular components and structures. In plants, it is especially important to have complex and versatile networks able to quickly and efficiently respond to changing environmental conditions since these organisms can not escape and have no other choice than adapting to them. Consequently, protein disorder can play an especially important role in plants, providing them with a fast mechanism to obtain complex, interconnected and versatile molecular networks.

  13. Intrinsic bioremediation of landfills interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States); Fliermans, C.B.

    1997-07-14

    Intrinsic bioremediation is a risk management option that relies on natural biological and physical processes to contain the spread of contamination from a source. Evidence is presented in this report that intrinsic bioremediation is occurring at the Sanitary Landfill is fundamental to support incorportion into a Corrective Action Plan (CAP).

  14. Expressing intrinsic volumes as rotational integrals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auneau, Jeremy Michel; Jensen, Eva Bjørn Vedel

    2010-01-01

    A new rotational formula of Crofton type is derived for intrinsic volumes of a compact subset of positive reach. The formula provides a functional defined on the section of X with a j-dimensional linear subspace with rotational average equal to the intrinsic volumes of X. Simplified forms of the ...

  15. Differential scanning microcalorimetry of intrinsically disordered proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permyakov, Sergei E

    2012-01-01

    Ultrasensitive differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is an indispensable thermophysical technique enabling to get direct information on enthalpies accompanying heating/cooling of dilute biopolymer solutions. The thermal dependence of protein heat capacity extracted from DSC data is a valuable source of information on intrinsic disorder level of a protein. Application details and limitations of DSC technique in exploration of protein intrinsic disorder are described.

  16. Intrinsic bioremediation of landfills interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brigmon, R.L.; Fliermans, C.B.

    1997-01-01

    Intrinsic bioremediation is a risk management option that relies on natural biological and physical processes to contain the spread of contamination from a source. Evidence is presented in this report that intrinsic bioremediation is occurring at the Sanitary Landfill is fundamental to support incorportion into a Corrective Action Plan (CAP)

  17. Intrinsic bioremediation of an Arctic spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziervogel, H.; Selann, J.

    2002-01-01

    An environmental site assessment was conducted in summer 2001 at Repulse Bay, Nunavut where a recent diesel spill flowed from groundwater into a small creek leading to Hudson Bay. The spill produced a microbial mat several mm in thickness and which colonized the creek for about 50 m from the point where the groundwater entered the creek. Further down the gradient, the mat increased in thickness and changed in colour from yellowish brown to green. Sedimentary iron deposition was occurring along the banks of the creek where the mat was found and a free phase diesel product was found a few mm below the sediment-water interface. The microbial mats were found to have gradients of oxygen which peaked at surface and decreased with depth. Hydrogen sulphide concentrations were formed by sulphate reduction. In comparison, an older weathered diesel spill did not appear to have much effect on the stream's geochemistry and did not form a microbial mat. It is noted that the mat may have formed in the new spill because its' volatile component may have had a toxic effect on bacterial predators in the stream. It was concluded that intrinsic bioremediation takes place through dissimilatory sulphate and iron reduction and aerobic degradation. This may be cause for about 13 per cent ppm of hydrocarbon degradation known as BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene). 12 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  18. Transport of Intrinsic Plutonium Colloids in Saturated Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, D.; Abdel-Fattah, A.; Boukhalfa, H.; Ware, S. D.; Tarimala, S.; Keller, A. A.

    2011-12-01

    column at a flow rate of ~ 6 mL/hr. Despite that the Pu intrinsic colloids are positively charged while the alluvium grain surfaces are negatively charged under the current experimental conditions, about 30% of the Pu colloids population transported through the column and broke through earlier than trillium. Our previous experiments in the same column have shown a highly unretarded transport of the negatively charged pseudo Pu colloids (Pu sorbed onto smectite colloids) and complete retardation of the dissolved Pu. The enhanced transport of Pu colloids was explained by the effective pore volume concept. Combining the results of these two experiments, it is concluded that the intrinsic Pu colloids transported in the column by adsorbing onto the background clay colloids due to electrostatic repulsion.

  19. Intrinsic strength of sodium borosilicate glass fibers by using a two-point bending technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikubo, Y; Yoshida, S; Sugawara, T; Matsuoka, J

    2011-01-01

    Flaws existing on glass surface can be divided into two types, extrinsic and intrinsic. Although the extrinsic flaws are generated during processing and using, the intrinsic flaws are regarded as structural defects which result from thermal fluctuation. It is known that the extrinsic flaws determine glass strength, but effects of the intrinsic flaws on the glass strength are still unclear. Since it is considered that the averaged bond-strength and the intrinsic flaw would affect the intrinsic strength, the intrinsic strength of glass surely depends on the glass composition. In this study, the intrinsic failure strain of the glass fibers with the compositions of 20Na 2 O-40xB 2 O 3 -(80-40x)SiO 2 (mol%, x = 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5) were measured by using a two-point bending technique. The failure strength was estimated from the failure strain and Young's modulus of glass. It is elucidated that two-point bending strength of glass fiber decreases with increasing B 2 O 3 content in glass. The effects of the glass composition on the intrinsic strength are discussed in terms of elastic and inelastic deformation behaviors prior to fracture.

  20. Recovering Intrinsic Fragmental Vibrations Using the Generalized Subsystem Vibrational Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yunwen; Tian, Chuan; Verma, Niraj; Zou, Wenli; Wang, Chao; Cremer, Dieter; Kraka, Elfi

    2018-05-08

    Normal vibrational modes are generally delocalized over the molecular system, which makes it difficult to assign certain vibrations to specific fragments or functional groups. We introduce a new approach, the Generalized Subsystem Vibrational Analysis (GSVA), to extract the intrinsic fragmental vibrations of any fragment/subsystem from the whole system via the evaluation of the corresponding effective Hessian matrix. The retention of the curvature information with regard to the potential energy surface for the effective Hessian matrix endows our approach with a concrete physical basis and enables the normal vibrational modes of different molecular systems to be legitimately comparable. Furthermore, the intrinsic fragmental vibrations act as a new link between the Konkoli-Cremer local vibrational modes and the normal vibrational modes.

  1. Magnetic Alignment of Block Copolymer Microdomains by Intrinsic Chain Anisotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokhlenko, Yekaterina; Gopinadhan, Manesh; Osuji, Chinedum O; Zhang, Kai; O'Hern, Corey S; Larson, Steven R; Gopalan, Padma; Majewski, Paweł W; Yager, Kevin G

    2015-12-18

    We examine the role of intrinsic chain susceptibility anisotropy in magnetic field directed self-assembly of a block copolymer using in situ x-ray scattering. Alignment of a lamellar mesophase is observed on cooling across the disorder-order transition with the resulting orientational order inversely proportional to the cooling rate. We discuss the origin of the susceptibility anisotropy, Δχ, that drives alignment and calculate its magnitude using coarse-grained molecular dynamics to sample conformations of surface-tethered chains, finding Δχ≈2×10^{-8}. From field-dependent scattering data, we estimate that grains of ≈1.2  μm are present during alignment. These results demonstrate that intrinsic anisotropy is sufficient to support strong field-induced mesophase alignment and suggest a versatile strategy for field control of orientational order in block copolymers.

  2. The intrinsic gettering in neutron irradiation Czochralski-silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Li Yang Xian; Niu Ping Juan; Liu Cai Chi; Xu Yue Sheng; Yang Deren; Que Duan Lin

    2002-01-01

    The intrinsic gettering in neutron irradiated Czochralski-silicon is studied. The result shows that a denuded zone at the surface of the neutron irradiated Czochralski-silicon wafer may be formed through one-step short-time annealing. The width of the denuded zone is dependent on the annealing temperature and the dose of neutron irradiation, while it is irrelated to the annealing time in case the denuded zone is formed. The authors conclude that the interaction between the defects induced by neutron irradiation and the oxygen in the silicon accelerates the oxygen precipitation in the bulk, and becomes the dominating factor of the quick formation of intrinsic gettering. It makes the effect of thermal history as the secondary factor

  3. Defining intrinsic vs. extrinsic atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimkhani, Chante; Silverberg, Jonathan I; Dellavalle, Robert P

    2015-06-16

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, relapsing inflammatory skin condition characterized by eczematous lesions, i.e. ill-demarcated erythematous patches and plaques. AD is commonly associated with elevated immunoglobulin E (IgE) and atopic disorders, such as asthma, hay fever, and food allergies. Rackemann and Mallory were some of the first to distinguish between asthma based on the presence ("extrinsic") or absence ("intrinsic") of allergy. This distinction has subsequently been applied to AD based on the presence ("extrinsic") or absence ("intrinsic") of increased IgE and atopic disease. Although the distinction between intrinsic and extrinsic AD is widely used, it remains controversial.

  4. Algebraic description of intrinsic modes in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leviatan, A.

    1989-01-01

    We present a procedure for extracting normal modes in algebraic number-conserving systems of interacting bosons relevant for collective states in even-even nuclei. The Hamiltonian is resolved into intrinsic (bandhead related) and collective (in-band related) parts. Shape parameters are introduced through non-spherical boson bases. Intrinsic modes decoupled from the spurious modes are obtained from the intinsic part of the Hamiltonian in the limit of large number of bosons. Intrinsic states are constructed and serve to evaluate electromagnetic transition rates. The method is illustrated for systems with one type of boson as well as with proton-neutron bosons. 28 refs., 1 fig

  5. Intrinsic neuromodulation: altering neuronal circuits from within.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, P S; Frost, W N

    1996-02-01

    There are two sources of neuromodulation for neuronal circuits: extrinsic inputs and intrinsic components of the circuits themselves. Extrinsic neuromodulation is known to be pervasive in nervous systems, but intrinsic neuromodulation is less recognized, despite the fact that it has now been demonstrated in sensory and neuromuscular circuits and in central pattern generators. By its nature, intrinsic neuromodulation produces local changes in neuronal computation, whereas extrinsic neuromodulation can cause global changes, often affecting many circuits simultaneously. Studies in a number of systems are defining the different properties of these two forms of neuromodulation.

  6. Intrinsic Tunneling in Phase Separated Manganites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh-Bhalla, G.; Selcuk, S.; Dhakal, T.; Biswas, A.; Hebard, A. F.

    2009-02-01

    We present evidence of direct electron tunneling across intrinsic insulating regions in submicrometer wide bridges of the phase-separated ferromagnet (La,Pr,Ca)MnO3. Upon cooling below the Curie temperature, a predominantly ferromagnetic supercooled state persists where tunneling across the intrinsic tunnel barriers (ITBs) results in metastable, temperature-independent, high-resistance plateaus over a large range of temperatures. Upon application of a magnetic field, our data reveal that the ITBs are extinguished resulting in sharp, colossal, low-field resistance drops. Our results compare well to theoretical predictions of magnetic domain walls coinciding with the intrinsic insulating phase.

  7. Intrinsic Scene Decomposition from RGB-D Images

    KAUST Repository

    Hachama, Mohammed; Ghanem, Bernard; Wonka, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of computing an intrinsic decomposition of the colors of a surface into an albedo and a shading term. The surface is reconstructed from a single or multiple RGB-D images of a static scene obtained from different views. We thereby extend and improve existing works in the area of intrinsic image decomposition. In a variational framework, we formulate the problem as a minimization of an energy composed of two terms: a data term and a regularity term. The first term is related to the image formation process and expresses the relation between the albedo, the surface normals, and the incident illumination. We use an affine shading model, a combination of a Lambertian model, and an ambient lighting term. This model is relevant for Lambertian surfaces. When available, multiple views can be used to handle view-dependent non-Lambertian reflections. The second term contains an efficient combination of l2 and l1-regularizers on the illumination vector field and albedo respectively. Unlike most previous approaches, especially Retinex-like techniques, these terms do not depend on the image gradient or texture, thus reducing the mixing shading/reflectance artifacts and leading to better results. The obtained non-linear optimization problem is efficiently solved using a cyclic block coordinate descent algorithm. Our method outperforms a range of state-of-the-art algorithms on a popular benchmark dataset.

  8. Intrinsic Scene Decomposition from RGB-D Images

    KAUST Repository

    Hachama, Mohammed

    2015-12-07

    In this paper, we address the problem of computing an intrinsic decomposition of the colors of a surface into an albedo and a shading term. The surface is reconstructed from a single or multiple RGB-D images of a static scene obtained from different views. We thereby extend and improve existing works in the area of intrinsic image decomposition. In a variational framework, we formulate the problem as a minimization of an energy composed of two terms: a data term and a regularity term. The first term is related to the image formation process and expresses the relation between the albedo, the surface normals, and the incident illumination. We use an affine shading model, a combination of a Lambertian model, and an ambient lighting term. This model is relevant for Lambertian surfaces. When available, multiple views can be used to handle view-dependent non-Lambertian reflections. The second term contains an efficient combination of l2 and l1-regularizers on the illumination vector field and albedo respectively. Unlike most previous approaches, especially Retinex-like techniques, these terms do not depend on the image gradient or texture, thus reducing the mixing shading/reflectance artifacts and leading to better results. The obtained non-linear optimization problem is efficiently solved using a cyclic block coordinate descent algorithm. Our method outperforms a range of state-of-the-art algorithms on a popular benchmark dataset.

  9. The Intrinsic Dynamics of Psychological Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vallacher, Robin R.; van Geert, Paul; Nowak, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Psychological processes unfold on various timescales in accord with internally generated patterns. The intrinsic dynamism of psychological process is difficult to investigate using traditional methods emphasizing cause–effect relations, however, and therefore is rarely incorporated into social

  10. Original Paper Detecting Nosocomial Intrinsic Infections through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-04-20

    Apr 20, 2011 ... surgical procedures as precursory to intrinsic infections and that bacterial pathogens found on wounds and endogenous ... University Teaching Hospital, Idi Araba, Lagos, ..... confirm reason for selective decontamination of the.

  11. Deuterium NMR, induced and intrinsic cholesteric lyomesophases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcantara, M.R.

    1982-01-01

    Induced and intrinsic cholesteric lyotropic mesophases were studied. Induced cholesteric lyomesophases based on potassium laurate (KL) system, with small amounts of cholesterol added, were studied by deuterium NMR and by polarizing microscopy. Order profiles obtained from deuterium NMR of KL perdenderated chains in both induced cholesteric and normal mesophases were compared. The intrinsic cholesteric lyotropic mesophases were based on the amphiphile potassium N-lauroyl serinate (KLNS) in the resolved levo form. The study of the type I intrinsic cholesteric mesophase was made by optical microscopy under polarized light and the type II intrinsic cholesteric lyomesophase was characterized by deuterium NMR. The new texture was explained by the use of the theory of disclinations developed for thermotropic liquid crystals, specially for cholesteric type. (M.J.C.) [pt

  12. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, S; Wagner, E H; Grothaus, L C

    1990-06-01

    An intrinsic-extrinsic model of motivation for smoking cessation was evaluated with 2 samples (ns = 1.217 and 151) of smokers who requested self-help materials for smoking cessation. Exploratory and confirmatory principal components analysis on a 36-item Reasons for Quitting (RFQ) scale supported the intrinsic-extrinsic motivation distinction. A 4-factor model, with 2 intrinsic dimensions (concerns about health and desire for self-control) and 2 extrinsic dimensions (immediate reinforcement and social influence), was defined by 20 of the 36 RFQ items. The 20-item measure demonstrated moderate to high levels of internal consistency and convergent and discriminant validity. Logistic regression analyses indicated that smokers with higher levels of intrinsic relative to extrinsic motivation were more likely to achieve abstinence from smoking.

  13. Intrinsic endometriosis of ureter: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Myung Sun; Kim, Ho Chul; Yun, Ku Sup; Choi, Chul Soon; Bae, Sang Hoon; Kim, Sung Yong; Shin, Hyung Sik

    1995-01-01

    Endometriosis is a rare cause of an ureteral obstruction. We report a case of intrinsic ureteral endometriosis resulting in severe hydroureteronephrosis. The diagnosis of ureteral endometriosis may be considered in women with flank pain and ureteric obstruction within true pelvis

  14. Intrinsic endometriosis of ureter: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Myung Sun; Kim, Ho Chul; Yun, Ku Sup; Choi, Chul Soon; Bae, Sang Hoon; Kim, Sung Yong; Shin, Hyung Sik [College of Medicine, Hallym University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-15

    Endometriosis is a rare cause of an ureteral obstruction. We report a case of intrinsic ureteral endometriosis resulting in severe hydroureteronephrosis. The diagnosis of ureteral endometriosis may be considered in women with flank pain and ureteric obstruction within true pelvis.

  15. Beyond scratching the surface : intrinsic tribological performance of polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaake, R.P.

    2006-01-01

    Quantifying and understanding friction and wear behaviour of any type of material remains a challenge to this day. This is also true for polymers that are used frequently in sliding applications. This thesis focuses on the development of quantitative measurement techniques that can be used to

  16. Management Control, Intrinsic Motivation and Creativity

    OpenAIRE

    Gregersen, Mikkel Godt

    2017-01-01

    This thesis consists of a cape and three papers. The overall research question is: How can intrinsic motivation and management control coexist in a creative environment and how can coordination be possible in such a context? The cape ties together the research done in the three papers. It is divided into six sections. The first section introduces the concepts of intrinsic motivation, creativity and management control. This is followed by a section on management control in a ...

  17. Refining the intrinsic chimera flap: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Jayant P; Agarwal, Shailesh; Adler, Neta; Gottlieb, Lawrence J

    2009-10-01

    Reconstruction of complex tissue deficiencies in which each missing component is in a different spatial relationship to each other can be particularly challenging, especially in patients with limited recipient vessels. The chimera flap design is uniquely suited to reconstruct these deformities. Chimera flaps have been previously defined in many ways with 2 main categories: prefabricated or intrinsic. Herein we attempt to clarify the definition of a true intrinsic chimeric flap and provide examples of how these constructs provide a method for reconstruction of complex defects. The versatility of the intrinsic chimera flap and its procurement from 7 different vascular systems is described. A clarification of the definition of a true intrinsic chimera flap is described. In addition, construction of flaps from the lateral femoral circumflex, deep circumflex iliac, inferior gluteal, peroneal, subscapular, thoracodorsal, and radial arterial systems is described to showcase the versatility of these chimera flaps. A true intrinsic chimera flap must consist of more than a single tissue type. Each of the tissue components receives its blood flow from separate vascular branches or perforators that are connected to a single vascular source. These vascular branches must be of appropriate length to allow for insetting with 3-dimensional spatial freedom. There are a multitude of sites from which true intrinsic chimera flaps may be harvested.

  18. Incentives and intrinsic motivation in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdud, Mikel; Cabasés, Juan M; Nieto, Jorge

    It has been established in the literature that workers within public organisations are intrinsically motivated. This paper is an empirical study of the healthcare sector using methods of qualitative analysis research, which aims to answer the following hypotheses: 1) doctors are intrinsically motivated; 2) economic incentives and control policies may undermine doctors' intrinsic motivation; and 3) well-designed incentives may encourage doctors' intrinsic motivation. We conducted semi-structured interviews à-la-Bewley with 16 doctors from Navarre's Healthcare Service (Servicio Navarro de Salud-Osasunbidea), Spain. The questions were based on current theories of intrinsic motivation and incentives to test the hypotheses. Interviewees were allowed to respond openly without time constraints. Relevant information was selected, quantified and analysed by using the qualitative concepts of saturation and codification. The results seem to confirm the hypotheses. Evidence supporting hypotheses 1 and 2 was gathered from all interviewees, as well as indications of the validity of hypothesis 3 based on interviewees' proposals of incentives. The conclusions could act as a guide to support the optimal design of incentive policies and schemes within health organisations when healthcare professionals are intrinsically motivated. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. The intrinsic resistome of bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Jorge; Bernardini, Alejandra; Garcia-Leon, Guillermo; Corona, Fernando; B Sanchez, Maria; Martinez, Jose L

    2013-01-01

    Intrinsically resistant bacteria have emerged as a relevant health problem in the last years. Those bacterial species, several of them with an environmental origin, present naturally low-level susceptibility to several drugs. It has been proposed that intrinsic resistance is mainly the consequence of the impermeability of cellular envelopes, the activity of multidrug efflux pumps or the lack of appropriate targets for a given family of drugs. However, recently published articles indicate that the characteristic phenotype of susceptibility to antibiotics of a given bacterial species depends on the concerted activity of several elements, what has been named as intrinsic resistome. These determinants comprise not just classical resistance genes. Other elements, several of them involved in basic bacterial metabolic processes, are of relevance for the intrinsic resistance of bacterial pathogens. In the present review we analyze recent publications on the intrinsic resistomes of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We present as well information on the role that global regulators of bacterial metabolism, as Crc from P. aeruginosa, may have on modulating bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics. Finally, we discuss the possibility of searching inhibitors of the intrinsic resistome in the aim of improving the activity of drugs currently in use for clinical practice.

  20. The intrinsic resistome of bacterial pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Andrés Olivares Pacheco

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Intrinsically resistant bacteria have emerged as a relevant health problem in the last years. Those bacterial species, several of them with an environmental origin, present naturally a low-level susceptibility to several drugs. It has been proposed that intrinsic resistance is mainly the consequence of the impermeability of cellular envelopes, the activity of multidrug efflux pumps or the lack of appropriate targets for a given family of drugs. However, recently published articles indicate that the characteristic phenotype of susceptibility to antibiotics of a given bacterial species depends on the concerted activity of several elements, what has been named as intrinsic resistome. These determinants comprise not just classical resistance genes. Other elements, several of them involved in basic bacterial metabolic processes, are of relevance for the intrinsic resistance of bacterial pathogens. In the present review we analyse recent publications on the intrinsic resistomes of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We present as well information on the role that global regulators of bacterial metabolism, as Crc from P. aeruginosa, may have on modulating bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics. Finally, we discuss the possibility of searching inhibitors of the intrinsic resistome in the aim of improving the activity of drugs currently in use for clinical practice.

  1. An Evolutionarily Conserved Mechanism for Intrinsic and Transferable Polymyxin Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongchang; Wei, Wenhui; Lei, Sheng; Lin, Jingxia; Srinivas, Swaminath; Feng, Youjun

    2018-04-10

    Polymyxins, a family of cationic antimicrobial cyclic peptides, act as a last line of defense against severe infections by Gram-negative pathogens with carbapenem resistance. In addition to the intrinsic resistance to polymyxin E (colistin) conferred by Neisseria eptA , the plasmid-borne mobilized colistin resistance gene mcr-1 has been disseminated globally since the first discovery in Southern China, in late 2015. However, the molecular mechanisms for both intrinsic and transferable resistance to colistin remain largely unknown. Here, we aim to address this gap in the knowledge of these proteins. Structural and functional analyses of EptA and MCR-1 and -2 have defined a conserved 12-residue cavity that is required for the entry of the lipid substrate, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). The in vitro and in vivo data together have allowed us to visualize the similarities in catalytic activity shared by EptA and MCR-1 and -2. The expression of either EptA or MCR-1 or -2 is shown to remodel the surface of enteric bacteria (e.g., Escherichia coli , Salmonella enterica , Klebsiella pneumoniae , etc.), rendering them resistant to colistin. The parallels in the PE substrate-binding cavities among EptA, MCR-1, and MCR-2 provide a comprehensive understanding of both intrinsic and transferable colistin resistance. Domain swapping between EptA and MCR-1 and -2 reveals that the two domains (transmembrane [TM] region and p hospho e thanol a mine [PEA] transferase) are not functionally exchangeable. Taken together, the results represent a common mechanism for intrinsic and transferable PEA resistance to polymyxin, a last-resort antibiotic against multidrug-resistant pathogens. IMPORTANCE EptA and MCR-1 and -2 remodel the outer membrane, rendering bacteria resistant to colistin, a final resort against carbapenem-resistant pathogens. Structural and functional analyses of EptA and MCR-1 and -2 reveal parallel PE lipid substrate-recognizing cavities, which explains intrinsic and

  2. Intrinsic photocatalytic assessment of reactively sputtered TiO₂ films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafieian, Damon; Driessen, Rick T; Ogieglo, Wojciech; Lammertink, Rob G H

    2015-04-29

    Thin TiO2 films were prepared by DC magnetron reactive sputtering at different oxygen partial pressures. Depending on the oxygen partial pressure during sputtering, a transition from metallic Ti to TiO2 was identified by spectroscopic ellipsometry. The crystalline nature of the film developed during a subsequent annealing step, resulting in thin anatase TiO2 layers, displaying photocatalytic activity. The intrinsic photocatalytic activity of the catalysts was evaluated for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) using a microfluidic reactor. A numerical model was employed to extract the intrinsic reaction rate constants. High conversion rates (90% degradation within 20 s residence time) were observed within these microreactors because of the efficient mass transport and light distribution. To evaluate the intrinsic reaction kinetics, we argue that mass transport has to be accounted for. The obtained surface reaction rate constants demonstrate very high reactivity for the sputtered TiO2 films. Only for the thinnest film, 9 nm, slightly lower kinetics were observed.

  3. An Evolutionarily Conserved Mechanism for Intrinsic and Transferable Polymyxin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongchang Xu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Polymyxins, a family of cationic antimicrobial cyclic peptides, act as a last line of defense against severe infections by Gram-negative pathogens with carbapenem resistance. In addition to the intrinsic resistance to polymyxin E (colistin conferred by Neisseria eptA, the plasmid-borne mobilized colistin resistance gene mcr-1 has been disseminated globally since the first discovery in Southern China, in late 2015. However, the molecular mechanisms for both intrinsic and transferable resistance to colistin remain largely unknown. Here, we aim to address this gap in the knowledge of these proteins. Structural and functional analyses of EptA and MCR-1 and -2 have defined a conserved 12-residue cavity that is required for the entry of the lipid substrate, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE. The in vitro and in vivo data together have allowed us to visualize the similarities in catalytic activity shared by EptA and MCR-1 and -2. The expression of either EptA or MCR-1 or -2 is shown to remodel the surface of enteric bacteria (e.g., Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Klebsiella pneumoniae, etc., rendering them resistant to colistin. The parallels in the PE substrate-binding cavities among EptA, MCR-1, and MCR-2 provide a comprehensive understanding of both intrinsic and transferable colistin resistance. Domain swapping between EptA and MCR-1 and -2 reveals that the two domains (transmembrane [TM] region and phosphoethanolamine [PEA] transferase are not functionally exchangeable. Taken together, the results represent a common mechanism for intrinsic and transferable PEA resistance to polymyxin, a last-resort antibiotic against multidrug-resistant pathogens.

  4. Effective removal of trace thallium from surface water by nanosized manganese dioxide enhanced quartz sand filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huangfu, Xiaoliu; Ma, Chengxue; Ma, Jun; He, Qiang; Yang, Chun; Zhou, Jian; Jiang, Jin; Wang, Yaan

    2017-12-01

    Thallium (Tl) has drawn wide concern due to its high toxicity even at extremely low concentrations, as well as its tendency for significant accumulation in the human body and other organisms. The need to develop effective strategies for trace Tl removal from drinking water is urgent. In this study, the removal of trace Tl (0.5 μg L -1 ) by conventional quartz sand filtration enhanced by nanosized manganese dioxide (nMnO 2 ) has been investigated using typical surface water obtained from northeast China. The results indicate that nMnO 2 enhanced quartz sand filtration could remove trace Tl(I) and Tl(III) efficiently through the adsorption of Tl onto nMnO 2 added to a water matrix and onto nMnO 2 attached on quartz sand surfaces. Tl(III)-HA complexes might be responsible for higher residual Tl(III) in the effluent compared to residual Tl(I). Competitive Ca 2+ cations inhibit Tl removal to a certain extent because the Ca 2+ ions will occupy the Tl adsorption site on nMnO 2 . Moreover, high concentrations of HA (10 mgTOC L -1 ), which notably complexes with and dissolves nMnO 2 (more than 78%), resulted in higher residual Tl(I) and Tl(III). Tl(III)-HA complexes might also enhance Tl(III) penetration to a certain extent. Additionally, a higher pH level could enhance the removal of trace Tl from surface water. Finally, a slight increase of residual Tl was observed after backwash, followed by the reduction of the Tl concentration in the effluent to a "steady" state again. The knowledge obtained here may provide a potential strategy for drinking water treatment plants threatened by trace Tl. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Restorative Management of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Dental Erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Salehi, Samira Kathryn

    2014-12-01

    The restorative management of tooth surface loss is highlighted through the presentation of two advanced cases of dental erosion. On presentation, the causes of the dental erosion in both patients had been previously diagnosed and stopped. The first patient was a 67 year old with intrinsic erosion and an element of attrition where a multidisciplinary approach was used. The other, a 17 year old patient with extrinsic erosion managed via adhesive restorations. Adhesive techniques are a relatively simple, effective and conservative method for the treatment of dental erosion. The two treatment modalities (conventional versus contemporary) are compared and discussed.

  6. Determination of intrinsic equilibrium constants at an alumina/electrolyte interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SLOBODAN K. MILONJIC

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Intrinsic ionization and complexation constants at an alumina/electrolyte interface were studied by the site binding model, while the sorption of alkali cations from aqueous solutions was interpreted by the triple-layer model. The surface properties of alumina were investigated by the potentiometric acid-base titration method. The point of zero charge (pHpzc of alumina obtained by this method was found to be 7.2. The obtained mean values of the intrinsic protonation and ionization constants of the surface hydroxyl groups and the intrinsic surface complexation constant, in different electrolytes, are pKinta1 = 4.4, pKinta2 = 9.6 and pKintM+ = 9.5, respectively.

  7. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Neuromodulation of Olfactory Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizbinski, Kristyn M; Dacks, Andrew M

    2017-01-01

    Neuromodulation is a ubiquitous feature of neural systems, allowing flexible, context specific control over network dynamics. Neuromodulation was first described in invertebrate motor systems and early work established a basic dichotomy for neuromodulation as having either an intrinsic origin (i.e., neurons that participate in network coding) or an extrinsic origin (i.e., neurons from independent networks). In this conceptual dichotomy, intrinsic sources of neuromodulation provide a "memory" by adjusting network dynamics based upon previous and ongoing activation of the network itself, while extrinsic neuromodulators provide the context of ongoing activity of other neural networks. Although this dichotomy has been thoroughly considered in motor systems, it has received far less attention in sensory systems. In this review, we discuss intrinsic and extrinsic modulation in the context of olfactory processing in invertebrate and vertebrate model systems. We begin by discussing presynaptic modulation of olfactory sensory neurons by local interneurons (LNs) as a mechanism for gain control based on ongoing network activation. We then discuss the cell-class specific effects of serotonergic centrifugal neurons on olfactory processing. Finally, we briefly discuss the integration of intrinsic and extrinsic neuromodulation (metamodulation) as an effective mechanism for exerting global control over olfactory network dynamics. The heterogeneous nature of neuromodulation is a recurring theme throughout this review as the effects of both intrinsic and extrinsic modulation are generally non-uniform.

  8. Hidden Structural Codes in Protein Intrinsic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkosky, Silvia S; Camporeale, Gabriela; Chemes, Lucía B; Risso, Marikena; Noval, María Gabriela; Sánchez, Ignacio E; Alonso, Leonardo G; de Prat Gay, Gonzalo

    2017-10-17

    Intrinsic disorder is a major structural category in biology, accounting for more than 30% of coding regions across the domains of life, yet consists of conformational ensembles in equilibrium, a major challenge in protein chemistry. Anciently evolved papillomavirus genomes constitute an unparalleled case for sequence to structure-function correlation in cases in which there are no folded structures. E7, the major transforming oncoprotein of human papillomaviruses, is a paradigmatic example among the intrinsically disordered proteins. Analysis of a large number of sequences of the same viral protein allowed for the identification of a handful of residues with absolute conservation, scattered along the sequence of its N-terminal intrinsically disordered domain, which intriguingly are mostly leucine residues. Mutation of these led to a pronounced increase in both α-helix and β-sheet structural content, reflected by drastic effects on equilibrium propensities and oligomerization kinetics, and uncovers the existence of local structural elements that oppose canonical folding. These folding relays suggest the existence of yet undefined hidden structural codes behind intrinsic disorder in this model protein. Thus, evolution pinpoints conformational hot spots that could have not been identified by direct experimental methods for analyzing or perturbing the equilibrium of an intrinsically disordered protein ensemble.

  9. Intrinsic-extrinsic factors in sport motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Darhl M

    2002-10-01

    Participants were 83 students (36 men and 47 women). 10 intrinsic-extrinsic factors involved in sport motivation were obtained. The factors were generated from items obtained from the participants rather than items from the experimenter. This was done to avoid the possible influence of preconceptions on the part of the experimenter regarding what the final dimensions may be. Obtained motivational factors were Social Reinforcement, Fringe Benefits, Fame and Fortune, External Forces, Proving Oneself, Social Benefits, Mental Enrichment, Expression of Self, Sense of Accomplishment, and Self-enhancement. Each factor was referred to an intrinsic-extrinsic dimension to describe its relative position on that dimension. The order of the factors as listed indicates increasing intrinsic motivation. i.e., the first four factors were rated in the extrinsic range, whereas the remaining six were rated to be in the intrinsic range. Next, the participants rated the extent to which each of the various factors was involved in their decision to participate in sport activities. The pattern of use of the motivational factors was the same for both sexes except that men indicated greater use of the Fringe Benefits factor. Overall, the more intrinsic a sport motivation factor was rated, the more likely it was to be rated as a factor in actual sport participation.

  10. Genome-Wide Prediction of Intrinsic Disorder; Sequence Alignment of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midic, Uros

    2012-01-01

    Intrinsic disorder (ID) is defined as a lack of stable tertiary and/or secondary structure under physiological conditions in vitro. Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are highly abundant in nature. IDPs possess a number of crucial biological functions, being involved in regulation, recognition, signaling and control, e.g. their functional…

  11. Flavor Structure of Intrinsic Nucleon Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Jen-Chieh; Chang, Wen-Chen; Cheng, Hai-Yang; Liu, Keh-Fei

    2015-01-01

    The concept of intrinsic charm suggested by Brodsky et al. is extended to lighter quarks. Extraction of the intrinsic ū, d-macron, and s-macron seas is obtained from an analysis of the d-macron − ū, s + s-macron, and ū + d-macron − s −s-macron distributions. The connection between the intrinsic/extrinsic seas and the connected/disconnected seas in lattice QCD is also examined. It is shown that the connected and disconnected components for the ū(x) + d-macron(x) sea can be separated. The striking x-dependence of the [s(x) + s-macron(x)]/[ū(x) + d-macron(x)] ratio is interpreted as an interplay between the connected and disconnected seas. (author)

  12. Management Control, Intrinsic Motivation and Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godt Gregersen, Mikkel

    This thesis consists of a cape and three papers. The overall research question is: How can intrinsic motivation and management control coexist in a creative environment and how can coordination be possible in such a context? The cape ties together the research done in the three papers....... It is divided into six sections. The first section introduces the concepts of intrinsic motivation, creativity and management control. This is followed by a section on management control in a creative context. These two sections frame the thesis and introduce the setting in which the research has been done...... of the conclusion is that intrinsic motivation and management control can coexist under the conditions that all three basic needs, i.e. autonomy, competence and relatedness, are supported. This can happen when control takes point of departure in the individual employee. The second part of the conclusion...

  13. A model of intrinsic symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge, Li; Li, Sheng; George, Thomas F.; Sun, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Different from the symmetry breaking associated with a phase transition, which occurs when the controlling parameter is manipulated across a critical point, the symmetry breaking presented in this Letter does not need parameter manipulation. Instead, the system itself suddenly undergoes symmetry breaking at a certain time during its evolution, which is intrinsic symmetry breaking. Through a polymer model, it is revealed that the origin of the intrinsic symmetry breaking is nonlinearity, which produces instability at the instance when the evolution crosses an inflexion point, where this instability breaks the original symmetry

  14. Intrinsically aligned chemo-mechanical functionalization of twin cantilever structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toffoli, V; Esch, F; Melli, M; Pozzato, A; Tormen, M; Lazzarino, M; Cataruzza, F; Carrato, S; Scoles, G

    2008-01-01

    Mechanical oscillators became a main focus of research in recent years for potential applications in biomolecule detectors. We recently demonstrated the feasibility of a scheme based on twin cantilevers with a sensitivity down to the single molecule. This approach is extremely promising under the condition that the two terminals of the device can be functionalized with high selectivity and nanometric accuracy by linker molecules. Here we demonstrate a chemo-mechanical method to achieve the intrinsically aligned functionalization of two silicon surfaces, which can be separated by a gap controllable with nanometric precision. The chemical binding of the target molecules in the selected position is obtained through a cycloaddition reaction which exploits the reactivity of the freshly cleaved surfaces that form when the cantilever gap is created. The general validity of this approach is shown by the use in different chemical environments of two compounds with different reactive functional groups.

  15. A diverse intrinsic antibiotic resistome from a cave bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Andrew C; Wang, Wenliang; Koteva, Kalinka; Barton, Hazel A; McArthur, Andrew G; Wright, Gerard D

    2016-12-08

    Antibiotic resistance is ancient and widespread in environmental bacteria. These are therefore reservoirs of resistance elements and reflective of the natural history of antibiotics and resistance. In a previous study, we discovered that multi-drug resistance is common in bacteria isolated from Lechuguilla Cave, an underground ecosystem that has been isolated from the surface for over 4 Myr. Here we use whole-genome sequencing, functional genomics and biochemical assays to reveal the intrinsic resistome of Paenibacillus sp. LC231, a cave bacterial isolate that is resistant to most clinically used antibiotics. We systematically link resistance phenotype to genotype and in doing so, identify 18 chromosomal resistance elements, including five determinants without characterized homologues and three mechanisms not previously shown to be involved in antibiotic resistance. A resistome comparison across related surface Paenibacillus affirms the conservation of resistance over millions of years and establishes the longevity of these genes in this genus.

  16. Organisational Learning and Employees' Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remedios, Richard; Boreham, Nick

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the effects of organisational learning initiatives on employee motivation. Four initiatives consistent with theories of organisational learning were a priori ranked in terms of concepts that underpin intrinsic-motivation theory. Eighteen employees in a UK petrochemical company were interviewed to ascertain their experiences of…

  17. Sex Differences, Positive Feedback and Intrinsic Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deci, Edward L.; And Others

    The paper presents two experiments which test the "change in feelings of competence and self-determination" proposition of cognitive evaluation theory. This proposition states that when a person receives feedback about his performance on an intrinsically motivated activity this information will affect his sense of competence and…

  18. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation among Collegiate Instrumentalists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Frank M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gather and compare information on measures of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among instrumentalists enrolled in collegiate ensembles. A survey instrument was developed to gather information concerning demographic data and responses to questions on motivational preference. Participants were undergraduate and…

  19. Intrinsic intensity fluctuations in random lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molen, Karen L. van der; Mosk, Allard P.; Lagendijk, Ad

    2006-01-01

    We present a quantitative experimental and theoretical study of intensity fluctuations in the emitted light of a random laser that has different realizations of disorder for every pump pulse. A model that clarifies these intrinsic fluctuations is developed. We describe the output versus input power graphs of the random laser with an effective spontaneous emission factor (β factor)

  20. Intrinsic Motivation, Organizational Justice, and Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannam, Kalli; Narayan, Anupama

    2015-01-01

    For employees to generate creative ideas that are not only original, but also useful to their company, they must interact with their workplace environment to determine organizational needs. Therefore, it is important to consider aspects of the individual as well as their environment when studying creativity. Intrinsic motivation, a predictor of…

  1. Intrinsically conductive polymer thin film piezoresistors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillemose, Michael; Spieser, Martin; Christiansen, N.O.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the piezoresistive effect in the intrinsically conductive polymer, polyaniline. A process recipe for indirect patterning of thin film polyaniline has been developed. Using a specially designed chip, the polyaniline thin films have been characterised with respect to resistivity...

  2. LEADERSHIP STYLE AND EMPLOYEES' INTRINSIC JOB ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the impact of leadership style on employees' intrinsic ... of many factors including motivation, leadership, job satisfaction, workers' alienation and ... Factors associated with job satisfaction include incentive to work, reward of ... advancement/promotion, recognition and self-actualization cannot be met ...

  3. Intrinsic Risk Factors of Falls in Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Amatullah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Falls are common geriatric problems. The risk factors of falls are the intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors. Studies on falls are scarcely conducted in Indonesia, especially in Bandung. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify the intrinsic risk factors of falls among elderly. Methods: A descriptive study was carried out from August to October 2013 at the Geriatric Clinic of Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung. Fifty three participants were selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria using consecutive sampling. The determined variables in this study were classification of the risk of falls, demographic profile, history of falls, disease, and medications. After the selection, the participants were tested by Timed up-and-go test (TUGT. Moreover, an interview and analysis of medical records were carried out to discover the risk factors of falls. The collected data were analyzed and presented in the form of percentages shown in tables. Results: From 53 patients, women (35.66% were considered to have higher risk of fall than men (18.34%. The majority of patients (66% with the risk of fall were from the age group 60–74 years. The major diseases suffered by patients were hypertension, osteoarthritis and diabetes mellitus. Drugs that were widely used were antihypertensive drugs; analgesic and antipyretic drugs and antidiabetic drugs. Conclusions: There are various intrinsic risk factors of falls in elderly and each of the elderly has more than one intrinsic risk factor of falls.

  4. Experimental demonstration of an up-down asymmetry effect on intrinsic rotation in the TCV tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camenen, Y; Peeters, A G; Casson, F J; Hornsby, W A; Snodin, A P; Szepesi, G; Bortolon, A; Duval, B P; Federspiel, L; Karpushov, A N; Piras, F; Sauter, O

    2010-01-01

    A new mechanism has recently been proposed that generates a radial flux of parallel momentum in toroidal plasmas. Namely, by considering up-down asymmetric flux surfaces, the symmetry following the magnetic field can be broken and an additional contribution to the turbulent momentum flux arises, potentially changing the intrinsic rotation profile. These predictions are tested with specific experiments on TCV. The intrinsic toroidal rotation is observed to change by roughly a factor of two when changing the up-down asymmetry of the plasma. More precisely, the toroidal rotation gradient changes in the outer part of the plasma, where the flux surface asymmetry is the highest. The experiments were performed for all combinations of the toroidal magnetic field and plasma current directions, that affect the sign of the predicted up-down asymmetry flux. In each case the variation of the intrinsic rotation profile with the up-down asymmetry is observed in the direction predicted by the theory.

  5. Content of intrinsic disorder influences the outcome of cell-free protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokmakov, Alexander A; Kurotani, Atsushi; Ikeda, Mariko; Terazawa, Yumiko; Shirouzu, Mikako; Stefanov, Vasily; Sakurai, Tetsuya; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2015-09-11

    Cell-free protein synthesis is used to produce proteins with various structural traits. Recent bioinformatics analyses indicate that more than half of eukaryotic proteins possess long intrinsically disordered regions. However, no systematic study concerning the connection between intrinsic disorder and expression success of cell-free protein synthesis has been presented until now. To address this issue, we examined correlations of the experimentally observed cell-free protein expression yields with the contents of intrinsic disorder bioinformatically predicted in the expressed sequences. This analysis revealed strong relationships between intrinsic disorder and protein amenability to heterologous cell-free expression. On the one hand, elevated disorder content was associated with the increased ratio of soluble expression. On the other hand, overall propensity for detectable protein expression decreased with disorder content. We further demonstrated that these tendencies are rooted in some distinct features of intrinsically disordered regions, such as low hydrophobicity, elevated surface accessibility and high abundance of sequence motifs for proteolytic degradation, including sites of ubiquitination and PEST sequences. Our findings suggest that identification of intrinsically disordered regions in the expressed amino acid sequences can be of practical use for predicting expression success and optimizing cell-free protein synthesis.

  6. Identifying the neural substrates of intrinsic motivation during task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woogul; Reeve, Johnmarshall

    2017-10-01

    Intrinsic motivation is the inherent tendency to seek out novelty and challenge, to explore and investigate, and to stretch and extend one's capacities. When people imagine performing intrinsically motivating tasks, they show heightened anterior insular cortex (AIC) activity. To fully explain the neural system of intrinsic motivation, however, requires assessing neural activity while people actually perform intrinsically motivating tasks (i.e., while answering curiosity-inducing questions or solving competence-enabling anagrams). Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, we found that the neural system of intrinsic motivation involves not only AIC activity, but also striatum activity and, further, AIC-striatum functional interactions. These findings suggest that subjective feelings of intrinsic satisfaction (associated with AIC activations), reward processing (associated with striatum activations), and their interactions underlie the actual experience of intrinsic motivation. These neural findings are consistent with the conceptualization of intrinsic motivation as the pursuit and satisfaction of subjective feelings (interest and enjoyment) as intrinsic rewards.

  7. Layer-by-layer and intrinsic analysis of molecular and thermodynamic properties across soft interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sega, Marcello; Fábián, Balázs; Jedlovszky, Pál

    2015-01-01

    Interfaces are ubiquitous objects, whose thermodynamic behavior we only recently started to understand at the microscopic detail. Here, we borrow concepts from the techniques of surface identification and intrinsic analysis, to provide a complementary point of view on the density, stress, energy, and free energy distribution across liquid (“soft”) interfaces by analyzing the respective contributions coming from successive layers

  8. Layer-by-layer and intrinsic analysis of molecular and thermodynamic properties across soft interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sega, Marcello [Computational Physics Group, University of Vienna, Sensengasse 8/9, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Fábián, Balázs [Institut UTINAM (CNRS UMR 6213), Université de Franche-Comté, 16 route de Gray, F-25030 Besançon (France); Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Szt. Gellért tér 4, H-1111 Budapest (Hungary); Jedlovszky, Pál [Laboratory of Interfaces and Nanosize Systems, Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, Pázmány P. Stny 1/A, H-1117 Budapest (Hungary); MTA-BME Research Group of Technical Analytical Chemistry, Szt. Gellért tér 4, H-1111 Budapest (Hungary); Department of Chemistry, EKF, Leányka u. 6, H-3300 Eger (Hungary)

    2015-09-21

    Interfaces are ubiquitous objects, whose thermodynamic behavior we only recently started to understand at the microscopic detail. Here, we borrow concepts from the techniques of surface identification and intrinsic analysis, to provide a complementary point of view on the density, stress, energy, and free energy distribution across liquid (“soft”) interfaces by analyzing the respective contributions coming from successive layers.

  9. Functions of intrinsic disorder in transmembrane proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergaard, Magnus; Kragelund, Birthe B.

    2017-01-01

    Intrinsic disorder is common in integral membrane proteins, particularly in the intracellular domains. Despite this observation, these domains are not always recognized as being disordered. In this review, we will discuss the biological functions of intrinsically disordered regions of membrane...... receptors. The functions of the disordered regions are many and varied. We will discuss selected examples including: (1) Organization of receptors, kinases, phosphatases and second messenger sources into signaling complexes. (2) Modulation of the membrane-embedded domain function by ball-and-chain like...... mechanisms. (3) Trafficking of membrane proteins. (4) Transient membrane associations. (5) Post-translational modifications most notably phosphorylation and (6) disorder-linked isoform dependent function. We finish the review by discussing the future challenges facing the membrane protein community regarding...

  10. Extrinsic and intrinsic curvatures in thermodynamic geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini Mansoori, Seyed Ali, E-mail: shossein@bu.edu [Department of Physics, Boston University, 590 Commonwealth Ave., Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Department of Physics, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mirza, Behrouz, E-mail: b.mirza@cc.iut.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sharifian, Elham, E-mail: e.sharifian@ph.iut.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-08-10

    We investigate the intrinsic and extrinsic curvatures of a certain hypersurface in thermodynamic geometry of a physical system and show that they contain useful thermodynamic information. For an anti-Reissner–Nordström-(A)de Sitter black hole (Phantom), the extrinsic curvature of a constant Q hypersurface has the same sign as the heat capacity around the phase transition points. The intrinsic curvature of the hypersurface can also be divergent at the critical points but has no information about the sign of the heat capacity. Our study explains the consistent relationship holding between the thermodynamic geometry of the KN-AdS black holes and those of the RN (J-zero hypersurface) and Kerr black holes (Q-zero hypersurface) ones [1]. This approach can easily be generalized to an arbitrary thermodynamic system.

  11. Extrinsic and intrinsic curvatures in thermodynamic geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini Mansoori, Seyed Ali; Mirza, Behrouz; Sharifian, Elham

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the intrinsic and extrinsic curvatures of a certain hypersurface in thermodynamic geometry of a physical system and show that they contain useful thermodynamic information. For an anti-Reissner–Nordström-(A)de Sitter black hole (Phantom), the extrinsic curvature of a constant Q hypersurface has the same sign as the heat capacity around the phase transition points. The intrinsic curvature of the hypersurface can also be divergent at the critical points but has no information about the sign of the heat capacity. Our study explains the consistent relationship holding between the thermodynamic geometry of the KN-AdS black holes and those of the RN (J-zero hypersurface) and Kerr black holes (Q-zero hypersurface) ones [1]. This approach can easily be generalized to an arbitrary thermodynamic system.

  12. Does Aerobic Exercise Influence Intrinsic Brain Activity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flodin, Pär; Jonasson, Lars S; Riklund, Katrin

    2017-01-01

    exercise group or an active control group. Both groups recieved supervised training, 3 days a week for 6 months. Multimodal brain imaging data was acquired before and after the intervention, including 10 min of resting state brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and arterial spin labeling......Previous studies have indicated that aerobic exercise could reduce age related decline in cognition and brain functioning. Here we investigated the effects of aerobic exercise on intrinsic brain activity. Sixty sedentary healthy males and females (64-78 years) were randomized into either an aerobic...... group improved more. Contrary to our hypothesis, we did not observe any significant group by time interactions with regard to any measure of intrinsic activity. To further probe putative relationships between fitness and brain activity, we performed post hoc analyses disregarding group belongings...

  13. Survey of intrinsic states of light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brink, D.M.

    1975-01-01

    The resonating group method and the generator coordinate method are two closely related theories of nuclear structure which can be used to construct wave functions describing cluster structures. In both cases the form of the intrinsic state implies a selection of those degrees of freedom which are regarded as being important for the problem under consideration. The form of the intrinsic state also corresponds to a particular truncation of the shell model space. In the resonating group method the effect of the Pauli principle leads to forbidden or redundant states of relative motion of clusters. An improved understanding of the role of forbidden states in the theory has led to important advances in the phenomenological description of cluster structures in nuclei. 3 tables, 2 figures

  14. Excitonic terahertz photoconductivity in intrinsic semiconductor nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jie-Yun

    2018-06-01

    Excitonic terahertz photoconductivity in intrinsic semiconductor nanowires is studied. Based on the excitonic theory, the numerical method to calculate the photoconductivity spectrum in the nanowires is developed, which can simulate optical pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy measurements on real nanowires and thereby calculate the typical photoconductivity spectrum. With the help of the energetic structure deduced from the calculated linear absorption spectrum, the numerically observed shift of the resonant peak in the photoconductivity spectrum is found to result from the dominant exciton transition between excited or continuum states to the ground state, and the quantitative analysis is in good agreement with the quantum plasmon model. Besides, the dependence of the photoconductivity on the polarization of the terahertz field is also discussed. The numerical method and supporting theoretical analysis provide a new tool for experimentalists to understand the terahertz photoconductivity in intrinsic semiconductor nanowires at low temperatures or for nanowires subjected to below bandgap photoexcitation, where excitonic effects dominate.

  15. Structural design of intrinsically fluorescent oxysterols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nåbo, Lina J; Modzel, Maciej; Krishnan, Kathiresan

    2018-01-01

    Oxysterols are oxidized derivatives of cholesterol with many important biological functions. Trafficking of oxysterols in and between cells is not well studied, largely due to the lack of appropriate oxysterol analogs. Intrinsically fluorescent oxysterols present a new route towards direct...... observation of intracellular oxysterol trafficking by fluorescence microscopy. We characterize the fluorescence properties of the existing fluorescent 25-hydroxycholesterol analog 25-hydroxycholestatrienol, and propose a new probe with an extended conjugated system. The location of both probes inside...

  16. Intrinsic and extrinsic effects on image memorability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bylinskii, Zoya; Isola, Phillip; Bainbridge, Constance; Torralba, Antonio; Oliva, Aude

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have identified that images carry the attribute of memorability, a predictive value of whether a novel image will be later remembered or forgotten. Here we investigate the interplay between intrinsic and extrinsic factors that affect image memorability. First, we find that intrinsic differences in memorability exist at a finer-grained scale than previously documented. Second, we test two extrinsic factors: image context and observer behavior. Building on prior findings that images that are distinct with respect to their context are better remembered, we propose an information-theoretic model of image distinctiveness. Our model can automatically predict how changes in context change the memorability of natural images. In addition to context, we study a second extrinsic factor: where an observer looks while memorizing an image. It turns out that eye movements provide additional information that can predict whether or not an image will be remembered, on a trial-by-trial basis. Together, by considering both intrinsic and extrinsic effects on memorability, we arrive at a more complete and fine-grained model of image memorability than previously available. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Moral Distress, Workplace Health, and Intrinsic Harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Elijah

    2016-05-01

    Moral distress is now being recognized as a frequent experience for many health care providers, and there's good evidence that it has a negative impact on the health care work environment. However, contemporary discussions of moral distress have several problems. First, they tend to rely on inadequate characterizations of moral distress. As a result, subsequent investigations regarding the frequency and consequences of moral distress often proceed without a clear understanding of the phenomenon being discussed, and thereby risk substantially misrepresenting the nature, frequency, and possible consequences of moral distress. These discussions also minimize the intrinsically harmful aspects of moral distress. This is a serious omission. Moral distress doesn't just have a negative impact on the health care work environment; it also directly harms the one who experiences it. In this paper, I claim that these problems can be addressed by first clarifying our understanding of moral distress, and then identifying what makes moral distress intrinsically harmful. I begin by identifying three common mistakes that characterizations of moral distress tend to make, and explaining why these mistakes are problematic. Next, I offer an account of moral distress that avoids these mistakes. Then, I defend the claim that moral distress is intrinsically harmful to the subject who experiences it. I conclude by explaining how acknowledging this aspect of moral distress should reshape our discussions about how best to deal with this phenomenon. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Large photon drag effect of intrinsic graphene induced by plasmonic evanescent field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ma; Li, Zhibing

    2016-12-01

    A large photon drag effect of the massless Dirac fermions in intrinsic graphene is predicted for a graphene-on-plasmonic-layer system. The surface plasmons in the plasmonic layer enlarge the wave number of the photon hundreds times more than in vacuum. The evanescent field of the surface plasmons generates a directional motion of carriers in the intrinsic graphene because of the large momentum transfer from the surface plasmon to the excited carriers. A model Hamiltonian is developed on the assumption that the in-plane wavelength of the surface plasmons is much smaller than the mean free path of the carriers. The time evolution of the density matrix is solved by perturbation method as well as numerical integration. The nondiagonal density matrix elements with momentum transfer lead to a gauge current, which is an optically driven macroscopic direct current. The dependence of the macroscopic direct current on the incident direction and intensity of the laser field is studied.

  19. The effect of intrinsic soil properties on soil quality assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Samuel-Rosa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of soil quality is based on indicators and indices derived from soil properties. However, intrinsic soil properties may interfere with other soil properties that vary under different land uses and are used to calculate the indices. The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which intrinsic soil properties (clay and iron oxide contents explain variable soil properties (sum of bases, potential acidity, organic carbon, total porosity, and bulk density under different land uses (native forest, no-tillage and conventional agriculture on small family farms in Southern Brazil. The results showed that the five properties evaluated can be included in soil quality assessments and are not influenced by the clay and iron oxide contents. It was concluded that for little weathered 1:1 and 2:1 phyllosilicate rich-soils, if the difference between the maximum and the minimum clay content under the different land uses is less than about 200 g kg-1 and the iron oxide content less than about 15 g kg-1, the physico-chemical soil properties in the surface layer are determined mostly by the land use.

  20. Intrinsic Charge Transport in Organic Field-Effect Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podzorov, Vitaly

    2005-03-01

    Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) are essential components of modern electronics. Despite the rapid progress of organic electronics, understanding of fundamental aspects of the charge transport in organic devices is still lacking. Recently, the OFETs based on highly ordered organic crystals have been fabricated with innovative techniques that preserve the high quality of single-crystal organic surfaces. This technological progress facilitated the study of transport mechanisms in organic semiconductors [1-4]. It has been demonstrated that the intrinsic polaronic transport, not dominated by disorder, with a remarkably high mobility of ``holes'' μ = 20 cm^2/Vs can be achieved in these devices at room temperature [4]. The signatures of the intrinsic polaronic transport are the anisotropy of the carrier mobility and an increase of μ with cooling. These and other aspects of the charge transport in organic single-crystal FETs will be discussed. Co-authors are Etienne Menard, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign; Valery Kiryukhin, Rutgers University; John Rogers, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign; Michael Gershenson, Rutgers University. [1] V. Podzorov et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1739 (2003); ibid. 83, 3504 (2003). [2] V. C. Sundar et al., Science 303, 1644 (2004). [3] R. W. I. de Boer et al., Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 201, 1302 (2004). [4] V. Podzorov et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 086602 (2004).

  1. Intrinsic Compressive Stress in Polycrystalline Films is Localized at Edges of the Grain Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasco, Enrique; Polop, Celia

    2017-12-01

    The intrinsic compression that arises in polycrystalline thin films under high atomic mobility conditions has been attributed to the insertion or trapping of adatoms inside grain boundaries. This compression is a consequence of the stress field resulting from imperfections in the solid and causes the thermomechanical fatigue that is estimated to be responsible for 90% of mechanical failures in current devices. We directly measure the local distribution of residual intrinsic stress in polycrystalline thin films on nanometer scales, using a pioneering method based on atomic force microscopy. Our results demonstrate that, at odds with expectations, compression is not generated inside grain boundaries but at the edges of gaps where the boundaries intercept the surface. We describe a model wherein this compressive stress is caused by Mullins-type surface diffusion towards the boundaries, generating a kinetic surface profile different from the mechanical equilibrium profile by the Laplace-Young equation. Where the curvatures of both profiles differ, an intrinsic stress is generated in the form of Laplace pressure. The Srolovitz-type surface diffusion that results from the stress counters the Mullins-type diffusion and stabilizes the kinetic surface profile, giving rise to a steady compression regime. The proposed mechanism of competition between surface diffusions would explain the flux and time dependency of compressive stress in polycrystalline thin films.

  2. Crowding out intrinsic motivation in the public sector

    OpenAIRE

    Georgellis, Y; Iossa, E; Tabvuma, V

    2011-01-01

    Employing intrinsically motivated individuals has been proposed as a means of improving public sector performance. In this article, we investigate whether intrinsic motivation affects the sorting of employees between the private and the public sectors, paying particular attention to whether extrinsic rewards crowd out intrinsic motivation. Using British longitudinal data, we find that individuals are attracted to the public sector by the intrinsic rather than the extrinsic rewards that the se...

  3. Possible mechanism for d0 ferromagnetism mediated by intrinsic defects

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhenkui

    2014-01-01

    We examine the effects of several intrinsic defects on the magnetic behavior of ZnS nanostructures using hybrid density functional theory to gain insights into d0 ferromagnetism. Previous studies have predicted that the magnetism is due to a coupling between partially filled defect states. By taking into account the electronic correlations, we find an additional splitting of the defect states in Zn vacancies and thus the possibility of gaining energy by preferential filling of hole states, establishing ferromagnetism between spin polarized S 3p holes. We demonstrate a crucial role of neutral S vacancies in promoting ferromagnetism between positively charged S vacancies. S dangling bonds on the nanoparticle surface also induce ferromagnetism. This journal is

  4. Intrinsic white-light emission from layered hybrid perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohner, Emma R; Jaffe, Adam; Bradshaw, Liam R; Karunadasa, Hemamala I

    2014-09-24

    We report on the second family of layered perovskite white-light emitters with improved photoluminescence quantum efficiencies (PLQEs). Upon near-ultraviolet excitation, two new Pb-Cl and Pb-Br perovskites emit broadband "cold" and "warm" white light, respectively, with high color rendition. Emission from large, single crystals indicates an origin from the bulk material and not surface defect sites. The Pb-Br perovskite has a PLQE of 9%, which is undiminished after 3 months of continuous irradiation. Our mechanistic studies indicate that the emission has contributions from strong electron-phonon coupling in a deformable lattice and from a distribution of intrinsic trap states. These hybrids provide a tunable platform for combining the facile processability of organic materials with the structural definition of crystalline, inorganic solids.

  5. Ab initio study of intrinsic profiles of liquid metals and their reflectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Rio, B. G.; Souto, J.; Alemany, M. M. G.; González, L. E.

    2017-08-01

    The free surfaces of liquid metals are known to exhibit a stratified profile that, in favourable cases, shows up in experiments as a peak in the ratio between the reflectivity function and that of an ideal step-like profile. This peak is located at a wave-vector related to the distance between the layers of the profile. In fact the surface roughness produced by thermally induced capillary waves causes a depletion of the previous so called intrinsic reflectivity by a damping factor that may hinder the observation of the peak. The behaviour of the intrinsic reflectivity below the layering peak is however far from being universal, with systems as Ga or In where the reflectiviy falls uniformly towards the q → 0 value, others like Sn or Bi where a shoulder appears at intermediate wavevectors, and others like Hg which show a minimum. We have performed extensive ab initio simulations of the free liquid surfaces of Bi, Pb and Hg, that yield direct information on the structure of the profiles and found that the macroscopic capillary wave theory usually employed in order to remove the capillary wave components fails badly in some cases for the typical sample sizes affordable in ab initio simulations. However, a microscopic method for the determination of the intrinsic profile is shown to be succesful in obtaining meaningful intrinsic profiles and corresponding reflectivities which reproduce correctly the qualitative behaviour observed experimentally.

  6. Intrinsic Motivation: An Overlooked Component for Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustyniak, Robert A.; Ables, Adrienne Z.; Guilford, Philip; Lujan, Heidi L.; Cortright, Ronald N.; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2016-01-01

    Intrinsic motivation to learn involves engaging in learning opportunities because they are seen as enjoyable, interesting, or relevant to meeting one's core psychological needs. As a result, intrinsic motivation is associated with high levels of effort and task performance. Students with greater levels of intrinsic motivation demonstrate strong…

  7. Personalizing Sample Databases with Facebook Information to Increase Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzo, Asier; Ardaiz, Oscar; Sanz de Acedo, María Teresa; Sanz de Acedo, María Luisa

    2017-01-01

    Motivation is fundamental for students to achieve successful and complete learning. Motivation can be extrinsic, i.e., driven by external rewards, or intrinsic, i.e., driven by internal factors. Intrinsic motivation is the most effective and must be inspired by the task at hand. Here, a novel strategy is presented to increase intrinsic motivation…

  8. Individualistic vs. Competitive Participation: The Effect on Intrinsic Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brent M.; And Others

    Studies investigating intrinsic motivation and competition have supported the view that competition decreases intrinsic motivation. More recent studies suggest that the specific outcome of a competition (a win or a loss) differentially affects intrinsic motivation by highlighting the informational rather than the controlling aspect of the reward…

  9. Elements of the Competitive Situation That Affect Intrinsic Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Johnmarshall; Deci, Edward L.

    1996-01-01

    Explores the effects of three elements of the competitive situation (competitive set, competitive outcome, and interpersonal context) on intrinsic motivation in a sample of college students (n=100). Competitive outcome and interpersonal context affected intrinsic motivation: winning increased intrinsic motivation, while pressured interpersonal…

  10. The value of nature: Economic, intrinsic, or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    There has been a long standing argument that ecosystems have intrinsic value and therefore there is no need to put a price tag on Mother Nature. The concept of intrinsic value reflects the perspective that nature has value in its own right, independent of human uses. Intrinsic va...

  11. An intrinsically fluorescent dendrimer as a nanoprobe of cell transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jamal, Khuloud T; Ruenraroengsak, Pakatip; Hartell, Nicholas; Florence, Alexander T

    2006-07-01

    Dendrimers, spherical or quasi-spherical synthetic polymers in the nano-size range, have found useful applications as prospective carriers in drug and gene delivery. The investigation of dendrimer uptake by cells has been previously achieved by the incorporation of a fluorescent dye to the dendrimer either by chemical conjugation or by physical interaction. Here we describe the synthesis of two intrinsically fluorescent lysine based cationic dendrimers which lack a fluorophore, but which has sufficient fluorescence intensity to be detected at low concentrations. The nomenclature used to describe our compounds results in, for example the 6th generation dendrimer being notated as Gly-Lys(63) (NH2)(64); Gly denotes that the compound has a glycine in the core coupled to 63 lysine branching units (Lys(63)) and that the surface has 64 free amino groups (NH2)(64). The use of these dendrimers in probing transport avoids the need for fluorescent tagging with its attendant problems. The uptake of Gly-Lys(63) (NH2)(64) into Caco-2 cells was followed using confocal microscopy. Being cationic, it first adsorbs to the cell surface, enters the cytoplasm and reaches the nucleus within 35-45 min. Estimates of the diffusion coefficient of the dendrimer within the cell cytoplasm leads to a value of 6.27 ( +/- 0.49) x 10(-11) cm(2) s(-1), which is up to 1000 times lower than the diffusion coefficient of the dendrimer in water. Intrinsically fluorescent dendrimers of different size and charge are useful probes of transport in cells.

  12. Determination of intrinsic attenuation in the oceanic lithosphere-asthenosphere system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Nozomu; Kawakatsu, Hitoshi; Shiobara, Hajime; Isse, Takehi; Sugioka, Hiroko; Ito, Aki; Utada, Hisashi

    2017-12-01

    We recorded P and S waves traveling through the oceanic lithosphere-asthenosphere system (LAS) using broadband ocean-bottom seismometers in the northwest Pacific, and we quantitatively separated the intrinsic (anelastic) and extrinsic (scattering) attenuation effects on seismic wave propagation to directly infer the thermomechanical properties of the oceanic LAS. The strong intrinsic attenuation in the asthenosphere obtained at higher frequency (~3 hertz) is comparable to that constrained at lower frequency (~100 seconds) by surface waves and suggests frequency-independent anelasticity, whereas the intrinsic attenuation in the lithosphere is frequency dependent. This difference in frequency dependence indicates that the strong and broad peak dissipation recently observed in the laboratory exists only in the asthenosphere and provides new insight into what distinguishes the asthenosphere from the lithosphere.

  13. Innate and intrinsic antiviral immunity in skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Tatsuyoshi; Ogawa, Youichi; Aoki, Rui; Shimada, Shinji

    2014-09-01

    As the body's most exposed interface with the environment, the skin is constantly challenged by potentially pathogenic microbes, including viruses. To sense the invading viruses, various types of cells resident in the skin express many different pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) such as C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), Toll-like receptors (TLRs), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs), retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs) and cytosolic DNA sensors, that can detect the pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) of the viruses. The detection of viral PAMPs initiates two major innate immune signaling cascades: the first involves the activation of the downstream transcription factors, such as interferon regulatory factors (IRFs), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and activator protein 1 (AP-1), which cooperate to induce the transcription of type I interferons and pro-inflammatory cytokines. The second signaling pathway involves the caspase-1-mediated processing of IL-1β and IL-18 through the formation of an inflammasome complex. Cutaneous innate immunity including the production of the innate cytokines constitutes the first line of host defence that limits the virus dissemination from the skin, and also plays an important role in the activation of adaptive immune response, which represents the second line of defence. More recently, the third immunity "intrinsic immunity" has emerged, that provides an immediate and direct antiviral defense mediated by host intrinsic restriction factors. This review focuses on the recent advances regarding the antiviral immune systems, highlighting the innate and intrinsic immunity against the viral infections in the skin, and describes how viral components are recognized by cutaneous immune systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Intrinsic and extrinsic neuromodulation of motor circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, P S

    1995-12-01

    Neuromodulation of motor circuits by extrinsic inputs provides enormous flexibility in the production of behavior. Recent work has shown that neurons intrinsic to central pattern-generating circuits can evoke neuromodulatory effects in addition to their neurotransmitting actions. Modulatory neurons often elicit a multitude of different effects attributable to actions at different receptors and/or through the release of co-transmitters. Differences in neuromodulation between species can account for differences in behavior. Modulation of neuromodulation may provide an additional level of flexibility to motor circuits.

  15. Symplectic Structure of Intrinsic Time Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyo Eyo Ita

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Poisson structure of intrinsic time gravity is analysed. With the starting point comprising a unimodular three-metric with traceless momentum, a trace-induced anomaly results upon quantization. This leads to a revision of the choice of momentum variable to the (mixed index traceless momentric. This latter choice unitarily implements the fundamental commutation relations, which now take on the form of an affine algebra with SU(3 Lie algebra amongst the momentric variables. The resulting relations unitarily implement tracelessness upon quantization. The associated Poisson brackets and Hamiltonian dynamics are studied.

  16. Intrinsic Rotation and Momentum Transport in Reversed Shear Plasmas with Internal Transport Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhang, Hogun; Kim, S. S.; Diamond, P. H.

    2010-11-01

    The intrinsic rotation in fusion plasmas is believed to be generated via the residual stress without external momentum input. The physical mechanism responsible for the generation and transport of intrinsic rotation in L- and H-mode tokamak plasmas has been studied extensively. However, it is noted that the physics of intrinsic rotation generation and its relationship to the formation of internal transport barriers (ITBs) in reversed shear (RS) tokamak plasmas have not been explored in detail, which is the main subject in the present work. A global gyrofluid code TRB is used for this study. It is found that the large intrinsic rotation (˜10-30% of the ion sound speed depending on ITB characteristics) is generated near the ITB region and propagates into the core. The intrinsic rotation increases linearly as the temperature gradient at ITB position increases, albeit not indefinitely. Key parameters related to the symmetry breaking, such as turbulent intensity and its gradient, the flux surface averaged parallel wavenumber are evaluated dynamically during the ITB formation. The role of reversed shear and the q-profile curvature is presented in relation to the symmetry breaking mechanism in RS plasmas.

  17. Gyrofluid Simulations of Intrinsic Rotation Generation in Reversed Shear Plasmas with Internal Transport Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhang, Hogun; Kim, S. S.; Kwon, J. M.; Terzolo, L.; Kim, J. Y.; Diamond, P. H.

    2010-11-01

    It is accepted that the intrinsic rotation is generated via the residual stress, which is non-diffusive components of the turbulent Reynolds stress, without external momentum input. The physics leading to the onset of intrinsic rotation in L- and H- mode plasmas have been elucidated elsewhere. However, the physics responsible for the generation and transport of the intrinsic rotation and its relationship to the formation of internal transport barriers (ITBs) in reversed shear (RS) plasmas have not been explored in detail, which is the main subject in the present work. The revised version of the global gyrofluid code TRB is used for this study. It is found that the large intrinsic rotation (˜10-30% of the ion sound speed depending on ITB characteristics) is generated near the ITB region and propagates into the core. The intrinsic rotation increases linearly as the temperature gradient at ITB position increases, albeit not indefinitely. Key parameters related to the symmetry breaking, such as turbulent intensity and its gradient, the flux surface averaged parallel wavenumber are evaluated dynamically during the ITB formation. In particular, the role of reversed shear and the q-profile curvature is presented in relation to the symmetry breaking in RS plasmas.

  18. On the intrinsic gettering in Cu-contaminated Cz-Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmalz, K.; Kirscht, F.G.; Babanskaja, I.; Kittler, M.; Richter, H.; Seifert, W.

    1985-01-01

    NAA, TEM, DLTS, and EBIC investigations of Cu-contaminated Cz-Si with an intrinsic-gettering procedure realized by a multistep heat treatment demonstrate the efficiency of intrinsic gettering concerning redistribution to volume defects for Cu-contamination up to 10 16 cm -3 . The Cu-precipitation at the surface can still be suppressed for such contamination due to volume defects. However, in this case the concentration of contamination induced deep level centers at the surface is independent of the volume defect density. Only for Cu-contamination of about 10 15 cm -3 the gettering effect is strong enough to prevent the introduction of contamination induced deep levels at the surface. (author)

  19. Distinct molecular signatures of mild extrinsic and intrinsic atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martel, Britta Cathrina; Litman, Thomas; Hald, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common inflammatory skin disease with underlying defects in epidermal function and immune responses. In this study, we used microarray analysis to investigate differences in gene expression in lesional skin from patients with mild extrinsic or intrinsic AD compared...... with mild extrinsic and intrinsic AD similar to previous reports for severe AD. Interestingly, expression of genes involved in inflammatory responses in intrinsic AD resembled that of psoriasis more than that of extrinsic AD. Overall, differences in expression of inflammation-associated genes found among...... patients with mild intrinsic and extrinsic AD correlated with previous findings for patients with severe intrinsic and extrinsic AD....

  20. The Neuroscience of Growth Mindset and Intrinsic Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Betsy

    2018-01-26

    Our actions can be triggered by intentions, incentives or intrinsic values. Recent neuroscientific research has yielded some results about the growth mindset and intrinsic motivation. With the advances in neuroscience and motivational studies, there is a global need to utilize this information to inform educational practice and research. Yet, little is known about the neuroscientific interplay between growth mindset and intrinsic motivation. This paper attempts to draw on the theories of growth mindset and intrinsic motivation, together with contemporary ideas in neuroscience, outline the potential for neuroscientific research in education. It aims to shed light on the relationship between growth mindset and intrinsic motivation in terms of supporting a growth mindset to facilitate intrinsic motivation through neural responses. Recent empirical research from the educational neuroscience perspective that provides insights into the interplay between growth mindset and intrinsic motivation will also be discussed.

  1. The Neuroscience of Growth Mindset and Intrinsic Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsy Ng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Our actions can be triggered by intentions, incentives or intrinsic values. Recent neuroscientific research has yielded some results about the growth mindset and intrinsic motivation. With the advances in neuroscience and motivational studies, there is a global need to utilize this information to inform educational practice and research. Yet, little is known about the neuroscientific interplay between growth mindset and intrinsic motivation. This paper attempts to draw on the theories of growth mindset and intrinsic motivation, together with contemporary ideas in neuroscience, outline the potential for neuroscientific research in education. It aims to shed light on the relationship between growth mindset and intrinsic motivation in terms of supporting a growth mindset to facilitate intrinsic motivation through neural responses. Recent empirical research from the educational neuroscience perspective that provides insights into the interplay between growth mindset and intrinsic motivation will also be discussed.

  2. A tonoplast intrinsic protein in Gardenia jasminoides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lan; Li, Hao-Ming

    2017-08-01

    Physiological and molecular studies proved that plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) and tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs) subfamily of aquaporins play key functions in plant water homeostasis. Five specialized subgroups (TIP1-5) of TIPs have been found in higher plants, in which the TIP1 and TIP2 isoforms are the largest arbitrary groups. TIPs have high water-transport activity than PIPs, some TIPs can transport other small molecule such as urea, ammonia, hydrogen peroxide, and carbon dioxide. In this work, the structure of the putative tonoplast aquaporin from Gardenia jasminoides (GjTIP) was analyzed. Its transcript level has increased during fruit maturation. A phylogenetic analysis indicates that the protein belongs to TIP1 subfamily. A three-dimensional model structure of GjTIP was built based on crystal structure of an ammonia-permeable AtTIP2-1 from Arabidopsis thaliana. The model structure displayed as a homo-tetramer, each monomer has six trans-membrane and two half-membrane-spanning α helices. The data suggests that the GjTIP has tendency to be a mixed function aquaporin, might involve in water, urea and hydrogen peroxide transport, and the gating machanism founded in some AQPs involving pH and phosphorylation response have not been proved in GjTIP.

  3. Intrinsic radiation resistance in human chondrosarcoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussavi-Harami, Farid; Mollano, Anthony; Martin, James A.; Ayoob, Andrew; Domann, Frederick E.; Gitelis, Steven; Buckwalter, Joseph A.

    2006-01-01

    Human chondrosarcomas rarely respond to radiation treatment, limiting the options for eradication of these tumors. The basis of radiation resistance in chondrosarcomas remains obscure. In normal cells radiation induces DNA damage that leads to growth arrest or death. However, cells that lack cell cycle control mechanisms needed for these responses show intrinsic radiation resistance. In previous work, we identified immortalized human chondrosarcoma cell lines that lacked p16 ink4a , one of the major tumor suppressor proteins that regulate the cell cycle. We hypothesized that the absence of p16 ink4a contributes to the intrinsic radiation resistance of chondrosarcomas and that restoring p16 ink4a expression would increase their radiation sensitivity. To test this we determined the effects of ectopic p16 ink4a expression on chondrosarcoma cell resistance to low-dose γ-irradiation (1-5 Gy). p16 ink4a expression significantly increased radiation sensitivity in clonogenic assays. Apoptosis did not increase significantly with radiation and was unaffected by p16 ink4a transduction of chondrosarcoma cells, indicating that mitotic catastrophe, rather than programmed cell death, was the predominant radiation effect. These results support the hypothesis that p16 ink4a plays a role in the radiation resistance of chondrosarcoma cell lines and suggests that restoring p16 expression will improve the radiation sensitivity of human chondrosarcomas

  4. Intrinsic position uncertainty impairs overt search performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semizer, Yelda; Michel, Melchi M

    2017-08-01

    Uncertainty regarding the position of the search target is a fundamental component of visual search. However, due to perceptual limitations of the human visual system, this uncertainty can arise from intrinsic, as well as extrinsic, sources. The current study sought to characterize the role of intrinsic position uncertainty (IPU) in overt visual search and to determine whether it significantly limits human search performance. After completing a preliminary detection experiment to characterize sensitivity as a function of visual field position, observers completed a search task that required localizing a Gabor target within a field of synthetic luminance noise. The search experiment included two clutter conditions designed to modulate the effect of IPU across search displays of varying set size. In the Cluttered condition, the display was tiled uniformly with feature clutter to maximize the effects of IPU. In the Uncluttered condition, the clutter at irrelevant locations was removed to attenuate the effects of IPU. Finally, we derived an IPU-constrained ideal searcher model, limited by the IPU measured in human observers. Ideal searchers were simulated based on the detection sensitivity and fixation sequences measured for individual human observers. The IPU-constrained ideal searcher predicted performance trends similar to those exhibited by the human observers. In the Uncluttered condition, performance decreased steeply as a function of increasing set size. However, in the Cluttered condition, the effect of IPU dominated and performance was approximately constant as a function of set size. Our findings suggest that IPU substantially limits overt search performance, especially in crowded displays.

  5. Human dignity: intrinsic or relative value?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Marie-Jo

    2010-09-01

    Is human dignity an intrinsic value? Or is it a relative value, depending on the perception or assessment of quality of life? History had delineated some of its key features, but the advent of human rights and the Holocaust put special emphasis on this notion, particularly in the field of bioethics. But if modern medicine regards human dignity as crucial, it tends to support this notion while assessing and measuring it. The quality of life becomes the gauge for measuring human dignity, starting from a distinction between a viable and a non-viable existence, which may eventually lead to assisted death, or to letting die. This article argues that the concept of quality of life is of great relevant for medical practice, but on the condition of not being used as a standard to measure the dignity of the individual. Rather, the quality of life should be regarded as an imperative posed by human dignity, which is necessarily intrinsic. If the quality of life measures dignity, humankind is divided into two categories: lives worthy of living, and lives unworthy of living, and society becomes a jungle. Raising the quality of life as a requirement of the inherent human dignity does not solve automatically all problems and does not eliminate a feeling of unworthiness. But it ensures its 'human' value: the equal respect for every human being.

  6. Intrinsic electromagnetic solitary vortices in magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J.; Horton, W.

    1986-01-01

    Several Rossby type vortex solutions constructed for electromagnetic perturbations in magnetized plasma encounter the difficulty that the perturbed magnetic field and the parallel current are not continuous on the boundary between two regions. We find that fourth order differential equations must be solved to remove this discontinuity. Special solutions for two types of boundary value problems for the fourth order partial differential equations are presented. By applying these solutions to different nonlinear equations in magnetized plasma, the intrinsic electromagnetic solitary drift-Alfven vortex (along with solitary Alfven vortex) and the intrinsic electromagnetic solitary electron vortex (along with short-wavelength drift vortex) are constructed. While still keeping a localized dipole structure, these new vortices have more complicated radial structures in the inner and outer regions than the usual Rossby wave vortex. The new type of vortices guarantees the continuity of the perturbed magnetic field deltaB/sub perpendicular/ and the parallel current j/sub parallel/ on the boundary between inner and outer regions of the vortex. The allowed regions of propagation speeds for these vortices are analyzed, and we find that the complementary relation between the vortex propagating speeds and the corresponding phase velocities of the linear modes no longer exists

  7. Intrinsic terminators in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Tiago Ebert; Siqueira, Franciele Maboni; Schrank, Irene Silveira

    2015-04-08

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, an important pathogen of swine, exhibits a low guanine and cytosine (GC) content genome. M. hyopneumoniae genome is organised in long transcriptional units and promoter sequences have been mapped upstream of all transcription units. These analysis provided insights into the gene organisation and transcription initiation at the genome scale. However, the presence of transcriptional terminator sequences in the M. hyopneumoniae genome is poorly understood. In silico analyses demonstrated the presence of putative terminators in 82% of the 33 monocistronic units (mCs) and in 74% of the 116 polycistronic units (pCs) considering different classes of terminators. The functional activity of 23 intrinsic terminators was confirmed by RT-PCR and qPCR. Analysis of all terminators found by three software algorithms, combined with experimental results, allowed us to propose a pattern of RNA hairpin formation during the termination process and to predict the location of terminators in the M. hyopneumoniae genome sequence. The stem-loop structures of intrinsic terminators of mycoplasma diverge from the pattern of terminators found in other bacteria due the low content of guanine and cytosine. In M. hyopneumoniae, transcription can end after a transcriptional unit and before its terminator sequence and can also continue past the terminator sequence with RNA polymerases gradually releasing the RNA.

  8. The neglected intrinsic resistome of bacterial pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Fajardo

    Full Text Available Bacteria with intrinsic resistance to antibiotics are a worrisome health problem. It is widely believed that intrinsic antibiotic resistance of bacterial pathogens is mainly the consequence of cellular impermeability and activity of efflux pumps. However, the analysis of transposon-tagged Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutants presented in this article shows that this phenotype emerges from the action of numerous proteins from all functional categories. Mutations in some genes make P. aeruginosa more susceptible to antibiotics and thereby represent new targets. Mutations in other genes make P. aeruginosa more resistant and therefore define novel mechanisms for mutation-driven acquisition of antibiotic resistance, opening a new research field based in the prediction of resistance before it emerges in clinical environments. Antibiotics are not just weapons against bacterial competitors, but also natural signalling molecules. Our results demonstrate that antibiotic resistance genes are not merely protective shields and offer a more comprehensive view of the role of antibiotic resistance genes in the clinic and in nature.

  9. Intrinsically secure fast reactors with dense cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slessarev, Igor

    2007-01-01

    Secure safety, resistance to weapons material proliferation and problems of long-lived wastes remain the most important 'painful points' of nuclear power. Many innovative reactor concepts have been developed aimed at a radical enhancement of safety. The promising potential of innovative nuclear reactors allows for shifting accents in current reactor safety 'strategy' to reveal this worth. Such strategy is elaborated focusing on the priority for intrinsically secure safety features as well as on sure protection being provided by the first barrier of defence. Concerning the potential of fast reactors (i.e. sodium cooled, lead-cooled, etc.), there are no doubts that they are able to possess many favourable intrinsically secure safety features and to lay the proper foundation for a new reactor generation. However, some of their neutronic characteristics have to be radically improved. Among intrinsically secure safety properties, the following core parameters are significantly important: reactivity margin values, reactivity feed-back and coolant void effects. Ways of designing intrinsically secure safety features in fast reactors (titled hereafter as Intrinsically Secure Fast Reactors - ISFR) can be found in the frame of current reactor technologies by radical enhancement of core neutron economy and by optimization of core compositions. Simultaneously, respecting resistance to proliferation, by using non-enriched fuel feed as well as a core breeding gain close to zero, are considered as the important features (long-lived waste problems will be considered in a separate paper). This implies using the following reactor design options as well as closed fuel cycles with natural U as the reactor feed: ·Ultra-plate 'dense cores' of the ordinary (monolithic) type with negative total coolant void effects. ·Modular type cores. Multiple dense modules can be embedded in the common reflector for achieving the desired NPP total power. The modules can be used also independently (as

  10. What's in a name? : Why these proteins are intrinsically disordered: Why these proteins are intrinsically disordered

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunker, A Keith; Babu, M Madan; Barbar, Elisar; Blackledge, Martin; Bondos, Sarah E; Dosztányi, Zsuzsanna; Dyson, H Jane; Forman-Kay, Julie; Fuxreiter, Monika; Gsponer, Jörg; Han, Kyou-Hoon; Jones, David T; Longhi, Sonia; Metallo, Steven J; Nishikawa, Ken; Nussinov, Ruth; Obradovic, Zoran; Pappu, Rohit V; Rost, Burkhard; Selenko, Philipp; Subramaniam, Vinod; Sussman, Joel L; Tompa, Peter; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2013-01-01

    "What's in a name? That which we call a rose By any other name would smell as sweet." From "Romeo and Juliet", William Shakespeare (1594) This article opens a series of publications on disambiguation of the basic terms used in the field of intrinsically disordered proteins. We start from the

  11. Thermodynamic theory of intrinsic finite-size effects in PbTiO3 nanocrystals. I. Nanoparticle size-dependent tetragonal phase stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdogan, E. K.; Safari, A.

    2007-03-01

    We propose a phenomenological intrinsic finite-size effect model for single domain, mechanically free, and surface charge compensated ΔG-P ⃗s-ξ space, which describes the decrease in tetragonal phase stability with decreasing ξ rigorously.

  12. Intrinsically disordered proteins as molecular shields†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabortee, Sohini; Tripathi, Rashmi; Watson, Matthew; Kaminski Schierle, Gabriele S.; Kurniawan, Davy P.; Kaminski, Clemens F.; Wise, Michael J.; Tunnacliffe, Alan

    2017-01-01

    The broad family of LEA proteins are intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) with several potential roles in desiccation tolerance, or anhydrobiosis, one of which is to limit desiccation-induced aggregation of cellular proteins. We show here that this activity, termed molecular shield function, is distinct from that of a classical molecular chaperone, such as HSP70 – while HSP70 reduces aggregation of citrate synthase (CS) on heating, two LEA proteins, a nematode group 3 protein, AavLEA1, and a plant group 1 protein, Em, do not; conversely, the LEA proteins reduce CS aggregation on desiccation, while HSP70 lacks this ability. There are also differences in interaction with client proteins – HSP70 can be co-immunoprecipitated with a polyglutamine-containing client, consistent with tight complex formation, whereas the LEA proteins can not, although a loose interaction is observed by Förster resonance energy transfer. In a further exploration of molecular shield function, we demonstrate that synthetic polysaccharides, like LEA proteins, are able to reduce desiccation-induced aggregation of a water-soluble proteome, consistent with a steric interference model of anti-aggregation activity. If molecular shields operate by reducing intermolecular cohesion rates, they should not protect against intramolecular protein damage. This was tested using the monomeric red fluorescent protein, mCherry, which does not undergo aggregation on drying, but the absorbance and emission spectra of its intrinsic fluorophore are dramatically reduced, indicative of intramolecular conformational changes. As expected, these changes are not prevented by AavLEA1, except for a slight protection at high molar ratios, and an AavLEA1-mCherry fusion protein is damaged to the same extent as mCherry alone. A recent hypothesis proposed that proteomes from desiccation-tolerant species contain a higher degree of disorder than intolerant examples, and that this might provide greater intrinsic stability

  13. Intrinsically disordered proteins as molecular shields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabortee, Sohini; Tripathi, Rashmi; Watson, Matthew; Schierle, Gabriele S Kaminski; Kurniawan, Davy P; Kaminski, Clemens F; Wise, Michael J; Tunnacliffe, Alan

    2012-01-01

    The broad family of LEA proteins are intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) with several potential roles in desiccation tolerance, or anhydrobiosis, one of which is to limit desiccation-induced aggregation of cellular proteins. We show here that this activity, termed molecular shield function, is distinct from that of a classical molecular chaperone, such as HSP70 - while HSP70 reduces aggregation of citrate synthase (CS) on heating, two LEA proteins, a nematode group 3 protein, AavLEA1, and a plant group 1 protein, Em, do not; conversely, the LEA proteins reduce CS aggregation on desiccation, while HSP70 lacks this ability. There are also differences in interaction with client proteins - HSP70 can be co-immunoprecipitated with a polyglutamine-containing client, consistent with tight complex formation, whereas the LEA proteins can not, although a loose interaction is observed by Förster resonance energy transfer. In a further exploration of molecular shield function, we demonstrate that synthetic polysaccharides, like LEA proteins, are able to reduce desiccation-induced aggregation of a water-soluble proteome, consistent with a steric interference model of anti-aggregation activity. If molecular shields operate by reducing intermolecular cohesion rates, they should not protect against intramolecular protein damage. This was tested using the monomeric red fluorescent protein, mCherry, which does not undergo aggregation on drying, but the absorbance and emission spectra of its intrinsic fluorophore are dramatically reduced, indicative of intramolecular conformational changes. As expected, these changes are not prevented by AavLEA1, except for a slight protection at high molar ratios, and an AavLEA1-mCherry fusion protein is damaged to the same extent as mCherry alone. A recent hypothesis proposed that proteomes from desiccation-tolerant species contain a higher degree of disorder than intolerant examples, and that this might provide greater intrinsic stability

  14. IMPACT OF BARYONIC PHYSICS ON INTRINSIC ALIGNMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenneti, Ananth; Gnedin, Nickolay Y. [Particle Astrophysics Center, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Feng, Yu, E-mail: vat@andrew.cmu.edu [Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics, Department of Physics, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2017-01-10

    We explore the effects of specific assumptions in the subgrid models of star formation and stellar and active galactic nucleus feedback on intrinsic alignments of galaxies in cosmological simulations of the “MassiveBlack-II” family. Using smaller-volume simulations, we explore the parameter space of the subgrid star formation and feedback model and find remarkable robustness of the observable statistical measures to the details of subgrid physics. The one observational probe most sensitive to modeling details is the distribution of misalignment angles. We hypothesize that the amount of angular momentum carried away by the galactic wind is the primary physical quantity that controls the orientation of the stellar distribution. Our results are also consistent with a similar study by the EAGLE simulation team.

  15. Intrinsic Orbital Angular Momentum States of Neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelletti, Ronald L.; Jach, Terrence; Vinson, John

    2018-03-01

    It has been shown that single-particle wave functions, of both photons and electrons, can be created with a phase vortex, i.e., an intrinsic orbital angular momentum (OAM). A recent experiment has claimed similar success using neutrons [C. W. Clark et al., Nature, 525, 504 (2015), 10.1038/nature15265]. We show that their results are insufficient to unambiguously demonstrate OAM, and they can be fully explained as phase contrast interference patterns. Furthermore, given the small transverse coherence length of the neutrons in the original experiment, the probability that any neutron was placed in an OAM state is vanishingly small. We highlight the importance of the relative size of the coherence length, which presents a unique challenge for neutron experiments compared to electron or photon work, and we suggest improvements for the creation of neutron OAM states.

  16. Intrinsic magnetic torque at low magnetic induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doria, M.M.; Oliveira, I.G. de.

    1993-01-01

    Using anisotropic London theory the intrinsic magnetic torque for extreme type II uniaxial superconductors for any value of the magnetic induction is obtained. It is considered the vortex lines straight and take into account the contribution of the supercurrents flowing inside the vortex core within the London theory. It is shown that the interline and intra line free energies give opposite torque contributions, the first drives the magnetic induction parallel to the superconductor's axis of symmetry and the second orthogonal to it. At high magnetic induction torque expression obtained generalizes V. Kogan's formula since it has no free parameters other than the anisotropy γ = m 1 /m 3 and the Ginzburg-Landau parameter κ. At low magnetic induction it is proposed a way to observe vortex chains effects in the total torque based on the fact that London theory is linear and the energy to make a single vortex line in space is independent of the magnetic induction. (author)

  17. Intrinsic factors associated with pregnancy falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xuefang; Yeoh, Han T

    2014-10-01

    Approximately 25% to 27% of women sustain a fall during pregnancy, and falls are associated with serious injuries and can affect pregnancy outcomes. The objective of the current study was to identify intrinsic factors associated with pregnancy that may contribute to women's increased risk of falls. A literature search (Medline and Pubmed) identified articles published between January 1980 and June 2013 that measured associations between pregnancy and fall risks, using an existing fall accident investigation framework. The results indicated that physiological, biomechanical, and psychological changes associated with pregnancy may influence the initiation, detection, and recovery phases of falls and increase the risk of falls in this population. Considering the logistic difficulties and ethnic concerns in recruiting pregnant women to participate in this investigation of fall risk factors, identification of these factors could establish effective fall prevention and intervention programs for pregnant women and improve birth outcomes. [Workplace Health Saf 2014;62(10):403-408.]. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Intrinsic thermal expansion of crystal defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganne, J.-P.

    1981-02-01

    Although the phenomenon of thermal expansion has long been known, the intrinsic thermal expansion coefficient (ITEC) βsub(d) of a point defect, derived from its formation volume vsub(d), has never been measured directly. The differential dilatometer by interferometry built by ASTY and GILDER is described. It has allowed βsub(d) to be measured for several defects. Vacancies and small interstitial loops were produced in aluminium by low temperature (20 K) fast neutron irradiation followed by an anneal up to the beginning of stage III (160 K). The very high value of the measured ratio βsub(d)/β 0 (12+-4) is comparable with a lattice statics calculated (42) value (11.5 0 [fr

  19. Quantum synchronization effects in intrinsic Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, M.; Kano, T.; Yamada, S.; Okumura, M.; Imamura, T.; Koyama, T.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate quantum dynamics of the superconducting phase in intrinsic Josephson junctions of layered high-T c superconductors motivated by a recent experimental observation for the switching rate enhancement in the low temperature quantum regime. We pay attention to only the capacitive coupling between neighboring junctions and perform large-scale simulations for the Schroedinger equation derived from the Hamiltonian considering the capacitive coupling alone. The simulation focuses on an issue whether the switching of a junction induces those of the other junctions or not. The results reveal that the superconducting phase dynamics show synchronous behavior with increasing the quantum character, e.g., decreasing the junction plane area and effectively the temperature. This is qualitatively consistent with the experimental result

  20. Intrinsically Safe and Economical Reactor (ISER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakabayashi, Hiroaki; Asahi, Yoshiro

    1991-01-01

    The Intrinsically Safe and Economical Reactor (ISER) is designed based on the principle of a process inherent ultimate safe reactor, PIUS, a so-called inherently safe reactor (ISR). ISER has been developed joingly by the members of the Kanagawa Institute of Technology, the University of Tokyo, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and several industrial firms in Japan. This paper describes the requirements for the next generation of power reactor, the safety design philosphy of ISR and ISER, the controllability of ISER and the results of analyses of some of the design-based accidents (DBA) of ISER, namely station blackout, accidents in which the pressurizer relief valve becomes jammed and stuck in open position and tube breaks in the steam generator. It is concluded that the ISER can ensure a wide range of contraollabitily and fuel integrity for all the analysed DBAs. (orig.)

  1. Mechanisms of Intrinsic Tumor Resistance to Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Rieth

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available An increased understanding of the interactions between the immune system and tumors has opened the door to immunotherapy for cancer patients. Despite some success with checkpoint inhibitors including ipilimumab, pembrolizumab, and nivolumab, most cancer patients remain unresponsive to such immunotherapy, likely due to intrinsic tumor resistance. The mechanisms most likely involve reducing the quantity and/or quality of antitumor lymphocytes, which ultimately are driven by any number of developments: tumor mutations and adaptations, reduced neoantigen generation or expression, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO overexpression, loss of phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN expression, and overexpression of the Wnt–β-catenin pathway. Current work in immunotherapy continues to identify various tumor resistance mechanisms; future work is needed to develop adjuvant treatments that target those mechanisms, in order to improve the efficacy of immunotherapy and to expand its scope.

  2. Intrinsic densitometry: In-plant evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, K.; Kurosawa, A.; Masui, J.; Hsue, S.T.

    1994-11-01

    A measurement of the plutonium concentration in a sample is always necessary for nuclear material control and accounting. This report describes the testing of the intrinsic densitometry (ID) technique for implant applications. The authors found that the ID method can determine the plutonium concentrations to between 2 and 3% at concentrations of 100 g/l to 200 g/l with quartz cells and a measurement time of 3600 s. The precision can be improved to 1 to 2% with a higher counting rate. The authors also found that nitric acid concentration and the impurity level of uranium in the product plutonium solution do not affect the concentration measurement. When this technique is applied to plutonium solutions in stainless steel pipes, they found that similar precision in plutonium concentration can be achieved using a high-count-rate detector. The precision, however, is reduced with aged plutonium solutions

  3. Major Intrinsic Proteins in Biomimetic Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helix Nielsen, Claus

    2010-01-01

    or as sensor devices based on e.g., the selective permeation of metalloids. In principle a MIP based membrane sensor/separation device requires the supporting biomimetic matrix to be virtually impermeable to anything but water or the solute in question. In practice, however, a biomimetic support matrix....../separation technology, a unique class of membrane transport proteins is especially interesting the major intrinsic proteins (MIPs). Generally, MIPs conduct water molecules and selected solutes in and out of the cell while preventing the passage of other solutes, a property critical for the conservation of the cells...... internal pH and salt concentration. Also known as water channels or aquaporins they are highly efficient membrane pore proteins some of which are capable of transporting water at very high rates up to 109 molecules per second. Some MIPs transport other small, uncharged solutes, such as glycerol and other...

  4. Intrinsic Ambipolarity and Rotation in Stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helander, P.; Simakov, A. N.

    2008-01-01

    It is shown that collisional plasma transport is intrinsically ambipolar only in quasiaxisymmetric or quasihelically symmetric magnetic configurations. Only in such fields can the plasma rotate freely, and then only in the direction of quasisymmetry. In a non-quasi-symmetric magnetic field, the average radial electric field is determined by parallel viscosity, which in turn is usually governed by collisional processes. Locally, the radial electric field may be affected by turbulent Reynolds stress producing zonal flows, but on a radial average taken over several ion gyroradii, it is determined by parallel viscosity, at least if the turbulence is electrostatic and obeys the conventional gyrokinetic orderings. This differs from the situation in a tokamak, where there is no flow damping by parallel viscosity in the symmetry direction and the turbulent Reynolds stress may affect the global radial electric field

  5. Nanotechnology Applications for Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredlau, Amy Lee; Dixit, Suraj; Chen, Chao; Broome, Ann-Marie

    2017-01-01

    Diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs) are invariably fatal tumors found in the pons of elementary school aged children. These tumors are grade II-IV gliomas, with a median survival of less than 1 year from diagnosis when treated with standard of care (SOC) therapy. Nanotechnology may offer therapeutic options for the treatment of DIPGs. Multiple nanoparticle formulations are currently being investigated for the treatment of DIPGs. Nanoparticles based upon stable elements, polymer nanoparticles, and organic nanoparticles are under development for the treatment of brain tumors, including DIPGs. Targeting of nanoparticles is now possible as delivery techniques that address the difficulty in crossing the blood brain barrier (BBB) are developed. Theranostic nanoparticles, a combination of therapeutics and diagnostic nanoparticles, improve imaging of the cancerous tissue while delivering therapy to the local region. However, additional time and attention should be directed to developing a nanoparticle delivery system for treatment of the uniformly fatal pediatric disease of DIPG.

  6. And what if gravity is intrinsically quantic?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziaeepour, Houri

    2009-01-01

    Since the early days of search for a quantum theory of gravity the attempts have been mostly concentrated on the quantization of an otherwise classical system. The two most contentious candidate theories of gravity, string theory and quantum loop gravity are based on a quantum field theory - the latter is a quantum field theory of connections on a SU(2) group manifold and the former is a quantum field theory in two dimensional spaces. Here we argue that there is a very close relation between quantum mechanics (QM) and gravity. Without gravity, QM becomes ambiguous. We consider this observation as the evidence for an intrinsic relation between these fundamental laws of nature. We suggest a quantum role and definition for gravity in the context of a quantum Universe, and present a preliminary formulation for gravity in a system with a finite number of particles.

  7. Intrinsic shapes of discy and boxy ellipticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasano, Giovanni

    1991-01-01

    Statistical tests for intrinsic shapes of elliptical galaxies have given so far inconclusive and sometimes contradictory results. These failures have been often charged to the fact that classical tests consider only the two axisymmetric shapes (oblate versus prolate), while ellipticals are truly triaxial bodies. On the other hand, recent analyses indicate that the class of elliptical galaxies could be a mixture of (at least) two families having different morphology and dynamical behaviour: (i) a family of fast-rotating, disc-like ellipticals (discy); (ii) a family of slow-rotating, box-shaped ellipticals (boxy). In this paper we review the tests for instrinsic shapes of elliptical galaxies using data of better quality (CCD) with respect to previous applications. (author)

  8. Intrinsic Chirality Origination in Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Neal; Chen, Gugang; P Rajukumar, Lakshmy; Chou, Nam Hawn; Koh, Ai Leen; Sinclair, Robert; Maruyama, Shigeo; Terrones, Mauricio; Harutyunyan, Avetik R

    2017-10-24

    Elucidating the origin of carbon nanotube chirality is key for realizing their untapped potential. Currently, prevalent theories suggest that catalyst structure originates chirality via an epitaxial relationship. Here we studied chirality abundances of carbon nanotubes grown on floating liquid Ga droplets, which excludes the influence of catalyst features, and compared them with abundances grown on solid Ru nanoparticles. Results of growth on liquid droplets bolsters the intrinsic preference of carbon nuclei toward certain chiralities. Specifically, the abundance of the (11,1)/χ = 4.31° tube can reach up to 95% relative to (9,4)/χ = 17.48°, although they have exactly the same diameter, (9.156 Å). However, the comparative abundances for the pair, (19,3)/χ = 7.2° and (17,6)/χ = 14.5°, with bigger diameter, (16.405 Å), fluctuate depending on synthesis temperature. The abundances of the same pairs of tubes grown on floating solid polyhedral Ru nanoparticles show completely different trends. Analysis of abundances in relation to nucleation probability, represented by a product of the Zeldovich factor and the deviation interval of a growing nuclei from equilibrium critical size, explain the findings. We suggest that the chirality in the nanotube in general is a result of interplay between intrinsic preference of carbon cluster and induction by catalyst structure. This finding can help to build the comprehensive theory of nanotube growth and offers a prospect for chirality-preferential synthesis of carbon nanotubes by the exploitation of liquid catalyst droplets.

  9. Personality traits associated with intrinsic academic motivation in medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masaaki; Mizuno, Kei; Fukuda, Sanae; Tajima, Seiki; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2009-04-01

    Motivation is one of the most important psychological concepts in education and is related to academic outcomes in medical students. In this study, the relationships between personality traits and intrinsic academic motivation were examined in medical students. The study group consisted of 119 Year 2 medical students at Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine. They completed questionnaires dealing with intrinsic academic motivation (the Intrinsic Motivation Scale toward Learning) and personality (the Temperament and Character Inventory [TCI]). On simple regression analyses, the TCI dimensions of persistence, self-directedness, co-operativeness and self-transcendence were positively associated with intrinsic academic motivation. On multiple regression analysis adjusted for age and gender, the TCI dimensions of persistence, self-directedness and self-transcendence were positively associated with intrinsic academic motivation. The temperament dimension of persistence and the character dimensions of self-directedness and self-transcendence are associated with intrinsic academic motivation in medical students.

  10. Characterization of intrinsic and induced lateral conduction in space dielectric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanna, R.; Paulmier, T.; Belhaj, M.; Dirassen, B.; Payan, D.; Balcon, N.

    2014-01-01

    Characterization of lateral charge carrier conduction in space dielectrics is of high importance for the prediction of charging behavior and electrostatic discharges on satellites. In the present paper, a new experimental approach for the analysis of surface conduction, which is not well understood and characterized in the literature, is established and discussed. Though this method, based on the use of two Kelvin probes, we have been able to discriminate between lateral and bulk charge transports and to reveal the presence of an intrinsic lateral conductivity on Teflon ® FEP irradiated with low energy electron beam. We demonstrated that lateral intrinsic conductivity is enhanced when incident current density increases and when approaching the sample surface. The experimental results are analyzed through trapping/detrapping and hopping models. Depending on radiation configuration mode, we have revealed as well the presence of a lateral conductivity that is enhanced by radiation ionization processes, and explained as well with a trapping/recombination model

  11. No Association between Cortical Gyrification or Intrinsic Curvature and Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Adolescents and Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie J. Forde

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI studies have highlighted subcortical, cortical, and structural connectivity abnormalities associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Gyrification investigations of the cortex have been inconsistent and largely negative, potentially due to a lack of sensitivity of the previously used morphological parameters. The innovative approach of applying intrinsic curvature analysis, which is predictive of gyrification pattern, to the cortical surface applied herein allowed us greater sensitivity to determine whether the structural connectivity abnormalities thus far identified at a centimeter scale also occur at a millimeter scale within the cortical surface. This could help identify neurodevelopmental processes that contribute to ADHD. Structural MRI datasets from the NeuroIMAGE project were used [n = 306 ADHD, n = 164 controls, and n = 148 healthy siblings of individuals with ADHD (age in years, mean(sd; 17.2 (3.4, 16.8 (3.2, and 17.7 (3.8, respectively]. Reconstructions of the cortical surfaces were computed with FreeSurfer. Intrinsic curvature (taken as a marker of millimeter-scale surface connectivity and local gyrification index were calculated for each point on the surface (vertex with Caret and FreeSurfer, respectively. Intrinsic curvature skew and mean local gyrification index were extracted per region; frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, cingulate, and insula. A generalized additive model was used to compare the trajectory of these measures between groups over age, with sex, scanner site, total surface area of hemisphere, and familiality accounted for. After correcting for sex, scanner site, and total surface area no group differences were found in the developmental trajectory of intrinsic curvature or local gyrification index. Despite the increased sensitivity of intrinsic curvature, compared to gyrification measures, to subtle morphological abnormalities of the cortical surface we found

  12. Increased intrinsic mitochondrial function in humans with mitochondrial haplogroup H

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen; Díez-Sánchez, Carmen; Rabøl, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    and determined their mitochondrial haplogroup, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity (OXPHOS), mitochondrial content (citrate synthase (CS)) and VO2max. Intrinsic mitochondrial function is calculated as mitochondrial OXPHOS capacity divided by mitochondrial content (CS). Haplogroup H showed a 30......% higher intrinsic mitochondrial function compared with the other haplo group U. There was no relationship between haplogroups and VO2max. In skeletal muscle from men with mitochondrial haplogroup H, an increased intrinsic mitochondrial function is present....

  13. Do intrinsic and extrinsic motivation relate differently to employee outcomes?

    OpenAIRE

    Kuvaas, Bard; Buch, Robert; Weibel, Antoinette; Dysvik, Anders; Nerstad, Christina

    2017-01-01

    In most theories that address how individual financial incentives affect work performance, researchers have assumed that two types of motivation—intrinsic and extrinsic—mediate the relationship between incentives and performance. Empirically, however, extrinsic motivation is rarely investigated. To explore the predictive validity of these theories of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in work settings, we tested how both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation affected supervisor-ra...

  14. The effects of extrinsic rewards on children's intrinsic motivation

    OpenAIRE

    大槻, 千秋

    1981-01-01

    An experiment was conducted with preschool children to test whether a person's intrinsic motivation in an activity may be decreased by extrinsic salient rewards in Japan like in America. Children solved some jigsaw puzzles and received assorted candies, then they were observed how long they did other jigsaw puzzles. The results showed that the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation in an activity varied with the subject's social background. In uptown children's intrinsic motivat...

  15. Sources of intrinsic rotation in the low-flow ordering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, Felix I.; Barnes, Michael; Catto, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    A low flow, δf gyrokinetic formulation to obtain the intrinsic rotation profiles is presented. The momentum conservation equation in the low-flow ordering contains new terms, neglected in previous first-principles formulations, that may explain the intrinsic rotation observed in tokamaks in the absence of external sources of momentum. The intrinsic rotation profile depends on the density and temperature profiles and on the up-down asymmetry.

  16. Intrinsic Vertebral Markers for Spinal Level Localization in Anterior Cervical Spine Surgery: A Preliminary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Deepak Kumar; Thakur, Anil; Jain, Mukul; Arya, Arvind; Tripathi, Chandrabhushan; Kumari, Rima; Kushwaha, Suman

    2016-12-01

    Prospective clinical study. To observe the usefulness of anterior cervical osteophytes as intrinsic markers for spinal level localization (SLL) during sub-axial cervical spinal surgery via the anterior approach. Various landmarks, such as the mandibular angle, hyoid bone, thyroid cartilage, first cricoid ring, and C6 carotid tubercle, are used for gross cervical SLL; however, none are used during cervical spinal surgery via the anterior approach. We present our preliminary assessment of SLL over anterior vertebral surfaces (i.e., intrinsic markers) in 48 consecutive cases of anterior cervical spinal surgeries for the disc-osteophyte complex (DOC) in degenerative diseases and granulation or tumor tissue associated with infectious or neoplastic diseases, respectively, at an ill-equipped center. This prospective study on patients undergoing anterior cervical surgery for various sub-axial cervical spinal pathologies aimed to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of SLL via intraoperative palpation of disease-related morphological changes on anterior vertebral surfaces visible on preoperative midline sagittal T1/2-weighted magnetic resonance images. During a 3-year period, 48 patients (38 males,10 females; average age, 43.58 years) who underwent surgery via the anterior approach for various sub-axial cervical spinal pathologies, including degenerative disease (n= 42), tubercular infection (Pott's disease; n=3), traumatic prolapsed disc (n=2), and a metastatic lesion from thyroid carcinoma (n=1), comprised the study group. Intrinsic marker palpation yielded accurate SLL in 79% of patients (n=38). Among those with degenerative diseases (n=42), intrinsic marker palpation yielded accurate SLL in 76% of patients (n=32). Intrinsic marker palpation is an attractive potential adjunct for SLL during cervical spinal surgeries via the anterior approach in well-selected patients at ill-equipped centers (e.g., those found in developing countries). This technique may prove helpful

  17. Interventions for primary (intrinsic tracheomalacia in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Goyal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUNDTracheomalacia, a disorder of the large airways where the trachea is deformed or malformed during respiration, is commonly seen in tertiary paediatric practice. It is associated with a wide spectrum of respiratory symptoms from life-threatening recurrent apnoea to common respiratory symptoms such as chronic cough and wheeze. Current practice following diagnosis of tracheomalacia includes medical approaches aimed at reducing associated symptoms of tracheomalacia, ventilation modalities of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP and bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP, and surgical approaches aimed at improving the calibre of the airway (airway stenting, aortopexy, tracheopexy.OBJECTIVESTo evaluate the efficacy of medical and surgical therapies for children with intrinsic (primary tracheomalacia.METHODSSearchThe Cochrane Airways Group searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, the Cochrane Airways Group's Specialized Register, Medline and Embase databases. The Cochrane Airways Group performed the latest searches in March 2012.Selection criteriaAll randomized controlled trials (RCTs of therapies related to symptoms associated with primary or intrinsic tracheomalacia.Data collection and analysisTwo reviewers extracted data from the included study independently and resolved disagreements by consensus.MAIN RESULTSWe included one RCT that compared nebulized recombinant human deoxyribonuclease (rhDNase with placebo in 40 children with airway malacia and a respiratory tract infection. We assessed it to be a RCT with overall low risk of bias. Data analyzed in this review showed that there was no significant difference between groups for the primary outcome of proportion cough-free at two weeks (odds ratio (OR 1.38; 95% confidence interval (CI 0.37 to 5.14. However, the mean change in night time cough diary scores significantly favoured the placebo group (mean difference (MD 1.00; 95% CI 0.17 to 1.83, P = 0

  18. An Analysis of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Hand Muscle EMG for Improved Pattern Recognition Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewuyi, Adenike A; Hargrove, Levi J; Kuiken, Todd A

    2016-04-01

    Pattern recognition control combined with surface electromyography (EMG) from the extrinsic hand muscles has shown great promise for control of multiple prosthetic functions for transradial amputees. There is, however, a need to adapt this control method when implemented for partial-hand amputees, who possess both a functional wrist and information-rich residual intrinsic hand muscles. We demonstrate that combining EMG data from both intrinsic and extrinsic hand muscles to classify hand grasps and finger motions allows up to 19 classes of hand grasps and individual finger motions to be decoded, with an accuracy of 96% for non-amputees and 85% for partial-hand amputees. We evaluated real-time pattern recognition control of three hand motions in seven different wrist positions. We found that a system trained with both intrinsic and extrinsic muscle EMG data, collected while statically and dynamically varying wrist position increased completion rates from 73% to 96% for partial-hand amputees and from 88% to 100% for non-amputees when compared to a system trained with only extrinsic muscle EMG data collected in a neutral wrist position. Our study shows that incorporating intrinsic muscle EMG data and wrist motion can significantly improve the robustness of pattern recognition control for application to partial-hand prosthetic control.

  19. Functional Anthology of Intrinsic Disorder. III. Ligands, Postranslational Modifications and Diseases Associated with Intrinsically Disordered Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hongbo; Vucetic, Slobodan; Iakoucheva, Lilia M.; Oldfield, Christopher J.; Dunker, A. Keith; Obradovic, Zoran; Uversky, Vladimir N.

    2008-01-01

    Currently, the understanding of the relationships between function, amino acid sequence and protein structure continues to represent one of the major challenges of the modern protein science. As much as 50% of eukaryotic proteins are likely to contain functionally important long disordered regions. Many proteins are wholly disordered but still possess numerous biologically important functions. However, the number of experimentally confirmed disordered proteins with known biological functions is substantially smaller than their actual number in nature. Therefore, there is a crucial need for novel bioinformatics approaches that allow projection of the current knowledge from a few experimentally verified examples to much larger groups of known and potential proteins. The elaboration of a bioinformatics tool for the analysis of functional diversity of intrinsically disordered proteins and application of this data mining tool to >200,000 proteins from Swiss-Prot database, each annotated with at least one of the 875 functional keywords was described in the first paper of this series (Xie H., Vucetic S., Iakoucheva L.M., Oldfield C.J., Dunker A.K., Obradovic Z., Uversky V.N. (2006) Functional anthology of intrinsic disorder. I. Biological processes and functions of proteins with long disordered regions. J. Proteome Res.). Using this tool, we have found that out of the 711 Swiss-Prot functional keywords associated with at least 20 proteins, 262 were strongly positively correlated with long intrinsically disordered regions, and 302 were strongly negatively correlated. Illustrative examples of functional disorder or order were found for the vast majority of keywords showing strongest positive or negative correlation with intrinsic disorder, respectively. Some 80 Swiss-Prot keywords associated with disorder- and order-driven biological processes and protein functions were described in the first paper (Xie H., Vucetic S., Iakoucheva L.M., Oldfield C.J., Dunker A.K., Obradovic

  20. Exploiting intrinsic fluctuations to identify model parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Christoph; Sahle, Sven; Pahle, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    Parameterisation of kinetic models plays a central role in computational systems biology. Besides the lack of experimental data of high enough quality, some of the biggest challenges here are identification issues. Model parameters can be structurally non-identifiable because of functional relationships. Noise in measured data is usually considered to be a nuisance for parameter estimation. However, it turns out that intrinsic fluctuations in particle numbers can make parameters identifiable that were previously non-identifiable. The authors present a method to identify model parameters that are structurally non-identifiable in a deterministic framework. The method takes time course recordings of biochemical systems in steady state or transient state as input. Often a functional relationship between parameters presents itself by a one-dimensional manifold in parameter space containing parameter sets of optimal goodness. Although the system's behaviour cannot be distinguished on this manifold in a deterministic framework it might be distinguishable in a stochastic modelling framework. Their method exploits this by using an objective function that includes a measure for fluctuations in particle numbers. They show on three example models, immigration-death, gene expression and Epo-EpoReceptor interaction, that this resolves the non-identifiability even in the case of measurement noise with known amplitude. The method is applied to partially observed recordings of biochemical systems with measurement noise. It is simple to implement and it is usually very fast to compute. This optimisation can be realised in a classical or Bayesian fashion.

  1. i=0 (Information has no intrinsic meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J. Miller

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper was written mainly to help identify some contradictions that can be found in the notion of knowledge management though its application is wider-ranging. The author suggests that knowledge - that is to say 'what we know' - can scarcely be understood and managed even by ourselves, much less by means of sophisticated information and communications (ie groupware and shareware technologies. We have progressed from the industrial age through the information age into what is being promoted as the 'golden age' of knowledge and, in the process, we've been led to believe that information contains meaning - rather than just standing for, provoking or evoking meaning in others. The paper argues that unless we take the trouble to face and understand the significance and implications of i=0 (ie that information has no intrinsic meaning and that knowledge is the uniquely human capability of making meaning from information - ideally in face-to-face relationships with other human beings - we may never emerge into any 'golden' age at all! The consequences of i=0 for communications, learning, safety, quality, management (itself, and winning work are also discussed.

  2. Altered intrinsic and extrinsic connectivity in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuan; Zeidman, Peter; Wu, Shihao; Razi, Adeel; Chen, Cheng; Yang, Liuqing; Zou, Jilin; Wang, Gaohua; Wang, Huiling; Friston, Karl J

    2018-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a disorder characterized by functional dysconnectivity among distributed brain regions. However, it is unclear how causal influences among large-scale brain networks are disrupted in schizophrenia. In this study, we used dynamic causal modeling (DCM) to assess the hypothesis that there is aberrant directed (effective) connectivity within and between three key large-scale brain networks (the dorsal attention network, the salience network and the default mode network) in schizophrenia during a working memory task. Functional MRI data during an n-back task from 40 patients with schizophrenia and 62 healthy controls were analyzed. Using hierarchical modeling of between-subject effects in DCM with Parametric Empirical Bayes, we found that intrinsic (within-region) and extrinsic (between-region) effective connectivity involving prefrontal regions were abnormal in schizophrenia. Specifically, in patients (i) inhibitory self-connections in prefrontal regions of the dorsal attention network were decreased across task conditions; (ii) extrinsic connectivity between regions of the default mode network was increased; specifically, from posterior cingulate cortex to the medial prefrontal cortex; (iii) between-network extrinsic connections involving the prefrontal cortex were altered; (iv) connections within networks and between networks were correlated with the severity of clinical symptoms and impaired cognition beyond working memory. In short, this study revealed the predominance of reduced synaptic efficacy of prefrontal efferents and afferents in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

  3. Intrinsic ferromagnetism in hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Si, M. S.; Gao, Daqiang, E-mail: gaodq@lzu.edu.cn, E-mail: xueds@lzu.edu.cn; Yang, Dezheng; Peng, Yong; Zhang, Z. Y.; Xue, Desheng, E-mail: gaodq@lzu.edu.cn, E-mail: xueds@lzu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Liu, Yushen [Jiangsu Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials and College of Physics and Engineering, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu 215500 (China); Deng, Xiaohui [Department of Physics and Electronic Information Science, Hengyang Normal University, Hengyang 421008 (China); Zhang, G. P. [Department of Physics, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809 (United States)

    2014-05-28

    Understanding the mechanism of ferromagnetism in hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets, which possess only s and p electrons in comparison with normal ferromagnets based on localized d or f electrons, is a current challenge. In this work, we report an experimental finding that the ferromagnetic coupling is an intrinsic property of hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets, which has never been reported before. Moreover, we further confirm it from ab initio calculations. We show that the measured ferromagnetism should be attributed to the localized π states at edges, where the electron-electron interaction plays the role in this ferromagnetic ordering. More importantly, we demonstrate such edge-induced ferromagnetism causes a high Curie temperature well above room temperature. Our systematical work, including experimental measurements and theoretical confirmation, proves that such unusual room temperature ferromagnetism in hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets is edge-dependent, similar to widely reported graphene-based materials. It is believed that this work will open new perspectives for hexagonal boron nitride spintronic devices.

  4. Does intrinsic motivation enhance motor cortex excitability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radel, Rémi; Pjevac, Dusan; Davranche, Karen; d'Arripe-Longueville, Fabienne; Colson, Serge S; Lapole, Thomas; Gruet, Mathieu

    2016-11-01

    Intrinsic motivation (IM) is often viewed as a spontaneous tendency for action. Recent behavioral and neuroimaging evidence indicate that IM, in comparison to extrinsic motivation (EM), solicits the motor system. Accordingly, we tested whether IM leads to greater excitability of the motor cortex than EM. To test this hypothesis, we used two different tasks to induce the motivational orientation using either words representing each motivational orientation or pictures previously linked to each motivational orientation through associative learning. Single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation over the motor cortex was applied when viewing the stimuli. Electromyographic activity was recorded on the contracted first dorsal interosseous muscle. Two indexes of corticospinal excitability (the amplitude of motor-evoked potential and the length of cortical silent period) were obtained through unbiased automatic detection and analyzed using a mixed model that provided both statistical power and a high level of control over all important individual, task, and stimuli characteristics. Across the two tasks and the two indices of corticospinal excitability, the exposure to IM-related stimuli did not lead to a greater corticospinal excitability than EM-related stimuli or than stimuli with no motivational valence (ps > .20). While these results tend to dismiss the advantage of IM at activating the motor cortex, we suggest alternative hypotheses to explain this lack of effect, which deserves further research. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  5. Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma: poised for progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, Katherine E.

    2012-01-01

    Diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs) are amongst the most challenging tumors to treat. Surgery is not an option, the effects of radiation therapy are temporary, and no chemotherapeutic agent has demonstrated significant efficacy. Numerous clinical trials of new agents and novel therapeutic approaches have been performed over the course of several decades in efforts to improve the outcome of children with DIPG, yet without success. The diagnosis of DIPG is based on radiographic findings in the setting of a typical clinical presentation, and tissue is not routinely obtained as the standard of care. The paradigm for treating children with these tumors has been based on that for supratentorial high-grade gliomas in adults as the biology of these lesions were presumed to be similar. However, recent pivotal studies demonstrate that DIPGs appear to be their own entity. Simply identifying this fact releases a number of constraints and opens opportunities for biologic investigation of these lesions, setting the stage to move forward in identifying DIPG-specific treatments. This review will summarize the current state of knowledge of DIPG, discuss obstacles to therapy, and summarize results of recent biologic studies.

  6. Understanding oceanic migrations with intrinsic biogeochemical markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raül Ramos

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Migratory marine vertebrates move annually across remote oceanic water masses crossing international borders. Many anthropogenic threats such as overfishing, bycatch, pollution or global warming put millions of marine migrants at risk especially during their long-distance movements. Therefore, precise knowledge about these migratory movements to understand where and when these animals are more exposed to human impacts is vital for addressing marine conservation issues. Because electronic tracking devices suffer from several constraints, mainly logistical and financial, there is emerging interest in finding appropriate intrinsic markers, such as the chemical composition of inert tissues, to study long-distance migrations and identify wintering sites. Here, using tracked pelagic seabirds and some of their own feathers which were known to be grown at different places and times within the annual cycle, we proved the value of biogeochemical analyses of inert tissue as tracers of marine movements and habitat use. Analyses of feathers grown in summer showed that both stable isotope signatures and element concentrations can signal the origin of breeding birds feeding in distinct water masses. However, only stable isotopes signalled water masses used during winter because elements mainly accumulated during the long breeding period are incorporated into feathers grown in both summer and winter. Our findings shed new light on the simple and effective assignment of marine organisms to distinct oceanic areas, providing new opportunities to study unknown migration patterns of secretive species, including in relation to human-induced mortality on specific populations in the marine environment.

  7. Genetic architecture of intrinsic antibiotic susceptibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany S Girgis

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic exposure rapidly selects for more resistant bacterial strains, and both a drug's chemical structure and a bacterium's cellular network affect the types of mutations acquired.To better characterize the genetic determinants of antibiotic susceptibility, we exposed a transposon-mutagenized library of Escherichia coli to each of 17 antibiotics that encompass a wide range of drug classes and mechanisms of action. Propagating the library for multiple generations with drug concentrations that moderately inhibited the growth of the isogenic parental strain caused the abundance of strains with even minor fitness advantages or disadvantages to change measurably and reproducibly. Using a microarray-based genetic footprinting strategy, we then determined the quantitative contribution of each gene to E. coli's intrinsic antibiotic susceptibility. We found both loci whose removal increased general antibiotic tolerance as well as pathways whose down-regulation increased tolerance to specific drugs and drug classes. The beneficial mutations identified span multiple pathways, and we identified pairs of mutations that individually provide only minor decreases in antibiotic susceptibility but that combine to provide higher tolerance.Our results illustrate that a wide-range of mutations can modulate the activity of many cellular resistance processes and demonstrate that E. coli has a large mutational target size for increasing antibiotic tolerance. Furthermore, the work suggests that clinical levels of antibiotic resistance might develop through the sequential accumulation of chromosomal mutations of small individual effect.

  8. Toward a tripartite model of intrinsic motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonneau, Noémie; Vallerand, Robert J; Lafrenière, Marc-André K

    2012-10-01

    Intrinsic motivation (IM) refers to engaging in an activity for the pleasure inherent in the activity. The present article presents a tripartite model of IM consisting of IM to know (i.e., engaging in an activity to experience pleasure while learning and trying to understand something new), IM toward accomplishment (i.e., engaging in an activity for the pleasure experienced when attempting task mastery), and IM to experience stimulation (i.e., engaging in an activity for feelings of sensory pleasure). The tripartite model of IM posits that each type of IM can result from task, situational, and personality determinants and can lead to specific types of cognitive, affective, and behavioral outcomes. The purpose of this research was to test some predictions derived from this model. Across 4 studies (Study 1: N = 331; Study 2: N = 113; Study 3: N = 58; Study 4: N = 135), the 3 types of IM as well as potential determinants and consequences were assessed. Results revealed that experiencing one type of IM over the others depends in part on people's personality styles. Also, each type of IM was found to predict specific outcomes (i.e., affective states and behavioral choices). The implications of the tripartite model of IM for motivation research are discussed. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Intrinsic gain modulation and adaptive neural coding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungho Hong

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In many cases, the computation of a neural system can be reduced to a receptive field, or a set of linear filters, and a thresholding function, or gain curve, which determines the firing probability; this is known as a linear/nonlinear model. In some forms of sensory adaptation, these linear filters and gain curve adjust very rapidly to changes in the variance of a randomly varying driving input. An apparently similar but previously unrelated issue is the observation of gain control by background noise in cortical neurons: the slope of the firing rate versus current (f-I curve changes with the variance of background random input. Here, we show a direct correspondence between these two observations by relating variance-dependent changes in the gain of f-I curves to characteristics of the changing empirical linear/nonlinear model obtained by sampling. In the case that the underlying system is fixed, we derive relationships relating the change of the gain with respect to both mean and variance with the receptive fields derived from reverse correlation on a white noise stimulus. Using two conductance-based model neurons that display distinct gain modulation properties through a simple change in parameters, we show that coding properties of both these models quantitatively satisfy the predicted relationships. Our results describe how both variance-dependent gain modulation and adaptive neural computation result from intrinsic nonlinearity.

  10. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation for Stereotypic and Repetitive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Annette V.; Bundy, Anita C.; Einfeld, Stewart L.

    2009-01-01

    This study provides evidence for intrinsic and extrinsic motivators for stereotypical and repetitive behavior in children with autism and intellectual disability and children with intellectual disability alone. We modified the Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) (1988b); dividing it into intrinsic and extrinsic measures and adding items to assess…

  11. A prototype empirical framework of intrinsic and extrinsic EERQI indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ton

    2012-01-01

    The research question is: What do statistical analyses show us about the relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic indicators of quality and what does this mean when constructing a prototype EERQI framework? The pilot study involved the scoring on both intrinsic and extrinsic indica-tors for 177

  12. Intrinsic Motivation and Flow Condition on the Music Teacher's Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Delgado, Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    The aim of these research is to identify if music teachers and teachers from other areas are intrinsically or extrinsically motivated, to identify the dimensions of the flow state, and to identify if there is a relationship between intrinsic motivation and flow state in these teachers. The sample was made up of 738 active teachers. The presence of…

  13. Palatalization and Intrinsic Prosodic Vowel Features in Russian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordin, Mikhail

    2011-01-01

    The presented study is aimed at investigating the interaction of palatalization and intrinsic prosodic features of the vowel in CVC (consonant+vowel+consonant) syllables in Russian. The universal nature of intrinsic prosodic vowel features was confirmed with the data from the Russian language. It was found that palatalization of the consonants…

  14. Cooperative motion of intrinsic and actuated semiflexible swimmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Llopis, I.; Pagonabarraga, I.; Lagomarsino, M.C.; Lowe, C.P.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the phenomenon of hydrodynamic-induced cooperativity for pairs of flagellated micro-organism swimmers, of which spermatozoa cells are an example. We consider semiflexible swimmers, where inextensible filaments are driven by an internal intrinsic force and torque-free mechanism (intrinsic

  15. The Relations of Mothers' Controlling Vocalizations to Children's Intrinsic Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deci, Edward L.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Coded maternal vocalizations during videotaped play sessions of mothers and their six- or seven-year-old children. Children's intrinsic motivation was assessed by observing children's play when they were alone in a room. Found a negative relationship between maternal controlling vocalizations and children's intrinsic motivation. (MM)

  16. Importance of Intrinsic and Instrumental Value of Education in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mahendar

    2017-01-01

    Normally, effectiveness of any object or thing is judged by two values; intrinsic and instrumental. To compare intrinsic value of education with instrumental value, this study has used the following variables: getting knowledge for its own sake, getting knowledge for social status, getting knowledge for job or business endeavor and getting…

  17. College Student Intrinsic and/or Extrinsic Motivation and Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Guang; McKeachie, Wilbert J.

    This paper investigates the joint effects of intrinsic and extrinsic goals on college students' learning in an introductory psychology course, a biology course, and several social science courses. The study questioned whether higher levels of motivation lead to better student performance. College students were surveyed using the Intrinsic Goal…

  18. Self-Determination Theory: Intrinsic Motivation and Behavioral Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Marie

    2017-03-01

    Motivation is a central concept in behavioral change. This article reviews the self-determination theory with an emphasis on "intrinsic motivation," which is facilitated when three basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness) are met. Intrinsic motivation is associated with improved well-being and sustained behavioral change.

  19. Leadership style and employees' intrinsic job satisfaction in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the impact of leadership style on employees' intrinsic job satisfaction in the Cross River State Newspaper Corporation, Calabar, Nigeria. The study examined the problem of dissatisfaction in the work place as far as intrinsic factors of job satisfaction are concerned. Structured questionnaire was used ...

  20. Elderly Taiwanese's Intrinsic Risk Factors for Fall-related Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Fun Li

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: Elderly Taiwanese inpatients with existing intrinsic conditions of cancer, vertigo, and lower leg weakness were at high risk of falling, resulting in severe injuries. Additional research including controlled trials is necessary to further identify treatable, causal intrinsic risk factors for this elderly group.

  1. Intrinsic motivation and sportsmanship: mediating role of interpersonal relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Juan L; Martín-Albo, José; Navarro, José G; Sánchez, Juana M; González-Cutre, David

    2009-06-01

    This study analyzed the mediating role of interpersonal relations between intrinsic motivation and sportsmanship. Athletes (98 men, 97 women), ages 11 to 43 years, completed measures of intrinsic motivation toward sports, self-concept of social and family relations, and sportsmanship orientation. A structural equation model indicated that self-concept of interpersonal relations mediated the relation between intrinsic motivation and sportsmanship. Also, intrinsic motivation was directly and positively associated with self-concept of interpersonal relations, which, in turn, was positively and significantly related to sportsmanship. Variances explained by self-concept of interpersonal relations and by sportsmanship were 32 and 56%, respectively. The motivational interaction between the context of interpersonal relations and the sports context proposed in the hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation was discussed.

  2. Ethnic Stigma, Academic Anxiety, and Intrinsic Motivation in Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen-O’Neel, Cari; Ruble, Diane N.; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research addressing the dynamics of stigma and academics has focused on African-American adolescents and adults. The present study examined stigma awareness, academic anxiety, and intrinsic motivation among 451 young (ages 6–11) and diverse (African-American, Chinese, Dominican, Russian, and European-American) students. Results indicated that ethnic-minority children reported higher stigma awareness than European-American children. For all children, stigma awareness was associated with higher academic anxiety and lower intrinsic motivation. Despite these associations, ethnic-minority children reported higher levels of intrinsic motivation than their European-American peers. A significant portion of the higher intrinsic motivation among Dominican students was associated with their higher levels of school belonging, suggesting that supportive school environments may be important sources of intrinsic motivation among some ethnic-minority children. PMID:21883152

  3. Extrinsic and intrinsic regulation of axon regeneration at a crossroads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Andrew; Ong Tone, Stephan; Fournier, Alyson E

    2015-01-01

    Repair of the injured spinal cord is a major challenge in medicine. The limited intrinsic regenerative response mounted by adult central nervous system (CNS) neurons is further hampered by astrogliosis, myelin debris and scar tissue that characterize the damaged CNS. Improved axon regeneration and recovery can be elicited by targeting extrinsic factors as well as by boosting neuron-intrinsic growth regulators. Our knowledge of the molecular basis of intrinsic and extrinsic regulators of regeneration has expanded rapidly, resulting in promising new targets to promote repair. Intriguingly certain neuron-intrinsic growth regulators are emerging as promising targets to both stimulate growth and relieve extrinsic inhibition of regeneration. This crossroads between the intrinsic and extrinsic aspects of spinal cord injury is a promising target for effective therapies for this unmet need.

  4. Motivating crowding theory - opening the black box of intrinsic motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher

    2010-01-01

    Public employees work for many other reasons than because they are paid for it. In other words, intrinsic motivation is an important determinant for their performance. Nonetheless, public sector organizations increasingly rely on extrinsic motivation factors such as monetary incentives to motivate...... employees. Motivation crowding theory claims that this may be at the expense of intrinsic motivation, if the extrinsic motivation factor is perceived to be controlling. On the other hand, intrinsic motivation will be enhanced (crowded in), if the extrinsic motivation factor is perceived to be supportive......, monetary incentives are found to cause different crowding effects for these different types of intrinsic motivation. The results call for more theoretical work on the drivers of motivation crowding effects and for practitioners to pay more attention to what type of intrinsic motivation is at stake, when...

  5. MOFzyme: Intrinsic protease-like activity of Cu-MOF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Chen, Daomei; Wang, Jiaqiang; Yan, Zhiying; Jiang, Liang; Deliang Duan; He, Jiao; Luo, Zhongrui; Zhang, Jinping; Yuan, Fagui

    2014-10-01

    The construction of efficient enzyme mimetics for the hydrolysis of peptide bonds in proteins is challenging due to the high stability of peptide bonds and the importance of proteases in biology and industry. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) consisting of infinite crystalline lattices with metal clusters and organic linkers may provide opportunities for protease mimic which has remained unknown. Herein, we report that Cu2(C9H3O6)4/3 MOF (which is well known as HKUST-1 and denoted as Cu-MOF here), possesses an intrinsic enzyme mimicking activity similar to that found in natural trypsin to bovine serum albumin (BSA) and casein. The Michaelis constant (Km) of Cu-MOF is about 26,000-fold smaller than that of free trypsin indicating a much higher affinity of BSA for Cu-MOF surface. Cu-MOF also exhibited significantly higher catalytic efficiency than homogeneous artificial metalloprotease Cu(II) complexes and could be reused for ten times without losing in its activity. Moreover, Cu-MOF was successfully used to simulate trypsinization in cell culture since it dissociated cells in culture even without EDTA.

  6. submitter Measurement of LYSO Intrinsic Light Yield Using Electron Excitation

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez Turtos, Rosana; Pizzichemi, Marco; Ghezzi, Alessio; Pauwels, Kristof; Auffray, Etiennette; Lecoq, Paul; Paganoni, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The determination of the intrinsic light yield $(LY_{int})$ of scintillating crystals, i.e. number of optical photons created per amount of energy deposited, constitutes a key factor in order to characterize and optimize their energy and time resolution. However, until now measurements of this quantity are affected by large uncertainties and often rely on corrections for bulk absorption and surface/edge state. The novel idea presented in this contribution is based on the confinement of the scintillation emission in the central upper part of a 10 mm cubic crystal using a 1.5 MeV electron beam with diameter of 1 mm. A black non-reflective pinhole aligned with the excitation point is used to fix the light extraction solid angle (narrower than total reflection angle), which then sets a light cone travel path through the crystal. The final number of photoelectrons detected using a Hamamatsu R2059 photomultiplier tube (PMT) was corrected for the extraction solid angle, the Fresnel reflection coefficient and quantum...

  7. Viscoelastic Surface Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, R. D.

    2007-12-01

    General theoretical solutions for Rayleigh- and Love-Type surface waves in viscoelastic media describe physical characteristics of the surface waves in elastic as well as anelastic media with arbitrary amounts of intrinsic absorption. In contrast to corresponding physical characteristics for Rayleigh waves in elastic media, Rayleigh- Type surface waves in anelastic media demonstrate; 1) tilt of the particle motion orbit that varies with depth, and 2) amplitude and volumetric strain distributions with superimposed sinusoidal variations that decay exponentially with depth. Each characteristic is dependent on the amount of intrinsic absorption and the chosen model of viscoelasticity. Distinguishing characteristics of anelastic Love-Type surface waves include: 1) dependencies of the wave speed and absorption coefficient on the chosen model and amount of intrinsic absorption and frequency, and 2) superimposed sinusoidal amplitude variations with an exponential decay with depth. Numerical results valid for a variety of viscoelastic models provide quantitative estimates of the physical characteristics of both types of viscoelastic surface waves appropriate for interpretations pertinent to models of earth materials ranging from low-loss in the crust to moderate- and high-loss in water-saturated soils.

  8. Intrinsic Evaporative Cooling by Hygroscopic Earth Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra R. Rempel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The phase change of water from liquid to vapor is one of the most energy-intensive physical processes in nature, giving it immense potential for cooling. Diverse evaporative cooling strategies have resulted worldwide, including roof ponds and sprinklers, courtyard fountains, wind catchers with qanats, irrigated green roofs, and fan-assisted evaporative coolers. These methods all require water in bulk liquid form. The evaporation of moisture that has been sorbed from the atmosphere by hygroscopic materials is equally energy-intensive, however, yet has not been examined for its cooling potential. In arid and semi-arid climates, hygroscopic earth buildings occur widely and are known to maintain comfortable indoor temperatures, but evaporation of moisture from their walls and roofs has been regarded as unimportant since water scarcity limits irrigation and rainfall; instead, their cool interiors are attributed to well-established mass effects in delaying the transmission of sensible gains. Here, we investigate the cooling accomplished by daily cycles of moisture sorption and evaporation which, requiring only ambient humidity, we designate as “intrinsic” evaporative cooling. Connecting recent soil science to heat and moisture transport studies in building materials, we use soils, adobe, cob, unfired earth bricks, rammed earth, and limestone to reveal the effects of numerous parameters (temperature and relative humidity, material orientation, thickness, moisture retention properties, vapor diffusion resistance, and liquid transport properties on the magnitude of intrinsic evaporative cooling and the stabilization of indoor relative humidity. We further synthesize these effects into concrete design guidance. Together, these results show that earth buildings in diverse climates have significant potential to cool themselves evaporatively through sorption of moisture from humid night air and evaporation during the following day’s heat. This finding

  9. Correlation between mechanical behavior of protein films at the air/water interface and intrinsic stability of protein molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, A.H.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Bos, M.A.; Vliet, T. van

    2005-01-01

    The relation between mechanical film properties of various adsorbed protein layers at the air/water interface and intrinsic stability of the corresponding proteins is discussed. Mechanical film properties were determined by surface deformation in shear and dilation. In shear, fracture stress, σf,

  10. Intrinsic gray-matter connectivity of the brain in adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Christine; Ronan, Lisa; Feng, Yue; Daly, Eileen; Murphy, Clodagh; Ginestet, Cedric E; Brammer, Michael; Fletcher, Paul C; Bullmore, Edward T; Suckling, John; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Williams, Steve; Loth, Eva; Murphy, Declan G M

    2013-08-06

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of neurodevelopmental conditions that are accompanied by atypical brain connectivity. So far, in vivo evidence for atypical structural brain connectivity in ASD has mainly been based on neuroimaging studies of cortical white matter. However, genetic studies suggest that abnormal connectivity in ASD may also affect neural connections within the cortical gray matter. Such intrinsic gray-matter connections are inherently more difficult to describe in vivo but may be inferred from a variety of surface-based geometric features that can be measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Here, we present a neuroimaging study that examines the intrinsic cortico-cortical connectivity of the brain in ASD using measures of "cortical separation distances" to assess the global and local intrinsic "wiring costs" of the cortex (i.e., estimated length of horizontal connections required to wire the cortex within the cortical sheet). In a sample of 68 adults with ASD and matched controls, we observed significantly reduced intrinsic wiring costs of cortex in ASD, both globally and locally. Differences in global and local wiring cost were predominantly observed in fronto-temporal regions and also significantly predicted the severity of social and repetitive symptoms (respectively). Our study confirms that atypical cortico-cortical "connectivity" in ASD is not restricted to the development of white-matter connections but may also affect the intrinsic gray-matter architecture (and connectivity) within the cortical sheet. Thus, the atypical connectivity of the brain in ASD is complex, affecting both gray and white matter, and forms part of the core neural substrates underlying autistic symptoms.

  11. Morphological pattern of intrinsic nerve plexus distributed on the rabbit heart and interatrial septum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saburkina, Inga; Gukauskiene, Ligita; Rysevaite, Kristina; Brack, Kieran E; Pauza, Audrys G; Pauziene, Neringa; Pauza, Dainius H

    2014-01-01

    Although the rabbit is routinely used as the animal model of choice to investigate cardiac electrophysiology, the neuroanatomy of the rabbit heart is not well documented. The aim of this study was to examine the topography of the intrinsic nerve plexus located on the rabbit heart surface and interatrial septum stained histochemically for acetylcholinesterase using pressure-distended whole hearts and whole-mount preparations from 33 Californian rabbits. Mediastinal cardiac nerves entered the venous part of the heart along the root of the right cranial vein (superior caval vein) and at the bifurcation of the pulmonary trunk. The accessing nerves of the venous part of the heart passed into the nerve plexus of heart hilum at the heart base. Nerves approaching the heart extended epicardially and innervated the atria, interatrial septum and ventricles by five nerve subplexuses, i.e. left and middle dorsal, dorsal right atrial, ventral right and left atrial subplexuses. Numerous nerves accessed the arterial part of the arterial part of the heart hilum between the aorta and pulmonary trunk, and distributed onto ventricles by the left and right coronary subplexuses. Clusters of intrinsic cardiac neurons were concentrated at the heart base at the roots of pulmonary veins with some positioned on the infundibulum. The mean number of intrinsic neurons in the rabbit heart is not significantly affected by aging: 2200 ± 262 (range 1517–2788; aged) vs. 2118 ± 108 (range 1513–2822; juvenile). In conclusion, despite anatomic differences in the distribution of intrinsic cardiac neurons and the presence of well-developed nerve plexus within the heart hilum, the topography of all seven subplexuses of the intrinsic nerve plexus in rabbit heart corresponds rather well to other mammalian species, including humans. PMID:24527844

  12. Intrinsic reaction kinetics of coal char combustion by direct measurement of ignition temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ryang-Gyoon; Jeon, Chung-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    A wire heating reactor that can use a synchronized experimental method was developed to obtain the intrinsic kinetics of large coal char particles ranging in size from 0.4 to 1 mm. This synchronization system consists of three parts: a thermocouple wire for both heating and direct measurement of the particle temperature, a photodetector sensor for determining ignition/burnout points by measuring the intensity of luminous emission from burning particles, and a high-speed camera–long-distance microscope for observing and recording the movement of luminous zone directly. Coal char ignition was found to begin at a spot on the particle's external surface and then moved across the entire particle. Moreover, the ignition point determined according to the minimum of dT/dt is a spot point and not a full growth point. The ignition temperature of the spot point rises as the particle diameter increases. A spot ignition model, which describes the ignition in terms of the internal conduction and external/internal oxygen diffusion, was then developed to evaluate the intrinsic kinetics and predict the ignition temperature of the coal char. Internal conduction was found to be important in large coal char particles because its effect becomes greater than that of oxygen diffusion as the particle diameter increases. In addition, the intrinsic kinetics of coal char obtained from the spot ignition model for two types of coal does not differ significantly from the results of previous investigators. -- Highlights: • A novel technique was used to measure the coal char particle temperature. • The ignition point determined from a dT/dt minimum is a spot ignition point. • A spot ignition model was suggested to analyze the intrinsic reaction kinetics of coal char. • Internal conduction has to be considered in order to evaluate the intrinsic kinetics for larger particle (above 1 mm)

  13. Estimation of the intrinsic stresses in α-alumina in relation with its elaboration mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boumaza, A.; Djelloul, A.

    2010-01-01

    The specific signatures of α-Al 2 O 3 by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were investigated to estimate the intrinsic stress in this compound according to its elaboration mode. Thus, α-alumina was prepared either by calcination of boehmite or gibbsite and also generated by oxidation of a metallic FeCrAl alloy. FTIR results were mainly supported by X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns that allowed to determine the crystallite size and the strain in the various alpha aluminas. Moreover, the infrared peak at 378.7 cm -1 was used as a reference for stress free α-alumina and the shift of this peak allowed to estimate intrinsic stresses, which were related to the morphology and to the specific surface area of aluminas according to their elaboration mode. These interpretations were confirmed by results obtained by cathodoluminescence experiments. - Graphical abstract: The infrared peak at 378.7 cm -1 was used as a reference for stress free α-alumina and the shift of this peak allowed to estimate intrinsic stresses, which were related to the morphology and to the specific surface area of aluminas according to their elaboration mode.

  14. Measuring Intrinsic Curvature of Space with Electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabin, Mason; Becker, Maria; Batelaan, Herman

    2016-01-01

    The concept of curved space is not readily observable in everyday life. The educational movie "Sphereland" attempts to illuminate the idea. The main character, a hexagon, has to go to great lengths to prove that her world is in fact curved. We present an experiment that demonstrates a new way to determine if a two-dimensional surface,…

  15. Separating intrinsic from extrinsic fluctuations in dynamic biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilfinger, Andreas; Paulsson, Johan

    2011-07-19

    From molecules in cells to organisms in ecosystems, biological populations fluctuate due to the intrinsic randomness of individual events and the extrinsic influence of changing environments. The combined effect is often too complex for effective analysis, and many studies therefore make simplifying assumptions, for example ignoring either intrinsic or extrinsic effects to reduce the number of model assumptions. Here we mathematically demonstrate how two identical and independent reporters embedded in a shared fluctuating environment can be used to identify intrinsic and extrinsic noise terms, but also how these contributions are qualitatively and quantitatively different from what has been previously reported. Furthermore, we show for which classes of biological systems the noise contributions identified by dual-reporter methods correspond to the noise contributions predicted by correct stochastic models of either intrinsic or extrinsic mechanisms. We find that for broad classes of systems, the extrinsic noise from the dual-reporter method can be rigorously analyzed using models that ignore intrinsic stochasticity. In contrast, the intrinsic noise can be rigorously analyzed using models that ignore extrinsic stochasticity only under very special conditions that rarely hold in biology. Testing whether the conditions are met is rarely possible and the dual-reporter method may thus produce flawed conclusions about the properties of the system, particularly about the intrinsic noise. Our results contribute toward establishing a rigorous framework to analyze dynamically fluctuating biological systems.

  16. VELOCITY EVOLUTION AND THE INTRINSIC COLOR OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, Ryan J.; Sanders, Nathan E.; Kirshner, Robert P.

    2011-01-01

    To understand how best to use observations of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) to obtain precise and accurate distances, we investigate the relations between spectra of SNe Ia and their intrinsic colors. Using a sample of 1630 optical spectra of 255 SNe, based primarily on data from the CfA Supernova Program, we examine how the velocity evolution and line strengths of Si II λ6355 and Ca II H and K are related to the B – V color at peak brightness. We find that the maximum-light velocity of Si II λ6355 and Ca II H and K and the maximum-light pseudo-equivalent width of Si II λ6355 are correlated with intrinsic color, with intrinsic color having a linear relation with the Si II λ6355 measurements. Ca II H and K does not have a linear relation with intrinsic color, but lower-velocity SNe tend to be intrinsically bluer. Combining the spectroscopic measurements does not improve intrinsic color inference. The intrinsic color scatter is larger for higher-velocity SNe Ia—even after removing a linear trend with velocity—indicating that lower-velocity SNe Ia are more 'standard crayons'. Employing information derived from SN Ia spectra has the potential to improve the measurements of extragalactic distances and the cosmological properties inferred from them.

  17. Beyond the evoked/intrinsic neural process dichotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Bolt

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary functional neuroimaging research has increasingly focused on characterization of intrinsic or “spontaneous” brain activity. Analysis of intrinsic activity is often contrasted with analysis of task-evoked activity that has traditionally been the focus of cognitive neuroscience. But does this evoked/intrinsic dichotomy adequately characterize human brain function? Based on empirical data demonstrating a close functional interdependence between intrinsic and task-evoked activity, we argue that the dichotomy between intrinsic and task-evoked activity as unobserved contributions to brain activity is artificial. We present an alternative picture of brain function in which the brain’s spatiotemporal dynamics do not consist of separable intrinsic and task-evoked components, but reflect the enaction of a system of mutual constraints to move the brain into and out of task-appropriate functional configurations. According to this alternative picture, cognitive neuroscientists are tasked with describing both the temporal trajectory of brain activity patterns across time, and the modulation of this trajectory by task states, without separating this process into intrinsic and task-evoked components. We argue that this alternative picture of brain function is best captured in a novel explanatory framework called enabling constraint. Overall, these insights call for a reconceptualization of functional brain activity, and should drive future methodological and empirical efforts.

  18. SELECTING QUASARS BY THEIR INTRINSIC VARIABILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Kasper B.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Jester, Sebastian; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Marshall, Philip J.; Dobler, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    We present a new and simple technique for selecting extensive, complete, and pure quasar samples, based on their intrinsic variability. We parameterize the single-band variability by a power-law model for the light-curve structure function, with amplitude A and power-law index γ. We show that quasars can be efficiently separated from other non-variable and variable sources by the location of the individual sources in the A-γ plane. We use ∼60 epochs of imaging data, taken over ∼5 years, from the SDSS stripe 82 (S82) survey, where extensive spectroscopy provides a reference sample of quasars, to demonstrate the power of variability as a quasar classifier in multi-epoch surveys. For UV-excess selected objects, variability performs just as well as the standard SDSS color selection, identifying quasars with a completeness of 90% and a purity of 95%. In the redshift range 2.5 < z < 3, where color selection is known to be problematic, variability can select quasars with a completeness of 90% and a purity of 96%. This is a factor of 5-10 times more pure than existing color selection of quasars in this redshift range. Selecting objects from a broad griz color box without u-band information, variability selection in S82 can afford completeness and purity of 92%, despite a factor of 30 more contaminants than quasars in the color-selected feeder sample. This confirms that the fraction of quasars hidden in the 'stellar locus' of color space is small. To test variability selection in the context of Pan-STARRS 1 (PS1) we created mock PS1 data by down-sampling the S82 data to just six epochs over 3 years. Even with this much sparser time sampling, variability is an encouragingly efficient classifier. For instance, a 92% pure and 44% complete quasar candidate sample is attainable from the above griz-selected catalog. Finally, we show that the presented A-γ technique, besides selecting clean and pure samples of quasars (which are stochastically varying objects), is also

  19. Intrinsic fatigue crack propagation in aluminum-lithium alloys - The effect of gaseous environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Gangloff, Richard P.

    1989-01-01

    Gaseous environmental effects on intrinsic fatigue crack growth are significant for the Al-Li-Cu alloy 2090, peak aged. For both moderate Delta K-low R and low Delta K-high R regimes, crack growth rates decrease according to the environment order: purified water vapor, moist air, helium and oxygen. Gaseous environmental effects are pronounced near threshold and are not closure dominated. Here, embrittlement by low levels of H2O (ppm) supports hydrogen embrittlement and suggests that molecular transport controlled cracking, established for high Delta K-low R, is modified near threshold. Localized crack tip reaction sites or high R crack opening shape may enable the strong, environmental effect at low levels of Delta K. Similar crack growth in He and O2 eliminates the contribution of surface films to fatigue damage in alloy 2090. While 2090 and 7075 exhibit similar environmental trends, the Al-Li-Cu alloy is more resistant to intrinsic corrosion fatigue crack growth.

  20. Nd:YAG-laser-based time-domain reflectometry measurements of the intrinsic reflection signature from PMMA fiber splices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Christopher M.; Michael, Robert R., Jr.; Dressel, Earl M.; Harmony, David W.

    1991-12-01

    Optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR) measurements have been performed on polished polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) plastic fiber splices. After the dominant splice reflection sources due to surface roughness, inexact index matching, and fiber core misalignment were eliminated, an intrinsic OTDR signature 3 - 8 dB above the Rayleigh backscatter floor remained with all tested fibers. This minimum splice reflectivity exhibits characteristics that are consistent with sub-surface polymer damage and can be used for detection of PMMA fiber splices.

  1. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations: Classic Definitions and New Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan; Deci

    2000-01-01

    Intrinsic and extrinsic types of motivation have been widely studied, and the distinction between them has shed important light on both developmental and educational practices. In this review we revisit the classic definitions of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in light of contemporary research and theory. Intrinsic motivation remains an important construct, reflecting the natural human propensity to learn and assimilate. However, extrinsic motivation is argued to vary considerably in its relative autonomy and thus can either reflect external control or true self-regulation. The relations of both classes of motives to basic human needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness are discussed. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  2. Congenital hypertrophy of multiple intrinsic muscles of the foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Tomohiro; Park, Susam; Niu, Atushi; Hasegawa, Hiromi

    2014-12-01

    Congenital hypertrophy of a single intrinsic muscle of the foot is rare, and as far as we know, only six cases have been reported. We describe a case of congenital anomaly that showed hypertrophy of multiple intrinsic muscles of the foot; the affected muscles were all the intrinsic muscles of the foot except the extensor digitorum brevis or extensor hallucis. Other tissues such as adipose tissue, nervous tissue, or osseous tissue showed no abnormalities. To reduce the volume of the foot we removed parts of the enlarged muscles.

  3. Some chaotic features of intrinsically coupled Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolahchi, M.R.; Shukrinov, Yu.M.; Hamdipour, M.; Botha, A.E.; Suzuki, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Intrinsically coupled Josephson junctions model a high-T c superconductor. ► Intrinsically coupled Josephson junctions can act as a chaotic nonlinear system. ► Chaos could be due to resonance overlap. ► Avoiding parameters that lead to chaos is important for the design of resonators. -- Abstract: We look for chaos in an intrinsically coupled system of Josephson junctions. This study has direct applications for the high-T c resonators which require coherence amongst the junctions

  4. Intrinsic Density Matrices of the Nuclear Shell Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deveikis, A.; Kamuntavichius, G.

    1996-01-01

    A new method for calculation of shell model intrinsic density matrices, defined as two-particle density matrices integrated over the centre-of-mass position vector of two last particles and complemented with isospin variables, has been developed. The intrinsic density matrices obtained are completely antisymmetric, translation-invariant, and do not employ a group-theoretical classification of antisymmetric states. They are used for exact realistic density matrix expansion within the framework of the reduced Hamiltonian method. The procedures based on precise arithmetic for calculation of the intrinsic density matrices that involve no numerical diagonalization or orthogonalization have been developed and implemented in the computer code. (author). 11 refs., 2 tabs

  5. The intrinsic stochasticity of near-integrable Hamiltonian systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krlin, L [Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Prague (Czechoslovakia). Ustav Fyziky Plazmatu

    1989-09-01

    Under certain conditions, the dynamics of near-integrable Hamiltonian systems appears to be stochastic. This stochasticity (intrinsic stochasticity, or deterministic chaos) is closely related to the Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser (KAM) theorem of the stability of near-integrable multiperiodic Hamiltonian systems. The effect of the intrinsic stochasticity attracts still growing attention both in theory and in various applications in contemporary physics. The paper discusses the relation of the intrinsic stochasticity to the modern ergodic theory and to the KAM theorem, and describes some numerical experiments on related astrophysical and high-temperature plasma problems. Some open questions are mentioned in conclusion. (author).

  6. Significantly improving trace thallium removal from surface waters during coagulation enhanced by nanosized manganese dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huangfu, Xiaoliu; Ma, Chengxue; Ma, Jun; He, Qiang; Yang, Chun; Jiang, Jin; Wang, Yaan; Wu, Zhengsong

    2017-02-01

    Thallium (Tl) is an element of high toxicity and significant accumulation in human body. There is an urgent need for the development of appropriate strategies for trace Tl removal in drinking water treatment plants. In this study, the efficiency and mechanism of trace Tl (0.5 μg/L) removal by conventional coagulation enhanced by nanosized manganese dioxide (nMnO 2 ) were explored in simulated water and two representative surface waters (a river water and a reservoir water obtained from Northeast China). Experimental results showed that nMnO 2 significantly improve Tl(I) removal from selected waters. The removal efficiency was dramatically higher in the simulated water, demonstrating by less than 0.1 μg/L Tl residual. The enhancement of trace Tl removal in the surface waters decreased to a certain extent. Both adjusting water pH to alkaline condition and preoxidation of Tl(I) to Tl(III) benefit trace Tl removal from surface waters. Data also indicated that competitive cation of Ca 2+ decreased the efficiency of trace Tl removal, resulting from the reduction of Tl adsorption on nMnO 2 . Humic acid could largely low Tl removal efficiency during nMnO 2 enhanced coagulation processes. Trace elemental Tl firstly adsorbed on nMnO 2 and then removed accompanying with nMnO 2 settling. The information obtained in the present study may provide a potential strategy for drinking water treatment plants threatened by trace Tl. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Amplification of intrinsic emittance due to rough metal cathodes: Formulation of a parameterization model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles, T.K. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, 3800 (Australia); Australian Synchrotron, 800 Blackburn Road, Clayton, Victoria, 3168 (Australia); Paganin, D.M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, 3800 (Australia); Dowd, R.T. [Australian Synchrotron, 800 Blackburn Road, Clayton, Victoria, 3168 (Australia)

    2016-08-21

    Intrinsic emittance is often the limiting factor for brightness in fourth generation light sources and as such, a good understanding of the factors affecting intrinsic emittance is essential in order to be able to decrease it. Here we present a parameterization model describing the proportional increase in emittance induced by cathode surface roughness. One major benefit behind the parameterization approach presented here is that it takes the complexity of a Monte Carlo model and reduces the results to a straight-forward empirical model. The resulting models describe the proportional increase in transverse momentum introduced by surface roughness, and are applicable to various metal types, photon wavelengths, applied electric fields, and cathode surface terrains. The analysis includes the increase in emittance due to changes in the electric field induced by roughness as well as the increase in transverse momentum resultant from the spatially varying surface normal. We also compare the results of the Parameterization Model to an Analytical Model which employs various approximations to produce a more compact expression with the cost of a reduction in accuracy.

  8. The Development of Intrinsic Motivation for Physical Activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beaty, James D

    2005-01-01

    .... Having found this to be so, it is worthy of researchers' efforts to determine the constructs that will move individuals to become more intrinsically motivated to engage in regular exercise and/or physical activity...

  9. Stochastic synchronization of neuronal populations with intrinsic and extrinsic noise.

    KAUST Repository

    Bressloff, Paul C; Lai, Yi Ming

    2011-01-01

    We extend the theory of noise-induced phase synchronization to the case of a neural master equation describing the stochastic dynamics of an ensemble of uncoupled neuronal population oscillators with intrinsic and extrinsic noise. The master

  10. Detergent-induced aggregation of an amyloidogenic intrinsically ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shruti Arya

    2017-11-02

    Nov 2, 2017 ... the effect of a well-known anionic lipid mimetic, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), on the aggregation ... for the fabrication of nano-structures for a wide variety ...... M 2014 Classification of intrinsically disordered regions.

  11. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation for stereotypic and repetitive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Annette V; Bundy, Anita C; Einfeld, Stewart L

    2009-03-01

    This study provides evidence for intrinsic and extrinsic motivators for stereotypical and repetitive behavior in children with autism and intellectual disability and children with intellectual disability alone. We modified the Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) (1988b); dividing it into intrinsic and extrinsic measures and adding items to assess anxiety as an intrinsic motivator. Rasch analysis of data from 279 MASs (74 children) revealed that the items formed two unidimensional scales. Anxiety was a more likely intrinsic motivator than sensory seeking for children with dual diagnoses; the reverse was true for children with intellectual disability only. Escape and gaining a tangible object were the most common extrinsic motivators for those with dual diagnoses and attention and escape for children with intellectual disability.

  12. Possible mechanism for d0 ferromagnetism mediated by intrinsic defects

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhenkui; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Roqan, Iman S.

    2014-01-01

    We examine the effects of several intrinsic defects on the magnetic behavior of ZnS nanostructures using hybrid density functional theory to gain insights into d0 ferromagnetism. Previous studies have predicted that the magnetism is due to a

  13. Values, Norms, and Intrinsic Motivation to Act Proenvironmentally

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steg, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Environmental problems can be reduced if people more consistently engage in proenvironmental actions. In this article, I discuss factors that motivate or inhibit individuals to act proenvironmentally. Many people are intrinsically motivated to engage in proenvironmental actions, because protecting

  14. Exploring the link between intrinsic motivation and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christy, Steven M.

    1992-12-01

    This thesis proposes that it is workers' intrinsic motivation that leads them to produce quality work. It reviews two different types of evidence- expert opinion and empirical studies--to attempt to evaluate a link between intrinsic motivation and work quality. The thesis reviews the works of Total Quality writers and behavioral scientists for any connection they might have made between intrinsic motivation and quality. The thesis then looks at the works of Deming and his followers in an attempt to establish a match between Deming's motivational assumptions and the four task rewards in the Thomas/Tymon model of intrinsic motivation: choice, competence, meaningfulness, and progress. Based upon this analysis, it is proposed that the four Thomas/Tymon task rewards are a promising theoretical foundation for explaining the motivational basis of quality for workers in Total Quality organizations.

  15. The Role of Intrinsic Motivations in Attention Allocation and Shifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario edi Nocera

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of attention and intrinsic motivations are of great interest within adaptive robotic systems, and can be exploited in order to guide, activate, and coordinate multiple concurrent behaviors. Attention allocation strategies represent key capabilities of human beings, which are strictly connected with action selection and execution mechanisms, while intrinsic motivations directly affect the allocation of attentional resources. In this paper we propose a model of Reinforcement Learning (RL, where both these capabilities are involved. RL is deployed to learn how to allocate attentional resources in a behavior-based robotic system, while action selection is obtained as a side effect of the resulting motivated attentional behaviors. Moreover, the influence of intrinsic motivations in attention orientation is obtained by introducing rewards associated with curiosity drives. In this way, the learning process is affected not only by goal-specific rewards, but also by intrinsic motivations.

  16. The dynamic multisite interactions between two intrinsically disordered proteins

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Shaowen; Wang, Dongdong; Liu, Jin; Feng, Yitao; Weng, Jingwei; Li, Yu; Gao, Xin; Liu, Jianwei; Wang, Wenning

    2017-01-01

    Protein interactions involving intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) comprise a variety of binding modes, from the well characterized folding upon binding to dynamic fuzzy complex. To date, most studies concern the binding of an IDP to a

  17. Intrinsically Microporous Polymer Membranes for High Performance Gas Separation

    KAUST Repository

    Swaidan, Raja

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the rational design of intrinsically microporous solutionprocessable polyimides and ladder polymers for highly permeable and highly selective gas transport in cornerstone applications of membrane-based gas separation

  18. Intrinsically bent DNA in replication origins and gene promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenes, F; Takeda, K I; Fiorini, A; Gouveia, F S; Fernandez, M A

    2008-06-24

    Intrinsically bent DNA is an alternative conformation of the DNA molecule caused by the presence of dA/dT tracts, 2 to 6 bp long, in a helical turn phase DNA or with multiple intervals of 10 to 11 bp. Other than flexibility, intrinsic bending sites induce DNA curvature in particular chromosome regions such as replication origins and promoters. Intrinsically bent DNA sites are important in initiating DNA replication, and are sometimes found near to regions associated with the nuclear matrix. Many methods have been developed to localize bent sites, for example, circular permutation, computational analysis, and atomic force microscopy. This review discusses intrinsically bent DNA sites associated with replication origins and gene promoter regions in prokaryote and eukaryote cells. We also describe methods for identifying bent DNA sites for circular permutation and computational analysis.

  19. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors influencing large African herbivore movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venter, J.A.; Prins, H.H.T.; Mashanova, A.; Boer, de W.F.; Slotow, R.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding environmental as well as anthropogenic factors that influence large herbivore ecological patterns and processes should underpin their conservation and management. We assessed the influence of intrinsic, extrinsic environmental and extrinsic anthropogenic factors on movement behaviour

  20. On using intrinsic spectral analysis for low-resource languages

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sahraeian, R

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available for a phone recognition task on the Afrikaans language show that a combination of the intrinsic subspace and extrinsic subspaces provides us with improved performance compared to conventional features....

  1. Self-handicapping and intrinsic motivation: buffering intrinsic motivation from the threat of failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deppe, R K; Harackiewicz, J M

    1996-04-01

    High and low self-handicappers (as measured by E. E. Jones & F. Rhodewalt's [1982] Self-Handicapping Scale) were asked to play a game of pinball (in a competitive or noncompetitive setting) after they had practices as much as they wanted on a related task (thus, not practicing could have served as a self-handicap). High self-handicappers who did not practice much became more involved in the game and subsequently reported enjoying the game more than high self-handicappers who practiced a lot. Furthermore, the effects on enjoyment were mediated by task involvement, suggesting that the protection afforded by self-handicapping affects intrinsic motivation by allowing the individual to become absorbed in the activity instead of focusing on performance concerns. Individuals who self-handicap may be providing themselves with the "breathing room" they need to become absorbed in an activity and to experience the activity as enjoyable.

  2. Characterization of the Intrinsic Water Wettability of Graphite Using Contact Angle Measurements: Effect of Defects on Static and Dynamic Contact Angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozbial, Andrew; Trouba, Charlie; Liu, Haitao; Li, Lei

    2017-01-31

    Elucidating the intrinsic water wettability of the graphitic surface has increasingly attracted research interests, triggered by the recent finding that the well-established hydrophobicity of graphitic surfaces actually results from airborne hydrocarbon contamination. Currently, static water contact angle (WCA) is often used to characterize the intrinsic water wettability of graphitic surfaces. In the current paper, we show that because of the existence of defects, static WCA does not necessarily characterize the intrinsic water wettability. Freshly exfoliated graphite of varying qualities, characterized using atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy, was studied using static, advancing, and receding WCA measurements. The results showed that graphite of different qualities (i.e., defect density) always has a similar advancing WCA, but it could have very different static and receding WCAs. This finding indicates that defects play an important role in contact angle measurements, and the static contact angle does not always represent the intrinsic water wettability of pristine graphite. On the basis of the experimental results, a qualitative model is proposed to explain the effect of defects on static, advancing, and receding contact angles. The model suggests that the advancing WCA reflects the intrinsic water wettability of pristine (defect-free) graphite. Our results showed that the advancing WCA for pristine graphite is 68.6°, which indicates that graphitic carbon is intrinsically mildly hydrophilic.

  3. On intrinsic and extrinsic origin of plasmon peaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayama, Shoichi; Kawai, Jun

    2008-01-01

    The origin of the plasmon loss peaks in X-ray photoelectron spectra are discussed based on the (1) intrinsic, (2) extrinsic, (3) quantum interference between (1) and (2), and (4) mixture of (1) and (2). It was believed that the major part of plasmon was due to the extrinsic, the present analysis concludes the major part is intrinsic, depending the excitation energy. This analysis is based on the electron reflection spectra, but valid for X-ray photoelectron spectra. (author)

  4. A hierarchy of intrinsic timescales across primate cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, John D; Bernacchia, Alberto; Freedman, David J; Romo, Ranulfo; Wallis, Jonathan D; Cai, Xinying; Padoa-Schioppa, Camillo; Pasternak, Tatiana; Seo, Hyojung; Lee, Daeyeol; Wang, Xiao-Jing

    2014-12-01

    Specialization and hierarchy are organizing principles for primate cortex, yet there is little direct evidence for how cortical areas are specialized in the temporal domain. We measured timescales of intrinsic fluctuations in spiking activity across areas and found a hierarchical ordering, with sensory and prefrontal areas exhibiting shorter and longer timescales, respectively. On the basis of our findings, we suggest that intrinsic timescales reflect areal specialization for task-relevant computations over multiple temporal ranges.

  5. Study of Intrinsic motivation in the Ministry for Foreign Affairs

    OpenAIRE

    Lehtimäki, Nora

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to investigate intrinsic motivation of the executive assistants and secretaries in the Ministry for Foreign Affairs. The objective in turn, was to examine how well intrinsic motivation has been achieved among these executive assistants and secretaries. How respondents evaluate their job satisfaction, work environment and motivation was also researched. Lastly, factors that increase or decrease motivation were studied, as well as if there is a need for additional...

  6. Elderly Taiwanese's Intrinsic Risk Factors for Fall-related Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    In-Fun Li; Yvonne Hsiung; Hui-Fen Hsing; Mei-Yu Lee; Te-Hsin Chang; Ming-Yuan Huang

    2016-01-01

    Background: As a vital issue in geriatric research, risk factors for falls were concluded to be multifactorial, and prevention has been mostly aimed at decreasing situational and environmental risks that cause and aggravate fall-related injuries, particularly within the institutions. While knowledge is limited about older patients' intrinsic determinants, the purpose of this study was to explore elderly Taiwanese's intrinsic risk factors associated with severe fall-related injuries. Method...

  7. Spin and intrinsic angular momentum; application to the electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paillere, P.

    1993-05-01

    Within the framework of the field theory governed by a Lagrangian, function of the tensor quantities and their covariant first derivatives, and starting with the third order intrinsic angular momentum tensor obtained from a variational principle, the intrinsic angular momentum vector of the electromagnetic field in vacuum is determined. This expression leads to spin matrices for the electromagnetic field, with unity as eigenvalue, thus allowing to bridge the gap between continuous physics and quantum physics. 6 refs

  8. Intrinsic Hand Muscle Activation for Grasp and Horizontal Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Winges, Sara A.; Kundu, Bornali; Soechting, John F.; Flanders, Martha

    2007-01-01

    During object manipulation, the hand and arm muscles produce internal forces on the object (grasping forces) and forces that result in external translation or rotation of the object in space (transport forces). The present study tested whether the intrinsic hand muscles are actively involved in transport as well as grasping. Intrinsic hand muscle activity increased with increasing demands for grasp stability, but also showed the timing and directional tuning patterns appropriate for actively ...

  9. Self-perception of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, B J; Staw, B M

    1975-04-01

    Self-perception theory predicts that intrinsic and extrinsic motivation do not combine additively but rather interact. To test this predicted interaction, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation were both manipulated as independent variables. The results revealed a significant interaction for task satisfaction and a trend for the interaction on a behavioral measure. These results are discussed in terms of a general approach to the self-perception of motivation.

  10. Understanding the Intrinsic Electrochemistry of Ni-Rich Layered Cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallis, Shawn

    at high voltages and temperatures. Substituting LiPF6with LiBF4 suppressed NCA surface degradation and the dissolution of the transition metals into the electrolyte which is responsible for the impedance growth. Even in the most extreme conditions (4.75V vs Li +/Li0 at 60 °C for > 100 hrs) the degradation (i.e. metal reduction) was restricted to the first 10-30 nm and no evidence of oxygen loss was observed in the bulk. However, the transition metal ions were found to cease oxidizing above 4.25 V vs Li+/Li0 despite it being possible to extract 20% more lithium. Using a newly developed high efficiency resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) spectrometer to probe the O K-edge of NCA electrodes at various conditions, it was concluded that oxygen participates in the charge compensation at the highest states of delithiation instead of the transition metals. These results are intrinsic to the physical and electronic structure of NCA and appear general to the other layered transition metal oxides currently under consideration for use as cathodes in Li-ion batteries.

  11. Intrinsic Losses Based on Information Geometry and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Rong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available One main interest of information geometry is to study the properties of statistical models that do not depend on the coordinate systems or model parametrization; thus, it may serve as an analytic tool for intrinsic inference in statistics. In this paper, under the framework of Riemannian geometry and dual geometry, we revisit two commonly-used intrinsic losses which are respectively given by the squared Rao distance and the symmetrized Kullback–Leibler divergence (or Jeffreys divergence. For an exponential family endowed with the Fisher metric and α -connections, the two loss functions are uniformly described as the energy difference along an α -geodesic path, for some α ∈ { − 1 , 0 , 1 } . Subsequently, the two intrinsic losses are utilized to develop Bayesian analyses of covariance matrix estimation and range-spread target detection. We provide an intrinsically unbiased covariance estimator, which is verified to be asymptotically efficient in terms of the intrinsic mean square error. The decision rules deduced by the intrinsic Bayesian criterion provide a geometrical justification for the constant false alarm rate detector based on generalized likelihood ratio principle.

  12. Intrinsically Disordered Side of the Zika Virus Proteome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajanish Giri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, concepts of protein intrinsic disorder have been implicated in different biological processes. Recent studies have suggested that intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs provide structural plasticity and functional diversity to viral proteins that are involved in rapid replication and immune evasion in host cells. In case of Zika virus, the roles of protein intrinsic disorder in mechanisms of pathogenesis are not completely understood. In this study, we have analyzed the prevalence of intrinsic disorder in Zika virus proteome (strain MR 766. Our analyses revealed that Zika virus polyprotein is enriched with intrinsically disordered protein regions (IDPRs and this finding is consistent with previous reports on the involvement of IDPs in shell formation and virulence of the Flaviviridae family. We found abundant IDPRs in Capsid, NS2B, NS3, NS4A, and NS5 proteins that are involved in mature particle formation and replication. In our view, the intrinsic disorder-focused analysis of ZIKV proteins could be important for the development of new disorder-based drugs.

  13. Intrinsic honesty and the prevalence of rule violations across societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gächter, Simon; Schulz, Jonathan F

    2016-03-24

    Deception is common in nature and humans are no exception. Modern societies have created institutions to control cheating, but many situations remain where only intrinsic honesty keeps people from cheating and violating rules. Psychological, sociological and economic theories suggest causal pathways to explain how the prevalence of rule violations in people's social environment, such as corruption, tax evasion or political fraud, can compromise individual intrinsic honesty. Here we present cross-societal experiments from 23 countries around the world that demonstrate a robust link between the prevalence of rule violations and intrinsic honesty. We developed an index of the 'prevalence of rule violations' (PRV) based on country-level data from the year 2003 of corruption, tax evasion and fraudulent politics. We measured intrinsic honesty in an anonymous die-rolling experiment. We conducted the experiments with 2,568 young participants (students) who, due to their young age in 2003, could not have influenced PRV in 2003. We find individual intrinsic honesty is stronger in the subject pools of low PRV countries than those of high PRV countries. The details of lying patterns support psychological theories of honesty. The results are consistent with theories of the cultural co-evolution of institutions and values, and show that weak institutions and cultural legacies that generate rule violations not only have direct adverse economic consequences, but might also impair individual intrinsic honesty that is crucial for the smooth functioning of society.

  14. A dynamic birth-death model via Intrinsic Linkage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Schoen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Dynamic population models, or models with changing vital rates, are only beginning to receive serious attention from mathematical demographers. Despite considerable progress, there is still no general analytical solution for the size or composition of a population generated by an arbitrary sequence of vital rates. OBJECTIVE The paper introduces a new approach, Intrinsic Linkage, that in many cases can analytically determine the birth trajectory of a dynamic birth-death population. METHODS Intrinsic Linkage assumes a weighted linear relationship between (i the time trajectory of proportional increases in births in a population and (ii the trajectory of the intrinsic rates of growth of the projection matrices that move the population forward in time. Flexibility is provided through choice of the weighting parameter, w, that links these two trajectories. RESULTS New relationships are found linking implied intrinsic and observed population patterns of growth. Past experience is "forgotten" through a process of simple exponential decay. When the intrinsic growth rate trajectory follows a polynomial, exponential, or cyclical pattern, the population birth trajectory can be expressed analytically in closed form. Numerical illustrations provide population values and relationships in metastable and cyclically stable models. Plausible projection matrices are typically found for a broad range of values of w, although w appears to vary greatly over time in actual populations. CONCLUSIONS The Intrinsic Linkage approach extends current techniques for dynamic modeling, revealing new relationships between population structures and the changing vital rates that generate them.

  15. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Aspects on Campylobacter jejuni Biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta T. Melo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Biofilm represents a way of life that allows greater survival of microorganisms in hostile habitats. Campylobacter jejuni is able to form biofilms in vitro and on surfaces at several points in the poultry production chain. Genetic determinants related to their formation are expressed differently between strains and external conditions are decisive in this respect. Our approach combines phylogenetic analysis and the presence of seven specific genes linked to biofilm formation in association with traditional microbiology techniques, using Mueller Hinton and chicken juice as substrates in order to quantify, classify, determine the composition and morphology of the biomass of simple and mixed biofilms of 30 C. jejuni strains. It also evaluates the inhibition of its formation by biocides commonly used in industry and also by zinc oxide nanoparticles. Genetic analysis showed high heterogeneity with the identification of 23 pulsotypes. Despite the diversity, the presence of flaA, cadF, luxS, dnaJ, htrA, cbrA, and sodB genes in all strains shows the high potential for biofilm formation. This ability was only expressed in chicken juice, where they presented phenotype of a strong biofilm producer, with a mean count of 7.37 log CFU/mL and an ultrastructure characteristic of mature biofilm. The composition of simple and mixed biofilms was predominantly composed by proteins. The exceptions were found in mixed biofilms with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which includes a carbohydrate-rich matrix, lower ability to sessile form in chicken juice and compact architecture of the biofilm, this aspects are intrinsic to this species. Hypochlorite, chlorhexidine, and peracetic acid were more effective in controlling viable cells of C. jejuni in biofilm, but the existence of tolerant strains indicates exposure to sublethal concentrations and development of adaptation mechanisms. This study shows that in chicken juice C. jejuni presents greater potential in producing mature

  16. Cell swelling and ion redistribution assessed with intrinsic optical signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WITTE OTTO W.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell volume changes are associated with alterations of intrinsic optical signals (IOS. In submerged brain slices in vitro, afferent stimulation induces an increase in light transmission. As assessed by measurement of the largely membrane impermeant ion tetramethylammonium (TMA in the extracellular space, these IOS correlate with the extent and time course of the change of the extracellular space size. They have a high signal to noise ratio and allow measurements of IOS changes in the order of a few percent. Under conditions of reduced net KCl uptake (low Cl solution a directed spatial buffer mechanism (K syphoning can be demonstrated in the neocortex with widening of the extracellular space in superficial layers associated with a reduced light transmission and an increase of extracellular K concentration. The nature of the IOS under pathophysiological conditions is less clear. Spreading depressions first cause an increase of light transmission, then a decrease. Such a decrease has also been observed following application of NMDA where it was associated with structural damage. Pharmacological analyses suggest that under physiological conditions changes of extracellular space size are mainly caused by astrocytic volume changes while with strong stimuli and under pathophysiological conditions also neuronal swelling occurs. With reflected light usually signals opposite to those observed with transmitted light are seen. Recording of IOS from interface slices gives very complex signals since under these conditions an increase of light transmission has been reported to be superimposed by a decrease of the signal due to mechanical lensing effects of the slice surface. Depending on the method of measurement and the exact conditions, several mechanisms may contribute to IOS. Under well defined conditions IOS are a useful supplementary tool to monitor changes of extracellular volume both in space and time.

  17. Comparison of skin barrier function and sensory nerve electric current perception threshold between IgE-high extrinsic and IgE-normal intrinsic types of atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, T; Ishida, K; Mukumoto, S; Yamada, Y; Imokawa, G; Kabashima, K; Kobayashi, M; Bito, T; Nakamura, M; Ogasawara, K; Tokura, Y

    2010-01-01

    Background Two types of atopic dermatitis (AD) have been proposed, with different pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this seemingly heterogeneous disorder. The extrinsic type shows high IgE levels presumably as a consequence of skin barrier damage and feasible allergen permeation, whereas the intrinsic type exhibits normal IgE levels and is not mediated by allergen-specific IgE. Objectives To investigate the relationship between pruritus perception threshold and skin barrier function of patients with AD in a comparison between the extrinsic and intrinsic types. Methods Enrolled in this study were 32 patients with extrinsic AD, 17 with intrinsic AD and 24 healthy individuals. The barrier function of the stratum corneum was assessed by skin surface hydration and transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and pruritus perception was evaluated by the electric current perception threshold (CPT) of sensory nerves upon neuroselective transcutaneous electric stimulation. Results Skin surface hydration was significantly lower and TEWL was significantly higher in extrinsic AD than intrinsic AD or normal controls. Although there was no statistically significant difference in CPT among extrinsic AD, intrinsic AD and normal controls, CPT was significantly correlated with skin surface hydration and inversely with TEWL in intrinsic AD and normal controls, but not extrinsic AD. Finally, CPT was correlated with the visual analogue scale of itch in the nonlesional skin of patients with extrinsic but not intrinsic AD. Conclusions Patients with extrinsic AD have an impaired barrier, which increases the pre-existing pruritus but rather decreases sensitivity to external stimuli. In contrast, patients with intrinsic AD retain a normal barrier function and sensory reactivity to external pruritic stimuli.

  18. Absence of field anisotropy in the intrinsic ferromagnetic signals of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballestar, A.; Setzer, A.; Esquinazi, P.; Garcia, N.

    2011-01-01

    We have measured the magnetization of bulk samples of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) at magnetic fields applied parallel and perpendicular to the graphene layers. Within experimental error the intrinsic ferromagnetic signals of the samples show similar magnetic moments at saturation for the two magnetic field directions, in contrast to recently published data (J. Cervenka et al., Nat. Phys. 5 (2009) 840). To check that the SQUID device provides correctly the small ferromagnetic signals obtained after subtracting the 100 times larger diamagnetic background, we have prepared a sample with a superconducting Pb-film deposited on one of the HOPG surfaces. We show that the field dependence of the measured magnetic moment and after the background subtraction is highly reliable even in the sub-μ emu range providing the real magnetic properties of the embedded small ferromagnetic and superconducting signals. - Research Highlights: → We have measured the magnetization of bulk samples of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) at magnetic fields applied parallel and perpendicular to the graphene layers.→ Within experimental error the intrinsic ferromagnetic signals of the samples show similar magnetic moments at saturation for the two magnetic field directions.→ The absence of magnetic anisotropy of the intrinsic ferromagnetic order found in HOPG samples contrasts recently published data by Cervenka et al., Nat Phys 5, 840 (2009).

  19. Intrinsic vulnerability assessment of shallow aquifers of the sedimentary basin of southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saheed A. Oke

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The shallow groundwater of the multi-layered sedimentary basin aquifer of southwestern Nigeria was assessed based on its intrinsic vulnerability property. The vulnerability evaluation involves determining the protective cover and infiltration condition of the unsaturated zone in the basin. This was achieved using the PI (P stands for protective cover effectiveness of the overlying lithology and I indicates the degree of infiltration bypass vulnerability method of the European vulnerability approach. The PI method specifically measures the protection cover and the degree to which the protective cover is bypassed. Intrinsic parameters assessed were the subsoil, lithology, topsoil, recharge and fracturing for the protective cover. The saturated hydraulic conductivity of topsoil, infiltration processes and the lateral surface and subsurface flow were evaluated for the infiltration bypassed. The results show moderate to very low vulnerability areas. Low vulnerability areas were characterised by lithology with massive sandstone and limestone, subsoils of sandy loam texture, high slopes and high depth to water table. The moderate vulnerability areas were characterised by high rainfall and high recharge, low water table, unconsolidated sandstones and alluvium lithology. The intrinsic vulnerability properties shown in vulnerability maps will be a useful tool in planning and monitoring land use activities that can be of impact in groundwater pollution.

  20. Determination of Intrinsic Permeability for Packed Waste of Indonesian Solid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benno Rahardyan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Gas permeability and intrinsic permeability are the major parameters to promote aeration for packed waste. The objectives of this research are to identify physical parameters of gas transfer from a various type of packed wastes and examine ventilation design theory for landfill to enhance waste stabilization. Method to determine value of gas permeability and intrinsic permeability for packed waste is by flushing the packed column containing various type and physical characteristics of wastes with an air pump. Permeability was calculated by measuring pressure gradient on sampling points of the column using inclined manometer at distance 10 cm, 23 cm, 46 cm, 69 cm, 92 cm and 115 cm from origin. Gas permeability is specifically relied on physical parameters of wastes as follows, density, moisture content, particle size and gas velocity on the surface of compacted waste layer. Compost has finer pore structure and smaller pore size than leaves as well as mixed organic (65% and inorganic wastes (35%. The experiment found the intrinsic permeability of leaves waste are in the order of 10-11 to 10-8 m2, 10-11 to 10-9 m2 for compost and 10-9 m2 for mixed organic (65% and inorganic wastes (35%.

  1. Dynamical Coordination of Hand Intrinsic Muscles for Precision Grip in Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Wei, Na; Cheng, Mei; Hou, Xingguo; Song, Jun

    2018-03-12

    This study investigated the effects of diabetes mellitus (DM) on dynamical coordination of hand intrinsic muscles during precision grip. Precision grip was tested using a custom designed apparatus with stable and unstable loads, during which the surface electromyographic (sEMG) signals of the abductor pollicis brevis (APB) and first dorsal interosseous (FDI) were recorded simultaneously. Recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) was applied to quantify the dynamical structure of sEMG signals of the APB and FDI; and cross recurrence quantification analysis (CRQA) was used to assess the intermuscular coupling between the two intrinsic muscles. This study revealed that the DM altered the dynamical structure of muscle activation for the FDI and the dynamical intermuscular coordination between the APB and FDI during precision grip. A reinforced feedforward mechanism that compensates the loss of sensory feedbacks in DM may be responsible for the stronger intermuscular coupling between the APB and FDI muscles. Sensory deficits in DM remarkably decreased the capacity of online motor adjustment based on sensory feedback, rendering a lower adaptability to the uncertainty of environment. This study shed light on inherent dynamical properties underlying the intrinsic muscle activation and intermuscular coordination for precision grip and the effects of DM on hand sensorimotor function.

  2. Text Summarization Evaluation: Correlating Human Performance on an Extrinsic Task with Automatic Intrinsic Metrics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    President, Stacy F; Dorr, Bonnie J

    2006-01-01

    This research describes two types of summarization evaluation methods, intrinsic and extrinsic, and concentrates on determining the level of correlation between automatic intrinsic methods and human...

  3. Intrinsic quantum dots in InAs nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weis, Karl Martin Darius

    2013-01-01

    This work deals with InAs nanowire field effect transistors in back gate configuration. In such devices, quantum dots can form at low temperatures in the order of magnitude of a few Kelvin. These dots are henceforth referred to as intrinsic as they are not intentionally defined by electrodes. For the interpretation of their stability diagrams, a thorough knowledge of the structure and transport properties of the nanowires is required. Therefore, first of all, the influence of growth method and doping on the transport properties is studied at room temperature. The wires are grown by two types of metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy: a selective-area (SA-MOVPE) and an Au-catalyzed vapour-liquid-solid method (VLS-MOVPE). Transport data shows that the background doping of VLS-MOVPE wires is higher than for SA-MOVPE wires, but the variability of the transport properties is lower. The polytypism of the SA-MOVPE wires (they are composed of wurtzite and zinc blende segments) is a possible explanation for the second observation. Furthermore, it is shown that the measured transport properties significantly depend on the dielectric environment of the nanowires and on the way the electrical measurements are done (two- or four-terminal configuration). The conductivity is tunable via doping and the gate voltage. Conductivity measurements in the temperature range from 10 K to 300 K show that different transport regimes can occur (partially metallic behaviour for sufficiently high conductivity, otherwise purely semiconducting behaviour). This is attributed to different positions of the Fermi level and thus, a different effect of potential fluctuations. If conductivity and temperature are sufficiently low, the onset of Coulomb blockade is observed for semiconducting samples. It is even possible to tune the very same sample to different regimes via the gate voltage. The semiconducting behaviour observed in many samples contradicts the Thomas-Fermi theory. This is attributed to the

  4. Automatic TLI recognition system. Part 1: System description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Partin, J.K.; Lassahn, G.D.; Davidson, J.R.

    1994-05-01

    This report describes an automatic target recognition system for fast screening of large amounts of multi-sensor image data, based on low-cost parallel processors. This system uses image data fusion and gives uncertainty estimates. It is relatively low cost, compact, and transportable. The software is easily enhanced to expand the system`s capabilities, and the hardware is easily expandable to increase the system`s speed. This volume gives a general description of the ATR system.

  5. Venemaa parandab Rüütli-Putini vestlust / Toomas Sildam

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sildam, Toomas, 1961-

    2005-01-01

    Vene presidendi asepressiesindaja Dmitri Peskovi sõnul on praegusel ajal võimalik ainult Molotovi-Ribbentropi pakti ajalooline hinnang ning Venemaale oleks parim variant, kui piirileping ja poliitiline deklaratsioon kirjutataks alla Teise maailmasõja lõpu 60. aastapäeva pidustuste ajal Moskvas. President Arnol Rüütel aga teatas pärast kohtumist Vladimir Putiniga, et Vene president nõustus lahutama piirilepingu poliitiliste suhete deklaratsioonist

  6. Intrinsic Ge nanowire nonvolatile memory based on a simple core–shell structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wen-Hua; Liu, Chang-Hai; Li, Qin-Liang; Sun, Qi-Jun; Liu, Jie; Gao, Xu; Sun, Xuhui; Wang, Sui-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Intrinsic Ge nanowires (NWs) with a Ge core covered by a thick Ge oxide shell are utilized to achieve nanoscale field-effect transistor nonvolatile memories, which show a large memory window and a high ON/OFF ratio with good retention. The retainable surface charge trapping is considered to be responsible for the memory effect, and the Ge oxide shell plays a key role as the insulating tunneling dielectric which must be thick enough to prevent stored surface charges from leaking out. Annealing the device in air is demonstrated to be a simple and effective way to attain thick Ge oxide on the Ge NW surface, and the Ge-NW-based memory corresponding to thick Ge oxide exhibits a much better retention capability compared with the case of thin Ge oxide. (paper)

  7. A radioisotope dilution assay for unlabelled vitamin B12-intrinsic factor complex employing the binding intrinsic factor antibody: probable evidence for two types of binding antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, E.; O'Brien, H.A.W.; Mollin, D.L.

    1977-01-01

    A new radioisotope dilution assay for vitamin B 12 -intrinsic factor complex is described. The method is based on the use of the binding type intrinsic antibody (the binding reagent), which when combined with the intrinsic factor-vitamin B 12 complex (labelled ligand), is quantitatively adsorbed onto zirconium phosphate gel pH 6.25. The new assay has been shown to provide a measure of intrinsic factor comparable with other intrinsic factor assays, but it has the important advantage of being able to measure the unlabelled vitamin B 12 -intrinsic factor complex (unlabelled ligand), and will, therefore, be valuable in the study of physiological events in the gastrointestinal tract. During the study, it was found that there is some evidence for at least two types of binding intrinsic factor antibody: One which combines preferentially with the intrinsic factor-vitamin B 12 complex and one which combines equally well with this complex or with free intrinsic factor. (author)

  8. INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION - AN INVESTIGATION OF PERFORMANCE CORRELATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrudan Maria-Madela

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A series of research untaken in the last decade have revealed some interesting aspects regarding the effects of different types of motivation on performance. Among the researchers who have shown interest in this field we can number: Richard Ryan, Edward Deci, Sam Glucksberg, Dan Ariely, Robert Eisenhower, Linda Shanock, analysts from London School of Economics, and others. Their findings suggest that extrinsic incentives may have a negative impact on overall performance, but a general agreement in this respect has not been reached. In this paper we intend to shed some light upon the relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and performance. Experts define intrinsic motivation as being the execution of a task or activity because of the inherent satisfaction arising from it rather than due to some separate outcome. In contrast with intrinsic motivation, we speak of extrinsic motivation whenever an activity is done in order to attain some separable outcome. With the purpose of contributing to the clarification of the links between concepts, we initiated and conducted an explanatory research. The research is based on the analysis of the relations between the results obtained by third year students and their predominant type of motivation. For this, we formulated and tested four work hypotheses using a combination of quantitative methods (investigation and qualitative methods (focus group. After the validation of the questionnaires, the respondents were divided into four categories: intrinsically motivated, extrinsically motivated, both intrinsically and extrinsically motivated and unmotivated. To analyze the collected data, we made use of Excel and SPSS. Some of the primary conclusions of the research are as follows: as the average increases, the percent of individuals having both extrinsic and intrinsic motivation is decreasing; the highest percentage of unmotivated students is concentrated in the highest average category; Female

  9. Quantifying intrinsic and extrinsic variability in stochastic gene expression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Abhyudai; Soltani, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Genetically identical cell populations exhibit considerable intercellular variation in the level of a given protein or mRNA. Both intrinsic and extrinsic sources of noise drive this variability in gene expression. More specifically, extrinsic noise is the expression variability that arises from cell-to-cell differences in cell-specific factors such as enzyme levels, cell size and cell cycle stage. In contrast, intrinsic noise is the expression variability that is not accounted for by extrinsic noise, and typically arises from the inherent stochastic nature of biochemical processes. Two-color reporter experiments are employed to decompose expression variability into its intrinsic and extrinsic noise components. Analytical formulas for intrinsic and extrinsic noise are derived for a class of stochastic gene expression models, where variations in cell-specific factors cause fluctuations in model parameters, in particular, transcription and/or translation rate fluctuations. Assuming mRNA production occurs in random bursts, transcription rate is represented by either the burst frequency (how often the bursts occur) or the burst size (number of mRNAs produced in each burst). Our analysis shows that fluctuations in the transcription burst frequency enhance extrinsic noise but do not affect the intrinsic noise. On the contrary, fluctuations in the transcription burst size or mRNA translation rate dramatically increase both intrinsic and extrinsic noise components. Interestingly, simultaneous fluctuations in transcription and translation rates arising from randomness in ATP abundance can decrease intrinsic noise measured in a two-color reporter assay. Finally, we discuss how these formulas can be combined with single-cell gene expression data from two-color reporter experiments for estimating model parameters.

  10. Polycrystalline intrinsic zinc oxide to be used in transparent electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimentel, A.; Fortunato, E.; Goncalves, A.; Marques, A.; Aguas, H.; Pereira, L.; Ferreira, I.; Martins, R.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we present results of intrinsic/non-doped zinc oxide deposited at room temperature by radio frequency magnetron sputtering able to be used as a semiconductor material on electronic devices, like for example ozone gas sensors, ultra-violet detectors and thin film transistors. These films present a resistivity as high as 2.5x10 8 Ω cm with an optical transmittance of 90%. Concerning the structural properties, these films are polycrystalline presenting a uniform and very smooth surface

  11. A novel probe of intrinsic electronic structure: hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takata, Y.; Tamasaku, K.; Nishino, Y.; Miwa, D.; Yabashi, M.; Ikenaga, E.; Horiba, K.; Arita, M.; Shimada, K.; Namatame, H.; Nohira, H.; Hattori, T.; Soedergren, S.; Wannberg, B.; Taniguchi, M.; Shin, S.; Ishikawa, T.; Kobayashi, K.

    2005-01-01

    We have realized hard X-ray (HX) photoemission spectroscopy (PES) with high throughput and high-energy resolution for core level and valence band studies using high-energy and high-brilliance synchrotron radiation at SPring-8. This is a brand new method because large escape depth of high-energy photoelectrons enables us to probe intrinsic bulk states free from surface condition. By use of a newly developed electron energy analyzer and well-focused X-rays, high-energy resolution of 75 meV (E/ΔE 79,000) was realized for 5.95 keV photoelectrons

  12. Intrinsic luminosities of the Jovian planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, W.B.

    1980-01-01

    We review available data and theories on the size and nature of interior power sources in the Jovian planets. Broad band infrared measurements indicate that Jupiter and Saturn have interior heat fluxes about 150 and 50 times larger, respectively, than the terrestrial value. While Neptune has a modest heat flux (approx.5 times terrestrial), it is clearly detected by earth-based measurements. Only Uranus seems to lack a detectable interior heat flow. Various models, ranging from simple cooling to gravitational layering to radioactivity, are discussed. Current evidence seems to favor a cooling model in which the escape of heat is regulated by the atmosphere. This model seems capable of explaining phenomena such as the uniformity of effective temperature over Jupiter's surface and the different emission rates of Uranus and Neptune. In such a model the heat radiated from the atmosphere may derived from depletion of a thermal reservoir in the interior, or it may derive from separation of chemical elements during formation of a core. Calculations indicate that in the earlier stages of cooling, Jupiter and Saturn may have more homogeneous abundances of hydrogen and helium and radiate energy derived from simple cooling. At a subsequent phase (which may be later than the present time), hydrogen and helium will separate and supply grativational energy. Either model is consistent with a hot, high-luminosity origin for the Jovian Planets

  13. It's about time: Earlier rewards increase intrinsic motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Kaitlin; Fishbach, Ayelet

    2018-06-01

    Can immediate (vs. delayed) rewards increase intrinsic motivation? Prior research compared the presence versus absence of rewards. By contrast, this research compared immediate versus delayed rewards, predicting that more immediate rewards increase intrinsic motivation by creating a perceptual fusion between the activity and its goal (i.e., the reward). In support of the hypothesis, framing a reward from watching a news program as more immediate (vs. delayed) increased intrinsic motivation to watch the program (Study 1), and receiving more immediate bonus (vs. delayed, Study 2; and vs. delayed and no bonus, Study 3) increased intrinsic motivation in an experimental task. The effect of reward timing was mediated by the strength of the association between an activity and a reward, and was specific to intrinsic (vs. extrinsic) motivation-immediacy influenced the positive experience of an activity, but not perceived outcome importance (Study 4). In addition, the effect of the timing of rewards was independent of the effect of the magnitude of the rewards (Study 5). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. [EXTRINSIC AND INTRINSIC FACTORS FOR FALLS THAT CAUSED HIP FRACTURE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsur, Atzmon; Shakeer, Nael; Segal, Zvi; Itah, Dorit; Eluz, Dana

    2017-05-01

    Among the reasons described as possibly causing falls in older and elderly people are extrinsic factors such as bumping into objects, slipping on a wet floor, etc., and intrinsic factors - those that occur suddenly without warning. To investigate the connection between the reasons for falls, extrinsic or intrinsic and different medical and nonmedical factors. The survey included 82 people, 53 women and 29 men, who fell and broke their hip, underwent surgery, and were treated at the Rehabilitation Department. Data showed that 39 people fell due to extrinsic factors and 43 due to intrinsic reasons. We examined the correlation with several factors, both medical and non-medical, that may have influenced the scenario of each group. Falls due to extrinsic reasons took place at all hours of the day and night, mainly in people who were alone and who wore shoes or sandals at the time of the fall and who either suffered from slight or no disturbances in attention and concentration. Falls due to intrinsic reasons occurred mainly during rest or sleep hours, in people who walked barefoot or with socks or slippers and who suffered moderate or severe disturbances in attention and concentration. Although the differences in the extrinsic vs. intrinsic reasons for falls that led to broken hips were fairly clear, it would be difficult to recommend new tools for prevention of this phenomenon. Trying to predict an infrequent future event such as a traumatic fall is inherently difficult.

  15. Physics of Intrinsic Rotation in Flux-Driven ITG Turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku, S.; Abiteboul, J.; Dimond, P.H.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Kwon, J.M.; Sarazin, Y.; Hahm, T.S.; Garbet, X.; Chang, C.S.; Latu, G.; Yoon, E.S.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Yi, S.; Strugarek, A.; Solomon, W.; Grandgirard, V.

    2012-01-01

    Global, heat flux-driven ITG gyrokinetic simulations which manifest the formation of macroscopic, mean toroidal flow profiles with peak thermal Mach number 0.05, are reported. Both a particle-in-cell (XGC1p) and a semi-Lagrangian (GYSELA) approach are utilized without a priori assumptions of scale-separation between turbulence and mean fields. Flux-driven ITG simulations with different edge flow boundary conditions show in both approaches the development of net unidirectional intrinsic rotation in the co-current direction. Intrinsic torque is shown to scale approximately linearly with the inverse scale length of the ion temperature gradient. External momentum input is shown to effectively cancel the intrinsic rotation profile, thus confirming the existence of a local residual stress and intrinsic torque. Fluctuation intensity, intrinsic torque and mean flow are demonstrated to develop inwards from the boundary. The measured correlations between residual stress and two fluctuation spectrum symmetry breakers, namely E x B shear and intensity gradient, are similar. Avalanches of (positive) heat flux, which propagate either outwards or inwards, are correlated with avalanches of (negative) parallel momentum flux, so that outward transport of heat and inward transport of parallel momentum are correlated and mediated by avalanches. The probability distribution functions of the outward heat flux and the inward momentum flux show strong structural similarity

  16. Cosmological information in the intrinsic alignments of luminous red galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chisari, Nora Elisa [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Dvorkin, Cora, E-mail: nchisari@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: cdvorkin@ias.edu [Institute for Advanced Study, School of Natural Sciences, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The intrinsic alignments of galaxies are usually regarded as a contaminant to weak gravitational lensing observables. The alignment of Luminous Red Galaxies, detected unambiguously in observations from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, can be reproduced by the linear tidal alignment model of Catelan, Kamionkowski and Blandford (2001) on large scales. In this work, we explore the cosmological information encoded in the intrinsic alignments of red galaxies. We make forecasts for the ability of current and future spectroscopic surveys to constrain local primordial non-Gaussianity and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) in the cross-correlation function of intrinsic alignments and the galaxy density field. For the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey, we find that the BAO signal in the intrinsic alignments is marginally significant with a signal-to-noise ratio of 1.8 and 2.2 with the current LOWZ and CMASS samples of galaxies, respectively, and increasing to 2.3 and 2.7 once the survey is completed. For the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument and for a spectroscopic survey following the EUCLID redshift selection function, we find signal-to-noise ratios of 12 and 15, respectively. Local type primordial non-Gaussianity, parametrized by f{sub NL} = 10, is only marginally significant in the intrinsic alignments signal with signal-to-noise ratios < 2 for the three surveys considered.

  17. The effect of homework choices on achievement and intrinsic motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Emily Fast

    The purpose of this research was to test an intervention of choices in homework on the achievement and intrinsic motivation of seventh-grade science students at a middle school. The intervention was based on concepts from the cognitive evaluation theory of Edward L. Deci and Richard M. Ryan (1985). The subjects were sixteen heterogeneous classes of seventh-grade students, who were divided among four teachers. Two randomly chosen classes from each teacher received choices in their homework and the remaining two classes of each teacher received similar homework assignments without choices. Two hypotheses were developed for this study: (1) Seventh-grade science students given choices in their homework would show an increase in intrinsic motivation as measured on a motivation orientation measure, compared to students not given choices in their homework, and (2) Seventh-grade science students given choices in their homework would show an increase in achievement on an achievement measure, compared to students not given choices in their homework. Having choices in homework did not increase intrinsic motivation or achievement. However, students who did their homework did significantly better on the posttest, and students who were more intrinsically motivated did significantly better on the posttest. Just doing the homework was important for achievement, and intrinsic motivation was linked to achievement.

  18. David Ross, Ideal Utilitarianism, and the Intrinsic Value of Acts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Orsi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The denial of the intrinsic value of acts apart from both motives and consequences lies at the heart of Ross’s deontology and his opposition to ideal utilitarianism. Moreover, the claim that acts can have intrinsic value is a staple element of early and contemporary attempts to “consequentialise” all of morality. I first show why Ross’s denial is relevant both for his philosophy and for current debates. Then I consider and reject as inconclusive some of Ross’s explicit and implicit motivations for his claim, stemming from his philosophy of action, his axiology, and his concept of intrinsic value, or a combination of these. I also criticize Ross’s later view that all right acts somehow produce some good, but that the value of some of these goods is explained by the prior rightness of the act. In the course of the discussion, the idea that acts can have intrinsic value apart from motives and consequences gains credibility both from the weaknesses in Ross’s arguments and from some putative examples. So, finally, I distinguish two attitudes in the history of ideal utilitarianism towards the necessity or not to give a detailed account of the intrinsic value of acts, and suggest that a Why Bother attitude is more promising than a Constructive one.

  19. Intrinsic motivation and amotivation in first episode and prolonged psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Lauren; Lysaker, Paul H; Firmin, Ruth L; Breier, Alan; Vohs, Jenifer L

    2015-12-01

    The deleterious functional implications of motivation deficits in psychosis have generated interest in examining dimensions of the construct. However, there remains a paucity of data regarding whether dimensions of motivation differ over the course of psychosis. Therefore, this study examined two motivation dimensions, trait-like intrinsic motivation, and the negative symptom of amotivation, and tested the impact of illness phase on the 1) levels of these dimensions and 2) relationship between these dimensions. Participants with first episode psychosis (FEP; n=40) and prolonged psychosis (n=66) completed clinician-rated measures of intrinsic motivation and amotivation. Analyses revealed that when controlling for group differences in gender and education, the FEP group had significantly more intrinsic motivation and lower amotivation than the prolonged psychosis group. Moreover, intrinsic motivation was negatively correlated with amotivation in both FEP and prolonged psychosis, but the magnitude of the relationship did not statistically differ between groups. These findings suggest that motivation deficits are more severe later in the course of psychosis and that low intrinsic motivation may be partially independent of amotivation in both first episode and prolonged psychosis. Clinically, these results highlight the importance of targeting motivation in early intervention services. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Informationally administered reward enhances intrinsic motivation in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeon-Seung; Jang, Seon-Kyeong; Lee, Ga-Young; Park, Seon-Cheol; Medalia, Alice; Choi, Kee-Hong

    2017-10-01

    Even when individuals with schizophrenia have an intact ability to enjoy rewarding moments, the means to assist them to translate rewarding experiences into goal-directed behaviors is unclear. The present study sought to determine whether informationally administered rewards enhance intrinsic motivation to foster goal-directed behaviors in individuals with schizophrenia (SZ) and healthy controls (HCs). Eighty-four participants (SZ=43, HCs=41) were randomly assigned to conditions involving either a performance-contingent reward with an informationally administered reward or a task-contingent reward with no feedback. Participants were asked to play two cognitive games of equalized difficulty. Accuracy, self-reported intrinsic motivation, free-choice intrinsic motivation (i.e., game play during a free-choice observation period), and perceived competency were measured. Intrinsic motivation and perceived competency in the cognitive games were similar between the two participant groups. The informationally administered reward significantly enhanced self-reported intrinsic motivation and perceived competency in both the groups. The likelihood that individuals with schizophrenia would play the game during the free-choice observation period was four times greater in the informationally administered reward condition than that in the no-feedback condition. Our findings suggest that, in the context of cognitive remediation, individuals with schizophrenia would benefit from informationally administered rewards. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Semisupervised Support Vector Machines With Tangent Space Intrinsic Manifold Regularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shiliang; Xie, Xijiong

    2016-09-01

    Semisupervised learning has been an active research topic in machine learning and data mining. One main reason is that labeling examples is expensive and time-consuming, while there are large numbers of unlabeled examples available in many practical problems. So far, Laplacian regularization has been widely used in semisupervised learning. In this paper, we propose a new regularization method called tangent space intrinsic manifold regularization. It is intrinsic to data manifold and favors linear functions on the manifold. Fundamental elements involved in the formulation of the regularization are local tangent space representations, which are estimated by local principal component analysis, and the connections that relate adjacent tangent spaces. Simultaneously, we explore its application to semisupervised classification and propose two new learning algorithms called tangent space intrinsic manifold regularized support vector machines (TiSVMs) and tangent space intrinsic manifold regularized twin SVMs (TiTSVMs). They effectively integrate the tangent space intrinsic manifold regularization consideration. The optimization of TiSVMs can be solved by a standard quadratic programming, while the optimization of TiTSVMs can be solved by a pair of standard quadratic programmings. The experimental results of semisupervised classification problems show the effectiveness of the proposed semisupervised learning algorithms.

  2. Intrinsic thermodynamics of inhibitor binding to human carbonic anhydrase IX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkuvienė, Vaida; Matulienė, Jurgita; Juozapaitienė, Vaida; Michailovienė, Vilma; Jachno, Jelena; Matulis, Daumantas

    2016-04-01

    Human carbonic anhydrase 9th isoform (CA IX) is an important marker of numerous cancers and is increasingly interesting as a potential anticancer drug target. Various synthetic aromatic sulfonamide-bearing compounds are being designed as potent inhibitors of CA IX. However, sulfonamide compound binding to CA IX is linked to several reactions, the deprotonation of the sulfonamide amino group and the protonation of the CA active site Zn(II)-bound hydroxide. These linked reactions significantly affect the affinities and other thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpies and entropies of binding. The observed and intrinsic affinities of compound binding to CA IX were determined by the fluorescent thermal shift assay. The enthalpies and entropies of binding were determined by the isothermal titration calorimetry. The pKa of CA IX was determined to be 6.8 and the enthalpy of CA IX-Zn(II)-bound hydroxide protonation was -24 kJ/mol. These values enabled the analysis of intrinsic thermodynamics of a library of compounds binding to CA IX. The most strongly binding compounds exhibited the intrinsic affinity of 0.01 nM and the observed affinity of 2 nM. The intrinsic thermodynamic parameters of compound binding to CA IX helped to draw the compound structure to thermodynamics relationship. It is important to distinguish the intrinsic from observed parameters of any disease target protein interaction with its inhibitors as drug candidates when drawing detailed compound structure to thermodynamics correlations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Hyperpolarized Nanodiamond Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rej, Ewa; Gaebel, Torsten; Waddington, David E J; Reilly, David J

    2017-01-11

    The widespread use of nanodiamond as a biomedical platform for drug-delivery, imaging, and subcellular tracking applications stems from its nontoxicity and unique quantum mechanical properties. Here, we extend this functionality to the domain of magnetic resonance, by demonstrating that the intrinsic electron spins on the nanodiamond surface can be used to hyperpolarize adsorbed liquid compounds at low fields and room temperature. By combining relaxation measurements with hyperpolarization, spins on the surface of the nanodiamond can be distinguished from those in the bulk liquid. These results are likely of use in signaling the controlled release of pharmaceutical payloads.

  4. Control of the Intrinsic Sensor Response to Volatile Organic Compounds with Fringing Electric Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Alex; Swaminathan, Nandhini; Vaknin, Yonathan; Jurca, Titel; Shimanovich, Klimentiy; Shalev, Gil; Rosenwaks, Yossi

    2018-01-26

    The ability to control surface-analyte interaction allows tailoring chemical sensor sensitivity to specific target molecules. By adjusting the bias of the shallow p-n junctions in the electrostatically formed nanowire (EFN) chemical sensor, a multiple gate transistor with an exposed top dielectric layer allows tuning of the fringing electric field strength (from 0.5 × 10 7 to 2.5 × 10 7 V/m) above the EFN surface. Herein, we report that the magnitude and distribution of this fringing electric field correlate with the intrinsic sensor response to volatile organic compounds. The local variations of the surface electric field influence the analyte-surface interaction affecting the work function of the sensor surface, assessed by Kelvin probe force microscopy on the nanometer scale. We show that the sensitivity to fixed vapor analyte concentrations can be nullified and even reversed by varying the fringing field strength, and demonstrate selectivity between ethanol and n-butylamine at room temperature using a single transistor without any extrinsic chemical modification of the exposed SiO 2 surface. The results imply an electric-field-controlled analyte reaction with a dielectric surface extremely compelling for sensitivity and selectivity enhancement in chemical sensors.

  5. Chimpanzees and bonobos differ in intrinsic motivation for tool use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koops, Kathelijne; Furuichi, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Chie

    2015-06-16

    Tool use in nonhuman apes can help identify the conditions that drove the extraordinary expansion of hominin technology. Chimpanzees and bonobos are our closest living relatives. Whereas chimpanzees are renowned for their tool use, bonobos use few tools and none in foraging. We investigated whether extrinsic (ecological and social opportunities) or intrinsic (predispositions) differences explain this contrast by comparing chimpanzees at Kalinzu (Uganda) and bonobos at Wamba (DRC). We assessed ecological opportunities based on availability of resources requiring tool use. We examined potential opportunities for social learning in immature apes. Lastly, we investigated predispositions by measuring object manipulation and object play. Extrinsic opportunities did not explain the tool use difference, whereas intrinsic predispositions did. Chimpanzees manipulated and played more with objects than bonobos, despite similar levels of solitary and social play. Selection for increased intrinsic motivation to manipulate objects likely also played an important role in the evolution of hominin tool use.

  6. Social categories as markers of intrinsic interpersonal obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Marjorie; Chalik, Lisa

    2013-06-01

    Social categorization is an early-developing feature of human social cognition, yet the role that social categories play in children's understanding of and predictions about human behavior has been unclear. In the studies reported here, we tested whether a foundational functional role of social categories is to mark people as intrinsically obligated to one another (e.g., obligated to protect rather than harm). In three studies, children (aged 3-9, N = 124) viewed only within-category harm as violating intrinsic obligations; in contrast, they viewed between-category harm as violating extrinsic obligations defined by explicit rules. These data indicate that children view social categories as marking patterns of intrinsic interpersonal obligations, suggesting that a key function of social categories is to support inferences about how people will relate to members of their own and other groups.

  7. Intrinsic and extrinsic spin Hall effects of Dirac electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukazawa, Takaaki; Kohno, Hiroshi; Fujimoto, Junji

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the spin Hall effect (SHE) of electrons described by the Dirac equation, which is used as an effective model near the L-points in bismuth. By considering short-range nonmagnetic impurities, we calculate the extrinsic as well as intrinsic contributions on an equal footing. The vertex corrections are taken into account within the ladder type and the so-called skew-scattering type. The intrinsic SHE which we obtain is consistent with that of Fuseya et al. It is found that the extrinsic contribution dominates the intrinsic one when the system is metallic. The extrinsic SHE due to the skew scattering is proportional to Δ/n i u, where 2Δ is the band gap, n i is the impurity concentration, and u is the strength of the impurity potential. (author)

  8. Fluxons in long and annular intrinsic Josephson junction stacks

    CERN Document Server

    Clauss, T; Moessle, M; Müller, A; Weber, A; Kölle, D; Kleiner, R

    2002-01-01

    A promising approach towards a THz oscillator based on intrinsic Josephson junctions in high-temperature superconductors is based on the collective motion of Josephson fluxons, which are predicted to form various configurations ranging from a triangular to a quadratic lattice. Not only for this reason, but certainly also for the sake of basic physics, several experimental and theoretical investigations have been done on the subject of collective fluxon dynamics in stacked intrinsic Josephson junctions. In this paper we will present some experimental results on the fluxon dynamics of long intrinsic Josephson junction stacks made of Bi sub 2 Sr sub 2 CaCu sub 2 O sub 8. The stacks were formed either in an open or in an annular geometry, and clear resonant fluxon modes were observed. Experiments discussed include measurements of current-voltage characteristics in external magnetic fields and in external microwave fields.

  9. Intrinsic space charge resonances and the space charge limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parzen, G.

    1990-01-01

    A study has been done of the dependence of the space charge limit on the choice of ν-values using a simulation program. This study finds a strong dependence of the space charge limit on the location of the ν-values relative to the intrinsic space charge resonances, which are driven by the space charge forces due to the beam itself. Four accelerators were studied. For some of these accelerators the study suggest that the space charge limit can be increased by about a factor of 2 proper choice of the ν-values. The lower order 1/2 and 1/4 intrinsic resonances appear to be the important resonances. There is some evidence for effects due to the 1/6 and 1/8 intrinsic resonances, particularly for larger synchrotrons. 5 figs

  10. The relation of mothers' controlling vocalizations to children's intrinsic motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deci, E L; Driver, R E; Hotchkiss, L; Robbins, R J; Wilson, I M

    1993-04-01

    Twenty-six mother-child dyads played together in a laboratory setting. Play sessions were surreptitiously videotaped (with mothers' permission), and each maternal vocalization was transcribed and coded, first into 1 of 24 categories and then ipso facto into one of three supercategories--namely, controlling, autonomy supportive, and neutral. The degree of mothers' controllingness was calculated as the percentage of vocalizations coded as controlling. This index was correlated with the intrinsic motivation of their 6- or 7-year-old children, as assessed primarily by the free-choice behavioral measure and secondarily by a child self-report measure of interest and liking for the task. Both correlations were significantly negative, thereby suggesting that the robust laboratory findings of a negative relation between controlling contexts and individuals' intrinsic motivation are directly generalizable to the domain of parenting. Results are discussed in terms of the processes that undermine intrinsic motivation and the means through which parental controllingness is communicated.

  11. Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation at 30: Unresolved scientific issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Steven

    2005-01-01

    The undermining effect of extrinsic reward on intrinsic motivation remains unproven. The key unresolved issues are construct invalidity (all four definitions are unproved and two are illogical); measurement unreliability (the free-choice measure requires unreliable, subjective judgments to infer intrinsic motivation); inadequate experimental controls (negative affect and novelty, not cognitive evaluation, may explain "undermining" effects); and biased metareviews (studies with possible floor effects excluded, but those with possible ceiling effects included). Perhaps the greatest error with the undermining theory, however, is that it does not adequately recognize the multifaceted nature of intrinsic motivation (Reiss, 2004a). Advice to limit the use of applied behavior analysis based on "hidden" undermining effects is ideologically inspired and is unsupported by credible scientific evidence.

  12. Kinematical tests for the intrinsic shapes of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capaccioli, M.; Fasano, G.

    1984-01-01

    Determining the intrinsic shape of elliptical galaxies has been an illusive enterprise, but one fundamental to the understanding of their internal dynamics and formation. Here the problem is approached dynamically; noting that the velocity dispersion is largest when sighted down the longest axis, the correlations are derived of velocity dispersion with observed eccentricity expected, after the known trend of velocity dispersion with luminosity is removed. Using a compilation of published data, the relation between luminosity and velocity dispersion is determined more accurately. The residuals are examined as a function of axis ratio in order to construct a test for the intrinsic shape of galaxies. The effects of projection are modelled and possible intrinsic variations are examined. (author)

  13. Extrinsic and intrinsic blood supply to the optic chiasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaud, Céline; Ploteau, Stéphane; Blery, Pauline; Pilet, Paul; Armstrong, Olivier; Hamel, Antoine

    2018-04-01

    Although there have been many studies of the arterial cerebral blood supply, only seven have described the optic chiasm (OC) blood supply and their results are contradictory. The aim of this study was to analyze the extrinsic and intrinsic OC blood supply on cadaveric specimens using dissections and microcomputer tomography (Micro-CT). Thirteen human specimens were dissected and the internal or common carotid arteries were injected with red latex, China Ink with gelatin or barium sulfate. Three Micro-CTs were obtained to reveal the intrinsic blood supply to the OC. The superior hypophyseal arteries (SupHypA) (13/13) and posterior communicating artery (PCoA) (12/13) supplied the pial network on the inferior side of the OC. The first segment of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) (10/10), SupHypA (7/10), the anterior communicating artery (ACoA) (9/10), and PComA (1/10) supplied the pial network of its superior side. The intrinsic OC blood supply was divided into three networks (two lateral and one central). Capillaries entering the OC originated principally from the inferior pial network. The lateral network capillaries had the same orientation as the visual lateral pathways, but the central network was not correlated with the nasal fibers crossing into the OC. There was no anastomosis in the pial or intrinsic networks. Only SupHypA, PCoA, ACoA, and ACA were involved in the OC blood supply. Because there was no extrinsic or intrinsic anastomosis, all arteries should be preserved. Tumor compression of the inferior intrinsic arterial network could contribute to visual defects. Clin. Anat. 31:432-440, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Intrinsic cardiac nervous system in tachycardia induced heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Rakesh C; Cardinal, Rene; Smith, Frank M; Ardell, Jeffrey L; Dell'Italia, Louis J; Armour, J Andrew

    2003-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that early-stage heart failure differentially affects the intrinsic cardiac nervous system's capacity to regulate cardiac function. After 2 wk of rapid ventricular pacing in nine anesthetized canines, cardiac and right atrial neuronal function were evaluated in situ in response to enhanced cardiac sensory inputs, stimulation of extracardiac autonomic efferent neuronal inputs, and close coronary arterial administration of neurochemicals that included nicotine. Right atrial neuronal intracellular electrophysiological properties were then evaluated in vitro in response to synaptic activation and nicotine. Intrinsic cardiac nicotine-sensitive, neuronally induced cardiac responses were also evaluated in eight sham-operated, unpaced animals. Two weeks of rapid ventricular pacing reduced the cardiac index by 54%. Intrinsic cardiac neurons of paced hearts maintained their cardiac mechano- and chemosensory transduction properties in vivo. They also responded normally to sympathetic and parasympathetic preganglionic efferent neuronal inputs, as well as to locally administered alpha-or beta-adrenergic agonists or angiotensin II. The dose of nicotine needed to modify intrinsic cardiac neurons was 50 times greater in failure compared with normal preparations. That dose failed to alter monitored cardiovascular indexes in failing preparations. Phasic and accommodating neurons identified in vitro displayed altered intracellular membrane properties compared with control, including decreased membrane resistance, indicative of reduced excitability. Early-stage heart failure differentially affects the intrinsic cardiac nervous system's capacity to regulate cardiodynamics. While maintaining its capacity to transduce cardiac mechano- and chemosensory inputs, as well as inputs from extracardiac autonomic efferent neurons, intrinsic cardiac nicotine-sensitive, local-circuit neurons differentially remodel such that their capacity to

  15. The intrinsic shape of bulges in the CALIFA survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantin, L.; Méndez-Abreu, J.; Corsini, E. M.; Eliche-Moral, M. C.; Tapia, T.; Morelli, L.; Dalla Bontà, E.; Pizzella, A.

    2018-02-01

    Context. The intrinsic shape of galactic bulges in nearby galaxies provides crucial information to separate bulge types. Aims: We aim to derive accurate constraints to the intrinsic shape of bulges to provide new clues on their formation mechanisms and set new limitations for future simulations. Methods: We retrieved the intrinsic shape of a sample of CALIFA bulges using a statistical approach. Taking advantage of GalMer numerical simulations of binary mergers we estimated the reliability of the procedure. Analyzing the i-band mock images of resulting lenticular remnants, we studied the intrinsic shape of their bulges at different galaxy inclinations. Finally, we introduced a new (B/A, C/A) diagram to analyze possible correlations between the intrinsic shape and the properties of bulges. Results: We tested the method on simulated lenticular remnants, finding that for galaxies with inclinations of 25° ≤ θ ≤ 65° we can safely derive the intrinsic shape of their bulges. We found that our CALIFA bulges tend to be nearly oblate systems (66%), with a smaller fraction of prolate spheroids (19%), and triaxial ellipsoids (15%). The majority of triaxial bulges are in barred galaxies (75%). Moreover, we found that bulges with low Sérsic indices or in galaxies with low bulge-to-total luminosity ratios form a heterogeneous class of objects; additionally, bulges in late-type galaxies or in less massive galaxies have no preference for being oblate, prolate, or triaxial. On the contrary, bulges with high Sérsic index, in early-type galaxies, or in more massive galaxies are mostly oblate systems. Conclusions: We concluded that various evolutionary pathways may coexist in galaxies, with merging events and dissipative collapse being the main mechanisms driving the formation of the most massive oblate bulges and bar evolution reshaping the less massive triaxial bulges.

  16. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and intention to breast-feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Kristen J; Thompson, Nancy J; Kloeblen-Tarver, Amy S

    2002-01-01

    To examine the feasibility of using the cognitive evaluation theory to examine pregnant women's intention to breast-feed. A questionnaire designed to measure intrinsic and extrinsic motivation was administered to 228 pregnant women. Results provide evidence for reliability and validity of the revised instrument in this population. A factor analysis suggests the instrument measures 2 types of intrinsic motivation, one type of extrinsic motivation, and motivation related to the baby. The instrument distinguished differences in motivation between women who intend to breast-feed and those who intend to formula feed. This study helps elucidate motivational factors involved in infant-feeding decisions.

  17. Theory of extrinsic and intrinsic heterojunctions in thermal equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Ross, O.

    1980-01-01

    A careful analysis of an abrupt heterojunction consisting of two distinct semiconductors either intrinsic or extrinsic is presented. The calculations apply to a one-dimensional, nondegenerate structure. Taking into account all appropriate boundary conditions, it is shown that the intrinsic Fermi level shows a discontinuity at the interface between the two materials which leads to a discontinuity of the valence band edge equal to the difference in the band gap energies of the two materials. The conduction band edge stays continuous however. This result is independent of possible charged interface states and in sharp contrast to the Anderson model. The reasons for this discrepancy are discussed.

  18. Failure to label baboon milk intrinsically with iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa-Colon, R.; Elwell, J.H.; Jackson, E.; Osborne, J.W.; Fomon, S.J.

    1989-01-01

    The widely held belief that 50% of the iron in human milk is absorbed is based on studies that have used an extrinsic radioactive iron tag. To determine the validity of an extrinsic tag, it is necessary to label the milk intrinsically with one isotope and to compare absorption of this isotope with absorption of another isotope added as the extrinsic tag. We chose the baboon as a model and infused 59Fe intravenously. In each of three attempts we failed to label the milk intrinsically

  19. Intrinsic Defects and H Doping in WO3

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jiajie

    2017-01-18

    WO3 is widely used as industrial catalyst. Intrinsic and/or extrinsic defects can tune the electronic properties and extend applications to gas sensors and optoelectonics. However, H doping is a challenge to WO3, the relevant mechanisms being hardly understood. In this context, we investigate intrinsic defects and H doping by density functional theory and experiments. Formation energies are calculated to determine the lowest energy defect states. O vacancies turn out to be stable in O-poor environment, in agreement with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and O-H bond formation of H interstitial defects is predicted and confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  20. Intrinsic charm and charmed particle production at Serpukhov energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zmushko, V.V.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the charmed particle production by protons on nuclei in the framework of two-component model at the Serpukhov energies. This model combines the leading-twist QCD and intrinsic charm contributions. It is shown that both contributions are comparable at 70 GeV energy of a proton, which makes possible the testing of the intrinsic charm predictions: the asymmetry between the leading and non-leading charm production and the A dependence of charm production. The asymmetry for D-bar/D mesons and Λ c + /Λ c - baryons and the cross section ratios for different nuclei are estimated [ru

  1. Whether diffusion in axisymmetric confinement systems is intrinsically ambipolar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovrizhnykh, L.M.

    1997-01-01

    The problem of diffusion ambipolarity in axisymmetric magnetic systems is analyzed. The question is discussed of whether diffusion is intrinsically ambipolar (and if so, then in which particular cases) or the ambipolarity constraint is an additional independent condition, which does not follow from the equations of motion and, hence, contains new information. It is shown that the second assertion is correct: strictly speaking, diffusion can never be intrinsically ambipolar, and, in the presence of several different mechanisms causing electron and ion losses across the magnetic field, only the total fluxes, but not the partial ones, should satisfy the ambipolarity constraint. (UK)

  2. Intrinsic states and rotational bands in 177Pt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dracoulis, G.D.; Fabricius, B.; Bark, R.A.; Stuchbery, A.E.; Popescu, D.G.; Kibedi, T.

    1989-11-01

    The 149 Sm ( 32 S,4n) 177 Pt reaction has been used to populate excited states in the neutron-deficient nucleus 177 Pt. Rotational bands based on intrinsic states assigned to the 1/2-[521], 5/2-[521] and (mixed) 7/2+ [633] Nilsson configurations have been observed. In contrast to the neighbou-ring even isotope 176 Pt, anomalies attributed to shape co-existence at low spin have not been observed. Implications for the deformation of 177 Pt are discussed together with the systematics of intrinsic states in this region, and alignments and other properties of N=99 nuclei. 37 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Quarterly intrinsic disorder digest (January-February-March, 2014)

    OpenAIRE

    DeForte, Shelly; Reddy, Krishna D.; Uversky, Vladimir N.

    2016-01-01

    This is the 5th issue of the Digested Disorder series that represents a reader's digest of the scientific literature on intrinsically disordered proteins. We continue to use only 2 criteria for inclusion of a paper to this digest: The publication date (a paper should be published within the covered time frame) and the topic (a paper should be dedicated to any aspect of protein intrinsic disorder). The current digest issue covers papers published during the first quarter of 2014; i.e., during ...

  4. Intrinsically safe electrical installations, auxiliary circuits and electric communication equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herms, C D

    1981-11-19

    Technical progress has not stopped short of electrical systems in mining, so that three new chapters are new included in the VDE regulations leaflet No. 0118 on 'Installation of electrical systems in underground coal mining'. The regulations on intrinsically safe electric systems, auxiliary circuits and communication systems are briefly described, and grounds for the regulations are presented. The regulations already take account of European regulations on intrinsic safety which will soon be published in a European Regulation on Mine Explosions. In the chapters on auxiliary circuits and communication systems, protection against direct contact, fires, and explosions is discussed as well as the further goal of reliable signal transmission.

  5. Terahertz Responses of Intrinsic Josephson Junctions in High TC Superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H. B.; Wu, P. H.; Yamashita, T.

    2001-01-01

    High frequency responses of intrinsic Josephson junctions up to 2.5THz, including the observation of Shapiro steps under various conditions, are reported and discussed in this Letter. The sample was an array of intrinsic Josephson junctions singled out from inside a high T C superconducting Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+x single crystal, with a bow-tie antenna integrated to it. The number of junctions in the array was controllable, the junctions were homogeneous, the distribution of applied irradiation among the junctions was even, and the junctions could synchronously respond to high frequency irradiation

  6. Intrinsic variations of the double quasar 0957 + 56 AB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, C.

    1981-01-01

    Observations of the two components of the quasar 0957 + 56A and B are reported which show a variation of approximately 1 mag in both components and behaviour typical of intrinsically variable quasars with similar radio structure. It is argued that the near constancy of the magnitude difference between the components at several epochs, despite overall variations, favours all the variations being intrinsic to the quasar and also supports the hypothesis that the two images are produced by the gravitational lensing of a single distant quasar. (U.K.)

  7. Finding intrinsic rewards by embodied evolution and constrained reinforcement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchibe, Eiji; Doya, Kenji

    2008-12-01

    Understanding the design principle of reward functions is a substantial challenge both in artificial intelligence and neuroscience. Successful acquisition of a task usually requires not only rewards for goals, but also for intermediate states to promote effective exploration. This paper proposes a method for designing 'intrinsic' rewards of autonomous agents by combining constrained policy gradient reinforcement learning and embodied evolution. To validate the method, we use Cyber Rodent robots, in which collision avoidance, recharging from battery packs, and 'mating' by software reproduction are three major 'extrinsic' rewards. We show in hardware experiments that the robots can find appropriate 'intrinsic' rewards for the vision of battery packs and other robots to promote approach behaviors.

  8. The Intrinsic Shape of Galaxies in SDSS/Galaxy Zoo

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Silvio; Padilla, Nelson D.

    2013-01-01

    By modelling the axis ratio distribution of SDSS DR8 galaxies we find the intrinsic 3D shapes of spirals and ellipticals. We use morphological information from the Galaxy Zoo project and assume a non-parametric distribution intrinsic of shapes, while taking into account dust extinction. We measure the dust extinction of the full sample of spiral galaxies and find a smaller value than previous estimations, with an edge-on extinction of $E_0 = 0.284^{+0.015}_{-0.026}$ in the SDSS r band. We als...

  9. Determination of intrinsic spin Hall angle in Pt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yi; Deorani, Praveen; Qiu, Xuepeng; Kwon, Jae Hyun; Yang, Hyunsoo, E-mail: eleyang@nus.edu.sg [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576 (Singapore)

    2014-10-13

    The spin Hall angle in Pt is evaluated in Pt/NiFe bilayers by spin torque ferromagnetic resonance measurements and is found to increase with increasing the NiFe thickness. To extract the intrinsic spin Hall angle in Pt by estimating the total spin current injected into NiFe from Pt, the NiFe thickness dependent measurements are performed and the spin diffusion in the NiFe layer is taken into account. The intrinsic spin Hall angle of Pt is determined to be 0.068 at room temperature and is found to be almost constant in the temperature range of 13–300 K.

  10. Determination of intrinsic spin Hall angle in Pt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yi; Deorani, Praveen; Qiu, Xuepeng; Kwon, Jae Hyun; Yang, Hyunsoo

    2014-01-01

    The spin Hall angle in Pt is evaluated in Pt/NiFe bilayers by spin torque ferromagnetic resonance measurements and is found to increase with increasing the NiFe thickness. To extract the intrinsic spin Hall angle in Pt by estimating the total spin current injected into NiFe from Pt, the NiFe thickness dependent measurements are performed and the spin diffusion in the NiFe layer is taken into account. The intrinsic spin Hall angle of Pt is determined to be 0.068 at room temperature and is found to be almost constant in the temperature range of 13–300 K.

  11. Changes in Intrinsic Motivation as a Function of Negative Feedback and Threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deci, Edward L.; Cascio, Wayne F.

    Recent studies have demonstrated that external rewards can affect intrinsic motivation to perform an activity. Money tends to decrease intrinsic motivation, whereas positive verbal reinforcements tend to increase intrinsic motivation. This paper presents evidence that negative feedback and threats of punishment also decrease intrinsic motivation.…

  12. Do monetary rewards crowd out intrinsic motivations of volunteers? Some empirical evidence for Italian volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Damiano Fiorillo

    2009-01-01

    The paper studies the determinants of regular volunteering departing from previous literature on extrinsic and intrinsic motivations. It contributes to the literature investigating the role of monetary rewards to influence intrinsic motivation. Using a simple framework that allows me to study the effect of monetary rewards on intrinsic motivation, the paper shows, controlling for endogenous bias, that monetary rewards crowd-out intrinsic motivation.

  13. Intrinsic and extrinsic spin-orbit torques from first principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geranton, Guillaume

    2017-01-01

    This thesis attempts to shed light on the microscopic mechanisms underlying the current-induced magnetic torques in ferromagnetic heterostructures. We have developed first principles methods aiming at the accurate and effcient calculation of the so-called spin-orbit torques (SOTs) in magnetic thin films. The emphasis of this work is on the impurity-driven extrinsic SOTs. The main part of this thesis is dedicated to the development of a formalism for the calculation of the SOTs within the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (KKR) method. The impurity-induced transitions rates are obtained from first principles and their effect on transport properties is treated within the Boltzmann formalism. The developed formalism provides a mean to compute the SOTs beyond the conventional constant relaxation time approximation. We first apply our formalism to the investigation of FePt/Pt and Co/Cu bilayers in the presence of defects and impurities. Our results hint at a crucial dependence of the torque on the type of disorder present in the films, which we explain by a complex interplay of several competing Fermi surface contributions to the SOT. Astonishingly, specific defect distributions or doping elements lead respectively to an increase or a sign change of the torque, which can not be explained on the basis of simple models. We also compute the intrinsic SOT induced by electrical and thermal currents within the full potential linearized augmented plane-wave method. Motivated by recent experimental works, we then investigate the microscopic origin of the SOT in a Ag_2Bi-terminated Ag film grown on ferromagnetic Fe(110). We find that the torque in that system can not be explained solely by the spin-orbit coupling in the Ag_2Bi alloy, and instead results from the spin-orbit coupling in all regions of the film.Finally, we predict a large SOT in Fe/Ge bilayers and suggest that semiconductor substrates might be a promising alternative to heavy metals for the development of SOT-based magnetic

  14. Intrinsic and extrinsic spin-orbit torques from first principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geranton, Guillaume

    2017-09-01

    This thesis attempts to shed light on the microscopic mechanisms underlying the current-induced magnetic torques in ferromagnetic heterostructures. We have developed first principles methods aiming at the accurate and effcient calculation of the so-called spin-orbit torques (SOTs) in magnetic thin films. The emphasis of this work is on the impurity-driven extrinsic SOTs. The main part of this thesis is dedicated to the development of a formalism for the calculation of the SOTs within the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (KKR) method. The impurity-induced transitions rates are obtained from first principles and their effect on transport properties is treated within the Boltzmann formalism. The developed formalism provides a mean to compute the SOTs beyond the conventional constant relaxation time approximation. We first apply our formalism to the investigation of FePt/Pt and Co/Cu bilayers in the presence of defects and impurities. Our results hint at a crucial dependence of the torque on the type of disorder present in the films, which we explain by a complex interplay of several competing Fermi surface contributions to the SOT. Astonishingly, specific defect distributions or doping elements lead respectively to an increase or a sign change of the torque, which can not be explained on the basis of simple models. We also compute the intrinsic SOT induced by electrical and thermal currents within the full potential linearized augmented plane-wave method. Motivated by recent experimental works, we then investigate the microscopic origin of the SOT in a Ag{sub 2}Bi-terminated Ag film grown on ferromagnetic Fe(110). We find that the torque in that system can not be explained solely by the spin-orbit coupling in the Ag{sub 2}Bi alloy, and instead results from the spin-orbit coupling in all regions of the film.Finally, we predict a large SOT in Fe/Ge bilayers and suggest that semiconductor substrates might be a promising alternative to heavy metals for the development of SOT

  15. Teacher and Student Intrinsic Motivation in Project-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Shui-fong; Cheng, Rebecca Wing-yi; Ma, William Y. K.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we examined the relationship between teacher and student intrinsic motivation in project-based learning. The participants were 126 Hong Kong secondary school teachers and their 631 students who completed evaluation questionnaires after a semester-long project-based learning program. Both teachers and students were asked to indicate…

  16. Ethnic Stigma, Academic Anxiety, and Intrinsic Motivation in Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen-O'Neel, Cari; Ruble, Diane N.; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research addressing the dynamics of stigma and academics has focused on African American adolescents and adults. The present study examined stigma awareness, academic anxiety, and intrinsic motivation among 451 young (ages 6-11) and diverse (African American, Chinese, Dominican, Russian, and European American) students. Results indicated…

  17. Essays on Intrinsic Motivation of Students and Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Lent (Max)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThis thesis focuses on intrinsic motivation. In the first part of the thesis I examine the effects of motivating university students to set goals on study performance. In particular I study whether encouraging students to set a grade goal and further motivating them to set a more

  18. Intrinsic electric dipole moments of paramagnetic atoms : Rubidium and cesium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nataraj, H. S.; Sahoo, B. K.; Das, B. P.; Mukherjee, D.

    2008-01-01

    The electric dipole moment (EDM) of paramagnetic atoms is sensitive to the intrinsic EDM contribution from that of its constituent electrons and a scalar-pseudoscalar (S-PS) electron-nucleus interaction. The electron EDM and the S-PS contributions to the EDMs of these atoms scale as approximate to

  19. Representing Spatial Layout According to Intrinsic Frames of Reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chaoxiang; Li, Shiyi; Tao, Weidong; Wei, Yiping; Sun, Hong-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Mou and McNamara have suggested that object locations are represented according to intrinsic reference frames. In three experiments, we investigated the limitations of intrinsic reference frames as a mean to represent object locations in spatial memory. Participants learned the locations of seven or eight common objects in a rectangular room and then made judgments of relative direction based on their memory of the layout. The results of all experiments showed that when all objects were positioned regularly, judgments of relative direction were faster or more accurate for novel headings that were aligned with the primary intrinsic structure than for other novel headings; however, when one irregularly positioned object was added to the layout, this advantage was eliminated. The experiments further indicated that with a single view at study, participants could represent the layout from either an egocentric orientation or a different orientation, according to experimental instructions. Together, these results suggest that environmental reference frames and intrinsic axes can influence performance for novel headings, but their role in spatial memory depends on egocentric experience, layout regularity, and instructions.

  20. Charm production yield from target nuclei filtering intrinsic projectile charm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quack, E.; Nemes, M.C.

    1990-01-01

    Estimating the process of filtering an intrinsic projectile charm component by a target nucleus as proposed earlier, we obtain upper limits for the cross sections of open charm and J/Ψ. Comparing with experiment, we conclude that this filtering mechanism is not sufficient to explain the observed A α-dependence at large final state momenta. (author)

  1. Search for light-induced intrinsic localized modes: negative result

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kempa, Martin; Ondrejkovič, Petr; Ollivier, J.; Rols, S.; Kulda, J.; Margueron, S.; Fernandez, M.; Hlinka, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 440, č. 1 (2012), 42-46 ISSN 0015-0193 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP204/11/P404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : alkali halides * intrinsic localized modes * phonon density of states * inelastic neutron scattering Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.415, year: 2012

  2. Intrinsic respiratory gating in small-animal CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartling, Soenke H.; Dinkel, Julien; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Stiller, Wolfram; Semmler, Wolfhard; Grasruck, Michael; Madisch, Ijad; Gupta, Rajiv; Kiessling, Fabian

    2008-01-01

    Gating in small-animal CT imaging can compensate artefacts caused by physiological motion during scanning. However, all published gating approaches for small animals rely on additional hardware to derive the gating signals. In contrast, in this study a novel method of intrinsic respiratory gating of rodents was developed and tested for mice (n=5), rats (n=5) and rabbits (n=2) in a flat-panel cone-beam CT system. In a consensus read image quality was compared with that of non-gated and retrospective extrinsically gated scans performed using a pneumatic cushion. In comparison to non-gated images, image quality improved significantly using intrinsic and extrinsic gating. Delineation of diaphragm and lung structure improved in all animals. Image quality of intrinsically gated CT was judged to be equivalent to extrinsically gated ones. Additionally 4D datasets were calculated using both gating methods. Values for expiratory, inspiratory and tidal lung volumes determined with the two gating methods were comparable and correlated well with values known from the literature. We could show that intrinsic respiratory gating in rodents makes additional gating hardware and preparatory efforts superfluous. This method improves image quality and allows derivation of functional data. Therefore it bears the potential to find wide applications in small-animal CT imaging. (orig.)

  3. A note on intrinsic conditional autoregressive models for disconnected graphs

    KAUST Repository

    Freni-Sterrantino, Anna; Ventrucci, Massimo; Rue, Haavard

    2018-01-01

    In this note we discuss (Gaussian) intrinsic conditional autoregressive (CAR) models for disconnected graphs, with the aim of providing practical guidelines for how these models should be defined, scaled and implemented. We show how these suggestions can be implemented in two examples, on disease mapping.

  4. Binding of intrinsic and extrinsic features in working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Ullrich K H; Maybery, Murray; Zimmer, Hubert D

    2013-02-01

    There is ongoing debate concerning the mechanisms of feature binding in working memory. In particular, there is controversy regarding the extent to which these binding processes are automatic. The present article demonstrates that binding mechanisms differ depending on whether the to-be-integrated features are perceived as forming a coherent object. We presented a series of experiments that investigated the binding of color and shape, whereby color was either an intrinsic feature of the shape or an extrinsic feature of the shape's background. Results show that intrinsic color affected shape recognition, even when it was incidentally studied and irrelevant for the recognition task. In contrast, extrinsic color did not affect shape recognition, even when the association of color and shape was encoded and retrievable on demand. This strongly suggests that binding of intrinsic intra-item information but not extrinsic contextual information is obligatory in visual working memory. We highlight links to perception as well as implicit and explicit long-term memory, which suggest that the intrinsic-extrinsic dimension is a principle relevant to multiple domains of human cognition. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  5. Dominance dynamics of competition between intrinsic and extrinsic grouping cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Dolores; Villalba-García, Cristina; Montoro, Pedro R; Hinojosa, José A

    2016-10-01

    In the present study we examined the dominance dynamics of perceptual grouping cues. We used a paradigm in which participants selectively attended to perceptual groups based on several grouping cues in different blocks of trials. In each block, single and competing grouping cues were presented under different exposure durations (50, 150 or 350ms). Using this procedure, intrinsic vs. intrinsic cues (i.e. proximity and shape similarity) were compared in Experiment 1; extrinsic vs. extrinsic cues (i.e. common region and connectedness) in Experiment 2; and intrinsic vs. extrinsic cues (i.e. common region and shape similarity) in Experiment 3. The results showed that in Experiment 1, no dominance of any grouping cue was found: shape similarity and proximity grouping cues showed similar reaction times (RTs) and interference effects. In contrast, in Experiments 2 and 3, common region dominated processing: (i) RTs to common region were shorter than those to connectedness (Exp. 2) or shape similarity (Exp. 3); and (ii) when the grouping cues competed, common region interfered with connectedness (Exp. 2) and shape similarity (Exp. 3) more than vice versa. The results showed that the exposure duration of stimuli only affected the connectedness grouping cue. An important result of our experiments indicates that when two grouping cues compete, both the non-attended intrinsic cue in Experiment 1, and the non-dominant extrinsic cue in Experiments 2 and 3, are still perceived and they are not completely lost. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Alberta Consumers' Valuation of Extrinsic and Intrinsic Red Meat Attributes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Bodo; Gao, Fei; Unterschultz, Jim

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes Alberta consumers’ perceptions toward extrinsic and intrinsic attributes of bison and beef steaks. In contrast to published Canadian consumer studies on bison meat that were undertaken prior to May 2003, before the first BSE case of Canadian origin was identified in beef cattle...

  7. Development of the intrinsic and extrinsic innervation of the gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uesaka, Toshihiro; Young, Heather M; Pachnis, Vassilis; Enomoto, Hideki

    2016-09-15

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is innervated by intrinsic enteric neurons and by extrinsic efferent and afferent nerves. The enteric (intrinsic) nervous system (ENS) in most regions of the gut consists of two main ganglionated layers; myenteric and submucosal ganglia, containing numerous types of enteric neurons and glial cells. Axons arising from the ENS and from extrinsic neurons innervate most layers of the gut wall and regulate many gut functions. The majority of ENS cells are derived from vagal neural crest cells (NCCs), which proliferate, colonize the entire gut, and first populate the myenteric region. After gut colonization by vagal NCCs, the extrinsic nerve fibers reach the GI tract, and Schwann cell precursors (SCPs) enter the gut along the extrinsic nerves. Furthermore, a subpopulation of cells in myenteric ganglia undergoes a radial (inward) migration to form the submucosal plexus, and the intrinsic and extrinsic innervation to the mucosal region develops. Here, we focus on recent progress in understanding the developmental processes that occur after the gut is colonized by vagal ENS precursors, and provide an up-to-date overview of molecular mechanisms regulating the development of the intrinsic and extrinsic innervation of the GI tract. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Extrinsic photoresponse enhancement under additional intrinsic photoexcitation in organic semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kounavis, P., E-mail: pkounavis@upatras.gr [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece)

    2016-06-28

    Dual light beam photoresponse experiments are employed to explore the photoresponse under simultaneous extrinsic and intrinsic photoexcitation of organic semiconductors. The photoresponse of a red modulated light extrinsic photoexcitation is found that can be significantly enhanced under an additional blue bias-light intrinsic photoexcitation in two terminal pentacene films on glass substrates. From the frequency resolved photoresponse, it is deduced that the phenomenon of photoresponse enhancement can be attributed to an increase in the extrinsic photogeneration rate of the red modulated light and/or an improvement of the drift velocity of carriers under an additional blue light intrinsic photoexcitation. The possible predominant extrinsic photogeneration mechanism, which can be compatible with the observed dependence of the photoresponse enhancement on the frequency and on the light intensities of the red and blue light excitation, is the singlet exciton dissociation through electron transfer to acceptor-like traps. Moreover, an improvement in the drift velocity of carriers traversing grain boundaries with potential energy barriers, which may be reduced by trapping of minority carriers created from the intrinsic photoexcitation, may partly contribute to the photoresponse enhancement.

  9. Magnetic order in graphite: Experimental evidence, intrinsic and extrinsic difficulties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esquinazi, P.; Barzola-Quiquia, J.; Spemann, D.; Rothermel, M.; Ohldag, H.; Garcia, N.; Setzer, A.; Butz, T.

    2010-01-01

    We discuss recently obtained data using different experimental methods including magnetoresistance measurements that indicate the existence of metal-free high-temperature magnetic order in graphite. Intrinsic as well as extrinsic difficulties to trigger magnetic order by irradiation of graphite are discussed in view of recently published theoretical work.

  10. Extrinsic photoresponse enhancement under additional intrinsic photoexcitation in organic semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kounavis, P.

    2016-01-01

    Dual light beam photoresponse experiments are employed to explore the photoresponse under simultaneous extrinsic and intrinsic photoexcitation of organic semiconductors. The photoresponse of a red modulated light extrinsic photoexcitation is found that can be significantly enhanced under an additional blue bias-light intrinsic photoexcitation in two terminal pentacene films on glass substrates. From the frequency resolved photoresponse, it is deduced that the phenomenon of photoresponse enhancement can be attributed to an increase in the extrinsic photogeneration rate of the red modulated light and/or an improvement of the drift velocity of carriers under an additional blue light intrinsic photoexcitation. The possible predominant extrinsic photogeneration mechanism, which can be compatible with the observed dependence of the photoresponse enhancement on the frequency and on the light intensities of the red and blue light excitation, is the singlet exciton dissociation through electron transfer to acceptor-like traps. Moreover, an improvement in the drift velocity of carriers traversing grain boundaries with potential energy barriers, which may be reduced by trapping of minority carriers created from the intrinsic photoexcitation, may partly contribute to the photoresponse enhancement.

  11. The sooner, the better: exercise outcome proximity and intrinsic motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M Blair; Cooke, Lisa M; Murray, Robyn A; Wilson, Anne E

    2014-11-01

    Despite evidence that outcomes are highly valued when they are expected sooner rather than further into the future (Ainslie, 1975), limited research effort has been devoted to understanding the role of exercise outcome proximity. The purpose of this study was to examine how temporal proximity to positive outcomes influences exercisers' intrinsic motivation. We expected that focusing people on temporally proximal exercise outcomes would increase intrinsic motivation, especially among low-frequency exercisers. This online experimental study was completed by 135 community exercisers (Mage  = 31.11, SD = 10.29; 62% female) who reported an average of 4.86 exercise bouts per week (SD = 2.12). Participants were randomly assigned to a condition that primed temporally proximal positive exercise outcomes (i.e. experienced during or directly following an exercise bout) or temporally distal outcomes (i.e. experienced after days, months, or years of regular exercise). Participants then reported perceptions of behavioral regulation in exercise. As expected, the proximal exercise outcome condition elicited increased intrinsic regulation among those participants who exercised less frequently (i.e. 1 SD below the mean). This study reveals the importance of considering proximity as an important dimension of exercise outcomes-particularly when promoting intrinsic motivation among relatively infrequent exercisers. © 2014 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  12. Intrinsic viscosity of guar gum in sweeteners solutions | Samavati ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rheological methods were applied to study the effect of sweeteners on the rheological behavior of guar gum in dilute solutions. The concentration of the sweeteners were 0.1, 0.2%w/v for aspartame, acesulfame-k and cyclamate, and 0.001, 0.002%w/v for neotame. Gum was evaluated for intrinsic viscosity by various ...

  13. Three key points along an intrinsic reaction coordinate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. The concept of the reaction force is presented and discussed in detail. For typical processes with energy barriers, it has a universal form which defines three key points along an intrinsic reaction co- ordinate: the force minimum, zero and maximum. We suggest that the resulting four zones be interpreted as involving ...

  14. Intrinsic Value and the Genetic Engineering of Animals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, R.B.M. de

    2008-01-01

    The concept of intrinsic value is often invoked to articulate objections to the genetic engineering of animals, particularly those objections that are not directed at the negative effects the technique might have on the health and welfare of the modified animals. However, this concept was not

  15. Muscle Bioenergetic Considerations for Intrinsic Laryngeal Skeletal Muscle Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandage, Mary J.; Smith, Audrey G.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Intrinsic laryngeal skeletal muscle bioenergetics, the means by which muscles produce fuel for muscle metabolism, is an understudied aspect of laryngeal physiology with direct implications for voice habilitation and rehabilitation. The purpose of this review is to describe bioenergetic pathways identified in limb skeletal muscle and…

  16. DSS1/Sem1, a multifunctional and intrinsically disordered protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Birthe Brandt; Schenstrøm, Signe Marie; Rebula, Caio A.

    2016-01-01

    DSS1/Sem1 is a versatile intrinsically disordered protein. Besides being a bona fide subunit of the 26S proteasome, DSS1 associates with other protein complexes, including BRCA2-RPA, involved in homologous recombination; the Csn12-Thp3 complex, involved in RNA splicing; the integrator, involved...

  17. Intrinsic and experimental quasiparticle recombination times in superconducting films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenmenger, W.; Lassmann, K.; Trumpp, H.J.; Krauss, R.

    1977-01-01

    Experimental quasiparticle recombination lifetime data for superconducting Al, Sn, and Pb films are compared with calculations based on a ray acoustic model taking account of the film thickness dependence of the reabsorption of recombination phonons. Information on the true or intrinsic quasiparticle recombination lifetime obtained from these and other data is discussed. (orig.) [de

  18. Trapped Electron Mode Turbulence Driven Intrinsic Rotation in Tokamak Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, W.X.; Hahm, T.S.; Ethier, S.; Zakharov, L.E.

    2011-01-01

    Recent progress from global gyrokinetic simulations in understanding the origin of intrinsic rotation in toroidal plasmas is reported with emphasis on electron thermal transport dominated regimes. The turbulence driven intrinsic torque associated with nonlinear residual stress generation by the fluctuation intensity and the intensity gradient in the presence of zonal flow shear induced asymmetry in the parallel wavenumber spectrum is shown to scale close to linearly with plasma gradients and the inverse of the plasma current. These results qualitatively reproduce empirical scalings of intrinsic rotation observed in various experiments. The origin of current scaling is found to be due to enhanced kll symmetry breaking induced by the increased radial variation of the safety factor as the current decreases. The physics origin for the linear dependence of intrinsic torque on pressure gradient is that both turbulence intensity and the zonal flow shear, which are two key ingredients for driving residual stress, increase with the strength of turbulence drive, which is R0/LTe and R0/Lne for the trapped electron mode.

  19. Definition and discussion of the intrinsic efficiency of winglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter SCHOLZ

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Three simple equations are derived to define the “Intrinsic Aerodynamic Efficiency of Winglets” independent of the horizontal extension of the winglet and independent of the winglet’s (relative height. This Intrinsic Aerodynamic Efficiency allows a quick comparison of purely the aerodynamic shape of winglets independent of the selected size chosen for a certain aircraft installation. The Intrinsic Aerodynamic Efficiency is calculated in 3 steps: STEP 1: The relative total drag reduction due to the winglet is converted into an assumed contribution of the winglet only on the span efficiency factor. STEP 2: If the winglet also increases span, its performance is converted into one without the effect of span increase. STEP 3: The winglet’s reduction in induced drag is compared to a horizontal wing extension. If the winglet needs e.g. to be three times longer than the horizontal extension to achieve the same induced drag reduction, its Intrinsic Aerodynamic Efficiency is the inverse or 1/3. Winglet metrics as defined are calculated from literature inputs. In order to evaluate winglets further, the mass increase due to winglets is estimated in addition to the reduction of drag on aircraft level and fuel burn.

  20. Investigation of intrinsic toroidal rotation scaling in KSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, J. W.; Lee, S. G.; Ko, S. H.; Seol, J.; Lee, H. H.; Kim, J. H.

    2017-07-01

    The behaviors of an intrinsic toroidal rotation without any external momentum sources are investigated in KSTAR. In these experiments, pure ohmic discharges with a wide range of plasma parameters are carefully selected and analyzed to speculate an unrevealed origin of toroidal rotation excluding any unnecessary heating sources, magnetic perturbations, and strong magneto-hydrodynamic activities. The measured core toroidal rotation in KSTAR is mostly in the counter-current direction and its magnitude strongly depends on the ion temperature divided by plasma current (Ti/IP). Especially the core toroidal rotation in the steady-state is well fitted by Ti/IP scaling with a slope of ˜-23, and the possible explanation of the scaling is compared with various candidates. As a result, the calculated offset rotation could not explain the measured core toroidal rotation since KSTAR has an extremely low intrinsic error field. For the stability conditions for ion and electron turbulences, it is hard to determine a dominant turbulence mode in this study. In addition, the intrinsic toroidal rotation level in ITER is estimated based on the KSTAR scaling since the intrinsic rotation plays an important role in stabilizing resistive wall modes for future reference.

  1. A note on intrinsic conditional autoregressive models for disconnected graphs

    KAUST Repository

    Freni-Sterrantino, Anna

    2018-05-23

    In this note we discuss (Gaussian) intrinsic conditional autoregressive (CAR) models for disconnected graphs, with the aim of providing practical guidelines for how these models should be defined, scaled and implemented. We show how these suggestions can be implemented in two examples, on disease mapping.

  2. DEVELOPMENT AND SHAPING OF STUDENTS’ INTRINSIC MOTIVATION IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Krivokapić

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of the recent studies concerning the impact of psychological factors on the school success show that, in average, only 50% of the success rate could be ascribed to developmental level of intelligence, while the remainder of the variable is saturated with factors of non-intellectual nature. Among the factors unconditioned by intellectual characteristics, the special role in motivation for effective studying is played by motivation for learning - especially the intrinsic one. It is understood that, when it comes to physical education, the intrinsic motivation sources are in fact primary sources, especially if we are striving to maintain motivation at the necessary level for a longer period. The process of development and maintenance of intrinsic motivation is of vital importance, particularly due to the fact that absenteeism or inactivity in physical education classes is becoming increasingly pronounced among students in higher grades of elementary and high schools. It should be borne in mind that the number of children spending most of their time in sitting position in front of their computers or TV sets is increasing on a daily basis. Consequently, we have higher incidence of postural deformities in elementary school-age children. Development and shaping of intrinsic motivation in terms of increasing willingness to do physical exercise systematically and continuously could be a means of diminishing the above-mentioned problems.

  3. Extrinsic Rewards and Intrinsic Motivation in Education: Reconsidered Once Again.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deci, Edward L.; Koestner, Richard; Ryan, Richard M.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the results of a meta analysis (E. Deci, R. Koestner, and R. Ryan, 1999) that shows that tangible extrinsic rewards do have a substantial undermining effect on intrinsic motivation. Discusses results, which support cognitive evaluation theory, in terms of their relevance for educational practice. (SLD)

  4. Intrinsic Motivation, Perceived Competence, and Gender in a Controlling Situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farabee, David; And Others

    Deci and Ryan's (1975, 1980) cognitive evaluation theory viewed intrinsic motivation as a function of perceived competence and personal causation. Deci and Ryan also proposed that people tend to perceive competitive situations as controlling. Gender differences were used by Deci and Olson (1989) to explain the findings by Ryan and Deci (1986) that…

  5. Successful Implantation of Bioengineered, Intrinsically Innervated, Human Internal Anal Sphincter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Shreya; Gilmont, Robert R.; Miyasaka, Eiichi A.; Somara, Sita; Srinivasan, Shanthi; Teitelbaum, Daniel H; Bitar, Khalil N.

    2011-01-01

    Background & Aims To restore fecal continence, the weakened pressure of the internal anal sphincter (IAS) must be increased. We bioengineered intrinsically innervated human IAS, to emulate sphincteric physiology, in vitro. Methods We co-cultured human IAS circular smooth muscle with immortomouse fetal enteric neurons. We investigated the ability of bioengineered innervated human IAS, implanted in RAG1−/− mice, to undergo neovascularization and preserve the physiology of the constituent myogenic and neuronal components. Results The implanted IAS was neovascularized in vivo; numerous blood vessels were observed with no signs of inflammation or infection. Real-time force acquisition from implanted and pre-implant IAS showed distinct characteristics of IAS physiology. Features included the development of spontaneous myogenic basal tone; relaxation of 100% of basal tone in response to inhibitory neurotransmitter vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and direct electrical field stimulation of the intrinsic innervation; inhibition of nitrergic and VIPergic EFS-induced relaxation (by antagonizing nitric oxide synthesis or receptor interaction); contraction in response to cholinergic stimulation with acetylcholine; and intact electromechanical coupling (evidenced by direct response to potassium chloride). Implanted, intrinsically innervated bioengineered human IAS tissue preserved the integrity and physiology of myogenic and neuronal components. Conclusion Intrinsically innervated human IAS bioengineered tissue can be successfully implanted in mice. This approach might be used to treat patients with fecal incontinence. PMID:21463628

  6. Gompertz' survivorship law as an intrinsic principle of aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sas, Arthur A.; Snieder, Harold; Korf, Jakob

    We defend the hypothesis that life-spanning population survivorship curves, as described by Gompertz' law and composed from cross-sectional data (here mortality), reflect an intrinsic aging principle active in each subject of that population. In other words Gompertz' law reflects aging of a

  7. Human intrinsic factor expressed in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedosov, Sergey N; Laursen, Niels B; Nexø, Ebba

    2003-01-01

    Intrinsic factor (IF) is the gastric protein that promotes the intestinal uptake of vitamin B12. Gastric IF from animal sources is used in diagnostic tests and in vitamin pills. However, administration of animal IF to humans becomes disadvantageous because of possible pathogenic transmission...

  8. The Role of Teacher Behavior in Adolescents' Intrinsic Reading Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Naeghel, Jessie; Valcke, Martin; De Meyer, Inge; Warlop, Nele; van Braak, Johan; Van Keer, Hilde

    2014-01-01

    Given the weak intrinsic reading motivation of many adolescents on the one hand and the importance of this type of motivation for reading competence on the other hand, the aim of the present study is to identify the related role of teacher behavior. To pursue this aim, a secondary analysis was carried out on PISA 2009 data. More particularly, data…

  9. Factors Affecting Intrinsic Motivation among University Students in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Li-Ping Thomas

    1990-01-01

    Studies the effects of the Protestant work ethic and performance feedback on intrinsic motivation in a sample of Taiwanese university students. Divides subjects into three groups according to work ethic measurement: high, intermediate, and low. Suggests students with a low work ethic exert more effort when challenged. (NL)

  10. The Development of Intrinsic Motivation for Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-01

    are said to maintain an impersonal causality orientation and operate through amotivation . In conclusion, it’s the interaction of variables, the... Amotivation External Regulation Introjected Regulation Integrated Regulation Intrinsic Motivation Unintentional action Factors clearly...Control > > > - 12 determination or autonomy in the situation. It runs from amotivation , in which little self- determination is able to be

  11. Human phoneme recognition depending on speech-intrinsic variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Bernd T; Jürgens, Tim; Wesker, Thorsten; Brand, Thomas; Kollmeier, Birger

    2010-11-01

    The influence of different sources of speech-intrinsic variation (speaking rate, effort, style and dialect or accent) on human speech perception was investigated. In listening experiments with 16 listeners, confusions of consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) and vowel-consonant-vowel (VCV) sounds in speech-weighted noise were analyzed. Experiments were based on the OLLO logatome speech database, which was designed for a man-machine comparison. It contains utterances spoken by 50 speakers from five dialect/accent regions and covers several intrinsic variations. By comparing results depending on intrinsic and extrinsic variations (i.e., different levels of masking noise), the degradation induced by variabilities can be expressed in terms of the SNR. The spectral level distance between the respective speech segment and the long-term spectrum of the masking noise was found to be a good predictor for recognition rates, while phoneme confusions were influenced by the distance to spectrally close phonemes. An analysis based on transmitted information of articulatory features showed that voicing and manner of articulation are comparatively robust cues in the presence of intrinsic variations, whereas the coding of place is more degraded. The database and detailed results have been made available for comparisons between human speech recognition (HSR) and automatic speech recognizers (ASR).

  12. Intrinsic factors associated with medial tibial stress syndrome in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intrinsic factors associated with medial tibial stress syndrome in athletes: A large case-control study. ... Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is the most common lower-leg injury in athletes, and is thought to be caused by ... from 32 Countries:.

  13. Element Interactivity and Intrinsic, Extraneous, and Germane Cognitive Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweller, John

    2010-01-01

    In cognitive load theory, element interactivity has been used as the basic, defining mechanism of intrinsic cognitive load for many years. In this article, it is suggested that element interactivity underlies extraneous cognitive load as well. By defining extraneous cognitive load in terms of element interactivity, a distinct relation between…

  14. Intrinsic states in the sdg interacting boson model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshinaga, N.

    1986-01-01

    We give the intrinsic states explicitly in the boson representation in the framework of the sdg interacting boson model. Although they are only valid in the large-N limit, they are useful to estimate various physical quantities in well deformed nuclei. One can compare these results with those predicted in the IBM1 or in the IBM2. (orig.)

  15. An affect misattribution pathway to perceptions of intrinsic reward

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leander, N. Pontus; Kay, Aaron C.; Chartrand, Tanya L.; Payne, B. Keith

    Intrinsic rewards are typically thought to stem from an activity's inherent properties and not from separable rewards one receives from it. Yet, people may not consciously notice or remember all the subtle external rewards that correspond with an activity and may misattribute some directly to the

  16. Improving Students' Intrinsic Motivation in Piano Learning: Expert Teacher Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zijia; Southcott, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Many students learn to play the piano but some lack the motivation to continue learning. Many students learn for extrinsic reasons. This research will explore understandings about student motivation held by expert piano teachers who have developed strategies to improve their students' intrinsic motivation to begin and continue learning. This small…

  17. Intrinsic gettering of nickel impuriy deep levels in silicon substrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intrinsic gettering of nickel impurity in p-type silicon substrate has been investigated. The density of electrically active nickel in intentionally contaminated silicon was determined before and after oxygen precipitation by means of resistivity measurements. These data, coupled with minority carrier lifetime and infrared ...

  18. Intrinsic states in the sdg interacting boson model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshinaga, N.

    1986-08-04

    We give the intrinsic states explicitly in the boson representation in the framework of the sdg interacting boson model. Although they are only valid in the large-N limit, they are useful to estimate various physical quantities in well deformed nuclei. One can compare these results with those predicted in the IBM1 or in the IBM2.

  19. Intrinsic Defects and H Doping in WO3

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jiajie; Vasilopoulou, Maria; Davazoglou, Dimitris; Kennou, Stella; Chroneos, Alexander; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2017-01-01

    WO3 is widely used as industrial catalyst. Intrinsic and/or extrinsic defects can tune the electronic properties and extend applications to gas sensors and optoelectonics. However, H doping is a challenge to WO3, the relevant mechanisms being hardly

  20. Intrinsic Changes: Energy Saving Behaviour among Resident University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Rosemary; Davidson, Penny; Retra, Karen

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study that explored the effectiveness of three intervention strategies in facilitating energy saving behaviour among resident undergraduate university students. In contrast to a dominant practice of motivating with rewards or competition this study sought to appeal to students' intrinsic motivations. An…

  1. Optimizing the stirring strategy for the vibrating intrinsic reverberation chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serra, Ramiro; Serra, Ramiro; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2010-01-01

    This work describes the definition, application and assessment of a factorial plan with the aim of gaining insight on what kind of stirring strategy could work the best in a vibrating intrinsic reverberation chamber. Three different stirring strategies were defined as factors of a factorial

  2. Learning "Number Sense" through Digital Games with Intrinsic Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurillard, Diana

    2016-01-01

    The paper proposes a new interdisciplinary approach to helping low attaining learners in basic mathematics. It reports on the research-informed design and user testing of an adaptive digital game based on constructionist tasks with intrinsic feedback. The approach uses findings from the neuroscience of dyscalculia, cognitive science research on…

  3. Diffusion in Intrinsic and Highly Doped III-V Semiconductors

    CERN Multimedia

    Stolwijk, N

    2002-01-01

    %title\\\\ \\\\Diffusion plays a key role in the fabrication of semiconductor devices. The diffusion of atoms in crystals is mediated by intrinsic point defects. Investigations of the diffusion behaviour of self- and solute atoms on the Ga sublattice of gallium arsenide led to the conclusion that in intrinsic and n-type material charged Ga vacancies are involved in diffusion processes whereas in p-type material diffusion if governed by charged Ga self-interstitials. Concerning the As sublattice of gallium arsenide there is a severe lack of reliable diffusion data. The few available literature data on intrinsic GaAs are not mutually consistent. A systematic study of the doping dependence of diffusion is completely missing. The most basic diffusion process - self-diffusion of As and its temperature and doping dependence - is practically not known. For GaP a similar statement holds.\\\\ \\\\The aim of the present project is to perform a systematic diffusion study of As diffusion in intrinsic and doped GaAs and in GaP. P...

  4. A series of intrinsically chiral gold nanocage structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X J; Hamilton, I P

    2017-07-27

    We present a series of intrinsically chiral gold nanocage structures, Au 9n+6 , which are stable for n ≥ 2. These structures consist of an Au 9n tube which is capped with Au 3 units at each end. Removing the Au 3 caps, we obtain a series of intrinsically chiral gold nanotube structures, Au 9n , which are stable for n ≥ 4. The intrinsic chirality of these structures results from the helicity of the gold strands which form the tube and not because an individual Au atom is a chiral center. The symmetry of these structures is C 3 and substructures of gold hexagons with a gold atom in the middle are particularly prominent. We focus on the properties of Au 42 (C 3 ) and Au 105 (C 3 ) which are the two smallest gold nanocage structures to be completely tiled by these Au 7 "golden-eye" substructures. Our main focus is on Au 42 (C 3 ) since gold clusters in the 40-50 atom regime are currently being investigated in gas phase experiments. We show that the intrinsically chiral Au 42 cage structure is energetically comparable with previously reported achiral cage and compact Au 42 structures. Cage structures are of particular interest because species can be encapsulated (and stabilized) inside the cage and we provide strong evidence that Au 6 @Au 42 (C 3 ) is the global minimum Au 48 structure. The intrinsically chiral gold nanocage structures, which exhibit a range of size-related properties, have potential applications in chiral catalysis and as components in nanostructured devices.

  5. Distinct molecular signatures of mild extrinsic and intrinsic atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Britta C; Litman, Thomas; Hald, Andreas; Norsgaard, Hanne; Lovato, Paola; Dyring-Andersen, Beatrice; Skov, Lone; Thestrup-Pedersen, Kristian; Skov, Søren; Skak, Kresten; Poulsen, Lars K

    2016-06-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common inflammatory skin disease with underlying defects in epidermal function and immune responses. In this study, we used microarray analysis to investigate differences in gene expression in lesional skin from patients with mild extrinsic or intrinsic AD compared to skin from healthy controls and from lesional psoriasis skin. The primary aim was to identify differentially expressed genes involved in skin barrier formation and inflammation, and to compare our results with those reported for patients with moderate and severe AD. In contrast to severe AD, expression of the majority of genes associated with skin barrier formation was unchanged or upregulated in patients with mild AD compared to normal healthy skin. Among these, no significant differences in the expression of filaggrin (FLG) and loricrin at both mRNA and protein level were found in lesional skin from patients with mild AD, despite the presence of heterozygous FLG mutations in the majority of patients with mild extrinsic AD. Several inflammation-associated genes such as S100A9, MMP12, CXCL10 and CCL18 were highly expressed in lesional skin from patients with mild psoriasis and were also increased in patients with mild extrinsic and intrinsic AD similar to previous reports for severe AD. Interestingly, expression of genes involved in inflammatory responses in intrinsic AD resembled that of psoriasis more than that of extrinsic AD. Overall, differences in expression of inflammation-associated genes found among patients with mild intrinsic and extrinsic AD correlated with previous findings for patients with severe intrinsic and extrinsic AD. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Progranulin expression in breast cancer with different intrinsic subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li Qin; Min, Li Shan; Jiang, Qun; Ping, Jin Liang; Li, Jing; Dai, Li Cheng

    2012-04-15

    Progranulin is a newly discovered 88-kDa glycoprotein originally purified from the highly tumorigenic mouse teratoma-derived cell line PC. We found that high progranulin expression was associated with higher breast carcinoma angiogenesis, reflected by increased vascular endothelial growth factor expression and higher microvessel density. However, no immunohistochemical evidence currently exists to correlate progranulin expression with clinicopathological features in different intrinsic subtypes of breast carcinoma biopsies. The aim of this study was to investigate the progranulin expression profiles in the intrinsic subtypes of breast carcinomas and their relevance to histopathological and clinicopathological features. Tissue blocks containing 264 cases of breast carcinomas from 2006 to 2009 were classified as different intrinsic subtypes. Tissues of four intrinsic subtypes were immunostained for progranulin, vascular endothelial growth factor and CD105. Their relevance to histopathological and clinicopathological features was also analyzed. Twenty tissue samples from breast fibroadenomas were included in this study. Progranulin expression showed no significant differences in different intrinsic subtypes, although an increasing tendency could be found in the triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subgroup (χ(2)=5.00, df=3, p=0.17). However, differences were significant when pathologically node metastasis-positive (pN(+)) TNBC were excluded (χ(2)=17.84, df=3, pprogranulin in pathologically node metastasis-negative (pN(-)) TNBC. It was noted that the EGFR expression level of the pN(-) TNBC subtype was significantly higher in cases with strong progranulin expression than in cases with weak progranulin expression (χ(2)=11.26, df=1, pprogranulin in pN(-) TNBC suggests that progranulin is a promising new target for pN(-) TNBC treatment. Strong expression of progranulin correlates with positive EGFR expression in the pN(-) TNBC subtype. The close relationship between

  7. Intrinsic kinetic parameters of substrate utilization by immobilized anaerobic sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaiat, M; Vieira, L G; Foresti, E

    1997-01-20

    This article presents a method for evaluating the intrinsic kinetic parameters of the specific substrate utilization rate (r) equation and discusses the results obtained for anaerobic sludge-bed samples taken from a horizontal-flow anaerobic immobilized sludge (HAIS) reactor. This method utilizes a differential reactor filled with polyurethane foam matrices containing immobilized anaerobic sludge which is subjected to a range of feeding substrate flow rates. The range of liquid superficial velocities thus obtained are used for generating data of observed specific substrate utilization rates (r(obs)) under a diversity of external mass transfer resistance conditions. The r(obs) curves are then adjusted to permit their extrapolation for the condition of no external mass transfer resistance, and the values determined are used as a test for the condition of absence of limitation of internal mass transfer. The intrinsic parameters r(max), the maximum specific substrate utilization rate, and K(s), the half-velocity coefficient, are evaluated from the r values under no external mass transfer resistance and no internal mass transfer limitation. The application of such a method for anaerobic sludge immobilized in polyurethane foam particles treating a glucose substrate at 30 degrees C resulted in intrinsic r(max) and K(s), respectively, of 0.330 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD) . mg(-1) volatile suspended solids (VSS) . h(-1) and 72 mg COD . L(-1). In comparison with the values found in the literature, intrinsic r(max) is significantly high and intrinsic K(s) is relatively low. (c) 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  8. Intrinsic motivation and learning in a schizophrenia spectrum sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jimmy; Medalia, Alice

    2010-05-01

    A motivation is a telling hallmark of negative symptomatology in schizophrenia, and it impacts nearly every facet of behavior, including inclination to attempt the difficult cognitive tasks involved in cognitive remediation therapy. Experiences of external reward, reinforcement, and hedonic anticipatory enjoyment are diminished in psychosis, so therapeutics which instead target intrinsic motivation for cognitive tasks may enhance task engagement, and subsequently, remediation outcome. We examined whether outpatients could attain benefits from an intrinsically motivating instructional approach which (a) presents learning materials in a meaningful game-like context, (b) personalizes elements of the learning materials into themes of high interest value, and (c) offers choices so patients can increase their control over the learning process. We directly compared one learning method that incorporated the motivational paradigm into an arithmetic learning program against another method that carefully manipulated out the motivational variables in the same learning program. Fifty-seven subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were randomly assigned to one of the two learning programs for 10 thirty-minute sessions while an intent-to-treat convenience subsample (n=15) was used to account for practice effect. Outcome measures were arithmetic learning, attention, motivation, self competency, and symptom severity. Results showed the motivational group (a) acquired more arithmetic skill, (b) possessed greater intrinsic motivation for the task, (c) reported greater feelings of self competency post-treatment, and (d) demonstrated better post-test attention. Interestingly, baseline perception of self competency was a significant predictor of post-test arithmetic scores. Results demonstrated that incorporating intrinsically motivating instructional techniques into a difficult cognitive task promoted greater learning of the material, higher levels of intrinsic

  9. Surface Water & Surface Drainage

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains boundaries for all surface water and surface drainage for the state of New Mexico. It is in a vector digital data structure digitized from a...

  10. The Influence of Pressure on the Intrinsic Dissolution Rate of Amorphous Indomethacin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korbinian Löbmann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available New drug candidates increasingly tend to be poorly water soluble. One approach to increase their solubility is to convert the crystalline form of a drug into the amorphous form. Intrinsic dissolution testing is an efficient standard method to determine the intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR of a drug and to test the potential dissolution advantage of the amorphous form. However, neither the United States Pharmacopeia (USP nor the European Pharmacopeia (Ph.Eur state specific limitations for the compression pressure in order to obtain compacts for the IDR determination. In this study, the influence of different compression pressures on the IDR was determined from powder compacts of amorphous (ball-milling indomethacin (IND, a glass solution of IND and poly(vinylpyrrolidone (PVP and crystalline IND. Solid state properties were analyzed with X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD and the final compacts were visually observed to study the effects of compaction pressure on their surface properties. It was found that there is no significant correlation between IDR and compression pressure for crystalline IND and IND–PVP. This was in line with the observation of similar surface properties of the compacts. However, compression pressure had an impact on the IDR of pure amorphous IND compacts. Above a critical compression pressure, amorphous particles sintered to form a single compact with dissolution properties similar to quench-cooled disc and crystalline IND compacts. In such a case, the apparent dissolution advantage of the amorphous form might be underestimated. It is thus suggested that for a reasonable interpretation of the IDR, surface properties of the different analyzed samples should be investigated and for amorphous samples the IDR should be measured also as a function of the compression pressure used to prepare the solid sample for IDR testing.

  11. Cryogenic surface ion traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedermayr, M.

    2015-01-01

    Microfabricated surface traps are a promising architecture to realize a scalable quantum computer based on trapped ions. In principle, hundreds or thousands of surface traps can be located on a single substrate in order to provide large arrays of interacting ions. To this end, trap designs and fabrication methods are required that provide scalable, stable and reproducible ion traps. This work presents a novel surface-trap design developed for cryogenic applications. Intrinsic silicon is used as the substrate material of the traps. The well-developed microfabrication and structuring methods of silicon are utilized to create simple and reproducible traps. The traps were tested and characterized in a cryogenic setup. Ions could be trapped and their life time and motional heating were investigated. Long ion lifetimes of several hours were observed and the measured heating rates were reproducibly low at around 1 phonon per second at a trap frequency of 1 MHz. (author) [de

  12. Intrinsic periodicity: the forgotten lesson of quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolce, Donatello

    2013-01-01

    Wave-particle duality, together with the concept of elementary particles, was introduced by de Broglie in terms of intrinsically periodic phenomena. However, after nearly 90 years, the physical origin of such undulatory mechanics remains unrevealed. We propose a natural realization of the de Broglie periodic phenomenon in terms of harmonic vibrational modes associated to space-time periodicities. In this way we find that, similarly to a vibrating string or a particle in a box, the intrinsic recurrence imposed as a constraint to elementary particles represents a fully consistent quantization condition. The resulting cyclic dynamics formally match ordinary relativistic Quantum Mechanics in both the canonical and Feynman formulations. Interactions are introduced in a geometrodynamical way, similarly to general relativity, by simply considering that variations of kinematical state can be equivalently described in terms of modulations of space-time recurrences, as known from undulatory mechanics. We present this novel quantization prescription from an historical prospective.

  13. Membrane dynamics in the intrinsic light-front coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragone, C.; Restuccia, A.; Torrealba, R.

    1991-01-01

    The authors study the dynamics of the membrane, using internal light-front (LF) coordinates. The set of constraints, although equivalent to the standard one, is different. The intrinsic LF gauge is defined. Four additional, alternative gauge-fixing conditions are analyzed. Two of them polynomialize the system, while the other two are convenient for studying the initial-value problem. In particular, one of them is also extrinsically (i.e., in the ambient space) light-front. In this gauge, the system is shown to be consistently reduced to attain a canonical form in terms of pure transverse variables. Two constraints on these variables still hold, clearly showing the presence, as they must, of D - 3 degrees of freedom. Finally, the initial-value problem in this intrinsic-extrinsic. LF gauge is solved. Although the paper is based on the first-order action, the LF-Hamiltonian approach is discussed too

  14. Intrinsic luminescence of un-doped borate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindrat, I.I.; Padlyak, B.V.; Drzewiecki, A.

    2017-01-01

    The nature of intrinsic luminescence in the un-doped borate glasses of different compositions has been investigated using spectroscopic methods including photoluminescence, optical absorption, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL). The un-doped borate glasses with Li 2 B 4 O 7 , LiKB 4 O 7 , CaB 4 O 7 , and LiCaBO 3 basic compositions were obtained from corresponding polycrystalline compounds in the air with usage the standard technology of glasses. Three different broad emission bands in the UV–Visible spectral range have been observed under different wavelength of photoexcitation. The luminescence kinetics of the observed emission bands have been registered and analysed. The nature and possible mechanisms of the intrinsic luminescence in the investigated borate glasses are considered and discussed based on the obtained results and referenced data.

  15. Parametric resonance of intrinsic localized modes in coupled cantilever arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Masayuki, E-mail: kimura.masayuki.8c@kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Electrical Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Matsushita, Yasuo [Advanced Mathematical Institute, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sughimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Hikihara, Takashi [Department of Electrical Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)

    2016-08-19

    In this study, the parametric resonances of pinned intrinsic localized modes (ILMs) were investigated by computing the unstable regions in parameter space consisting of parametric excitation amplitude and frequency. In the unstable regions, the pinned ILMs were observed to lose stability and begin to fluctuate. A nonlinear Klein–Gordon, Fermi–Pasta–Ulam-like, and mixed lattices were investigated. The pinned ILMs, particularly in the mixed lattice, were destabilized by parametric resonances, which were determined by comparing the shapes of the unstable regions with those in the Mathieu differential equation. In addition, traveling ILMs could be generated by parametric excitation. - Highlights: • Destabilization of intrinsic localized modes (ILMs) by parametric excitation is investigated for FPU, NKG, and mixed lattices. • Frequency and amplitude of parametric excitation is determined based on characteristic multipliers of ILMs. • Unstable regions for the mixed lattice case show very similar shape to those of the Mathieu equation. • ILMs become unstable by causing parametric resonance.

  16. Parametric resonance of intrinsic localized modes in coupled cantilever arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Masayuki; Matsushita, Yasuo; Hikihara, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the parametric resonances of pinned intrinsic localized modes (ILMs) were investigated by computing the unstable regions in parameter space consisting of parametric excitation amplitude and frequency. In the unstable regions, the pinned ILMs were observed to lose stability and begin to fluctuate. A nonlinear Klein–Gordon, Fermi–Pasta–Ulam-like, and mixed lattices were investigated. The pinned ILMs, particularly in the mixed lattice, were destabilized by parametric resonances, which were determined by comparing the shapes of the unstable regions with those in the Mathieu differential equation. In addition, traveling ILMs could be generated by parametric excitation. - Highlights: • Destabilization of intrinsic localized modes (ILMs) by parametric excitation is investigated for FPU, NKG, and mixed lattices. • Frequency and amplitude of parametric excitation is determined based on characteristic multipliers of ILMs. • Unstable regions for the mixed lattice case show very similar shape to those of the Mathieu equation. • ILMs become unstable by causing parametric resonance.

  17. Intrinsic Fluorescence of PAMAM Dendrimers—Quenching Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata Konopka

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Intrinsic, non-traditional fluorescence of polyamidoamine (PAMAM dendrimers that do not possess classical fluorophores has been attracting considerable interest for the last decade. Many hypotheses regarding the source of the fluorescence have appeared, but some of them are still disputable. In order to shed new light on the nature of the phenomenon, we applied quenchers that are normally used to study intrinsic fluorescence of proteins (i.e., KI, CsCl, and acrylamide. KI and acrylamide efficiently quenched steady state fluorescence of PAMAM G2, PAMAM G3, and PAMAM G4 dendrimers. Stern-Volmer plots exhibited a downward curvature that has been elucidated by heterogenous emission. We assume that there are two distinct fluorescent moieties in the dendrimer structure that are characterized by different accessibility to the quenchers.

  18. Intrinsic pinning in superconductors with extremely small coherence lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schimmele, L.; Kronmueller, H.; Teichler, H.

    1988-01-01

    By means of a Ginsburg-Landau-type theory which takes into account the discrete lattice structure the variation of the energy ('Peierls potential') of an isolated flux line is calculated when shifted relatively to the crystal lattice. In particular, a primitive cubic lattice is considered with a straight flux line, aligned parallel to a cubic axis. The resulting Peierls potential may lead to intrinsic pinning if the coherence length is smaller than about two nearest neighbour distances. The coherence lengths at low temperatures determined for the recently discovered high T c superconductors of the YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 class come very close to this value so that intrinsic pinning might possibly be relevant for these superconductors. (author)

  19. The detrimental effects of extrinsic reinforcement on "Intrinsic motivation".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, A M

    1989-01-01

    Extrinsic consequences have been criticized on the grounds that they decrease intrinsic motivation or internally initiated behavior. Two popular rationales for this criticism, Lepper's overjustification hypothesis (1981) and Deci's motivational theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985), are reviewed and the criticism is then redefined behaviorally. "Intrinsically controlled" behavior is defined as behavior maintained by response-produced reinforcers, and the question concerning extrinsic consequences is thus restated as follows: When behavior is maintained by response-produced stimuli, does extrinsic reinforcement decrease the reinforcing value of those stimuli? The empirical support for this detrimental effect is summarized briefly, and several possible explanations for the phenomenon are offered. Research results that reflect on the effect's generality and social significance are discussed next, with the conclusion that the effect is transient and not likely to occur at all if extrinsic rewards are reinforcing, noncompetitive, based on reasonable performance standards, and delivered repetitively.

  20. Quarterly intrinsic disorder digest (January-February-March, 2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeForte, Shelly; Reddy, Krishna D; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2016-01-01

    This is the 5 th issue of the Digested Disorder series that represents a reader's digest of the scientific literature on intrinsically disordered proteins. We continue to use only 2 criteria for inclusion of a paper to this digest: The publication date (a paper should be published within the covered time frame) and the topic (a paper should be dedicated to any aspect of protein intrinsic disorder). The current digest issue covers papers published during the first quarter of 2014; i.e., during the period of January, February, and March of 2014. Similar to previous issues, the papers are grouped hierarchically by topics they cover, and for each of the included papers a short description is given on its major findings.

  1. Intrinsic brightness temperatures of blazar jets at 15 GHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hovatta Talvikki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a new Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to deconvolve light curves of blazars into individual flares, including proper estimation of the fit errors. We use the method to fit 15GHzlight curves obtained within the OVRO 40-m blazar monitoring program where a large number of AGN have been monitored since 2008 in support of the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope mission. The time scales obtained from the fitted models are used to calculate the variability brightness temperature of the sources. Additionally, we have calculated brightness temperatures of a sample of these objects using Very Long Baseline Array data from the MOJAVE survey. Combining these two data sets enables us to study the intrinsic brightness temperature distribution in these blazars at 15 GHz. Our preliminary results indicate that the mean intrinsic brightness temperature in a sample of 14 sources is near the equipartition brightness temperature of ~ 1011K.

  2. Folding propensity of intrinsically disordered proteins by osmotic stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansouri, Amanda L.; Grese, Laura N.; Rowe, Erica L.

    2016-01-01

    Proteins imparted with intrinsic disorder conduct a range of essential cellular functions. To better understand the folding and hydration properties of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs), we used osmotic stress to induce conformational changes in nuclear co-activator binding domain (NCBD) and activator for thyroid hormone and retinoid receptor (ACTR). Osmotic stress was applied by the addition of small and polymeric osmolytes, where we discovered that water contributions to NCBD folding always exceeded those for ACTR. Both NCBD and ACTR were found to gain a-helical structure with increasing osmotic stress, consistent with their folding upon NCBD/ACTR complex formation. Using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), we further characterized NCBD structural changes with the osmolyte ethylene glycol. Here a large reduction in overall size initially occurred before substantial secondary structural change. In conclusion, by focusing on folding propensity, and linked hydration changes, we uncover new insights that may be important for how IDP folding contributes to binding.

  3. Does Intrinsic Habit Formation Actually Resolve the Equity Premium Puzzle?

    OpenAIRE

    David A. Chapman

    2002-01-01

    Constantinides (1990) describes a simple model of intrinsic habit formation that appears to resolve the "equity premium puzzle" of Mehra and Prescott (1985). This finding is particularly important, since it has motivated a broader consideration of the implications of habit formation preferences in dynamic equilibrium models. However, consumption growth actually behaves very differently pre- and post-1948, and the explanatory power of the habit formation model is driven by the pre-1948 data. U...

  4. Nursing Students' Intrinsic Motivation and Performance on the Licensure Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, Michele G

    Unsuccessful attempts at licensure adversely affect graduates, prelicensure nursing education programs, health care agencies, and ultimately, patient safety. The purpose of this quantitative, correlational study was to investigate the relationship between nursing students' intrinsic motivation and performance on the licensure examination. Nursing students responded to 12 questions related to reasons for learning as indicators of motivation type. Results indicated no statistically significant correlations between variables.

  5. Pilgrimage: Intrinsic Motivation and Active Behavior in the Eldery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eichberg Henning

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Can intrinsic religious motivation have relevant effects on the motor activity of older people? How are processions and pilgrimages related to the dominant imagination of old age as a period of fatigue and gray hair, suffering and loneliness, retirement and rest – and of waiting: waiting for a call from a loved one, waiting for the visit of a good companion, or, finally, expecting the end of life?

  6. The Intrinsic Far-infrared Continua of Type-1 Quasars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyu, Jianwei; Rieke, George H., E-mail: jianwei@email.arizona.edu [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The range of currently proposed active galactic nucleus (AGN) far-infrared templates results in uncertainties in retrieving host galaxy information from infrared observations and also undermines constraints on the outer part of the AGN torus. We discuss how to test and reconcile these templates. Physically, the fraction of the intrinsic AGN IR-processed luminosity compared with that from the central engine should be consistent with the dust-covering factor. In addition, besides reproducing the composite spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of quasars, a correct AGN IR template combined with an accurate library of star-forming galaxy templates should be able to reproduce the IR properties of the host galaxies, such as the luminosity-dependent SED shapes and aromatic feature strengths. We develop tests based on these expected behaviors and find that the shape of the AGN intrinsic far-IR emission drops off rapidly starting at ∼20 μ m and can be matched by an Elvis et al.-like template with a minor modification. Despite the variations in the near- to mid-IR bands, AGNs in quasars and Seyfert galaxies have remarkably similar intrinsic far-IR SEDs at λ ∼ 20–100 μ m, suggesting a similar emission character of the outermost region of the circumnuclear torus. The variations of the intrinsic AGN IR SEDs among the type-1 quasar population can be explained by the changing relative strengths of four major dust components with similar characteristic temperatures, and there is evidence for compact AGN-heated dusty structures at sub-kiloparsec scales in the far-IR.

  7. Environmental applications for an intrinsic germanium well detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegnar, P.; Eldridge, J.S.; Teasley, N.A.; Oakes, T.W.

    1984-01-01

    The overall performance of an intrinsic germanium well detector for 125 I measurements was investigated in a program of environmental surveillance. Concentrations of 125 I and 131 I were determined in thyroids of road-killed deer showing the highest activities of 125 I in the animals from the near vicinity of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This demonstrates the utility of road-killed deer as a bioindicator for radioiodine around nuclear facilities

  8. Environmental applications for an intrinsic germanium well detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegnar, P.; Eldridge, J.S.; Teasley, N.A.; Oakes, T.W.

    1984-01-01

    The overall performance of an intrinsic germanium well detector for 125 I measurements was investigated in a program of environmental surveillance. Concentrations of 125 I and 131 I were determined in thyroids of road-killed deer showing the highest activities of 125 I in the animals from the near vicinity of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This demonstrates the utility of road-killed deer as a bionindicator for radioiodine around nuclear facilities. 6 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Environmental applications for an intrinsic germanium well detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegnar, P.; Eldridge, J.S.; Teasley, N.A.; Oakes, T.W.

    1983-01-01

    The overall performance of an intrinsic germanium well detector for 125 I measurements was investigated in a program of environmental surveillance. Concentrations of 125 I and 131 I were determined in thyroids of road-killed deer showing the highest activities of 125 I in the animals from the near vicinity of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This demonstrates the utility of road-killed deer as a bioindicator for radioiodine around nuclear facilities. 6 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Dynamics of intrinsic electrophysiological properties in spinal cord neurones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Russo, R E; Hounsgaard, J

    1999-01-01

    The spinal cord is engaged in a wide variety of functions including generation of motor acts, coding of sensory information and autonomic control. The intrinsic electrophysiological properties of spinal neurones represent a fundamental building block of the spinal circuits executing these tasks. ....... Specialised, cell specific electrophysiological phenotypes gradually differentiate during development and are continuously adjusted in the adult animal by metabotropic synaptic interactions and activity-dependent plasticity to meet a broad range of functional demands....

  11. Intrinsic uncoupling of mitochondrial proton pumps. 2. Modeling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrobon, D; Zoratti, M; Azzone, G F; Caplan, S R

    1986-02-25

    The thermodynamic and kinetic properties associated with intrinsic uncoupling in a six-state model of a redox proton pump have been studied by computing the flow-force relations for different degrees of coupling. Analysis of these relations shows the regulatory influence of the thermodynamic forces on the extent and relative contributions of redox slip and proton slip. Inhibition has been introduced into the model in two different ways, corresponding to possible modes of action of experimental inhibitors. Experiments relating the rate of electron transfer to delta microH at static head upon progressive inhibition of the pumps have been simulated considering (1) the limiting case that the nonzero rate of electron transfer at static head is only due to intrinsic uncoupling (no leaks) and (2) the experimentally observed case that about 30% of the nonzero rate of electron transfer at static head is due to a constant proton leakage conductance in parallel with the pumps, the rest being due to intrinsic uncoupling. The same simulations have been performed for experiments in which the rate of electron transfer is varied by varying the substrate concentration rather than by using an inhibitor. The corresponding experimental results obtained by measuring delta microH and the rate of electron transfer at different succinate concentrations in rat liver mitochondria are presented. Comparison between simulated behavior and experimental results leads to the general conclusion that the typical relationship between rate of electron transfer and delta microH found in mitochondria at static head could certainly be a manifestation of some degree of intrinsic uncoupling in the redox proton pumps.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Exploring the Link between Intrinsic Motivation and Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    to and motivation for quality. " Effective human relations is basic to quality control," Fiegenbaum (1991) says. A major effect of this activity is... overjustification (explained later in this chapter). Deming "fervently believes in the intrinsic motivation of mankind," wrote Gabor (1990, p. 13). "All...see the congruence between Deming’s philosophy and overjustification theory (Deci, 1975). This is the idea that extrinsic motivators can be emphasized

  13. Corruption, Intrinsic Motivation and the Love of Praise

    OpenAIRE

    Dhillon, Amrita; Nicolo, Antonio; Xu, Fei

    2017-01-01

    Do higher wages prevent corruption (bribe taking)? We investigate a setting where individuals who apply for public sector jobs are motivated not just by monetary incentivesbut also by intrinsic motivation and concern for the collective reputation of their profession. We show that an increase in monetary compensation may cause reputation concerned individuals to be more prone to participate in corruption due to an "overjustification" effect. The overall effect of monetaryincentives on fighting...

  14. Observation of narrowband intrinsic spectra of Brillouin dynamic gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kwang Yong; Yoon, Hyuk Jin

    2010-09-01

    We experimentally demonstrate that the reflection spectrum of a Brillouin dynamic grating in a polarization-maintaining fiber can be much narrower than the intrinsic linewidth of the stimulated Brillouin scattering, matching well with the theory of a fiber Bragg grating in terms of the linewidth and the reflectivity. A 3 dB bandwidth as narrow as 10.5 MHz is observed with the Brillouin dynamic grating generated in a 9 m uniform fiber.

  15. Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cell function in relation to age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, Kristina; Sander, Birgit; Lund-Andersen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    The activity of melanopsin containing intrinsically photosensitive ganglion retinal cells (ipRGC) can be assessed by a means of pupil responses to bright blue (appr.480 nm) light. Due to age related factors in the eye, particularly, structural changes of the lens, less light reaches retina. The aim...... of this study was to examine how age and in vivo measured lens transmission of blue light might affect pupil light responses, in particular, mediated by the ipRGC....

  16. Sequence periodicity in nucleosomal DNA and intrinsic curvature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, T Murlidharan

    2010-05-17

    Most eukaryotic DNA contained in the nucleus is packaged by wrapping DNA around histone octamers. Histones are ubiquitous and bind most regions of chromosomal DNA. In order to achieve smooth wrapping of the DNA around the histone octamer, the DNA duplex should be able to deform and should possess intrinsic curvature. The deformability of DNA is a result of the non-parallelness of base pair stacks. The stacking interaction between base pairs is sequence dependent. The higher the stacking energy the more rigid the DNA helix, thus it is natural to expect that sequences that are involved in wrapping around the histone octamer should be unstacked and possess intrinsic curvature. Intrinsic curvature has been shown to be dictated by the periodic recurrence of certain dinucleotides. Several genome-wide studies directed towards mapping of nucleosome positions have revealed periodicity associated with certain stretches of sequences. In the current study, these sequences have been analyzed with a view to understand their sequence-dependent structures. Higher order DNA structures and the distribution of molecular bend loci associated with 146 base nucleosome core DNA sequence from C. elegans and chicken have been analyzed using the theoretical model for DNA curvature. The curvature dispersion calculated by cyclically permuting the sequences revealed that the molecular bend loci were delocalized throughout the nucleosome core region and had varying degrees of intrinsic curvature. The higher order structures associated with nucleosomes of C.elegans and chicken calculated from the sequences revealed heterogeneity with respect to the deviation of the DNA axis. The results points to the possibility of context dependent curvature of varying degrees to be associated with nucleosomal DNA.

  17. The Motivational Climate and Intrinsic Motivation in the Rehabilitation Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman-Majewski, Rachel E; Weiss, Windee M

    2018-02-06

    The motivational climate created by the athletic trainer in rehabilitation may be critical in influencing athletes' intrinsic motivation and other psychosocial outcomes in the rehabilitation and the recovery process. The purpose of this study was to examine intercollegiate athletes' perceptions of the motivational climate in the rehabilitation setting. Specifically, examining if perceptions of the motivational climate can predict athletes' levels of intrinsic motivation with rehabilitation as well as the relationship between perceptions of the motivational climate and athlete demographics (gender, starter status, athletic trainer gender, etc). Cross-sectional, descriptive research. College sport team and athletic training center. NCAA Division II intercollegiate athletes from one institution (n = 187; 125 male, 62 female). Paper-based survey measuring: mastery and performance perceptions of the motivational climate in rehabilitation, athletes' goal orientation in sport, athletes' levels of motivation in rehabilitation. Perceptions of a performance climate was positively related to intrinsic motivation effort-improvement (effect size=25.34%). Perceptions of a mastery climate were positively related to interest-enjoyment and perceived competence and negatively related to tension-pressure (effect size=39.03%). In general, female athletes, as well as athletes with a female athletic trainer, had significantly higher perceptions of mastery motivational climate effort-improvement compared to male athletes and athletes with male athletic trainers. While male athletes and athletes with male athletic trainers had higher perceptions of intra-team member rivalry in rehabilitation. The athlete's gender and goal orientation, as well as the gender of the athletic trainer creating the motivational climate, can influence whether the environment is perceived as more mastery or performance. The recovering athletes' perceptions of the climate in rehabilitation can, in turn, affect

  18. Incremental Learning of Skill Collections based on Intrinsic Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hendrik Metzen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Life-long learning of reusable, versatile skills is a key prerequisite forembodied agents that act in a complex, dynamic environment and are faced withdifferent tasks over their lifetime. We address the question of how an agentcan learn useful skills efficiently during a developmental period,i.e., when no task is imposed on him and no external reward signal is provided.Learning of skills in a developmental period needs to be incremental andself-motivated. We propose a new incremental, task-independent skill discoveryapproach that is suited for continuous domains. Furthermore, the agent learnsspecific skills based on intrinsic motivation mechanisms thatdetermine on which skills learning is focused at a given point in time. Weevaluate the approach in a reinforcement learning setup in two continuousdomains with complex dynamics. We show that an intrinsically motivated, skilllearning agent outperforms an agent which learns task solutions from scratch.Furthermore, we compare different intrinsic motivation mechanisms and howefficiently they make use of the agent's developmental period.

  19. Intrinsic and extrinsic geometries of a tidally deformed black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega, Ian; Poisson, Eric; Massey, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    A description of the event horizon of a perturbed Schwarzschild black hole is provided in terms of the intrinsic and extrinsic geometries of the null hypersurface. This description relies on a Gauss-Codazzi theory of null hypersurfaces embedded in spacetime, which extends the standard theory of spacelike and timelike hypersurfaces involving the first and second fundamental forms. We show that the intrinsic geometry of the event horizon is invariant under a reparameterization of the null generators, and that the extrinsic geometry depends on the parameterization. Stated differently, we show that while the extrinsic geometry depends on the choice of gauge, the intrinsic geometry is gauge invariant. We apply the formalism to solutions to the vacuum field equations that describe a tidally deformed black hole. In a first instance, we consider a slowly varying, quadrupolar tidal field imposed on the black hole, and in a second instance, we examine the tide raised during a close parabolic encounter between the black hole and a small orbiting body.

  20. Extrinsic versus intrinsic hand muscle dominance in finger flexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sukaini, A; Singh, H P; Dias, J J

    2016-05-01

    This study aims to identify the patterns of dominance of extrinsic or intrinsic muscles in finger flexion during initiation of finger curl and mid-finger flexion. We recorded 82 hands of healthy individuals (18-74 years) while flexing their fingers and tracked the finger joint angles of the little finger using video motion tracking. A total of 57 hands (69.5%) were classified as extrinsic dominant, where the finger flexion was initiated and maintained at proximal interphalangeal and distal interphalangeal joints. A total of 25 (30.5%) were classified as intrinsic dominant, where the finger flexion was initiated and maintained at the metacarpophalangeal joint. The distribution of age, sex, dominance, handedness and body mass index was similar in the two groups. This knowledge may allow clinicians to develop more efficient rehabilitation regimes, since intrinsic dominant individuals would not initiate extrinsic muscle contraction till later in finger flexion, and might therefore be allowed limited early active motion. For extrinsic dominant individuals, by contrast, initial contraction of extrinsic muscles would place increased stress on the tendon repair site if early motion were permitted. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Iron-59 absorption from soy hulls: intrinsic vs extrinsic labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lykken, G.I.; Mahalko, J.R.; Nielsen, E.J.; Dintzis, F.R.

    1986-01-01

    As part of an evaluation of the validity of the extrinsic labeling technique for measuring iron absorption, absorption from soy hulls extrinsically labeled ( 59 Fe added to bread dough) was compared with that from soy hulls intrinsically labeled ( 59 Fe incorporated into the soy plant during growth). Century soybeans were grown in a greenhouse. After pods had formed and were filling, each plant was stem injected twice, at 3 day intervals, with 22 μCi 59 Fe as FeCl 2 in 25 μl of 0.5 M HCl solution. After the plants had senesced, the soybeans were harvested, dried, shelled and the hulls removed. Standard meals containing 3.5 mg Fe/meal and up to 0.06 μCi 59 Fe in a soy hull bun were fed on 2 consecutive days to free-living volunteers in a crossover design. Absorption of 59 Fe was greater from intrinsically labeled soy hulls than from extrinsically labeled soy hulls, 20 +/- 20% vs 15 +/- 11% (n=14, p > 0.05 by paired t-test). Apparent absorption ranged from 1.3% to 77% from intrinsically labeled soy hulls and .5% to 29% from extrinsically labeled soy hulls with the highest absorption occurring in persons with low serum ferritin (S.F. < 8 ng/ml). These findings provide additional evidence that the extrinsic labeling method is a valid measure of iron bioavailability to humans

  2. In search of the neural circuits of intrinsic motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic Kaplan

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Children seem to acquire new know-how in a continuous and open-ended manner. In this paper, we hypothesize that an intrinsic motivation to progress in learning is at the origins of the remarkable structure of children's developmental trajectories. In this view, children engage in exploratory and playful activities for their own sake, not as steps toward other extrinsic goals. The central hypothesis of this paper is that intrinsically motivating activities correspond to expected decrease in prediction error. This motivation system pushes the infant to avoid both predictable and unpredictable situations in order to focus on the ones that are expected to maximize progress in learning. Based on a computational model and a series of robotic experiments, we show how this principle can lead to organized sequences of behavior of increasing complexity characteristic of several behavioral and developmental patterns observed in humans. We then discuss the putative circuitry underlying such an intrinsic motivation system in the brain and formulate two novel hypotheses. The first one is that tonic dopamine acts as a learning progress signal. The second is that this progress signal is directly computed through a hierarchy of microcortical circuits that act both as prediction and metaprediction systems.

  3. Intrinsic frame transport for a model of nematic liquid crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzini, S.; Rull, L. F.; Ciccotti, G.; Paolini, G. V.

    1997-02-01

    We present a computer simulation study of the dynamical properties of a nematic liquid crystal model. The diffusional motion of the nematic director is taken into account in our calculations in order to give a proper estimate of the transport coefficients. Differently from other groups we do not attempt to stabilize the director through rigid constraints or applied external fields. We instead define an intrinsic frame which moves along with the director at each step of the simulation. The transport coefficients computed in the intrinsic frame are then compared against the ones calculated in the fixed laboratory frame, to show the inadequacy of the latter for systems with less than 500 molecules. Using this general scheme on the Gay-Berne liquid crystal model, we evidence the natural motion of the director and attempt to quantify its intrinsic time scale and size dependence. Through extended simulations of systems of different size we calculate the diffusion and viscosity coefficients of this model and compare our results with values previously obtained with fixed director.

  4. Intrinsic ethics regarding integrated assessment models for climate management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schienke, Erich W; Baum, Seth D; Tuana, Nancy; Davis, Kenneth J; Keller, Klaus

    2011-09-01

    In this essay we develop and argue for the adoption of a more comprehensive model of research ethics than is included within current conceptions of responsible conduct of research (RCR). We argue that our model, which we label the ethical dimensions of scientific research (EDSR), is a more comprehensive approach to encouraging ethically responsible scientific research compared to the currently typically adopted approach in RCR training. This essay focuses on developing a pedagogical approach that enables scientists to better understand and appreciate one important component of this model, what we call intrinsic ethics. Intrinsic ethical issues arise when values and ethical assumptions are embedded within scientific findings and analytical methods. Through a close examination of a case study and its application in teaching, namely, evaluation of climate change integrated assessment models, this paper develops a method and case for including intrinsic ethics within research ethics training to provide scientists with a comprehensive understanding and appreciation of the critical role of values and ethical choices in the production of research outcomes.

  5. Role of "intrinsic charm" in semileptonic B-meson decays

    CERN Document Server

    Breidenbach, C; Mannel, T; Turczyk, S

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the role of so-called "intrinsic-charm" operators in semi-leptonic B-meson decays, which appear first at order 1/m_b^3 in the heavy quark expansion. We show by explicit calculation that -- at scales mu <= m_c -- the contributions from "intrinsic-charm" effects can be absorbed into short-distance coefficient functions multiplying, for instance, the Darwin term. Then, the only remnant of "intrinsic charm" are logarithms of the form ln(m_c^2/m_b^2), which can be resummed by using renormalization-group techniques. As long as the dynamics at the charm-quark scale is perturbative, alpha_s(m_c) << 1, this implies that no additional non-perturbative matrix elements aside from the Darwin and the spin-orbit term have to be introduced at order 1/m_b^3. Hence, no sources for additional hadronic uncertainties have to be taken into account. Similar arguments may be made for higher orders in the 1/m_b expansion.

  6. Intrinsic connectivity networks within cerebellum and beyond in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amianto, F; D'Agata, F; Lavagnino, L; Caroppo, P; Abbate-Daga, G; Righi, D; Scarone, S; Bergui, M; Mortara, P; Fassino, S

    2013-10-01

    Cerebellum seems to have a role both in feeding behavior and emotion regulation; therefore, it is a region that warrants further neuroimaging studies in eating disorders, severe conditions that determine a significant impairment in the physical and psychological domain. The aim of this study was to examine the cerebellum intrinsic connectivity during functional magnetic resonance imaging resting state in anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and healthy controls (CN). Resting state brain activity was decomposed into intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) using group spatial independent component analysis on the resting blood oxygenation level dependent time courses of 12 AN, 12 BN, and 10 CN. We extracted the cerebellar ICN and compared it between groups. Intrinsic connectivity within the cerebellar network showed some common alterations in eating disordered compared to healthy subjects (e.g., a greater connectivity with insulae, vermis, and paravermis and a lesser connectivity with parietal lobe); AN and BN patients were characterized by some peculiar alterations in connectivity patterns (e.g., greater connectivity with the insulae in AN compared to BN, greater connectivity with anterior cingulate cortex in BN compared to AN). Our data are consistent with the presence of different alterations in the cerebellar network in AN and BN patients that could be related to psychopathologic dimensions of eating disorders.

  7. Incremental learning of skill collections based on intrinsic motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzen, Jan H.; Kirchner, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Life-long learning of reusable, versatile skills is a key prerequisite for embodied agents that act in a complex, dynamic environment and are faced with different tasks over their lifetime. We address the question of how an agent can learn useful skills efficiently during a developmental period, i.e., when no task is imposed on him and no external reward signal is provided. Learning of skills in a developmental period needs to be incremental and self-motivated. We propose a new incremental, task-independent skill discovery approach that is suited for continuous domains. Furthermore, the agent learns specific skills based on intrinsic motivation mechanisms that determine on which skills learning is focused at a given point in time. We evaluate the approach in a reinforcement learning setup in two continuous domains with complex dynamics. We show that an intrinsically motivated, skill learning agent outperforms an agent which learns task solutions from scratch. Furthermore, we compare different intrinsic motivation mechanisms and how efficiently they make use of the agent's developmental period. PMID:23898265

  8. Comparing Intrinsic Connectivity Models for the Primary Auditory Cortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Khairiah Abdul; Yusoff, Ahmad Nazlim; Mohamad, Mazlyfarina; Hamid, Aini Ismafairus Abd; Manan, Hanani Abd

    2010-07-01

    This fMRI study is about modeling the intrinsic connectivity between Heschl' gyrus (HG) and superior temporal gyrus (STG) in human primary auditory cortices. Ten healthy male subjects participated and required to listen to white noise stimulus during the fMRI scans. Two intrinsic connectivity models comprising bilateral HG and STG were constructed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and dynamic causal modeling (DCM). Group Bayes factor (GBF), positive evidence ratio (PER) and Bayesian model selection (BMS) for group studies were used in model comparison. Group results indicated significant bilateral asymmetrical activation (puncorr < 0.001) in HG and STG. Comparison results showed strong evidence of Model 2 as the preferred model (STG as the input center) with GBF value of 5.77 × 1073 The model is preferred by 6 out of 10 subjects. The results were supported by BMS results for group studies. One-sample t-test on connection values obtained from Model 2 indicates unidirectional parallel connections from STG to bilateral HG (p<0.05). Model 2 was determined to be the most probable intrinsic connectivity model between bilateral HG and STG when listening to white noise.

  9. Crude and intrinsic birth rates for Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rele, J R

    1978-01-01

    An attempt to estimate birth rates for Asian countries. The main sources of information in developing countries has been census age-sex distribution, although inaccuracies in the basic data have made it difficult to reach a high degree of accuracy. Different methods bring widely varying results. The methodology presented here is based on the use of the conventional child-woman ratio from the census age-sex distribution, with a rough estimate of the expectation of life at birth. From the established relationships between child-woman ratio and the intrinsic birth rate of the nature y = a + bx + cx(2) at each level of life expectation, the intrinsic birth rate is first computed using coefficients already computed. The crude birth rate is obtained using the adjustment based on the census age-sex distribution. An advantage to this methodology is that the intrinsic birth rate, normally an involved computation, can be obtained relatively easily as a biproduct of the crude birth rates and the bases for the calculations for each of 33 Asian countries, in some cases over several time periods.

  10. A case study of the intrinsic bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, G.W.; Raterman, K.T.; Fisher, J.B.; Corgan, J.M. [and others

    1995-12-31

    Condensate liquids have been found to contaminate soil and groundwater at two gas production sites in the Denver Basin operated by Amoco Production Co. These sites have been closely monitored since July 1993 to determine whether intrinsic aerobic or anaerobic bioremediation of hydrocarbons occurs at a sufficient rate and to an adequate endpoint to support a no-intervention decision. Groundwater monitoring and analysis of soil cores suggest that intrinsic bioremediation is occurring at these sites by multiple pathways including aerobic oxidation, Fe{sup 3+} reduction, and sulfate reduction. In laboratory experiments the addition of gas condensate hydrocarbons to saturated soil from the gas production site stimulated sulfate reduction under anaerobic and oxygen-limiting conditions, and nitrate and Fe{sup 3+} reduction under oxygen-limiting conditions, compared to biotic controls that lacked hydrocarbon and sterile controls. The sulfate reduction corresponded to a reduction in the amount of toluene relative to other hydrocarbons. These results confirmed that subsurface soils at the gas production site have the potential for intrinsic bioremediation of hydrocarbons.

  11. Stochastic synchronization of neuronal populations with intrinsic and extrinsic noise.

    KAUST Repository

    Bressloff, Paul C

    2011-05-03

    We extend the theory of noise-induced phase synchronization to the case of a neural master equation describing the stochastic dynamics of an ensemble of uncoupled neuronal population oscillators with intrinsic and extrinsic noise. The master equation formulation of stochastic neurodynamics represents the state of each population by the number of currently active neurons, and the state transitions are chosen so that deterministic Wilson-Cowan rate equations are recovered in the mean-field limit. We apply phase reduction and averaging methods to a corresponding Langevin approximation of the master equation in order to determine how intrinsic noise disrupts synchronization of the population oscillators driven by a common extrinsic noise source. We illustrate our analysis by considering one of the simplest networks known to generate limit cycle oscillations at the population level, namely, a pair of mutually coupled excitatory (E) and inhibitory (I) subpopulations. We show how the combination of intrinsic independent noise and extrinsic common noise can lead to clustering of the population oscillators due to the multiplicative nature of both noise sources under the Langevin approximation. Finally, we show how a similar analysis can be carried out for another simple population model that exhibits limit cycle oscillations in the deterministic limit, namely, a recurrent excitatory network with synaptic depression; inclusion of synaptic depression into the neural master equation now generates a stochastic hybrid system.

  12. Intrinsic bioremediation of BTEX in a cold temperature environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johns, C.; Biggar, K.; Foght, J.; Mullick, A.

    1999-01-01

    Investigation of Intrinsic bioremediation technology at cold temperature sites contaminated with BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, xylene) is discussed. Site investigation at each of the sites was carried out to delineate stratigraphy, hydrogeology, microbiological setting, level of contamination and geochemical conditions. Preferred conditions for viable sites were found to include minimal risk of contaminants coming into contact with receptors, low hydraulic gradient, and the presence of adequate nutrients and terminal electron acceptors (TEAs). Enumeration of contaminant degrading microorganisms was completed through the Most Probable Number (MPN) technique indicating viable populations of aerobic petroleum degrading, nitrogen reducing and iron reducing bacteria. The effects of cold temperatures on the rate and extent of substrate utilization was studied in the laboratory, Results to date indicate that the sites under consideration are suitable candidates for intrinsic bioremediation and that significant rates of biodegradation are possible at low temperatures. If risk analysis proves to be favorable, the intrinsic bioremediation methodology is likely to provide an effective and affordable solution. 16 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs

  13. The circadian response of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Zele

    Full Text Available Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGC signal environmental light level to the central circadian clock and contribute to the pupil light reflex. It is unknown if ipRGC activity is subject to extrinsic (central or intrinsic (retinal network-mediated circadian modulation during light entrainment and phase shifting. Eleven younger persons (18-30 years with no ophthalmological, medical or sleep disorders participated. The activity of the inner (ipRGC and outer retina (cone photoreceptors was assessed hourly using the pupil light reflex during a 24 h period of constant environmental illumination (10 lux. Exogenous circadian cues of activity, sleep, posture, caffeine, ambient temperature, caloric intake and ambient illumination were controlled. Dim-light melatonin onset (DLMO was determined from salivary melatonin assay at hourly intervals, and participant melatonin onset values were set to 14 h to adjust clock time to circadian time. Here we demonstrate in humans that the ipRGC controlled post-illumination pupil response has a circadian rhythm independent of external light cues. This circadian variation precedes melatonin onset and the minimum ipRGC driven pupil response occurs post melatonin onset. Outer retinal photoreceptor contributions to the inner retinal ipRGC driven post-illumination pupil response also show circadian variation whereas direct outer retinal cone inputs to the pupil light reflex do not, indicating that intrinsically photosensitive (melanopsin retinal ganglion cells mediate this circadian variation.

  14. The intrinsic geometry of the human brain connectome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Allen Q; Ajilore, Olusola A; Conte, Giorgio; GadElkarim, Johnson; Thomas-Ramos, Galen; Zhan, Liang; Yang, Shaolin; Kumar, Anand; Magin, Richard L; G Forbes, Angus; Leow, Alex D

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes novel methods for constructing the intrinsic geometry of the human brain connectome using dimensionality-reduction techniques. We posit that the high-dimensional, complex geometry that represents this intrinsic topology can be mathematically embedded into lower dimensions using coupling patterns encoded in the corresponding brain connectivity graphs. We tested both linear and nonlinear dimensionality-reduction techniques using the diffusion-weighted structural connectome data acquired from a sample of healthy subjects. Results supported the nonlinearity of brain connectivity data, as linear reduction techniques such as the multidimensional scaling yielded inferior lower-dimensional embeddings. To further validate our results, we demonstrated that for tractography-derived structural connectome more influential regions such as rich-club members of the brain are more centrally mapped or embedded. Further, abnormal brain connectivity can be visually understood by inspecting the altered geometry of these three-dimensional (3D) embeddings that represent the topology of the human brain, as illustrated using simulated lesion studies of both targeted and random removal. Last, in order to visualize brain's intrinsic topology we have developed software that is compatible with virtual reality technologies, thus allowing researchers to collaboratively and interactively explore and manipulate brain connectome data.

  15. Ionomers of intrinsic microporosity: in silico development of ionic-functionalized gas-separation membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Kyle E; Colina, Coray M

    2014-10-14

    This work presents the predictive molecular simulations of a functionalized polymer of intrinsic microporosity (PIM) with an ionic backbone (carboxylate) and extra-framework counterions (Na(+)) for CO2 gas storage and separation applications. The CO2-philic carboxylate-functionalized polymers are predicted to contain similar degrees of free volume to PIM-1, with Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas from 510 to 890 m(2)/g, depending on concentration of ionic groups from 100% to 17%. As a result of ionic groups enhancing the CO2 enthalpy of adsorption (to 42-50 kJ/mol), the uptake of the proposed polymers at 293 K exceeded 1.7 mmol/g at 10 kPa and 3.3 mmol/g at 100 kPa for the polymers containing 100% and 50% ionic functional groups, respectively. In addition, CO2/CH4 and CO2/N2 mixed-gas separation performance was evaluated under several industrially relevant conditions, where the IonomIMs are shown to increase both the working capacity and selection performance in certain pressure swing applications (e.g., natural gas separations). These simulations reveal that intrinsically microporous ionomers show great potential as the future of energy-efficient gas-separation polymeric materials.

  16. Initial assessment of intrinsic and assisted bioremediation potential for diesel fuel impacted soils at Eureka, NWT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J. J.; Yeske, B.; Lee, D.; Nahir, M.

    1999-01-01

    Two diesel fuel-impacted soil columns prepared to simulate in situ conditions for assessing intrinsic bioremediation were studied. The samples were from Eureka in the Northwest Territories. Two soil jars that were mixed periodically to simulate the ex situ land treatment bioremediation option, were also part of the treatability study. Results strongly suggest that bioremediation at Eureka is a viable option, although the slow rate of biodegradation and the short operating season will necessitate treatment over several years to achieve the remediation endpoint. The intrinsic bioremediation process can be accelerated using periodic addition of a water soluble nitrogen fertilizer, as shown by the nitrogen-amended soil column test. Ex situ bioremediation also appears to be possible judged by the response of the natural bacterial population to periodic mixing and oxygen uptake at 5 degrees C. The principal challenge will be to adequately mix the soil at the surface and to prevent it from drying out. The addition of organic bulking material may be required. 1 ref., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  17. A nonlinear model for frequency dispersion and DC intrinsic parameter extraction for GaN-based HEMT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tung The-Lam; Kim, Sam-Dong

    2017-11-01

    We propose in this study a practical nonlinear model for the AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) to extract DC intrinsic transconductance (gmDC), output conductance (gdsDC), and electron mobility from the intrinsic parameter set measured at high frequencies. An excellent agreement in I-V characteristics of the model with a fitting error of 0.11% enables us successfully extract the gmDC, gdsDC, and the total transconductance dispersion. For this model, we also present a reliable analysis scheme wherein the frequency dispersion effect due regional surface states in AlGaN/GaN HEMTs is taken into account under various bias conditions.

  18. Do points, levels and leaderboards harm intrinsic motivation? An empirical analysis of common gamification elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mekler, Elisa D.; Brühlmann, Florian; Opwis, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    It is heavily debated within the gamification community whether specific game elements may actually undermine users' intrinsic motivation. This online experiment examined the effects of three commonly employed game design elements - points, leaderboard, levels - on users' performance, intrinsic...

  19. Doubly Reentrant Cavities Prevent Catastrophic Wetting Transitions on Intrinsically Wetting Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Domingues, Eddy; Arunachalam, Sankara; Mishra, Himanshu

    2017-01-01

    immersed in mineral oil or water, doubly reentrant microtextures in silica (θo ≈ 40° for water) were not penetrated even after several days of investigation. Thus, microtextures comprising of doubly reentrant cavities might enable applications

  20. An assay for serum vitamin-B12 and for intrinsic factor antibody type I by means of hog intrinsic factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudak, J.; Berger, Z.; Varga, L.

    1980-01-01

    A new radioassay method was elaborated for the determination of the plasma level of vitamin B 12 and of the intrinsic factor antibody type I. The assay applies vitamin-B 12 labelled with 58 Co, but replaces human intrinsic factor by hog intrinsic factor. 124 cases were investigated by both the original and this modified method, and the results were in very good agreement. (L.E.)

  1. Intrinsic rotation due to MHD activity in a tokamak with a resistive wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haines, M G; Gimblett, C G; Hastie, R J

    2013-01-01

    MHD activity in a tokamak, in the form of waves and instabilities, generally has a preferred direction for propagation in a two-fluid plasma. When the radial component of magnetic field associated with this activity interacts with a resistive wall, momentum or angular momentum will be given to the wall. The equal and opposite reaction will be on the plasma, in particular, for ideal and resistive modes, at the singular or resonant surfaces for the various modes. In this case the torque exerted is electromagnetic. This is in contrast to other mechanisms for intrinsic or spontaneous rotation which may arise at the plasma boundary. The resistive wall is considered generally, and the thin and thick wall limits found, the latter being relevant to ITER parameters. Remarkably small radial perturbing fields of order 0.1 G could produce a torque comparable in effect to the apparent anomalous toroidal viscosity. (paper)

  2. Use of intrinsic fluorescent signals for characterizing tissue metabolic states in health and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chance, Britton

    1996-04-01

    The large content of mitochondria in metabolizing cells, coupled with intrinsic NADH and flavoprotein signals makes these signals ideal for characterizing tissue metabolic states in health and disease. The first few millimeters of tissue are reached by the fluorescence excitation in the exposed surfaces of the cervix, bladder, rectum and esophagus, etc. Thus, extensive use has been made of fluorescent signals by a large number of investigators for tumor diagnosis from an empirical standpoint where the fluorescent signals are generally diminished in precancerous and cancerous tissue. This article reviews the biochemical basis for the fluorescent signals and points to a 'gold standard' for fluorescent signal examination involving freeze trapping and low temperature two- or three-dimensional high resolution fluorescence spectroscopy.

  3. THE MUSCLES TREASURY SURVEY. II. INTRINSIC LY α AND EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET SPECTRA OF K AND M DWARFS WITH EXOPLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngblood, Allison; France, Kevin; Loyd, R. O. Parke [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, 600 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Linsky, Jeffrey L. [JILA, University of Colorado and NIST, 440 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Redfield, Seth [Astronomy Department and Van Vleck Observatory, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT 06459-0123 (United States); Schneider, P. Christian [European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESA/ESTEC), Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk (Netherlands); Wood, Brian E. [Naval Research Laboratory, Space Science Division, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Brown, Alexander [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Froning, Cynthia [Dept. of Astronomy C1400, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Miguel, Yamila [Laboratoire Lagrange, Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Observatoire de la Cote d’Azur, CNRS, Blvd de l’Observatoire, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice cedex 4 (France); Rugheimer, Sarah [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Irvine Building, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews KY16 9AL (United Kingdom); Walkowicz, Lucianne, E-mail: allison.youngblood@colorado.edu [The Adler Planetarium, 1300 S Lakeshore Dr, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States)

    2016-06-20

    The ultraviolet (UV) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of low-mass (K- and M-type) stars play a critical role in the heating and chemistry of exoplanet atmospheres, but are not observationally well-constrained. Direct observations of the intrinsic flux of the Ly α line (the dominant source of UV photons from low-mass stars) are challenging, as interstellar H i absorbs the entire line core for even the closest stars. To address the existing gap in empirical constraints on the UV flux of K and M dwarfs, the MUSCLES Hubble Space Telescope Treasury Survey has obtained UV observations of 11 nearby M and K dwarfs hosting exoplanets. This paper presents the Ly α and extreme-UV spectral reconstructions for the MUSCLES targets. Most targets are optically inactive, but all exhibit significant UV activity. We use a Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique to correct the observed Ly α profiles for interstellar absorption, and we employ empirical relations to compute the extreme-UV SED from the intrinsic Ly α flux in ∼100 Å bins from 100–1170 Å. The reconstructed Ly α profiles have 300 km s{sup −1} broad cores, while >1% of the total intrinsic Ly α flux is measured in extended wings between 300 and 1200 km s{sup −1}. The Ly α surface flux positively correlates with the Mg ii surface flux and negatively correlates with the stellar rotation period. Stars with larger Ly α surface flux also tend to have larger surface flux in ions formed at higher temperatures, but these correlations remain statistically insignificant in our sample of 11 stars. We also present H i column density measurements for 10 new sightlines through the local interstellar medium.

  4. A Rotational Crofton Formula for Flagged Intrinsic Volumes of Sets of Positive Reach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auneau, Jeremy Michel

    A rotational Crofton formula is derived relating the flagged intrinsic volumes of a compact set of positive reach with the flagged intrinsic volumes measured on sections passing through a fixed point. In particular cases, the flagged intrinsic volumes defined in the present paper are identical...

  5. Assessing Individual-Level Factors Supporting Student Intrinsic Motivation in Online Discussions: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Ronnie H.; Vogel, Douglas R.; Coombes, John

    2008-01-01

    Research has established that intrinsic motivation has a positive effect on learning and academic achievement. However, little is known about the impact of different technology-supported learning activities on student intrinsic motivation or whether such learning activities significantly enhance student intrinsic motivation compared to traditional…

  6. Correlation between intrinsic hardness and defect structures of ion irradiated Fe alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, C.; Jin, H. H.; Kwon, J.

    2008-01-01

    Evolution of micro structures and mechanical properties during an in-service irradiation is one of the key issues to be addressed in nuclear materials. Ion irradiation is an effective method to study these irradiation effects thanks to an ease in handling post-irradiated specimens. But the characteristics of an ion irradiation pose a certain difficulty in evaluating irradiation effects. For example, ion irradiated region extends only a few hundred nano-meters from the surface of a sample and the depth profile of an irradiation damage level is quite heterogeneous. Thus it requires special care to quantify the changes in properties after an ion irradiation. We measured changes in a hardness by using a nano-indentation combined with a continuous stiffness measurement (CSM technique. Although the SM technique allows for a continuous measurement of hardness along penetration depth of an indenter; it is difficult to obtain an intrinsic hardness of an irradiation hardened region because one is measuring hardness of a hard layer located on a soft matrix. Thus we modeled the nano-indentation test by using a finite element method. We can extract the intrinsic hardness and the yield stress of an irradiation hardened region by using a so-called inverse method. We investigated the irradiation effects on Fe-Cr binary alloy by using the methods mentioned above. TEM analysis revealed that an irradiation forms dislocation loops with Burgers vector of and 1/2 . These loops varied in size and density with the Cr content and dose level. We discuss in detail a correlation between the measured irradiation-induced changes in the surface hardness and an irradiation induced defect. (authors)

  7. The Carnegie Supernova Project: Intrinsic colors of type Ia supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Christopher R.; Persson, S. E.; Freedman, Wendy L.; Madore, Barry F. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Stritzinger, Maximilian; Contreras, Carlos [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Phillips, M. M.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Boldt, Luis; Campillay, Abdo; Castellón, Sergio; Morrell, Nidia; Salgado, Francisco [Carnegie Institution of Washington, Las Campanas Observatory, Colina El Pino, Casilla 601 (Chile); Folatelli, Gaston [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, the University of Tokyo, 277-8583 Kashiwa (Japan); Suntzeff, Nicholas B. [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    We present an updated analysis of the intrinsic colors of Type Ia supernova (SNe Ia) using the latest data release of the Carnegie Supernova Project. We introduce a new light-curve parameter very similar to stretch that is better suited for fast-declining events, and find that these peculiar types can be seen as extensions to the population of 'normal' SNe Ia. With a larger number of objects, an updated fit to the Lira relation is presented along with evidence for a dependence on the late-time slope of the B – V light-curves with stretch and color. Using the full wavelength range from u to H band, we place constraints on the reddening law for the sample as a whole and also for individual events/hosts based solely on the observed colors. The photometric data continue to favor low values of R{sub V} , though with large variations from event to event, indicating an intrinsic distribution. We confirm the findings of other groups that there appears to be a correlation between the derived reddening law, R{sub V} , and the color excess, E(B – V), such that larger E(B – V) tends to favor lower R{sub V} . The intrinsic u-band colors show a relatively large scatter that cannot be explained by variations in R{sub V} or by the Goobar power-law for circumstellar dust, but rather is correlated with spectroscopic features of the supernova and is therefore likely due to metallicity effects.

  8. The Carnegie Supernova Project: Intrinsic colors of type Ia supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, Christopher R.; Persson, S. E.; Freedman, Wendy L.; Madore, Barry F.; Stritzinger, Maximilian; Contreras, Carlos; Phillips, M. M.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Boldt, Luis; Campillay, Abdo; Castellón, Sergio; Morrell, Nidia; Salgado, Francisco; Folatelli, Gaston; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.

    2014-01-01

    We present an updated analysis of the intrinsic colors of Type Ia supernova (SNe Ia) using the latest data release of the Carnegie Supernova Project. We introduce a new light-curve parameter very similar to stretch that is better suited for fast-declining events, and find that these peculiar types can be seen as extensions to the population of 'normal' SNe Ia. With a larger number of objects, an updated fit to the Lira relation is presented along with evidence for a dependence on the late-time slope of the B – V light-curves with stretch and color. Using the full wavelength range from u to H band, we place constraints on the reddening law for the sample as a whole and also for individual events/hosts based solely on the observed colors. The photometric data continue to favor low values of R V , though with large variations from event to event, indicating an intrinsic distribution. We confirm the findings of other groups that there appears to be a correlation between the derived reddening law, R V , and the color excess, E(B – V), such that larger E(B – V) tends to favor lower R V . The intrinsic u-band colors show a relatively large scatter that cannot be explained by variations in R V or by the Goobar power-law for circumstellar dust, but rather is correlated with spectroscopic features of the supernova and is therefore likely due to metallicity effects.

  9. Uncovering intrinsic modular organization of spontaneous brain activity in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong He

    Full Text Available The characterization of topological architecture of complex brain networks is one of the most challenging issues in neuroscience. Slow (<0.1 Hz, spontaneous fluctuations of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signal in functional magnetic resonance imaging are thought to be potentially important for the reflection of spontaneous neuronal activity. Many studies have shown that these fluctuations are highly coherent within anatomically or functionally linked areas of the brain. However, the underlying topological mechanisms responsible for these coherent intrinsic or spontaneous fluctuations are still poorly understood. Here, we apply modern network analysis techniques to investigate how spontaneous neuronal activities in the human brain derived from the resting-state BOLD signals are topologically organized at both the temporal and spatial scales. We first show that the spontaneous brain functional networks have an intrinsically cohesive modular structure in which the connections between regions are much denser within modules than between them. These identified modules are found to be closely associated with several well known functionally interconnected subsystems such as the somatosensory/motor, auditory, attention, visual, subcortical, and the "default" system. Specifically, we demonstrate that the module-specific topological features can not be captured by means of computing the corresponding global network parameters, suggesting a unique organization within each module. Finally, we identify several pivotal network connectors and paths (predominantly associated with the association and limbic/paralimbic cortex regions that are vital for the global coordination of information flow over the whole network, and we find that their lesions (deletions critically affect the stability and robustness of the brain functional system. Together, our results demonstrate the highly organized modular architecture and associated topological properties in

  10. G+C content dominates intrinsic nucleosome occupancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hughes Timothy R

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relative preference of nucleosomes to form on individual DNA sequences plays a major role in genome packaging. A wide variety of DNA sequence features are believed to influence nucleosome formation, including periodic dinucleotide signals, poly-A stretches and other short motifs, and sequence properties that influence DNA structure, including base content. It was recently shown by Kaplan et al. that a probabilistic model using composition of all 5-mers within a nucleosome-sized tiling window accurately predicts intrinsic nucleosome occupancy across an entire genome in vitro. However, the model is complicated, and it is not clear which specific DNA sequence properties are most important for intrinsic nucleosome-forming preferences. Results We find that a simple linear combination of only 14 simple DNA sequence attributes (G+C content, two transformations of dinucleotide composition, and the frequency of eleven 4-bp sequences explains nucleosome occupancy in vitro and in vivo in a manner comparable to the Kaplan model. G+C content and frequency of AAAA are the most important features. G+C content is dominant, alone explaining ~50% of the variation in nucleosome occupancy in vitro. Conclusions Our findings provide a dramatically simplified means to predict and understand intrinsic nucleosome occupancy. G+C content may dominate because it both reduces frequency of poly-A-like stretches and correlates with many other DNA structural characteristics. Since G+C content is enriched or depleted at many types of features in diverse eukaryotic genomes, our results suggest that variation in nucleotide composition may have a widespread and direct influence on chromatin structure.

  11. The intrinsic shape of galaxies in SDSS/Galaxy Zoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Silvio; Padilla, Nelson D.

    2013-09-01

    By modelling the axis ratio distribution of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8 galaxies, we find the intrinsic 3D shapes of spirals and ellipticals. We use morphological information from the Galaxy Zoo project and assume a non-parametric distribution intrinsic of shapes, while taking into account dust extinction. We measure the dust extinction of the full sample of spiral galaxies and find a smaller value than previous estimations, with an edge-on extinction of E_0 = 0.284^{+0.015}_{-0.026} in the SDSS r band. We also find that the distribution of minor to major axis ratio has a mean value of 0.267 ± 0.009, slightly larger than previous estimates mainly due to the lower extinction used; the same affects the circularity of galactic discs, which are found to be less round in shape than in previous studies, with a mean ellipticity of 0.215 ± 0.013. For elliptical galaxies, we find that the minor to major axis ratio, with a mean value of 0.584 ± 0.006, is larger than previous estimations due to the removal of spiral interlopers present in samples with morphological information from photometric profiles. These interlopers are removed when selecting ellipticals using Galaxy Zoo data. We find that the intrinsic shapes of galaxies and their dust extinction vary with absolute magnitude, colour and physical size. We find that bright elliptical galaxies are more spherical than faint ones, a trend that is also present with galaxy size, and that there is no dependence of elliptical galaxy shape with colour. For spiral galaxies, we find that the reddest ones have higher dust extinction as expected, due to the fact that this reddening is mainly due to dust. We also find that the thickness of discs increases with luminosity and size, and that brighter, smaller and redder galaxies have less round discs.

  12. Evidence for The Domains Supporting The Construct of Intrinsic Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesari, Matteo; Araujo de Carvalho, Islene; Amuthavalli Thiyagarajan, Jotheeswaran; Cooper, Cyrus; Martin, Finbarr C; Reginster, Jean-Yves; Vellas, Bruno; Beard, John R

    2018-02-02

    Healthy ageing can be defined as "the process of developing and maintaining the functional ability that enables wellbeing in older age". Functional ability (i.e., the health-related attributes that enable people to be and to do what they have reason to value) is determined by intrinsic capacity (i.e., the composite of all the physical and mental capacities of an individual), the environment (i.e., all the factors in the extrinsic world that form the context of an individual's life), and the interactions between the two. This innovative model recently proposed by the World Health Organization has the potential to substantially modify the way in which clinical practice is currently conducted, shifting from disease-centered towards function-centered paradigms. By overcoming the multiple limitations affecting the construct of disease, this novel framework may allow the worldwide dissemination of a more proactive and function-based approach towards achieving optimal health status.In order to facilitate the translation of the current theoretical model into practice, it is important to identify the inner nature of its constituting constructs. In this paper, we consider intrinsic capacity. Using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework as background and taking into account available evidence, five domains (i.e., locomotion, vitality, cognition, psychological, sensory) are identified as pivotal for capturing the individual's intrinsic capacity (and therefore also reserves) and, through this, pave the way for its objective measurement. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Intrinsic Electric Dipole Moments of Paramagnetic Atoms: Rubidium and Cesium

    OpenAIRE

    Nataraj, H. S.; Sahoo, B. K.; Das, B. P.; Mukherjee, D.

    2008-01-01

    The electric dipole moment (EDM) of paramagnetic atoms is sensitive to the intrinsic EDM contribution from that of its constituent electrons and a scalar--pseudo-scalar (S-PS) electron-nucleus interactions. The electron EDM and the S-PS EDM contribution to atomic EDM scales as Z^3. Thus, the heavy paramagnetic atomic systems will exhibit large enhancement factors. However, the nature of the coupling is so small that it becomes an interest of high precision atomic experiments. In this work, we...

  14. Overcoming weak intrinsic depolarizing resonances with energy-jump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.; Ahrens, L.; Alessi, J.G.

    1997-01-01

    In the recent polarized proton runs in the AGS, a 5% partial snake was used successfully to overcome the imperfection depolarizing resonances. Polarized proton beam was accelerated up to the required RHIC injection energy of 25 GeV. However, significant amount of polarization was lost at 0+ν y , 12+ν y and 36+ν y , which is believed to be partially due to the coupling resonances. To overcome the coupling resonance, an energy-jump was generated by rapidly changing the beam circumference using the powerful AGS rf system. It clearly demonstrates that the novel energy-jump method can successfully overcome coupling resonances and weak intrinsic resonances

  15. Intrinsically narrowband pair photon generation in microstructured fibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Alex; Bell, Bryn; Fulconis, Jeremie; Halder, Matthaeus M; Cemlyn, Ben; Rarity, John G [Centre for Communications Research, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Bristol, Merchant Venturers Building, Woodland Road, Bristol BS8 1UB (United Kingdom); Alibart, Olivier [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Unite Mixte de Recherche 6622, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Parc Valrose 06108, Nice 2 (France); Xiong Chunle; Wadsworth, William J, E-mail: alex.clark@bristol.ac.uk [Centre for Photonics and Photonic Materials, Department of Physics, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-15

    In this paper, we study the tailoring of photon spectral properties generated by four-wave mixing in a birefringent photonic crystal fibre (PCF). The aim is to produce intrinsically narrow-band photons and hence to achieve high non-classical interference visibility and generate high-fidelity entanglement without any requirement for spectral filtering, leading to high effective detection efficiencies. We show unfiltered Hong-Ou-Mandel interference visibilities of 77% between photons from the same PCF and 80% between separate sources. We compare results from modelling the PCF to these experiments and analyse photon purities.

  16. Intrinsic factor in human amniotic fluid as determined by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlstedt, V.; Stenman, U.-H.; Ylinen, K.; Graesbeck, R.

    1983-01-01

    The intrinsic factor (IF) concentration in 55 human amniotic fluid specimens was determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The antiserum was produced by immunizing rabbits with the cobalamin-IF complex isolated from human gastric juice. The median concentration of IF was 0.17 nmol/l and the extreme values <0.07-2.51 nmol/l. Three specimens with a clearly elevated level (0.96, 1.11 and 2.51 nmol/l) were observed. The highest value was associated with a fetal malformation, viz. obstruction of the proximal gut. There was no evident correlation between the concentration of IF in amniotic fluid and gestational age. (author)

  17. Intrinsic charge trapping in amorphous oxide films: status and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Jack; Kaviani, Moloud; Gao, David; El-Sayed, Al-Moatasem; Afanas’ev, Valeri V.; Shluger, Alexander L.

    2018-06-01

    We review the current understanding of intrinsic electron and hole trapping in insulating amorphous oxide films on semiconductor and metal substrates. The experimental and theoretical evidences are provided for the existence of intrinsic deep electron and hole trap states stemming from the disorder of amorphous metal oxide networks. We start from presenting the results for amorphous (a) HfO2, chosen due to the availability of highest purity amorphous films, which is vital for studying their intrinsic electronic properties. Exhaustive photo-depopulation spectroscopy measurements and theoretical calculations using density functional theory shed light on the atomic nature of electronic gap states responsible for deep electron trapping observed in a-HfO2. We review theoretical methods used for creating models of amorphous structures and electronic structure calculations of amorphous oxides and outline some of the challenges in modeling defects in amorphous materials. We then discuss theoretical models of electron polarons and bi-polarons in a-HfO2 and demonstrate that these intrinsic states originate from low-coordinated ions and elongated metal-oxygen bonds in the amorphous oxide network. Similarly, holes can be captured at under-coordinated O sites. We then discuss electron and hole trapping in other amorphous oxides, such as a-SiO2, a-Al2O3, a-TiO2. We propose that the presence of low-coordinated ions in amorphous oxides with electron states of significant p and d character near the conduction band minimum can lead to electron trapping and that deep hole trapping should be common to all amorphous oxides. Finally, we demonstrate that bi-electron trapping in a-HfO2 and a-SiO2 weakens Hf(Si)–O bonds and significantly reduces barriers for forming Frenkel defects, neutral O vacancies and O2‑ ions in these materials. These results should be useful for better understanding of electronic properties and structural evolution of thin amorphous films under carrier injection

  18. Older adults' intrinsic and extrinsic motivation toward physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacey, Marie; Baltzell, Amy; Zaichkowsky, Len

    2008-01-01

    To examine how motives discriminate 3 physical activity levels of inactive, active, and sustained maintainers. Six hundred forty-five adults (M age = 63.8) completed stage-of-change and Exercise Motivations Inventory (EMI-2) scales. Exploratory factor analysis established psychometric properties of the EMI-2 suitable for older adults. Six factors emerged in the EMI-2: health and fitness, social/emotional benefits, weight management, stress management, enjoyment, and appearance. Enjoyment contributed most to differentiating activity levels. Moderators of age and gender were delineated. Intrinsic motivation and self-determined extrinsic motivation distinguish older adults' activity levels.

  19. Potential New Therapies for Pediatric Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyong Long

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG is an extensively invasive malignancy with infiltration into other regions of the brainstem. Although large numbers of specific targeted therapies have been tested, no significant progress has been made in treating these high-grade gliomas. Therefore, the identification of new therapeutic approaches is of great importance for the development of more effective treatments. This article reviews the conventional therapies and new potential therapeutic approaches for DIPG, including epigenetic therapy, immunotherapy, and the combination of stem cells with nanoparticle delivery systems.

  20. Describing intrinsically disordered proteins at atomic resolution by NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringkjobing Jensen, Malene; Blackledge, Martin; Ruigrok, Rob WH

    2013-01-01

    There is growing interest in the development of physical methods to study the conformational behaviour and biological activity of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). In this review recent advances in the elucidation of quantitative descriptions of disordered proteins from nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy are presented. Ensemble approaches are particularly well adapted to map the conformational energy landscape sampled by the protein at atomic resolution. Significant advances in development of calibrated approaches to the statistical representation of the conformational behaviour of IDPs are presented, as well as applications to some biologically important systems where disorder plays a crucial role. (authors)