WorldWideScience

Sample records for intrinsic sequence preferences

  1. Sequence periodicity in nucleosomal DNA and intrinsic curvature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, T Murlidharan

    2010-05-17

    Most eukaryotic DNA contained in the nucleus is packaged by wrapping DNA around histone octamers. Histones are ubiquitous and bind most regions of chromosomal DNA. In order to achieve smooth wrapping of the DNA around the histone octamer, the DNA duplex should be able to deform and should possess intrinsic curvature. The deformability of DNA is a result of the non-parallelness of base pair stacks. The stacking interaction between base pairs is sequence dependent. The higher the stacking energy the more rigid the DNA helix, thus it is natural to expect that sequences that are involved in wrapping around the histone octamer should be unstacked and possess intrinsic curvature. Intrinsic curvature has been shown to be dictated by the periodic recurrence of certain dinucleotides. Several genome-wide studies directed towards mapping of nucleosome positions have revealed periodicity associated with certain stretches of sequences. In the current study, these sequences have been analyzed with a view to understand their sequence-dependent structures. Higher order DNA structures and the distribution of molecular bend loci associated with 146 base nucleosome core DNA sequence from C. elegans and chicken have been analyzed using the theoretical model for DNA curvature. The curvature dispersion calculated by cyclically permuting the sequences revealed that the molecular bend loci were delocalized throughout the nucleosome core region and had varying degrees of intrinsic curvature. The higher order structures associated with nucleosomes of C.elegans and chicken calculated from the sequences revealed heterogeneity with respect to the deviation of the DNA axis. The results points to the possibility of context dependent curvature of varying degrees to be associated with nucleosomal DNA.

  2. The relationship between risk attitude and strength of preference: A test of intrinsic risk attitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Smidts (Ale)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractIn a field study, the concept of intrinsic, risk attitude is investigated. Intrinsic risk attitude concerns the relationship between risk attitude, measured by the utility function u(x), and strength of preference, measured by the value function v(x). We study farmers' decision-making

  3. Genome-Wide Prediction of Intrinsic Disorder; Sequence Alignment of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midic, Uros

    2012-01-01

    Intrinsic disorder (ID) is defined as a lack of stable tertiary and/or secondary structure under physiological conditions in vitro. Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are highly abundant in nature. IDPs possess a number of crucial biological functions, being involved in regulation, recognition, signaling and control, e.g. their functional…

  4. Role of intrinsic search cues in the formation of consumer preferences and choice for pork chops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, Wim; De Smet, Stefaan; Vackier, Isabelle; Van Oeckel, Monique J; Warnants, Nathalie; Van Kenhove, Patrick

    2005-02-01

    This study investigates the role of drip, colour, marbling and fat cover as intrinsic search cues in the formation of pork chop preferences and individual determinants. Data are collected from a sample of 443 pork consumers in Belgium through using repeated selection of chops from randomised photobooks and questionnaires including socio-demographic, attitudinal and behavioural variables. Data analysis includes mixture regression analysis, bivariate descriptive statistics and the estimation of multivariate probit models. Consumers sampled in this study prefer pork chops without fat cover. Preference for fat cover is stronger among male, 35+ aged consumers with lower levels of awareness of the relation between food and health and who like pork for other reasons than taste and nutritional value (all p<0.05). Preference for colour is equally consistent within an individual, though fifty-fifty light-dark, with dark chops being more preferred by 35+ aged consumers (p<0.05). Preferences for marbling and drip are not consistent and not determined by joint socio-demographic, attitudinal and behavioural factors. Preferences for cue levels are not correlated, except a weak relation between preference for dark chops without drip (r=0.116). Preferences are apparently formed by deductions with the use of single cues as key information, mainly based on fat cover or colour, and random choice on marbling and drip.

  5. Estimating consumer preferences for extrinsic and intrinsic attributes of vegetables. A study of German consumers

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    Jimenez-Guerrero, J. F.; Gazquez-Abad, J. C.; Huertas-Garcia, R.; Mondejar-Jimenez, J. A.

    2012-11-01

    Preference formation developed during the consumers evaluation of alternatives is one of the most important stages in models of consumer purchasing behaviour. This is especially true for the purchase of vegetables. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the role of extrinsic versus intrinsic attributes in the behaviour of consumer when purchasing cucumbers, considering four attributes; price, country of origin and production method (extrinsic), and freshness (intrinsic). Utilizing a sample of German tourists visiting the city of Almeria (Spain), conjoint analysis methodology is used. The results suggest that an intrinsic aspect (freshness) is the most important attribute for consumers. Therefore, marketers are advised to consider the importance of this attribute to the consumer and try to position the product in the destination markets on the basis of product freshness. (Author) 91 refs.

  6. Effector-independent motor sequence representations exist in extrinsic and intrinsic reference frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiestler, Tobias; Waters-Metenier, Sheena; Diedrichsen, Jörn

    2014-04-02

    Many daily activities rely on the ability to produce meaningful sequences of movements. Motor sequences can be learned in an effector-specific fashion (such that benefits of training are restricted to the trained hand) or an effector-independent manner (meaning that learning also facilitates performance with the untrained hand). Effector-independent knowledge can be represented in extrinsic/world-centered or in intrinsic/body-centered coordinates. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and multivoxel pattern analysis to determine the distribution of intrinsic and extrinsic finger sequence representations across the human neocortex. Participants practiced four sequences with one hand for 4 d, and then performed these sequences during fMRI with both left and right hand. Between hands, these sequences were equivalent in extrinsic or intrinsic space, or were unrelated. In dorsal premotor cortex (PMd), we found that sequence-specific activity patterns correlated higher for extrinsic than for unrelated pairs, providing evidence for an extrinsic sequence representation. In contrast, primary sensory and motor cortices showed effector-independent representations in intrinsic space, with considerable overlap of the two reference frames in caudal PMd. These results suggest that effector-independent representations exist not only in world-centered, but also in body-centered coordinates, and that PMd may be involved in transforming sequential knowledge between the two. Moreover, although effector-independent sequence representations were found bilaterally, they were stronger in the hemisphere contralateral to the trained hand. This indicates that intermanual transfer relies on motor memories that are laid down during training in both hemispheres, but preferentially draws upon sequential knowledge represented in the trained hemisphere.

  7. High dimensional and high resolution pulse sequences for backbone resonance assignment of intrinsically disordered proteins

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    Zawadzka-Kazimierczuk, Anna; Kozminski, Wiktor, E-mail: kozmin@chem.uw.edu.pl [University of Warsaw, Faculty of Chemistry (Poland); Sanderova, Hana; Krasny, Libor [Institute of Microbiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Laboratory of Molecular Genetics of Bacteria, Department of Bacteriology (Czech Republic)

    2012-04-15

    Four novel 5D (HACA(N)CONH, HNCOCACB, (HACA)CON(CA)CONH, (H)NCO(NCA)CONH), and one 6D ((H)NCO(N)CACONH) NMR pulse sequences are proposed. The new experiments employ non-uniform sampling that enables achieving high resolution in indirectly detected dimensions. The experiments facilitate resonance assignment of intrinsically disordered proteins. The novel pulse sequences were successfully tested using {delta} subunit (20 kDa) of Bacillus subtilis RNA polymerase that has an 81-amino acid disordered part containing various repetitive sequences.

  8. Sequence charge decoration dictates coil-globule transition in intrinsically disordered proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firman, Taylor; Ghosh, Kingshuk

    2018-03-28

    We present an analytical theory to compute conformations of heteropolymers-applicable to describe disordered proteins-as a function of temperature and charge sequence. The theory describes coil-globule transition for a given protein sequence when temperature is varied and has been benchmarked against the all-atom Monte Carlo simulation (using CAMPARI) of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). In addition, the model quantitatively shows how subtle alterations of charge placement in the primary sequence-while maintaining the same charge composition-can lead to significant changes in conformation, even as drastic as a coil (swelled above a purely random coil) to globule (collapsed below a random coil) and vice versa. The theory provides insights on how to control (enhance or suppress) these changes by tuning the temperature (or solution condition) and charge decoration. As an application, we predict the distribution of conformations (at room temperature) of all naturally occurring IDPs in the DisProt database and notice significant size variation even among IDPs with a similar composition of positive and negative charges. Based on this, we provide a new diagram-of-states delineating the sequence-conformation relation for proteins in the DisProt database. Next, we study the effect of post-translational modification, e.g., phosphorylation, on IDP conformations. Modifications as little as two-site phosphorylation can significantly alter the size of an IDP with everything else being constant (temperature, salt concentration, etc.). However, not all possible modification sites have the same effect on protein conformations; there are certain "hot spots" that can cause maximal change in conformation. The location of these "hot spots" in the parent sequence can readily be identified by using a sequence charge decoration metric originally introduced by Sawle and Ghosh. The ability of our model to predict conformations (both expanded and collapsed states) of IDPs at a high

  9. Sequence charge decoration dictates coil-globule transition in intrinsically disordered proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firman, Taylor; Ghosh, Kingshuk

    2018-03-01

    We present an analytical theory to compute conformations of heteropolymers—applicable to describe disordered proteins—as a function of temperature and charge sequence. The theory describes coil-globule transition for a given protein sequence when temperature is varied and has been benchmarked against the all-atom Monte Carlo simulation (using CAMPARI) of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). In addition, the model quantitatively shows how subtle alterations of charge placement in the primary sequence—while maintaining the same charge composition—can lead to significant changes in conformation, even as drastic as a coil (swelled above a purely random coil) to globule (collapsed below a random coil) and vice versa. The theory provides insights on how to control (enhance or suppress) these changes by tuning the temperature (or solution condition) and charge decoration. As an application, we predict the distribution of conformations (at room temperature) of all naturally occurring IDPs in the DisProt database and notice significant size variation even among IDPs with a similar composition of positive and negative charges. Based on this, we provide a new diagram-of-states delineating the sequence-conformation relation for proteins in the DisProt database. Next, we study the effect of post-translational modification, e.g., phosphorylation, on IDP conformations. Modifications as little as two-site phosphorylation can significantly alter the size of an IDP with everything else being constant (temperature, salt concentration, etc.). However, not all possible modification sites have the same effect on protein conformations; there are certain "hot spots" that can cause maximal change in conformation. The location of these "hot spots" in the parent sequence can readily be identified by using a sequence charge decoration metric originally introduced by Sawle and Ghosh. The ability of our model to predict conformations (both expanded and collapsed states) of IDPs at

  10. From Sequence and Forces to Structure, Function and Evolution of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman-Kay, Julie D.; Mittag, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs), which lack persistent structure, are a challenge to structural biology due to the inapplicability of standard methods for characterization of folded proteins as well as their deviation from the dominant structure/function paradigm. Their widespread presence and involvement in biological function, however, has spurred the growing acceptance of the importance of IDPs and the development of new tools for studying their structure, dynamics and function. The interplay of folded and disordered domains or regions for function and the existence of a continuum of protein states with respect to conformational energetics, motional timescales and compactness is shaping a unified understanding of structure-dynamics-disorder/function relationships. On the 20th anniversary of this journal, Structure, we provide a historical perspective on the investigation of IDPs and summarize the sequence features and physical forces that underlie their unique structural, functional and evolutionary properties. PMID:24010708

  11. OPAL: prediction of MoRF regions in intrinsically disordered protein sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ronesh; Raicar, Gaurav; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Patil, Ashwini; Sharma, Alok

    2018-06-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins lack stable 3-dimensional structure and play a crucial role in performing various biological functions. Key to their biological function are the molecular recognition features (MoRFs) located within long disordered regions. Computationally identifying these MoRFs from disordered protein sequences is a challenging task. In this study, we present a new MoRF predictor, OPAL, to identify MoRFs in disordered protein sequences. OPAL utilizes two independent sources of information computed using different component predictors. The scores are processed and combined using common averaging method. The first score is computed using a component MoRF predictor which utilizes composition and sequence similarity of MoRF and non-MoRF regions to detect MoRFs. The second score is calculated using half-sphere exposure (HSE), solvent accessible surface area (ASA) and backbone angle information of the disordered protein sequence, using information from the amino acid properties of flanks surrounding the MoRFs to distinguish MoRF and non-MoRF residues. OPAL is evaluated using test sets that were previously used to evaluate MoRF predictors, MoRFpred, MoRFchibi and MoRFchibi-web. The results demonstrate that OPAL outperforms all the available MoRF predictors and is the most accurate predictor available for MoRF prediction. It is available at http://www.alok-ai-lab.com/tools/opal/. ashwini@hgc.jp or alok.sharma@griffith.edu.au. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  12. Large-scale analysis of intrinsic disorder flavors and associated functions in the protein sequence universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necci, Marco; Piovesan, Damiano; Tosatto, Silvio C E

    2016-12-01

    Intrinsic disorder (ID) in proteins has been extensively described for the last decade; a large-scale classification of ID in proteins is mostly missing. Here, we provide an extensive analysis of ID in the protein universe on the UniProt database derived from sequence-based predictions in MobiDB. Almost half the sequences contain an ID region of at least five residues. About 9% of proteins have a long ID region of over 20 residues which are more abundant in Eukaryotic organisms and most frequently cover less than 20% of the sequence. A small subset of about 67,000 (out of over 80 million) proteins is fully disordered and mostly found in Viruses. Most proteins have only one ID, with short ID evenly distributed along the sequence and long ID overrepresented in the center. The charged residue composition of Das and Pappu was used to classify ID proteins by structural propensities and corresponding functional enrichment. Swollen Coils seem to be used mainly as structural components and in biosynthesis in both Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes. In Bacteria, they are confined in the nucleoid and in Viruses provide DNA binding function. Coils & Hairpins seem to be specialized in ribosome binding and methylation activities. Globules & Tadpoles bind antigens in Eukaryotes but are involved in killing other organisms and cytolysis in Bacteria. The Undefined class is used by Bacteria to bind toxic substances and mediate transport and movement between and within organisms in Viruses. Fully disordered proteins behave similarly, but are enriched for glycine residues and extracellular structures. © 2016 The Protein Society.

  13. Programming molecular self-assembly of intrinsically disordered proteins containing sequences of low complexity

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    Simon, Joseph R.; Carroll, Nick J.; Rubinstein, Michael; Chilkoti, Ashutosh; López, Gabriel P.

    2017-06-01

    Dynamic protein-rich intracellular structures that contain phase-separated intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) composed of sequences of low complexity (SLC) have been shown to serve a variety of important cellular functions, which include signalling, compartmentalization and stabilization. However, our understanding of these structures and our ability to synthesize models of them have been limited. We present design rules for IDPs possessing SLCs that phase separate into diverse assemblies within droplet microenvironments. Using theoretical analyses, we interpret the phase behaviour of archetypal IDP sequences and demonstrate the rational design of a vast library of multicomponent protein-rich structures that ranges from uniform nano-, meso- and microscale puncta (distinct protein droplets) to multilayered orthogonally phase-separated granular structures. The ability to predict and program IDP-rich assemblies in this fashion offers new insights into (1) genetic-to-molecular-to-macroscale relationships that encode hierarchical IDP assemblies, (2) design rules of such assemblies in cell biology and (3) molecular-level engineering of self-assembled recombinant IDP-rich materials.

  14. p15PAF is an intrinsically disordered protein with nonrandom structural preferences at sites of interaction with other proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Biasio, Alfredo; Ibáñez de Opakua, Alain; Cordeiro, Tiago N; Villate, Maider; Merino, Nekane; Sibille, Nathalie; Lelli, Moreno; Diercks, Tammo; Bernadó, Pau; Blanco, Francisco J

    2014-02-18

    We present to our knowledge the first structural characterization of the proliferating-cell-nuclear-antigen-associated factor p15(PAF), showing that it is monomeric and intrinsically disordered in solution but has nonrandom conformational preferences at sites of protein-protein interactions. p15(PAF) is a 12 kDa nuclear protein that acts as a regulator of DNA repair during DNA replication. The p15(PAF) gene is overexpressed in several types of human cancer. The nearly complete NMR backbone assignment of p15(PAF) allowed us to measure 86 N-H(N) residual dipolar couplings. Our residual dipolar coupling analysis reveals nonrandom conformational preferences in distinct regions, including the proliferating-cell-nuclear-antigen-interacting protein motif (PIP-box) and the KEN-box (recognized by the ubiquitin ligase that targets p15(PAF) for degradation). In accordance with these findings, analysis of the (15)N R2 relaxation rates shows a relatively reduced mobility for the residues in these regions. The agreement between the experimental small angle x-ray scattering curve of p15(PAF) and that computed from a statistical coil ensemble corrected for the presence of local secondary structural elements further validates our structural model for p15(PAF). The coincidence of these transiently structured regions with protein-protein interaction and posttranslational modification sites suggests a possible role for these structures as molecular recognition elements for p15(PAF). Copyright © 2014 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. INTRINSIC COLORS, TEMPERATURES, AND BOLOMETRIC CORRECTIONS OF PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE STARS

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    Pecaut, Mark J.; Mamajek, Eric E. [University of Rochester, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rochester, NY 14627-0171 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    We present an analysis of the intrinsic colors and temperatures of 5-30 Myr old pre-main-sequence (pre-MS) stars using the F0- through M9-type members of nearby, negligibly reddened groups: the η Cha cluster, the TW Hydra Association, the β Pic Moving Group, and the Tucana-Horologium Association. To check the consistency of spectral types from the literature, we estimate new spectral types for 52 nearby pre-MS stars with spectral types F3 through M4 using optical spectra taken with the SMARTS 1.5 m telescope. Combining these new types with published spectral types and photometry from the literature (Johnson-Cousins BVI{sub C} , 2MASS JHK{sub S} and WISE W1, W2, W3, and W4), we derive a new empirical spectral type-color sequence for 5-30 Myr old pre-MS stars. Colors for pre-MS stars match dwarf colors for some spectral types and colors, but for other spectral types and colors, deviations can exceed 0.3 mag. We estimate effective temperatures (T {sub eff}) and bolometric corrections (BCs) for our pre-MS star sample through comparing their photometry to synthetic photometry generated using the BT-Settl grid of model atmosphere spectra. We derive a new T {sub eff} and BC scale for pre-MS stars, which should be a more appropriate match for T Tauri stars than often-adopted dwarf star scales. While our new T {sub eff} scale for pre-MS stars is within ≅100 K of dwarfs at a given spectral type for stars sequence for O9V-M9V MS stars based on an extensive literature survey, (2) a revised Q-method relation for dereddening UBV photometry of OB-type stars, and (3) introduce two candidate spectral standard stars as representatives of spectral types K8V and K9V.

  16. DNA cross-linking by dehydromonocrotaline lacks apparent base sequence preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieben, W Kurt; Coulombe, Roger A

    2004-12-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are ubiquitous plant toxins, many of which, upon oxidation by hepatic mixed-function oxidases, become reactive bifunctional pyrrolic electrophiles that form DNA-DNA and DNA-protein cross-links. The anti-mitotic, toxic, and carcinogenic action of PAs is thought to be caused, at least in part, by these cross-links. We wished to determine whether the activated PA pyrrole dehydromonocrotaline (DHMO) exhibits base sequence preferences when cross-linked to a set of model duplex poly A-T 14-mer oligonucleotides with varying internal and/or end 5'-d(CG), 5'-d(GC), 5'-d(TA), 5'-d(CGCG), or 5'-d(GCGC) sequences. DHMO-DNA cross-links were assessed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) of 32P endlabeled oligonucleotides and by HPLC analysis of cross-linked DNAs enzymatically digested to their constituent deoxynucleosides. The degree of DNA cross-links depended upon the concentration of the pyrrole, but not on the base sequence of the oligonucleotide target. Likewise, HPLC chromatograms of cross-linked and digested DNAs showed no discernible sequence preference for any nucleotide. Added glutathione, tyrosine, cysteine, and aspartic acid, but not phenylalanine, threonine, serine, lysine, or methionine competed with DNA as alternate nucleophiles for cross-linking by DHMO. From these data it appears that DHMO exhibits no strong base preference when forming cross-links with DNA, and that some cellular nucleophiles can inhibit DNA cross-link formation.

  17. Lynch syndrome patients' views of and preferences for return of results following whole exome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitch, Kelly; Joseph, Galen; Guiltinan, Jenna; Kianmahd, Jessica; Youngblom, Janey; Blanco, Amie

    2014-08-01

    Whole exome sequencing (WES) uses next generation sequencing technology to provide information on nearly all functional, protein-coding regions in an individual's genome. Due to the vast amount of information and incidental findings that can be generated from this technology, patient preferences must be investigated to help clinicians consent and return results to patients. Patients (n = 19) who were previously clinically diagnosed with Lynch syndrome, but received uninformative negative Lynch syndrome genetic results through traditional molecular testing methods participated in semi-structured interviews after WES testing but before return of results to explore their views of WES and preferences for return of results. Analyses of interview results found that nearly all participants believed that the benefits of receiving all possible results generated from WES outweighed the undesirable effects. The majority of participants conveyed that relative to coping with a cancer diagnosis, information generated from WES would be manageable. Importantly, participants' experience with Lynch syndrome influenced their notions of genetic determinism, tolerance for uncertain results, and family communication plans. Participants would prefer to receive WES results in person from a genetic counselor or medical geneticist so that an expert could help explain the meaning and implications of the potentially large quantity and range of complicated results. These results underscore the need to study various populations with regard to the clinical use of WES in order to effectively and empathetically communicate the possible implications of this new technology and return results.

  18. RNAcontext: a new method for learning the sequence and structure binding preferences of RNA-binding proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilal Kazan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Metazoan genomes encode hundreds of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs. These proteins regulate post-transcriptional gene expression and have critical roles in numerous cellular processes including mRNA splicing, export, stability and translation. Despite their ubiquity and importance, the binding preferences for most RBPs are not well characterized. In vitro and in vivo studies, using affinity selection-based approaches, have successfully identified RNA sequence associated with specific RBPs; however, it is difficult to infer RBP sequence and structural preferences without specifically designed motif finding methods. In this study, we introduce a new motif-finding method, RNAcontext, designed to elucidate RBP-specific sequence and structural preferences with greater accuracy than existing approaches. We evaluated RNAcontext on recently published in vitro and in vivo RNA affinity selected data and demonstrate that RNAcontext identifies known binding preferences for several control proteins including HuR, PTB, and Vts1p and predicts new RNA structure preferences for SF2/ASF, RBM4, FUSIP1 and SLM2. The predicted preferences for SF2/ASF are consistent with its recently reported in vivo binding sites. RNAcontext is an accurate and efficient motif finding method ideally suited for using large-scale RNA-binding affinity datasets to determine the relative binding preferences of RBPs for a wide range of RNA sequences and structures.

  19. Bioinformatic Analysis Reveals Conservation of Intrinsic Disorder in the Linker Sequences of Prokaryotic Dual-family Immunophilin Chaperones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Sailen

    2018-01-01

    The two classical immunophilin families, found essentially in all living cells, are: cyclophilin (CYN) and FK506-binding protein (FKBP). We previously reported a novel class of immunophilins that are natural chimera of these two, which we named dual-family immunophilin (DFI). The DFIs were found in either of two conformations: CYN-linker-FKBP (CFBP) or FKBP-3TPR-CYN (FCBP). While the 3TPR domain can serve as a flexible linker between the FKBP and CYN modules in the FCBP-type DFI, the linker sequences in the CFBP-type DFIs are relatively short, diverse in sequence, and contain no discernible motif or signature. Here, I present several lines of computational evidence that, regardless of their primary structure, these CFBP linkers are intrinsically disordered. This report provides the first molecular foundation for the model that the CFBP linker acts as an unstructured, flexible loop, allowing the two flanking chaperone modules function independently while linked in cis , likely to assist in the folding of multisubunit client complexes.

  20. Using Likert-type and ipsative/forced choice items in sequence to generate a preference.

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    Ried, L Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Collaboration and implementation of a minimum, standardized set of core global educational and professional competencies seems appropriate given the expanding international evolution of pharmacy practice. However, winnowing down hundreds of competencies from a plethora of local, national and international competency frameworks to select the most highly preferred to be included in the core set is a daunting task. The objective of this paper is to describe a combination of strategies used to ascertain the most highly preferred items among a large number of disparate items. In this case, the items were >100 educational and professional competencies that might be incorporated as the core components of new and existing competency frameworks. Panelists (n = 30) from the European Union (EU) and United States (USA) were chosen to reflect a variety of practice settings. Each panelist completed two electronic surveys. The first survey presented competencies in a Likert-type format and the second survey presented many of the same competencies in an ipsative/forced choice format. Item mean scores were calculated for each competency, the competencies were ranked, and non-parametric statistical tests were used to ascertain the consistency in the rankings achieved by the two strategies. This exploratory study presented over 100 competencies to the panelists in the beginning. The two methods provided similar results, as indicated by the significant correlation between the rankings (Spearman's rho = 0.30, P < 0.09). A two-step strategy using Likert-type and ipsative/forced choice formats in sequence, appears to be useful in a situation where a clear preference is required from among a large number of choices. The ipsative/forced choice format resulted in some differences in the competency preferences because the panelists could not rate them equally by design. While this strategy was used for the selection of professional educational competencies in this exploratory study, it is

  1. Lncident: A Tool for Rapid Identification of Long Noncoding RNAs Utilizing Sequence Intrinsic Composition and Open Reading Frame Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyu Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available More and more studies have demonstrated that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs play critical roles in diversity of biological process and are also associated with various types of disease. How to rapidly identify lncRNAs and messenger RNA is the fundamental step to uncover the function of lncRNAs identification. Here, we present a novel method for rapid identification of lncRNAs utilizing sequence intrinsic composition features and open reading frame information based on support vector machine model, named as Lncident (LncRNAs identification. The 10-fold cross-validation and ROC curve are used to evaluate the performance of Lncident. The main advantage of Lncident is high speed without the loss of accuracy. Compared with the exiting popular tools, Lncident outperforms Coding-Potential Calculator, Coding-Potential Assessment Tool, Coding-Noncoding Index, and PLEK. Lncident is also much faster than Coding-Potential Calculator and Coding-Noncoding Index. Lncident presents an outstanding performance on microorganism, which offers a great application prospect to the analysis of microorganism. In addition, Lncident can be trained by users’ own collected data. Furthermore, R package and web server are simultaneously developed in order to maximize the convenience for the users. The R package “Lncident” can be easily installed on multiple operating system platforms, as long as R is supported.

  2. Fanconi anemia complementation group A (FANCA) protein has intrinsic affinity for nucleic acids with preference for single-stranded forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fenghua; Qian, Liangyue; Zhao, Xinliang; Liu, Jesse Y; Song, Limin; D'Urso, Gennaro; Jain, Chaitanya; Zhang, Yanbin

    2012-02-10

    The Fanconi anemia complementation group A (FANCA) gene is one of 15 disease-causing genes and has been found to be mutated in ∼60% of Fanconi anemia patients. Using purified protein, we report that human FANCA has intrinsic affinity for nucleic acids. FANCA binds to both single-stranded (ssDNA) and double-stranded (dsDNA) DNAs; however, its affinity for ssDNA is significantly higher than for dsDNA in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. FANCA also binds to RNA with an intriguingly higher affinity than its DNA counterpart. FANCA requires a certain length of nucleic acids for optimal binding. Using DNA and RNA ladders, we determined that the minimum number of nucleotides required for FANCA recognition is ∼30 for both DNA and RNA. By testing the affinity between FANCA and a variety of DNA structures, we found that a 5'-flap or 5'-tail on DNA facilitates its interaction with FANCA. A patient-derived FANCA truncation mutant (Q772X) has diminished affinity for both DNA and RNA. In contrast, the complementing C-terminal fragment of Q772X, C772-1455, retains the differentiated nucleic acid-binding activity (RNA > ssDNA > dsDNA), indicating that the nucleic acid-binding domain of FANCA is located primarily at its C terminus, where most disease-causing mutations are found.

  3. Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group A (FANCA) Protein Has Intrinsic Affinity for Nucleic Acids with Preference for Single-stranded Forms*

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    Yuan, Fenghua; Qian, Liangyue; Zhao, Xinliang; Liu, Jesse Y.; Song, Limin; D'Urso, Gennaro; Jain, Chaitanya; Zhang, Yanbin

    2012-01-01

    The Fanconi anemia complementation group A (FANCA) gene is one of 15 disease-causing genes and has been found to be mutated in ∼60% of Fanconi anemia patients. Using purified protein, we report that human FANCA has intrinsic affinity for nucleic acids. FANCA binds to both single-stranded (ssDNA) and double-stranded (dsDNA) DNAs; however, its affinity for ssDNA is significantly higher than for dsDNA in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. FANCA also binds to RNA with an intriguingly higher affinity than its DNA counterpart. FANCA requires a certain length of nucleic acids for optimal binding. Using DNA and RNA ladders, we determined that the minimum number of nucleotides required for FANCA recognition is ∼30 for both DNA and RNA. By testing the affinity between FANCA and a variety of DNA structures, we found that a 5′-flap or 5′-tail on DNA facilitates its interaction with FANCA. A patient-derived FANCA truncation mutant (Q772X) has diminished affinity for both DNA and RNA. In contrast, the complementing C-terminal fragment of Q772X, C772–1455, retains the differentiated nucleic acid-binding activity (RNA > ssDNA > dsDNA), indicating that the nucleic acid-binding domain of FANCA is located primarily at its C terminus, where most disease-causing mutations are found. PMID:22194614

  4. Children's Preference for Sequenced Accompaniments: The Influence of Style and Perceived Tempo.

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    Brittin, Ruth V.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the influence of tempo on musical preference for students in grades 2-6, focusing on the effects of various styles using a MIDI keyboard. Explains that the students listened to 10 musical selections identifying their preferences and perceptions of tempo. Reveals that the preferred styles were Hip-Hop, Heavy Rock Shuffle, Samba, and Funk2.…

  5. Sequence and conformational preferences at termini of α-helices in membrane proteins: role of the helix environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelar, Ashish; Bansal, Manju

    2014-12-01

    α-Helices are amongst the most common secondary structural elements seen in membrane proteins and are packed in the form of helix bundles. These α-helices encounter varying external environments (hydrophobic, hydrophilic) that may influence the sequence preferences at their N and C-termini. The role of the external environment in stabilization of the helix termini in membrane proteins is still unknown. Here we analyze α-helices in a high-resolution dataset of integral α-helical membrane proteins and establish that their sequence and conformational preferences differ from those in globular proteins. We specifically examine these preferences at the N and C-termini in helices initiating/terminating inside the membrane core as well as in linkers connecting these transmembrane helices. We find that the sequence preferences and structural motifs at capping (Ncap and Ccap) and near-helical (N' and C') positions are influenced by a combination of features including the membrane environment and the innate helix initiation and termination property of residues forming structural motifs. We also find that a large number of helix termini which do not form any particular capping motif are stabilized by formation of hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions contributed from the neighboring helices in the membrane protein. We further validate the sequence preferences obtained from our analysis with data from an ultradeep sequencing study that identifies evolutionarily conserved amino acids in the rat neurotensin receptor. The results from our analysis provide insights for the secondary structure prediction, modeling and design of membrane proteins. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Functional anthology of intrinsic disorder. 2. Cellular components, domains, technical terms, developmental processes, and coding sequence diversities correlated with long disordered regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vucetic, Slobodan; Xie, Hongbo; Iakoucheva, Lilia M; Oldfield, Christopher J; Dunker, A Keith; Obradovic, Zoran; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2007-05-01

    Biologically active proteins without stable ordered structure (i.e., intrinsically disordered proteins) are attracting increased attention. Functional repertoires of ordered and disordered proteins are very different, and the ability to differentiate whether a given function is associated with intrinsic disorder or with a well-folded protein is crucial for modern protein science. However, there is a large gap between the number of proteins experimentally confirmed to be disordered and their actual number in nature. As a result, studies of functional properties of confirmed disordered proteins, while helpful in revealing the functional diversity of protein disorder, provide only a limited view. To overcome this problem, a bioinformatics approach for comprehensive study of functional roles of protein disorder was proposed in the first paper of this series (Xie, H.; Vucetic, S.; Iakoucheva, L. M.; Oldfield, C. J.; Dunker, A. K.; Obradovic, Z.; Uversky, V. N. Functional anthology of intrinsic disorder. 1. Biological processes and functions of proteins with long disordered regions. J. Proteome Res. 2007, 5, 1882-1898). Applying this novel approach to Swiss-Prot sequences and functional keywords, we found over 238 and 302 keywords to be strongly positively or negatively correlated, respectively, with long intrinsically disordered regions. This paper describes approximately 90 Swiss-Prot keywords attributed to the cellular components, domains, technical terms, developmental processes, and coding sequence diversities possessing strong positive and negative correlation with long disordered regions.

  7. Functional Anthology of Intrinsic Disorder. II. Cellular Components, Domains, Technical Terms, Developmental Processes and Coding Sequence Diversities Correlated with Long Disordered Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vucetic, Slobodan; Xie, Hongbo; Iakoucheva, Lilia M.; Oldfield, Christopher J.; Dunker, A. Keith; Obradovic, Zoran; Uversky, Vladimir N.

    2008-01-01

    Biologically active proteins without stable ordered structure (i.e., intrinsically disordered proteins) are attracting increased attention. Functional repertoires of ordered and disordered proteins are very different, and the ability to differentiate whether a given function is associated with intrinsic disorder or with a well-folded protein is crucial for modern protein science. However, there is a large gap between the number of proteins experimentally confirmed to be disordered and their actual number in nature. As a result, studies of functional properties of confirmed disordered proteins, while helpful in revealing the functional diversity of protein disorder, provide only a limited view. To overcome this problem, a bioinformatics approach for comprehensive study of functional roles of protein disorder was proposed in the first paper of this series (Xie H., Vucetic S., Iakoucheva L.M., Oldfield C.J., Dunker A.K., Obradovic Z., Uversky V.N. (2006) Functional anthology of intrinsic disorder. I. Biological processes and functions of proteins with long disordered regions. J. Proteome Res.). Applying this novel approach to Swiss-Prot sequences and functional keywords, we found over 238 and 302 keywords to be strongly positively or negatively correlated, respectively, with long intrinsically disordered regions. This paper describes ~90 Swiss-Prot keywords attributed to the cellular components, domains, technical terms, developmental processes and coding sequence diversities possessing strong positive and negative correlation with long disordered regions. PMID:17391015

  8. Preferences for learning different types of genome sequencing results among young breast cancer patients: Role of psychological and clinical factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Ivanovich, Jennifer; Lyons, Sarah; Biesecker, Barbara; Dresser, Rebecca; Elrick, Ashley; Matsen, Cindy; Goodman, Melody

    2018-01-29

    The growing importance of genome sequencing means that patients will increasingly face decisions regarding what results they would like to learn. The present study examined psychological and clinical factors that might affect these preferences. 1,080 women diagnosed with breast cancer at age 40 or younger completed an online survey. We assessed their interest in learning various types of genome sequencing results: risk of preventable disease or unpreventable disease, cancer treatment response, uncertain meaning, risk to relatives' health, and ancestry/physical traits. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine whether being "very" interested in each result type was associated with clinical factors: BRCA1/2 mutation status, prior genetic testing, family history of breast cancer, and psychological factors: cancer recurrence worry, genetic risk worry, future orientation, health information orientation, and genome sequencing knowledge. The proportion of respondents who were very interested in learning each type of result ranged from 16% to 77%. In all multivariable models, those who were very interested in learning a result type had significantly higher knowledge about sequencing benefits, greater genetic risks worry, and stronger health information orientation compared to those with less interest (p-values psychological factors. Shared decision-making approaches that increase knowledge about genome sequencing and incorporate patient preferences for health information and learning about genetic risks may help support patients' informed choices about learning different types of sequencing results. © Society of Behavioral Medicine 2018.

  9. Minimal and contributing sequence determinants of the cis-acting locus of transfer (clt) of streptomycete plasmid pIJ101 occur within an intrinsically curved plasmid region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducote, M J; Prakash, S; Pettis, G S

    2000-12-01

    Efficient interbacterial transfer of streptomycete plasmid pIJ101 requires the pIJ101 tra gene, as well as a cis-acting plasmid function known as clt. Here we show that the minimal pIJ101 clt locus consists of a sequence no greater than 54 bp in size that includes essential inverted-repeat and direct-repeat sequences and is located in close proximity to the 3' end of the korB regulatory gene. Evidence that sequences extending beyond the minimal locus and into the korB open reading frame influence clt transfer function and demonstration that clt-korB sequences are intrinsically curved raise the possibility that higher-order structuring of DNA and protein within this plasmid region may be an inherent feature of efficient pIJ101 transfer.

  10. Repair of oxidative DNA base damage in the host genome influences the HIV integration site sequence preference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey R Bennett

    Full Text Available Host base excision repair (BER proteins that repair oxidative damage enhance HIV infection. These proteins include the oxidative DNA damage glycosylases 8-oxo-guanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1 and mutY homolog (MYH as well as DNA polymerase beta (Polβ. While deletion of oxidative BER genes leads to decreased HIV infection and integration efficiency, the mechanism remains unknown. One hypothesis is that BER proteins repair the DNA gapped integration intermediate. An alternative hypothesis considers that the most common oxidative DNA base damages occur on guanines. The subtle consensus sequence preference at HIV integration sites includes multiple G:C base pairs surrounding the points of joining. These observations suggest a role for oxidative BER during integration targeting at the nucleotide level. We examined the hypothesis that BER repairs a gapped integration intermediate by measuring HIV infection efficiency in Polβ null cell lines complemented with active site point mutants of Polβ. A DNA synthesis defective mutant, but not a 5'dRP lyase mutant, rescued HIV infection efficiency to wild type levels; this suggested Polβ DNA synthesis activity is not necessary while 5'dRP lyase activity is required for efficient HIV infection. An alternate hypothesis that BER events in the host genome influence HIV integration site selection was examined by sequencing integration sites in OGG1 and MYH null cells. In the absence of these 8-oxo-guanine specific glycosylases the chromatin elements of HIV integration site selection remain the same as in wild type cells. However, the HIV integration site sequence preference at G:C base pairs is altered at several positions in OGG1 and MYH null cells. Inefficient HIV infection in the absence of oxidative BER proteins does not appear related to repair of the gapped integration intermediate; instead oxidative damage repair may participate in HIV integration site preference at the sequence level.

  11. Lung MRI at 1.5 and 3 Tesla: observer preference study and lesion contrast using five different pulse sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Christian; Puderbach, Michael; Biederer, Juergen; Fabel, Michael; Dietrich, Olaf; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Reiser, Maximilian F; Schönberg, Stefan O

    2007-06-01

    To compare the image quality and lesion contrast of lung MRI using 5 different pulse sequences at 1.5 T and 3 T. Lung MRI was performed at 1.5 T and 3 T using 5 pulse sequences which have been previously proposed for lung MRI: 3D volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE), true fast imaging with steady-state precession (TrueFISP), half-Fourier single-shot turbo spin-echo (HASTE), short tau inversion recovery (STIR), T2-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE). In addition to 4 healthy volunteers, 5 porcine lungs were examined in a dedicated chest phantom. Lung pathology (nodules and infiltrates) was simulated in the phantom by intrapulmonary and intrabronchial injections of agarose. CT was performed in the phantom for correlation. Image quality of the sequences was ranked in a side-by-side comparison by 3 blinded radiologists regarding the delineation of pulmonary and mediastinal anatomy, conspicuity of pulmonary nodules and infiltrates, and presence of artifacts. The contrast of nodules and infiltrates (CNODULES and CINFILTRATES) defined by the ratio of the signal intensities of the lesion and adjacent normal lung parenchyma was determined. There were no relevant differences regarding the preference for the individual sequences between both field strengths. TSE was the preferred sequence for the visualization of the mediastinum at both field strengths. For the visualization of lung parenchyma the observers preferred TrueFISP in volunteers and TSE in the phantom studies. At both field strengths VIBE achieved the best rating for the depiction of nodules, whereas HASTE was rated best for the delineation of infiltrates. TrueFISP had the fewest artifacts in volunteers, whereas STIR showed the fewest artifacts in the phantom. For all but the TrueFISP sequence the lesion contrast increased from 1.5 T to 3 T. At both field strengths VIBE showed the highest CNODULES (6.6 and 7.1) and HASTE the highest CINFILTRATES (6.1 and 6.3). The imaging characteristics of different

  12. Luminosity and Intrinsic Color Calibration of Main-Sequence Stars With 2Mass Photometry: All Sky Local Extinction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knude Jens

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a new color index vs. absolute magnitude calibration of 2MASS JHK photometry. For the A0 to ~G5 and M segments of the main sequence information on the amount of interstellar extinction and its location in space may be obtained.

  13. CodonTest: modeling amino acid substitution preferences in coding sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Delport

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Codon models of evolution have facilitated the interpretation of selective forces operating on genomes. These models, however, assume a single rate of non-synonymous substitution irrespective of the nature of amino acids being exchanged. Recent developments have shown that models which allow for amino acid pairs to have independent rates of substitution offer improved fit over single rate models. However, these approaches have been limited by the necessity for large alignments in their estimation. An alternative approach is to assume that substitution rates between amino acid pairs can be subdivided into rate classes, dependent on the information content of the alignment. However, given the combinatorially large number of such models, an efficient model search strategy is needed. Here we develop a Genetic Algorithm (GA method for the estimation of such models. A GA is used to assign amino acid substitution pairs to a series of rate classes, where is estimated from the alignment. Other parameters of the phylogenetic Markov model, including substitution rates, character frequencies and branch lengths are estimated using standard maximum likelihood optimization procedures. We apply the GA to empirical alignments and show improved model fit over existing models of codon evolution. Our results suggest that current models are poor approximations of protein evolution and thus gene and organism specific multi-rate models that incorporate amino acid substitution biases are preferred. We further anticipate that the clustering of amino acid substitution rates into classes will be biologically informative, such that genes with similar functions exhibit similar clustering, and hence this clustering will be useful for the evolutionary fingerprinting of genes.

  14. Intrinsic Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deci, Edward L.

    The paper draws together a wide variety of research which relates to the topic of intrinsic motivation; intrinsically motivated activities are defined as those which a person does for no apparent reward except the activity itself or the feelings which result from the activity. Most of this research was not originally reported within the framework…

  15. Societal preferences for the return of incidental findings from clinical genomic sequencing: a discrete-choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regier, Dean A; Peacock, Stuart J; Pataky, Reka; van der Hoek, Kimberly; Jarvik, Gail P; Hoch, Jeffrey; Veenstra, David

    2015-04-07

    An important challenge with the application of next-generation sequencing technology is the possibility of uncovering incidental genomic findings. A paucity of evidence on personal utility for incidental findings has hindered clinical guidelines. Our objective was to estimate personal utility for complex information derived from incidental genomic findings. We used a discrete-choice experiment to evaluate participants' personal utility for the following attributes: disease penetrance, disease treatability, disease severity, carrier status and cost. Study participants were drawn from the Canadian public. We analyzed the data with a mixed logit model. In total, 1200 participants completed our questionnaire (available in English and French). Participants valued receiving information about high-penetrance disorders but expressed disutility for receiving information on low-penetrance disorders. The average willingness to pay was $445 (95% confidence interval [CI] $322-$567) to receive incidental findings in a scenario where clinicians returned information about high-penetrance, medically treatable disorders, but only 66% of participants (95% CI 63%-71%) indicated that they would choose to receive information in that scenario. On average, participants placed an important value ($725, 95% CI $600-$850) on having a choice about what type of findings they would receive, including receipt of information about high-penetrance, treatable disorders or receipt of information about high-penetrance disorders with or without available treatment. The predicted uptake of that scenario was 76% (95% CI 72%-79%). Most participants valued receiving incidental findings, but personal utility depended on the type of finding, and not all participants wanted to receive incidental results, regardless of the potential health implications. These results indicate that to maximize benefit, participant-level preferences should inform the decision about whether to return incidental findings. © 2015

  16. Yersinia pestis Caf1 Protein: Effect of Sequence Polymorphism on Intrinsic Disorder Propensity, Serological Cross-Reactivity and Cross-Protectivity of Isoforms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Kh Kopylov

    Full Text Available Yersinia pestis Caf1 is a multifunctional protein responsible for antiphagocytic activity and is a key protective antigen. It is generally conserved between globally distributed Y. pestis strains, but Y. pestis subsp. microtus biovar caucasica strains circulating within populations of common voles in Georgia and Armenia were reported to carry a single substitution of alanine to serine. We investigated polymorphism of the Caf1 sequences among other Y. pestis subsp. microtus strains, which have a limited virulence in guinea pigs and in humans. Sequencing of caf1 genes from 119 Y. pestis strains belonging to different biovars within subsp. microtus showed that the Caf1 proteins exist in three isoforms, the global type Caf1NT1 (Ala48 Phe117, type Caf1NT2 (Ser48 Phe117 found in Transcaucasian-highland and Pre-Araks natural plague foci #4-7, and a novel Caf1NT3 type (Ala48 Val117 endemic in Dagestan-highland natural plague focus #39. Both minor types are the progenies of the global isoform. In this report, Caf1 polymorphism was analyzed by comparing predicted intrinsic disorder propensities and potential protein-protein interactivities of the three Caf1 isoforms. The analysis revealed that these properties of Caf1 protein are minimally affected by its polymorphism. All protein isoforms could be equally detected by an immunochromatography test for plague at the lowest protein concentration tested (1.0 ng/mL, which is the detection limit. When compared to the classic Caf1NT1 isoform, the endemic Caf1NT2 or Caf1NT3 had lower immunoreactivity in ELISA and lower indices of self- and cross-protection. Despite a visible reduction in cross-protection between all Caf1 isoforms, our data suggest that polymorphism in the caf1 gene may not allow the carriers of Caf1NT2 or Caf1NT3 variants escaping from the Caf1NT1-mediated immunity to plague in the case of a low-dose flea-borne infection.

  17. Learning strategy preference of 5XFAD transgenic mice depends on the sequence of place/spatial and cued training in the water maze task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Woo-Hyun; Park, Jung-Cheol; Chung, ChiHye; Jeon, Won Kyung; Han, Jung-Soo

    2014-10-15

    Learning strategy preference was assessed in 5XFAD mice, which carry 5 familial Alzheimer's disease (AD) mutations. Mice were sequentially trained in cued and place/spatial versions of the water maze task. After training, a strategy preference test was conducted in which mice were required to choose between the spatial location where the platform had previously been during the place/spatial training, and a visible platform in a new location. 5XFAD and non-transgenic control mice showed equivalent escape performance in both training tasks. However, in the strategy preference test, 5XFAD mice preferred a cued strategy relative to control mice. When the training sequence was presented in the reverse order (i.e., place/spatial training before cued training), 5XFAD mice showed impairments in place/spatial training, but no differences in cued training or in the strategy preference test comparing to control. Analysis of regional Aβ42 deposition in brains of 5XFAD mice showed that the hippocampus, which is involved in the place/spatial learning strategy, had the highest levels of Aβ42 and the dorsal striatum, which is involved in cued learning strategy, showed a small increase in Aβ42 levels. The effect of training protocol order on performance, and regional differences in Aβ42 deposition observed in 5XFAD mice, suggest differential functional recruitment of brain structures related to learning in healthy and AD individuals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. G+C content dominates intrinsic nucleosome occupancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hughes Timothy R

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relative preference of nucleosomes to form on individual DNA sequences plays a major role in genome packaging. A wide variety of DNA sequence features are believed to influence nucleosome formation, including periodic dinucleotide signals, poly-A stretches and other short motifs, and sequence properties that influence DNA structure, including base content. It was recently shown by Kaplan et al. that a probabilistic model using composition of all 5-mers within a nucleosome-sized tiling window accurately predicts intrinsic nucleosome occupancy across an entire genome in vitro. However, the model is complicated, and it is not clear which specific DNA sequence properties are most important for intrinsic nucleosome-forming preferences. Results We find that a simple linear combination of only 14 simple DNA sequence attributes (G+C content, two transformations of dinucleotide composition, and the frequency of eleven 4-bp sequences explains nucleosome occupancy in vitro and in vivo in a manner comparable to the Kaplan model. G+C content and frequency of AAAA are the most important features. G+C content is dominant, alone explaining ~50% of the variation in nucleosome occupancy in vitro. Conclusions Our findings provide a dramatically simplified means to predict and understand intrinsic nucleosome occupancy. G+C content may dominate because it both reduces frequency of poly-A-like stretches and correlates with many other DNA structural characteristics. Since G+C content is enriched or depleted at many types of features in diverse eukaryotic genomes, our results suggest that variation in nucleotide composition may have a widespread and direct influence on chromatin structure.

  19. Amino acid sequence preferences to control cell-specific organization of endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanie, Kei; Kato, Ryuji; Zhao, Yingzi; Narita, Yuji; Okochi, Mina; Honda, Hiroyuki

    2011-06-01

    Effective surface modification with biocompatible molecules is known to be effective in reducing the life-threatening risks related to artificial cardiovascular implants. In recent strategies in regenerative medicine, the enhancement and support of natural repair systems at the site of injury by designed biocompatible molecules have succeeded in rapid and effective injury repair. Therefore, such a strategy could also be effective for rapid endothelialization of cardiovascular implants to lower the risk of thrombosis and stenosis. To achieve this enhancement of the natural repair system, a biomimetic molecule that mimics proper cellular organization at the implant location is required. In spite of the fact that many reported peptides have cell-attracting properties on material surfaces, there have been few peptides that could control cell-specific adhesion. For the advanced cardiovascular implants, peptides that can mimic the natural mechanism that controls cell-specific organization have been strongly anticipated. To obtain such peptides, we hypothesized the cellular bias toward certain varieties of amino acids and examined the cell preference (in terms of adhesion, proliferation, and protein attraction) of varieties and of repeat length on SPOT peptide arrays. To investigate the role of specific peptides in controlling the organization of various cardiovascular-related cells, we compared endothelial cells (ECs), smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and fibroblasts (FBs). A clear, cell-specific preference was found for amino acids (longer than 5-mer) using three types of cells, and the combinational effect of the physicochemical properties of the residues was analyzed to interpret the mechanism. Copyright © 2011 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Fidelity of target site duplication and sequence preference during integration of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanggu Kim

    Full Text Available Xenotropic murine leukemia virus (MLV-related virus (XMRV is a new human retrovirus associated with prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome. The causal relationship of XMRV infection to human disease and the mechanism of pathogenicity have not been established. During retrovirus replication, integration of the cDNA copy of the viral RNA genome into the host cell chromosome is an essential step and involves coordinated joining of the two ends of the linear viral DNA into staggered sites on target DNA. Correct integration produces proviruses that are flanked by a short direct repeat, which varies from 4 to 6 bp among the retroviruses but is invariant for each particular retrovirus. Uncoordinated joining of the two viral DNA ends into target DNA can cause insertions, deletions, or other genomic alterations at the integration site. To determine the fidelity of XMRV integration, cells infected with XMRV were clonally expanded and DNA sequences at the viral-host DNA junctions were determined and analyzed. We found that a majority of the provirus ends were correctly processed and flanked by a 4-bp direct repeat of host DNA. A weak consensus sequence was also detected at the XMRV integration sites. We conclude that integration of XMRV DNA involves a coordinated joining of two viral DNA ends that are spaced 4 bp apart on the target DNA and proceeds with high fidelity.

  1. Denys-Drash syndrome associated WT1 glutamine 369 mutants have altered sequence-preferences and altered responses to epigenetic modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Hideharu; Zhang, Xing; Zheng, Yu; Wilson, Geoffrey G.; Cheng, Xiaodong

    2016-09-04

    Mutations in human zinc-finger transcription factor WT1 result in abnormal development of the kidneys and genitalia and an array of pediatric problems including nephropathy, blastoma, gonadal dysgenesis and genital discordance. Several overlapping phenotypes are associated with WT1 mutations, including Wilms tumors, Denys-Drash syndrome (DDS), Frasier syndrome (FS) and WAGR syndrome (Wilms tumor, aniridia, genitourinary malformations, and mental retardation). These conditions vary in severity from individual to individual; they can be fatal in early childhood, or relatively benign into adulthood. DDS mutations cluster predominantly in zinc fingers (ZF) 2 and 3 at the C-terminus of WT1, which together with ZF4 determine the sequence-specificity of DNA binding. We examined three DDS associated mutations in ZF2 of human WT1 where the normal glutamine at position 369 is replaced by arginine (Q369R), lysine (Q369K) or histidine (Q369H). These mutations alter the sequence-specificity of ZF2, we find, changing its affinity for certain bases and certain epigenetic forms of cytosine. X-ray crystallography of the DNA binding domains of normal WT1, Q369R and Q369H in complex with preferred sequences revealed the molecular interactions responsible for these affinity changes. DDS is inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion, implying a gain of function by mutant WT1 proteins. This gain, we speculate, might derive from the ability of the mutant proteins to sequester WT1 into unproductive oligomers, or to erroneously bind to variant target sequences.

  2. Time-resolved echo-shared parallel MRA of the lung: observer preference study of image quality in comparison with non-echo-shared sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, C.; Puderbach, M.; Zaporozhan, J.; Plathow, C.; Kauczor, H.-U.; Ley, S.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the image quality of time-resolved echo-shared parallel MRA of the lung. The pulmonary vasculature of nine patients (seven females, two males; median age: 44 years) with pulmonary disease was examined using a time-resolved MRA sequence combining echo sharing with parallel imaging (time-resolved echo-shared angiography technique, or TREAT). The sharpness of the vessel borders, conspicuousness of peripheral lung vessels, artifact level, and overall image quality of TREAT was assessed independently by four readers in a side-by-side comparison with non-echo-shared time-resolved parallel MRA data (pMRA) previously acquired in the same patients. Furthermore, the SNR of pulmonary arteries (PA) and veins (PV) achieved with both pulse sequences was compared. The mean voxel size of TREAT MRA was decreased by 24% compared with the non-echo-shared MRA. Regarding the sharpness of the vessel borders, conspicuousness of peripheral lung vessels, and overall image quality the TREAT sequence was rated superior in 75-76% of all cases. If the TREAT images were preferred over the pMRA images, the advantage was rated as major in 61-71% of all cases. The level of artifacts was not increased with the TREAT sequence. The mean interobserver agreement for all categories ranged between fair (artifact level) and good (overall image quality). The maximum SNR of TREAT did not differ from non-echo-shared parallel MRA (PA: TREAT: 273±45; pMRA: 280±71; PV: TREAT: 273±33; pMRA: 258±62). TREAT achieves a higher spatial resolution than non-echo-shared parallel MRA which is also perceived as an improved image quality. (orig.)

  3. Exploring the correlation between the sequence composition of the nucleotide binding G5 loop of the FeoB GTPase domain (NFeoB) and intrinsic rate of GDP release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilfoyle, Amy P; Deshpande, Chandrika N; Schenk, Gerhard; Maher, Megan J; Jormakka, Mika

    2014-12-12

    GDP release from GTPases is usually extremely slow and is in general assisted by external factors, such as association with guanine exchange factors or membrane-embedded GPCRs (G protein-coupled receptors), which accelerate the release of GDP by several orders of magnitude. Intrinsic factors can also play a significant role; a single amino acid substitution in one of the guanine nucleotide recognition motifs, G5, results in a drastically altered GDP release rate, indicating that the sequence composition of this motif plays an important role in spontaneous GDP release. In the present study, we used the GTPase domain from EcNFeoB (Escherichia coli FeoB) as a model and applied biochemical and structural approaches to evaluate the role of all the individual residues in the G5 loop. Our study confirms that several of the residues in the G5 motif have an important role in the intrinsic affinity and release of GDP. In particular, a T151A mutant (third residue of the G5 loop) leads to a reduced nucleotide affinity and provokes a drastically accelerated dissociation of GDP.

  4. Characterizing and controlling intrinsic biases of lambda exonuclease in nascent strand sequencing reveals phasing between nucleosomes and G-quadruplex motifs around a subset of human replication origins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foulk, M. S.; Urban, J. M.; Casella, Cinzia

    2015-01-01

    Nascent strand sequencing (NS-seq) is used to discover DNA replication origins genome-wide, allowing identification of features for their specification. NS-seq depends on the ability of lambda exonuclease (lambda-exo) to efficiently digest parental DNA while leaving RNA-primer protected nascent...... strands intact. We used genomics and biochemical approaches to determine if lambda-exo digests all parental DNA sequences equally. We report that lambda-exo does not efficiently digest G-quadruplex (G4) structures in a plasmid. Moreover, lambda-exo digestion of nonreplicating genomic DNA (LexoG0) enriches...... GC-rich DNA and G4 motifs genome-wide. We used LexoG0 data to control for nascent strand-independent lambda-exo biases in NSseq and validated this approach at the rDNA locus. The lambda-exo-controlled NS-seq peaks are not GC-rich, and only 35.5% overlap with 6.8% of all G4s, suggesting that G4s...

  5. Characterizing and controlling intrinsic biases of lambda exonuclease in nascent strand sequencing reveals phasing between nucleosomes and G-quadruplex motifs around a subset of human replication origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulk, Michael S; Urban, John M; Casella, Cinzia; Gerbi, Susan A

    2015-05-01

    Nascent strand sequencing (NS-seq) is used to discover DNA replication origins genome-wide, allowing identification of features for their specification. NS-seq depends on the ability of lambda exonuclease (λ-exo) to efficiently digest parental DNA while leaving RNA-primer protected nascent strands intact. We used genomics and biochemical approaches to determine if λ-exo digests all parental DNA sequences equally. We report that λ-exo does not efficiently digest G-quadruplex (G4) structures in a plasmid. Moreover, λ-exo digestion of nonreplicating genomic DNA (LexoG0) enriches GC-rich DNA and G4 motifs genome-wide. We used LexoG0 data to control for nascent strand-independent λ-exo biases in NS-seq and validated this approach at the rDNA locus. The λ-exo-controlled NS-seq peaks are not GC-rich, and only 35.5% overlap with 6.8% of all G4s, suggesting that G4s are not general determinants for origin specification but may play a role for a subset. Interestingly, we observed a periodic spacing of G4 motifs and nucleosomes around the peak summits, suggesting that G4s may position nucleosomes at this subset of origins. Finally, we demonstrate that use of Na(+) instead of K(+) in the λ-exo digestion buffer reduced the effect of G4s on λ-exo digestion and discuss ways to increase both the sensitivity and specificity of NS-seq. © 2015 Foulk et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  6. Preferred-rupture propagation to the hangingwall of the shallow part of the out-of-sequence thrust: Ishido Fault in Boso Peninsula, central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Fukuyama, M.; Ujiie, K.; Hirose, T.; Hamada, Y.; Kitamura, M.; Kamiya, N.

    2016-12-01

    Although earthquake ruptures in shallow portion of plate boundary have recently been identified (e.g. Tohoku, Nankai, etc.), their mechanisms why the shallow portion of plate boundary composed mainly of clay minerals can accumulate strain and make seismic slip are under controversial. An ancient out-of-sequence thrust which divided the early and late Miocene accretionary complexes in the Boso Peninsula, central Japan records rupture propagation to the shallow portion of accretionary prism (The fault core is composed of black-colored thin (The former is characterized by homogeneous glassy matrix including fragments of quartz/feldspar, submicron-sized Fe-rich spherules, and vesicles. Based on the mineralogy of the host rock and EDS analyses of matrices, origin of the pseudotachylite was apparently frictional melting of smectite containing Fe. Fe-rich spherules formed by rapid cooling of pseudotachylite. On the other hand, overturned fault-related drag fold developed in the footwall, within about 30 m. Although some Riedel sheared normal faults developed in the overturned footwall, no other brittle deformations were identified. These occurrences imply coexistence of low- and high-speed slips along the same thrust fault. The whole-rock major and trace elemental analyses using XRF and ICP-MS show that mudstone in the hangingwall has similar chemical composition to those of pseudotachylite and fluidized fault gouge with REE enriched patterns, whereas the footwall has different chemical characteristics with relatively flat REE pattern and low LOI. Therefore, the protolith of pseudotachylite and fluidized fault gouge is mudstone in the hangingwall. These data imply that rupture propagation preferably occurred in the hangingwall along the fault zone. The footwall was also deformed apparently during slow-slip deformation leading to formation of the overturn, whereas only the hangingwall, just side of the fault zone, slipped under high-speed shear.

  7. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation among Collegiate Instrumentalists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Frank M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gather and compare information on measures of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among instrumentalists enrolled in collegiate ensembles. A survey instrument was developed to gather information concerning demographic data and responses to questions on motivational preference. Participants were undergraduate and…

  8. Strong intrinsic motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Dessi, Roberta; Rustichini, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    A large literature in psychology, and more recently in economics, has argued that monetary rewards can reduce intrinsic motivation. We investigate whether the negative impact persists when intrinsic motivation is strong, and test this hypothesis experimentally focusing on the motivation to undertake interesting and challenging tasks, informative about individual ability. We find that this type of task can generate strong intrinsic motivation, that is impervious to the effect of monetary incen...

  9. Idiographic duo-trio tests using a constant-reference based on preference of each consumer: Sample presentation sequence in difference test can be customized for individual consumers to reduce error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-A; Sim, Hye-Min; Lee, Hye-Seong

    2016-11-01

    As reformulations and processing changes are increasingly needed in the food industry to produce healthier, more sustainable, and cost effective products while maintaining superior quality, reliable measurements of consumers' sensory perception and discrimination are becoming more critical. Consumer discrimination methods using a preferred-reference duo-trio test design have been shown to be effective in improving the discrimination performance by customizing sample presentation sequences. However, this design can add complexity to the discrimination task for some consumers, resulting in more errors in sensory discrimination. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of different types of test instructions using the preference-reference duo-trio test design where a paired-preference test is followed by 6 repeated preferred-reference duo-trio tests, in comparison to the analytical method using the balanced-reference duo-trio. Analyses of d' estimates (product-related measure) and probabilistic sensory discriminators in momentary numbers of subjects showing statistical significance (subject-related measure) revealed that only preferred-reference duo-trio test using affective reference-framing, either by providing no information about the reference or information on a previously preferred sample, improved the sensory discrimination more than the analytical method. No decrease in discrimination performance was observed with any type of instruction, confirming that consumers could handle the test methods. These results suggest that when repeated tests are feasible, using the affective discrimination method would be operationally more efficient as well as ecologically more reliable for measuring consumers' sensory discrimination ability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Hidden Structural Codes in Protein Intrinsic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkosky, Silvia S; Camporeale, Gabriela; Chemes, Lucía B; Risso, Marikena; Noval, María Gabriela; Sánchez, Ignacio E; Alonso, Leonardo G; de Prat Gay, Gonzalo

    2017-10-17

    Intrinsic disorder is a major structural category in biology, accounting for more than 30% of coding regions across the domains of life, yet consists of conformational ensembles in equilibrium, a major challenge in protein chemistry. Anciently evolved papillomavirus genomes constitute an unparalleled case for sequence to structure-function correlation in cases in which there are no folded structures. E7, the major transforming oncoprotein of human papillomaviruses, is a paradigmatic example among the intrinsically disordered proteins. Analysis of a large number of sequences of the same viral protein allowed for the identification of a handful of residues with absolute conservation, scattered along the sequence of its N-terminal intrinsically disordered domain, which intriguingly are mostly leucine residues. Mutation of these led to a pronounced increase in both α-helix and β-sheet structural content, reflected by drastic effects on equilibrium propensities and oligomerization kinetics, and uncovers the existence of local structural elements that oppose canonical folding. These folding relays suggest the existence of yet undefined hidden structural codes behind intrinsic disorder in this model protein. Thus, evolution pinpoints conformational hot spots that could have not been identified by direct experimental methods for analyzing or perturbing the equilibrium of an intrinsically disordered protein ensemble.

  11. Independent preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Karl

    1991-01-01

    A simple mathematical result characterizing a subset of a product set is proved and used to obtain additive representations of preferences. The additivity consequences of independence assumptions are obtained for preferences which are not total or transitive. This means that most of the economic ...... theory based on additive preferences - expected utility, discounted utility - has been generalized to preferences which are not total or transitive. Other economic applications of the theorem are given...

  12. Intrinsic-density functionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, J.

    2007-01-01

    The Hohenberg-Kohn theorem and Kohn-Sham procedure are extended to functionals of the localized intrinsic density of a self-bound system such as a nucleus. After defining the intrinsic-density functional, we modify the usual Kohn-Sham procedure slightly to evaluate the mean-field approximation to the functional, and carefully describe the construction of the leading corrections for a system of fermions in one dimension with a spin-degeneracy equal to the number of particles N. Despite the fact that the corrections are complicated and nonlocal, we are able to construct a local Skyrme-like intrinsic-density functional that, while different from the exact functional, shares with it a minimum value equal to the exact ground-state energy at the exact ground-state intrinsic density, to next-to-leading order in 1/N. We briefly discuss implications for real Skyrme functionals

  13. Intrinsic Time Quantum Geometrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Ita III, Eyo Eyo; Soo, Chopin; Yu, Hoi-Lai

    2015-01-01

    Quantum Geometrodynamics with intrinsic time development and momentric variables is presented. An underlying SU(3) group structure at each spatial point regulates the theory. The intrinsic time behavior of the theory is analyzed, together with its ground state and primordial quantum fluctuations. Cotton-York potential dominates at early times when the universe was small; the ground state naturally resolves Penrose's Weyl Curvature Hypothesis, and thermodynamic and gravitational `arrows of tim...

  14. Violation of an evolutionarily conserved immunoglobulin diversity gene sequence preference promotes production of dsDNA-specific IgG antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Silva-Sanchez

    Full Text Available Variability in the developing antibody repertoire is focused on the third complementarity determining region of the H chain (CDR-H3, which lies at the center of the antigen binding site where it often plays a decisive role in antigen binding. The power of VDJ recombination and N nucleotide addition has led to the common conception that the sequence of CDR-H3 is unrestricted in its variability and random in its composition. Under this view, the immune response is solely controlled by somatic positive and negative clonal selection mechanisms that act on individual B cells to promote production of protective antibodies and prevent the production of self-reactive antibodies. This concept of a repertoire of random antigen binding sites is inconsistent with the observation that diversity (DH gene segment sequence content by reading frame (RF is evolutionarily conserved, creating biases in the prevalence and distribution of individual amino acids in CDR-H3. For example, arginine, which is often found in the CDR-H3 of dsDNA binding autoantibodies, is under-represented in the commonly used DH RFs rearranged by deletion, but is a frequent component of rarely used inverted RF1 (iRF1, which is rearranged by inversion. To determine the effect of altering this germline bias in DH gene segment sequence on autoantibody production, we generated mice that by genetic manipulation are forced to utilize an iRF1 sequence encoding two arginines. Over a one year period we collected serial serum samples from these unimmunized, specific pathogen-free mice and found that more than one-fifth of them contained elevated levels of dsDNA-binding IgG, but not IgM; whereas mice with a wild type DH sequence did not. Thus, germline bias against the use of arginine enriched DH sequence helps to reduce the likelihood of producing self-reactive antibodies.

  15. Analysis of host preference and geographical distribution of Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae) using phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I DNA sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boykin, L M; Shatters, R G; Hall, D G; Burns, R E; Franqui, R A

    2006-10-01

    Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) is an economically important pest, restricted to the Greater Antilles and southern Florida. It infests a wide variety of hosts and is of quarantine importance in citrus, a multi-million dollar industry in Florida. The observed recent increase in citrus infested with A. suspensa in Florida has raised questions regarding host-specificity of certain populations and genetic diversity of the pest throughout its geographical distribution. Cytochrome oxidase I (COI) DNA sequence data was used to characterize the genetic diversity of A. suspensa from Florida and Caribbean populations reared from different host plants. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic methods were used to analyse COI data. Sequence variation among mitochondrial COI genes from 107 A. suspensa samples collected throughout Florida and the Caribbean ranged between 0 and 10% and placed all A. suspensa as a monophyletic group that united all A. suspensa in a clade sister to a Central American group of the A. fraterculus paraphyletic species complex. The most likely tree of the COI locus indicated that COI sequence variation was too low to provide resolution at the subspecies level, therefore monophyletic groups based on host-plant use, geography (Florida, Jamaica, Cayman Islands, Puerto Rico or Dominican Republic) or population sampled are not supported. This result indicates that either no population segregation has occurred based on these biological or geographical distinctions and that this is a generalist, polyphagous invasive genotype. Alternatively, if populations are distinct, the segregation event was more recent than can be distinguished based on COI sequence variation.

  16. Intrinsic contractures of the hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paksima, Nader; Besh, Basil R

    2012-02-01

    Contractures of the intrinsic muscles of the fingers disrupt the delicate and complex balance of intrinsic and extrinsic muscles, which allows the hand to be so versatile and functional. The loss of muscle function primarily affects the interphalangeal joints but also may affect etacarpophalangeal joints. The resulting clinical picture is often termed, intrinsic contracture or intrinsic-plus hand. Disruption of the balance between intrinsic and extrinsic muscles has many causes and may be secondary to changes within the intrinsic musculature or the tendon unit. This article reviews diagnosis, etiology, and treatment algorithms in the management of intrinsic contractures of the fingers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Predicting Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Rob; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2004-01-01

    Intrinsic motivation can be predicted from participants' perceptions of the social environment and the task environment (Ryan & Deci, 2000)in terms of control, relatedness and competence. To determine the degree of independence of these factors 251 students in higher vocational education (physiotherapy and hotel management) indicated the…

  18. Concepts of intrinsic safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    A newly introduced Japanese reactor concept, ISER (Intrinsically Safe and Economical Reactor), is intended to be a reference intrinsically safe light water reactor. ISER is designed similarly to PIUS but with greater economy in mind such that any utility in any country can choose it for its power system. Social assimilation and acceptability in the Asia Pacific Region including the United States are the keys to the ISER with the hope of dramatic reductions of social costs due to safeguards, reliability, financiability, and infrastructure building, particularly in the third world, as well as reactor safety itself. In this respect and others, the ISER proposal is different from other vendor-proposed reactor concepts and is unique

  19. Intrinsic terminators in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Tiago Ebert; Siqueira, Franciele Maboni; Schrank, Irene Silveira

    2015-04-08

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, an important pathogen of swine, exhibits a low guanine and cytosine (GC) content genome. M. hyopneumoniae genome is organised in long transcriptional units and promoter sequences have been mapped upstream of all transcription units. These analysis provided insights into the gene organisation and transcription initiation at the genome scale. However, the presence of transcriptional terminator sequences in the M. hyopneumoniae genome is poorly understood. In silico analyses demonstrated the presence of putative terminators in 82% of the 33 monocistronic units (mCs) and in 74% of the 116 polycistronic units (pCs) considering different classes of terminators. The functional activity of 23 intrinsic terminators was confirmed by RT-PCR and qPCR. Analysis of all terminators found by three software algorithms, combined with experimental results, allowed us to propose a pattern of RNA hairpin formation during the termination process and to predict the location of terminators in the M. hyopneumoniae genome sequence. The stem-loop structures of intrinsic terminators of mycoplasma diverge from the pattern of terminators found in other bacteria due the low content of guanine and cytosine. In M. hyopneumoniae, transcription can end after a transcriptional unit and before its terminator sequence and can also continue past the terminator sequence with RNA polymerases gradually releasing the RNA.

  20. Intrinsic and extrinsic mortality reunited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koopman, Jacob J E; Wensink, Maarten J; Rozing, Maarten P

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsic and extrinsic mortality are often separated in order to understand and measure aging. Intrinsic mortality is assumed to be a result of aging and to increase over age, whereas extrinsic mortality is assumed to be a result of environmental hazards and be constant over age. However......, allegedly intrinsic and extrinsic mortality have an exponentially increasing age pattern in common. Theories of aging assert that a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic stressors underlies the increasing risk of death. Epidemiological and biological data support that the control of intrinsic as well...... as extrinsic stressors can alleviate the aging process. We argue that aging and death can be better explained by the interaction of intrinsic and extrinsic stressors than by classifying mortality itself as being either intrinsic or extrinsic. Recognition of the tight interaction between intrinsic and extrinsic...

  1. Molecular Modeling of the Major DNA Adduct Formed from Food Mutagen Ochratoxin A in NarI Two-Base Deletion Duplexes: Impact of Sequence Context and Adduct Ionization on Conformational Preference and Mutagenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathuria, Preetleen; Sharma, Purshotam; Manderville, Richard A; Wetmore, Stacey D

    2017-08-21

    Exposure to ochratoxin A (OTA), a possible human carcinogen, leads to many different DNA mutations. As a first step toward understanding the structural basis of OTA-induced mutagenicity, the present work uses a robust computational approach and a slipped mutagenic intermediate model previously studied for C 8 -dG aromatic amine adducts to analyze the conformational features of postreplication two-base deletion DNA duplexes containing OT-dG, the major OTA lesion at the C 8 position of guanine. Specifically, a total of 960 ns of molecular dynamics simulations (excluding trial simulations) were carried out on four OT-dG ionization states in three sequence contexts within oligomers containing the NarI recognition sequence, a known hotspot for deletion mutations induced by related adducts formed from known carcinogens. Our results indicate that the structural properties and relative stability of the competing "major groove" and "stacked" conformations of OTA adducted two-base deletion duplexes depend on both the OTA ionization state and the sequence context, mainly due to conformation-dependent deviations in discrete local (hydrogen-bonding and stacking) interactions at the lesion site, as well as DNA bending. When the structural characteristics of the OT-dG adducted two-base deletion duplexes are compared to those associated with previously studied C 8 -dG adducts, a greater understanding of the effects of the nucleobase-carcinogen linkage, and size of the carcinogenic moiety on the conformational preferences of damaged DNA is obtained. Most importantly, our work predicts key structural features for OT-dG-adducted deletion DNA duplexes, which in turn allow us to develop hypotheses regarding OT-dG replication outcomes. Thus, our computational results are valuable for the design and interpretation of future biochemical studies on the potentially carcinogenic OT-dG lesion.

  2. Intrinsic superspin Hall current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Jacob; Amundsen, Morten; Risinggârd, Vetle

    2017-09-01

    We discover an intrinsic superspin Hall current: an injected charge supercurrent in a Josephson junction containing heavy normal metals and a ferromagnet generates a transverse spin supercurrent. There is no accompanying dissipation of energy, in contrast to the conventional spin Hall effect. The physical origin of the effect is an antisymmetric spin density induced among transverse modes ky near the interface of the superconductor arising due to the coexistence of p -wave and conventional s -wave superconducting correlations with a belonging phase mismatch. Our predictions can be tested in hybrid structures including thin heavy metal layers combined with strong ferromagnets and ordinary s -wave superconductors.

  3. Social preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulløv, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this article is social divisions among preschool children in daycare centers. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in three daycare centers in Denmark, the analysis concerns young children’s social preferences. The ethnographic material shows that despite an explicit political ambition...... of daycares as means for social and cultural integration, lines of division do exist amongst the children. Such divisions are established in the daily interactions of the daycare, but they also reflect those of the broader society. With a focus on children’s interactions and social preferences, the material...... indicates that children’s choices of playmates run along lines of ethnic and class divisions. The article will address this pattern and analyze its causes in order to understand why such lines of divisions are to be found in an institutional context designed to overcome social inequality and prevent social...

  4. Intrinsic Chevrolets at the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.; Collins, J.C.; Ellis, S.D.; Gunion, J.F.; Mueller, A.H.

    1984-01-01

    The possibility of the production at high energy of heavy quarks, supersymmetric particles and other large mass colored systems via the intrinsic twist-six components in the proton wave function is discussed. While the existing data do not rule out the possible relevance of intrinsic charm production at present energies, the extrapolation of such intrinsic contributions to very high masses and energies suggests that they will not play an important role at the SSC

  5. The Intrinsic Characteristics of Galaxies on the SFR–M ∗ Plane at 1.2 < z < 4: I. The Correlation between Stellar Age, Central Density, and Position Relative to the Main Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bomee; Giavalisco, Mauro; Whitaker, Katherine; Williams, Christina C.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Acquaviva, Viviana; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Straughn, Amber N.; Guo, Yicheng; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Lotz, Jennifer; Pacifici, Camilla; Croton, Darren J.; Somerville, Rachel S.; Lu, Yu

    2018-02-01

    We use the deep CANDELS observations in the GOODS North and South fields to revisit the correlations between stellar mass (M *), star formation rate (SFR) and morphology, and to introduce a fourth dimension, the mass-weighted stellar age, in galaxies at 1.2history for each galaxy. Like others, we find that the slope of the main sequence (MS) of star formation in the ({M}* ;{SFR}) plane bends at high mass. We observe clear morphological differences among galaxies across the MS, which also correlate with stellar age. At all redshifts, galaxies that are quenching or quenched, and thus old, have high {{{Σ }}}1 (the projected density within the central 1 kpc), while younger, star-forming galaxies span a much broader range of {{{Σ }}}1, which includes the high values observed for quenched galaxies, but also extends to much lower values. As galaxies age and quench, the stellar age and the dispersion of {{{Σ }}}1 for fixed values of M * shows two different regimes: one at the low-mass end, where quenching might be driven by causes external to the galaxies; the other at the high-mass end, where quenching is driven by internal causes, very likely the mass given the low scatter of {{{Σ }}}1 (mass quenching). We suggest that the monotonic increase of central density as galaxies grow is one manifestation of a more general phenomenon of structural transformation that galaxies undergo as they evolve.

  6. Intrinsic and extrinsic mortality reunited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Jacob J E; Wensink, Maarten J; Rozing, Maarten P; van Bodegom, David; Westendorp, Rudi G J

    2015-07-01

    Intrinsic and extrinsic mortality are often separated in order to understand and measure aging. Intrinsic mortality is assumed to be a result of aging and to increase over age, whereas extrinsic mortality is assumed to be a result of environmental hazards and be constant over age. However, allegedly intrinsic and extrinsic mortality have an exponentially increasing age pattern in common. Theories of aging assert that a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic stressors underlies the increasing risk of death. Epidemiological and biological data support that the control of intrinsic as well as extrinsic stressors can alleviate the aging process. We argue that aging and death can be better explained by the interaction of intrinsic and extrinsic stressors than by classifying mortality itself as being either intrinsic or extrinsic. Recognition of the tight interaction between intrinsic and extrinsic stressors in the causation of aging leads to the recognition that aging is not inevitable, but malleable through the environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Intrinsic Chirality Origination in Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Neal; Chen, Gugang; P Rajukumar, Lakshmy; Chou, Nam Hawn; Koh, Ai Leen; Sinclair, Robert; Maruyama, Shigeo; Terrones, Mauricio; Harutyunyan, Avetik R

    2017-10-24

    Elucidating the origin of carbon nanotube chirality is key for realizing their untapped potential. Currently, prevalent theories suggest that catalyst structure originates chirality via an epitaxial relationship. Here we studied chirality abundances of carbon nanotubes grown on floating liquid Ga droplets, which excludes the influence of catalyst features, and compared them with abundances grown on solid Ru nanoparticles. Results of growth on liquid droplets bolsters the intrinsic preference of carbon nuclei toward certain chiralities. Specifically, the abundance of the (11,1)/χ = 4.31° tube can reach up to 95% relative to (9,4)/χ = 17.48°, although they have exactly the same diameter, (9.156 Å). However, the comparative abundances for the pair, (19,3)/χ = 7.2° and (17,6)/χ = 14.5°, with bigger diameter, (16.405 Å), fluctuate depending on synthesis temperature. The abundances of the same pairs of tubes grown on floating solid polyhedral Ru nanoparticles show completely different trends. Analysis of abundances in relation to nucleation probability, represented by a product of the Zeldovich factor and the deviation interval of a growing nuclei from equilibrium critical size, explain the findings. We suggest that the chirality in the nanotube in general is a result of interplay between intrinsic preference of carbon cluster and induction by catalyst structure. This finding can help to build the comprehensive theory of nanotube growth and offers a prospect for chirality-preferential synthesis of carbon nanotubes by the exploitation of liquid catalyst droplets.

  8. Intrinsically Passive Handling and Grasping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stramigioli, Stefano; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.; Khodabandehloo, Koorosh

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents a control philosophy called Intrinsically Passive Control, which has the feature to properly behave during interaction with any passive objects. The controlled robot will never become unstable due to the physical structure of the controller.

  9. Does Intrinsic Habit Formation Actually Resolve the Equity Premium Puzzle?

    OpenAIRE

    David A. Chapman

    2002-01-01

    Constantinides (1990) describes a simple model of intrinsic habit formation that appears to resolve the "equity premium puzzle" of Mehra and Prescott (1985). This finding is particularly important, since it has motivated a broader consideration of the implications of habit formation preferences in dynamic equilibrium models. However, consumption growth actually behaves very differently pre- and post-1948, and the explanatory power of the habit formation model is driven by the pre-1948 data. U...

  10. Social Preferences and Strategic Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabrales, Antonio; Miniaci, Raffaele; Piovesan, Marco

    This paper reports experimental evidence on a stylized labor market. The experiment is designed as a sequence of three phases. In the first two phases, P1 and P2; agents face simple games, which we use to estimate subjects' social and reciprocity concerns, together with their beliefs. In the last......, for both principals and agents. Finally, we also see that social preferences explain, to a large extent, matching between principals and agents, since agents display a marked propensity to work for principals with similar social preferences...

  11. A dynamic birth-death model via Intrinsic Linkage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Schoen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Dynamic population models, or models with changing vital rates, are only beginning to receive serious attention from mathematical demographers. Despite considerable progress, there is still no general analytical solution for the size or composition of a population generated by an arbitrary sequence of vital rates. OBJECTIVE The paper introduces a new approach, Intrinsic Linkage, that in many cases can analytically determine the birth trajectory of a dynamic birth-death population. METHODS Intrinsic Linkage assumes a weighted linear relationship between (i the time trajectory of proportional increases in births in a population and (ii the trajectory of the intrinsic rates of growth of the projection matrices that move the population forward in time. Flexibility is provided through choice of the weighting parameter, w, that links these two trajectories. RESULTS New relationships are found linking implied intrinsic and observed population patterns of growth. Past experience is "forgotten" through a process of simple exponential decay. When the intrinsic growth rate trajectory follows a polynomial, exponential, or cyclical pattern, the population birth trajectory can be expressed analytically in closed form. Numerical illustrations provide population values and relationships in metastable and cyclically stable models. Plausible projection matrices are typically found for a broad range of values of w, although w appears to vary greatly over time in actual populations. CONCLUSIONS The Intrinsic Linkage approach extends current techniques for dynamic modeling, revealing new relationships between population structures and the changing vital rates that generate them.

  12. Small-angle scattering studies of intrinsically disordered proteins and their complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordeiro, Tiago N.; Herranz-Trillo, Fátima; Urbanek, Annika

    2017-01-01

    Intrinsically Disordered Proteins (IDPs) perform a broad range of biological functions. Their relevance has motivated intense research activity seeking to characterize their sequence/structure/function relationships. However, the conformational plasticity of these molecules hampers the applicatio...

  13. The Impact of O-Glycan Chemistry on the Stability of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckham, Gregg T [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Prates, Erica T [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Crowley, Michael F [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Guan, Xiaoyang [University of Colorado; Li, Yaohao [University of Colorado; Wang, Xinfeng [University of Colorado; Chaffey, Patrick K. [University of Colorado; Skaf, Munir S. [University of Campinas; Tan, Zhongping [University of Colorado

    2018-03-02

    Protein glycosylation is a diverse post-translational modification that serves myriad biological functions. O-linked glycans in particular vary widely in extent and chemistry in eukaryotes, with secreted proteins from fungi and yeast commonly exhibiting O-mannosylation in intrinsically disordered regions of proteins, likely for proteolysis protection, among other functions. However, it is not well understood why mannose is often the preferred glycan, and more generally, if the neighboring protein sequence and glycan have coevolved to protect against proteolysis in glycosylated intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). Here, we synthesized variants of a model IDP, specifically a natively O-mannosylated linker from a fungal enzyme, with a-O-linked mannose, glucose, and galactose moieties, along with a non-glycosylated linker. Upon exposure to thermolysin, O-mannosylation, by far, provides the highest extent of proteolysis protection. To explain this observation, extensive molecular dynamics simulations were conducted, revealing that the axial configuration of the C2-hydroxyl group (2-OH) of a-mannose adjacent to the glycan-peptide bond strongly influences the conformational features of the linker. Specifically, a-mannose restricts the torsions of the IDP main chain more than other glycans whose equatorial 2-OH groups exhibit interactions that favor perpendicular glycan-protein backbone orientation. We suggest that IDP stiffening due to O-mannosylation impairs protease action, with contributions from protein-glycan interactions, protein flexibility, and protein stability. Our results further imply that resistance to proteolysis is an important driving force for evolutionary selection of a-mannose in eukaryotic IDPs, and more broadly, that glycan motifs for proteolysis protection likely coevolve with the protein sequence to which they attach.

  14. VIERS- User Preference Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Preferences service provides a means to store, retrieve, and manage user preferences. The service supports definition of enterprise wide preferences, as well as...

  15. Intrinsic position uncertainty impairs overt search performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semizer, Yelda; Michel, Melchi M

    2017-08-01

    Uncertainty regarding the position of the search target is a fundamental component of visual search. However, due to perceptual limitations of the human visual system, this uncertainty can arise from intrinsic, as well as extrinsic, sources. The current study sought to characterize the role of intrinsic position uncertainty (IPU) in overt visual search and to determine whether it significantly limits human search performance. After completing a preliminary detection experiment to characterize sensitivity as a function of visual field position, observers completed a search task that required localizing a Gabor target within a field of synthetic luminance noise. The search experiment included two clutter conditions designed to modulate the effect of IPU across search displays of varying set size. In the Cluttered condition, the display was tiled uniformly with feature clutter to maximize the effects of IPU. In the Uncluttered condition, the clutter at irrelevant locations was removed to attenuate the effects of IPU. Finally, we derived an IPU-constrained ideal searcher model, limited by the IPU measured in human observers. Ideal searchers were simulated based on the detection sensitivity and fixation sequences measured for individual human observers. The IPU-constrained ideal searcher predicted performance trends similar to those exhibited by the human observers. In the Uncluttered condition, performance decreased steeply as a function of increasing set size. However, in the Cluttered condition, the effect of IPU dominated and performance was approximately constant as a function of set size. Our findings suggest that IPU substantially limits overt search performance, especially in crowded displays.

  16. Rich preference-based argumentation frameworks

    OpenAIRE

    Amgoud , Leila; Vesic , Srdjan

    2014-01-01

    International audience; An argumentation framework is seen as a directed graph whose nodes are arguments and arcs are attacks between the arguments. Acceptable sets of arguments, called extensions, are computed using a semantics. Existing semantics are solely based on the attacks and do not take into account other important criteria like the intrinsic strengths of arguments. The contribution of this paper is three fold. First, we study how preferences issued from differences in strengths of a...

  17. Functional Anthology of Intrinsic Disorder. III. Ligands, Postranslational Modifications and Diseases Associated with Intrinsically Disordered Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hongbo; Vucetic, Slobodan; Iakoucheva, Lilia M.; Oldfield, Christopher J.; Dunker, A. Keith; Obradovic, Zoran; Uversky, Vladimir N.

    2008-01-01

    Currently, the understanding of the relationships between function, amino acid sequence and protein structure continues to represent one of the major challenges of the modern protein science. As much as 50% of eukaryotic proteins are likely to contain functionally important long disordered regions. Many proteins are wholly disordered but still possess numerous biologically important functions. However, the number of experimentally confirmed disordered proteins with known biological functions is substantially smaller than their actual number in nature. Therefore, there is a crucial need for novel bioinformatics approaches that allow projection of the current knowledge from a few experimentally verified examples to much larger groups of known and potential proteins. The elaboration of a bioinformatics tool for the analysis of functional diversity of intrinsically disordered proteins and application of this data mining tool to >200,000 proteins from Swiss-Prot database, each annotated with at least one of the 875 functional keywords was described in the first paper of this series (Xie H., Vucetic S., Iakoucheva L.M., Oldfield C.J., Dunker A.K., Obradovic Z., Uversky V.N. (2006) Functional anthology of intrinsic disorder. I. Biological processes and functions of proteins with long disordered regions. J. Proteome Res.). Using this tool, we have found that out of the 711 Swiss-Prot functional keywords associated with at least 20 proteins, 262 were strongly positively correlated with long intrinsically disordered regions, and 302 were strongly negatively correlated. Illustrative examples of functional disorder or order were found for the vast majority of keywords showing strongest positive or negative correlation with intrinsic disorder, respectively. Some 80 Swiss-Prot keywords associated with disorder- and order-driven biological processes and protein functions were described in the first paper (Xie H., Vucetic S., Iakoucheva L.M., Oldfield C.J., Dunker A.K., Obradovic

  18. Intrinsic Motivation in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Benjamin; Nambiar, Nathan; Hemphill, Caroline; Devietti, Elizabeth; Massengale, Alexandra; McCredie, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    This article describes ways in which educators can use Harter's perceived competence motivation theory, the achievement goal theory, and self-determination theory to develop students' intrinsic motivation to maintain physical fitness, as demonstrated by the Sound Body Sound Mind curriculum and proven effective by the 2013 University of…

  19. Acoustic resonance spectroscopy intrinsic seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olinger, C.T.; Burr, T.; Vnuk, D.R.

    1994-01-01

    We have begun to quantify the ability of acoustic resonance spectroscopy (ARS) to detect the removal and replacement of the lid of a simulated special nuclear materials drum. Conceptually, the acoustic spectrum of a container establishcs a baseline fingerprint, which we refer to as an intrinsic seal, for the container. Simply removing and replacing the lid changes some of the resonant frequencies because it is impossible to exactly duplicate all of the stress patterns between the lid and container. Preliminary qualitative results suggested that the ARS intrinsic seal could discriminate between cases where a lid has or has not been removed. The present work is directed at quantifying the utility of the ARS intrinsic seal technique, including the technique's sensitivity to ''nuisance'' effects, such as temperature swings, movement of the container, and placement of the transducers. These early quantitative tests support the potential of the ARS intrinsic seal application, but also reveal a possible sensitivity to nuisance effects that could limit environments or conditions under which the technique is effective

  20. A comparison of South African and German extrinsic and intrinsic motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Snelgar, Robin; Shelton, Stacy A.; Giesser, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Background: Various researchers have identified a trend of individuals shifting their preference from extrinsic to intrinsic motivation. The authors aimed to research this phenomenon specifically within the context of two different cultures as to date, this had not been done. This research explored the differing levels of extrinsic and intrinsic motivation in Germans and South Africans. Aim: The main objective of this study was to investigate similarities and differences concerning extrins...

  1. Transitivity of Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenwetter, Michel; Dana, Jason; Davis-Stober, Clintin P.

    2011-01-01

    Transitivity of preferences is a fundamental principle shared by most major contemporary rational, prescriptive, and descriptive models of decision making. To have transitive preferences, a person, group, or society that prefers choice option "x" to "y" and "y" to "z" must prefer "x" to…

  2. Methods for otpimum and near optimum disassembly sequencing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambert, A.J.D.; Gupta, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers disassembly sequencing problems subjected to sequence dependent disassembly costs. In practice, the methods for dealing with such problems rely mainly on metaheuristic and heuristic methods, which intrinsically generate suboptimum solutions. Exact methods are NP-hard and

  3. Comparing Intrinsic Connectivity Models for the Primary Auditory Cortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Khairiah Abdul; Yusoff, Ahmad Nazlim; Mohamad, Mazlyfarina; Hamid, Aini Ismafairus Abd; Manan, Hanani Abd

    2010-07-01

    This fMRI study is about modeling the intrinsic connectivity between Heschl' gyrus (HG) and superior temporal gyrus (STG) in human primary auditory cortices. Ten healthy male subjects participated and required to listen to white noise stimulus during the fMRI scans. Two intrinsic connectivity models comprising bilateral HG and STG were constructed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and dynamic causal modeling (DCM). Group Bayes factor (GBF), positive evidence ratio (PER) and Bayesian model selection (BMS) for group studies were used in model comparison. Group results indicated significant bilateral asymmetrical activation (puncorr < 0.001) in HG and STG. Comparison results showed strong evidence of Model 2 as the preferred model (STG as the input center) with GBF value of 5.77 × 1073 The model is preferred by 6 out of 10 subjects. The results were supported by BMS results for group studies. One-sample t-test on connection values obtained from Model 2 indicates unidirectional parallel connections from STG to bilateral HG (p<0.05). Model 2 was determined to be the most probable intrinsic connectivity model between bilateral HG and STG when listening to white noise.

  4. The intrinsic shape of bulges in the CALIFA survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantin, L.; Méndez-Abreu, J.; Corsini, E. M.; Eliche-Moral, M. C.; Tapia, T.; Morelli, L.; Dalla Bontà, E.; Pizzella, A.

    2018-02-01

    Context. The intrinsic shape of galactic bulges in nearby galaxies provides crucial information to separate bulge types. Aims: We aim to derive accurate constraints to the intrinsic shape of bulges to provide new clues on their formation mechanisms and set new limitations for future simulations. Methods: We retrieved the intrinsic shape of a sample of CALIFA bulges using a statistical approach. Taking advantage of GalMer numerical simulations of binary mergers we estimated the reliability of the procedure. Analyzing the i-band mock images of resulting lenticular remnants, we studied the intrinsic shape of their bulges at different galaxy inclinations. Finally, we introduced a new (B/A, C/A) diagram to analyze possible correlations between the intrinsic shape and the properties of bulges. Results: We tested the method on simulated lenticular remnants, finding that for galaxies with inclinations of 25° ≤ θ ≤ 65° we can safely derive the intrinsic shape of their bulges. We found that our CALIFA bulges tend to be nearly oblate systems (66%), with a smaller fraction of prolate spheroids (19%), and triaxial ellipsoids (15%). The majority of triaxial bulges are in barred galaxies (75%). Moreover, we found that bulges with low Sérsic indices or in galaxies with low bulge-to-total luminosity ratios form a heterogeneous class of objects; additionally, bulges in late-type galaxies or in less massive galaxies have no preference for being oblate, prolate, or triaxial. On the contrary, bulges with high Sérsic index, in early-type galaxies, or in more massive galaxies are mostly oblate systems. Conclusions: We concluded that various evolutionary pathways may coexist in galaxies, with merging events and dissipative collapse being the main mechanisms driving the formation of the most massive oblate bulges and bar evolution reshaping the less massive triaxial bulges.

  5. The Sequencing of Basic Chemistry Topics by Physical Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibanda, Doras; Hobden, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out teachers' preferred teaching sequence for basic chemistry topics in Physical Science in South Africa, to obtain their reasons underpinning their preferred sequence, and to compare these sequences with the prescribed sequences in the current curriculum. The study was located within a pragmatic paradigm and…

  6. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivational orientations in the competitive context: an examination of person-situation interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuhamdeh, Sami; Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly

    2009-10-01

    The current study examined Intrinsic Motivation Orientation and Extrinsic Motivation Orientation (Work Preference Inventory; Amabile, Hill, Hennessey, & Tighe, 1994) as potential trait-level moderators of the way Internet chess players responded to the intrinsic and extrinsic rewards of the chess games they played. On the basis of the defining characteristics of these 2 types of motivational orientations, we predicted that (a) Intrinsic Motivation Orientation would be associated with a stronger curvilinear relationship between challenge and enjoyment and (b) Extrinsic Motivation Orientation would be associated with a heightened affective responsivity to competitive outcome (i.e., winning vs. losing). Results supported the predictions. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  7. Honors pedagogy: tailoring learning preferences of honors and regular students for autonomy and structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kingma, Tineke; Kamans, Elanor; Heijne, Marjolein; Wolfensberger, Marca; Jaarsma, Debbie

    2017-01-01

    Students differ in their learning preferences. When students are more intrinsically motivated this improves their well-being and involvement (Levesque, Zuehlke, Stanek, & Ryan, 2004). Teaching highly motivated honors students places different demands on teachers (Wolfensberger, 2012). High motivated

  8. N-terminal segments modulate the α-helical propensities of the intrinsically disordered basic regions of bZIP proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rahul K; Crick, Scott L; Pappu, Rohit V

    2012-02-17

    Basic region leucine zippers (bZIPs) are modular transcription factors that play key roles in eukaryotic gene regulation. The basic regions of bZIPs (bZIP-bRs) are necessary and sufficient for DNA binding and specificity. Bioinformatic predictions and spectroscopic studies suggest that unbound monomeric bZIP-bRs are uniformly disordered as isolated domains. Here, we test this assumption through a comparative characterization of conformational ensembles for 15 different bZIP-bRs using a combination of atomistic simulations and circular dichroism measurements. We find that bZIP-bRs have quantifiable preferences for α-helical conformations in their unbound monomeric forms. This helicity varies from one bZIP-bR to another despite a significant sequence similarity of the DNA binding motifs (DBMs). Our analysis reveals that intramolecular interactions between DBMs and eight-residue segments directly N-terminal to DBMs are the primary modulators of bZIP-bR helicities. We test the accuracy of this inference by designing chimeras of bZIP-bRs to have either increased or decreased overall helicities. Our results yield quantitative insights regarding the relationship between sequence and the degree of intrinsic disorder within bZIP-bRs, and might have general implications for other intrinsically disordered proteins. Understanding how natural sequence variations lead to modulation of disorder is likely to be important for understanding the evolution of specificity in molecular recognition through intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A preference for migration

    OpenAIRE

    Stark, Oded

    2007-01-01

    At least to some extent migration behavior is the outcome of a preference for migration. The pattern of migration as an outcome of a preference for migration depends on two key factors: imitation technology and migration feasibility. We show that these factors jointly determine the outcome of a preference for migration and we provide examples that illustrate how the prevalence and transmission of a migration-forming preference yield distinct migration patterns. In particular, the imitation of...

  10. Content of intrinsic disorder influences the outcome of cell-free protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokmakov, Alexander A; Kurotani, Atsushi; Ikeda, Mariko; Terazawa, Yumiko; Shirouzu, Mikako; Stefanov, Vasily; Sakurai, Tetsuya; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2015-09-11

    Cell-free protein synthesis is used to produce proteins with various structural traits. Recent bioinformatics analyses indicate that more than half of eukaryotic proteins possess long intrinsically disordered regions. However, no systematic study concerning the connection between intrinsic disorder and expression success of cell-free protein synthesis has been presented until now. To address this issue, we examined correlations of the experimentally observed cell-free protein expression yields with the contents of intrinsic disorder bioinformatically predicted in the expressed sequences. This analysis revealed strong relationships between intrinsic disorder and protein amenability to heterologous cell-free expression. On the one hand, elevated disorder content was associated with the increased ratio of soluble expression. On the other hand, overall propensity for detectable protein expression decreased with disorder content. We further demonstrated that these tendencies are rooted in some distinct features of intrinsically disordered regions, such as low hydrophobicity, elevated surface accessibility and high abundance of sequence motifs for proteolytic degradation, including sites of ubiquitination and PEST sequences. Our findings suggest that identification of intrinsically disordered regions in the expressed amino acid sequences can be of practical use for predicting expression success and optimizing cell-free protein synthesis.

  11. Preferences for Simultaneous Polydrug Use:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jeanette; Østergaard, Stine Vernstrøm; Fletcher, Adam

    2016-01-01

    among those reporting drug use, according to sociodemographics, alcohol intake, frequency of intoxication, and smoking. Illicit drug use was more prevalent among young adults in England than Denmark. The difference was smallest for cannabis use: Lifetime cannabis use is 66% in England and 58% in Denmark......Cross-national surveys of young adults’ simultaneous polydrug use (SPU) are rare, as measuring polydrug use requires multiple questions capturing the timing, sequence, and dosage of mixing drugs. This study proposes a new way of measuring SPU by examining how preferences for simultaneous polydrug...... use (PSPU) vary among club/bar-goers in two European countries, Denmark and England, typically cited as exemplars of the normalization of illegal drug use. The study considers the utility of the normalization thesis for understanding preferences for polydrug use in the European nighttime economy...

  12. Implicit Structured Sequence Learning: An FMRI Study of the Structural Mere-Exposure Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliki eFolia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this event-related FMRI study we investigated the effect of five days of implicit acquisition on preference classification by means of an artificial grammar learning (AGL paradigm based on the structural mere-exposure effect and preference classification using a simple right-linear unification grammar. This allowed us to investigate implicit AGL in a proper learning design by including baseline measurements prior to grammar exposure. After 5 days of implicit acquisition, the FMRI results showed activations in a network of brain regions including the inferior frontal (centered on BA 44/45 and the medial prefrontal regions (centered on BA 8/32. Importantly, and central to this study, the inclusion of a naive preference FMRI baseline measurement allowed us to conclude that these FMRI findings were the intrinsic outcomes of the learning process itself and not a reflection of a preexisting functionality recruited during classification, independent of acquisition. Support for the implicit nature of the knowledge utilized during preference classification on day 5 come from the fact that the basal ganglia, associated with implicit procedural learning, were activated during classification, while the medial temporal lobe system, associated with explicit declarative memory, was consistently deactivated. Thus, preference classification in combination with structural mere-exposure can be used to investigate structural sequence processing (syntax in unsupervised AGL paradigms with proper learning designs.

  13. Implicit structured sequence learning: an fMRI study of the structural mere-exposure effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folia, Vasiliki; Petersson, Karl Magnus

    2014-01-01

    In this event-related fMRI study we investigated the effect of 5 days of implicit acquisition on preference classification by means of an artificial grammar learning (AGL) paradigm based on the structural mere-exposure effect and preference classification using a simple right-linear unification grammar. This allowed us to investigate implicit AGL in a proper learning design by including baseline measurements prior to grammar exposure. After 5 days of implicit acquisition, the fMRI results showed activations in a network of brain regions including the inferior frontal (centered on BA 44/45) and the medial prefrontal regions (centered on BA 8/32). Importantly, and central to this study, the inclusion of a naive preference fMRI baseline measurement allowed us to conclude that these fMRI findings were the intrinsic outcomes of the learning process itself and not a reflection of a preexisting functionality recruited during classification, independent of acquisition. Support for the implicit nature of the knowledge utilized during preference classification on day 5 come from the fact that the basal ganglia, associated with implicit procedural learning, were activated during classification, while the medial temporal lobe system, associated with explicit declarative memory, was consistently deactivated. Thus, preference classification in combination with structural mere-exposure can be used to investigate structural sequence processing (syntax) in unsupervised AGL paradigms with proper learning designs.

  14. The effect of professional culture on intrinsic motivation among physicians in an academic medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janus, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    Today, most healthcare organizations aim to manage professionals' motivation through monetary incentives, such as pay for performance. However, addressing motivation extrinsically can involve negative effects, such as disturbed teamwork, gaming the system, and crowd-out of intrinsic motivation. To offset these side effects, it is crucial to support professionals' intrinsic motivation actively, which is largely determined by enjoyment- and obligation-based social norms that derive from professionals' culture. For this study, a professional culture questionnaire was designed and validated, the results of which uncovered three factors: relationship to work, relationship to colleagues, and relationship to organization. These factors served as independent variables for regression analyses. Second, Amabile's validated work preference inventory was used to measure intrinsic motivation as a dependent variable. The regression analysis was controlled for sex, age, and experience. The study revealed that relationship to work had the strongest (and a positive) impact on intrinsic motivation in general and on Amabile's intrinsic subscales, enjoyment and challenge. Relationship to organization had a negative impact on intrinsic motivation and both subscales, and relationship to colleagues showed a low positive significance for the intrinsic scale only. Healthcare organizations have mostly focused on targeting professionals' extrinsic motivation. However, managing dimensions of professional culture can help support professionals' intrinsic motivation without incurring the side effects of monetary incentives.

  15. Intrinsic stability of technical superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veringa, H.J.

    1981-10-01

    For the operation of technical superconductors under high current density conditions, the superconducting wires composing high current cables should be intrinsically stabilized. In this report the various important stability criteria are derived and investigated on their validity. An experimental set up is made to check the occurrence of magnetic instabilities if the different applicable criteria are violated. It is found that the observed instabilities can be predicted on the basis of the model given in this report. Production of high current cables based upon composites made by the ECN technique seems to be possible. (Auth.)

  16. Nuclear Filtering of Intrinsic Charm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Potashnikova, I. K.; Schmidt, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Nuclei are transparent for a heavy intrinsic charm (IC) component of the beam hadrons, what leads to an enhanced nuclear dependence of open charm production at large Feynman x F . Indeed, such an effect is supported by data from the SELEX experiment published recently [1]. Our calculations reproduce well the data, providing strong support for the presence of IC in hadrons in amount less than 1%. Moreover, we performed an analysis of nuclear effects in J/Ψ production and found at large x F a similar, albeit weaker effect, which does not contradict data.

  17. Symmetries of collective models in intrinsic frame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozdz, A.; Pedrak, A.; Szulerecka, A.; Dobrowolski, A.; Dudek, J.

    2013-01-01

    In the paper a very general definition of intrinsic frame, by means of group theoretical methods, is introduced. It allows to analyze nuclear properties which are invariant in respect to the group which defines the intrinsic frame. For example, nuclear shape is a well determined feature in the intrinsic frame defined by the Euclidean group. It is shown that using of intrinsic frame gives an opportunity to consider intrinsic nuclear symmetries which are independent of symmetries observed in the laboratory frame. An importance of the notion of partial symmetries is emphasized. (author)

  18. Preferences over Social Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten; Rutström, E. Elisabet

    2013-01-01

    that subjects systematically reveal different risk attitudes in a social setting with no prior knowledge about the risk preferences of others compared to when they solely bear the consequences of the decision. However, we also find that subjects are significantly more risk averse when they know the risk......We elicit individual preferences over social risk. We identify the extent to which these preferences are correlated with preferences over individual risk and the well-being of others. We examine these preferences in the context of laboratory experiments over small, anonymous groups, although...... the methodological issues extend to larger groups that form endogenously (e.g., families, committees, communities). Preferences over social risk can be closely approximated by individual risk attitudes when subjects have no information about the risk preferences of other group members. We find no evidence...

  19. Intrinsic cylindrical and spherical waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludlow, I K

    2008-01-01

    Intrinsic waveforms associated with cylindrical and spherical Bessel functions are obtained by eliminating the factors responsible for the inverse radius and inverse square radius laws of wave power per unit area of wavefront. The resulting expressions are Riccati-Bessel functions for both cases and these can be written in terms of amplitude and phase functions of order v and wave variable z. When z is real, it is shown that a spatial phase angle of the intrinsic wave can be defined and this, together with its amplitude function, is systematically investigated for a range of fixed orders and varying z. The derivatives of Riccati-Bessel functions are also examined. All the component functions exhibit different behaviour in the near field depending on the order being less than, equal to or greater than 1/2. Plots of the phase angle can be used to display the locations of the zeros of the general Riccati-Bessel functions and lead to new relations concerning the ordering of the real zeros of Bessel functions and the occurrence of multiple zeros when the argument of the Bessel function is fixed

  20. Functional Advantages of Conserved Intrinsic Disorder in RNA-Binding Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Varadi, Mihaly; Zsolyomi, Fruzsina; Guharoy, Mainak; Tompa, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Proteins form large macromolecular assemblies with RNA that govern essential molecular processes. RNA-binding proteins have often been associated with conformational flexibility, yet the extent and functional implications of their intrinsic disorder have never been fully assessed. Here, through large-scale analysis of comprehensive protein sequence and structure datasets we demonstrate the prevalence of intrinsic structural disorder in RNA-binding proteins and domains. We addressed their func...

  1. Intrinsic irreversibility in quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prigogine, I.; Petrosky, T.Y.

    1987-01-01

    Quantum theory has a dual structure: while solutions of the Schroedinger equation evolve in a deterministic and time reversible way, measurement introduces irreversibility and stochasticity. This presents a contrast to Bohr-Sommerfeld-Einstein theory, in which transitions between quantum states are associated with spontaneous and induced transitions, defined in terms of stochastic processes. A new form of quantum theory is presented here, which contains an intrinsic form of irreversibility, independent of observation. This new form applies to situations corresponding to a continuous spectrum and to quantum states with finite life time. The usual non-commutative algebra associated to quantum theory is replaced by more general algebra, in which operators are also non-distributive. Our approach leads to a number of predictions, which hopefully may be verified or refuted in the next years. (orig.)

  2. Intrinsic rotation with gyrokinetic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, Felix I.; Barnes, Michael; Catto, Peter J.; Calvo, Iván

    2012-01-01

    The generation of intrinsic rotation by turbulence and neoclassical effects in tokamaks is considered. To obtain the complex dependences observed in experiments, it is necessary to have a model of the radial flux of momentum that redistributes the momentum within the tokamak in the absence of a preexisting velocity. When the lowest order gyrokinetic formulation is used, a symmetry of the model precludes this possibility, making small effects in the gyroradius over scale length expansion necessary. These effects that are usually small become important for momentum transport because the symmetry of the lowest order gyrokinetic formulation leads to the cancellation of the lowest order momentum flux. The accuracy to which the gyrokinetic equation needs to be obtained to retain all the physically relevant effects is discussed.

  3. Intrinsic bioremediation of BTEX in a cold temperature environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johns, C.; Biggar, K.; Foght, J.; Mullick, A.

    1999-01-01

    Investigation of Intrinsic bioremediation technology at cold temperature sites contaminated with BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, xylene) is discussed. Site investigation at each of the sites was carried out to delineate stratigraphy, hydrogeology, microbiological setting, level of contamination and geochemical conditions. Preferred conditions for viable sites were found to include minimal risk of contaminants coming into contact with receptors, low hydraulic gradient, and the presence of adequate nutrients and terminal electron acceptors (TEAs). Enumeration of contaminant degrading microorganisms was completed through the Most Probable Number (MPN) technique indicating viable populations of aerobic petroleum degrading, nitrogen reducing and iron reducing bacteria. The effects of cold temperatures on the rate and extent of substrate utilization was studied in the laboratory, Results to date indicate that the sites under consideration are suitable candidates for intrinsic bioremediation and that significant rates of biodegradation are possible at low temperatures. If risk analysis proves to be favorable, the intrinsic bioremediation methodology is likely to provide an effective and affordable solution. 16 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs

  4. Compatibility of Mating Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Bingol, Haluk O.; Basar, Omer

    2016-01-01

    Human mating is a complex phenomenon. Although men and women have different preferences in mate selection, there should be compatibility in these preferences since human mating requires agreement of both parties. We investigate how compatible the mating preferences of men and women are in a given property such as age, height, education and income. We use dataset of a large online dating site (N = 44, 255 users). (i) Our findings are based on the "actual behavior" of users trying to find a dat...

  5. Experiences matter: Positive emotions facilitate intrinsic motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Løvoll, Helga Synnevåg; Røysamb, Espen; Vittersø, Joar

    2017-01-01

    This paper has two major aims. First, to investigate how positive emotions and intrinsic motivation affect each other over time. Second, to test the effect of positive emotions and intrinsic motivation on subsequent educational choices. Through two ordinary study semesters, 64 sport students in Norway reported on their intrinsic motivation for outdoor activities (twice) as well as positive emotions after two three-day outdoor events (four times). Next autumn, students study choice was collect...

  6. Experiences matter: Positive emotions facilitate intrinsic motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Løvoll, Helga Synnevåg; Røysamb, Espen; Vittersø, Joar

    2017-01-01

    https://doi.org/10.1080/23311908.2017.1340083 This paper has two major aims. First, to investigate how positive emotions and intrinsic motivation affect each other over time. Second, to test the effect of positive emotions and intrinsic motivation on subsequent educational choices. Through two ordinary study semesters, 64 sport students in Norway reported on their intrinsic motivation for outdoor activities (twice) as well as positive emotions after two three-day outdoor e...

  7. Intrinsic and extrinsic geometry of random surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, T.

    1992-01-01

    We prove that the extrinsic Hausdorff dimension is always greater than or equal to the intrinsic Hausdorff dimension in models of triangulated random surfaces with action which is quadratic in the separation of vertices. We furthermore derive a few naive scaling relations which relate the intrinsic Hausdorff dimension to other critical exponents. These relations suggest that the intrinsic Hausdorff dimension is infinite if the susceptibility does not diverge at the critical point. (orig.)

  8. Incentives and intrinsic motivation in healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikel Berdud

    2016-11-01

    Conclusions: The conclusions could act as a guide to support the optimal design of incentive policies and schemes within health organisations when healthcare professionals are intrinsically motivated.

  9. Intrinsic flexibility of B-DNA: the experimental TRX scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heddi, Brahim; Oguey, Christophe; Lavelle, Christophe; Foloppe, Nicolas; Hartmann, Brigitte

    2010-01-01

    B-DNA flexibility, crucial for DNA-protein recognition, is sequence dependent. Free DNA in solution would in principle be the best reference state to uncover the relation between base sequences and their intrinsic flexibility; however, this has long been hampered by a lack of suitable experimental data. We investigated this relationship by compiling and analyzing a large dataset of NMR (31)P chemical shifts in solution. These measurements reflect the BI BII equilibrium in DNA, intimately correlated to helicoidal descriptors of the curvature, winding and groove dimensions. Comparing the ten complementary DNA dinucleotide steps indicates that some steps are much more flexible than others. This malleability is primarily controlled at the dinucleotide level, modulated by the tetranucleotide environment. Our analyses provide an experimental scale called TRX that quantifies the intrinsic flexibility of the ten dinucleotide steps in terms of Twist, Roll, and X-disp (base pair displacement). Applying the TRX scale to DNA sequences optimized for nucleosome formation reveals a 10 base-pair periodic alternation of stiff and flexible regions. Thus, DNA flexibility captured by the TRX scale is relevant to nucleosome formation, suggesting that this scale may be of general interest to better understand protein-DNA recognition.

  10. Eye tracking social preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Ting; Potters, Jan; Funaki, Yukihiko

    We hypothesize that if people are motivated by a particular social preference, then choosing in accordance with this preference will lead to an identifiable pattern of eye movements. We track eye movements while subjects make choices in simple three-person distribution experiments. We characterize

  11. von Neumann Morgenstern Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Karl

    von Neumann Morgenstern utility is generalized to von Neumann Morgenstern preferences. The proof is an application of simple hyperplane theorems......von Neumann Morgenstern utility is generalized to von Neumann Morgenstern preferences. The proof is an application of simple hyperplane theorems...

  12. von Neumann Morgenstern Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Karl

    2000-01-01

    von Neumann Morgenstern utility is generalized to von Neumann Morgenstern preferences. The proof is an application of simple hyperplane theorems......von Neumann Morgenstern utility is generalized to von Neumann Morgenstern preferences. The proof is an application of simple hyperplane theorems...

  13. Measuring Normative Risk Preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.A.G. Alserda (Gosse)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe results of eliciting risk preferences depend on the elicitation method. Different methods of measuring the same variable tend to produce different results. This raises the question whether normative risk preferences can be elicited at all. Using two types of manipulation, I assess

  14. Protein intrinsic disorder in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Florencio; Pietrosemoli, Natalia; García-Martín, Juan A; Solano, Roberto

    2013-09-12

    To some extent contradicting the classical paradigm of the relationship between protein 3D structure and function, now it is clear that large portions of the proteomes, especially in higher organisms, lack a fixed structure and still perform very important functions. Proteins completely or partially unstructured in their native (functional) form are involved in key cellular processes underlain by complex networks of protein interactions. The intrinsic conformational flexibility of these disordered proteins allows them to bind multiple partners in transient interactions of high specificity and low affinity. In concordance, in plants this type of proteins has been found in processes requiring these complex and versatile interaction networks. These include transcription factor networks, where disordered proteins act as integrators of different signals or link different transcription factor subnetworks due to their ability to interact (in many cases simultaneously) with different partners. Similarly, they also serve as signal integrators in signaling cascades, such as those related to response to external stimuli. Disordered proteins have also been found in plants in many stress-response processes, acting as protein chaperones or protecting other cellular components and structures. In plants, it is especially important to have complex and versatile networks able to quickly and efficiently respond to changing environmental conditions since these organisms cannot escape and have no other choice than adapting to them. Consequently, protein disorder can play an especially important role in plants, providing them with a fast mechanism to obtain complex, interconnected and versatile molecular networks.

  15. Geochemical indicators of intrinsic bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borden, R.C.; Gomez, C.A.; Becker, M.T.

    1995-01-01

    A detailed field investigation has been completed at a gasoline-contaminated aquifer near Rocky Point, NC, to examine possible indicators of intrinsic bioremediation and identify factors that may significantly influence the rae and extent of bioremediation. The dissolved plume of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) in ground water is naturally degrading. Toluene and o-xylene are most rapidly degraded followed by m-, p-xylene, and benzene. Ethylbenzene appears to degrade very slowly under anaerobic conditions present in the center of the plume. The rate and extent of biodegradation appears to be strongly influenced by the type and quantity of electron acceptors present in the aquifer. At the upgradient edge of the plume, nitrate, ferric iron, and oxygen are used as terminal electron acceptors during hydrocarbon biodegradation. The equivalent of 40 to 50 mg/l of hydrocarbon is degraded based on the increase in dissolved CO 2 relative to background ground water. Immediately downgradient of the source area, sulfate and iron are the dominant electron acceptors. Toluene and o-xylene are rapidly removed in this region. Once the available oxygen, nitrate, and sulfate are consumed, biodegradation is limited and appears to be controlled by mixing and aerobic biodegradation at the plume fringes

  16. Protein intrinsic disorder in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencio ePazos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To some extent contradicting the classical paradigm of the relationship between protein 3D structure and function, now it is clear that large portions of the proteomes, especially in higher organisms, lack a fixed structure and still perform very important functions. Proteins completely or partially unstructured in their native (functional form are involved in key cellular processes underlain by complex networks of protein interactions. The intrinsic conformational flexibility of these disordered proteins allows them to bind multiple partners in transient interactions of high specificity and low affinity. In concordance, in plants this type of proteins has been found in processes requiring these complex and versatile interaction networks. These include transcription factor networks, where disordered proteins act as integrators of different signals or link different transcription factor subnetworks due to their ability to interact (in many cases simultaneously with different partners. Similarly, they also serve as signal integrators in signalling cascades, such as those related to response to external stimuli. Disordered proteins have also been found in plants in many stress-response processes, acting as protein chaperones or protecting other cellular components and structures. In plants, it is especially important to have complex and versatile networks able to quickly and efficiently respond to changing environmental conditions since these organisms can not escape and have no other choice than adapting to them. Consequently, protein disorder can play an especially important role in plants, providing them with a fast mechanism to obtain complex, interconnected and versatile molecular networks.

  17. Intrinsic bioremediation of landfills interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States); Fliermans, C.B.

    1997-07-14

    Intrinsic bioremediation is a risk management option that relies on natural biological and physical processes to contain the spread of contamination from a source. Evidence is presented in this report that intrinsic bioremediation is occurring at the Sanitary Landfill is fundamental to support incorportion into a Corrective Action Plan (CAP).

  18. Expressing intrinsic volumes as rotational integrals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auneau, Jeremy Michel; Jensen, Eva Bjørn Vedel

    2010-01-01

    A new rotational formula of Crofton type is derived for intrinsic volumes of a compact subset of positive reach. The formula provides a functional defined on the section of X with a j-dimensional linear subspace with rotational average equal to the intrinsic volumes of X. Simplified forms of the ...

  19. Differential scanning microcalorimetry of intrinsically disordered proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permyakov, Sergei E

    2012-01-01

    Ultrasensitive differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is an indispensable thermophysical technique enabling to get direct information on enthalpies accompanying heating/cooling of dilute biopolymer solutions. The thermal dependence of protein heat capacity extracted from DSC data is a valuable source of information on intrinsic disorder level of a protein. Application details and limitations of DSC technique in exploration of protein intrinsic disorder are described.

  20. Intrinsic bioremediation of landfills interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brigmon, R.L.; Fliermans, C.B.

    1997-01-01

    Intrinsic bioremediation is a risk management option that relies on natural biological and physical processes to contain the spread of contamination from a source. Evidence is presented in this report that intrinsic bioremediation is occurring at the Sanitary Landfill is fundamental to support incorportion into a Corrective Action Plan (CAP)

  1. Atomistic Simulation of Intrinsic Defects and Trivalent and Tetravalent Ion Doping in Hydroxyapatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo D. S. Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Atomistic simulation techniques have been employed in order to investigate key issues related to intrinsic defects and a variety of dopants from trivalent and tetravalent ions. The most favorable intrinsic defect is determined to be a scheme involving calcium and hydroxyl vacancies. It is found that trivalent ions have an energetic preference for the Ca site, while tetravalent ions can enter P sites. Charge compensation is predicted to occur basically via three schemes. In general, the charge compensation via the formation of calcium vacancies is more favorable. Trivalent dopant ions are more stable than tetravalent dopants.

  2. In search of the neural circuits of intrinsic motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic Kaplan

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Children seem to acquire new know-how in a continuous and open-ended manner. In this paper, we hypothesize that an intrinsic motivation to progress in learning is at the origins of the remarkable structure of children's developmental trajectories. In this view, children engage in exploratory and playful activities for their own sake, not as steps toward other extrinsic goals. The central hypothesis of this paper is that intrinsically motivating activities correspond to expected decrease in prediction error. This motivation system pushes the infant to avoid both predictable and unpredictable situations in order to focus on the ones that are expected to maximize progress in learning. Based on a computational model and a series of robotic experiments, we show how this principle can lead to organized sequences of behavior of increasing complexity characteristic of several behavioral and developmental patterns observed in humans. We then discuss the putative circuitry underlying such an intrinsic motivation system in the brain and formulate two novel hypotheses. The first one is that tonic dopamine acts as a learning progress signal. The second is that this progress signal is directly computed through a hierarchy of microcortical circuits that act both as prediction and metaprediction systems.

  3. DNA polymerase preference determines PCR priming efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wenjing; Byrne-Steele, Miranda; Wang, Chunlin; Lu, Stanley; Clemmons, Scott; Zahorchak, Robert J; Han, Jian

    2014-01-30

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is one of the most important developments in modern biotechnology. However, PCR is known to introduce biases, especially during multiplex reactions. Recent studies have implicated the DNA polymerase as the primary source of bias, particularly initiation of polymerization on the template strand. In our study, amplification from a synthetic library containing a 12 nucleotide random portion was used to provide an in-depth characterization of DNA polymerase priming bias. The synthetic library was amplified with three commercially available DNA polymerases using an anchored primer with a random 3' hexamer end. After normalization, the next generation sequencing (NGS) results of the amplified libraries were directly compared to the unamplified synthetic library. Here, high throughput sequencing was used to systematically demonstrate and characterize DNA polymerase priming bias. We demonstrate that certain sequence motifs are preferred over others as primers where the six nucleotide sequences at the 3' end of the primer, as well as the sequences four base pairs downstream of the priming site, may influence priming efficiencies. DNA polymerases in the same family from two different commercial vendors prefer similar motifs, while another commercially available enzyme from a different DNA polymerase family prefers different motifs. Furthermore, the preferred priming motifs are GC-rich. The DNA polymerase preference for certain sequence motifs was verified by amplification from single-primer templates. We incorporated the observed DNA polymerase preference into a primer-design program that guides the placement of the primer to an optimal location on the template. DNA polymerase priming bias was characterized using a synthetic library amplification system and NGS. The characterization of DNA polymerase priming bias was then utilized to guide the primer-design process and demonstrate varying amplification efficiencies among three commercially

  4. Revealed smooth nontransitive preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Tvede, Mich

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper, we are concerned with the behavioural consequences of consumers having nontransitive preference relations. Data sets consist of finitely many observations of price vectors and consumption bundles. A preference relation rationalizes a data set provided that for every observed...... consumption bundle, all strictly preferred bundles are more expensive than the observed bundle. Our main result is that data sets can be rationalized by a smooth nontransitive preference relation if and only if prices can normalized such that the law of demand is satisfied. Market data sets consist of finitely...... many observations of price vectors, lists of individual incomes and aggregate demands. We apply our main result to characterize market data sets consistent with equilibrium behaviour of pure-exchange economies with smooth nontransitive consumers....

  5. Consumers’ preferences for bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edenbrandt, Anna Kristina; Gamborg, Christian; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    2017-01-01

    Consumers are apprehensive about transgenic technologies, so cisgenics, which limit gene transfers to sexually compatible organisms, have been suggested to address consumer concerns. We study consumer preferences for rye bread alternatives based on transgenic or cisgenic rye, grown conventionally...

  6. Teachers' preferences towards textbook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Darko D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, using the method named Conjoint analysis, and with the goal of determining teacher's preferences in the process of textbook selection, and also defining the prototype of quality textbook which will could be used in the classroom. With consideration of criteria defined in the previous researches on this topic, an continuing the work on those results, we will create clear hypothetical prototype of the textbook which will satisfy the teacher's preference.

  7. A comparison of South African and German extrinsic and intrinsic motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Snelgar

    2017-04-01

    Aim: The main objective of this study was to investigate similarities and differences concerning extrinsic and intrinsic motivation in the workplace between German and South African cultures by examining individuals with working experience and tertiary education specifically. In addition, the research investigated differences in the motivation of respondents with regard to demographics such as gender, age and income. Setting: The setting took place in South Africa and Germany. Methods: In the study, exploratory factor analysis was utilised to prove validity of Cinar, Bektas and Aslan’s two-dimensional measure of extrinsic and intrinsic motivation. Moreover, analysis of variance and t-tests were used to show differences among demographic variables. Descriptive statistics such as means, central tendency and Cronbach’s alpha were also utilised. Results: The results revealed preferences for intrinsic motivational factors for the whole sample with higher levels of intrinsic motivation for the South African respondents compared to German respondents. Demographic characteristics played a minor role in determining levels of intrinsic motivation within individuals. Culture, however, played the biggest role in determining one’s levels of intrinsic or extrinsic motivation. Conclusion: These findings play an important role in explaining differences in motivation between the two countries Germany and South Africa. It highlights the important role that cultural differences play in shaping one’s form of motivation.

  8. Defining intrinsic vs. extrinsic atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimkhani, Chante; Silverberg, Jonathan I; Dellavalle, Robert P

    2015-06-16

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, relapsing inflammatory skin condition characterized by eczematous lesions, i.e. ill-demarcated erythematous patches and plaques. AD is commonly associated with elevated immunoglobulin E (IgE) and atopic disorders, such as asthma, hay fever, and food allergies. Rackemann and Mallory were some of the first to distinguish between asthma based on the presence ("extrinsic") or absence ("intrinsic") of allergy. This distinction has subsequently been applied to AD based on the presence ("extrinsic") or absence ("intrinsic") of increased IgE and atopic disease. Although the distinction between intrinsic and extrinsic AD is widely used, it remains controversial.

  9. Algebraic description of intrinsic modes in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leviatan, A.

    1989-01-01

    We present a procedure for extracting normal modes in algebraic number-conserving systems of interacting bosons relevant for collective states in even-even nuclei. The Hamiltonian is resolved into intrinsic (bandhead related) and collective (in-band related) parts. Shape parameters are introduced through non-spherical boson bases. Intrinsic modes decoupled from the spurious modes are obtained from the intinsic part of the Hamiltonian in the limit of large number of bosons. Intrinsic states are constructed and serve to evaluate electromagnetic transition rates. The method is illustrated for systems with one type of boson as well as with proton-neutron bosons. 28 refs., 1 fig

  10. Intrinsic neuromodulation: altering neuronal circuits from within.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, P S; Frost, W N

    1996-02-01

    There are two sources of neuromodulation for neuronal circuits: extrinsic inputs and intrinsic components of the circuits themselves. Extrinsic neuromodulation is known to be pervasive in nervous systems, but intrinsic neuromodulation is less recognized, despite the fact that it has now been demonstrated in sensory and neuromuscular circuits and in central pattern generators. By its nature, intrinsic neuromodulation produces local changes in neuronal computation, whereas extrinsic neuromodulation can cause global changes, often affecting many circuits simultaneously. Studies in a number of systems are defining the different properties of these two forms of neuromodulation.

  11. Intrinsic Tunneling in Phase Separated Manganites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh-Bhalla, G.; Selcuk, S.; Dhakal, T.; Biswas, A.; Hebard, A. F.

    2009-02-01

    We present evidence of direct electron tunneling across intrinsic insulating regions in submicrometer wide bridges of the phase-separated ferromagnet (La,Pr,Ca)MnO3. Upon cooling below the Curie temperature, a predominantly ferromagnetic supercooled state persists where tunneling across the intrinsic tunnel barriers (ITBs) results in metastable, temperature-independent, high-resistance plateaus over a large range of temperatures. Upon application of a magnetic field, our data reveal that the ITBs are extinguished resulting in sharp, colossal, low-field resistance drops. Our results compare well to theoretical predictions of magnetic domain walls coinciding with the intrinsic insulating phase.

  12. Age Preferences for Professional Helpers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furchtgott, Ernest; Busemeyer, Jerome R.

    1981-01-01

    For all occupations except clergyman, a relationship between the age of the respondent and preferred age of the professional existed. Older individuals preferred older service providers with one exception, their physician. Highly educated respondents preferred younger physicians. (Author)

  13. Preference Handling for Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Goldsmith, Judy; University of Kentucky; Junker, Ulrich; ILOG

    2009-01-01

    This article explains the benefits of preferences for AI systems and draws a picture of current AI research on preference handling. It thus provides an introduction to the topics covered by this special issue on preference handling.

  14. Bimanual motor coordination controlled by cooperative interactions in intrinsic and extrinsic coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurada, Takeshi; Ito, Koji; Gomi, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    Although strong motor coordination in intrinsic muscle coordinates has frequently been reported for bimanual movements, coordination in extrinsic visual coordinates is also crucial in various bimanual tasks. To explore the bimanual coordination mechanisms in terms of the frame of reference, here we characterized implicit bilateral interactions in visuomotor tasks. Visual perturbations (finger-cursor gain change) were applied while participants performed a rhythmic tracking task with both index fingers under an in-phase or anti-phase relationship in extrinsic coordinates. When they corrected the right finger's amplitude, the left finger's amplitude unintentionally also changed [motor interference (MI)], despite the instruction to keep its amplitude constant. Notably, we observed two specificities: one was large MI and low relative-phase variability (PV) under the intrinsic in-phase condition, and the other was large MI and high PV under the extrinsic in-phase condition. Additionally, using a multiple-interaction model, we successfully decomposed MI into intrinsic components caused by motor correction and extrinsic components caused by visual-cursor mismatch of the right finger's movements. This analysis revealed that the central nervous system facilitates MI by combining intrinsic and extrinsic components in the condition with in-phases in both intrinsic and extrinsic coordinates, and that under-additivity of the effects is explained by the brain's preference for the intrinsic interaction over extrinsic interaction. In contrast, the PV was significantly correlated with the intrinsic component, suggesting that the intrinsic interaction dominantly contributed to bimanual movement stabilization. The inconsistent features of MI and PV suggest that the central nervous system regulates multiple levels of bilateral interactions for various bimanual tasks. © 2015 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience published by Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and

  15. The Intrinsic Dynamics of Psychological Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vallacher, Robin R.; van Geert, Paul; Nowak, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Psychological processes unfold on various timescales in accord with internally generated patterns. The intrinsic dynamism of psychological process is difficult to investigate using traditional methods emphasizing cause–effect relations, however, and therefore is rarely incorporated into social

  16. Original Paper Detecting Nosocomial Intrinsic Infections through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-04-20

    Apr 20, 2011 ... surgical procedures as precursory to intrinsic infections and that bacterial pathogens found on wounds and endogenous ... University Teaching Hospital, Idi Araba, Lagos, ..... confirm reason for selective decontamination of the.

  17. Deuterium NMR, induced and intrinsic cholesteric lyomesophases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcantara, M.R.

    1982-01-01

    Induced and intrinsic cholesteric lyotropic mesophases were studied. Induced cholesteric lyomesophases based on potassium laurate (KL) system, with small amounts of cholesterol added, were studied by deuterium NMR and by polarizing microscopy. Order profiles obtained from deuterium NMR of KL perdenderated chains in both induced cholesteric and normal mesophases were compared. The intrinsic cholesteric lyotropic mesophases were based on the amphiphile potassium N-lauroyl serinate (KLNS) in the resolved levo form. The study of the type I intrinsic cholesteric mesophase was made by optical microscopy under polarized light and the type II intrinsic cholesteric lyomesophase was characterized by deuterium NMR. The new texture was explained by the use of the theory of disclinations developed for thermotropic liquid crystals, specially for cholesteric type. (M.J.C.) [pt

  18. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, S; Wagner, E H; Grothaus, L C

    1990-06-01

    An intrinsic-extrinsic model of motivation for smoking cessation was evaluated with 2 samples (ns = 1.217 and 151) of smokers who requested self-help materials for smoking cessation. Exploratory and confirmatory principal components analysis on a 36-item Reasons for Quitting (RFQ) scale supported the intrinsic-extrinsic motivation distinction. A 4-factor model, with 2 intrinsic dimensions (concerns about health and desire for self-control) and 2 extrinsic dimensions (immediate reinforcement and social influence), was defined by 20 of the 36 RFQ items. The 20-item measure demonstrated moderate to high levels of internal consistency and convergent and discriminant validity. Logistic regression analyses indicated that smokers with higher levels of intrinsic relative to extrinsic motivation were more likely to achieve abstinence from smoking.

  19. Intrinsic endometriosis of ureter: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Myung Sun; Kim, Ho Chul; Yun, Ku Sup; Choi, Chul Soon; Bae, Sang Hoon; Kim, Sung Yong; Shin, Hyung Sik

    1995-01-01

    Endometriosis is a rare cause of an ureteral obstruction. We report a case of intrinsic ureteral endometriosis resulting in severe hydroureteronephrosis. The diagnosis of ureteral endometriosis may be considered in women with flank pain and ureteric obstruction within true pelvis

  20. Intrinsic endometriosis of ureter: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Myung Sun; Kim, Ho Chul; Yun, Ku Sup; Choi, Chul Soon; Bae, Sang Hoon; Kim, Sung Yong; Shin, Hyung Sik [College of Medicine, Hallym University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-15

    Endometriosis is a rare cause of an ureteral obstruction. We report a case of intrinsic ureteral endometriosis resulting in severe hydroureteronephrosis. The diagnosis of ureteral endometriosis may be considered in women with flank pain and ureteric obstruction within true pelvis.

  1. Sequence assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheibye-Alsing, Karsten; Hoffmann, S.; Frankel, Annett Maria

    2009-01-01

    Despite the rapidly increasing number of sequenced and re-sequenced genomes, many issues regarding the computational assembly of large-scale sequencing data have remain unresolved. Computational assembly is crucial in large genome projects as well for the evolving high-throughput technologies and...... in genomic DNA, highly expressed genes and alternative transcripts in EST sequences. We summarize existing comparisons of different assemblers and provide a detailed descriptions and directions for download of assembly programs at: http://genome.ku.dk/resources/assembly/methods.html....

  2. Genome Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sato, Shusei; Andersen, Stig Uggerhøj

    2014-01-01

    The current Lotus japonicus reference genome sequence is based on a hybrid assembly of Sanger TAC/BAC, Sanger shotgun and Illumina shotgun sequencing data generated from the Miyakojima-MG20 accession. It covers nearly all expressed L. japonicus genes and has been annotated mainly based on transcr......The current Lotus japonicus reference genome sequence is based on a hybrid assembly of Sanger TAC/BAC, Sanger shotgun and Illumina shotgun sequencing data generated from the Miyakojima-MG20 accession. It covers nearly all expressed L. japonicus genes and has been annotated mainly based...

  3. Management Control, Intrinsic Motivation and Creativity

    OpenAIRE

    Gregersen, Mikkel Godt

    2017-01-01

    This thesis consists of a cape and three papers. The overall research question is: How can intrinsic motivation and management control coexist in a creative environment and how can coordination be possible in such a context? The cape ties together the research done in the three papers. It is divided into six sections. The first section introduces the concepts of intrinsic motivation, creativity and management control. This is followed by a section on management control in a ...

  4. Refining the intrinsic chimera flap: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Jayant P; Agarwal, Shailesh; Adler, Neta; Gottlieb, Lawrence J

    2009-10-01

    Reconstruction of complex tissue deficiencies in which each missing component is in a different spatial relationship to each other can be particularly challenging, especially in patients with limited recipient vessels. The chimera flap design is uniquely suited to reconstruct these deformities. Chimera flaps have been previously defined in many ways with 2 main categories: prefabricated or intrinsic. Herein we attempt to clarify the definition of a true intrinsic chimeric flap and provide examples of how these constructs provide a method for reconstruction of complex defects. The versatility of the intrinsic chimera flap and its procurement from 7 different vascular systems is described. A clarification of the definition of a true intrinsic chimera flap is described. In addition, construction of flaps from the lateral femoral circumflex, deep circumflex iliac, inferior gluteal, peroneal, subscapular, thoracodorsal, and radial arterial systems is described to showcase the versatility of these chimera flaps. A true intrinsic chimera flap must consist of more than a single tissue type. Each of the tissue components receives its blood flow from separate vascular branches or perforators that are connected to a single vascular source. These vascular branches must be of appropriate length to allow for insetting with 3-dimensional spatial freedom. There are a multitude of sites from which true intrinsic chimera flaps may be harvested.

  5. Incentives and intrinsic motivation in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdud, Mikel; Cabasés, Juan M; Nieto, Jorge

    It has been established in the literature that workers within public organisations are intrinsically motivated. This paper is an empirical study of the healthcare sector using methods of qualitative analysis research, which aims to answer the following hypotheses: 1) doctors are intrinsically motivated; 2) economic incentives and control policies may undermine doctors' intrinsic motivation; and 3) well-designed incentives may encourage doctors' intrinsic motivation. We conducted semi-structured interviews à-la-Bewley with 16 doctors from Navarre's Healthcare Service (Servicio Navarro de Salud-Osasunbidea), Spain. The questions were based on current theories of intrinsic motivation and incentives to test the hypotheses. Interviewees were allowed to respond openly without time constraints. Relevant information was selected, quantified and analysed by using the qualitative concepts of saturation and codification. The results seem to confirm the hypotheses. Evidence supporting hypotheses 1 and 2 was gathered from all interviewees, as well as indications of the validity of hypothesis 3 based on interviewees' proposals of incentives. The conclusions could act as a guide to support the optimal design of incentive policies and schemes within health organisations when healthcare professionals are intrinsically motivated. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. The intrinsic resistome of bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Jorge; Bernardini, Alejandra; Garcia-Leon, Guillermo; Corona, Fernando; B Sanchez, Maria; Martinez, Jose L

    2013-01-01

    Intrinsically resistant bacteria have emerged as a relevant health problem in the last years. Those bacterial species, several of them with an environmental origin, present naturally low-level susceptibility to several drugs. It has been proposed that intrinsic resistance is mainly the consequence of the impermeability of cellular envelopes, the activity of multidrug efflux pumps or the lack of appropriate targets for a given family of drugs. However, recently published articles indicate that the characteristic phenotype of susceptibility to antibiotics of a given bacterial species depends on the concerted activity of several elements, what has been named as intrinsic resistome. These determinants comprise not just classical resistance genes. Other elements, several of them involved in basic bacterial metabolic processes, are of relevance for the intrinsic resistance of bacterial pathogens. In the present review we analyze recent publications on the intrinsic resistomes of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We present as well information on the role that global regulators of bacterial metabolism, as Crc from P. aeruginosa, may have on modulating bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics. Finally, we discuss the possibility of searching inhibitors of the intrinsic resistome in the aim of improving the activity of drugs currently in use for clinical practice.

  7. The intrinsic resistome of bacterial pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Andrés Olivares Pacheco

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Intrinsically resistant bacteria have emerged as a relevant health problem in the last years. Those bacterial species, several of them with an environmental origin, present naturally a low-level susceptibility to several drugs. It has been proposed that intrinsic resistance is mainly the consequence of the impermeability of cellular envelopes, the activity of multidrug efflux pumps or the lack of appropriate targets for a given family of drugs. However, recently published articles indicate that the characteristic phenotype of susceptibility to antibiotics of a given bacterial species depends on the concerted activity of several elements, what has been named as intrinsic resistome. These determinants comprise not just classical resistance genes. Other elements, several of them involved in basic bacterial metabolic processes, are of relevance for the intrinsic resistance of bacterial pathogens. In the present review we analyse recent publications on the intrinsic resistomes of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We present as well information on the role that global regulators of bacterial metabolism, as Crc from P. aeruginosa, may have on modulating bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics. Finally, we discuss the possibility of searching inhibitors of the intrinsic resistome in the aim of improving the activity of drugs currently in use for clinical practice.

  8. Intrinsic work function of molecular films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivančo, Ján

    2012-01-01

    The electronic properties of molecular films are analysed with the consideration of the molecular orientation. The study demonstrates that surfaces of electroactive oligomeric molecular films can be classified—analogously to the elemental surfaces—by their intrinsic work functions. The intrinsic work function of molecular films is correlated with their ionisation energies; again, the behaviour is analogous to the correlation existing between the first ionisation energy of elements and the work function of the corresponding elemental surfaces. The proposed intrinsic work-function concept suggests that the mechanism for the energy-level alignment at the interfaces associated with molecular films is virtually controlled by work functions of materials brought into the contact. - Highlights: ► Molecular films exhibit their own (intrinsic) work function. ► Intrinsic work function is correlated with ionisation energy of molecular films. ► Intrinsic work function determines dipole at interface with a particular surface. ► Surface vacuum-level change upon film growth does not relate to interfacial dipole.

  9. Measuring children's food preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Annemarie; Kildegaard, Heidi; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate if children’s food preferences can be reliable measured by using pictures of foods presented on a computer screen in a conjoint layout.We investigate reproducibility (test–retest) and infer validity by comparison with traditional hedonic evaluations...... juices (tangible products), chosen to span the preference spectrum, were hedonically evaluated for appearance and taste. Finally, an actual product choice was performed by having the children choose between two buns and two juices.Results showed that the computer evaluationswith pictures of foods...... provided reproducible information about the children’s visual food preferences, which were in concordance with both hedonic measures and products choices, and can thus be considered valid....

  10. Enterprise Mac Managed Preferences

    CERN Document Server

    Marczak, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Many systems administrators on the Mac need a way to manage machine configuration after initial setup and deployment. Apple's Managed Preferences system (also known as MCX) is under-documented, often misunderstood, and sometimes outright unknown by sys admins. MCX is usually deployed in conjunction with an OS X server, but it can also be used in Windows environments or where no dedicated server exists at all. Enterprise Mac Managed Preferences is the definitive guide to Apple's Managed Client technology. With this book, you'll get the following: * An example-driven guide to Mac OS X Managed Pr

  11. Functional anthology of intrinsic disorder. 3. Ligands, post-translational modifications, and diseases associated with intrinsically disordered proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hongbo; Vucetic, Slobodan; Iakoucheva, Lilia M; Oldfield, Christopher J; Dunker, A Keith; Obradovic, Zoran; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2007-05-01

    Currently, the understanding of the relationships between function, amino acid sequence, and protein structure continues to represent one of the major challenges of the modern protein science. As many as 50% of eukaryotic proteins are likely to contain functionally important long disordered regions. Many proteins are wholly disordered but still possess numerous biologically important functions. However, the number of experimentally confirmed disordered proteins with known biological functions is substantially smaller than their actual number in nature. Therefore, there is a crucial need for novel bionformatics approaches that allow projection of the current knowledge from a few experimentally verified examples to much larger groups of known and potential proteins. The elaboration of a bioinformatics tool for the analysis of functional diversity of intrinsically disordered proteins and application of this data mining tool to >200 000 proteins from the Swiss-Prot database, each annotated with at least one of the 875 functional keywords, was described in the first paper of this series (Xie, H.; Vucetic, S.; Iakoucheva, L. M.; Oldfield, C. J.; Dunker, A. K.; Obradovic, Z.; Uversky, V.N. Functional anthology of intrinsic disorder. 1. Biological processes and functions of proteins with long disordered regions. J. Proteome Res. 2007, 5, 1882-1898). Using this tool, we have found that out of the 710 Swiss-Prot functional keywords associated with at least 20 proteins, 262 were strongly positively correlated with long intrinsically disordered regions, and 302 were strongly negatively correlated. Illustrative examples of functional disorder or order were found for the vast majority of keywords showing strongest positive or negative correlation with intrinsic disorder, respectively. Some 80 Swiss-Prot keywords associated with disorder- and order-driven biological processes and protein functions were described in the first paper (see above). The second paper of the series was

  12. Axial oblique MR imaging of the intrinsic ligaments of the wrist: initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, G.; Chung, T.; Finlay, K.; Friedman, L.

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate two separate MR sequences acquired in the axial oblique plane, parallel to the long axis of the scapholunate (SL) and lunotriquetral (LT) ligaments, to determine whether the addition of these sequences to the standard MR wrist examination improves visualization of the intrinsic ligaments, and the evaluation of their integrity. To our knowledge, this plane has not been described in the literature previously. In total we evaluated 26 patients with chronic wrist pain or instability, referred for MR imaging following assessment by an orthopedic surgeon or physiatrist. All patients underwent initial conventional tri-compartment wrist arthrography, which served as the reference standard. This was immediately followed by MR arthrography, in the standard coronal and true axial planes, as well as in the axial oblique plane. The SL and LT ligaments were initially assessed for the presence or absence of tear, using the standard coronal and true axial sequences, and subsequently re-evaluated with the addition of the axial oblique planes. A total of ten intrinsic ligament tears were identified with conventional arthrography: six SL and four LT tears. Five of the six SL tears were identified on the standard sequences. All six were diagnosed with the addition of the oblique sequences. There were three false-positive SL tears identified using standard MR imaging, and two false-positives with the addition of the oblique sequences. No LT tear was identified on standard sequences, whereas all four were confidently seen with the addition of oblique images. No false-positives of the LT ligament were recorded with either standard or axial oblique sequences. The study suggests that the addition of axial oblique MR sequences helps identify tears to the intrinsic ligaments of the wrist, particularly the LT ligament. In addition, the axial oblique images assist in localization of the tear. (orig.)

  13. Constructive Preference Elicitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Dragone

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available When faced with large or complex decision problems, human decision makers (DM can make costly mistakes, due to inherent limitations of their memory, attention, and knowledge. Preference elicitation tools assist the decision maker in overcoming these limitations. They do so by interactively learning the DM’s preferences through appropriately chosen queries and suggesting high-quality outcomes based on the preference estimates. Most state-of-the-art techniques, however, fail in constructive settings, where the goal is to synthesize a custom or entirely novel configuration rather than choosing the best option among a given set of candidates. Many wide-spread problems are constructive in nature: customizing composite goods such as cars and computers, bundling products, recommending touristic travel plans, designing apartments, buildings, or urban layouts, etc. In these settings, the full set of outcomes is humongous and can not be explicitly enumerated, and the solution must be synthesized via constrained optimization. In this article, we describe recent approaches especially designed for constructive problems, outlining the underlying ideas and their differences as well as their limitations. In presenting them, we especially focus on novel issues that the constructive setting brings forth, such as how to deal with sparsity of the DM’s preferences, how to properly frame the interaction, and how to achieve efficient synthesis of custom instances.

  14. Immigrants' location preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil

    This paper exploits a spatial dispersal policy for refugee immigrants to estimate the importance of local and regional factors for refugees' location preferences. The main results of a mixed proportional hazard competing risks model are that placed refugees react to high regional unemployment...

  15. Hormones and social preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buser, T.

    2011-01-01

    We examine whether social preferences are determined by hormones. We do this by investigating whether markers for the strength of prenatal testosterone exposure (finger length ratios) and current exposure to progesterone and oxytocin (the menstrual cycle) are correlated with choices in social

  16. Preferred Dance Tempo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Sofia; Huron, David; Brod, Garvin

    2014-01-01

    In two experiments participants tuned a drum machine to their preferred dance tempo. Measurements of height, shoulder width, leg length, and weight were taken for each participant, and their sex recorded. Using a multiple regression analysis, height and leg length combined was found to be the bes...

  17. Study of intrinsic anchoring in nematic liquid crystals based on modified Gruhn-Hess pair potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhidong; Zhang Yanjun

    2008-01-01

    A nematic liquid crystal slab composed of N molecular layers is investigated using a simple cubic lattice model, based upon the molecular pair potential which is spatially anisotropic and dependent on elastic constants of liquid crystals. A perfect nematic order is assumed in the theoretical treatment, which means the orientation of the molecular long axis coincides with the director of liquid crystal and the total free energy equals to the total interaction energy. We present a modified Gruhn-Hess model, which is relative to the splay-bend elastic constant K 13 . Furthermore, we have studied the free nematic interfacial behavior (intrinsic anchoring) by this model in the assumption of the perfect nematic order. We find that the preferred orientation at the free interface and the intrinsic anchoring strength change with the value of modification, and that the director profile can be determined by the competition of the intrinsic anchoring with external forces present in the system. Also we simulate the intrinsic anchoring at different temperatures using Monte Carlo method and the simulation results show that the intrinsic anchoring favors planar alignment and the free interface is more disordered than the bulk

  18. Competitive chiral induction in a 2D molecular assembly: Intrinsic chirality versus coadsorber-induced chirality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Li, Shu-Ying; Wang, Dong; Wan, Li-Jun

    2017-11-01

    Noncovalently introducing stereogenic information is a promising approach to embed chirality in achiral molecular systems. However, the interplay of the noncovalently introduced chirality with the intrinsic chirality of molecules or molecular aggregations has rarely been addressed. We report a competitive chiral expression of the noncovalent interaction-mediated chirality induction and the intrinsic stereogenic center-controlled chirality induction in a two-dimensional (2D) molecular assembly at the liquid/solid interface. Two enantiomorphous honeycomb networks are formed by the coassembly of an achiral 5-(benzyloxy)isophthalic acid (BIC) derivative and 1-octanol at the liquid/solid interface. The preferential formation of the globally homochiral assembly can be achieved either by using the chiral analog of 1-octanol, ( S )-6-methyl-1-octanol, as a chiral coadsorber to induce chirality to the BIC assembly via noncovalent hydrogen bonding or by covalently linking a chiral center in the side chain of BIC. Both the chiral coadsorber and the intrinsically chiral BIC derivative can act as a chiral seeds to induce a preferred handedness in the assembly of the achiral BIC derivatives. Furthermore, the noncovalent interaction-mediated chirality induction can restrain or even overrule the manifestation of the intrinsic chirality of the BIC molecule and dominate the handedness of the 2D molecular coassembly. This study provides insight into the interplay of intrinsically chiral centers and external chiral coadsorbers in the chiral induction, transfer, and amplification processes of 2D molecular assembly.

  19. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Neuromodulation of Olfactory Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizbinski, Kristyn M; Dacks, Andrew M

    2017-01-01

    Neuromodulation is a ubiquitous feature of neural systems, allowing flexible, context specific control over network dynamics. Neuromodulation was first described in invertebrate motor systems and early work established a basic dichotomy for neuromodulation as having either an intrinsic origin (i.e., neurons that participate in network coding) or an extrinsic origin (i.e., neurons from independent networks). In this conceptual dichotomy, intrinsic sources of neuromodulation provide a "memory" by adjusting network dynamics based upon previous and ongoing activation of the network itself, while extrinsic neuromodulators provide the context of ongoing activity of other neural networks. Although this dichotomy has been thoroughly considered in motor systems, it has received far less attention in sensory systems. In this review, we discuss intrinsic and extrinsic modulation in the context of olfactory processing in invertebrate and vertebrate model systems. We begin by discussing presynaptic modulation of olfactory sensory neurons by local interneurons (LNs) as a mechanism for gain control based on ongoing network activation. We then discuss the cell-class specific effects of serotonergic centrifugal neurons on olfactory processing. Finally, we briefly discuss the integration of intrinsic and extrinsic neuromodulation (metamodulation) as an effective mechanism for exerting global control over olfactory network dynamics. The heterogeneous nature of neuromodulation is a recurring theme throughout this review as the effects of both intrinsic and extrinsic modulation are generally non-uniform.

  20. Intrinsic-extrinsic factors in sport motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Darhl M

    2002-10-01

    Participants were 83 students (36 men and 47 women). 10 intrinsic-extrinsic factors involved in sport motivation were obtained. The factors were generated from items obtained from the participants rather than items from the experimenter. This was done to avoid the possible influence of preconceptions on the part of the experimenter regarding what the final dimensions may be. Obtained motivational factors were Social Reinforcement, Fringe Benefits, Fame and Fortune, External Forces, Proving Oneself, Social Benefits, Mental Enrichment, Expression of Self, Sense of Accomplishment, and Self-enhancement. Each factor was referred to an intrinsic-extrinsic dimension to describe its relative position on that dimension. The order of the factors as listed indicates increasing intrinsic motivation. i.e., the first four factors were rated in the extrinsic range, whereas the remaining six were rated to be in the intrinsic range. Next, the participants rated the extent to which each of the various factors was involved in their decision to participate in sport activities. The pattern of use of the motivational factors was the same for both sexes except that men indicated greater use of the Fringe Benefits factor. Overall, the more intrinsic a sport motivation factor was rated, the more likely it was to be rated as a factor in actual sport participation.

  1. Flavor Structure of Intrinsic Nucleon Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Jen-Chieh; Chang, Wen-Chen; Cheng, Hai-Yang; Liu, Keh-Fei

    2015-01-01

    The concept of intrinsic charm suggested by Brodsky et al. is extended to lighter quarks. Extraction of the intrinsic ū, d-macron, and s-macron seas is obtained from an analysis of the d-macron − ū, s + s-macron, and ū + d-macron − s −s-macron distributions. The connection between the intrinsic/extrinsic seas and the connected/disconnected seas in lattice QCD is also examined. It is shown that the connected and disconnected components for the ū(x) + d-macron(x) sea can be separated. The striking x-dependence of the [s(x) + s-macron(x)]/[ū(x) + d-macron(x)] ratio is interpreted as an interplay between the connected and disconnected seas. (author)

  2. Management Control, Intrinsic Motivation and Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godt Gregersen, Mikkel

    This thesis consists of a cape and three papers. The overall research question is: How can intrinsic motivation and management control coexist in a creative environment and how can coordination be possible in such a context? The cape ties together the research done in the three papers....... It is divided into six sections. The first section introduces the concepts of intrinsic motivation, creativity and management control. This is followed by a section on management control in a creative context. These two sections frame the thesis and introduce the setting in which the research has been done...... of the conclusion is that intrinsic motivation and management control can coexist under the conditions that all three basic needs, i.e. autonomy, competence and relatedness, are supported. This can happen when control takes point of departure in the individual employee. The second part of the conclusion...

  3. Comprehensive large-scale assessment of intrinsic protein disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Ian; Giollo, Manuel; Di Domenico, Tomás; Ferrari, Carlo; Zimmermann, Olav; Tosatto, Silvio C E

    2015-01-15

    Intrinsically disordered regions are key for the function of numerous proteins. Due to the difficulties in experimental disorder characterization, many computational predictors have been developed with various disorder flavors. Their performance is generally measured on small sets mainly from experimentally solved structures, e.g. Protein Data Bank (PDB) chains. MobiDB has only recently started to collect disorder annotations from multiple experimental structures. MobiDB annotates disorder for UniProt sequences, allowing us to conduct the first large-scale assessment of fast disorder predictors on 25 833 different sequences with X-ray crystallographic structures. In addition to a comprehensive ranking of predictors, this analysis produced the following interesting observations. (i) The predictors cluster according to their disorder definition, with a consensus giving more confidence. (ii) Previous assessments appear over-reliant on data annotated at the PDB chain level and performance is lower on entire UniProt sequences. (iii) Long disordered regions are harder to predict. (iv) Depending on the structural and functional types of the proteins, differences in prediction performance of up to 10% are observed. The datasets are available from Web site at URL: http://mobidb.bio.unipd.it/lsd. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Estimating exponential scheduling preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Katrine; Börjesson, Maria; Engelson, Leonid

    2015-01-01

    of car drivers' route and mode choice under uncertain travel times. Our analysis exposes some important methodological issues related to complex non-linear scheduling models: One issue is identifying the point in time where the marginal utility of being at the destination becomes larger than the marginal......Different assumptions about travelers' scheduling preferences yield different measures of the cost of travel time variability. Only few forms of scheduling preferences provide non-trivial measures which are additive over links in transport networks where link travel times are arbitrarily...... utility of being at the origin. Another issue is that models with the exponential marginal utility formulation suffer from empirical identification problems. Though our results are not decisive, they partly support the constant-affine specification, in which the value of travel time variability...

  5. A model of intrinsic symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge, Li; Li, Sheng; George, Thomas F.; Sun, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Different from the symmetry breaking associated with a phase transition, which occurs when the controlling parameter is manipulated across a critical point, the symmetry breaking presented in this Letter does not need parameter manipulation. Instead, the system itself suddenly undergoes symmetry breaking at a certain time during its evolution, which is intrinsic symmetry breaking. Through a polymer model, it is revealed that the origin of the intrinsic symmetry breaking is nonlinearity, which produces instability at the instance when the evolution crosses an inflexion point, where this instability breaks the original symmetry

  6. Intrinsic viscosity of a suspension of cubes

    KAUST Repository

    Mallavajula, Rajesh K.

    2013-11-06

    We report on the viscosity of a dilute suspension of cube-shaped particles. Irrespective of the particle size, size distribution, and surface chemistry, we find empirically that cubes manifest an intrinsic viscosity [η]=3.1±0.2, which is substantially higher than the well-known value for spheres, [η]=2.5. The orientation-dependent intrinsic viscosity of cubic particles is determined theoretically using a finite-element solution of the Stokes equations. For isotropically oriented cubes, these calculations show [η]=3.1, in excellent agreement with our experimental observations. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  7. PREFERENCE, PRINCIPLE AND PRACTICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsgaard, Morten; Bro, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Legitimacy has become a central issue in journalism, since the understanding of what journalism is and who journalists are has been challenged by developments both within and outside the newsrooms. Nonetheless, little scholarly work has been conducted to aid conceptual clarification as to how jou...... distinct, but interconnected categories*preference, principle, and practice. Through this framework, historical attempts to justify journalism and journalists are described and discussed in the light of the present challenges for the profession....

  8. Emotions and Economic Preference

    OpenAIRE

    Todorova, Tamara; Ramachandran, Bharath

    2005-01-01

    We wish to examine critically the viewpoint that: a) economists take too narrow a view of rationality and do not recognize the role of emotions as a component of rationality and b) do not address the question of whether preferences are rational or not, and instead take them as just given. We trace the relationship between economics and emotions showing some economic dimensions of emotional states. We illustrate them with examples of economic behavior based on emotional reactions.

  9. Convergence of Artificial Protein Polymers and Intrinsically Disordered Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzuricky, Michael; Roberts, Stefan; Chilkoti, Ashutosh

    2018-05-01

    A flurry of research in recent years has revealed the molecular origins of many membraneless organelles to be the liquid phase separation of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). Consequently, protein disorder has emerged as an important driver of intracellular compartmentalization by providing specialized microenvironments chemically distinct from the surrounding medium. Though the importance of protein disorder and its relationship to intracellular phase behavior are clear, a detailed understanding of how such phase behavior can be predicted and controlled remains elusive. While research in IDPs has largely focused on the implications of structural disorder on cellular function and disease, another field, that of artificial protein polymers, has focused on the de novo design of protein polymers with controllable material properties. A subset of these polymers, specifically those derived from structural proteins such as elastin and resilin, are also disordered sequences that undergo liquid-liquid phase separation. This phase separation has been used in a variety of biomedical applications, and researchers studying these polymers have developed methods to precisely characterize and tune their phase behavior. Despite their disparate origins, both fields are complementary as they study the phase behavior of intrinsically disordered polypeptides. This Perspective hopes to stimulate collaborative efforts by highlighting the similarities between these two fields and by providing examples of how such collaboration could be mutually beneficial.

  10. A diverse intrinsic antibiotic resistome from a cave bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Andrew C; Wang, Wenliang; Koteva, Kalinka; Barton, Hazel A; McArthur, Andrew G; Wright, Gerard D

    2016-12-08

    Antibiotic resistance is ancient and widespread in environmental bacteria. These are therefore reservoirs of resistance elements and reflective of the natural history of antibiotics and resistance. In a previous study, we discovered that multi-drug resistance is common in bacteria isolated from Lechuguilla Cave, an underground ecosystem that has been isolated from the surface for over 4 Myr. Here we use whole-genome sequencing, functional genomics and biochemical assays to reveal the intrinsic resistome of Paenibacillus sp. LC231, a cave bacterial isolate that is resistant to most clinically used antibiotics. We systematically link resistance phenotype to genotype and in doing so, identify 18 chromosomal resistance elements, including five determinants without characterized homologues and three mechanisms not previously shown to be involved in antibiotic resistance. A resistome comparison across related surface Paenibacillus affirms the conservation of resistance over millions of years and establishes the longevity of these genes in this genus.

  11. Human intrinsic factor expressed in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedosov, Sergey N; Laursen, Niels B; Nexø, Ebba

    2003-01-01

    and contamination by other B12 binders. We tested the use of recombinant plants for large-scale production of pathogen-free human recombinant IF. Human IF was successfully expressed in the recombinant plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Extract from fresh plants possessed high B12-binding capacity corresponding to 70 mg......Intrinsic factor (IF) is the gastric protein that promotes the intestinal uptake of vitamin B12. Gastric IF from animal sources is used in diagnostic tests and in vitamin pills. However, administration of animal IF to humans becomes disadvantageous because of possible pathogenic transmission...... IF per 1 kg wet weight. The dried plants still retained 60% of the IF activity. The purified IF preparation consisted of a 50-kDa glycosylated protein with the N-terminal sequence of mature IF. Approximately one-third of the protein was cleaved at the internal site em leader PSNP downward arrow GPGP...

  12. Color preference and familiarity in performance on brand logo recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kuo-Chen; Lin, Chin-Chiuan; Chiang, Shu-Ying

    2008-10-01

    Two experiments assessed effects of color preference and brand-logo familiarity on recall performance. Exp. 1 explored the color preferences, using a forced-choice technique, of 189 women and 63 men, Taiwanese college students ages 18 to 20 years (M = 19.4, SD = 1.5). The sequence of the three most preferred colors was white, light blue, and black and of the three least preferred colors was light orange, dark violet, and dark brown. Exp. 2 investigated the effects of color preference based on the results of Exp. 1 and brand-logo familiarity on recall. A total of 27 women and 21 men, Taiwanese college students ages 18 to 20 years (M = 19.2, SD = 1.2) participated. They memorized a list of 24 logos (four logos shown in six colors) and then performed sequential recall. Analyses showed color preference significantly affected recall accuracy. Accuracy for high color preference was significantly greater than that for low preferences. Results showed no significant effects of brand-logo familiarity or sex on accuracy. In addition, the interactive effect of color preference and brand-logo familiarity on accuracy was significant. These results have implications for the design of brand logos to create and sustain memory of brand images.

  13. The Vocational Preference Inventory Scores and Environmental Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunce, Joseph T.; Kappes, Bruno Maurice

    1976-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between vocational interest measured by the Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI) and preferences of 175 undergraduates for structured or unstructured environments. Males having clear-cut preferences for structured situations had significantly higher Realistic-Conventional scores than those without…

  14. Organisational Learning and Employees' Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remedios, Richard; Boreham, Nick

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the effects of organisational learning initiatives on employee motivation. Four initiatives consistent with theories of organisational learning were a priori ranked in terms of concepts that underpin intrinsic-motivation theory. Eighteen employees in a UK petrochemical company were interviewed to ascertain their experiences of…

  15. Intrinsic Diophantine approximation on general polynomial surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiljeset, Morten Hein

    2017-01-01

    We study the Hausdorff measure and dimension of the set of intrinsically simultaneously -approximable points on a curve, surface, etc, given as a graph of integer polynomials. We obtain complete answers to these questions for algebraically “nice” manifolds. This generalizes earlier work done...

  16. Sex Differences, Positive Feedback and Intrinsic Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deci, Edward L.; And Others

    The paper presents two experiments which test the "change in feelings of competence and self-determination" proposition of cognitive evaluation theory. This proposition states that when a person receives feedback about his performance on an intrinsically motivated activity this information will affect his sense of competence and…

  17. Intrinsic intensity fluctuations in random lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molen, Karen L. van der; Mosk, Allard P.; Lagendijk, Ad

    2006-01-01

    We present a quantitative experimental and theoretical study of intensity fluctuations in the emitted light of a random laser that has different realizations of disorder for every pump pulse. A model that clarifies these intrinsic fluctuations is developed. We describe the output versus input power graphs of the random laser with an effective spontaneous emission factor (β factor)

  18. Intrinsic Motivation, Organizational Justice, and Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannam, Kalli; Narayan, Anupama

    2015-01-01

    For employees to generate creative ideas that are not only original, but also useful to their company, they must interact with their workplace environment to determine organizational needs. Therefore, it is important to consider aspects of the individual as well as their environment when studying creativity. Intrinsic motivation, a predictor of…

  19. Intrinsically conductive polymer thin film piezoresistors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillemose, Michael; Spieser, Martin; Christiansen, N.O.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the piezoresistive effect in the intrinsically conductive polymer, polyaniline. A process recipe for indirect patterning of thin film polyaniline has been developed. Using a specially designed chip, the polyaniline thin films have been characterised with respect to resistivity...

  20. LEADERSHIP STYLE AND EMPLOYEES' INTRINSIC JOB ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the impact of leadership style on employees' intrinsic ... of many factors including motivation, leadership, job satisfaction, workers' alienation and ... Factors associated with job satisfaction include incentive to work, reward of ... advancement/promotion, recognition and self-actualization cannot be met ...

  1. Discovery of Intrinsic Primitives on Triangle Meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Solomon, Justin

    2011-04-01

    The discovery of meaningful parts of a shape is required for many geometry processing applications, such as parameterization, shape correspondence, and animation. It is natural to consider primitives such as spheres, cylinders and cones as the building blocks of shapes, and thus to discover parts by fitting such primitives to a given surface. This approach, however, will break down if primitive parts have undergone almost-isometric deformations, as is the case, for example, for articulated human models. We suggest that parts can be discovered instead by finding intrinsic primitives, which we define as parts that posses an approximate intrinsic symmetry. We employ the recently-developed method of computing discrete approximate Killing vector fields (AKVFs) to discover intrinsic primitives by investigating the relationship between the AKVFs of a composite object and the AKVFs of its parts. We show how to leverage this relationship with a standard clustering method to extract k intrinsic primitives and remaining asymmetric parts of a shape for a given k. We demonstrate the value of this approach for identifying the prominent symmetry generators of the parts of a given shape. Additionally, we show how our method can be modified slightly to segment an entire surface without marking asymmetric connecting regions and compare this approach to state-of-the-art methods using the Princeton Segmentation Benchmark. © 2011 The Author(s).

  2. Intrinsic Risk Factors of Falls in Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Amatullah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Falls are common geriatric problems. The risk factors of falls are the intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors. Studies on falls are scarcely conducted in Indonesia, especially in Bandung. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify the intrinsic risk factors of falls among elderly. Methods: A descriptive study was carried out from August to October 2013 at the Geriatric Clinic of Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung. Fifty three participants were selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria using consecutive sampling. The determined variables in this study were classification of the risk of falls, demographic profile, history of falls, disease, and medications. After the selection, the participants were tested by Timed up-and-go test (TUGT. Moreover, an interview and analysis of medical records were carried out to discover the risk factors of falls. The collected data were analyzed and presented in the form of percentages shown in tables. Results: From 53 patients, women (35.66% were considered to have higher risk of fall than men (18.34%. The majority of patients (66% with the risk of fall were from the age group 60–74 years. The major diseases suffered by patients were hypertension, osteoarthritis and diabetes mellitus. Drugs that were widely used were antihypertensive drugs; analgesic and antipyretic drugs and antidiabetic drugs. Conclusions: There are various intrinsic risk factors of falls in elderly and each of the elderly has more than one intrinsic risk factor of falls.

  3. The Causes of Preference Reversal.

    OpenAIRE

    Tversky, Amos; Slovic, Paul; Kahneman, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Observed preference reversal cannot be adequately explained by violations of independence, the reduction axiom, or transitivity. The primary cause of preference reversal is the failure of procedure invariance, especially the overpricing of low-probability, high-payoff bets. This result violates regret theory and generalized (nonindependent) utility models. Preference reversal and a new reversal involving time preferences are explained by scale compatibility, which implies that payoffs are wei...

  4. Human preference for air movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Tynel, A.

    2002-01-01

    Human preference for air movement was studied at slightly cool, neutral, and slightly warm overall thermal sensations and at temperatures ranging from 18 deg.C to 28 deg.C. Air movement preference depended on both thermal sensation and temperature, but large inter-individual differences existed...... between subjects. Preference for less air movement was linearly correlated with draught discomfort, but the percentage of subjects who felt draught was lower than the percentage who preferred less air movement....

  5. Functional anthology of intrinsic disorder. 1. Biological processes and functions of proteins with long disordered regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hongbo; Vucetic, Slobodan; Iakoucheva, Lilia M; Oldfield, Christopher J; Dunker, A Keith; Uversky, Vladimir N; Obradovic, Zoran

    2007-05-01

    Identifying relationships between function, amino acid sequence, and protein structure represents a major challenge. In this study, we propose a bioinformatics approach that identifies functional keywords in the Swiss-Prot database that correlate with intrinsic disorder. A statistical evaluation is employed to rank the significance of these correlations. Protein sequence data redundancy and the relationship between protein length and protein structure were taken into consideration to ensure the quality of the statistical inferences. Over 200,000 proteins from the Swiss-Prot database were analyzed using this approach. The predictions of intrinsic disorder were carried out using PONDR VL3E predictor of long disordered regions that achieves an accuracy of above 86%. Overall, out of the 710 Swiss-Prot functional keywords that were each associated with at least 20 proteins, 238 were found to be strongly positively correlated with predicted long intrinsically disordered regions, whereas 302 were strongly negatively correlated with such regions. The remaining 170 keywords were ambiguous without strong positive or negative correlation with the disorder predictions. These functions cover a large variety of biological activities and imply that disordered regions are characterized by a wide functional repertoire. Our results agree well with literature findings, as we were able to find at least one illustrative example of functional disorder or order shown experimentally for the vast majority of keywords showing the strongest positive or negative correlation with intrinsic disorder. This work opens a series of three papers, which enriches the current view of protein structure-function relationships, especially with regards to functionalities of intrinsically disordered proteins, and provides researchers with a novel tool that could be used to improve the understanding of the relationships between protein structure and function. The first paper of the series describes our

  6. Functional Anthology of Intrinsic Disorder. I. Biological Processes and Functions of Proteins with Long Disordered Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hongbo; Vucetic, Slobodan; Iakoucheva, Lilia M.; Oldfield, Christopher J.; Dunker, A. Keith; Uversky, Vladimir N.; Obradovic, Zoran

    2008-01-01

    Identifying relationships between function, amino acid sequence and protein structure represents a major challenge. In this study we propose a bioinformatics approach that identifies functional keywords in the Swiss-Prot database that correlate with intrinsic disorder. A statistical evaluation is employed to rank the significance of these correlations. Protein sequence data redundancy and the relationship between protein length and protein structure were taken into consideration to ensure the quality of the statistical inferences. Over 200,000 proteins from Swiss-Prot database were analyzed using this approach. The predictions of intrinsic disorder were carried out using PONDR VL3E predictor of long disordered regions that achieves an accuracy of above 86%. Overall, out of the 710 Swiss-Prot functional keywords that were each associated with at least 20 proteins, 238 were found to be strongly positively correlated with predicted long intrinsically disordered regions, whereas 302 were strongly negatively correlated with such regions. The remaining 170 keywords were ambiguous without strong positive or negative correlation with the disorder predictions. These functions cover a large variety of biological activities and imply that disordered regions are characterized by a wide functional repertoire. Our results agree well with literature findings, as we were able to find at least one illustrative example of functional disorder or order shown experimentally for the vast majority of keywords showing the strongest positive or negative correlation with intrinsic disorder. This work opens a series of three papers, which enriches the current view of protein structure-function relationships, especially with regards to functionalities of intrinsically disordered proteins and provides researchers with a novel tool that could be used to improve the understanding of the relationships between protein structure and function. The first paper of the series describes our statistical

  7. Generating intrinsically disordered protein conformational ensembles from a Markov chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukier, Robert I.

    2018-03-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) sample a diverse conformational space. They are important to signaling and regulatory pathways in cells. An entropy penalty must be payed when an IDP becomes ordered upon interaction with another protein or a ligand. Thus, the degree of conformational disorder of an IDP is of interest. We create a dichotomic Markov model that can explore entropic features of an IDP. The Markov condition introduces local (neighbor residues in a protein sequence) rotamer dependences that arise from van der Waals and other chemical constraints. A protein sequence of length N is characterized by its (information) entropy and mutual information, MIMC, the latter providing a measure of the dependence among the random variables describing the rotamer probabilities of the residues that comprise the sequence. For a Markov chain, the MIMC is proportional to the pair mutual information MI which depends on the singlet and pair probabilities of neighbor residue rotamer sampling. All 2N sequence states are generated, along with their probabilities, and contrasted with the probabilities under the assumption of independent residues. An efficient method to generate realizations of the chain is also provided. The chain entropy, MIMC, and state probabilities provide the ingredients to distinguish different scenarios using the terminologies: MoRF (molecular recognition feature), not-MoRF, and not-IDP. A MoRF corresponds to large entropy and large MIMC (strong dependence among the residues' rotamer sampling), a not-MoRF corresponds to large entropy but small MIMC, and not-IDP corresponds to low entropy irrespective of the MIMC. We show that MorFs are most appropriate as descriptors of IDPs. They provide a reasonable number of high-population states that reflect the dependences between neighbor residues, thus classifying them as IDPs, yet without very large entropy that might lead to a too high entropy penalty.

  8. Neural evidence for the intrinsic value of action as motivation for behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Naoki; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Sasaki, Akihiro T; Harada, Tokiko; Sadato, Norihiro

    2017-06-03

    The intrinsic value of an action refers to the inherent sense that experiencing a behavior is enjoyable even if it has no explicit outcome. Previous research has suggested that a common valuation mechanism within the reward network may be responsible for processing the intrinsic value of achieving both the outcome and external rewards. However, how the intrinsic value of action is neurally represented remains unknown. We hypothesized that the intrinsic value of action is determined by an action-outcome contingency indicating the behavior is controllable and that the outcome of the action can be evaluated by this feedback. Consequently, the reward network should be activated, reflecting the generation of the intrinsic value of action. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) investigation of a stopwatch game in which the action-outcome contingency was manipulated. This experiment involved 36 healthy volunteers and four versions of a stopwatch game that manipulated controllability (the feeling that participants were controlling the stopwatch themselves) and outcome (a signal allowing participants to see the result of their action). A free-choice experiment was administered after the fMRI to explore preference levels for each game. The results showed that the stopwatch game with the action-outcome contingency evoked a greater degree of enjoyment because the participants chose this condition over those that lacked such a contingency. The ventral striatum and midbrain were activated only when action-outcome contingency was present. Thus, the intrinsic value of action was represented by an increase in ventral striatal and midbrain activation. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Identifying the neural substrates of intrinsic motivation during task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woogul; Reeve, Johnmarshall

    2017-10-01

    Intrinsic motivation is the inherent tendency to seek out novelty and challenge, to explore and investigate, and to stretch and extend one's capacities. When people imagine performing intrinsically motivating tasks, they show heightened anterior insular cortex (AIC) activity. To fully explain the neural system of intrinsic motivation, however, requires assessing neural activity while people actually perform intrinsically motivating tasks (i.e., while answering curiosity-inducing questions or solving competence-enabling anagrams). Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, we found that the neural system of intrinsic motivation involves not only AIC activity, but also striatum activity and, further, AIC-striatum functional interactions. These findings suggest that subjective feelings of intrinsic satisfaction (associated with AIC activations), reward processing (associated with striatum activations), and their interactions underlie the actual experience of intrinsic motivation. These neural findings are consistent with the conceptualization of intrinsic motivation as the pursuit and satisfaction of subjective feelings (interest and enjoyment) as intrinsic rewards.

  10. Resolving the ambiguity: Making sense of intrinsic disorder when PDB structures disagree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeForte, Shelly; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2016-03-01

    Missing regions in X-ray crystal structures in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) have played a foundational role in the study of intrinsically disordered protein regions (IDPRs), especially in the development of in silico predictors of intrinsic disorder. However, a missing region is only a weak indication of intrinsic disorder, and this uncertainty is compounded by the presence of ambiguous regions, where more than one structure of the same protein sequence "disagrees" in terms of the presence or absence of missing residues. The question is this: are these ambiguous regions intrinsically disordered, or are they the result of static disorder that arises from experimental conditions, ensembles of structures, or domain wobbling? A novel way of looking at ambiguous regions in terms of the pattern between multiple PDB structures has been demonstrated. It was found that the propensity for intrinsic disorder increases as the level of ambiguity decreases. However, it is also shown that ambiguity is more likely to occur as the protein region is placed within different environmental conditions, and even the most ambiguous regions as a set display compositional bias that suggests flexibility. The results suggested that ambiguity is a natural result for many IDPRs crystallized under different conditions and that static disorder and wobbling domains are relatively rare. Instead, it is more likely that ambiguity arises because many of these regions were conditionally or partially disordered. © 2016 The Protein Society.

  11. Treatment preference in hypochondriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J; Vincent, N; Furer, P; Cox, B; Kjernisted, K

    1999-12-01

    Promising cognitive-behavioral and medication treatments for hypochondriasis are in the early stages of evaluation. Little is known about the treatment preferences and opinions of individuals seeking help for this problem. In this exploratory study, 23 volunteers from the community with a DSM-IV diagnosis of hypochondriasis were recruited through a newspaper advertisement. Participants were presented with a survey which included balanced descriptions of both a medication and a cognitive-behavioral treatment for intense illness concerns (hypochondriasis). The brief descriptions of the treatments discussed the time commitment required as well as the major advantages and disadvantages of each. Results showed that, relative to medication treatment, cognitive-behavioral treatment was predicted to be more effective in both the short and long terms and was rated as more acceptable. Psychological treatment was indicated as the first choice by 74% of respondents, medication by 4%, and 22% indicated an equal preference. Forty-eight percent of respondents would only accept the psychological treatment.

  12. Estimating exponential scheduling preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Katrine; Börjesson, Maria; Engelson, Leonid

    Extended abstract Choice of departure time is a travel choice dimension that transportation planners often need to forecast in appraisal. A traveller may shift departure time in response to changes in expected travel time or travel time variability (TTV) or in response to time-differentiated cong......Extended abstract Choice of departure time is a travel choice dimension that transportation planners often need to forecast in appraisal. A traveller may shift departure time in response to changes in expected travel time or travel time variability (TTV) or in response to time...... from the underlying scheduling preferences (Noland and Small, 1995, Bates et al., 2001, Fosgerau and Karlström, 2010). The scheduling preferences can be formally represented as time-dependent rates of utility derived at different locations. Assuming that the travellers are rational and choose departure......’ departure time choice. The assumption underlying the scheduling approach is that the traveller rationally maximises her total utility obtained during a period of time. The total utility depends on time of departure from the origin and time of arrival to the destination. The total utility is usually assumed...

  13. Functions of intrinsic disorder in transmembrane proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergaard, Magnus; Kragelund, Birthe B.

    2017-01-01

    Intrinsic disorder is common in integral membrane proteins, particularly in the intracellular domains. Despite this observation, these domains are not always recognized as being disordered. In this review, we will discuss the biological functions of intrinsically disordered regions of membrane...... receptors. The functions of the disordered regions are many and varied. We will discuss selected examples including: (1) Organization of receptors, kinases, phosphatases and second messenger sources into signaling complexes. (2) Modulation of the membrane-embedded domain function by ball-and-chain like...... mechanisms. (3) Trafficking of membrane proteins. (4) Transient membrane associations. (5) Post-translational modifications most notably phosphorylation and (6) disorder-linked isoform dependent function. We finish the review by discussing the future challenges facing the membrane protein community regarding...

  14. Extrinsic and intrinsic curvatures in thermodynamic geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini Mansoori, Seyed Ali, E-mail: shossein@bu.edu [Department of Physics, Boston University, 590 Commonwealth Ave., Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Department of Physics, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mirza, Behrouz, E-mail: b.mirza@cc.iut.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sharifian, Elham, E-mail: e.sharifian@ph.iut.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-08-10

    We investigate the intrinsic and extrinsic curvatures of a certain hypersurface in thermodynamic geometry of a physical system and show that they contain useful thermodynamic information. For an anti-Reissner–Nordström-(A)de Sitter black hole (Phantom), the extrinsic curvature of a constant Q hypersurface has the same sign as the heat capacity around the phase transition points. The intrinsic curvature of the hypersurface can also be divergent at the critical points but has no information about the sign of the heat capacity. Our study explains the consistent relationship holding between the thermodynamic geometry of the KN-AdS black holes and those of the RN (J-zero hypersurface) and Kerr black holes (Q-zero hypersurface) ones [1]. This approach can easily be generalized to an arbitrary thermodynamic system.

  15. Extrinsic and intrinsic curvatures in thermodynamic geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini Mansoori, Seyed Ali; Mirza, Behrouz; Sharifian, Elham

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the intrinsic and extrinsic curvatures of a certain hypersurface in thermodynamic geometry of a physical system and show that they contain useful thermodynamic information. For an anti-Reissner–Nordström-(A)de Sitter black hole (Phantom), the extrinsic curvature of a constant Q hypersurface has the same sign as the heat capacity around the phase transition points. The intrinsic curvature of the hypersurface can also be divergent at the critical points but has no information about the sign of the heat capacity. Our study explains the consistent relationship holding between the thermodynamic geometry of the KN-AdS black holes and those of the RN (J-zero hypersurface) and Kerr black holes (Q-zero hypersurface) ones [1]. This approach can easily be generalized to an arbitrary thermodynamic system.

  16. Does Aerobic Exercise Influence Intrinsic Brain Activity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flodin, Pär; Jonasson, Lars S; Riklund, Katrin

    2017-01-01

    exercise group or an active control group. Both groups recieved supervised training, 3 days a week for 6 months. Multimodal brain imaging data was acquired before and after the intervention, including 10 min of resting state brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and arterial spin labeling......Previous studies have indicated that aerobic exercise could reduce age related decline in cognition and brain functioning. Here we investigated the effects of aerobic exercise on intrinsic brain activity. Sixty sedentary healthy males and females (64-78 years) were randomized into either an aerobic...... group improved more. Contrary to our hypothesis, we did not observe any significant group by time interactions with regard to any measure of intrinsic activity. To further probe putative relationships between fitness and brain activity, we performed post hoc analyses disregarding group belongings...

  17. Survey of intrinsic states of light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brink, D.M.

    1975-01-01

    The resonating group method and the generator coordinate method are two closely related theories of nuclear structure which can be used to construct wave functions describing cluster structures. In both cases the form of the intrinsic state implies a selection of those degrees of freedom which are regarded as being important for the problem under consideration. The form of the intrinsic state also corresponds to a particular truncation of the shell model space. In the resonating group method the effect of the Pauli principle leads to forbidden or redundant states of relative motion of clusters. An improved understanding of the role of forbidden states in the theory has led to important advances in the phenomenological description of cluster structures in nuclei. 3 tables, 2 figures

  18. Excitonic terahertz photoconductivity in intrinsic semiconductor nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jie-Yun

    2018-06-01

    Excitonic terahertz photoconductivity in intrinsic semiconductor nanowires is studied. Based on the excitonic theory, the numerical method to calculate the photoconductivity spectrum in the nanowires is developed, which can simulate optical pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy measurements on real nanowires and thereby calculate the typical photoconductivity spectrum. With the help of the energetic structure deduced from the calculated linear absorption spectrum, the numerically observed shift of the resonant peak in the photoconductivity spectrum is found to result from the dominant exciton transition between excited or continuum states to the ground state, and the quantitative analysis is in good agreement with the quantum plasmon model. Besides, the dependence of the photoconductivity on the polarization of the terahertz field is also discussed. The numerical method and supporting theoretical analysis provide a new tool for experimentalists to understand the terahertz photoconductivity in intrinsic semiconductor nanowires at low temperatures or for nanowires subjected to below bandgap photoexcitation, where excitonic effects dominate.

  19. Intrinsic bent DNA sites in the chromosomal replication origin of Xylella fastidiosa 9a5c

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gimenes

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The features of the nucleotide sequences in both replication and promoter regions have been investigated in many organisms. Intrinsically bent DNA sites associated with transcription have been described in several prokaryotic organisms. The aim of the present study was to investigate intrinsic bent DNA sites in the segment that holds the chromosomal replication origin, oriC, of Xylella fastidiosa 9a5c. Electrophoretic behavior analyses, as well as in silico analyses of both the 2-D projection and helical parameters, were performed. The chromosomal segment analyzed contains the initial sequence of the rpmH gene, an intergenic region, the dnaA gene, the oriC sequence, and the 5' partial sequence of the dnaN gene. The analysis revealed fragments with reduced electrophoretic mobility, which indicates the presence of curved DNA segments. The analysis of the helical parameter ENDS ratio revealed three bent DNA sites (b1, b2, and b3 located in the rpmH-dnaA intergenic region, the dnaA gene, and the oriC 5' end, respectively. The chromosomal segment of X. fastidiosa analyzed here is rich in phased AT tracts and in CAnT motifs. The 2-D projection indicated a segment whose structure was determined by the cumulative effect of all bent DNA sites. Further, the in silico analysis of the three different bacterial oriC sequences indicated similar negative roll and twist >34.00° values. The DnaA box sequences, and other motifs in them, may be associated with the intrinsic DNA curvature.

  20. Structural design of intrinsically fluorescent oxysterols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nåbo, Lina J; Modzel, Maciej; Krishnan, Kathiresan

    2018-01-01

    Oxysterols are oxidized derivatives of cholesterol with many important biological functions. Trafficking of oxysterols in and between cells is not well studied, largely due to the lack of appropriate oxysterol analogs. Intrinsically fluorescent oxysterols present a new route towards direct...... observation of intracellular oxysterol trafficking by fluorescence microscopy. We characterize the fluorescence properties of the existing fluorescent 25-hydroxycholesterol analog 25-hydroxycholestatrienol, and propose a new probe with an extended conjugated system. The location of both probes inside...

  1. Intrinsic defects in ZnO varistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahan, G.D.

    1983-01-01

    Theoretical calculations are presented for equilibrium concentrations of zinc and oxygen vacancies in ZnO. Results are presented at the sintering temperature, and also at room temperature. Theoretical calculations of reaction constants show that the intrinsic donor is the oxygen vacancy, rather than the zinc interstitial. The depletion of vacancies in the surface region, as the ZnO is cooled from the sintering temperature, is also calculated. Homojunction effects which are caused by such depletion are shown to be small

  2. Intrinsic and extrinsic effects on image memorability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bylinskii, Zoya; Isola, Phillip; Bainbridge, Constance; Torralba, Antonio; Oliva, Aude

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have identified that images carry the attribute of memorability, a predictive value of whether a novel image will be later remembered or forgotten. Here we investigate the interplay between intrinsic and extrinsic factors that affect image memorability. First, we find that intrinsic differences in memorability exist at a finer-grained scale than previously documented. Second, we test two extrinsic factors: image context and observer behavior. Building on prior findings that images that are distinct with respect to their context are better remembered, we propose an information-theoretic model of image distinctiveness. Our model can automatically predict how changes in context change the memorability of natural images. In addition to context, we study a second extrinsic factor: where an observer looks while memorizing an image. It turns out that eye movements provide additional information that can predict whether or not an image will be remembered, on a trial-by-trial basis. Together, by considering both intrinsic and extrinsic effects on memorability, we arrive at a more complete and fine-grained model of image memorability than previously available. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Moral Distress, Workplace Health, and Intrinsic Harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Elijah

    2016-05-01

    Moral distress is now being recognized as a frequent experience for many health care providers, and there's good evidence that it has a negative impact on the health care work environment. However, contemporary discussions of moral distress have several problems. First, they tend to rely on inadequate characterizations of moral distress. As a result, subsequent investigations regarding the frequency and consequences of moral distress often proceed without a clear understanding of the phenomenon being discussed, and thereby risk substantially misrepresenting the nature, frequency, and possible consequences of moral distress. These discussions also minimize the intrinsically harmful aspects of moral distress. This is a serious omission. Moral distress doesn't just have a negative impact on the health care work environment; it also directly harms the one who experiences it. In this paper, I claim that these problems can be addressed by first clarifying our understanding of moral distress, and then identifying what makes moral distress intrinsically harmful. I begin by identifying three common mistakes that characterizations of moral distress tend to make, and explaining why these mistakes are problematic. Next, I offer an account of moral distress that avoids these mistakes. Then, I defend the claim that moral distress is intrinsically harmful to the subject who experiences it. I conclude by explaining how acknowledging this aspect of moral distress should reshape our discussions about how best to deal with this phenomenon. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Comparison of two Next Generation sequencing platforms for full genome sequencing of Classical Swine Fever Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahnøe, Ulrik; Pedersen, Anders Gorm; Höper, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    to the consensus sequence. Additionally, we got an average sequence depth for the genome of 4000 for the Iontorrent PGM and 400 for the FLX platform making the mapping suitable for single nucleotide variant (SNV) detection. The analysis revealed a single non-silent SNV A10665G leading to the amino acid change D......Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) is becoming more adopted into viral research and will be the preferred technology in the years to come. We have recently sequenced several strains of Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV) by NGS on both Genome Sequencer FLX (GS FLX) and Iontorrent PGM platforms...

  5. Color preferences are not universal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Chloe; Clifford, Alexandra; Franklin, Anna

    2013-11-01

    Claims of universality pervade color preference research. It has been argued that there are universal preferences for some colors over others (e.g., Eysenck, 1941), universal sex differences (e.g., Hurlbert & Ling, 2007), and universal mechanisms or dimensions that govern these preferences (e.g., Palmer & Schloss, 2010). However, there have been surprisingly few cross-cultural investigations of color preference and none from nonindustrialized societies that are relatively free from the common influence of global consumer culture. Here, we compare the color preferences of British adults to those of Himba adults who belong to a nonindustrialized culture in rural Namibia. British and Himba color preferences are found to share few characteristics, and Himba color preferences display none of the so-called "universal" patterns or sex differences. Several significant predictors of color preference are identified, such as cone-contrast between stimulus and background (Hurlbert & Ling, 2007), the valence of color-associated objects (Palmer & Schloss, 2010), and the colorfulness of the color. However, the relationship of these predictors to color preference was strikingly different for the two cultures. No one model of color preference is able to account for both British and Himba color preferences. We suggest that not only do patterns of color preference vary across individuals and groups but the underlying mechanisms and dimensions of color preference vary as well. The findings have implications for broader debate on the extent to which our perception and experience of color is culturally relative or universally constrained. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Deciphering RNA-Recognition Patterns of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambuj Srivastava

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs and protein (IDPs are highly flexible owing to their lack of well-defined structures. A subset of such proteins interacts with various substrates; including RNA; frequently adopting regular structures in the final complex. In this work; we have analysed a dataset of protein–RNA complexes undergoing disorder-to-order transition (DOT upon binding. We found that DOT regions are generally small in size (less than 3 residues for RNA binding proteins. Like structured proteins; positively charged residues are found to interact with RNA molecules; indicating the dominance of electrostatic and cation-π interactions. However, a comparison of binding frequency shows that interface hydrophobic and aromatic residues have more interactions in only DOT regions than in a protein. Further; DOT regions have significantly higher exposure to water than their structured counterparts. Interactions of DOT regions with RNA increase the sheet formation with minor changes in helix forming residues. We have computed the interaction energy for amino acids–nucleotide pairs; which showed the preference of His–G; Asn–U and Ser–U at for the interface of DOT regions. This study provides insights to understand protein–RNA interactions and the results could also be used for developing a tool for identifying DOT regions in RNA binding proteins.

  7. Crowding out intrinsic motivation in the public sector

    OpenAIRE

    Georgellis, Y; Iossa, E; Tabvuma, V

    2011-01-01

    Employing intrinsically motivated individuals has been proposed as a means of improving public sector performance. In this article, we investigate whether intrinsic motivation affects the sorting of employees between the private and the public sectors, paying particular attention to whether extrinsic rewards crowd out intrinsic motivation. Using British longitudinal data, we find that individuals are attracted to the public sector by the intrinsic rather than the extrinsic rewards that the se...

  8. Intrinsic structural differences in the N-terminal segment of pulmonary surfactant protein SP-C from different species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plasencia, I; Rivas, L; Casals, C

    2001-01-01

    Predictive studies suggest that the known sequences of the N-terminal segment of surfactant protein SP-C from animal species have an intrinsic tendency to form beta-turns, but there are important differences on the probable location of these motifs in different SP-C species. Our hypothesis...

  9. Intrinsic Motivation: An Overlooked Component for Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustyniak, Robert A.; Ables, Adrienne Z.; Guilford, Philip; Lujan, Heidi L.; Cortright, Ronald N.; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2016-01-01

    Intrinsic motivation to learn involves engaging in learning opportunities because they are seen as enjoyable, interesting, or relevant to meeting one's core psychological needs. As a result, intrinsic motivation is associated with high levels of effort and task performance. Students with greater levels of intrinsic motivation demonstrate strong…

  10. Personalizing Sample Databases with Facebook Information to Increase Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzo, Asier; Ardaiz, Oscar; Sanz de Acedo, María Teresa; Sanz de Acedo, María Luisa

    2017-01-01

    Motivation is fundamental for students to achieve successful and complete learning. Motivation can be extrinsic, i.e., driven by external rewards, or intrinsic, i.e., driven by internal factors. Intrinsic motivation is the most effective and must be inspired by the task at hand. Here, a novel strategy is presented to increase intrinsic motivation…

  11. Individualistic vs. Competitive Participation: The Effect on Intrinsic Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brent M.; And Others

    Studies investigating intrinsic motivation and competition have supported the view that competition decreases intrinsic motivation. More recent studies suggest that the specific outcome of a competition (a win or a loss) differentially affects intrinsic motivation by highlighting the informational rather than the controlling aspect of the reward…

  12. Elements of the Competitive Situation That Affect Intrinsic Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Johnmarshall; Deci, Edward L.

    1996-01-01

    Explores the effects of three elements of the competitive situation (competitive set, competitive outcome, and interpersonal context) on intrinsic motivation in a sample of college students (n=100). Competitive outcome and interpersonal context affected intrinsic motivation: winning increased intrinsic motivation, while pressured interpersonal…

  13. The value of nature: Economic, intrinsic, or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    There has been a long standing argument that ecosystems have intrinsic value and therefore there is no need to put a price tag on Mother Nature. The concept of intrinsic value reflects the perspective that nature has value in its own right, independent of human uses. Intrinsic va...

  14. Gender identity rather than sexual orientation impacts on facial preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocca, Giacomo; Limoncin, Erika; Cellerino, Alessandro; Fisher, Alessandra D; Gravina, Giovanni Luca; Carosa, Eleonora; Mollaioli, Daniele; Valenzano, Dario R; Mennucci, Andrea; Bandini, Elisa; Di Stasi, Savino M; Maggi, Mario; Lenzi, Andrea; Jannini, Emmanuele A

    2014-10-01

    Differences in facial preferences between heterosexual men and women are well documented. It is still a matter of debate, however, how variations in sexual identity/sexual orientation may modify the facial preferences. This study aims to investigate the facial preferences of male-to-female (MtF) individuals with gender dysphoria (GD) and the influence of short-term/long-term relationships on facial preference, in comparison with healthy subjects. Eighteen untreated MtF subjects, 30 heterosexual males, 64 heterosexual females, and 42 homosexual males from university students/staff, at gay events, and in Gender Clinics were shown a composite male or female face. The sexual dimorphism of these pictures was stressed or reduced in a continuous fashion through an open-source morphing program with a sequence of 21 pictures of the same face warped from a feminized to a masculinized shape. An open-source morphing program (gtkmorph) based on the X-Morph algorithm. MtF GD subjects and heterosexual females showed the same pattern of preferences: a clear preference for less dimorphic (more feminized) faces for both short- and long-term relationships. Conversely, both heterosexual and homosexual men selected significantly much more dimorphic faces, showing a preference for hyperfeminized and hypermasculinized faces, respectively. These data show that the facial preferences of MtF GD individuals mirror those of the sex congruent with their gender identity. Conversely, heterosexual males trace the facial preferences of homosexual men, indicating that changes in sexual orientation do not substantially affect preference for the most attractive faces. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  15. Multiple aspects of ATP-dependent nucleosome translocation by RSC and Mi-2 are directed by the underlying DNA sequence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joke J F A van Vugt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chromosome structure, DNA metabolic processes and cell type identity can all be affected by changing the positions of nucleosomes along chromosomal DNA, a reaction that is catalysed by SNF2-type ATP-driven chromatin remodelers. Recently it was suggested that in vivo, more than 50% of the nucleosome positions can be predicted simply by DNA sequence, especially within promoter regions. This seemingly contrasts with remodeler induced nucleosome mobility. The ability of remodeling enzymes to mobilise nucleosomes over short DNA distances is well documented. However, the nucleosome translocation processivity along DNA remains elusive. Furthermore, it is unknown what determines the initial direction of movement and how new nucleosome positions are adopted. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have used AFM imaging and high resolution PAGE of mononucleosomes on 600 and 2500 bp DNA molecules to analyze ATP-dependent nucleosome repositioning by native and recombinant SNF2-type enzymes. We report that the underlying DNA sequence can control the initial direction of translocation, translocation distance, as well as the new positions adopted by nucleosomes upon enzymatic mobilization. Within a strong nucleosomal positioning sequence both recombinant Drosophila Mi-2 (CHD-type and native RSC from yeast (SWI/SNF-type repositioned the nucleosome at 10 bp intervals, which are intrinsic to the positioning sequence. Furthermore, RSC-catalyzed nucleosome translocation was noticeably more efficient when beyond the influence of this sequence. Interestingly, under limiting ATP conditions RSC preferred to position the nucleosome with 20 bp intervals within the positioning sequence, suggesting that native RSC preferentially translocates nucleosomes with 15 to 25 bp DNA steps. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Nucleosome repositioning thus appears to be influenced by both remodeler intrinsic and DNA sequence specific properties that interplay to define ATPase

  16. Innate and intrinsic antiviral immunity in skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Tatsuyoshi; Ogawa, Youichi; Aoki, Rui; Shimada, Shinji

    2014-09-01

    As the body's most exposed interface with the environment, the skin is constantly challenged by potentially pathogenic microbes, including viruses. To sense the invading viruses, various types of cells resident in the skin express many different pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) such as C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), Toll-like receptors (TLRs), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs), retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs) and cytosolic DNA sensors, that can detect the pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) of the viruses. The detection of viral PAMPs initiates two major innate immune signaling cascades: the first involves the activation of the downstream transcription factors, such as interferon regulatory factors (IRFs), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and activator protein 1 (AP-1), which cooperate to induce the transcription of type I interferons and pro-inflammatory cytokines. The second signaling pathway involves the caspase-1-mediated processing of IL-1β and IL-18 through the formation of an inflammasome complex. Cutaneous innate immunity including the production of the innate cytokines constitutes the first line of host defence that limits the virus dissemination from the skin, and also plays an important role in the activation of adaptive immune response, which represents the second line of defence. More recently, the third immunity "intrinsic immunity" has emerged, that provides an immediate and direct antiviral defense mediated by host intrinsic restriction factors. This review focuses on the recent advances regarding the antiviral immune systems, highlighting the innate and intrinsic immunity against the viral infections in the skin, and describes how viral components are recognized by cutaneous immune systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Rapid Polymer Sequencer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolc, Viktor (Inventor); Brock, Matthew W (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Method and system for rapid and accurate determination of each of a sequence of unknown polymer components, such as nucleic acid components. A self-assembling monolayer of a selected substance is optionally provided on an interior surface of a pipette tip, and the interior surface is immersed in a selected liquid. A selected electrical field is impressed in a longitudinal direction, or in a transverse direction, in the tip region, a polymer sequence is passed through the tip region, and a change in an electrical current signal is measured as each polymer component passes through the tip region. Each of the measured changes in electrical current signals is compared with a database of reference electrical change signals, with each reference signal corresponding to an identified polymer component, to identify the unknown polymer component with a reference polymer component. The nanopore preferably has a pore inner diameter of no more than about 40 nm and is prepared by heating and pulling a very small section of a glass tubing.

  18. Intrinsic and extrinsic neuromodulation of motor circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, P S

    1995-12-01

    Neuromodulation of motor circuits by extrinsic inputs provides enormous flexibility in the production of behavior. Recent work has shown that neurons intrinsic to central pattern-generating circuits can evoke neuromodulatory effects in addition to their neurotransmitting actions. Modulatory neurons often elicit a multitude of different effects attributable to actions at different receptors and/or through the release of co-transmitters. Differences in neuromodulation between species can account for differences in behavior. Modulation of neuromodulation may provide an additional level of flexibility to motor circuits.

  19. Symplectic Structure of Intrinsic Time Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyo Eyo Ita

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Poisson structure of intrinsic time gravity is analysed. With the starting point comprising a unimodular three-metric with traceless momentum, a trace-induced anomaly results upon quantization. This leads to a revision of the choice of momentum variable to the (mixed index traceless momentric. This latter choice unitarily implements the fundamental commutation relations, which now take on the form of an affine algebra with SU(3 Lie algebra amongst the momentric variables. The resulting relations unitarily implement tracelessness upon quantization. The associated Poisson brackets and Hamiltonian dynamics are studied.

  20. Distinct molecular signatures of mild extrinsic and intrinsic atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martel, Britta Cathrina; Litman, Thomas; Hald, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common inflammatory skin disease with underlying defects in epidermal function and immune responses. In this study, we used microarray analysis to investigate differences in gene expression in lesional skin from patients with mild extrinsic or intrinsic AD compared...... with mild extrinsic and intrinsic AD similar to previous reports for severe AD. Interestingly, expression of genes involved in inflammatory responses in intrinsic AD resembled that of psoriasis more than that of extrinsic AD. Overall, differences in expression of inflammation-associated genes found among...... patients with mild intrinsic and extrinsic AD correlated with previous findings for patients with severe intrinsic and extrinsic AD....

  1. Foraging strategy of a Neotropical primate: how intrinsic and extrinsic factors influence destination and residence time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plante, Sabrina; Colchero, Fernando; Calmé, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    accounting for intrinsic and extrinsic factors, which are often overlooked when modelling foraging behaviour. 2.We identified the decision rules for foraging in black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra), according to food preferences, locations of high quality patches and previously eaten trees, phenology...... of food resources and hunger state. We depicted foraging in two stages: 1) the choice of the immediate next tree and 2) the time spent on this tree. We used a recently developed model for inference of movement processes, incorporating resource selection functions into a Markov Chain framework. 3.We found...... that monkeys tend to move to preferred tree species at each step. However, we did not find conclusively that, at each step, monkeys direct their movements to reach high-quality patches. In fact, they were using these patches intensively, thus limiting the possibility to move toward other high quality patches...

  2. Children Reason about Shared Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, Christine A.; Markson, Lori

    2010-01-01

    Two-year-old children's reasoning about the relation between their own and others' preferences was investigated across two studies. In Experiment 1, children first observed 2 actors display their individual preferences for various toys. Children were then asked to make inferences about new, visually inaccessible toys and books that were described…

  3. Intelligence and musical mode preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonetti, Leonardo; Costa, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between fluid intelligence and preference for major–minor musical mode was investigated in a sample of 80 university students. Intelligence was assessed by the Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices. Musical mode preference was assessed by presenting 14 pairs of musical stimuli...... differences at the cognitive and personality level related to the enjoyment of sad music....

  4. Assessing Preference for Social Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Casey J.; Samaha, Andrew L.; Bloom, Sarah E.; Bogoev, Bistra K.; Boyle, Megan A.

    2013-01-01

    We examined a procedure to assess preference for social interactions in individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Preferences were identified in five individuals using a paired-choice procedure in which participants approached therapists who provided different forms of social interactions. A subsequent tracking test showed that…

  5. Job satisfaction and preference drift.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maassen van den Brink, H.; Groot, W.J.N.

    1999-01-01

    Most empirical studies do not find that higher wages lead to more job satisfaction. In this paper we argue that the insignificant effect of wages on job satisfaction is due to preference drift. We adapt the standard ordered response model to allow for preference shifts. The empirical results support

  6. Great apes prefer cooked food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wobber, Victoria; Hare, Brian; Wrangham, Richard

    2008-08-01

    The cooking hypothesis proposes that a diet of cooked food was responsible for diverse morphological and behavioral changes in human evolution. However, it does not predict whether a preference for cooked food evolved before or after the control of fire. This question is important because the greater the preference shown by a raw-food-eating hominid for the properties present in cooked food, the more easily cooking should have been adopted following the control of fire. Here we use great apes to model food preferences by Paleolithic hominids. We conducted preference tests with various plant and animal foods to determine whether great apes prefer food items raw or cooked. We found that several populations of captive apes tended to prefer their food cooked, though with important exceptions. These results suggest that Paleolithic hominids would likewise have spontaneously preferred cooked food to raw, exapting a pre-existing preference for high-quality, easily chewed foods onto these cooked items. The results, therefore, challenge the hypothesis that the control of fire preceded cooking by a significant period.

  7. Preference for increasing wages: How do people value various streams of income?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Duffy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prior studies have found that subjects prefer an improving sequence of income over a constant sequence, even if the constant sequence offers a larger present-discounted value. However, little is known about how these preferences vary with the size of the wage payments. In each of four studies, we find a positive relationship between the preference for increasing payments and the size of the payments. We find no evidence that our measure of the decreasing marginal utility of money is associated with this relationship. Additionally, we find weak evidence in support of a theoretical prediction that the difference between the preference for increasing wage payments and the preference for increasing nonwage payments will be largest for intermediate amounts. We do not find a relationship between the preference for increasing payments and the preference for improving nonmonetary sequences. Finally, the relationship between the preference for increasing payments and the size of the payments does not appear to be sensitive to the precise specification of the increases.

  8. Bacterial Preferences for Specific Soil Particle Size Fractions Revealed by Community Analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemkemeyer, Michael; Dohrmann, Anja B.; Christensen, Bent Tolstrup

    2018-01-01

    , while Gemmatimonadales preferred coarse silt, Actinobacteria and Nitrosospira fine silt, and Planctomycetales clay. Firmicutes were depleted in the sand-sized fraction. In contrast, archaea, which represented 0.8% of all 16S rRNA gene sequences, showed only little preference for specific PSFs. We...

  9. The Neuroscience of Growth Mindset and Intrinsic Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Betsy

    2018-01-26

    Our actions can be triggered by intentions, incentives or intrinsic values. Recent neuroscientific research has yielded some results about the growth mindset and intrinsic motivation. With the advances in neuroscience and motivational studies, there is a global need to utilize this information to inform educational practice and research. Yet, little is known about the neuroscientific interplay between growth mindset and intrinsic motivation. This paper attempts to draw on the theories of growth mindset and intrinsic motivation, together with contemporary ideas in neuroscience, outline the potential for neuroscientific research in education. It aims to shed light on the relationship between growth mindset and intrinsic motivation in terms of supporting a growth mindset to facilitate intrinsic motivation through neural responses. Recent empirical research from the educational neuroscience perspective that provides insights into the interplay between growth mindset and intrinsic motivation will also be discussed.

  10. The Neuroscience of Growth Mindset and Intrinsic Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsy Ng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Our actions can be triggered by intentions, incentives or intrinsic values. Recent neuroscientific research has yielded some results about the growth mindset and intrinsic motivation. With the advances in neuroscience and motivational studies, there is a global need to utilize this information to inform educational practice and research. Yet, little is known about the neuroscientific interplay between growth mindset and intrinsic motivation. This paper attempts to draw on the theories of growth mindset and intrinsic motivation, together with contemporary ideas in neuroscience, outline the potential for neuroscientific research in education. It aims to shed light on the relationship between growth mindset and intrinsic motivation in terms of supporting a growth mindset to facilitate intrinsic motivation through neural responses. Recent empirical research from the educational neuroscience perspective that provides insights into the interplay between growth mindset and intrinsic motivation will also be discussed.

  11. A tonoplast intrinsic protein in Gardenia jasminoides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lan; Li, Hao-Ming

    2017-08-01

    Physiological and molecular studies proved that plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) and tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs) subfamily of aquaporins play key functions in plant water homeostasis. Five specialized subgroups (TIP1-5) of TIPs have been found in higher plants, in which the TIP1 and TIP2 isoforms are the largest arbitrary groups. TIPs have high water-transport activity than PIPs, some TIPs can transport other small molecule such as urea, ammonia, hydrogen peroxide, and carbon dioxide. In this work, the structure of the putative tonoplast aquaporin from Gardenia jasminoides (GjTIP) was analyzed. Its transcript level has increased during fruit maturation. A phylogenetic analysis indicates that the protein belongs to TIP1 subfamily. A three-dimensional model structure of GjTIP was built based on crystal structure of an ammonia-permeable AtTIP2-1 from Arabidopsis thaliana. The model structure displayed as a homo-tetramer, each monomer has six trans-membrane and two half-membrane-spanning α helices. The data suggests that the GjTIP has tendency to be a mixed function aquaporin, might involve in water, urea and hydrogen peroxide transport, and the gating machanism founded in some AQPs involving pH and phosphorylation response have not been proved in GjTIP.

  12. Intrinsic radiation resistance in human chondrosarcoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussavi-Harami, Farid; Mollano, Anthony; Martin, James A.; Ayoob, Andrew; Domann, Frederick E.; Gitelis, Steven; Buckwalter, Joseph A.

    2006-01-01

    Human chondrosarcomas rarely respond to radiation treatment, limiting the options for eradication of these tumors. The basis of radiation resistance in chondrosarcomas remains obscure. In normal cells radiation induces DNA damage that leads to growth arrest or death. However, cells that lack cell cycle control mechanisms needed for these responses show intrinsic radiation resistance. In previous work, we identified immortalized human chondrosarcoma cell lines that lacked p16 ink4a , one of the major tumor suppressor proteins that regulate the cell cycle. We hypothesized that the absence of p16 ink4a contributes to the intrinsic radiation resistance of chondrosarcomas and that restoring p16 ink4a expression would increase their radiation sensitivity. To test this we determined the effects of ectopic p16 ink4a expression on chondrosarcoma cell resistance to low-dose γ-irradiation (1-5 Gy). p16 ink4a expression significantly increased radiation sensitivity in clonogenic assays. Apoptosis did not increase significantly with radiation and was unaffected by p16 ink4a transduction of chondrosarcoma cells, indicating that mitotic catastrophe, rather than programmed cell death, was the predominant radiation effect. These results support the hypothesis that p16 ink4a plays a role in the radiation resistance of chondrosarcoma cell lines and suggests that restoring p16 expression will improve the radiation sensitivity of human chondrosarcomas

  13. Human dignity: intrinsic or relative value?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Marie-Jo

    2010-09-01

    Is human dignity an intrinsic value? Or is it a relative value, depending on the perception or assessment of quality of life? History had delineated some of its key features, but the advent of human rights and the Holocaust put special emphasis on this notion, particularly in the field of bioethics. But if modern medicine regards human dignity as crucial, it tends to support this notion while assessing and measuring it. The quality of life becomes the gauge for measuring human dignity, starting from a distinction between a viable and a non-viable existence, which may eventually lead to assisted death, or to letting die. This article argues that the concept of quality of life is of great relevant for medical practice, but on the condition of not being used as a standard to measure the dignity of the individual. Rather, the quality of life should be regarded as an imperative posed by human dignity, which is necessarily intrinsic. If the quality of life measures dignity, humankind is divided into two categories: lives worthy of living, and lives unworthy of living, and society becomes a jungle. Raising the quality of life as a requirement of the inherent human dignity does not solve automatically all problems and does not eliminate a feeling of unworthiness. But it ensures its 'human' value: the equal respect for every human being.

  14. Intrinsic electromagnetic solitary vortices in magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J.; Horton, W.

    1986-01-01

    Several Rossby type vortex solutions constructed for electromagnetic perturbations in magnetized plasma encounter the difficulty that the perturbed magnetic field and the parallel current are not continuous on the boundary between two regions. We find that fourth order differential equations must be solved to remove this discontinuity. Special solutions for two types of boundary value problems for the fourth order partial differential equations are presented. By applying these solutions to different nonlinear equations in magnetized plasma, the intrinsic electromagnetic solitary drift-Alfven vortex (along with solitary Alfven vortex) and the intrinsic electromagnetic solitary electron vortex (along with short-wavelength drift vortex) are constructed. While still keeping a localized dipole structure, these new vortices have more complicated radial structures in the inner and outer regions than the usual Rossby wave vortex. The new type of vortices guarantees the continuity of the perturbed magnetic field deltaB/sub perpendicular/ and the parallel current j/sub parallel/ on the boundary between inner and outer regions of the vortex. The allowed regions of propagation speeds for these vortices are analyzed, and we find that the complementary relation between the vortex propagating speeds and the corresponding phase velocities of the linear modes no longer exists

  15. The neglected intrinsic resistome of bacterial pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Fajardo

    Full Text Available Bacteria with intrinsic resistance to antibiotics are a worrisome health problem. It is widely believed that intrinsic antibiotic resistance of bacterial pathogens is mainly the consequence of cellular impermeability and activity of efflux pumps. However, the analysis of transposon-tagged Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutants presented in this article shows that this phenotype emerges from the action of numerous proteins from all functional categories. Mutations in some genes make P. aeruginosa more susceptible to antibiotics and thereby represent new targets. Mutations in other genes make P. aeruginosa more resistant and therefore define novel mechanisms for mutation-driven acquisition of antibiotic resistance, opening a new research field based in the prediction of resistance before it emerges in clinical environments. Antibiotics are not just weapons against bacterial competitors, but also natural signalling molecules. Our results demonstrate that antibiotic resistance genes are not merely protective shields and offer a more comprehensive view of the role of antibiotic resistance genes in the clinic and in nature.

  16. Intrinsically secure fast reactors with dense cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slessarev, Igor

    2007-01-01

    Secure safety, resistance to weapons material proliferation and problems of long-lived wastes remain the most important 'painful points' of nuclear power. Many innovative reactor concepts have been developed aimed at a radical enhancement of safety. The promising potential of innovative nuclear reactors allows for shifting accents in current reactor safety 'strategy' to reveal this worth. Such strategy is elaborated focusing on the priority for intrinsically secure safety features as well as on sure protection being provided by the first barrier of defence. Concerning the potential of fast reactors (i.e. sodium cooled, lead-cooled, etc.), there are no doubts that they are able to possess many favourable intrinsically secure safety features and to lay the proper foundation for a new reactor generation. However, some of their neutronic characteristics have to be radically improved. Among intrinsically secure safety properties, the following core parameters are significantly important: reactivity margin values, reactivity feed-back and coolant void effects. Ways of designing intrinsically secure safety features in fast reactors (titled hereafter as Intrinsically Secure Fast Reactors - ISFR) can be found in the frame of current reactor technologies by radical enhancement of core neutron economy and by optimization of core compositions. Simultaneously, respecting resistance to proliferation, by using non-enriched fuel feed as well as a core breeding gain close to zero, are considered as the important features (long-lived waste problems will be considered in a separate paper). This implies using the following reactor design options as well as closed fuel cycles with natural U as the reactor feed: ·Ultra-plate 'dense cores' of the ordinary (monolithic) type with negative total coolant void effects. ·Modular type cores. Multiple dense modules can be embedded in the common reflector for achieving the desired NPP total power. The modules can be used also independently (as

  17. Functional Advantages of Conserved Intrinsic Disorder in RNA-Binding Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadi, Mihaly; Zsolyomi, Fruzsina; Guharoy, Mainak; Tompa, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Proteins form large macromolecular assemblies with RNA that govern essential molecular processes. RNA-binding proteins have often been associated with conformational flexibility, yet the extent and functional implications of their intrinsic disorder have never been fully assessed. Here, through large-scale analysis of comprehensive protein sequence and structure datasets we demonstrate the prevalence of intrinsic structural disorder in RNA-binding proteins and domains. We addressed their functionality through a quantitative description of the evolutionary conservation of disordered segments involved in binding, and investigated the structural implications of flexibility in terms of conformational stability and interface formation. We conclude that the functional role of intrinsically disordered protein segments in RNA-binding is two-fold: first, these regions establish extended, conserved electrostatic interfaces with RNAs via induced fit. Second, conformational flexibility enables them to target different RNA partners, providing multi-functionality, while also ensuring specificity. These findings emphasize the functional importance of intrinsically disordered regions in RNA-binding proteins.

  18. Functional Advantages of Conserved Intrinsic Disorder in RNA-Binding Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaly Varadi

    Full Text Available Proteins form large macromolecular assemblies with RNA that govern essential molecular processes. RNA-binding proteins have often been associated with conformational flexibility, yet the extent and functional implications of their intrinsic disorder have never been fully assessed. Here, through large-scale analysis of comprehensive protein sequence and structure datasets we demonstrate the prevalence of intrinsic structural disorder in RNA-binding proteins and domains. We addressed their functionality through a quantitative description of the evolutionary conservation of disordered segments involved in binding, and investigated the structural implications of flexibility in terms of conformational stability and interface formation. We conclude that the functional role of intrinsically disordered protein segments in RNA-binding is two-fold: first, these regions establish extended, conserved electrostatic interfaces with RNAs via induced fit. Second, conformational flexibility enables them to target different RNA partners, providing multi-functionality, while also ensuring specificity. These findings emphasize the functional importance of intrinsically disordered regions in RNA-binding proteins.

  19. What's in a name? : Why these proteins are intrinsically disordered: Why these proteins are intrinsically disordered

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunker, A Keith; Babu, M Madan; Barbar, Elisar; Blackledge, Martin; Bondos, Sarah E; Dosztányi, Zsuzsanna; Dyson, H Jane; Forman-Kay, Julie; Fuxreiter, Monika; Gsponer, Jörg; Han, Kyou-Hoon; Jones, David T; Longhi, Sonia; Metallo, Steven J; Nishikawa, Ken; Nussinov, Ruth; Obradovic, Zoran; Pappu, Rohit V; Rost, Burkhard; Selenko, Philipp; Subramaniam, Vinod; Sussman, Joel L; Tompa, Peter; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2013-01-01

    "What's in a name? That which we call a rose By any other name would smell as sweet." From "Romeo and Juliet", William Shakespeare (1594) This article opens a series of publications on disambiguation of the basic terms used in the field of intrinsically disordered proteins. We start from the

  20. Intrinsic Radiation Source Generation with the ISC Package: Data Comparisons and Benchmarking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, Clell J. Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The characterization of radioactive emissions from unstable isotopes (intrinsic radiation) is necessary for shielding and radiological-dose calculations from radioactive materials. While most radiation transport codes, e.g., MCNP [X-5 Monte Carlo Team, 2003], provide the capability to input user prescribed source definitions, such as radioactive emissions, they do not provide the capability to calculate the correct radioactive-source definition given the material compositions. Special modifications to MCNP have been developed in the past to allow the user to specify an intrinsic source, but these modification have not been implemented into the primary source base [Estes et al., 1988]. To facilitate the description of the intrinsic radiation source from a material with a specific composition, the Intrinsic Source Constructor library (LIBISC) and MCNP Intrinsic Source Constructor (MISC) utility have been written. The combination of LIBISC and MISC will be herein referred to as the ISC package. LIBISC is a statically linkable C++ library that provides the necessary functionality to construct the intrinsic-radiation source generated by a material. Furthermore, LIBISC provides the ability use different particle-emission databases, radioactive-decay databases, and natural-abundance databases allowing the user flexibility in the specification of the source, if one database is preferred over others. LIBISC also provides functionality for aging materials and producing a thick-target bremsstrahlung photon source approximation from the electron emissions. The MISC utility links to LIBISC and facilitates the description of intrinsic-radiation sources into a format directly usable with the MCNP transport code. Through a series of input keywords and arguments the MISC user can specify the material, age the material if desired, and produce a source description of the radioactive emissions from the material in an MCNP readable format. Further details of using the MISC utility can

  1. Intrinsically disordered proteins as molecular shields†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabortee, Sohini; Tripathi, Rashmi; Watson, Matthew; Kaminski Schierle, Gabriele S.; Kurniawan, Davy P.; Kaminski, Clemens F.; Wise, Michael J.; Tunnacliffe, Alan

    2017-01-01

    The broad family of LEA proteins are intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) with several potential roles in desiccation tolerance, or anhydrobiosis, one of which is to limit desiccation-induced aggregation of cellular proteins. We show here that this activity, termed molecular shield function, is distinct from that of a classical molecular chaperone, such as HSP70 – while HSP70 reduces aggregation of citrate synthase (CS) on heating, two LEA proteins, a nematode group 3 protein, AavLEA1, and a plant group 1 protein, Em, do not; conversely, the LEA proteins reduce CS aggregation on desiccation, while HSP70 lacks this ability. There are also differences in interaction with client proteins – HSP70 can be co-immunoprecipitated with a polyglutamine-containing client, consistent with tight complex formation, whereas the LEA proteins can not, although a loose interaction is observed by Förster resonance energy transfer. In a further exploration of molecular shield function, we demonstrate that synthetic polysaccharides, like LEA proteins, are able to reduce desiccation-induced aggregation of a water-soluble proteome, consistent with a steric interference model of anti-aggregation activity. If molecular shields operate by reducing intermolecular cohesion rates, they should not protect against intramolecular protein damage. This was tested using the monomeric red fluorescent protein, mCherry, which does not undergo aggregation on drying, but the absorbance and emission spectra of its intrinsic fluorophore are dramatically reduced, indicative of intramolecular conformational changes. As expected, these changes are not prevented by AavLEA1, except for a slight protection at high molar ratios, and an AavLEA1-mCherry fusion protein is damaged to the same extent as mCherry alone. A recent hypothesis proposed that proteomes from desiccation-tolerant species contain a higher degree of disorder than intolerant examples, and that this might provide greater intrinsic stability

  2. Intrinsically disordered proteins as molecular shields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabortee, Sohini; Tripathi, Rashmi; Watson, Matthew; Schierle, Gabriele S Kaminski; Kurniawan, Davy P; Kaminski, Clemens F; Wise, Michael J; Tunnacliffe, Alan

    2012-01-01

    The broad family of LEA proteins are intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) with several potential roles in desiccation tolerance, or anhydrobiosis, one of which is to limit desiccation-induced aggregation of cellular proteins. We show here that this activity, termed molecular shield function, is distinct from that of a classical molecular chaperone, such as HSP70 - while HSP70 reduces aggregation of citrate synthase (CS) on heating, two LEA proteins, a nematode group 3 protein, AavLEA1, and a plant group 1 protein, Em, do not; conversely, the LEA proteins reduce CS aggregation on desiccation, while HSP70 lacks this ability. There are also differences in interaction with client proteins - HSP70 can be co-immunoprecipitated with a polyglutamine-containing client, consistent with tight complex formation, whereas the LEA proteins can not, although a loose interaction is observed by Förster resonance energy transfer. In a further exploration of molecular shield function, we demonstrate that synthetic polysaccharides, like LEA proteins, are able to reduce desiccation-induced aggregation of a water-soluble proteome, consistent with a steric interference model of anti-aggregation activity. If molecular shields operate by reducing intermolecular cohesion rates, they should not protect against intramolecular protein damage. This was tested using the monomeric red fluorescent protein, mCherry, which does not undergo aggregation on drying, but the absorbance and emission spectra of its intrinsic fluorophore are dramatically reduced, indicative of intramolecular conformational changes. As expected, these changes are not prevented by AavLEA1, except for a slight protection at high molar ratios, and an AavLEA1-mCherry fusion protein is damaged to the same extent as mCherry alone. A recent hypothesis proposed that proteomes from desiccation-tolerant species contain a higher degree of disorder than intolerant examples, and that this might provide greater intrinsic stability

  3. Stated preference methods using R

    CERN Document Server

    Aizaki, Hideo; Sato, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Stated Preference Methods Using R explains how to use stated preference (SP) methods, which are a family of survey methods, to measure people's preferences based on decision making in hypothetical choice situations. Along with giving introductory explanations of the methods, the book collates information on existing R functions and packages as well as those prepared by the authors. It focuses on core SP methods, including contingent valuation (CV), discrete choice experiments (DCEs), and best-worst scaling (BWS). Several example data sets illustrate empirical applications of each method with R

  4. Preferences in Data Production Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Keith; Brafman, Ronen; Pang, Wanlin

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the data production problem, which consists of transforming a set of (initial) input data into a set of (goal) output data. There are typically many choices among input data and processing algorithms, each leading to significantly different end products. To discriminate among these choices, the planner supports an input language that provides a number of constructs for specifying user preferences over data (and plan) properties. We discuss these preference constructs, how we handle them to guide search, and additional challenges in the area of preference management that this important application domain offers.

  5. IMPACT OF BARYONIC PHYSICS ON INTRINSIC ALIGNMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenneti, Ananth; Gnedin, Nickolay Y. [Particle Astrophysics Center, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Feng, Yu, E-mail: vat@andrew.cmu.edu [Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics, Department of Physics, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2017-01-10

    We explore the effects of specific assumptions in the subgrid models of star formation and stellar and active galactic nucleus feedback on intrinsic alignments of galaxies in cosmological simulations of the “MassiveBlack-II” family. Using smaller-volume simulations, we explore the parameter space of the subgrid star formation and feedback model and find remarkable robustness of the observable statistical measures to the details of subgrid physics. The one observational probe most sensitive to modeling details is the distribution of misalignment angles. We hypothesize that the amount of angular momentum carried away by the galactic wind is the primary physical quantity that controls the orientation of the stellar distribution. Our results are also consistent with a similar study by the EAGLE simulation team.

  6. Intrinsic Orbital Angular Momentum States of Neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelletti, Ronald L.; Jach, Terrence; Vinson, John

    2018-03-01

    It has been shown that single-particle wave functions, of both photons and electrons, can be created with a phase vortex, i.e., an intrinsic orbital angular momentum (OAM). A recent experiment has claimed similar success using neutrons [C. W. Clark et al., Nature, 525, 504 (2015), 10.1038/nature15265]. We show that their results are insufficient to unambiguously demonstrate OAM, and they can be fully explained as phase contrast interference patterns. Furthermore, given the small transverse coherence length of the neutrons in the original experiment, the probability that any neutron was placed in an OAM state is vanishingly small. We highlight the importance of the relative size of the coherence length, which presents a unique challenge for neutron experiments compared to electron or photon work, and we suggest improvements for the creation of neutron OAM states.

  7. Intrinsic magnetic torque at low magnetic induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doria, M.M.; Oliveira, I.G. de.

    1993-01-01

    Using anisotropic London theory the intrinsic magnetic torque for extreme type II uniaxial superconductors for any value of the magnetic induction is obtained. It is considered the vortex lines straight and take into account the contribution of the supercurrents flowing inside the vortex core within the London theory. It is shown that the interline and intra line free energies give opposite torque contributions, the first drives the magnetic induction parallel to the superconductor's axis of symmetry and the second orthogonal to it. At high magnetic induction torque expression obtained generalizes V. Kogan's formula since it has no free parameters other than the anisotropy γ = m 1 /m 3 and the Ginzburg-Landau parameter κ. At low magnetic induction it is proposed a way to observe vortex chains effects in the total torque based on the fact that London theory is linear and the energy to make a single vortex line in space is independent of the magnetic induction. (author)

  8. Intrinsic factors associated with pregnancy falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xuefang; Yeoh, Han T

    2014-10-01

    Approximately 25% to 27% of women sustain a fall during pregnancy, and falls are associated with serious injuries and can affect pregnancy outcomes. The objective of the current study was to identify intrinsic factors associated with pregnancy that may contribute to women's increased risk of falls. A literature search (Medline and Pubmed) identified articles published between January 1980 and June 2013 that measured associations between pregnancy and fall risks, using an existing fall accident investigation framework. The results indicated that physiological, biomechanical, and psychological changes associated with pregnancy may influence the initiation, detection, and recovery phases of falls and increase the risk of falls in this population. Considering the logistic difficulties and ethnic concerns in recruiting pregnant women to participate in this investigation of fall risk factors, identification of these factors could establish effective fall prevention and intervention programs for pregnant women and improve birth outcomes. [Workplace Health Saf 2014;62(10):403-408.]. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Intrinsic thermal expansion of crystal defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganne, J.-P.

    1981-02-01

    Although the phenomenon of thermal expansion has long been known, the intrinsic thermal expansion coefficient (ITEC) βsub(d) of a point defect, derived from its formation volume vsub(d), has never been measured directly. The differential dilatometer by interferometry built by ASTY and GILDER is described. It has allowed βsub(d) to be measured for several defects. Vacancies and small interstitial loops were produced in aluminium by low temperature (20 K) fast neutron irradiation followed by an anneal up to the beginning of stage III (160 K). The very high value of the measured ratio βsub(d)/β 0 (12+-4) is comparable with a lattice statics calculated (42) value (11.5 0 [fr

  10. Quantum synchronization effects in intrinsic Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, M.; Kano, T.; Yamada, S.; Okumura, M.; Imamura, T.; Koyama, T.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate quantum dynamics of the superconducting phase in intrinsic Josephson junctions of layered high-T c superconductors motivated by a recent experimental observation for the switching rate enhancement in the low temperature quantum regime. We pay attention to only the capacitive coupling between neighboring junctions and perform large-scale simulations for the Schroedinger equation derived from the Hamiltonian considering the capacitive coupling alone. The simulation focuses on an issue whether the switching of a junction induces those of the other junctions or not. The results reveal that the superconducting phase dynamics show synchronous behavior with increasing the quantum character, e.g., decreasing the junction plane area and effectively the temperature. This is qualitatively consistent with the experimental result

  11. Intrinsic Dynamics of Quantum-Dash Lasers

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Cheng; Djie, Hery Susanto; Hwang, James C. M.; Koch, Thomas L.; Lester, Luke F.; Ooi, Boon S.; Wang, Yang

    2011-01-01

    Temperature-dependent intrinsic modulation response of InAs/InAlGaAs quantum-dash lasers was investigated by using pulse optical injection modulation to minimize the effects of parasitics and self-heating. Compared to typical quantum-well lasers, the quantum-dash lasers were found to have comparable differential gain but approximately twice the gain compression factor, probably due to carrier heating by free-carrier absorption, as opposed to stimulated transition. Therefore, the narrower modulation bandwidth of the quantum-dash lasers than that of quantum-well lasers was attributed to their higher gain compression factor. In addition, as expected, quantum-dash lasers with relatively long and uniform dashes exhibit higher temperature stability than quantum-well lasers. However, the lasers with relatively short and nonuniform dashes exhibit stronger temperature dependence, probably due to their higher surface-to-volume ratio and nonuniform dash sizes. © 2011 IEEE.

  12. Intrinsically Safe and Economical Reactor (ISER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakabayashi, Hiroaki; Asahi, Yoshiro

    1991-01-01

    The Intrinsically Safe and Economical Reactor (ISER) is designed based on the principle of a process inherent ultimate safe reactor, PIUS, a so-called inherently safe reactor (ISR). ISER has been developed joingly by the members of the Kanagawa Institute of Technology, the University of Tokyo, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and several industrial firms in Japan. This paper describes the requirements for the next generation of power reactor, the safety design philosphy of ISR and ISER, the controllability of ISER and the results of analyses of some of the design-based accidents (DBA) of ISER, namely station blackout, accidents in which the pressurizer relief valve becomes jammed and stuck in open position and tube breaks in the steam generator. It is concluded that the ISER can ensure a wide range of contraollabitily and fuel integrity for all the analysed DBAs. (orig.)

  13. Mechanisms of Intrinsic Tumor Resistance to Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Rieth

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available An increased understanding of the interactions between the immune system and tumors has opened the door to immunotherapy for cancer patients. Despite some success with checkpoint inhibitors including ipilimumab, pembrolizumab, and nivolumab, most cancer patients remain unresponsive to such immunotherapy, likely due to intrinsic tumor resistance. The mechanisms most likely involve reducing the quantity and/or quality of antitumor lymphocytes, which ultimately are driven by any number of developments: tumor mutations and adaptations, reduced neoantigen generation or expression, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO overexpression, loss of phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN expression, and overexpression of the Wnt–β-catenin pathway. Current work in immunotherapy continues to identify various tumor resistance mechanisms; future work is needed to develop adjuvant treatments that target those mechanisms, in order to improve the efficacy of immunotherapy and to expand its scope.

  14. Intrinsic densitometry: In-plant evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, K.; Kurosawa, A.; Masui, J.; Hsue, S.T.

    1994-11-01

    A measurement of the plutonium concentration in a sample is always necessary for nuclear material control and accounting. This report describes the testing of the intrinsic densitometry (ID) technique for implant applications. The authors found that the ID method can determine the plutonium concentrations to between 2 and 3% at concentrations of 100 g/l to 200 g/l with quartz cells and a measurement time of 3600 s. The precision can be improved to 1 to 2% with a higher counting rate. The authors also found that nitric acid concentration and the impurity level of uranium in the product plutonium solution do not affect the concentration measurement. When this technique is applied to plutonium solutions in stainless steel pipes, they found that similar precision in plutonium concentration can be achieved using a high-count-rate detector. The precision, however, is reduced with aged plutonium solutions

  15. Intrinsic thermoelectric power of group VB metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunadhor Singh Okram

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We have reinvestigated the thermopower of group VB metals in polycrystalline forms in the temperature range of 6-300K, taking into account the critical nature of the sample surface and heat treatment especially for niobium. Strikingly small magnitude, negative sign, phonon drag dip and superconductivity not reported previously were observed in surface-cleaned single crystalline Nb. However, while thermopower magnitudes are small, mixed signs were found in the polycrystalline V, Nb and Ta samples. These properties were therefore interpreted as their intrinsic properties and were briefly discussed taking into account of the existing theory by fitting also the data that give the Fermi energies of 10.94 eV, 5.08 eV and 1.86eV, respectively.

  16. Major Intrinsic Proteins in Biomimetic Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helix Nielsen, Claus

    2010-01-01

    or as sensor devices based on e.g., the selective permeation of metalloids. In principle a MIP based membrane sensor/separation device requires the supporting biomimetic matrix to be virtually impermeable to anything but water or the solute in question. In practice, however, a biomimetic support matrix....../separation technology, a unique class of membrane transport proteins is especially interesting the major intrinsic proteins (MIPs). Generally, MIPs conduct water molecules and selected solutes in and out of the cell while preventing the passage of other solutes, a property critical for the conservation of the cells...... internal pH and salt concentration. Also known as water channels or aquaporins they are highly efficient membrane pore proteins some of which are capable of transporting water at very high rates up to 109 molecules per second. Some MIPs transport other small, uncharged solutes, such as glycerol and other...

  17. Intrinsic Ambipolarity and Rotation in Stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helander, P.; Simakov, A. N.

    2008-01-01

    It is shown that collisional plasma transport is intrinsically ambipolar only in quasiaxisymmetric or quasihelically symmetric magnetic configurations. Only in such fields can the plasma rotate freely, and then only in the direction of quasisymmetry. In a non-quasi-symmetric magnetic field, the average radial electric field is determined by parallel viscosity, which in turn is usually governed by collisional processes. Locally, the radial electric field may be affected by turbulent Reynolds stress producing zonal flows, but on a radial average taken over several ion gyroradii, it is determined by parallel viscosity, at least if the turbulence is electrostatic and obeys the conventional gyrokinetic orderings. This differs from the situation in a tokamak, where there is no flow damping by parallel viscosity in the symmetry direction and the turbulent Reynolds stress may affect the global radial electric field

  18. Nanotechnology Applications for Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredlau, Amy Lee; Dixit, Suraj; Chen, Chao; Broome, Ann-Marie

    2017-01-01

    Diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs) are invariably fatal tumors found in the pons of elementary school aged children. These tumors are grade II-IV gliomas, with a median survival of less than 1 year from diagnosis when treated with standard of care (SOC) therapy. Nanotechnology may offer therapeutic options for the treatment of DIPGs. Multiple nanoparticle formulations are currently being investigated for the treatment of DIPGs. Nanoparticles based upon stable elements, polymer nanoparticles, and organic nanoparticles are under development for the treatment of brain tumors, including DIPGs. Targeting of nanoparticles is now possible as delivery techniques that address the difficulty in crossing the blood brain barrier (BBB) are developed. Theranostic nanoparticles, a combination of therapeutics and diagnostic nanoparticles, improve imaging of the cancerous tissue while delivering therapy to the local region. However, additional time and attention should be directed to developing a nanoparticle delivery system for treatment of the uniformly fatal pediatric disease of DIPG.

  19. And what if gravity is intrinsically quantic?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziaeepour, Houri

    2009-01-01

    Since the early days of search for a quantum theory of gravity the attempts have been mostly concentrated on the quantization of an otherwise classical system. The two most contentious candidate theories of gravity, string theory and quantum loop gravity are based on a quantum field theory - the latter is a quantum field theory of connections on a SU(2) group manifold and the former is a quantum field theory in two dimensional spaces. Here we argue that there is a very close relation between quantum mechanics (QM) and gravity. Without gravity, QM becomes ambiguous. We consider this observation as the evidence for an intrinsic relation between these fundamental laws of nature. We suggest a quantum role and definition for gravity in the context of a quantum Universe, and present a preliminary formulation for gravity in a system with a finite number of particles.

  20. Intrinsic Dynamics of Quantum-Dash Lasers

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Cheng

    2011-10-01

    Temperature-dependent intrinsic modulation response of InAs/InAlGaAs quantum-dash lasers was investigated by using pulse optical injection modulation to minimize the effects of parasitics and self-heating. Compared to typical quantum-well lasers, the quantum-dash lasers were found to have comparable differential gain but approximately twice the gain compression factor, probably due to carrier heating by free-carrier absorption, as opposed to stimulated transition. Therefore, the narrower modulation bandwidth of the quantum-dash lasers than that of quantum-well lasers was attributed to their higher gain compression factor. In addition, as expected, quantum-dash lasers with relatively long and uniform dashes exhibit higher temperature stability than quantum-well lasers. However, the lasers with relatively short and nonuniform dashes exhibit stronger temperature dependence, probably due to their higher surface-to-volume ratio and nonuniform dash sizes. © 2011 IEEE.

  1. Intrinsic shapes of discy and boxy ellipticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasano, Giovanni

    1991-01-01

    Statistical tests for intrinsic shapes of elliptical galaxies have given so far inconclusive and sometimes contradictory results. These failures have been often charged to the fact that classical tests consider only the two axisymmetric shapes (oblate versus prolate), while ellipticals are truly triaxial bodies. On the other hand, recent analyses indicate that the class of elliptical galaxies could be a mixture of (at least) two families having different morphology and dynamical behaviour: (i) a family of fast-rotating, disc-like ellipticals (discy); (ii) a family of slow-rotating, box-shaped ellipticals (boxy). In this paper we review the tests for instrinsic shapes of elliptical galaxies using data of better quality (CCD) with respect to previous applications. (author)

  2. Dancing Protein Clouds: The Strange Biology and Chaotic Physics of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uversky, Vladimir N

    2016-03-25

    Biologically active but floppy proteins represent a new reality of modern protein science. These intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and hybrid proteins containing ordered and intrinsically disordered protein regions (IDPRs) constitute a noticeable part of any given proteome. Functionally, they complement ordered proteins, and their conformational flexibility and structural plasticity allow them to perform impossible tricks and be engaged in biological activities that are inaccessible to well folded proteins with their unique structures. The major goals of this minireview are to show that, despite their simplified amino acid sequences, IDPs/IDPRs are complex entities often resembling chaotic systems, are structurally and functionally heterogeneous, and can be considered an important part of the structure-function continuum. Furthermore, IDPs/IDPRs are everywhere, and are ubiquitously engaged in various interactions characterized by a wide spectrum of binding scenarios and an even wider spectrum of structural and functional outputs. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Relationship between heart rate and preference for tempo of music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, M

    1995-10-01

    People prefer music with tempi ranging from 70 to 100 cycles per minute similar to that of adults' heart rate within normal daily situations. Previous studies of the relation between preferred tempi and heart rates using a pure tone also have indicated that subjects tended to prefer tempi similar to their heart rates. The present study examined this relationship using a musical piece (the theme of "It's a small world") as a stimulus. 14 undergraduate women were subjects who searched for their favorite tempi by controlling the musical tempo by themselves. The most preferred tempo was close to their cycle of heart beats, however, tempi that were one and a half and twice as fast as the heart rate were less preferred in the present study than in a previous study using a tone. Subjects preferred faster tempi in the descending series of stimuli than in the ascending one, and hence were influenced by the initial value of the tempo in the trial sequence. The effects due to the differences of the meaning of the stimuli are considered.

  4. Preferred Provider Organization (PPO) Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find & compare doctors, hospitals, & other providers Preferred Provider Organization (PPO) Plans How PPO Plans Work A Medicare ... extra for these benefits. Related Resources Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) Private Fee-for-Service (PFFS) Special Needs ...

  5. Elicitation of ostomy pouch preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnichsen, Ole

    2011-01-01

    Background: Previous studies about patients who have undergone ostomy surgery commonly address the issues of the surgery, complications, preoperative counseling, quality of life, and psychosocial changes following surgery. Only a limited number of studies deal with how technical improvements...... in stoma care would affect patients and, to the author's knowledge, the present study is the first to elicit preferences for potential improvements in ostomy pouches in the form of monetary values. Objective: This article examines and measures Swedish patients' preferences for potential improvements...... in ostomy pouch attributes. The theory, study design, elicitation procedure, and resulting preference structure of the sample is described. Methods: A discrete-choice experiment (DCE) was used to elicit preferences. Respondents were asked to choose between alternatives in choice sets, in which each...

  6. Personality traits associated with intrinsic academic motivation in medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masaaki; Mizuno, Kei; Fukuda, Sanae; Tajima, Seiki; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2009-04-01

    Motivation is one of the most important psychological concepts in education and is related to academic outcomes in medical students. In this study, the relationships between personality traits and intrinsic academic motivation were examined in medical students. The study group consisted of 119 Year 2 medical students at Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine. They completed questionnaires dealing with intrinsic academic motivation (the Intrinsic Motivation Scale toward Learning) and personality (the Temperament and Character Inventory [TCI]). On simple regression analyses, the TCI dimensions of persistence, self-directedness, co-operativeness and self-transcendence were positively associated with intrinsic academic motivation. On multiple regression analysis adjusted for age and gender, the TCI dimensions of persistence, self-directedness and self-transcendence were positively associated with intrinsic academic motivation. The temperament dimension of persistence and the character dimensions of self-directedness and self-transcendence are associated with intrinsic academic motivation in medical students.

  7. Alcohol demand and risk preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Dhaval; Saffer, Henry

    2008-12-01

    Both economists and psychologists have studied the concept of risk preference. Economists categorize individuals as more or less risk-tolerant based on the marginal utility of income. Psychologists categorize individuals' propensity towards risk based on harm avoidance, novelty seeking and reward dependence traits. The two concepts of risk are related, although the instruments used for empirical measurement are quite different. Psychologists have found risk preference to be an important determinant of alcohol consumption; however economists have not included risk preference in studies of alcohol demand. This is the first study to examine the effect of risk preference on alcohol consumption in the context of a demand function. The specifications employ multiple waves from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), which permit the estimation of age-specific models based on nationally representative samples. Both of these data sets include a unique and consistent survey instrument designed to directly measure risk preference in accordance with the economist's definition. This study estimates the direct impact of risk preference on alcohol demand and also explores how risk preference affects the price elasticity of demand. The empirical results indicate that risk preference has a significant negative effect on alcohol consumption, with the prevalence and consumption among risk-tolerant individuals being 6-8% higher. Furthermore, the tax elasticity is similar across both risk-averse and risk-tolerant individuals. This suggests that tax policies are as equally effective in deterring alcohol consumption among those who have a higher versus a lower propensity for alcohol use.

  8. Increased intrinsic mitochondrial function in humans with mitochondrial haplogroup H

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen; Díez-Sánchez, Carmen; Rabøl, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    and determined their mitochondrial haplogroup, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity (OXPHOS), mitochondrial content (citrate synthase (CS)) and VO2max. Intrinsic mitochondrial function is calculated as mitochondrial OXPHOS capacity divided by mitochondrial content (CS). Haplogroup H showed a 30......% higher intrinsic mitochondrial function compared with the other haplo group U. There was no relationship between haplogroups and VO2max. In skeletal muscle from men with mitochondrial haplogroup H, an increased intrinsic mitochondrial function is present....

  9. Do intrinsic and extrinsic motivation relate differently to employee outcomes?

    OpenAIRE

    Kuvaas, Bard; Buch, Robert; Weibel, Antoinette; Dysvik, Anders; Nerstad, Christina

    2017-01-01

    In most theories that address how individual financial incentives affect work performance, researchers have assumed that two types of motivation—intrinsic and extrinsic—mediate the relationship between incentives and performance. Empirically, however, extrinsic motivation is rarely investigated. To explore the predictive validity of these theories of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in work settings, we tested how both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation affected supervisor-ra...

  10. The effects of extrinsic rewards on children's intrinsic motivation

    OpenAIRE

    大槻, 千秋

    1981-01-01

    An experiment was conducted with preschool children to test whether a person's intrinsic motivation in an activity may be decreased by extrinsic salient rewards in Japan like in America. Children solved some jigsaw puzzles and received assorted candies, then they were observed how long they did other jigsaw puzzles. The results showed that the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation in an activity varied with the subject's social background. In uptown children's intrinsic motivat...

  11. Sources of intrinsic rotation in the low-flow ordering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, Felix I.; Barnes, Michael; Catto, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    A low flow, δf gyrokinetic formulation to obtain the intrinsic rotation profiles is presented. The momentum conservation equation in the low-flow ordering contains new terms, neglected in previous first-principles formulations, that may explain the intrinsic rotation observed in tokamaks in the absence of external sources of momentum. The intrinsic rotation profile depends on the density and temperature profiles and on the up-down asymmetry.

  12. Human preference for individual colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Stephen E.; Schloss, Karen B.

    2010-02-01

    Color preference is an important aspect of human behavior, but little is known about why people like some colors more than others. Recent results from the Berkeley Color Project (BCP) provide detailed measurements of preferences among 32 chromatic colors as well as other relevant aspects of color perception. We describe the fit of several color preference models, including ones based on cone outputs, color-emotion associations, and Palmer and Schloss's ecological valence theory. The ecological valence theory postulates that color serves an adaptive "steering' function, analogous to taste preferences, biasing organisms to approach advantageous objects and avoid disadvantageous ones. It predicts that people will tend to like colors to the extent that they like the objects that are characteristically that color, averaged over all such objects. The ecological valence theory predicts 80% of the variance in average color preference ratings from the Weighted Affective Valence Estimates (WAVEs) of correspondingly colored objects, much more variance than any of the other models. We also describe how hue preferences for single colors differ as a function of gender, expertise, culture, social institutions, and perceptual experience.

  13. Characterization of the intrinsic density profiles for liquid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacon, Enrique; Tarazona, Pedro

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents recent advances in the characterization of the intrinsic structures in computer simulations of liquid surfaces. The use of operational definitions for the intrinsic surface, associated with each molecular configuration of a liquid slab, gives direct access to the intrinsic profile and to the wavevector dependent surface tension. However, the characteristics of these functions depend on the definition used for the intrinsic surface. We discuss the pathologies associated with a local Gibbs dividing surface definition, and consider the alternative definition of a minimal area surface, going though a set of surface pivots, self-consistently chosen to represent the first liquid layer

  14. Learning to count begins in infancy: evidence from 18 month olds' visual preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Virginia; Itakura, Shoji; Kutsuki, Aya; Siegal, Michael

    2011-10-07

    We used a preferential looking paradigm to evaluate infants' preferences for correct versus incorrect counting. Infants viewed a video depicting six fish. In the correct counting sequence, a hand pointed to each fish in turn, accompanied by verbal counting up to six. In the incorrect counting sequence, the hand moved between two of the six fish while there was still verbal counting to six, thereby violating the one-to-one correspondence principle of correct counting. Experiment 1 showed that Australian 18 month olds, but not 15 month olds, significantly preferred to watch the correct counting sequence. In experiment 2, Australian infants' preference for correct counting disappeared when the count words were replaced by beeps or by Japanese count words. In experiment 3, Japanese 18 month olds significantly preferred the correct counting video only when counting was in Japanese. These results show that infants start to acquire the abstract principles governing correct counting prior to producing any counting behaviour.

  15. Dynamic learning and context-dependence in sequential, attribute-based, stated-preference valuation questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas P. Holmes; Kevin J. Boyle

    2005-01-01

    A hybrid stated-preference model is presented that combines the referendum contingent valuation response format with an experimentally designed set of attributes. A sequence of valuation questions is asked to a random sample in a mailout mail-back format. Econometric analysis shows greater discrimination between alternatives in the final choice in the sequence, and the...

  16. Interventions for primary (intrinsic tracheomalacia in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Goyal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUNDTracheomalacia, a disorder of the large airways where the trachea is deformed or malformed during respiration, is commonly seen in tertiary paediatric practice. It is associated with a wide spectrum of respiratory symptoms from life-threatening recurrent apnoea to common respiratory symptoms such as chronic cough and wheeze. Current practice following diagnosis of tracheomalacia includes medical approaches aimed at reducing associated symptoms of tracheomalacia, ventilation modalities of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP and bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP, and surgical approaches aimed at improving the calibre of the airway (airway stenting, aortopexy, tracheopexy.OBJECTIVESTo evaluate the efficacy of medical and surgical therapies for children with intrinsic (primary tracheomalacia.METHODSSearchThe Cochrane Airways Group searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, the Cochrane Airways Group's Specialized Register, Medline and Embase databases. The Cochrane Airways Group performed the latest searches in March 2012.Selection criteriaAll randomized controlled trials (RCTs of therapies related to symptoms associated with primary or intrinsic tracheomalacia.Data collection and analysisTwo reviewers extracted data from the included study independently and resolved disagreements by consensus.MAIN RESULTSWe included one RCT that compared nebulized recombinant human deoxyribonuclease (rhDNase with placebo in 40 children with airway malacia and a respiratory tract infection. We assessed it to be a RCT with overall low risk of bias. Data analyzed in this review showed that there was no significant difference between groups for the primary outcome of proportion cough-free at two weeks (odds ratio (OR 1.38; 95% confidence interval (CI 0.37 to 5.14. However, the mean change in night time cough diary scores significantly favoured the placebo group (mean difference (MD 1.00; 95% CI 0.17 to 1.83, P = 0

  17. Binding induced conformational changes of proteins correlate with their intrinsic fluctuations: a case study of antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keskin Ozlem

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background How antibodies recognize and bind to antigens can not be totally explained by rigid shape and electrostatic complimentarity models. Alternatively, pre-existing equilibrium hypothesis states that the native state of an antibody is not defined by a single rigid conformation but instead with an ensemble of similar conformations that co-exist at equilibrium. Antigens bind to one of the preferred conformations making this conformation more abundant shifting the equilibrium. Results Here, two antibodies, a germline antibody of 36–65 Fab and a monoclonal antibody, SPE7 are studied in detail to elucidate the mechanism of antibody-antigen recognition and to understand how a single antibody recognizes different antigens. An elastic network model, Anisotropic Network Model (ANM is used in the calculations. Pre-existing equilibrium is not restricted to apply to antibodies. Intrinsic fluctuations of eight proteins, from different classes of proteins, such as enzymes, binding and transport proteins are investigated to test the suitability of the method. The intrinsic fluctuations are compared with the experimentally observed ligand induced conformational changes of these proteins. The results show that the intrinsic fluctuations obtained by theoretical methods correlate with structural changes observed when a ligand is bound to the protein. The decomposition of the total fluctuations serves to identify the different individual modes of motion, ranging from the most cooperative ones involving the overall structure, to the most localized ones. Conclusion Results suggest that the pre-equilibrium concept holds for antibodies and the promiscuity of antibodies can also be explained this hypothesis: a limited number of conformational states driven by intrinsic motions of an antibody might be adequate to bind to different antigens.

  18. Testing Preference Axioms in Discrete Choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter; Tjur, Tue

    Recent studies have tested the preference axioms of completeness and transitivity, and have detected other preference phenomena such as unstability, learning- and tiredness effects, ordering effects and dominance, in stated preference discrete choice experiments. However, it has not been explicitly...... of the preference axioms and other preference phenomena in the context of stated preference discrete choice experiments, and examine whether or how these can be subject to meaningful (statistical) tests...

  19. Recent advances in fuzzy preference modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van de Walle, B.; De Baets, B.; Kerre, E.

    1996-01-01

    Preference structures are well-known mathematical concepts having numerous applications in a variety of disciplines, such as economics, sociology and psychology. The generalization of preference structures to the fuzzy case has received considerable attention over the past years. Fuzzy preference structures allow a decision maker to express degrees of preference instead of the rigid classical yes-or-no preference assignment. This paper reports on the recent insights gained into the existence, construction and characterization of these fuzzy preference structures

  20. Intrinsic width and luminosity function of the M92 main sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandage, A.; Katem, B.

    1983-01-01

    Measurements of B and V magnitudes of approx.475 identified stars in the magnitude interval 18.0 - 4 is too low. The luminosity function, obtained from the present data, is compared with that determined earlier by Tayler, by Hartwick, by van den Bergh, and with Fukuoka and Simoda, with good agreement. The evidence favors that phi(M/sub v/) flattens fainter than M/sub v/approx. =+6 as predicted in some dynamical models, due to loss of low mass stars

  1. Exploiting intrinsic fluctuations to identify model parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Christoph; Sahle, Sven; Pahle, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    Parameterisation of kinetic models plays a central role in computational systems biology. Besides the lack of experimental data of high enough quality, some of the biggest challenges here are identification issues. Model parameters can be structurally non-identifiable because of functional relationships. Noise in measured data is usually considered to be a nuisance for parameter estimation. However, it turns out that intrinsic fluctuations in particle numbers can make parameters identifiable that were previously non-identifiable. The authors present a method to identify model parameters that are structurally non-identifiable in a deterministic framework. The method takes time course recordings of biochemical systems in steady state or transient state as input. Often a functional relationship between parameters presents itself by a one-dimensional manifold in parameter space containing parameter sets of optimal goodness. Although the system's behaviour cannot be distinguished on this manifold in a deterministic framework it might be distinguishable in a stochastic modelling framework. Their method exploits this by using an objective function that includes a measure for fluctuations in particle numbers. They show on three example models, immigration-death, gene expression and Epo-EpoReceptor interaction, that this resolves the non-identifiability even in the case of measurement noise with known amplitude. The method is applied to partially observed recordings of biochemical systems with measurement noise. It is simple to implement and it is usually very fast to compute. This optimisation can be realised in a classical or Bayesian fashion.

  2. i=0 (Information has no intrinsic meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J. Miller

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper was written mainly to help identify some contradictions that can be found in the notion of knowledge management though its application is wider-ranging. The author suggests that knowledge - that is to say 'what we know' - can scarcely be understood and managed even by ourselves, much less by means of sophisticated information and communications (ie groupware and shareware technologies. We have progressed from the industrial age through the information age into what is being promoted as the 'golden age' of knowledge and, in the process, we've been led to believe that information contains meaning - rather than just standing for, provoking or evoking meaning in others. The paper argues that unless we take the trouble to face and understand the significance and implications of i=0 (ie that information has no intrinsic meaning and that knowledge is the uniquely human capability of making meaning from information - ideally in face-to-face relationships with other human beings - we may never emerge into any 'golden' age at all! The consequences of i=0 for communications, learning, safety, quality, management (itself, and winning work are also discussed.

  3. Altered intrinsic and extrinsic connectivity in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuan; Zeidman, Peter; Wu, Shihao; Razi, Adeel; Chen, Cheng; Yang, Liuqing; Zou, Jilin; Wang, Gaohua; Wang, Huiling; Friston, Karl J

    2018-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a disorder characterized by functional dysconnectivity among distributed brain regions. However, it is unclear how causal influences among large-scale brain networks are disrupted in schizophrenia. In this study, we used dynamic causal modeling (DCM) to assess the hypothesis that there is aberrant directed (effective) connectivity within and between three key large-scale brain networks (the dorsal attention network, the salience network and the default mode network) in schizophrenia during a working memory task. Functional MRI data during an n-back task from 40 patients with schizophrenia and 62 healthy controls were analyzed. Using hierarchical modeling of between-subject effects in DCM with Parametric Empirical Bayes, we found that intrinsic (within-region) and extrinsic (between-region) effective connectivity involving prefrontal regions were abnormal in schizophrenia. Specifically, in patients (i) inhibitory self-connections in prefrontal regions of the dorsal attention network were decreased across task conditions; (ii) extrinsic connectivity between regions of the default mode network was increased; specifically, from posterior cingulate cortex to the medial prefrontal cortex; (iii) between-network extrinsic connections involving the prefrontal cortex were altered; (iv) connections within networks and between networks were correlated with the severity of clinical symptoms and impaired cognition beyond working memory. In short, this study revealed the predominance of reduced synaptic efficacy of prefrontal efferents and afferents in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

  4. Intrinsic and extrinsic measurement for Brownian motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro-Villarreal, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Based upon the Smoluchowski equation on curved manifolds, three physical observables are considered for Brownian displacement, namely geodesic displacement s, Euclidean displacement δR, and projected displacement δR ⊥ . The Weingarten–Gauss equations are used to calculate the mean-square Euclidean displacements in the short-time regime. Our findings show that from an extrinsic point of view the geometry of the space affects the Brownian motion in such a way that the particle’s diffusion is decelerated, contrasting with the intrinsic point of view where dynamics is controlled by the sign of the Gaussian curvature (Castro-Villarreal, 2010 J. Stat. Mech. P08006). Furthermore, it is possible to give exact formulas for 〈δR〉 and 〈δR 2 〉 on spheres and minimal surfaces, which are valid for all values of time. In the latter case, surprisingly, Brownian motion corresponds to the usual diffusion in flat geometries, albeit minimal surfaces have non-zero Gaussian curvature. Finally, the two-dimensional case is emphasized due to its close relation to surface self-diffusion in fluid membranes. (paper)

  5. Intrinsic ferromagnetism in hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Si, M. S.; Gao, Daqiang, E-mail: gaodq@lzu.edu.cn, E-mail: xueds@lzu.edu.cn; Yang, Dezheng; Peng, Yong; Zhang, Z. Y.; Xue, Desheng, E-mail: gaodq@lzu.edu.cn, E-mail: xueds@lzu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Liu, Yushen [Jiangsu Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials and College of Physics and Engineering, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu 215500 (China); Deng, Xiaohui [Department of Physics and Electronic Information Science, Hengyang Normal University, Hengyang 421008 (China); Zhang, G. P. [Department of Physics, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809 (United States)

    2014-05-28

    Understanding the mechanism of ferromagnetism in hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets, which possess only s and p electrons in comparison with normal ferromagnets based on localized d or f electrons, is a current challenge. In this work, we report an experimental finding that the ferromagnetic coupling is an intrinsic property of hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets, which has never been reported before. Moreover, we further confirm it from ab initio calculations. We show that the measured ferromagnetism should be attributed to the localized π states at edges, where the electron-electron interaction plays the role in this ferromagnetic ordering. More importantly, we demonstrate such edge-induced ferromagnetism causes a high Curie temperature well above room temperature. Our systematical work, including experimental measurements and theoretical confirmation, proves that such unusual room temperature ferromagnetism in hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets is edge-dependent, similar to widely reported graphene-based materials. It is believed that this work will open new perspectives for hexagonal boron nitride spintronic devices.

  6. Does intrinsic motivation enhance motor cortex excitability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radel, Rémi; Pjevac, Dusan; Davranche, Karen; d'Arripe-Longueville, Fabienne; Colson, Serge S; Lapole, Thomas; Gruet, Mathieu

    2016-11-01

    Intrinsic motivation (IM) is often viewed as a spontaneous tendency for action. Recent behavioral and neuroimaging evidence indicate that IM, in comparison to extrinsic motivation (EM), solicits the motor system. Accordingly, we tested whether IM leads to greater excitability of the motor cortex than EM. To test this hypothesis, we used two different tasks to induce the motivational orientation using either words representing each motivational orientation or pictures previously linked to each motivational orientation through associative learning. Single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation over the motor cortex was applied when viewing the stimuli. Electromyographic activity was recorded on the contracted first dorsal interosseous muscle. Two indexes of corticospinal excitability (the amplitude of motor-evoked potential and the length of cortical silent period) were obtained through unbiased automatic detection and analyzed using a mixed model that provided both statistical power and a high level of control over all important individual, task, and stimuli characteristics. Across the two tasks and the two indices of corticospinal excitability, the exposure to IM-related stimuli did not lead to a greater corticospinal excitability than EM-related stimuli or than stimuli with no motivational valence (ps > .20). While these results tend to dismiss the advantage of IM at activating the motor cortex, we suggest alternative hypotheses to explain this lack of effect, which deserves further research. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  7. Intrinsic bioremediation of an Arctic spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziervogel, H.; Selann, J.

    2002-01-01

    An environmental site assessment was conducted in summer 2001 at Repulse Bay, Nunavut where a recent diesel spill flowed from groundwater into a small creek leading to Hudson Bay. The spill produced a microbial mat several mm in thickness and which colonized the creek for about 50 m from the point where the groundwater entered the creek. Further down the gradient, the mat increased in thickness and changed in colour from yellowish brown to green. Sedimentary iron deposition was occurring along the banks of the creek where the mat was found and a free phase diesel product was found a few mm below the sediment-water interface. The microbial mats were found to have gradients of oxygen which peaked at surface and decreased with depth. Hydrogen sulphide concentrations were formed by sulphate reduction. In comparison, an older weathered diesel spill did not appear to have much effect on the stream's geochemistry and did not form a microbial mat. It is noted that the mat may have formed in the new spill because its' volatile component may have had a toxic effect on bacterial predators in the stream. It was concluded that intrinsic bioremediation takes place through dissimilatory sulphate and iron reduction and aerobic degradation. This may be cause for about 13 per cent ppm of hydrocarbon degradation known as BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene). 12 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  8. Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma: poised for progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, Katherine E.

    2012-01-01

    Diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs) are amongst the most challenging tumors to treat. Surgery is not an option, the effects of radiation therapy are temporary, and no chemotherapeutic agent has demonstrated significant efficacy. Numerous clinical trials of new agents and novel therapeutic approaches have been performed over the course of several decades in efforts to improve the outcome of children with DIPG, yet without success. The diagnosis of DIPG is based on radiographic findings in the setting of a typical clinical presentation, and tissue is not routinely obtained as the standard of care. The paradigm for treating children with these tumors has been based on that for supratentorial high-grade gliomas in adults as the biology of these lesions were presumed to be similar. However, recent pivotal studies demonstrate that DIPGs appear to be their own entity. Simply identifying this fact releases a number of constraints and opens opportunities for biologic investigation of these lesions, setting the stage to move forward in identifying DIPG-specific treatments. This review will summarize the current state of knowledge of DIPG, discuss obstacles to therapy, and summarize results of recent biologic studies.

  9. Understanding oceanic migrations with intrinsic biogeochemical markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raül Ramos

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Migratory marine vertebrates move annually across remote oceanic water masses crossing international borders. Many anthropogenic threats such as overfishing, bycatch, pollution or global warming put millions of marine migrants at risk especially during their long-distance movements. Therefore, precise knowledge about these migratory movements to understand where and when these animals are more exposed to human impacts is vital for addressing marine conservation issues. Because electronic tracking devices suffer from several constraints, mainly logistical and financial, there is emerging interest in finding appropriate intrinsic markers, such as the chemical composition of inert tissues, to study long-distance migrations and identify wintering sites. Here, using tracked pelagic seabirds and some of their own feathers which were known to be grown at different places and times within the annual cycle, we proved the value of biogeochemical analyses of inert tissue as tracers of marine movements and habitat use. Analyses of feathers grown in summer showed that both stable isotope signatures and element concentrations can signal the origin of breeding birds feeding in distinct water masses. However, only stable isotopes signalled water masses used during winter because elements mainly accumulated during the long breeding period are incorporated into feathers grown in both summer and winter. Our findings shed new light on the simple and effective assignment of marine organisms to distinct oceanic areas, providing new opportunities to study unknown migration patterns of secretive species, including in relation to human-induced mortality on specific populations in the marine environment.

  10. Intrinsic Turbulence Stabilization in a Stellarator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Xanthopoulos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The magnetic surfaces of modern stellarators are characterized by complex, carefully optimized shaping and exhibit locally compressed regions of strong turbulence drive. Massively parallel computer simulations of plasma turbulence reveal, however, that stellarators also possess two intrinsic mechanisms to mitigate the effect of this drive. In the regime where the length scale of the turbulence is very small compared to the equilibrium scale set by the variation of the magnetic field, the strongest fluctuations form narrow bandlike structures on the magnetic surfaces. Thanks to this localization, the average transport through the surface is significantly smaller than that predicted at locations of peak turbulence. This feature results in a numerically observed upshift of the onset of turbulence on the surface towards higher ion temperature gradients as compared with the prediction from the most unstable regions. In a second regime lacking scale separation, the localization is lost and the fluctuations spread out on the magnetic surface. Nonetheless, stabilization persists through the suppression of the large eddies (relative to the equilibrium scale, leading to a reduced stiffness for the heat flux dependence on the ion temperature gradient. These fundamental differences with tokamak turbulence are exemplified for the QUASAR stellarator [G. H. Neilson et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 42, 489 (2014].

  11. Genetic architecture of intrinsic antibiotic susceptibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany S Girgis

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic exposure rapidly selects for more resistant bacterial strains, and both a drug's chemical structure and a bacterium's cellular network affect the types of mutations acquired.To better characterize the genetic determinants of antibiotic susceptibility, we exposed a transposon-mutagenized library of Escherichia coli to each of 17 antibiotics that encompass a wide range of drug classes and mechanisms of action. Propagating the library for multiple generations with drug concentrations that moderately inhibited the growth of the isogenic parental strain caused the abundance of strains with even minor fitness advantages or disadvantages to change measurably and reproducibly. Using a microarray-based genetic footprinting strategy, we then determined the quantitative contribution of each gene to E. coli's intrinsic antibiotic susceptibility. We found both loci whose removal increased general antibiotic tolerance as well as pathways whose down-regulation increased tolerance to specific drugs and drug classes. The beneficial mutations identified span multiple pathways, and we identified pairs of mutations that individually provide only minor decreases in antibiotic susceptibility but that combine to provide higher tolerance.Our results illustrate that a wide-range of mutations can modulate the activity of many cellular resistance processes and demonstrate that E. coli has a large mutational target size for increasing antibiotic tolerance. Furthermore, the work suggests that clinical levels of antibiotic resistance might develop through the sequential accumulation of chromosomal mutations of small individual effect.

  12. Toward a tripartite model of intrinsic motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonneau, Noémie; Vallerand, Robert J; Lafrenière, Marc-André K

    2012-10-01

    Intrinsic motivation (IM) refers to engaging in an activity for the pleasure inherent in the activity. The present article presents a tripartite model of IM consisting of IM to know (i.e., engaging in an activity to experience pleasure while learning and trying to understand something new), IM toward accomplishment (i.e., engaging in an activity for the pleasure experienced when attempting task mastery), and IM to experience stimulation (i.e., engaging in an activity for feelings of sensory pleasure). The tripartite model of IM posits that each type of IM can result from task, situational, and personality determinants and can lead to specific types of cognitive, affective, and behavioral outcomes. The purpose of this research was to test some predictions derived from this model. Across 4 studies (Study 1: N = 331; Study 2: N = 113; Study 3: N = 58; Study 4: N = 135), the 3 types of IM as well as potential determinants and consequences were assessed. Results revealed that experiencing one type of IM over the others depends in part on people's personality styles. Also, each type of IM was found to predict specific outcomes (i.e., affective states and behavioral choices). The implications of the tripartite model of IM for motivation research are discussed. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Intrinsic gain modulation and adaptive neural coding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungho Hong

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In many cases, the computation of a neural system can be reduced to a receptive field, or a set of linear filters, and a thresholding function, or gain curve, which determines the firing probability; this is known as a linear/nonlinear model. In some forms of sensory adaptation, these linear filters and gain curve adjust very rapidly to changes in the variance of a randomly varying driving input. An apparently similar but previously unrelated issue is the observation of gain control by background noise in cortical neurons: the slope of the firing rate versus current (f-I curve changes with the variance of background random input. Here, we show a direct correspondence between these two observations by relating variance-dependent changes in the gain of f-I curves to characteristics of the changing empirical linear/nonlinear model obtained by sampling. In the case that the underlying system is fixed, we derive relationships relating the change of the gain with respect to both mean and variance with the receptive fields derived from reverse correlation on a white noise stimulus. Using two conductance-based model neurons that display distinct gain modulation properties through a simple change in parameters, we show that coding properties of both these models quantitatively satisfy the predicted relationships. Our results describe how both variance-dependent gain modulation and adaptive neural computation result from intrinsic nonlinearity.

  14. The Allometry of Prey Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinkat, Gregor; Rall, Björn Christian; Vucic-Pestic, Olivera; Brose, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of weak and strong non-linear feeding interactions (i.e., functional responses) across the links of complex food webs is critically important for their stability. While empirical advances have unravelled constraints on single-prey functional responses, their validity in the context of complex food webs where most predators have multiple prey remain uncertain. In this study, we present conceptual evidence for the invalidity of strictly density-dependent consumption as the null model in multi-prey experiments. Instead, we employ two-prey functional responses parameterised with allometric scaling relationships of the functional response parameters that were derived from a previous single-prey functional response study as novel null models. Our experiments included predators of different sizes from two taxonomical groups (wolf spiders and ground beetles) simultaneously preying on one small and one large prey species. We define compliance with the null model predictions (based on two independent single-prey functional responses) as passive preferences or passive switching, and deviations from the null model as active preferences or active switching. Our results indicate active and passive preferences for the larger prey by predators that are at least twice the size of the larger prey. Moreover, our approach revealed that active preferences increased significantly with the predator-prey body-mass ratio. Together with prior allometric scaling relationships of functional response parameters, this preference allometry may allow estimating the distribution of functional response parameters across the myriads of interactions in natural ecosystems. PMID:21998724

  15. The allometry of prey preferences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Kalinkat

    Full Text Available The distribution of weak and strong non-linear feeding interactions (i.e., functional responses across the links of complex food webs is critically important for their stability. While empirical advances have unravelled constraints on single-prey functional responses, their validity in the context of complex food webs where most predators have multiple prey remain uncertain. In this study, we present conceptual evidence for the invalidity of strictly density-dependent consumption as the null model in multi-prey experiments. Instead, we employ two-prey functional responses parameterised with allometric scaling relationships of the functional response parameters that were derived from a previous single-prey functional response study as novel null models. Our experiments included predators of different sizes from two taxonomical groups (wolf spiders and ground beetles simultaneously preying on one small and one large prey species. We define compliance with the null model predictions (based on two independent single-prey functional responses as passive preferences or passive switching, and deviations from the null model as active preferences or active switching. Our results indicate active and passive preferences for the larger prey by predators that are at least twice the size of the larger prey. Moreover, our approach revealed that active preferences increased significantly with the predator-prey body-mass ratio. Together with prior allometric scaling relationships of functional response parameters, this preference allometry may allow estimating the distribution of functional response parameters across the myriads of interactions in natural ecosystems.

  16. Value Preferences of Social Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartakovsky, Eugene; Walsh, Sophie D

    2018-04-01

    The current study examines value preferences of social workers in Israel. Using a theoretical framework of person-environment fit paradigm and theory of values, the study compared social workers (N = 641, mean age = 37.7 years, 91 percent female) with a representative sample of Israeli Jews (N = 1,600, mean age = 44.2, 52 percent female). Questionnaires included personal value preferences and sociodemographic variables (gender, age, education, religiosity, and immigrant status). Multivariate analysis of covariance showed that value preferences of social workers differed significantly from those of the general population. Analyses of covariance showed that social workers reported a higher preference for self-transcendence and a lower preference for conservation and self-enhancement values. Results have significance for the selection, training, and supervision of social workers. They suggest that it is important to assess to what extent selection processes for social workers are primarily recruiting social workers with shared values, thus creating an overly homogenous population of social workers. An understanding of personal value motivations can help social workers in their own process of self-development and growth, and to understand how the profession can fulfill their basic motivations.

  17. Intrinsic colony conditions affect the provisioning and oviposition process in the stingless bee Melipona scutellaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, R A; Morais, M M; Nascimento, F S; Bego, L R

    2009-01-01

    The cell provisioning and oviposition process (POP) is a unique characteristic of stingless bees (Meliponini), in which coordinated interactions between workers and queen regulate the filling of brood cells with larval resources and subsequent egg laying. Environmental conditions seem to regulate reproduction in stingless bees; however, little is known about how the amount of food affects quantitative sequences of the process. We examined intrinsic variables by comparing three colonies in distinct conditions (strong, intermediate and weak state). We predicted that some of these variables are correlated with temporal events of POP in Melipona scutellaris colonies. The results demonstrated that the strong colony had shorter periods of POP.

  18. Infants' preferences for toys, colors, and shapes: sex differences and similarities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadva, Vasanti; Hines, Melissa; Golombok, Susan

    2010-12-01

    Girls and boys differ in their preferences for toys such as dolls and trucks. These sex differences are present in infants, are seen in non-human primates, and relate, in part, to prenatal androgen exposure. This evidence of inborn influences on sex-typed toy preferences has led to suggestions that object features, such as the color or the shape of toys, may be of intrinsically different interest to males and females. We used a preferential looking task to examine preferences for different toys, colors, and shapes in 120 infants, ages 12, 18, or 24 months. Girls looked at dolls significantly more than boys did and boys looked at cars significantly more than girls did, irrespective of color, particularly when brightness was controlled. These outcomes did not vary with age. There were no significant sex differences in infants' preferences for different colors or shapes. Instead, both girls and boys preferred reddish colors over blue and rounded over angular shapes. These findings augment prior evidence of sex-typed toy preferences in infants, but suggest that color and shape do not determine these sex differences. In fact, the direction of influence could be the opposite. Girls may learn to prefer pink, for instance, because the toys that they enjoy playing with are often colored pink. Regarding within sex differences, as opposed to differences between boys and girls, both boys and girls preferred dolls to cars at age 12-months. The preference of young boys for dolls over cars suggests that older boys' avoidance of dolls may be acquired. Similarly, the sex similarities in infants' preferences for colors and shapes suggest that any subsequent sex differences in these preferences may arise from socialization or cognitive gender development rather than inborn factors.

  19. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation for Stereotypic and Repetitive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Annette V.; Bundy, Anita C.; Einfeld, Stewart L.

    2009-01-01

    This study provides evidence for intrinsic and extrinsic motivators for stereotypical and repetitive behavior in children with autism and intellectual disability and children with intellectual disability alone. We modified the Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) (1988b); dividing it into intrinsic and extrinsic measures and adding items to assess…

  20. A prototype empirical framework of intrinsic and extrinsic EERQI indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ton

    2012-01-01

    The research question is: What do statistical analyses show us about the relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic indicators of quality and what does this mean when constructing a prototype EERQI framework? The pilot study involved the scoring on both intrinsic and extrinsic indica-tors for 177

  1. Intrinsic Motivation and Flow Condition on the Music Teacher's Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Delgado, Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    The aim of these research is to identify if music teachers and teachers from other areas are intrinsically or extrinsically motivated, to identify the dimensions of the flow state, and to identify if there is a relationship between intrinsic motivation and flow state in these teachers. The sample was made up of 738 active teachers. The presence of…

  2. Palatalization and Intrinsic Prosodic Vowel Features in Russian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordin, Mikhail

    2011-01-01

    The presented study is aimed at investigating the interaction of palatalization and intrinsic prosodic features of the vowel in CVC (consonant+vowel+consonant) syllables in Russian. The universal nature of intrinsic prosodic vowel features was confirmed with the data from the Russian language. It was found that palatalization of the consonants…

  3. Cooperative motion of intrinsic and actuated semiflexible swimmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Llopis, I.; Pagonabarraga, I.; Lagomarsino, M.C.; Lowe, C.P.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the phenomenon of hydrodynamic-induced cooperativity for pairs of flagellated micro-organism swimmers, of which spermatozoa cells are an example. We consider semiflexible swimmers, where inextensible filaments are driven by an internal intrinsic force and torque-free mechanism (intrinsic

  4. The Relations of Mothers' Controlling Vocalizations to Children's Intrinsic Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deci, Edward L.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Coded maternal vocalizations during videotaped play sessions of mothers and their six- or seven-year-old children. Children's intrinsic motivation was assessed by observing children's play when they were alone in a room. Found a negative relationship between maternal controlling vocalizations and children's intrinsic motivation. (MM)

  5. Importance of Intrinsic and Instrumental Value of Education in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mahendar

    2017-01-01

    Normally, effectiveness of any object or thing is judged by two values; intrinsic and instrumental. To compare intrinsic value of education with instrumental value, this study has used the following variables: getting knowledge for its own sake, getting knowledge for social status, getting knowledge for job or business endeavor and getting…

  6. College Student Intrinsic and/or Extrinsic Motivation and Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Guang; McKeachie, Wilbert J.

    This paper investigates the joint effects of intrinsic and extrinsic goals on college students' learning in an introductory psychology course, a biology course, and several social science courses. The study questioned whether higher levels of motivation lead to better student performance. College students were surveyed using the Intrinsic Goal…

  7. Self-Determination Theory: Intrinsic Motivation and Behavioral Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Marie

    2017-03-01

    Motivation is a central concept in behavioral change. This article reviews the self-determination theory with an emphasis on "intrinsic motivation," which is facilitated when three basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness) are met. Intrinsic motivation is associated with improved well-being and sustained behavioral change.

  8. Leadership style and employees' intrinsic job satisfaction in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the impact of leadership style on employees' intrinsic job satisfaction in the Cross River State Newspaper Corporation, Calabar, Nigeria. The study examined the problem of dissatisfaction in the work place as far as intrinsic factors of job satisfaction are concerned. Structured questionnaire was used ...

  9. Elderly Taiwanese's Intrinsic Risk Factors for Fall-related Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Fun Li

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: Elderly Taiwanese inpatients with existing intrinsic conditions of cancer, vertigo, and lower leg weakness were at high risk of falling, resulting in severe injuries. Additional research including controlled trials is necessary to further identify treatable, causal intrinsic risk factors for this elderly group.

  10. Initiation preference at a yeast origin of replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, B J; Fangman, W L

    1994-04-12

    Replication origins in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are identified as autonomous replication sequence (ARS) elements. To examine the effect of origin density on replication initiation, we have analyzed the replication of a plasmid that contains two copies of the same origin, ARS1. The activation of origins and the direction that replication forks move through flanking sequences can be physically determined by analyzing replication intermediates on two-dimensional agarose gels. We find that only one of the two identical ARSs on the plasmid initiates replication on any given plasmid molecule; that is, this close spacing of ARSs results in an apparent interference between the potential origins. Moreover, in the particular plasmid that we constructed, one of the two identical copies of ARS1 is used four times more frequently than the other one. These results show that the plasmid context is critical for determining the preferred origin. This origin preference is also exhibited when the tandem copies of ARS1 are introduced into a yeast chromosome. The sequences responsible for establishing the origin preference have been identified by deletion analysis and are found to reside in a portion of the yeast URA3 gene.

  11. Shotgun protein sequencing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulon, Jean-Loup Michel; Heffelfinger, Grant S.

    2009-06-01

    A novel experimental and computational technique based on multiple enzymatic digestion of a protein or protein mixture that reconstructs protein sequences from sequences of overlapping peptides is described in this SAND report. This approach, analogous to shotgun sequencing of DNA, is to be used to sequence alternative spliced proteins, to identify post-translational modifications, and to sequence genetically engineered proteins.

  12. Endogenous scheduling preferences and congestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Small, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    We consider the timing of activities through a dynamic model of commuting with congestion, in which workers care solely about leisure and consumption. Implicit preferences for the timing of the commute form endogenously due to temporal agglomeration economies. Equilibrium exists uniquely and is i......We consider the timing of activities through a dynamic model of commuting with congestion, in which workers care solely about leisure and consumption. Implicit preferences for the timing of the commute form endogenously due to temporal agglomeration economies. Equilibrium exists uniquely...... and is indistinguishable from that of a generalized version of the classical Vickrey bottleneck model, based on exogenous trip-timing preferences, but optimal policies differ: the Vickrey model will misstate the benefits of a capacity increase, it will underpredict the benefits of congestion pricing, and pricing may make...

  13. Intrinsic motivation and sportsmanship: mediating role of interpersonal relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Juan L; Martín-Albo, José; Navarro, José G; Sánchez, Juana M; González-Cutre, David

    2009-06-01

    This study analyzed the mediating role of interpersonal relations between intrinsic motivation and sportsmanship. Athletes (98 men, 97 women), ages 11 to 43 years, completed measures of intrinsic motivation toward sports, self-concept of social and family relations, and sportsmanship orientation. A structural equation model indicated that self-concept of interpersonal relations mediated the relation between intrinsic motivation and sportsmanship. Also, intrinsic motivation was directly and positively associated with self-concept of interpersonal relations, which, in turn, was positively and significantly related to sportsmanship. Variances explained by self-concept of interpersonal relations and by sportsmanship were 32 and 56%, respectively. The motivational interaction between the context of interpersonal relations and the sports context proposed in the hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation was discussed.

  14. Ethnic Stigma, Academic Anxiety, and Intrinsic Motivation in Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen-O’Neel, Cari; Ruble, Diane N.; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research addressing the dynamics of stigma and academics has focused on African-American adolescents and adults. The present study examined stigma awareness, academic anxiety, and intrinsic motivation among 451 young (ages 6–11) and diverse (African-American, Chinese, Dominican, Russian, and European-American) students. Results indicated that ethnic-minority children reported higher stigma awareness than European-American children. For all children, stigma awareness was associated with higher academic anxiety and lower intrinsic motivation. Despite these associations, ethnic-minority children reported higher levels of intrinsic motivation than their European-American peers. A significant portion of the higher intrinsic motivation among Dominican students was associated with their higher levels of school belonging, suggesting that supportive school environments may be important sources of intrinsic motivation among some ethnic-minority children. PMID:21883152

  15. Extrinsic and intrinsic regulation of axon regeneration at a crossroads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Andrew; Ong Tone, Stephan; Fournier, Alyson E

    2015-01-01

    Repair of the injured spinal cord is a major challenge in medicine. The limited intrinsic regenerative response mounted by adult central nervous system (CNS) neurons is further hampered by astrogliosis, myelin debris and scar tissue that characterize the damaged CNS. Improved axon regeneration and recovery can be elicited by targeting extrinsic factors as well as by boosting neuron-intrinsic growth regulators. Our knowledge of the molecular basis of intrinsic and extrinsic regulators of regeneration has expanded rapidly, resulting in promising new targets to promote repair. Intriguingly certain neuron-intrinsic growth regulators are emerging as promising targets to both stimulate growth and relieve extrinsic inhibition of regeneration. This crossroads between the intrinsic and extrinsic aspects of spinal cord injury is a promising target for effective therapies for this unmet need.

  16. Motivating crowding theory - opening the black box of intrinsic motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher

    2010-01-01

    Public employees work for many other reasons than because they are paid for it. In other words, intrinsic motivation is an important determinant for their performance. Nonetheless, public sector organizations increasingly rely on extrinsic motivation factors such as monetary incentives to motivate...... employees. Motivation crowding theory claims that this may be at the expense of intrinsic motivation, if the extrinsic motivation factor is perceived to be controlling. On the other hand, intrinsic motivation will be enhanced (crowded in), if the extrinsic motivation factor is perceived to be supportive......, monetary incentives are found to cause different crowding effects for these different types of intrinsic motivation. The results call for more theoretical work on the drivers of motivation crowding effects and for practitioners to pay more attention to what type of intrinsic motivation is at stake, when...

  17. The value of customer preference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herig, C.; Houston, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Customer preference (CP), or green pricing, may be the financial hedge for electric supply industry integration of photovoltaics. CP is currently defined as a voluntary contribution for energy generated with renewable resources. Several utilities have examined the CP financing of renewables through experimental or implemented programs and market research. This paper first expands the concept of customer preference to include both voluntary and involuntary customer contributions. It then categorizes the features of existing and proposed CP programs. The connections between these features and market research and marketing strategies for new product development from a competitive industry are analyzed.

  18. Endogenous scheduling preferences and congestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Small, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    and leisure, but agglomeration economies at home and at work lead to scheduling preferences forming endogenously. Using bottleneck congestion technology, we obtain an equilibrium queuing pattern consistent with a general version of the Vickrey bottleneck model. However, the policy implications are different....... Compared to the predictions of an analyst observing untolled equilibrium and taking scheduling preferences as exogenous, we find that both the optimal capacity and the marginal external cost of congestion have changed. The benefits of tolling are greater, and the optimal time varying toll is different....

  19. The value of customer preference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herig, C.; Houston, A.

    1996-01-01

    Customer preference (CP), or green pricing, may be the financial hedge for electric supply industry integration of photovoltaics. CP is currently defined as a voluntary contribution for energy generated with renewable resources. Several utilities have examined the CP financing of renewables through experimental or implemented programs and market research. This paper first expands the concept of customer preference to include both voluntary and involuntary customer contributions. It then categorizes the features of existing and proposed CP programs. The connections between these features and market research and marketing strategies for new product development from a competitive industry are analyzed

  20. Evolutionary Genetic Analysis Uncovers Multiple Species with Distinct Habitat Preferences and Antibiotic Resistance Phenotypes in the Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz E. Ochoa-Sánchez

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The genus Stenotrophomonas (Gammaproteobacteria has a broad environmental distribution. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is its best known species because it is a globally emerging, multidrug-resistant (MDR, opportunistic pathogen. Members of this species are known to display high genetic, ecological and phenotypic diversity, forming the so-called S. maltophilia complex (Smc. Heterogeneous resistance and virulence phenotypes have been reported for environmental Smc isolates of diverse ecological origin. We hypothesized that this heterogeneity could be in part due to the potential lumping of several cryptic species in the Smc. Here we used state-of-the-art phylogenetic and population genetics methods to test this hypothesis based on the multilocus dataset available for the genus at pubmlst.org. It was extended with sequences from complete and draft genome sequences to assemble a comprehensive set of reference sequences. This framework was used to analyze 108 environmental isolates obtained in this study from the sediment and water column of four rivers and streams in Central Mexico, affected by contrasting levels of anthropogenic pollution. The aim of the study was to identify species in this collection, defined as genetically cohesive sequence clusters, and to determine the extent of their genetic, ecological and phenotypic differentiation. The multispecies coalescent, coupled with Bayes factor analysis was used to delimit species borders, together with population genetic structure analyses, recombination and gene flow estimates between sequence clusters. These analyses consistently revealed that the Smc contains at least 5 significantly differentiated lineages: S. maltophilia and Smc1 to Smc4. Only S. maltophilia was found to be intrinsically MDR, all its members expressing metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs. The other Smc lineages were not MDR and did not express MBLs. We also obtained isolates related to S. acidaminiphila, S. humi and S. terrae. They

  1. Intrinsic Evaporative Cooling by Hygroscopic Earth Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra R. Rempel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The phase change of water from liquid to vapor is one of the most energy-intensive physical processes in nature, giving it immense potential for cooling. Diverse evaporative cooling strategies have resulted worldwide, including roof ponds and sprinklers, courtyard fountains, wind catchers with qanats, irrigated green roofs, and fan-assisted evaporative coolers. These methods all require water in bulk liquid form. The evaporation of moisture that has been sorbed from the atmosphere by hygroscopic materials is equally energy-intensive, however, yet has not been examined for its cooling potential. In arid and semi-arid climates, hygroscopic earth buildings occur widely and are known to maintain comfortable indoor temperatures, but evaporation of moisture from their walls and roofs has been regarded as unimportant since water scarcity limits irrigation and rainfall; instead, their cool interiors are attributed to well-established mass effects in delaying the transmission of sensible gains. Here, we investigate the cooling accomplished by daily cycles of moisture sorption and evaporation which, requiring only ambient humidity, we designate as “intrinsic” evaporative cooling. Connecting recent soil science to heat and moisture transport studies in building materials, we use soils, adobe, cob, unfired earth bricks, rammed earth, and limestone to reveal the effects of numerous parameters (temperature and relative humidity, material orientation, thickness, moisture retention properties, vapor diffusion resistance, and liquid transport properties on the magnitude of intrinsic evaporative cooling and the stabilization of indoor relative humidity. We further synthesize these effects into concrete design guidance. Together, these results show that earth buildings in diverse climates have significant potential to cool themselves evaporatively through sorption of moisture from humid night air and evaporation during the following day’s heat. This finding

  2. Direct Evidence of Intrinsic Blue Fluorescence from Oligomeric Interfaces of Human Serum Albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Arpan; Bhowmik, Soumitra; Singh, Amit K; Kodgire, Prashant; Das, Apurba K; Mukherjee, Tushar Kanti

    2017-10-10

    The molecular origin behind the concentration-dependent intrinsic blue fluorescence of human serum albumin (HSA) is not known yet. This unusual blue fluorescence is believed to be a characteristic feature of amyloid-like fibrils of protein/peptide and originates due to the delocalization of peptide bond electrons through the extended hydrogen bond networks of cross-β-sheet structure. Herein, by combining the results of spectroscopy, size exclusion chromatography, native gel electrophoresis, and confocal microscopy, we have shown that the intrinsic blue fluorescence of HSA exclusively originates from oligomeric interfaces devoid of any amyloid-like fibrillar structure. Our study suggests that this low energy fluorescence band is not due to any particular residue/sequence, but rather it is a common feature of self-assembled peptide bonds. The present findings of intrinsic blue fluorescence from oligomeric interfaces pave the way for future applications of this unique visual phenomenon for early stage detection of various protein aggregation related human diseases.

  3. Multimodal sequence learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemény, Ferenc; Meier, Beat

    2016-02-01

    While sequence learning research models complex phenomena, previous studies have mostly focused on unimodal sequences. The goal of the current experiment is to put implicit sequence learning into a multimodal context: to test whether it can operate across different modalities. We used the Task Sequence Learning paradigm to test whether sequence learning varies across modalities, and whether participants are able to learn multimodal sequences. Our results show that implicit sequence learning is very similar regardless of the source modality. However, the presence of correlated task and response sequences was required for learning to take place. The experiment provides new evidence for implicit sequence learning of abstract conceptual representations. In general, the results suggest that correlated sequences are necessary for implicit sequence learning to occur. Moreover, they show that elements from different modalities can be automatically integrated into one unitary multimodal sequence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Sequence Read Archive (SRA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Sequence Read Archive (SRA) stores raw sequencing data from the next generation of sequencing platforms including Roche 454 GS System®, Illumina Genome...

  5. Preferences for behavioural, analytic and gestalt psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, H J

    1979-09-01

    This study investigated preferences for behavioural, analytic and gestalt psychotherapy among a sample of 40 SES class III and IV adult females and 67 college freshmen who had never been actual therapy patients. A scaled survey assessed general preference, preference given an imagined long-standing depressive disorder, preference given an imagined specific phobia, and preference for the therapist-patient relationship. Three audio tapes were designed, each describing one of the modalities. High inter-rater reliability and agreement were determined by three independent judges. Results showed that young females had a general preference for gestalt therapy. Young and old females, but not young males, significantly preferred behavioural therapy for a specific phobia. Under forced-choice conditions the group as a whole significantly preferred gestalt therapy. No differences were found for the relationship or preference given a depressive disorder. Preference was hypothesized as a cognitive structure with potential use in therapist-client matching.

  6. Revealed preference with limited consideration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demuynck, T.; Seel, C.

    2014-01-01

    We derive revealed preference tests for models where individuals use consideration sets to simplify their consumption problem. Our basic test provides necessary and sufficient conditions for consistency of observed choices with the existence of consideration set restrictions. The same conditions can

  7. Cortisol shifts financial risk preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Narayanan; Hardy, Ben; Page, Lionel; Schaffner, Markus; Graggaber, Johann; Powlson, Andrew S; Fletcher, Paul C; Gurnell, Mark; Coates, John

    2014-03-04

    Risk taking is central to human activity. Consequently, it lies at the focal point of behavioral sciences such as neuroscience, economics, and finance. Many influential models from these sciences assume that financial risk preferences form a stable trait. Is this assumption justified and, if not, what causes the appetite for risk to fluctuate? We have previously found that traders experience a sustained increase in the stress hormone cortisol when the amount of uncertainty, in the form of market volatility, increases. Here we ask whether these elevated cortisol levels shift risk preferences. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over protocol we raised cortisol levels in volunteers over 8 d to the same extent previously observed in traders. We then tested for the utility and probability weighting functions underlying their risk taking and found that participants became more risk-averse. We also observed that the weighting of probabilities became more distorted among men relative to women. These results suggest that risk preferences are highly dynamic. Specifically, the stress response calibrates risk taking to our circumstances, reducing it in times of prolonged uncertainty, such as a financial crisis. Physiology-induced shifts in risk preferences may thus be an underappreciated cause of market instability.

  8. Consumer Preferences for Mass Customization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.G.C. Dellaert (Benedict); S. Stremersch (Stefan)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIncreasingly, firms adopt mass customization, which allows consumers to customize products by self-selecting their most preferred composition of the product for a predefined set of modules. For example, PC vendors such as Dell allow customers to customize their PC by choosing the type of

  9. Educational Homogamy: Preferences or Opportunities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Svarer, Michael

    Individuals match on length and type of education. We investigate whether thesystematic relationship between educations of partners is explained by opportuni-ties (e.g. low search frictions) or preferences (e.g. complementarities in householdproduction or portfolio optimization). We find that half...

  10. LATER RETIREMENT? PATTERNS, PREFERENCES, POLICIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kohli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pension systems are a major part of the political economy of current societies – much beyond providing old-age income security. The well-known demographics of population aging as well as globalization today challenge their financial viability. Later retirement seems to be a good way to meet these challenges. However, it is not only unpopular but also inequitable in terms of differential longevity. The paper first discusses these problems, with a particular focus on the social stratification of mortality. It then analyzes the preferences towards retirement age at several levels:  in terms of attitudes towards public spending on pensions or towards the state’s responsibility in this matter, of support for pension policy alternatives, and of preferred individual age of retirement. Results show that large majorities across all age groups are in favour of more government spending on pensions. There is a substantial amount of ‘involuntary retirement’, meaning that people would have preferred to work longer than they actually did, as well as a somewhat lower amount of ‘involuntary work’, but the preferred ages are everywhere below 65, and in some countries still below 60. Finally, the paper examines the policies of raising the retirement age adopted during the last two decades. What has especially been lacking in these policies is a consideration of socially differentiated longevity.

  11. Gaming Preferences of Aging Generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocker, Kenneth A.; Wright, Timothy J.; Boot, Walter R.

    2017-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that action digital game training can improve a variety of perceptual and cognitive abilities, including those that decline most with age. Unfortunately, previous work has found that older adults dislike these games and adherence may be poor for action game-based interventions. The focus of the current study was to better understand the types of games older adults are willing to play and explore predictors of game preference (e.g., gender, age, technology experience, personality). With this information action games might be modified or developed to maximize adherence and cognitive benefit. Older adults were administered a modified version of an existing game questionnaire and a custom game preference survey. Clear preferences were observed that were similar between participants with and without previous digital game experience (with puzzle and intellectually stimulating games being most interesting to older adults in our sample, and massively multiplayer online games and first-person shooters being least interesting). Personality, demographic, and technology experience variables were also collected. Interesting trends suggested the possibility that several demographic and personality variables might be predictive of game preference. Results have implications for future directions of research, designing games that would appeal to older adult audiences, and for how to design custom games to maximize intervention adherence based on individual difference characteristics. PMID:29033699

  12. Gaming Preferences of Aging Generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocker, Kenneth A; Wright, Timothy J; Boot, Walter R

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that action digital game training can improve a variety of perceptual and cognitive abilities, including those that decline most with age. Unfortunately, previous work has found that older adults dislike these games and adherence may be poor for action game-based interventions. The focus of the current study was to better understand the types of games older adults are willing to play and explore predictors of game preference (e.g., gender, age, technology experience, personality). With this information action games might be modified or developed to maximize adherence and cognitive benefit. Older adults were administered a modified version of an existing game questionnaire and a custom game preference survey. Clear preferences were observed that were similar between participants with and without previous digital game experience (with puzzle and intellectually stimulating games being most interesting to older adults in our sample, and massively multiplayer online games and first-person shooters being least interesting). Personality, demographic, and technology experience variables were also collected. Interesting trends suggested the possibility that several demographic and personality variables might be predictive of game preference. Results have implications for future directions of research, designing games that would appeal to older adult audiences, and for how to design custom games to maximize intervention adherence based on individual difference characteristics.

  13. Measuring higher order ambiguity preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Baillon (Aurélien); Schlesinger, H. (Harris); G. van de Kuilen (Gijs)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractWe report the results from an experiment designed to measure attitudes towards ambiguity beyond ambiguity aversion. In particular, we implement recently-proposed model-free preference conditions of ambiguity prudence and ambiguity temperance. Ambiguity prudence has been shown to play an

  14. Market mechanisms and customer preferences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boethius, O. [Volvo Car Corporation, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1995-12-31

    The paper relates to market mechanisms and customer preferences regarding alternative fuels for road transports. Globally, road transports are to 99% dependent on crude oil. According to the author, one third of the crude oil is consumed for road transports. The use of natural gas as an alternative fuel is discussed in this connection

  15. Risk preferences under acute stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cahlíková, Jana; Cingl, L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 1 (2017), s. 209-236 ISSN 1386-4157 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : risk preferences * risk aversion * stress Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Applied Economics, Econometrics Impact factor: 2.391, year: 2016

  16. Risk preferences under acute stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cahlíková, Jana; Cingl, L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 1 (2017), s. 209-236 ISSN 1386-4157 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) SVV 265801/2012 Institutional support: Progres-Q24 Keywords : risk preferences * risk aversion * stress Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Applied Economics, Econometrics Impact factor: 2.391, year: 2016

  17. Lighting preferences in individual offices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Roberto Gomes de Faria

    Full Text Available Abstract Workplaces with good daylighting offer visual comfort to users, give them a series of physiological and psychological benefits and allow good performance of visual activities, besides saving energy. However, this solution is not always adopted: lighting type preferences involve many variables besides the availability of daylight. This paper explores a case study through the analysis of questionnaire answers and computer simulations of a series of metrics related to quality of lighting with the aim of finding explanations for the lighting preferences of individual office users. The results show that, although the offices present good daylighting conditions and no glare potential, and users are satisfied with daylighting, these parameters are not sufficient to explain the predominant lighting preferences. The findings have also shown that there is no consensus about which parameters potentially cause visual comfort, while the parameters that cause discomfort are clearly identified. In addition, in this study, 49% of the preference for mixed lighting (daylight plus electrical light can be explained by the fact that mixed lighting produces better modeling than daylighting alone.

  18. Lichen species preference by reindeer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holleman, D F; Luick, J R

    1977-08-01

    The preference by reindeer for five species of lichens commonly found on Central Alaska rangelands was tested under controlled laboratory conditions. Results indicate that reindeer are strongly selective species in their lichen grazing habits. The five tested species ranged as follows in order of decreasing acceptibility: Caldonia alpestris, C. rangiferina, Stereocaulon paschale, Cetraria richardsonii, and Peltigera aphthosa.

  19. Birth Order and Vocational Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Robert M.; Lynch, Janet

    1980-01-01

    The relationship between vocational preferences of adolescents and their birth order was examined. Firstborns were found to be overrepresented in the conventional and enterprising areas; later borns were found to be overrepresented in the social and investigative areas. (Author/GK)

  20. Decision Making and Revealed Preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Rosa, Leonidas Enrique

    If our decision-making processes are to some extent shaped by evolutionary pressures and our environment is different from that to which we adapted, some of our choices will not be in our best interest. But revealed preference is the only tool that we have so far to conduct a normative analysis...

  1. Ratio Bias and Policy Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Tue

    2016-01-01

    Numbers permeate modern political communication. While current scholarship on framing effects has focused on the persuasive effects of words and arguments, this article shows that framing of numbers can also substantially affect policy preferences. Such effects are caused by ratio bias, which...

  2. Wanting, liking, and preference construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xianchi; Brendl, C Miguel; Ariely, Dan

    2010-06-01

    According to theories on preference construction, multiple preferences result from multiple contexts (e.g., loss vs. gain frames). This implies that people can have different representations of a preference in different contexts. Drawing on Berridge's (1999) distinction between unconscious liking and wanting, we hypothesize that people may have multiple representations of a preference toward an object even within a single context. Specifically, we propose that people can have different representations of an object's motivational value, or incentive value, versus its emotional value, or likability, even when the object is placed in the same context. Study 1 establishes a divergence between incentive value and likability of faces using behavioral measures. Studies 2A and 2B, using self-report measures, provide support for our main hypothesis that people are perfectly aware of these distinct representations and are able to access them concurrently at will. We also discuss implications of our findings for the truism that people seek pleasure and for expectancy-value theories.

  3. Nursing Students’ Preferred Learning Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Salehi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Learning style is the processing of information and comprehension. If teachers present contents in a style that matches a student’s preferred learning style, academic performance and success will improve. If content retention improves it will result in an increase in thetest scores. It is also important to determine if students, as a group, fit into a particular style or a particular cycle as they move through an educational program.Methods: The study is a descriptive analytical research. Nursing Students at Isfahan Medical Sciences University completed a questionnaire  formulated to assess learning styles. Analysis of variance was used to investigate the possible relationship between learning cycle and student’s grades in the curriculum (i.e. freshman, sophomore, junior, or senior. Cross tabulation was used to test for a relationship between learning style and student academic year of study in the curriculum.Results: 294 students received the Kolb LSI questionnaire. The data demonstrated that juniors preferred a converger learning style and the senior students were in the abstract conceptualization cycle of learning. There were no relationships demonstrated between other groups in the study.Conclusion: The junior and senior students appear to prefer the stage of learning involving thinking and problem analysis. When a group of students demonstrate a preference for particular learning style teachers can develop their curriculum along their learning styleKey words: LEARNING STYLES, NURSING STUDENTS, FRESHMAN, SOPHOMORE, JUNIOR, SENIOR

  4. Premium Auctions and Risk Preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, A.; Offerman, T.J.S.; Zou, L.

    2010-01-01

    In a premium auction, the seller offers some "pay back", called premium, to the highest bidders. This paper investigates how the performance of such premium tactic is related to the participant's risk preferences. By developing an English premium auction model with symmetric interdependent values,

  5. Cortisol shifts financial risk preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Narayanan; Hardy, Ben; Page, Lionel; Schaffner, Markus; Graggaber, Johann; Powlson, Andrew S.; Fletcher, Paul C.; Gurnell, Mark; Coates, John

    2014-01-01

    Risk taking is central to human activity. Consequently, it lies at the focal point of behavioral sciences such as neuroscience, economics, and finance. Many influential models from these sciences assume that financial risk preferences form a stable trait. Is this assumption justified and, if not, what causes the appetite for risk to fluctuate? We have previously found that traders experience a sustained increase in the stress hormone cortisol when the amount of uncertainty, in the form of market volatility, increases. Here we ask whether these elevated cortisol levels shift risk preferences. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over protocol we raised cortisol levels in volunteers over 8 d to the same extent previously observed in traders. We then tested for the utility and probability weighting functions underlying their risk taking and found that participants became more risk-averse. We also observed that the weighting of probabilities became more distorted among men relative to women. These results suggest that risk preferences are highly dynamic. Specifically, the stress response calibrates risk taking to our circumstances, reducing it in times of prolonged uncertainty, such as a financial crisis. Physiology-induced shifts in risk preferences may thus be an underappreciated cause of market instability. PMID:24550472

  6. Seasonal Variations in Color Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloss, Karen B; Nelson, Rolf; Parker, Laura; Heck, Isobel A; Palmer, Stephen E

    2017-08-01

    We investigated how color preferences vary according to season and whether those changes could be explained by the ecological valence theory (EVT). To do so, we assessed the same participants' preferences for the same colors during fall, winter, spring, and summer in the northeastern United States, where there are large seasonal changes in environmental colors. Seasonal differences were most pronounced between fall and the other three seasons. Participants liked fall-associated dark-warm colors-for example, dark-red, dark-orange (brown), dark-yellow (olive), and dark-chartreuse-more during fall than other seasons. The EVT could explain these changes with a modified version of Palmer and Schloss' (2010) weighted affective valence estimate (WAVE) procedure that added an activation term to the WAVE equation. The results indicate that color preferences change according to season, as color-associated objects become more/less activated in the observer. These seasonal changes in color preferences could not be characterized by overall shifts in weights along cone-contrast axes. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  7. Separating intrinsic from extrinsic fluctuations in dynamic biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilfinger, Andreas; Paulsson, Johan

    2011-07-19

    From molecules in cells to organisms in ecosystems, biological populations fluctuate due to the intrinsic randomness of individual events and the extrinsic influence of changing environments. The combined effect is often too complex for effective analysis, and many studies therefore make simplifying assumptions, for example ignoring either intrinsic or extrinsic effects to reduce the number of model assumptions. Here we mathematically demonstrate how two identical and independent reporters embedded in a shared fluctuating environment can be used to identify intrinsic and extrinsic noise terms, but also how these contributions are qualitatively and quantitatively different from what has been previously reported. Furthermore, we show for which classes of biological systems the noise contributions identified by dual-reporter methods correspond to the noise contributions predicted by correct stochastic models of either intrinsic or extrinsic mechanisms. We find that for broad classes of systems, the extrinsic noise from the dual-reporter method can be rigorously analyzed using models that ignore intrinsic stochasticity. In contrast, the intrinsic noise can be rigorously analyzed using models that ignore extrinsic stochasticity only under very special conditions that rarely hold in biology. Testing whether the conditions are met is rarely possible and the dual-reporter method may thus produce flawed conclusions about the properties of the system, particularly about the intrinsic noise. Our results contribute toward establishing a rigorous framework to analyze dynamically fluctuating biological systems.

  8. VELOCITY EVOLUTION AND THE INTRINSIC COLOR OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, Ryan J.; Sanders, Nathan E.; Kirshner, Robert P.

    2011-01-01

    To understand how best to use observations of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) to obtain precise and accurate distances, we investigate the relations between spectra of SNe Ia and their intrinsic colors. Using a sample of 1630 optical spectra of 255 SNe, based primarily on data from the CfA Supernova Program, we examine how the velocity evolution and line strengths of Si II λ6355 and Ca II H and K are related to the B – V color at peak brightness. We find that the maximum-light velocity of Si II λ6355 and Ca II H and K and the maximum-light pseudo-equivalent width of Si II λ6355 are correlated with intrinsic color, with intrinsic color having a linear relation with the Si II λ6355 measurements. Ca II H and K does not have a linear relation with intrinsic color, but lower-velocity SNe tend to be intrinsically bluer. Combining the spectroscopic measurements does not improve intrinsic color inference. The intrinsic color scatter is larger for higher-velocity SNe Ia—even after removing a linear trend with velocity—indicating that lower-velocity SNe Ia are more 'standard crayons'. Employing information derived from SN Ia spectra has the potential to improve the measurements of extragalactic distances and the cosmological properties inferred from them.

  9. Beyond the evoked/intrinsic neural process dichotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Bolt

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary functional neuroimaging research has increasingly focused on characterization of intrinsic or “spontaneous” brain activity. Analysis of intrinsic activity is often contrasted with analysis of task-evoked activity that has traditionally been the focus of cognitive neuroscience. But does this evoked/intrinsic dichotomy adequately characterize human brain function? Based on empirical data demonstrating a close functional interdependence between intrinsic and task-evoked activity, we argue that the dichotomy between intrinsic and task-evoked activity as unobserved contributions to brain activity is artificial. We present an alternative picture of brain function in which the brain’s spatiotemporal dynamics do not consist of separable intrinsic and task-evoked components, but reflect the enaction of a system of mutual constraints to move the brain into and out of task-appropriate functional configurations. According to this alternative picture, cognitive neuroscientists are tasked with describing both the temporal trajectory of brain activity patterns across time, and the modulation of this trajectory by task states, without separating this process into intrinsic and task-evoked components. We argue that this alternative picture of brain function is best captured in a novel explanatory framework called enabling constraint. Overall, these insights call for a reconceptualization of functional brain activity, and should drive future methodological and empirical efforts.

  10. Nursing Student Perceptions Regarding Simulation Experience Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woda, Aimee A; Gruenke, Theresa; Alt-Gehrman, Penny; Hansen, Jamie

    2016-09-01

    The use of simulated learning experiences (SLEs) have increased within nursing curricula with positive learning outcomes for nursing students. The purpose of this study is to explore nursing students' perceptions of their clinical decision making (CDM) related to the block sequencing of different patient care experiences, SLEs versus hospital-based learning experiences (HLEs). A qualitative descriptive design used open-ended survey questions to generate information about the block sequencing of SLEs and its impact on nursing students' perceived CDM. Three themes emerged from the data: Preexperience Anxiety, Real-Time Decision Making, and Increased Patient Care Experiences. Nursing students identified that having SLEs prior to HLEs provided several benefits. Even when students preferred SLEs prior to HLEs, the sequence did not impact their CDM. This suggests that alternating block sequencing can be used without impacting the students' perceptions of their ability to make decisions. [J Nurs Educ. 2016;55(9):528-532.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. SELECTING QUASARS BY THEIR INTRINSIC VARIABILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Kasper B.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Jester, Sebastian; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Marshall, Philip J.; Dobler, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    We present a new and simple technique for selecting extensive, complete, and pure quasar samples, based on their intrinsic variability. We parameterize the single-band variability by a power-law model for the light-curve structure function, with amplitude A and power-law index γ. We show that quasars can be efficiently separated from other non-variable and variable sources by the location of the individual sources in the A-γ plane. We use ∼60 epochs of imaging data, taken over ∼5 years, from the SDSS stripe 82 (S82) survey, where extensive spectroscopy provides a reference sample of quasars, to demonstrate the power of variability as a quasar classifier in multi-epoch surveys. For UV-excess selected objects, variability performs just as well as the standard SDSS color selection, identifying quasars with a completeness of 90% and a purity of 95%. In the redshift range 2.5 < z < 3, where color selection is known to be problematic, variability can select quasars with a completeness of 90% and a purity of 96%. This is a factor of 5-10 times more pure than existing color selection of quasars in this redshift range. Selecting objects from a broad griz color box without u-band information, variability selection in S82 can afford completeness and purity of 92%, despite a factor of 30 more contaminants than quasars in the color-selected feeder sample. This confirms that the fraction of quasars hidden in the 'stellar locus' of color space is small. To test variability selection in the context of Pan-STARRS 1 (PS1) we created mock PS1 data by down-sampling the S82 data to just six epochs over 3 years. Even with this much sparser time sampling, variability is an encouragingly efficient classifier. For instance, a 92% pure and 44% complete quasar candidate sample is attainable from the above griz-selected catalog. Finally, we show that the presented A-γ technique, besides selecting clean and pure samples of quasars (which are stochastically varying objects), is also

  12. MRI Evaluation of Non-Necrotic T2-Hyperintense Foci in Pediatric Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerk-Lamalice, O; Reddick, W E; Li, X; Li, Y; Edwards, A; Glass, J O; Patay, Z

    2016-05-19

    The conventional MR imaging appearance of diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma suggests intralesional histopathologic heterogeneity, and various distinct lesion components, including T2-hypointense foci, have been described. Here we report the prevalence, conventional MR imaging semiology, and advanced MR imaging features of non-necrotic T2-hyperintense foci in diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma. Twenty-five patients with diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas were included in this study. MR imaging was performed at 3T by using conventional and advanced MR imaging sequences. Perfusion (CBV), vascular permeability (v e , K trans ), and diffusion (ADC) metrics were calculated and used to characterize non-necrotic T2-hyperintense foci in comparison with other lesion components, namely necrotic T2-hyperintense foci, T2-hypointense foci, peritumoral edema, and normal brain stem. Statistical analysis was performed by using Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon rank sum tests. Sixteen non-necrotic T2-hyperintense foci were found in 12 tumors. In these foci, ADC values were significantly higher than those in either T2-hypointense foci (P = .002) or normal parenchyma (P = .0002), and relative CBV values were significantly lower than those in either T2-hypointense (P = .0002) or necrotic T2-hyperintense (P = .006) foci. Volume transfer coefficient values in T2-hyperintense foci were lower than those in T2-hypointense (P = .0005) or necrotic T2-hyperintense (P = .0348) foci. Non-necrotic T2-hyperintense foci are common, distinct lesion components within diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas. Advanced MR imaging data suggest low cellularity and an early stage of angioneogenesis with leaky vessels resulting in expansion of the extracellular space. Because of the lack of biopsy validation, the underlying histoarchitectural and pathophysiologic changes remain unclear; therefore, these foci may correspond to a poorly understood biologic event in tumor evolution. © 2016 American Society of Neuroradiology.

  13. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations: Classic Definitions and New Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan; Deci

    2000-01-01

    Intrinsic and extrinsic types of motivation have been widely studied, and the distinction between them has shed important light on both developmental and educational practices. In this review we revisit the classic definitions of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in light of contemporary research and theory. Intrinsic motivation remains an important construct, reflecting the natural human propensity to learn and assimilate. However, extrinsic motivation is argued to vary considerably in its relative autonomy and thus can either reflect external control or true self-regulation. The relations of both classes of motives to basic human needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness are discussed. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  14. Congenital hypertrophy of multiple intrinsic muscles of the foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Tomohiro; Park, Susam; Niu, Atushi; Hasegawa, Hiromi

    2014-12-01

    Congenital hypertrophy of a single intrinsic muscle of the foot is rare, and as far as we know, only six cases have been reported. We describe a case of congenital anomaly that showed hypertrophy of multiple intrinsic muscles of the foot; the affected muscles were all the intrinsic muscles of the foot except the extensor digitorum brevis or extensor hallucis. Other tissues such as adipose tissue, nervous tissue, or osseous tissue showed no abnormalities. To reduce the volume of the foot we removed parts of the enlarged muscles.

  15. Some chaotic features of intrinsically coupled Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolahchi, M.R.; Shukrinov, Yu.M.; Hamdipour, M.; Botha, A.E.; Suzuki, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Intrinsically coupled Josephson junctions model a high-T c superconductor. ► Intrinsically coupled Josephson junctions can act as a chaotic nonlinear system. ► Chaos could be due to resonance overlap. ► Avoiding parameters that lead to chaos is important for the design of resonators. -- Abstract: We look for chaos in an intrinsically coupled system of Josephson junctions. This study has direct applications for the high-T c resonators which require coherence amongst the junctions

  16. Intrinsic Density Matrices of the Nuclear Shell Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deveikis, A.; Kamuntavichius, G.

    1996-01-01

    A new method for calculation of shell model intrinsic density matrices, defined as two-particle density matrices integrated over the centre-of-mass position vector of two last particles and complemented with isospin variables, has been developed. The intrinsic density matrices obtained are completely antisymmetric, translation-invariant, and do not employ a group-theoretical classification of antisymmetric states. They are used for exact realistic density matrix expansion within the framework of the reduced Hamiltonian method. The procedures based on precise arithmetic for calculation of the intrinsic density matrices that involve no numerical diagonalization or orthogonalization have been developed and implemented in the computer code. (author). 11 refs., 2 tabs

  17. The intrinsic stochasticity of near-integrable Hamiltonian systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krlin, L [Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Prague (Czechoslovakia). Ustav Fyziky Plazmatu

    1989-09-01

    Under certain conditions, the dynamics of near-integrable Hamiltonian systems appears to be stochastic. This stochasticity (intrinsic stochasticity, or deterministic chaos) is closely related to the Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser (KAM) theorem of the stability of near-integrable multiperiodic Hamiltonian systems. The effect of the intrinsic stochasticity attracts still growing attention both in theory and in various applications in contemporary physics. The paper discusses the relation of the intrinsic stochasticity to the modern ergodic theory and to the KAM theorem, and describes some numerical experiments on related astrophysical and high-temperature plasma problems. Some open questions are mentioned in conclusion. (author).

  18. Modeling effects of intrinsic and extrinsic rewards on the competition between striatal learning systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boedecker, Joschka; Lampe, Thomas; Riedmiller, Martin

    2013-01-01

    A common assumption in psychology, economics, and other fields holds that higher performance will result if extrinsic rewards (such as money) are offered as an incentive. While this principle seems to work well for tasks that require the execution of the same sequence of steps over and over, with little uncertainty about the process, in other cases, especially where creative problem solving is required due to the difficulty in finding the optimal sequence of actions, external rewards can actually be detrimental to task performance. Furthermore, they have the potential to undermine intrinsic motivation to do an otherwise interesting activity. In this work, we extend a computational model of the dorsomedial and dorsolateral striatal reinforcement learning systems to account for the effects of extrinsic and intrinsic rewards. The model assumes that the brain employs both a goal-directed and a habitual learning system, and competition between both is based on the trade-off between the cost of the reasoning process and value of information. The goal-directed system elicits internal rewards when its models of the environment improve, while the habitual system, being model-free, does not. Our results account for the phenomena that initial extrinsic reward leads to reduced activity after extinction compared to the case without any initial extrinsic rewards, and that performance in complex task settings drops when higher external rewards are promised. We also test the hypothesis that external rewards bias the competition in favor of the computationally efficient, but cruder and less flexible habitual system, which can negatively influence intrinsic motivation and task performance in the class of tasks we consider.

  19. Modeling effects of intrinsic and extrinsic rewards on the competition between striatal learning systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joschka eBoedecker

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A common assumption in psychology, economics, and other fields holds that higher performance will result if extrinsic rewards (such as money are offered as an incentive. While this principle seems to work well for tasks that require the execution of the same sequence of steps over and over, with little uncertainty about the process, in other cases, especially where creative problem solving is required due to the difficulty in finding the optimal sequence of actions, external rewards can actually be detrimental to task performance. Furthermore, they have the potential to undermine intrinsic motivation to do an otherwise interesting activity. In this work, we extend a computational model of the prefrontal and dorsolateral striatal reinforcement learning systems to account for the effects of extrinsic and intrinsic rewards. The model assumes that the brain employs both a goal-directed and a habitual learning system, and competition between both is based on the trade-off between the cost of the reasoning process and value of information. The goal-directed system elicits internal rewards when its models of the environment improve, while the habitual system, being model-free, does not. Our results account for the phenomena that initial extrinsic reward leads to reduced activity after extinction compared to the case without any initial extrinsic rewards, and that performance in complex task settings drops when higher external rewards are promised. We also test the hypothesis that external rewards bias the competition in favor of the computationally efficient, but cruder and less flexible habitual system, which can negatively influence intrinsic motivation and task performance in the class of tasks we consider.

  20. Intrinsic rotation due to MHD activity in a tokamak with a resistive wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haines, M G; Gimblett, C G; Hastie, R J

    2013-01-01

    MHD activity in a tokamak, in the form of waves and instabilities, generally has a preferred direction for propagation in a two-fluid plasma. When the radial component of magnetic field associated with this activity interacts with a resistive wall, momentum or angular momentum will be given to the wall. The equal and opposite reaction will be on the plasma, in particular, for ideal and resistive modes, at the singular or resonant surfaces for the various modes. In this case the torque exerted is electromagnetic. This is in contrast to other mechanisms for intrinsic or spontaneous rotation which may arise at the plasma boundary. The resistive wall is considered generally, and the thin and thick wall limits found, the latter being relevant to ITER parameters. Remarkably small radial perturbing fields of order 0.1 G could produce a torque comparable in effect to the apparent anomalous toroidal viscosity. (paper)

  1. Women's Stereotypes and Consumer Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Velandia Morales

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available According to The Ambivalent Sexism Theory (Glick y Fiske, 1996 there are distinct stereotypes of women that men express different attitudes. Among them, the housewife, sexy women and executive women are the clearest ones. One hundred people participated in the present study in order to test the relationship between the female stereotypes, their level of influence and prestige and the level of preference for a commercial product (described in female and male terms. The results showed that sexy women is more associated with the masculine description, whereas the executive women is more associated to the feminine product description, and in both cases the housewife is the least associated with the two different descriptions. It was also found that the influence and the women prestige mediated the relationship between the stereotypes and the preference shown for the product described in feminine terms

  2. Cultural legacies and political preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siroky, David S.; Mueller, Sean; Hechter, Michael

    2017-01-01

    crucial in explaining the decision to secede, but not in a conventional pocketbook manner. To examine this theory, we analyze the 2013 referendum on the secession of the Jura Bernois region from the Canton of Berne in Switzerland, using municipal level census and referendum data. The results lend support......, ecological constraints such as geography and topography affect social interaction with like-minded individuals. On the basis of both these political preferences and ecological constraints, individuals then make rational choices about the desirability of secession. Instrumental considerations are therefore...... to the theory and suggest one way in which the politics of identity, based on factors like language and religion, can be fused with the politics of interest (preferences for more or less state intervention into the polity and economy) to better understand group behavior....

  3. Ratio Bias and Policy Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Tue

    2017-01-01

    Numbers permeate modern political communication. While current scholarship on framing effects has focused on the persuasive effects of words and arguments, this article shows that framing of numbers can also substantially affect policy preferences. Such effects are caused by ratio bias, which...... is a general tendency to focus on numerators and pay insufficient attention to denominators in ratios. Using a population-based survey experiment, I demonstrate how differently framed but logically equivalent representations of the exact same numerical value can have large effects on citizens’ preferences...... regarding salient political issues such as education and taxes. Furthermore, the effects of numerical framing are found across most groups of the population, largely regardless of their political predisposition and their general ability to understand and use numerical information. These findings have...

  4. The Development of Intrinsic Motivation for Physical Activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beaty, James D

    2005-01-01

    .... Having found this to be so, it is worthy of researchers' efforts to determine the constructs that will move individuals to become more intrinsically motivated to engage in regular exercise and/or physical activity...

  5. Stochastic synchronization of neuronal populations with intrinsic and extrinsic noise.

    KAUST Repository

    Bressloff, Paul C; Lai, Yi Ming

    2011-01-01

    We extend the theory of noise-induced phase synchronization to the case of a neural master equation describing the stochastic dynamics of an ensemble of uncoupled neuronal population oscillators with intrinsic and extrinsic noise. The master

  6. Detergent-induced aggregation of an amyloidogenic intrinsically ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shruti Arya

    2017-11-02

    Nov 2, 2017 ... the effect of a well-known anionic lipid mimetic, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), on the aggregation ... for the fabrication of nano-structures for a wide variety ...... M 2014 Classification of intrinsically disordered regions.

  7. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation for stereotypic and repetitive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Annette V; Bundy, Anita C; Einfeld, Stewart L

    2009-03-01

    This study provides evidence for intrinsic and extrinsic motivators for stereotypical and repetitive behavior in children with autism and intellectual disability and children with intellectual disability alone. We modified the Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) (1988b); dividing it into intrinsic and extrinsic measures and adding items to assess anxiety as an intrinsic motivator. Rasch analysis of data from 279 MASs (74 children) revealed that the items formed two unidimensional scales. Anxiety was a more likely intrinsic motivator than sensory seeking for children with dual diagnoses; the reverse was true for children with intellectual disability only. Escape and gaining a tangible object were the most common extrinsic motivators for those with dual diagnoses and attention and escape for children with intellectual disability.

  8. Possible mechanism for d0 ferromagnetism mediated by intrinsic defects

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhenkui; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Roqan, Iman S.

    2014-01-01

    We examine the effects of several intrinsic defects on the magnetic behavior of ZnS nanostructures using hybrid density functional theory to gain insights into d0 ferromagnetism. Previous studies have predicted that the magnetism is due to a

  9. Values, Norms, and Intrinsic Motivation to Act Proenvironmentally

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steg, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Environmental problems can be reduced if people more consistently engage in proenvironmental actions. In this article, I discuss factors that motivate or inhibit individuals to act proenvironmentally. Many people are intrinsically motivated to engage in proenvironmental actions, because protecting

  10. Exploring the link between intrinsic motivation and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christy, Steven M.

    1992-12-01

    This thesis proposes that it is workers' intrinsic motivation that leads them to produce quality work. It reviews two different types of evidence- expert opinion and empirical studies--to attempt to evaluate a link between intrinsic motivation and work quality. The thesis reviews the works of Total Quality writers and behavioral scientists for any connection they might have made between intrinsic motivation and quality. The thesis then looks at the works of Deming and his followers in an attempt to establish a match between Deming's motivational assumptions and the four task rewards in the Thomas/Tymon model of intrinsic motivation: choice, competence, meaningfulness, and progress. Based upon this analysis, it is proposed that the four Thomas/Tymon task rewards are a promising theoretical foundation for explaining the motivational basis of quality for workers in Total Quality organizations.

  11. The Role of Intrinsic Motivations in Attention Allocation and Shifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario edi Nocera

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of attention and intrinsic motivations are of great interest within adaptive robotic systems, and can be exploited in order to guide, activate, and coordinate multiple concurrent behaviors. Attention allocation strategies represent key capabilities of human beings, which are strictly connected with action selection and execution mechanisms, while intrinsic motivations directly affect the allocation of attentional resources. In this paper we propose a model of Reinforcement Learning (RL, where both these capabilities are involved. RL is deployed to learn how to allocate attentional resources in a behavior-based robotic system, while action selection is obtained as a side effect of the resulting motivated attentional behaviors. Moreover, the influence of intrinsic motivations in attention orientation is obtained by introducing rewards associated with curiosity drives. In this way, the learning process is affected not only by goal-specific rewards, but also by intrinsic motivations.

  12. The dynamic multisite interactions between two intrinsically disordered proteins

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Shaowen; Wang, Dongdong; Liu, Jin; Feng, Yitao; Weng, Jingwei; Li, Yu; Gao, Xin; Liu, Jianwei; Wang, Wenning

    2017-01-01

    Protein interactions involving intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) comprise a variety of binding modes, from the well characterized folding upon binding to dynamic fuzzy complex. To date, most studies concern the binding of an IDP to a

  13. Intrinsically Microporous Polymer Membranes for High Performance Gas Separation

    KAUST Repository

    Swaidan, Raja

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the rational design of intrinsically microporous solutionprocessable polyimides and ladder polymers for highly permeable and highly selective gas transport in cornerstone applications of membrane-based gas separation

  14. Intrinsically bent DNA in replication origins and gene promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenes, F; Takeda, K I; Fiorini, A; Gouveia, F S; Fernandez, M A

    2008-06-24

    Intrinsically bent DNA is an alternative conformation of the DNA molecule caused by the presence of dA/dT tracts, 2 to 6 bp long, in a helical turn phase DNA or with multiple intervals of 10 to 11 bp. Other than flexibility, intrinsic bending sites induce DNA curvature in particular chromosome regions such as replication origins and promoters. Intrinsically bent DNA sites are important in initiating DNA replication, and are sometimes found near to regions associated with the nuclear matrix. Many methods have been developed to localize bent sites, for example, circular permutation, computational analysis, and atomic force microscopy. This review discusses intrinsically bent DNA sites associated with replication origins and gene promoter regions in prokaryote and eukaryote cells. We also describe methods for identifying bent DNA sites for circular permutation and computational analysis.

  15. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors influencing large African herbivore movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venter, J.A.; Prins, H.H.T.; Mashanova, A.; Boer, de W.F.; Slotow, R.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding environmental as well as anthropogenic factors that influence large herbivore ecological patterns and processes should underpin their conservation and management. We assessed the influence of intrinsic, extrinsic environmental and extrinsic anthropogenic factors on movement behaviour

  16. On using intrinsic spectral analysis for low-resource languages

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sahraeian, R

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available for a phone recognition task on the Afrikaans language show that a combination of the intrinsic subspace and extrinsic subspaces provides us with improved performance compared to conventional features....

  17. Collaborative Filtering Recommendation on Users' Interest Sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijie Cheng

    Full Text Available As an important factor for improving recommendations, time information has been introduced to model users' dynamic preferences in many papers. However, the sequence of users' behaviour is rarely studied in recommender systems. Due to the users' unique behavior evolution patterns and personalized interest transitions among items, users' similarity in sequential dimension should be introduced to further distinguish users' preferences and interests. In this paper, we propose a new collaborative filtering recommendation method based on users' interest sequences (IS that rank users' ratings or other online behaviors according to the timestamps when they occurred. This method extracts the semantics hidden in the interest sequences by the length of users' longest common sub-IS (LCSIS and the count of users' total common sub-IS (ACSIS. Then, these semantics are utilized to obtain users' IS-based similarities and, further, to refine the similarities acquired from traditional collaborative filtering approaches. With these updated similarities, transition characteristics and dynamic evolution patterns of users' preferences are considered. Our new proposed method was compared with state-of-the-art time-aware collaborative filtering algorithms on datasets MovieLens, Flixster and Ciao. The experimental results validate that the proposed recommendation method is effective and outperforms several existing algorithms in the accuracy of rating prediction.

  18. Collaborative Filtering Recommendation on Users' Interest Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Weijie; Yin, Guisheng; Dong, Yuxin; Dong, Hongbin; Zhang, Wansong

    2016-01-01

    As an important factor for improving recommendations, time information has been introduced to model users' dynamic preferences in many papers. However, the sequence of users' behaviour is rarely studied in recommender systems. Due to the users' unique behavior evolution patterns and personalized interest transitions among items, users' similarity in sequential dimension should be introduced to further distinguish users' preferences and interests. In this paper, we propose a new collaborative filtering recommendation method based on users' interest sequences (IS) that rank users' ratings or other online behaviors according to the timestamps when they occurred. This method extracts the semantics hidden in the interest sequences by the length of users' longest common sub-IS (LCSIS) and the count of users' total common sub-IS (ACSIS). Then, these semantics are utilized to obtain users' IS-based similarities and, further, to refine the similarities acquired from traditional collaborative filtering approaches. With these updated similarities, transition characteristics and dynamic evolution patterns of users' preferences are considered. Our new proposed method was compared with state-of-the-art time-aware collaborative filtering algorithms on datasets MovieLens, Flixster and Ciao. The experimental results validate that the proposed recommendation method is effective and outperforms several existing algorithms in the accuracy of rating prediction.

  19. Collaborative Filtering Recommendation on Users’ Interest Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Weijie; Yin, Guisheng; Dong, Yuxin; Dong, Hongbin; Zhang, Wansong

    2016-01-01

    As an important factor for improving recommendations, time information has been introduced to model users’ dynamic preferences in many papers. However, the sequence of users’ behaviour is rarely studied in recommender systems. Due to the users’ unique behavior evolution patterns and personalized interest transitions among items, users’ similarity in sequential dimension should be introduced to further distinguish users’ preferences and interests. In this paper, we propose a new collaborative filtering recommendation method based on users’ interest sequences (IS) that rank users’ ratings or other online behaviors according to the timestamps when they occurred. This method extracts the semantics hidden in the interest sequences by the length of users’ longest common sub-IS (LCSIS) and the count of users’ total common sub-IS (ACSIS). Then, these semantics are utilized to obtain users’ IS-based similarities and, further, to refine the similarities acquired from traditional collaborative filtering approaches. With these updated similarities, transition characteristics and dynamic evolution patterns of users’ preferences are considered. Our new proposed method was compared with state-of-the-art time-aware collaborative filtering algorithms on datasets MovieLens, Flixster and Ciao. The experimental results validate that the proposed recommendation method is effective and outperforms several existing algorithms in the accuracy of rating prediction. PMID:27195787

  20. Self-handicapping and intrinsic motivation: buffering intrinsic motivation from the threat of failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deppe, R K; Harackiewicz, J M

    1996-04-01

    High and low self-handicappers (as measured by E. E. Jones & F. Rhodewalt's [1982] Self-Handicapping Scale) were asked to play a game of pinball (in a competitive or noncompetitive setting) after they had practices as much as they wanted on a related task (thus, not practicing could have served as a self-handicap). High self-handicappers who did not practice much became more involved in the game and subsequently reported enjoying the game more than high self-handicappers who practiced a lot. Furthermore, the effects on enjoyment were mediated by task involvement, suggesting that the protection afforded by self-handicapping affects intrinsic motivation by allowing the individual to become absorbed in the activity instead of focusing on performance concerns. Individuals who self-handicap may be providing themselves with the "breathing room" they need to become absorbed in an activity and to experience the activity as enjoyable.

  1. Hydrogen with intrinsic CO{sub 2} sequestration: the ENI 'One Step Hydrogen' process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossini, S.; Cornaro, U.; Mizia, F.; Malandrino, A.; Piccoli, V. [Enitecnologie SpA, S. Donata Milanese (Italy); Sanfilippo, D.; Miracca, I. [Snamprogetti SpA, S. Donato Milanese (Italy)

    2003-07-01

    The new process, under development in our companies, is aimed to hydrogen production with intrinsic carbon dioxide sequestration. This is made possible combining in a cycle the water oxidative potential with a reverse action by a reducing agent like hydrocarbons, the preferred being natural gas. In the first step a suitable oxide takes up the oxygen from water splitting producing hydrogen. The solid act as an oxygen storage medium. Such 'lattice' oxygen is in turn released through one or more elemental steps. The process fits very well with a circulating fluid bed reactor which allows the movement of the solid from one reactive environment to the other. (orig.)

  2. Economic Beliefs and Party Preference

    OpenAIRE

    Michael W.M. Roos; Andreas Orland

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a questionnaire study used to explore the economic understanding, normative positions along the egalitarian-libertarian spectrum, and the party preferences of a large student sample. The aim of the study is both to find socio-economic determinants of normative and positive beliefs and to explore how beliefs about the economy influence party support. We find that positive beliefs of lay people differ systematically from those of economic experts. Positive beli...

  3. Women's Stereotypes and Consumer Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Velandia Morales, Andrea; Universidad de Granada; Rodríguez-Bailón, Rosa; Universidad de Granada

    2011-01-01

    According to The Ambivalent Sexism Theory (Glick y Fiske, 1996) there are distinct stereotypes of women that men express different attitudes. Among them, the housewife, sexy women and executive women are the clearest ones. One hundred people participated in the present study in order to test the relationship between the female stereotypes, their level of influence and prestige and the level of preference for a commercial product (described in female and male terms). The results showed that se...

  4. Patient preferences for partner notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apoola, A; Radcliffe, K W; Das, S; Robshaw, V; Gilleran, G; Kumari, B S; Boothby, M; Rajakumar, R

    2006-08-01

    To identify patient preferences for notification of sexual contacts when a sexually transmitted infection (STI) is diagnosed. A questionnaire survey of 2544 patients attending three large genitourinary clinics at Derby, Birmingham, and Coventry in the United Kingdom. The median age of the respondents was 24 with 1474 (57.9%) women, 1835 (72.1%) white, 1826 (71.8%) single. The most favoured method of partner notification was patient referral, which was rated a "good" method by 65.8% when they had to be contacted because a sexual partner has an STI. Notifying contacts by letter as a method of provider partner notification is more acceptable than phoning, text messaging, or email. Respondents with access to mobile telephones, private emails, and private letters were more likely to rate a method of partner notification using that mode of communication as "good" compared to those without. With provider referral methods of partner notification respondents preferred to receive a letter, email, or text message asking them to contact the clinic rather than a letter, email or text message informing them that they may have an STI. Most respondents think that being informed directly by a partner is the best method of being notified of the risk of an STI. Some of the newer methods may not be acceptable to all but a significant minority of respondents prefer these methods of partner notification. The wording of letters, emails, or text messages when used for partner notification has an influence on the acceptability of the method and may influence success of the partner notification method. Services should be flexible enough to utilise the patients' preferred method of partner notification.

  5. Community detection using preference networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasgin, Mursel; Bingol, Haluk O.

    2018-04-01

    Community detection is the task of identifying clusters or groups of nodes in a network where nodes within the same group are more connected with each other than with nodes in different groups. It has practical uses in identifying similar functions or roles of nodes in many biological, social and computer networks. With the availability of very large networks in recent years, performance and scalability of community detection algorithms become crucial, i.e. if time complexity of an algorithm is high, it cannot run on large networks. In this paper, we propose a new community detection algorithm, which has a local approach and is able to run on large networks. It has a simple and effective method; given a network, algorithm constructs a preference network of nodes where each node has a single outgoing edge showing its preferred node to be in the same community with. In such a preference network, each connected component is a community. Selection of the preferred node is performed using similarity based metrics of nodes. We use two alternatives for this purpose which can be calculated in 1-neighborhood of nodes, i.e. number of common neighbors of selector node and its neighbors and, the spread capability of neighbors around the selector node which is calculated by the gossip algorithm of Lind et.al. Our algorithm is tested on both computer generated LFR networks and real-life networks with ground-truth community structure. It can identify communities accurately in a fast way. It is local, scalable and suitable for distributed execution on large networks.

  6. Preferred and Actual Relative Height among Homosexual Male Partners Vary with Preferred Dominance and Sex Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentova, Jaroslava Varella; Stulp, Gert; Třebický, Vít; Havlíček, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown repeatedly that human stature influences mate preferences and mate choice in heterosexuals. In general, it has been shown that tall men and average height women are most preferred by the opposite sex, and that both sexes prefer to be in a relationship where the man is taller than the woman. However, little is known about such partner preferences in homosexual individuals. Based on an online survey of a large sample of non-heterosexual men (N = 541), we found that the majority of men prefer a partner slightly taller than themselves. However, these preferences were dependent on the participant’s own height, such that taller men preferred shorter partners, whereas shorter men preferred taller partners. We also examined whether height preferences predicted the preference for dominance and the adoption of particular sexual roles within a couple. Although a large proportion of men preferred to be in an egalitarian relationship with respect to preferred dominance (although not with respect to preferred sexual role), men that preferred a more dominant and more “active” sexual role preferred shorter partners, whereas those that preferred a more submissive and more “passive” sexual role preferred taller partners. Our results indicate that preferences for relative height in homosexual men are modulated by own height, preferred dominance and sex role, and do not simply resemble those of heterosexual women or men. PMID:24466136

  7. Preferred and actual relative height among homosexual male partners vary with preferred dominance and sex role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentova, Jaroslava Varella; Stulp, Gert; Třebický, Vít; Havlíček, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown repeatedly that human stature influences mate preferences and mate choice in heterosexuals. In general, it has been shown that tall men and average height women are most preferred by the opposite sex, and that both sexes prefer to be in a relationship where the man is taller than the woman. However, little is known about such partner preferences in homosexual individuals. Based on an online survey of a large sample of non-heterosexual men (N = 541), we found that the majority of men prefer a partner slightly taller than themselves. However, these preferences were dependent on the participant's own height, such that taller men preferred shorter partners, whereas shorter men preferred taller partners. We also examined whether height preferences predicted the preference for dominance and the adoption of particular sexual roles within a couple. Although a large proportion of men preferred to be in an egalitarian relationship with respect to preferred dominance (although not with respect to preferred sexual role), men that preferred a more dominant and more "active" sexual role preferred shorter partners, whereas those that preferred a more submissive and more "passive" sexual role preferred taller partners. Our results indicate that preferences for relative height in homosexual men are modulated by own height, preferred dominance and sex role, and do not simply resemble those of heterosexual women or men.

  8. Preferred and actual relative height among homosexual male partners vary with preferred dominance and sex role.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Varella Valentova

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown repeatedly that human stature influences mate preferences and mate choice in heterosexuals. In general, it has been shown that tall men and average height women are most preferred by the opposite sex, and that both sexes prefer to be in a relationship where the man is taller than the woman. However, little is known about such partner preferences in homosexual individuals. Based on an online survey of a large sample of non-heterosexual men (N = 541, we found that the majority of men prefer a partner slightly taller than themselves. However, these preferences were dependent on the participant's own height, such that taller men preferred shorter partners, whereas shorter men preferred taller partners. We also examined whether height preferences predicted the preference for dominance and the adoption of particular sexual roles within a couple. Although a large proportion of men preferred to be in an egalitarian relationship with respect to preferred dominance (although not with respect to preferred sexual role, men that preferred a more dominant and more "active" sexual role preferred shorter partners, whereas those that preferred a more submissive and more "passive" sexual role preferred taller partners. Our results indicate that preferences for relative height in homosexual men are modulated by own height, preferred dominance and sex role, and do not simply resemble those of heterosexual women or men.

  9. On intrinsic and extrinsic origin of plasmon peaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayama, Shoichi; Kawai, Jun

    2008-01-01

    The origin of the plasmon loss peaks in X-ray photoelectron spectra are discussed based on the (1) intrinsic, (2) extrinsic, (3) quantum interference between (1) and (2), and (4) mixture of (1) and (2). It was believed that the major part of plasmon was due to the extrinsic, the present analysis concludes the major part is intrinsic, depending the excitation energy. This analysis is based on the electron reflection spectra, but valid for X-ray photoelectron spectra. (author)

  10. A hierarchy of intrinsic timescales across primate cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, John D; Bernacchia, Alberto; Freedman, David J; Romo, Ranulfo; Wallis, Jonathan D; Cai, Xinying; Padoa-Schioppa, Camillo; Pasternak, Tatiana; Seo, Hyojung; Lee, Daeyeol; Wang, Xiao-Jing

    2014-12-01

    Specialization and hierarchy are organizing principles for primate cortex, yet there is little direct evidence for how cortical areas are specialized in the temporal domain. We measured timescales of intrinsic fluctuations in spiking activity across areas and found a hierarchical ordering, with sensory and prefrontal areas exhibiting shorter and longer timescales, respectively. On the basis of our findings, we suggest that intrinsic timescales reflect areal specialization for task-relevant computations over multiple temporal ranges.

  11. Study of Intrinsic motivation in the Ministry for Foreign Affairs

    OpenAIRE

    Lehtimäki, Nora

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to investigate intrinsic motivation of the executive assistants and secretaries in the Ministry for Foreign Affairs. The objective in turn, was to examine how well intrinsic motivation has been achieved among these executive assistants and secretaries. How respondents evaluate their job satisfaction, work environment and motivation was also researched. Lastly, factors that increase or decrease motivation were studied, as well as if there is a need for additional...

  12. Elderly Taiwanese's Intrinsic Risk Factors for Fall-related Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    In-Fun Li; Yvonne Hsiung; Hui-Fen Hsing; Mei-Yu Lee; Te-Hsin Chang; Ming-Yuan Huang

    2016-01-01

    Background: As a vital issue in geriatric research, risk factors for falls were concluded to be multifactorial, and prevention has been mostly aimed at decreasing situational and environmental risks that cause and aggravate fall-related injuries, particularly within the institutions. While knowledge is limited about older patients' intrinsic determinants, the purpose of this study was to explore elderly Taiwanese's intrinsic risk factors associated with severe fall-related injuries. Method...

  13. Spin and intrinsic angular momentum; application to the electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paillere, P.

    1993-05-01

    Within the framework of the field theory governed by a Lagrangian, function of the tensor quantities and their covariant first derivatives, and starting with the third order intrinsic angular momentum tensor obtained from a variational principle, the intrinsic angular momentum vector of the electromagnetic field in vacuum is determined. This expression leads to spin matrices for the electromagnetic field, with unity as eigenvalue, thus allowing to bridge the gap between continuous physics and quantum physics. 6 refs

  14. Intrinsic Hand Muscle Activation for Grasp and Horizontal Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Winges, Sara A.; Kundu, Bornali; Soechting, John F.; Flanders, Martha

    2007-01-01

    During object manipulation, the hand and arm muscles produce internal forces on the object (grasping forces) and forces that result in external translation or rotation of the object in space (transport forces). The present study tested whether the intrinsic hand muscles are actively involved in transport as well as grasping. Intrinsic hand muscle activity increased with increasing demands for grasp stability, but also showed the timing and directional tuning patterns appropriate for actively ...

  15. Self-perception of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, B J; Staw, B M

    1975-04-01

    Self-perception theory predicts that intrinsic and extrinsic motivation do not combine additively but rather interact. To test this predicted interaction, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation were both manipulated as independent variables. The results revealed a significant interaction for task satisfaction and a trend for the interaction on a behavioral measure. These results are discussed in terms of a general approach to the self-perception of motivation.

  16. Different preferences for wine communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Sillani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at verifying the presence of variations in the reactions of different types of audiences to certain communication tools for wine. Five samples of audiences were compared: wine professionals, organic produce specialists, wine tourists, and two samples of general tourists. The following bundle of attributes were considered: name of the grape; information on organic production methods; type of closure; QR code; landscape; advertising language. Diverse audience’s preferences were measured by conjoint analysis. The results have shown a common sensitivity to certain attributes, and a different or contrary sensitivity to others. In particular, all samples have demonstrated that: 1 certified organic wines communicated in standard wine-market style have the potential of becoming market leaders; 2 photographs facilitate the acceptance of technologically-advanced closures; 3 the presence of the QR code in printed advertisements increases the expected value of the product; 4a landscape characterised by holistic “garden viticulture” increases preferences. Textual language was more effective with professionals, while photographic language was more effective with tourists. Supplementary information on the organic production methods, in addition to the mandatory labelling requirements, increased the preferences of professionals and wine tourists, and was counterproductive with the general tourists.

  17. Sequence-specific unusual (1-->2)-type helical turns in alpha/beta-hybrid peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakaran, Panchami; Kale, Sangram S; Puranik, Vedavati G; Rajamohanan, P R; Chetina, Olga; Howard, Judith A K; Hofmann, Hans-Jörg; Sanjayan, Gangadhar J

    2008-12-31

    This article describes novel conformationally ordered alpha/beta-hybrid peptides consisting of repeating l-proline-anthranilic acid building blocks. These oligomers adopt a compact, right-handed helical architecture determined by the intrinsic conformational preferences of the individual amino acid residues. The striking feature of these oligomers is their ability to display an unusual periodic pseudo beta-turn network of nine-membered hydrogen-bonded rings formed in the forward direction of the sequence by 1-->2 amino acid interactions both in solid-state and in solution. Conformational investigations of several of these oligomers by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, solution-state NMR, and ab initio MO theory suggest that the characteristic steric and dihedral angle restraints exerted by proline are essential for stabilizing the unusual pseudo beta-turn network found in these oligomers. Replacing proline by the conformationally flexible analogue alanine (Ala) or by the conformationally more constrained alpha-amino isobutyric acid (Aib) had an adverse effect on the stabilization of this structural architecture. These findings increase the potential to design novel secondary structure elements profiting from the steric and dihedral angle constraints of the amino acid constituents and help to augment the conformational space available for synthetic oligomer design with diverse backbone structures.

  18. Passive listening to preferred motor tempo modulates corticospinal excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelis, Kelly; Wiener, Martin; Thompson, James C

    2014-01-01

    Rhythms are an essential characteristic of our lives, and auditory-motor coupling affects a variety of behaviors. Previous research has shown that the neural regions associated with motor system processing are coupled to perceptual rhythmic and melodic processing such that the perception of rhythmic stimuli can entrain motor system responses. However, the degree to which individual preference modulates the motor system is unknown. Recent work has shown that passively listening to metrically strong rhythms increases corticospinal excitability, as indicated by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Furthermore, this effect is modulated by high-groove music, or music that inspires movement, while neuroimaging evidence suggests that premotor activity increases with tempos occurring within a preferred tempo (PT) category. PT refers to the rate of a hypothetical endogenous oscillator that may be indicated by spontaneous motor tempo (SMT) and preferred perceptual tempo (PPT) measurements. The present study investigated whether listening to a rhythm at an individual's PT preferentially modulates motor system excitability. SMT was obtained in human participants through a tapping task in which subjects were asked to tap a response key at their most comfortable rate. Subjects listened a 10-beat tone sequence at 11 log-spaced tempos and rated their preference for each (PPT). We found that SMT and PPT measurements were correlated, indicating that preferred and produced tempos occurred at a similar rate. Crucially, single-pulse TMS delivered to left M1 during PPT judgments revealed that corticospinal excitability, measured by motor-evoked potentials (MEPs), was modulated by tempos traveling closer to individual PT. However, the specific nature of this modulation differed across individuals, with some exhibiting an increase in excitability around PT and others exhibiting a decrease. These findings suggest that auditory-motor coupling induced by rhythms is preferentially

  19. Intrinsic Losses Based on Information Geometry and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Rong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available One main interest of information geometry is to study the properties of statistical models that do not depend on the coordinate systems or model parametrization; thus, it may serve as an analytic tool for intrinsic inference in statistics. In this paper, under the framework of Riemannian geometry and dual geometry, we revisit two commonly-used intrinsic losses which are respectively given by the squared Rao distance and the symmetrized Kullback–Leibler divergence (or Jeffreys divergence. For an exponential family endowed with the Fisher metric and α -connections, the two loss functions are uniformly described as the energy difference along an α -geodesic path, for some α ∈ { − 1 , 0 , 1 } . Subsequently, the two intrinsic losses are utilized to develop Bayesian analyses of covariance matrix estimation and range-spread target detection. We provide an intrinsically unbiased covariance estimator, which is verified to be asymptotically efficient in terms of the intrinsic mean square error. The decision rules deduced by the intrinsic Bayesian criterion provide a geometrical justification for the constant false alarm rate detector based on generalized likelihood ratio principle.

  20. Intrinsically Disordered Side of the Zika Virus Proteome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajanish Giri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, concepts of protein intrinsic disorder have been implicated in different biological processes. Recent studies have suggested that intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs provide structural plasticity and functional diversity to viral proteins that are involved in rapid replication and immune evasion in host cells. In case of Zika virus, the roles of protein intrinsic disorder in mechanisms of pathogenesis are not completely understood. In this study, we have analyzed the prevalence of intrinsic disorder in Zika virus proteome (strain MR 766. Our analyses revealed that Zika virus polyprotein is enriched with intrinsically disordered protein regions (IDPRs and this finding is consistent with previous reports on the involvement of IDPs in shell formation and virulence of the Flaviviridae family. We found abundant IDPRs in Capsid, NS2B, NS3, NS4A, and NS5 proteins that are involved in mature particle formation and replication. In our view, the intrinsic disorder-focused analysis of ZIKV proteins could be important for the development of new disorder-based drugs.

  1. Intrinsic honesty and the prevalence of rule violations across societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gächter, Simon; Schulz, Jonathan F

    2016-03-24

    Deception is common in nature and humans are no exception. Modern societies have created institutions to control cheating, but many situations remain where only intrinsic honesty keeps people from cheating and violating rules. Psychological, sociological and economic theories suggest causal pathways to explain how the prevalence of rule violations in people's social environment, such as corruption, tax evasion or political fraud, can compromise individual intrinsic honesty. Here we present cross-societal experiments from 23 countries around the world that demonstrate a robust link between the prevalence of rule violations and intrinsic honesty. We developed an index of the 'prevalence of rule violations' (PRV) based on country-level data from the year 2003 of corruption, tax evasion and fraudulent politics. We measured intrinsic honesty in an anonymous die-rolling experiment. We conducted the experiments with 2,568 young participants (students) who, due to their young age in 2003, could not have influenced PRV in 2003. We find individual intrinsic honesty is stronger in the subject pools of low PRV countries than those of high PRV countries. The details of lying patterns support psychological theories of honesty. The results are consistent with theories of the cultural co-evolution of institutions and values, and show that weak institutions and cultural legacies that generate rule violations not only have direct adverse economic consequences, but might also impair individual intrinsic honesty that is crucial for the smooth functioning of society.

  2. INTRINSIC MOTIVATION VS. EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION: THE APPLICATION OF WPI SCALE IN THE CONTEXT OF PORTUGUESE PUBLIC SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Lira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Much of the literature focusing on the construct of ‘motivation’ in the public sector feeds the idea that organisational peculiarities of this sector and the individual circumstances of its employees translate into a prevalence of intrinsic motivation and, as a consequence, of the value of intrinsic rewards. However, this assumption has never been scrutinised within the Portuguese public sector; hence, the central goal of this work is, precisely, to offer a contribution to overcome this gap, that is, to provide an answer to the following question: ‘in general terms, what is the predominant type of motivation among Portuguese civil servants: intrinsic motivation or extrinsic motivation?’. So as to achieve this goal, we have carried out an empirical study based on the scale ‘The work preference inventory’, developed by Amabile, Hill, Hennessey and Tighe (1994. This study involved the survey, through a questionnaire, applied to the non-teaching staff of three public higher education institutions. Although the study, by its nature, is not be generalizable to all Portuguese civil servants, it clearly indicates the prevalence, among these, of intrinsic motivation and, as a consequence, of the value of intrinsic rewards. Yet, not negligible levels of appreciation of extrinsic rewards should be emphasised. This indication has led to a goal of a peripheral nature for the present study: to alert for the possible inadequacy of the performance appraisal system of most Portuguese civil servants, given that this system, in exchange for the performance, only offers extrinsic rewards.

  3. Orientation Preferences and Motion Sickness Induced in a Virtual Reality Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Chao, Jian-Gang; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Jin-Kun; Chen, Xue-Wen; Tan, Cheng

    2017-10-01

    Astronauts' orientation preferences tend to correlate with their susceptibility to space motion sickness (SMS). Orientation preferences appear universally, since variable sensory cue priorities are used between individuals. However, SMS susceptibility changes after proper training, while orientation preferences seem to be intrinsic proclivities. The present study was conducted to investigate whether orientation preferences change if susceptibility is reduced after repeated exposure to a virtual reality (VR) stimulus environment that induces SMS. A horizontal supine posture was chosen to create a sensory context similar to weightlessness, and two VR devices were used to produce a highly immersive virtual scene. Subjects were randomly allocated to an experimental group (trained through exposure to a provocative rotating virtual scene) and a control group (untrained). All subjects' orientation preferences were measured twice with the same interval, but the experimental group was trained three times during the interval, while the control group was not. Trained subjects were less susceptible to SMS, with symptom scores reduced by 40%. Compared with untrained subjects, trained subjects' orientation preferences were significantly different between pre- and posttraining assessments. Trained subjects depended less on visual cues, whereas few subjects demonstrated the opposite tendency. Results suggest that visual information may be inefficient and unreliable for body orientation and stabilization in a rotating visual scene, while reprioritizing preferences for different sensory cues was dynamic and asymmetric between individuals. The present findings should facilitate customization of efficient and proper training for astronauts with different sensory prioritization preferences and dynamic characteristics.Chen W, Chao J-G, Zhang Y, Wang J-K, Chen X-W, Tan C. Orientation preferences and motion sickness induced in a virtual reality environment. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017

  4. Parents perspectives on whole genome sequencing for their children: qualified enthusiasm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J A; Meyn, M S; Shuman, C; Zlotnik Shaul, R; Mantella, L E; Szego, M J; Bowdin, S; Monfared, N; Hayeems, R Z

    2017-08-01

    To better understand the consequences of returning whole genome sequencing (WGS) results in paediatrics and facilitate its evidence-based clinical implementation, we studied parents' experiences with WGS and their preferences for the return of adult-onset secondary variants (SVs)-medically actionable genomic variants unrelated to their child's current medical condition that predict adult-onset disease. We conducted qualitative interviews with parents whose children were undergoing WGS as part of the SickKids Genome Clinic, a research project that studies the impact of clinical WGS on patients, families, and the healthcare system. Interviews probed parents' experience with and motivation for WGS as well as their preferences related to SVs. Interviews were analysed thematically. Of 83 invited, 23 parents from 18 families participated. These parents supported WGS as a diagnostic test, perceiving clear intrinsic and instrumental value. However, many parents were ambivalent about receiving SVs, conveying a sense of self-imposed obligation to take on the 'weight' of knowing their child's SVs, however unpleasant. Some parents chose to learn about adult-onset SVs for their child but not for themselves. Despite general enthusiasm for WGS as a diagnostic test, many parents felt a duty to learn adult-onset SVs. Analogous to 'inflicted insight', we call this phenomenon 'inflicted ought'. Importantly, not all parents of children undergoing WGS view the best interests of their child in relational terms, thereby challenging an underlying justification for current ACMG guidelines for reporting incidental secondary findings from whole exome and WGS. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Nonparametric combinatorial sequence models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wauthier, Fabian L; Jordan, Michael I; Jojic, Nebojsa

    2011-11-01

    This work considers biological sequences that exhibit combinatorial structures in their composition: groups of positions of the aligned sequences are "linked" and covary as one unit across sequences. If multiple such groups exist, complex interactions can emerge between them. Sequences of this kind arise frequently in biology but methodologies for analyzing them are still being developed. This article presents a nonparametric prior on sequences which allows combinatorial structures to emerge and which induces a posterior distribution over factorized sequence representations. We carry out experiments on three biological sequence families which indicate that combinatorial structures are indeed present and that combinatorial sequence models can more succinctly describe them than simpler mixture models. We conclude with an application to MHC binding prediction which highlights the utility of the posterior distribution over sequence representations induced by the prior. By integrating out the posterior, our method compares favorably to leading binding predictors.

  6. Hare's preference utilitarianism: an overview and critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Cardoso Simões

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available My purpose in this paper is to summarize some aspects of utilitarianism and to provide a general overview of Hare's preference utilitarianism, followed by a critique of Hare's preference theory.

  7. Puerto Rico Revealed Preference Survey Data 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Revealed preference models provide insights into recreational angler behavior and the economic value of recreational fishing trips. Revealed preference data is...

  8. Text Summarization Evaluation: Correlating Human Performance on an Extrinsic Task with Automatic Intrinsic Metrics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    President, Stacy F; Dorr, Bonnie J

    2006-01-01

    This research describes two types of summarization evaluation methods, intrinsic and extrinsic, and concentrates on determining the level of correlation between automatic intrinsic methods and human...

  9. MR study of the intrinsic acromial angle in 74 symptomatic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Mario, Mario; Fraracci, Lucio

    2005-01-01

    Purpose. The study was undertaken to define some measurements on sagittal MR images that could provide quantitative data on the subacromial spece in patients affected by nonspecific impingement syndrome and to correlate these measurements with the Bigliani classification of acromial morphology. Materials and methods. We retrospectively reviewed 74 shoulders in 74 patients (47 males, 27 females, age range 35-62 years) who presented with mechanical disability and pain. The patients underwent MRl using TI-weighted sagittal oblique and coronaI SE sequences (TR 500 ms,TE 12 ms) and T2-weighted FSE sequences (TR 3500, TE 25 ms) with dedicated coil. Two parameters were evaluated: the intrinsic acromial angle and the acromio-humeral distance. The measurements were made on the sagittal images at the acromion-clavicular junction and correlated to the Bigliani classification of acromial morphology. The images were evaluated by two radiologists blinded to the patients' identity, history and arthroscopic results. Results. The acromial angle was measured in 72 shoulders. The values were found to correlate with tue Bigliani classification. In our series, the intrinsic acromial angle (resulting from the intersection between the longitudinal acromial axis and the tangent to the acromial undersurface) ranged from 0 o to 17 o . In shoulders with rotator cuff tears the acromial angle varied between 8 o and 17 o . There were no tears for acromial angles below 8 o , whereas in patients with full-thickness tears the angles ranged from a minimum of 12 o to a maximum of 15 o . Acromio-humeral distance ranged from 2 mm to 10 mm; in patients with cuff tears it could not be assessed as it was close to zero in nearly all cases, whereas in cases of impingement without cuff tear it ranged from 5 mm to 10 mm. Impingement without cuff tear was detected in 31 cases, with angles ranging from 10 o to 17 o . Conclusions. Our findings demonstrate the effectiveness of the two quantitative parameters

  10. Zigzag turning preference of freely crawling cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taeseok Daniel Yang

    Full Text Available The coordinated motion of a cell is fundamental to many important biological processes such as development, wound healing, and phagocytosis. For eukaryotic cells, such as amoebae or animal cells, the cell motility is based on crawling and involves a complex set of internal biochemical events. A recent study reported very interesting crawling behavior of single cell amoeba: in the absence of an external cue, free amoebae move randomly with a noisy, yet, discernible sequence of 'run-and-turns' analogous to the 'run-and-tumbles' of swimming bacteria. Interestingly, amoeboid trajectories favor zigzag turns. In other words, the cells bias their crawling by making a turn in the opposite direction to a previous turn. This property enhances the long range directional persistence of the moving trajectories. This study proposes that such a zigzag crawling behavior can be a general property of any crawling cells by demonstrating that 1 microglia, which are the immune cells of the brain, and 2 a simple rule-based model cell, which incorporates the actual biochemistry and mechanics behind cell crawling, both exhibit similar type of crawling behavior. Almost all legged animals walk by alternating their feet. Similarly, all crawling cells appear to move forward by alternating the direction of their movement, even though the regularity and degree of zigzag preference vary from one type to the other.

  11. Infants' preference for native audiovisual speech dissociated from congruency preference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Shaw

    Full Text Available Although infant speech perception in often studied in isolated modalities, infants' experience with speech is largely multimodal (i.e., speech sounds they hear are accompanied by articulating faces. Across two experiments, we tested infants' sensitivity to the relationship between the auditory and visual components of audiovisual speech in their native (English and non-native (Spanish language. In Experiment 1, infants' looking times were measured during a preferential looking task in which they saw two simultaneous visual speech streams articulating a story, one in English and the other in Spanish, while they heard either the English or the Spanish version of the story. In Experiment 2, looking times from another group of infants were measured as they watched single displays of congruent and incongruent combinations of English and Spanish audio and visual speech streams. Findings demonstrated an age-related increase in looking towards the native relative to non-native visual speech stream when accompanied by the corresponding (native auditory speech. This increase in native language preference did not appear to be driven by a difference in preference for native vs. non-native audiovisual congruence as we observed no difference in looking times at the audiovisual streams in Experiment 2.

  12. Genome Sequence Databases (Overview): Sequencing and Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapidus, Alla L.

    2009-01-01

    From the date its role in heredity was discovered, DNA has been generating interest among scientists from different fields of knowledge: physicists have studied the three dimensional structure of the DNA molecule, biologists tried to decode the secrets of life hidden within these long molecules, and technologists invent and improve methods of DNA analysis. The analysis of the nucleotide sequence of DNA occupies a special place among the methods developed. Thanks to the variety of sequencing technologies available, the process of decoding the sequence of genomic DNA (or whole genome sequencing) has become robust and inexpensive. Meanwhile the assembly of whole genome sequences remains a challenging task. In addition to the need to assemble millions of DNA fragments of different length (from 35 bp (Solexa) to 800 bp (Sanger)), great interest in analysis of microbial communities (metagenomes) of different complexities raises new problems and pushes some new requirements for sequence assembly tools to the forefront. The genome assembly process can be divided into two steps: draft assembly and assembly improvement (finishing). Despite the fact that automatically performed assembly (or draft assembly) is capable of covering up to 98% of the genome, in most cases, it still contains incorrectly assembled reads. The error rate of the consensus sequence produced at this stage is about 1/2000 bp. A finished genome represents the genome assembly of much higher accuracy (with no gaps or incorrectly assembled areas) and quality ({approx}1 error/10,000 bp), validated through a number of computer and laboratory experiments.

  13. Diet-induced mating preference in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberg, Eugene; Zilber-Rosenberg, Ilana; Sharon, Gil; Segal, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Diet-induced mating preference was initially observed by Dodd (1). Subsequently, we reported that diet-induced mating preference occurred in Drosophila melanogaster. Treatment of the flies with antibiotics abolished the mating preference, suggesting that fly-associated commensal bacteria were responsible for the phenomenon (2). The hypothesis was confirmed when it was shown that colonizing antibiotic-treated flies with Lactobacillus plantarum reestablished mating preference in multiple-choice...

  14. Evolution of non-expected utility preferences

    CERN Document Server

    Widekind, Sven von; Fandel, G

    2008-01-01

    The theory on the evolution of preferences deals with the endogenous formation of preference relations in strategic situations. It is related to the field of evolutionary game theory. In this book we analyze the role and the influence of general, possibly non-expected utility preferences in such an evolutionary setup. In particular, we demonstrate that preferences which diverge from von Neumann-Morgenstern expected utility may potentially prove to be successful under evolutionary pressures.

  15. Understanding the Role of Intrinsic Disorder of Viral Proteins in the Oncogenicity of Different Types of HPV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamarozzi, Elvira Regina; Giuliatti, Silvana

    2018-01-09

    Intrinsic disorder is very important in the biological function of several proteins, and is directly linked to their foldability during interaction with their targets. There is a close relationship between the intrinsically disordered proteins and the process of carcinogenesis involving viral pathogens. Among these pathogens, we have highlighted the human papillomavirus (HPV) in this study. HPV is currently among the most common sexually transmitted infections, besides being the cause of several types of cancer. HPVs are divided into two groups, called high- and low-risk, based on their oncogenic potential. The high-risk HPV E6 protein has been the target of much research, in seeking treatments against HPV, due to its direct involvement in the process of cell cycle control. To understand the role of intrinsic disorder of the viral proteins in the oncogenic potential of different HPV types, the structural characteristics of intrinsically disordered regions of high and low-risk HPV E6 proteins were analyzed. In silico analyses of primary sequences, prediction of tertiary structures, and analyses of molecular dynamics allowed the observation of the behavior of such disordered regions in these proteins, thereby proving a direct relationship of structural variation with the degree of oncogenicity of HPVs. The results obtained may contribute to the development of new therapies, targeting the E6 oncoprotein, for the treatment of HPV-associated diseases.

  16. A radioisotope dilution assay for unlabelled vitamin B12-intrinsic factor complex employing the binding intrinsic factor antibody: probable evidence for two types of binding antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, E.; O'Brien, H.A.W.; Mollin, D.L.

    1977-01-01

    A new radioisotope dilution assay for vitamin B 12 -intrinsic factor complex is described. The method is based on the use of the binding type intrinsic antibody (the binding reagent), which when combined with the intrinsic factor-vitamin B 12 complex (labelled ligand), is quantitatively adsorbed onto zirconium phosphate gel pH 6.25. The new assay has been shown to provide a measure of intrinsic factor comparable with other intrinsic factor assays, but it has the important advantage of being able to measure the unlabelled vitamin B 12 -intrinsic factor complex (unlabelled ligand), and will, therefore, be valuable in the study of physiological events in the gastrointestinal tract. During the study, it was found that there is some evidence for at least two types of binding intrinsic factor antibody: One which combines preferentially with the intrinsic factor-vitamin B 12 complex and one which combines equally well with this complex or with free intrinsic factor. (author)

  17. INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION - AN INVESTIGATION OF PERFORMANCE CORRELATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrudan Maria-Madela

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A series of research untaken in the last decade have revealed some interesting aspects regarding the effects of different types of motivation on performance. Among the researchers who have shown interest in this field we can number: Richard Ryan, Edward Deci, Sam Glucksberg, Dan Ariely, Robert Eisenhower, Linda Shanock, analysts from London School of Economics, and others. Their findings suggest that extrinsic incentives may have a negative impact on overall performance, but a general agreement in this respect has not been reached. In this paper we intend to shed some light upon the relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and performance. Experts define intrinsic motivation as being the execution of a task or activity because of the inherent satisfaction arising from it rather than due to some separate outcome. In contrast with intrinsic motivation, we speak of extrinsic motivation whenever an activity is done in order to attain some separable outcome. With the purpose of contributing to the clarification of the links between concepts, we initiated and conducted an explanatory research. The research is based on the analysis of the relations between the results obtained by third year students and their predominant type of motivation. For this, we formulated and tested four work hypotheses using a combination of quantitative methods (investigation and qualitative methods (focus group. After the validation of the questionnaires, the respondents were divided into four categories: intrinsically motivated, extrinsically motivated, both intrinsically and extrinsically motivated and unmotivated. To analyze the collected data, we made use of Excel and SPSS. Some of the primary conclusions of the research are as follows: as the average increases, the percent of individuals having both extrinsic and intrinsic motivation is decreasing; the highest percentage of unmotivated students is concentrated in the highest average category; Female

  18. Quantifying intrinsic and extrinsic variability in stochastic gene expression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Abhyudai; Soltani, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Genetically identical cell populations exhibit considerable intercellular variation in the level of a given protein or mRNA. Both intrinsic and extrinsic sources of noise drive this variability in gene expression. More specifically, extrinsic noise is the expression variability that arises from cell-to-cell differences in cell-specific factors such as enzyme levels, cell size and cell cycle stage. In contrast, intrinsic noise is the expression variability that is not accounted for by extrinsic noise, and typically arises from the inherent stochastic nature of biochemical processes. Two-color reporter experiments are employed to decompose expression variability into its intrinsic and extrinsic noise components. Analytical formulas for intrinsic and extrinsic noise are derived for a class of stochastic gene expression models, where variations in cell-specific factors cause fluctuations in model parameters, in particular, transcription and/or translation rate fluctuations. Assuming mRNA production occurs in random bursts, transcription rate is represented by either the burst frequency (how often the bursts occur) or the burst size (number of mRNAs produced in each burst). Our analysis shows that fluctuations in the transcription burst frequency enhance extrinsic noise but do not affect the intrinsic noise. On the contrary, fluctuations in the transcription burst size or mRNA translation rate dramatically increase both intrinsic and extrinsic noise components. Interestingly, simultaneous fluctuations in transcription and translation rates arising from randomness in ATP abundance can decrease intrinsic noise measured in a two-color reporter assay. Finally, we discuss how these formulas can be combined with single-cell gene expression data from two-color reporter experiments for estimating model parameters.

  19. Intuitionistic preference modeling and interactive decision making

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Zeshui

    2014-01-01

    This book offers an in-depth and comprehensive introduction to the priority methods of intuitionistic preference relations, the consistency and consensus improving procedures for intuitionistic preference relations, the approaches to group decision making based on intuitionistic preference relations, the approaches and models for interactive decision making with intuitionistic fuzzy information, and the extended results in interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy environments.

  20. Time preferences, study effort, and academic performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Non, J.A.; Tempelaar, D.T.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the relation between time preferences, study effort, and academic performance among first-year Business and Economics students. Time preferences are measured by stated preferences for an immediate payment over larger delayed payments. Data on study efforts are derived from an electronic

  1. Learning Style Preferences of Southeast Asian Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Clara C.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated the perceptual learning style preferences (auditory, visual, kinesthetic, and tactile) and preferences for group and individual learning of Southeast Asian students compared to white students. Surveys indicated significant differences in learning style preferences between Southeast Asian and white students and between the diverse…

  2. Tempo Preferences of Different Age Music Listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Albert; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Measures the effect of four levels of tempo on the self-reported preferences of six different age-groups for traditional jazz music listening examples. Stated that listener age exerted a strong influence on overall preference scores. Reported an analysis of variance showing that there is a significant preference for increasingly faster tempo at…

  3. 13 CFR 120.925 - Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preferences. 120.925 Section 120.925 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Development Company... Preference. (See § 120.10 for a definition of Preference.) [61 FR 3235, Jan. 31, 1996, as amended at 68 FR...

  4. Extrinsic relative to intrinsic goal pursuits and peer dynamics: selection and influence processes among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duriez, Bart; Giletta, Matteo; Kuppens, Peter; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2013-10-01

    Self-Determination Theory discerns goals and values in terms of whether they are intrinsic or extrinsic in nature. Although research substantiates the importance of goal preferences for a host of outcomes, few studies examined how such preferences develop, and studies that did pay attention to this focused on parental influence processes. The present study focuses on the role of peers. Social network analyses on longitudinal data gathered among senior high-school students (N = 695) confirm that peer similarity in goal pursuit exists, and that, although this similarity partly originates from adolescents selecting friends on the basis of perceived goal pursuit similarity, it also results from peers actively influencing each other. Hence, friends tend to become more alike in terms of goal pursuit over time. Data also suggest that, although changes in goal pursuit at this age can be predicted from peer dynamics, they cannot be attributed to parental goal promotion efforts. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. An empirical study of tourist preferences using conjoint analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripathi, S.N.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism and hospitality have become key global economic activities as expectations with regard to our use of leisure time have evolved, attributing greater meaning to our free time. While the growth in tourism has been impressive, India's share in total global tourism arrivals and earnings is quite insignificant. It is an accepted fact that India has tremendous potential for development of tourism. This anomaly and the various underlying factors responsible for it are the focus of our study. The objective being determination of customer preferences for multi attribute hybrid services like tourism, so as to enable the state tourism board to deliver a desired combination of intrinsic attributes, helping it to create a sustainable competitive advantage, leading to greater customer satisfaction and positive word of mouth. Conjoint analysis has been used for this purpose, which estimates the structure of a consumer’s preferences, given his/her overall evaluations of a set of alternatives that are pre-specified in terms of levels of different attributes.

  6. Measuring higher order ambiguity preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillon, Aurélien; Schlesinger, Harris; van de Kuilen, Gijs

    2018-01-01

    We report the results from an experiment designed to measure attitudes towards ambiguity beyond ambiguity aversion. In particular, we implement recently-proposed model-free preference conditions of ambiguity prudence and ambiguity temperance. Ambiguity prudence has been shown to play an important role in precautionary behavior and the mere presence of ambiguity averse agents in markets. We observe that the majority of individuals' decisions are consistent with ambiguity aversion, ambiguity prudence and ambiguity temperance. This finding confirms the prediction of many popular (specifications of) ambiguity models and has important implications for models of prevention behavior.

  7. Preferences of cut flowers consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Kierczyńska

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of interviews suggest that majority of the cut flowers’ consumers has favourite kind of flower, among which most frequently pointed one was the rose. More than half of the interviewed favour the uniform colour of cut flowers and red colour was the most favourite one. The subtle smell of flowers was the most preferable one but the intensive fragrance was favoured for more consumers than odourless flowers. The data from selected florists’ confirm the information from interviews – in spite of the occasion, roses were the most demanded cut flowers.

  8. Long sequence correlation coprocessor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Douglas W.

    1994-09-01

    A long sequence correlation coprocessor (LSCC) accelerates the bitwise correlation of arbitrarily long digital sequences by calculating in parallel the correlation score for 16, for example, adjacent bit alignments between two binary sequences. The LSCC integrated circuit is incorporated into a computer system with memory storage buffers and a separate general purpose computer processor which serves as its controller. Each of the LSCC's set of sequential counters simultaneously tallies a separate correlation coefficient. During each LSCC clock cycle, computer enable logic associated with each counter compares one bit of a first sequence with one bit of a second sequence to increment the counter if the bits are the same. A shift register assures that the same bit of the first sequence is simultaneously compared to different bits of the second sequence to simultaneously calculate the correlation coefficient by the different counters to represent different alignments of the two sequences.

  9. Roles of repetitive sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, G.I.

    1991-12-31

    The DNA of higher eukaryotes contains many repetitive sequences. The study of repetitive sequences is important, not only because many have important biological function, but also because they provide information on genome organization, evolution and dynamics. In this paper, I will first discuss some generic effects that repetitive sequences will have upon genome dynamics and evolution. In particular, it will be shown that repetitive sequences foster recombination among, and turnover of, the elements of a genome. I will then consider some examples of repetitive sequences, notably minisatellite sequences and telomere sequences as examples of tandem repeats, without and with respectively known function, and Alu sequences as an example of interspersed repeats. Some other examples will also be considered in less detail.

  10. Anomaly Detection in Sequences

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We present a set of novel algorithms which we call sequenceMiner, that detect and characterize anomalies in large sets of high-dimensional symbol sequences that...

  11. DNA sequencing conference, 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook-Deegan, R.M. [Georgetown Univ., Kennedy Inst. of Ethics, Washington, DC (United States); Venter, J.C. [National Inst. of Neurological Disorders and Strokes, Bethesda, MD (United States); Gilbert, W. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Mulligan, J. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Mansfield, B.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1991-06-19

    This conference focused on DNA sequencing, genetic linkage mapping, physical mapping, informatics and bioethics. Several were used to study this sequencing and mapping. This article also discusses computer hardware and software aiding in the mapping of genes.

  12. sequenceMiner algorithm

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Detecting and describing anomalies in large repositories of discrete symbol sequences. sequenceMiner has been open-sourced! Download the file below to try it out....

  13. Color preference in red–green dichromats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvaro, Leticia; Moreira, Humberto; Lillo, Julio; Franklin, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Around 2% of males have red–green dichromacy, which is a genetic disorder of color vision where one type of cone photoreceptor is missing. Here we investigate the color preferences of dichromats. We aim (i) to establish whether the systematic and reliable color preferences of normal trichromatic observers (e.g., preference maximum at blue, minimum at yellow-green) are affected by dichromacy and (ii) to test theories of color preference with a dichromatic sample. Dichromat and normal trichromat observers named and rated how much they liked saturated, light, dark, and focal colors twice. Trichromats had the expected pattern of preference. Dichromats had a reliable pattern of preference that was different to trichromats, with a preference maximum rather than minimum at yellow and a much weaker preference for blue than trichromats. Color preference was more affected in observers who lacked the cone type sensitive to long wavelengths (protanopes) than in those who lacked the cone type sensitive to medium wavelengths (deuteranopes). Trichromats’ preferences were summarized effectively in terms of cone-contrast between color and background, and yellow-blue cone-contrast could account for dichromats’ pattern of preference, with some evidence for residual red–green activity in deuteranopes’ preference. Dichromats’ color naming also could account for their color preferences, with colors named more accurately and quickly being more preferred. This relationship between color naming and preference also was present for trichromat males but not females. Overall, the findings provide novel evidence on how dichromats experience color, advance the understanding of why humans like some colors more than others, and have implications for general theories of aesthetics. PMID:26170287

  14. It's about time: Earlier rewards increase intrinsic motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Kaitlin; Fishbach, Ayelet

    2018-06-01

    Can immediate (vs. delayed) rewards increase intrinsic motivation? Prior research compared the presence versus absence of rewards. By contrast, this research compared immediate versus delayed rewards, predicting that more immediate rewards increase intrinsic motivation by creating a perceptual fusion between the activity and its goal (i.e., the reward). In support of the hypothesis, framing a reward from watching a news program as more immediate (vs. delayed) increased intrinsic motivation to watch the program (Study 1), and receiving more immediate bonus (vs. delayed, Study 2; and vs. delayed and no bonus, Study 3) increased intrinsic motivation in an experimental task. The effect of reward timing was mediated by the strength of the association between an activity and a reward, and was specific to intrinsic (vs. extrinsic) motivation-immediacy influenced the positive experience of an activity, but not perceived outcome importance (Study 4). In addition, the effect of the timing of rewards was independent of the effect of the magnitude of the rewards (Study 5). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. [EXTRINSIC AND INTRINSIC FACTORS FOR FALLS THAT CAUSED HIP FRACTURE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsur, Atzmon; Shakeer, Nael; Segal, Zvi; Itah, Dorit; Eluz, Dana

    2017-05-01

    Among the reasons described as possibly causing falls in older and elderly people are extrinsic factors such as bumping into objects, slipping on a wet floor, etc., and intrinsic factors - those that occur suddenly without warning. To investigate the connection between the reasons for falls, extrinsic or intrinsic and different medical and nonmedical factors. The survey included 82 people, 53 women and 29 men, who fell and broke their hip, underwent surgery, and were treated at the Rehabilitation Department. Data showed that 39 people fell due to extrinsic factors and 43 due to intrinsic reasons. We examined the correlation with several factors, both medical and non-medical, that may have influenced the scenario of each group. Falls due to extrinsic reasons took place at all hours of the day and night, mainly in people who were alone and who wore shoes or sandals at the time of the fall and who either suffered from slight or no disturbances in attention and concentration. Falls due to intrinsic reasons occurred mainly during rest or sleep hours, in people who walked barefoot or with socks or slippers and who suffered moderate or severe disturbances in attention and concentration. Although the differences in the extrinsic vs. intrinsic reasons for falls that led to broken hips were fairly clear, it would be difficult to recommend new tools for prevention of this phenomenon. Trying to predict an infrequent future event such as a traumatic fall is inherently difficult.

  16. Physics of Intrinsic Rotation in Flux-Driven ITG Turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku, S.; Abiteboul, J.; Dimond, P.H.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Kwon, J.M.; Sarazin, Y.; Hahm, T.S.; Garbet, X.; Chang, C.S.; Latu, G.; Yoon, E.S.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Yi, S.; Strugarek, A.; Solomon, W.; Grandgirard, V.

    2012-01-01

    Global, heat flux-driven ITG gyrokinetic simulations which manifest the formation of macroscopic, mean toroidal flow profiles with peak thermal Mach number 0.05, are reported. Both a particle-in-cell (XGC1p) and a semi-Lagrangian (GYSELA) approach are utilized without a priori assumptions of scale-separation between turbulence and mean fields. Flux-driven ITG simulations with different edge flow boundary conditions show in both approaches the development of net unidirectional intrinsic rotation in the co-current direction. Intrinsic torque is shown to scale approximately linearly with the inverse scale length of the ion temperature gradient. External momentum input is shown to effectively cancel the intrinsic rotation profile, thus confirming the existence of a local residual stress and intrinsic torque. Fluctuation intensity, intrinsic torque and mean flow are demonstrated to develop inwards from the boundary. The measured correlations between residual stress and two fluctuation spectrum symmetry breakers, namely E x B shear and intensity gradient, are similar. Avalanches of (positive) heat flux, which propagate either outwards or inwards, are correlated with avalanches of (negative) parallel momentum flux, so that outward transport of heat and inward transport of parallel momentum are correlated and mediated by avalanches. The probability distribution functions of the outward heat flux and the inward momentum flux show strong structural similarity

  17. Cosmological information in the intrinsic alignments of luminous red galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chisari, Nora Elisa [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Dvorkin, Cora, E-mail: nchisari@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: cdvorkin@ias.edu [Institute for Advanced Study, School of Natural Sciences, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The intrinsic alignments of galaxies are usually regarded as a contaminant to weak gravitational lensing observables. The alignment of Luminous Red Galaxies, detected unambiguously in observations from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, can be reproduced by the linear tidal alignment model of Catelan, Kamionkowski and Blandford (2001) on large scales. In this work, we explore the cosmological information encoded in the intrinsic alignments of red galaxies. We make forecasts for the ability of current and future spectroscopic surveys to constrain local primordial non-Gaussianity and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) in the cross-correlation function of intrinsic alignments and the galaxy density field. For the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey, we find that the BAO signal in the intrinsic alignments is marginally significant with a signal-to-noise ratio of 1.8 and 2.2 with the current LOWZ and CMASS samples of galaxies, respectively, and increasing to 2.3 and 2.7 once the survey is completed. For the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument and for a spectroscopic survey following the EUCLID redshift selection function, we find signal-to-noise ratios of 12 and 15, respectively. Local type primordial non-Gaussianity, parametrized by f{sub NL} = 10, is only marginally significant in the intrinsic alignments signal with signal-to-noise ratios < 2 for the three surveys considered.

  18. The effect of homework choices on achievement and intrinsic motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Emily Fast

    The purpose of this research was to test an intervention of choices in homework on the achievement and intrinsic motivation of seventh-grade science students at a middle school. The intervention was based on concepts from the cognitive evaluation theory of Edward L. Deci and Richard M. Ryan (1985). The subjects were sixteen heterogeneous classes of seventh-grade students, who were divided among four teachers. Two randomly chosen classes from each teacher received choices in their homework and the remaining two classes of each teacher received similar homework assignments without choices. Two hypotheses were developed for this study: (1) Seventh-grade science students given choices in their homework would show an increase in intrinsic motivation as measured on a motivation orientation measure, compared to students not given choices in their homework, and (2) Seventh-grade science students given choices in their homework would show an increase in achievement on an achievement measure, compared to students not given choices in their homework. Having choices in homework did not increase intrinsic motivation or achievement. However, students who did their homework did significantly better on the posttest, and students who were more intrinsically motivated did significantly better on the posttest. Just doing the homework was important for achievement, and intrinsic motivation was linked to achievement.

  19. Intrinsic periodic and aperiodic stochastic resonance in an electrochemical cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Ishant; Phogat, Richa; Parmananda, P.; Ocampo-Espindola, J. L.; Rivera, M.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we show the interaction of a composite of a periodic or aperiodic signal and intrinsic electrochemical noise with the nonlinear dynamics of an electrochemical cell configured to study the corrosion of iron in an acidic media. The anodic voltage setpoint (V0) in the cell is chosen such that the anodic current (I ) exhibits excitable fixed point behavior in the absence of noise. The subthreshold periodic (aperiodic) signal consists of a train of rectangular pulses with a fixed amplitude and width, separated by regular (irregular) time intervals. The irregular time intervals chosen are of deterministic and stochastic origins. The amplitude of the intrinsic internal noise, regulated by the concentration of chloride ions, is then monotonically increased, and the provoked dynamics are analyzed. The signal to noise ratio and the cross-correlation coefficient versus the chloride ions' concentration curves have a unimodal shape indicating the emergence of an intrinsic periodic or aperiodic stochastic resonance. The abscissa for the maxima of these unimodal curves correspond to the optimum value of intrinsic noise where maximum regularity of the invoked dynamics is observed. In the particular case of the intrinsic periodic stochastic resonance, the scanning electron microscope images for the electrode metal surfaces are shown for certain values of chloride ions' concentrations. These images, qualitatively, corroborate the emergence of order as a result of the interaction between the nonlinear dynamics and the composite signal.

  20. David Ross, Ideal Utilitarianism, and the Intrinsic Value of Acts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Orsi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The denial of the intrinsic value of acts apart from both motives and consequences lies at the heart of Ross’s deontology and his opposition to ideal utilitarianism. Moreover, the claim that acts can have intrinsic value is a staple element of early and contemporary attempts to “consequentialise” all of morality. I first show why Ross’s denial is relevant both for his philosophy and for current debates. Then I consider and reject as inconclusive some of Ross’s explicit and implicit motivations for his claim, stemming from his philosophy of action, his axiology, and his concept of intrinsic value, or a combination of these. I also criticize Ross’s later view that all right acts somehow produce some good, but that the value of some of these goods is explained by the prior rightness of the act. In the course of the discussion, the idea that acts can have intrinsic value apart from motives and consequences gains credibility both from the weaknesses in Ross’s arguments and from some putative examples. So, finally, I distinguish two attitudes in the history of ideal utilitarianism towards the necessity or not to give a detailed account of the intrinsic value of acts, and suggest that a Why Bother attitude is more promising than a Constructive one.

  1. Intrinsic motivation and amotivation in first episode and prolonged psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Lauren; Lysaker, Paul H; Firmin, Ruth L; Breier, Alan; Vohs, Jenifer L

    2015-12-01

    The deleterious functional implications of motivation deficits in psychosis have generated interest in examining dimensions of the construct. However, there remains a paucity of data regarding whether dimensions of motivation differ over the course of psychosis. Therefore, this study examined two motivation dimensions, trait-like intrinsic motivation, and the negative symptom of amotivation, and tested the impact of illness phase on the 1) levels of these dimensions and 2) relationship between these dimensions. Participants with first episode psychosis (FEP; n=40) and prolonged psychosis (n=66) completed clinician-rated measures of intrinsic motivation and amotivation. Analyses revealed that when controlling for group differences in gender and education, the FEP group had significantly more intrinsic motivation and lower amotivation than the prolonged psychosis group. Moreover, intrinsic motivation was negatively correlated with amotivation in both FEP and prolonged psychosis, but the magnitude of the relationship did not statistically differ between groups. These findings suggest that motivation deficits are more severe later in the course of psychosis and that low intrinsic motivation may be partially independent of amotivation in both first episode and prolonged psychosis. Clinically, these results highlight the importance of targeting motivation in early intervention services. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Informationally administered reward enhances intrinsic motivation in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeon-Seung; Jang, Seon-Kyeong; Lee, Ga-Young; Park, Seon-Cheol; Medalia, Alice; Choi, Kee-Hong

    2017-10-01

    Even when individuals with schizophrenia have an intact ability to enjoy rewarding moments, the means to assist them to translate rewarding experiences into goal-directed behaviors is unclear. The present study sought to determine whether informationally administered rewards enhance intrinsic motivation to foster goal-directed behaviors in individuals with schizophrenia (SZ) and healthy controls (HCs). Eighty-four participants (SZ=43, HCs=41) were randomly assigned to conditions involving either a performance-contingent reward with an informationally administered reward or a task-contingent reward with no feedback. Participants were asked to play two cognitive games of equalized difficulty. Accuracy, self-reported intrinsic motivation, free-choice intrinsic motivation (i.e., game play during a free-choice observation period), and perceived competency were measured. Intrinsic motivation and perceived competency in the cognitive games were similar between the two participant groups. The informationally administered reward significantly enhanced self-reported intrinsic motivation and perceived competency in both the groups. The likelihood that individuals with schizophrenia would play the game during the free-choice observation period was four times greater in the informationally administered reward condition than that in the no-feedback condition. Our findings suggest that, in the context of cognitive remediation, individuals with schizophrenia would benefit from informationally administered rewards. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Photovoltaic device comprising compositionally graded intrinsic photoactive layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffbauer, Mark A; Williamson, Todd L

    2013-04-30

    Photovoltaic devices and methods of making photovoltaic devices comprising at least one compositionally graded photoactive layer, said method comprising providing a substrate; growing onto the substrate a uniform intrinsic photoactive layer having one surface disposed upon the substrate and an opposing second surface, said intrinsic photoactive layer consisting essentially of In.sub.1-xA.sub.xN,; wherein: i. 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1; ii. A is gallium, aluminum, or combinations thereof; and iii. x is at least 0 on one surface of the intrinsic photoactive layer and is compositionally graded throughout the layer to reach a value of 1 or less on the opposing second surface of the layer; wherein said intrinsic photoactive layer is isothermally grown by means of energetic neutral atom beam lithography and epitaxy at a temperature of 600.degree. C. or less using neutral nitrogen atoms having a kinetic energy of from about 1.0 eV to about 5.0 eV, and wherein the intrinsic photoactive layer is grown at a rate of from about 5 nm/min to about 100 nm/min.

  4. Semisupervised Support Vector Machines With Tangent Space Intrinsic Manifold Regularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shiliang; Xie, Xijiong

    2016-09-01

    Semisupervised learning has been an active research topic in machine learning and data mining. One main reason is that labeling examples is expensive and time-consuming, while there are large numbers of unlabeled examples available in many practical problems. So far, Laplacian regularization has been widely used in semisupervised learning. In this paper, we propose a new regularization method called tangent space intrinsic manifold regularization. It is intrinsic to data manifold and favors linear functions on the manifold. Fundamental elements involved in the formulation of the regularization are local tangent space representations, which are estimated by local principal component analysis, and the connections that relate adjacent tangent spaces. Simultaneously, we explore its application to semisupervised classification and propose two new learning algorithms called tangent space intrinsic manifold regularized support vector machines (TiSVMs) and tangent space intrinsic manifold regularized twin SVMs (TiTSVMs). They effectively integrate the tangent space intrinsic manifold regularization consideration. The optimization of TiSVMs can be solved by a standard quadratic programming, while the optimization of TiTSVMs can be solved by a pair of standard quadratic programmings. The experimental results of semisupervised classification problems show the effectiveness of the proposed semisupervised learning algorithms.

  5. Intrinsic thermodynamics of inhibitor binding to human carbonic anhydrase IX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkuvienė, Vaida; Matulienė, Jurgita; Juozapaitienė, Vaida; Michailovienė, Vilma; Jachno, Jelena; Matulis, Daumantas

    2016-04-01

    Human carbonic anhydrase 9th isoform (CA IX) is an important marker of numerous cancers and is increasingly interesting as a potential anticancer drug target. Various synthetic aromatic sulfonamide-bearing compounds are being designed as potent inhibitors of CA IX. However, sulfonamide compound binding to CA IX is linked to several reactions, the deprotonation of the sulfonamide amino group and the protonation of the CA active site Zn(II)-bound hydroxide. These linked reactions significantly affect the affinities and other thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpies and entropies of binding. The observed and intrinsic affinities of compound binding to CA IX were determined by the fluorescent thermal shift assay. The enthalpies and entropies of binding were determined by the isothermal titration calorimetry. The pKa of CA IX was determined to be 6.8 and the enthalpy of CA IX-Zn(II)-bound hydroxide protonation was -24 kJ/mol. These values enabled the analysis of intrinsic thermodynamics of a library of compounds binding to CA IX. The most strongly binding compounds exhibited the intrinsic affinity of 0.01 nM and the observed affinity of 2 nM. The intrinsic thermodynamic parameters of compound binding to CA IX helped to draw the compound structure to thermodynamics relationship. It is important to distinguish the intrinsic from observed parameters of any disease target protein interaction with its inhibitors as drug candidates when drawing detailed compound structure to thermodynamics correlations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Stevia preferences in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez Martínez, Paula; Argüelles Luis, Juan; Perillán Méndez, Carmen

    2016-11-01

    The Stevia rebaudiana plant is likely to become a major source of high-potency sweetener for the growing natural-food market. S. rebaudiana is the source of a number of sweet diterpenoid glycosides, but the major sweet constituents are rebaudioside A and stevioside. These two constituents have similar pharmacokinetic and metabolic profiles in rats and humans, and thus, studies carried out with either steviol glycoside are relevant to both. Other studies illustrate the diversity of voluntary sweet intake in mammals. This study was done using a series of two-bottle tests that compared a wide range of sweetener concentrations versus saccharin concentrations and versus water. Wistar rats displayed preferences for stevia extract and pure rebaudioside A solutions over water at a range of concentrations (0.001% to 0.3%), and their intake peak occurred at 0.1% concentration. They also preferred solutions prepared with a commercial rebaudioside A plus erythritol mixture to water, and their peak was at 2% concentration. The present study provides new information about the responses of Wistar rats to stevia compounds and commercial stevia products such as Truvia. These results could help with the appropriate dosage selection for focused behavioral and physiological studies on stevia.

  7. Preferences for distributional impacts of climate policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Lea Skræp; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    for such preferences is lacking. We design a discrete choice experiment that varies how climate policies affect the income of people living in the future in three geographical regions. The experiment is implemented on a representative sample of the Danish population and preferences are modelled in a latent class model...... expresses some form of distributional preferences, but shows positive preferences for costs, suggesting that responses could be influenced by strategic behaviour and over-signalling of commitment. Our results provide support for the inclusion of social preferences regarding distributional effects of climate...

  8. Teacher's motivational style and students' intrinsic motivation: the self-determination perspective / O estilo motivacional do professor e a motivação intrínseca dos estudantes: uma perspectiva da Teoria da Autodeterminação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Édi Rufini Guimarães

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Self-determination Theory has the purpose of understanding the intrinsic and extrinsic components of motivation, and the factors that contribute for its promotion. In this perspective personality and human motivation are considered in terms of developmental tendencies, innate psychological needs and contextual variables which favour motivation, social functioning and personal well-being. In the context of educational research, intrinsic motivation has been characterized by students' involvement in learning tasks due to their preference for challenges, persistence, effort, as well as by their use of learning strategies. In line with that, the objectives of this paper are not only present and analyze the concepts related to intrinsic motivation according to the Self-determination Theory, but also reflect upon the teacher's role and style in the promotion of students' intrinsic motivation. Educational implications are also discussed.

  9. Sequence Classification: 889222 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available protein required for chromosome condensation, likely to function as an intrinsic component of the condensation machinery, may influe...nce multiple aspects of chromosome transmission and dynamics; Brn1p || http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/41629672 ...

  10. Tobacco brand preference among Mexican adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Joshua H; Hall, P Cougar; Page, Randy M; Trinidad, Dennis R; Lindsay, Gordon B

    2012-01-01

    Advertising plays a major role in smoking behavior and forming brand preferences. Additionally, the most advertised tobacco brands have also been the most preferred. Maintaining brand loyalty in Latin America remains a priority for the tobacco industry. The purpose of this study was to explore tobacco brand preference trends from 2003 to 2006, and explore marketing and advertising factors that might be associated with these trends. Data for this study came from Mexican adolescents residing in cities that participated in the Global Youth Tobacco Survey in both 2003 and 2006 and reported smoking either Marlboro or Camel cigarettes in the past 30 days. Respondents reported the brand name of their preferred cigarette during the past 30 days. Multivariate regression analysis was used to determine differences by brand preference and exposure to tobacco marketing and advertising, which was assessed using six items. In 2003, most adolescents preferred Marlboro. By 2006, older boys preferred Camel cigarettes to Marlboro, while girls' preference for Camel was similar to their preference for Marlboro. Adolescents that preferred Camel cigarettes in 2003 also reported greater exposure to tobacco marketing and advertising. Findings indicate that there are ongoing shifts in youth brand preference in Mexico, and that these shifts might be related to marketing and advertising practices. There is an ongoing need for monitoring marketing and advertising practices in an effort to protect adolescents from tobacco company exploits.

  11. Bilingual children's social preferences hinge on accent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJesus, Jasmine M; Hwang, Hyesung G; Dautel, Jocelyn B; Kinzler, Katherine D

    2017-12-01

    Past research finds that monolingual and bilingual children prefer native speakers to individuals who speak in unfamiliar foreign languages or accents. Do children in bilingual contexts socially distinguish among familiar languages and accents and, if so, how do their social preferences based on language and accent compare? The current experiments tested whether 5- to 7-year-olds in two bilingual contexts in the United States demonstrate social preferences among the languages and accents that are present in their social environments. We compared children's preferences based on language (i.e., English vs. their other native language) and their preferences based on accent (i.e., English with a native accent vs. English with a non-native [yet familiar] accent). In Experiment 1, children attending a French immersion school demonstrated no preference between English and French speakers but preferred American-accented English to French-accented English. In Experiment 2, bilingual Korean American children demonstrated no preference between English and Korean speakers but preferred American-accented English to Korean-accented English. Across studies, bilingual children's preferences based on accent (i.e., American-accented English over French- or Korean-accented English) were not related to their own language dominance. These results suggest that children from diverse linguistic backgrounds demonstrate social preferences for native-accented speakers. Implications for understanding the potential relation between social reasoning and language acquisition are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Hybridization and sequencing of nucleic acids using base pair mismatches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, Stephen P. A.; Lipshutz, Robert J.; Huang, Xiaohua

    2001-01-01

    Devices and techniques for hybridization of nucleic acids and for determining the sequence of nucleic acids. Arrays of nucleic acids are formed by techniques, preferably high resolution, light-directed techniques. Positions of hybridization of a target nucleic acid are determined by, e.g., epifluorescence microscopy. Devices and techniques are proposed to determine the sequence of a target nucleic acid more efficiently and more quickly through such synthesis and detection techniques.

  13. Game theory, conditional preferences, and social influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirling, Wynn C; Felin, Teppo

    2013-01-01

    Neoclassical noncooperative game theory is based on a simple, yet powerful synthesis of mathematical and logical concepts: unconditional and immutable preference orderings and individual rationality. Although this structure has proven useful for characterizing competitive multi-player behavior, its applicability to scenarios involving complex social relationships is problematic. In this paper we directly address this limitation by the introduction of a conditional preference structure that permits players to modulate their preference orderings as functions of the preferences of other players. Embedding this expanded preference structure in a formal and graphical framework provides a systematic approach for characterizing a complex society. The result is an influence network that allows conditional preferences to propagate through the community, resulting in an emergent social model which characterizes all of the social relationships that exist and which leads to solution concepts that account for both group and individual interests. The Ultimatum game is presented as an example of how social influence can be modeled with conditional preferences.

  14. Spatial preference heterogeneity in forest recreation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildtrup, Jens; Garcia, Serge; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we analyze the preferences for recreational use of forests in Lorraine (Northeastern France), applying stated preference data. Our approach allows us to estimate individual-specific preferences for recreational use of different forest types. These estimates are used in a second stage...... in the estimation of welfare economic values for parking and picnic facilities in the analyzed model. The results underline the importance of considering spatial heterogeneity of preferences carrying out economic valuation of spatial-delineated environmental goods and that the spatial variation in willingness...... of the analysis where we test whether preferences depend on access to recreation sites. We find that there is significant preference heterogeneity with respect to most forest attributes. The spatial analysis shows that preferences for forests with parking and picnic facilities are correlated with having access...

  15. Getting the Policies Right: The Prioritization and Sequencing of Policies in Post-Conflict Countries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Timilsina, Anga R

    2007-01-01

    ... (Cambodia, Mozambique, and Haiti) and expert opinions of 30 academicians and practitioners, this study identifies major reconstruction policies, outlines the preferred way to prioritize and sequence them, and develops a framework...

  16. Chimpanzees and bonobos differ in intrinsic motivation for tool use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koops, Kathelijne; Furuichi, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Chie

    2015-06-16

    Tool use in nonhuman apes can help identify the conditions that drove the extraordinary expansion of hominin technology. Chimpanzees and bonobos are our closest living relatives. Whereas chimpanzees are renowned for their tool use, bonobos use few tools and none in foraging. We investigated whether extrinsic (ecological and social opportunities) or intrinsic (predispositions) differences explain this contrast by comparing chimpanzees at Kalinzu (Uganda) and bonobos at Wamba (DRC). We assessed ecological opportunities based on availability of resources requiring tool use. We examined potential opportunities for social learning in immature apes. Lastly, we investigated predispositions by measuring object manipulation and object play. Extrinsic opportunities did not explain the tool use difference, whereas intrinsic predispositions did. Chimpanzees manipulated and played more with objects than bonobos, despite similar levels of solitary and social play. Selection for increased intrinsic motivation to manipulate objects likely also played an important role in the evolution of hominin tool use.

  17. Social categories as markers of intrinsic interpersonal obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Marjorie; Chalik, Lisa

    2013-06-01

    Social categorization is an early-developing feature of human social cognition, yet the role that social categories play in children's understanding of and predictions about human behavior has been unclear. In the studies reported here, we tested whether a foundational functional role of social categories is to mark people as intrinsically obligated to one another (e.g., obligated to protect rather than harm). In three studies, children (aged 3-9, N = 124) viewed only within-category harm as violating intrinsic obligations; in contrast, they viewed between-category harm as violating extrinsic obligations defined by explicit rules. These data indicate that children view social categories as marking patterns of intrinsic interpersonal obligations, suggesting that a key function of social categories is to support inferences about how people will relate to members of their own and other groups.

  18. Intrinsic and extrinsic spin Hall effects of Dirac electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukazawa, Takaaki; Kohno, Hiroshi; Fujimoto, Junji

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the spin Hall effect (SHE) of electrons described by the Dirac equation, which is used as an effective model near the L-points in bismuth. By considering short-range nonmagnetic impurities, we calculate the extrinsic as well as intrinsic contributions on an equal footing. The vertex corrections are taken into account within the ladder type and the so-called skew-scattering type. The intrinsic SHE which we obtain is consistent with that of Fuseya et al. It is found that the extrinsic contribution dominates the intrinsic one when the system is metallic. The extrinsic SHE due to the skew scattering is proportional to Δ/n i u, where 2Δ is the band gap, n i is the impurity concentration, and u is the strength of the impurity potential. (author)

  19. Fluxons in long and annular intrinsic Josephson junction stacks

    CERN Document Server

    Clauss, T; Moessle, M; Müller, A; Weber, A; Kölle, D; Kleiner, R

    2002-01-01

    A promising approach towards a THz oscillator based on intrinsic Josephson junctions in high-temperature superconductors is based on the collective motion of Josephson fluxons, which are predicted to form various configurations ranging from a triangular to a quadratic lattice. Not only for this reason, but certainly also for the sake of basic physics, several experimental and theoretical investigations have been done on the subject of collective fluxon dynamics in stacked intrinsic Josephson junctions. In this paper we will present some experimental results on the fluxon dynamics of long intrinsic Josephson junction stacks made of Bi sub 2 Sr sub 2 CaCu sub 2 O sub 8. The stacks were formed either in an open or in an annular geometry, and clear resonant fluxon modes were observed. Experiments discussed include measurements of current-voltage characteristics in external magnetic fields and in external microwave fields.

  20. Intrinsic space charge resonances and the space charge limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parzen, G.

    1990-01-01

    A study has been done of the dependence of the space charge limit on the choice of ν-values using a simulation program. This study finds a strong dependence of the space charge limit on the location of the ν-values relative to the intrinsic space charge resonances, which are driven by the space charge forces due to the beam itself. Four accelerators were studied. For some of these accelerators the study suggest that the space charge limit can be increased by about a factor of 2 proper choice of the ν-values. The lower order 1/2 and 1/4 intrinsic resonances appear to be the important resonances. There is some evidence for effects due to the 1/6 and 1/8 intrinsic resonances, particularly for larger synchrotrons. 5 figs

  1. The relation of mothers' controlling vocalizations to children's intrinsic motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deci, E L; Driver, R E; Hotchkiss, L; Robbins, R J; Wilson, I M

    1993-04-01

    Twenty-six mother-child dyads played together in a laboratory setting. Play sessions were surreptitiously videotaped (with mothers' permission), and each maternal vocalization was transcribed and coded, first into 1 of 24 categories and then ipso facto into one of three supercategories--namely, controlling, autonomy supportive, and neutral. The degree of mothers' controllingness was calculated as the percentage of vocalizations coded as controlling. This index was correlated with the intrinsic motivation of their 6- or 7-year-old children, as assessed primarily by the free-choice behavioral measure and secondarily by a child self-report measure of interest and liking for the task. Both correlations were significantly negative, thereby suggesting that the robust laboratory findings of a negative relation between controlling contexts and individuals' intrinsic motivation are directly generalizable to the domain of parenting. Results are discussed in terms of the processes that undermine intrinsic motivation and the means through which parental controllingness is communicated.

  2. Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation at 30: Unresolved scientific issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Steven

    2005-01-01

    The undermining effect of extrinsic reward on intrinsic motivation remains unproven. The key unresolved issues are construct invalidity (all four definitions are unproved and two are illogical); measurement unreliability (the free-choice measure requires unreliable, subjective judgments to infer intrinsic motivation); inadequate experimental controls (negative affect and novelty, not cognitive evaluation, may explain "undermining" effects); and biased metareviews (studies with possible floor effects excluded, but those with possible ceiling effects included). Perhaps the greatest error with the undermining theory, however, is that it does not adequately recognize the multifaceted nature of intrinsic motivation (Reiss, 2004a). Advice to limit the use of applied behavior analysis based on "hidden" undermining effects is ideologically inspired and is unsupported by credible scientific evidence.

  3. Kinematical tests for the intrinsic shapes of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capaccioli, M.; Fasano, G.

    1984-01-01

    Determining the intrinsic shape of elliptical galaxies has been an illusive enterprise, but one fundamental to the understanding of their internal dynamics and formation. Here the problem is approached dynamically; noting that the velocity dispersion is largest when sighted down the longest axis, the correlations are derived of velocity dispersion with observed eccentricity expected, after the known trend of velocity dispersion with luminosity is removed. Using a compilation of published data, the relation between luminosity and velocity dispersion is determined more accurately. The residuals are examined as a function of axis ratio in order to construct a test for the intrinsic shape of galaxies. The effects of projection are modelled and possible intrinsic variations are examined. (author)

  4. Musical Preferences are Linked to Cognitive Styles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Greenberg

    Full Text Available Why do we like the music we do? Research has shown that musical preferences and personality are linked, yet little is known about other influences on preferences such as cognitive styles. To address this gap, we investigated how individual differences in musical preferences are explained by the empathizing-systemizing (E-S theory. Study 1 examined the links between empathy and musical preferences across four samples. By reporting their preferential reactions to musical stimuli, samples 1 and 2 (Ns = 2,178 and 891 indicated their preferences for music from 26 different genres, and samples 3 and 4 (Ns = 747 and 320 indicated their preferences for music from only a single genre (rock or jazz. Results across samples showed that empathy levels are linked to preferences even within genres and account for significant proportions of variance in preferences over and above personality traits for various music-preference dimensions. Study 2 (N = 353 replicated and extended these findings by investigating how musical preferences are differentiated by E-S cognitive styles (i.e., 'brain types'. Those who are type E (bias towards empathizing preferred music on the Mellow dimension (R&B/soul, adult contemporary, soft rock genres compared to type S (bias towards systemizing who preferred music on the Intense dimension (punk, heavy metal, and hard rock. Analyses of fine-grained psychological and sonic attributes in the music revealed that type E individuals preferred music that featured low arousal (gentle, warm, and sensual attributes, negative valence (depressing and sad, and emotional depth (poetic, relaxing, and thoughtful, while type S preferred music that featured high arousal (strong, tense, and thrilling, and aspects of positive valence (animated and cerebral depth (complexity. The application of these findings for clinicians, interventions, and those on the autism spectrum (largely type S or extreme type S are discussed.

  5. Musical Preferences are Linked to Cognitive Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, David M.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Stillwell, David J.; Kosinski, Michal; Rentfrow, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Why do we like the music we do? Research has shown that musical preferences and personality are linked, yet little is known about other influences on preferences such as cognitive styles. To address this gap, we investigated how individual differences in musical preferences are explained by the empathizing-systemizing (E-S) theory. Study 1 examined the links between empathy and musical preferences across four samples. By reporting their preferential reactions to musical stimuli, samples 1 and 2 (Ns = 2,178 and 891) indicated their preferences for music from 26 different genres, and samples 3 and 4 (Ns = 747 and 320) indicated their preferences for music from only a single genre (rock or jazz). Results across samples showed that empathy levels are linked to preferences even within genres and account for significant proportions of variance in preferences over and above personality traits for various music-preference dimensions. Study 2 (N = 353) replicated and extended these findings by investigating how musical preferences are differentiated by E-S cognitive styles (i.e., ‘brain types’). Those who are type E (bias towards empathizing) preferred music on the Mellow dimension (R&B/soul, adult contemporary, soft rock genres) compared to type S (bias towards systemizing) who preferred music on the Intense dimension (punk, heavy metal, and hard rock). Analyses of fine-grained psychological and sonic attributes in the music revealed that type E individuals preferred music that featured low arousal (gentle, warm, and sensual attributes), negative valence (depressing and sad), and emotional depth (poetic, relaxing, and thoughtful), while type S preferred music that featured high arousal (strong, tense, and thrilling), and aspects of positive valence (animated) and cerebral depth (complexity). The application of these findings for clinicians, interventions, and those on the autism spectrum (largely type S or extreme type S) are discussed. PMID:26200656

  6. Musical Preferences are Linked to Cognitive Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, David M; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Stillwell, David J; Kosinski, Michal; Rentfrow, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Why do we like the music we do? Research has shown that musical preferences and personality are linked, yet little is known about other influences on preferences such as cognitive styles. To address this gap, we investigated how individual differences in musical preferences are explained by the empathizing-systemizing (E-S) theory. Study 1 examined the links between empathy and musical preferences across four samples. By reporting their preferential reactions to musical stimuli, samples 1 and 2 (Ns = 2,178 and 891) indicated their preferences for music from 26 different genres, and samples 3 and 4 (Ns = 747 and 320) indicated their preferences for music from only a single genre (rock or jazz). Results across samples showed that empathy levels are linked to preferences even within genres and account for significant proportions of variance in preferences over and above personality traits for various music-preference dimensions. Study 2 (N = 353) replicated and extended these findings by investigating how musical preferences are differentiated by E-S cognitive styles (i.e., 'brain types'). Those who are type E (bias towards empathizing) preferred music on the Mellow dimension (R&B/soul, adult contemporary, soft rock genres) compared to type S (bias towards systemizing) who preferred music on the Intense dimension (punk, heavy metal, and hard rock). Analyses of fine-grained psychological and sonic attributes in the music revealed that type E individuals preferred music that featured low arousal (gentle, warm, and sensual attributes), negative valence (depressing and sad), and emotional depth (poetic, relaxing, and thoughtful), while type S preferred music that featured high arousal (strong, tense, and thrilling), and aspects of positive valence (animated) and cerebral depth (complexity). The application of these findings for clinicians, interventions, and those on the autism spectrum (largely type S or extreme type S) are discussed.

  7. Learning style preferences of surgical residency applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Roger H; Gilbert, Timothy

    2015-09-01

    The learning style preferences of general surgery residents have been previously reported; there is evidence that residents who prefer read/write learning styles perform better on the American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination (ABSITE). However, little is known regarding the learning style preferences of applicants to general surgery residency and their impact on educational outcomes. In this study, the preferred learning styles of surgical residency applicants were determined. We hypothesized that applicant rank data are associated with specific learning style preferences. The Fleming VARK learning styles inventory was offered to all general surgery residency applicants that were interviewed at a university hospital-based program. The VARK model categorizes learners as visual (V), aural (A), read/write (R), kinesthetic (K), or multimodal (MM). Responses on the inventory were scored to determine the preferred learning style for each applicant. Applicant data, including United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) scores, class rank, interview score, and overall final applicant ranking, were examined for association with preferred learning styles. Sixty-seven applicants were interviewed. Five applicants were excluded due to not completing the VARK inventory or having incomplete applicant data. The remaining 62 applicants (92%) were included for analysis. Most applicants (57%) had a multimodal preference. Sixty-nine percent of all applicants had some degree of preference for kinesthetic learning. There were statistically significant differences between applicants of different learning styles in terms of USMLE step 1 scores (P = 0.001) and USMLE step 2 clinical knowledge scores (P = 0.01), but not for class ranks (P = 0.27), interview scores (P = 0.20), or final ranks (P = 0.14). Multiple comparison analysis demonstrated that applicants with aural preferences had higher USMLE 1 scores (233.2) than those with kinesthetic (211.8, P = 0.005) or multimodal

  8. Extrinsic and intrinsic blood supply to the optic chiasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaud, Céline; Ploteau, Stéphane; Blery, Pauline; Pilet, Paul; Armstrong, Olivier; Hamel, Antoine

    2018-04-01

    Although there have been many studies of the arterial cerebral blood supply, only seven have described the optic chiasm (OC) blood supply and their results are contradictory. The aim of this study was to analyze the extrinsic and intrinsic OC blood supply on cadaveric specimens using dissections and microcomputer tomography (Micro-CT). Thirteen human specimens were dissected and the internal or common carotid arteries were injected with red latex, China Ink with gelatin or barium sulfate. Three Micro-CTs were obtained to reveal the intrinsic blood supply to the OC. The superior hypophyseal arteries (SupHypA) (13/13) and posterior communicating artery (PCoA) (12/13) supplied the pial network on the inferior side of the OC. The first segment of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) (10/10), SupHypA (7/10), the anterior communicating artery (ACoA) (9/10), and PComA (1/10) supplied the pial network of its superior side. The intrinsic OC blood supply was divided into three networks (two lateral and one central). Capillaries entering the OC originated principally from the inferior pial network. The lateral network capillaries had the same orientation as the visual lateral pathways, but the central network was not correlated with the nasal fibers crossing into the OC. There was no anastomosis in the pial or intrinsic networks. Only SupHypA, PCoA, ACoA, and ACA were involved in the OC blood supply. Because there was no extrinsic or intrinsic anastomosis, all arteries should be preserved. Tumor compression of the inferior intrinsic arterial network could contribute to visual defects. Clin. Anat. 31:432-440, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Intrinsic cardiac nervous system in tachycardia induced heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Rakesh C; Cardinal, Rene; Smith, Frank M; Ardell, Jeffrey L; Dell'Italia, Louis J; Armour, J Andrew

    2003-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that early-stage heart failure differentially affects the intrinsic cardiac nervous system's capacity to regulate cardiac function. After 2 wk of rapid ventricular pacing in nine anesthetized canines, cardiac and right atrial neuronal function were evaluated in situ in response to enhanced cardiac sensory inputs, stimulation of extracardiac autonomic efferent neuronal inputs, and close coronary arterial administration of neurochemicals that included nicotine. Right atrial neuronal intracellular electrophysiological properties were then evaluated in vitro in response to synaptic activation and nicotine. Intrinsic cardiac nicotine-sensitive, neuronally induced cardiac responses were also evaluated in eight sham-operated, unpaced animals. Two weeks of rapid ventricular pacing reduced the cardiac index by 54%. Intrinsic cardiac neurons of paced hearts maintained their cardiac mechano- and chemosensory transduction properties in vivo. They also responded normally to sympathetic and parasympathetic preganglionic efferent neuronal inputs, as well as to locally administered alpha-or beta-adrenergic agonists or angiotensin II. The dose of nicotine needed to modify intrinsic cardiac neurons was 50 times greater in failure compared with normal preparations. That dose failed to alter monitored cardiovascular indexes in failing preparations. Phasic and accommodating neurons identified in vitro displayed altered intracellular membrane properties compared with control, including decreased membrane resistance, indicative of reduced excitability. Early-stage heart failure differentially affects the intrinsic cardiac nervous system's capacity to regulate cardiodynamics. While maintaining its capacity to transduce cardiac mechano- and chemosensory inputs, as well as inputs from extracardiac autonomic efferent neurons, intrinsic cardiac nicotine-sensitive, local-circuit neurons differentially remodel such that their capacity to

  10. Direct measurement of the intrinsic ankle stiffness during standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlutters, M; Boonstra, T A; Schouten, A C; van der Kooij, H

    2015-05-01

    Ankle stiffness contributes to standing balance, counteracting the destabilizing effect of gravity. The ankle stiffness together with the compliance between the foot and the support surface make up the ankle-foot stiffness, which is relevant to quiet standing. The contribution of the intrinsic ankle-foot stiffness to balance, and the ankle-foot stiffness amplitude dependency remain a topic of debate in the literature. We therefore developed an experimental protocol to directly measure the bilateral intrinsic ankle-foot stiffness during standing balance, and determine its amplitude dependency. By applying fast (40 ms) ramp-and-hold support surface rotations (0.005-0.08 rad) during standing, reflexive contributions could be excluded, and the amplitude dependency of the intrinsic ankle-foot stiffness was investigated. Results showed that reflexive activity could not have biased the torque used for estimating the intrinsic stiffness. Furthermore, subjects required less recovery action to restore balance after bilateral rotations in opposite directions compared to rotations in the same direction. The intrinsic ankle-foot stiffness appears insufficient to ensure balance, ranging from 0.93±0.09 to 0.44±0.06 (normalized to critical stiffness 'mgh'). This implies that changes in muscle activation are required to maintain balance. The non-linear stiffness decrease with increasing rotation amplitude supports the previous published research. With the proposed method reflexive effects can be ruled out from the measured torque without any model assumptions, allowing direct estimation of intrinsic stiffness during standing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and intention to breast-feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Kristen J; Thompson, Nancy J; Kloeblen-Tarver, Amy S

    2002-01-01

    To examine the feasibility of using the cognitive evaluation theory to examine pregnant women's intention to breast-feed. A questionnaire designed to measure intrinsic and extrinsic motivation was administered to 228 pregnant women. Results provide evidence for reliability and validity of the revised instrument in this population. A factor analysis suggests the instrument measures 2 types of intrinsic motivation, one type of extrinsic motivation, and motivation related to the baby. The instrument distinguished differences in motivation between women who intend to breast-feed and those who intend to formula feed. This study helps elucidate motivational factors involved in infant-feeding decisions.

  12. Theory of extrinsic and intrinsic heterojunctions in thermal equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Ross, O.

    1980-01-01

    A careful analysis of an abrupt heterojunction consisting of two distinct semiconductors either intrinsic or extrinsic is presented. The calculations apply to a one-dimensional, nondegenerate structure. Taking into account all appropriate boundary conditions, it is shown that the intrinsic Fermi level shows a discontinuity at the interface between the two materials which leads to a discontinuity of the valence band edge equal to the difference in the band gap energies of the two materials. The conduction band edge stays continuous however. This result is independent of possible charged interface states and in sharp contrast to the Anderson model. The reasons for this discrepancy are discussed.

  13. Failure to label baboon milk intrinsically with iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa-Colon, R.; Elwell, J.H.; Jackson, E.; Osborne, J.W.; Fomon, S.J.

    1989-01-01

    The widely held belief that 50% of the iron in human milk is absorbed is based on studies that have used an extrinsic radioactive iron tag. To determine the validity of an extrinsic tag, it is necessary to label the milk intrinsically with one isotope and to compare absorption of this isotope with absorption of another isotope added as the extrinsic tag. We chose the baboon as a model and infused 59Fe intravenously. In each of three attempts we failed to label the milk intrinsically

  14. Intrinsic Defects and H Doping in WO3

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jiajie

    2017-01-18

    WO3 is widely used as industrial catalyst. Intrinsic and/or extrinsic defects can tune the electronic properties and extend applications to gas sensors and optoelectonics. However, H doping is a challenge to WO3, the relevant mechanisms being hardly understood. In this context, we investigate intrinsic defects and H doping by density functional theory and experiments. Formation energies are calculated to determine the lowest energy defect states. O vacancies turn out to be stable in O-poor environment, in agreement with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and O-H bond formation of H interstitial defects is predicted and confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  15. Intrinsic charm and charmed particle production at Serpukhov energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zmushko, V.V.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the charmed particle production by protons on nuclei in the framework of two-component model at the Serpukhov energies. This model combines the leading-twist QCD and intrinsic charm contributions. It is shown that both contributions are comparable at 70 GeV energy of a proton, which makes possible the testing of the intrinsic charm predictions: the asymmetry between the leading and non-leading charm production and the A dependence of charm production. The asymmetry for D-bar/D mesons and Λ c + /Λ c - baryons and the cross section ratios for different nuclei are estimated [ru

  16. Whether diffusion in axisymmetric confinement systems is intrinsically ambipolar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovrizhnykh, L.M.

    1997-01-01

    The problem of diffusion ambipolarity in axisymmetric magnetic systems is analyzed. The question is discussed of whether diffusion is intrinsically ambipolar (and if so, then in which particular cases) or the ambipolarity constraint is an additional independent condition, which does not follow from the equations of motion and, hence, contains new information. It is shown that the second assertion is correct: strictly speaking, diffusion can never be intrinsically ambipolar, and, in the presence of several different mechanisms causing electron and ion losses across the magnetic field, only the total fluxes, but not the partial ones, should satisfy the ambipolarity constraint. (UK)

  17. Intrinsic states and rotational bands in 177Pt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dracoulis, G.D.; Fabricius, B.; Bark, R.A.; Stuchbery, A.E.; Popescu, D.G.; Kibedi, T.

    1989-11-01

    The 149 Sm ( 32 S,4n) 177 Pt reaction has been used to populate excited states in the neutron-deficient nucleus 177 Pt. Rotational bands based on intrinsic states assigned to the 1/2-[521], 5/2-[521] and (mixed) 7/2+ [633] Nilsson configurations have been observed. In contrast to the neighbou-ring even isotope 176 Pt, anomalies attributed to shape co-existence at low spin have not been observed. Implications for the deformation of 177 Pt are discussed together with the systematics of intrinsic states in this region, and alignments and other properties of N=99 nuclei. 37 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs

  18. Quarterly intrinsic disorder digest (January-February-March, 2014)

    OpenAIRE

    DeForte, Shelly; Reddy, Krishna D.; Uversky, Vladimir N.

    2016-01-01

    This is the 5th issue of the Digested Disorder series that represents a reader's digest of the scientific literature on intrinsically disordered proteins. We continue to use only 2 criteria for inclusion of a paper to this digest: The publication date (a paper should be published within the covered time frame) and the topic (a paper should be dedicated to any aspect of protein intrinsic disorder). The current digest issue covers papers published during the first quarter of 2014; i.e., during ...

  19. Intrinsically safe electrical installations, auxiliary circuits and electric communication equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herms, C D

    1981-11-19

    Technical progress has not stopped short of electrical systems in mining, so that three new chapters are new included in the VDE regulations leaflet No. 0118 on 'Installation of electrical systems in underground coal mining'. The regulations on intrinsically safe electric systems, auxiliary circuits and communication systems are briefly described, and grounds for the regulations are presented. The regulations already take account of European regulations on intrinsic safety which will soon be published in a European Regulation on Mine Explosions. In the chapters on auxiliary circuits and communication systems, protection against direct contact, fires, and explosions is discussed as well as the further goal of reliable signal transmission.

  20. Terahertz Responses of Intrinsic Josephson Junctions in High TC Superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H. B.; Wu, P. H.; Yamashita, T.

    2001-01-01

    High frequency responses of intrinsic Josephson junctions up to 2.5THz, including the observation of Shapiro steps under various conditions, are reported and discussed in this Letter. The sample was an array of intrinsic Josephson junctions singled out from inside a high T C superconducting Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+x single crystal, with a bow-tie antenna integrated to it. The number of junctions in the array was controllable, the junctions were homogeneous, the distribution of applied irradiation among the junctions was even, and the junctions could synchronously respond to high frequency irradiation

  1. Intrinsic variations of the double quasar 0957 + 56 AB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, C.

    1981-01-01

    Observations of the two components of the quasar 0957 + 56A and B are reported which show a variation of approximately 1 mag in both components and behaviour typical of intrinsically variable quasars with similar radio structure. It is argued that the near constancy of the magnitude difference between the components at several epochs, despite overall variations, favours all the variations being intrinsic to the quasar and also supports the hypothesis that the two images are produced by the gravitational lensing of a single distant quasar. (U.K.)

  2. Finding intrinsic rewards by embodied evolution and constrained reinforcement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchibe, Eiji; Doya, Kenji

    2008-12-01

    Understanding the design principle of reward functions is a substantial challenge both in artificial intelligence and neuroscience. Successful acquisition of a task usually requires not only rewards for goals, but also for intermediate states to promote effective exploration. This paper proposes a method for designing 'intrinsic' rewards of autonomous agents by combining constrained policy gradient reinforcement learning and embodied evolution. To validate the method, we use Cyber Rodent robots, in which collision avoidance, recharging from battery packs, and 'mating' by software reproduction are three major 'extrinsic' rewards. We show in hardware experiments that the robots can find appropriate 'intrinsic' rewards for the vision of battery packs and other robots to promote approach behaviors.

  3. The Intrinsic Shape of Galaxies in SDSS/Galaxy Zoo

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Silvio; Padilla, Nelson D.

    2013-01-01

    By modelling the axis ratio distribution of SDSS DR8 galaxies we find the intrinsic 3D shapes of spirals and ellipticals. We use morphological information from the Galaxy Zoo project and assume a non-parametric distribution intrinsic of shapes, while taking into account dust extinction. We measure the dust extinction of the full sample of spiral galaxies and find a smaller value than previous estimations, with an edge-on extinction of $E_0 = 0.284^{+0.015}_{-0.026}$ in the SDSS r band. We als...

  4. Determination of intrinsic spin Hall angle in Pt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yi; Deorani, Praveen; Qiu, Xuepeng; Kwon, Jae Hyun; Yang, Hyunsoo, E-mail: eleyang@nus.edu.sg [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576 (Singapore)

    2014-10-13

    The spin Hall angle in Pt is evaluated in Pt/NiFe bilayers by spin torque ferromagnetic resonance measurements and is found to increase with increasing the NiFe thickness. To extract the intrinsic spin Hall angle in Pt by estimating the total spin current injected into NiFe from Pt, the NiFe thickness dependent measurements are performed and the spin diffusion in the NiFe layer is taken into account. The intrinsic spin Hall angle of Pt is determined to be 0.068 at room temperature and is found to be almost constant in the temperature range of 13–300 K.

  5. Determination of intrinsic spin Hall angle in Pt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yi; Deorani, Praveen; Qiu, Xuepeng; Kwon, Jae Hyun; Yang, Hyunsoo

    2014-01-01

    The spin Hall angle in Pt is evaluated in Pt/NiFe bilayers by spin torque ferromagnetic resonance measurements and is found to increase with increasing the NiFe thickness. To extract the intrinsic spin Hall angle in Pt by estimating the total spin current injected into NiFe from Pt, the NiFe thickness dependent measurements are performed and the spin diffusion in the NiFe layer is taken into account. The intrinsic spin Hall angle of Pt is determined to be 0.068 at room temperature and is found to be almost constant in the temperature range of 13–300 K.

  6. Inhibitory stimulation of the ventral premotor cortex temporarily interferes with musical beat rate preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornysheva, Katja; von Anshelm-Schiffer, Anne-Marike; Schubotz, Ricarda I

    2011-08-01

    Behavioral studies suggest that preference for a beat rate (tempo) in auditory sequences is tightly linked to the motor system. However, from a neuroscientific perspective the contribution of motor-related brain regions to tempo preference in the auditory domain remains unclear. A recent fMRI study (Kornysheva et al. [2010]: Hum Brain Mapp 31:48-64) revealed that the activity increase in the left ventral premotor cortex (PMv) is associated with the preference for a tempo of a musical rhythm. The activity increase correlated with how strongly the subjects preferred a tempo. Despite this evidence, it remains uncertain whether an interference with activity in the left PMv affects tempo preference strength. Consequently, we conducted an offline repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) study, in which the cortical excitability in the left PMv was temporarily reduced. As hypothesized, 0.9 Hz rTMS over the left PMv temporarily affected individual tempo preference strength depending on the individual strength of tempo preference in the control session. Moreover, PMv stimulation temporarily interfered with the stability of individual tempo preference strength within and across sessions. These effects were specific to the preference for tempo in contrast to the preference for timbre, bound to the first half of the experiment following PMv stimulation and could not be explained by an impairment of tempo recognition. Our results corroborate preceding fMRI findings and suggest that activity in the left PMv is part of a network that affects the strength of beat rate preference. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Changes in Intrinsic Motivation as a Function of Negative Feedback and Threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deci, Edward L.; Cascio, Wayne F.

    Recent studies have demonstrated that external rewards can affect intrinsic motivation to perform an activity. Money tends to decrease intrinsic motivation, whereas positive verbal reinforcements tend to increase intrinsic motivation. This paper presents evidence that negative feedback and threats of punishment also decrease intrinsic motivation.…

  8. Do monetary rewards crowd out intrinsic motivations of volunteers? Some empirical evidence for Italian volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Damiano Fiorillo

    2009-01-01

    The paper studies the determinants of regular volunteering departing from previous literature on extrinsic and intrinsic motivations. It contributes to the literature investigating the role of monetary rewards to influence intrinsic motivation. Using a simple framework that allows me to study the effect of monetary rewards on intrinsic motivation, the paper shows, controlling for endogenous bias, that monetary rewards crowd-out intrinsic motivation.

  9. Intrinsic disorder in Viral Proteins Genome-Linked: experimental and predictive analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Dorsselaer Alain

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background VPgs are viral proteins linked to the 5' end of some viral genomes. Interactions between several VPgs and eukaryotic translation initiation factors eIF4Es are critical for plant infection. However, VPgs are not restricted to phytoviruses, being also involved in genome replication and protein translation of several animal viruses. To date, structural data are still limited to small picornaviral VPgs. Recently three phytoviral VPgs were shown to be natively unfolded proteins. Results In this paper, we report the bacterial expression, purification and biochemical characterization of two phytoviral VPgs, namely the VPgs of Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV, genus Sobemovirus and Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV, genus Potyvirus. Using far-UV circular dichroism and size exclusion chromatography, we show that RYMV and LMV VPgs are predominantly or partly unstructured in solution, respectively. Using several disorder predictors, we show that both proteins are predicted to possess disordered regions. We next extend theses results to 14 VPgs representative of the viral diversity. Disordered regions were predicted in all VPg sequences whatever the genus and the family. Conclusion Based on these results, we propose that intrinsic disorder is a common feature of VPgs. The functional role of intrinsic disorder is discussed in light of the biological roles of VPgs.

  10. Prediction of arsenic and antimony transporter major intrinsic proteins from the genomes of crop plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Abul Kalam; Ahmed, Jahed; Alum, Md Asraful; Hasan, Md Mahbub; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Sawa, Yoshihiro

    2018-02-01

    Major intrinsic proteins (MIPs), commonly known as aquaporins, transport water and non-polar small solutes. Comparing the 3D models and the primary selectivity-related motifs (two Asn-Pro-Ala (NPA) regions, the aromatic/arginine (ar/R) selectivity filter, and Froger's positions (FPs)) of all plant MIPs that have been experimentally proven to transport arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb), some substrate-specific signature sequences (SSSS) or specificity determining sites (SDPs) have been predicted. These SSSS or SDPs were determined in 543 MIPs found in the genomes of 12 crop plants; the As and Sb transporters were predicted to be distributed in noduline-26 like intrinsic proteins (NIPs), and every plant had one or several As and Sb transporter NIPs. Phylogenetic grouping of the NIP subfamily based on the ar/R selectivity filter and FPs were linked to As and Sb transport. We further determined the group-wise substrate selectivity profiles of the NIPs in the 12 crop plants. In addition to two NPA regions, the ar/R filter, and FPs, certain amino acids especially in the pore line, loop D, and termini contribute to the functional distinctiveness of the NIP groups. Expression analysis of transcripts in different organs indicated that most of the As and Sb transporter NIPs were expressed in roots. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Fast hydrogen exchange affects 15N relaxation measurements in intrinsically disordered proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seho; Wu, Kuen-Phon; Baum, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Unprotected amide protons can undergo fast hydrogen exchange (HX) with protons from the solvent. Generally, NMR experiments using the out-and-back coherence transfer with amide proton detection are affected by fast HX and result in reduced signal intensity. When one of these experiments, 1 H– 15 N HSQC, is used to measure the 15 N transverse relaxation rate (R 2 ), the measured R 2 rate is convoluted with the HX rate (k HX ) and has higher apparent R 2 values. Since the 15 N R 2 measurement is important for analyzing protein backbone dynamics, the HX effect on the R 2 measurement is investigated and described here by multi-exponential signal decay. We demonstrate these effects by performing 15 N R 2 CPMG experiments on α-synuclein, an intrinsically disordered protein, in which the amide protons are exposed to solvent. We show that the HX effect on R 2 CPMG can be extracted by the derived equation. In conclusion, the HX effect may be pulse sequence specific and results from various sources including the J coupling evolution, the change of steady state water proton magnetization, and the D 2 O content in the sample. To avoid the HX effect on the analysis of relaxation data of unprotected amides, it is suggested that NMR experimental conditions insensitive to the HX should be considered or that intrinsic R 2 CPMG values be obtained by methods described herein.

  12. RNA chaperoning and intrinsic disorder in the core proteins of Flaviviridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanyi-Nagy, Roland; Lavergne, Jean-Pierre; Gabus, Caroline; Ficheux, Damien; Darlix, Jean-Luc

    2008-02-01

    RNA chaperone proteins are essential partners of RNA in living organisms and viruses. They are thought to assist in the correct folding and structural rearrangements of RNA molecules by resolving misfolded RNA species in an ATP-independent manner. RNA chaperoning is probably an entropy-driven process, mediated by the coupled binding and folding of intrinsically disordered protein regions and the kinetically trapped RNA. Previously, we have shown that the core protein of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a potent RNA chaperone that can drive profound structural modifications of HCV RNA in vitro. We now examined the RNA chaperone activity and the disordered nature of core proteins from different Flaviviridae genera, namely that of HCV, GBV-B (GB virus B), WNV (West Nile virus) and BVDV (bovine viral diarrhoea virus). Despite low-sequence similarities, all four proteins demonstrated general nucleic acid annealing and RNA chaperone activities. Furthermore, heat resistance of core proteins, as well as far-UV circular dichroism spectroscopy suggested that a well-defined 3D protein structure is not necessary for core-induced RNA structural rearrangements. These data provide evidence that RNA chaperoning-possibly mediated by intrinsically disordered protein segments-is conserved in Flaviviridae core proteins. Thus, besides nucleocapsid formation, core proteins may function in RNA structural rearrangements taking place during virus replication.

  13. A Research on Maximum Symbolic Entropy from Intrinsic Mode Function and Its Application in Fault Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuofei Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Empirical mode decomposition (EMD is a self-adaptive analysis method for nonlinear and nonstationary signals. It has been widely applied to machinery fault diagnosis and structural damage detection. A novel feature, maximum symbolic entropy of intrinsic mode function based on EMD, is proposed to enhance the ability of recognition of EMD in this paper. First, a signal is decomposed into a collection of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs based on the local characteristic time scale of the signal, and then IMFs are transformed into a serious of symbolic sequence with different parameters. Second, it can be found that the entropies of symbolic IMFs are quite different. However, there is always a maximum value for a certain symbolic IMF. Third, take the maximum symbolic entropy as features to describe IMFs from a signal. Finally, the proposed features are applied to evaluate the effect of maximum symbolic entropy in fault diagnosis of rolling bearing, and then the maximum symbolic entropy is compared with other standard time analysis features in a contrast experiment. Although maximum symbolic entropy is only a time domain feature, it can reveal the signal characteristic information accurately. It can also be used in other fields related to EMD method.

  14. Multiple structure-intrinsic disorder interactions regulate and coordinate Hox protein function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondos, Sarah

    During animal development, Hox transcription factors determine fate of developing tissues to generate diverse organs and appendages. Hox proteins are famous for their bizarre mutant phenotypes, such as replacing antennae with legs. Clearly, the functions of individual Hox proteins must be distinct and reliable in vivo, or the organism risks malformation or death. However, within the Hox protein family, the DNA-binding homeodomains are highly conserved and the amino acids that contact DNA are nearly invariant. These observations raise the question: How do different Hox proteins correctly identify their distinct target genes using a common DNA binding domain? One possible means to modulate DNA binding is through the influence of the non-homeodomain protein regions, which differ significantly among Hox proteins. However genetic approaches never detected intra-protein interactions, and early biochemical attempts were hindered because the special features of ``intrinsically disordered'' sequences were not appreciated. We propose the first-ever structural model of a Hox protein to explain how specific contacts between distant, intrinsically disordered regions of the protein and the homeodomain regulate DNA binding and coordinate this activity with other Hox molecular functions.

  15. CONSUMERS’ PREFERENCE TOWARD ISLAMIC BANKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    delta khairunnisa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective - This research aims to provide empirical evidence on the factors motivating consumers to save in Islamic banking.Methods - The one sample t-test is employed to test hypothesis. The validity and the reliability of research variables have been examined.Results - The result proved that consumers’ decision to save in Islamic banking are influenced by economic and religious factors, such as receiving economic benefits, quick services, online facilities, easily reachable locations, and having a better understanding of Islamic principles.Conclusions - The existence of a relationship between economic and religious preference proves that, in making decisions, consumers wish to attain two satisfaction levels: satisfaction in the world and in the hereafter.

  16. Generation Y preferences towards wine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios; Mocanu, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore differences in wine preferences between Generation Y and older cohorts in the USA. Design/methodology/approach – A total of 260 US consumers participated in a web-based survey that took place in April 2010. The best-worst scaling method was applied...... measuring the level of importance given by participants to a list of most common attributes used in choice of wine. Independent sample t-tests were applied to compare the best-worst scores between Generation Y and older cohorts. Findings – Differences were found in the level of importance that Generation Y...... gives to wine attributes in comparison to older cohorts. Generation Y was found to attach more importance to attributes such as “Someone recommended it”, “Attractive front label” and “Promotional display in-store”, whereas older cohorts gave more importance to attributes such as “I read about it...

  17. A genetic polymorphism in the coding region of the gastric intrinsic factor gene (GIF) is associated with congenital intrinsic factor deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Marilyn M; Brada, Nancy; Remacha, Angel; Badell, Isabel; del Río, Elisabeth; Baiget, Montserrat; Santer, René; Quadros, Edward V; Rothenberg, Sheldon P; Alpers, David H

    2004-01-01

    Congenital intrinsic factor (IF) deficiency is a disorder characterized by megaloblastic anemia due to the absence of gastric IF (GIF, GenBank NM_005142) and GIF antibodies, with probable autosomal recessive inheritance. Most of the reported patients are isolated cases without genetic studies of the parents or siblings. Complete exonic sequences were determined from the PCR products generated from genomic DNA of five affected individuals. All probands had the identical variant (g.68A>G) in the second position of the fifth codon in the coding sequence of the gene that introduces a restriction enzyme site for Msp I and predicts a change in the mature protein from glutamine(5) (CAG) to arginine(5) (CGG). Three subjects were homozygous for this base exchange and two subjects were heterozygous, one of which was apparently a compound heterozygote at positions 1 and 2 of the fifth codon ([g.67C>G] + [g.68A>G]). The other patient, heterozygous for position 2, had one heterozygous unaffected parent. Most parents were heterozygous for this base exchange, confirming the pattern of autosomal recessive inheritance for congenital IF deficiency. cDNA encoding GIF was mutated at base pair g.68 (A>G) and expressed in COS-7 cells. The apparent size, secretion rate, and sensitivity to pepsin hydrolysis of the expressed IF were similar to native IF. The allelic frequency of g.68A>G was 0.067 and 0.038 in two control populations. This sequence aberration is not the cause of the phenotype, but is associated with the genotype of congenital IF deficiency and could serve as a marker for inheritance of this disorder. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Intrinsically disordered proteins aggregate at fungal cell-to-cell channels and regulate intercellular connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Julian; Koh, Chuan Hock; Tjota, Monika; Pieuchot, Laurent; Raman, Vignesh; Chandrababu, Karthik Balakrishna; Yang, Daiwen; Wong, Limsoon; Jedd, Gregory

    2012-09-25

    Like animals and plants, multicellular fungi possess cell-to-cell channels (septal pores) that allow intercellular communication and transport. Here, using a combination of MS of Woronin body-associated proteins and a bioinformatics approach that identifies related proteins based on composition and character, we identify 17 septal pore-associated (SPA) proteins that localize to the septal pore in rings and pore-centered foci. SPA proteins are not homologous at the primary sequence level but share overall physical properties with intrinsically disordered proteins. Some SPA proteins form aggregates at the septal pore, and in vitro assembly assays suggest aggregation through a nonamyloidal mechanism involving mainly α-helical and disordered structures. SPA loss-of-function phenotypes include excessive septation, septal pore degeneration, and uncontrolled Woronin body activation. Together, our data identify the septal pore as a complex subcellular compartment and focal point for the assembly of unstructured proteins controlling diverse aspects of intercellular connectivity.

  19. Whole genome resequencing reveals natural target site preferences of transposable elements in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel S Linheiro

    Full Text Available Transposable elements are mobile DNA sequences that integrate into host genomes using diverse mechanisms with varying degrees of target site specificity. While the target site preferences of some engineered transposable elements are well studied, the natural target preferences of most transposable elements are poorly characterized. Using population genomic resequencing data from 166 strains of Drosophila melanogaster, we identified over 8,000 new insertion sites not present in the reference genome sequence that we used to decode the natural target preferences of 22 families of transposable element in this species. We found that terminal inverted repeat transposon and long terminal repeat retrotransposon families present clade-specific target site duplications and target site sequence motifs. Additionally, we found that the sequence motifs at transposable element target sites are always palindromes that extend beyond the target site duplication. Our results demonstrate the utility of population genomics data for high-throughput inference of transposable element targeting preferences in the wild and establish general rules for terminal inverted repeat transposon and long terminal repeat retrotransposon target site selection in eukaryotic genomes.

  20. MEANS AND METHODS FOR CLONING NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertsma, Eric Robin; Poolman, Berend

    2008-01-01

    The invention provides means and methods for efficiently cloning nucleic acid sequences of interest in micro-organisms that are less amenable to conventional nucleic acid manipulations, as compared to, for instance, E.coli. The present invention enables high-throughput cloning (and, preferably,