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Sample records for intrinsic gut microbiota

  1. Gut Microbiota-brain Axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Xing; Wang, Yu-Ping

    2016-10-05

    To systematically review the updated information about the gut microbiota-brain axis. All articles about gut microbiota-brain axis published up to July 18, 2016, were identified through a literature search on PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science, with the keywords of "gut microbiota", "gut-brain axis", and "neuroscience". All relevant articles on gut microbiota and gut-brain axis were included and carefully reviewed, with no limitation of study design. It is well-recognized that gut microbiota affects the brain's physiological, behavioral, and cognitive functions although its precise mechanism has not yet been fully understood. Gut microbiota-brain axis may include gut microbiota and their metabolic products, enteric nervous system, sympathetic and parasympathetic branches within the autonomic nervous system, neural-immune system, neuroendocrine system, and central nervous system. Moreover, there may be five communication routes between gut microbiota and brain, including the gut-brain's neural network, neuroendocrine-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, gut immune system, some neurotransmitters and neural regulators synthesized by gut bacteria, and barrier paths including intestinal mucosal barrier and blood-brain barrier. The microbiome is used to define the composition and functional characteristics of gut microbiota, and metagenomics is an appropriate technique to characterize gut microbiota. Gut microbiota-brain axis refers to a bidirectional information network between the gut microbiota and the brain, which may provide a new way to protect the brain in the near future.

  2. Gut Microbiota and Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daniel Y; Tang, W H Wilson

    2017-08-25

    Studies in microbiota-mediated health risks have gained traction in recent years since the compilation of the Human Microbiome Project. No longer do we believe that our gut microbiota is an inert set of microorganisms that reside in the body without consequence. In this review, we discuss the recent findings which further our understanding of the connection between the gut microbiota and the atherosclerosis. We evaluate studies which illustrate the current understanding of the relationship between infection, immunity, altered metabolism, and bacterial products such as immune activators or dietary metabolites and their contributions to the development of atherosclerosis. In particular, we critically examine rec ent clinical and mechanistic findings for the novel microbiota-dependent dietary metabolite, trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), which has been implicated in atherosclerosis. These discoveries are now becoming integrated with advances in microbiota profiling which enhance our ability to interrogate the functional role of the gut microbiome and develop strategies for targeted therapeutics. The gut microbiota is a multi-faceted system that is unraveling novel contributors to the development and progression of atherosclerosis. In this review, we discuss historic and novel contributors while highlighting the TMAO story mainly as an example of the various paths taken beyond deciphering microbial composition to elucidate downstream mechanisms that promote (or protect from) atherogenesis in the hopes of translating these findings from bench to bedside.

  3. The Human Gut Microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, Hermie J. M.; de Goffau, Marcus. C.; Schwiertz, A

    2016-01-01

    The microbiota in our gut performs many different essential functions that help us to stay healthy. These functions include vitamin production, regulation of lipid metabolism and short chain fatty acid production as fuel for epithelial cells and regulation of gene expression. There is a very

  4. Hot topics in gut microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Doré, Joël; Simrén, Magnus; Buttle, Lisa; Guarner, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    The study of gut microbiota is a rapidly moving field of research, and the impact of gut microbial communities on human health is widely perceived as one of the most exciting advancements in biomedicine in recent years. The gut microbiota plays a key role in digestion, metabolism and immune function, and has widespread impact beyond the gastrointestinal tract. Changes in the biodiversity of the gut microbiota are associated with far reaching consequences on host health and development. Furthe...

  5. Gut Microbiota-brain Axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Xing; Wang, Yu-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To systematically review the updated information about the gut microbiota-brain axis. Data Sources: All articles about gut microbiota-brain axis published up to July 18, 2016, were identified through a literature search on PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science, with the keywords of “gut microbiota”, “gut-brain axis”, and “neuroscience”. Study Selection: All relevant articles on gut microbiota and gut-brain axis were included and carefully reviewed, with no limitation of study design. Results: It is well-recognized that gut microbiota affects the brain's physiological, behavioral, and cognitive functions although its precise mechanism has not yet been fully understood. Gut microbiota-brain axis may include gut microbiota and their metabolic products, enteric nervous system, sympathetic and parasympathetic branches within the autonomic nervous system, neural-immune system, neuroendocrine system, and central nervous system. Moreover, there may be five communication routes between gut microbiota and brain, including the gut-brain's neural network, neuroendocrine-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, gut immune system, some neurotransmitters and neural regulators synthesized by gut bacteria, and barrier paths including intestinal mucosal barrier and blood-brain barrier. The microbiome is used to define the composition and functional characteristics of gut microbiota, and metagenomics is an appropriate technique to characterize gut microbiota. Conclusions: Gut microbiota-brain axis refers to a bidirectional information network between the gut microbiota and the brain, which may provide a new way to protect the brain in the near future. PMID:27647198

  6. Diet, gut microbiota and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Cicely; Thiennimitr, Parameth; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2017-02-01

    The consumption of a diet high in fat and sugar can lead to the development of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), cardiovascular disease and cognitive decline. In the human gut, the trillions of harmless microorganisms harboured in the host's gastrointestinal tract are called the 'gut microbiota'. Consumption of a diet high in fat and sugar changes the healthy microbiota composition which leads to an imbalanced microbial population in the gut, a phenomenon known as "gut dysbiosis". It has been shown that certain types of gut microbiota are linked to the pathogenesis of obesity. In addition, long-term consumption of a high fat diet is associated with cognitive decline. It has recently been proposed that the gut microbiota is part of a mechanistic link between the consumption of a high fat diet and the impaired cognition of an individual, termed "microbiota-gut-brain axis". In this complex relationship between the gut, the brain and the gut microbiota, there are several types of gut microbiota and host mechanisms involved. Most of these mechanisms are still poorly understood. Therefore, this review comprehensively summarizes the current evidence from mainly in vivo (rodent and human) studies of the relationship between diet, gut microbiota and cognition. The possible mechanisms that the diet and the gut microbiota have on cognition are also presented and discussed.

  7. Gut Microbiota and Metabolic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu Yeon Hur

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota plays critical physiological roles in the energy extraction and in the control of local or systemic immunity. Gut microbiota and its disturbance also appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of diverse diseases including metabolic disorders, gastrointestinal diseases, cancer, etc. In the metabolic point of view, gut microbiota can modulate lipid accumulation, lipopolysaccharide content and the production of short-chain fatty acids that affect food intake, inflammatory tone, or insulin signaling. Several strategies have been developed to change gut microbiota such as prebiotics, probiotics, certain antidiabetic drugs or fecal microbiota transplantation, which have diverse effects on body metabolism and on the development of metabolic disorders.

  8. Gut microbiota and malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Million, Matthieu; Diallo, Aldiouma; Raoult, Didier

    2017-05-01

    Malnutrition is the leading cause of death worldwide in children under the age of five, and is the focus of the first World Health Organization (WHO) Millennium Development Goal. Breastfeeding, food and water security are major protective factors against malnutrition and critical factors in the maturation of healthy gut microbiota, characterized by a transient bifidobacterial bloom before a global rise in anaerobes. Early depletion in gut Bifidobacterium longum, a typical maternal probiotic, known to inhibit pathogens, represents the first step in gut microbiota alteration associated with severe acute malnutrition (SAM). Later, the absence of the Healthy Mature Anaerobic Gut Microbiota (HMAGM) leads to deficient energy harvest, vitamin biosynthesis and immune protection, and is associated with diarrhea, malabsorption and systemic invasion by microbial pathogens. A therapeutic diet and infection treatment may be unable to restore bifidobacteria and HMAGM. Besides refeeding and antibiotics, future trials including non-toxic missing microbes and nutrients necessary to restore bifidobacteria and HMAGM, including prebiotics and antioxidants, are warranted in children with severe or refractory disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Gut Microbiota-brain Axis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hong-Xing; Wang, Yu-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To systematically review the updated information about the gut microbiota-brain axis. Data Sources: All articles about gut microbiota-brain axis published up to July 18, 2016, were identified through a literature search on PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science, with the keywords of “gut microbiota”, “gut-brain axis”, and “neuroscience”. Study Selection: All relevant articles on gut microbiota and gut-brain axis were included and carefully reviewed, with no limitation of s...

  10. Gut Microbiota: The Brain Peacekeeper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Chunlong; Yang, Yuxiang; Zhu, Weiyun

    2016-01-01

    Gut microbiota regulates intestinal and extraintestinal homeostasis. Accumulating evidence suggests that the gut microbiota may also regulate brain function and behavior. Results from animal models indicate that disturbances in the composition and functionality of some microbiota members are associated with neurophysiological disorders, strengthening the idea of a microbiota–gut–brain axis and the role of microbiota as a “peacekeeper” in the brain health. Here, we review recent discoveries on the role of the gut microbiota in central nervous system-related diseases. We also discuss the emerging concept of the bidirectional regulation by the circadian rhythm and gut microbiota, and the potential role of the epigenetic regulation in neuronal cell function. Microbiome studies are also highlighted as crucial in the development of targeted therapies for neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:27014255

  11. Gut microbiota and liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minemura, Masami; Shimizu, Yukihiro

    2015-02-14

    Several studies revealed that gut microbiota are associated with various human diseases, e.g., metabolic diseases, allergies, gastroenterological diseases, and liver diseases. The liver can be greatly affected by changes in gut microbiota due to the entry of gut bacteria or their metabolites into the liver through the portal vein, and the liver-gut axis is important to understand the pathophysiology of several liver diseases, especially non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and hepatic encephalopathy. Moreover, gut microbiota play a significant role in the development of alcoholic liver disease and hepatocarcinogenesis. Based on these previous findings, trials using probiotics have been performed for the prevention or treatment of liver diseases. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the changes in gut microbiota associated with various liver diseases, and we describe the therapeutic trials of probiotics for those diseases.

  12. Gut microbiota and allogeneic transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weilin; Xu, Shaoyan; Ren, Zhigang; Jiang, Jianwen; Zheng, Shusen

    2015-08-23

    The latest high-throughput sequencing technologies show that there are more than 1000 types of microbiota in the human gut. These microbes are not only important to maintain human health, but also closely related to the occurrence and development of various diseases. With the development of transplantation technologies, allogeneic transplantation has become an effective therapy for a variety of end-stage diseases. However, complications after transplantation still restrict its further development. Post-transplantation complications are closely associated with a host's immune system. There is also an interaction between a person's gut microbiota and immune system. Recently, animal and human studies have shown that gut microbial populations and diversity are altered after allogeneic transplantations, such as liver transplantation (LT), small bowel transplantation (SBT), kidney transplantation (KT) and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HTCT). Moreover, when complications, such as infection, rejection and graft versus host disease (GVHD) occur, gut microbial populations and diversity present a significant dysbiosis. Several animal and clinical studies have demonstrated that taking probiotics and prebiotics can effectively regulate gut microbiota and reduce the incidence of complications after transplantation. However, the role of intestinal decontamination in allogeneic transplantation is controversial. This paper reviews gut microbial status after transplantation and its relationship with complications. The role of intervention methods, including antibiotics, probiotics and prebiotics, in complications after transplantation are also discussed. Further research in this new field needs to determine the definite relationship between gut microbial dysbiosis and complications after transplantation. Additionally, further research examining gut microbial intervention methods to ameliorate complications after transplantation is warranted. A better understanding of the

  13. Gut Microbiota and Celiac Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasco, Giovanni; Di Biase, Anna Rita; Schiumerini, Ramona; Eusebi, Leonardo Henry; Iughetti, Lorenzo; Ravaioli, Federico; Scaioli, Eleonora; Colecchia, Antonio; Festi, Davide

    2016-06-01

    Recent evidence regarding celiac disease has increasingly shown the role of innate immunity in triggering the immune response by stimulating the adaptive immune response and by mucosal damage. The interaction between the gut microbiota and the mucosal wall is mediated by the same receptors which can activate innate immunity. Thus, changes in gut microbiota may lead to activation of this inflammatory pathway. This paper is a review of the current knowledge regarding the relationship between celiac disease and gut microbiota. In fact, patients with celiac disease have a reduction in beneficial species and an increase in those potentially pathogenic as compared to healthy subjects. This dysbiosis is reduced, but might still remain, after a gluten-free diet. Thus, gut microbiota could play a significant role in the pathogenesis of celiac disease, as described by studies which link dysbiosis with the inflammatory milieu in celiac patients. The use of probiotics seems to reduce the inflammatory response and restore a normal proportion of beneficial bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract. Additional evidence is needed in order to better understand the role of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of celiac disease, and the clinical impact and therapeutic use of probiotics in this setting.

  14. Influence of the intrinsic gut microbiota on transcriptional regulation of genes involved in the early life development of intestinal epithelial integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, Anders; Kristensen, Matilde Bylov; Frøkjær, Hanne

    2010-01-01

    The interplay between the gut microbiota and the integrity of the intestinal mucus layer is important both in the maintenance of the epithelial barrier as part of the innate immune defense, and in the conservation of gut homeostasis. Interesting parameters are the mucins, which protect the mucosal...

  15. The gut microbiota in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Trine; Allin, Kristine Højgaard; Pedersen, Oluf

    2016-01-01

    recognized that the gut microbiota has profound effect on host metabolism and recently changes in the gut microbiota have been associated with type 2 diabetes. Animal models and human studies have linked changes in the gut microbiota to the induction of low-grade inflammation, altered immune response...... strategies to prevent or treat type 2 diabetes....

  16. [Current view on gut microbiota].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourlioux, P

    2014-01-01

    Gut microbiota is more and more important since metagenomic research have brought new knowledge on this topic especially for human health. Firstly, gut microbiota is a key element for our organism he lives in symbiosis with. Secondly, it interacts favorably with many physiological functions of our organism. Thirdly, at the opposite, it can be an active participant in intestinal pathologies linked to a dysbiosis mainly in chronic inflammatory bowel diseases like Crohn disease or ulcerative colitis but also in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and more prudently in autism and behavioral disorders. In order to keep a good health, it is essential to protect our gut microbiota as soon as our young age and maintain it healthy. Face to a more and more important number of publications for treating certain digestive diseases with fecal microbial transplantation, it needs to be very careful and recommend further studies in order to assess risks and define standardized protocols. Gut microbiota metabolic capacities towards xenobiotics need to be developed, and we must take an interest in the modifications they induce on medicinal molecules. On the other hand, it is essential to study the potent effects of pesticides and other pollutants on microbiota functions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Gut indigenous microbiota and epigenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Arkadievich Shenderov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This review introduces and discusses data regarding fundamental and applied investigations in mammalian epigenomics and gut microbiota received over the last 10 years. Analysis of these data enabled the author first to come to the conclusion that the multiple low molecular weight substances of indigenous gut microbiota origin should be considered one of the main endogenous factors actively participating in epigenomic mechanisms that responsible for the mammalian genome reprogramming and post-translated modifications. Gut microecological imbalance coursed by various biogenic and abiogenic agents and factors can produce the different epigenetic abnormalities and the onset and progression of metabolic diseases associated. The author substantiates the necessity to create an international project ‘Human Gut Microbiota and Epigenomics’ that facilitates interdisciplinary collaborations among scientists and clinicians engaged in host microbial ecology, nutrition, metagenomics, epigenomics and metabolomics investigations as well as in diseases prevention and treatment. Some priority scientific and applied directions in the current omic technologies coupled with gnotobiological approaches are suggested that can open a new era in characterizing the role of the symbiotic microbiota small metabolic and signal molecules in the host epigenomics. Although discussed subject is only at an early stage its validation can open novel approaches in drug discovery studies.

  18. Gut bacterial microbiota and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Million, M; Lagier, J-C; Yahav, D; Paul, M

    2013-04-01

    Although probiotics and antibiotics have been used for decades as growth promoters in animals, attention has only recently been drawn to the association between the gut microbiota composition, its manipulation, and obesity. Studies in mice have associated the phylum Firmicutes with obesity and the phylum Bacteroidetes with weight loss. Proposed mechanisms linking the microbiota to fat content and weight include differential effects of bacteria on the efficiency of energy extraction from the diet, and changes in host metabolism of absorbed calories. The independent effect of the microbiota on fat accumulation has been demonstrated in mice, where transplantation of microbiota from obese mice or mice fed western diets to lean or germ-free mice produced fat accumulation among recipients. The microbiota can be manipulated by prebiotics, probiotics, and antibiotics. Probiotics affect the microbiota directly by modulating its bacterial content, and indirectly through bacteriocins produced by the probiotic bacteria. Interestingly, certain probiotics are associated with weight gain both in animals and in humans. The effects are dependent on the probiotic strain, the host, and specific host characteristics, such as age and baseline nutritional status. Attention has recently been drawn to the association between antibiotic use and weight gain in children and adults. We herein review the studies describing the associations between the microbiota composition, its manipulation, and obesity. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  19. The gut microbiota, obesity and insulin resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The human gut is densely populated by commensal and symbiotic microbes (the "gut microbiota"), with the majority of the constituent microorganisms being bacteria. Accumulating evidence indicates that the gut microbiota plays a significant role in the development of obesity, obesity-associated inflam...

  20. Gut microbiota modulation: probiotics, antibiotics or fecal microbiota transplantation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammarota, Giovanni; Ianiro, Gianluca; Bibbò, Stefano; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2014-06-01

    Gut microbiota is known to have a relevant role in our health, and is also related to both gastrointestinal and extradigestive diseases. Therefore, restoring the alteration of gut microbiota represents an outstanding clinical target for the treatment of gut microbiota-related diseases. The modulation of gut microbiota is perhaps an ancestral, innate concept for human beings. At this time, the restoration of gut microbiota impairment is a well-established concept in mainstream medicine, and several therapeutic approaches have been developed in this regard. Antibiotics, prebiotics and probiotics are the best known and commercially available options to overcome gastrointestinal dysbiosis. Fecal microbiota transplantation is an old procedure that has recently become popular again. It has shown a clear effectiveness in the treatment of C. difficile infection, and now represents a cutting-edge option for the restoration of gut microbiota. Nevertheless, such weapons should be used with caution. Antibiotics can indeed harm and alter gut microbiota composition. Probiotics, instead, are not at all the same thing, and thinking in terms of different strains is probably the only way to improve clinical outcomes. Moreover, fecal microbiota transplantation has shown promising results, but stronger proofs are needed. Considerable efforts are needed to increase our knowledge in the field of gut microbiota, especially with regard to the future use in its modulation for therapeutic purposes.

  1. Enterotypes influence temporal changes in gut microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roager, Henrik Munch; Licht, Tine Rask; Kellebjerg Poulsen, Sanne

    The human gut microbiota plays an important role for the health of the host. The question is whether we can modulate the gut microbiota by changing diet. During a 6-month, randomised, controlled dietary intervention, the effect of a moderate diet shift from Average Danish Diet to New Nordic Diet...... on the gut microbiota in humans (n=62) was investigated. Quantitative PCR analysis showed that the microbiota did not change significantly by the intervention. Nevertheless, by stratifying subjects into two enterotypes, distinguished by the Prevotella/Bacteroides ratio (P/B), we were able to detect...... significant changes in the gut microbiota composition resulting from the interventions. Subjects with a high-P/B experienced more pronounced changes in the gut microbiota composition than subjects with a low-P/B. The study is the first to indicate that enterotypes influence microbiota response to a dietary...

  2. Carbohydrates and the human gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassard, Christophe; Lacroix, Christophe

    2013-07-01

    Due to its scale and its important role in maintaining health, the gut microbiota can be considered as a 'new organ' inside the human body. Many complex carbohydrates are degraded and fermented by the human gut microbiota in the large intestine to both yield basic energy salvage and impact gut health through produced metabolites. This review will focus on the gut microbes and microbial mechanisms responsible for polysaccharides degradation and fermentation in the large intestine. Gut microbes and bacterial metabolites impact the host at many levels, including modulation of inflammation, and glucose and lipid metabolisms. A complex relationship occurs in the intestine between the human gut microbiota, diet and the host. Research on carbohydrates and gut microbiota composition and functionality is fast developing and will open opportunities for prevention and treatment of obesity, diabetes and other related metabolic disorders through manipulation of the gut ecosystem.

  3. Microbiota in fermented feed and swine gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Shi, Changyou; Zhang, Yu; Song, Deguang; Lu, Zeqing; Wang, Yizhen

    2018-04-01

    Development of alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) used in swine production requires a better understanding of their impacts on the gut microbiota. Supplementing fermented feed (FF) in swine diets as a novel nutritional strategy to reduce the use of AGP and feed price, can positively affect the porcine gut microbiota, thereby improving pig productivities. Previous studies have noted the potential effects of FF on the shift in benefit of the swine microbiota in different regions of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The positive influences of FF on swine gut microbiota may be due to the beneficial effects of both pre- and probiotics. Necessarily, some methods should be adopted to properly ferment and evaluate the feed and avoid undesired problems. In this mini-review, we mainly discuss the microbiota in both fermented feed and swine gut and how FF influences swine gut microbiota.

  4. Enterotypes influence temporal changes in gut microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roager, Henrik Munch; Licht, Tine Rask; Kellebjerg Poulsen, Sanne

    The human gut microbiota plays an important role for human health. The question is whether we can modulate the gut microbiota by changing diet. During a 6-month, randomised, controlled dietary intervention, the effect of consuming a diet following the New Nordic Diet recommendations (NND......) as opposed to Average Danish Diet (ADD) on the gut microbiota in humans (n=62) was investigated. Quantitative PCR analysis showed that the microbiota did not change significantly by the intervention. Nevertheless, by stratifying subjects into two enterotypes, distinguished by the Prevotella/Bacteroides ratio...... (P/B), we were able to detect significant changes in the gut microbiota composition resulting from the interventions. Subjects with a high-P/B experienced more pronounced changes in the gut microbiota composition than subjects with a low-P/B. The study is the first to indicate that enterotypes...

  5. Human gut microbiota: does diet matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maukonen, Johanna; Saarela, Maria

    2015-02-01

    The human oro-gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a complex system, consisting of oral cavity, pharynx, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum and anus, which all together with the accessory digestive organs constitute the digestive system. The function of the digestive system is to break down dietary constituents into small molecules and then absorb these for subsequent distribution throughout the body. Besides digestion and carbohydrate metabolism, the indigenous microbiota has an important influence on host physiological, nutritional and immunological processes, and commensal bacteria are able to modulate the expression of host genes that regulate diverse and fundamental physiological functions. The main external factors that can affect the composition of the microbial community in generally healthy adults include major dietary changes and antibiotic therapy. Changes in some selected bacterial groups have been observed due to controlled changes to the normal diet e.g. high-protein diet, high-fat diet, prebiotics, probiotics and polyphenols. More specifically, changes in the type and quantity of non-digestible carbohydrates in the human diet influence both the metabolic products formed in the lower regions of the GI tract and the bacterial populations detected in faeces. The interactions between dietary factors, gut microbiota and host metabolism are increasingly demonstrated to be important for maintaining homeostasis and health. Therefore the aim of this review is to summarise the effect of diet, and especially dietary interventions, on the human gut microbiota. Furthermore, the most important confounding factors (methodologies used and intrinsic human factors) in relation to gut microbiota analyses are elucidated.

  6. How informative is the mouse for human gut microbiota research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi Loan Anh; Vieira-Silva, Sara; Liston, Adrian; Raes, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    The microbiota of the human gut is gaining broad attention owing to its association with a wide range of diseases, ranging from metabolic disorders (e.g. obesity and type 2 diabetes) to autoimmune diseases (such as inflammatory bowel disease and type 1 diabetes), cancer and even neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g. autism). Having been increasingly used in biomedical research, mice have become the model of choice for most studies in this emerging field. Mouse models allow perturbations in gut microbiota to be studied in a controlled experimental setup, and thus help in assessing causality of the complex host-microbiota interactions and in developing mechanistic hypotheses. However, pitfalls should be considered when translating gut microbiome research results from mouse models to humans. In this Special Article, we discuss the intrinsic similarities and differences that exist between the two systems, and compare the human and murine core gut microbiota based on a meta-analysis of currently available datasets. Finally, we discuss the external factors that influence the capability of mouse models to recapitulate the gut microbiota shifts associated with human diseases, and investigate which alternative model systems exist for gut microbiota research. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. How informative is the mouse for human gut microbiota research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Loan Anh Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The microbiota of the human gut is gaining broad attention owing to its association with a wide range of diseases, ranging from metabolic disorders (e.g. obesity and type 2 diabetes to autoimmune diseases (such as inflammatory bowel disease and type 1 diabetes, cancer and even neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g. autism. Having been increasingly used in biomedical research, mice have become the model of choice for most studies in this emerging field. Mouse models allow perturbations in gut microbiota to be studied in a controlled experimental setup, and thus help in assessing causality of the complex host-microbiota interactions and in developing mechanistic hypotheses. However, pitfalls should be considered when translating gut microbiome research results from mouse models to humans. In this Special Article, we discuss the intrinsic similarities and differences that exist between the two systems, and compare the human and murine core gut microbiota based on a meta-analysis of currently available datasets. Finally, we discuss the external factors that influence the capability of mouse models to recapitulate the gut microbiota shifts associated with human diseases, and investigate which alternative model systems exist for gut microbiota research.

  8. Influence of gut microbiota on neuropsychiatric disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenit, María Carmen; Sanz, Yolanda; Codoñer-Franch, Pilar

    2017-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed a growing appreciation of the fundamental role played by an early assembly of a diverse and balanced gut microbiota and its subsequent maintenance for future health of the host. Gut microbiota is currently viewed as a key regulator of a fluent bidirectional dialogue between the gut and the brain (gut-brain axis). A number of preclinical studies have suggested that the microbiota and its genome (microbiome) may play a key role in neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Furthermore, alterations in the gut microbiota composition in humans have also been linked to a variety of neuropsychiatric conditions, including depression, autism and Parkinson’s disease. However, it is not yet clear whether these changes in the microbiome are causally related to such diseases or are secondary effects thereof. In this respect, recent studies in animals have indicated that gut microbiota transplantation can transfer a behavioral phenotype, suggesting that the gut microbiota may be a modifiable factor modulating the development or pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric conditions. Further studies are warranted to establish whether or not the findings of preclinical animal experiments can be generalized to humans. Moreover, although different communication routes between the microbiota and brain have been identified, further studies must elucidate all the underlying mechanisms involved. Such research is expected to contribute to the design of strategies to modulate the gut microbiota and its functions with a view to improving mental health, and thus provide opportunities to improve the management of psychiatric diseases. Here, we review the evidence supporting a role of the gut microbiota in neuropsychiatric disorders and the state of the art regarding the mechanisms underlying its contribution to mental illness and health. We also consider the stages of life where the gut microbiota is more susceptible to the effects of environmental stressors

  9. Modulation of Gut Microbiota in Pathological States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yulan; Wang, Baohong; Wu, Junfang

    2017-01-01

    The human microbiota is an aggregate of microorganisms residing in the human body, mostly in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Our gut microbiota evolves with us and plays a pivotal role in human health and disease. In recent years, the microbiota has gained increasing attention due to its impact...

  10. The Gut Microbiota and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Qinrui; Han, Ying; Dy, Angel Belle C.; Hagerman, Randi J.

    2017-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are a common comorbidity in patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Many studies have shown alterations in the composition of the fecal flora and metabolic products of the gut microbiome in patients with ASD. The gut microbiota influences brain development and behaviors through the neuroendocrine, neuroimmune and autonomic nervous systems. In addition, an abnormal gut microbiota is associated with several diseases...

  11. Role of the normal gut microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandhyala, Sai Manasa; Talukdar, Rupjyoti; Subramanyam, Chivkula; Vuyyuru, Harish; Sasikala, Mitnala; Reddy, D Nageshwar

    2015-01-01

    Relation between the gut microbiota and human health is being increasingly recognised. It is now well established that a healthy gut flora is largely responsible for overall health of the host. The normal human gut microbiota comprises of two major phyla, namely Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Though the gut microbiota in an infant appears haphazard, it starts resembling the adult flora by the age of 3 years. Nevertheless, there exist temporal and spatial variations in the microbial distribution from esophagus to the rectum all along the individual’s life span. Developments in genome sequencing technologies and bioinformatics have now enabled scientists to study these microorganisms and their function and microbe-host interactions in an elaborate manner both in health and disease. The normal gut microbiota imparts specific function in host nutrient metabolism, xenobiotic and drug metabolism, maintenance of structural integrity of the gut mucosal barrier, immunomodulation, and protection against pathogens. Several factors play a role in shaping the normal gut microbiota. They include (1) the mode of delivery (vaginal or caesarean); (2) diet during infancy (breast milk or formula feeds) and adulthood (vegan based or meat based); and (3) use of antibiotics or antibiotic like molecules that are derived from the environment or the gut commensal community. A major concern of antibiotic use is the long-term alteration of the normal healthy gut microbiota and horizontal transfer of resistance genes that could result in reservoir of organisms with a multidrug resistant gene pool. PMID:26269668

  12. Endometriosis induces gut microbiota alterations in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ming; Li, Dong; Zhang, Zhe; Sun, Huihui; An, Min; Wang, Guoyun

    2018-02-15

    What happens to the gut microbiota during development of murine endometriosis? Mice with the persistence of endometrial lesions for 42 days develop a distinct composition of gut microbiota. Disorders in the immune system play fundamental roles in changing the intestinal microbiota. No study has used high-throughput DNA sequencing to show how endometriosis changes the gut microbiota, although endometriosis is accompanied by abnormal cytokine expression and immune cell dysfunction. This study includes a prospective and randomized experiment on an animal endometriosis model induced via the intraperitoneal injection of endometrial tissues. The mice were divided into endometriosis and mock groups and were sacrificed at four different time points for model confirmation and fecal sample collection. To detect gut microbiota, 16S ribosomal-RNA gene sequencing was performed. Alpha diversity was used to analyze the complexity and species diversity of the samples through six indices. Beta diversity analysis was utilized to evaluate the differences in species complexity. Principal coordinate analysis and unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means clustering were performed to determine the clustering features. The microbial features differentiating the fecal microbiota were characterized by linear discriminant analysis effect size method. The endometriosis and mock mice shared similar diversity and richness of gut microbiota. However, different compositions of gut microbiota were detected 42 days after the modeling. Among the discriminative concrete features, the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio was elevated in mice with endometriosis, indicating that endometriosis may induce dysbiosis. Bifidobacterium, which is known as a commonly used probiotic, was also increased in mice with endometriosis. N/A. More control groups should be further studied to clarify the specificity of the dysbiosis induced by endometriosis. This study was performed only on mice. Thus, additional data

  13. Gut microbiota and IBD: causation or correlation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Josephine; Wu, Gary D; Albenberg, Lindsey; Tomov, Vesselin T

    2017-10-01

    A general consensus exists that IBD is associated with compositional and metabolic changes in the intestinal microbiota (dysbiosis). However, a direct causal relationship between dysbiosis and IBD has not been definitively established in humans. Findings from animal models have revealed diverse and context-specific roles of the gut microbiota in health and disease, ranging from protective to pro-inflammatory actions. Moreover, evidence from these experimental models suggest that although gut bacteria often drive immune activation, chronic inflammation in turn shapes the gut microbiota and contributes to dysbiosis. The purpose of this Review is to summarize current associations between IBD and dysbiosis, describe the role of the gut microbiota in the context of specific animal models of colitis, and discuss the potential role of microbiota-focused interventions in the treatment of human IBD. Ultimately, more studies will be needed to define host-microbial relationships relevant to human disease and amenable to therapeutic interventions.

  14. The gut microbiota and metabolic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arora, T; Bäckhed, Gert Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    The human gut microbiota has been studied for more than a century. However, of nonculture-based techniques exploiting next-generation sequencing for analysing the microbiota, development has renewed research within the field during the past decade. The observation that the gut microbiota, as an e......The human gut microbiota has been studied for more than a century. However, of nonculture-based techniques exploiting next-generation sequencing for analysing the microbiota, development has renewed research within the field during the past decade. The observation that the gut microbiota......, as an environmental factor, contributes to adiposity has further increased interest in the field. The human microbiota is affected by the diet, and macronutrients serve as substrates for many microbially produced metabolites, such as short-chain fatty acids and bile acids, that may modulate host metabolism. Obesity......-producing bacteria might be causally linked to type 2 diabetes. Bariatric surgery, which promotes long-term weight loss and diabetes remission, alters the gut microbiota in both mice and humans. Furthermore, by transferring the microbiota from postbariatric surgery patients to mice, it has been demonstrated...

  15. [Gut microbiota: Description, role and pathophysiologic implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman, C; Quévrain, E

    2016-06-01

    The human gut contains 10(14) bacteria and many other micro-organisms such as Archaea, viruses and fungi. Studying the gut microbiota showed how this entity participates to gut physiology and beyond this to human health, as a real "hidden organ". In this review, we aimed to bring information about gut microbiota, its structure, its roles and its implication in human pathology. After bacterial colonization in infant, intestinal microbial composition is unique for each individual although more than 95% can be assigned to four major phyla. The use of culture independent methods and more recently the development of high throughput sequencing allowed to depict precisely gut microbiota structure and diversity as well as its alteration in diseases. Gut microbiota is implicated in the maturation of the host immune system and in many fundamental metabolic pathways including sugars and proteins fermentation and metabolism of bile acids and xenobiotics. Imbalance of gut microbial populations or dysbiosis has important functional consequences and is implicated in many digestive diseases (inflammatory bowel diseases, colorectal cancer, etc.) but also in obesity and autism. These observations have led to a surge of studies exploring therapeutics which aims to restore gut microbiota equilibrium such as probiotics or fecal microbiota transplantation. But recent research also investigates biological activity of microbial products which could lead to interesting therapeutics leads. Copyright © 2015 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Gut microbiota in autism and mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiola, Francesca; Ianiro, Gianluca; Franceschi, Francesco; Fagiuoli, Stefano; Gasbarrini, Giovanni; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2016-01-07

    The hypothesis of an important role of gut microbiota in the maintenance of physiological state into the gastrointestinal (GI) system is supported by several studies that have shown a qualitative and quantitative alteration of the intestinal flora in a number of gastrointestinal and extra-gastrointestinal diseases. In the last few years, the importance of gut microbiota impairment in the etiopathogenesis of pathology such as autism, dementia and mood disorder, has been raised. The evidence of the inflammatory state alteration, highlighted in disorders such as schizophrenia, major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder, strongly recalls the microbiota alteration, highly suggesting an important role of the alteration of GI system also in neuropsychiatric disorders. Up to now, available evidences display that the impairment of gut microbiota plays a key role in the development of autism and mood disorders. The application of therapeutic modulators of gut microbiota to autism and mood disorders has been experienced only in experimental settings to date, with few but promising results. A deeper assessment of the role of gut microbiota in the development of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), as well as the advancement of the therapeutic armamentarium for the modulation of gut microbiota is warranted for a better management of ASD and mood disorders.

  17. Endurance exercise and gut microbiota: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Mach

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: The present review provides a comprehensive overview of how gut microbiota may have a key role in controlling the oxidative stress and inflammatory responses as well as improving metabolism and energy expenditure during intense exercise.

  18. Gut Microbiota and Type 1 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Han

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the onset of type 1 diabetes (T1D has increased rapidly and became a major public health concern worldwide. Various factors are associated with the development of T1D, such as diet, genome, and intestinal microbiota. The gastrointestinal (GI tract harbors a complex and dynamic population of microorganisms, the gut microbiota, which exert a marked influence on the host homeostasis and metabolic diseases. Recent evidence shows that altered gut bacterial composition (dysbiosis is highly associated with the pathogenesis of insulin dysfunction and T1D and, thus, targeting gut microbiota may serve as a therapeutic potential for T1D patients. In this study, we updated the effect of gut microbiota on T1D and potential mechanisms were discussed.

  19. Modulation of Gut Microbiota in Pathological States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulan Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The human microbiota is an aggregate of microorganisms residing in the human body, mostly in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT. Our gut microbiota evolves with us and plays a pivotal role in human health and disease. In recent years, the microbiota has gained increasing attention due to its impact on host metabolism, physiology, and immune system development, but also because the perturbation of the microbiota may result in a number of diseases. The gut microbiota may be linked to malignancies such as gastric cancer and colorectal cancer. It may also be linked to disorders such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD; obesity and diabetes, which are characterized as “lifestyle diseases” of the industrialized world; coronary heart disease; and neurological disorders. Although the revolution in molecular technologies has provided us with the necessary tools to study the gut microbiota more accurately, we need to elucidate the relationships between the gut microbiota and several human pathologies more precisely, as understanding the impact that the microbiota plays in various diseases is fundamental for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Therefore, the aim of this review is to provide the reader with an updated overview of the importance of the gut microbiota for human health and the potential to manipulate gut microbial composition for purposes such as the treatment of antibiotic-resistant Clostridium difficile (C. difficile infections. The concept of altering the gut community by microbial intervention in an effort to improve health is currently in its infancy. However, the therapeutic implications appear to be very great. Thus, the removal of harmful organisms and the enrichment of beneficial microbes may protect our health, and such efforts will pave the way for the development of more rational treatment options in the future.

  20. Gut Microbiota in Cardiovascular Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, W H Wilson; Kitai, Takeshi; Hazen, Stanley L

    2017-03-31

    Significant interest in recent years has focused on gut microbiota-host interaction because accumulating evidence has revealed that intestinal microbiota play an important role in human health and disease, including cardiovascular diseases. Changes in the composition of gut microbiota associated with disease, referred to as dysbiosis, have been linked to pathologies such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, heart failure, chronic kidney disease, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In addition to alterations in gut microbiota composition, the metabolic potential of gut microbiota has been identified as a contributing factor in the development of diseases. Recent studies revealed that gut microbiota can elicit a variety of effects on the host. Indeed, the gut microbiome functions like an endocrine organ, generating bioactive metabolites, that can impact host physiology. Microbiota interact with the host through many pathways, including the trimethylamine/trimethylamine N -oxide pathway, short-chain fatty acids pathway, and primary and secondary bile acids pathways. In addition to these metabolism-dependent pathways, metabolism-independent processes are suggested to also potentially contribute to cardiovascular disease pathogenesis. For example, heart failure-associated splanchnic circulation congestion, bowel wall edema, and impaired intestinal barrier function are thought to result in bacterial translocation, the presence of bacterial products in the systemic circulation and heightened inflammatory state. These are thought to also contribute to further progression of heart failure and atherosclerosis. The purpose of the current review is to highlight the complex interplay between microbiota, their metabolites, and the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. We will also discuss the roles of gut microbiota in normal physiology and the potential of modulating intestinal microbial inhabitants as novel therapeutic targets. © 2017 American Heart

  1. Role of Gut Microbiota in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Yuichi Maeda; Kiyoshi Takeda

    2017-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease, caused by both genetic and environmental factors. Recently, investigators have focused on the gut microbiota, which is thought to be an environmental agent affecting the development of RA. Here we review the evidence from animal and human studies that supports the role of the gut microbiota in RA. We and others have demonstrated that the abundance of Prevotella copri is increased in some early RA. We have also used gnotobiotic experi...

  2. Gut microbiota in autism and mood disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Mangiola, Francesca; Ianiro, Gianluca; Franceschi, Francesco; Fagiuoli, Stefano; Gasbarrini, Giovanni; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The hypothesis of an important role of gut microbiota in the maintenance of physiological state into the gastrointestinal (GI) system is supported by several studies that have shown a qualitative and quantitative alteration of the intestinal flora in a number of gastrointestinal and extra-gastrointestinal diseases. In the last few years, the importance of gut microbiota impairment in the etiopathogenesis of pathology such as autism, dementia and mood disorder, has been raised. The evidence of...

  3. The Gut Microbiota and Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qinrui; Han, Ying; Dy, Angel Belle C; Hagerman, Randi J

    2017-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are a common comorbidity in patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Many studies have shown alterations in the composition of the fecal flora and metabolic products of the gut microbiome in patients with ASD. The gut microbiota influences brain development and behaviors through the neuroendocrine, neuroimmune and autonomic nervous systems. In addition, an abnormal gut microbiota is associated with several diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), ASD and mood disorders. Here, we review the bidirectional interactions between the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract (brain-gut axis) and the role of the gut microbiota in the central nervous system (CNS) and ASD. Microbiome-mediated therapies might be a safe and effective treatment for ASD.

  4. The Gut Microbiota and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Han

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal (GI symptoms are a common comorbidity in patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Many studies have shown alterations in the composition of the fecal flora and metabolic products of the gut microbiome in patients with ASD. The gut microbiota influences brain development and behaviors through the neuroendocrine, neuroimmune and autonomic nervous systems. In addition, an abnormal gut microbiota is associated with several diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, ASD and mood disorders. Here, we review the bidirectional interactions between the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract (brain-gut axis and the role of the gut microbiota in the central nervous system (CNS and ASD. Microbiome-mediated therapies might be a safe and effective treatment for ASD.

  5. Gut microbiota in health and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Icaza-Chávez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota is the community of live microorganisms residing in the digestive tract. There are many groups of researchers worldwide that are working at deciphering the collective genome of the human microbiota. Modern techniques for studying the microbiota have made us aware of an important number of nonculturable bacteria and of the relation between the microorganisms that live inside us and our homeostasis. The microbiota is essential for correct body growth, the development of immunity, and nutrition. Certain epidemics affecting humanity such as asthma and obesity may possibly be explained, at least partially, by alterations in the microbiota. Dysbiosis has been associated with a series of gastrointestinal disorders that include non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, celiac disease, and irritable bowel syndrome. The present article deals with the nomenclature, modern study techniques, and functions of gut microbiota, and its relation to health and disease.

  6. Interplay between gut microbiota and antibiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jesus Bello Gonzalez, de Teresita

    2016-01-01

    The human body is colonized by a vast number of microorganisms collectively defined as the microbiota. In the gut, the microbiota has important roles in health and disease, and can serve as a host of antibiotic resistance genes. Disturbances in the ecological balance, e.g. by antibiotics, can affect

  7. Interplay between gut microbiota and antibiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jesus Bello Gonzalez, de Teresita

    2016-01-01

    The human body is colonized by a vast number of microorganisms collectively defined as the microbiota. In the gut, the microbiota has important roles in health and disease, and can serve as a host of antibiotic resistance genes. Disturbances in the ecological balance, e.g. by antibiotics, can

  8. Altered gut microbiota in Rett syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strati, Francesco; Cavalieri, Duccio; Albanese, Davide; De Felice, Claudio; Donati, Claudio; Hayek, Joussef; Jousson, Olivier; Leoncini, Silvia; Pindo, Massimo; Renzi, Daniela; Rizzetto, Lisa; Stefanini, Irene; Calabrò, Antonio; De Filippo, Carlotta

    2016-07-30

    The human gut microbiota directly affects human health, and its alteration can lead to gastrointestinal abnormalities and inflammation. Rett syndrome (RTT), a progressive neurological disorder mainly caused by mutations in MeCP2 gene, is commonly associated with gastrointestinal dysfunctions and constipation, suggesting a link between RTT's gastrointestinal abnormalities and the gut microbiota. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bacterial and fungal gut microbiota in a cohort of RTT subjects integrating clinical, metabolomics and metagenomics data to understand if changes in the gut microbiota of RTT subjects could be associated with gastrointestinal abnormalities and inflammatory status. Our findings revealed the occurrence of an intestinal sub-inflammatory status in RTT subjects as measured by the elevated values of faecal calprotectin and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. We showed that, overall, RTT subjects harbour bacterial and fungal microbiota altered in terms of relative abundances from those of healthy controls, with a reduced microbial richness and dominated by microbial taxa belonging to Bifidobacterium, several Clostridia (among which Anaerostipes, Clostridium XIVa, Clostridium XIVb) as well as Erysipelotrichaceae, Actinomyces, Lactobacillus, Enterococcus, Eggerthella, Escherichia/Shigella and the fungal genus Candida. We further observed that alterations of the gut microbiota do not depend on the constipation status of RTT subjects and that this dysbiotic microbiota produced altered short chain fatty acids profiles. We demonstrated for the first time that RTT is associated with a dysbiosis of both the bacterial and fungal component of the gut microbiota, suggesting that impairments of MeCP2 functioning favour the establishment of a microbial community adapted to the costive gastrointestinal niche of RTT subjects. The altered production of short chain fatty acids associated with this microbiota might reinforce the constipation status of RTT

  9. Selected aspects of the human gut microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ventura, Marco; O’Toole, Paul W.; Vos, de Willem M.; Sinderen, van Douwe

    2018-01-01

    The gut microbiota represents a highly complex assembly of microbes, which interact with each other and with their host. These interactions have various implications in terms of health and disease, and this multi-author review issue will address a number of selected aspects pertaining to gut

  10. The gut microbiota and inflammatory noncommunicable diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, Christina E; Renz, Harald; Jenmalm, Maria C

    2015-01-01

    Rapid environmental transition and modern lifestyles are likely driving changes in the biodiversity of the human gut microbiota. With clear effects on physiologic, immunologic, and metabolic processes in human health, aberrations in the gut microbiome and intestinal homeostasis have the capacity...

  11. Regulation of body fat mass by the gut microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schéle, Erik; Grahnemo, Louise; Anesten, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    New insight suggests gut microbiota as a component in energy balance. However, the underlying mechanisms by which gut microbiota can impact metabolic regulation is unclear. A recent study from our lab shows, for the first time, a link between gut microbiota and energy balance circuitries in the h......New insight suggests gut microbiota as a component in energy balance. However, the underlying mechanisms by which gut microbiota can impact metabolic regulation is unclear. A recent study from our lab shows, for the first time, a link between gut microbiota and energy balance circuitries...

  12. Links between diet, gut microbiota composition and gut metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Harry J; Duncan, Sylvia H; Scott, Karen P; Louis, Petra

    2015-02-01

    The gut microbiota and its metabolic products interact with the host in many different ways, influencing gut homoeostasis and health outcomes. The species composition of the gut microbiota has been shown to respond to dietary change, determined by competition for substrates and by tolerance of gut conditions. Meanwhile, the metabolic outputs of the microbiota, such as SCFA, are influenced both by the supply of dietary components and via diet-mediated changes in microbiota composition. There has been significant progress in identifying the phylogenetic distribution of pathways responsible for formation of particular metabolites among human colonic bacteria, based on combining cultural microbiology and sequence-based approaches. Formation of butyrate and propionate from hexose sugars, for example, can be ascribed to different bacterial groups, although propionate can be formed via alternative pathways from deoxy-sugars and from lactate by a few species. Lactate, which is produced by many gut bacteria in pure culture, can also be utilised by certain Firmicutes to form butyrate, and its consumption may be important for maintaining a stable community. Predicting the impact of diet upon such a complex and interactive system as the human gut microbiota not only requires more information on the component groups involved but, increasingly, the integration of such information through modelling approaches.

  13. Host adaptive immunity alters gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Husen; Sparks, Joshua B; Karyala, Saikumar V; Settlage, Robert; Luo, Xin M

    2015-03-01

    It has long been recognized that the mammalian gut microbiota has a role in the development and activation of the host immune system. Much less is known on how host immunity regulates the gut microbiota. Here we investigated the role of adaptive immunity on the mouse distal gut microbial composition by sequencing 16 S rRNA genes from microbiota of immunodeficient Rag1(-/-) mice, versus wild-type mice, under the same housing environment. To detect possible interactions among immunological status, age and variability from anatomical sites, we analyzed samples from the cecum, colon, colonic mucus and feces before and after weaning. High-throughput sequencing showed that Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Verrucomicrobia dominated mouse gut bacterial communities. Rag1(-) mice had a distinct microbiota that was phylogenetically different from wild-type mice. In particular, the bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila was highly enriched in Rag1(-/-) mice compared with the wild type. This enrichment was suppressed when Rag1(-/-) mice received bone marrows from wild-type mice. The microbial community diversity increased with age, albeit the magnitude depended on Rag1 status. In addition, Rag1(-/-) mice had a higher gain in microbiota richness and evenness with increase in age compared with wild-type mice, possibly due to the lack of pressure from the adaptive immune system. Our results suggest that adaptive immunity has a pervasive role in regulating gut microbiota's composition and diversity.

  14. Role of Gut Microbiota in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Yuichi; Takeda, Kiyoshi

    2017-06-09

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease, caused by both genetic and environmental factors. Recently, investigators have focused on the gut microbiota, which is thought to be an environmental agent affecting the development of RA. Here we review the evidence from animal and human studies that supports the role of the gut microbiota in RA. We and others have demonstrated that the abundance of Prevotella copri is increased in some early RA. We have also used gnotobiotic experiments to show that dysbiosis in RA patients contributed to the development of Th17 cell-dependent arthritis in intestinal microbiota-humanized SKG mice. On the other hand, Prevotella histicola from human gut microbiota suppressed the development of arthritis. In summary, Prevotella species are involved in the pathogenesis of arthritis.

  15. Role of Gut Microbiota in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Maeda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a systemic autoimmune disease, caused by both genetic and environmental factors. Recently, investigators have focused on the gut microbiota, which is thought to be an environmental agent affecting the development of RA. Here we review the evidence from animal and human studies that supports the role of the gut microbiota in RA. We and others have demonstrated that the abundance of Prevotella copri is increased in some early RA. We have also used gnotobiotic experiments to show that dysbiosis in RA patients contributed to the development of Th17 cell-dependent arthritis in intestinal microbiota-humanized SKG mice. On the other hand, Prevotella histicola from human gut microbiota suppressed the development of arthritis. In summary, Prevotella species are involved in the pathogenesis of arthritis.

  16. [Why could gut microbiota become a medication?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourlioux, P; Megerlin, F; Corthier, G; Gobert, J-G; Butel, M-J

    2014-09-01

    The gut microbiota (or gut flora) is a set of bacteria living in symbiosis with the host. Strictly associated with the intestinal tract and interacting with it, the gut microbiota is not a tissue nor an organ, but a supra-organism. A disruption of dialogue between bacteria and human cells is a risk factor or a possible cause of various diseases. The restoration of this dialogue, thanks to the transfer of the gut microbiota of a healthy individual to a patient whose balance of gut flora has been broken, is a new therapeutic approach. If its exact effect still eludes scientific understanding, its clinical benefit is well established for an indication, and is recently being tested for many others. The proven contribution of gut microbiota in the human physiological balance calls for intensifying research throughout the world about the state of knowledge and technologies, as well as on the legal and ethical dimension of fecal microbiota transfer. This didactic paper updates the questions in relation with this therapeutic act. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Microbiota and the gut-brain axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienenstock, John; Kunze, Wolfgang; Forsythe, Paul

    2015-08-01

    Changes in gut microbiota can modulate the peripheral and central nervous systems, resulting in altered brain functioning, and suggesting the existence of a microbiota gut-brain axis. Diet can also change the profile of gut microbiota and, thereby, behavior. Effects of bacteria on the nervous system cannot be disassociated from effects on the immune system since the two are in constant bidirectional communication. While the composition of the gut microbiota varies greatly among individuals, alterations to the balance and content of common gut microbes may affect the production of molecules such as neurotransmitters, e.g., gamma amino butyric acid, and the products of fermentation, e.g., the short chain fatty acids butyrate, propionate, and acetate. Short chain fatty acids, which are pleomorphic, especially butyrate, positively influence host metabolism by promoting glucose and energy homeostasis, regulating immune responses and epithelial cell growth, and promoting the functioning of the central and peripheral nervous systems. In the future, the composition, diversity, and function of specific probiotics, coupled with similar, more detailed knowledge about gut microbiota, will potentially help in developing more effective diet- and drug-based therapies. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. The role of gut microbiota in the gut-brain axis: current challenges and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; D'Souza, Roshan; Hong, Seong-Tshool

    2013-06-01

    Brain and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are intimately connected to form a bidirectional neurohumoral communication system. The communication between gut and brain, knows as the gut-brain axis, is so well established that the functional status of gut is always related to the condition of brain. The researches on the gut-brain axis were traditionally focused on the psychological status affecting the function of the GI tract. However, recent evidences showed that gut microbiota communicates with the brain via the gut-brain axis to modulate brain development and behavioral phenotypes. These recent findings on the new role of gut microbiota in the gut-brain axis implicate that gut microbiota could associate with brain functions as well as neurological diseases via the gut-brain axis. To elucidate the role of gut microbiota in the gut-brain axis, precise identification of the composition of microbes constituting gut microbiota is an essential step. However, identification of microbes constituting gut microbiota has been the main technological challenge currently due to massive amount of intestinal microbes and the difficulties in culture of gut microbes. Current methods for identification of microbes constituting gut microbiota are dependent on omics analysis methods by using advanced high tech equipment. Here, we review the association of gut microbiota with the gut-brain axis, including the pros and cons of the current high throughput methods for identification of microbes constituting gut microbiota to elucidate the role of gut microbiota in the gut-brain axis.

  19. Dynamics of gut microbiota in autoimmune lupus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Husen; Liao, Xiaofeng; Sparks, Joshua B; Luo, Xin M

    2014-12-01

    Gut microbiota has been recognized as an important environmental factor in health, as well as in metabolic and immunological diseases, in which perturbation of the host gut microbiota is often observed in the diseased state. However, little is known on the role of gut microbiota in systemic lupus erythematosus. We investigated the effects of host genetics, sex, age, and dietary intervention on the gut microbiome in a murine lupus model. In young, female lupus-prone mice resembling women at childbearing age, a population with the highest risk for lupus, we found marked depletion of lactobacilli, and increases in Lachnospiraceae and overall diversity compared to age-matched healthy controls. The predicted metagenomic profile in lupus-prone mice showed a significant enrichment of bacterial motility- and sporulation-related pathways. Retinoic acid as a dietary intervention restored lactobacilli that were downregulated in lupus-prone mice, and this correlated with improved symptoms. The predicted metagenomes also showed that retinoic acid reversed many lupus-associated changes in microbial functions that deviated from the control. In addition, gut microbiota of lupus-prone mice were different between sexes, and an overrepresentation of Lachnospiraceae in females was associated with an earlier onset of and/or more severe lupus symptoms. Clostridiaceae and Lachnospiraceae, both harboring butyrate-producing genera, were more abundant in the gut of lupus-prone mice at specific time points during lupus progression. Together, our results demonstrate the dynamics of gut microbiota in murine lupus and provide evidence to suggest the use of probiotic lactobacilli and retinoic acid as dietary supplements to relieve inflammatory flares in lupus patients. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Childhood Obesity: A Role for Gut Microbiota?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Sanchez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a serious public health issue affecting both children and adults. Prevention and management of obesity is proposed to begin in childhood when environmental factors exert a long-term effect on the risk for obesity in adulthood. Thus, identifying modifiable factors may help to reduce this risk. Recent evidence suggests that gut microbiota is involved in the control of body weight, energy homeostasis and inflammation and thus, plays a role in the pathophysiology of obesity. Prebiotics and probiotics are of interest because they have been shown to alter the composition of gut microbiota and to affect food intake and appetite, body weight and composition and metabolic functions through gastrointestinal pathways and modulation of the gut bacterial community. As shown in this review, prebiotics and probiotics have physiologic functions that contribute to changes in the composition of gut microbiota, maintenance of a healthy body weight and control of factors associated with childhood obesity through their effects on mechanisms controlling food intake, fat storage and alterations in gut microbiota.

  1. Introduction to the human gut microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thursby, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal (GI) tract harbours a complex and dynamic population of microorganisms, the gut microbiota, which exert a marked influence on the host during homeostasis and disease. Multiple factors contribute to the establishment of the human gut microbiota during infancy. Diet is considered as one of the main drivers in shaping the gut microbiota across the life time. Intestinal bacteria play a crucial role in maintaining immune and metabolic homeostasis and protecting against pathogens. Altered gut bacterial composition (dysbiosis) has been associated with the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases and infections. The interpretation of these studies relies on a better understanding of inter-individual variations, heterogeneity of bacterial communities along and across the GI tract, functional redundancy and the need to distinguish cause from effect in states of dysbiosis. This review summarises our current understanding of the development and composition of the human GI microbiota, and its impact on gut integrity and host health, underlying the need for mechanistic studies focusing on host–microbe interactions. PMID:28512250

  2. Introduction to the human gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thursby, Elizabeth; Juge, Nathalie

    2017-05-16

    The human gastrointestinal (GI) tract harbours a complex and dynamic population of microorganisms, the gut microbiota, which exert a marked influence on the host during homeostasis and disease. Multiple factors contribute to the establishment of the human gut microbiota during infancy. Diet is considered as one of the main drivers in shaping the gut microbiota across the life time. Intestinal bacteria play a crucial role in maintaining immune and metabolic homeostasis and protecting against pathogens. Altered gut bacterial composition (dysbiosis) has been associated with the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases and infections. The interpretation of these studies relies on a better understanding of inter-individual variations, heterogeneity of bacterial communities along and across the GI tract, functional redundancy and the need to distinguish cause from effect in states of dysbiosis. This review summarises our current understanding of the development and composition of the human GI microbiota, and its impact on gut integrity and host health, underlying the need for mechanistic studies focusing on host-microbe interactions. © 2017 The Author(s).

  3. Gut/brain axis and the microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Emeran A; Tillisch, Kirsten; Gupta, Arpana

    2015-03-02

    Tremendous progress has been made in characterizing the bidirectional interactions between the central nervous system, the enteric nervous system, and the gastrointestinal tract. A series of provocative preclinical studies have suggested a prominent role for the gut microbiota in these gut-brain interactions. Based on studies using rodents raised in a germ-free environment, the gut microbiota appears to influence the development of emotional behavior, stress- and pain-modulation systems, and brain neurotransmitter systems. Additionally, microbiota perturbations by probiotics and antibiotics exert modulatory effects on some of these measures in adult animals. Current evidence suggests that multiple mechanisms, including endocrine and neurocrine pathways, may be involved in gut microbiota-to-brain signaling and that the brain can in turn alter microbial composition and behavior via the autonomic nervous system. Limited information is available on how these findings may translate to healthy humans or to disease states involving the brain or the gut/brain axis. Future research needs to focus on confirming that the rodent findings are translatable to human physiology and to diseases such as irritable bowel syndrome, autism, anxiety, depression, and Parkinson's disease.

  4. Gut Microbiota and Lifestyle Interventions in NAFLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, David; Stewart, Christopher J; Day, Christopher P; Trenell, Michael

    2016-03-25

    The human digestive system harbors a diverse and complex community of microorganisms that work in a symbiotic fashion with the host, contributing to metabolism, immune response and intestinal architecture. However, disruption of a stable and diverse community, termed "dysbiosis", has been shown to have a profound impact upon health and disease. Emerging data demonstrate dysbiosis of the gut microbiota to be linked with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Although the exact mechanism(s) remain unknown, inflammation, damage to the intestinal membrane, and translocation of bacteria have all been suggested. Lifestyle intervention is undoubtedly effective at improving NAFLD, however, not all patients respond to these in the same manner. Furthermore, studies investigating the effects of lifestyle interventions on the gut microbiota in NAFLD patients are lacking. A deeper understanding of how different aspects of lifestyle (diet/nutrition/exercise) affect the host-microbiome interaction may allow for a more tailored approach to lifestyle intervention. With gut microbiota representing a key element of personalized medicine and nutrition, we review the effects of lifestyle interventions (diet and physical activity/exercise) on gut microbiota and how this impacts upon NAFLD prognosis.

  5. Gut Microbiota and Lifestyle Interventions in NAFLD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, David; Stewart, Christopher J.; Day, Christopher P.; Trenell, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The human digestive system harbors a diverse and complex community of microorganisms that work in a symbiotic fashion with the host, contributing to metabolism, immune response and intestinal architecture. However, disruption of a stable and diverse community, termed “dysbiosis”, has been shown to have a profound impact upon health and disease. Emerging data demonstrate dysbiosis of the gut microbiota to be linked with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Although the exact mechanism(s) remain unknown, inflammation, damage to the intestinal membrane, and translocation of bacteria have all been suggested. Lifestyle intervention is undoubtedly effective at improving NAFLD, however, not all patients respond to these in the same manner. Furthermore, studies investigating the effects of lifestyle interventions on the gut microbiota in NAFLD patients are lacking. A deeper understanding of how different aspects of lifestyle (diet/nutrition/exercise) affect the host–microbiome interaction may allow for a more tailored approach to lifestyle intervention. With gut microbiota representing a key element of personalized medicine and nutrition, we review the effects of lifestyle interventions (diet and physical activity/exercise) on gut microbiota and how this impacts upon NAFLD prognosis. PMID:27023533

  6. Gut Microbiota in Obesity and Undernutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Clercq, Nicolien C.; Groen, Albert K.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Nieuwdorp, Max

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition is the result of an inadequate balance between energy intake and energy expenditure that ultimately leads to either obesity or undernutrition. Several factors are associated with the onset and preservation of malnutrition. One of these factors is the gut microbiota, which has been

  7. Dietary Fiber Gap and Host Gut Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Meng; Wang, Congmin; Liu, Ping; Li, Defa; Li, Yuan; Ma, Xi

    2017-05-10

    Accumulating evidence is dramatically increasing the access to the facts that the gut microbiota plays a pivotal role in host metabolism and health, which revealed the possibility of a plethora of associations between gut bacteria and human diseases. Several functional roles are carried out by a major class of the host's diet, such as fiber. Fiber is the main source of microbiota-accessible carbohydrate in the diet of humans. In the modern diet, it is difficult to intake sufficient dietary fiber as recommended. The low-fiber diet in the modern life, known as fiber gap, can trigger a substantial depletion of the human gut microbiota diversity and beneficial metabolites. The short-chain fatty acids are regarded as one of the major microbial metabolites of dietary fibers, which can improve intestinal mucosal immunity, as well as to be a source of energy for the liver. Thus, the loss of microbiota diversity has a potential negative function to various aspects of host health. Actually, the real "fiber gap" for ideal health and maintaining microbial diversity might be even more serious than currently appreciated. Herein, we briefly discuss the interactions between gut microbiota and the host diet, focusing specifically on the low-fiber diet. Gut bacteria in the context of the development of host low-fiber diets, which may lead to health and disorders, particularly include metabolic syndrome and obesity-related disease, IBD liver, disease, and colorectal cancer. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. Deviations in human gut microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casén, C; Vebø, H C; Sekelja, M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dysbiosis is associated with many diseases, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), obesity and diabetes. Potential clinical impact of imbalance in the intestinal microbiota suggests need for new standardised diagnostic methods to facilitate...... microbiome profiling. AIM: To develop and validate a novel diagnostic test using faecal samples to profile the intestinal microbiota and identify and characterise dysbiosis. METHODS: Fifty-four DNA probes targeting ≥300 bacteria on different taxonomic levels were selected based on ability to distinguish......-determined highly relevant bacteria. CONCLUSIONS: The GA-map Dysbiosis Test identifies and characterises dysbiosis in IBS and IBD patients, and provides insight into a patient's intestinal microbiota. Evaluating microbiota as a diagnostic strategy may allow monitoring of prescribed treatment regimens...

  9. The gut microbiota: A treasure for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daotong; Wang, Pan; Wang, Pengpu; Hu, Xiaosong; Chen, Fang

    2016-11-15

    The interplay between the host and host-associated gut microbiota is an area of increasing interest during the recent decade. From young infants to elderly people, from primitive tribes to modern societies, accumulating evidence has suggested the association of critical physiological roles of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of a variety of human metabolic, immunological and neurological diseases. Importantly, it appears that the relationship between the gut microbiota and disease is bidirectional, instead of causal or consequential. Personalized nutritional and therapeutic strategies targeting the gut microbiota such as prebiotics, probiotics, drugs and fecal microbiota transplantation may create a new era in the human health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Gut Protozoa: Friends or Foes of the Human Gut Microbiota?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabé, Magali; Lokmer, Ana; Ségurel, Laure

    2017-12-01

    The importance of the gut microbiota for human health has sparked a strong interest in the study of the factors that shape its composition and diversity. Despite the growing evidence suggesting that helminths and protozoa significantly interact with gut bacteria, gut microbiome studies remain mostly focused on prokaryotes and on populations living in industrialized countries that typically have a low parasite burden. We argue that protozoa, like helminths, represent an important factor to take into account when studying the gut microbiome, and that their presence - especially considering their long coevolutionary history with humans - may be beneficial. From this perspective, we examine the relationship between the protozoa and their hosts, as well as their relevance for public health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Gut microbiota of Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyman, Maxi; Gupta, Arvind Kumar; Bezuidenhout, Cornelius Carlos; Claassens, Sarina; van den Berg, Johnnie

    2016-07-01

    Busseola fusca (Fuller) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a stemborer pest that attacks maize (Zea mays) throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Genetically modified maize has been shown to be effective against B. fusca. However, resistance of B. fusca against Bt-maize has developed and spread throughout South Africa. Previous studies suggested that gut microbiota contribute to mortality across a range of Lepidoptera. To fully assess the role of microbiota within the gut, it is essential to understand the microbiota harboured by natural B. fusca populations. This study aimed to identify the gut-associated bacteria by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. A total of 78 bacterial strains were characterised from the midgut of B. fusca larvae that were collected from 30 sites across the maize producing region of South Africa. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed bacteria affiliated to Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. Taxonomic distribution placed these isolates into 15 different genera representing 20 species. The majority of bacteria identified belong to the genera Bacillus, Enterococcus, and Klebsiella. The B. fusca gut represents an intriguing and unexplored niche for analysing microbial ecology. The study could provide opportunities for developing new targets for pest management and contribute to understanding the phenomenon of resistance evolution of this species.

  12. The gut microbiota and gastrointestinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, Kristina; Alverdy, John C

    2017-01-01

    Surgery involving the gastrointestinal tract continues to prove challenging because of the persistence of unpredictable complications such as anastomotic leakage and life-threatening infections. Removal of diseased intestinal segments results in substantial catabolic stress and might require complex reconstructive surgery to maintain the functional continuity of the intestinal tract. As gastrointestinal surgery necessarily involves a breach of an epithelial barrier colonized by microorganisms, preoperative intestinal antisepsis is used to reduce infection-related complications. The current approach to intestinal antisepsis varies widely across institutions and countries with little understanding of its mechanism of action, effect on the gut microbiota and overall efficacy. Many of the current approaches to intestinal antisepsis before gastrointestinal surgery run counter to emerging concepts of intestinal microbiota contributing to immune function and recovery from injury. Here, we review evidence outlining the role of gut microbiota in recovery from gastrointestinal surgery, particularly in the development of infections and anastomotic leak. To make surgery safer and further reduce complications, a molecular, genetic and functional understanding of the response of the gastrointestinal tract to alterations in its microbiota is needed. Methods can then be developed to preserve the health-promoting functions of the microbiota while at the same time suppressing their harmful effects.

  13. Gut microbiota disturbance during helminth infection: can it affect cognition and behaviour of children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guernier, Vanina; Brennan, Bradley; Yakob, Laith; Milinovich, Gabriel; Clements, Archie C A; Soares Magalhaes, Ricardo J

    2017-01-10

    Bidirectional signalling between the brain and the gastrointestinal tract is regulated at neural, hormonal, and immunological levels. Recent studies have shown that helminth infections can alter the normal gut microbiota. Studies have also shown that the gut microbiota is instrumental in the normal development, maturation and function of the brain. The pathophysiological pathways by which helminth infections contribute to altered cognitive function remain poorly understood. We put forward the hypothesis that gastrointestinal infections with parasitic worms, such as helminths, induce an imbalance of the gut-brain axis, which, in turn, can detrimentally manifest in brain development. Factors supporting this hypothesis are: 1) research focusing on intelligence and school performance in school-aged children has shown helminth infections to be associated with cognitive impairment, 2) disturbances in gut microbiota have been shown to be associated with important cognitive developmental effects, and 3) helminth infections have been shown to alter the gut microbiota structure. Evidence on the complex interactions between extrinsic (parasite) and intrinsic (host-derived) factors has been synthesised and discussed. While evidence in favour of the helminth-gut microbiota-central nervous system hypothesis is circumstantial, it would be unwise to rule it out as a possible mechanism by which gastrointestinal helminth infections induce childhood cognitive morbidity. Further empirical studies are necessary to test an indirect effect of helminth infections on the modulation of mood and behaviour through its effects on the gut microbiota.

  14. Childhood Obesity: A Role for Gut Microbiota?

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez, Marina; Panahi, Shirin; Tremblay, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a serious public health issue affecting both children and adults. Prevention and management of obesity is proposed to begin in childhood when environmental factors exert a long-term effect on the risk for obesity in adulthood. Thus, identifying modifiable factors may help to reduce this risk. Recent evidence suggests that gut microbiota is involved in the control of body weight, energy homeostasis and inflammation and thus, plays a role in the pathophysiology of obesity. Prebiotic...

  15. [Research advances in association between childhood obesity and gut microbiota].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiao-Lin; Wan, Chao-Min

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, more and more studies have noted the close association between gut microbiota and the development and progression of obesity. Gut microbiota may act on obesity by increasing energy intake, affecting the secretion of intestinal hormones, inducing chronic systemic inflammation, and producing insulin resistance. This article reviews the association between childhood obesity and gut microbiota, as well as possible mechanisms, in an attempt to provide a reference for the etiology, prevention and treatment of childhood obesity.

  16. Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota in disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Carding

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that dysbiosis of the gut microbiota is associated with the pathogenesis of both intestinal and extra-intestinal disorders. Intestinal disorders include inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, and coeliac disease, while extra-intestinal disorders include allergy, asthma, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and obesity.In many of these conditions, the mechanisms leading to disease development involves the pivotal mutualistic relationship between the colonic microbiota, their metabolic products, and the host immune system. The establishment of a ‘healthy’ relationship early in life appears to be critical to maintaining intestinal homeostasis. Whilst we do not yet have a clear understanding of what constitutes a ‘healthy’ colonic microbiota, a picture is emerging from many recent studies identifying particular bacterial species associated with a healthy microbiota. In particular, the bacterial species residing within the mucus layer of the colon, either through direct contact with host cells, or through indirect communication via bacterial metabolites, may influence whether host cellular homeostasis is maintained or whether inflammatory mechanisms are triggered. In addition to inflammation, there is some evidence that perturbations in the gut microbiota is involved with the development of colorectal cancer. In this case, dysbiosis may not be the most important factor, rather the products of interaction between diet and the microbiome. High-protein diets are thought to result in the production of carcinogenic metabolites from the colonic microbiota that may result in the induction of neoplasia in the colonic epithelium.Ever more sensitive metabolomics methodologies reveal a suite of small molecules produced in the microbiome which mimic or act as neurosignallers or neurotransmitters. Coupled with evidence that probiotic interventions may alter psychological endpoints in both humans and in

  17. Gut microbiota and host metabolism: what relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithieux, Gilles

    2017-10-24

    A large number of genomic studies have reported associations between the gut microbiota composition and metabolic diseases such as obesity or type 2 diabetes. This led to the widespread idea that a causal relationship could exist between intestinal microbiota and metabolic diseases. At odds with this idea, some compelling studies reported that global changes in microbiota composition have no effect on the host metabolism in obese mice or humans. However, specific bacteria are able to confer host metabolic benefits, such as Akkermansia muciniphila or Prevotella copri, when they are given by gavage in obese mice. A crucial link by which gut bacteria communicate with the host mucosa is based on metabolites or low molecular weight compounds. Among them, short chain fatty acids produced from the fermentation of dietary fibers initiate beneficial effects on the host metabolism via the activation of intestinal gluconeogenesis. This mucosal function exerts anti-diabetic and anti-obesity effects through the activation of gut-brain neural circuits. ©2017S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. The gut microbiota and inflammatory noncommunicable diseases: associations and potentials for gut microbiota therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Christina E; Renz, Harald; Jenmalm, Maria C; Kozyrskyj, Anita L; Allen, Katrina J; Vuillermin, Peter; Prescott, Susan L

    2015-01-01

    Rapid environmental transition and modern lifestyles are likely driving changes in the biodiversity of the human gut microbiota. With clear effects on physiologic, immunologic, and metabolic processes in human health, aberrations in the gut microbiome and intestinal homeostasis have the capacity for multisystem effects. Changes in microbial composition are implicated in the increasing propensity for a broad range of inflammatory diseases, such as allergic disease, asthma, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), obesity, and associated noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). There are also suggestive implications for neurodevelopment and mental health. These diverse multisystem influences have sparked interest in strategies that might favorably modulate the gut microbiota to reduce the risk of many NCDs. For example, specific prebiotics promote favorable intestinal colonization, and their fermented products have anti-inflammatory properties. Specific probiotics also have immunomodulatory and metabolic effects. However, when evaluated in clinical trials, the effects are variable, preliminary, or limited in magnitude. Fecal microbiota transplantation is another emerging therapy that regulates inflammation in experimental models. In human subjects it has been successfully used in cases of Clostridium difficile infection and IBD, although controlled trials are lacking for IBD. Here we discuss relationships between gut colonization and inflammatory NCDs and gut microbiota modulation strategies for their treatment and prevention. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The role of gut microbiota in human metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieze, A.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis supports the hypothesis that gut microbiota can be viewed as an ‘exteriorised organ’ that contributes to energy metabolism and the modulation of our immune system. Following Koch’s postulates, it has now been shown that gut microbiota are associated with metabolic disease and that these

  20. Rett Syndrome: A Focus on Gut Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Borghi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Rett syndrome (RTT is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder affecting 1 in 10,000 live female births. Changes in microbiota composition, as observed in other neurological disorders such as autism spectrum disorders, may account for several symptoms typically associated with RTT. We studied the relationship between disease phenotypes and microbiome by analyzing diet, gut microbiota, and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA production. We enrolled eight RTT patients and 10 age- and sex-matched healthy women, all without dietary restrictions. The microbiota was characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and SCFAs concentration was determined by gas chromatographic analysis. The RTT microbiota showed a lower α diversity, an enrichment in Bacteroidaceae, Clostridium spp., and Sutterella spp., and a slight depletion in Ruminococcaceae. Fecal SCFA concentrations were similar, but RTT samples showed slightly higher concentrations of butyrate and propionate, and significant higher levels in branched-chain fatty acids. Daily caloric intake was similar in the two groups, but macronutrient analysis showed a higher protein content in RTT diets. Microbial function prediction suggested in RTT subjects an increased number of microbial genes encoding for propionate and butyrate, and amino acid metabolism. A full understanding of these critical features could offer new, specific strategies for managing RTT-associated symptoms, such as dietary intervention or pre/probiotic supplementation.

  1. The role of the gut microbiota in metabolic health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Aafke W F; Kersten, Sander

    2015-08-01

    The global prevalence of obesity and related comorbidities has increased considerably over the past decades. In addition to an increase in food consumption and a reduction in physical activity, growing evidence implicates the microorganisms in our gastrointestinal tract, referred to as the gut microbiota, in obesity and related metabolic disturbances. The composition of the gut microbiota can fluctuate markedly within an individual and between individuals. Changes in gut microbial composition may be unfavorable and predispose an individual to disease. Studies in mice that are germ free, mice that are cohoused, and mice that are treated with antibiotics have provided some evidence that changes in gut microbiota may causally contribute to metabolic disorders. Several mechanisms have been proposed and explored that may mediate the effects of the gut microbiota on metabolic disorders. In this review, we carefully analyze the literature on the connection between the gut microbiota and metabolic health, with a focus on studies demonstrating a causal relation and clarifying potential underlying mechanisms. Despite a growing appreciation for a role of the gut microbiota in metabolic health, more experimental evidence is needed to substantiate a cause-and-effect relationship. If a clear causal relationship between the gut microbiota and metabolic health can be established, dietary interventions can be targeted toward improving gut microbial composition in the prevention and perhaps even the treatment of metabolic diseases. © FASEB.

  2. The human gut microbiota and virome: Potential therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpellini, Emidio; Ianiro, Gianluca; Attili, Fabia; Bassanelli, Chiara; De Santis, Adriano; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Human gut microbiota is a complex ecosystem with several functions integrated in the host organism (metabolic, immune, nutrients absorption, etc.). Human microbiota is composed by bacteria, yeasts, fungi and, last but not least, viruses, whose composition has not been completely described. According to previous evidence on pathogenic viruses, the human gut harbours plant-derived viruses, giant viruses and, only recently, abundant bacteriophages. New metagenomic methods have allowed to reconstitute entire viral genomes from the genetic material spread in the human gut, opening new perspectives on the understanding of the gut virome composition, the importance of gut microbiome, and potential clinical applications. This review reports the latest evidence on human gut "virome" composition and its function, possible future therapeutic applications in human health in the context of the gut microbiota, and attempts to clarify the role of the gut "virome" in the larger microbial ecosystem. Copyright © 2015 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Role of gut microbiota in atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Annika Lindskog; Bäckhed, Gert Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    Infections have been linked to the development of cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. Findings from the past decade have identified microbial ecosystems residing in different habitats of the human body that contribute to metabolic and cardiovascular-related disorders. In this Review, we...... of atherosclerotic plaques. Third, diet and specific components that are metabolized by gut microbiota can have various effects on atherosclerosis; for example, dietary fibre is beneficial, whereas the bacterial metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide is considered harmful. Although specific bacterial taxa have been...... associated with atherosclerosis, which is supported by increasing mechanistic evidence, several questions remain to be answered to understand fully how the microbiota contributes to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Such knowledge might pave the way for novel diagnostics and therapeutics based...

  4. The mechanistic link between health and gut microbiota diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Olaf F A; Claassen, Eric

    2018-02-01

    Although numerous reports link a decreased diversity of the gut microbiota to a declined health status, to date no mechanistic motivation for this exists. Here, we show by applying first principles basic graph theory on small networks that higher diversity within such a network indeed leads to more efficient systems and redundancy. Our results quantitatively support earlier hypothetical considerations on gut microbiota richness with respect to these parameters. Our simulations show that higher species diversity leads to higher resilience within small microbiological ecosystems, like being present in the gut microbiota. This notion should provide an ingredient when developing new interventional strategies within the domain of microbiota management.

  5. Minireview: Gut Microbiota: The Neglected Endocrine Organ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Gerard; Stilling, Roman M.; Kennedy, Paul J.; Stanton, Catherine; Cryan, John F.

    2014-01-01

    The concept that the gut microbiota serves as a virtual endocrine organ arises from a number of important observations. Evidence for a direct role arises from its metabolic capacity to produce and regulate multiple compounds that reach the circulation and act to influence the function of distal organs and systems. For example, metabolism of carbohydrates results in the production of short-chain fatty acids, such as butyrate and propionate, which provide an important source of nutrients as well as regulatory control of the host digestive system. This influence over host metabolism is also seen in the ability of the prebiotic inulin to influence production of relevant hormones such as glucagon-like peptide-1, peptide YY, ghrelin, and leptin. Moreover, the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus PL60, which produces conjugated linoleic acid, has been shown to reduce body-weight gain and white adipose tissue without effects on food intake. Manipulating the microbial composition of the gastrointestinal tract modulates plasma concentrations of tryptophan, an essential amino acid and precursor to serotonin, a key neurotransmitter within both the enteric and central nervous systems. Indirectly and through as yet unknown mechanisms, the gut microbiota exerts control over the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. This is clear from studies on animals raised in a germ-free environment, who show exaggerated responses to psychological stress, which normalizes after monocolonization by certain bacterial species including Bifidobacterium infantis. It is tempting to speculate that therapeutic targeting of the gut microbiota may be useful in treating stress-related disorders and metabolic diseases. PMID:24892638

  6. The Role of the Gut Microbiota in Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Andreas Friis; Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Stjernholm, Theresa

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood and adolescent obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide. The pathogenesis of obesity is complex and multifactorial, in which genetic and environmental contributions seem important. The gut microbiota is increasingly documented to be involved in the dysmetabolism...... component of the human gut microbiota in childhood and adolescent-onset obesity, with a special focus on the factors involved in the early development of the gut bacterial ecosystem, and how modulation of this microbial community might serve as a basis for new therapeutic strategies in combating childhood...... the role of the gut microbiota in the development of childhood obesity may potentially reveal new strategies for obesity prevention and treatment....

  7. Gut microbiota may have influence on glucose and lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Kristian Hallundbæk; Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Tvede, Michael

    2013-01-01

    New gene sequencing-based techniques and the large worldwide sequencing capacity have introduced a new era within the field of gut microbiota. Animal and human studies have shown that obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with changes in the composition of the gut microbiota...... and that prebiotics, antibiotics or faecal transplantation can alter glucose and lipid metabolism. This paper summarizes the latest research regarding the association between gut microbiota, diabetes and obesity and some of the mechanisms by which gut bacteria may influence host metabolism....

  8. Gut microbiota may have influence on glucose and lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Kristian Hallundbæk; Nielsen, Morten Frost; Tvede, Michael

    2013-01-01

    and that prebiotics, antibiotics or faecal transplantation can alter glucose and lipid metabolism. This paper summarizes the latest research regarding the association between gut microbiota, diabetes and obesity and some of the mechanisms by which gut bacteria may influence host metabolism.......New gene sequencing-based techniques and the large worldwide sequencing capacity have introduced a new era within the field of gut microbiota. Animal and human studies have shown that obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with changes in the composition of the gut microbiota...

  9. Molecular Tools for Investigating the Gut Microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Christophe

    The “microbial world within us” (Zoetendal et al., 2006) is populated by a complex society of indigenous microorganisms that feature different “ethnic” populations. Those microbial cells thriving within us are estimated to outnumber human body cells by a factor of ten to one. Insights into the relation between the intestinal microbial community and its host have been gained through gnotobiology. Indeed, the influence of the gut microbiota upon human development, physiology, immunity, and nutrition has been inferred by comparing gnotoxenic and axenic murine models (Hooper et al., 1998, 2002, 2003; Hooper and Gordon, 2001).

  10. Neuropeptides and the microbiota-gut-brain axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Peter; Farzi, Aitak

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptides are important mediators both within the nervous system and between neurons and other cell types. Neuropeptides such as substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide and neuropeptide Y (NPY), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, somatostatin and corticotropin-releasing factor are also likely to play a role in the bidirectional gut-brain communication. In this capacity they may influence the activity of the gastrointestinal microbiota and its interaction with the gut-brain axis. Current efforts in elucidating the implication of neuropeptides in the microbiota-gut-brain axis address four information carriers from the gut to the brain (vagal and spinal afferent neurons; immune mediators such as cytokines; gut hormones; gut microbiota-derived signalling molecules) and four information carriers from the central nervous system to the gut (sympathetic efferent neurons; parasympathetic efferent neurons; neuroendocrine factors involving the adrenal medulla; neuroendocrine factors involving the adrenal cortex). Apart from operating as neurotransmitters, many biologically active peptides also function as gut hormones. Given that neuropeptides and gut hormones target the same cell membrane receptors (typically G protein-coupled receptors), the two messenger roles often converge in the same or similar biological implications. This is exemplified by NPY and peptide YY (PYY), two members of the PP-fold peptide family. While PYY is almost exclusively expressed by enteroendocrine cells, NPY is found at all levels of the gut-brain and brain-gut axis. The function of PYY-releasing enteroendocrine cells is directly influenced by short chain fatty acids generated by the intestinal microbiota from indigestible fibre, while NPY may control the impact of the gut microbiota on inflammatory processes, pain, brain function and behaviour. Although the impact of neuropeptides on the interaction between the gut microbiota and brain awaits to be analysed, biologically active peptides

  11. Brain-gut-microbiota axis: challenges for translation in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John R; Clarke, Gerard; Cryan, John F; Dinan, Timothy G

    2016-05-01

    The accruing data linking the gut microbiome to the development and function of the central nervous system has been proposed as a paradigm shift in neuroscience. The gut microbiota can communicate with the brain via neuroimmune, neuroendocrine, and neural pathways comprising the brain-gut-microbiota axis. Dysfunctional neuroimmune pathways are implicated in stress-related psychiatric disorders. Using depression as our primary example, we review both the preclinical and clinical evidence supporting the possible role played by the gut microbiota in stress-related psychiatric disorders. We consider how this can inform future treatment strategies and outline the challenges and necessary studies for moving the field forward. The role played by the gut microbiota has not been fully elucidated in psychiatric populations. Although tempting to speculate that psychiatric patients may benefit from therapeutic modulation of the brain-gut-microbiota axis, the translational applications of the results obtained in rodent studies have yet to be demonstrated. Evidence of altered gut microbiota composition and function in psychiatric patients is limited and cannot be regarded as proven. Moreover the efficacy of targeting the gut microbiota has not yet been established, and needs further investigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Gut microbiota may predict host divergence time during Glires evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huan; Qu, Jiapeng; Li, Tongtong; Yao, Minjie; Li, Jiaying; Li, Xiangzhen

    2017-03-01

    The gut microbial communities of animals play key roles in host evolution. However, the possible relationship between gut microbiota and host divergence time remains unknown. Here, we investigated the gut microbiota of eight Glires species (four lagomorph species and four rodent species) distributed throughout the Qinghai-Tibet plateau and Inner Mongolia grassland. Lagomorphs and rodents had distinct gut microbial compositions. Three out of four lagomorph species were dominated by Firmicutes, while rodents were dominated by Bacteroidetes in general. The alpha diversity values (Shannon diversity and evenness) exhibited significant differences between any two species within the lagomorphs, whereas there were no significant differences among rodents. The structure of the gut microbiota showed significant differences between lagomorphs and rodents. In addition, we calculated host phylogeny and divergence times, and used a phylogenetic approach to reconstruct how the animal gut microbiota has diverged from their ancestral species. Some core bacterial genera (e.g. Prevotella and Clostridium) shared by more than nine-tenths of all the Glires individuals associated with plant polysaccharide degradation showed marked changes within lagomorphs. Differences in Glires gut microbiota (based on weighted UniFrac and Bray-Curtis dissimilarity metrics) were positively correlated with host divergence time. Our results thus suggest the gut microbial composition is associated with host phylogeny, and further suggest that dissimilarity of animal gut microbiota may predict host divergence time. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Obese-type gut microbiota induce neurobehavioral changes in the absence of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce-Keller, Annadora J; Salbaum, J Michael; Luo, Meng; Blanchard, Eugene; Taylor, Christopher M; Welsh, David A; Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf

    2015-04-01

    The prevalence of mental illness, particularly depression and dementia, is increased by obesity. Here, we test the hypothesis that obesity-associated changes in gut microbiota are intrinsically able to impair neurocognitive behavior in mice. Conventionally housed, nonobese, adult male C57BL/6 mice maintained on a normal chow diet were subjected to a microbiome depletion/transplantation paradigm using microbiota isolated from donors on either a high-fat diet (HFD) or control diet. Following re-colonization, mice were subjected to comprehensive behavioral and biochemical analyses. The mice given HFD microbiota had significant and selective disruptions in exploratory, cognitive, and stereotypical behavior compared with mice with control diet microbiota in the absence of significant differences in body weight. Sequencing-based phylogenetic analysis confirmed the presence of distinct core microbiota between groups, with alterations in α- and β-diversity, modulation in taxonomic distribution, and statistically significant alterations to metabolically active taxa. HFD microbiota also disrupted markers of intestinal barrier function, increased circulating endotoxin, and increased lymphocyte expression of ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1, toll-like receptor 2, and toll-like receptor 4. Finally, evaluation of brain homogenates revealed that HFD-shaped microbiota increased neuroinflammation and disrupted cerebrovascular homeostasis. Collectively, these data reinforce the link between gut dysbiosis and neurologic dysfunction and suggest that dietary and/or pharmacologic manipulation of gut microbiota could attenuate the neurologic complications of obesity. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Gut Microbiota: A Contributing Factor to Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakeh, Steve M.; Khan, Imran; Kumosani, Taha; Barbour, Elie; Almasaudi, Saad B.; Bahijri, Suhad M.; Alfadul, Sulaiman M.; Ajabnoor, Ghada M. A.; Azhar, Esam I.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity, a global epidemic of the modern era, is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and diabetes. The pervasiveness of obesity and overweight in both developed as well as developing populations is on the rise and placing a huge burden on health and economic resources. Consequently, research to control this emerging epidemic is of utmost importance. Recently, host interactions with their resident gut microbiota (GM) have been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of many metabolic diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and CVD. Around 1014 microorganisms reside within the lower human intestine and many of these 1014 microorganisms have developed mutualistic or commensal associations with the host and actively involved in many physiological processes of the host. However, dysbiosis (altered gut microbial composition) with other predisposing genetic and environmental factors, may contribute to host metabolic disorders resulting in many ailments. Therefore, delineating the role of GM as a contributing factor to obesity is the main objective of this review. Obesity research, as a field is expanding rapidly due to major advances in nutrigenomics, metabolomics, RNA silencing, epigenetics, and other disciplines that may result in the emergence of new technologies and methods to better interpret causal relationships between microbiota and obesity. PMID:27625997

  15. Gut Microbiota: a contributing factor to obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve M Harakeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, a global epidemic of the modern era, is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD and diabetes. The pervasiveness of obesity and overweight in both developed as well as developing populations is on the rise and placing a huge burden on health and economic resources. Consequently, research to control this emerging epidemic is of utmost importance. Recently, host interactions with their resident gut microbiota (GM have been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of many metabolic diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and CVD. Around 1014 microorganisms reside within the lower human intestine and many of these 1014microorganisms have developed mutualistic or commensal associations with the host and actively involved in many physiological processes of the host. However, dysbiosis (altered gut microbial composition with other predisposing genetic and environmental factors, may contribute to host metabolic disorders resulting in many ailments. Therefore, delineating the role of GM as a contributing factor to obesity is the main objective of this review.Obesity research, as a field is expanding rapidly due to major advances in nutrigenomics, metabolomics, RNA silencing, epigenetics and other disciplines that may result in the emergence of new technologies and methods to better interpret causal relationships between microbiota and obesity.

  16. Gut Microbiota: A Contributing Factor to Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakeh, Steve M; Khan, Imran; Kumosani, Taha; Barbour, Elie; Almasaudi, Saad B; Bahijri, Suhad M; Alfadul, Sulaiman M; Ajabnoor, Ghada M A; Azhar, Esam I

    2016-01-01

    Obesity, a global epidemic of the modern era, is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and diabetes. The pervasiveness of obesity and overweight in both developed as well as developing populations is on the rise and placing a huge burden on health and economic resources. Consequently, research to control this emerging epidemic is of utmost importance. Recently, host interactions with their resident gut microbiota (GM) have been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of many metabolic diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and CVD. Around 10(14) microorganisms reside within the lower human intestine and many of these 10(14) microorganisms have developed mutualistic or commensal associations with the host and actively involved in many physiological processes of the host. However, dysbiosis (altered gut microbial composition) with other predisposing genetic and environmental factors, may contribute to host metabolic disorders resulting in many ailments. Therefore, delineating the role of GM as a contributing factor to obesity is the main objective of this review. Obesity research, as a field is expanding rapidly due to major advances in nutrigenomics, metabolomics, RNA silencing, epigenetics, and other disciplines that may result in the emergence of new technologies and methods to better interpret causal relationships between microbiota and obesity.

  17. Kynurenine pathway metabolism and the microbiota-gut-brain axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, P J; Cryan, J F; Dinan, T G; Clarke, G

    2017-01-01

    It has become increasingly clear that the gut microbiota influences not only gastrointestinal physiology but also central nervous system (CNS) function by modulating signalling pathways of the microbiota-gut-brain axis. Understanding the neurobiological mechanisms underpinning the influence exerted by the gut microbiota on brain function and behaviour has become a key research priority. Microbial regulation of tryptophan metabolism has become a focal point in this regard, with dual emphasis on the regulation of serotonin synthesis and the control of kynurenine pathway metabolism. Here, we focus in detail on the latter pathway and begin by outlining the structural and functional dynamics of the gut microbiota and the signalling pathways of the brain-gut axis. We summarise preclinical and clinical investigations demonstrating that the gut microbiota influences CNS physiology, anxiety, depression, social behaviour, cognition and visceral pain. Pertinent studies are drawn from neurogastroenterology demonstrating the importance of tryptophan and its metabolites in CNS and gastrointestinal function. We outline how kynurenine pathway metabolism may be regulated by microbial control of neuroendocrine function and components of the immune system. Finally, preclinical evidence demonstrating direct and indirect mechanisms by which the gut microbiota can regulate tryptophan availability for kynurenine pathway metabolism, with downstream effects on CNS function, is reviewed. Targeting the gut microbiota represents a tractable target to modulate kynurenine pathway metabolism. Efforts to develop this approach will markedly increase our understanding of how the gut microbiota shapes brain and behaviour and provide new insights towards successful translation of microbiota-gut-brain axis research from bench to bedside. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'The Kynurenine Pathway in Health and Disease'. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Microbiota-gut-brain axis and the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiqun; Han, Yong; Du, Jing; Liu, Renzhong; Jin, Ketao; Yi, Wei

    2017-08-08

    The gut and brain form the gut-brain axis through bidirectional nervous, endocrine, and immune communications. Changes in one of the organs will affect the other organs. Disorders in the composition and quantity of gut microorganisms can affect both the enteric nervous system and the central nervous system (CNS), thereby indicating the existence of a microbiota-gut-brain axis. Due to the intricate interactions between the gut and the brain, gut symbiotic microorganisms are closely associated with various CNS diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, and multiple sclerosis. In this paper, we will review the latest advances of studies on the correlation between gut microorganisms and CNS functions & diseases.

  19. The interplay between the gut microbiota and the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geuking, Markus B; Köller, Yasmin; Rupp, Sandra; McCoy, Kathy D

    2014-01-01

    The impact of the gut microbiota on immune homeostasis within the gut and, importantly, also at systemic sites has gained tremendous research interest over the last few years. The intestinal microbiota is an integral component of a fascinating ecosystem that interacts with and benefits its host on several complex levels to achieve a mutualistic relationship. Host-microbial homeostasis involves appropriate immune regulation within the gut mucosa to maintain a healthy gut while preventing uncontrolled immune responses against the beneficial commensal microbiota potentially leading to chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Furthermore, recent studies suggest that the microbiota composition might impact on the susceptibility to immune-mediated disorders such as autoimmunity and allergy. Understanding how the microbiota modulates susceptibility to these diseases is an important step toward better prevention or treatment options for such diseases.

  20. Effect of diet on the human gut microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Martin Iain

    The gut microbiota plays an important role for humans in both health and disease. It is therefore important to understand how and to what extent choice of diet may influence the microbial community and the effects this has on the host. The variation in the normal human gut microbiota may however...... that induced shifts in gut microbiota show large inter-individual variations. It thus seems plausible that knowing the microbiota composition could facilitate predictions as to how the community will react to dietary interventions thus moving towards some degree of personalised dietary recommendations. During...... a 6-month randomised, controlled dietary intervention following either the New Nordic Diet recommendations or Average Danish Diet (n=62) almost no significant differences in the gut microbiota composition caused by the different diets were observed using qPCR analysis of 33 selected bacterial groups...

  1. Gut Microbiota and Brain Function: An Evolving Field in Neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Jane A; Lyte, Mark; Meyer, Emeran; Cryan, John F

    2016-05-01

    There is a growing appreciation of the importance of gut microbiota to health and disease. This has been driven by advances in sequencing technology and recent findings demonstrating the important role of microbiota in common health disorders such as obesity. Moreover, the potential role of gut microbiota in influencing brain function, behavior, and mental health has attracted the attention of neuroscientists and psychiatrists. At the 29(th) International College of Neuropsychopharmacology (CINP) World Congress held in Vancouver, Canada, in June 2014, a group of experts presented the symposium, "Gut microbiota and brain function: Relevance to psychiatric disorders" to review the latest findings in how gut microbiota may play a role in brain function, behavior, and disease. The symposium covered a broad range of topics, including gut microbiota and neuroendocrine function, the influence of gut microbiota on behavior, probiotics as regulators of brain and behavior, and imaging the gut-brain axis in humans. This report provides an overview of these presentations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  2. The altered gut microbiota in adults with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, D G; Fouhy, F; Harrison, M J; Rea, M C; Cotter, P D; O'Sullivan, O; Stanton, C; Hill, C; Shanahan, F; Plant, B J; Ross, R P

    2017-03-09

    Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disease that affects the function of a number of organs, principally the lungs, but also the gastrointestinal tract. The manifestations of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) dysfunction in the gastrointestinal tract, as well as frequent antibiotic exposure, undoubtedly disrupts the gut microbiota. To analyse the effects of CF and its management on the microbiome, we compared the gut microbiota of 43 individuals with CF during a period of stability, to that of 69 non-CF controls using 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The impact of clinical parameters, including antibiotic therapy, on the results was also assessed. The CF-associated microbiome had reduced microbial diversity, an increase in Firmicutes and a reduction in Bacteroidetes compared to the non-CF controls. While the greatest number of differences in taxonomic abundances of the intestinal microbiota was observed between individuals with CF and the healthy controls, gut microbiota differences were also reported between people with CF when grouped by clinical parameters including % predicted FEV 1 (measure of lung dysfunction) and the number of intravenous (IV) antibiotic courses in the previous 12 months. Notably, CF individuals presenting with severe lung dysfunction (% predicted FEV 1  ≤ 40%) had significantly (p gut microbiota diversity relative to those presenting with mild or moderate dysfunction. A significant negative correlation (-0.383, Simpson's Diversity Index) was also observed between the number of IV antibiotic courses and gut microbiota diversity. This is one of the largest single-centre studies on gut microbiota in stable adults with CF and demonstrates the significantly altered gut microbiota, including reduced microbial diversity seen in CF patients compared to healthy controls. The data show the impact that CF and it's management have on gut microbiota, presenting the opportunity to develop CF specific

  3. The gut microbiota, environment and diseases of modern society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsen, Judith R; Wu, Gary D

    2012-01-01

    The human gut microbiota is a complex community that provides important metabolic functions to the host. Consequently, alterations in the gut microbiota have been associated with the pathogenesis of several human diseases associated with a disturbance in metabolism, particularly those that have been increasing in incidence over the last several decades including obesity, diabetes and atherosclerosis. In this review, we explore how advances in deep DNA sequencing technology have provided us a greater understanding of the factors that influence that composition of the gut microbiota and its possible links to the pathogenesis of these diseases.

  4. The microbiota-gut-brain axis in functional gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Palma, Giada; Collins, Stephen M; Bercik, Premysl

    2014-01-01

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are highly prevalent and pose a significant burden on health care and society, and impact patients' quality of life. FGIDs comprise a heterogeneous group of disorders, with unclear underlying pathophysiology. They are considered to result from the interaction of altered gut physiology and psychological factors via the gut-brain axis, where brain and gut symptoms are reciprocally influencing each other's expression. Intestinal microbiota, as a part of the gut-brain axis, plays a central role in FGIDs. Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome, a prototype of FGIDs, display altered composition of the gut microbiota compared with healthy controls and benefit, at the gastrointestinal and psychological levels, from the use of probiotics and antibiotics. This review aims to recapitulate the available literature on FGIDs and microbiota-gut-brain axis.

  5. The active human gut microbiota differs from the total microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Peris-Bondia

    Full Text Available The human gut microbiota is considered one of the most fascinating reservoirs of microbial diversity hosting between 400 to 1000 bacterial species distributed among nine phyla with Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria representing around 75% of the diversity. One of the most intriguing issues relates to understanding which microbial groups are active players in the maintenance of the microbiota homeostasis.Here, we describe the diversity of active microbial fractions compared with the whole community from raw human fecal samples. We studied four healthy volunteers by 16S rDNA gene pyrosequencing. The fractions were obtained by cell sorting based on bacterial RNA concentration. Bacterial families were observed to appear or disappear on applying a cell sorting method in which flow cytometry was used to evaluate the active cells by pyronin-Y staining of RNA. This method was able to detect active bacteria, indicating that the active players differed from that observed in raw fecal material. Generally, observations showed that in the active fractions, the number of reads related to Bacteroidetes decreased whereas several families from Clostridiales (Firmicutes were more highly represented. Moreover, a huge number of families appeared as part of the active fraction when cell sorting was applied, indicating reads that are simply statistically hidden by the total reads.

  6. [Gut microbiota: What impact on colorectal carcinogenesis and treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruneau, Antoine; Baylatry, Minh-Tam; Joly, Anne Christine; Sokol, Harry

    2018-01-01

    The gut microbiota, composed of 10 14 microorganisms, is now considered as a "hidden organ", regarding to its digestive, metabolic and immune functions, which are helpful to its host. For the last 15 years, advances in molecular biology have highlighted the association of gut microbiota dysbiosis with several diseases, including colorectal cancer. An increased abundance of some bacteria (including Fusobacterium nucleatum, Bacteroides fragilis, Escherichia coli) is associated with cancer, whereas others seem to be protective (Faecalibacterium prausnitzii). Several mechanisms, which are species-specific, are involved in colorectal carcinogenesis. Most of the time, bacterial toxins are involved in pro-inflammatory processes and in activation of angiogenesis and cellular proliferation pathways. The identification of these bacteria leads to envisage the gut microbiota as potential screening tool for colorectal cancer. Recent studies showed a relation between the gut microbiota and the efficacy and toxicity of chemotherapies (oxaliplatin, irinotecan) and immunotherapies (including ipilimumab). Therapeutic approaches targeting the gut microbiota are now available (probiotics, fecal microbiota transplantation…). New therapeutic strategy combining both chemotherapy and/or immunotherapy with an adjuvant treatment targeting the gut microbiota can now be developed in order to improve treatment response and tolerance. Copyright © 2017 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Microbiota-Brain-Gut Axis and Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Eamonn M M

    2017-10-17

    The purposes of this review were as follows: first, to provide an overview of the gut microbiota and its interactions with the gut and the central nervous system (the microbiota-gut-brain axis) in health, second, to review the relevance of this axis to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, and, finally, to assess the potential for microbiota-targeted therapies. Work on animal models has established the microbiota-gut-brain axis as a real phenomenon; to date, the evidence for its operation in man has been limited and has been confronted by considerable logistical challenges. Animal and translational models have incriminated a disturbed gut microbiota in a number of CNS disorders, including Parkinson's disease; data from human studies is scanty. While a theoretical basis can be developed for the use of microbiota-directed therapies in neurodegenerative disorders, support is yet to come from high-quality clinical trials. In theory, a role for the microbiota-gut-brain axis is highly plausible; clinical confirmation is awaited.

  8. Gut microbiota, low-grade inflammation, and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassaing, Benoit; Gewirtz, Andrew T

    2014-01-01

    The intestinal tract is inhabited by a large diverse community of bacteria collectively referred to as the gut microbiota. Alterations in gut microbiota composition are associated with a variety of disease states including obesity, diabetes, and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Transplant of microbiota from diseased persons (or mice) to germfree mice transfers some aspects of disease phenotype, indicating that altered microbiota plays a role in disease establishment and manifestation. There are myriad potential mechanisms by which alterations in gut microbiota might promote disease, including increasing energy harvest, production of toxic metabolites, and molecular mimicry of host proteins. However, our research indicates that an overarching mechanism by which an aberrant microbiota negatively impacts health is by driving chronic inflammation. More specifically, we hypothesize that the histopathologically evident gut inflammation that defines IBD is a severe but relatively rare outcome of an altered host-microbiota relationship, while a much more common consequence of such disturbances is "low-grade" inflammation characterized by elevated proinflammatory gene expression that associates with, and may promote, metabolic syndrome. In this context, a variety of chronic inflammatory diseases may stem from inability of the mucosal immune system to properly manage a stable healthy relationship with the gut microbiota. While one's ability to manage their gut microbiota is dictated in part by genetics, it can be markedly influenced by the composition of the microbiota one inherits from their early environment. Moreover, the host-microbiota relationship can be perturbed by instigator bacteria or dietary components, which may prove to play a role in promoting chronic inflammatory disease states.

  9. Gut microbiota composition modifies fecal metabolic profiles in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ying; Wu, Junfang; Li, Jia V; Zhou, Ning-Yi; Tang, Huiru; Wang, Yulan

    2013-06-07

    The gut microbiome is known to be extensively involved in human health and disease. In order to reveal the metabolic relationship between host and microbiome, we monitored recovery of the gut microbiota composition and fecal profiles of mice after gentamicin and/or ceftriaxone treatments. This was performed by employing (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomics and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprint of gut microbiota. The common features of fecal metabolites postantibiotic treatment include decreased levels of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), amino acids and primary bile acids and increased oligosaccharides, d-pinitol, choline and secondary bile acids (deoxycholic acid). This suggests suppressed bacterial fermentation, protein degradation and enhanced gut microbial modification of bile acids. Barnesiella, Prevotella, and Alistipes levels were shown to decrease as a result of the antibiotic treatment, whereas levels of Bacteroides, Enterococcus and Erysipelotrichaceae incertae sedis, and Mycoplasma increased after gentamicin and ceftriaxone treatment. In addition, there was a strong correlation between fecal profiles and levels of Bacteroides, Barnesiella, Alistipes and Prevotella. The integration of metabonomics and gut microbiota profiling provides important information on the changes of gut microbiota and their impact on fecal profiles during the recovery after antibiotic treatment. The correlation between gut microbiota and fecal metabolites provides important information on the function of bacteria, which in turn could be important in optimizing therapeutic strategies, and developing potential microbiota-based disease preventions and therapeutic interventions.

  10. Alternation of Gut Microbiota in Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Mei; Liu, Yong; Wu, Pengfei; Luo, Dong-Xia; Sun, Qun; Zheng, Han; Hu, Richard; Pandol, Stephen J; Li, Qing-Feng; Han, Yuan-Ping; Zeng, Yilan

    2017-01-01

    One-third of the world's population has been infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( M. tuberculosis ), a primary pathogen of the mammalian respiratory system, while about 10% of latent infections progress to active tuberculosis (TB), indicating that host and environmental factors may determine the outcomes such as infection clearance/persistence and treatment prognosis. The gut microbiota is essential for development of host immunity, defense, nutrition and metabolic homeostasis. Thus, the pattern of gut microbiota may contribute to M. tuberculosis infection and prognosis. In current study we characterized the differences in gut bacterial communities in new tuberculosis patients (NTB), recurrent tuberculosis patients (RTB), and healthy control. The abundance-based coverage estimator (ACE) showed the diversity index of the gut microbiota in the patients with recurrent tuberculosis was increased significantly compared with healthy controls ( p gut microbiota and peripheral CD4+ T cell counts in the patients. This study, for the first time, showed associations between gut microbiota with tuberculosis and its clinical outcomes. Maintaining eubiosis, namely homeostasis of gut microbiota, may be beneficial for host recovery and prevention of recurrence of M. tuberculosis infection.

  11. Gut microbiota-mediated protection against diarrheal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Stefanie L; Finlay, B Brett

    2017-04-01

    The mammalian gut microbiota is a highly abundant and diverse microbial community that resides in the gastrointestinal tract. One major benefit that the gut microbiota provides to its host is colonization resistance-the ability to prevent colonization by foreign microbes, including diarrheal pathogens such as Clostridium difficile , Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and diarrheagenic Escherichia coli . We conducted a literature review of the effects of the gut microbiota on infection by diarrheal pathogens. We used PubMed to search for relevant articles published before July 2016, as well as incorporated data from our laboratory. The gut microbiota provides protection from diarrheal infections both by direct inhibition of pathogens and by indirect effects on host functions. Direct effects of the microbiota on diarrheal pathogens include competing for nutrients and producing metabolites that inhibit pathogen growth or virulence. Indirect effects of the gut microbiota include promoting maintenance of the gut mucosal barrier and stimulating innate and adaptive immunity. Human epidemiological studies and experimental infections of laboratory animals both demonstrate that antibiotic treatment can alter the gut microbial community and thereby reduce colonization resistance against diarrheal pathogens. Further research might lead to the development of next-generation probiotics that could be used to bolster colonization resistance and thus prevent travellers' diarrheal.

  12. Gut Microbiota: From Microorganisms to Metabolic Organ Influencing Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Richard W; Arhire, Lidia; Covasa, Mihai

    2018-05-01

    This review summarizes the current understanding of the relationship between gut microbiota and the host as it pertains to the regulation of energy balance and obesity. The paper begins with a brief description of the gut microbiota environment, distribution, and its unique symbiotic relationship with the host. The way that enviromental factors influence microbiota composition and subsequent impact on the host are then described. Next, the mechanisms linking gut dysbiosis with obesity are discussed, and finally current challenges and limitations in understanding the role of gut microbiota in control of obesity are presented. Gut microbiota has been implicated in regulation of fat storage, as well as gut dysbiosis, thus contributing to the development of obesity, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. However, the underlying mechanisms of these processes are far from being clear and will require complex preclinical and clinical interdisciplinary studies of bacteria and host cell-to-cell interactions. There is a need for a better understanding of how changes in gut microbiota composition can impact energy balance and thus control weight gain. This may represent a promising avenue in the race to develop nonsurgical treatments for obesity. © 2018 The Obesity Society.

  13. Older Siblings Affect Gut Microbiota Development in Early Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Zachariassen, Gitte; Bahl, Martin Iain

    . Gut microbiota characteristics were not significantly associated with cumulative occurrence of eczema and asthmatic bronchitis during the first three years of life. Conclusions: Presence of older siblings is associated with increased gut microbial diversity and richness during early childhood, which...... could contribute to the substantiation of the hygiene hypothesis. However, no associations were found between gut microbiota and atopic symptoms of eczema and asthmatic bronchitis during early childhood and thus further studies are required to elucidate whether sibling-associated gut microbial changes...... influence development of allergies later in childhood.   The work has recently (July 2015) been accepted for publication in BMC Microbiology...

  14. The role of gut microbiota in the gut-brain axis: current challenges and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xiao; D’Souza, Roshan; Hong, Seong-Tshool

    2013-01-01

    Brain and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are intimately connected to form a bidirectional neurohumoral communication system. The communication between gut and brain, knows as the gut-brain axis, is so well established that the functional status of gut is always related to the condition of brain. The researches on the gut-brain axis were traditionally focused on the psychological status affecting the function of the GI tract. However, recent evidences showed that gut microbiota communicates w...

  15. Gut Microbiota and Energy Expenditure in Health and Obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Guido J.; Zhao, Jing; Herrema, Hilde; Nieuwdorp, Max

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of intestinal bacterial strains (gut microbiota) to the development of obesity and obesity-related disorders is increasingly recognized as a potential diagnostic and pharmacologic target. Alterations in the intestinal bacterial composition have been associated with presence of

  16. Gut microbiota and immune crosstalk in metabolic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcelin, Rémy

    2016-09-01

    Gut microbiota is considered as a major regulator of metabolic disease. This reconciles the notion of metabolic inflammation and the epidemic development of the disease. In addition to evidence showing that a specific gut microbiota characterizes patients with obesity, type 2 diabetes, and hepatic steatosis, the mechanisms causal to the disease could be related to the translocation of microbiota from the gut to the tissues, inducing inflammation. The mechanisms regulating such a process are based on the crosstalk between the gut microbiota and the host immune system. The hologenome theory of evolution supports this concept and implies that therapeutic strategies aiming to control glycemia should take into account both the gut microbiota and the host immune system. This review discusses the latest evidence regarding the bidirectional impact of the gut microbiota on host immune system crosstalk for the control of metabolic disease, hyperglycemia, and obesity. To avoid redundancies with the literature, we will focus our attention on the intestinal immune system, identifying evidence for the generation of novel therapeutic strategies, which could be based on the control of the translocation of gut bacteria to tissues. Such novel strategies should hamper the role played by gut microbiota dysbiosis on the development of metabolic inflammation. Recent evidence in rodents allows us to conclude that an impaired intestinal immune system characterizes and could be causal in the development of metabolic disease. The fine understanding of the molecular mechanisms should allow for the development of a first line of treatment for metabolic disease and its co-morbidities. This article is part of a special issue on microbiota.

  17. Gradual Changes of Gut Microbiota in Weaned Miniature Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianghua Yan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Colonization of gut microbiota in mammals during the early life is vital to host health. The miniature piglet has recently been considered as an optimal infant model. However, less is known about the development of gut microbiota in miniature piglets. Here, this study was conducted to explore how the gut microbiota develops in weaned Congjiang miniature piglets. In contrast to the relatively stabilized gut fungal community, gut bacterial community showed a marked drop in alpha diversity, accompanied by significant alterations in taxonomic compositions. The relative abundances of 24 bacterial genera significantly declined, whereas the relative abundances of 7 bacterial genera (Fibrobacter, Collinsella, Roseburia, Prevotella, Dorea, Howardella, and Blautia significantly increased with the age of weaned piglets. Fungal taxonomic analysis showed that the relative abundances of 2 genera (Kazachstania and Aureobasidium significantly decreased, whereas the relative abundances of 4 genera (Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Simplicillium, and Candida significantly increased as the piglets aged. Kazachstania telluris was the signature species predominated in gut fungal communities of weaned miniature piglets. The functional maturation of the gut bacterial community was characterized by the significantly increased digestive system, glycan biosynthesis and metabolism, and vitamin B biosynthesis as the piglets aged. These findings suggest that marked gut microbial changes in Congjiang miniature piglets may contribute to understand the potential gut microbiota development of weaned infants.

  18. Potential applications of gut microbiota to control human physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umu, Ozgün Candan Onarman; Oostindjer, Marije; Pope, Phillip B; Svihus, Birger; Egelandsdal, Bjørg; Nes, Ingolf F; Diep, Dzung B

    2013-11-01

    The microorganisms living in our gut have been a black box to us for a long time. However, with the recent advances in high throughput DNA sequencing technologies, it is now possible to assess virtually all microorganisms in our gut including non-culturable ones. With the use of powerful bioinformatics tools to deal with multivariate analyses of huge amounts of data from metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, metabolomics, we now start to gain some important insights into these tiny gut inhabitants. Our knowledge is increasing about who they are, to some extent, what they do and how they affect our health. Gut microbiota have a broad spectrum of possible effects on health, from preventing serious diseases, improving immune system and gut health to stimulating the brain centers responsible for appetite and food intake control. Further, we may be on the verge of being capable of manipulating the gut microbiota by diet control to possibly improve our health. Diets consisting of different components that are fermentable by microbiota are substrates for different kinds of microbes in the gut. Thus, diet control can be used to favor the growth of some selected gut inhabitants. Nowadays, the gut microbiota is taken into account as a separate organ in human body and their activities and metabolites in gut have many physiological and neurological effects. In this mini-review, we discuss the diversity of gut microbiota, the technologies used to assess them, factors that affect microbial composition and metabolites that affect human physiology, and their potential applications in satiety control via the gut-brain axis.

  19. Metabolic Interaction of Helicobacter pylori Infection and Gut Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Jong Yang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available As a barrier, gut commensal microbiota can protect against potential pathogenic microbes in the gastrointestinal tract. Crosstalk between gut microbes and immune cells promotes human intestinal homeostasis. Dysbiosis of gut microbiota has been implicated in the development of many human metabolic disorders like obesity, hepatic steatohepatitis, and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes (T2D. Certain microbes, such as butyrate-producing bacteria, are lower in T2D patients. The transfer of intestinal microbiota from lean donors increases insulin sensitivity in individuals with metabolic syndrome, but the exact pathogenesis remains unclear. H. pylori in the human stomach cause chronic gastritis, peptic ulcers, and gastric cancers. H. pylori infection also induces insulin resistance and has been defined as a predisposing factor to T2D development. Gastric and fecal microbiota may have been changed in H. pylori-infected persons and mice to promote gastric inflammation and specific diseases. However, the interaction of H. pylori and gut microbiota in regulating host metabolism also remains unknown. Further studies aim to identify the H. pylori-microbiota-host metabolism axis and to test if H. pylori eradication or modification of gut microbiota can improve the control of human metabolic disorders.

  20. Impact of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on the Gut Microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinon, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Long-term dietary habits play a crucial role in creating a host-specific gut microbiota community in humans. Despite the many publications about the effects of carbohydrates (prebiotic fibers), the impact of dietary fats, such as omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), on the gut microbiota is less well defined. The few studies completed in adults showed some common changes in the gut microbiota after omega-3 PUFA supplementation. In particular, a decrease in Faecalibacterium, often associated with an increase in the Bacteroidetes and butyrate-producing bacteria belonging to the Lachnospiraceae family, has been observed. Coincidentally, a dysbiosis of these taxa is found in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Omega-3 PUFAs can exert a positive action by reverting the microbiota composition in these diseases, and increase the production of anti-inflammatory compounds, like short-chain fatty acids. In addition, accumulating evidence in animal model studies indicates that the interplay between gut microbiota, omega-3 fatty acids, and immunity helps to maintain the intestinal wall integrity and interacts with host immune cells. Finally, human and animal studies have highlighted the ability of omega-3 PUFAs to influence the gut–brain axis, acting through gut microbiota composition. From these findings, the importance of the omega-3 connection to the microbiota emerges, encouraging further studies. PMID:29215589

  1. Impact of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on the Gut Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Costantini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Long-term dietary habits play a crucial role in creating a host-specific gut microbiota community in humans. Despite the many publications about the effects of carbohydrates (prebiotic fibers, the impact of dietary fats, such as omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, on the gut microbiota is less well defined. The few studies completed in adults showed some common changes in the gut microbiota after omega-3 PUFA supplementation. In particular, a decrease in Faecalibacterium, often associated with an increase in the Bacteroidetes and butyrate-producing bacteria belonging to the Lachnospiraceae family, has been observed. Coincidentally, a dysbiosis of these taxa is found in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Omega-3 PUFAs can exert a positive action by reverting the microbiota composition in these diseases, and increase the production of anti-inflammatory compounds, like short-chain fatty acids. In addition, accumulating evidence in animal model studies indicates that the interplay between gut microbiota, omega-3 fatty acids, and immunity helps to maintain the intestinal wall integrity and interacts with host immune cells. Finally, human and animal studies have highlighted the ability of omega-3 PUFAs to influence the gut–brain axis, acting through gut microbiota composition. From these findings, the importance of the omega-3 connection to the microbiota emerges, encouraging further studies.

  2. Gut microbiota biomodulators, when the stork comes by the scalpel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miniello, Vito Leonardo; Colasanto, Angela; Cristofori, Fernanda; Diaferio, Lucia; Ficele, Laura; Lieggi, Maria Serena; Santoiemma, Valentina; Francavilla, Ruggiero

    2015-12-07

    The microbial communities that reside in the human gut (microbiota) and their impact on human health and disease are nowadays one of the most exciting new areas of research. A well-balanced microbial intestinal colonization in early postnatal life is necessary for the development of appropriate innate and adaptive immune responses and to establish immune homeostasis later in life. Although the composition and functional characteristics of a 'healthy' gut microbiota remain to be elucidated, perturbations in the microbial colonization of an infant's gastrointestinal tract have been associated with an increased risk of short- and long-term immunologically mediated diseases. Emerging evidence suggests that gut microbiota biomodulators, such as probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, and postbiotics may support disease prevention in infants who tend to have a delayed and/or aberrant initial colonization with reduced microbiota diversity (delivery by caesarean section, premature delivery, and excessive use of perinatal antibiotics). Under these dysbiosis conditions probiotics could act as 'surrogate' colonizers to prevent immune-mediated diseases. This review focuses on the influence of delivery mode on the colonization of the infant gastro-intestinal tract. In particular, it examines the manipulation of the gut microbiota composition through the use of gut microbiota biomodulators, in the management of aberrant initial gut colonization and subsequent consequences for the health of the offspring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Crosstalk Between The Immune Receptors and Gut Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Chunlong; Yang, Yuxiang; Zhu, Weiyun

    2015-01-01

    The mucosal surfaces of the intestinal tract are constantly exposed to complex microbial communities that contain commensal microorganisms and potential pathogens. Therefore, hosts harbor multiple molecular mechanisms to modulate the gut innate immunity to achieve gut-microbe homeostasis. Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), such as Toll-like receptor (TLR) and nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor (NLR), play a key role in sensing pathogens and promoting the induction of innate effectors. Gut microbiota, through PRRs, can modulate the expression of genes involved in inflammatory responses and the production of antimicrobial peptides. In turn, the expression of PRRs affects the structure of gut microbiota in health or disease status. Deficiency in PRRs such as NOD2 and TLR5 can alter the gut microbiota composition in mice. The crosstalk between PRRs and microbiota connects the microbial action with the host response. This article outlines recent advances in the role of immune sensors in the gut microbiota balance and the related microbiota-host interaction.

  4. The Gut Microbiota and Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Friend or Foe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uday C. Ghoshal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Progress in the understanding of the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, once thought to be a purely psychosomatic disease, has advanced considerably and low-grade inflammation and changes in the gut microbiota now feature as potentially important. The human gut harbours a huge microbial ecosystem, which is equipped to perform a variety of functions such as digestion of food, metabolism of drugs, detoxification of toxic compounds, production of essential vitamins, prevention of attachment of pathogenic bacteria to the gut wall, and maintenance of homeostasis in the gastrointestinal tract. A subset of patients with IBS may have a quantitative increase in bacteria in the small bowel (small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Qualitative changes in gut microbiota have also been associated with IBS. Targeting the gut microbiota using probiotics and antibiotics has emerged as a potentially effective approach to the treatment of this, hitherto enigmatic, functional bowel disorder. The gut microbiota in health, quantitative and qualitative microbiota changes, and therapeutic manipulations targeting the microbiota in patients with IBS are reviewed in this paper.

  5. Influence of gut microbiota on immunological maturation in infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rikke Brandt; Pedersen, Susanne Brix; Frøkiær, Hanne

    Maturation and function of the immune system is highly influenced by the establishment of the microbiota in the gut, which in turn, particularly in infancy, is influenced by factors such as maternal microbiota and the environment, including diet. Studies have shown that although lymph nodes...

  6. Human Colon-Derived Soluble Factors Modulate Gut Microbiota Composition

    OpenAIRE

    Hevia, Arancha; Bernardo, David; Montalvillo, Enrique; Al-Hassi, Hafid O.; Fernández-Salazar, Luis; Garrote, Jose A.; Milani, Christian; Ventura, Marco; Arranz, Eduardo; Knight, Stella C.; Margolles, Abelardo; Sánchez, Borja

    2015-01-01

    The commensal microbiota modulates immunological and metabolic aspects of the intestinal mucosa contributing to development of human gut diseases including inflammatory bowel disease. The host/microbiota interaction often referred to as a crosstalk, mainly focuses on the effect of the microbiota on the host neglecting effects that the host could elicit on the commensals. Colonic microenvironments from three human healthy controls (obtained from the proximal and distal colon, both in resting c...

  7. Gut-Brain Axis: The Role of Gut Microbiota in Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Evrensel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota is essential to human health, playing a major and important role in the bidirectional communication between the gut and the brain. There is significant evidence linking gut microbiota and metabolic disorders such as obesity, diabetes and neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, autism, anxiety, depression. New studies show microbiota can activate immune system, neural pathways and central nervous system signaling systems, including commensal, probiotic and pathogenic microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract. This microorganisms are capable of producing and delivering neuroactive substances such as gamma-aminobutyric acid and serotonin, which act on the gut-brain axis. Preclinical evaluation in rodents suggests that certain probiotics possess antidepressant or anxiolytic activity. Effects may be mediated via the vagus nerve, spinal cord, immune system or neuroendocrine systems. Here we review recent literature that examines the impact of gut microbiota on the brain, behavior and psychiatric disorders.

  8. Challenges of metabolomics in human gut microbiota research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Kirill S; Maier, Tanja V; Walker, Alesia; Heinzmann, Silke S; Forcisi, Sara; Martinez, Inés; Walter, Jens; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2016-08-01

    The review highlights the role of metabolomics in studying human gut microbial metabolism. Microbial communities in our gut exert a multitude of functions with huge impact on human health and disease. Within the meta-omics discipline, gut microbiome is studied by (meta)genomics, (meta)transcriptomics, (meta)proteomics and metabolomics. The goal of metabolomics research applied to fecal samples is to perform their metabolic profiling, to quantify compounds and classes of interest, to characterize small molecules produced by gut microbes. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry are main technologies that are applied in fecal metabolomics. Metabolomics studies have been increasingly used in gut microbiota related research regarding health and disease with main focus on understanding inflammatory bowel diseases. The elucidated metabolites in this field are summarized in this review. We also addressed the main challenges of metabolomics in current and future gut microbiota research. The first challenge reflects the need of adequate analytical tools and pipelines, including sample handling, selection of appropriate equipment, and statistical evaluation to enable meaningful biological interpretation. The second challenge is related to the choice of the right animal model for studies on gut microbiota. We exemplified this using NMR spectroscopy for the investigation of cross-species comparison of fecal metabolite profiles. Finally, we present the problem of variability of human gut microbiota and metabolome that has important consequences on the concepts of personalized nutrition and medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Brain-gut-microbiota axis in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulak, Agata; Bonaz, Bruno

    2015-10-07

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by alpha-synucleinopathy that affects all levels of the brain-gut axis including the central, autonomic, and enteric nervous systems. Recently, it has been recognized that the brain-gut axis interactions are significantly modulated by the gut microbiota via immunological, neuroendocrine, and direct neural mechanisms. Dysregulation of the brain-gut-microbiota axis in PD may be associated with gastrointestinal manifestations frequently preceding motor symptoms, as well as with the pathogenesis of PD itself, supporting the hypothesis that the pathological process is spread from the gut to the brain. Excessive stimulation of the innate immune system resulting from gut dysbiosis and/or small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and increased intestinal permeability may induce systemic inflammation, while activation of enteric neurons and enteric glial cells may contribute to the initiation of alpha-synuclein misfolding. Additionally, the adaptive immune system may be disturbed by bacterial proteins cross-reacting with human antigens. A better understanding of the brain-gut-microbiota axis interactions should bring a new insight in the pathophysiology of PD and permit an earlier diagnosis with a focus on peripheral biomarkers within the enteric nervous system. Novel therapeutic options aimed at modifying the gut microbiota composition and enhancing the intestinal epithelial barrier integrity in PD patients could influence the initial step of the following cascade of neurodegeneration in PD.

  10. The role of diet on gut microbiota composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibbò, S; Ianiro, G; Giorgio, V; Scaldaferri, F; Masucci, L; Gasbarrini, A; Cammarota, G

    2016-11-01

    Gut microbiota is characterized by an inter-individual variability due to genetic and environmental factors. Among the environmental ones, dietary habits play a key role in the modulation of gut microbiota composition. There are main differences between the intestinal microbiota of subjects fed with prevalent Western diet and that of subjects with a diet rich in fibers. Specific changes in the composition of gut microbiota have been demonstrated among subjects according to a different dietary intake. A particular diet may promote the growth of specific bacterial strains, driving hosts to a consequent alteration of fermentative metabolism, with a direct effect on intestinal pH, which can be responsible for the development of a pathogenic flora. Moreover, a high-fat diet can promote the development of a pro-inflammatory gut microbiota, with a consequent increase of intestinal permeability and, consequently, of circulating levels of lipopolysaccharides. In this review, we discuss the direct role of the diet in the composition of gut microbiota and about the possible clinical consequences.

  11. Immune homeostasis, dysbiosis and therapeutic modulation of the gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, C T; Sharma, V; Elmén, L; Peterson, S N

    2015-03-01

    The distal gut harbours ∼10(13) bacteria, representing the most densely populated ecosystem known. The functional diversity expressed by these communities is enormous and relatively unexplored. The past decade of research has unveiled the profound influence that the resident microbial populations bestow to host immunity and metabolism. The evolution of these communities from birth generates a highly adapted and highly personalized microbiota that is stable in healthy individuals. Immune homeostasis is achieved and maintained due in part to the extensive interplay between the gut microbiota and host mucosal immune system. Imbalances of gut microbiota may lead to a number of pathologies such as obesity, type I and type II diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), colorectal cancer (CRC) and inflammaging/immunosenscence in the elderly. In-depth understanding of the underlying mechanisms that control homeostasis and dysbiosis of the gut microbiota represents an important step in our ability to reliably modulate the gut microbiota with positive clinical outcomes. The potential of microbiome-based therapeutics to treat epidemic human disease is of great interest. New therapeutic paradigms, including second-generation personalized probiotics, prebiotics, narrow spectrum antibiotic treatment and faecal microbiome transplantation, may provide safer and natural alternatives to traditional clinical interventions for chronic diseases. This review discusses host-microbiota homeostasis, consequences of its perturbation and the associated challenges in therapeutic developments that lie ahead. © 2014 British Society for Immunology.

  12. Food Design To Feed the Human Gut Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercolini, Danilo; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2018-04-05

    The gut microbiome has an enormous impact on the life of the host, and the diet plays a fundamental role in shaping microbiome composition and function. The way food is processed is a key factor determining the amount and type of material reaching the gut bacteria and influencing their growth and the production of microbiota metabolites. In this perspective, the current possibilities to address food design toward a better feeding of gut microbiota are highlighted, together with a summary of the most interesting microbial metabolites that can be made from dietary precursors.

  13. The impact of the postnatal gut microbiota on animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Axel Jacob Kornerup; Ejsing-Duun, Maria; Aasted, Bent

    2007-01-01

    Quality control of laboratory animals has been mostly concentrated on eliminating and securing the absence of specific infections, but event barrier bred laboratory animals harbour a huge number of gut bacteria. There is scientific evidence that the nature of the gut microbiota especially in early...... correlated to factors related to early exposure to microorganisms, e.g. the so-called hygiene hypothesis claims that the increasing human incidence of allergy. T1D, RA and IBD may be due to the lack of such exposure. It is possible today by various molecular techniques to profile the gut microbiota...

  14. Gut microbiota modulates alcohol withdrawal-induced anxiety in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hui-Wen; Ge, Chang; Feng, Guo-Xing; Li, Yuan; Luo, Dan; Dong, Jia-Li; Li, Hang; Wang, Haichao; Cui, Ming; Fan, Sai-Jun

    2018-05-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption remains a major public health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. Accumulative experimental evidence has suggested an important involvement of gut microbiota in the modulation of host's immunological and neurological functions. However, it is previously unknown whether enteric microbiota is implicated in the formation of alcohol withdrawal-induced anxiety. Using a murine model of chronic alcoholism and withdrawal, we examined the impact of alcohol consumption on the possible alterations of gut microbiota as well as alcohol withdrawal-induced anxiety and behavior changes. The 16S rRNA sequencing revealed that alcohol consumption did not alter the abundance of bacteria, but markedly changed the composition of gut microbiota. Moreover, the transplantation of enteric microbes from alcohol-fed mice to normal healthy controls remarkably shaped the composition of gut bacteria, and elicited behavioral signs of alcohol withdrawal-induced anxiety. Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, we further confirmed that the expression of genes implicated in alcohol addiction, BDNF, CRHR1 and OPRM1, was also altered by transplantation of gut microbes from alcohol-exposed donors. Collectively, our findings suggested a possibility that the alterations of gut microbiota composition might contribute to the development of alcohol withdrawal-induced anxiety, and reveal potentially new etiologies for treating alcohol addiction. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Resistant Starch Regulates Gut Microbiota: Structure, Biochemistry and Cell Signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoping; Darko, Kwame Oteng; Huang, Yanjun; He, Caimei; Yang, Huansheng; He, Shanping; Li, Jianzhong; Li, Jian; Hocher, Berthold; Yin, Yulong

    2017-01-01

    Starch is one of the most popular nutritional sources for both human and animals. Due to the variation of its nutritional traits and biochemical specificities, starch has been classified into rapidly digestible, slowly digestible and resistant starch. Resistant starch has its own unique chemical structure, and various forms of resistant starch are commercially available. It has been found being a multiple-functional regulator for treating metabolic dysfunction. Different functions of resistant starch such as modulation of the gut microbiota, gut peptides, circulating growth factors, circulating inflammatory mediators have been characterized by animal studies and clinical trials. In this mini-review, recent remarkable progress in resistant starch on gut microbiota, particularly the effect of structure, biochemistry and cell signaling on nutrition has been summarized, with highlights on its regulatory effect on gut microbiota. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Disruption of the human gut microbiota following Norovirus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam M Nelson

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota, the collection of all bacterial members in the intestinal tract, plays a key role in health. Disruption of the indigenous microbiota by a variety of stressors, including antibiotic therapy and intestinal infections, is associated with multiple health problems. We sought to determine if infection with Norovirus disrupts the gut microbiota. Barcoded pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA-encoding gene was used to characterize the stool microbiota in Norovirus-infected human patients (n = 38. While the microbiota in most infected patients (n = 31 resembled that seen in uninfected healthy controls, a minority of patients (n = 7 possessed a significantly altered microbiota characterized by reduced relative numbers of Bacteriodetes and a corresponding increase in Proteobacteria. In these patients, the increase in Proteobacteria was due to a single operational taxonomic unit (OTU of Escherichia coli. We cultured E. coli from Norovirus-infected patients and characterized them using PCR-ribotyping and virulence factor analysis. Multiple ribotypes were encountered, but none possessed typical virulence factors commonly carried by enteropathogenic E. coli strains. Microbiota disruption and elevated Proteobacteria were not significantly correlated to patient age, gender, sampling time following illness onset, or overall gut inflammation. These results demonstrate that some patients have a disrupted microbiota following Norovirus infection, and therefore may be at elevated risk for long-term health complications.

  17. Selective inbreeding does not increase gut microbiota similarity in BALB/c mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pang, Wanyong; Stradiotto, Damiano; Krych, Lukasz

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory diseases in mouse models are under strong impact from the gut microbiota. Therefore increased interindividual gut microbiota similarity may be seen as a way to reduce group sizes in mouse experiments. The composition of the gut microbiota is to a high extent defined by genetics......, and it is known that selecting siblings as mothers even in inbred colonies may increase the gut microbiota similarity among the mice with 3-4%. We therefore hypothesized that selective breeding of mice aiming at a high similarity in the gut microbiota would increase the interindividual similarity of the gut...... microbiota. BALB/cCrl mice were, however, found to have a mean heterozygosity of only 0.8% in their genome, and selection of breeders with a high similarity in the gut microbiota for three generations did not change the overall gut microbiota similarity, which was 66% in the P generation and 66%, 64% and 63...

  18. Can We Prevent Obesity-Related Metabolic Diseases by Dietary Modulation of the Gut Microbiota?1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Obesity increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and certain cancers, which are among the leading causes of death worldwide. Obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases are characterized by specific alterations in the human gut microbiota. Experimental studies with gut microbiota transplantations in mice and in humans indicate that a specific gut microbiota composition can be the cause and not just the consequence of the obese state and metabolic disease, which suggests a potential for gut microbiota modulation in prevention and treatment of obesity-related metabolic diseases. In addition, dietary intervention studies have suggested that modulation of the gut microbiota can improve metabolic risk markers in humans, but a causal role of the gut microbiota in such studies has not yet been established. Here, we review and discuss the role of the gut microbiota in obesity-related metabolic diseases and the potential of dietary modulation of the gut microbiota in metabolic disease prevention and treatment. PMID:26773017

  19. Gut Microbiota Interacts With Brain Microstructure and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Real, José-Manuel; Serino, Matteo; Blasco, Gerard; Puig, Josep; Daunis-i-Estadella, Josep; Ricart, Wifredo; Burcelin, Remy; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Portero-Otin, Manuel

    2015-12-01

    Evidence from animals suggests that gut microbiota affects brain structure and function but evidence in humans is scarce. This study sought to evaluate potential interactions among gut microbiota composition, brain microstructure, and cognitive tests in obese and nonobese subjects. This was a cross-sectional study at a tertiary hospital including 20 consecutive obese and 19 nonobese subjects similar in age and sex. Gut microbiota (16S bacterial gene pyrosequencing), brain microstructure (diffusion tensor imaging of brain white and gray matter and R2* sequences in magnetic resonance imaging) and cognitive tests. Hierarchical clustering revealed a specific gut microbiota-brain map profile for obese individuals who could be discriminated from nonobese subjects (accuracy of 0.81). Strikingly, Shannon index was linked to R2* and fractional anisotropy of the hypothalamus, caudate nucleus, and hippocampus, suggesting sparing of these brain structures with increased bacterial biodiversity. Microbiota profile also clustered with cognitive function. The relative abundance of Actinobacteria phylum was linked not only to magnetic resonance imaging diffusion tensor imaging variables in the thalamus, hypothalamus, and amygdala but also to cognitive test scores related to speed, attention, and cognitive flexibility. In sum, obesity status affects microbiota-brain microstructure and function crosstalk.

  20. Interactions of gut microbiota with functional food components and nutraceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laparra, J M; Sanz, Y

    2010-03-01

    The human gut is populated by an array of bacterial species, which develop important metabolic and immune functions, with a marked effect on the nutritional and health status of the host. Dietary component also play beneficial roles beyond basic nutrition, leading to the development of the functional food concept and nutraceuticals. Prebiotics, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and phytochemicals are the most well characterized dietary bioactive compounds. The beneficial effects of prebiotics mainly relay on their influence on the gut microbiota composition and their ability to generate fermentation products (short-chain fatty acids) with diverse biological roles. PUFAs include the omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, whose balance may influence diverse aspects of immunity and metabolism. Moreover, interactions between PUFAs and components of the gut microbiota may also influence their biological roles. Phytochemicals are bioactive non-nutrient plant compounds, which have raised interest because of their potential effects as antioxidants, antiestrogenics, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and anticarcinogenics. However, the bioavailability and effects of polyphenols greatly depend on their transformation by components of the gut microbiota. Phytochemicals and their metabolic products may also inhibit pathogenic bacteria while stimulate the growth of beneficial bacteria, exerting prebiotic-like effects. Therefore, the intestinal microbiota is both a target for nutritional intervention and a factor influencing the biological activity of other food compounds acquired orally. This review focuses on the reciprocal interactions between the gut microbiota and functional food components, and the consequences of these interactions on human health. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Diet dominates host genotype in shaping the murine gut microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, Rachel N.; Gerber, Georg K.; Luevano, Jesus M.; Gatti, Daniel M.; Somes, Lisa; Svenson, Karen L.; Turnbaugh, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Mammals exhibit marked inter-individual variations in their gut microbiota, but it remains unclear if this is primarily driven by host genetics or by extrinsic factors like dietary intake. To address this, we examined the effect of dietary perturbations on the gut microbiota of five inbred mouse strains, mice deficient for genes relevant to host-microbial interactions (MyD88−/−, NOD2−/−, ob/ob, and Rag1−/−), and >200 outbred mice. In each experiment, consumption of a high-fat, high-sugar diet reproducibly altered the gut microbiota despite differences in host genotype. The gut microbiota exhibited a linear dose response to dietary perturbations, taking an average of 3.5 days for each diet-responsive bacterial groups to reach a new steady state. Repeated dietary shifts demonstrated that most changes to the gut microbiota are reversible, while also uncovering bacteria whose abundance depends on prior consumption. These results emphasize the dominant role that diet plays in shaping inter-individual variations in host-associated microbial communities. PMID:25532804

  2. Melatonin prevents obesity through modulation of gut microbiota in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pengfei; Wang, Jialin; Hong, Fan; Wang, Sheng; Jin, Xi; Xue, Tingting; Jia, Li; Zhai, Yonggong

    2017-05-01

    Excess weight and obesity are severe public health threats worldwide. Recent evidence demonstrates that gut microbiota dysbiosis contributes to obesity and its comorbidities. The body weight-reducing and energy balancing effects of melatonin have been reported in several studies, but to date, no investigations toward examining whether the beneficial effects of melatonin are associated with gut microbiota have been carried out. In this study, we show that melatonin reduces body weight, liver steatosis, and low-grade inflammation as well as improving insulin resistance in high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. High-throughput pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA demonstrated that melatonin treatment significantly changed the composition of the gut microbiota in mice fed an HFD. The richness and diversity of gut microbiota were notably decreased by melatonin. HFD feeding altered 69 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) compare with a normal chow diet (NCD) group, and melatonin supplementation reversed 14 OTUs to the same configuration than those present in the NCD group, thereby impacting various functions, in particular through its ability to decrease the Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes ratio and increase the abundance of mucin-degrading bacteria Akkermansia, which is associated with healthy mucosa. Taken together, our results suggest that melatonin may be used as a probiotic agent to reverse HFD-induced gut microbiota dysbiosis and help us to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms governing the various melatonin beneficial effects. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Fecal menaquinone profiles of overweight adults are associated with gut microbiota composition during a gut microbiota-targeted dietary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, J Philip; Fu, Xueyan; Wang, Xiaoxin; Zhao, Yufeng; Shen, Jian; Zhang, Chenhong; Wolfe, Benjamin E; Saltzman, Edward; Zhao, Liping; Booth, Sarah L

    2015-07-01

    Emerging evidence supports novel roles for vitamin K in cardiometabolic health, some of which may be unique to the bacterially synthesized vitamin K forms known as menaquinones. However, factors influencing menaquinone biosynthesis by the gut microbiota and associations with cardiometabolic health have not been examined. The objective of this study was to identify associations between fecal menaquinone profiles, gut microbiota composition, and biomarkers of cardiometabolic health. The menaquinone profile and gut microbiota structure were periodically measured in fecal samples collected from 77 overweight Chinese adults who consumed a prescribed diet previously shown to alter gut microbiota composition and to improve cardiometabolic biomarkers. Covariance among menaquinones within individual fecal samples partitioned individuals into 2 distinct groups, herein introduced as menaquinotypes of the human gut. Menaquinotypes were characterized by differences in menaquinone (MK) 5 and MK9-MK13 and differences in the relative abundance of several operational taxonomic units (OTUs) delineated at the species level, predominantly within the genera Prevotella spp. and Bacteroides spp. Fecal MK4, MK6, and MK8 decreased during the intervention (P 100 OTUs were associated with altered fecal content of ≥1 individual menaquinone. The strongest and most consistent relations were between Prevotella spp. and MK5 and MK11-MK13, between Bacteroides spp. and MK9 and MK10, and between Escherichia/Shigella spp. and MK8. Neither individual menaquinones nor menaquinotypes were longitudinally associated with markers of glycemia, insulin resistance, or inflammation. These findings suggest that variability in fecal menaquinone content is predominantly determined by relatively few genera within the gut microbiota and that diet-mediated alterations in gut microbiota composition may provide a feasible approach for altering gut menaquinone content. This trial was registered at the Chinese

  4. Diet strongly influences the gut microbiota of surgeonfishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Sou; Ngugi, David Kamanda; Stingl, Ulrich

    2015-02-01

    Intestinal tracts are among the most densely populated microbial ecosystems. Gut microbiota and their influence on the host have been well characterized in terrestrial vertebrates but much less so in fish. This is especially true for coral reef fishes, which are among the most abundant groups of vertebrates on earth. Surgeonfishes (family: Acanthuridae) are part of a large and diverse family of reef fish that display a wide range of feeding behaviours, which in turn has a strong impact on the reef ecology. Here, we studied the composition of the gut microbiota of nine surgeonfish and three nonsurgeonfish species from the Red Sea. High-throughput pyrosequencing results showed that members of the phylum Firmicutes, especially of the genus Epulopiscium, were dominant in the gut microbiota of seven surgeonfishes. Even so, there were large inter- and intraspecies differences in the diversity of surgeonfish microbiota. Replicates of the same host species shared only a small number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs), although these accounted for most of the sequences. There was a statistically significant correlation between the phylogeny of the host and their gut microbiota, but the two were not completely congruent. Notably, the gut microbiota of three nonsurgeonfish species clustered with some surgeonfish species. The microbiota of the macro- and microalgavores was distinct, while the microbiota of the others (carnivores, omnivores and detritivores) seemed to be transient and dynamic. Despite some anomalies, both host phylogeny and diet were important drivers for the intestinal microbial community structure of surgeonfishes from the Red Sea. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Diet strongly influences the gut microbiota of surgeonfishes

    KAUST Repository

    Miyake, Sou

    2015-01-20

    Intestinal tracts are among the most densely populated microbial ecosystems. Gut microbiota and their influence on the host have been well characterized in terrestrial vertebrates but much less so in fish. This is especially true for coral reef fishes, which are among the most abundant groups of vertebrates on earth. Surgeonfishes (family: Acanthuridae) are part of a large and diverse family of reef fish that display a wide range of feeding behaviours, which in turn has a strong impact on the reef ecology. Here, we studied the composition of the gut microbiota of nine surgeonfish and three nonsurgeonfish species from the Red Sea. High-throughput pyrosequencing results showed that members of the phylum Firmicutes, especially of the genus Epulopiscium, were dominant in the gut microbiota of seven surgeonfishes. Even so, there were large inter- and intraspecies differences in the diversity of surgeonfish microbiota. Replicates of the same host species shared only a small number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs), although these accounted for most of the sequences. There was a statistically significant correlation between the phylogeny of the host and their gut microbiota, but the two were not completely congruent. Notably, the gut microbiota of three nonsurgeonfish species clustered with some surgeonfish species. The microbiota of the macro- and microalgavores was distinct, while the microbiota of the others (carnivores, omnivores and detritivores) seemed to be transient and dynamic. Despite some anomalies, both host phylogeny and diet were important drivers for the intestinal microbial community structure of surgeonfishes from the Red Sea. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Alternation of Gut Microbiota in Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Luo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available One-third of the world's population has been infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis, a primary pathogen of the mammalian respiratory system, while about 10% of latent infections progress to active tuberculosis (TB, indicating that host and environmental factors may determine the outcomes such as infection clearance/persistence and treatment prognosis. The gut microbiota is essential for development of host immunity, defense, nutrition and metabolic homeostasis. Thus, the pattern of gut microbiota may contribute to M. tuberculosis infection and prognosis. In current study we characterized the differences in gut bacterial communities in new tuberculosis patients (NTB, recurrent tuberculosis patients (RTB, and healthy control. The abundance-based coverage estimator (ACE showed the diversity index of the gut microbiota in the patients with recurrent tuberculosis was increased significantly compared with healthy controls (p < 0.05. At the phyla level, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, which contain many pathogenic species, were significantly enriched in the feces RTB patients. Conversely, phylum Bacteroidetes, containing a variety of beneficial commensal organisms, was reduced in the patients with the recurrent tuberculosis compared to healthy controls. The Gram-negative genus Prevotella of oral origin from phylum of Bacteroidetes and genus Lachnospira from phylum of Firmicutes were significantly decreased in both the new and recurrent TB patient groups, compared with the healthy control group (p < 0.05. We also found that there was a positive correlation between the gut microbiota and peripheral CD4+ T cell counts in the patients. This study, for the first time, showed associations between gut microbiota with tuberculosis and its clinical outcomes. Maintaining eubiosis, namely homeostasis of gut microbiota, may be beneficial for host recovery and prevention of recurrence of M. tuberculosis infection.

  7. Diet influence on the gut microbiota and dysbiosis related to nutritional disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Tidjani Alou; Jean-Christophe Lagier; Didier Raoult

    2016-01-01

    Studies concerning the gut microbiota have exponentially increased since the 1970s. A healthy gut microbiota is essential for growth and weight gain in infants as well as for a thorough harvest of energy from diet through a role in digestion. Study techniques include culture-independent and culture-dependent methods aiming at describing the gut microbiota taxonomically and functionally. Healthy gut microbiota plays a role in digestion by metabolizing indigestible macronutrients resulting in s...

  8. The gut microbiota and its relationship to diet and obesity: New insights

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Siobhan F.; Murphy, Eileen F.; Nilaweera, Kanishka; Ross, Paul R.; Shanahan, Fergus; O’Toole, Paul W.; Cotter, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity develops from a prolonged imbalance of energy intake and energy expenditure. However, the relatively recent discovery that the composition and function of the gut microbiota impacts on obesity has lead to an explosion of interest in what is now a distinct research field. Here, research relating to the links between the gut microbiota, diet and obesity will be reviewed under five major headings: (1) the gut microbiota of lean and obese animals, (2) the composition of the gut microbiota...

  9. Composition of the gut microbiota modulates the severity of malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarino, Nicolas F; LeCleir, Gary R; Denny, Joshua E; Dearth, Stephen P; Harding, Christopher L; Sloan, Sarah S; Gribble, Jennifer L; Campagna, Shawn R; Wilhelm, Steven W; Schmidt, Nathan W

    2016-02-23

    Plasmodium infections result in clinical presentations that range from asymptomatic to severe malaria, resulting in ∼1 million deaths annually. Despite this toll on humanity, the factors that determine disease severity remain poorly understood. Here, we show that the gut microbiota of mice influences the pathogenesis of malaria. Genetically similar mice from different commercial vendors, which exhibited differences in their gut bacterial community, had significant differences in parasite burden and mortality after infection with multiple Plasmodium species. Germfree mice that received cecal content transplants from "resistant" or "susceptible" mice had low and high parasite burdens, respectively, demonstrating the gut microbiota shaped the severity of malaria. Among differences in the gut flora were increased abundances of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium in resistant mice. Susceptible mice treated with antibiotics followed by yogurt made from these bacterial genera displayed a decreased parasite burden. Consistent with differences in parasite burden, resistant mice exhibited an elevated humoral immune response compared with susceptible mice. Collectively, these results identify the composition of the gut microbiota as a previously unidentified risk factor for severe malaria and modulation of the gut microbiota (e.g., probiotics) as a potential treatment to decrease parasite burden.

  10. Control of lupus nephritis by changes of gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Qinghui; Zhang, Husen; Liao, Xiaofeng; Lin, Kaisen; Liu, Hualan; Edwards, Michael R; Ahmed, S Ansar; Yuan, Ruoxi; Li, Liwu; Cecere, Thomas E; Branson, David B; Kirby, Jay L; Goswami, Poorna; Leeth, Caroline M; Read, Kaitlin A; Oestreich, Kenneth J; Vieson, Miranda D; Reilly, Christopher M; Luo, Xin M

    2017-07-11

    Systemic lupus erythematosus, characterized by persistent inflammation, is a complex autoimmune disorder with no known cure. Immunosuppressants used in treatment put patients at a higher risk of infections. New knowledge of disease modulators, such as symbiotic bacteria, can enable fine-tuning of parts of the immune system, rather than suppressing it altogether. Dysbiosis of gut microbiota promotes autoimmune disorders that damage extraintestinal organs. Here we report a role of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of renal dysfunction in lupus. Using a classical model of lupus nephritis, MRL/lpr, we found a marked depletion of Lactobacillales in the gut microbiota. Increasing Lactobacillales in the gut improved renal function of these mice and prolonged their survival. We used a mixture of 5 Lactobacillus strains (Lactobacillus oris, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus johnsonii, and Lactobacillus gasseri), but L. reuteri and an uncultured Lactobacillus sp. accounted for most of the observed effects. Further studies revealed that MRL/lpr mice possessed a "leaky" gut, which was reversed by increased Lactobacillus colonization. Lactobacillus treatment contributed to an anti-inflammatory environment by decreasing IL-6 and increasing IL-10 production in the gut. In the circulation, Lactobacillus treatment increased IL-10 and decreased IgG2a that is considered to be a major immune deposit in the kidney of MRL/lpr mice. Inside the kidney, Lactobacillus treatment also skewed the Treg-Th17 balance towards a Treg phenotype. These beneficial effects were present in female and castrated male mice, but not in intact males, suggesting that the gut microbiota controls lupus nephritis in a sex hormone-dependent manner. This work demonstrates essential mechanisms on how changes of the gut microbiota regulate lupus-associated immune responses in mice. Future studies are warranted to determine if these results can be replicated in human subjects.

  11. The impact of gut microbiota on gender-specific differences in immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, Floris; Beek, van Adriaan A.; Borghuis, Theo; Meijer, Ben; Hugenholtz, Floor; Gaast-de Jongh, van der Christa; Savelkoul, Huub F.; Jonge, de Marien I.; Faas, Marijke M.; Boekschoten, Mark V.; Smidt, Hauke; Aidy, Sahar El; Vos, de Paul

    2017-01-01

    Males and females are known to have gender-specific differences in their immune system and gut microbiota composition. Whether these differences in gut microbiota composition are a cause or consequence of differences in the immune system is not known. To investigate this issue, gut microbiota

  12. The Impact of Gut Microbiota on Gender-Specific Differences in Immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, Floris; van Beek, Adriaan A; Borghuis, Theo; Meijer, Ben; Hugenholtz, Floor; van der Gaast-de Jongh, Christa; Savelkoul, Huub F; de Jonge, Marien I; Faas, Marijke M; Boekschoten, Mark V; Smidt, Hauke; El Aidy, Sahar; de Vos, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Males and females are known to have gender-specific differences in their immune system and gut microbiota composition. Whether these differences in gut microbiota composition are a cause or consequence of differences in the immune system is not known. To investigate this issue, gut microbiota from

  13. From lifetime to evolution: timescales of human gut microbiota adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eQuercia

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Human beings harbor gut microbial communities that are essential to preserve human health. Molded by the human genome, the gut microbiota is an adaptive component of the human superorganisms that allows host adaptation at different timescales, optimizing host physiology from daily life to lifespan scales and human evolutionary history. The gut microbiota continuously changes from birth up to the most extreme limits of human life, reconfiguring its metagenomic layout in response to daily variations in diet or specific host physiological and immunological needs at different ages. On the other hand, the microbiota plasticity was strategic to face changes in lifestyle and dietary habits along the course of the recent evolutionary history, that has driven the passage from Paleolithic hunter-gathering societies to Neolithic agricultural farmers to modern Westernized societies.

  14. Human Gut Microbiota: Toward an Ecology of Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selber-Hnatiw, Susannah; Rukundo, Belise; Ahmadi, Masoumeh; Akoubi, Hayfa; Al-Bizri, Hend; Aliu, Adelekan F.; Ambeaghen, Tanyi U.; Avetisyan, Lilit; Bahar, Irmak; Baird, Alexandra; Begum, Fatema; Ben Soussan, Hélène; Blondeau-Éthier, Virginie; Bordaries, Roxane; Bramwell, Helene; Briggs, Alicia; Bui, Richard; Carnevale, Matthew; Chancharoen, Marisa; Chevassus, Talia; Choi, Jin H.; Coulombe, Karyne; Couvrette, Florence; D'Abreau, Samantha; Davies, Meghan; Desbiens, Marie-Pier; Di Maulo, Tamara; Di Paolo, Sean-Anthony; Do Ponte, Sabrina; dos Santos Ribeiro, Priscyla; Dubuc-Kanary, Laure-Anne; Duncan, Paola K.; Dupuis, Frédérique; El-Nounou, Sara; Eyangos, Christina N.; Ferguson, Natasha K.; Flores-Chinchilla, Nancy R.; Fotakis, Tanya; Gado Oumarou H D, Mariam; Georgiev, Metodi; Ghiassy, Seyedehnazanin; Glibetic, Natalija; Grégoire Bouchard, Julien; Hassan, Tazkia; Huseen, Iman; Ibuna Quilatan, Marlon-Francis; Iozzo, Tania; Islam, Safina; Jaunky, Dilan B.; Jeyasegaram, Aniththa; Johnston, Marc-André; Kahler, Matthew R.; Kaler, Kiranpreet; Kamani, Cedric; Karimian Rad, Hessam; Konidis, Elisavet; Konieczny, Filip; Kurianowicz, Sandra; Lamothe, Philippe; Legros, Karina; Leroux, Sebastien; Li, Jun; Lozano Rodriguez, Monica E.; Luponio-Yoffe, Sean; Maalouf, Yara; Mantha, Jessica; McCormick, Melissa; Mondragon, Pamela; Narayana, Thivaedee; Neretin, Elizaveta; Nguyen, Thi T. T.; Niu, Ian; Nkemazem, Romeo B.; O'Donovan, Martin; Oueis, Matthew; Paquette, Stevens; Patel, Nehal; Pecsi, Emily; Peters, Jackie; Pettorelli, Annie; Poirier, Cassandra; Pompa, Victoria R.; Rajen, Harshvardhan; Ralph, Reginald-Olivier; Rosales-Vasquez, Josué; Rubinshtein, Daria; Sakr, Surya; Sebai, Mohammad S.; Serravalle, Lisa; Sidibe, Fily; Sinnathurai, Ahnjana; Soho, Dominique; Sundarakrishnan, Adithi; Svistkova, Veronika; Ugbeye, Tsolaye E.; Vasconcelos, Megan S.; Vincelli, Michael; Voitovich, Olga; Vrabel, Pamela; Wang, Lu; Wasfi, Maryse; Zha, Cong Y.; Gamberi, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    Composed of trillions of individual microbes, the human gut microbiota has adapted to the uniquely diverse environments found in the human intestine. Quickly responding to the variances in the ingested food, the microbiota interacts with the host via reciprocal biochemical signaling to coordinate the exchange of nutrients and proper immune function. Host and microbiota function as a unit which guards its balance against invasion by potential pathogens and which undergoes natural selection. Disturbance of the microbiota composition, or dysbiosis, is often associated with human disease, indicating that, while there seems to be no unique optimal composition of the gut microbiota, a balanced community is crucial for human health. Emerging knowledge of the ecology of the microbiota-host synergy will have an impact on how we implement antibiotic treatment in therapeutics and prophylaxis and how we will consider alternative strategies of global remodeling of the microbiota such as fecal transplants. Here we examine the microbiota-human host relationship from the perspective of the microbial community dynamics. PMID:28769880

  15. Human Gut Microbiota: Toward an Ecology of Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selber-Hnatiw, Susannah; Rukundo, Belise; Ahmadi, Masoumeh; Akoubi, Hayfa; Al-Bizri, Hend; Aliu, Adelekan F; Ambeaghen, Tanyi U; Avetisyan, Lilit; Bahar, Irmak; Baird, Alexandra; Begum, Fatema; Ben Soussan, Hélène; Blondeau-Éthier, Virginie; Bordaries, Roxane; Bramwell, Helene; Briggs, Alicia; Bui, Richard; Carnevale, Matthew; Chancharoen, Marisa; Chevassus, Talia; Choi, Jin H; Coulombe, Karyne; Couvrette, Florence; D'Abreau, Samantha; Davies, Meghan; Desbiens, Marie-Pier; Di Maulo, Tamara; Di Paolo, Sean-Anthony; Do Ponte, Sabrina; Dos Santos Ribeiro, Priscyla; Dubuc-Kanary, Laure-Anne; Duncan, Paola K; Dupuis, Frédérique; El-Nounou, Sara; Eyangos, Christina N; Ferguson, Natasha K; Flores-Chinchilla, Nancy R; Fotakis, Tanya; Gado Oumarou H D, Mariam; Georgiev, Metodi; Ghiassy, Seyedehnazanin; Glibetic, Natalija; Grégoire Bouchard, Julien; Hassan, Tazkia; Huseen, Iman; Ibuna Quilatan, Marlon-Francis; Iozzo, Tania; Islam, Safina; Jaunky, Dilan B; Jeyasegaram, Aniththa; Johnston, Marc-André; Kahler, Matthew R; Kaler, Kiranpreet; Kamani, Cedric; Karimian Rad, Hessam; Konidis, Elisavet; Konieczny, Filip; Kurianowicz, Sandra; Lamothe, Philippe; Legros, Karina; Leroux, Sebastien; Li, Jun; Lozano Rodriguez, Monica E; Luponio-Yoffe, Sean; Maalouf, Yara; Mantha, Jessica; McCormick, Melissa; Mondragon, Pamela; Narayana, Thivaedee; Neretin, Elizaveta; Nguyen, Thi T T; Niu, Ian; Nkemazem, Romeo B; O'Donovan, Martin; Oueis, Matthew; Paquette, Stevens; Patel, Nehal; Pecsi, Emily; Peters, Jackie; Pettorelli, Annie; Poirier, Cassandra; Pompa, Victoria R; Rajen, Harshvardhan; Ralph, Reginald-Olivier; Rosales-Vasquez, Josué; Rubinshtein, Daria; Sakr, Surya; Sebai, Mohammad S; Serravalle, Lisa; Sidibe, Fily; Sinnathurai, Ahnjana; Soho, Dominique; Sundarakrishnan, Adithi; Svistkova, Veronika; Ugbeye, Tsolaye E; Vasconcelos, Megan S; Vincelli, Michael; Voitovich, Olga; Vrabel, Pamela; Wang, Lu; Wasfi, Maryse; Zha, Cong Y; Gamberi, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    Composed of trillions of individual microbes, the human gut microbiota has adapted to the uniquely diverse environments found in the human intestine. Quickly responding to the variances in the ingested food, the microbiota interacts with the host via reciprocal biochemical signaling to coordinate the exchange of nutrients and proper immune function. Host and microbiota function as a unit which guards its balance against invasion by potential pathogens and which undergoes natural selection. Disturbance of the microbiota composition, or dysbiosis, is often associated with human disease, indicating that, while there seems to be no unique optimal composition of the gut microbiota, a balanced community is crucial for human health. Emerging knowledge of the ecology of the microbiota-host synergy will have an impact on how we implement antibiotic treatment in therapeutics and prophylaxis and how we will consider alternative strategies of global remodeling of the microbiota such as fecal transplants. Here we examine the microbiota-human host relationship from the perspective of the microbial community dynamics.

  16. Human Gut Microbiota: Toward an Ecology of Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susannah Selber-Hnatiw

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Composed of trillions of individual microbes, the human gut microbiota has adapted to the uniquely diverse environments found in the human intestine. Quickly responding to the variances in the ingested food, the microbiota interacts with the host via reciprocal biochemical signaling to coordinate the exchange of nutrients and proper immune function. Host and microbiota function as a unit which guards its balance against invasion by potential pathogens and which undergoes natural selection. Disturbance of the microbiota composition, or dysbiosis, is often associated with human disease, indicating that, while there seems to be no unique optimal composition of the gut microbiota, a balanced community is crucial for human health. Emerging knowledge of the ecology of the microbiota-host synergy will have an impact on how we implement antibiotic treatment in therapeutics and prophylaxis and how we will consider alternative strategies of global remodeling of the microbiota such as fecal transplants. Here we examine the microbiota-human host relationship from the perspective of the microbial community dynamics.

  17. Gut Microbiota: Association with NAFLD and Metabolic Disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is the hepatic expression of metabolic syndrome, being frequently associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. Recent lines of evidence have demonstrated a role of gut microbiota in insulin resistance, obesity, and associated metabolic disturbances, raising the interest in its relationship with NAFLD pathogenesis. Therefore, intestinal microbiota has emerged as a potential factor involved in NAFLD, through different pathways, including its influence in energy storage, lipid and choline metabolism, ethanol production, immune balance, and inflammation. The main objective of this review is to address the pathogenic association of gut microbiota to NAFLD. This comprehension may allow the development of integrated strategies to modulate intestinal microbiota in order to treat NAFLD.

  18. Gut microbiota dysbiosis contributes to the development of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Zhao, Fangqing; Wang, Yidan; Chen, Junru; Tao, Jie; Tian, Gang; Wu, Shouling; Liu, Wenbin; Cui, Qinghua; Geng, Bin; Zhang, Weili; Weldon, Ryan; Auguste, Kelda; Yang, Lei; Liu, Xiaoyan; Chen, Li; Yang, Xinchun; Zhu, Baoli; Cai, Jun

    2017-02-01

    Recently, the potential role of gut microbiome in metabolic diseases has been revealed, especially in cardiovascular diseases. Hypertension is one of the most prevalent cardiovascular diseases worldwide, yet whether gut microbiota dysbiosis participates in the development of hypertension remains largely unknown. To investigate this issue, we carried out comprehensive metagenomic and metabolomic analyses in a cohort of 41 healthy controls, 56 subjects with pre-hypertension, 99 individuals with primary hypertension, and performed fecal microbiota transplantation from patients to germ-free mice. Compared to the healthy controls, we found dramatically decreased microbial richness and diversity, Prevotella-dominated gut enterotype, distinct metagenomic composition with reduced bacteria associated with healthy status and overgrowth of bacteria such as Prevotella and Klebsiella, and disease-linked microbial function in both pre-hypertensive and hypertensive populations. Unexpectedly, the microbiome characteristic in pre-hypertension group was quite similar to that in hypertension. The metabolism changes of host with pre-hypertension or hypertension were identified to be closely linked to gut microbiome dysbiosis. And a disease classifier based on microbiota and metabolites was constructed to discriminate pre-hypertensive and hypertensive individuals from controls accurately. Furthermore, by fecal transplantation from hypertensive human donors to germ-free mice, elevated blood pressure was observed to be transferrable through microbiota, and the direct influence of gut microbiota on blood pressure of the host was demonstrated. Overall, our results describe a novel causal role of aberrant gut microbiota in contributing to the pathogenesis of hypertension. And the significance of early intervention for pre-hypertension was emphasized.

  19. Persistent Gut Microbiota Immaturity in Malnourished Bangladeshi Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Sathish; Huq, Sayeeda; Yatsunenko, Tanya; Haque, Rashidul; Mahfuz, Mustafa; Alam, Mohammed A.; Benezra, Amber; DeStefano, Joseph; Meier, Martin F.; Muegge, Brian D.; Barratt, Michael J.; VanArendonk, Laura G.; Zhang, Qunyuan; Province, Michael A.; Petri, William A.; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Gordon, Jeffrey I.

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic food interventions have reduced mortality in children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) but incomplete restoration of healthy growth remains a major problem1,2. The relationships between the type of nutritional intervention, the gut microbiota, and therapeutic responses are unclear. In the current study, bacterial species whose proportional representation define a healthy gut microbiota as it assembles during the first two postnatal years were identified by applying a machine-learning-based approach to 16S rRNA datasets generated from monthly fecal samples obtained from a birth-cohort of children, living in an urban slum of Dhaka, Bangladesh, who exhibited consistently healthy growth. These age-discriminatory bacterial species were incorporated into a model that computes a ‘relative microbiota maturity index’ and ‘microbiota-for-age Z-score’ that compare development (defined here as maturation) of a child’s fecal microbiota relative to healthy children of similar chronologic age. The model was applied to twins and triplets (to test for associations of these indices with genetic and environmental factors including diarrhea), children with SAM enrolled in a randomized trial of two food interventions, and children with moderate acute malnutrition. Our results indicate that SAM is associated with significant relative microbiota immaturity that is only partially ameliorated following two widely used nutritional interventions. Immaturity is also evident in less severe forms of malnutrition and correlates with anthropometric measurements. Microbiota maturity indices provide a microbial measure of human postnatal development, a way of classifying malnourished states, and a parameter for judging therapeutic efficacy. More prolonged interventions with existing or new therapeutic foods and/or addition of gut microbes may be needed to achieve enduring repair of gut microbiota immaturity in childhood malnutrition and improve clinical outcomes. PMID

  20. The role of gut microbiota in immune homeostasis and autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsin-Jung; Wu, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Keeping a delicate balance in the immune system by eliminating invading pathogens, while still maintaining self-tolerance to avoid autoimmunity, is critical for the body's health. The gut microbiota that resides in the gastrointestinal tract provides essential health benefits to its host, particularly by regulating immune homeostasis. Moreover, it has recently become obvious that alterations of these gut microbial communities can cause immune dysregulation, leading to autoimmune disorders. Here we review the advances in our understanding of how the gut microbiota regulates innate and adaptive immune homeostasis, which in turn can affect the development of not only intestinal but also systemic autoimmune diseases. Exploring the interaction of gut microbes and the host immune system will not only allow us to understand the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases but will also provide us new foundations for the design of novel immuno- or microbe-based therapies.

  1. Gut microbiota and obesity: lessons from the microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cani, Patrice D

    2013-07-01

    The distal gut harbours microbial communities that outnumber our own eukaryotic cells. The contribution of the gut microbiota to the development of several diseases (e.g. obesity, type 2 diabetes, steatosis, cardiovascular diseases and inflammatory bowel diseases) is becoming clear, although the causality remains to be proven in humans. Global changes in the gut microbiota have been observed by a number of culture-dependent and culture-independent methods, and while the latter have mostly included 16S ribosomal RNA gene analyses, more recent studies have utilized DNA sequencing of whole-microbial communities. Altogether, these high-throughput methods have facilitated the identification of novel candidate bacteria and, most importantly, metabolic functions that might be associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. This review discusses the association between specific taxa and obesity, together with the techniques that are used to characterize the gut microbiota in the context of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Recent results are discussed in the framework of the interactions between gut microbiota and host metabolism.

  2. Linking Gut Microbiota to Colorectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raskov, Hans; Burcharth, Jakob; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian

    2017-01-01

    and malignant transformation. Initiation and promotion of colorectal cancer may result from direct bacterial actions, bacterial metabolites and inflammatory pathways. Newer aspects of microbiota and colorectal cancer include quorum sensing, biofilm formation, sidedness and effects/countereffects of microbiota......Pre-clinical and clinical data produce mounting evidence that the microbiota is strongly associated with colorectal carcinogenesis. Dysbiosis may change the course of carcinogenesis as microbial actions seem to impact genetic and epigenetic alterations leading to dysplasia, clonal expansion...

  3. Effect of Antibiotics on Gut Microbiota, Gut Hormones and Glucose Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Kristian H; Frost, Morten; Bahl, Martin Iain

    2015-01-01

    and glucose tolerant males. Faecal samples were collected for culture-based assessment of changes in gut microbiota composition. Acute and dramatic reductions in the abundance of a representative set of gut bacteria was seen immediately following the antibiotic course, but no changes in postprandial glucose......The gut microbiota has been designated as an active regulator of glucose metabolism and metabolic phenotype in a number of animal and human observational studies. We evaluated the effect of removing as many bacteria as possible by antibiotics on postprandial physiology in healthy humans. Meal tests...... with vancomycin, gentamycin and meropenem induced shifts in gut microbiota composition that had no clinically relevant short or long-term effects on metabolic variables in healthy glucose-tolerant males. clinicaltrials.gov NCT01633762....

  4. Factors Influencing the Gut Microbiota, Inflammation, and Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Li; Duffy, Andrew

    2017-07-01

    The gut microbiota is a complex community of bacteria residing in the intestine. Animal models have demonstrated that several factors contribute to and can significantly alter the composition of the gut microbiota, including genetics; the mode of delivery at birth; the method of infant feeding; the use of medications, especially antibiotics; and the diet. There may exist a gut microbiota signature that promotes intestinal inflammation and subsequent systemic low-grade inflammation, which in turn promotes the development of type 2 diabetes. There are preliminary studies that suggest that the consumption of probiotic bacteria such as those found in yogurt and other fermented milk products can beneficially alter the composition of the gut microbiome, which in turn changes the host metabolism. Obesity, insulin resistance, fatty liver disease, and low-grade peripheral inflammation are more prevalent in patients with low α diversity in the gut microbiome than they are in patients with high α diversity. Fermented milk products, such as yogurt, deliver a large number of lactic acid bacteria to the gastrointestinal tract. They may modify the intestinal environment, including inhibiting lipopolysaccharide production and increasing the tight junctions of gut epithelia cells. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Interaction between dietary lipids and gut microbiota regulates hepatic cholesterol metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caesar, Robert; Nygren, Heli; Orešič, Matej

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbiota influences many aspects of host metabolism. We have previously shown that the presence of a gut microbiota remodels lipid composition. Here we investigated how interaction between gut microbiota and dietary lipids regulates lipid composition in the liver and plasma, and gene......-induced regulation of hepatic cholesterol metabolism is dependent on dietary lipid composition....... of most lipid classes differed between mice fed lard and fish oil. However, the gut microbiota also affected lipid composition. The gut microbiota increased hepatic levels of cholesterol and cholesteryl esters in mice fed lard, but not in mice fed fish oil. Serum levels of cholesterol and cholesteryl...

  6. The gut microbiota influence behavior in the subchronic PCP induced animal model of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Bettina Merete Pyndt; Redrobe, Paul; Brønnum Pedersen, Tina

    The gut microbiota has major impact on the individual. Here we show that the gut microbiota influence behavior in the subchronic PCP induced animal model of schizophrenia. The gut microbiota were changed in the group treated subchronic with PCP, and restoration coincided with normalisation...... of memory performance in lister hooded rats. Furthermore the individual gut microbiota correlated to the individual behavior abserved in the tests conducted. In conclusion results show an influence of the gut microbiota on behavior in this model, and therefore it might be relavant to include the information...

  7. Microbes and the mind: emerging hallmarks of the gut microbiota-brain axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Kylynda C; Huus, Kelsey E; Finlay, B Brett

    2016-05-01

    The concept of a gut microbiota-brain axis has emerged to describe the complex and continuous signalling between the gut microbiota and host nervous system. This review examines key microbial-derived neuromodulators and structural components that comprise the gut microbiota-brain axis. To conclude, we briefly identify current challenges in gut microbiota-brain research and suggest a framework to characterize these interactions. Here, we propose five emerging hallmarks of the gut microbiota-brain axis: (i) Indistinguishability, (ii) Emergence, (iii) Bidirectional Signalling, (iv) Critical Window Fluidity and (5) Neural Homeostasis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Cultivating Healthy Growth and Nutrition through the Gut Microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Sathish; Blanton, Laura; Frese, Steven A.; Charbonneau, Mark; Mills, David A.; Gordon, Jeffrey I.

    2015-01-01

    Microbiota assembly is perturbed in children with undernutrition, resulting in persistent microbiota immaturity that is not rescued by current nutritional interventions. Evidence is accumulating that this immaturity is causally related to the pathogenesis of undernutrition and its lingering sequelae. Preclinical models in which human gut communities are replicated in gnotobiotic mice have provided an opportunity to identify and predict the effects of different dietary ingredients on microbiota structure, expressed functions, and host biology. This capacity sets the stage for proof-of-concept tests designed to deliberately shape the developmental trajectory and configurations of microbiota in children representing different geographies, cultural traditions, and states of health. Developing these capabilities for microbial stewardship is timely given the global health burden of childhood undernutrition, the effects of changing eating practices brought about by globalization, and the realization that affordable nutritious foods need to be developed to enhance our capacity to cultivate healthier microbiota in populations at risk for poor nutrition. PMID:25815983

  9. Gut microbiota diversity predicts immune status in HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Piotr; Troseid, Marius; Avershina, Ekatarina; Barqasho, Babilonia; Neogi, Ujjwal; Holm, Kristian; Hov, Johannes R; Noyan, Kajsa; Vesterbacka, Jan; Svärd, Jenny; Rudi, Knut; Sönnerborg, Anders

    2015-11-28

    HIV-1 infection is characterized by altered intestinal barrier, gut microbiota dysbiosis, and systemic inflammation. We hypothesized that changes of the gut microbiota predict immune dysfunction and HIV-1 progression, and that antiretroviral therapy (ART) partially restores the microbiota composition. An observational study including 28 viremic patients, three elite controllers, and nine uninfected controls. Blood and stool samples were collected at baseline and for 19 individuals at follow-up (median 10 months) during ART. Microbiota composition was determined by 16S rRNA sequencing (Illumina MiSeq). Soluble markers of microbial translocation and monocyte activation were analyzed by Limulus Amebocyte Lysate assay or ELISA. Several alpha-diversity measures, including number of observed bacterial species and Shannon index, were significantly lower in viremic patients compared to controls. The alpha diversity correlated with CD4 T-cell counts and inversely with markers of microbial translocation and monocyte activation. In multivariate linear regression, for every age and sex-adjusted increase in the number of bacterial species, the CD4 T-cell count increased with 0.88 (95% confidence interval 0.35-1.41) cells/μl (P = 0.002). After introduction of ART, microbiota alterations persisted with further reduction in alpha diversity. The microbiota composition at the genus level was profoundly altered in viremic patients, both at baseline and after ART, with Prevotella reduced during ART (P Gut microbiota alterations are closely associated with immune dysfunction in HIV-1 patients, and these changes persist during short-term ART. Our data implicate that re-shaping the microbiota may be an adjuvant therapy in patients commencing successful ART.

  10. [Gut microbiota and immune crosstalk in metabolic disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcelin, Rémy

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the review is to discuss about the role played by the defence crosstalk between the gut microbiota and the intestinal immune system, in the development of metabolic disease focusing on obesity and diabetes. Starting from physiological and pathological stand points and based on the latest published data, this review is addressing how the concept of the hologenome theory of evolution can drive the fate of metabolic disease. The notion of "metabolic infection" to explain the "metabolic inflammation" is discussed. This imply comments about the process of bacterial translocation and impaired intestinal immune defense against commensals. Eventually this review sets the soil for personalized medicine. The monthly increase in the number of publications on the gut microbiota to intestinal immune defense and the control of metabolism demonstrate the importance of this field of investigation. The notion of commensal as "self or non-self" has to be reevaluated in the light of the current data. Furthermore, data demonstrate the major role played by short chain fatty acids, secondary bile acids, LPS, peptidoglycans, indole derivatives, and other bacteria-related molecules on the shaping of cells involved in the intestinal protection against commensals is now becoming a central player in the incidence of metabolic diseases. The literature demonstrates that the onset of metabolic diseases and some specific co-morbidities can be explained by a gut microbiota to intestinal immune system crosstalk. Therefore, one should now consider this avenue of investigation as a putative source of biomarkers and therapeutic targets to personalize the treatment of metabolic disease and its co-morbidities. Gut microbiota is considered as a major regulator of metabolic disease. This reconciles the notion of metabolic inflammation and the epidemic development of the disease. In addition to evidence showing that a specific gut microbiota characterizes patients with obesity, type 2 diabetes

  11. Can we prevent obesity-related metabolic diseases by dietary modulation of the gut microbiota?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brahe, Lena Kirchner; Astrup, Arne; Larsen, Lesli Hingstrup

    2016-01-01

    Obesity increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and certain cancers, which are among the leading causes of death worldwide. Obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases are characterized by specific alterations in the human gut microbiota. Experimental studies with gut...... microbiota transplantations in mice and in humans indicate that a specific gut microbiota composition can be the cause and not just the consequence of the obese state and metabolic disease, which suggests a potential for gut microbiota modulation in prevention and treatment of obesity-related metabolic...... diseases. In addition, dietary intervention studies have suggested that modulation of the gut microbiota can improve metabolic risk markers in humans, but a causal role of the gut microbiota in such studies has not yet been established. Here, we review and discuss the role of the gut microbiota in obesity...

  12. Exercise and gut microbiota: clinical implications for the feasibility of Tai Chi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamasaki, Hidetaka

    2017-07-01

    Recent studies have shown exercise is associated with changes in the gut microbiota in humans as well as in experimental animals. Tai Chi is an exercise that integrates a martial art, deep breathing and mediation, and has various beneficial effects for health. This review summarizes current knowledge and recent literature on the association between exercise and gut microbiota, and explores the feasibility of Tai Chi for improving gut microbiota composition and function. PubMed/MEDLINE was used to search the English literature for the keywords exercise and gut microbiota. Fourteen relevant studies were identified. In humans, exercise increases the gut microbial diversity. However, the evidence for this association is weak, as previous studies were small-scale, non-controlled studies of short duration or cross-sectional design. In animals, exercise alters the composition of gut microbiota, with some studies suggesting exercise increases the Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio. However, these results are controversial, partly because host genetics and physical fitness also influence gut microbiota. Furthermore, the intensity of exercise may play a key role in how exercise affects gut microbiota. Tai Chi is a moderate-intensity exercise that improves immune function and inflammation of the gut. Tai Chi may also affect gut microbiota through vagal modulation and mediating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. However, no studies have investigated the association between Tai Chi and gut microbiota. Well designed studies exploring the effects of Tai Chi on gut microbiota are needed.

  13. Gut microbiota and probiotics: Focus on diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordalo Tonucci, Livia; Dos Santos, Karina Maria Olbrich; De Luces Fortes Ferreira, Celia Lucia; Ribeiro, Sonia Machado Rocha; De Oliveira, Leandro Licursi; Martino, Hercia Stampini Duarte

    2017-07-24

    The characterization of gut microbiota has become an important area of research in several clinical conditions, including type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Changes in the composition and/or metabolic activity of the gut microbiota can contribute to human health. Thus, this review discusses the effects of probiotics and gut microbiota on metabolic control in these individuals. Relevant studies were obtained from electronic databases such as PubMed/Medline and ISI Web of Science. The main probiotics used in these studies belonged to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. The authors found seven randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials and 13 experimental studies directly related to the effect of probiotics on metabolic control in the context of T2DM. The hypothesis that gut microbiota plays a role in the development of diabetes indicates an important beginning, and the potential of probiotics to prevent and reduce the severity of T2DM is better observed in animal studies. In clinical trials, the use of probiotics in glycemic control presented conflicting results, and only few studies have attempted to evaluate factors that justify metabolic changes, such as markers of oxidative stress, inflammation, and incretins. Thus, further research is needed to assess the effects of probiotics in the metabolism of diabetic individuals, as well as the main mechanisms involved in this complex relationship.

  14. Mechanisms linking dietary fiber, gut microbiota and colon cancer prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many epidemiological and experimental studies have suggested that dietary fiber plays an important role in colon cancer prevention. These findings may relate to the ability of fiber to reduce the contact time of carcinogens within the intestinal lumen and to promote healthy gut microbiota, which mod...

  15. Diversity analysis of gut microbiota in osteoporosis and osteopenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jihan; Wang, Yangyang; Gao, Wenjie; Wang, Biao; Zhao, Heping; Zeng, Yuhong; Ji, Yanhong; Hao, Dingjun

    2017-01-01

    Some evidence suggests that bone health can be regulated by gut microbiota. To better understand this, we performed 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing to analyze the intestinal microbial diversity in primary osteoporosis (OP) patients, osteopenia (ON) patients and normal controls (NC). We observed an inverse correlation between the number of bacterial taxa and the value of bone mineral density. The diversity estimators in the OP and ON groups were increased compared with those in the NC group. Beta diversity analyses based on hierarchical clustering and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) could discriminate the NC samples from OP and ON samples. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria constituted the four dominant phyla in all samples. Proportion of Firmicutes was significantly higher and Bacteroidetes was significantly lower in OP samples than that in NC samples ( p  gut microbiota may be a critical factor in osteoporosis development, which can further help us search for novel biomarkers of gut microbiota in OP and understand the interaction between gut microbiota and bone health.

  16. Soy and Gut Microbiota: Interaction and Implication for Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haiqiu; Krishnan, Hari B; Pham, Quynhchi; Yu, Liangli Lucy; Wang, Thomas T Y

    2016-11-23

    Soy (Glycine max) is a major commodity in the United States, and soy foods are gaining popularity due to their reported health-promoting effects. In the past two decades, soy and soy bioactive components have been studied for their health-promoting/disease-preventing activities and potential mechanisms of action. Recent studies have identified gut microbiota as an important component in the human body ecosystem and possibly a critical modulator of human health. Soy foods' interaction with the gut microbiota may critically influence many aspects of human development, physiology, immunity, and nutrition at different stages of life. This review summarizes current knowledge on the effects of soy foods and soy components on gut microbiota population and composition. It was found, although results vary in different studies, in general, both animal and human studies have shown that consumption of soy foods can increase the levels of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli and alter the ratio between Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. These changes in microbiota are consistent with reported reductions in pathogenic bacteria populations in the gut, thereby lowering the risk of diseases and leading to beneficial effects on human health.

  17. Characterization of the gut microbiota in leptin deficient obese mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellekilde, Merete; Krych, Lukasz; Hansen, Camilla Hartmann Friis

    2014-01-01

    Gut microbiota have been implicated as a relevant factor in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and its diversity might be a cause of variation in animal models of T2DM. In this study, we aimed to characterise the gut microbiota of a T2DM mouse model with a long term vision of bei...... in various disease read-outs in the B6.V-Lep(ob)/J model and considering them in both quality assurance and data evaluation for the B6.V-Lep(ob)/J model may have a reducing impact on the inter-individual variation.......Gut microbiota have been implicated as a relevant factor in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and its diversity might be a cause of variation in animal models of T2DM. In this study, we aimed to characterise the gut microbiota of a T2DM mouse model with a long term vision of being...

  18. Gut microbiota and host defense in critical illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, Max C.; Haak, Bastiaan W.; Hugenholtz, Floor; Wiersinga, W. Joost

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of reviewThe review aims to discuss emerging evidence in the field of microbiome-dependent roles in host defense during critical illness with a focus on lung, kidney, and brain inflammation.Recent findingsThe gut microbiota of critical ill patients is characterized by lower diversity, lower

  19. Molecular analysis of gut microbiota in obesity among Indian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Obesity is a consequence of a complex interplay between the host genome and the prevalent obesogenic factors among the modern communities. The role of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of the disorder was recently discovered; however, 16S-rRNA-based surveys revealed compelling but community-specific data.

  20. Gut Microbiota and Autism: Key Concepts and Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Helen T.; Taur, Ying; Walkup, John T.

    2017-01-01

    There is an emerging body of evidence linking the intestinal microbiota with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Studies have demonstrated differences in the composition of gut bacteria between children with ASD and controls. Certain intestinal bacteria have been observed in abundance and may be involved in the pathogenesis of ASD; including members…

  1. Microbiota regulation of the Mammalian gut-brain axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burokas, Aurelijus; Moloney, Rachel D; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2015-01-01

    The realization that the microbiota-gut-brain axis plays a critical role in health and disease has emerged over the past decade. The brain-gut axis is a bidirectional communication system between the central nervous system (CNS) and the gastrointestinal tract. Regulation of the microbiota-brain-gut axis is essential for maintaining homeostasis, including that of the CNS. The routes of this communication are not fully elucidated but include neural, humoral, immune, and metabolic pathways. A number of approaches have been used to interrogate this axis including the use of germ-free animals, probiotic agents, antibiotics, or animals exposed to pathogenic bacterial infections. Together, it is clear that the gut microbiota can be a key regulator of mood, cognition, pain, and obesity. Understanding microbiota-brain interactions is an exciting area of research which may contribute new insights into individual variations in cognition, personality, mood, sleep, and eating behavior, and how they contribute to a range of neuropsychiatric diseases ranging from affective disorders to autism and schizophrenia. Finally, the concept of psychobiotics, bacterial-based interventions with mental health benefit, is also emerging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Deoxynivalenol, gut microbiota and immunotoxicity: A potential approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yuxiao; Peng, Zhao; Chen, Liangkai; Nüssler, Andreas K; Liu, Liegang; Yang, Wei

    2018-02-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) is the most frequent mycotoxin in grains and grain products. DON contamination in fodder and food is a serious threat for health, since it impairs the immune and gastrointestinal systems of both human and animals. Gut microbiota seems to play a more and more important part in human and animals' health according to related researches. Previous studies implied some associations among gut microbiota, DON and immune system. For example, DON affects immune system as well as the composition and abundance of gut microbiota, and the latter influences immune system as well. In the present short review, we not only provide the available information about the toxic consequences of DON-induced immunotoxicity on different animals and cell lines and discuss its main possible molecule mechanisms, but also summarize research results concerning the role of gut microbiota in DON-induced immunotoxicity and gender differences, with the aim to find some potential therapeutic strategies to tackle DON-induced immunotoxicity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Does Whole Grain Consumption Alter Gut Microbiota and Satiety?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle N. Cooper

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes recent studies examining whole grain consumption and its effect on gut microbiota and satiety in healthy humans. Studies comparing whole grains to their refined grain counterparts were considered, as were studies comparing different grain types. Possible mechanisms linking microbial metabolism and satiety are described. Clinical trials show that whole grain wheat, maize, and barley alter the human gut microbiota, but these findings are based on a few studies that do not include satiety components, so no functional claims between microbiota and satiety can be made. Ten satiety trials were evaluated and provide evidence that whole oats, barley, and rye can increase satiety, whereas the evidence for whole wheat and maize is not compelling. There are many gaps in the literature; no one clinical trial has examined the effects of whole grains on satiety and gut microbiota together. Once understanding the impact of whole grains on satiety and microbiota is more developed, then particular grains might be used for better appetite control. With this information at hand, healthcare professionals could make individual dietary recommendations that promote satiety and contribute to weight control.

  4. The association of type II diabetes with gut microbiota composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navab-Moghadam, Fatemeh; Sedighi, Mansour; Khamseh, Mohammad E; Alaei-Shahmiri, Fariba; Talebi, Malihe; Razavi, Shabnam; Amirmozafari, Nour

    2017-09-01

    It is known that type 2 diabetes (T2D) in humans could be linked to the composition of gut microbiota. The aim of this study was to evaluate three faecal bacterial species, including Bacteroides fragilis, Bifidobacterium longum and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in patients with T2D. This case control study included 18 patients with T2D and 18 matched persons without diabetes. The concentrations of B. fragilis, B. longum and F. prausnitzii were determined by quantitative Real-Time PCR. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the gut bacterial composition in patients with T2D was partially different from that in the healthy individuals. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii was significantly lower in patients with T2D (P-value = 0.038). Bacteroides fragilis was under-represented in the microbiota of the group with diabetes, but its difference between two groups was not significant (P-value = 0.38). No difference was observed for B. longum community between the both groups (P-value = 0.99). Characterization of specific species of intestinal microbiota shows some compositional changes in patients with T2D. The results may be valuable for developing strategies to control type 2 diabetes by modifying the intestinal microbiota. Long-term studies with emphasis on other bacterial groups are suggested to clarify the association of T2D with gut microbiota. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Inheritance and Establishment of Gut Microbiota in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinmei Ding

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, the microbiota can be transmitted from the placenta, uterus, and vagina of the mother to the infant. Unlike mammals, development of the avian embryo is a process isolated from the mother and thus in the avian embryo the gut microbial developmental process remains elusive. To explore the establishment and inheritance of the gut microbiome in the avian embryo, we used the chicken as the model organism to investigate the gut microbial composition in embryos, chicks, and maternal hens. We observed: (1 28 phyla and 162 genera of microbes in embryos where the dominated genus was Halomonas (79%. (2 65 genera were core microbiota in all stages with 42% and 62% gut microbial genera of embryo were found in maternal hen and chick, respectively. There was a moderate correlation (0.40 between the embryo and maternal, and 0.52 between the embryo and chick at the family level. (3 Gut microbes that are involved in substance metabolism, infectious disease, and environmental adaptation are enriched in embryos, chicks, and maternal hens, respectively. (4 94% genera of gut microbial composition were similar among three different chicken breeds which were maintained under similar conditions. Our findings provide evidence to support the hypothesis that part of the microbial colonizers harbored in early embryos were inherited from maternal hens, and the gut microbial abundance and diversity were influenced by environmental factors and host genetic variation during development.

  6. Human oral, gut, and plaque microbiota in patients with atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Omry; Spor, Aymé; Felin, Jenny; Fåk, Frida; Stombaugh, Jesse; Tremaroli, Valentina; Behre, Carl Johan; Knight, Rob; Fagerberg, Björn; Ley, Ruth E; Bäckhed, Fredrik

    2011-03-15

    Periodontal disease has been associated with atherosclerosis, suggesting that bacteria from the oral cavity may contribute to the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, the gut microbiota may affect obesity, which is associated with atherosclerosis. Using qPCR, we show that bacterial DNA was present in the atherosclerotic plaque and that the amount of DNA correlated with the amount of leukocytes in the atherosclerotic plaque. To investigate the microbial composition of atherosclerotic plaques and test the hypothesis that the oral or gut microbiota may contribute to atherosclerosis in humans, we used 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes to survey the bacterial diversity of atherosclerotic plaque, oral, and gut samples of 15 patients with atherosclerosis, and oral and gut samples of healthy controls. We identified Chryseomonas in all atherosclerotic plaque samples, and Veillonella and Streptococcus in the majority. Interestingly, the combined abundances of Veillonella and Streptococcus in atherosclerotic plaques correlated with their abundance in the oral cavity. Moreover, several additional bacterial phylotypes were common to the atherosclerotic plaque and oral or gut samples within the same individual. Interestingly, several bacterial taxa in the oral cavity and the gut correlated with plasma cholesterol levels. Taken together, our findings suggest that bacteria from the oral cavity, and perhaps even the gut, may correlate with disease markers of atherosclerosis.

  7. The Influence of Different Maternal Microbial Communities on the Development of Infant Gut and Oral Microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Drell, Tiina; Stsepetova, Jelena; Simm, Jaak; Rull, Kristiina; Aleksejeva, Aira; Antson, Anne; Tillmann, Vallo; Metsis, Madis; Sepp, Epp; Salumets, Andres; Mandar, Reet

    2017-01-01

    Very few studies have analyzed how the composition of mother?s microbiota affects the development of infant?s gut and oral microbiota during the first months of life. Here, microbiota present in the mothers? gut, vagina, breast milk, oral cavity, and mammary areola were compared with the gut and oral microbiota of their infants over the first six months following birth. Samples were collected from the aforementioned body sites from seven mothers and nine infants at three different time points...

  8. Comparative Analysis of the Gut Microbiota Composition between Captive and Wild Forest Musk Deer

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yimeng; Hu, Xiaolong; Yang, Shuang; Zhou, Juntong; Zhang, Tianxiang; Qi, Lei; Sun, Xiaoning; Fan, Mengyuan; Xu, Shanghua; Cha, Muha; Zhang, Meishan; Lin, Shaobi; Liu, Shuqiang; Hu, Defu

    2017-01-01

    The large and complex gut microbiota in animals has profound effects on feed utilization and metabolism. Currently, gastrointestinal diseases due to dysregulated gut microbiota are considered important factors that limit growth of the captive forest musk deer population. Compared with captive forest musk deer, wild forest musk deer have a wider feeding range with no dietary limitations, and their gut microbiota are in a relatively natural state. However, no reports have compared the gut micro...

  9. The impact of the postnatal gut microbiota on animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Axel Jacob Kornerup; Ejsing-Duun, Maria; Aasted, Bent

    2007-01-01

    Quality control of laboratory animals has been mostly concentrated on eliminating and securing the absence of specific infections, but event barrier bred laboratory animals harbour a huge number of gut bacteria. There is scientific evidence that the nature of the gut microbiota especially in early...... correlated to factors related to early exposure to microorganisms, e.g. the so-called hygiene hypothesis claims that the increasing human incidence of allergy. T1D, RA and IBD may be due to the lack of such exposure. It is possible today by various molecular techniques to profile the gut microbiota...... of a laboratory animal, and such techniques should be applied to document uniform animals from laboratory animal vendors to secure standardization and thereby lower variation and smaller group sizes....

  10. High fat diet drives obesity regardless the composition of gut microbiota in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvie Rabot; Mathieu Membrez; Florence Blancher; Bernard Berger; Déborah Moine; Lutz Krause; Rodrigo Bibiloni; Aurélia Bruneau; Philippe Gérard; Jay Siddharth; Christian L. Lauber; Chieh Jason Chou

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbiota is involved in many aspects of host physiology but its role in body weight and glucose metabolism remains unclear. Here we studied the compositional changes of gut microbiota in diet-induced obesity mice that were conventionally raised or received microbiota transplantation. In conventional mice, the diversity of the faecal microbiota was weakly associated with 1st week weight gain but transferring the microbiota of mice with contrasting weight gain to germfree mice did not...

  11. Gut Microbiota: Modulate its Complexity to Restore the Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermín Mearin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the gut microbiota to health is becoming more widely appreciated. The range of commensal microorganisms in healthy individuals and in patients with a variety of digestive diseases is under active investigation, and evidence is accumulating to suggest that both the diversity and balance of bacterial species are important for health. Disturbance of the balance of microorganisms – dysbiosis – is associated with obesity and a variety of diseases. Restoring the balance by modulating the microbiota through diet, probiotics, or drugs is now being developed as a potential treatment for digestive diseases. Rifaximin has been shown to increase levels of beneficial bacterial species without perturbing the overall composition of the microbiota in patients with a variety of digestive diseases, making it a ‘eubiotic’ rather than an antibiotic. Rifaximin has demonstrated clinical benefit in the treatment of symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease, where changes in the colonic microbiota contribute to the pathogenesis of this disease. Modulating the microbiota is also a promising treatment for some types of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS that have been linked to an overgrowth of coliform and Aeromonas species in the small intestine. Rifaximin has demonstrated efficacy in relieving symptoms and reducing relapses in diarrhoeal IBS in the TARGET-1, 2, and 3 trials, without reducing microbial diversity or increasing antimicrobial resistance. While many aspects of the balance of gut microbiota in disease are not yet fully understood, the new understanding of rifaximin as a modulator of gut microbiota may open up new treatment options in digestive disease.

  12. Effect of Antibiotics on Gut Microbiota, Gut Hormones and Glucose Metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian H Mikkelsen

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota has been designated as an active regulator of glucose metabolism and metabolic phenotype in a number of animal and human observational studies. We evaluated the effect of removing as many bacteria as possible by antibiotics on postprandial physiology in healthy humans.Meal tests with measurements of postprandial glucose tolerance and postprandial release of insulin and gut hormones were performed before, immediately after and 6 weeks after a 4-day, broad-spectrum, per oral antibiotic cocktail (vancomycin 500 mg, gentamycin 40 mg and meropenem 500 mg once-daily in a group of 12 lean and glucose tolerant males. Faecal samples were collected for culture-based assessment of changes in gut microbiota composition.Acute and dramatic reductions in the abundance of a representative set of gut bacteria was seen immediately following the antibiotic course, but no changes in postprandial glucose tolerance, insulin secretion or plasma lipid concentrations were found. Apart from an acute and reversible increase in peptide YY secretion, no changes were observed in postprandial gut hormone release.As evaluated by selective cultivation of gut bacteria, a broad-spectrum 4-day antibiotics course with vancomycin, gentamycin and meropenem induced shifts in gut microbiota composition that had no clinically relevant short or long-term effects on metabolic variables in healthy glucose-tolerant males.clinicaltrials.gov NCT01633762.

  13. Gut Microbiota: From Fundamental Research to Translational Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujing Bi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The human microbiota is a hot topic at present because increasing evidences demonstrate that it should be considered an organ based on its importance to human health. Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota is significantly related to many human disorders. In turn, correcting such imbalances and taking advantage of gut microbes are possible methods for alleviating or even curing host diseases. A recent study published in Cell indicated that inhibition of gut microbial production of trimethylamine(TMA specifically prevents atherosclerosis in vivo. Another study found that a diet supplemented with TMA N-oxide (TMAO increased the level of atherosclerosis in mice, which suggested TMAO might be a causative factor in cardiovascular disease (CVD. However, direct inhibition of flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO3, a hepatic enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of TMA to TMAO, results in TMA accumulation and several unpleasant side effects. The small-molecule 3, 3-dimethyl-1-butanol (DMB, identified by Wang et al., reduces TMAO through non-lethal inhibition of microbial TMA formation in mice, even when fed a western diet, including high choline. DMB is a non-toxic compound found naturally in foods such as olive oil and red wine. Therefore, the risk of CVD could be reduced by some dietary habits (such as a Mediterranean diet, which might stem from changes in gut microbiota. Although the impact of DMB on microbial TMA has only been observed in mouse models, it provides a guideline for the treatment of CVD in humans by regulating gut microbes. There are many similar studies that target gut microbes to treat host disorders. For example, Sarkis’ group verified that a human commensal bacterium could improve autism spectrum disorder (ASD-related gastrointestinal deficits and behavioral abnormalities in mice, which indicated that microbiome-mediated therapies might be a safe and effective treatment for ASD. In addition, fecal microbiota transplantation, which has

  14. Functional Classification of the Gut Microbiota: The Key to Cracking the Microbiota Composition Code: Functional classifications of the gut microbiota reveal previously hidden contributions of indigenous gut bacteria to human health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Connor E; Palm, Noah W

    2017-12-01

    The last decade has seen an explosion of research on the gut microbiota-the trillions of microorganisms that colonize the human gut. It is now clear that interindividual diversity in microbiota composition plays an important role in determining susceptibility to a wide variety of diseases. However, identifying the precise changes in microbiota composition that play causal roles has remained a largely unrealized goal. Here, we propose that functional classifications of microbes based on their interactions with and effects on the host-particularly the host immune system-will illuminate the role of the microbiota in shaping human physiology. We outline the benefits of "functional" classification compared to phylogenetic classifications, and review current efforts at functional classification of the microbiota. Finally, we outline a theoretical framework for classifying host-microbiota interactions. Future advances enabling broader functional classifications of the microbiota promise to revolutionize our understanding of the role of gut microbes in health and disease. © 2017 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Long Term Effect of Gut Microbiota Transfer on Diabetes Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jian; Narasimhan, Sukanya; Marchesi, Julian R.; Benson, Andrew; Wong, F. Susan; Wen, Li

    2015-01-01

    The composition of the gut microbiome represents a very important environmental factor that influences the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D). We have previously shown that MyD88-deficient non-obese diabetic (MyD88−/−NOD) mice, that were protected from T1D development, had a different composition of gut microbiota compared to wild type NOD mice. The aim of our study was to investigate whether this protection could be transferred. We demonstrate that transfer of gut microbiota from diabetes-protected MyD88-deficient NOD mice, reduced insulitis and significantly delayed the onset of diabetes. Gut bacteria from MyD88-deficient mice, administered over a 3-week period, starting at 4 weeks of age, stably altered the family composition of the gut microbiome, with principally Lachnospiraceae and Clostridiaceae increased and Lactobacillaceae decreased. The transferred mice had a higher concentration of IgA and TGFβ in the lumen that was accompanied by an increase in CD8+CD103+ and CD8αβ T cells in the lamina propria of the large intestine. These data indicate not only that gut bacterial composition can be altered after the neonatal/weaning period, but that the composition of the microbiome affects the mucosal immune system and can delay the development of autoimmune diabetes. This result has important implications for the development of probiotic treatment for T1D. PMID:24767831

  16. The food-gut human axis: the effects of diet on gut microbiota and metabolome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Maria; Garruti, Gabriella; Minervini, Fabio; Bonfrate, Leonilde; Portincasa, Piero; Gobbetti, Marco

    2017-04-27

    Gut microbiota, the largest symbiont community hosted in human organism, is emerging as a pivotal player in the relationship between dietary habits and health. Oral and, especially, intestinal microbes metabolize dietary components, affecting human health by producing harmful or beneficial metabolites, which are involved in the incidence and progression of several intestinal related and non-related diseases. Habitual diet (Western, Agrarian and Mediterranean omnivore diets, vegetarian, vegan and gluten-free diets) drives the composition of the gut microbiota and metabolome. Within the dietary components, polymers (mainly fibers, proteins, fat and polyphenols) that are not hydrolyzed by human enzymes seem to be the main leads of the metabolic pathways of gut microbiota, which in turn directly influences the human metabolome. Specific relationships between diet and microbes, microbes and metabolites, microbes and immune functions and microbes and/or their metabolites and some human diseases are being established. Dietary treatments with fibers are the most effective to benefit the metabolome profile, by improving the synthesis of short chain fatty acids and decreasing the level of molecules, such as p-cresyl sulfate, indoxyl sulfate and trimethylamine N-oxide, involved in disease state. Based on the axis diet-microbiota-health, this review aims at describing the most recent knowledge oriented towards a profitable use of diet to provide benefits to human health, both directly and indirectly, through the activity of gut microbiota. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. Transferring the blues : Depression-associated gut microbiota induces neurobehavioural changes in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelly, John R; Borre, Yuliya; O' Brien, Ciaran; Patterson, Elaine; El Aidy, Sahar; Deane, Jennifer; Kennedy, Paul J; Beers, Sasja; Scott, Karen; Moloney, Gerard; Hoban, Alan E; Scott, Lucinda; Fitzgerald, Patrick; Ross, Paul; Stanton, Catherine; Clarke, Gerard; Cryan, John F; Dinan, Timothy G

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbiota interacts with the host via neuroimmune, neuroendocrine and neural pathways. These pathways are components of the brain-gut-microbiota axis and preclinical evidence suggests that the microbiota can recruit this bidirectional communication system to modulate brain development,

  18. Antibiotic-induced gut microbiota disruption during human endotoxemia: a randomised controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lankelma, Jacqueline M.; Cranendonk, Duncan R.; Belzer, Clara; Vos, De Alex F.; Vos, De Willem M.; Poll, Van Der Tom; Wiersinga, W.J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The gut microbiota is essential for the development of the intestinal immune system. Animal models have suggested that the gut microbiota also acts as a major modulator of systemic innate immunity during sepsis. Microbiota disruption by broad-spectrum antibiotics could thus have adverse

  19. Comparative analysis of gut microbiota of Culex restuans (Diptera: Culicidae) females from different parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential for gut microbiota to impede or enhance pathogen transmission is well-documented but the factors that shape this microbiota in mosquito vectors are poorly understood. We characterized and compared the gut microbiota of adult females of Culex restuans Theobald from different parents. Cu...

  20. Gut Microbiota-Immune System Crosstalk and Pancreatic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pagliari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota is key to the development and modulation of the mucosal immune system. It plays a central role in several physiological functions, in the modulation of inflammatory signaling and in the protection against infections. In healthy states, there is a perfect balance between commensal and pathogens, and microbiota and the immune system interact to maintain gut homeostasis. The alteration of such balance, called dysbiosis, determines an intestinal bacterial overgrowth which leads to the disruption of the intestinal barrier with systemic translocation of pathogens. The pancreas does not possess its own microbiota, and it is believed that inflammatory and neoplastic processes affecting the gland may be linked to intestinal dysbiosis. Increasing research evidence testifies a correlation between intestinal dysbiosis and various pancreatic disorders, but it remains unclear whether dysbiosis is the cause or an effect. The analysis of specific alterations in the microbiome profile may permit to develop novel tools for the early detection of several pancreatic disorders, utilizing samples, such as blood, saliva, and stools. Future studies will have to elucidate the mechanisms by which gut microbiota is modulated and how it tunes the immune system, in order to be able to develop innovative treatment strategies for pancreatic disorders.

  1. Effect of Antibiotics on Gut Microbiota, Gut Hormones and Glucose Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Kristian H; Frost, Morten; Bahl, Martin Iain

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota has been designated as an active regulator of glucose metabolism and metabolic phenotype in a number of animal and human observational studies. We evaluated the effect of removing as many bacteria as possible by antibiotics on postprandial physiology in healthy humans. Meal tests...... tolerance, insulin secretion or plasma lipid concentrations were found. Apart from an acute and reversible increase in peptide YY secretion, no changes were observed in postprandial gut hormone release. As evaluated by selective cultivation of gut bacteria, a broad-spectrum 4-day antibiotics course...... with vancomycin, gentamycin and meropenem induced shifts in gut microbiota composition that had no clinically relevant short or long-term effects on metabolic variables in healthy glucose-tolerant males. clinicaltrials.gov NCT01633762....

  2. Gut Microbiota and the Gut-Brain Axis: New Insights in the Pathophysiology of Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Clercq, Nicolien C; Frissen, Myrthe N; Groen, Albert K; Nieuwdorp, Max

    2017-10-01

    Emerging preclinical evidence has shown that the bidirectional signaling between the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and the brain, the so-called gut-brain axis, plays an important role in both host metabolism and behavior. In this review, we discuss the potential mechanisms of the brain-gut axis in relation to the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome. A selective literature review was conducted to evaluate GI and brain interactions. Evidence suggests reduced microbial diversity in obesity and metabolic dysregulation. However, findings of microbiota composition in obese individuals are inconsistent, and the investigation of causality between gut microbiota and energy homeostasis is complex because multiple variables contribute to the gut microbiota composition. The microbial metabolites short chain fatty acids are found to exert numerous physiologic effects, including energy homeostasis through the regulation of GI hormones such as cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide 1, peptide tyrosine-tyrosine, and leptin. Preclinical studies show that modifying rodents' microbiota through fecal transplantation results in alterations of these GI hormones and subsequently an altered metabolism and behavior. However, whether and to what extent preclinical findings translate to human metabolism is unclear. One of the major limitations and challenges in this field of research is interindividual variability of the microbiome. Future research needs to combine recent insights gained into tracking the dynamics of the microbiome as well as the metabolic responses. Furthermore, advanced mapping of the human microbiome is required to investigate the metabolic implications of the gut-brain axis to develop targeted interventions for obesity and metabolic syndrome.

  3. Brain-Gut-Microbiota Axis and Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2017-10-01

    The brain-gut-microbiota axis has been put forward as a new paradigm in neuroscience, which may be of relevance to mental illness. The mechanisms of signal transmission in the brain-gut-microbiota axis are complex and involve bidirectional communications that enable gut microbes to communicate with the brain and the brain to communicate with the microbes. This review assesses the potential usefulness and limitations of the paradigm. A selective literature review was conducted to evaluate the current knowledge in clinical and preclinical brain-gut-microbiota interactions as related to psychiatric disorders. Most published studies in the field are preclinical, and there is so far a lack of clinical studies. Preliminary studies in psychiatric populations support the view of a dysbiosis in some conditions, but studies are often small scale and marred by potential confounding variables. Preclinical studies support the view that psychobiotics ("bacteria which when ingested in adequate amounts have a positive mental health benefit") might be of use in treating some patients with mental health difficulties. To date, we have no well-conducted studies in clinical populations, although there are some studies in healthy volunteers. A cocktail of probiotics has been shown to alter brain activity as monitored by functional magnetic resonance imaging, and Bifidobacterium longum was reported to alter brain electrical activity. It has yet to be convincingly demonstrated that the exciting findings of psychobiotic efficacy demonstrated in preclinical models of psychiatric illness will translate to patients.

  4. Fostering of advanced mutualism with gut microbiota by Immunoglobulin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Duncan B; Suzuki, Keiichiro; Fagarasan, Sidonia

    2016-03-01

    Immunoglobulin A (IgA), the most abundantly secreted antibody isotype in mammals, not only provides direct immune protection to neonates via maternal milk but also helps program the infant immune system by regulating the microbiota. IgA continues to maintain dynamic interactions with the gut microbiota throughout life and this influences immune system homeostasis as well as other physiological processes. The secretory IgA produced independently of T-cell selection are commonly referred to as natural or innate antibodies. Our studies have shown that innate-IgA, while effective at excluding microorganisms from the gut, does not promote mutualism with the microbiota in the same way as adaptive-IgA that is selected in T cell-dependent germinal center reactions. Adaptive-IgA fosters more advanced mutualism with the microbiota than innate-IgA by selecting and diversifying beneficial microbial communities. In this review, we suggest that the diversified microbiota resulting from adaptive-IgA pressure was pivotal in promoting ecological adaptability and speciation potential of mammals. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Chemical transformation of xenobiotics by the human gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Nitzan; Maini Rekdal, Vayu; Balskus, Emily P

    2017-06-23

    The human gut microbiota makes key contributions to the metabolism of ingested compounds (xenobiotics), transforming hundreds of dietary components, industrial chemicals, and pharmaceuticals into metabolites with altered activities, toxicities, and lifetimes within the body. The chemistry of gut microbial xenobiotic metabolism is often distinct from that of host enzymes. Despite their important consequences for human biology, the gut microbes, genes, and enzymes involved in xenobiotic metabolism are poorly understood. Linking these microbial transformations to enzymes and elucidating their biological effects is undoubtedly challenging. However, recent studies demonstrate that integrating traditional and emerging technologies can enable progress toward this goal. Ultimately, a molecular understanding of gut microbial xenobiotic metabolism will guide personalized medicine and nutrition, inform toxicology risk assessment, and improve drug discovery and development. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  6. Impact of human milk bacteria and oligosaccharides on neonatal gut microbiota establishment and gut health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Ted; Lacroix, Christophe; Braegger, Christian; Chassard, Christophe

    2015-07-01

    Neonatal gut microbiota establishment represents a crucial stage for gut maturation, metabolic and immunologic programming, and consequently short- and long-term health status. Human milk beneficially influences this process due to its dynamic profile of age-adapted nutrients and bioactive components and by providing commensal maternal bacteria to the neonatal gut. These include Lactobacillus spp., as well as obligate anaerobes such as Bifidobacterium spp., which may originate from the maternal gut via an enteromammary pathway as a novel form of mother-neonate communication. Additionally, human milk harbors a broad range of oligosaccharides that promote the growth and activity of specific bacterial populations, in particular, Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides spp. This review focuses on the diversity and origin of human milk bacteria, as well as on milk oligosaccharides that influence neonatal gut microbiota establishment. This knowledge can be used to develop infant formulae that more closely mimic nature's model and sustain a healthy gut microbiota. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Gut Microbiota and Host Juvenile Growth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schwarzer, Martin; Strigini, M.; Leulier, F.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 4 (2018) ISSN 0171-967X Grant - others:Nadační fond na podporu vědy(CZ) Neuron Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Germ free * Gnotobiology * Microbiota Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 3.124, year: 2016

  8. The Potential Link between Gut Microbiota and IgE-Mediated Food Allergy in Early Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, John; Allen, Katrina; Collier, Fiona; Tang, Mimi L. K.; Ward, Alister C.; Vuillermin, Peter

    2013-01-01

    There has been a dramatic rise in the prevalence of IgE-mediated food allergy over recent decades, particularly among infants and young children. The cause of this increase is unknown but one putative factor is a change in the composition, richness and balance of the microbiota that colonize the human gut during early infancy. The coevolution of the human gastrointestinal tract and commensal microbiota has resulted in a symbiotic relationship in which gut microbiota play a vital role in early life immune development and function, as well as maintenance of gut wall epithelial integrity. Since IgE mediated food allergy is associated with immune dysregulation and impaired gut epithelial integrity there is substantial interest in the potential link between gut microbiota and food allergy. Although the exact link between gut microbiota and food allergy is yet to be established in humans, recent experimental evidence suggests that specific patterns of gut microbiota colonization may influence the risk and manifestations of food allergy. An understanding of the relationship between gut microbiota and food allergy has the potential to inform both the prevention and treatment of food allergy. In this paper we review the theory and evidence linking gut microbiota and IgE-mediated food allergy in early life. We then consider the implications and challenges for future research, including the techniques of measuring and analyzing gut microbiota, and the types of studies required to advance knowledge in the field. PMID:24351744

  9. The potential link between gut microbiota and IgE-mediated food allergy in early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, John; Allen, Katrina; Collier, Fiona; Tang, Mimi L K; Ward, Alister C; Vuillermin, Peter

    2013-12-16

    There has been a dramatic rise in the prevalence of IgE-mediated food allergy over recent decades, particularly among infants and young children. The cause of this increase is unknown but one putative factor is a change in the composition, richness and balance of the microbiota that colonize the human gut during early infancy. The coevolution of the human gastrointestinal tract and commensal microbiota has resulted in a symbiotic relationship in which gut microbiota play a vital role in early life immune development and function, as well as maintenance of gut wall epithelial integrity. Since IgE mediated food allergy is associated with immune dysregulation and impaired gut epithelial integrity there is substantial interest in the potential link between gut microbiota and food allergy. Although the exact link between gut microbiota and food allergy is yet to be established in humans, recent experimental evidence suggests that specific patterns of gut microbiota colonization may influence the risk and manifestations of food allergy. An understanding of the relationship between gut microbiota and food allergy has the potential to inform both the prevention and treatment of food allergy. In this paper we review the theory and evidence linking gut microbiota and IgE-mediated food allergy in early life. We then consider the implications and challenges for future research, including the techniques of measuring and analyzing gut microbiota, and the types of studies required to advance knowledge in the field.

  10. Gut microbiota in 2015: Prevotella in the gut: choose carefully.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, Ruth E

    2016-02-01

    Gut microbial communities often contain many Bacteroides or their close relatives, Prevotella, but not both. Prevotella strains are associated with plant-rich diets but are also linked with chronic inflammatory conditions. In 2015, papers probed the genomic diversity of Prevotella strains and interactions of Prevotella copri with its host and other bacteria.

  11. The Reciprocal Interactions between Polyphenols and Gut Microbiota and Effects on Bioaccessibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugba Ozdal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available As of late, polyphenols have increasingly interested the scientific community due to their proposed health benefits. Much of this attention has focused on their bioavailability. Polyphenol–gut microbiota interactions should be considered to understand their biological functions. The dichotomy between the biotransformation of polyphenols into their metabolites by gut microbiota and the modulation of gut microbiota composition by polyphenols contributes to positive health outcomes. Although there are many studies on the in vivo bioavailability of polyphenols, the mutual relationship between polyphenols and gut microbiota is not fully understood. This review focuses on the biotransformation of polyphenols by gut microbiota, modulation of gut microbiota by polyphenols, and the effects of these two-way mutual interactions on polyphenol bioavailability, and ultimately, human health.

  12. The Reciprocal Interactions between Polyphenols and Gut Microbiota and Effects on Bioaccessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdal, Tugba; Sela, David A.; Xiao, Jianbo; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Chen, Fang; Capanoglu, Esra

    2016-01-01

    As of late, polyphenols have increasingly interested the scientific community due to their proposed health benefits. Much of this attention has focused on their bioavailability. Polyphenol–gut microbiota interactions should be considered to understand their biological functions. The dichotomy between the biotransformation of polyphenols into their metabolites by gut microbiota and the modulation of gut microbiota composition by polyphenols contributes to positive health outcomes. Although there are many studies on the in vivo bioavailability of polyphenols, the mutual relationship between polyphenols and gut microbiota is not fully understood. This review focuses on the biotransformation of polyphenols by gut microbiota, modulation of gut microbiota by polyphenols, and the effects of these two-way mutual interactions on polyphenol bioavailability, and ultimately, human health. PMID:26861391

  13. Dysbiosis and compositional alterations with aging in the gut microbiota of patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamo, Takehiro; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Suda, Wataru; Saga-Kamo, Akiko; Shimizu, Yu; Yagi, Hiroki; Liu, Qing; Nomura, Seitaro; Naito, Atsuhiko T; Takeda, Norifumi; Harada, Mutsuo; Toko, Haruhiro; Kumagai, Hidetoshi; Ikeda, Yuichi; Takimoto, Eiki; Suzuki, Jun-Ichi; Honda, Kenya; Morita, Hidetoshi; Hattori, Masahira; Komuro, Issei

    2017-01-01

    Emerging evidence has suggested a potential impact of gut microbiota on the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF). However, it is still unknown whether HF is associated with dysbiosis in gut microbiota. We investigated the composition of gut microbiota in patients with HF to elucidate whether gut microbial dysbiosis is associated with HF. We performed 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing of fecal samples obtained from 12 HF patients and 12 age-matched healthy control (HC) subjects, and analyzed the differences in gut microbiota. We further compared the composition of gut microbiota of 12 HF patients younger than 60 years of age with that of 10 HF patients 60 years of age or older. The composition of gut microbial communities of HF patients was distinct from that of HC subjects in both unweighted and weighted UniFrac analyses. Eubacterium rectale and Dorea longicatena were less abundant in the gut microbiota of HF patients than in that of HC subjects. Compared to younger HF patients, older HF patients had diminished proportions of Bacteroidetes and larger quantities of Proteobacteria. The genus Faecalibacterium was depleted, while Lactobacillus was enriched in the gut microbiota of older HF patients. These results suggest that patients with HF harbor significantly altered gut microbiota, which varies further according to age. New concept of heart-gut axis has a great potential for breakthroughs in the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic approach for HF.

  14. Obesity-driven gut microbiota inflammatory pathways to metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Agra eCavalcante-Silva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The intimate interplay between immune system, metabolism and gut microbiota plays an important role in controlling metabolic homeostasis and possible obesity development. Obesity involves impairment of immune response affecting both innate and adaptive immunity. The main factors involved in the relationship of obesity with inflammation have not been completely elucidated. On the other hand, gut microbiota, via innate immune receptors, has emerged as one of the key factors regulating events triggering acute inflammation associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Inflammatory disorders lead to several signalling transduction pathways activation, inflammatory cytokine, chemokine production and cell migration, which in turn cause metabolic dysfunction. Inflamed adipose tissue, with increased macrophages infiltration, is associated with impaired preadipocyte development and differentiation to mature adipose cells, leading to ectopic lipid accumulation and insulin resistance. This review focuses on the relationship between obesity and inflammation, which is essential to understand the pathological mechanisms governing metabolic syndrome.

  15. Helminth infections and gut microbiota - a feline perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Ana M; Jenkins, Timothy P; Latrofa, Maria S; Giannelli, Alessio; Papadopoulos, Elias; de Carvalho, Luís Madeira; Nolan, Matthew J; Otranto, Domenico; Cantacessi, Cinzia

    2016-12-03

    Investigations of the relationships between the gut microbiota and gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes are attracting growing interest by the scientific community, driven by the need to better understand the contribution of parasite-associated changes in the composition of the gut flora to both host malnutrition and immune modulation. These studies have however been carried out mainly in humans and experimental animals, while knowledge of the make-up of the gut commensal flora in presence or absence of infection by parasitic nematodes in domestic animals is limited. In this study, we investigate the qualitative and quantitative impact that infections by a widespread parasite of cats (i.e. Toxocara cati) exert on the gut microbiota of feline hosts. The faecal microbiota of cats with patent infection by T. cati (= Tc+), as well as that of negative controls (= Tc-) was examined via high-throughput sequencing of the V3-V4 hypervariable region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene, followed by bioinformatics and biostatistical analyses of sequence data. A total of 2,325,366 useable high-quality sequences were generated from the faecal samples analysed in this study and subjected to further bioinformatics analyses, which led to the identification of 128 OTUs and nine bacterial phyla, respectively. The phylum Firmicutes was predominant in all samples analysed (mean of 53.0%), followed by the phyla Proteobacteria (13.8%), Actinobacteria (13.7%) and Bacteroidetes (10.1%). Among others, bacteria of the order Lactobacillales, the family Enterococcaceae and genera Enterococcus and Dorea showed a trend towards increased abundance in Tc+  compared with Tc- samples, while no significant differences in OTU richness and diversity were recorded between Tc+ and Tc- samples (P = 0.485 and P = 0.581, respectively). However, Canonical Correlation and Redundancy Analyses were able to separate samples by infection status (P = 0.030 and P = 0.015, respectively), which

  16. Gut microbiota composition and development of atopic manifestations in infancy: the KOALA Birth Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penders, John; Thijs, Carel; van den Brandt, Piet A.; Kummeling, Ischa; Snijders, Bianca; Stelma, Foekje; Adams, Hanne; van Ree, Ronald; Stobberingh, Ellen E.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Perturbations in intestinal microbiota composition due to lifestyle changes may be involved in the development of atopic diseases. We examined gut microbiota composition in early infancy and the subsequent development of atopic manifestations and sensitisation. METHODS: The

  17. Does the Gut Microbiota Contribute to Obesity? Going beyond the Gut Feeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguirre, M.; Venema, K.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that gut microbiota is an environmental factor that plays a crucial role in obesity. However, the aetiology of obesity is rather complex and depends on different factors. Furthermore, there is a lack of consensus about the exact role that this microbial community plays

  18. Gut hormones and gut microbiota: implications for kidney function and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsar, Baris; Vaziri, Nosratola D; Aslan, Gamze; Tarim, Kayhan; Kanbay, Mehmet

    2016-12-01

    Increased blood pressure (BP) and chronic kidney disease are two leading risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Increased sodium intake is one of the most important risk factors for development of hypertension. Recent data have shown that gut influences kidney function and BP by variety of mechanisms. Various hormones and peptides secreted from gut such as gastrin, glucocorticoids, Glucagon-like peptide-1 impact on kidney function and BP especially influencing sodium absorption from gut. These findings stimulate scientist to find new therapeutic options such as tenapanor for treatment of hypertension by blocking sodium absorption from gut. The gastrointestinal tract is also occupied by a huge community of microbes (microbiome) that under normal condition has a symbiotic relationship with the host. Alterations in the structure and function of the gut microbiota have been shown to play a key role in the pathogenesis and complications of numerous diseases including hypertension. Based on these data, in this review, we provide a summary of the available data on the role of gut and gut microbiota in regulation of BP and kidney function. Copyright © 2016 American Society of Hypertension. All rights reserved.

  19. Gut microbiota, the immune system, and diet influence the neonatal gut-brain axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Michael P; Zaghouani, Habib; Niklas, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    The conceptual framework for a gut-brain axis has existed for decades. The Human Microbiome Project is responsible for establishing intestinal dysbiosis as a mediator of inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, and neurodevelopmental disorders in adults. Recent advances in metagenomics implicate gut microbiota and diet as key modulators of the bidirectional signaling pathways between the gut and brain that underlie neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders in adults. Evidence linking intestinal dysbiosis to neurodevelopmental disease outcomes in preterm infants is emerging. Recent clinical studies show that intestinal dysbiosis precedes late-onset neonatal sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis in intensive care nurseries. Moreover, strong epidemiologic evidence links late-onset neonatal sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis in long-term psychomotor disabilities of very-low-birth-weight infants. The notion of the gut-brain axis thereby supports that intestinal microbiota can indirectly harm the brain of preterm infants. In this review, we highlight the anatomy and physiology of the gut-brain axis and describe transmission of stress signals caused by immune-microbial dysfunction in the gut. These messengers initiate neurologic disease in preterm infants. Understanding neural and humoral signaling through the gut-brain axis will offer insight into therapeutic and dietary approaches that may improve the outcomes of very-low-birth-weight infants.

  20. Alterations in Gut Microbiota and Post-Traumatic Osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    knee joint under conditions of altered gut microbiota caused by genetic background or chronic antibiotic treatment. Animal experimentation was...worked: 0.5 Contribution to Project: Dr. van der Meulen has worked to oversee experimental procedures on the experimental animals and in data...worked: 8 Contribution to Project: Ms. Luna has been led animal breeding and experimental manipulations of the animals and coordinated final data

  1. Gut Microbiota: Modulate its Complexity to Restore the Balance

    OpenAIRE

    Fermín Mearin; Speakers Fermín Mearin; Antonio Gasbarrini; Peter Malfertheiner; Mark Pimentel

    2015-01-01

    The importance of the gut microbiota to health is becoming more widely appreciated. The range of commensal microorganisms in healthy individuals and in patients with a variety of digestive diseases is under active investigation, and evidence is accumulating to suggest that both the diversity and balance of bacterial species are important for health. Disturbance of the balance of microorganisms – dysbiosis – is associated with obesity and a variety of diseases. Restoring the balance by modulat...

  2. Endurance exercise and gut microbiota: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Fuster-Botella, Dolors

    2017-01-01

    The physiological and biochemical demands of intense exercise elicit both muscle-based and systemic responses. The main adaptations to endurance exercise include the correction of electrolyte imbalance, a decrease in glycogen storage and the increase of oxidative stress, intestinal permeability, muscle damage, and systemic inflammatory response. Adaptations to exercise might be influenced by the gut microbiota, which plays an important role in the production, storage, and expenditure of energ...

  3. The Gut Microbiota: Ecology and Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willing, B.P.; Jansson, J.K.

    2010-06-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is teeming with an extremely abundant and diverse microbial community. The members of this community have coevolved along with their hosts over millennia. Until recently, the gut ecosystem was viewed as black box with little knowledge of who or what was there or their specific functions. Over the past decade, however, this ecosystem has become one of fastest growing research areas of focus in microbial ecology and human and animal physiology. This increased interest is largely in response to studies tying microbes in the gut to important diseases afflicting modern society, including obesity, allergies, inflammatory bowel diseases, and diabetes. Although the importance of a resident community of microorganisms in health was first hypothesized by Pasteur over a century ago (Sears, 2005), the multiplicity of physiological changes induced by commensal bacteria has only recently been recognized (Hooper et al., 2001). The term 'ecological development' was recently coined to support the idea that development of the GI tract is a product of the genetics of the host and the host's interactions with resident microbes (Hooper, 2004). The search for new therapeutic targets and disease biomarkers has escalated the need to understand the identities and functions of the microorganisms inhabiting the gut. Recent studies have revealed new insights into the membership of the gut microbial community, interactions within that community, as well as mechanisms of interaction with the host. This chapter focuses on the microbial ecology of the gut, with an emphasis on information gleaned from recent molecular studies.

  4. The gut microbiota and host health: a new clinical frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesi, Julian R; Adams, David H; Fava, Francesca; Hermes, Gerben D A; Hirschfield, Gideon M; Hold, Georgina; Quraishi, Mohammed Nabil; Kinross, James; Smidt, Hauke; Tuohy, Kieran M; Thomas, Linda V; Zoetendal, Erwin G; Hart, Ailsa

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 10–15 years, our understanding of the composition and functions of the human gut microbiota has increased exponentially. To a large extent, this has been due to new ‘omic’ technologies that have facilitated large-scale analysis of the genetic and metabolic profile of this microbial community, revealing it to be comparable in influence to a new organ in the body and offering the possibility of a new route for therapeutic intervention. Moreover, it might be more accurate to think of it like an immune system: a collection of cells that work in unison with the host and that can promote health but sometimes initiate disease. This review gives an update on the current knowledge in the area of gut disorders, in particular metabolic syndrome and obesity-related disease, liver disease, IBD and colorectal cancer. The potential of manipulating the gut microbiota in these disorders is assessed, with an examination of the latest and most relevant evidence relating to antibiotics, probiotics, prebiotics, polyphenols and faecal microbiota transplantation. PMID:26338727

  5. Interactions between bile salts, gut microbiota, and hepatic innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Kristin; Olde Damink, Steven W M; von Bergen, Martin; Schaap, Frank G

    2017-09-01

    Bile salts are the water-soluble end products of hepatic cholesterol catabolism that are released into the duodenum and solubilize lipids due to their amphipathic structure. Bile salts also act as endogenous ligands for dedicated nuclear receptors that exert a plethora of biological processes, mostly related to metabolism. Bile salts are actively reclaimed in the distal part of the small intestine, released into the portal system, and subsequently extracted by the liver. This enterohepatic cycle is critically dependent on dedicated bile salt transporters. In the intestinal lumen, bile salts exert direct antimicrobial activity based on their detergent property and shape the gut microbiota. Bile salt metabolism by gut microbiota serves as a mechanism to counteract this toxicity and generates bile salt species that are distinct from those of the host. Innate immune cells of the liver play an important role in the early recognition and effector response to invading microbes. Bile salts signal primarily via the membrane receptor TGR5 and the intracellular farnesoid-x receptor, both present in innate immune cells. In this review, the interactions between bile salts, gut microbiota, and hepatic innate immunity are discussed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. A Survey of Modulation of Gut Microbiota by Dietary Polyphenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Dueñas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary polyphenols present in a broad range of plant foods have been related to beneficial health effects. This review aims to update the current information about the modulation of the gut microbiota by dietary phenolic compounds, from a perspective based on the experimental approaches used. After referring to general aspects of gut microbiota and dietary polyphenols, studies related to this topic are presented according to their experimental design: batch culture fermentations, gastrointestinal simulators, animal model studies, and human intervention studies. In general, studies evidence that dietary polyphenols may contribute to the maintenance of intestinal health by preserving the gut microbial balance through the stimulation of the growth of beneficial bacteria (i.e., lactobacilli and bifidobacteria and the inhibition of pathogenic bacteria, exerting prebiotic-like effects. Combination of in vitro and in vivo models could help to understand the underlying mechanisms in the polyphenols-microbiota-host triangle and elucidate the implications of polyphenols on human health. From a technological point of view, supplementation with rich-polyphenolic stuffs (phenolic extracts, phenolic-enriched fractions, etc. could be an effective option to improve health benefits of functional foods such as the case of dairy fermented foods.

  7. Interactions between multiple helminths and the gut microbiota in wild rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Kreisinger, Jakub; Bastien, Géraldine; Hauffe, Heidi C; Marchesi, Julian; Perkins, Sarah E

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota is vital to host health and, as such, it is important to elucidate the mechanisms altering its composition and diversity. Intestinal helminths are host immunomodulators and have evolved both temporally and spatially in close association with the gut microbiota, resulting in potential mechanistic interplay. Host-helminth and host-microbiota interactions are comparatively well-examined, unlike microbiota-helminth relationships, which typically focus on experimental infection ...

  8. Maillard reaction products modulate gut microbiota composition in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiquer, Isabel; Rubio, Luis A; Peinado, M Jesús; Delgado-Andrade, Cristina; Navarro, María Pilar

    2014-07-01

    Scarce data are available concerning effects of certain bioactive substances such as Maillard reaction products (MRP) on the gut microbiota composition, and the question of how a diet rich in MRP affects gut microbiota in humans is still open. Two experiments were conducted. In expt. 1, adolescents consumed diets either high or low in MRP in a two-period crossover trial; in expt. 2, rats were fed diets supplemented or not with MRP model-systems. Intestinal microbiota composition in fecal (adolescents) or cecal (rat) samples was assessed by qPCR analysis. Negative correlations were found in the human assay between lactobacilli numbers and dietary advanced MRP (r = -0.418 and -0.387, for hydroxymethylfurfural and carboxymethyl-lysine respectively, p microbiota composition both in humans and in rats, and the specific effects are likely to be linked to the chemical structure and dietary amounts of the different browning compounds. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Reframing the Teenage Wasteland: Adolescent Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVey Neufeld, Karen-Anne; Luczynski, Pauline; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2016-04-01

    Human adolescence is arguably one of the most challenging periods of development. The young adult is exposed to a variety of stressors and environmental stimuli on a backdrop of significant physiological change and development, which is especially apparent in the brain. It is therefore unsurprising that many psychiatric disorders are first observable during this time. The human intestine is inhabited by trillions of microorganisms, and evidence from both preclinical and clinical research focusing on the established microbiota-gut-brain axis suggests that the etiology and pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders may be influenced by intestinal dysbiosis. Provocatively, many if not all of the challenges faced by the developing teen have a documented impact on these intestinal commensal microbiota. In this review, we briefly summarize what is known about the developing adolescent brain and intestinal microbiota, discuss recent research investigating the microbiota-gut-brain axis during puberty, and propose that pre- and probiotics may prove useful in both the prevention and treatment of psychiatric disorders specifically benefitting the young adult. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Tackling probiotic and gut microbiota functionality through proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Lorena; Hidalgo, Claudio; Blanco-Míguez, Aitor; Lourenço, Anália; Sánchez, Borja; Margolles, Abelardo

    2016-09-16

    Probiotics are live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. Many strains exert their beneficial effects after transiently colonizing the human gut, where they interact with the rest of the intestinal microorganisms and with the host mucosa. Indeed the human gut harbours a huge number of microorganisms also known as gut microbiota. Imbalances in the relative abundances of the individual components of the gut microbiota may determine the health status of the host and alterations in specific groups have been related to different diseases and metabolic disorders. Proteomics provide a set of high-throughput methodologies for protein identification that are extremely useful for studying probiotic functionality and helping in the assessment of specific health-promoting activities, such as their immunomodulatory activity, the intestinal colonization processes, and the crosstalk mechanisms with the host. Furthermore, proteomics have been used to identify markers of technological performance and stress adaptation, which helps to predict traits such as behaviour into food matrices and ability to survive passage through the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this review is to compile studies in which proteomics have been used to assess probiotic functionality and to identify molecular players supporting their mechanisms of action. Probiotics are live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. Molecular basis underlying the functional properties of probiotic bacteria responsible for the health promoting effects have been in the background for many years. Breakthrough of omics technologies in the probiotic and microbiota fields has had a very relevant impact in the elucidation of probiotic mechanisms and in the procedures to select these microorganisms, based on solid scientific evidence. It is unquestionable that, in the near future, the evolution of proteomic techniques

  11. Gut-liver axis: gut microbiota in shaping hepatic innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xunyao; Tian, Zhigang

    2017-11-01

    Gut microbiota play an essential role in shaping immune cell responses. The liver was continuously exposed to metabolic products of intestinal commensal bacterial through portal vein and alteration of gut commensal bateria was always associated with increased risk of liver inflammation and autoimmune disease. Considered as a unique immunological organ, the liver is enriched with a large number of innate immune cells. Herein, we summarize the available literature of gut microbiota in shaping the response of hepatic innate immune cells including NKT cells, NK cells, γδ T cells and Kupffer cells during health and disease. Such knowledge might help to develop novel and innovative strategies for the prevention and therapy of innate immune cell-related liver disease.

  12. The gut microbiota modulates host amino acid and glutathione metabolism in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardinoglu, Adil; Shoaie, Saeed; Bergentall, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota has been proposed as an environmental factor that promotes the progression of metabolic diseases. Here, we investigated how the gut microbiota modulates the global metabolic differences in duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon, liver, and two white adipose tissue depots obtained from......, liver, and adipose tissues. We used these functional models to determine the global metabolic differences between CONV-R and GF mice. Based on gene expression data, we found that the gut microbiota affects the host amino acid (AA) metabolism, which leads to modifications in glutathione metabolism....... Our analyses revealed that the gut microbiota influences host amino acid and glutathione metabolism in mice....

  13. Gut microbiota role in irritable bowel syndrome: New therapeutic strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distrutti, Eleonora; Monaldi, Lorenzo; Ricci, Patrizia; Fiorucci, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade the impressive expansion of our knowledge of the vast microbial community that resides in the human intestine, the gut microbiota, has provided support to the concept that a disturbed intestinal ecology might promote development and maintenance of symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). As a correlate, manipulation of gut microbiota represents a new strategy for the treatment of this multifactorial disease. A number of attempts have been made to modulate the gut bacterial composition, following the idea that expansion of bacterial species considered as beneficial (Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria) associated with the reduction of those considered harmful (Clostridium, Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella and Pseudomonas) should attenuate IBS symptoms. In this conceptual framework, probiotics appear an attractive option in terms of both efficacy and safety, while prebiotics, synbiotics and antibiotics still need confirmation. Fecal transplant is an old treatment translated from the cure of intestinal infective pathologies that has recently gained a new life as therapeutic option for those patients with a disturbed gut ecosystem, but data on IBS are scanty and randomized, placebo-controlled studies are required. PMID:26900286

  14. Early Development of the Gut Microbiota and Immune Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pilar Francino

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the increase in human microbiome research brought about by the rapidly evolving “omic” technologies has established that the balance among the microbial groups present in the human gut, and their multipronged interactions with the host, are crucial for health. On the other hand, epidemiological and experimental support has also grown for the ‘early programming hypothesis’, according to which factors that act in utero and early in life program the risks for adverse health outcomes later on. The microbiota of the gut develops during infancy, in close interaction with immune development, and with extensive variability across individuals. It follows that the specific process of gut colonization and the microbe-host interactions established in an individual during this period have the potential to represent main determinants of life-long propensity to immune disease. Although much remains to be learnt on the progression of events by which the gut microbiota becomes established and initiates its intimate relationships with the host, and on the long-term repercussions of this process, recent works have advanced significatively in this direction.

  15. Effects of taurine on gut microbiota and metabolism in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haining; Guo, Zhengzhao; Shen, Shengrong; Shan, Weiguang

    2016-07-01

    As being a necessary amino acid, taurine plays an important role in the regulation of neuroendocrine functions and nutrition. In this study, effects of taurine on mice gut microbes and metabolism were investigated. BALB/C mice were randomly divided into three experimental groups: The first group was administered saline (CK), the second was administered 165 mg/kg natural taurine (NE) and the third one administered 165 mg/kg synthetic taurine (CS). Gut microbiota composition in mice feces was analyzed by metagenomics technology, and the content of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in mice feces was detected by gas chromatography (GC), while the concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were detected by a LPS ELISA kit and a SOD assay kit, respectively. The results showed that the effect of taurine on gut microbiota could reduce the abundance of Proteobacteria, especially Helicobacter. Moreover, we found that the SCFA content was increased in feces of the NE group while LPS content was decreased in serum of the NE group; the SOD activity in serum and livers of the NE and CS groups were not changed significantly compare to that of the CK group. In conclusion, taurine could regulate the gut micro-ecology, which might be of benefit to health by inhibiting the growth of harmful bacteria, accelerating the production of SCFA and reducing LPS concentration.

  16. Gut microbiota role in irritable bowel syndrome: New therapeutic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distrutti, Eleonora; Monaldi, Lorenzo; Ricci, Patrizia; Fiorucci, Stefano

    2016-02-21

    In the last decade the impressive expansion of our knowledge of the vast microbial community that resides in the human intestine, the gut microbiota, has provided support to the concept that a disturbed intestinal ecology might promote development and maintenance of symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). As a correlate, manipulation of gut microbiota represents a new strategy for the treatment of this multifactorial disease. A number of attempts have been made to modulate the gut bacterial composition, following the idea that expansion of bacterial species considered as beneficial (Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria) associated with the reduction of those considered harmful (Clostridium, Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella and Pseudomonas) should attenuate IBS symptoms. In this conceptual framework, probiotics appear an attractive option in terms of both efficacy and safety, while prebiotics, synbiotics and antibiotics still need confirmation. Fecal transplant is an old treatment translated from the cure of intestinal infective pathologies that has recently gained a new life as therapeutic option for those patients with a disturbed gut ecosystem, but data on IBS are scanty and randomized, placebo-controlled studies are required.

  17. The Gut Microbiota in Immune-Mediated Inflammatory Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica D Forbes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The collection of microbes and their genes that exist within and on the human body, collectively known as the microbiome has emerged as a principal factor in human health and disease. Humans and microbes have established a symbiotic association over time, and perturbations in this association have been linked to several immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMID including inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. IMID is a term used to describe a group of chronic, highly disabling diseases that affect different organ systems. Though a cornerstone commonality between IMID is the idiopathic nature of disease, a considerable portion of their pathobiology overlaps including epidemiological co-occurrence, genetic susceptibility loci and environmental risk factors. At present, it is clear that persons with an IMID are at an increased risk for developing comorbidities, including additional IMID. Advancements in sequencing technologies and a parallel explosion of 16S rDNA and metagenomics community profiling studies have allowed for the characterization of microbiomes throughout the human body including the gut, in a myriad of human diseases and in health. The main challenge now is to determine if alterations of gut flora are common between IMID or, if particular changes in the gut community are in fact specific to a single disease. Herein, we review and discuss the relationships between the gut microbiota and IMIDKeywords: gut microbiome, systems microbiology gut metagenome, chronic immune mediated inflammatory diseases

  18. Obesity-Related Diseases Dietary Modulation of the Gut Microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brahe, Lena Kirchner

    The prevalence of obesity has increased epidemically during the past four decades and worldwide more than half a billion adults are now obese. Obesity increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer, which are among the leading causes of death worldwide. Thus, effective ...... for prevention. The main purpose of this PhD was to explore the effect of dietary modulation of the gut microbiota on disease markers in obese individuals....... strategies to reduce obesity-related morbidity and mortality are essential. It has been hypothesized that the microbes in the human gut are involved in the development of obesity-related diseases and that intake of nutrients affecting the gut microbial community in specific ways, can be a new strategy...

  19. Obesity-Related Diseases Dietary Modulation of the Gut Microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brahe, Lena Kirchner

    The prevalence of obesity has increased epidemically during the past four decades and worldwide more than half a billion adults are now obese. Obesity increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer, which are among the leading causes of death worldwide. Thus, effective...... strategies to reduce obesity-related morbidity and mortality are essential. It has been hypothesized that the microbes in the human gut are involved in the development of obesity-related diseases and that intake of nutrients affecting the gut microbial community in specific ways, can be a new strategy...... for prevention. The main purpose of this PhD was to explore the effect of dietary modulation of the gut microbiota on disease markers in obese individuals....

  20. Gut Microbiota Signatures Predict Host and Microbiota Responses to Dietary Interventions in Obese Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpela, Katri; Flint, Harry J.; Johnstone, Alexandra M.; Lappi, Jenni; Poutanen, Kaisa; Dewulf, Evelyne; Delzenne, Nathalie; de Vos, Willem M.; Salonen, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Background Interactions between the diet and intestinal microbiota play a role in health and disease, including obesity and related metabolic complications. There is great interest to use dietary means to manipulate the microbiota to promote health. Currently, the impact of dietary change on the microbiota and the host metabolism is poorly predictable and highly individual. We propose that the responsiveness of the gut microbiota may depend on its composition, and associate with metabolic changes in the host. Methodology Our study involved three independent cohorts of obese adults (n = 78) from Belgium, Finland, and Britain, participating in different dietary interventions aiming to improve metabolic health. We used a phylogenetic microarray for comprehensive fecal microbiota analysis at baseline and after the intervention. Blood cholesterol, insulin and inflammation markers were analyzed as indicators of host response. The data were divided into four training set – test set pairs; each intervention acted both as a part of a training set and as an independent test set. We used linear models to predict the responsiveness of the microbiota and the host, and logistic regression to predict responder vs. non-responder status, or increase vs. decrease of the health parameters. Principal Findings Our models, based on the abundance of several, mainly Firmicute species at baseline, predicted the responsiveness of the microbiota (AUC  =  0.77–1; predicted vs. observed correlation  =  0.67–0.88). Many of the predictive taxa showed a non-linear relationship with the responsiveness. The microbiota response associated with the change in serum cholesterol levels with an AUC of 0.96, highlighting the involvement of the intestinal microbiota in metabolic health. Conclusion This proof-of-principle study introduces the first potential microbial biomarkers for dietary responsiveness in obese individuals with impaired metabolic health, and reveals the potential of

  1. Irritable bowel syndrome, the microbiota and the gut-brain axis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raskov, Hans; Burcharth, Jakob; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian

    2016-01-01

    nervous system is called the gut-brain-axis, which integrates brain and GI functions, such as gut motility, appetite and weight. The gut-brain-axis has a central function in the perpetuation of irritable bowel syndrome and the microbiota plays a critical role. The purpose of this article is to review...... recent research concerning the epidemiology of irritable bowel syndrome, influence of microbiota, probiota, gut-brain-axis, and possible treatment modalities on irritable bowel syndrome....

  2. [The composition of gut microbiota in infant and its influencing factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W; Feng, J Q; Fan, A Q; Zhang, M J; Zhou, Y L; Liu, T; Xu, Y J

    2017-05-06

    Gut microbiota provide enzymes and additional biochemical metabolic pathways for the host, which together with the host genome and the external environment, influence the body function. The composition of gut microbiota in infant is closely related to health in later life. However, it is influenced by many factors, including delivery mode, feeding pattern, prenatal diet, pregnancy psychology and antepartum antibiotic treatment. Vaginal delivery and breastfeeding is beneficial for shaping gut microbiota, while cesarean section and formula feeding would reduce the amount of gut dominant bacteria. In addition, inappropriate diet during pregnancy, prenatal stress and antepartum antibiotic treatment alters bacterial colonization of the gut in infant.

  3. Respiratory Disease following Viral Lung Infection Alters the Murine Gut Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen T. Groves

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in the composition of the gut microbiota have profound effects on human health. Consequently, there is great interest in identifying, characterizing, and understanding factors that initiate these changes. Despite their high prevalence, studies have only recently begun to investigate how viral lung infections have an impact on the gut microbiota. There is also considerable interest in whether the gut microbiota could be manipulated during vaccination to improve efficacy. In this highly controlled study, we aimed to establish the effect of viral lung infection on gut microbiota composition and the gut environment using mouse models of common respiratory pathogens respiratory syncytial virus (RSV and influenza virus. This was then compared to the effect of live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV vaccination. Both RSV and influenza virus infection resulted in significantly altered gut microbiota diversity, with an increase in Bacteroidetes and a concomitant decrease in Firmicutes phyla abundance. Although the increase in the Bacteroidetes phylum was consistent across several experiments, differences were observed at the family and operational taxonomic unit level. This suggests a change in gut conditions after viral lung infection that favors Bacteroidetes outgrowth but not individual families. No change in gut microbiota composition was observed after LAIV vaccination, suggesting that the driver of gut microbiota change is specific to live viral infection. Viral lung infections also resulted in an increase in fecal lipocalin-2, suggesting low-grade gut inflammation, and colonic Muc5ac levels. Owing to the important role that mucus plays in the gut environment, this may explain the changes in microbiota composition observed. This study demonstrates that the gut microbiota and the gut environment are altered following viral lung infections and that these changes are not observed during vaccination. Whether increased mucin levels and gut

  4. Respiratory Disease following Viral Lung Infection Alters the Murine Gut Microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Helen T.; Cuthbertson, Leah; James, Phillip; Moffatt, Miriam F.; Cox, Michael J.; Tregoning, John S.

    2018-01-01

    Alterations in the composition of the gut microbiota have profound effects on human health. Consequently, there is great interest in identifying, characterizing, and understanding factors that initiate these changes. Despite their high prevalence, studies have only recently begun to investigate how viral lung infections have an impact on the gut microbiota. There is also considerable interest in whether the gut microbiota could be manipulated during vaccination to improve efficacy. In this highly controlled study, we aimed to establish the effect of viral lung infection on gut microbiota composition and the gut environment using mouse models of common respiratory pathogens respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza virus. This was then compared to the effect of live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) vaccination. Both RSV and influenza virus infection resulted in significantly altered gut microbiota diversity, with an increase in Bacteroidetes and a concomitant decrease in Firmicutes phyla abundance. Although the increase in the Bacteroidetes phylum was consistent across several experiments, differences were observed at the family and operational taxonomic unit level. This suggests a change in gut conditions after viral lung infection that favors Bacteroidetes outgrowth but not individual families. No change in gut microbiota composition was observed after LAIV vaccination, suggesting that the driver of gut microbiota change is specific to live viral infection. Viral lung infections also resulted in an increase in fecal lipocalin-2, suggesting low-grade gut inflammation, and colonic Muc5ac levels. Owing to the important role that mucus plays in the gut environment, this may explain the changes in microbiota composition observed. This study demonstrates that the gut microbiota and the gut environment are altered following viral lung infections and that these changes are not observed during vaccination. Whether increased mucin levels and gut inflammation drive

  5. Short-term effect of antibiotics on human gut microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchita Panda

    Full Text Available From birth onwards, the human gut microbiota rapidly increases in diversity and reaches an adult-like stage at three years of age. After this age, the composition may fluctuate in response to external factors such as antibiotics. Previous studies have shown that resilience is not complete months after cessation of the antibiotic intake. However, little is known about the short-term effects of antibiotic intake on the gut microbial community. Here we examined the load and composition of the fecal microbiota immediately after treatment in 21 patients, who received broad-spectrum antibiotics such as fluoroquinolones and β-lactams. A fecal sample was collected from all participants before treatment and one week after for microbial load and community composition analyses by quantitative PCR and pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, respectively. Fluoroquinolones and β-lactams significantly decreased microbial diversity by 25% and reduced the core phylogenetic microbiota from 29 to 12 taxa. However, at the phylum level, these antibiotics increased the Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio (p = 0.0007, FDR = 0.002. At the species level, our findings unexpectedly revealed that both antibiotic types increased the proportion of several unknown taxa belonging to the Bacteroides genus, a Gram-negative group of bacteria (p = 0.0003, FDR<0.016. Furthermore, the average microbial load was affected by the treatment. Indeed, the β-lactams increased it significantly by two-fold (p = 0.04. The maintenance of or possible increase detected in microbial load and the selection of Gram-negative over Gram-positive bacteria breaks the idea generally held about the effect of broad-spectrum antibiotics on gut microbiota.

  6. Recovery of the gut microbiome following fecal microbiota transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seekatz, Anna M; Aas, Johannes; Gessert, Charles E; Rubin, Timothy A; Saman, Daniel M; Bakken, Johan S; Young, Vincent B

    2014-06-17

    Clostridium difficile infection is one of the most common health care-associated infections, and up to 40% of patients suffer from recurrence of disease following standard antibiotic therapy. Recently, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been successfully used to treat recurrent C. difficile infection. It is hypothesized that FMT aids in recovery of a microbiota capable of colonization resistance to C. difficile. However, it is not fully understood how this occurs. Here we investigated changes in the fecal microbiota structure following FMT in patients with recurrent C. difficile infection, and imputed a hypothetical functional profile based on the 16S rRNA profile using a predictive metagenomic tool. Increased relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and decreased abundance of Proteobacteria were observed following FMT. The fecal microbiota of recipients following transplantation was more diverse and more similar to the donor profile than the microbiota prior to transplantation. Additionally, we observed differences in the imputed metagenomic profile. In particular, amino acid transport systems were overrepresented in samples collected prior to transplantation. These results suggest that functional changes accompany microbial structural changes following this therapy. Further identification of the specific community members and functions that promote colonization resistance may aid in the development of improved treatment methods for C. difficile infection. Within the last decade, Clostridium difficile infection has surpassed other bacterial infections to become the leading cause of nosocomial infections. Antibiotic use, which disrupts the gut microbiota and its capability in providing colonization resistance against C. difficile, is a known risk factor in C. difficile infection. In particular, recurrent C. difficile remains difficult to treat with standard antibiotic therapy. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has provided a successful treatment method for

  7. Transfer of gut microbiota from lean and obese mice to antibiotic-treated mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellekilde, Merete; Selfjord, Ellika; Larsen, Christian S.

    2014-01-01

    Transferring gut microbiota from one individual to another may enable researchers to "humanize'' the gut of animal models and transfer phenotypes between species. To date, most studies of gut microbiota transfer are performed in germ-free mice. In the studies presented, it was tested whether...... an antibiotic treatment approach could be used instead. C57BL/6 mice were treated with ampicillin prior to inoculation at weaning or eight weeks of age with gut microbiota from lean or obese donors. The gut microbiota and clinical parameters of the recipients was characterized one and six weeks after...... of the donor phenotype were partly transmissible from obese to lean mice, in particularly beta cell hyperactivity in the obese recipients. Thus, a successful inoculation of gut microbiota was not age dependent in order for the microbes to colonize, and transferring different microbial compositions...

  8. The role of the adaptive immune system in regulation of gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Lucia M; Kawamoto, Shimpei; Maruya, Mikako; Fagarasan, Sidonia

    2014-07-01

    The gut nourishes rich bacterial communities that affect profoundly the functions of the immune system. The relationship between gut microbiota and the immune system is one of reciprocity. The microbiota contributes to nutrient processing and the development, maturation, and function of the immune system. Conversely, the immune system, particularly the adaptive immune system, plays a key role in shaping the repertoire of gut microbiota. The fitness of host immune system is reflected in the gut microbiota, and deficiencies in either innate or adaptive immunity impact on diversity and structures of bacterial communities in the gut. Here, we discuss the mechanisms that underlie this reciprocity and emphasize how the adaptive immune system via immunoglobulins (i.e. IgA) contributes to diversification and balance of gut microbiota required for immune homeostasis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Relationships between gut microbiota, plasma metabolites, and metabolic syndrome traits in the METSIM cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Org, Elin; Blum, Yuna; Kasela, Silva; Mehrabian, Margarete; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kangas, Antti J; Soininen, Pasi; Wang, Zeneng; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Hazen, Stanley L; Laakso, Markku; Lusis, Aldons J

    2017-04-13

    The gut microbiome is a complex and metabolically active community that directly influences host phenotypes. In this study, we profile gut microbiota using 16S rRNA gene sequencing in 531 well-phenotyped Finnish men from the Metabolic Syndrome In Men (METSIM) study. We investigate gut microbiota relationships with a variety of factors that have an impact on the development of metabolic and cardiovascular traits. We identify novel associations between gut microbiota and fasting serum levels of a number of metabolites, including fatty acids, amino acids, lipids, and glucose. In particular, we detect associations with fasting plasma trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) levels, a gut microbiota-dependent metabolite associated with coronary artery disease and stroke. We further investigate the gut microbiota composition and microbiota-metabolite relationships in subjects with different body mass index and individuals with normal or altered oral glucose tolerance. Finally, we perform microbiota co-occurrence network analysis, which shows that certain metabolites strongly correlate with microbial community structure and that some of these correlations are specific for the pre-diabetic state. Our study identifies novel relationships between the composition of the gut microbiota and circulating metabolites and provides a resource for future studies to understand host-gut microbiota relationships.

  10. Aged Gut Microbiota Contributes to Systemical Inflammaging after Transfer to Germ-Free Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floris Fransen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Advanced age is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation, which is usually referred to as inflammaging. Elderly are also known to have an altered gut microbiota composition. However, whether inflammaging is a cause or consequence of an altered gut microbiota composition is not clear. In this study, gut microbiota from young or old conventional mice was transferred to young germ-free (GF mice. Four weeks after gut microbiota transfer immune cell populations in spleen, Peyer’s patches, and mesenteric lymph nodes from conventionalized GF mice were analyzed by flow cytometry. In addition, whole-genome gene expression in the ileum was analyzed by microarray. Gut microbiota composition of donor and recipient mice was analyzed with 16S rDNA sequencing. Here, we show by transferring aged microbiota to young GF mice that certain bacterial species within the aged microbiota promote inflammaging. This effect was associated with lower levels of Akkermansia and higher levels of TM7 bacteria and Proteobacteria in the aged microbiota after transfer. The aged microbiota promoted inflammation in the small intestine in the GF mice and enhanced leakage of inflammatory bacterial components into the circulation was observed. Moreover, the aged microbiota promoted increased T cell activation in the systemic compartment. In conclusion, these data indicate that the gut microbiota from old mice contributes to inflammaging after transfer to young GF mice.

  11. Gut microbiota in Malawian infants in a nutritional supplementation trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Yin Bun; Xu, Ying; Mangani, Charles; Fan, Yue-Mei; Dewey, Kathryn G; Salminen, Seppo Jaakko; Maleta, Kenneth; Ashorn, Per

    2016-02-01

    To examine whether two forms of lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) or a micronutrient-fortified corn-soya blend were associated with development of the gut microbiota in Malawian infants, to assess the microbiota profiles at the age of 6 and 18 months and to follow the changes during the 12-month period. This was a substudy of a 4-arm randomised controlled trial conducted in rural Malawi. Infants at the age of 6 months were randomised to receive no supplement during the primary follow-up period (control), 54 g/day of micronutrient-fortified LNS with milk protein base (milk LNS), 54 g/day of micronutrient-fortified LNS with soya protein base (soya LNS), or 71 g/day of micronutrient-fortified corn-soya blend for 12 months. Stool samples were collected at baseline (6 months) and end of trial (18 months). The 16S rRNA gene was amplified and subjected to multiplex sequencing. A total of 213 infants had paired microbiota data at 6 and 18 months of age. The Dirichlet-multinomial test showed no significant difference in microbiota profile between the four intervention groups at either age (each P > 0.10). Bifidobacterium longum was most abundant at both ages. Lactobacillus ruminis, Shigella and Salmonella were present. The abundance of Prevotella and Faecalibacterium increased with age (each P < 0.001), while Bifidobacteriaceae and Enterobacteriaceae exhibited significant decrease (each P < 0.001). Nutritional supplementation by LNS or corn-soya blend for twelve months did not affect the gut microbiota profile in the rural Malawian context. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. How gut transcriptional function of Drosophila melanogaster varies with the presence and composition of the gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bost, Alyssa; Franzenburg, Soeren; Adair, Karen L; Martinson, Vincent G; Loeb, Greg; Douglas, Angela E

    2017-11-07

    Despite evidence from laboratory experiments that perturbation of the gut microbiota affects many traits of the animal host, our understanding of the effect of variation in microbiota composition on animals in natural populations is very limited. The core purpose of this study on the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster was to identify the impact of natural variation in the taxonomic composition of gut bacterial communities on host traits, with the gut transcriptome as a molecular index of microbiota-responsive host traits. Use of the gut transcriptome was validated by demonstrating significant transcriptional differences between the guts of laboratory flies colonized with bacteria and maintained under axenic conditions. Wild Drosophila from six field collections made over two years had gut bacterial communities of diverse composition, dominated to varying extents by Acetobacteraceae and Enterobacteriaceae. The gut transcriptomes also varied among collections and differed markedly from those of laboratory flies. However, no overall relationship between variation in the wild fly transcriptome and taxonomic composition of the gut microbiota was evident at all taxonomic scales of bacteria tested for both individual fly genes and functional categories in Gene Ontology. We conclude that the interaction between microbiota composition and host functional traits may be confounded by uncontrolled variation in both ecological circumstance and host traits (e.g., genotype, age physiological condition) under natural conditions, and that microbiota effects on host traits identified in the laboratory should, therefore, be extrapolated to field population with great caution. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Diet Diversity Is Associated with Beta but not Alpha Diversity of Pika Gut Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huan; Li, Tongtong; Beasley, DeAnna E; Heděnec, Petr; Xiao, Zhishu; Zhang, Shiheng; Li, Jiabao; Lin, Qiang; Li, Xiangzhen

    2016-01-01

    Wild mammals often consume different food sources as they become geographical available. This change in diet composition is likely to influence the gut microbial community, yet it remains unclear what the relationship looks like-particularly in small herbivores-under natural conditions. We used DNA sequencing approaches to characterize the diet composition and gut microbial community of wild plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae) collected from three altitudes. We tested if diet and gut microbiota composition changes across altitudes, and the relationship between diet diversity and gut microbiota diversity. Our results showed that altitude significantly influences the composition of diet and gut microbial communities. Notably, the alpha diversity (Shannon diversity and observed OTUs) of individual diet was not significantly correlated with that of gut microbiota, whereas the beta diversity (Jaccard and Bray-Curtis dissimilarity) of diet was positively correlated with that of gut microbiota. Our study is the first time to highlight the relationship between diet and gut microbiota composition in wild pikas on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. It suggests that the species richness within individual gut microbiota does not linearly increase with diet diversity, whereas those individuals that are more similar in diet composition harbor more similar gut microbiota.

  14. Incorporating the gut microbiota into models of human and non-human primate ecology and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Katherine R

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian gut is home to a diverse community of microbes. Advances in technology over the past two decades have allowed us to examine this community, the gut microbiota, in more detail, revealing a wide range of influences on host nutrition, health, and behavior. These host-gut microbe interactions appear to shape host plasticity and fitness in a variety of contexts, and therefore represent a key factor missing from existing models of human and non-human primate ecology and evolution. However, current studies of the gut microbiota tend to include limited contextual data or are clinical, making it difficult to directly test broad anthropological hypotheses. Here, I review what is known about the animal gut microbiota and provide examples of how gut microbiota research can be integrated into the study of human and non-human primate ecology and evolution with targeted data collection. Specifically, I examine how the gut microbiota may impact primate diet, energetics, disease resistance, and cognition. While gut microbiota research is proliferating rapidly, especially in the context of humans, there remain important gaps in our understanding of host-gut microbe interactions that will require an anthropological perspective to fill. Likewise, gut microbiota research will be an important tool for filling remaining gaps in anthropological research. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Gut Microbiome and Infant Health: Brain-Gut-Microbiota Axis and Host Genetic Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Xiaomei; Xu, Wanli; Romisher, Rachael; Poveda, Samantha; Forte, Shaina; Starkweather, Angela; Henderson, Wendy A

    2016-09-01

    The development of the neonatal gut microbiome is influenced by multiple factors, such as delivery mode, feeding, medication use, hospital environment, early life stress, and genetics. The dysbiosis of gut microbiota persists during infancy, especially in high-risk preterm infants who experience lengthy stays in the Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Infant microbiome evolutionary trajectory is essentially parallel with the host (infant) neurodevelopmental process and growth. The role of the gut microbiome, the brain-gut signaling system, and its interaction with the host genetics have been shown to be related to both short and long term infant health and bio-behavioral development. The investigation of potential dysbiosis patterns in early childhood is still lacking and few studies have addressed this host-microbiome co-developmental process. Further research spanning a variety of fields of study is needed to focus on the mechanisms of brain-gut-microbiota signaling system and the dynamic host-microbial interaction in the regulation of health, stress and development in human newborns.

  16. Gut microbiota and probiotics in modulation of epithelium and gut-associated lymphoid tissue function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Yolanda; De Palma, Giada

    2009-01-01

    The intestinal tract mucosa is exposed to a vast number of environmental antigens and a large community of commensal bacteria. The mucosal immune system has to provide both protection against pathogens and tolerance to harmless bacteria. Immune homeostasis depends on the interaction of indigenous commensal and transient bacteria (probiotics) with various components of the epithelium and the gut-associated lymphoid tissue. Herein, an update is given of the mechanisms by which the gut microbiota and probiotics are translocated through the epithelium, sensed via pattern-recognition receptors, and activate innate and adaptive immune responses.

  17. Depletion of Gut Microbiota Protects against Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emal, D.; Rampanelli, E.; Stroo, I.; Butter, L.M.; Teske, G.J.; Claessen, N.; Stokman, G.; Florquin, S.; Leemans, J.C.; Dessing, M.C.

    2017-01-01

    An accumulating body of evidence shows that gut microbiota fulfill an important role in health and disease by modulating local and systemic immunity. The importance of the microbiome in the development of kidney disease, however, is largely unknown. To study this concept, we depleted gut microbiota

  18. Aged gut microbiota contributes to systemical inflammaging after transfer to germ-free mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, Floris; Beek, van Adriaan A.; Borghuis, Theo; Aidy, El Sahar; Hugenholtz, Floor; Gaast - de Jongh, van der Christa; Savelkoul, Huub F.J.; Jonge, de Marien I.; Boekschoten, Mark V.; Smidt, Hauke; Faas, Marijke M.; Vos, de Paul

    2017-01-01

    Advanced age is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation, which is usually referred to as inflammaging. Elderly are also known to have an altered gut microbiota composition. However, whether inflammaging is a cause or consequence of an altered gut microbiota composition is not clear. In this

  19. Modulation of the gut microbiota with antibiotic treatment suppresses whole body urea production in neonatal pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puiman, Patrycja; Stoll, Barbara; Mølbak, Lars; de Bruijn, Adrianus; Schierbeek, Henk; Boye, Mette; Boehm, Günther; Renes, Ingrid; van Goudoever, Johannes; Burrin, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether changes in the gut microbiota induced by clinically relevant interventions would impact the bioavailability of dietary amino acids in neonates. We tested the hypothesis that modulation of the gut microbiota in neonatal pigs receiving no treatment (control), intravenously

  20. Can We Prevent Obesity-Related Metabolic Diseases by Dietary Modulation of the Gut Microbiota?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahe, Lena K; Astrup, Arne; Larsen, Lesli H

    2016-01-01

    Obesity increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and certain cancers, which are among the leading causes of death worldwide. Obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases are characterized by specific alterations in the human gut microbiota. Experimental studies with gut microbiota transplantations in mice and in humans indicate that a specific gut microbiota composition can be the cause and not just the consequence of the obese state and metabolic disease, which suggests a potential for gut microbiota modulation in prevention and treatment of obesity-related metabolic diseases. In addition, dietary intervention studies have suggested that modulation of the gut microbiota can improve metabolic risk markers in humans, but a causal role of the gut microbiota in such studies has not yet been established. Here, we review and discuss the role of the gut microbiota in obesity-related metabolic diseases and the potential of dietary modulation of the gut microbiota in metabolic disease prevention and treatment. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Aged gut microbiota contributes to systemical inflammaging after transfer to germ-free mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, Floris; Beek, van A.A.; Borghuis, Theo; Aidy, El Sahar; Hugenholtz, F.; Gaast-de Jongh, van der Christa; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Jonge, De Marien I.; Boekschoten, M.V.; Smidt, H.; Faas, Marijke M.; Vos, de Paul

    2018-01-01

    Advanced age is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation, which is usually referred to as inflammaging. Elderly are also known to have an altered gut microbiota composition. However, whether inflammaging is a cause or consequence of an altered gut microbiota composition is not clear. In this

  2. Aged Gut Microbiota Contributes to Systemical Inflammaging after Transfer to Germ-Free Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, Floris; van Beek, Adriaan A.; Borghuis, Theo; El Aidy, Sahar; Hugenholtz, Floor; van der Gaast-de Jongh, Christa; Savelkoul, Huub F. J.; De Jonge, Marien I.; Boekschoten, Mark V.; Smidt, Hauke; Faas, Marijke M.; de Vos, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Advanced age is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation, which is usually referred to as inflammaging. Elderly are also known to have an altered gut microbiota composition. However, whether inflammaging is a cause or consequence of an altered gut microbiota composition is not clear. In this

  3. Antibiotic-Induced Gut Microbiota Disruption Decreases TNF-alpha Release by Mononuclear Cells in Healthy Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lankelma, Jacqueline M.; Belzer, Clara; Hoogendijk, Arie J.; de Vos, Alex F.; de Vos, Willem M.; van der Poll, Tom; Wiersinga, W. Joost

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Broad-spectrum antibiotics disrupt the intestinal microbiota. The microbiota is essential for physiological processes, such as the development of the gut immune system. Recent murine data suggest that the intestinal microbiota also modulates systemic innate immune responses; however,

  4. Gut microbiota in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigarran Guldris, Secundino; González Parra, Emilio; Cases Amenós, Aleix

    The intestinal microflora maintains a symbiotic relationship with the host under normal conditions, but its imbalance has recently been associated with several diseases. In chronic kidney disease (CKD), dysbiotic intestinal microflora has been reported with an increase in pathogenic flora compared to symbiotic flora. An enhanced permeability of the intestinal barrier, allowing the passage of endotoxins and other bacterial products to the blood, has also been shown in CKD. By fermenting undigested products that reach the colon, the intestinal microflora produce indoles, phenols and amines, among others, that are absorbed by the host, accumulate in CKD and have harmful effects on the body. These gut-derived uraemic toxins and the increased permeability of the intestinal barrier in CKD have been associated with increased inflammation and oxidative stress and have been involved in various CKD-related complications, including cardiovascular disease, anaemia, mineral metabolism disorders or the progression of CKD. The use of prebiotics, probiotics or synbiotics, among other approaches, could improve the dysbiosis and/or the increased permeability of the intestinal barrier in CKD. This article describes the situation of the intestinal microflora in CKD, the alteration of the intestinal barrier and its clinical consequences, the harmful effects of intestinal flora-derived uraemic toxins, and possible therapeutic options to improve this dysbiosis and reduce CKD-related complications. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. The Gut Microbiota in Host Metabolism and Pathogen Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jacob Bak

    with induction of a Th1 dominated immune response. In particular, the relative abundance of Lactobacillaceae was increased from immune system is essential...... for maintaining a healthy gut homeostasis. Intestinal mucosal dendritic cells (DCs) sample and internalise antigens from luminal pathogens and activate T cell-mediated immune responses. The expression of transcriptions factors in the DCs is important for their ability to regulate the immune response. We...... investigated the role of transcription factor interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF8)-dependent intestinal DCs on the regulation of intestinal T cell homeostasis, the gut microbiota and the susceptibility to T. muris infections. Mice lacking IRF8- dependent intestinal DCs were unable to mount a proper Th1 immune...

  6. Analysis of Gut Microbiota in Patients with Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, V A; Saltykova, I V; Zhukova, I A; Alifirova, V M; Zhukova, N G; Dorofeeva, Yu B; Tyakht, A V; Kovarsky, B A; Alekseev, D G; Kostryukova, E S; Mironova, Yu S; Izhboldina, O P; Nikitina, M A; Perevozchikova, T V; Fait, E A; Babenko, V V; Vakhitova, M T; Govorun, V M; Sazonov, A E

    2017-04-01

    Gut microbiota of patients with Parkinson's disease and healthy volunteers was analyzed by the method of high throughput 16S rRNA sequencing of bacterial genomes. In patients with Parkinson's diseases, changes in the content of 9 genera and 15 species of microorganisms were revealed: reduced content of Dorea, Bacteroides, Prevotella, Faecalibacterium, Bacteroides massiliensis, Stoquefichus massiliensis, Bacteroides coprocola, Blautia glucerasea, Dorea longicatena, Bacteroides dorei, Bacteroides plebeus, Prevotella copri, Coprococcus eutactus, and Ruminococcus callidus, and increased content of Christensenella, Catabacter, Lactobacillus, Oscillospira, Bifidobacterium, Christensenella minuta, Catabacter hongkongensis, Lactobacillus mucosae, Ruminococcus bromii, and Papillibacter cinnamivorans. This microbiological pattern of gut microflora can trigger local inflammation followed by aggregation of α-synuclein and generation of Lewy bodies.

  7. The human gut microbiota: metabolism and perspective in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Aline Corado; Hoffmann, Christian; Mota, João Felipe

    2018-04-18

    The gut microbiota has been recognized as an important factor in the development of metabolic diseases such as obesity and is considered an endocrine organ involved in the maintenance of energy homeostasis and host immunity. Dysbiosis can change the functioning of the intestinal barrier and the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) by allowing the passage of structural components of bacteria, such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which activate inflammatory pathways that may contribute to the development of insulin resistance. Furthermore, intestinal dysbiosis can alter the production of gastrointestinal peptides related to satiety, resulting in an increased food intake. In obese people, this dysbiosis seems be related to increases of the phylum Firmicutes, the genus Clostridium, and the species Eubacterium rectale, Clostridium coccoides, Lactobacillus reuteri, Akkermansia muciniphila, Clostridium histolyticum, and Staphylococcus aureus.

  8. Analysis of the gut microbiota of walking sticks (Phasmatodea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelomi, Matan; Lo, Wen-Sui; Kimsey, Lynn S; Kuo, Chih-Horng

    2013-09-11

    Little is known about the Phasmatodea gut microbial community, including whether phasmids have symbiotic bacteria aiding in their digestion. While symbionts are near ubiquitous in herbivorous insects, the Phasmatodea's distinctively thin body shape precludes the gut enlargements needed for microbial fermentation. High-throughput sequencing was used to characterize the entire microbiota of the fat bodies, salivary glands, and anterior and posterior midguts of two species of walking stick. Most bacterial sequences belonged to a strain of Spiroplasma (Tenericutes) found primarily in the posterior midgut of the parthenogenetic species Ramulus artemis (Phasmatidae). Beyond this, no significant differences were found between the R. artemis midgut sections or between that species and Peruphasma schultei (Pseudophasmatidae). Histological analysis further indicated a lack of bacteriocytes. Phasmids are unlikely to depend on bacteria for digestion, suggesting they produce enzymes endogenously that most other herbivorous insects obtain from symbionts. This conclusion matches predictions based on phasmid anatomy. The role of Spiroplasma in insects warrants further study.

  9. Gut bacteria that prevent growth impairments transmitted by microbiota from malnourished children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undernourished children exhibit impaired development of their gut microbiota. Transplanting microbiota from 6- and 18-month-old healthy or undernourished Malawian donors into young germ-free mice that were fed a Malawian diet revealed that immature microbiota from undernourished infants and children...

  10. Aberrant gut microbiota composition at the onset of type 1 diabetes in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Goffau, Marcus C.; Fuentes, Susana; van den Bogert, Bartholomeus; Honkanen, Hanna; de Vos, Willem M.; Welling, Gjalt; Hyoty, Heikki; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.

    Aims/hypothesis Recent studies indicate that an aberrant gut microbiota is associated with the development of type 1 diabetes, yet little is known about the microbiota in children who have diabetes at an early age. To this end, the microbiota of children aged 1-5 years with new-onset type 1 diabetes

  11. Transfer of gut microbiota from lean and obese mice to antibiotic-treated mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellekilde, Merete; Selfjord, Ellika; Larsen, Christian S.

    2014-01-01

    an antibiotic treatment approach could be used instead. C57BL/6 mice were treated with ampicillin prior to inoculation at weaning or eight weeks of age with gut microbiota from lean or obese donors. The gut microbiota and clinical parameters of the recipients was characterized one and six weeks after...... to conventional antibiotic-treated mice was possible at least for a time period during which the microbiota may permanently modulate important host functions....

  12. The gut microbiota plays a protective role in the host defence against pneumococcal pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuijt, Tim J; Lankelma, Jacqueline M; Scicluna, Brendon P; de Sousa e Melo, Felipe; Roelofs, Joris J T H; de Boer, J Daan; Hoogendijk, Arjan J; de Beer, Regina; de Vos, Alex; Belzer, Clara; de Vos, Willem M; van der Poll, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Objective Pneumonia accounts for more deaths than any other infectious disease worldwide. The intestinal microbiota supports local mucosal immunity and is increasingly recognised as an important modulator of the systemic immune system. The precise role of the gut microbiota in bacterial pneumonia, however, is unknown. Here, we investigate the function of the gut microbiota in the host defence against Streptococcus pneumoniae infections. Design We depleted the gut microbiota in C57BL/6 mice and subsequently infected them intranasally with S. pneumoniae. We then performed survival and faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) experiments and measured parameters of inflammation and alveolar macrophage whole-genome responses. Results We found that the gut microbiota protects the host during pneumococcal pneumonia, as reflected by increased bacterial dissemination, inflammation, organ damage and mortality in microbiota-depleted mice compared with controls. FMT in gut microbiota-depleted mice led to a normalisation of pulmonary bacterial counts and tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-10 levels 6 h after pneumococcal infection. Whole-genome mapping of alveolar macrophages showed upregulation of metabolic pathways in the absence of a healthy gut microbiota. This upregulation correlated with an altered cellular responsiveness, reflected by a reduced responsiveness to lipopolysaccharide and lipoteichoic acid. Compared with controls, alveolar macrophages derived from gut microbiota-depleted mice showed a diminished capacity to phagocytose S. pneumoniae. Conclusions This study identifies the intestinal microbiota as a protective mediator during pneumococcal pneumonia. The gut microbiota enhances primary alveolar macrophage function. Novel therapeutic strategies could exploit the gut–lung axis in bacterial infections. PMID:26511795

  13. Dietary silver nanoparticles can disturb the gut microbiota in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brule, Sybille; Ambroise, Jérôme; Lecloux, Hélène; Levard, Clément; Soulas, Romain; De Temmerman, Pieter-Jan; Palmai-Pallag, Mihaly; Marbaix, Etienne; Lison, Dominique

    2016-07-08

    Humans are increasingly exposed via the diet to Ag nanoparticles (NP) used in the food industry. Because of their anti-bacterial activity, ingested Ag NP might disturb the gut microbiota that is essential for local and systemic homeostasis. We explored here the possible impact of dietary Ag NP on the gut microbiota in mice at doses relevant for currently estimated human intake. Mice were orally exposed to food (pellets) supplemented with increasing doses of Ag NP (0, 46, 460 or 4600 ppb) during 28 d. Body weight, systemic inflammation and gut integrity were investigated to determine overall toxicity, and feces DNA collected from the gut were analyzed by Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) to assess the effect of Ag NP on the bacterial population. Ag NP were characterized alone and in the supplemented pellets by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). No overall toxicity was recorded in mice exposed to Ag NP. Ag NP disturbed bacterial evenness (α-diversity) and populations (β-diversity) in a dose-dependent manner. Ag NP increased the ratio between Firmicutes (F) and Bacteroidetes (B) phyla. At the family level, Lachnospiraceae and the S24-7 family mainly accounted for the increase in Firmicutes and decrease in Bacteroidetes, respectively. Similar effects were not observed in mice identically exposed to the same batch of Ag NP-supplemented pellets aged during 4 or 8 months and the F/B ratio was less or not modified. Analysis of Ag NP-supplemented pellets showed that freshly prepared pellets released Ag ions faster than aged pellets. STEM-EDX analysis also showed that Ag sulfidation occurred in aged Ag NP-supplemented pellets. Our data indicate that oral exposure to human relevant doses of Ag NP can induce microbial alterations in the gut. The bacterial disturbances recorded after Ag NP are similar to those reported in metabolic and inflammatory diseases, such as obesity. It also highlights that Ag NP aging in food

  14. Gut Microbiota and Host Reaction in Liver Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Fukui

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Although alcohol feeding produces evident intestinal microbial changes in animals, only some alcoholics show evident intestinal dysbiosis, a decrease in Bacteroidetes and an increase in Proteobacteria. Gut dysbiosis is related to intestinal hyperpermeability and endotoxemia in alcoholic patients. Alcoholics further exhibit reduced numbers of the beneficial Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. Large amounts of endotoxins translocated from the gut strongly activate Toll-like receptor 4 in the liver and play an important role in the progression of alcoholic liver disease (ALD, especially in severe alcoholic liver injury. Gut microbiota and bacterial endotoxins are further involved in some of the mechanisms of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and its progression to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH. There is experimental evidence that a high-fat diet causes characteristic dysbiosis of NAFLD, with a decrease in Bacteroidetes and increases in Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, and gut dysbiosis itself can induce hepatic steatosis and metabolic syndrome. Clinical data support the above dysbiosis, but the details are variable. Intestinal dysbiosis and endotoxemia greatly affect the cirrhotics in relation to major complications and prognosis. Metagenomic approaches to dysbiosis may be promising for the analysis of deranged host metabolism in NASH and cirrhosis. Management of dysbiosis may become a cornerstone for the future treatment of liver diseases.

  15. Shotgun Metaproteomics of the Human Distal Gut Microbiota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verberkmoes, Nathan C [ORNL; Erickson, Alison L [ORNL; Shah, Manesh B [ORNL; Godzik, A [Burnham Institute for Medical Research, La Jolla, CA; Rosenquist, M [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Upsalla, Sweden; Halfvarsson, J [Orebro University Hospital, Orebro, Sweden; Lefsrud, Mark G [McGill University, Montreal, Quebec; Apajalahti, J. [Alimetrics Ltd,; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L [ORNL; Jansson, J [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Upsalla, Sweden

    2009-01-01

    The human gut contains a dense, complex, and diverse microbial community, comprising the gut microbiome. Metagenomics has recently revealed the composition of genes in the gut microbiome, but provides no direct information about which genes are expressed or functioning. Therefore, our goal was to develop a novel approach to directly identify microbial proteins in fecal samples to gain information about what genes were expressed and about key microbial functions in the human gut. We used a non-targeted, shotgun mass spectrometry-based whole community proteomics, or metaproteomics, approach for the first deep proteome measurements of thousands of proteins in human fecal samples, thus demonstrating this approach on the most complex sample type to date. The resulting metaproteomes had a skewed distribution relative to the metagenome, with more proteins for translation, energy production, and carbohydrate metabolism compared to what was earlier predicted from metagenomics. Human proteins, including antimicrobial peptides, were also identified, providing a non-targeted glimpse of the host response to the microbiota. Several unknown proteins represented previously undescribed microbial pathways or host immune responses, revealing a novel complex interplay between the human host and its associated microbes.

  16. Shotgun metaproteomics of the human distal gut microbiota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VerBerkmoes, N.C.; Russell, A.L.; Shah, M.; Godzik, A.; Rosenquist, M.; Halfvarsson, J.; Lefsrud, M.G.; Apajalahti, J.; Tysk, C.; Hettich, R.L.; Jansson, Janet K.

    2008-10-15

    The human gut contains a dense, complex and diverse microbial community, comprising the gut microbiome. Metagenomics has recently revealed the composition of genes in the gut microbiome, but provides no direct information about which genes are expressed or functioning. Therefore, our goal was to develop a novel approach to directly identify microbial proteins in fecal samples to gain information about the genes expressed and about key microbial functions in the human gut. We used a non-targeted, shotgun mass spectrometry-based whole community proteomics, or metaproteomics, approach for the first deep proteome measurements of thousands of proteins in human fecal samples, thus demonstrating this approach on the most complex sample type to date. The resulting metaproteomes had a skewed distribution relative to the metagenome, with more proteins for translation, energy production and carbohydrate metabolism when compared to what was earlier predicted from metagenomics. Human proteins, including antimicrobial peptides, were also identified, providing a non-targeted glimpse of the host response to the microbiota. Several unknown proteins represented previously undescribed microbial pathways or host immune responses, revealing a novel complex interplay between the human host and its associated microbes.

  17. Using the gut microbiota as a novel tool for examining colobine primate GI health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine R. Amato

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Primates of the Colobinae subfamily are highly folivorous. They possess a sacculated foregut and are believed to rely on a specialized gut microbiota to extract sufficient energy from their hard-to-digest diet. Although many colobines are endangered and would benefit from captive breeding programs, maintaining healthy captive populations of colobines can be difficult since they commonly suffer from morbidity and mortality due to gastrointestinal (GI distress of unknown cause. While there is speculation that this GI distress may be associated with a dysbiosis of the gut microbiota, no study has directly examined the role of the gut microbiota in colobine GI health. In this study, we used high-throughput sequencing to examine the gut microbiota of three genera of colobines housed at the San Diego Zoo: doucs (Pygathrix (N=7, colobus monkeys (Colobus (N=4, and langurs (Trachypithecus (N=5. Our data indicated that GI-healthy doucs, langurs, and colobus monkeys possess a distinct gut microbiota. In addition, GI-unhealthy doucs exhibited a different gut microbiota compared to GI-healthy individuals, including reduced relative abundances of anti-inflammatory Akkermansia. Finally, by comparing samples from wild and captive Asian colobines, we found that captive colobines generally exhibited higher relative abundances of potential pathogens such as Desulfovibrio and Methanobrevibacter compared to wild colobines, implying an increased risk of gut microbial dysbiosis. Together, these results suggest an association between the gut microbiota and GI illness of unknown cause in doucs. Further studies are necessary to corroborate these findings and determine cause-and-effect relationships. Additionally, we found minimal variation in the diversity and composition of the gut microbiota along the colobine GI tract, suggesting that fecal samples may be sufficient for describing the colobine gut microbiota. If these findings can be validated in wild individuals, it

  18. Comparison of the distal gut microbiota from people and animals in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Richard J; Bruce, Kenneth D; Jenkins, Claire; Stothard, J Russell; Ajarova, Lilly; Mugisha, Lawrence; Viney, Mark E

    2013-01-01

    The gut microbiota plays a key role in the maintenance of healthy gut function as well as many other aspects of health. High-throughput sequence analyses have revealed the composition of the gut microbiota, showing that there is a core signature to the human gut microbiota, as well as variation in its composition between people. The gut microbiota of animals is also being investigated. We are interested in the relationship between bacterial taxa of the human gut microbiota and those in the gut microbiota of domestic and semi-wild animals. While it is clear that some human gut bacterial pathogens come from animals (showing that human--animal transmission occurs), the extent to which the usually non-pathogenic commensal taxa are shared between humans and animals has not been explored. To investigate this we compared the distal gut microbiota of humans, cattle and semi-captive chimpanzees in communities that are geographically sympatric in Uganda. The gut microbiotas of these three host species could be distinguished by the different proportions of bacterial taxa present. We defined multiple operational taxonomic units (OTUs) by sequence similarity and found evidence that some OTUs were common between human, cattle and chimpanzees, with the largest number of shared OTUs occurring between chimpanzees and humans, as might be expected with their close physiological similarity. These results show the potential for the sharing of usually commensal bacterial taxa between humans and other animals. This suggests that further investigation of this phenomenon is needed to fully understand how it drives the composition of human and animal gut microbiotas.

  19. Structural modulation of gut microbiota by chondroitin sulfate and its oligosaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Qingsen; Shi, Jingjing; Song, Guanrui; Zhang, Meifang; Cai, Chao; Hao, Jiejie; Li, Guoyun; Yu, Guangli

    2016-08-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) as a dietary supplement and a symptomatic slow acting (SYSA) drug has been used for years. Recently, CS has been demonstrated to be readily degraded and fermented in vitro by specific human gut microbes, hinting that dietary CS may pose a potential effect on gut microbiota composition in vivo. However, until now, little information is available on modulations of gut microbiota by CS. In the present study, modulations of gut microbiota in Kunming mice by CS and its oligosaccharide (CSO) were investigated by high-throughput sequencing. As evidenced by Heatmap and principal component analysis (PCA), the female microbiota were more vulnerable than the male microbiota to CS and CSO treatment. Besides, it is of interest to found that CS and CSO had differing effects on the abundance of Bacteroidales S24-7, Bacteroides, Helicobacter, Odoribacter, Prevotellaceae and Lactobacillus in male mice versus female mice. Collectively, we demonstrated a sex-dependent effect on gut microbiota of CS and CSO. In addition, since gut microbiota exerts a major effect on host physiology, our study highlighted that certain beneficial effects of CS may be associated with modulations of gut microbiota, which merits further investigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparative Analysis of the Gut Microbiota Composition between Captive and Wild Forest Musk Deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yimeng; Hu, Xiaolong; Yang, Shuang; Zhou, Juntong; Zhang, Tianxiang; Qi, Lei; Sun, Xiaoning; Fan, Mengyuan; Xu, Shanghua; Cha, Muha; Zhang, Meishan; Lin, Shaobi; Liu, Shuqiang; Hu, Defu

    2017-01-01

    The large and complex gut microbiota in animals has profound effects on feed utilization and metabolism. Currently, gastrointestinal diseases due to dysregulated gut microbiota are considered important factors that limit growth of the captive forest musk deer population. Compared with captive forest musk deer, wild forest musk deer have a wider feeding range with no dietary limitations, and their gut microbiota are in a relatively natural state. However, no reports have compared the gut microbiota between wild and captive forest musk deer. To gain insight into the composition of gut microbiota in forest musk deer under different food-source conditions, we employed high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing technology to investigate differences in the gut microbiota occurring between captive and wild forest musk deer. Both captive and wild forest musk deer showed similar microbiota at the phylum level, which consisted mainly of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, although significant differences were found in their relative abundances between both groups. α-Diversity results showed that no significant differences occurred in the microbiota between both groups, while β-diversity results showed that significant differences did occur in their microbiota compositions. In summary, our results provide important information for improving feed preparation for captive forest musk deer and implementing projects where captive forest musk deer are released into the wild.

  1. Comparative Analysis of the Gut Microbiota Composition between Captive and Wild Forest Musk Deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimeng Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The large and complex gut microbiota in animals has profound effects on feed utilization and metabolism. Currently, gastrointestinal diseases due to dysregulated gut microbiota are considered important factors that limit growth of the captive forest musk deer population. Compared with captive forest musk deer, wild forest musk deer have a wider feeding range with no dietary limitations, and their gut microbiota are in a relatively natural state. However, no reports have compared the gut microbiota between wild and captive forest musk deer. To gain insight into the composition of gut microbiota in forest musk deer under different food-source conditions, we employed high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing technology to investigate differences in the gut microbiota occurring between captive and wild forest musk deer. Both captive and wild forest musk deer showed similar microbiota at the phylum level, which consisted mainly of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, although significant differences were found in their relative abundances between both groups. α-Diversity results showed that no significant differences occurred in the microbiota between both groups, while β-diversity results showed that significant differences did occur in their microbiota compositions. In summary, our results provide important information for improving feed preparation for captive forest musk deer and implementing projects where captive forest musk deer are released into the wild.

  2. Pika Population Density Is Associated with the Composition and Diversity of Gut Microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Huan; Qu, Jiapeng; Li, Tongtong; Li, Jiabao; Lin, Qiang; Li, Xiangzhen

    2016-01-01

    Host population density is positively associated with the strength of social interactions or the frequency of physical contacts, and thus potentially influences microbial transmission among individuals. However, the relationship between host density and gut microbiota remains unknown. Here, we characterized the gut microbiota of plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae) in wild experimental fields with different host population densities. The abundance of some gut microbes significantly correlated w...

  3. Pika population density is associated with composition and diversity of gut microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Huan eLi; Jiapeng eQu; Tongtong eLi; Jiabao eLi; Qiang eLin; Xiangzhen eLi

    2016-01-01

    Host population density is positively associated with the strength of social interactions or the frequency of physical contacts, and thus potentially influences microbial transmission among individuals. However, the relationship between host density and gut microbiota remains unknown. Here, we characterized the gut microbiota of plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae) in wild experimental fields with different host population densities. The abundance of some gut microbes significantly correlated w...

  4. Inulin-type fructan improves diabetic phenotype and gut microbiota profiles in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Qian Zhang; Hongyue Yu; Xinhua Xiao; Ling Hu; Fengjiao Xin; Xiaobing Yu

    2018-01-01

    Background & Aims Accumulating research has addressed the linkage between the changes to gut microbiota structure and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Inulin is one type of soluble dietary fiber that can alleviate T2D. As a prebiotic, inulin cannot be digested by humans, but rather is digested by probiotics. However, whether inulin treatment can benefit the entire gut bacteria community remains unknown. In this study, we evaluated the differences in gut microbiota composition among diabetic, inulin-tre...

  5. Therapeutic modulation of gut microbiota in inflammatory bowel disease: More questions to be answered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yu Qi; Cai, Chen Wen; Ran, Zhi Hua

    2016-12-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) exhibit impaired control of the microbiome in the gut, and 'dysbiosis' is commonly observed. Western diet is a risk factor for the development of IBD, but it may have different effects on gut microbiota between IBD and non-IBD individuals. Exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) can induce remission in pediatric Crohn's disease with a decrease in gut microbial diversity. Although there are some theoretical benefits, actual treatment effects of prebiotics and probiotics in IBD vary. High-quality studies have shown that VSL#3 (a high-potency probiotic medical food containing eight different strains) exhibits benefits in treating ulcerative colitis, and gut microbial diversity is reduced after treated with VSL#3 in animal models. The effect of fecal microbiome transplantation on IBD is controversial. Increasing microbial diversity compared with impaired handling of bacteria presents a dilemma. Antibiotics are the strongest factors in the reduction of microbiome ecological diversity. Some antibiotics may help to induce remission of the disease. Microbiome alteration has been suggested to be an intrinsic property of IBD and a potential predictor in diagnosis and prognosis. However, the effects of therapeutic modulations are variable; thus, more questions remain to be answered. © 2016 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. Gut Microbiota Modulation and Its Relationship with Obesity Using Prebiotic Fibers and Probiotics: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahiya, Dinesh K; Renuka; Puniya, Monica; Shandilya, Umesh K; Dhewa, Tejpal; Kumar, Nikhil; Kumar, Sanjeev; Puniya, Anil K; Shukla, Pratyoosh

    2017-01-01

    In the present world scenario, obesity has almost attained the level of a pandemic and is progressing at a rapid rate. This disease is the mother of all other metabolic disorders, which apart from placing an added financial burden on the concerned patient also has a negative impact on his/her well-being and health in the society. Among the various plausible factors for the development of obesity, the role of gut microbiota is very crucial. In general, the gut of an individual is inhabited by trillions of microbes that play a significant role in host energy homeostasis by their symbiotic interactions. Dysbiosis in gut microbiota causes disequilibrium in energy homeostasis that ultimately leads to obesity. Numerous mechanisms have been reported by which gut microbiota induces obesity in experimental models. However, which microbial community is directly linked to obesity is still unknown due to the complex nature of gut microbiota. Prebiotics and probiotics are the safer and effective dietary substances available, which can therapeutically alter the gut microbiota of the host. In this review, an effort was made to discuss the current mechanisms through which gut microbiota interacts with host energy metabolism in the context of obesity. Further, the therapeutic approaches (prebiotics/probiotics) that helped in positively altering the gut microbiota were discussed by taking experimental evidence from animal and human studies. In the closing statement, the challenges and future tasks within the field were discussed.

  7. Influence of the Gut Microbiota Composition on Campylobacter jejuni Colonization in Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zifeng; Willer, Thomas; Li, Li; Pielsticker, Colin; Rychlik, Ivan; Velge, Philippe; Kaspers, Bernd; Rautenschlein, Silke

    2017-11-01

    The Campylobacter jejuni -host interaction may be affected by the host's gut microbiota through competitive exclusion, metabolites, or modification of the immune response. To understand this interaction, C. jejuni colonization and local immune responses were compared in chickens with different gut microbiota compositions. Birds were treated with an antibiotic cocktail (AT) (experiments 1 and 2) or raised under germfree (GF) conditions (experiment 3). At 18 days posthatch (dph), they were orally inoculated either with 10 4 CFU of C. jejuni or with diluent. Cecal as well as systemic C. jejuni colonization, T- and B-cell numbers in the gut, and gut-associated tissue were compared between the different groups. Significantly higher numbers of CFU of C. jejuni were detected in the cecal contents of AT and GF birds, with higher colonization rates in spleen, liver, and ileum, than in birds with a conventional gut microbiota ( P microbiota. Histopathological gut lesions were observed only in C. jejuni -inoculated AT and GF birds but not in microbiota-colonized C. jejuni -inoculated hatchmates. These results demonstrate that the gut microbiota may contribute to the control of C. jejuni colonization and prevent lesion development. Further studies are needed to identify key players of the gut microbiota and the mechanisms behind their protective role. Copyright © 2017 Han et al.

  8. Gut Microbiota Modulation and Its Relationship with Obesity Using Prebiotic Fibers and Probiotics: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahiya, Dinesh K.; Renuka; Puniya, Monica; Shandilya, Umesh K.; Dhewa, Tejpal; Kumar, Nikhil; Kumar, Sanjeev; Puniya, Anil K.; Shukla, Pratyoosh

    2017-01-01

    In the present world scenario, obesity has almost attained the level of a pandemic and is progressing at a rapid rate. This disease is the mother of all other metabolic disorders, which apart from placing an added financial burden on the concerned patient also has a negative impact on his/her well-being and health in the society. Among the various plausible factors for the development of obesity, the role of gut microbiota is very crucial. In general, the gut of an individual is inhabited by trillions of microbes that play a significant role in host energy homeostasis by their symbiotic interactions. Dysbiosis in gut microbiota causes disequilibrium in energy homeostasis that ultimately leads to obesity. Numerous mechanisms have been reported by which gut microbiota induces obesity in experimental models. However, which microbial community is directly linked to obesity is still unknown due to the complex nature of gut microbiota. Prebiotics and probiotics are the safer and effective dietary substances available, which can therapeutically alter the gut microbiota of the host. In this review, an effort was made to discuss the current mechanisms through which gut microbiota interacts with host energy metabolism in the context of obesity. Further, the therapeutic approaches (prebiotics/probiotics) that helped in positively altering the gut microbiota were discussed by taking experimental evidence from animal and human studies. In the closing statement, the challenges and future tasks within the field were discussed. PMID:28421057

  9. Gut Microbiota Modulation and Its Relationship with Obesity Using Prebiotic Fibers and Probiotics: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh K. Dahiya

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present world scenario, obesity has almost attained the level of a pandemic and is progressing at a rapid rate. This disease is the mother of all other metabolic disorders, which apart from placing an added financial burden on the concerned patient also has a negative impact on his/her well-being and health in the society. Among the various plausible factors for the development of obesity, the role of gut microbiota is very crucial. In general, the gut of an individual is inhabited by trillions of microbes that play a significant role in host energy homeostasis by their symbiotic interactions. Dysbiosis in gut microbiota causes disequilibrium in energy homeostasis that ultimately leads to obesity. Numerous mechanisms have been reported by which gut microbiota induces obesity in experimental models. However, which microbial community is directly linked to obesity is still unknown due to the complex nature of gut microbiota. Prebiotics and probiotics are the safer and effective dietary substances available, which can therapeutically alter the gut microbiota of the host. In this review, an effort was made to discuss the current mechanisms through which gut microbiota interacts with host energy metabolism in the context of obesity. Further, the therapeutic approaches (prebiotics/probiotics that helped in positively altering the gut microbiota were discussed by taking experimental evidence from animal and human studies. In the closing statement, the challenges and future tasks within the field were discussed.

  10. Regulation of energy balance by a gut-brain axis and involvement of the gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Paige V; Hamr, Sophie C; Duca, Frank A

    2016-02-01

    Despite significant progress in understanding the homeostatic regulation of energy balance, successful therapeutic options for curbing obesity remain elusive. One potential target for the treatment of obesity is via manipulation of the gut-brain axis, a complex bidirectional communication system that is crucial in maintaining energy homeostasis. Indeed, ingested nutrients induce secretion of gut peptides that act either via paracrine signaling through vagal and non-vagal neuronal relays, or in an endocrine fashion via entry into circulation, to ultimately signal to the central nervous system where appropriate responses are generated. We review here the current hypotheses of nutrient sensing mechanisms of enteroendocrine cells, including the release of gut peptides, mainly cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide-1, and peptide YY, and subsequent gut-to-brain signaling pathways promoting a reduction of food intake and an increase in energy expenditure. Furthermore, this review highlights recent research suggesting this energy regulating gut-brain axis can be influenced by gut microbiota, potentially contributing to the development of obesity.

  11. Transferring the blues: Depression-associated gut microbiota induces neurobehavioural changes in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John R; Borre, Yuliya; O' Brien, Ciaran; Patterson, Elaine; El Aidy, Sahar; Deane, Jennifer; Kennedy, Paul J; Beers, Sasja; Scott, Karen; Moloney, Gerard; Hoban, Alan E; Scott, Lucinda; Fitzgerald, Patrick; Ross, Paul; Stanton, Catherine; Clarke, Gerard; Cryan, John F; Dinan, Timothy G

    2016-11-01

    The gut microbiota interacts with the host via neuroimmune, neuroendocrine and neural pathways. These pathways are components of the brain-gut-microbiota axis and preclinical evidence suggests that the microbiota can recruit this bidirectional communication system to modulate brain development, function and behaviour. The pathophysiology of depression involves neuroimmune-neuroendocrine dysregulation. However, the extent to which changes in gut microbiota composition and function mediate the dysregulation of these pathways is unknown. Thirty four patients with major depression and 33 matched healthy controls were recruited. Cytokines, CRP, Salivary Cortisol and plasma Lipopolysaccharide binding protein were determined by ELISA. Plasma tryptophan and kynurenine were determined by HPLC. Fecal samples were collected for 16s rRNA sequencing. A Fecal Microbiota transplantation was prepared from a sub group of depressed patients and controls and transferred by oral gavage to a microbiota-deficient rat model. We demonstrate that depression is associated with decreased gut microbiota richness and diversity. Fecal microbiota transplantation from depressed patients to microbiota-depleted rats can induce behavioural and physiological features characteristic of depression in the recipient animals, including anhedonia and anxiety-like behaviours, as well as alterations in tryptophan metabolism. This suggests that the gut microbiota may play a causal role in the development of features of depression and may provide a tractable target in the treatment and prevention of this disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Immune system stimulation by the native gut microbiota of honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Waldan K; Mancenido, Amanda L; Moran, Nancy A

    2017-02-01

    Gut microbial communities can greatly affect host health by modulating the host's immune system. For many important insects, however, the relationship between the gut microbiota and immune function remains poorly understood. Here, we test whether the gut microbial symbionts of the honey bee can induce expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), a crucial component of insect innate immunity. We find that bees up-regulate gene expression of the AMPs apidaecin and hymenoptaecin in gut tissue when the microbiota is present. Using targeted proteomics, we detected apidaecin in both the gut lumen and the haemolymph; higher apidaecin concentrations were found in bees harbouring the normal gut microbiota than in bees lacking gut microbiota. In in vitro assays, cultured strains of the microbiota showed variable susceptibility to honey bee AMPs, although many seem to possess elevated resistance compared to Escherichia coli . In some trials, colonization by normal gut symbionts resulted in improved survivorship following injection with E. coli . Our results show that the native, non-pathogenic gut flora induces immune responses in the bee host. Such responses might be a host mechanism to regulate the microbiota, and could potentially benefit host health by priming the immune system against future pathogenic infections.

  13. Interaction between gut microbiota and toll-like receptor: from immunity to metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiu, Jensen H C; Dorweiler, Bernhard; Woo, Connie W

    2017-01-01

    The human gut contains trillions of commensal bacteria, and similar to pathogenic bacteria, the gut microbes and their products can be recognized by toll-like receptors (TLRs). It is well acknowledged that the interaction between gut microbiota and the local TLRs help to maintain the homeostasis of intestinal immunity. High-fat intake or obesity can weaken gut integrity leading to the penetration of gut microbiota or their bacterial products into the circulation, leading to the activation of TLRs on immune cells and subsequently low-grade systemic inflammation in host. Metabolic cells including hepatocytes and adipocytes also express TLRs. Although they are able to produce and secrete inflammatory molecules, the effectiveness remains low compared with the immune cells embedded in the liver and adipose tissue. The interaction of TLRs in these metabolic cells or organs with gut microbiota remains unclear, but a few studies have suggested that the functions of these TLRs are related to metabolism. Alteration of the gut microbiota is associated with body weight change and adiposity in human, and the interaction between the commensal gut microbiota and TLRs may possibly involve both metabolic and immunological regulation. In this review, we will summarize the current findings on the relationship between TLRs and gut microbiota with a focus on metabolic regulation and discuss how such interaction participates in host metabolism.

  14. Role of intestinal microbiota and metabolites on gut homeostasis and human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lan; Zhang, Jianqiong

    2017-01-06

    A vast diversity of microbes colonizes in the human gastrointestinal tract, referred to intestinal microbiota. Microbiota and products thereof are indispensable for shaping the development and function of host innate immune system, thereby exerting multifaceted impacts in gut health. This paper reviews the effects on immunity of gut microbe-derived nucleic acids, and gut microbial metabolites, as well as the involvement of commensals in the gut homeostasis. We focus on the recent findings with an intention to illuminate the mechanisms by which the microbiota and products thereof are interacting with host immunity, as well as to scrutinize imbalanced gut microbiota (dysbiosis) which lead to autoimmune disorders including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), Type 1 diabetes (T1D) and systemic immune syndromes such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In addition to their well-recognized benefits in the gut such as occupation of ecological niches and competition with pathogens, commensal bacteria have been shown to strengthen the gut barrier and to exert immunomodulatory actions within the gut and beyond. It has been realized that impaired intestinal microbiota not only contribute to gut diseases but also are inextricably linked to metabolic disorders and even brain dysfunction. A better understanding of the mutual interactions of the microbiota and host immune system, would shed light on our endeavors of disease prevention and broaden the path to our discovery of immune intervention targets for disease treatment.

  15. Gut microbiota: the next-gen frontier in preventive and therapeutic medicine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder eNagpal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Our gut harbors an extremely diverse collection of trillions of microbes that, besides degrading the complex dietary constituents, execute numerous activities vital for our metabolism and immune health. Although the importance of gut microbiota in maintaining digestive health has long been believed, its close correlation with numerous chronic ailments has recently been exposed, thanks to the innovative mechanistic studies on the compositional and functional aspects of gut microbial communities using germ-free or humanized animal models. Since a myriad of mysteries about the precise structures and functions of gut microbial communities in specific health situations still remains to be explicated, the emerging field of gut microbiota remains a foremost objective of research for microbiologists, computational biologists, clinicians, nutritionalists etc. Nevertheless, it is only after a comprehensive understanding of the structure, density and function of the gut microbiota that the new therapeutic targets could be captured and utilized for a healthier gut as well as overall wellbeing.

  16. The Second Brain: Is the Gut Microbiota a Link Between Obesity and Central Nervous System Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Repáraz, Javier; Kasper, Lloyd H.

    2016-01-01

    The gut-brain axis is a bi-directional integrated system composed by immune, endocrine and neuronal components by which the gap between the gut microbiota and the brain is significantly impacted. An increasing number of different gut microbial species are now postulated to regulate brain function in health and disease. The westernized diet is hypothesized to be the cause of the current obesity levels in many countries, a major socio-economical health problem. Experimental and epidemiological evidence suggest that the gut microbiota is responsible for significant immunologic, neuronal and endocrine changes that lead to obesity. We hypothesize that the gut microbiota, and changes associated with diet, affect the gut-brain axis and may possibly contribute to the development of mental illness. In this review, we discuss the links between diet, gut dysbiosis, obesity, and immunologic and neurologic diseases that impact brain function and behavior. PMID:26865085

  17. Gut Microbiota and Metabolic Endotoxemia in Young Obese Mexican Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radilla-Vázquez, Romina Belén; Parra-Rojas, Isela; Martínez-Hernández, Norma Edith; Márquez-Sandoval, Yolanda Fabiola; Illades-Aguiar, Berenice; Castro-Alarcón, Natividad

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbiota plays an important role in human metabolism; previous studies suggest that the imbalance can cause a metabolic endotoxemia that may be linked to weight gain and insulin resistance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the gut microbiota composition, the lipopolysaccharide levels and the metabolic profile in obese and normal-weight young subjects. We studied 32 obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) and 32 normal-weight subjects (BMI = 18.5-24.9 kg/m2), aged 18-25 years. Quantification of intestinal bacteria was performed by real-time PCR. Endotoxin units were determined with the test QCL-1000, and biochemical profile was performed under a standard protocol of Spinreact. Obese individuals had a BMI of 34.5 (32.9-36.45) kg/m2, increased triglycerides (123 vs. 70 mg/dl), total cholesterol (168 vs. 142 mg/dl), and LDL-cholesterol (114 vs. 96.5 mg/dl). In obese subjects body temperature was higher than in normal-weight subjects. We found a greater number of Clostridum leptum and Lactobacillus (p metabolic endotoxemia determined by serum concentration of lipopolysaccharides was related to the smallest amount of E. coli, high triglyceride levels, and central adiposity in obese young persons. © 2016 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  18. High-fat diet alters gut microbiota physiology in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Hannelore; Gholami, Amin Moghaddas; Berry, David; Desmarchelier, Charles; Hahne, Hannes; Loh, Gunnar; Mondot, Stanislas; Lepage, Patricia; Rothballer, Michael; Walker, Alesia; Böhm, Christoph; Wenning, Mareike; Wagner, Michael; Blaut, Michael; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Kuster, Bernhard; Haller, Dirk; Clavel, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota is known to regulate host energy homeostasis and can be influenced by high-calorie diets. However, changes affecting the ecosystem at the functional level are still not well characterized. We measured shifts in cecal bacterial communities in mice fed a carbohydrate or high-fat (HF) diet for 12 weeks at the level of the following: (i) diversity and taxa distribution by high-throughput 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing; (ii) bulk and single-cell chemical composition by Fourier-transform infrared- (FT-IR) and Raman micro-spectroscopy and (iii) metaproteome and metabolome via high-resolution mass spectrometry. High-fat diet caused shifts in the diversity of dominant gut bacteria and altered the proportion of Ruminococcaceae (decrease) and Rikenellaceae (increase). FT-IR spectroscopy revealed that the impact of the diet on cecal chemical fingerprints is greater than the impact of microbiota composition. Diet-driven changes in biochemical fingerprints of members of the Bacteroidales and Lachnospiraceae were also observed at the level of single cells, indicating that there were distinct differences in cellular composition of dominant phylotypes under different diets. Metaproteome and metabolome analyses based on the occurrence of 1760 bacterial proteins and 86 annotated metabolites revealed distinct HF diet-specific profiles. Alteration of hormonal and anti-microbial networks, bile acid and bilirubin metabolism and shifts towards amino acid and simple sugars metabolism were observed. We conclude that a HF diet markedly affects the gut bacterial ecosystem at the functional level. PMID:24030595

  19. Gut microbiota metabolism of L-carnitine and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ussher, John R; Lopaschuk, Gary D; Arduini, Arduino

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, a number of studies have alluded to the importance of the intestinal microflora in controlling whole-body metabolic homeostasis and organ physiology. In particular, it has been suggested that the hepatic production of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) from gut microbiota-derived trimethylamine (TMA) may enhance cardiovascular risk via promoting atherosclerotic lesion development. The source of TMA production via the gut microbiota appears to originate from 2 principle sources, either phosphatidylcholine/choline and/or L-carnitine. Therefore, it has been postulated that consumption of these dietary sources, which are often found in large quantities in red meats, may be critical factors promoting cardiovascular risk. In contrast, a number of studies demonstrate beneficial properties for l-carnitine consumption against metabolic diseases including skeletal muscle insulin resistance and ischemic heart disease. Furthermore, fish are a significant source of TMAO, but dietary fish consumption and fish oil supplementation may exhibit positive effects on cardiovascular health. In this mini-review we will discuss the discrepancies regarding L-carnitine supplementation and its possible negative effects on cardiovascular risk through potential increases in TMAO production, as well as its positive effects on metabolic health via increasing glucose metabolism in the muscle and heart. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Gastrointestinal cancers: influence of gut microbiota, probiotics and prebiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serban, Daniela Elena

    2014-04-10

    Cancers of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract continue to represent a major health problem, despite progress in therapy. Gut microbiota is a key element related to the genesis of GI cancers, countless papers addressing this burning issue across the world. We provide an updated knowledge of the involvement of gut microbiota in GI tumorigenesis, including its underlying mechanisms. We present also a comprehensive review of the evidence from animal and clinical studies using probiotics and/or prebiotics in the prevention and/or therapy of GI tumours, of GI cancer therapy-related toxicity and of post-operative complications. We summarize the anticarcinogenic mechanisms of these biotherapeutics from in vitro, animal and clinical interventions. More research is required to reveal the interactions of microflora with genetic, epigenetic and immunologic factors, diet and age, before any firm conclusion be drawn. Well-designed, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled human studies using probiotics and/or prebiotics, with adequate follow-up are necessary in order to formulate directions for prevention and therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Depressed gut? The microbiota-diet-inflammation trialogue in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Margreet; El Aidy, Sahar

    2017-09-01

    According to the WHO reports, around 350 million people worldwide suffer from depression. Despite its high prevalence, the complex interaction of multiple mechanisms underlying depression still needs to be elucidated. Over the course of the last few years, several neurobiological alterations have been linked to the development and maintenance of depression. One basic process that seems to link many of these findings is inflammation. Chronic inflammation has been associated with both biological factors such as excessive neurotransmitter concentrations as well as psychological processes such as adult stress reactivity and a history of childhood trauma. As a balanced microbial community, modulated by diet, is a key regulator of the host physiology, it seems likely that gut microbiota plays a role in depression. The review summarizes the existent literature on this emerging research field and provides a comprehensive overview of the multifaceted links between the microbiota, diet, and depression. Several pathways linking early life trauma, pharmacological treatment effects, and nutrition to the microbiome in depression are described aiming to foster the psychotherapeutic treatment of depressed patients by interventions targeting the microbiota.

  2. The Food Contaminant Deoxynivalenol Exacerbates the Genotoxicity of Gut Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Payros

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of human beings from developed countries are colonized by Escherichia coli strains producing colibactin, a genotoxin suspected to be associated with the development of colorectal cancers. Deoxynivalenol (DON is the most prevalent mycotoxin that contaminates staple food—especially cereal products—in Europe and North America. This study investigates the effect of the food contaminant DON on the genotoxicity of the E. coli strains producing colibactin. In vitro, intestinal epithelial cells were coexposed to DON and E. coli producing colibactin. In vivo, newborn rats colonized at birth with E. coli producing colibactin were fed a DON-contaminated diet. Intestinal DNA damage was estimated by the phosphorylation of histone H2AX. DON exacerbates the genotoxicity of the E. coli producing colibactin in a time- and dose-dependent manner in vitro. Although DON had no effect on the composition of the gut microbiota, and especially on the number of E. coli, a significant increase in DNA damage was observed in intestinal epithelial cells of animals colonized by E. coli strains producing colibactin and coexposed to DON compared to animals colonized with E. coli strains unable to produce colibactin or animals exposed only to DON. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that the genotoxicity of E. coli strains producing colibactin, increasingly present in the microbiota of asymptomatic human beings, is modulated by the presence of DON in the diet. This raises questions about the synergism between food contaminants and gut microbiota with regard to intestinal carcinogenesis.

  3. Is gut microbiota associated with Parkinson’s disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Tyakht

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is a neurodegenerative disorder with a complex pathogenesis. Today more and more studies are focusing on microbiota-gut-brain axis searching the causes of neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory processes.The aim of our study is to determine the relationship between the composition of gut microbiota and clinical manifestations of PD.Materials and methods. We examined 89 patients with a PD diagnosis. Clinical assessment was performed including medical history collection, rating disease stage using Hoehn and Yahr scale. Motor and nonmotor symptoms as well as possible complication were examined using the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale. In addition, patients were asked to fill in Parkinson’s Well-Being Map and defecation diary that included Bristol scale. DNA isolation was performed in accordance with the method described. Preparation of libraries and amplicon sequencing of marker variable region V3–V4 of bacterial 16S rRNA genes was performed with MiSeq device (Illumina, USA according to manufacturer’s standard protocol. Filtering readings by quality and their taxonomic classification were carried out using QIIME version 1.9.0 software. The assessment of statistical differences in abundance of taxonomic units among the groups of patients was performed using IBM SPSS Statistics 23.1 software.As a result, we have identified significant differences in the abundance of seven genera among the groups of patients with different forms of the disease. We identified about 40 genera constituting 54.8% of the intestinal microbiota, that had a correlation with the clinical manifestations of the disease. These microorganisms might be involved in the pathogenesis of PD and, thus, require more clinical research in the light of emerging new methods of altering microbiotic composition by correcting dysbiosis to improve disease management and outcome. 

  4. The First Microbial Colonizers of the Human Gut: Composition, Activities, and Health Implications of the Infant Gut Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Christian; Duranti, Sabrina; Bottacini, Francesca; Casey, Eoghan; Turroni, Francesca; Mahony, Jennifer; Belzer, Clara; Delgado Palacio, Susana; Arboleya Montes, Silvia; Mancabelli, Leonardo; Lugli, Gabriele Andrea; Rodriguez, Juan Miguel; Bode, Lars; de Vos, Willem; Gueimonde, Miguel; Margolles, Abelardo; van Sinderen, Douwe; Ventura, Marco

    2017-12-01

    The human gut microbiota is engaged in multiple interactions affecting host health during the host's entire life span. Microbes colonize the neonatal gut immediately following birth. The establishment and interactive development of this early gut microbiota are believed to be (at least partially) driven and modulated by specific compounds present in human milk. It has been shown that certain genomes of infant gut commensals, in particular those of bifidobacterial species, are genetically adapted to utilize specific glycans of this human secretory fluid, thus representing a very intriguing example of host-microbe coevolution, where both partners are believed to benefit. In recent years, various metagenomic studies have tried to dissect the composition and functionality of the infant gut microbiome and to explore the distribution across the different ecological niches of the infant gut biogeography of the corresponding microbial consortia, including those corresponding to bacteria and viruses, in healthy and ill subjects. Such analyses have linked certain features of the microbiota/microbiome, such as reduced diversity or aberrant composition, to intestinal illnesses in infants or disease states that are manifested at later stages of life, including asthma, inflammatory bowel disease, and metabolic disorders. Thus, a growing number of studies have reported on how the early human gut microbiota composition/development may affect risk factors related to adult health conditions. This concept has fueled the development of strategies to shape the infant microbiota composition based on various functional food products. In this review, we describe the infant microbiota, the mechanisms that drive its establishment and composition, and how microbial consortia may be molded by natural or artificial interventions. Finally, we discuss the relevance of key microbial players of the infant gut microbiota, in particular bifidobacteria, with respect to their role in health and

  5. Novel players in coeliac disease pathogenesis: role of the gut microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdu, Elena F.; Galipeau, Heather J.; Jabri, Bana

    2016-01-01

    Several studies point towards alteration in gut microbiota composition and function in coeliac disease, some of which can precede the onset of disease and/or persist when patients are on a gluten-free diet. Evidence also exists that the gut microbiota might promote or reduce coeliac-disease-associated immunopathology. However, additional studies are required in humans and in mice (using gnotobiotic technology) to determine cause–effect relationships and to identify agents for modulating the gut microbiota as a therapeutic or preventative approach for coeliac disease. In this Review, we summarize the current evidence for altered gut microbiota composition in coeliac disease and discuss how the interplay between host genetics, environmental factors and the intestinal microbiota might contribute to its pathogenesis. Moreover, we highlight the importance of utilizing animal models and long-term clinical studies to gain insight into the mechanisms through which host–microbial interactions can influence host responses to gluten. PMID:26055247

  6. Aerosol Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection causes rapid loss of diversity in gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winglee, Kathryn; Eloe-Fadrosh, Emiley; Gupta, Shashank; Guo, Haidan; Fraser, Claire; Bishai, William

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an important human pathogen, and yet diagnosis remains challenging. Little research has focused on the impact of M. tuberculosis on the gut microbiota, despite the significant immunological and homeostatic functions of the gastrointestinal tract. To determine the effect of M. tuberculosis infection on the gut microbiota, we followed mice from M. tuberculosis aerosol infection until death, using 16S rRNA sequencing. We saw a rapid change in the gut microbiota in response to infection, with all mice showing a loss and then recovery of microbial community diversity, and found that pre-infection samples clustered separately from post-infection samples, using ecological beta-diversity measures. The effect on the fecal microbiota was observed as rapidly as six days following lung infection. Analysis of additional mice infected by a different M. tuberculosis strain corroborated these results, together demonstrating that the mouse gut microbiota significantly changes with M. tuberculosis infection.

  7. Crosstalk between Gut Microbiota and Dietary Lipids Aggravates WAT Inflammation through TLR Signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caesar, Robert; Tremaroli, Valentina; Kovatcheva-Datchary, Petia

    2015-01-01

    Dietary lipids may influence the abundance of circulating inflammatory microbial factors. Hence, inflammation in white adipose tissue (WAT) induced by dietary lipids may be partly dependent on their interaction with the gut microbiota. Here, we show that mice fed lard for 11 weeks have increased ...... in lard-fed mice. These results indicate that gut microbiota exacerbates metabolic inflammation through TLR signaling upon challenge with a diet rich in saturated lipids.......Dietary lipids may influence the abundance of circulating inflammatory microbial factors. Hence, inflammation in white adipose tissue (WAT) induced by dietary lipids may be partly dependent on their interaction with the gut microbiota. Here, we show that mice fed lard for 11 weeks have increased......-induced WAT inflammation and impaired insulin sensitivity. Experiments in germ-free mice show that an interaction between gut microbiota and saturated lipids promotes WAT inflammation independent of adiposity. Finally, we demonstrate that the chemokine CCL2 contributes to microbiota-induced WAT inflammation...

  8. Distinct patterns in the gut microbiota after surgical or medical therapy in obese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Medina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bariatric surgery is highly successful in improving health compared to conventional dietary treatments. It has been suggested that the gut microbiota is a relevant factor in weight loss after bariatric surgery. Considering that bariatric procedures cause different rearrangements of the digestive tract, they probably have different effects on the gut microbiota. In this study, we compared the impact of medical treatment, sleeve gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass on the gut microbiota from obese subjects. Anthropometric and clinical parameters were registered before, 6 and 12 months after treatment. Fecal samples were collected and microbiota composition was studied before and six months post treatment using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and qPCR. In comparison to dietary treatment, changes in intestinal microbiota were more pronounced in patients subjected to surgery, observing a bloom in Proteobacteria. Interestingly, Bacteroidetes abundance was largely different after six months of each surgical procedure. Furthermore, changes in weight and BMI, or glucose metabolism, correlated positively with changes in these two phyla in these surgical procedures. These results indicate that distinct surgical procedures alter the gut microbiota differently, and changes in gut microbiota might contribute to health improvement. This study contributes to our understanding of the impact of weight loss surgery on the gut microbiota, and could be used to replicate this effect using targeted therapies.

  9. Interactions of gut microbiota with dietary polyphenols and consequences to human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A; Selma, María V; Espín, Juan C

    2016-11-01

    Dietary (poly)phenolic compounds have received attention over the last 20 years as antioxidants with preventive properties against chronic diseases. However, the evidence of these effects in clinical trials is weak, mainly because of a considerable interindividual variability. Polyphenols bioavailability is low, and gut microbiota metabolize them into simpler metabolites. As gut microbiota vary among individuals, such interindividual variability should be considered as a moderating factor in clinical trials. In this review, we show evidence of interactions with gut microbiota that help understanding polyphenols' health effects. Recent studies indicate that dietary polyphenols are relevant in the modulation of gut microbiota and that these microorganisms convert polyphenols into active and bioavailable metabolites; hence, variations in gut microbiota can affect polyphenol activity. The results show that study participants' stratification by their polyphenol-metabolizing phenotypes would be necessary for clinical trials as specific metabotypes produce the bioactive metabolites responsible for the health effects. Metabotypes can also reflect the gut microbiota composition and metabolic status, and could be biomarkers of the potential polyphenol health effects mediated through gut microbiota.

  10. Modulation of gut microbiota in the management of metabolic disorders: the prospects and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erejuwa, Omotayo O; Sulaiman, Siti A; Ab Wahab, Mohd S

    2014-03-07

    The gut microbiota plays a number of important roles including digestion, metabolism, extraction of nutrients, synthesis of vitamins, prevention against pathogen colonization, and modulation of the immune system. Alterations or changes in composition and biodiversity of the gut microbiota have been associated with many gastrointestinal tract (GIT) disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease and colon cancer. Recent evidence suggests that altered composition and diversity of gut microbiota may play a role in the increased prevalence of metabolic diseases. This review article has two main objectives. First, it underscores approaches (such as probiotics, prebiotics, antimicrobial agents, bariatric surgery, and weight loss strategies) and their prospects in modulating the gut microbiota in the management of metabolic diseases. Second, it highlights some of the current challenges and discusses areas of future research as it relates to the gut microbiota and metabolic diseases. The prospect of modulating the gut microbiota seems promising. However, considering that research investigating the role of gut microbiota in metabolic diseases is still in its infancy, more rigorous and well-designed in vitro, animal and clinical studies are needed.

  11. Characterization of the gut microbiota in leptin deficient obese mice - Correlation to inflammatory and diabetic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellekilde, M; Krych, L; Hansen, C H F; Hufeldt, M R; Dahl, K; Hansen, L H; Sørensen, S J; Vogensen, F K; Nielsen, D S; Hansen, A K

    2014-04-01

    Gut microbiota have been implicated as a relevant factor in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and its diversity might be a cause of variation in animal models of T2DM. In this study, we aimed to characterise the gut microbiota of a T2DM mouse model with a long term vision of being able to target the gut microbiota to reduce the number of animals used in experiments. Male B6.V-Lep(ob)/J mice were characterized according to a number of characteristics related to T2DM, inflammation and gut microbiota. All findings were thereafter correlated to one another in a linear regression model. The total gut microbiota profile correlated to glycated haemoglobin, and high proportions of Prevotellaceae and Lachnospiraceae correlated to impaired or improved glucose intolerance, respectively. In addition, Akkermansia muciniphila disappeared with age as glucose intolerance worsened. A high proportion of regulatory T cells correlated to the gut microbiota and improved glucose tolerance. Furthermore, high levels of IL-10, IL-12 and TNF-α correlated to impaired glucose tolerance, blood glucose or glycated haemoglobin. The findings indicate that gut microbiota may contribute to variation in various disease read-outs in the B6.V-Lep(ob)/J model and considering them in both quality assurance and data evaluation for the B6.V-Lep(ob)/J model may have a reducing impact on the inter-individual variation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Modulation of Gut Microbiota in the Management of Metabolic Disorders: The Prospects and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omotayo O. Erejuwa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota plays a number of important roles including digestion, metabolism, extraction of nutrients, synthesis of vitamins, prevention against pathogen colonization, and modulation of the immune system. Alterations or changes in composition and biodiversity of the gut microbiota have been associated with many gastrointestinal tract (GIT disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease and colon cancer. Recent evidence suggests that altered composition and diversity of gut microbiota may play a role in the increased prevalence of metabolic diseases. This review article has two main objectives. First, it underscores approaches (such as probiotics, prebiotics, antimicrobial agents, bariatric surgery, and weight loss strategies and their prospects in modulating the gut microbiota in the management of metabolic diseases. Second, it highlights some of the current challenges and discusses areas of future research as it relates to the gut microbiota and metabolic diseases. The prospect of modulating the gut microbiota seems promising. However, considering that research investigating the role of gut microbiota in metabolic diseases is still in its infancy, more rigorous and well-designed in vitro, animal and clinical studies are needed.

  13. Modulation of Gut Microbiota in the Management of Metabolic Disorders: The Prospects and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erejuwa, Omotayo O.; Sulaiman, Siti A.; Ab Wahab, Mohd S.

    2014-01-01

    The gut microbiota plays a number of important roles including digestion, metabolism, extraction of nutrients, synthesis of vitamins, prevention against pathogen colonization, and modulation of the immune system. Alterations or changes in composition and biodiversity of the gut microbiota have been associated with many gastrointestinal tract (GIT) disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease and colon cancer. Recent evidence suggests that altered composition and diversity of gut microbiota may play a role in the increased prevalence of metabolic diseases. This review article has two main objectives. First, it underscores approaches (such as probiotics, prebiotics, antimicrobial agents, bariatric surgery, and weight loss strategies) and their prospects in modulating the gut microbiota in the management of metabolic diseases. Second, it highlights some of the current challenges and discusses areas of future research as it relates to the gut microbiota and metabolic diseases. The prospect of modulating the gut microbiota seems promising. However, considering that research investigating the role of gut microbiota in metabolic diseases is still in its infancy, more rigorous and well-designed in vitro, animal and clinical studies are needed. PMID:24608927

  14. Modulation of Gut Microbiota-Brain Axis by Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofei; Cao, Shangqing; Zhang, Xuewu

    2015-09-16

    There exists a bidirectional communication system between the gastrointestinal tract and the brain. Increasing evidence shows that gut microbiota can play a critical role in this communication; thus, the concept of a gut microbiota and brain axis is emerging. Here, we review recent findings in the relationship between intestinal microbes and brain function, such as anxiety, depression, stress, autism, learning, and memory. We highlight the advances in modulating brain development and behavior by probiotics, prebiotics, and diet through the gut microbiota-brain axis. A variety of mechanisms including immune, neural, and metabolic pathways may be involved in modulation of the gut microbiota-brain axis. We also discuss some future challenges. A deeper understanding of the relationship between the gut bacteria and their hosts is implicated in developing microbial-based therapeutic strategies for brain disorders.

  15. Infant Gut Microbiota Development Is Driven by Transition to Family Foods Independent of Maternal Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Andersen, Louise B. B.; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2016-01-01

    either of a random sample of healthy mothers (n = 114), or of obese mothers (n = 113), were profiled by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Gut microbiota data were compared to breastfeeding patterns and detailed individual dietary recordings to assess effects of the complementary diet. We found that maternal......The first years of life are paramount in establishing our endogenous gut microbiota, which is strongly affected by diet and has repeatedly been linked with obesity. However, very few studies have addressed the influence of maternal obesity on infant gut microbiota, which may occur either through...... obesity did not influence microbial diversity or specific taxon abundances during the complementary feeding period. Across cohorts, breastfeeding duration and composition of the complementary diet were found to be the major determinants of gut microbiota development. In both cohorts, gut microbial...

  16. Infant Gut Microbiota Development Is Driven by Transition to Family Foods Independent of Maternal Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Andersen, Louise B. B.; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    either of a random sample of healthy mothers (n = 114), or of obese mothers (n = 113), were profiled by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Gut microbiota data were compared to breastfeeding patterns and detailed individual dietary recordings to assess effects of the complementary diet. We found that maternal......The first years of life are paramount in establishing our endogenous gut microbiota, which is strongly affected by diet and has repeatedly been linked with obesity. However, very few studies have addressed the influence of maternal obesity on infant gut microbiota, which may occur either through...... obesity did not influence microbial diversity or specific taxon abundances during the complementary feeding period. Across cohorts, breastfeeding duration and composition of the complementary diet were found to be the major determinants of gut microbiota development. In both cohorts, gut microbial...

  17. Immunomodulation by Gut Microbiota: Role of Toll-Like Receptor Expressed by T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariagrazia Valentini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A close relationship exists between gut microbiota and immune responses. An imbalance of this relationship can determine local and systemic immune diseases. In fact the immune system plays an essential role in maintaining the homeostasis with the microbiota that normally resides in the gut, while, at the same time, the gut microbiota influences the immune system, modulating number and function of effector and regulatory T cells. To achieve this aim, mutual regulation between immune system and microbiota is achieved through several mechanisms, including the engagement of toll-like receptors (TLRs, pathogen-specific receptors expressed on numerous cell types. TLRs are able to recognize ligands from commensal or pathogen microbiota to maintain the tolerance or trigger the immune response. In this review, we summarize the latest evidences about the role of TLRs expressed in adaptive T cells, to understand how the immune system promotes intestinal homeostasis, fights invasion by pathogens, and is modulated by the intestinal microbiota.

  18. Individual diet has sex-dependent effects on vertebrate gut microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolnick, Daniel I.; Snowberg, Lisa K.; Hirsch, Philipp E.; Lauber, Christian L.; Org, Elin; Parks, Brian; Lusis, Aldons J.; Knight, Rob; Caporaso, J. Gregory; Svanbäck, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Vertebrates harbour diverse communities of symbiotic gut microbes. Host diet is known to alter microbiota composition, implying that dietary treatments might alleviate diseases arising from altered microbial composition (‘dysbiosis’). However, it remains unclear whether diet effects are general or depend on host genotype. Here we show that gut microbiota composition depends on interactions between host diet and sex within populations of wild and laboratory fish, laboratory mice and humans. Within each of two natural fish populations (threespine stickleback and Eurasian perch), among-individual diet variation is correlated with individual differences in gut microbiota. However, these diet–microbiota associations are sex dependent. We document similar sex-specific diet–microbiota correlations in humans. Experimental diet manipulations in laboratory stickleback and mice confirmed that diet affects microbiota differently in males versus females. The prevalence of such genotype by environment (sex by diet) interactions implies that therapies to treat dysbiosis might have sex-specific effects. PMID:25072318

  19. Immunomodulation by Gut Microbiota: Role of Toll-Like Receptor Expressed by T Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, Mariagrazia; Piermattei, Alessia; Di Sante, Gabriele; Delogu, Giovanni; Ria, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    A close relationship exists between gut microbiota and immune responses. An imbalance of this relationship can determine local and systemic immune diseases. In fact the immune system plays an essential role in maintaining the homeostasis with the microbiota that normally resides in the gut, while, at the same time, the gut microbiota influences the immune system, modulating number and function of effector and regulatory T cells. To achieve this aim, mutual regulation between immune system and microbiota is achieved through several mechanisms, including the engagement of toll-like receptors (TLRs), pathogen-specific receptors expressed on numerous cell types. TLRs are able to recognize ligands from commensal or pathogen microbiota to maintain the tolerance or trigger the immune response. In this review, we summarize the latest evidences about the role of TLRs expressed in adaptive T cells, to understand how the immune system promotes intestinal homeostasis, fights invasion by pathogens, and is modulated by the intestinal microbiota. PMID:25147831

  20. Bridging immunity and lipid metabolism by gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Renee L; Morgun, Andrey; Shulzhenko, Natalia

    2013-08-01

    The human gut is a unique organ in which hundreds of different microbial species find their habitat and in which different host physiologic functions, such as digestion, nutrition, and immunity, coexist. Although all these players were studied separately for decades, recently, there has been an explosion of studies demonstrating the essential role for interactions between these components in gut function. Furthermore, new systems biology methods provide essential tools to study this complex system as a whole and to identify key elements that define the crosstalk between the gut microbiota, immunity, and metabolism. This review is devoted to several human diseases resulting from the disruption in this crosstalk, including immunodeficiency-associated and environmental enteropathies, celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and obesity. We describe findings in experimental models of these diseases and in germ-free animals that help us understand the mechanisms and test new therapeutic strategies. We also discuss current challenges that the field is facing and propose that a new generation of antibiotics, prebiotics, and probiotics coupled with novel, systems biology-driven diagnostics will provide the basis for future personalized therapy. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Early Life Experience and Gut Microbiome: the Brain-Gut-Microbiota Signaling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Xiaomei; Henderson, Wendy A.; Graf, Joerg; McGrath, Jacqueline M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Over the past decades, advances in neonatal care have led to substantial increases in survival among preterm infants. With these gains, recent concerns have focused on increases in neurodevelopment morbidity related to the interplay between stressful early life experiences and the immature neuro-immune systems. This interplay between these complex mechanisms is often described as the brain-gut signaling system. The role of the gut microbiome and the brain-gut signaling system have been found to be remarkably related to both short and long term stress and health. Recent evidence supports that microbial species, ligands, and/or products within the developing intestine play a key role in early programming of the central nervous system and regulation of the intestinal innate immunity. Purpose The purpose of this state-of-the-science review is to explore the supporting evidence demonstrating the importance of the brain-gut-microbiota axis in regulation of early life experience. We also discuss the role of gut microbiome in modulating stress and pain responses in high-risk infants. A conceptual framework has been developed to illustrate the regulation mechanisms involved in early life experience. Conclusions The science in this area is just beginning to be uncovered; having a fundamental understanding of these relationships will be important as new discoveries continue to change our thinking; leading potentially to changes in practice and targeted interventions. PMID:26240939

  2. Human gut microbiota and healthy aging: Recent developments and future prospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manish; Babaei, Parizad; Ji, Boyang; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-10-27

    The human gut microbiota alters with the aging process. In the first 2-3 years of life, the gut microbiota varies extensively in composition and metabolic functions. After this period, the gut microbiota demonstrates adult-like more stable and diverse microbial species. However, at old age, deterioration of physiological functions of the human body enforces the decrement in count of beneficial species (e.g. Bifidobacteria ) in the gut microbiota, which promotes various gut-related diseases (e.g. inflammatory bowel disease). Use of plant-based diets and probiotics/prebiotics may elevate the abundance of beneficial species and prevent gut-related diseases. Still, the connections between diet, microbes, and host are only partially known. To this end, genome-scale metabolic modeling can help to explore these connections as well as to expand the understanding of the metabolic capability of each species in the gut microbiota. This systems biology approach can also predict metabolic variations in the gut microbiota during ageing, and hereby help to design more effective probiotics/prebiotics.

  3. Comparative metabolomics in vegans and omnivores reveal constraints on diet-dependent gut microbiota metabolite production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gary D; Compher, Charlene; Chen, Eric Z; Smith, Sarah A; Shah, Rachana D; Bittinger, Kyle; Chehoud, Christel; Albenberg, Lindsey G; Nessel, Lisa; Gilroy, Erin; Star, Julie; Weljie, Aalim M; Flint, Harry J; Metz, David C; Bennett, Michael J; Li, Hongzhe; Bushman, Frederic D; Lewis, James D

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of an agrarian diet is associated with a reduced risk for many diseases associated with a 'Westernised' lifestyle. Studies suggest that diet affects the gut microbiota, which subsequently influences the metabolome, thereby connecting diet, microbiota and health. However, the degree to which diet influences the composition of the gut microbiota is controversial. Murine models and studies comparing the gut microbiota in humans residing in agrarian versus Western societies suggest that the influence is large. To separate global environmental influences from dietary influences, we characterised the gut microbiota and the host metabolome of individuals consuming an agrarian diet in Western society. Using 16S rRNA-tagged sequencing as well as plasma and urinary metabolomic platforms, we compared measures of dietary intake, gut microbiota composition and the plasma metabolome between healthy human vegans and omnivores, sampled in an urban USA environment. Plasma metabolome of vegans differed markedly from omnivores but the gut microbiota was surprisingly similar. Unlike prior studies of individuals living in agrarian societies, higher consumption of fermentable substrate in vegans was not associated with higher levels of faecal short chain fatty acids, a finding confirmed in a 10-day controlled feeding experiment. Similarly, the proportion of vegans capable of producing equol, a soy-based gut microbiota metabolite, was less than that was reported in Asian societies despite the high consumption of soy-based products. Evidently, residence in globally distinct societies helps determine the composition of the gut microbiota that, in turn, influences the production of diet-dependent gut microbial metabolites. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Impact of the Gut Microbiota on Intestinal Immunity Mediated by Tryptophan Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jing; Xu, Kang; Liu, Hongnan; Liu, Gang; Bai, Miaomiao; Peng, Can; Li, Tiejun; Yin, Yulong

    2018-01-01

    The gut microbiota influences the health of the host, especially with regard to gut immune homeostasis and the intestinal immune response. In addition to serving as a nutrient enhancer, L-tryptophan (Trp) plays crucial roles in the balance between intestinal immune tolerance and gut microbiota maintenance. Recent discoveries have underscored that changes in the microbiota modulate the host immune system by modulating Trp metabolism. Moreover, Trp, endogenous Trp metabolites (kynurenines, serotonin, and melatonin), and bacterial Trp metabolites (indole, indolic acid, skatole, and tryptamine) have profound effects on gut microbial composition, microbial metabolism, the host's immune system, the host-microbiome interface, and host immune system–intestinal microbiota interactions. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediates the regulation of intestinal immunity by Trp metabolites (as ligands of AhR), which is beneficial for immune homeostasis. Among Trp metabolites, AhR ligands consist of endogenous metabolites, including kynurenine, kynurenic acid, xanthurenic acid, and cinnabarinic acid, and bacterial metabolites, including indole, indole propionic acid, indole acetic acid, skatole, and tryptamine. Additional factors, such as aging, stress, probiotics, and diseases (spondyloarthritis, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, colorectal cancer), which are associated with variability in Trp metabolism, can influence Trp–microbiome–immune system interactions in the gut and also play roles in regulating gut immunity. This review clarifies how the gut microbiota regulates Trp metabolism and identifies the underlying molecular mechanisms of these interactions. Increased mechanistic insight into how the microbiota modulates the intestinal immune system through Trp metabolism may allow for the identification of innovative microbiota-based diagnostics, as well as appropriate nutritional supplementation of Trp to prevent or alleviate intestinal inflammation

  5. Comparative metabolomics in vegans and omnivores reveal constraints on diet-dependent gut microbiota metabolite production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gary D; Compher, Charlene; Chen, Eric Z; Smith, Sarah A; Shah, Rachana D; Bittinger, Kyle; Chehoud, Christel; Albenberg, Lindsey G; Nessel, Lisa; Gilroy, Erin; Star, Julie; Weljie, Aalim M; Flint, Harry J; Metz, David C; Bennett, Michael J; Li, Hongzhe; Bushman, Frederic D; Lewis, James D

    2015-01-01

    Objective The consumption of an agrarian diet is associated with a reduced risk for many diseases associated with a ‘Westernised’ lifestyle. Studies suggest that diet affects the gut microbiota, which subsequently influences the metabolome, thereby connecting diet, microbiota and health. However, the degree to which diet influences the composition of the gut microbiota is controversial. Murine models and studies comparing the gut microbiota in humans residing in agrarian versus Western societies suggest that the influence is large. To separate global environmental influences from dietary influences, we characterised the gut microbiota and the host metabolome of individuals consuming an agrarian diet in Western society. Design and results Using 16S rRNA-tagged sequencing as well as plasma and urinary metabolomic platforms, we compared measures of dietary intake, gut microbiota composition and the plasma metabolome between healthy human vegans and omnivores, sampled in an urban USA environment. Plasma metabolome of vegans differed markedly from omnivores but the gut microbiota was surprisingly similar. Unlike prior studies of individuals living in agrarian societies, higher consumption of fermentable substrate in vegans was not associated with higher levels of faecal short chain fatty acids, a finding confirmed in a 10-day controlled feeding experiment. Similarly, the proportion of vegans capable of producing equol, a soy-based gut microbiota metabolite, was less than that was reported in Asian societies despite the high consumption of soy-based products. Conclusions Evidently, residence in globally distinct societies helps determine the composition of the gut microbiota that, in turn, influences the production of diet-dependent gut microbial metabolites. PMID:25431456

  6. Microbial catabolism of procyanidins by human gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Keqin; Sarnoski, Paul; Schneider, Keith R; Song, Kaijie; Khoo, Christina; Gu, Liwei

    2014-11-01

    A major portion of ingested procyanidins is degraded by human microbiota in the colon into various phenolic compounds. These microbial metabolites are thought to contribute to the health benefits of procyanidins in vivo. The objective of this study was to identify and quantify the microbial metabolites of procyanidins after anaerobic fermentation with human microbiota. (-)-Epicatechin, (+)-catechin, procyanidin B2, procyanidin A2, partially purified apple and cranberry procyanidins were incubated with human microbiota at a concentration equivalent to 0.5 mM epicatechin. GC-MS analysis showed that common metabolites of all six substrates were benzoic acid, 2-phenylacetic acid, 3-phenylpropionic acid, 2-(3'-hydroxyphenyl)acetic acid, 2-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)acetic acid, 3-(3'-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid, and hydroxyphenylvaleric acid. 5-(3',4'-Dihydroxyphenyl)-γ-valerolactones and 5-(3'-hydroxyphenyl)-γ-valerolactones were identified as the microbial metabolites of epicatechin, catechin, procyanidin B2, and apple procyanidins but not from the procyanidin A2 or cranberry procyanidin ferments. 2-(3',4'-Dihydroxyphenyl)acetic acid was only found in the fermented broth of procyanidin B2, A2, apple, and cranberry procyanidins. The mass recoveries of microbial metabolites range from 20.0 to 56.9% for the six substrates after 24 h of fermentation. Procyanidins, both B-type and A-type can be degraded by human gut microbiota. The microbial metabolites may contribute to the bioactivities of procyanidins. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Composition and temporal stability of the gut microbiota in older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Ian B; Lynch, Denise B; O'Toole, Paul W

    2016-01-01

    The composition and function of the human gut microbiota has been linked to health and disease. We previously identified correlations between habitual diet, microbiota composition gradients and health gradients in an unstratified cohort of 178 elderly subjects. To refine our understanding of diet-microbiota associations and differential taxon abundance, we adapted an iterative bi-clustering algorithm (iterative binary bclustering of gene sets (iBBiG)) and applied it to microbiota composition data from 732 faecal samples from 371 ELDERMET cohort subjects, including longitudinal samples. We thus identified distinctive microbiota configurations associated with ageing in both community and long-stay residential care elderly subjects. Mixed-taxa populations were identified that had clinically distinct associations. Microbiota temporal instability was observed in both community-dwelling and long-term care subjects, particularly in those with low initial microbiota diversity. However, the stability of the microbiota of subjects had little impact on the directional change of the microbiota as observed for long-stay subjects who display a gradual shift away from their initial microbiota. This was not observed in community-dwelling subjects. This directional change was associated with duration in long-stay. Changes in these bacterial populations represent the loss of the health-associated and youth-associated microbiota components and gain of an elderly associated microbiota. Interestingly, community-associated microbiota configurations were impacted more by the use of antibiotics than the microbiota of individuals in long-term care, as the community-associated microbiota showed more loss but also more recovery following antibiotic treatment. This improved definition of gut microbiota composition patterns in the elderly will better inform the design of dietary or antibiotic interventions targeting the gut microbiota.

  8. Composition and temporal stability of the gut microbiota in older persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Ian B; Lynch, Denise B; O'Toole, Paul W

    2016-01-01

    The composition and function of the human gut microbiota has been linked to health and disease. We previously identified correlations between habitual diet, microbiota composition gradients and health gradients in an unstratified cohort of 178 elderly subjects. To refine our understanding of diet–microbiota associations and differential taxon abundance, we adapted an iterative bi-clustering algorithm (iterative binary bclustering of gene sets (iBBiG)) and applied it to microbiota composition data from 732 faecal samples from 371 ELDERMET cohort subjects, including longitudinal samples. We thus identified distinctive microbiota configurations associated with ageing in both community and long-stay residential care elderly subjects. Mixed-taxa populations were identified that had clinically distinct associations. Microbiota temporal instability was observed in both community-dwelling and long-term care subjects, particularly in those with low initial microbiota diversity. However, the stability of the microbiota of subjects had little impact on the directional change of the microbiota as observed for long-stay subjects who display a gradual shift away from their initial microbiota. This was not observed in community-dwelling subjects. This directional change was associated with duration in long-stay. Changes in these bacterial populations represent the loss of the health-associated and youth-associated microbiota components and gain of an elderly associated microbiota. Interestingly, community-associated microbiota configurations were impacted more by the use of antibiotics than the microbiota of individuals in long-term care, as the community-associated microbiota showed more loss but also more recovery following antibiotic treatment. This improved definition of gut microbiota composition patterns in the elderly will better inform the design of dietary or antibiotic interventions targeting the gut microbiota. PMID:26090993

  9. The role of adaptive immunity as an ecological filter on the gut microbiota in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagaman, Keaton; Burns, Adam R; Guillemin, Karen; Bohannan, Brendan Jm

    2017-07-01

    All animals live in intimate association with communities of microbes, collectively referred to as their microbiota. Certain host traits can influence which microbial taxa comprise the microbiota. One potentially important trait in vertebrate animals is the adaptive immune system, which has been hypothesized to act as an ecological filter, promoting the presence of some microbial taxa over others. Here we surveyed the intestinal microbiota of 68 wild-type zebrafish, with functional adaptive immunity, and 61 rag1 - zebrafish, lacking functional B- and T-cell receptors, to test the role of adaptive immunity as an ecological filter on the intestinal microbiota. In addition, we tested the robustness of adaptive immunity's filtering effects to host-host interaction by comparing the microbiota of fish populations segregated by genotype to those containing both genotypes. The presence of adaptive immunity individualized the gut microbiota and decreased the contributions of neutral processes to gut microbiota assembly. Although mixing genotypes led to increased phylogenetic diversity in each, there was no significant effect of adaptive immunity on gut microbiota composition in either housing condition. Interestingly, the most robust effect on microbiota composition was co-housing within a tank. In all, these results suggest that adaptive immunity has a role as an ecological filter of the zebrafish gut microbiota, but it can be overwhelmed by other factors, including transmission of microbes among hosts.

  10. Does the maternal vaginal microbiota play a role in seeding the microbiota of neonatal gut and nose?

    OpenAIRE

    Sakwinska, O.; Foata, F.; Berger, B.; Brussow, H.; Combremont, S.; Mercenier, A.; Dogra, S.; Soh, S.E.; Yen, J.C.K.; Yeo, George Seow Heong; Lee, Yung Seng; Yap, Fabian; Meaney, M.J.; Chong, Yap-Seng; Godfrey, Keith

    2017-01-01

    The acquisition and early maturation of infant microbiota is not well understood despite its likely influence on later health. We investigated the contribution of the maternal microbiota to the microbiota of infant gut and nose in the context of mode of delivery and feeding. Using 16S rRNA sequencing and specific qPCR, we profiled microbiota of 42 mother-infant pairs from the GUSTO birth cohort, at body sites including maternal vagina, rectum and skin; and infant stool and nose. In our study,...

  11. Pre-pregnancy weight, gestational weight gain, and the gut microbiota of mothers and their infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanislawski, Maggie A; Dabelea, Dana; Wagner, Brandie D; Sontag, Marci K; Lozupone, Catherine A; Eggesbø, Merete

    2017-09-04

    Recent evidence supports that the maternal gut microbiota impacts the initial infant gut microbiota. Since the gut microbiota may play a causal role in the development of obesity, it is important to understand how pre-pregnancy weight and gestational weight gain (GWG) impact the gut microbiota of mothers at the time of delivery and their infants in early life. In this study, we performed 16S rRNA gene sequencing on gut microbiota samples from 169 women 4 days after delivery and from the 844 samples of their infants at six timepoints during the first 2 years of life. We categorized the women (1) according to pre-pregnancy body mass index into overweight/obese (OW/OB, BMI ≥ 25) or non-overweight/obese (BMI diversity and taxonomic composition of the maternal and infant samples by exposure groups. We also compared taxonomic similarity between maternal and infant gut microbiota. Maternal OW/OB was associated with lower maternal alpha diversity. Maternal pre-pregnancy OW/OB and excessive GWG were associated with taxonomic differences in the maternal gut microbiota, including taxa from the highly heritable family Christensenellaceae, the genera Lachnospira, Parabacteroides, Bifidobacterium, and Blautia. These maternal characteristics were not associated with overall differences in the infant gut microbiota over the first 2 years of life. However, the presence of specific OTUs in maternal gut microbiota at the time of delivery did significantly increase the odds of presence in the infant gut at age 4-10 days for many taxa, and these included some lean-associated taxa. Our results show differences in maternal gut microbiota composition at the time of delivery by pre-pregnancy weight and GWG, but these changes were only associated with limited compositional differences in the early life gut microbiota of their infants. Further work is needed to determine the degree to which these maternal microbiota differences at time of birth with OW/OB and GWG may affect the

  12. Unraveling the environmental and genetic interactions in atherosclerosis: Central role of the gut microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Org, Elin; Mehrabian, Margarete; Lusis, Aldons J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have convincingly linked gut microbiota to traits relevant to atherosclerosis, such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and inflammation, and have revealed novel disease pathways involving microbe-derived metabolites. These results have important implications for understanding how environmental and genetic factors act together to influence cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Thus, dietary constituents are not only absorbed and metabolized by the host but they also perturb the gut microbiota, which in turn influence host metabolism and inflammation. It also appears that host genetics helps to shape the gut microbiota community. Here, we discuss challenges in understanding these interactions and the role they play in CVD. PMID:26071662

  13. The role of the gut microbiota in schizophrenia: Current and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues-Amorim, Daniela; Rivera-Baltanás, Tania; Regueiro, Benito; Spuch, Carlos; de Las Heras, María Elena; Vázquez-Noguerol Méndez, Raul; Nieto-Araujo, Maria; Barreiro-Villar, Carolina; Olivares, Jose Manuel; Agís-Balboa, Roberto Carlos

    2018-02-21

    Schizophrenia is a poorly understood chronic disease. Its pathophysiology is complex, dynamic, and linked to epigenetic mechanisms and microbiota involvement. Nowadays, correlating schizophrenia with the environment makes sense owing to its multidimensional implications: temporal and spatial variability. Microbiota involvement and epigenetic mechanisms are factors that are currently being considered to better understand another dimension of schizophrenia. This review summarises and discusses currently available information, focussing on the microbiota, epigenetic mechanisms, technological approaches aimed at performing exhaustive analyses of the microbiota, and psychotherapies, to establish future perspectives. The connection between the microbiota, epigenetic mechanisms and technological developments allows for formulating new approaches objectively oriented towards the development of alternative psychotherapies that may help treat schizophrenia. In this review, the gut microbiota and epigenetic mechanisms were considered as key regulators, revealing a potential new aetiology of schizophrenia. Likewise, continuous technological advances (e.g. culturomics), aimed at the microbiota-gut-brain axis generate new evidence on this concept.

  14. Proton pump inhibitors alter the composition of the gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Matthew A; Goodrich, Julia K; Maxan, Maria-Emanuela; Freedberg, Daniel E; Abrams, Julian A; Poole, Angela C; Sutter, Jessica L; Welter, Daphne; Ley, Ruth E; Bell, Jordana T; Spector, Tim D; Steves, Claire J

    2016-05-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are drugs used to suppress gastric acid production and treat GI disorders such as peptic ulcers and gastro-oesophageal reflux. They have been considered low risk, have been widely adopted, and are often over-prescribed. Recent studies have identified an increased risk of enteric and other infections with their use. Small studies have identified possible associations between PPI use and GI microbiota, but this has yet to be carried out on a large population-based cohort. We investigated the association between PPI usage and the gut microbiome using 16S ribosomal RNA amplification from faecal samples of 1827 healthy twins, replicating results within unpublished data from an interventional study. We identified a significantly lower abundance in gut commensals and lower microbial diversity in PPI users, with an associated significant increase in the abundance of oral and upper GI tract commensals. In particular, significant increases were observed in Streptococcaceae. These associations were replicated in an independent interventional study and in a paired analysis between 70 monozygotic twin pairs who were discordant for PPI use. We propose that the observed changes result from the removal of the low pH barrier between upper GI tract bacteria and the lower gut. Our findings describe a significant impact of PPIs on the gut microbiome and should caution over-use of PPIs, and warrant further investigation into the mechanisms and their clinical consequences. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. Probiotics modulated gut microbiota suppresses hepatocellular carcinoma growth in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Sung, Cecilia Ying Ju; Lee, Nikki; Ni, Yueqiong; Pihlajamäki, Jussi; Panagiotou, Gianni; El-Nezami, Hani

    2016-01-01

    The beneficial roles of probiotics in lowering the gastrointestinal inflammation and preventing colorectal cancer have been frequently demonstrated, but their immunomodulatory effects and mechanism in suppressing the growth of extraintestinal tumors remain unexplored. Here, we adopted a mouse model and metagenome sequencing to investigate the efficacy of probiotic feeding in controlling s.c. hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the underlying mechanism suppressing the tumor progression. Our result demonstrated that Prohep, a novel probiotic mixture, slows down the tumor growth significantly and reduces the tumor size and weight by 40% compared with the control. From a mechanistic point of view the down-regulated IL-17 cytokine and its major producer Th17 cells, whose levels decreased drastically, played critical roles in tumor reduction upon probiotics feeding. Cell staining illustrated that the reduced Th17 cells in the tumor of the probiotic-treated group is mainly caused by the reduced frequency of migratory Th17 cells from the intestine and peripheral blood. In addition, shotgun-metagenome sequencing revealed the crosstalk between gut microbial metabolites and the HCC development. Probiotics shifted the gut microbial community toward certain beneficial bacteria, including Prevotella and Oscillibacter, that are known producers of antiinflammatory metabolites, which subsequently reduced the Th17 polarization and promoted the differentiation of antiinflammatory Treg/Tr1 cells in the gut. Overall, our study offers novel insights into the mechanism by which probiotic treatment modulates the microbiota and influences the regulation of the T-cell differentiation in the gut, which in turn alters the level of the proinflammatory cytokines in the extraintestinal tumor microenvironment. PMID:26884164

  16. Gut microbiota as an epigenetic regulator: pilot study based on whole-genome methylation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Himanshu; Lund, Riikka; Laiho, Asta; Lundelin, Krista; Ley, Ruth E; Isolauri, Erika; Salminen, Seppo

    2014-12-16

    The core human gut microbiota contributes to the developmental origin of diseases by modifying metabolic pathways. To evaluate the predominant microbiota as an epigenetic modifier, we classified 8 pregnant women into two groups based on their dominant microbiota, i.e., Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria. Deep sequencing of DNA methylomes revealed a clear association between bacterial predominance and epigenetic profiles. The genes with differentially methylated promoters in the group in which Firmicutes was dominant were linked to risk of disease, predominantly to cardiovascular disease and specifically to lipid metabolism, obesity, and the inflammatory response. This is one of the first studies that highlights the association of the predominant bacterial phyla in the gut with methylation patterns. Further longitudinal and in-depth studies targeting individual microbial species or metabolites are recommended to give us a deeper insight into the molecular mechanism of such epigenetic modifications. Epigenetics encompasses genomic modifications that are due to environmental factors and do not affect the nucleotide sequence. The gut microbiota has an important role in human metabolism and could be a significant environmental factor affecting our epigenome. To investigate the association of gut microbiota with epigenetic changes, we assessed pregnant women and selected the participants based on their predominant gut microbiota for a study on their postpartum methylation profile. Intriguingly, we found that blood DNA methylation patterns were associated with gut microbiota profiles. The gut microbiota profiles, with either Firmicutes or Bacteroidetes as a dominant group, correlated with differential methylation status of gene promoters functionally associated with cardiovascular diseases. Furthermore, differential methylation of gene promoters linked to lipid metabolism and obesity was observed. For the first time, we report here a position of the predominant

  17. Pre-treatment with antibiotics and Escherichia coli to equalize the gut microbiota in conventional mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linninge, Caroline; Ahrné, Siv; Molin, Göran

    2015-01-01

    The composition of the gut microbiota can vary widely between individual mice of the same batch and thereby affect the resulting outcome in experimental studies. Therefore, an efficient method is needed to equalize the gut microbiota prior to the start of critical experiments. In order to minimize variations in gut microbiota between animals and provide the animals with a Gram-negative flora exposing lipopolysaccharides in the cell-walls, C57BL/6 mice were given a mixture of ampicillin, metronidazole and clindamycin in the drinking water for 3 days and then Escherichia coli for two additional days. Treatment with antibiotics alone or with antibiotics in combination with E. coli was well tolerated by all animals. Body weight and liver weight were not affected, although higher hepatic fat content was found in treated animals (p diversity of the gut microbiota was strongly reduced in animals treated with antibiotics and antibiotics in combination with E. coli (p microbiota between different treatment groups. The described treatment efficiently equalized the gut microbiota and provided the animals with a strong abundance of Enterobacteriaceae without changing the total load of bacteria. This is a straightforward, lenient and efficient method of pre-treatment to equalize the gut microbiota of mice as a starting procedure of animal studies.

  18. Interaction Between Familial Transmission and a Constitutively Active Immune System Shapes Gut Microbiota in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Rupal; Kounatidis, Ilias; Ligoxygakis, Petros

    2017-01-01

    Resident gut bacteria are constantly influencing the immune system, yet the role of the immune system in shaping microbiota composition during an organism’s life span has remained unclear. Experiments in mice have been inconclusive due to differences in husbandry schemes that led to conflicting results. We used Drosophila as a genetically tractable system with a simpler gut bacterial population structure streamlined genetic backgrounds and established cross schemes to address this issue. We found that, depending on their genetic background, young flies had microbiota of different diversities that converged with age to the same Acetobacteraceae-dominated pattern in healthy flies. This pattern was accelerated in immune-compromised flies with higher bacterial load and gut cell death. Nevertheless, immune-compromised flies resembled their genetic background, indicating that familial transmission was the main force regulating gut microbiota. In contrast, flies with a constitutively active immune system had microbiota readily distinguishable from their genetic background with the introduction and establishment of previously undetectable bacterial families. This indicated the influence of immunity over familial transmission. Moreover, hyperactive immunity and increased enterocyte death resulted in the highest bacterial load observed starting from early adulthood. Cohousing experiments showed that the microenvironment also played an important role in the structure of the microbiota where flies with constitutive immunity defined the gut microbiota of their cohabitants. Our data show that, in Drosophila, constitutively active immunity shapes the structure and density of gut microbiota. PMID:28413160

  19. Interactions between multiple helminths and the gut microbiota in wild rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreisinger, Jakub; Bastien, Géraldine; Hauffe, Heidi C; Marchesi, Julian; Perkins, Sarah E

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota is vital to host health and, as such, it is important to elucidate the mechanisms altering its composition and diversity. Intestinal helminths are host immunomodulators and have evolved both temporally and spatially in close association with the gut microbiota, resulting in potential mechanistic interplay. Host–helminth and host–microbiota interactions are comparatively well-examined, unlike microbiota–helminth relationships, which typically focus on experimental infection with a single helminth species in laboratory animals. Here, in addition to a review of the literature on helminth–microbiota interactions, we examined empirically the association between microbiota diversity and composition and natural infection of multiple helminth species in wild mice (Apodemus flavicollis), using 16S rRNA gene catalogues (metataxonomics). In general, helminth presence is linked with high microbiota diversity, which may confer health benefits to the host. Within our wild rodent system variation in the composition and abundance of gut microbial taxa associated with helminths was specific to each helminth species and occurred both up- and downstream of a given helminth's niche (gut position). The most pronounced helminth–microbiota association was between the presence of tapeworms in the small intestine and increased S24–7 (Bacteroidetes) family in the stomach. Helminths clearly have the potential to alter gut homeostasis. Free-living rodents with a diverse helminth community offer a useful model system that enables both correlative (this study) and manipulative inference to elucidate helminth–microbiota interactions. PMID:26150661

  20. The microbiota-gut-brain axis in gastrointestinal disorders: stressed bugs, stressed brain or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Palma, Giada; Collins, Stephen M; Bercik, Premysl; Verdu, Elena F

    2014-07-15

    The gut-brain axis is the bidirectional communication between the gut and the brain, which occurs through multiple pathways that include hormonal, neural and immune mediators. The signals along this axis can originate in the gut, the brain or both, with the objective of maintaining normal gut function and appropriate behaviour. In recent years, the study of gut microbiota has become one of the most important areas in biomedical research. Attention has focused on the role of gut microbiota in determining normal gut physiology and immunity and, more recently, on its role as modulator of host behaviour ('microbiota-gut-brain axis'). We therefore review the literature on the role of gut microbiota in gut homeostasis and link it with mechanisms that could influence behaviour. We discuss the association of dysbiosis with disease, with particular focus on functional bowel disorders and their relationship to psychological stress. This is of particular interest because exposure to stressors has long been known to increase susceptibility to and severity of gastrointestinal diseases. © 2014 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  1. Diversity of Gut Microbiota Metabolic Pathways in 10 Pairs of Chinese Infant Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shaoming; Xu, Ruihuan; He, Fusheng; Zhou, Jiaxiu; Wang, Yan; Zhou, Jianli; Wang, Mingbang; Zhou, Wenhao

    2016-01-01

    Early colonization of gut microbiota in human gut is a complex process. It remains unclear when gut microbiota colonization occurs and how it proceeds. In order to study gut microbiota composition in human early life, the present study recruited 10 healthy pairs of twins, including five monozygotic (MZ) and five dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs, whose age ranged from 0 to 6 years old. 20 fecal samples from these twins were processed by shotgun metagenomic sequencing, and their averaged data outputs were generated as 2G per sample. We used MEGAN5 to perform taxonomic and functional annotation of the metagenomic data, and systematically analyzed those 20 samples, including Jaccard index similarity, principle component, clustering, and correlation analyses. Our findings indicated that within our study group: 1) MZ-twins share more microbes than DZ twins or non-twin pairs, 2) gut microbiota distribution is relatively stable at metabolic pathways level, 3) age represents the strongest factor that can account for variation in gut microbiota, and 4) a clear metabolic pathway shift can be observed, which speculatively occurs around the age of 1 year old. This research will serve as a base for future studies of gut microbiota-related disease research.

  2. The Gut Microbiota and the Hepatologist: Will Our Bugs Prove to be the Missing Link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallen, Mark J; Quraishi, Mohammed N

    2017-01-01

    The advent of next-generation sequencing has enabled in-depth analysis to study the composition and function of the gut microbiota in a culture-independent manner. Consequently, this has led to rapid interest in understanding the pathogenesis and progression of chronic liver disease in relation to perturbations of the gut microbiota. Animal models and human studies have demonstrated its crucial role in contributing to disease mechanisms in alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver disease and more recently in primary sclerosing cholangitis. There is increasing evidence to suggest that the gut microbiota and its components influence the development and modulation of chronic liver damage through direct communication via the portal system, metabolite production, alterations in gut barrier integrity, liver/gut immune axis and bile acid metabolism. The impact of microbiota-directed therapies for liver disease is still in its infancy. Better understanding of its role in disease mechanisms will lead to a more targeted approach in modulation of gut microbiota to influence both progression and complications of liver disease. This review discusses the current evidence for the gut microbiota-liver axis and its role in the development, progression and treatment of liver disease. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Modulation of gut microbiota contributes to curcumin-mediated attenuation of hepatic steatosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wenhuan; Wang, Hongdong; Zhang, Pengzi; Gao, Caixia; Tao, Junxian; Ge, Zhijuan; Zhu, Dalong; Bi, Yan

    2017-07-01

    Structural disruption of gut microbiota contributes to the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and modulating the gut microbiota represents a novel strategy for NAFLD prevention. Although previous studies have demonstrated that curcumin alleviates hepatic steatosis, its effect on the gut microbiota modulation has not been investigated. Next generation sequencing and multivariate analysis were utilized to evaluate the structural changes of gut microbiota in a NAFLD rat model induced by high fat-diet (HFD) feeding. We found that curcumin attenuated hepatic ectopic fat deposition, improved intestinal barrier integrity, and alleviated metabolic endotoxemia in HFD-fed rats. More importantly, curcumin dramatically shifted the overall structure of the HFD-disrupted gut microbiota toward that of lean rats fed a normal diet and altered the gut microbial composition. The abundances of 110 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were altered by curcumin. Seventy-six altered OTUs were significantly correlated with one or more hepatic steatosis associated parameters and designated 'functionally relevant phylotypes'. Thirty-six of the 47 functionally relevant OTUs that were positively correlated with hepatic steatosis associated parameters were reduced by curcumin. These results indicate that curcumin alleviates hepatic steatosis in part through stain-specific impacts on hepatic steatosis associated phylotypes of gut microbiota in rats. Compounds with antimicrobial activities should be further investigated as novel adjunctive therapies for NAFLD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of gluten-free, dairy-free diet on childhood nephrotic syndrome and gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uy, Natalie; Graf, Lauren; Lemley, Kevin V; Kaskel, Frederick

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests an association between food sensitivity and gut microbiota in children with nephrotic syndrome. Diminished proteinuria resulted from eliminating cow's milk and the use of an oligoantigenic diet which excluded gluten, especially in patients with immune-related conditions, i.e., celiac disease and nephrotic syndrome. The mechanisms underlying the association of diet, gut microbiota, and dysregulation of the immune system are unknown. Gut microbiota is influenced by a number of factors including diet composition and other environmental epigenetic exposures. The imbalance in gut microbiota may be ameliorated by gluten-free and dairy-free diets. Gluten-free diet increased the number of unhealthy bacteria while reducing bacterial-induced cytokine production of IL-10. Thus, gluten-free diet may influence the composition and immune function of gut microbiota and should be considered a possible environmental factor associated with immune-related disease, including nephrotic syndrome. Furthermore, the imbalance of gut microbiota may be related to the development of cow's milk protein allergy. Investigations are needed to fill the gaps in our knowledge concerning the associations between the gut microbiome, environmental exposures, epigenetics, racial influences, and the propensity for immune dysregulation with its inherent risk to the developing individual.

  5. Gut microbiota and hepatitis-B-virus-induced chronic liver disease: implications for faecal microbiota transplantation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Y; Cai, Y

    2017-08-01

    Hepatitis B is one of the most common infectious diseases globally. It has been estimated that there are 350 million chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers worldwide. The liver is connected to the small intestine by the bile duct, which carries bile formed in the liver to the intestine. Nearly all of the blood that leaves the stomach and intestines must pass through the liver. Human intestines contain a wide diversity of microbes, collectively termed the 'gut microbiota'. Gut microbiota play a significant role in host metabolic processes and host immune modulation, and influence host development and physiology (organ development). Altered gut microbiota is a common complication in liver disease. Changes in intestinal microbiota seem to play an important role in induction and promotion of HBV-induced chronic liver disease progression, and specific species among the intestinal commensal bacteria may play either a pathogenic or a protective role in the development of HBV-induced chronic liver disease. Thus, the gut microbiome may represent fertile targets for prevention or management of HBV-induced chronic liver disease. Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) may be a useful therapy for HBV-related disease in the future. However, the data available in this field remain limited, and relevant scientific work has only just commenced. New technologies have enabled systematic studies of gut microbiota, and provided more realistic information about its composition and pathological variance. This review summarizes the cutting edge of research into the relationship between gut microbiota and HBV-induced chronic liver disease, and the future prospects of FMT therapy. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The gut microbiota: its anatomy and physiology over a lifetime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibiino, Giulia; Ianiro, Gianluca; Cammarota, Giovanni; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2017-12-01

    The wide assemblage of microorganisms inhabiting our gastrointestinal tract is an attractive field for overwhelming contemporary research in several aspects of the human health. Most recent molecular techniques, as the use of rRNAs or whole genome sequencing, definitely overcame traditional culture techniques in giving outline of the intestinal bacterial richness. Moreover, the crosstalk between host and intestinal microbes is considered a cornerstone affecting the host's metabolism, immunity, autoimmunity and autoinflammation and elaborate networks linked to several organs. The aim of this review is to summarize the broad spectrum of available pieces of information in this setting and to assess the current knowledge of the intestinal microbiota anatomy and physiology, in the perspective of future therapies modulating the gut microbial balance.

  7. Gut Microbiota and Metabolic Endotoxemia in Young Obese Mexican Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Belén Radilla-Vázquez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The gut microbiota plays an important role in human metabolism; previous studies suggest that the imbalance can cause a metabolic endotoxemia that may be linked to weight gain and insulin resistance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the gut microbiota composition, the lipopolysaccharide levels and the metabolic profile in obese and normal-weight young subjects. Methods: We studied 32 obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 and 32 normal-weight subjects (BMI = 18.5-24.9 kg/m2, aged 18-25 years. Quantification of intestinal bacteria was performed by real-time PCR. Endotoxin units were determined with the test QCL-1000, and biochemical profile was performed under a standard protocol of Spinreact. Results: Obese individuals had a BMI of 34.5 (32.9-36.45 kg/m2, increased triglycerides (123 vs. 70 mg/dl, total cholesterol (168 vs. 142 mg/dl, and LDL-cholesterol (114 vs. 96.5 mg/dl. In obese subjects body temperature was higher than in normal-weight subjects. We found a greater number of Clostridum leptum and Lactobacillus (p Prevotella and Escherichia coli (p E. coli was associated with an increased risk of lipopolysaccharide levels ranging from 1 to 1.3 EU/ml. A positive correlation was found between serum lipopolysaccharides and BMI (r = 0.46, p = 0.008, triglyceride levels (r = 0.44, p = 0.011 as well as waist circumference (r = 0.34, p = 0.040, being more evident in young obese females. Conclusion: Subclinical metabolic endotoxemia determined by serum concentration of lipopolysaccharides was related to the smallest amount of E. coli, high triglyceride levels, and central adiposity in obese young persons.

  8. Effects of microbe- and mussel-based diets on the gut microbiota in Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Nyman

    2017-02-01

    Lactic acid bacteria were a dominant fraction of the intestinal microbiota in Arctic charr. Microbial based feeds were associated with similar changes in microbiota composition, but contrasting to the fish-meal based reference diet. Microbiota composition was similar in the proximal and distal gut, but dietary responses were specific to gut segment.

  9. Pika Population Density Is Associated with the Composition and Diversity of Gut Microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huan; Qu, Jiapeng; Li, Tongtong; Li, Jiabao; Lin, Qiang; Li, Xiangzhen

    2016-01-01

    Host population density is positively associated with the strength of social interactions or the frequency of physical contacts, and thus potentially influences microbial transmission among individuals. However, the relationship between host density and gut microbiota remains unknown. Here, we characterized the gut microbiota of plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae) in wild experimental fields with different host population densities. The abundance of some gut microbes significantly correlated with host density, such as Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Staphylococcaceae. Intriguingly, host density was positively correlated with alpha diversity (Shannon diversity and observed species) of gut microbial communities. The inter-individual gut microbiota within high-density groups were more similar to each other than those of low-density groups. Host density significantly explained the variations in the gut microbiota, even after controlling sex, weight, diet and geographical locations. Based on the PICRUSt metagenome prediction, positive correlations were observed between host density and the relative abundances of 12 gene functions involved in cellular processes, environmental information processing and metabolism. These results indicate the importance of host density as a factor in shaping gut microbial composition and diversity in plateau pikas, and may further help us understand the social transmission of gut microbiota. PMID:27242770

  10. Role of gut microbiota and nutrients in amyloid formation and pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistollato, Francesca; Sumalla Cano, Sandra; Elio, Iñaki; Masias Vergara, Manuel; Giampieri, Francesca; Battino, Maurizio

    2016-10-01

    It has been hypothesized that alterations in the composition of the gut microbiota might be associated with the onset of certain human pathologies, such as Alzheimer disease, a neurodegenerative syndrome associated with cerebral accumulation of amyloid-β fibrils. It has been shown that bacteria populating the gut microbiota can release significant amounts of amyloids and lipopolysaccharides, which might play a role in the modulation of signaling pathways and the production of proinflammatory cytokines related to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. Additionally, nutrients have been shown to affect the composition of the gut microbiota as well as the formation and aggregation of cerebral amyloid-β. This suggests that modulating the gut microbiome and amyloidogenesis through specific nutritional interventions might prove to be an effective strategy to prevent or reduce the risk of Alzheimer disease. This review examines the possible role of the gut in the dissemination of amyloids, the role of the gut microbiota in the regulation of the gut-brain axis, the potential amyloidogenic properties of gut bacteria, and the possible impact of nutrients on modulation of microbiota composition and amyloid formation in relation to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Pika Population Density Is Associated with the Composition and Diversity of Gut Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huan; Qu, Jiapeng; Li, Tongtong; Li, Jiabao; Lin, Qiang; Li, Xiangzhen

    2016-01-01

    Host population density is positively associated with the strength of social interactions or the frequency of physical contacts, and thus potentially influences microbial transmission among individuals. However, the relationship between host density and gut microbiota remains unknown. Here, we characterized the gut microbiota of plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae) in wild experimental fields with different host population densities. The abundance of some gut microbes significantly correlated with host density, such as Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Staphylococcaceae. Intriguingly, host density was positively correlated with alpha diversity (Shannon diversity and observed species) of gut microbial communities. The inter-individual gut microbiota within high-density groups were more similar to each other than those of low-density groups. Host density significantly explained the variations in the gut microbiota, even after controlling sex, weight, diet and geographical locations. Based on the PICRUSt metagenome prediction, positive correlations were observed between host density and the relative abundances of 12 gene functions involved in cellular processes, environmental information processing and metabolism. These results indicate the importance of host density as a factor in shaping gut microbial composition and diversity in plateau pikas, and may further help us understand the social transmission of gut microbiota.

  12. Could the gut microbiota reconcile the oral bioavailability conundrum of traditional herbs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Wen, Qi; Jiang, Jun; Li, Hai-Long; Tan, Yin-Feng; Li, Yong-Hui; Zeng, Nian-Kai

    2016-02-17

    A wealth of information is emerging about the impact of gut microbiota on human health and diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, obesity and diabetes. As we learn more, we find out the gut microbiota has the potential as new territory for drug targeting. Some novel therapeutic approaches could be developed through reshaping the commensal microbial structure using combinations of different agents. The gut microbiota also affects drug metabolism, directly and indirectly, particularly towards the orally administered drugs. Herbal products have become the basis of traditional medicines such as traditional Chinese medicine and also been being considered valuable materials in modern drug discovery. Of note, low oral bioavailability but high bioactivity is a conundrum not yet solved for some herbs. Since most of herbal products are orally administered, the herbs' constituents are inevitably exposed to the intestinal microbiota and the interplays between herbal constituents and gut microbiota are expected. Emerging explorations of herb-microbiota interactions have an opportunity to revolutionize the way we view herbal therapeutics. The present review aims to provide information regarding the health promotion and/or disease prevention by the interplay between traditional herbs with low bioavailability and gut microbiota through gut microbiota via two different types of mechanisms: (1) influencing the composition of gut microbiota by herbs and (2) metabolic reactions of herbal constituents by gut microbiota. The major data bases (PubMed and Web of Science) were searched using "gut microbiota", "intestinal microbiota", "gut flora", "intestinal flora", "gut microflora", "intestinal microflora", "herb", "Chinese medicine", "traditional medicine", or "herbal medicine" as keywords to find out studies regarding herb-microbiota interactions. The Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2010 edition, Volume I) was also used to collect the data of commonly used medicinal herbs and their quality

  13. Comparative Analysis of the Rats' Gut Microbiota Composition in Animals with Different Ginsenosides Metabolizing Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wei-Wei; Xuan, Fang-Ling; Zhong, Fei-Liang; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Songquan; Li, Donghao; Quan, Lin-Hu

    2017-01-18

    Following oral intake of Panax ginseng, major ginsenosides are metabolized to deglycosylated ginsenosides by gut microbiota before absorption into the blood. As the composition of gut microbiota varies between individuals, metabolic activities are significantly different. We selected 6 rats with low efficiency metabolism (LEM) and 6 rats with high efficiency metabolism (HEM) from 60 rats following oral administration of Panax ginseng extract, and analyzed their gut microbiota composition using Illumina HiSeq sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The components of gut microbiota between the LEM and HEM groups were significantly different. Between the 2 groups, S24-7, Alcaligenaceae, and Erysipelotrichaceae occupied most OTUs of the HEM group, which was notably higher than the LEM group. Furthermore, we isolated Bifidobacterium animalis GM1 that could convert the ginsenoside Rb1 to Rd. The result implies that these specific intestinal bacteria may dominate the metabolism of Panax ginseng.

  14. Through ageing, and beyond: gut microbiota and inflammatory status in seniors and centenarians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biagi, E.; Nylund, L.; Candela, M.; Ostan, R.; Bucci, L.; Pini, E.; Nikkïla, J.; Monti, D.; Satokari, R.M.; Franceschi, C.; Brigidi, P.; Vos, de W.M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Age-related physiological changes in the gastrointestinal tract, as well as modifications in lifestyle, nutritional behaviour, and functionality of the host immune system, inevitably affect the gut microbiota, resulting in a greater susceptibility to infections. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL

  15. Gut Microbiota Dysbiosis Drives and Implies Novel Therapeutic Strategies for Diabetes Mellitus and Related Metabolic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence over the past decade has linked the development of metabolic syndrome related to diabetes to variations in gut microbiota, an emerging, critical homeostatic regulator of host energy metabolism and immune responses. Mechanistic studies in rodent models have revealed an ever-increasing multitude of molecular mechanisms whereby the gut microbiota interacts with various host sensing and signaling pathways, leading to modulation of endocrine system, immune responses, nervous system activity, and hence, the predisposition to metabolic diseases. Remarkably, the microbiota-driven immune responses in metabolic tissues and the host nutrient-sensing mechanisms of gut microbial metabolites, in particular short-chain fatty acids, have been significantly associated with the proneness to diabetes and related disorders. This review will synthesize the recent efforts on unraveling the mediating role of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases, aiming to reveal new therapeutic opportunities.

  16. Influences of the Gut Microbiota on DNA Methylation and Histone Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jianzhong; Wu, Wenrui; Li, Yating; Li, Lanjuan

    2017-05-01

    The gut microbiota is a vast ensemble of microorganisms inhabiting the mammalian gastrointestinal tract that can impact physiologic and pathologic processes. However, our understanding of the underlying mechanism for the dynamic interaction between host and gut microbiota is still in its infancy. The highly evolved epigenetic modifications allow hosts to reprogram the genome in response to environmental stimuli, which may play a key role in triggering multiple human diseases. In spite of increasing studies in gut microbiota and epigenetic modifications, the correlation between them has not been well elaborated. Here, we review current knowledge of gut microbiota impacts on epigenetic modifications, the major evidence of which centers on DNA methylation and histone modification of the immune system.

  17. The association between the gut microbiota and the inflammatory bowel disease activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prosberg, Michelle V; Bendtsen, Flemming; Vind, Ida

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) involves complex interactions between the microbiome and the immune system. We evaluated the association between the gut microbiota and disease activity in IBD patients. METHODS: Systematic review of clinical studies based...

  18. Impact of polyphenols and polyphenol-rich dietary sources on gut microbiota composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etxeberria, Usune; Fernández-Quintela, Alfredo; Milagro, Fermín I; Aguirre, Leixuri; Martínez, J Alfredo; Portillo, María P

    2013-10-09

    Gut microbiota plays a key role in host physiology and metabolism. Indeed, the relevance of a well-balanced gut microbiota composition to an individual's health status is essential for the person's well-being. Currently, investigations are focused on analyzing the effects of pre- and probiotics as new therapeutic tools to counteract the disruption of intestinal bacterial balance occurring in several diseases. Polyphenols exert a wide range of beneficial health effects. However, although specific attention has been paid in recent years to the function of this "biological entity" in the metabolism of polyphenols, less is known about the modulatory capacity of these bioactive compounds on gut microbiota composition. This review provides an overview of the latest investigations carried out with pure polyphenols, extracts rich in polyphenols, and polyphenol-rich dietary sources (such as cocoa, tea, wine, soy products, and fruits) and critically discusses the consequences to gut microbiota composition which are produced.

  19. Impact of hypokinesia on some metabolic characteristics and gut microbiota composition of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pepoyan

    2016-09-01

    The investigations testify that the changes in gut microbiota and in metabolic characteristics of the animals under the conditions of physical inactivity can cause an increased risk of infectious diseases of those animals.

  20. Losing weight for a better health: Role for the gut microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carlota Dao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there have been several reviews on gut microbiota, obesity and cardiometabolism summarizing interventions that may impact the gut microbiota and have beneficial effects on the host (some examples include [1–3]. In this review we discuss how the gut microbiota changes with weight loss (WL interventions in relation to clinical and dietary parameters. We also evaluate available evidence on the heterogeneity of response to these interventions. Two important questions were generated in this regard: 1 Can response to an intervention be predicted? 2 Could pre-intervention modifications to the gut microbiota optimize WL and metabolic improvement? Finally, we have delineated some recommendations for future research, such as the importance of assessment of diet and other environmental exposures in WL intervention studies, and the need to shift to more integrative approaches of data analysis.

  1. Irritable bowel syndrome, the microbiota and the gut-brain axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raskov, Hans; Burcharth, Jakob; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2016-09-02

    Irritable bowel syndrome is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder and it is now evident that irritable bowel syndrome is a multi-factorial complex of changes in microbiota and immunology. The bidirectional neurohumoral integrated communication between the microbiota and the autonomous nervous system is called the gut-brain-axis, which integrates brain and GI functions, such as gut motility, appetite and weight. The gut-brain-axis has a central function in the perpetuation of irritable bowel syndrome and the microbiota plays a critical role. The purpose of this article is to review recent research concerning the epidemiology of irritable bowel syndrome, influence of microbiota, probiota, gut-brain-axis, and possible treatment modalities on irritable bowel syndrome.

  2. Allergy associations with the adult fecal microbiota: Analysis of the American Gut Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Hua

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation: American adults with allergies, especially to nuts and seasonal pollen, have low diversity, reduced Clostridiales, and increased Bacteroidales in their gut microbiota. This dysbiosis might be targeted to improve treatment or prevention of allergy.

  3. Symbiotic and antibiotic interactions between gut commensal microbiota and host immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantas Kazimieras Malys

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The human gut commensal microbiota forms a complex population of microorganisms that survive by maintaining a symbiotic relationship with the host. Amongst the metabolic benefits it brings, formation of adaptive immune system and maintenance of its homeostasis are functions that play an important role. This review discusses the integral elements of commensal microbiota that stimulate responses of different parts of the immune system and lead to health or disease. It aims to establish conditions and factors that contribute to gut commensal microbiota's transformation from symbiotic to antibiotic relationship with human. We suggest that the host-microbiota relationship has been evolved to benefit both parties and any changes that may lead to disease, are not due to unfriendly properties of the gut microbiota but due to host genetics or environmental changes such as diet or infection.

  4. Analysis of the gut microbiota of walking sticks (Phasmatodea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about the Phasmatodea gut microbial community, including whether phasmids have symbiotic bacteria aiding in their digestion. While symbionts are near ubiquitous in herbivorous insects, the Phasmatodea’s distinctively thin body shape precludes the gut enlargements needed for microbial fermentation. High-throughput sequencing was used to characterize the entire microbiota of the fat bodies, salivary glands, and anterior and posterior midguts of two species of walking stick. Results Most bacterial sequences belonged to a strain of Spiroplasma (Tenericutes) found primarily in the posterior midgut of the parthenogenetic species Ramulus artemis (Phasmatidae). Beyond this, no significant differences were found between the R. artemis midgut sections or between that species and Peruphasma schultei (Pseudophasmatidae). Histological analysis further indicated a lack of bacteriocytes. Conclusions Phasmids are unlikely to depend on bacteria for digestion, suggesting they produce enzymes endogenously that most other herbivorous insects obtain from symbionts. This conclusion matches predictions based on phasmid anatomy. The role of Spiroplasma in insects warrants further study. PMID:24025149

  5. Gut microbiota disturbance during helminth infection: can it affect cognition and behaviour of children?

    OpenAIRE

    Guernier, V; Brennan, B; Yakob, L; Milinovich, G; Clements, AC; Soares Magalhaes, RJ

    2017-01-01

    Background Bidirectional signalling between the brain and the gastrointestinal tract is regulated at neural, hormonal, and immunological levels. Recent studies have shown that helminth infections can alter the normal gut microbiota. Studies have also shown that the gut microbiota is instrumental in the normal development, maturation and function of the brain. The pathophysiological pathways by which helminth infections contribute to altered cognitive function remain poorly understood. Discuss...

  6. Colonic lesions, cytokine profiles, and gut microbiota in plasminogen-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Bill; Krych, Lukasz; Lund, Leif R.

    2015-01-01

    closure. Colonic lesions in plg(tm1Jld) mice, which were characterized by necrotizing ulcerations and cystically dilated glands, were restricted to the intermediate and distal parts of the colon. The cytokine profile was indicative of chronic tissue damage, but the genetic modification did not change...... the composition of the gut microbiota, and none of the clinical or biochemical parameters correlated with the gut microbiota composition....

  7. Effects of Gut Microbiota Manipulation by Antibiotics on Host Metabolism in Obese Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reijnders, Dorien; Goossens, Gijs H; Hermes, Gerben D A

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbiota has been implicated in obesity and cardiometabolic diseases, although evidence in humans is scarce. We investigated how gut microbiota manipulation by antibiotics (7-day administration of amoxicillin, vancomycin, or placebo) affects host metabolism in 57 obese, prediabetic men....... Vancomycin, but not amoxicillin, decreased bacterial diversity and reduced Firmicutes involved in short-chain fatty acid and bile acid metabolism, concomitant with altered plasma and/or fecal metabolite concentrations. Adipose tissue gene expression of oxidative pathways was upregulated by antibiotics...

  8. Colonic lesions, cytokine profiles, and gut microbiota in plasminogen-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Bill; Krych, Lukasz; Lund, Leif R.

    2015-01-01

    Plasminogen-deficient (FVB/NPan-plg(tm1Jld), plg(tm1Jld)) mice, which are widely used as a wound-healing model, are prone to spontaneous rectal prolapses. The aims of this study were 1) to evaluate the fecal microbiome of plg(tm1Jld) mice for features that might contribute to the development of r...... the composition of the gut microbiota, and none of the clinical or biochemical parameters correlated with the gut microbiota composition....

  9. The evolution of the gut microbiota in the giant and the red pandas

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ying; Guo, Wei; Han, Shushu; Kong, Fanli; Wang, Chengdong; Li, Desheng; Zhang, Heming; Yang, Mingyao; Xu, Huailiang; Zeng, Bo; Zhao, Jiangchao

    2015-01-01

    The independent dietary shift from carnivore to herbivore with over 90% being bamboo in the giant and the red pandas is of great interests to biologists. Although previous studies have shown convergent evolution of the giant and the red pandas at both morphological and molecular level, the evolution of the gut microbiota in these pandas remains largely unknown. The goal of this study was to determine whether the gut microbiota of the pandas converged due to the same diet, or diverged. We char...

  10. Composition of Gut Microbiota in the Gibel Carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) Varies with Host Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinghao; Zhou, Li; Yu, Yuhe; Ni, Jiajia; Xu, Wenjie; Yan, Qingyun

    2017-07-01

    To understand how a bacteria-free fish gut ecosystem develops microbiota as the fish ages, we performed a 1-year study on the gut microbiota of hatchling gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio). Our results indicate that the gut microbial diversity increases significantly as the fish develop. The gut microbial community composition showed significant shifts corresponding to host age and appeared to shift at two time points despite consistent diet and environmental conditions, suggesting that some features of the gut microbial community may be determined by the host's development. Dietary and environmental changes also seem to cause significant shifts in the fish gut microbial community. This study revealed that the gut microbiota of gibel carp assemble into distinct communities at different times during the host's development and that this process is less affected by the surrounding environment than by the host diet and development. Community phylogenetic analyses based on the net relatedness index further showed that environmental filtering (host selection) deterministically governs the gut microbial community composition. More importantly, the influence of host-associated deterministic filtering tends to weaken significantly over the course of the host's development. However, further studies are needed to assess whether this host development-dependent shift in gut microbiota will still exist under different rearing strategies.

  11. Gut microbiota: next frontier in understanding human health and development of biotherapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash S

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Satya Prakash, Laetitia Rodes, Michael Coussa-Charley, Catherine Tomaro-DuchesneauBiomedical Technology and Cell Therapy Research Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Artificial Cells and Organs Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, CanadaAbstract: The gut microbiota is a remarkable asset for human health. As a key element in the development and prevention of specific diseases, its study has yielded a new field of promising biotherapeutics. This review provides comprehensive and updated knowledge of the human gut microbiota, its implications in health and disease, and the potentials and limitations of its modification by currently available biotherapeutics to treat, prevent and/or restore human health, and future directions. Homeostasis of the gut microbiota maintains various functions which are vital to the maintenance of human health. Disruption of the intestinal ecosystem equilibrium (gut dysbiosis is associated with a plethora of human diseases, including autoimmune and allergic diseases, colorectal cancer, metabolic diseases, and bacterial infections. Relevant underlying mechanisms by which specific intestinal bacteria populations might trigger the development of disease in susceptible hosts are being explored across the globe. Beneficial modulation of the gut microbiota using biotherapeutics, such as prebiotics, probiotics, and antibiotics, may favor health-promoting populations of bacteria and can be exploited in development of biotherapeutics. Other technologies, such as development of human gut models, bacterial screening, and delivery formulations eg, microencapsulated probiotics, may contribute significantly in the near future. Therefore, the human gut microbiota is a legitimate therapeutic target to treat and/or prevent various diseases. Development of a clear understanding of the technologies needed to exploit the gut microbiota is urgently required.Keywords: gut microbiota, human

  12. Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis: Modulator of Host Metabolism and Appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Wouw, Marcel; Schellekens, Harriët; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2017-05-01

    The gut harbors an enormous diversity of microbes that are essential for the maintenance of homeostasis in health and disease. A growing body of evidence supports the role of this microbiota in influencing host appetite and food intake. Individual species within the gut microbiota are under selective pressure arising from nutrients available and other bacterial species present. Each bacterial species within the gut aims to increase its own fitness, habitat, and survival via specific fermentation of dietary nutrients and secretion of metabolites, many of which can influence host appetite and eating behavior by directly affecting nutrient sensing and appetite and satiety-regulating systems. These include microbiota-produced neuroactives and short-chain fatty acids. In addition, the gut microbiota is able to manipulate intestinal barrier function, interact with bile acid metabolism, modulate the immune system, and influence host antigen production, thus indirectly affecting eating behavior. A growing body of evidence indicates that there is a crucial role for the microbiota in regulating different aspects of eating-related behavior, as well as behavioral comorbidities of eating and metabolic disorders. The importance of intestinal microbiota composition has now been shown in obesity, anorexia nervosa, and forms of severe acute malnutrition. Understanding the mechanisms in which the gut microbiota can influence host appetite and metabolism will provide a better understanding of conditions wherein appetite is dysregulated, such as obesity and other metabolic or eating disorders, leading to novel biotherapeutic strategies. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Inonotus obliquus polysaccharide regulates gut microbiota of chronic pancreatitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang; Teng, Chunying; Yu, Sumei; Wang, Xin; Liang, Jinsong; Bai, Xin; Dong, Liying; Song, Tao; Yu, Min; Qu, Juanjuan

    2017-12-01

    Polysaccharide is efficient in attenuation of metabolic ailments and modulation of gut microbiota as prebiotics. The therapeutic effect of Inonotus obliquus polysaccharide (IOP) on chronic pancreatitis (CP) in mice has been validated in our previous study. However, it is not clear whether IOP is conducive to maintaining the homeostasis between gut microbiota and host. The aim of this study is to testify the potential effects of IOP on gut microbiota composition and diversity in mice with CP. The changes in glutathione peroxidase (GSH-P X ), total antioxidant capacity (TAOC), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), lipase and trypsin levels were measured by commercial assay kits, meanwhile the gut microbiota composition and diversity were analyzed by high throughput sequencing. The IOP treatment increased GSH-P X and TAOC levels, and decreased TNF-α, TGF-β, lipase and trypsin levels in CP mice. It was also observed that gut microbiota in IOP treated groups were less diverse than others in terms of lower Shannon diversity index and Chao 1 estimator. IOP increased the proportion of Bacteroidetes and decreased that of Firmicutes at phylum level. Bacteroidetes was found positively correlated with GSH-P X and TAOC, and Firmicutes correlated with TNF-α, TGF-β, and lipase. In conclusion, administration of IOP could regulate gut microbiota composition and diversity to a healthy profile in mice with CP, and some bacterial phylum significantly correlated with characteristic parameters.

  14. Reshaping the gut microbiota: Impact of low calorie sweeteners and the link to insulin resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettleton, Jodi E; Reimer, Raylene A; Shearer, Jane

    2016-10-01

    Disruption in the gut microbiota is now recognized as an active contributor towards the development of obesity and insulin resistance. This review considers one class of dietary additives known to influence the gut microbiota that may predispose susceptible individuals to insulin resistance - the regular, long-term consumption of low-dose, low calorie sweeteners. While the data are controversial, mounting evidence suggests that low calorie sweeteners should not be dismissed as inert in the gut environment. Sucralose, aspartame and saccharin, all widely used to reduce energy content in foods and beverages to promote satiety and encourage weight loss, have been shown to disrupt the balance and diversity of gut microbiota. Fecal transplant experiments, wherein microbiota from low calorie sweetener consuming hosts are transferred into germ-free mice, show that this disruption is transferable and results in impaired glucose tolerance, a well-known risk factor towards the development of a number of metabolic disease states. As our understanding of the importance of the gut microbiota in metabolic health continues to grow, it will be increasingly important to consider the impact of all dietary components, including low calorie sweeteners, on gut microbiota and metabolic health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The microbiota-gut-brain axis and its potential therapeutic role in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q; Zhou, J-M

    2016-06-02

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a series of neurodevelopmental disorders that are characterized by deficits in both social and cognitive functions. Although the exact etiology and pathology of ASD remain unclear, a disorder of the microbiota-gut-brain axis is emerging as a prominent factor in the generation of autistic behaviors. Clinical studies have shown that gastrointestinal symptoms and compositional changes in the gut microbiota frequently accompany cerebral disorders in patients with ASD. A disturbance in the gut microbiota, which is usually induced by a bacterial infection or chronic antibiotic exposure, has been implicated as a potential contributor to ASD. The bidirectional microbiota-gut-brain axis acts mainly through neuroendocrine, neuroimmune, and autonomic nervous mechanisms. Application of modulators of the microbiota-gut-brain axis, such as probiotics, helminthes and certain special diets, may be a promising strategy for the treatment of ASD. This review mainly discusses the salient observations of the disruptions of the microbiota-gut-brain axis in the pathogenesis of ASD and reveals its potential therapeutic role in autistic deficits. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Feeding the microbiota-gut-brain axis: diet, microbiome, and neuropsychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Kiran V; Sherwin, Eoin; Schellekens, Harriët; Stanton, Catherine; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2017-01-01

    The microbial population residing within the human gut represents one of the most densely populated microbial niche in the human body with growing evidence showing it playing a key role in the regulation of behavior and brain function. The bidirectional communication between the gut microbiota and the brain, the microbiota-gut-brain axis, occurs through various pathways including the vagus nerve, the immune system, neuroendocrine pathways, and bacteria-derived metabolites. This axis has been shown to influence neurotransmission and the behavior that are often associated with neuropsychiatric conditions. Therefore, research targeting the modulation of this gut microbiota as a novel therapy for the treatment of various neuropsychiatric conditions is gaining interest. Numerous factors have been highlighted to influence gut microbiota composition, including genetics, health status, mode of birth, and environment. However, it is diet composition and nutritional status that has repeatedly been shown to be one of the most critical modifiable factors regulating the gut microbiota at different time points across the lifespan and under various health conditions. Thus the microbiota is poised to play a key role in nutritional interventions for maintaining brain health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Impact of Gut Microbiota on Gender-Specific Differences in Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransen, Floris; van Beek, Adriaan A.; Borghuis, Theo; Meijer, Ben; Hugenholtz, Floor; van der Gaast-de Jongh, Christa; Savelkoul, Huub F.; de Jonge, Marien I.; Faas, Marijke M.; Boekschoten, Mark V.; Smidt, Hauke; El Aidy, Sahar; de Vos, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Males and females are known to have gender-specific differences in their immune system and gut microbiota composition. Whether these differences in gut microbiota composition are a cause or consequence of differences in the immune system is not known. To investigate this issue, gut microbiota from conventional males or females was transferred to germ-free (GF) animals of the same or opposing gender. We demonstrate that microbiota-independent gender differences in immunity are already present in GF mice. In particular, type I interferon signaling was enhanced in the intestine of GF females. Presumably, due to these immune differences bacterial groups, such as Alistipes, Rikenella, and Porphyromonadaceae, known to expand in the absence of innate immune defense mechanism were overrepresented in the male microbiota. The presence of these bacterial groups was associated with induction of weight loss, inflammation, and DNA damage upon transfer of the male microbiota to female GF recipients. In summary, our data suggest that microbiota-independent gender differences in the immune system select a gender-specific gut microbiota composition, which in turn further contributes to gender differences in the immune system. PMID:28713378

  18. In-vitro model for studying methanogens in human gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tottey, William; Gaci, Nadia; Borrel, Guillaume; Alric, Monique; O'Toole, Paul W; Brugère, Jean-François

    2015-08-01

    Reported failures with gnotobiotic animal models led us to establish an in-vitro model of reciprocal conversion of methanogenic and non methanogenic microbiota from human fecal samples. Consequences on gas and microbiota compositions are reported. This should facilitate the study of the controversial role of gut methanogens in human health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Relationship between Human Gut Microbiota and Interleukin 6 Levels in Overweight and Obese Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Gut microbial diversity and abundance can profoundly impact human health. Research has shown that obese individuals are likely to have altered microbiota compared to lean individuals. Obesity is often considered a pro-inflammatory state, however the relationship between microbiota and i...

  20. The Impact of Gut Microbiota on Gender-Specific Differences in Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floris Fransen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Males and females are known to have gender-specific differences in their immune system and gut microbiota composition. Whether these differences in gut microbiota composition are a cause or consequence of differences in the immune system is not known. To investigate this issue, gut microbiota from conventional males or females was transferred to germ-free (GF animals of the same or opposing gender. We demonstrate that microbiota-independent gender differences in immunity are already present in GF mice. In particular, type I interferon signaling was enhanced in the intestine of GF females. Presumably, due to these immune differences bacterial groups, such as Alistipes, Rikenella, and Porphyromonadaceae, known to expand in the absence of innate immune defense mechanism were overrepresented in the male microbiota. The presence of these bacterial groups was associated with induction of weight loss, inflammation, and DNA damage upon transfer of the male microbiota to female GF recipients. In summary, our data suggest that microbiota-independent gender differences in the immune system select a gender-specific gut microbiota composition, which in turn further contributes to gender differences in the immune system.

  1. The gut microbiota plays a protective role in the host defence against pneumococcal pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuijt, T.J.; Lankelma, J.M.; Scicluna, B.P.; Melo, e F.S.; Roelofs, J.J.; Boer, de J.D.; Hoogendijk, A.J.; Beer, de R.; Vos, de A.; Belzer, C.; Vos, de W.M.; Poll, van der T.; Wiersinga, W.J.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Pneumonia accounts for more deaths than any other infectious disease worldwide. The intestinal microbiota supports local mucosal immunity and is increasingly recognised as an important modulator of the systemic immune system. The precise role of the gut microbiota in bacterial pneumonia,

  2. The gut microbiota plays a protective role in the host defence against pneumococcal pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuijt, Tim J.; Lankelma, Jacqueline M.; Scicluna, Brendon P.; de Sousa E Melo, Felipe; Roelofs, Joris J. T. H.; de Boer, J. Daan; Hoogendijk, Arjan J.; de Beer, Regina; de Vos, Alex; Belzer, Clara; de Vos, Willem M.; van der Poll, Tom; Wiersinga, W. Joost

    2016-01-01

    Pneumonia accounts for more deaths than any other infectious disease worldwide. The intestinal microbiota supports local mucosal immunity and is increasingly recognised as an important modulator of the systemic immune system. The precise role of the gut microbiota in bacterial pneumonia, however, is

  3. Long Term Development of Gut Microbiota Composition in Atopic Children : Impact of Probiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, N B M M; Gorissen, D M W; Eck, A; Niers, L E M; Vlieger, A M; Besseling-van der Vaart, I; Budding, A E; Savelkoul, P H M; van der Ent, C K; Rijkers, G T; van der Ent, CK

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Imbalance of the human gut microbiota in early childhood is suggested as a risk factor for immune-mediated disorders such as allergies. With the objective to modulate the intestinal microbiota, probiotic supplementation during infancy has been used for prevention of allergic diseases

  4. Host age, social group, and habitat type influence the gut microbiota of wild ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Genevieve; Malone, Matthew; Sauther, Michelle L; Cuozzo, Frank P; White, Bryan; Nelson, Karen E; Stumpf, Rebecca M; Knight, Rob; Leigh, Steven R; Amato, Katherine R

    2016-08-01

    The gut microbiota contributes to host health by maintaining homeostasis, increasing digestive efficiency, and facilitating the development of the immune system. The composition of the gut microbiota can change dramatically within and between individuals of a species as a result of diet, age, or habitat. Therefore, understanding the factors determining gut microbiota diversity and composition can contribute to our knowledge of host ecology as well as to conservation efforts. Here we use high-throughput sequencing to describe variation in the gut microbiota of the endangered ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) at the Bezà Mahafaly Special Reserve (BMSR) in southwestern Madagascar. Specifically, we measured the diversity and composition of the gut microbiota in relation to social group, age, sex, tooth wear and loss, and habitat disturbance. While we found no significant variation in the diversity of the ring-tailed lemur gut microbiota in response to any variable tested, the taxonomic composition of the gut microbiota was influenced by social group, age, and habitat disturbance. However, effect sizes were small and appear to be driven by the presence or absence of relatively low abundance taxa. These results suggest that habitat disturbance may not impact the lemur gut microbiota as strongly as it impacts the gut microbiota of other primate species, highlighting the importance of distinct host ecological and physiological factors on host-gut microbe relationships. Am. J. Primatol. 78:883-892, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Variation in Rural African Gut Microbiota Is Strongly Correlated with Colonization by Entamoeba and Subsistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Elise R.; Lynch, Joshua; Froment, Alain; Lafosse, Sophie; Heyer, Evelyne; Przeworski, Molly; Blekhman, Ran; Ségurel, Laure

    2015-01-01

    The human gut microbiota is impacted by host nutrition and health status and therefore represents a potentially adaptive phenotype influenced by metabolic and immune constraints. Previous studies contrasting rural populations in developing countries to urban industrialized ones have shown that industrialization is strongly correlated with patterns in human gut microbiota; however, we know little about the relative contribution of factors such as climate, diet, medicine, hygiene practices, host genetics, and parasitism. Here, we focus on fine-scale comparisons of African rural populations in order to (i) contrast the gut microbiota of populations inhabiting similar environments but having different traditional subsistence modes and either shared or distinct genetic ancestry, and (ii) examine the relationship between gut parasites and bacterial communities. Characterizing the fecal microbiota of Pygmy hunter-gatherers as well as Bantu individuals from both farming and fishing populations in Southwest Cameroon, we found that the gut parasite Entamoeba is significantly correlated with microbiome composition and diversity. We show that across populations, colonization by this protozoa can be predicted with 79% accuracy based on the composition of an individual's gut microbiota, and that several of the taxa most important for distinguishing Entamoeba absence or presence are signature taxa for autoimmune disorders. We also found gut communities to vary significantly with subsistence mode, notably with some taxa previously shown to be enriched in other hunter-gatherers groups (in Tanzania and Peru) also discriminating hunter-gatherers from neighboring farming or fishing populations in Cameroon. PMID:26619199

  6. Saccharin induced liver inflammation in mice by altering the gut microbiota and its metabolic functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Xiaoming; Tu, Pengcheng; Chi, Liang; Gao, Bei; Ru, Hongyu; Lu, Kun

    2017-09-01

    Maintaining the balance of the gut microbiota and its metabolic functions is vital for human health, however, this balance can be disrupted by various external factors including food additives. A range of food and beverages are sweetened by saccharin, which is generally considered to be safe despite controversial debates. However, recent studies indicated that saccharin perturbed the gut microbiota. Inflammation is frequently associated with disruptions of the gut microbiota. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between host inflammation and perturbed gut microbiome by saccharin. C57BL/6J male mice were treated with saccharin in drinking water for six months. Q-PCR was used to detect inflammatory markers in mouse liver, while 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metabolomics were used to reveal changes of the gut microbiota and its metabolomic profiles. Elevated expression of pro-inflammatory iNOS and TNF-α in liver indicated that saccharin induced inflammation in mice. The altered gut bacterial genera, enriched orthologs of pathogen-associated molecular patterns, such as LPS and bacterial toxins, in concert with increased pro-inflammatory metabolites suggested that the saccharin-induced liver inflammation could be associated with the perturbation of the gut microbiota and its metabolic functions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Variation in Rural African Gut Microbiota Is Strongly Correlated with Colonization by Entamoeba and Subsistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Elise R; Lynch, Joshua; Froment, Alain; Lafosse, Sophie; Heyer, Evelyne; Przeworski, Molly; Blekhman, Ran; Ségurel, Laure

    2015-11-01

    The human gut microbiota is impacted by host nutrition and health status and therefore represents a potentially adaptive phenotype influenced by metabolic and immune constraints. Previous studies contrasting rural populations in developing countries to urban industrialized ones have shown that industrialization is strongly correlated with patterns in human gut microbiota; however, we know little about the relative contribution of factors such as climate, diet, medicine, hygiene practices, host genetics, and parasitism. Here, we focus on fine-scale comparisons of African rural populations in order to (i) contrast the gut microbiota of populations inhabiting similar environments but having different traditional subsistence modes and either shared or distinct genetic ancestry, and (ii) examine the relationship between gut parasites and bacterial communities. Characterizing the fecal microbiota of Pygmy hunter-gatherers as well as Bantu individuals from both farming and fishing populations in Southwest Cameroon, we found that the gut parasite Entamoeba is significantly correlated with microbiome composition and diversity. We show that across populations, colonization by this protozoa can be predicted with 79% accuracy based on the composition of an individual's gut microbiota, and that several of the taxa most important for distinguishing Entamoeba absence or presence are signature taxa for autoimmune disorders. We also found gut communities to vary significantly with subsistence mode, notably with some taxa previously shown to be enriched in other hunter-gatherers groups (in Tanzania and Peru) also discriminating hunter-gatherers from neighboring farming or fishing populations in Cameroon.

  8. Exercise induction of gut microbiota modifications in obese, non-obese and hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petriz, Bernardo A; Castro, Alinne P; Almeida, Jeeser A; Gomes, Clarissa Pc; Fernandes, Gabriel R; Kruger, Ricardo H; Pereira, Rinaldo W; Franco, Octavio L

    2014-06-21

    Obesity is a multifactor disease associated with cardiovascular disorders such as hypertension. Recently, gut microbiota was linked to obesity pathogenesisand shown to influence the host metabolism. Moreover, several factors such as host-genotype and life-style have been shown to modulate gut microbiota composition. Exercise is a well-known agent used for the treatment of numerous pathologies, such as obesity and hypertension; it has recently been demonstrated to shape gut microbiota consortia. Since exercise-altered microbiota could possibly improve the treatment of diseases related to dysfunctional microbiota, this study aimed to examine the effect of controlled exercise training on gut microbial composition in Obese rats (n = 3), non-obese Wistar rats (n = 3) and Spontaneously Hypertensive rats (n = 3). Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes from fecal samples collected before and after exercise training was used for this purpose. Exercise altered the composition and diversity of gut bacteria at genus level in all rat lineages. Allobaculum (Hypertensive rats), Pseudomonas and Lactobacillus (Obese rats) were shown to be enriched after exercise, while Streptococcus (Wistar rats), Aggregatibacter and Sutturella (Hypertensive rats) were more enhanced before exercise. A significant correlation was seen in the Clostridiaceae and Bacteroidaceae families and Oscillospira and Ruminococcus genera with blood lactate accumulation. Moreover, Wistar and Hypertensive rats were shown to share a similar microbiota composition, as opposed to Obese rats. Finally, Streptococcus alactolyticus, Bifidobacterium animalis, Ruminococcus gnavus, Aggregatibacter pneumotropica and Bifidobacterium pseudolongum were enriched in Obese rats. These data indicate that non-obese and hypertensive rats harbor a different gut microbiota from obese rats and that exercise training alters gut microbiota from an obese and hypertensive genotype background.

  9. Changes in the gut microbiota of cloned and non-cloned control pigs during development of obesity: gut microbiota during development of obesity in cloned pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rebecca; Andersen, Anders Daniel; Mølbak, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity induced by a high-caloric diet has previously been associated with changes in the gut microbiota in mice and in humans. In this study, pigs were cloned to minimize genetic and biological variation among the animals with the aim of developing a controlled metabolomic model....... non-cloned pigs during development of obesity by a high-fat/high-caloric diet. Furthermore, we investigated the association between diet-induced obesity and the relative abundance of the phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in the fecal-microbiota. The fecal microbiota from obese cloned (n = 5) and non...

  10. Gut microbiota and tacrolimus dosing in kidney transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R Lee

    Full Text Available Tacrolimus dosing to establish therapeutic levels in recipients of organ transplants is a challenging task because of much interpatient and intrapatient variability in drug absorption, metabolism, and disposition. In view of the reported impact of gut microbial species on drug metabolism, we investigated the relationship between the gut microbiota and tacrolimus dosing requirements in this pilot study of adult kidney transplant recipients. Serial fecal specimens were collected during the first month of transplantation from 19 kidney transplant recipients who either required a 50% increase from initial tacrolimus dosing during the first month of transplantation (Dose Escalation Group, n=5 or did not require such an increase (Dose Stable Group, n=14. We characterized bacterial composition in the fecal specimens by deep sequencing of the PCR amplified 16S rRNA V4-V5 region and we investigated the hypothesis that gut microbial composition is associated with tacrolimus dosing requirements. Initial tacrolimus dosing was similar in the Dose Escalation Group and in the Stable Group (4.2 ± 1.1 mg/day vs. 3.8 ± 0.8 mg/day, respectively, P=0.61, two-way between-group ANOVA using contrasts but became higher in the Dose Escalation Group than in the Dose Stable Group by the end of the first transplantation month (9.6 ± 2.4 mg/day vs. 3.3 ± 1.5 mg/day, respectively, P<0.001. Our systematic characterization of the gut microbial composition identified that fecal Faecalibacterium prausnitzii abundance in the first week of transplantation was 11.8% in the Dose Escalation Group and 0.8% in the Dose Stable Group (P=0.002, Wilcoxon Rank Sum test, P<0.05 after Benjamini-Hochberg correction for multiple hypotheses. Fecal Faecalibacterium prausnitzii abundance in the first week of transplantation was positively correlated with future tacrolimus dosing at 1 month (R=0.57, P=0.01 and had a coefficient ± standard error of 1.0 ± 0.6 (P=0.08 after multivariable linear

  11. The microbial eukaryote Blastocystis is a prevalent and diverse member of the healthy human gut microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scanlan, P.D.; Stensvold, C.R.; Rajilic-Stojanovic, M.; Heilig, H.G.; Vos, de W.M.; O'Toole, P.W.; Cotter, P.D.

    2014-01-01

    To date, the majority of research into the human gut microbiota has focused on the bacterial fraction of the community. Inevitably, this has resulted in a poor understanding of the diversity and functionality of other intestinal microorganisms in the human gut. One such nonbacterial member is the

  12. Does the Gut Microbiota Influence Immunity and Inflammation in Multiple Sclerosis Pathophysiology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk-Sowa, Monika; Medrek, Aldona; Madej, Paulina; Michlicka, Wirginia; Dobrakowski, Pawel

    2017-01-01

    Aim. Evaluation of the impact of gut microflora on the pathophysiology of MS. Results . The etiopathogenesis of MS is not fully known. Gut microbiota may be of a great importance in the pathogenesis of MS, since recent findings suggest that substitutions of certain microbial population in the gut can lead to proinflammatory state, which can lead to MS in humans. In contrast, other commensal bacteria and their antigenic products may protect against inflammation within the central nervous system. The type of intestinal flora is affected by antibiotics, stress, or diet. The effects on MS through the intestinal microflora can also be achieved by antibiotic therapy and Lactobacillus . EAE, as an animal model of MS, indicates a strong influence of the gut microbiota on the immune system and shows that disturbances in gut physiology may contribute to the development of MS. Conclusions. The relationship between the central nervous system, the immune system, and the gut microbiota relates to the influence of microorganisms in the development of MS. A possible interaction between gut microbiota and the immune system can be perceived through regulation by the endocannabinoid system. It may offer an opportunity to understand the interaction comprised in the gut-immune-brain axis.

  13. Interplay between gut microbiota, its metabolites and human metabolism: Dissecting cause from consequence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartstra, A. V.; Nieuwdorp, M.; Herrema, H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Alterations in gut microbiota composition and bacterial metabolites have been increasingly recognized to affect host metabolism and are at the basis of metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes (DM2). Intestinal enteroendocrine cells (EEC's) sense gut luminal content and

  14. Meta-analysis to define a core microbiota in the swine gut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background The swine gut microbiota encompasses a large and diverse population of bacteria that play a significant role in pig health. As such, a number of recent studies have utilized high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to characterize the composition and structure of the swine gut micr...

  15. Evolution of gut microbiota composition from birth to 24 weeks in the INFANTMET Cohort.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hill, Cian J

    2017-01-17

    The gut is the most extensively studied niche of the human microbiome. The aim of this study was to characterise the initial gut microbiota development of a cohort of breastfed infants (n = 192) from 1 to 24 weeks of age.

  16. Apigenin impacts growth of the gut microbiota and alters gene expression of Enterococcus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apigenin is a major dietary flavonoid widely distributed in plants with many bioactivities. Apigenin reaches the colon region intact and interacts with the human gut microbiota; however, there is little research on how apigenin affects gut bacteria. This study investigated the effect of pure apigeni...

  17. Lactobacillus casei Shirota Supplementation Does Not Restore Gut Microbiota Composition and Gut Barrier in Metabolic Syndrome: A Randomized Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadlbauer, Vanessa; Leber, Bettina; Lemesch, Sandra; Trajanoski, Slave; Bashir, Mina; Horvath, Angela; Tawdrous, Monika; Stojakovic, Tatjana; Fauler, Günter; Fickert, Peter; Högenauer, Christoph; Klymiuk, Ingeborg; Stiegler, Philipp; Lamprecht, Manfred; Pieber, Thomas R; Tripolt, Norbert J; Sourij, Harald

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with disturbances in gut microbiota composition. We aimed to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) on gut microbiota composition, gut barrier integrity, intestinal inflammation and serum bile acid profile in metabolic syndrome. In a single-centre, prospective, randomised controlled pilot study, 28 subjects with metabolic syndrome received either LcS for 12 weeks (n = 13) or no LcS (n = 15). Data were compared to healthy controls (n = 16). Gut microbiota composition was characterised from stool using 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Serum bile acids were quantified by tandem mass spectrometry. Zonulin and calprotectin were measured in serum and stool by ELISA. Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio was significantly higher in healthy controls compared to metabolic syndrome but was not influenced by LcS. LcS supplementation led to enrichment of Parabacteroides. Zonulin and calprotectin were increased in metabolic syndrome stool samples but not influenced by LcS supplementation. Serum bile acids were similar to controls and not influenced by LcS supplementation. Metabolic syndrome is associated with a higher Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio and gut barrier dysfunction but LcS was not able to change this. LcS administration was associated with subtle microbiota changes at genus level. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01182844.

  18. Lactobacillus casei Shirota Supplementation Does Not Restore Gut Microbiota Composition and Gut Barrier in Metabolic Syndrome: A Randomized Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Stadlbauer

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is associated with disturbances in gut microbiota composition. We aimed to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS on gut microbiota composition, gut barrier integrity, intestinal inflammation and serum bile acid profile in metabolic syndrome. In a single-centre, prospective, randomised controlled pilot study, 28 subjects with metabolic syndrome received either LcS for 12 weeks (n = 13 or no LcS (n = 15. Data were compared to healthy controls (n = 16. Gut microbiota composition was characterised from stool using 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Serum bile acids were quantified by tandem mass spectrometry. Zonulin and calprotectin were measured in serum and stool by ELISA. Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio was significantly higher in healthy controls compared to metabolic syndrome but was not influenced by LcS. LcS supplementation led to enrichment of Parabacteroides. Zonulin and calprotectin were increased in metabolic syndrome stool samples but not influenced by LcS supplementation. Serum bile acids were similar to controls and not influenced by LcS supplementation. Metabolic syndrome is associated with a higher Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio and gut barrier dysfunction but LcS was not able to change this. LcS administration was associated with subtle microbiota changes at genus level.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01182844.

  19. Gut Microbiota in Human Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and a Mouse Model of Lupus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xin M; Edwards, Michael R; Mu, Qinghui; Yu, Yang; Vieson, Miranda D; Reilly, Christopher M; Ahmed, S Ansar; Bankole, Adegbenga A

    2018-02-15

    Gut microbiota dysbiosis has been observed in a number of autoimmune diseases. However, the role of the gut microbiota in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a prototypical autoimmune disease characterized by persistent inflammation in multiple organs of the body, remains elusive. Here we report the dynamics of the gut microbiota in a murine lupus model, NZB/W F1, as well as intestinal dysbiosis in a small group of SLE patients with active disease. The composition of the gut microbiota changed markedly before and after the onset of lupus disease in NZB/W F1 mice, with greater diversity and increased representation of several bacterial species as lupus progressed from the predisease stage to the diseased stage. However, we did not control for age and the cage effect. Using dexamethasone as an intervention to treat SLE-like signs, we also found that a greater abundance of a group of lactobacilli (for which a species assignment could not be made) in the gut microbiota might be correlated with more severe disease in NZB/W F1 mice. Results of the human study suggest that, compared to control subjects without immune-mediated diseases, SLE patients with active lupus disease possessed an altered gut microbiota that differed in several particular bacterial species (within the genera Odoribacter and Blautia and an unnamed genus in the family Rikenellaceae ) and was less diverse, with increased representation of Gram-negative bacteria. The Firmicutes / Bacteroidetes ratios did not differ between the SLE microbiota and the non-SLE microbiota in our human cohort. IMPORTANCE SLE is a complex autoimmune disease with no known cure. Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota has been reported for both mice and humans with SLE. In this emerging field, however, more studies are required to delineate the roles of the gut microbiota in different lupus-prone mouse models and people with diverse manifestations of SLE. Here, we report changes in the gut microbiota in NZB/W F1 lupus-prone mice and a

  20. Gut microbiota in Drosophila melanogaster interacts with Wolbachia but does not contribute to Wolbachia-mediated antiviral protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yixin H; Seleznev, Andrei; Flores, Heather A; Woolfit, Megan; McGraw, Elizabeth A

    2017-02-01

    Animals experience near constant infection with microorganisms. A significant proportion of these microbiota reside in the alimentary tract. There is a growing appreciation for the roles gut microbiota play in host biology. The gut microbiota of insects, for example, have been shown to help the host overcome pathogen infection either through direct competition or indirectly by stimulating host immunity. These defenses may also be supplemented by coinfecting maternally inherited microbes such as Wolbachia. The presence of Wolbachia in a host can delay and/or reduce death caused by RNA viruses. Whether the gut microbiota of the host interacts with Wolbachia, or vice versa, the precise role of Wolbachia in antiviral protection is not known. In this study, we used 16S rDNA sequencing to characterise changes in gut microbiota composition in Drosophila melanogaster associated with Wolbachia infection and antibiotic treatment. We subsequently tested whether changes in gut composition via antibiotic treatment altered Wolbachia-mediated antiviral properties. We found that both antibiotics and Wolbachia significantly reduced the biodiversity of the gut microbiota without changing the total microbial load. We also showed that changing the gut microbiota composition with antibiotic treatment enhanced Wolbachia density but did not confer greater antiviral protection against Drosophila C virus to the host. We concluded there are significant interactions between Wolbachia and gut microbiota, but changing gut microbiota composition is not likely to be a means through which Wolbachia conveys antiviral protection to its host. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. HLA-B27 and Human β2-Microglobulin Affect the Gut Microbiota of Transgenic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Phoebe; Bach, Mary; Asquith, Mark; Lee, Aaron Y.; Akileswaran, Lakshmi; Stauffer, Patrick; Davin, Sean; Pan, Yuzhen; Cambronne, Eric D.; Dorris, Martha; Debelius, Justine W.; Lauber, Christian L.; Ackermann, Gail; Baeza, Yoshiki V.; Gill, Tejpal

    2014-01-01

    The HLA-B27 gene is a major risk factor for clinical diseases including ankylosing spondylitis, acute anterior uveitis, reactive arthritis, and psoriatic arthritis, but its mechanism of risk enhancement is not completely understood. The gut microbiome has recently been shown to influence several HLA-linked diseases. However, the role of HLA-B27 in shaping the gut microbiome has not been previously investigated. In this study, we characterize the differences in the gut microbiota mediated by t...

  2. Impact of the gut microbiota on the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel eMoreno Indias

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and its associated disorders are a major public health concern. Although obesity has been mainly related with perturbations of the balance between food intake and energy expenditure, other factors must nevertheless be considered. Recent insight suggests that an altered composition and diversity of gut microbiota could play an important role in the development of metabolic disorders. This review discusses research aimed at understanding the role of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The establishment of gut microbiota is dependent on the type of birth. With effect from this point, gut microbiota remain quite stable, although changes take place between birth and adulthood due to external influences, such as diet, disease and environment. Understand these changes is important to predict diseases and develop therapies. A new theory suggests that gut microbiota contribute to the regulation of energy homeostasis, provoking the development of an impairment in energy homeostasis and causing metabolic diseases, such as insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes mellitus. The metabolic endotoxemia, modifications in the secretion of incretins and butyrate production might explain the influence of the microbiota in these diseases.

  3. Embracing the gut microbiota: the new frontier for inflammatory and infectious diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Elsen, Lieke WJ; Poyntz, Hazel C; Weyrich, Laura S; Young, Wayne; Forbes-Blom, Elizabeth E

    2017-01-01

    The gut microbiota provides essential signals for the development and appropriate function of the immune system. Through this critical contribution to immune fitness, the gut microbiota has a key role in health and disease. Recent advances in the technological applications to study microbial communities and their functions have contributed to a rapid increase in host–microbiota research. Although it still remains difficult to define a so-called ‘normal' or ‘healthy' microbial composition, alterations in the gut microbiota have been shown to influence the susceptibility of the host to different diseases. Current translational research combined with recent technological and computational advances have enabled in-depth study of the link between microbial composition and immune function, addressing the interplay between the gut microbiota and immune responses. As such, beneficial modulation of the gut microbiota is a promising clinical target for many prevalent diseases including inflammatory bowel disease, metabolic abnormalities such as obesity, reduced insulin sensitivity and low-grade inflammation, allergy and protective immunity against infections. PMID:28197336

  4. Linking Smoking, Coffee, Urate, and Parkinson's Disease - A Role for Gut Microbiota?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheperjans, Filip; Pekkonen, Eero; Kaakkola, Seppo; Auvinen, Petri

    2015-01-01

    While the etiology and pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) is still obscure, there is evidence for lifestyle factors influencing disease risk. Best established are the inverse associations with smoking and coffee consumption. In other contexts there is evidence that health effects of lifestyle factors may depend on gut microbiome composition. Considering the gastrointestinal involvement in PD, it was recently speculated, that the associations between smoking, coffee, and PD risk could be mediated by gut microbiota. Here we review such a possible mediatory role of gut microbiota taking into account recent findings on microbiome composition in PD and extending the scope also to urate.

  5. Modulating Composition and Metabolic Activity of the Gut Microbiota in IBD Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matijašić, Mario; Meštrović, Tomislav; Perić, Mihaela; Čipčić Paljetak, Hana; Panek, Marina; Vranešić Bender, Darija; Ljubas Kelečić, Dina; Krznarić, Željko; Verbanac, Donatella

    2016-04-19

    The healthy intestine represents a remarkable interface where sterile host tissues come in contact with gut microbiota, in a balanced state of homeostasis. The imbalance of gut homeostasis is associated with the onset of many severe pathological conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), a chronic gastrointestinal disorder increasing in incidence and severely influencing affected individuals. Despite the recent development of next generation sequencing and bioinformatics, the current scientific knowledge of specific triggers and diagnostic markers to improve interventional approaches in IBD is still scarce. In this review we present and discuss currently available and emerging therapeutic options in modulating composition and metabolic activity of gut microbiota in patients affected by IBD. Therapeutic approaches at the microbiota level, such as dietary interventions alone or with probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics, administration of antibiotics, performing fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) and the use of nematodes, all represent a promising opportunities towards establishing and maintaining of well-being as well as improving underlying IBD symptoms.

  6. Impact of dietary fiber and fat on gut microbiota re-modeling and metabolic health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benítez-Páez, Alfonso; Gómez Del Pulgar, Eva M.; Kjølbæk, Louise

    2016-01-01

    a better understanding of the key components of the gut microbiota that are responsive to specific diets and of their effects on energy balance in order to use this information in practice. Scope and approach This review provides an up-to-date description of the influence of dietary fibers and fat on gut......Background Scientific evidence suggests that diet plays a role in obesity and its comorbidities, partly via its interactions with the individual's gut microbiota. Likewise, the individual's microbiota influences the efficacy of dietary interventions to reduce body weight. However, we require...... microbiota and the mechanisms presumably mediating their effects on metabolic health. We also discuss the main knowledge gaps and the need to gain greater understanding of the role of diet-microbe interactions in obesity and the associated comorbidities. Key findings and conclusions Dietary fibers are major...

  7. Contribution of diet to the composition of the human gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Daniela; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Fåk, Frida; Flint, Harry J; Nyman, Margareta; Saarela, Maria; Watzl, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    In the human gut, millions of bacteria contribute to the microbiota, whose composition is specific for every individual. Although we are just at the very beginning of understanding the microbiota concept, we already know that the composition of the microbiota has a profound impact on human health. A key factor in determining gut microbiota composition is diet. Preliminary evidence suggests that dietary patterns are associated with distinct combinations of bacteria in the intestine, also called enterotypes. Western diets result in significantly different microbiota compositions than traditional diets. It is currently unknown which food constituents specifically promote growth and functionality of beneficial bacteria in the intestine. The aim of this review is to summarize the recently published evidence from human in vivo studies on the gut microbiota-modulating effects of diet. It includes sections on dietary patterns (e.g. Western diet), whole foods, food constituents, as wells as food-associated microbes and their influence on the composition of human gut microbiota. The conclusions highlight the problems faced by scientists in this fast-developing field of research, and the need for high-quality, large-scale human dietary intervention studies.

  8. Impact of the gut microbiota on rodent models of human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Axel Kornerup; Hansen, Camilla Hartmann Friis; Krych, Lukasz; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris

    2014-12-21

    Traditionally bacteria have been considered as either pathogens, commensals or symbionts. The mammal gut harbors 10(14) organisms dispersed on approximately 1000 different species. Today, diagnostics, in contrast to previous cultivation techniques, allow the identification of close to 100% of bacterial species. This has revealed that a range of animal models within different research areas, such as diabetes, obesity, cancer, allergy, behavior and colitis, are affected by their gut microbiota. Correlation studies may for some diseases show correlation between gut microbiota composition and disease parameters higher than 70%. Some disease phenotypes may be transferred when recolonizing germ free mice. The mechanistic aspects are not clear, but some examples on how gut bacteria stimulate receptors, metabolism, and immune responses are discussed. A more deeper understanding of the impact of microbiota has its origin in the overall composition of the microbiota and in some newly recognized species, such as Akkermansia muciniphila, Segmented filamentous bacteria and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, which seem to have an impact on more or less severe disease in specific models. Thus, the impact of the microbiota on animal models is of a magnitude that cannot be ignored in future research. Therefore, either models with specific microbiota must be developed, or the microbiota must be characterized in individual studies and incorporated into data evaluation.

  9. The Health Advantage of a Vegan Diet: Exploring the Gut Microbiota Connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Glick-Bauer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This review examines whether there is evidence that a strict vegan diet confers health advantages beyond that of a vegetarian diet or overall healthy eating. Few studies include vegan subjects as a distinct experimental group, yet when vegan diets are directly compared to vegetarian and omnivorous diets, a pattern of protective health benefits emerges. The relatively recent inclusion of vegan diets in studies of gut microbiota and health allows us the opportunity to assess whether the vegan gut microbiota is distinct, and whether the health advantages characteristic of a vegan diet may be partially explained by the associated microbiota profile. The relationship between diet and the intestinal microbial profile appears to follow a continuum, with vegans displaying a gut microbiota most distinct from that of omnivores, but not always significantly different from that of vegetarians. The vegan gut profile appears to be unique in several characteristics, including a reduced abundance of pathobionts and a greater abundance of protective species. Reduced levels of inflammation may be the key feature linking the vegan gut microbiota with protective health effects. However, it is still unclear whether a therapeutic vegan diet can be prescribed to alter the gut microflora for long-term health benefits.

  10. Diet shapes the gut microbiota of the omnivorous cockroach Blattella germanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Cobas, Ana Elena; Maiques, Elisa; Angelova, Alexandra; Carrasco, Purificación; Moya, Andrés; Latorre, Amparo

    2015-04-01

    The gut microbiota of insects contributes positively to the physiology of its host mainly by participating in food digestion, protecting against pathogens, or provisioning vitamins or amino acids, but the dynamics of this complex ecosystem is not well understood so far. In this study, we have characterized the gut microbiota of the omnivorous cockroach Blattella germanica by pyrosequencing the hypervariable regions V1-V3 of the 16S rRNA gene of the whole bacterial community. Three diets differing in the protein content (0, 24 and 50%) were tested at two time points in lab-reared individuals. In addition, the gut microbiota of wild adult cockroaches was also analyzed. In contrast to the high microbial richness described on the studied samples, only few species are shared by wild and lab-reared cockroaches, constituting the bacterial core in the gut of B. germanica. Overall, we found that the gut microbiota of B. germanica is highly dynamic as the bacterial composition was reassembled in a diet-specific manner over a short time span, with no-protein diet promoting high diversity, although the highest diversity was found in the wild cockroaches analyzed. We discuss how the flexibility of the gut microbiota is probably due to its omnivorous life style and varied diets. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Nlrp6- and ASC-Dependent Inflammasomes Do Not Shape the Commensal Gut Microbiota Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamantopoulos, Michail; Ronchi, Francesca; Van Hauwermeiren, Filip; Vieira-Silva, Sara; Yilmaz, Bahtiyar; Martens, Liesbet; Saeys, Yvan; Drexler, Stefan K; Yazdi, Amir S; Raes, Jeroen; Lamkanfi, Mohamed; McCoy, Kathy D; Wullaert, Andy

    2017-08-15

    The gut microbiota regulate susceptibility to multiple human diseases. The Nlrp6-ASC inflammasome is widely regarded as a hallmark host innate immune axis that shapes the gut microbiota composition. This notion stems from studies reporting dysbiosis in mice lacking these inflammasome components when compared with non-littermate wild-type animals. Here, we describe microbial analyses in inflammasome-deficient mice while minimizing non-genetic confounders using littermate-controlled Nlrp6-deficient mice and ex-germ-free littermate-controlled ASC-deficient mice that were all allowed to shape their gut microbiota naturally after birth. Careful microbial phylogenetic analyses of these cohorts failed to reveal regulation of the gut microbiota composition by the Nlrp6- and ASC-dependent inflammasomes. Our results obtained in two geographically separated animal facilities dismiss a generalizable impact of Nlrp6- and ASC-dependent inflammasomes on the composition of the commensal gut microbiota and highlight the necessity for littermate-controlled experimental design in assessing the influence of host immunity on gut microbial ecology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The gut microbiota: A key factor in the therapeutic effects of (poly)phenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espín, Juan Carlos; González-Sarrías, Antonio; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A

    2017-09-01

    (Poly)phenols (PPs) constitute a large family of phytochemicals with high chemical diversity that are known to be active principles of plant-derived nutraceuticals and herbal medicinal products. Their pharmacological activity, however, is difficult to demonstrate due to their mild physiological effects, and to the large inter-individual variability observed. Many PPs have little bioavailability and reach the colon almost unaltered. There they encounter the gut microbes resulting in a two-way interaction in which PPs modulate the gut microbiota composition, and the intestinal microbes catabolize the ingested PPs to release metabolites that are often more active and better absorbed than the native phenolic compounds. The type and quantity of the PP metabolites produced in humans depend on the gut microbiota composition and function, and different metabotypes have been identified. However, not all the metabolites have the same biological activity, and therefore the final health effects of dietary PPs depend on the gut microbiota composition. Stratification in clinical trials according to individuals' metabotypes is necessary to fully understand the health effects of PPs. In this review, we present and discuss the most significant and updated knowledge regarding the reciprocal interrelation of the gut microbiota with dietary PPs as a key factor that modulates the health effects of these compounds. The review will focus in those PPs that are known to be metabolized by gut microbiota resulting in bioactive metabolites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Understanding the Impact of Omega-3 Rich Diet on the Gut Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca S. Noriega

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recently, the importance of the gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of several disorders has gained clinical interests. Among exogenous factors affecting gut microbiome, diet appears to have the largest effect. Fatty acids, especially omega-3 polyunsaturated, ameliorate a range of several diseases, including cardiometabolic and inflammatory and cancer. Fatty acids associated beneficial effects may be mediated, to an important extent, through changes in gut microbiota composition. We sought to understand the changes of the gut microbiota in response to an omega-3 rich diet. Case Presentation. This case study investigated changes of gut microbiota with an omega-3 rich diet. Fecal samples were collected from a 45-year-old male who consumed 600 mg of omega-3 daily for 14 days. After the intervention, species diversity was decreased, but several butyrate-producing bacteria increased. There was an important decrease in Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Akkermansia spp. Gut microbiota changes were reverted after the 14-day washout. Conclusion. Some of the health-related benefits of omega-3 may be due, in part, to increases in butyrate-producing bacteria. These findings may shed light on the mechanisms explaining the effects of omega-3 in several chronic diseases and may also serve as an existing foundation for tailoring personalized medical treatments.

  14. The health advantage of a vegan diet: exploring the gut microbiota connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick-Bauer, Marian; Yeh, Ming-Chin

    2014-10-31

    This review examines whether there is evidence that a strict vegan diet confers health advantages beyond that of a vegetarian diet or overall healthy eating. Few studies include vegan subjects as a distinct experimental group, yet when vegan diets are directly compared to vegetarian and omnivorous diets, a pattern of protective health benefits emerges. The relatively recent inclusion of vegan diets in studies of gut microbiota and health allows us the opportunity to assess whether the vegan gut microbiota is distinct, and whether the health advantages characteristic of a vegan diet may be partially explained by the associated microbiota profile. The relationship between diet and the intestinal microbial profile appears to follow a continuum, with vegans displaying a gut microbiota most distinct from that of omnivores, but not always significantly different from that of vegetarians. The vegan gut profile appears to be unique in several characteristics, including a reduced abundance of pathobionts and a greater abundance of protective species. Reduced levels of inflammation may be the key feature linking the vegan gut microbiota with protective health effects. However, it is still unclear whether a therapeutic vegan diet can be prescribed to alter the gut microflora for long-term health benefits.

  15. Characterising the avian gut microbiota: membership, driving influences and potential function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eWaite

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Birds represent a diverse and evolutionarily successful lineage, occupying a wide range of niches throughout the world. Like all vertebrates, avians harbour diverse communities of microorganisms within their guts, which collectively fulfil important roles in providing the host with nutrition and protection from pathogens. Although many studies have investigated the role of particular microbes in the guts of avian species, there has been no attempt to unify the results of previous, sequence-based studies to examine the factors that shape the avian gut microbiota as a whole. In this study, we present the first meta-analysis of the avian gut microbiota, using 16S rRNA gene sequences obtained from a range of publicly available clone-library and amplicon pyrosequencing data. We investigate community membership and structure, as well as probe the roles of some of the key biological factors that influence the gut microbiota of other vertebrates, such as host phylogeny, location within the gut, diet and association with humans. Our results indicate that, across avian studies, the microbiota demonstrates a similar phylum-level composition to that of mammals. Host bird species is the most important factor in determining community composition, although sampling site, diet and captivity status also contribute. These analyses provide a first integrated look at the composition of the avian microbiota, and serve as a foundation for future studies in this area.

  16. Antimicrobial use in swine production and its effect on the swine gut microbiota and antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Devin B; Chénier, Martin R

    2015-11-01

    Antimicrobials have been used in swine production at subtherapeutic levels since the early 1950s to increase feed efficiency and promote growth. In North America, a number of antimicrobials are available for use in swine. However, the continuous administration of subtherapeutic, low concentrations of antimicrobials to pigs also provides selective pressure for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and resistance determinants. For this reason, subtherapeutic antimicrobial use in livestock remains a source of controversy and concern. The swine gut microbiota demonstrates a number of changes in response to antimicrobial administration depending on the dosage, duration of treatment, age of the pigs, and gut location that is sampled. Both culture-independent and -dependent studies have also shown that the swine gut microbiota contains a large number of antimicrobial resistance determinants even in the absence of antimicrobial exposure. Heavy metals, such as zinc and copper, which are often added at relatively high doses to swine feed, may also play a role in maintaining antimicrobial resistance and in the stability of the swine gut microbiota. This review focuses on the use of antimicrobials in swine production, with an emphasis on the North American regulatory context, and their effect on the swine gut microbiota and on antimicrobial resistance determinants in the gut microbiota.

  17. Food additives, contaminants and other minor components: effects on human gut microbiota-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca-Saavedra, Paula; Mendez-Vilabrille, Veronica; Miranda, Jose Manuel; Nebot, Carolina; Cardelle-Cobas, Alejandra; Franco, Carlos M; Cepeda, Alberto

    2018-02-01

    Gut bacteria play an important role in several metabolic processes and human diseases, such as obesity and accompanying co-morbidities, such as fatty liver disease, insulin resistance/diabetes, and cardiovascular events. Among other factors, dietary patterns, probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, antibiotics, and non-dietary factors, such as stress, age, exercise, and climatic conditions, can dramatically impact the human gut microbiota equilibrium and diversity. However, the effect of minor food constituents, including food additives and trace contaminants, on human gut microbiota has received less attention. Consequently, the present review aimed to provide an objective perspective of the current knowledge regarding the impacts of minor food constituents on human gut microbiota and consequently, on human health.

  18. Formation of short chain fatty acids by the gut microbiota and their impact on human metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Douglas J; Preston, Tom

    2016-05-03

    The formation of SCFA is the result of a complex interplay between diet and the gut microbiota within the gut lumen environment. The discovery of receptors, across a range of cell and tissue types for which short chain fatty acids SCFA appear to be the natural ligands, has led to increased interest in SCFA as signaling molecules between the gut microbiota and the host. SCFA represent the major carbon flux from the diet through the gut microbiota to the host and evidence is emerging for a regulatory role of SCFA in local, intermediary and peripheral metabolism. However, a lack of well-designed and controlled human studies has hampered our understanding of the significance of SCFA in human metabolic health. This review aims to pull together recent findings on the role of SCFA in human metabolism to highlight the multi-faceted role of SCFA on different metabolic systems.

  19. Infant Gut Microbiota Development Is Driven by Transition to Family Foods Independent of Maternal Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Andersen, Louise B. B.; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2016-01-01

    composition and alpha diversity were thus strongly affected by introduction of family foods with high protein and fiber contents. Specifically, intake of meats, cheeses, and Danish rye bread, rich in protein and fiber, were associated with increased alpha diversity. Our results reveal that the transition from...... vertically transmitted microbes or through the dietary habits of the family. Additionally, very little is known about the effect of diet during the complementary feeding period, which is potentially important for gut microbiota development. Here, the gut microbiotas of two different cohorts of infants, born...... obesity did not influence microbial diversity or specific taxon abundances during the complementary feeding period. Across cohorts, breastfeeding duration and composition of the complementary diet were found to be the major determinants of gut microbiota development. In both cohorts, gut microbial...

  20. Gut microbiota is a key modulator of insulin resistance in TLR 2 knockout mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa M Caricilli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental factors and host genetics interact to control the gut microbiota, which may have a role in the development of obesity and insulin resistance. TLR2-deficient mice, under germ-free conditions, are protected from diet-induced insulin resistance. It is possible that the presence of gut microbiota could reverse the phenotype of an animal, inducing insulin resistance in an animal genetically determined to have increased insulin sensitivity, such as the TLR2 KO mice. In the present study, we investigated the influence of gut microbiota on metabolic parameters, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and signaling of TLR2-deficient mice. We investigated the gut microbiota (by metagenomics, the metabolic characteristics, and insulin signaling in TLR2 knockout (KO mice in a non-germ free facility. Results showed that the loss of TLR2 in conventionalized mice results in a phenotype reminiscent of metabolic syndrome, characterized by differences in the gut microbiota, with a 3-fold increase in Firmicutes and a slight increase in Bacteroidetes compared with controls. These changes in gut microbiota were accompanied by an increase in LPS absorption, subclinical inflammation, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and later, obesity. In addition, this sequence of events was reproduced in WT mice by microbiota transplantation and was also reversed by antibiotics. At the molecular level the mechanism was unique, with activation of TLR4 associated with ER stress and JNK activation, but no activation of the IKKβ-IκB-NFκB pathway. Our data also showed that in TLR2 KO mice there was a reduction in regulatory T cell in visceral fat, suggesting that this modulation may also contribute to the insulin resistance of these animals. Our results emphasize the role of microbiota in the complex network of molecular and cellular interactions that link genotype to phenotype and have potential implications for common human disorders involving obesity, diabetes

  1. Site-specific programming of the host epithelial transcriptome by the gut microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Felix; Nookaew, Intawat; Sommer, Nina

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The intestinal epithelium separates us from the microbiota but also interacts with it and thus affects host immune status and physiology. Previous studies investigated microbiota-induced responses in the gut using intact tissues or unfractionated epithelial cells, thereby limiting....... The microbial impact on host gene expression was highly site specific, as epithelial responses to the microbiota differed between cell fractions. Specific transcriptional regulators were enriched in each fraction. In general, the gut microbiota induced a more rapid response in the colon than in the ileum...... conclusions about regional differences in the epithelium. Here, we sought to investigate microbiota-induced transcriptional responses in specific fractions of intestinal epithelial cells. To this end, we used microarray analysis of laser capture microdissection (LCM)-harvested ileal and colonic tip and crypt...

  2. Gut instincts: microbiota as a key regulator of brain development, ageing and neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2017-01-15

    There is a growing realisation that the gut-brain axis and its regulation by the microbiota may play a key role in the biological and physiological basis of neurodevelopmental, age-related and neurodegenerative disorders. The routes of communication between the microbiota and brain are being unravelled and include the vagus nerve, gut hormone signalling, the immune system, tryptophan metabolism or by way of microbial metabolites such as short chain fatty acids. The importance of early life gut microbiota in shaping future health outcomes is also emerging. Disturbances of this composition by way of antibiotic exposure, lack of breastfeeding, infection, stress and the environmental influences coupled with the influence of host genetics can result in long-term effects on physiology and behaviour, at least in animal models. It is also worth noting that mode of delivery at birth influences microbiota composition with those born by Caesarean section having a distinctly different microbiota in early life to those born per vaginum. At the other extreme of life, ageing is associated with a narrowing in microbial diversity and healthy ageing correlates with a diverse microbiome. Recently, the gut microbiota has been implicated in a variety of conditions including depression, autism, schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. There is still considerable debate as to whether or not the gut microbiota changes are core to the pathophysiology of such conditions or are merely epiphenomenal. It is plausible that such neuropsychiatric disorders might be treated in the future by targeting the microbiota either by microbiota transplantation, antibiotics or psychobiotics. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  3. Differential susceptibility to colorectal cancer due to naturally occurring gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, Aaron C; Akter, Sadia; Hanson, Marina M; Busi, Susheel B; Parker, Taybor W; Schehr, Rebecca J; Hankins, Miriam A; Ahner, Carin E; Davis, Justin W; Franklin, Craig L; Amos-Landgraf, James M; Bryda, Elizabeth C

    2015-10-20

    Recent studies investigating the human microbiome have identified particular bacterial species that correlate with the presence of colorectal cancer. To evaluate the role of qualitatively different but naturally occurring gut microbiota and the relationship with colorectal cancer development, genetically identical embryos from the Polyposis in Rat Colon (Pirc) rat model of colorectal cancer were transferred into recipients of three different genetic backgrounds (F344/NHsd, LEW/SsNHsd, and Crl:SD). Tumor development in the pups was tracked longitudinally via colonoscopy, and end-stage tumor burden was determined. To confirm vertical transmission and identify associations between the gut microbiota and disease phenotype, the fecal microbiota was characterized in recipient dams 24 hours pre-partum, and in Pirc rat offspring prior to and during disease progression. Our data show that the gut microbiota varies between rat strains, with LEW/SsNHsd having a greater relative abundance of the bacteria Prevotella copri. The mature gut microbiota of pups resembled the profile of their dams, indicating that the dam is the primary determinant of the developing microbiota. Both male and female F344-Pirc rats harboring the Lewis microbiota had decreased tumor burden relative to genetically identical rats harboring F344 or SD microbiota. Significant negative correlations were detected between tumor burden and the relative abundance of specific taxa from samples taken at weaning and shortly thereafter, prior to observable adenoma development. Notably, this naturally occurring variation in the gut microbiota is associated with a significant difference in severity of colorectal cancer, and the abundance of certain taxa is associated with decreased tumor burden.

  4. Metagenomic profiles and antibiotic resistance genes in gut microbiota of mice exposed to arsenic and iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xuechao; Liu, Su; Wang, Zhu; Zhang, Xu-xiang; Li, Mei; Wu, Bing

    2014-10-01

    Iron (Fe) has been widely applied to treat arsenic (As)-contaminated water, and Fe could influence bioavailability and toxicity of As. However, little is known about the impact of As and/or Fe on gut microbiota, which plays important roles in host health. In this study, high-throughput sequencing and quantitative real time PCR were applied to analyze the impact of As and Fe on mouse gut microbiota. Co-exposure of As and Fe mitigated effects on microbial community to a certain extent. Correlation analysis showed the shifts in gut microbiota caused by As and/or Fe exposure might be important reason of changes in metabolic profiles of mouse. For antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), co-exposure of As and Fe increased types and abundance of ARGs. But for high abundance ARGs, such as tetQ, tetO and tetM, co-exposure of As and Fe mitigated effects on their abundances compared to exposure to As and Fe alone. No obvious relationship between ARGs and mobile genetic elements were found. The changes in ARGs caused by metal exposure might be due to the alteration of gut microbial diversity. Our results show that changes of gut microbial community caused by As and/or Fe can influence host metabolisms and abundances of ARGs in gut, indicating that changes of gut microbiota should be considered during the risk assessment of As and/or Fe. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Glycomacropeptide Sustains Microbiota Diversity and Promotes Specific Taxa in an Artificial Colon Model of Elderly Gut Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntemiri, Alexandra; Chonchúir, Fodhla Ní; O'Callaghan, Tom F; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R Paul; O'Toole, Paul W

    2017-03-01

    The potential of milk-derived glycomacropeptide (GMP) and lactose for modulating the human gut microbiota of older people, in whom loss of diversity correlates with inferior health, was investigated. We used an in vitro batch fermentation (artificial colon model) to simulate colonic fermentation processes of two GMP products, i.e., a commercially available GMP concentrate and a semipurified GMP concentrate, and lactose. Faecal samples were collected from healthy and frail older people. Samples were analyzed by Illumina Miseq sequencing of rRNA gene amplicons. The commercial GMP preparation had a positive effect on the growth of Coprococcus and Clostridium cluster XIVb and sustained a higher faecal microbiota diversity compared to control substrates or lactose. Lactose fermentation promoted the growth of Proteobacteria including Escherichia/Shigella. This work provides an in-depth insight on the potential of GMP and lactose for modulating the gut microbiota and contributes more evidence confirming the prebiotic activity of GMP.

  6. Effect of inoculating C57BL/6NTac mice with different gut microbiotas on gut colonization and glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellekilde, Merete; Viscardi, Monika; Rune, Ida

    In recent decades, the gut microbiota (GM) has been demonstrated influential in diseases of immunological and inflammatory origin such as asthma, allergy, arthritis and diabetes. This indicates a possibility to affect disease development by changing the GM composition. Previously our group has...

  7. Effect of inoculating C57BL/6NTac mice with different gut microbiotas on gut colonization and glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellekilde, Merete; Viscardi, Monika; Rune, Ida

    In recent decades, the gut microbiota (GM) has been demonstrated influential in diseases of immunological and inflammatory origin such as asthma, allergy, arthritis and diabetes. This indicates a possibility to affect disease development by changing the GM composition. Previously our group has de...

  8. The gut microbiota keeps enteric glial cells on the move; prospective roles of the gut epithelium and immune system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabouridis, Panagiotis S; Lasrado, Reena; McCallum, Sarah; Chng, Song Hui; Snippert, Hugo J; Clevers, Hans; Pettersson, Sven; Pachnis, Vassilis

    2015-01-01

    The enteric nervous system (ENS) coordinates the major functions of the gastrointestinal tract. Its development takes place within a constantly changing environment which, after birth, culminates in the establishment of a complex gut microbiota. How such changes affect ENS development and its

  9. The role of gut microbiota in health and disease : In vitro modeling of host-microbe interactions at the aerobe-anaerobe interphase of the human gut

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Martels, Julius Z. H.; Sadabad, Mehdi Sadaghian; Bourgonje, Arno R.; Blokzijl, Tjasso; Dijkstra, Gerard; Faber, Klaas Nico; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.

    The microbiota of the gut has many crucial functions in human health. Dysbiosis of the microbiota has been correlated to a large and still increasing number of diseases. Recent studies have mostly focused on analyzing the associations between disease and an aberrant microbiota composition.

  10. Gut microbiota and sirtuins in obesity-related inflammation and bowel dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakhan Shaheen E

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Obesity is a chronic disease characterized by persistent low-grade inflammation with alterations in gut motility. Motor abnormalities suggest that obesity has effects on the enteric nervous system (ENS, which controls virtually all gut functions. Recent studies have revealed that the gut microbiota can affect obesity and increase inflammatory tone by modulating mucosal barrier function. Furthermore, the observation that inflammatory conditions influence the excitability of enteric neurons may add to the gut dysfunction in obesity. In this article, we discuss recent advances in understanding the role of gut microbiota and inflammation in the pathogenesis of obesity and obesity-related gastrointestinal dysfunction. The potential contribution of sirtuins in protecting or regulating the circuitry of the ENS under inflamed states is also considered.

  11. Disentangling type 2 diabetes and metformin treatment signatures in the human gut microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forslund, Kristoffer; Hildebrand, Falk ; Nielsen, Trine N.

    2015-01-01

    on the microbiota, which may obscure microbial causes, protective factors or diagnostically relevant signals. Our study addresses disease and drug signatures in the human gut microbiome of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Two previous quantitative gut metagenomics studies of T2D patients that were unstratified......, we report a unified signature of gut microbiome shifts in T2D with a depletion of butyrate-producing taxa3,4. These in turn cause functional microbiome shifts, in part alleviated by metformin-induced changes. Overall, the present study emphasizes the need to disentangle gut microbiota signatures......In recent years, several associations between common chronic human disorders and altered gut microbiome composition and function have been reported1,2. In most of these reports, treatment regimens were not controlled for and conclusions could thus be confounded by the effects of various drugs...

  12. Diet-induced extinction in the gut microbiota compounds over generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenburg, Erica D.; Smits, Samuel A.; Tikhonov, Mikhail; Higginbottom, Steven K.; Wingreen, Ned S.; Sonnenburg, Justin L.

    2015-01-01

    The gut is home to trillions of microbes that play a fundamental role in many aspects of human biology including immune function and metabolism 1,2. The reduced diversity of the Western microbiota compared to populations living traditional lifestyles presents the question of which factors have driven microbiota change during modernization. Microbiota accessible carbohydrates (MACs) found in dietary fiber, play a key role in shaping this microbial ecosystem, and are strikingly reduced in the Western diet relative to more traditional diets 3. Here we show that changes in the microbiota of mice consuming a low-MAC diet and harboring a human microbiota are largely reversible within a single generation, however over multiple generations a low-MAC diet results in a progressive loss of diversity, which is not recoverable upon the reintroduction of dietary MACs. To restore the microbiota to its original state requires the administration of missing taxa in combination with dietary MAC consumption. Our data illustrate that taxa driven to low abundance when dietary MACs are scarce are inefficiently transferred to the next generation and are at increased risk of becoming extinct within an isolated population. As more diseases are linked to the Western microbiota and the microbiota is targeted therapeutically, microbiota reprogramming may need to involve strategies that incorporate dietary MACs as well as taxa not currently present in the Western gut. PMID:26762459

  13. Quantitative prediction of shrimp disease incidence via the profiles of gut eukaryotic microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jinbo; Yu, Weina; Dai, Wenfang; Zhang, Jinjie; Qiu, Qiongfen; Ou, Changrong

    2018-04-01

    One common notion is emerging that gut eukaryotes are commensal or beneficial, rather than detrimental. To date, however, surprisingly few studies have been taken to discern the factors that govern the assembly of gut eukaryotes, despite growing interest in the dysbiosis of gut microbiota-disease relationship. Herein, we firstly explored how the gut eukaryotic microbiotas were assembled over shrimp postlarval to adult stages and a disease progression. The gut eukaryotic communities changed markedly as healthy shrimp aged, and converged toward an adult-microbiota configuration. However, the adult-like stability was distorted by disease exacerbation. A null model untangled that the deterministic processes that governed the gut eukaryotic assembly tended to be more important over healthy shrimp development, whereas this trend was inverted as the disease progressed. After ruling out the baseline of gut eukaryotes over shrimp ages, we identified disease-discriminatory taxa (species level afforded the highest accuracy of prediction) that characteristic of shrimp health status. The profiles of these taxa contributed an overall 92.4% accuracy in predicting shrimp health status. Notably, this model can accurately diagnose the onset of shrimp disease. Interspecies interaction analysis depicted how the disease-discriminatory taxa interacted with one another in sustaining shrimp health. Taken together, our findings offer novel insights into the underlying ecological processes that govern the assembly of gut eukaryotes over shrimp postlarval to adult stages and a disease progression. Intriguingly, the established model can quantitatively and accurately predict the incidences of shrimp disease.

  14. Probiotic roles of Lactobacillus sp. in swine: insights from gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeriano, V D V; Balolong, M P; Kang, D-K

    2017-03-01

    The use of lactobacilli as probiotics in swine has been gaining attention due to their ability to improve growth performance and carcass quality, prevent gastrointestinal infection and most importantly, their 'generally recognized as safe' status. Previous studies support the potential of lactobacilli to regulate host immune systems, enhance gut metabolic capacities and maintain balance in the gut microbiota. Research on swine gut microbiota has revealed complex gut microbial community structure and showed the importance of Lactobacillus to the host's health. However, the species- and strain-specific characteristics of lactobacilli that confer probiotic benefits are still not well understood. The diversity of probiotic traits in a complex gut ecosystem makes it challenging to infer the relationships between specific functions of Lactobacillus sp. and host health. In this review, we provide an overview of how lactobacilli play a pivotal role in the swine gut ecosystem and identify key characteristics that influence gut microbial community structure and the health of pigs. In addition, based on recent and ongoing meta-omics and omics research on the gut microbiota of pigs, we suggest a workflow combining culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches for more effective selection of probiotic lactobacilli. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Principles of DNA-Based Gut Microbiota Assessment and Therapeutic Efficacy of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Gastrointestinal Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammarota, Giovanni; Pecere, Silvia; Ianiro, Gianluca; Masucci, Luca; Currò, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), a process by which the normal gastrointestinal microbiota is restored, has demonstrated extraordinary cure rates for Clostridium difficile infection and low recurrence. The community of microorganisms within the human gut (or microbiota) is critical to health status and functions; therefore, together with the rise of FMT, the gastrointestinal microbiota has emerged as a 'virtual' organ with a level of complexity comparable to that of any other organ system and capable to compete with powerful known antibiotics for the treatment of several disorders. Although treatment protocols, donor selection, stool preparation and delivery methods varied widely, with a few reports following an identical protocol, FMT has diffused to other areas where the alterations of the gut microbiota ecology (or dysbiosis) have been theorized to play a causative role, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), among several other extra-intestinal disorders (i.e. metabolic syndrome and obesity, multiple sclerosis, cardiovascular diseases). FMT can be relatively simple to perform, but a number of challenges need to be overcome before this procedure is widely accepted in clinical practice, and currently, there is no consensus between the various gastrointestinal organizations and societies regarding the FMT procedure. In this article, we describe the modern high-throughput sequencing techniques to characterize the composition of gut microbiota and the potential for therapeutics by manipulating microbiota with FMT in several gastrointestinal disorders (C. difficile-associated diarrhea, IBD and IBS), with a look on the potential future directions of FMT. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Differential effects of antibiotic therapy on the structure and function of human gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Cobas, Ana Elena; Artacho, Alejandro; Knecht, Henrik; Ferrús, María Loreto; Friedrichs, Anette; Ott, Stephan J; Moya, Andrés; Latorre, Amparo; Gosalbes, María José

    2013-01-01

    The human intestinal microbiota performs many essential functions for the host. Antimicrobial agents, such as antibiotics (AB), are also known to disturb microbial community equilibrium, thereby having an impact on human physiology. While an increasing number of studies investigate the effects of AB usage on changes in human gut microbiota biodiversity, its functional effects are still poorly understood. We performed a follow-up study to explore the effect of ABs with different modes of action on human gut microbiota composition and function. Four individuals were treated with different antibiotics and samples were taken before, during and after the AB course for all of them. Changes in the total and in the active (growing) microbiota as well as the functional changes were addressed by 16S rRNA gene and metagenomic 454-based pyrosequencing approaches. We have found that the class of antibiotic, particularly its antimicrobial effect and mode of action, played an important role in modulating the gut microbiota composition and function. Furthermore, analysis of the resistome suggested that oscillatory dynamics are not only due to antibiotic-target resistance, but also to fluctuations in the surviving bacterial community. Our results indicated that the effect of AB on the human gut microbiota relates to the interaction of several factors, principally the properties of the antimicrobial agent, and the structure, functions and resistance genes of the microbial community.

  17. Effects of oral antibiotics and isotretinoin on the murine gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Eugenia; Schmidt, Thomas S B; Bengs, Susan; Poveda, Lucy; Opitz, Lennart; Atrott, Kirstin; Stanzel, Claudia; Biedermann, Luc; Rehman, Ateequr; Jonas, Daniel; von Mering, Christian; Rogler, Gerhard; Frey-Wagner, Isabelle

    2017-09-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may develop due to an immunogenic response to commensal gut microbiota triggered by environmental factors in the genetically susceptible host. Isotretinoin, applied in the treatment of severe acne, has been variably associated with IBD, but prior treatment with antibiotics, also associated with IBD development, confounds confirmation of this association. This study investigated the effects of doxycycline, metronidazole (frequently used in the treatment of acne and IBD, respectively) and isotretinoin on murine gut (faecal) microbiota after 2 weeks of treatment and after a 4-week recovery period. Faecal microbiota composition was assessed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing on the GS-FLX 454 platform with primers directed against the variable regions V1-V2. Doxycycline had a modest effect on bacterial richness and evenness, but had pronounced persistent and significant effects on the abundance of certain operational taxonomic units compared with the control group. In contrast, metronidazole induced a pronounced reduction in diversity after treatment, but these effects did not persist after the recovery period. This study demonstrates differential effects of antibiotics on the gut microbiota with doxycycline, unlike metronidazole, mediating long-term changes in the murine gut microbiota. Isotretinoin had no significant effect on the faecal microbiota. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  18. The Vagus Nerve at the Interface of the Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaz, Bruno; Bazin, Thomas; Pellissier, Sonia

    2018-01-01

    The microbiota, the gut, and the brain communicate through the microbiota-gut-brain axis in a bidirectional way that involves the autonomic nervous system. The vagus nerve (VN), the principal component of the parasympathetic nervous system, is a mixed nerve composed of 80% afferent and 20% efferent fibers. The VN, because of its role in interoceptive awareness, is able to sense the microbiota metabolites through its afferents, to transfer this gut information to the central nervous system where it is integrated in the central autonomic network, and then to generate an adapted or inappropriate response. A cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway has been described through VN's fibers, which is able to dampen peripheral inflammation and to decrease intestinal permeability, thus very probably modulating microbiota composition. Stress inhibits the VN and has deleterious effects on the gastrointestinal tract and on the microbiota, and is involved in the pathophysiology of gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) which are both characterized by a dysbiosis. A low vagal tone has been described in IBD and IBS patients thus favoring peripheral inflammation. Targeting the VN, for example through VN stimulation which has anti-inflammatory properties, would be of interest to restore homeostasis in the microbiota-gut-brain axis.

  19. The evolution of the gut microbiota in the giant and the red pandas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Guo, Wei; Han, Shushu; Kong, Fanli; Wang, Chengdong; Li, Desheng; Zhang, Heming; Yang, Mingyao; Xu, Huailiang; Zeng, Bo; Zhao, Jiangchao

    2015-05-18

    The independent dietary shift from carnivore to herbivore with over 90% being bamboo in the giant and the red pandas is of great interests to biologists. Although previous studies have shown convergent evolution of the giant and the red pandas at both morphological and molecular level, the evolution of the gut microbiota in these pandas remains largely unknown. The goal of this study was to determine whether the gut microbiota of the pandas converged due to the same diet, or diverged. We characterized the fecal microbiota from these two species by pyrosequencing the 16S V1-V3 hypervariable regions using the 454 GS FLX Titanium platform. We also included fecal samples from Asian black bears, a species phylogenetically closer to the giant panda, in our analyses. By analyzing the microbiota from these 3 species and those from other carnivores reported previously, we found the gut microbiotas of the giant pandas are distinct from those of the red pandas and clustered closer to those of the black bears. Our data suggests the divergent evolution of the gut microbiota in the pandas.

  20. Pycnoscelus surinamensis cockroach gut microbiota respond consistently to a fungal diet without mirroring those of fungus-farming termites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richards, Callum; Otani, Saria; Mikaelyan, Aram

    2017-01-01

    The gut microbiotas of cockroaches and termites play important roles in the symbiotic digestion of dietary components, such as lignocellulose. Diet has been proposed as a primary determinant of community structure within the gut, acting as a selection force to shape the diversity observed within...... this “bioreactor”, and as a key factor for the divergence of the termite gut microbiota from the omnivorous cockroach ancestor. The gut microbiota in most termites supports primarily the breakdown of lignocellulose, but the fungus-farming subfamily of higher termites has become similar in gut microbiota...... to the ancestral omnivorous cockroaches. To assess the importance of a fungus diet as a driver of community structure, we compare community compositions in the guts of experimentally manipulated Pycnoscelus surinamensis cockroaches fed on fungus cultivated by fungus-farming termites. MiSeq amplicon analysis of gut...

  1. A Dietary Fiber-Deprived Gut Microbiota Degrades the Colonic Mucus Barrier and Enhances Pathogen Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Mahesh S; Seekatz, Anna M; Koropatkin, Nicole M; Kamada, Nobuhiko; Hickey, Christina A; Wolter, Mathis; Pudlo, Nicholas A; Kitamoto, Sho; Terrapon, Nicolas; Muller, Arnaud; Young, Vincent B; Henrissat, Bernard; Wilmes, Paul; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S; Núñez, Gabriel; Martens, Eric C

    2016-11-17

    Despite the accepted health benefits of consuming dietary fiber, little is known about the mechanisms by which fiber deprivation impacts the gut microbiota and alters disease risk. Using a gnotobiotic mouse model, in which animals were colonized with a synthetic human gut microbiota composed of fully sequenced commensal bacteria, we elucidated the functional interactions between dietary fiber, the gut microbiota, and the colonic mucus barrier, which serves as a primary defense against enteric pathogens. We show that during chronic or intermittent dietary fiber deficiency, the gut microbiota resorts to host-secreted mucus glycoproteins as a nutrient source, leading to erosion of the colonic mucus barrier. Dietary fiber deprivation, together with a fiber-deprived, mucus-eroding microbiota, promotes greater epithelial access and lethal colitis by the mucosal pathogen, Citrobacter rodentium. Our work reveals intricate pathways linking diet, the gut microbiome, and intestinal barrier dysfunction, which could be exploited to improve health using dietary therapeutics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Insight into alteration of gut microbiota in Clostridium difficile infection and asymptomatic C. difficile colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lihua; Dong, Danfeng; Jiang, Cen; Li, Zhen; Wang, Xuefeng; Peng, Yibing

    2015-08-01

    Clostridium difficile is well recognized as the common pathogen of nosocomial diarrhea, meanwhile, asymptomatic colonization with C. difficile in part of the population has also drawn public attention. Although gut microbiota is known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of C. difficile infection (CDI), whether there is any alteration of gut microbial composition in asymptomatic C. difficile carriers hasn't been clearly described. The purpose of this study was to explore the differences in gut microbiome among CDI patients, asymptomatic C. difficile carriers and healthy individuals. We performed fecal microbiota analysis on the samples of eight CDI patients, eight asymptomatic C. difficile carriers and nine healthy subjects using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. CDI patients and asymptomatic carriers showed reduced microbial richness and diversity compared with healthy subjects, accompanied with a paucity of phylum Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes as well as an overabundance of Proteobacteria. Some normally commensal bacteria, especially butyrate producers, were significantly depleted in CDI patients and asymptomatic carriers. Furthermore, the differences observed in microbial community structure between CDI patients and asymptomatic carriers suggested that the gut microbiota may be a potential factor of disease state for CDI. Our study demonstrates the characterization and diversity of gut microbiota in CDI and asymptomatic C. difficile colonization, which will provide new ideas for surveillance of the disease state and development of microbiota-targeted agents for CDI prevention and treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Temporal changes and the effect of subtherapeutic concentrations of antibiotics in the gut microbiota of swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Devin B; Chénier, Martin R

    2014-12-01

    The use of antibiotics in swine production for the purpose of growth promotion dates back to the 1950s. Despite this long history of use, the exact mechanism(s) responsible for the growth-promoting effects of antibiotics in swine remain largely unknown. It is believed, however, that growth promotion is due to antibiotics having a direct impact on the gut microbiota. In this study, the effect of two antibiotics on the swine gut microbiota over a 19-week monitoring period was investigated using Illumina-based sequencing. A shift in the relative abundance of several taxa and in 26 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was observed in pigs fed subtherapeutic concentrations of tylosin (44-11 mg kg(-1) feed). Only minor alterations were noted with the administration of chlortetracycline at 5.5 mg kg(-1) feed. The most notable changes in the relative abundance of taxa and OTUs were noted between suckling piglets and postweaned pigs. Diversity was also reduced in the gut microbiota of suckling piglets as measured using the Shannon, Chao1, and phylogenetic diversity indices. These results show that the effect of antibiotics on the swine gut microbiota is variable based on dosage and duration and that the swine gut microbiota exhibits considerable resilience to long-term changes due to antibiotic perturbations. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Immune-modulatory genomic properties differentiate gut microbiota of infants with and without eczema

    KAUST Repository

    Oh, Seungdae

    2017-10-19

    Gut microbiota play an important role in human immunological processes, potentially affecting allergic diseases such as eczema. The diversity and structure of gut microbiota in infants with eczema have been previously documented. This study aims to evaluate by comparative metagenomics differences in genetic content in gut microbiota of infants with eczema and their matched controls. Stools were collected at the age of one month old from twelve infants from an at risk birth cohort in a case control manner. Clinical follow up for atopic outcomes were carried out at the age of 12 and 24 months. Microbial genomic DNA were extracted from stool samples and used for shotgun sequencing. Comparative metagenomic analysis showed that immune-regulatory TCAAGCTTGA motifs were significantly enriched in the six healthy controls (C) communities compared to the six eczema subjects (E), with many encoded by Bifidobacterium (38% of the total motifs in the C communities). Draft genomes of five Bifidobacterium species populations (B. longum, B. bifidum, B. breve, B. dentium, and B. pseudocatenulatum) were recovered from metagenomic datasets. The B. longum BFN-121-2 genome encoded more TCAAGCTTGA motifs (4.2 copies per one million genome sequence) than other Bifidobacterium genomes. Additionally, the communities in the stool of controls (C) were also significantly enriched in functions associated with tetrapyrrole biosynthesis compared to those of eczema (E). Our results show distinct immune-modulatory genomic properties of gut microbiota in infants associated with eczema and provide new insights into potential role of gut microbiota in affecting human immune homeostasis.

  5. Stress and the Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis in Visceral Pain: Relevance to Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, Rachel D; Johnson, Anthony C; O'Mahony, Siobhain M; Dinan, Timothy G; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley; Cryan, John F

    2016-02-01

    Visceral pain is a global term used to describe pain originating from the internal organs of the body, which affects a significant proportion of the population and is a common feature of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). While IBS is multifactorial, with no single etiology to completely explain the disorder, many patients also experience comorbid behavioral disorders, such as anxiety or depression; thus, IBS is described as a disorder of the gut-brain axis. Stress is implicated in the development and exacerbation of visceral pain disorders. Chronic stress can modify central pain circuitry, as well as change motility and permeability throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. More recently, the role of the gut microbiota in the bidirectional communication along the gut-brain axis, and subsequent changes in behavior, has emerged. Thus, stress and the gut microbiota can interact through complementary or opposing factors to influence visceral nociceptive behaviors. This review will highlight the evidence by which stress and the gut microbiota interact in the regulation of visceral nociception. We will focus on the influence of stress on the microbiota and the mechanisms by which microbiota can affect the stress response and behavioral outcomes with an emphasis on visceral pain. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The antihyperlipidemic effects of fullerenol nanoparticles via adjusting the gut microbiota in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Lei, Runhong; Li, Xin; Xiong, Fengxia; Zhang, Quanyang; Zhou, Yue; Yang, Shengmei; Chang, Yanan; Chen, Kui; Gu, Weihong; Wu, Chongming; Xing, Gengmei

    2018-01-17

    Nanoparticles (NPs) administered orally will meet the gut microbiota, but their impacts on microbiota homeostasis and the consequent physiological relevance remain largely unknown. Here, we describe the modulatory effects and the consequent pharmacological outputs of two orally administered fullerenols NPs (Fol1 C 60 (OH) 7 (O) 8 and Fol113 C 60 (OH) 11 (O) 6 ) on gut microbiota. Administration of Fol1 and Fol113 NPs for 4 weeks largely shifted the overall structure of gut microbiota in mice. The bacteria belonging to putative short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs)-producing genera were markedly increased by both NPs, especially Fol1. Dynamic analysis showed that major SCFAs-producers and key butyrate-producing gene were significantly enriched after treatment for 7-28 days. The fecal contents of SCFAs were consequently increased, which was accompanied by significant decreases of triglycerides and total cholesterol levels in the blood and liver, with Fol1 superior to Fol113. Under cultivation in vitro, fullerenols NPs can be degraded by gut flora and exhibited a similar capacity of inulin to promote SCFA-producing genera. The differential effects of Fol1 and Fol113 NPs on the microbiome may be attributable to their subtly varied surface structures. The two fullerenol NPs remarkably modulate the gut microbiota and selectively enrich SCFA-producing bacteria, which may be an important reason for their anti-hyperlipidemic effect in mice.

  7. Gut Microbiota: The Conductor in the Orchestra of Immune-Neuroendocrine Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Aidy, Sahar; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2015-05-01

    It is well established that mammals are so-called super-organisms that coexist with a complex microbiota. Growing evidence points to the delicacy of this host-microbe interplay and how disruptive interventions could have lifelong consequences. The goal of this article was to provide insights into the potential role of the gut microbiota in coordinating the immune-neuroendocrine cross-talk. Literature from a range of sources, including PubMed, Google Scholar, and MEDLINE, was searched to identify recent reports regarding the impact of the gut microbiota on the host immune and neuroendocrine systems in health and disease. The immune system and nervous system are in continuous communication to maintain a state of homeostasis. Significant gaps in knowledge remain regarding the effect of the gut microbiota in coordinating the immune-nervous systems dialogue. Recent evidence from experimental animal models found that stimulation of subsets of immune cells by the gut microbiota, and the subsequent cross-talk between the immune cells and enteric neurons, may have a major impact on the host in health and disease. Data from rodent models, as well as from a few human studies, suggest that the gut microbiota may have a major role in coordinating the communication between the immune and neuroendocrine systems to develop and maintain homeostasis. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The challenge now is to fully decipher the molecular mechanisms that link the gut microbiota, the immune system, and the neuroendocrine system in a network of communication to eventually translate these findings to the human situation, both in health and disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Broad spectrum antibiotic enrofloxacin modulates contact sensitivity through gut microbiota in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzępa, Anna; Majewska-Szczepanik, Monika; Lobo, Francis M; Wen, Li; Szczepanik, Marian

    2017-07-01

    Medical advances in the field of infection therapy have led to an increasing use of antibiotics, which, apart from eliminating pathogens, also partially eliminate naturally existing commensal bacteria. It has become increasingly clear that less exposure to microbiota early in life may contribute to the observed rise in "immune-mediated" diseases, including autoimmunity and allergy. We sought to test whether the change of gut microbiota with the broad spectrum antibiotic enrofloxacin will modulate contact sensitivity (CS) in mice. Natural gut microbiota were modified by oral treatment with enrofloxacin prior to sensitization with trinitrophenyl chloride followed by CS testing. Finally, adoptive cell transfers were performed to characterize the regulatory cells that are induced by microbiota modification. Oral treatment with enrofloxacin suppresses CS and production of anti-trinitrophenyl chloride IgG1 antibodies. Adoptive transfer experiments show that antibiotic administration favors induction of regulatory cells that suppress CS. Flow cytometry and adoptive transfer of purified cells show that antibiotic-induced suppression of CS is mediated by TCR αβ + CD4 + CD25 + FoxP3 + Treg, CD19 + B220 + CD5 + IL-10 + , IL-10 + Tr1, and IL-10 + TCR γδ + cells. Treatment with the antibiotic induces dysbiosis characterized by increased proportion of Clostridium coccoides (cluster XIVa), C coccoides-Eubacterium rectale (cluster XIVab), Bacteroidetes, and Bifidobacterium spp, but decreased segmented filamentous bacteria. Transfer of antibiotic-modified gut microbiota inhibits CS, but this response can be restored through oral transfer of control gut bacteria to antibiotic-treated animals. Oral treatment with a broad spectrum antibiotic modifies gut microbiota composition and promotes anti-inflammatory response, suggesting that manipulation of gut microbiota can be a powerful tool to modulate the course of CS. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology

  9. Active migration is associated with specific and consistent changes to gut microbiota in Calidris shorebirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risely, Alice; Waite, David W; Ujvari, Beata; Hoye, Bethany J; Klaassen, Marcel

    2018-03-01

    Gut microbes are increasingly recognised for their role in regulating an animal's metabolism and immunity. However, identifying repeatable associations between host physiological processes and their gut microbiota has proved challenging, in part because microbial communities often respond stochastically to host physiological stress (e.g. fasting, forced exercise or infection). Migratory birds provide a valuable system in which to test host-microbe interactions under physiological extremes because these hosts are adapted to predictable metabolic and immunological challenges as they undergo seasonal migrations, including temporary gut atrophy during long-distance flights. These physiological challenges may either temporarily disrupt gut microbial ecosystems, or, alternatively, promote predictable host-microbe associations during migration. To determine the relationship between migration and gut microbiota, we compared gut microbiota composition between migrating and non-migrating ("resident") conspecific shorebirds sharing a flock. We performed this across two sandpiper species, Calidris ferruginea and Calidris ruficollis, in north-western Australia, and an additional C. ruficollis population 3,000 km away in southern Australia. We found that migrants consistently had higher abundances of the bacterial genus Corynebacterium (average 28% abundance) compared to conspecific residents (average migration status accounting for only 1% of gut community variation when excluding Corynebacterium. Our findings suggest a consistent relationship between Corynebacterium and Calidris shorebirds during migration, with further research required to identify causal mechanisms behind the association, and to elucidate functionality to the host. However, outside this specific association, migrating shorebirds broadly maintained gut community structure, which may allow them to quickly recover gut function after a migratory flight. This study provides a rare example of a repeatable and

  10. The gut microbiota composition in dichorionic triplet sets suggests a role for host genetic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kiera; O' Shea, Carol Anne; Ryan, C Anthony; Dempsey, Eugene M; O' Toole, Paul W; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R Paul

    2015-01-01

    Monozygotic and dizygotic twin studies investigating the relative roles of host genetics and environmental factors in shaping gut microbiota composition have produced conflicting results. In this study, we investigated the gut microbiota composition of a healthy dichorionic triplet set. The dichorionic triplet set contained a pair of monozygotic twins and a fraternal sibling, with similar pre- and post-natal environmental conditions including feeding regime. V4 16S rRNA and rpoB amplicon pyrosequencing was employed to investigate microbiota composition, and the species and strain diversity of the culturable bifidobacterial population was also examined. At month 1, the monozygotic pair shared a similar microbiota distinct to the fraternal sibling. By month 12 however, the profile was more uniform between the three infants. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) of the microbiota composition revealed strong clustering of the monozygotic pair at month 1 and a separation of the fraternal infant. At months 2 and 3 the phylogenetic distance between the monozygotic pair and the fraternal sibling has greatly reduced and by month 12 the monozygotic pair no longer clustered separately from the fraternal infant. Pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis of the bifidobacterial population revealed a lack of strain diversity, with identical strains identified in all three infants at month 1 and 12. The microbiota of two antibiotic-treated dichorionic triplet sets was also investigated. Not surprisingly, in both triplet sets early life antibiotic administration appeared to be a major determinant of microbiota composition at month 1, irrespective of zygosity. By month 12, early antibiotic administration appeared to no longer exert such a strong influence on gut microbiota composition. We hypothesize that initially host genetics play a significant role in the composition of an individual's gut microbiota, unless an antibiotic intervention is given, but by month 12 environmental

  11. Gut instincts: microbiota as a key regulator of brain development, ageing and neurodegeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinan, Timothy G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract There is a growing realisation that the gut–brain axis and its regulation by the microbiota may play a key role in the biological and physiological basis of neurodevelopmental, age‐related and neurodegenerative disorders. The routes of communication between the microbiota and brain are being unravelled and include the vagus nerve, gut hormone signalling, the immune system, tryptophan metabolism or by way of microbial metabolites such as short chain fatty acids. The importance of early life gut microbiota in shaping future health outcomes is also emerging. Disturbances of this composition by way of antibiotic exposure, lack of breastfeeding, infection, stress and the environmental influences coupled with the influence of host genetics can result in long‐term effects on physiology and behaviour, at least in animal models. It is also worth noting that mode of delivery at birth influences microbiota composition with those born by Caesarean section having a distinctly different microbiota in early life to those born per vaginum. At the other extreme of life, ageing is associated with a narrowing in microbial diversity and healthy ageing correlates with a diverse microbiome. Recently, the gut microbiota has been implicated in a variety of conditions including depression, autism, schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. There is still considerable debate as to whether or not the gut microbiota changes are core to the pathophysiology of such conditions or are merely epiphenomenal. It is plausible that such neuropsychiatric disorders might be treated in the future by targeting the microbiota either by microbiota transplantation, antibiotics or psychobiotics. PMID:27641441

  12. The gut microbiota composition in dichorionic triplet sets suggests a role for host genetic factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiera Murphy

    Full Text Available Monozygotic and dizygotic twin studies investigating the relative roles of host genetics and environmental factors in shaping gut microbiota composition have produced conflicting results. In this study, we investigated the gut microbiota composition of a healthy dichorionic triplet set. The dichorionic triplet set contained a pair of monozygotic twins and a fraternal sibling, with similar pre- and post-natal environmental conditions including feeding regime. V4 16S rRNA and rpoB amplicon pyrosequencing was employed to investigate microbiota composition, and the species and strain diversity of the culturable bifidobacterial population was also examined. At month 1, the monozygotic pair shared a similar microbiota distinct to the fraternal sibling. By month 12 however, the profile was more uniform between the three infants. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA of the microbiota composition revealed strong clustering of the monozygotic pair at month 1 and a separation of the fraternal infant. At months 2 and 3 the phylogenetic distance between the monozygotic pair and the fraternal sibling has greatly reduced and by month 12 the monozygotic pair no longer clustered separately from the fraternal infant. Pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE analysis of the bifidobacterial population revealed a lack of strain diversity, with identical strains identified in all three infants at month 1 and 12. The microbiota of two antibiotic-treated dichorionic triplet sets was also investigated. Not surprisingly, in both triplet sets early life antibiotic administration appeared to be a major determinant of microbiota composition at month 1, irrespective of zygosity. By month 12, early antibiotic administration appeared to no longer exert such a strong influence on gut microbiota composition. We hypothesize that initially host genetics play a significant role in the composition of an individual's gut microbiota, unless an antibiotic intervention is given, but by

  13. Complex Interactions Among Diet, Gastrointestinal Transit, and Gut Microbiota in Humanized Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Purna C.; Marcobal, Angela; Ursell, Luke K.; Larauche, Muriel; Duboc, Henri; Earle, Kristen A.; Sonnenburg, Erica D.; Ferreyra, Jessica A.; Higginbottom, Steven K.; Million, Mulugeta; Tache, Yvette; Pasricha, Pankaj J.; Knight, Rob; Farrugia, Gianrico; Sonnenburg, Jusin l.

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aims Diet has major effects on the intestinal microbiota, but the exact mechanisms that alter complex microbial communities have been difficult to elucidate. In addition to the direct influence that diet exerts on microbes, changes in microbiota composition and function can alter host functions such as gastrointestinal (GI) transit time, which in turn can further affect the microbiota. Methods We investigated the relationships among diet, GI motility, and the intestinal microbiota using mice that are germ-free (GF) or humanized (ex-GF mice colonized with human fecal microbiota). Results Analysis of gut motility revealed that humanized mice fed a standard polysaccharide-rich diet had faster GI transit and increased colonic contractility compared with GF mice. Humanized mice with faster transit due to administration of polyethylene glycol or a nonfermentable cellulose-based diet had similar changes in gut microbiota composition, indicating that diet can modify GI transit, which then affects the composition of the microbial community. However, altered transit in mice fed a diet of fermentable fructooligosaccharide indicates that diet can change gut microbial function, which can affect GI transit. Conclusions Based on studies in humanized mice, diet can affect GI transit through microbiota-dependent or microbiota-independent pathways, depending on the type of dietary change. The effect of the microbiota on transit largely depends on the amount and type (fermentable vs non-fermentable) of polysaccharides present in the diet. These results have implications for disorders that affect GI transit and gut microbial communities, including irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:23380084

  14. Altered Gut Microbiota Composition and Immune Response in Experimental Steatohepatitis Mouse Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishioka, Mitsuaki; Miura, Kouichi; Minami, Shinichiro; Shimura, Yoichiro; Ohnishi, Hirohide

    2017-02-01

    Although several types of diet have been used in experimental steatohepatitis models, comparison of gut microbiota and immunological alterations in the gut among diets has not yet been performed. We attempted to clarify the difference in the gut environment between mice administrated several experimental diets. Male wild-type mice were fed a high-fat (HF) diet, a choline-deficient amino acid-defined (CDAA) diet, and a methionine-choline-deficient (MCD) diet for 8 weeks. We compared the severity of steatohepatitis, the composition of gut microbiota, and the intestinal expression of interleukin (IL)-17, an immune modulator. Steatohepatitis was most severe in the mice fed the CDAA diet, followed by the MCD diet, and the HF diet. Analysis of gut microbiota showed that the composition of the Firmicutes phylum differed markedly at order level between the mice fed the CDAA and HF diet. The CDAA diet increased the abundance of Clostridiales, while the HF diet increased that of lactate-producing bacteria. In addition, the CDAA diet decreased the abundance of lactate-producing bacteria and antiinflammatory bacterium Parabacteroides goldsteinii in the phylum Bacteroidetes. In CDAA-fed mice, IL-17 levels were increased in ileum as well as portal vein. In addition, the CDAA diet also elevated hepatic expression of chemokines, downstream targets of IL-17. The composition of gut microbiota and IL-17 expression varied considerably between mice administrated different experimental diets to induce steatohepatitis.

  15. Comprehensive phylogenetic diversity of [FeFe]-hydrogenase genes in termite gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hao; Bodington, Dylan; Zhang, Chong; Miyanaga, Kazuhiko; Tanji, Yasunori; Hongoh, Yuichi; Xing, Xin-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Phylogenetic diversity of [FeFe]-hydrogenase (HydA) in termite guts was assessed by pyrosequencing PCR amplicons obtained using newly designed primers. Of 8,066 reads, 776 hydA phylotypes, defined with 97% nucleotide sequence identity, were recovered from the gut homogenates of three termite species, Hodotermopsis sjoestedti, Reticulitermes speratus, and Nasutitermes takasagoensis. The phylotype coverage was 92-98%, and the majority shared only low identity with database sequences. It was estimated that 194-745 hydA phylotypes existed in the gut of each termite species. Our results demonstrate that hydA gene diversity in the termite gut microbiota is much higher than previously estimated.

  16. Influence of the gut microbiota on transcriptional regulation of genes involved in early life development of the intestinal mucus layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, Anders; Kristensen, Matilde Bylov; Metzdorff, Stine Broeng

    2010-01-01

    The interplay between the gut microbiota and the intestinal mucus layer is important both in the maintenance of the epithelial barrier as part of the innate immune defense, and in the conservation of gut homeostasis. Little is known about how the microbiota regulates mucin proteins, which protect...

  17. Influence of the gut microbiota on transcriptional regulation of genes involved in early life development of the intestinal mucus layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, Anders; Kristensen, Matilde Bylov; Metzdorff, Stine Broeng

    The interplay between the gut microbiota and the intestinal mucus layer is important both in the maintenance of the epithelial barrier as part of the innate immune defense, and in the conservation of gut homeostasis. Little is known about how the microbiota regulates mucin proteins, which protect...

  18. Habitat fragmentation is associated to gut microbiota diversity of an endangered primate: implications for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barelli, Claudia; Albanese, Davide; Donati, Claudio; Pindo, Massimo; Dallago, Chiara; Rovero, Francesco; Cavalieri, Duccio; Tuohy, Kieran Michael; Hauffe, Heidi Christine; De Filippo, Carlotta

    2015-10-07

    The expansion of agriculture is shrinking pristine forest areas worldwide, jeopardizing the persistence of their wild inhabitants. The Udzungwa red colobus monkey (Procolobus gordonorum) is among the most threatened primate species in Africa. Primarily arboreal and highly sensitive to hunting and habitat destruction, they provide a critical model to understanding whether anthropogenic disturbance impacts gut microbiota diversity. We sampled seven social groups inhabiting two forests (disturbed vs. undisturbed) in the Udzungwa Mountains of Tanzania. While Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae dominated in all individuals, reflecting their role in extracting energy from folivorous diets, analysis of genus composition showed a marked diversification across habitats, with gut microbiota α-diversity significantly higher in the undisturbed forest. Functional analysis suggests that such variation may be associated with food plant diversity in natural versus human-modified habitats, requiring metabolic pathways to digest xenobiotics. Thus, the effects of changes in gut microbiota should not be ignored to conserve endangered populations.

  19. Innate sensing of the gut microbiota: modulation of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline eIgnacio

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian gastrointestinal tract harbors a diverse microbial community with which dynamic interactions have been established over millennia of co-evolution. Commensal bacteria and their products are sensed by innate receptors expressed in gut epithelia and in gut-associated immune cells thereby promoting the proper development of mucosal immune system and host homeostasis. Many studies have demonstrated that host-microbiota interactions play a key role during local and systemic immunity. Therefore, this review will focus on how innate sensing of the gut-microbiota and their metabolites through inflammasome and toll-like receptors impact the modulation of a distinct set of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. We believe that a better understanding of the fine-tuning that governs host-microbiota interactions will further improve common prophylactic and therapeutic applications.

  20. Effects of obesity on depression: A role for inflammation and the gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachter, Julieta; Martel, Jan; Lin, Chuan-Sheng; Chang, Chih-Jung; Wu, Tsung-Ru; Lu, Chia-Chen; Ko, Yun-Fei; Lai, Hsin-Chih; Ojcius, David M; Young, John D

    2018-03-01

    Depression is a mental disorder associated with environmental, genetic and psychological factors. Recent studies indicate that chronic neuro-inflammation may affect brain physiology and alter mood and behavior. Consumption of a high-fat diet leads to obesity and chronic systemic inflammation. The gut microbiota mediates many effects of a high-fat diet on human physiology and may also influence the mood and behavior of the host. We review here recent studies suggesting the existence of a link between obesity, the gut microbiota and depression, focusing on the mechanisms underlying the effects of a high-fat diet on chronic inflammation and brain physiology. This body of research suggests that modulating the composition of the gut microbiota using prebiotics and probiotics may produce beneficial effects on anxiety and depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Gut microbiota, microinflammation, metabolic profile, and zonulin concentration in obese and normal weight subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak-Gołąb, Agnieszka; Kocełak, Piotr; Aptekorz, Małgorzata; Zientara, Maria; Juszczyk, Lukasz; Martirosian, Gayane; Chudek, Jerzy; Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    The association between gut microbiota and circulating zonulin level, a marker of intestinal permeability, has not been studied yet. The aim of the study is the assessment of plasma zonulin, haptoglobin and proinflammatory cytokines (TNF- α and IL-6) levels in relation to composition of gut microbiota in obese and normal weight subjects. Circulating inflammation markers, such as TNF- α , sTNFR1, sTNFR2, IL-6, zonulin, and haptoglobin levels were measured and semiquantitative analysis of gut microbiota composition was carried out in 50 obese and 30 normal weight subjects without concomitant diseases. Higher circulating zonulin, TNF- α , sTNFR1, sTNFR2, and IL-6 levels were found in the obese subjects. Plasma zonulin level correlated positively with age (r = 0.43, P zonulin (r = 0.26, P zonulin level was proportional to daily energy intake (r = 0.27, P zonulin level, a potential marker of interstitial permeability.

  2. Unraveling the environmental and genetic interactions in atherosclerosis: Central role of the gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Org, Elin; Mehrabian, Margarete; Lusis, Aldons J

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies have convincingly linked gut microbiota to traits relevant to atherosclerosis, such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and inflammation, and have revealed novel disease pathways involving microbe-derived metabolites. These results have important implications for understanding how environmental and genetic factors act together to influence cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Thus, dietary constituents are not only absorbed and metabolized by the host but they also perturb the gut microbiota, which in turn influence host metabolism and inflammation. It also appears that host genetics helps to shape the gut microbiota community. Here, we discuss challenges in understanding these interactions and the role they play in CVD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Gut microbiota contributes to the growth of fast-growing transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Li

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota has shown tight and coordinated connection with various functions of its host such as metabolism, immunity, energy utilization, and health maintenance. To gain insight into whether gut microbes affect the metabolism of fish, we employed fast-growing transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. to study the connections between its large body feature and gut microbes. Metagenome-based fingerprinting and high-throughput sequencing on bacterial 16S rRNA genes indicated that fish gut was dominated by Proteobacteria, Fusobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, which displayed significant differences between transgenic fish and wild-type controls. Analyses to study the association of gut microbes with the fish metabolism discovered three major phyla having significant relationships with the host metabolic factors. Biochemical and histological analyses indicated transgenic fish had increased carbohydrate but decreased lipid metabolisms. Additionally, transgenic fish has a significantly lower Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio than that of wild-type controls, which is similar to mammals between obese and lean individuals. These findings suggest that gut microbiotas are associated with the growth of fast growing transgenic fish, and the relative abundance of Firmicutes over Bacteroidetes could be one of the factors contributing to its fast growth. Since the large body size of transgenic fish displays a proportional body growth, which is unlike obesity in human, the results together with the findings from others also suggest that the link between obesity and gut microbiota is likely more complex than a simple Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio change.

  4. Complexity and variability of gut commensal microbiota in polyphagous lepidopteran larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoshu Tang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The gut of most insects harbours nonpathogenic microorganisms. Recent work suggests that gut microbiota not only provide nutrients, but also involve in the development and maintenance of the host immune system. However, the complexity, dynamics and types of interactions between the insect hosts and their gut microbiota are far from being well understood. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To determine the composition of the gut microbiota of two lepidopteran pests, Spodoptera littoralis and Helicoverpa armigera, we applied cultivation-independent techniques based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing and microarray. The two insect species were very similar regarding high abundant bacterial families. Different bacteria colonize different niches within the gut. A core community, consisting of Enterococci, Lactobacilli, Clostridia, etc. was revealed in the insect larvae. These bacteria are constantly present in the digestion tract at relatively high frequency despite that developmental stage and diet had a great impact on shaping the bacterial communities. Some low-abundant species might become dominant upon loading external disturbances; the core community, however, did not change significantly. Clearly the insect gut selects for particular bacterial phylotypes. CONCLUSIONS: Because of their importance as agricultural pests, phytophagous Lepidopterans are widely used as experimental models in ecological and physiological studies. Our results demonstrated that a core microbial community exists in the insect gut, which may contribute to the host physiology. Host physiology and food, nevertheless, significantly influence some fringe bacterial species in the gut. The gut microbiota might also serve as a reservoir of microorganisms for ever-changing environments. Understanding these interactions might pave the way for developing novel pest control strategies.

  5. Characterisation of the gut microbiota in three porcine models of obesity and metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rebecca

    in three different breeds of pigs that were used as models of obesity: the domestic Danish pig (Landrace x Yorkshire), Göttingen minipigs and Ossabaw minipigs. The L x Y pigs were divided into two groups; cloned pigs‐ and noncloned pigs used as the control group for the cloned pigs. The gut microbiota...... affects the gut microbiota differently than normal chow as observed in cloned/non‐cloned L x Y pigs, Ossabaw and Göttingen minipigs, respectively....... minipigs was characterised by significantly higher abundances of Spirochaetes, Tenericutes and Verrucomicrobia at phyla level than the lean Göttingen minipigs’ cecal microbiota. Generally, most of the differences in bacterial groups were observed in cecal microbiota. Based on qPCR, there was 7.6‐fold more...

  6. Intestinal Dysbiosis and Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Link between Gut Microbiota and the Pathogenesis of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Horta-Baas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Characterization and understanding of gut microbiota has recently increased representing a wide research field, especially in autoimmune diseases. Gut microbiota is the major source of microbes which might exert beneficial as well as pathogenic effects on human health. Intestinal microbiome’s role as mediator of inflammation has only recently emerged. Microbiota has been observed to differ in subjects with early rheumatoid arthritis compared to controls, and this finding has commanded this study as a possible autoimmune process. Studies with intestinal microbiota have shown that rheumatoid arthritis is characterized by an expansion and/or decrease of bacterial groups as compared to controls. In this review, we present evidence linking intestinal dysbiosis with the autoimmune mechanisms involved in the development of rheumatoid arthritis.

  7. Recent developments in understanding the role of the gut microbiota in brain health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwin, Eoin; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2017-08-02

    There is a growing appreciation of the role of the gut microbiota in all aspects of health and disease, including brain health. Indeed, roles for the bacterial commensals in various psychiatric and neurological conditions, such as depression, autism, stroke, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease, are emerging. Microbiota dysregulation has been documented in all of these conditions or in animal models thereof. Moreover, depletion or modulation of the gut microbiota can affect the severity of the central pathology or behavioral deficits observed in a variety of brain disorders. However, the mechanisms underlying such effects are only slowly being unraveled. Additionally, recent preclinical and clinical evidence suggest that targeting the microbiota through prebiotic, probiotic, or dietary interventions may be an effective "psychobiotic" strategy for treating symptoms in mood, neurodevelopmental disorders, and neurodegenerative diseases. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  8. Administration of two probiotic strains during early childhood does not affect the endogenous gut microbiota composition despite probiotic proliferation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Laursen, Rikke Pilmann; Larnkjær, Anni

    2017-01-01

    Probiotics are increasingly applied to prevent and treat a range of infectious, immune related and gastrointestinal diseases. Despite this, the mechanisms behind the putative effects of probiotics are poorly understood. One of the suggested modes of probiotic action is modulation of the endogenous...... gut microbiota, however probiotic intervention studies in adults have failed to show significant effects on gut microbiota composition. The gut microbiota of young children is known to be unstable and more responsive to external factors than that of adults. Therefore, potential effects of probiotic...... intervention on gut microbiota may be easier detectable in early life. We thus investigated the effects of a 6 month placebo-controlled probiotic intervention with Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (BB-12®) and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LGG®) on gut microbiota composition and diversity in more than 200...

  9. The role of gut microbiota in the development of type 1, type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Ningwen; Wong, F Susan; Wen, Li

    2015-03-01

    Diabetes is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by persistent hyperglycemia and has become a major public health concern. Autoimmune type 1 diabetes (T1D) and insulin resistant type 2 diabetes (T2D) are the two main types. A combination of genetic and environmental factors contributes to the development of these diseases. Gut microbiota have emerged recently as an essential player in the development of T1D, T2D and obesity. Altered gut microbiota have been strongly linked to disease in both rodent models and humans. Both classic 16S rRNA sequencing and shot-gun metagenomic pyrosequencing analysis have been successfully applied to explore the gut microbiota composition and functionality. This review focuses on the association between gut microbiota and diabetes and discusses the potential mechanisms by which gut microbiota regulate disease development in T1D, T2D and obesity.

  10. Dietary magnesium deficiency affects gut microbiota and anxiety-like behaviour in C57BL/6N mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyndt Jørgensen, Bettina; Winther, Gudrun; Kihl, Pernille; Nielsen, Dennis S; Wegener, Gregers; Hansen, Axel K; Sørensen, Dorte B

    2015-10-01

    Magnesium deficiency has been associated with anxiety in humans, and rodent studies have demonstrated the gut microbiota to impact behaviour. We investigated the impact of 6 weeks of dietary magnesium deficiency on gut microbiota composition and anxiety-like behaviour and whether there was a link between the two. A total of 20 C57BL/6 mice, fed either a standard diet or a magnesium-deficient diet for 6 weeks, were tested using the light-dark box anxiety test. Gut microbiota composition was analysed by denaturation gradient gel electrophoresis. We demonstrated that the gut microbiota composition correlated significantly with the behaviour of dietary unchallenged mice. A magnesium-deficient diet altered the gut microbiota, and was associated with altered anxiety-like behaviour, measured by decreased latency to enter the light box. Magnesium deficiency altered behavior. The duration of magnesium deficiency is suggested to influence behaviour in the evaluated test.

  11. Through ageing, and beyond: gut microbiota and inflammatory status in seniors and centenarians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Biagi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Age-related physiological changes in the gastrointestinal tract, as well as modifications in lifestyle, nutritional behaviour, and functionality of the host immune system, inevitably affect the gut microbiota, resulting in a greater susceptibility to infections. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By using the Human Intestinal Tract Chip (HITChip and quantitative PCR of 16S rRNA genes of Bacteria and Archaea, we explored the age-related differences in the gut microbiota composition among young adults, elderly, and centenarians, i.e subjects who reached the extreme limits of the human lifespan, living for over 100 years. We observed that the microbial composition and diversity of the gut ecosystem of young adults and seventy-years old people is highly similar but differs significantly from that of the centenarians. After 100 years of symbiotic association with the human host, the microbiota is characterized by a rearrangement in the Firmicutes population and an enrichment in facultative anaerobes, notably pathobionts. The presence of such a compromised microbiota in the centenarians is associated with an increased inflammatory status, also known as inflammageing, as determined by a range of peripheral blood inflammatory markers. This may be explained by a remodelling of the centenarians' microbiota, with a marked decrease in Faecalibacterium prauznitzii and relatives, symbiotic species with reported anti-inflammatory properties. As signature bacteria of the long life we identified specifically Eubacterium limosum and relatives that were more than ten-fold increased in the centenarians. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We provide evidence for the fact that the ageing process deeply affects the structure of the human gut microbiota, as well as its homeostasis with the host's immune system. Because of its crucial role in the host physiology and health status, age-related differences in the gut microbiota composition may be related to the

  12. Effects of oral florfenicol and azithromycin on gut microbiota and adipogenesis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Wang, Hexing; Shi, Qingfeng; Wang, Na; Zhang, Zhijie; Xiong, Chenglong; Liu, Jianxiang; Chen, Yue; Jiang, Lufang; Jiang, Qingwu

    2017-01-01

    Certain antibiotics detected in urine are associated with childhood obesity. In the current experimental study, we investigated two representative antibiotics detected in urine, florfenicol and azithromycin, for their early effects on adipogenesis, gut microbiota, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and bile acids in mice. Thirty C57BL/6 mice aged four weeks were randomly divided into three groups (florfenicol, azithromycin and control). The two experimental groups were administered florfenicol or azithromycin at 5 mg/kg/day for four weeks. Body weight was measured weekly. The composition of the gut microbiota, body fat, SCFAs, and bile acids in colon contents were measured at the end of the experiment. The composition of the gut microbiota was determined by sequencing the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. The concentration of SCFAs and bile acids was determined using gas chromatography and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, respectively. The composition of the gut microbiota indicated that the two antibiotics altered the gut microbiota composition and decreased its richness and diversity. At the phylum level, the ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes increased significantly in the antibiotic groups. At the genus level, there were declines in Christensenella, Gordonibacter and Anaerotruncus in the florfenicol group, in Lactobacillus in the azithromycin group, and in Alistipes, Desulfovibrio, Parasutterella and Rikenella in both the antibiotic groups. The decrease in Rikenella in the azithromycin group was particularly noticeable. The concentration of SCFAs and secondary bile acids decreased in the colon, but the concentration of primary bile acids increased. These findings indicated that florfenicol and azithromycin increased adipogenesis and altered gut microbiota composition, SCFA production, and bile acid metabolism, suggesting that exposure to antibiotics might be one risk factor for childhood obesity. More studies are needed to investigate the specific

  13. Effects of oral florfenicol and azithromycin on gut microbiota and adipogenesis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Li

    Full Text Available Certain antibiotics detected in urine are associated with childhood obesity. In the current experimental study, we investigated two representative antibiotics detected in urine, florfenicol and azithromycin, for their early effects on adipogenesis, gut microb