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Sample records for intravenously injected water

  1. Intentional intravenous mercury injection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this case report, intravenous complications, treatment strategies and possible ... Mercury toxicity is commonly associated with vapour inhalation or oral ingestion, for which there exist definite treatment options. Intravenous mercury ... personality, anxiousness, irritability, insomnia, depression and drowsi- ness.[1] However ...

  2. Intentional intravenous mercury injection | Yudelowitz | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intravenous mercury injection is rarely seen, with few documented cases. Treatment strategies are not clearly defined for such cases, although a few options do show benefit. This case report describes a 29-year-old man suffering from bipolar disorder, who presented following self-inflicted intravenous injection of mercury.

  3. Tritium retention in the femoral bone marrow and spleens of mice receiving single intravenous injections of tritiated water and tritiated thymidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshima, Hisamasa; Matsushita, Satoru; Fukutsu, Kumiko; Kashima, Masatoshi

    1987-01-01

    To derive parameters necessary for evaluating the possible hazards of tritium, retention of tritium in total and TCA-insoluble fractions of the femoral marrow and spleen of mice were observed after single intravenous injections of tritiated water and tritiated thymidine. Retention curves of tritium in TCA-insoluble fractions of the femoral marrow and spleen were resolved fairly well into two exponential components. After injecting tritiated thymidine, most of the activity was detected in the TCA-insoluble fraction. Tritium in this fraction decreased with half-times of 2.2 days in the femoral marrow and 3.6 days in the spleen as the first component, and 23.9 days and 30.5 days, respectively, as the second component. After tritiated water injections, the tritium incorporated into the TCA-insoluble fraction was quite small. Most of the activity was considered to be in the TCA-soluble fraction. Tritium in this fraction was estimated to decrease with half-times of 2.6 days in the femoral marrow and 2.3 days in the spleen as the first component, and 8.0 days and 8.2 days, respectively, as the second component. It is concluded that the retention curves of tritium in the bone marrow are similar to those in the spleen for tritiated water, but not for tritiated thymidine. (author)

  4. Intravenous injection of ioxilan, iohexol and diatrizoate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, H.S.; Dorph, S.; Mygind, T.; Sovak, M.; Nielsen, H.; Rygaard, H.; Larsen, S.; Skaarup, P.; Hemmingsen, L.; Holm, J.

    Effects of intravenous ioxilan, a new third generation non-ionic contrast medium, diatrizoate, iohexol and saline on urine profiles were compared. Albumin, glucose, sodium, phosphate, and the enzymes NAG, LDH and GGT were followed in 24 normal rats over 7 days. Diatrizoate significantly affected all profile components during the first two hours. Albuminuria was significantly greater after diatrizoate than after iohexol or ioxilan, and excretion of glucose, LDH and GGT was significantly higher than after ioxilan. Both iohexol and ioxilan increased the excretion of albumin, LDH and GGT, while iohexol also significantly increased excretion of glucose and sodium. There was a greater excretion of glucose and GGT after iohexol than after ioxilan. Saline did not induce any changes. At day 7, serum sodium, urea, creatinine, and albumin were normal for all test substances, and kidney histology revealed no difference between the groups of animals. It is thus concluded that both high osmolar ionic and low osmolar non-ionic contrast media may cause temporary glomerular and tubular dysfunction in rats. In this model, the kidney is affected most by diatrizoate, less by iohexol, and least by ioxilan.

  5. [Reducing fear in preschool children receiving intravenous injections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yi-Chuan; Liu, Hui-Tzu; Cho, Yen-Hua

    2012-06-01

    Our pediatric medical ward administers an average of 80 intravenous injections to preschool children. We found that 91.1% exhibit behavior indicative of fear and anxiety. Over three-quarters (77.8%) of this number suffer severe fear and actively resist receiving injections. Such behavior places a greater than normal burden on human and material resources and often gives family members negative impressions that lower their trust in the healthcare service while raising nurse-patient tensions. Using observation and interviews, we found primary factors in injection fear to be: Past negative experiences, lack of adequate prior communication, measures taken to preemptively control child resistance, and default cognitive behavioral strategies from nursing staff. This project worked to develop a strategy to reduce cases of severe injection fear in preschool children from 77.8% to 38.9% and achieve a capacity improvement target for members of 50%. Our team identified several potential strategy solutions from research papers and books between August 1st, 2009 and April 30th, 2010. Our proposed method included therapeutic games, self-selection of injection position, and cognitive behavioral strategies to divert attention. Other measures were also specified as standard operating procedures for administering pediatric intravenous injections. We applied the strategy on 45 preschool children and identified a post-injection "severe fear" level of 37.8%. This project was designed to reduce fear in children to make them more accepting of vaccinations and to enhance children's positive treatment experience in order to raise nursing care quality.

  6. Suicide by intravenous injection of rocuronium-bromide: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Slobodan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Suicides by intravenous injection of an overdose of medicaments are uncommon. In this paper, we present the case of a suicide by rocuronium-bromide injection in combination with an oral overdose of metoprolol. Unfortunately, in Belgrade, there is no toxicological laboratory capable of detecting rocuronium. The interpretation of autopsy and toxicological data in this case was made difficult due to the extreme putrefaction of the body of the deceased. So, by forensic investigation, the case was solved indirectly, through circumstantial evidence: an empty ampoule of rocuronium found near the body, as well as a plastic syringe and cloth-bandage found in the left hand of the deceased.

  7. Home Intravenous Self-Injection of Antibiotic Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Y Martel

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The current medical climate has forced all health care providers to search for alternative methods for the delivery of health care. This search has led to the use of sites outside the conventional hospital walls for peritoneal dialysis, parenteral hyperalimentation, blood or blood product transfusions, etc. Home intravenous self-injection of antibiotics is such an alternative to prolonged and/or repeated hospitalization for patients requiring intravenous antibiotics administration only. This alternative was started as a pilot study and soon became a usual service in the Centre hospitalier de l’Université Laval following receipt of a grant from the National Health Research and Development Program. After careful development of inclusion/exclusion criteria and a teaching manual for patient and health care providers. and the standardization of medical. pharmaceutical and nursing approach, a clinical, psychosocial and economical analysis of patients who agreed to participate in a clinical study comparing the two methods of health care delivery (hospital versus home was started. Patients who met inclusion/exclusion criteria, agreeing to finish their treatment at home instead of staying hospitalized to receive intravenous antibiotics only, were taught the various techniques of intravenous self-injection. Once they were judged to be able to self-administer the antibiotics, they were sent home with the material needed to carry on their treatment, To date, more than 100 patients have participated in the home-treatment, of which 50 were analyzed. The duration of home treatment varied from two days to several months. Most patients had osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, septic bursitis, bacterial cellulitis or lung infections. The therapy allowed some newly defined patients with complicated infections (AIDS patients with cytomegalovirus retinitis to continue their treatment at home. The clinical outcome of patients treated at home was identical to the

  8. Inadvertent epidural injection of drugs for intravenous use. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, A; Verelst, P; van Zundert, A

    2012-01-01

    The frequency of inadvertent injection of drugs in the epidural space is probably underestimated and underreported, but it can cause serious morbidity and possibly mortality. The aim of this review is to collate reported incidents of this type, to describe the potential mechanisms of occurrence and to identify possible therapeutic solutions. We searched into medical databases and reviewed reference lists of papers retrieved. A list is reported of more than 50 drugs that were inadvertently injected into the epidural space. This list includes drugs which produce no, little or short-lasting neurological deficits, but also includes drugs that may be more etching and can result in temporary or even permanent neurological deficit. Most drugs do not lead to sequelae other than pain during injection or transient neurological complaints. Other drugs may have more deleterious consequences, such as paraplegia. Both the dose of the inadvertent injected drug and the time frame play an important role in the patient's outcome. "Syringe swap", "ampoule error", and epidural/intravenous line confusion due to inaccurate or absent colour coding of epidural catheters were the main sources of error. Preventive strategies, including non Luer-lock epidural injection ports, might increase safety.

  9. Water injection dredging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.

    2000-01-01

    Some twenty years ago WIS-dredging has been developed in the Netherlands. By injecting water into the mud layer, the water content of the mud becomes higher, it becomes fluid mud and will start to flow. The advantages of this system are that there is no need of transporting the mud in a hopper, and

  10. Reactor water injection facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Kazuhiro; Kinoshita, Shoichiro

    1997-05-02

    A steam turbine and an electric generator are connected by way of a speed convertor. The speed convertor is controlled so that the number of rotation of the electric generator is constant irrespective of the speed change of the steam turbine. A shaft coupler is disposed between the turbine and the electric generator or between the turbine and a water injection pump. With such a constitution, the steam turbine and the electric generator are connected by way of the speed convertor, and since the number of revolution of the electric generator is controlled to be constant, the change of the number of rotation of the turbine can be controlled irrespective of the change of the number of rotation of the electric generator. Accordingly, the flow rate of the injection water from the water injection pump to a reactor pressure vessel can be controlled freely thereby enabling to supply stable electric power. (T.M.)

  11. Clinical finding and outcome in suicidal attempt due to intravenous injection of kerosene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Aref Hosseinian; Tarrahi, Mohammad Javad; Rafiei, Alireza

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the clinical findings and outcome in suicidal attempted due to intravenous injection of kerosene. This case series study was conducted in the Department of Internal Medicine, Shohada Ashayer Hospital, Khorramabad, Iran during 8 years. Ten IV drug addicts who intravenously injected themselves with Kerosene were collected. All patients admitted in ICU, completely monitored for cardiopulmonary status and consulted with pulmonologist, cardiologist, neurologist, anesthesiologist and dermatologist. Therapeutic decision including intubation, antibiotics therapy, and oxygen, correction of water and electrolyte disturbances was applied according patients condition. The data were analyzed with fisher-exact test. Nine (90%) patients were male, 1(10%) was female. All cases were attempted suicides and IV drug abusers. Mean age was 20.3 +/- 2 years. The patients' mean arrival time to the hospital after poisoning was 1.1 h. Death of 5(50%) patients was related to the higher doses (>5 mL) of intravenous injection of kerosene, the most clinical findings were related to pulmonary involvement with pulmonary edema and subsequent cardiac and neurological complications and phlebitis due to IV injection. Intravenous kerosene injection causes major injury to the lungs, the organ bearing the first capillary bed encountered. Other complications including cardiac and neurological seems to be related to severe hypoxia and other metabolic disturbances due to lung injury. The amounts of kerosene were major determinants of lethality. Early and aggressive supportive care might be conducive to a favorable outcome with minimal residual pulmonary squeal at least in patients with injection of less than 5 mL of kerosene.

  12. Concentration of plutonium in hair following intravenous injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toohey, R.E.; Cacic, C.G.; Oldham, R.D.; Larsen, R.P.

    1979-01-01

    The concentration of plutonium has been determined along the length of the hair of a female subject who received 11.1 kBq (0.3 μCi) of 239 Pu by intravenous injection in 1945. The subject succumbed to her preexisting illness 518 days post-injection. The growth rate of hair given for females in ICRP is 0.36 mm/day, and so a half-length of 43 +- 9 mm corresponds to a half-time of 120 +- 25 days. However, since plutonium was found in the most distal portion of the hair, an average growth rate of at least 280 mm/518 days, or 0.54 mm/ day is indicated for this individual. This value yields a half-time of 80 +- 20 days for the long-lived component of plutonium concentration in the hair and therefore also in the blood. This half-time is in excellent agreement with that of 88 +- 13 days found for the plutonium injection cases

  13. Modelling Framework and Assistive Device for Peripheral Intravenous Injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Kin F.; Robinson, Martin P.; Gilbert, Mathew A.; Pelah, Adar

    2016-02-01

    Intravenous access for blood sampling or drug administration that requires peripheral venepuncture is perhaps the most common invasive procedure practiced in hospitals, clinics and general practice surgeries.We describe an idealised mathematical framework for modelling the dynamics of the peripheral venepuncture process. Basic assumptions of the model are confirmed through motion analysis of needle trajectories during venepuncture, taken from video recordings of a skilled practitioner injecting into a practice kit. The framework is also applied to the design and construction of a proposed device for accurate needle guidance during venepuncture administration, assessed as consistent and repeatable in application and does not lead to over puncture. The study provides insights into the ubiquitous peripheral venepuncture process and may contribute to applications in training and in the design of new devices, including for use in robotic automation.

  14. The intravenous injection of illicit drugs and needle sharing: an historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zule, W A; Vogtsberger, K N; Desmond, D P

    1997-01-01

    This study reviewed the literature on the history of needle sharing and intravenous drug abuse. Reports suggest that needle sharing was practiced by drug abusers as early as 1902 in China and 1914 in the United States. Intravenous drug abuse was first mentioned in the literature in 1925. However other references suggest that some opioid users were injecting intravenously prior to 1920. Outbreaks of malaria in Egypt, the United States, and China between 1929 and 1937 were attributed to needle sharing and intravenous injection of opioids. These reports suggest that both needle sharing and intravenous drug use were common by 1937. Factors such as medical use of intravenous injections, enactment and zealous enforcement of antinarcotic laws, and interactions among drug users in institutional settings such as regional hospitals and prisons may have contributed to the spread of both needle sharing and the intravenous technique among drug abusers.

  15. Intravenous Poison Hemlock Injection Resulting in Prolonged Respiratory Failure and Encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brtalik, Douglas; Stopyra, Jason; Hannum, Jennifer

    2017-06-01

    Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum) is a common plant with a significant toxicity. Data on this toxicity is sparse as there have been few case reports and never a documented poisoning after intravenous injection. We present a case of intravenous poison hemlock injection encountered in the emergency department. We describe a 30-year-old male who presented to the emergency department after a brief cardiac arrest after injecting poison hemlock. The patient had return of spontaneous circulation in the emergency department but had prolonged muscular weakness and encephalopathy later requiring tracheostomy. Intravenous injection of poison hemlock alkaloids can result in significant toxicity, including cardiopulmonary arrest, prolonged weakness, and encephalopathy.

  16. Diminished osmotic fragility of mouse erythrocytes following intravenous injection of polymeric plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshima, Hisamasa; Kashima, Masatoshi; Matsuoka, Osamu

    1984-01-01

    Changes in the osmotic fragility and the mean corpuscular diameter of erythrocytes in CFNo.1/Nrs male mice caused by internal irradiation with polymeric 239 Pu at the dose levels of 15 μCi/kg, 10 μCi/kg and 5 μCi/kg were studied at 28 and 56 days after intravenous injection of plutonium. At 56 days after injection of plutonium, osmotic fragility curves were found to shift toward lower NaCl concentration in proportion to the amount of plutonium injected, which indicated the reduction of osmotic fragility. The size distribution curves of erythrocytes were slightly shifted toward larger size, depending on the amount of plutonium injected. Mean corpuscular diameter of erythrocytes in the highest dose group was significantly larger than that of control group. Mean corpuscular thickness of erythrocytes in plutonium injected groups was not different from that of control group. The increase in the mean corpuscular diameter-to-thickness ratio might allow the erythrocyte to accumulate a larger volume of water in a hypotonic environment before reaching the critical hemolytic volume. In the present study, it was concluded that the increased diameter-to-thickness ratio of erythrocytes could be related to the diminished osmotic fragility of erythrocytes in animals given polymeric plutonium. (author)

  17. Gallium-67 detection of intramammary injection sites secondary to intravenous drug abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swayne, L.C. (Morristown Memorial Hospital, NJ (USA))

    1989-09-01

    A case of gallium localization within the breast occurred secondary to intravenous drug abuse. In the appropriate clinical setting, prior self-administered injections should be considered as a cause of Ga-67 accumulation at unusual sites.

  18. Gallium-67 detection of intramammary injection sites secondary to intravenous drug abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swayne, L.C.

    1989-01-01

    A case of gallium localization within the breast occurred secondary to intravenous drug abuse. In the appropriate clinical setting, prior self-administered injections should be considered as a cause of Ga-67 accumulation at unusual sites

  19. Microcosting Study of Rituximab Subcutaneous Injection Versus Intravenous Infusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihajloviç, Jovan; Bax, Pieter; van Breugel, Erwin; Blommestein, Hedwig M.; Hoogendoorn, Mels; Hospes, Wobbe; Postma, Maarten J.

    Purpose: The goal of this study is to identify and compare all direct costs of intravenous and subcutaneous rituximab given to patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in the Netherlands.  Methods: Using a prospective, observational, bottom-up microcosting study, we collected primary data on the

  20. Compatibility and Stability of VARUBI (Rolapitant) Injectable Emulsion Admixed with Intravenous Palonosetron Hydrochloride Injection and Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, George; Powers, Dan; Yeung, Stanley; Chen, Frank

    2018-01-01

    Prophylaxis or therapy with a combination of a neurokinin 1 (NK-1) receptor antagonist (RA), a 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT3) RA, and dexamethasone is recommended by international antiemesis guidelines for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting for patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy and for selected patients receiving moderately emetogenic chemotherapy. VARUBI (rolapitant) is a substance P/NK-1 RA that was recently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration as an injectable emulsion in combination with other antiemetic agents in adults for the prevention of delayed nausea and vomiting associated with initial and repeat courses of emetogenic cancer chemotherapy, including, but not limited to, highly emetogenic chemotherapy. Palonosetron is one of the 5-HT3 RAs indicated for the prevention of nausea and/or vomiting associated with initial and repeat courses of emetogenic cancer therapy, including high-dose cisplatin. Herein, we describe the physical and chemical compatibility and stability of VARUBI injectable emulsion (166.5 mg/92.5 mL [1.8 mg/mL, free base], equivalent to 185 mg of rolapitant hydrochloride) admixed with palonosetron injection 0.25 mg free base in 5 mL (equivalent to 0.28 mg hydrochloride salt) and with either 5 mL (20 mg) or 2.5 mL (10 mg) of dexamethasone sodium phosphate. Admixtures were prepared and stored in VARUBI injectable emulsion ready-to-use glass vials as supplied by the rolapitant manufacturer and in four types of commonly used intravenous administration (tubing) sets. Assessment of the physical and chemical compatibility and stability of the admixtures in the VARUBI ready-to-use vials stored at room temperature (20°C to 25°C) under fluorescent light and under refrigeration (2°C to 8°C protected from light) was conducted at 0, 1, 6, 24, and 48 hours, and that of the admixtures in the intravenous tubing sets was evaluated at 0, 2, and 6 hours of storage at 20°C to 25°C. Physical stability

  1. Intravenous dexketoprofen induces less injection pain than racemic ketoprofen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjövall, S; Kokki, M; Nokela, A; Halinen, L; Turunen, M; Kokki, H

    2015-08-01

    Ketoprofen has high analgesic efficacy against inflammatory and nociceptive pain. Additionally, when ketoprofen is administered in conjunction with an opioid during pain management, it prevents the development of opioid-induced hyperalgesia. The main limitation for racemic ketoprofen IV administration is venous irritation. Dexketoprofen is the active enantiomer of racemic ketoprofen and has a similar analgesic efficacy in a dose proportion of 1 : 2, but it causes fewer adverse effects than racemic ketoprofen. It has been claimed that dexketoprofen may cause less frequent and less severe injection pain than racemic ketoprofen. In this study, we compared the injection pain of IV administered racemic ketoprofen and dexketoprofen in elective surgical patients. The ethics committee of our institution approved this randomized, double-blinded, two-treatment, two-period, crossover clinical comparison of ketoprofen and dexketoprofen. A total of 221 ASA I-III adult patients, aged 20-75 years, were initially IV administered either 0·5 mg/kg racemic ketoprofen followed 2 h later with 0·25 mg/kg dexketoprofen (group 1) or vice versa (group 2). Both compounds were diluted in 20 mL of normal saline and were injected over 6 min. Patients reported injection pain on an 11-point numerical rating scale (NRS) (0 = no pain, 10 = most pain). Significantly less injection pain was reported after dexketoprofen administration. A total of 201 of 209 patients reported pain during racemic ketoprofen injection, and 157 of 210 patients reported pain during dexketoprofen injection, respectively. Moderate or severe pain was reported by 90 (41%) patients during racemic ketoprofen administration and by 43 (20%) during dexketoprofen injection (P = 0·001). The mean of injection pain during racemic ketoprofen injection was 4·2 (SD 2·5) and was 2·5 (2·4) during dexketoprofen injection (P = 0·001). No serious or unexpected adverse events were reported. Dexketoprofen causes

  2. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation after intravenous injection of paraffin oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasgaard, Thomas; Huynh, Anh-Nhi Thi; Gjedsted, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    We present a rare cause of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to an accidental intravascular injection of paraffin oil. While there is no specific therapy, we decided to support the patient with veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (V-V ECMO) to allow the ARDS to resolve....... A previously healthy 30-year-old man was admitted to the Emergency Department with acute onset respiratory distress following an injection with paraffin oil for cosmetic purposes. In 36 hours, the patient developed severe ARDS and respiratory support with V-V ECMO was initiated. The patient was successfully...

  3. Renal effects of iopentol and iohexol after intravenous injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakobsen, J.A.; Kolbenstvedt, A.N.; Berg, K.J.; National Hospital, Oslo

    1991-01-01

    Renal effects of the 2 non-ionic contrast media iopentol and iohexol were investigated and compared in a double-blind, randomized parallel study where 30 patients received iopentol, and 31 patients iohexol intravenously for abdominal CT. The dosage of contrast medium (350 mg I/ml) was 700 mg I/kg body weight. Only one patient (in the iohexol group) had an increase in serum creatinine of more than 50%. Iopentol and iohexol had no effects on the mean serum values of creatinine, urea, and β 2 -microglobulin (β 2 -MG) nor on creatinine clearance. The urinary excretion of albumin and β 2 -MG was also unchanged. The excretion of the proximal tubular enzymes alkaline phosphatase and N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase was increased. No significant difference between iopentol and iohexol was found. (orig.)

  4. Acute Respiratory Distress following Intravenous Injection of an Oil-Steroid Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Russell

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of acute respiratory distress and hypoxemia following accidental intravenous injection of an oil-steroid solution in a body builder is presented. Chest roentography at the time of presentation showed diffuse bilateral opacities, and computed tomography revealed predominantly peripheral ground-glass opacifications. The patient’s symptoms gradually improved over 48 h and imaging of the chest was unremarkable one week later. The pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of this rare but potentially life-threatening complication of intravenous oil injection are discussed.

  5. Intravenous injection of endogenous microbial components abrogates DSS-induced colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydora, Beate C; Albert, Eric J; Foshaug, Rae R; Doyle, Jason S G; Churchill, Thomas A; Fedorak, Richard N

    2012-02-01

    The etiology of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) is largely unknown, but appears to be perpetuated by uncontrolled responses to antigenic components of the endogenous flora. Tolerance to antigenic stimulation can be achieved by exposure to a given antigen in high amounts (high dose tolerance). Colitis induced by feeding of Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS) is an often-used animal model mimicking clinical and histological features of human IBD. We investigated whether treatment with high doses of endogenous bacterial components can affect the response to these antigenic components and thus impact the course of the inflammatory response induced by DSS. 129/SvEv mice were injected intravenously in the tail vein with lysates prepared from fecal material of conventionally-raised mice. Control mice received a solution of bacterial antigen-free lysates prepared from fecal material of germ-free mice. Seven days later, colitis was induced in these mice by introducing DSS (3.5%) in the drinking water for 5 days. Onset and course of the inflammatory response was monitored by assessment of weight loss. Mice were sacrificed at day 7 post colitis induction and tested for histopathologic injury, intestinal cytokine release, and systemic response to bacterial antigens. Intravenous injection with fecal lysates reduced intestinal and antigen-stimulated systemic pro-inflammatory cytokine release and prevented DSS-induced weight loss and intestinal injury. Pretreatment with high amount of endogenous bacterial components has a profound tolerogenic effect on the systemic and mucosal immune responses resulting in reduced intestinal inflammation and abrogates colitis-induced weight loss.

  6. A Case of Acute Pericarditis Following Intravenous Injection of Crushed Morphine Tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ryan J; Corbett, Bryan; Ly, Binh T

    2016-01-01

    A 37-year-old male presented with sharp, severe chest pain following seven days of intravenous injection of crushed morphine tablets. The chest pain was positional and pleuritic in nature and resolved with leaning forward. Work-up was notable for an ECG with inferior and anterolateral PR depressions as well as a CT chest with diffuse centrilobular nodules. Per radiology, the CT findings along with the patient's history were concerning for pulmonary granulomatosis from deposition of talc or some other foreign body. Cardiology was consulted and diagnosed the patient with acute pericarditis, given his typical symptoms and ECG changes. On review of the literature, pulmonary granulomatosis following intravenous injection of foreign bodies is well documented. There are numerous studies documenting foreign body deposition and granulomatosis in organs other than the lungs on post-mortem analyses of individuals with a history of IV injection of crushed tablets. We are suggesting that intravenous injection of crushed morphine tablets can cause pericardial irritation and a syndrome of acuter pericarditis. To our knowledge, there has not been a previous report of acute pericarditis secondary to intravenous injection of crushed tablets.

  7. Radionuclide venography of lower limbs by subcutaneous injection; Comparison with venography by intravenous injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Chung-Chieng; Jong, Shiang-Bin (Kaohsiung Medical College, Kaohsiung (Taiwan))

    1989-11-01

    We have proved that subcutaneous injection (SC) of a small dose of Tc-99m pertechnetate (1 to 2 mCi: 37 to 74 MBq) at acupuncture points (K-3 and B-60) may offer an alternative method of radionuclide venography (RNV) of the lower limbs. In this study, we compared intravenous (IV) RNV and SC-RNV in 22 consecutive cases with typical signs and symptoms suggesting venous abnormality of the lower limb(s) from March to May 1988. They are 11 male and 11 female, aged 47.7{plus minus}15.7 years. Among the 44 limbs of the 22 cases, 4 were normal, 12 (27.3%) were found to have varicose veins in the legs only, 18 (40.9%) had partial stenosis of the deep veins (14 poplito-tibial and 4 superficial femoral), and 13 (29.6%) had complete stenosis of the deep veins (4 poplito-tibial, 1 superficial femoral and 8 ilio-femoral). SC-RNV showed almost the same results as IV-RNV in 21 (47.7%), superior to IV-RNV in 22 (50%) (including 4.6% failure of IV-RNV), and inferior to IV-RNV in 1 (2.3%). We conclude that SC-RNV is definitely an alternative method of lower-limb venography. Since it is in most cases superior to IV-RNV, we suggest that it can take the place of IV-RNV in routine work. (author) 62 refs.

  8. Disposition of perfluorobutane in rats after intravenous injection of Sonazoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toft, Kim Gunnar; Hustvedt, Svein Olaf; Hals, Petter-Arnt; Oulie, Inger; Uran, Steinar; Landmark, Kristin; Normann, Per Trygve; Skotland, Tore

    2006-01-01

    The new ultrasound contrast agent Sonazoid was injected IV in rats at doses of 0.8 and 8 muL perfluorobutane (PFB)-containing microbubbles/kg body weight. Samples were obtained from blood, liver, spleen, fat, kidney, muscle, heart, lung and brain from both males and females and the PFB gas was analyzed using validated gas chromatography mass spectrometry methods. No differences were observed between genders or doses for any of the pharmacokinetic parameters. For all tissues, the highest concentrations were observed at the first time point (i.e., 5 min postinjection) (51% of injected dose in liver; total recovery of 69%). The highest concentrations of PFB in tissue were observed in spleen > liver > lung > kidney > other tissues. At 24 h after dosing, the total amount of PFB remaining in the tissues was 1.9%. These data fit well with the finding that after a Sonazoid dose of 8 microL microbubbles/kg to male rats, more than 50% of the injected PFB was recovered in exhaled air by 20 min after dosing. During the first 24 h after administration, more than 96% of the PFB dose was recovered in exhaled air.

  9. Pelvic Organ Distribution of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Injected Intravenously after Simulated Childbirth Injury in Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Cruz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The local route of stem cell administration utilized presently in clinical trials for stress incontinence may not take full advantage of the capabilities of these cells. The goal of this study was to evaluate if intravenously injected mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs home to pelvic organs after simulated childbirth injury in a rat model. Female rats underwent either vaginal distension (VD or sham VD. All rats received 2 million GFP-labeled MSCs intravenously 1 hour after injury. Four or 10 days later pelvic organs and muscles were imaged for visualization of GFP-positive cells. Significantly more MSCs home to the urethra, vagina, rectum, and levator ani muscle 4 days after VD than after sham VD. MSCs were present 10 days after injection but GFP intensity had decreased. This study provides basic science evidence that intravenous administration of MSCs could provide an effective route for cell-based therapy to facilitate repair after injury and treat stress incontinence.

  10. SUSTAINED HYPERLIPEMIA INDUCED IN RABBITS BY MEANS OF INTRAVENOUSLY INJECTED SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, Aaron; Correll, James W.; Ladd, Anthony T.

    1951-01-01

    The intravenous injection of the surface-active agents Tween 80 and Triton A20 into rabbits fed a normal diet resulted in marked and sustained elevations of the cholesterol, phospholipid, and total lipid content of their blood. The increase in phospholipid in general paralleled that of the blood cholesterol. The implications of the findings are briefly discussed. PMID:14824409

  11. Production of neutralizing antisera against viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) virus by intravenous injections of rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Lorenzen, Niels; LaPatra, S.E.

    1999-01-01

    Rabbit antisera against viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) produced by two immunization procedures were compared for neutralization and immunochemical properties against homologous and heterologous strains. The VHSV isolate used as the immunogen was a member of a serogroup not neutralized...... by previously available antisera. The results from this study suggested that frequent intravenous (IV) injections of rabbits with viral antigens were superior to adjuvant-mediated, combined subcutaneous and intraperitoneal (SC/IP) injections for the production of neutralizing antisera. All IV injected rabbits...... produced high neutralization titers against the homologous VHSV isolate but not against an isolate from a different serogroup. The SC/IP injected rabbits had no significant neutralization titers against either the homologous VHSV strain or two isolates of a heterologous VHSV strain. Sera from all injected...

  12. Copper toxicity in sheep: the effects of repeated intravenous injections of copper sulphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, J.M.; Gopinath, C.

    1977-01-01

    Four Clun Forest, Suffolk cross sheep were given daily intravenous injections of copper sulphate. Three similar sheep acted as controls. The copper dosed sheep developed haemolysis and showed liver, kidney and brain damage similar to that seen in chronic copper poisoning. All animals survived for 30 days and two would have lived longer. Reticulocytes were produced after four days and continued to be produced, sometimes in high numbers throughout the course of the experiment. 21 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  13. An Unusual Case of Suicide Attempt Using Intravenous Injection of Kerosene

    OpenAIRE

    Jayaprasad, Sushmitha; Metikurke, Vijayashankar

    2013-01-01

    Kerosene is refined oil belonging to the hydrocarbon group of compounds, available for domestic use in developing countries. Poisoning is due to inhalation, ingestion. Kerosene. We report a rare case of attempted suicide by means of intravenous injection of kerosene. It has a devastating effect and it is important to initiate active and immediate surgical intervention. Psychotherapy should also be an integral part of the management.

  14. Measurement of cerebral blood flow by means of intravenous injection of 133Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hliscs, R.; Franke, W.G.

    1977-01-01

    In administering 133 Xe intravenous injection is an alternative to arterial puncture. After injection the patient breathes into a closed respiratory loop in order to concentrate the activity in the body. Simultaneously, a scintillation camera scans the activity in brain and expired air in fixed time intervals. After opening the respiratory loop the wash process is recorded. The histograms recorded on magnetic tape and core store are corrected with regard to recirculation applying a new procedure. Data for calculating blood flow in grey and white cerebral tissue are obtained from three-compartment analysis

  15. Dynamics of morphofunctional erythrocyte properties during intravenous glucose injection in patients with coronary heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinova, Lidia I.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Denisova, Tatyana P.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2007-02-01

    Dynamics of glucose concentration in human organism is an important diagnostic characteristic for it's parameters correlate significantly with the severity of metabolic, vessel and perfusion disorders. 36 patients with stable angina pectoris of II and III functional classes were involved in this study. All of them were men in age range of 45-59 years old. 7 patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction (aged from 49 to 59 years old) form the group of compare. Control group (n = 5) was of practically healthy men in comparable age. To all patients intravenous glucose solution (40%) in standard loading dose was injected. Capillary and vein blood samples were withdrawn before, and 5, 60, 120, 180 and 240 minutes after glucose load. At these time points blood pressure and glucose concentration were measured. In prepared blood smears shape, deformability and sizes of erythrocytes, quantity and degree of shear stress resistant erythrocyte aggregates were studied. Received data were approximated by polynomial of high degree to receive concentration function of studied parameters, which first derivative elucidate velocity characteristics of morphofunctional erythrocyte properties during intravenous glucose injection in patients with coronary heart disease and practically healthy persons. Received data show principle differences in dynamics of morphofunctional erythrocyte properties during intravenous glucose injection in patients with coronary heart disease as a possible mechanism of coronary blood flow destabilization.

  16. The effect of intravenous paracetamol for the prevention of rocuronium injection pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sennur Uzun

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Rocuronium is a nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent used in anesthesia induction and is associated with considerable discomfort and burning pain during injection, which is reported to occur in 50–80% of patients. This study was carried out to investigate the effectiveness of intravenous paracetamol pretreatment compared with lidocaine and normal saline to prevent rocuronium injection pain. The study included 150 ASA I–II patients undergoing elective orthopedic, gastrointestinal, and gynecological procedures under general anesthesia. They were allocated into three groups according to pretreatment drugs: lidocaine (40 mg (n = 50, paracetamol (n = 50, and normal saline group (n = 50. Before anesthesia induction with propofol, all patients were pretreated with rocuronium. The pain caused by the injection was evaluated. Local signs were assessed on the arm at the end of the injection, as well as 24 hours after recovery from anesthesia. There were no patients with blurred speech or vision and there was no respiratory depression in any group after pretreatment with the study drug. The level of pain on injection was statistically lower in those who had received paracetamol compared to normal saline (p = 0.009. There were more patients in the saline group with severe pain (p < 0.001. Paracetamol relieved the rocuronium injection pain better than normal saline but lidocaine was the best of the three drugs (p < 0.001.

  17. Tolerance and biochemical effects from intravenous injection of ioxaglate in healthy volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, P.E.; Aspelin, P.; Nyman, U.; Hedner, U.; Malmoe Allmaenna Sjukhus

    1984-01-01

    The influence of intravenous injection of ioxaglate (Hexabrix, 320 mg I/ml) on various biochemical, coagulation and fibrinolytic parameters, fractionated plasma proteins, precordial ECG and blood pressure was prospectively and sequentially studied in 9 healthy volunteers. One ml/kg body weight of the contrast medium was injected within one minute into an antecubital vein. Small, but statistically significant, changes in some of the biochemical parameters were found during the observation period, 2 to 4 days. All values of the biochemical parameters were, however, within the normal reference range for each parameter. No significant alterations were seen in the coagulation parameters. Increased fibrinolysis was recorded in some subjects both before and after the injection. No fibrinolytic degradation products were found indicating that the fibrinolysis was nominal. No significant changes were observed in the fractionated plasma proteins. The heart rate decreased significantly 15 seconds after commencing the injection. No significant changes in blood pressure were recorded. Two participants became nauseated and one of them vomited during the injection. Apart from this, no adverse effects were noted. No clinically significant changes following the injections were found. (orig.)

  18. Bioaccumulation and Toxicity of Carbon Nanoparticles Suspension Injection in Intravenously Exposed Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Xie

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanoparticles suspension injection (CNSI has been widely used in tumor drainage lymph node mapping, and its new applications in drug delivery, photothermal therapy, and so on have been extensively investigated. To develop new clinical applications, the toxicity of CNSI after intravenous exposure should be thoroughly investigated to ensure its safe use. Herein, we studied the bioaccumulation of CNSI in reticuloendothelial system (RES organs and the corresponding toxicity to mice. After the intravenous injection of CNSI, no abnormal behavior of mice was observed during the 28-day observation period. The body weight increases were similar among the exposed groups and the control group. The parameters of hematology and serum biochemistry remained nearly unchanged, with very few of them showing significant changes. The low toxicity of CNSI was also reflected by the unchanged histopathological characteristics of these organs. The injection of CNSI did not induce higher apoptosis levels either. The slight oxidative stress was observed in RES organs at high dosages at day 7 post-exposure. The implication to the clinical applications and toxicological evaluations of carbon nanomaterials is discussed.

  19. Cerebrospinal fluid changes after intravenous injection of gadolinium chelate: assessment by FLAIR MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozzao, Alessandro; Floris, Roberto; Fasoli, Fabrizio; Simonetti, Giovanni; Fantozzi, Luigi Maria; Colonnese, Claudio

    2003-01-01

    Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequence is currently used in clinical practice. Some reports emphasize the possibility that, in pathologic conditions, intravenous injection of gadolinium chelates may lead to an increased signal inside the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of CSF signal changes in pathologic conditions causing blood-brain barrier disruption or neovascularization when imaging is performed after intravenous injection of gadolinium. We obtained FLAIR sequences after gadolinium injection from 33 patients affected by different intracranial pathologies and 10 control subjects. Patients were affected by ischemic stroke in the subacute phase, from 2 to 7 days from onset of symptoms (12 patients), meningiomas (8 patients), high-grade gliomas (5 patients), previous surgical procedures for intra-axial neoplasms (5 patients), and multiple sclerosis with active plaques (3 patients). Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in patients and controls using a 1.5-T magnet, using T2- and T1-weighted FLAIR sequences. The FLAIR sequence was acquired before and 1-3 h after injection of a standard dose of gadolinium. In those patients affected by ischemic lesions, FLAIR sequences were repeated the next days and 3-4 days later. The CSF signal was visually evaluated by two readers and scored from 0 to 3 depending by the degree of enhancement. The location of CSF signal changes (close to the lesion, hemispheric, or diffuse) was also considered. The CSF signal was markedly increased after 3 h from intravenous injection of gadolinium in all the patients with stroke, in those with previous surgery, and in those with high-grade gliomas whose neoplasm's surface was in contact with the subarachnoid spaces (SAS) or ventricles; a strong enhancement was also evident inside the necrotic component of the tumor. The CSF changes were more evident close to the pathology and/or in the hemisphere involved by the pathology. Moderate

  20. Intravenous Injection of Clinical Grade Human MSCs After Experimental Stroke: Functional Benefit and Microvascular Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisan, Anack; Favre, Isabelle; Rome, Claire; De Fraipont, Florence; Grillon, Emmanuelle; Coquery, Nicolas; Mathieu, Herv; Mayan, Virginie; Naegele, Bernadette; Hommel, Marc; Richard, Marie-Jeanne; Barbier, Emmanuel Luc; Remy, Chantal; Detante, Olivier

    2016-12-13

    Stroke is the leading cause of disability in adults. Many current clinical trials use intravenous (IV) administration of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs). This autologous graft requires a delay for ex vivo expansion of cells. We followed microvascular effects and mechanisms of action involved after an IV injection of human BM-MSCs (hBM-MSCs) at a subacute phase of stroke. Rats underwent a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) or a surgery without occlusion (sham) at day 0 (D0). At D8, rats received an IV injection of 3 million hBM-MSCs or PBS-glutamine. In a longitudinal behavioral follow-up, we showed delayed somatosensory and cognitive benefits 4 to 7 weeks after hBM-MSC injection. In a separate longitudinal in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study, we observed an enhanced vascular density in the ischemic area 2 and 3 weeks after hBM-MSC injection. Histology and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) revealed an overexpression of angiogenic factors such as Ang1 and transforming growth factor-1 (TGF-1) at D16 in hBM-MSC-treated MCAo rats compared to PBS-treated MCAo rats. Altogether, delayed IV injection of hBM-MSCs provides functional benefits and increases cerebral angiogenesis in the stroke lesion via a release of endogenous angiogenic factors enhancing the stabilization of newborn vessels. Enhanced angiogenesis could therefore be a means of improving functional recovery after stroke.

  1. The fate of Gd and chelate following intravenous injection of gadodiamide in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moerk Kindberg, Grete; Uran, Steinar; Friisk, Grete; Martinsen, Ivar; Skotland, Tore

    2010-01-01

    The biodistribution of gadolinium (Gd) and chelate was studied in rats injected intravenously with a commercially available gadodiamide magnetic resonance contrast agent spiked with trace amounts of 14 C-labelled GdDTPA-BMA. Biodistribution of the 14 C-labelled ligand in whole animals was visualised using quantitative whole-body autoradiography, and quantified in individual tissue samples by analysing for radioactivity using beta-counting. Biodistribution of Gd was measured by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SF-MS). The injected dose was rapidly excreted, with only 1.0% remaining in the body at 24 h. The radioactivity thereafter was mainly associated with kidney cortex, liver, lung, muscle and skin, with a similar rate of clearance for both ligand and Gd from these tissues. The ratio between 14 C-labelled substance and Gd was not significantly different from that of the injected substance in most tissue samples up to 24 h after injection; the ratio then slowly decreased. The data clearly show that measurements of Gd concentration alone in tissue samples from animals injected with Gd-based contrast agents (GBCAs) cannot be used as a measure of Gd released from the ligand. To our knowledge, such measurements comparing Gd and ligand concentrations and distribution in tissue samples have not been published previously for any of the commercial GBCAs. (orig.)

  2. Long-term follow-up of a case of intravenous elementary mercury injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, E.

    1986-01-01

    Elementary mercury is usually intravenously injected with suicidal intent. It is floated to the heart and lungs but is also deposited in the abdominal organs. Case histories presented in the literature so far have been followed up clinically and roentgenologically for up to three years. We report one patient attempting suicidal mercury injection, whom we were able to follow up for 10 years. It could be demonstrated that quite in contrast to former suggestions elementary mercury is dissolved and oxidised in the body. Chronic poisoning with mercury compounds causes continuing damage, particularly to the kidneys. Apart from that question, the element's pattern of spread within the body, toxicological issues, particular pathologic anatomic changes, their demonstrability on X-ray films and their clinical relevance are all discussed in this paper. (orig.) [de

  3. Calculation method of water injection forward modeling and inversion process in oilfield water injection network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Long; Liu, Wei

    2018-04-01

    A forward modeling and inversion algorithm is adopted in order to determine the water injection plan in the oilfield water injection network. The main idea of the algorithm is shown as follows: firstly, the oilfield water injection network is inversely calculated. The pumping station demand flow is calculated. Then, forward modeling calculation is carried out for judging whether all water injection wells meet the requirements of injection allocation or not. If all water injection wells meet the requirements of injection allocation, calculation is stopped, otherwise the demand injection allocation flow rate of certain step size is reduced aiming at water injection wells which do not meet requirements, and next iterative operation is started. It is not necessary to list the algorithm into water injection network system algorithm, which can be realized easily. Iterative method is used, which is suitable for computer programming. Experimental result shows that the algorithm is fast and accurate.

  4. 133-xenon intravenous injection method for regional cerebral blood flow measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, Yukito; Takagi, Shigeharu; Kobatake, Keitaro

    1984-01-01

    The non-invasive 133-Xenon intravenous (IV) injection method for measuring regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) has many advantages compared to the 133-Xenon inhalation method. In order to evaluate the possibility of clinical application of this IV injection method, normal regional and mean hemispheric values of rCBF were determined in this study. The rCBF data were obtained on 27 normal Japanese right-handed volunteers with an age range of 18 to 81 years (mean age 43). The subjects were requested to relax, keeping the eyes closed but without falling asleep. End-tidal 133-Xenon curves were used for correction of recirculation. The blood flow of the fast compartment (gray matter) of the brain was calculated, as well as the initial slope index (ISI) and the relative weight and the fractional flow of the fast compartment. CBF values thus obtained were compared to those obtained by the 133-Xenon inhalation method previously reported by us. The mean gray matter flow values for the right hemisphere was 90.3 +- 17.5 ml/100 g brain/min (mean +- S.D.) and that for the left was 90.0 +- 17.8. The mean value of ISI for the right hemisphere was 75.1 +- 17.0 and that for the left was 74.6 +- 17.0. There was no significant difference of blood flow between the hemispheres. These values were higher than those obtained by the inhalation method. The reason for this difference is discussed. The rCBF values were the highest frontally and the lowest parietooccipitally in both hemispheres, which is in good agreement with the results obtained by the other non-invasive methods and the intracarotid injection method. It is concluded that the 133-Xenon intravenous injection method, which has many advantages compared with the inhalation method, is applicable for rCBF measurements in man. (author)

  5. Photoacoustic imaging of intravenously injected photosensitizer in rat burn models for efficient antibacterial photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoi, Yasuyuki; Sato, Shunichi; Ashida, Hiroshi; Terakawa, Mitsuhiro

    2012-02-01

    For efficient photodynamic treatment of wound infection, a photosensitizer must be distributed in the whole infected tissue region. To ensure this, depth profiling of a photosensitizer is necessary in vivo. In this study, we applied photoacoustic (PA) imaging to visualize the depth profile of an intravenously injected photosensitizer in rat burn models. In burned tissue, pharmacokinetics is complicated; vascular occlusion takes place in the injured tissue, while vascular permeability increases due to thermal invasion. In this study, we first used Evans Blue (EB) as a test drug to examine the feasibility of photosensitizer dosimetry based on PA imaging. On the basis of the results, an actual photosensitizer, talaporfin sodium was used. An EB solution was intravenously injected into a rat deep dermal burn model. PA imaging was performed on the wound with 532 nm and 610 nm nanosecond light pulses for visualizing vasculatures (blood) and EB, respectively. Two hours after injection, the distribution of EB-originated signal spatially coincided well with that of blood-originated signal measured after injury, indicating that EB molecules leaked out from the blood vessels due to increased permeability. Afterwards, the distribution of EB signal was broadened in the depth direction due to diffusion. At 12 hours after injection, clear EB signals were observed even in the zone of stasis, demonstrating that the leaked EB molecules were delivered to the injured tissue layer. The level and time course of talaporfin sodium-originated signals were different compared with those of EB-originated signals, showing animal-dependent and/or drug-dependent permeabilization and diffusion in the tissue. Thus, photosensitizer dosimetry should be needed before every treatment to achieve desirable outcome of photodynamic treatment, for which PA imaging can be concluded to be valid and useful.

  6. The metabolism of 4-iodantipyrine-125I (RIAP) in rat organism after intravenous injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciniak, M.; Baltrukiewicz, Z.; Chas, J.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate RIAP metabolism in rats after intravenous administration. The distribution, excretion and passage with milk to the newborn animals were studied. Electrophoresis of the urine of the rats treated with this radioisotope was done. A rapid accumulation of the radioisotope in the thyroid was observed (the T 1/2 value was about 4 hours and the greatest accumulation of RIAP was after 15 hours). The biological time of RIAP elimination from the thyroid was 5 days. 125 I concentration in other organs was below 1% of the injected dose. Excretion was mainly with urine in three phases. In the urine two 125 I-containing fractions were found: a iodide fraction and an unindentified fraction. RIAP administration to lactating females caused passage of 10 to 20 percent of the administered dose to the newborns with milk. RIAP administration to pregnant rats raised this proportion by several percent. Thyroid blockade with potassium iodide had no effect on RIAP passage with milk to the newborns. These results suggest a rapid loss of iodine from RIAP after intravenous injection. (author)

  7. Evaluation of the Active Targeting of Melanin Granules after Intravenous Injection of Dendronized Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordeianu, C; Parat, A; Piant, S; Walter, A; Zbaraszczuk-Affolter, C; Meyer, F; Begin-Colin, S; Boutry, S; Muller, R N; Jouberton, E; Chezal, J-M; Labeille, B; Cinotti, E; Perrot, J-L; Miot-Noirault, E; Laurent, S; Felder-Flesch, D

    2018-02-05

    The biodistribution of dendronized iron oxides, NPs10@D1_DOTAGA and melanin-targeting NPs10@D1_ICF_DOTAGA, was studied in vivo using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and planar scintigraphy through [ 177 Lu]Lu-radiolabeling. MRI experiments showed high contrast power of both dendronized nanoparticles (DPs) and hepatobiliary and urinary excretions. Little tumor uptake could be highlighted after intravenous injection probably as a consequence of the negatively charged DOTAGA-derivatized shell, which reduces the diffusion across the cells' membrane. Planar scintigraphy images demonstrated a moderate specific tumor uptake of melanoma-targeted [ 177 Lu]Lu-NPs10@D1_ICF_DOTAGA at 2 h post-intravenous injection (pi), and the highest tumor uptake of the control probe [ 177 Lu]Lu-NPs10@D1_DOTAGA at 30 min pi, probably due to the enhanced permeability and retention effect. In addition, ex vivo confocal microscopy studies showed a high specific targeting of human melanoma samples impregnated with NPs10@D1_ICF_Alexa647_ DOTAGA.

  8. Factors prompting sneezing in intravenously sedated patients receiving local anesthetic injections to the eyelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Ana M S; Jazayeri, Fiona; Ali, Syed; Malhotra, Raman

    2010-05-01

    To investigate the frequency of sneezing among patients receiving intravenous sedation and periocular local anesthetic for oculoplastic procedures in a single center. To identify potential risk factors involved. Prospective, consecutive, interventional case series in a single tertiary-referral oculoplastic unit. A total of 294 patients undergoing 314 isolated oculoplastic procedures, performed under intravenous sedation with periocular local anesthetic from November 2007 to November 2008. Prospective data collection on patient demographics, history of photic sneezing, intravenous sedative, depth of sedation, nasal oxygen, and periocular infiltration site. Standard local anesthetic was used in all cases, but the intravenous sedation was at the discretion of the attending anesthesiologist (7 in total). Sneezing or attempted sneezing within 5 minutes of injection of the local anesthetic, as determined by agreed observation between attending staff. Sneezing was observed in 16% of cases. No association was found between sneezing and patient age or presence of nasal oxygen. A weakly positive association was observed with male gender (55% sneezers vs. 37% non-sneezers, P = 0.03, relative risk [RR] = 1.5, confidence interval [CI], 1.1-2.0), bilateral infiltration (65% vs. 40%, P = 0.005, RR = 1.6, CI, 1.2-2.1), and upper eyelid infiltration (73% vs. 54%, P = 0.01, RR = 1.4, CI, 1.1-1.7). Photic sneezing was described in 47% of sneezers and 19% of non-sneezers (P = 0.0004, RR = 2.6, CI, 1.6-4.0). Because propofol was given to 95% of patients, no association with sneezing could be ascertained. However, opioid derivatives were found to be protective (12% vs. 43%, Plocal anesthetic injections, induces sneezing in approximately one sixth of general oculoplastic cases. Male gender, a history of photic sneezing, bilateral or upper eyelid infiltration, deep sedation, and the concurrent administration of midazolam all increased the risk, whereas adjunctive opioid use reduced the

  9. Augmented reality intravenous injection simulator based 3D medical imaging for veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S; Lee, J; Lee, A; Park, N; Lee, S; Song, S; Seo, A; Lee, H; Kim, J-I; Eom, K

    2013-05-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is a technology which enables users to see the real world, with virtual objects superimposed upon or composited with it. AR simulators have been developed and used in human medicine, but not in veterinary medicine. The aim of this study was to develop an AR intravenous (IV) injection simulator to train veterinary and pre-veterinary students to perform canine venipuncture. Computed tomographic (CT) images of a beagle dog were scanned using a 64-channel multidetector. The CT images were transformed into volumetric data sets using an image segmentation method and were converted into a stereolithography format for creating 3D models. An AR-based interface was developed for an AR simulator for IV injection. Veterinary and pre-veterinary student volunteers were randomly assigned to an AR-trained group or a control group trained using more traditional methods (n = 20/group; n = 8 pre-veterinary students and n = 12 veterinary students in each group) and their proficiency at IV injection technique in live dogs was assessed after training was completed. Students were also asked to complete a questionnaire which was administered after using the simulator. The group that was trained using an AR simulator were more proficient at IV injection technique using real dogs than the control group (P ≤ 0.01). The students agreed that they learned the IV injection technique through the AR simulator. Although the system used in this study needs to be modified before it can be adopted for veterinary educational use, AR simulation has been shown to be a very effective tool for training medical personnel. Using the technology reported here, veterinary AR simulators could be developed for future use in veterinary education. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Pharmacokinetic evaluation of Shenfu Injection in beagle dogs after intravenous drip administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqiao Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Shenfu Injection (SFI is a well-defined Chinese herbal formulation that is obtained from red ginseng and processed aconite root. The main active constituents in SFI are ginsenosides and aconitum alkaloids. In this work, ginsenosides (ginsenoside Rg1, ginsenoside Rb1 and ginsenoside Rc and aconitum alkaloids (benzoylmesaconine and fuziline were used as the index components to explore the pharmacokinetic behavior of SFI. A selective and sensitive HPLC–MS/MS method was developed for the quantification of ginsenosides and aconitum alkaloids in dog plasma and was used to characterize the pharmacokinetics of the five index components after intravenous drip of three different dosages of SFI in beagle dogs. The pharmacokinetic properties of the index components were linear over the dose range of 2–8 mL/kg.

  11. Utilities associated with subcutaneous injections and intravenous infusions for treatment of patients with bone metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matza LS

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Louis S Matza,1 Ze Cong,2 Karen Chung,2 Alison Stopeck,3 Katia Tonkin,4 Janet Brown,5 Ada Braun,2 Kate Van Brunt,6 Kelly McDaniel1 1Outcomes Research, United BioSource Corporation, Bethesda, MD, USA; 2Amgen, Inc, Thousand Oaks, CA, USA; 3Department of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA; 4Department of Oncology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada; 5Leeds Institute of Molecular Medicine, St James University Hospital, Leeds, UK; 6formerly with Outcomes Research, United BioSource Corporation, Bethesda, MD, USA Introduction: Although cost-utility models are often used to estimate the value of treatments for metastatic cancer, limited information is available on the utility of common treatment modalities. Bisphosphonate treatment for bone metastases is frequently administered via intravenous infusion, while a newer treatment is administered as a subcutaneous injection. This study estimated the impact of these treatment modalities on health state preference. Methods: Participants from the UK general population completed time trade-off interviews to assess the utility of health state vignettes. Respondents first rated a health state representing cancer with bone metastases. Subsequent health states added descriptions of treatment modalities (ie, injection or infusion to this basic health state. The two treatment modalities were presented with and without chemotherapy, and infusion characteristics were varied by duration (30 minutes or 2 hours and renal monitoring. Results: A total of 121 participants completed the interviews (52.1% female, 76.9% white. Cancer with bone metastases had a mean utility of 0.40 on a standard utility scale (1 = full health; 0 = dead. The injection, 30-minute infusion, and 2-hour infusion had mean disutilities of −0.004, −0.02, and −0.04, respectively. The mean disutility of the 30-minute infusion was greater with renal monitoring than without. Chemotherapy was associated with substantial

  12. Effect of Intravenous or Perivascular Injection of Synthetic Adrenocorticotropic Hormone on Stimulation Test Results in Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C M; Kass, P H; Cohen, T A; Feldman, E C

    2017-05-01

    Standard protocols for adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation testing (ACTHst) often involve intravenous (IV) injection of corticotropin. ACTH might be unintentionally injected into the perivascular (PV) space. To compare stimulation test results after IV and PV injections of ACTH. Twenty privately owned dogs were studied: 10 healthy and 10 with trilostane-treated naturally occurring hyperadrenocorticism (HAC). Prospective study. Each of 20 dogs underwent 2 ACTHst not dogs had an IV ACTHst first and PV second; 5 healthy and 5 HAC dogs had a PV ACTHst first and IV second. Blood samples for measurement of serum cortisol concentration were collected before and 1 hour after ACTH administration. No significant difference in results was demonstrated when comparing serum cortisol concentrations after IV and PV ACTH administration in all 20 dogs (median μg/dL; interval μg/dL: 8.2; 1.4-17.4 versus 7.8; 0.9-16.9; P = .23). No significant difference in results was demonstrated when comparing serum cortisol concentrations after IV and PV ACTH administration in the 10 healthy dogs (median μg/dL; interval μg/dL: 10.9; 7.3-17.4 versus 10.6; 7.1-16.9; P = .54) or in the 10 HAC dogs (median μg/dL; interval μg/dL: 6.3; 1.4-8.6 versus 5.2; 0.9-8.7; P = .061). Perivascular administration of ACTH does not significantly alter stimulation test results in healthy dogs or in dogs with HAC undergoing therapy with trilostane. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  13. Quantitative biokinetics of titanium dioxide nanoparticles after intravenous injection in rats: Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreyling, Wolfgang G; Holzwarth, Uwe; Haberl, Nadine; Kozempel, Ján; Hirn, Stephanie; Wenk, Alexander; Schleh, Carsten; Schäffler, Martin; Lipka, Jens; Semmler-Behnke, Manuela; Gibson, Neil

    2017-05-01

    Submicrometer TiO 2 particles, including nanoparticulate fractions, are used in an increasing variety of consumer products, as food additives and also drug delivery applications are envisaged. Beyond exposure of occupational groups, this entails an exposure risk to the public. However, nanoparticle translocation from the organ of intake and potential accumulation in secondary organs are poorly understood and in many investigations excessive doses are applied. The present study investigates the biokinetics and clearance of a low single dose (typically 40-400 μg/kg BW) of 48 V-radiolabeled, pure TiO 2 anatase nanoparticles ([ 48 V]TiO 2 NP) with a median aggregate/agglomerate size of 70 nm in aqueous suspension after intravenous (IV) injection into female Wistar rats. Biokinetics and clearance were followed from one-hour to 4-weeks. The use of radiolabeled nanoparticles allowed a quantitative [ 48 V]TiO 2 NP balancing of all organs, tissues, carcass and excretions of each rat without having to account for chemical background levels possibly caused by dietary or environmental titanium exposure. Highest [ 48 V]TiO 2 NP accumulations were found in liver (95.5%ID after one day), followed by spleen (2.5%), carcass (1%), skeleton (0.7%) and blood (0.4%). Detectable nanoparticle levels were found in all other organs. The [ 48 V]TiO 2 NP content in blood decreased rapidly after 24 h while the distribution in other organs and tissues remained rather constant until day-28. The present biokinetics study is part 1 of a series of studies comparing biokinetics after three classical routes of intake (IV injection (part 1), ingestion (part 2), intratracheal instillation (part 3)) under identical laboratory conditions, in order to test the common hypothesis that IV-injection is a suitable predictor for the biokinetics fate of nanoparticles administered by different routes. This hypothesis is disproved by this series of studies.

  14. Intravenous contrast injection significantly affects bone mineral density measured on CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pompe, Esther; Willemink, Martin J.; Dijkhuis, Gawein R.; Verhaar, Harald J.J.; Hoesein, Firdaus A.A.M.; Jong, Pim A. de [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Internal Medicine-Geriatrics, Postbus 85500, Postbox: E.03.511, GA, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2014-09-05

    The objective is to evaluate the effect of intravenous contrast media on bone mineral density (BMD) assessment by comparing unenhanced and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) examinations performed for other indications. One hundred and fifty-two patients (99 without and 53 with malignant neoplasm) who underwent both unenhanced and two contrast-enhanced (arterial and portal venous phase) abdominal CT examinations in a single session between June 2011 and July 2013 were included. BMD was evaluated on the three examinations as CT-attenuation values in Hounsfield Units (HU) in the first lumbar vertebra (L1). CT-attenuation values were significantly higher in both contrast-enhanced phases, compared to the unenhanced phase (p < 0.01). In patients without malignancies, mean ± standard deviation (SD) HU-values increased from 128.8 ± 48.6 HU for the unenhanced phase to 142.3 ± 47.2 HU for the arterial phase and 147.0 ± 47.4 HU for the portal phase (p < 0.01). In patients with malignancies, HU-values increased from 112.1 ± 38.1 HU to 126.2 ± 38.4 HU and 130.1 ± 37.3 HU (p < 0.02), respectively. With different thresholds to define osteoporosis, measurements in the arterial and portal phase resulted in 7-25 % false negatives. Our study showed that intravenous contrast injection substantially affects BMD-assessment on CT and taking this into account may improve routine assessment of low BMD in nonquantitative CT. (orig.)

  15. Effect of intravenously injected manganese on the gene expression of manganese-containing superoxide dismutase in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S F; Luo, X G; Lu, L; Liu, B; Kuang, X; Shao, G Z; Yu, S X

    2008-11-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of intravenously injected Mn from different Mn sources on tissue Mn concentration, heart Mn-containing superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity and its gene expression in broilers, so as to detect differences in Mn metabolic utilization among Mn sources. On d 22 posthatching, a total of 180 chicks were randomly allotted by BW to 1 of 5 treatments in a completely randomized design. The 5 treatments included a 0.9% NaCl injection solution without Mn addition (the control), a 0.9% NaCl solution with Mn sulfate or one of 3 organic Mn sources with weak, moderate, or strong chelation strengths at a dosage calculated according to the dietary Mn requirement of 120 mg/kg, Mn absorbability of 1.5%, and daily feed intake. Heart and bone samples were collected from broilers on d 10 and 20 after Mn injections for analyses of tissue indices. The results showed that on both d 10 and 20 after Mn injections, the birds injected with Mn-containing solutions had greater (P bone, heart MnSOD activities, and MnSOD mRNA levels than those injected with the control NaCl solution; however, intravenously injected Mn always had a sensitive and consistent effect on heart MnSOD mRNA level of broilers, and the birds injected with a solution containing the organic Mn source with moderate chelation strength always had the greatest heart MnSOD mRNA level. The results indicated that intravenously injected Mn from the organic Mn source with moderate chelation strength was the most utilizable Mn source and functioned in the sensitive target tissue more effectively than Mn from Mn sulfate or other 2 organic Mn sources with weak or strong chelation strength.

  16. Pharmacokinetics of Perfluorobutane after Intra-Venous Bolus Injection of Sonazoid in Healthy Chinese Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengfei; Hoppmann, Susan; Du, Ping; Li, Huiling; Evans, Paul M; Moestue, Siver A; Yu, Weiyue; Dong, Fang; Liu, Hongchuan; Liu, Lihong

    2017-05-01

    Sonazoid is an ultrasound contrast agent based on microbubbles (MB) containing perfluorobutane (PFB) gas. Sonazoid is approved in Japan, Korea and Norway for contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of focal liver lesions and focal breast lesions (Japan only). The objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics (PKs) and safety of Sonazoid in Chinese healthy volunteers (HVs) and to evaluate the potential for ethnic differences in PKs between Chinese and Caucasian HVs. Sonazoid was administered as an intra-venous bolus injection at the clinical dose of 0.12 μL or 0.60 μL MB/kg body weight to two groups of eight Chinese HVs. Expired air and blood samples were collected and analyzed using a validated gas chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry method, and the main PK parameters were calculated. The highest PFB concentrations in blood were observed shortly after intra-venous administration of Sonazoid, and elimination of PFB was rapid. In the 0.12 μL MB/kg body weight cohort, PFB concentrations above the limit of quantification were observed for only 10 to 15 min post-injection. In the 0.60 μL MB/kg body weight cohort, PFB concentrations above the limit of quantification were observed for 60 min post-injection, and the shape of the elimination curve suggested a biphasic elimination profile. The maximum observed concentration (C max ) values of PFB in blood were 2.3 ± 1.1 and 19.1 ± 9.2 ng/g for the 0.12 and 0.60 μL MB/kg body weight dose groups (mean ± standard deviation). Area under the curve values were 10.1 ± 2.7 and 90.1 ± 38.3 ng × min/g for the 0.12 and 0.60 μL MB/kg body weight dose groups. C max values of PFB in exhaled air were 0.35 ± 0.2 and 2.4 ± 0.7 ng/mL for the 0.12 and 0.60 μL MB/kg body weight dose groups. Assessment of laboratory parameters, vital signs, oxygen saturation and electrocardiograms revealed no changes indicative of a concern. The PK profile and safety data generated in the Chinese

  17. Analysis of Serum proteom before and after Intravenous Injection of wild ginseng herbal acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Sik Kang

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : To observe changes in the serum proteins before and after intravenous injection of wild ginseng herbal acupuncture. Methods : Blood was collected before and after the administration of wild ginseng herbal acupuncture and only the serum was centrifuged. Then differences in the spots on the scanned image after running 2-Dimensional electrophoresis were located and conducted mass analysis and protein identification. Results : Following results were obtained from the comparative analysis of serum proteins before and after the administration of wild ginseng herbal acupuncture. 1. 28 spots were identified before and after the administration. 2. In confirming manifestation degree, spots with more than two-times increase were 204, 803, 1505, 2205, 3105, 7104, 9001 spots, with more than one-time increase were 1101, 1302, 2013, 3009, 3010, 4002, 4009, 6706, 7103, 8006, 8101, and spots with decrease were 205, 801, 3205, 5202, 6105. 3. After conducting protein identification, proteins 205, 804, 1302, 4009, 6105, 6106 are unidentified yet, and 1101 is unnamed protein. Protein 204 is identified as complement receptor CR2-C3d, 801 as YAP1 protein, 803 as antitrypsin polymer, 1505 as PRO0684, 2013 and 3010 as proapolipoprotein, 2205 as USP48, 2403 as vitamin D binding protein, 3009 as complement component 4A preprotein, 3105 as immunoglobulin lambda chain, 3205 as transthyretin, 4002 as Ras-related protein Ral-A, 4204 as beta actin, 5202 and 7104 as apolipoprotein L1, 6704 as alpha 2 macroglobulin precursor, 7103 as complement component 3 precursor, 8006 as testis-specific protein Y, 8101 as transferrin, 9001 as (Alpha-Oxy, Beta-(C112gdeoxy T-State Human Hemoglobin, and 9003 as human hemoglobin. 4. Immune protein CR2-C3d, which acts against microbes and pathogenic organisms, and Antitrypsin(803, which is secreted with inflammatory response in the lungs, were increased by more than 200% after the administration of herbal acupuncture. 5

  18. Analysis of Serum Proteom after Intravenous Injection of cultivated wild ginseng pharmacopuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hee,Lee

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : To observe the changes in the serum proteins after intravenous injection of cultivated wild ginseng pharmacopuncture. Methods : Blood was collected before and after the administration of cultivated wild ginseng pharmacopuncture and only the serum was taken. Then differences in the spots on the scanned image after carrying out 2-Dimensional electrophoresis were located and conducted mass analysis and protein identification. Results : Following results were obtained from the comparative analysis of serum proteins before and after the administration of cultivated wild ginseng pharmacopuncture. 1. 28 spots were identified before and after the administration. 2. In confirming manifestation degree, spots with more than two-times increase were 204, 1302, 2205, 3105, 7104, 8006, spots with more than one-time increase were 1101, 1505, 2013, 2403, 3009, 3010, 4002, 4009, 6704, 8101, and spots with decrease were 205, 801, 803, 3205, 5202, 6105, 6106, 7103, 9001, 9003. 3. After conducting protein identification, proteins 205, 804, 1302, 4009, 6105, 6106 are unidentified yet, and 1l01 is unnamed protein. Protein 204 is identified as complement receptor CR2-C3d, 801 as YAPl protein, 803 as antitrypsin polymer, 1505 as PRO0684, 2013 and 3010 as proapolipoprotein, 2205 as USP48, 2403 as vitamin D binding protein, 3009 as complement component 4A preprotein, 3105 as immunoglobulin lambda chain, 3205 as transthyretin, 4002 as Ras-related protein Ral-A, 4204 as beta actin, 5202 and 7104 as apolipoprotein Ll, 6704 as alpha 2 macroglobulin precursor, 7103 as complement component 3 precursor, 8006 as testis-specific protein Y, 8101 as transferrin, 9001 as (Alpha-Oxy, Beta-(Cl12gdeoxy T-State Human Hemoglobin, and 9003 as human hemoglobin. 4. Immune protein CR2-C3d(204, which acts against microbes and pathogenic organisms, was increased by more than two-times after the administration of pharmacopuncture. 5. Antitrypsin(803, which is secreted with

  19. A new mouse model for renal lesions produced by intravenous injection of diphtheria toxin A-chain expression plasmid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura Shingo

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various animal models of renal failure have been produced and used to investigate mechanisms underlying renal disease and develop therapeutic drugs. Most methods available to produce such models appear to involve subtotal nephrectomy or intravenous administration of antibodies raised against basement membrane of glomeruli. In this study, we developed a novel method to produce mouse models of renal failure by intravenous injection of a plasmid carrying a toxic gene such as diphtheria toxin A-chain (DT-A gene. DT-A is known to kill cells by inhibiting protein synthesis. Methods An expression plasmid carrying the cytomegalovirus enhancer/chicken β-actin promoter linked to a DT-A gene was mixed with lipid (FuGENE™6 and the resulting complexes were intravenously injected into adult male B6C3F1 mice every day for up to 6 days. After final injection, the kidneys of these mice were sampled on day 4 and weeks 3 and 5. Results H-E staining of the kidney specimens sampled on day 4 revealed remarkable alterations in glomerular compartments, as exemplified by mesangial cell proliferation and formation of extensive deposits in glomerular basement membrane. At weeks 3 and 5, gradual recovery of these tissues was observed. These mice exhibited proteinuria and disease resembling sub-acute glomerulonephritis. Conclusions Repeated intravenous injections of DT-A expression plasmid DNA/lipid complex caused temporary abnormalities mainly in glomeruli of mouse kidney. The disease in these mice resembles sub-acute glomerulonephritis. These DT-A gene-incorporated mice will be useful as animal models in the fields of nephrology and regenerative medicine.

  20. Pulmonary fat embolism induced intravenous injection of autologous bone marrow in rabbit: CT and pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seong Jin; Sung, Dong Wook; Jun, Yang Hyun; Oh, Joo Hyung; Ko, Young Tae; Lee, Joo Hee; Yoon, Yup

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the correlation between CT and pathologic findings of pulmonary fat embolism in rabbits. In 16 rabbits, pulmonary fat embolism was induced by intravenous injection of autologous bone marrow(mean 3.3 mL). Chest CT scans were obtained immediately(within 1 hour), and 1, 3, and 7 days after embolization. The rabbits were divided into four groups. Group 1 underwent CT scanning immediately after embolization, group 2 immediately and 1 day after embolization, group 3 immediately, 1 day and 3 days after embolization, group 4 immediately, 1 day, 3 days and 7 days after embolization. Pathologic specimens were obtained immediately after the last CT scan. The earliest CT findings of pulmonary fat embolism in rabbits were peripheral lung lucency(16/16, 100%), perivascular ground-glass(12/16, 75.0%) and enlargement of the central pulmonary artery(11/16, 68.8%). Pathologically, perivascular ground-glass opacity correlated with extensive perivascular alveolar congestion and enlargement of the central pulmonary artery correlated with perivascular connective tissue edema and reactive pulmonary arterial engorgement. Peripheral lung lucency was probably caused by embolic occlusion of the pulmonary artery and decreased perfusion and air trapping induced by arterial and bronchial spasm associated with hypoxia. CT scans obtained 1 and 3 days after embolization showed nodules and patchy ground-glass opacity and consolidation. Aggregation of nodules resulted in patch opacities. Pathologically, pulmonary nodules correlated with focal inflammation surrounding an artery and parenchymal opacity correlated with parenchymal consolidation and hemorrhagic edema. CT scans and pathologic specimens obtained 7 days after embolization showed improvement of parenchymal lung abnormalities. Pulmonary fat embolism in rabbits show CT and pathologic findings which vary with dynamic change. Typical earliest findings of pulmonary fat embolism were peripheral lung lucency, perivascular ground

  1. Plateau potentials in alpha‐motoneurones induced by intravenous injection of L‐dopa and clonidine in the spinal cat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conway, B. A.; Hultborn, H.; Kiehn, O.

    1988-01-01

    1. Intracellular recordings were made from lumbar alpha‐motoneurones in unanaesthetized decerebrate acute spinal cats. The response of motoneurones to direct current pulse injection or synaptic excitation was investigated following intravenous injection of L‐beta‐3,4‐dihydroxyphenylalanine (L....... It is demonstrated that plateau potentials in the motoneurones contribute to the late long‐lasting reflexes observed in L‐DOPA‐treated spinal cats. 7. It is concluded that L‐DOPA (and clonidine) change the response properties of the motoneurones in an analogous way to 5‐hydroxy‐DL‐tryptophan (5‐HTP...

  2. Determination of the optional time for taking blood samples by single intravenous injection of 3H-leucine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Delian; Yao Junhu; Lu Jinyin; Wu Xiaobin; Liu Jun

    2003-01-01

    Twenty four young hens (1.5 kg of body weight, BW) were randomly divided into 4 groups. Every group was diet free (FAS) or force-fed a nitrogen-free diet (NFD) or the diet with 20% crude protein in which soybean meal or cotton seed meal was the sole nitrogen source (30 g DM/kg BW). 30 μCi 3 H-Leu/kg BW was intravenously injected into all birds just after force-fed or on fasting. Venous blood samples were taken at 5, 30 min, 4,24,36 and 48h after injection. The excreta during the whole period of 48h after injection was collected. Special radioactivities of nonprotein plasma at every time point and excreta were measured. The optional time of taking blood samples was 20-24 hours after injected 3 H-Leu

  3. An Unusual Case of Suicide Attempt Using Intravenous Injection of Kerosene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, M N; Sutradhar, S R; Ahmed, S M; Chowdhury, I H

    2016-07-01

    Kerosene belongs to the hydrocarbon group of compounds, used as a fuel for lamps, as well as heating and cooking in developing countries. Accidental kerosene poisoning and intoxication usually occur by inhalation or by occupational percutaneous absorption. Adults usually ingest kerosene for the purpose of self-harm, and children may ingest accidentally. Suicidal attempt using intravenous kerosene is an extra ordinary and very rare occurrence. A very few data are available regarding effects of intravenous administration of kerosene and its management.

  4. BOILING WATER REACTOR WITH FEED WATER INJECTION NOZZLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treshow, M.

    1963-04-30

    This patent covers the use of injection nozzles for pumping water into the lower ends of reactor fuel tubes in which water is converted directly to steam. Pumping water through fuel tubes of this type of boiling water reactor increases its power. The injection nozzles decrease the size of pump needed, because the pump handles only the water going through the nozzles, additional water being sucked into the tubes by the nozzles independently of the pump from the exterior body of water in which the fuel tubes are immersed. The resulting movement of exterior water along the tubes holds down steam formation, and thus maintains the moderator effectiveness, of the exterior body of water. (AEC)

  5. Water Injection Feasibility for Boeing 747 Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daggett, David L.

    2005-01-01

    Can water injection be offered at a reasonable cost to large airplane operators to reduce takeoff NO( sub x) emissions? This study suggests it may be possible. This report is a contract deliverable to NASA Glenn Research Center from the prime contractor, The Boeing Commercial Airplane Company of Seattle, WA. This study was supported by a separate contract to the Pratt & Whitney Engine Company of Hartford, CT (contract number NNC04QB58P). Aviation continues to grow and with it, environmental pressures are increasing for airports that service commercial airplanes. The feasibility and performance of an emissions-reducing technology, water injection, was studied for a large commercial airplane (e.g., Boeing 747 with PW4062 engine). The primary use of the water-injection system would be to lower NOx emissions while an important secondary benefit might be to improve engine turbine life. A tradeoff exists between engine fuel efficiency and NOx emissions. As engines improve fuel efficiency, by increasing the overall pressure ratio of the engine s compressor, the resulting increased gas temperature usually results in higher NOx emissions. Low-NO(sub x) combustors have been developed for new airplanes to control the increases in NO(sub x) emissions associated with higher efficiency, higher pressure ratio engines. However, achieving a significant reduction of NO(sub x) emissions at airports has been challenging. Using water injection during takeoff has the potential to cut engine NO(sub x) emissions some 80 percent. This may eliminate operating limitations for airplanes flying into airports with emission constraints. This study suggests an important finding of being able to offer large commercial airplane owners an emission-reduction technology that may also save on operating costs.

  6. THE RESPONSE OF DISSEMINATED RETICULUM CELL SARCOMA TO THE INTRAVENOUS INJECTION OF COLLOIDAL RADIOACTIVE GOLD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, Philip; Levitt, Seymour H.

    1963-06-15

    Case histories of two patients treated with colloidal radiogold for diffuse reticulum cell sarcoma are presented. Further analysis of the method is suggested by the unusually long survival time of one of the patients. It was concluded that, although external radiotherapy remains the treatment of choice in localized reticulum cell sarcoma, intravenous colloidal radiogold may be a useful agent in lymphosarcomas with diffuse minute neoplastic liver and spleen involvements. Intravenous colloidal radiogold can produce bone marrow depression and thrombocytopenia which can lead to death. This factor tends to argue against therapeutic use of the agent. It is suggested that no more than 50 mC Au/sup 198/ intravenously should be used for treatment of this disease. (R.M.G.)

  7. Acute Severe Thrombocytopenia Following Non-Ionic Low-Osmolarity Intravenous Contrast Medium Injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bata Pal; Domonkos, Adam; Tamoki, David Laszio; Horvath, Evelin; Berczi, Viktor; Szalay, Ferenc [Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary)

    2012-07-15

    Intravenous contrast medium (ICM) rarely induces anaphylactic reactions, including urticaria, hypotension and respiratory failure. Even the most modern ICM may cause such adverse events. Thrombocytopenia has been reported as an extreme rare consequence of ICM. Here we report on a case of a 72-year-old male patient with a self-limiting severe acute thrombocytopenia following administration of intravenous non-ionic low-osmolarity contrast medium. No such low platelet count has ever been reported. We also present a review of the literature.

  8. Methodological study on determining endogenous amino acid excretion of broiler chickens by single intravenous injection of 3H-leucine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Junhu; Wang Kangning; Yang Feng; Zhou Anguo; Cai Xuelin; Duanmu Dao

    1999-01-01

    Forty broiler chickens (1.5 kg of body weight, BW) were randomly divided into 20 groups. Every fifth group was force-fed a nitrogen-free diet (NFD) or a NFd + 3.20% enzyme hydrolysed casein (EHC) diet or diets with 5% and 20% crude protein (CP) in which soybean meal (sol.) was the sole nitrogen source. 30μCi 3 H-leucine/kg BW was intravenously injected into all birds just after the force-feeding. Venous blood samples were taken at 5 min, 4h, 24h, 36h and 48h after the injection, and the amount of excreta for the whole period of 48h was collected. The amino acids excreted after force-feeding NFD + 3.20% EHC of CP5% diet were theoretically endogenous. The ratios of specific radioactivity (SR) in excreta and the value of definite integral in free plasma from 0 to 48 h after injection of labelled leucine were not different (P > 0.05) when NFD, NFD + 3.20% EHC or CP5% diet was fed. From these results and theoretical analysis, it was suggested that for the birds with CP20% diet, the ratio of SR in endogenous leucine and value of definite integral in free plasma from 0 to 48 h after injection of labelled leucine would be the same as that of the birds with NFD diet, and thus endogenous losses of leucine and other amino acids, by the endogenous amino acid pattern measured with NFD diet, could be estimated for CP20% diet. The endogenous amino acid losses measured by this new technique was 120.50% of those measured by NFD method. It was suggested that single intravenous injection of 3 H-leucine first proposed would be more valuable for determining endogenous amino acid losses, especially when practical nitrogen-containing diet was fed

  9. Intravenous or local injections of flavoxate in the rostral pontine reticular formation inhibit urinary frequency induced by activation of medial frontal lobe neurons in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugaya, Kimio; Nishijima, Saori; Kadekawa, Katsumi; Ashitomi, Katsuhiro; Ueda, Tomoyuki; Yamamoto, Hideyuki

    2014-10-01

    The rostral pontine reticular formation has a strong inhibitory effect on micturition by facilitating lumbosacral glycinergic neurons. We assessed the influence of the rostral pontine reticular formation on the micturition reflex after noradrenaline injection in the medial frontal lobe. We also examined the relation between the medial frontal lobe and the rostral pontine reticular formation. Continuous cystometry was performed in 28 female rats. After the interval between bladder contractions was shortened by noradrenaline injection in the medial frontal lobe we injected glutamate or flavoxate hydrochloride in the rostral pontine reticular formation or intravenously injected flavoxate or propiverine. The change in bladder activity was examined. Noradrenaline injection in the medial frontal lobe shortened the interval between bladder contractions. In contrast to the bladder contraction interval before and after noradrenaline injection in the medial frontal lobe, the interval was prolonged after noradrenaline injection when glutamate or flavoxate was injected in the rostral pontine reticular formation, or flavoxate was injected intravenously. Noradrenaline injection in the medial frontal lobe plus intravenous propiverine injection also prolonged the interval compared to that after noradrenaline injection alone. However, the interval after noradrenaline injection in the medial frontal lobe plus intravenous injection of propiverine was shorter than that before noradrenaline injection only. Medial frontal lobe neurons excited by noradrenaline may facilitate the micturition reflex via activation of inhibitory interneurons, which inhibit descending rostral pontine reticular formation neurons that innervate the lumbosacral glycinergic inhibitory neurons. Therefore, the mechanism of micturition reflex facilitation by the activation of medial frontal lobe neurons involves the rostral pontine reticular formation. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education

  10. Intravenous contrast injection significantly affects bone mineral density measured on CT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pompe, Esther; Willemink, Martin J.; Dijkhuis, Gawein R.; Verhaar, Harald J. J.; Mohamed Hoesein, Firdaus A A; de Jong, Pim A.

    OBJECTIVE: The objective is to evaluate the effect of intravenous contrast media on bone mineral density (BMD) assessment by comparing unenhanced and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) examinations performed for other indications. METHODS: One hundred and fifty-two patients (99 without and

  11. Regional cerebral blood flow measurements in schizophrenics by /sup 133/Xe inhalation and intra-venous injection method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Hiroshi; Seki, Hiroyasu; Sumiya, Hisashi; Ishida, Hiroko; Taki, Junichi; Hisada, Kinichi; Kurachi, Masayoshi; Kobayashi, Katsuji; Yamaguchi, Nariyoshi (Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1984-12-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow measurements were performed in 25 schizophrenic patients and 25 healthy volunteers by /sup 133/Xe inhalation and intra-venous injection method. Schizophrenic patients were classified into the following three groups. Group I: 8 patients without auditory hallucination measured by 2-dimensional /sup 133/Xe inhalation method. Group II: 6 patients with auditory hallucination measured by the same method as in Group I. Group III: 11 patients, including 2 patients with auditory hallucination measured by 3-dimensional /sup 133/Xe intra-venous injection method at the level of OM+5 cm. Bilateral regional percent values, which were obtained by dividing regional values by hemispheric mean or sectional mean values, for frontal lobes in Group I and II were significantly lower than those in the controls. In addition, bilateral regional percent values for bilateral temporal lobes in Group II were significantly higher than those in the controls. In Group III, regional percent values for right frontal lobes and those for posterior part of central gray matter showed significant decrease and increase, respectively. These findings would suggest that the negative symptoms of schizophrenia are related to the hypofrontal and positive ones to the hypertemporoparietal activity.

  12. Pharmacokinetics of ketoprofen in the green iguana (Iguana iguana) following single intravenous and intramuscular injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Allison D; Papich, Mark; Lewbart, Gregory A; Christian, Shane; Gunkel, Conny; Harms, Craig A

    2006-12-01

    The nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug ketoprofen (KTP) is a commonly used antiinflammatory and analgesic agent in reptile medicine, but no studies documenting its pharmacokinetics in this species have been published. Ketoprofen was administered as a racemic mixture to green iguanas (Iguana iguana) intravenously (i.v.) and intramuscularly (i.m.) at 2 mg/kg. Pharmacokinetic analyses were performed and indicated that ketoprofen in iguanas administered by the intravenous route has a classical two-compartmental distribution pattern, a slow clearance (67 ml/ kg/hr) and a long terminal half-life (31 hr) compared to ketoprofen studies reported in mammals. When delivered by the intramuscular route, bioavailability was 78%. These data indicate the daily dosing that is generally recommended for reptile patients, as an extrapolation from mammalian data, may be more frequent than necessary.

  13. Organ Distribution of 13N Following Intravenous Injection of [13N]Ammonia into Portacaval-Shunted Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Nancy F; Dienel, Gerald A; Patrick, Patricia A; Cooper, Arthur J L

    2017-06-01

    Ammonia is neurotoxic, and chronic hyperammonemia is thought to be a major contributing factor to hepatic encephalopathy in patients with liver disease. Portacaval shunting of rats is used as an animal model to study the detrimental metabolic effects of elevated ammonia levels on body tissues, particularly brain and testes that are deleteriously targeted by high blood ammonia. In normal adult rats, the initial uptake of label (expressed as relative concentration) in these organs was relatively low following a bolus intravenous injection of [ 13 N]ammonia compared with lungs, kidneys, liver, and some other organs. The objective of the present study was to determine the distribution of label following intravenous administration of [ 13 N]ammonia among 14 organs in portacaval-shunted rats at 12 weeks after shunt construction. At an early time point (12 s) following administration of [ 13 N]ammonia the relative concentration of label was highest in lung with lower, but still appreciable relative concentrations in kidney and heart. Clearance of 13 N from blood and kidney tended to be slower in portacaval-shunted rats versus normal rats during the 2-10 min interval after the injection. At later times post injection, brain and testes tended to have higher-than-normal 13 N levels, whereas many other tissues had similar levels in both groups. Thus, reduced removal of ammonia from circulating blood by the liver diverts more ammonia to extrahepatic tissues, including brain and testes, and alters the nitrogen homeostasis in these tissues. These results emphasize the importance of treatment paradigms designed to reduce blood ammonia levels in patients with liver disease.

  14. Intravenous needle-free injection devices: new information for compounding pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macklin, Denise; Blackburn, Paul L

    2013-01-01

    By educating their clients (especially prescribing physicians, nurses, and home healthcare aides) about the advantages of using needle-free devices to administer intravenous medications, compounding pharmacists can help prevent complications associated with vascular access devices and needlestick injuries. Despite state and federal efforts to reduce the incidence of sharps injuries among healthcare workers, percutaneous needle-stick injuries remain a source of emotional stress, morbidity, and possible mortality in those individuals. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 50% or more of surveyed healthcare personnel do not report their occupational percutaneous injuries, and an estimated 385,000 sharps-related injuries occur annually among healthcare workers in hospitals alone. Because sharps injuries are associated with the transmission of more than 20 pathogens, including hepatitis B and C viruses and the human immunodeficiency virus, the potential burden of disease is great. For the intgravenous administration of medications, however, devices safer than those requiring the use of needles are available, and pharmacists have a key role in educating caregivers about needle-free equipment and its use. In this article, we explain the types of intravenous needle-free devices of interest to compounding pharmacists and the clients they serve, and we answer frequently asked questions about that equipment. Compounders who understand the design features and capabilities of such products, their clients' intended use of those devices, patients' specific needs can improve treatment outcomes and protect healthcare workers against needlestick injury.

  15. Power injection of iodinated intravenous contrast material through acute and chronic hemodialysis catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, Scott; Mojibian, Hamid; Emery, Michael; Tal, Michael G

    2012-01-01

    End-stage renal disease patients with hemodialysis catheters in need of contrast enhanced imaging studies often have limited peripheral venous access. In this study we aimed to determine pressures generated in hemodialysis catheters during power injection of computed tomography (CT) contrast media. Three different chronic hemodialysis catheters and two acute hemodialysis catheters were included in this study. All catheters were evaluated in vitro. A total volume of 120 cc of CT contrast material was injected at rate of 10 cc/s using a power injector. The catheters were connected to the power injector using a standard connecting tubing. Pressures were simultaneously measured in the power injector as well as in the hemodialysis catheters. The maximal measured pressures during injection in the power injector averaged 338 PSI (SD ± 8.7 PSI). The maximal measured pressure in the dialysis catheters ranged between 9.17 and 21.2 PSI. Pressures averaged 14.02 PSI (SD ± 3.34 PSI). The average pressure in the power injector was over 23 times higher than the pressure recorded at the hemodialysis catheter. None of the catheters ruptured or deformed during testing. Pressures measured in hemodialysis catheters during power injection are lower than currently believed and markedly lower than the pressures recorded in the power injector. Standard hemodialysis catheters are likely to be amenable to power contrast injection in hemodialysis patients who have limited venous access. In vivo studies are necessary to confirm these findings.

  16. Characterization of pore volume of cumulative water injection distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqing Feng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pore volume of Cumulative water injection is one of the factors for evaluating water flood effect in a water flood oil field. In previous study, there were limited lab studies for evaluating oil displacement efficiency. A method to characterize the distribution of pore volume of cumulative water injection is proposed in this paper, and it is verified by a five-spot water flooding streamline simulation model. The logarithmic relation between pore volume of cumulative water injection and water saturation is established by regression. An inflection point and limit point of cumulative water injection pore volume are identified. Current simulation model indicates inflection point appears after 2–5 pore volume (PV injection, and limit point appears after 15–25 PV injection. Both inflection and limit point vary in different regions of reservoir.

  17. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and local tolerance at injection site of marbofloxacin administered by regional intravenous limb perfusion in standing horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallemand, Elodie; Trencart, Pierre; Tahier, Carine; Dron, Frederic; Paulin, Angelique; Tessier, Caroline

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic variables and local tolerance at injection-site of marbofloxacin administered via regional intravenous limb perfusion (RIVLP) in standing horses. Adult horses (n = 6). RIVLP were performed with rubber tourniquets applied to the forelimbs of standing sedated horses. Marbofloxacin (0.67 mg/kg) was randomly injected in 1 forelimb, with the contralateral limb serving as a control (0.9% NaCl solution). Samples of jugular blood and synovial fluid from the radiocarpal joint of the marbofloxacin-perfused limb were collected before and at intervals after RIVLP for determination of drug concentrations. All injection sites were evaluated before, 24 and 48 hours after RIVLP by means of ultrasonographic examination, circumferential measurements and subjective visible inflammation scores by veterinarians unaware of treatment received. No adverse effects associated with the technique or antibiotic were observed. High marbofloxacin concentrations were obtained in the synovial fluid, AUCINF was significantly higher in synovial fluid than in plasma (78.64 ± 49.41 and 2.85 ± 0.60 µg h/mL respectively, P = .028). The efficacy indices, AUC0-24 /MIC90 and Cmaxobs/MIC90 , predicted a favorable outcome in the treatment of synovial fluid infections caused by enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus aureus. After RIVLP, there was no statistically significant difference between marbofloxacin-injected and control limbs for lameness, visual inflammation score, limb circumference, and ultrasonographic appearance of the veins. Marbofloxacin injected limbs had a significantly greater subcutaneous thickness, compared with control limbs. These data suggest that RIVLP of marbofloxacin (0.67 mg/kg) could be a safe and effective method for treatment of infections of the distal portion of the limb for susceptible organisms. © Copyright 2013 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  18. The effects of a single intravenous injection of novel activin A/BMP-2 (AB204) on toxicity and the respiratory and central nervous systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Byung-Hak; Lee, Jae Hyup; Na, Kyuheum; Ahn, Chihoon; Cho, Jongho; Ahn, Hyun Chan; Choi, Jungyoun; Oh, Hyosun; Kim, Byong Moon; Choe, Senyon

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a single intravenous injection of a novel osteoinductive material, activin A/BMP-2 (AB204), to rodents on toxicity and their respiratory functions and central nervous system (CNS). A single intravenous injection of AB204 was given to Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats in doses of 0, 0.625, 2.5 and 10 mg/kg to observe the mortality rate, the general symptoms for 14 days. The experimental groups were also given 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 mg/kg of AB204, respectively, and the respiration rate, the tidal volume and the minute volume were measured for 240 min. The experimental groups of imprinting control region (ICR) mice were given a single intravenous injection of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 mg/kg of AB204, respectively. Their body temperature was taken and general behaviors were observed to evaluate the effect of AB204 on the CNS for 240 min. The study on toxicity of a single intravenous injection found no death or abnormal symptoms, abnormal findings from autopsy, or abnormal body weight gain or loss in all the experimental groups. No abnormal variation associated with the test substance was observed in the respiration rate, the tidal volume, the minute volume, body temperature or the general behaviors. On the basis of these results, the approximate lethal dose of AB204 for a single intravenous injection exceeds 10 mg/kg for SD rats and a single intravenous injection of ≤0.8 mg/kg AB204 has no effect on their respiratory system for SD rat and no effect on their CNS for ICR mice.

  19. Extrapulmonary colony formation after intravenous injection of tumour cells into heparin treated animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maat, B.

    1978-01-01

    Recent data on extrapulmonary colony formation after heparin administration are inconclusive. A systemic study of this topic was undertaken with 4 experimental tumour systems and 2 distinct periods of reduced clotting capacity in rats and mice. I.v. injection of various numbers of tumour cells into

  20. Micro-costing study of rituximab subcutaneous injection versus intravenous infusion in dutch setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihajlović, J.; Bax, P.; Van Breugel, E.; Blommestein, H.M.; Hoogendoorn, M.; Hospes, W.; Postma, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Rituximab for subcutaneous (SC) administration has recently been approved for use in common forms of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). This form of rituximab is supplied in ready-to-use vials that do not require individual dose adjustment. It is expected that SC-injection will

  1. Effects of intravenous injection of small amounts of copper sulfate in Nubian goats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasfi, I.A.; Adam, S.E.I.

    1976-01-01

    Fifty mg. of copper sulfate was administered intravenously on each of three consecutive days to five Nubian goats. Three goats died within 3 to 4 days and the remaining two survived and were killed after 38 days. Anorexia, hemoglobinuria, jaundice, weakness and dyspnoea were the main clinical signs of acute copper toxicity. Hematological changes indicated the development of hemolytic jaundice and leukocytosis. An increase in the concentrations of bilirubin, ammonia, sodium and potassium and a decrease in total protein were detected in the serum. The outstanding pathological changes were necrosis and fatty change in the liver, dilatation and necrosis of the kidney tubules, tetechial hemorrhage on the heart and splenic hemosiderosis. 7 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  2. The behavior after intravenous injection in mice of multiwalled carbon nanotube / Fe3O4 hybrid MRI contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huixia; Liu, Gang; Zhuang, Yeming; Wu, Dongmei; Zhang, Haoqiang; Yang, Hong; Hu, He; Yang, Shiping

    2011-07-01

    Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles were in situ loaded on the surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by a solvothermal method using diethylene glycol and diethanolamine as solvents and complexing agents. The as-prepared MWCNT/Fe(3)O(4) hybrids exhibited excellent hydrophilicity, superparamagnetic property at room temperature, and a high T(2) relaxivity of 175.5 mM(-1) s(-1) in aqueous solutions. In vitro experiments revealed that MWCNT/Fe(3)O(4) had an excellent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enhancement effect on cancer cells, and importantly, they displayed low cytotoxicity and neglectable hemolytic activity. After intravenous administration, the T(2)-weighted MRI signal in the liver and spleen of mice decreased significantly, suggesting the potential application of the hybrids as MRI contrast agents. The organ biodistribution studies, histological analyses and elimination investigations showed that the hybrids were uptaken by the liver, lung and spleen after intravenous injection, and could be excreted from the liver and kidney. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Enteral exsorption of acetaminophen after intravenous injection in rats: influence of activated charcoal on this clearance path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyer, Florian; Jung, Nicole; Neuberger, Heidi; Schulz, Roswitha; Steiner, Kurt; Ladstetter, Bernhard; Poethko, Thorsten; Henke, Julia; Zilker, Thomas

    2007-09-01

    The fate of acetaminophen after intravenous injection in whole bowel-irrigated rats (n = 40) and the influence of activated charcoal on the kinetics were investigated. After randomization to four groups (n = 10, each group), plasma concentration and the quantities of acetaminophen and metabolites excreted into bile, urine and intestine were determined using an in vivo model with or without orally administered activated charcoal and with or without bile duct cannulation. The cumulative amount of acetaminiphen and metabolites exsorbed into the small intestine within 3.5 hr after intravenous injection was about 20% of dose in the animals with bile duct cannulation and about 7% of dose in the animals without. Correspondingly, about 13% of dose was detected in the externalized bile. Activated charcoal did not influence the amount exsorbed into the small intestine. Terminal half-life in plasma ranged from 35 to 51 min. within the four treatment groups without statistically significant difference (P = 0.152). Correspondingly, the area under the curve did not vary much and ranged between 2.6 and 3.3 g/min./l (P = 0.392). Deposition of acetaminophen and metabolites in liver and kidney after 3.5 hr was marginal and ranged between 0.02% and 0.6% of the dose within all groups. The excretion of acetaminophen and metabolites into urine varied strikingly between 31% and 56% of the dose within all groups and correlated with diuresis. The lack of effect of activated charcoal on the elimination of acetaminophen and metabolites may be due to the small amount of the drug being exsorbed into the intestine or the reduced adsorbent capacity of activated charcoal to acetaminophen and metabolites, which also could be influenced by inadequate luminal stirring.

  4. Genotoxicity of synthetic amorphous silica nanoparticles in rats following short-term exposure. Part 2: intratracheal instillation and intravenous injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guichard, Yves; Maire, Marie-Aline; Sébillaud, Sylvie; Fontana, Caroline; Langlais, Cristina; Micillino, Jean-Claude; Darne, Christian; Roszak, Joanna; Stępnik, Maciej; Fessard, Valérie; Binet, Stéphane; Gaté, Laurent

    2015-03-01

    Synthetic amorphous silica nanomaterials (SAS) are extensively used in food and tire industries. In many industrial processes, SAS may become aerosolized and lead to occupational exposure of workers through inhalation in particular. However, little is known about the in vivo genotoxicity of these particulate materials. To gain insight into the toxicological properties of four SAS (NM-200, NM-201, NM-202, and NM-203), rats are treated with three consecutive intratracheal instillations of 3, 6, or 12 mg/kg of SAS at 48, 24, and 3 hrs prior to tissue collection (cumulative doses of 9, 18, and 36 mg/kg). Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage was assessed using erythrocyte micronucleus test and the standard and Fpg-modified comet assays on cells from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), lung, blood, spleen, liver, bone marrow, and kidney. Although all of the SAS caused increased dose-dependent changes in lung inflammation as demonstrated by BALF neutrophilia, they did not induce any significant DNA damage. As the amount of SAS reaching the blood stream and subsequently the internal organs is probably to be low following intratracheal instillation, an additional experiment was performed with NM-203. Rats received three consecutive intravenous injections of 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg of SAS at 48, 24, and 3 hrs prior to tissue collection. Despite the hepatotoxicity, thrombocytopenia, and even animal death induced by this nanomaterial, no significant increase in DNA damage or micronucleus frequency was observed in SAS-exposed animals. It was concluded that under experimental conditions, SAS induced obvious toxic effects but did cause any genotoxicity following intratracheal instillation and intravenous injection. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Disturbance of ion environment and immune regulation following biodistribution of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles injected intravenously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Jung; Kim, Sang-Wook; Yoon, Cheolho; Kim, Younghun; Kim, Jong Sung

    2016-01-22

    Although it is expected that accumulation of metal oxide nanoparticles that can induce redox reaction in the biological system may influence ion homeostasis and immune regulation through generation of free radicals, the relationship is still unclear. In this study, mice received magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (M-FeNPs, 2 and 4 mg/kg) a single via the tail vein, and their distribution in tissues was investigated over time (1, 4, and 13 weeks). In addition, we evaluated the effects on homeostasis of redox reaction-related elements, the ion environment and immune regulation. The iron level in tissues reached at the maximum on 4 weeks after injection and M-FeNPs the most distributed in the spleen at 13 weeks. Additionally, levels of redox reaction-related elements in tissues were notably altered since 1 week post-injection. While levels of K(+) and Na(+) in tissue tended to decrease with time, Ca(2+) levels reached to the maximum at 4 weeks post-injection. On 13 weeks post-injection, the increased percentages of neutrophils and eosinophils, the enhanced release of LDH, and the elevated secretion of IL-8 and IL-6 were clearly observed in the blood of M-FeNP-treated mice compared to the control. While expression of antigen presentation related-proteins and the maturation of dendritic cells were markedly inhibited following distribution of M-FeNPs, the expression of several chemokines, including CXCR2, CCR5, and CD123, was enhanced on the splenocytes of the treated groups. Taken together, we suggest that accumulation of M-FeNPs may induce adverse health effects by disturbing homeostasis of the immune regulation and ion environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sensation of smell and taste during intravenous injection of iodinated contrast media in CT examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Naoto; Yamaguchi, Aiko; Nagasawa, Naoki; Taketomi-Takahashi, Ayako; Suto, Takayuki; Tsushima, Yoshito

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To assess the incidence and types of sensation of smell and taste during i.v. injection of five kinds of contrast media (CM) in CT examinations. Methods: 735 patients who underwent contrast-enhanced CT (CE-CT) between 14 March 2016 and 5 April 2016 were enrolled. Medical staff asked patients whether they felt heat sensation and sensation of smell and taste during i.v. injection of CM (one of the following: iopromide, iomeprol, iopamidol, iohexol and ioversol) after their CE-CT. If the patients stated having felt the sensation of smell or taste, they were also asked what kind of smell or taste they sensed. Next, 30 ml of each CM was poured into high-purity pet cups for radiological technologists to smell directly. Radiological technologists were asked whether or not each CM had any smell. Results: The sensations of smell and taste incidence for iopromide were 24.3% and 18.9%, respectively, which were significantly higher than those for other CM (p < 0.05). The highest incidence of the sensation of smell was medicine-ish, and the most frequently noted taste was bitterness. All radiological technologists could directly smell only iopromide, which has an ether group on a side chain and fewer hydroxyl groups. Conclusion: Iopromide showed a higher incidence of sensation of smell and taste than other CM. Advances in knowledge: This was the first investigation of sensation of smell and taste during i.v. injection of CM, and a specific CM showed a higher incidence, which is suspected to be due to its chemical structure. PMID:27805431

  7. Sensation of smell and taste during intravenous injection of iodinated contrast media in CT examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Naoto; Fukushima, Yasuhiro; Yamaguchi, Aiko; Nagasawa, Naoki; Taketomi-Takahashi, Ayako; Suto, Takayuki; Tsushima, Yoshito

    2017-01-01

    To assess the incidence and types of sensation of smell and taste during i.v. injection of five kinds of contrast media (CM) in CT examinations. 735 patients who underwent contrast-enhanced CT (CE-CT) between 14 March 2016 and 5 April 2016 were enrolled. Medical staff asked patients whether they felt heat sensation and sensation of smell and taste during i.v. injection of CM (one of the following: iopromide, iomeprol, iopamidol, iohexol and ioversol) after their CE-CT. If the patients stated having felt the sensation of smell or taste, they were also asked what kind of smell or taste they sensed. Next, 30 ml of each CM was poured into high-purity pet cups for radiological technologists to smell directly. Radiological technologists were asked whether or not each CM had any smell. The sensations of smell and taste incidence for iopromide were 24.3% and 18.9%, respectively, which were significantly higher than those for other CM (p smell was medicine-ish, and the most frequently noted taste was bitterness. All radiological technologists could directly smell only iopromide, which has an ether group on a side chain and fewer hydroxyl groups. Iopromide showed a higher incidence of sensation of smell and taste than other CM. Advances in knowledge: This was the first investigation of sensation of smell and taste during i.v. injection of CM, and a specific CM showed a higher incidence, which is suspected to be due to its chemical structure.

  8. Difference of 14C turnovers in brain and in transplanted glioma after intravenous injection of 14C-1-pyruvate rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Toshihiko; Yokoi, Fuji

    1986-01-01

    Carbon 14 from 14 C-1-pyruvate injected intravenously into glioma-transplanted rats was incorporated into various compounds in the brain and in the tumor. In the brain the majority of activity was found in CO 2 (60%), and minor activities were found in alanine, lactate (15%), glutamate, and aspartate, with decreasing order, 5 min after injection. In the tumor, at 5 min. the largest activity was in lactate (56%), and lower activities were found in CO 2 (24%), alanine, glutamate, and aspartate. The total 14 C concentration in the tumor was twice that in the brain at 5 min and 15 min. The results was in accordance with the prediction that in brain, where the mitochondrial function is active, 14 C-1-pyruvate will be oxidized completely into 14 CO 2 , and that in tumor, where the mitochondrial function is insufficient, 14 C-1-pyruvate will be converted only into 14 C-lactate and prevent further degradation. It may be assumed that this difference in the turnover of 14 C and 14 C-1-pyruvate between brain and tumor could constitute a basis for the ''hot'' visualization of human brain tumor using cyclotron-produced 11 C-1-pyruvate and positron-emission tomography. (orig.)

  9. Are referring clinicians aware of patients at risk from intravenous injection of iodinated contrast media?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konen, Eli; Konen, Osnat; Katz, Miriam; Levy, Yair; Rozenman, Judith; Hertz, Marjorie

    2002-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of our study was to assess the level of awareness of referring clinicians to populations at risk for complications of intravascular administration of iodinated contrast media. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Two hundred and three physicians from three university hospitals completed an anonymous questionnaire regarding risk factors and contraindications to the intravenous administration of iodinated contrast media. The questionnaire included medical conditions with increased risk for anaphylactoid reaction (asthma, hay fever and food allergy) as well as chemotoxic (ischaemic heart disease, phaeochromocytoma and myasthenia gravis) adverse reactions, some with dependence on renal function (metformin treatment, diabetes mellitus and multiple myeloma). Two additional multiple-choice questions addressed pre-medication protocols and risk of nephrotoxicity in diabetic patients. RESULTS: Asthma, food allergy and hay fever were recognized as risk factors by 81·3%, 77·8% and 61·6% of respondents respectively, while ischaemic heart disease, phaeochromocytoma and myasthenia gravis were defined as such only by 9·8%, 30·0% and 28·6% respectively. Metformin treatment, diabetes mellitus and multiple myeloma, in the presence of normal renal function, were considered as risk factors by 46·3%, 38·9% and 58·1% of respondents respectively. One of the generally accepted pre-medication protocols was selected by 89·8%. The risk of nephrotoxicity in a diabetic patient was correctly assessed by 63·5% of respondents. CONCLUSION: We found a relatively high awareness among referring clinicians of a potential anaphylactoid reaction and nephrotoxicity due to iodinated contrast media. However, additional chemotoxic adverse reactions are less well known. Future efforts to improve communication between clinicians and radiologists should be focused in this direction. Konen, E. et al. (2002)

  10. Automatic production of 13NH3 and L-[13N] glutamate ready for intravenous injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, K.; Tamate, K.

    1984-01-01

    A system has been developed for the automatic production of 13 NH 3 and L-[ 13 N]glutamate for i.v. injection. Up to 250 mCi of 13 NH 3 and 60 mCi of L-[ 13 N]glutamate were produced at radiochemical purities of 99.9% with the equipment. The required times were 8.2 and 17.5 min, respectively. Pyrogen and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) were not detected in the product. The solution was obtained without any sterile procedure other than the filtration with an autoclaved ultrafilter (NMWL = 10,000) assembly at the final production stage. Penetration ratios through the filter were -6 and 2 x 10 -7 of the order of 6 x 10 -7 for GDH and E. Coli endotoxin, respectively. A new 47 mm diameter filter holder with a small dead volume (approx. 0.6 mL) was devised for easy assembly of the sterilized filter. (author)

  11. Intravenous injection of unfunctionalized carbon-based nanomaterials confirms the minimal toxicity observed in aqueous and dietary exposures in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, David; Sutton, Paul A; Handy, Richard D; Henry, Theodore B

    2018-01-01

    Numerous ecotoxicology studies of carbon-based nanomaterials (CNMs) have been conducted in fishes; however, different approaches have been used to make CNM dispersions and dose tanks for aqueous exposures, and to prepare food containing CNMs for dietary studies. This diversity of experimental methods has led to conflicting results and difficulties in comparing studies. The objective of the present study was to evaluate intravenous injection of unfunctionalized CNMs in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), as a means of delivering a known internal dose, on tissue biochemistry and histopathological lesions; then, subsequently, to compare the results with our previous work on aqueous and dietary exposures of rainbow trout to CNMs. Rainbow trout were injected in the caudal vein with corn oil dispersions of 200 μg (approximately 1 μg g -1 ) of either the fullerene C 60 , single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), or amorphous carbon black. After 96 h, injected fish were euthanized and tissue samples collected for biochemistry and histology. Histological examination of the kidney of fish injected intravenously indicated the presence of black material consistent with the injected carbon treatments. However, there were no additional lesions associated with CNM exposure compared to controls. There were also no significant changes in haematology, or ionoregulatory disturbance in blood plasma among the intravenously injected fish. Significant elevation in lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances TBARS) was detected only in kidney and spleen of fish injected with SWCNTs, but not the other carbon treatments. The elevated TBARS following injection contrasted with CNMs delivered via aqueous or dietary routes in our previous studies, suggesting that the latter exposure routes may not lead to absorption and toxicity in the internal tissues. Comparison of the effects of injected CNMs with aqueous and dietary CNMs exposures indicates that these materials are of

  12. TLR9-dependent systemic interferon-beta production by intravenous injection of plasmid DNA/cationic liposome complex in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Nishikawa, Makiya; Yasuda, Sachiyo; Mizuno, Yumiko; Toyota, Hiroyasu; Kiyota, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Rei; Takakura, Yoshinobu

    2009-08-01

    The type I interferon (IFN) response to DNA/cationic liposome complex, or lipoplex, has been reported in cultured cells, but little is known about the response in vivo. Studies of the pro-inflammatory cytokine response to lipoplex have shown the importance of the unmethylated CpG dinucleotide (CpG motif) and its receptor, Toll-like receptor (TLR)-9. CpG- and non-CpG lipoplex consisting of CpG- or non-CpG plasmid DNA, respectively, and N-[1-(2,3-dioleyloxy)propyl]-N,N,N-trimethylammonium chloride/cholesterol liposomes were intravenously injected into mice. IFN-beta and interleukin (IL)-6 in the serum and organs were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The involvement of TLR9, phagocytic cells and the spleen in the responses was evaluated using TLR9(-/-), clodronate liposome-treated-, and splenectomized mice, respectively. Accumulation of blood cells in the lung was evaluated histologically. CpG lipoplex induced a large increase in the levels of IFN-beta and IL-6 in the serum, liver, spleen, lung and kidney, whereas non-CpG lipoplex scarcely had any effect. Neither formulation led to significant cytokine production in TLR9(-/-) mice. Clodronate liposome-treated mice showed a large reduction in both IFN-beta and IL-6 levels. Splenectomized mice receiving CpG lipoplex also showed a significantly low production of IL-6 but a similar level of IFN-beta production to that of unsplenectomized mice. A large number of monocytes were found in the capillary vessels around the pulmonary alveoli of mice receiving lipoplex. These findings indicate that, in contrast to the production of IL-6 from splenic macrophages, IFN-beta is produced from phagocytic cells other than splenic macrophages after the injection of CpG lipoplex through the TLR9-dependent pathway.

  13. Radiotracer investigations in oil production and water injection wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eapen, A.C.; Jain, S.K.; Kirti

    1977-01-01

    Injection of gamma emitting radiotracers into oil wells followed by logging provides information on several aspects such as the identification of zones of seepage of water in the water injection wells and also the location of source of water entering oil producting wells. The experience gained in the application of bromine-82 and rubidium-86 as radiotracers in such studies at the Ankleshwar and Kalol oil fields in Gujarat and Nazira in Assam has been briefly reported. (author)

  14. Particle retention in porous media: Applications to water injectivity decline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wennberg, Kjell Erik

    1998-12-31

    This thesis studies the problem of migration and deposition of colloidal particles within porous media, theoretically and by computerized simulation. Special emphasis is put on the prediction of injectivity decline in water injection wells due to inherent particles in the injection water. The study of particle deposition within porous media requires a correct prediction of the deposition rate or filtration coefficient. A thorough review of the modeling approaches used in the past are combined with new ideas in order to arrive at an improved model for the prediction of the filtration coefficient. A new way of determining the transition time for the dominant deposition mechanism to change from internal deposition to external cake formation is proposed. From this fundamental theory, equations are given for water injectivity decline predictions. A computer program called WID for water injectivity decline predictions was developed. Using water quality, formation properties, injection rate/pressure and completion information as input, WID predicts decline in vertical and horizontal injection wells with openhole, perforated and fractured completions. The calculations agree fairly well with field data; in some cases the agreement is excellent. A poor match in a few cases indicates that more mechanisms may be responsible for injectivity decline than those presently accounted for by the simulator. The second part of the study deals with a theoretical investigation of the multi-dimensional nature of particle deposition in porous media. 112 refs., 100 figs., 9 tabs.

  15. An experimental study on tissue damage following subcutaneous injection of water soluble contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Hyup; Park, Jae Hyung; Kang, Heung Sik; Kim, Chu Wan; Han, Man Chung; Kim, Yong Il

    1989-01-01

    The water soluble contrast media cause tissue necrosis infrequently by extravasation during intravenous injection in various radiological examinations. However, it has not been well documented that what kind and what concentration of contrast media can cause tissue necrosis. And also, the mechanism of tissue necrosis by extravasated contrast media has not been well known. The purpose of this experimental study was to evaluate the frequency and severity of tissue damage following subcutaneous injection of various water soluble contrast media to investigate the characteristics of the contrast media acting on the tissue damage, and to provide the basic data for the clinical application. Meglumine ioxithalamate,sodium and meglumine ioxithalamate, iopromide, iopamidol, ioxaglate,meglumine diatrizoate and sodium diatrizoate of various iodine content and osmolality were injected into subcutaneous tissue of the dorsum of 970 feet of 485 rats. The tissue reaction of injection sites were grossly examined with period from 1 day to 8 weeks after the injection. Representative gross changes were correlated with histologic findings. The results were as follows; 1. The basic tissue damage by extravasated contrast media was acute and chronic inflammatory reaction of the soft tissue with subsequent progress into the hemorrhagic and necrotizing lesion. 2. Lager volume of contrast media caused more severe tissue damage. 3. Contrast media of higher osmolality caused more severe tissue damage. 4. At same osmolality, contrast media of higher iodine content caused more severe tissue damage

  16. Kinetics of intravenous radiographic contrast medium injections as used on CT: simulation with time delay differential equations in a basic human cardiovascular multicompartment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violon, D

    2012-12-01

    To develop a multicompartment model of only essential human body components that predicts the contrast medium concentration vs time curve in a chosen compartment after an intravenous injection. Also to show that the model can be used to time adequately contrast-enhanced CT series. A system of linked time delay instead of ordinary differential equations described the model and was solved with a Matlab program (Matlab v. 6.5; The Mathworks, Inc., Natick, MA). All the injection and physiological parameters were modified to cope with normal or pathological situations. In vivo time-concentration curves from the literature were recalculated to validate the model. The recalculated contrast medium time-concentration curves and parameters are given. The results of the statistical analysis of the study findings are expressed as the median prediction error and the median absolute prediction error values for both the time delay and ordinary differential equation systems; these are situated well below the generally accepted maximum 20% limit. The presented program correctly predicts the time-concentration curve of an intravenous contrast medium injection and, consequently, allows an individually tailored approach of CT examinations with optimised use of the injected contrast medium volume, as long as time delay instead of ordinary differential equations are used. The presented program offers good preliminary knowledge of the time-contrast medium concentration curve after any intravenous injection, allowing adequate timing of a CT examination, required by the short scan time of present-day scanners. The injected volume of contrast medium can be tailored to the individual patient with no more contrast medium than is strictly needed.

  17. Reduction of Altitude Diffuser Jet Noise Using Water Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgood, Daniel C.; Saunders, Grady P.; Langford, Lester A.

    2011-01-01

    A feasibility study on the effects of injecting water into the exhaust plume of an altitude rocket diffuser for the purpose of reducing the far-field acoustic noise has been performed. Water injection design parameters such as axial placement, angle of injection, diameter of injectors, and mass flow rate of water have been systematically varied during the operation of a subscale altitude test facility. The changes in acoustic far-field noise were measured with an array of free-field microphones in order to quantify the effects of the water injection on overall sound pressure level spectra and directivity. The results showed significant reductions in noise levels were possible with optimum conditions corresponding to water injection at or just upstream of the exit plane of the diffuser. Increasing the angle and mass flow rate of water injection also showed improvements in noise reduction. However, a limit on the maximum water flow rate existed as too large of flow rate could result in un-starting the supersonic diffuser.

  18. Patency of heart blood vessels under photosensitization reaction shortly after intravenous injection of talaporfin sodium in canine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Risa; Matsuzaki, Ryota; Ogawa, Emiyu; Arai, Tsunenori

    2016-03-01

    In order to investigate patency of heart blood vessels by photosensitization reaction shortly after intravenous injection of talaporfin sodium, we performed in vitro endothelial cell lethality study and in vivo study of heart blood vessel patency in canine one week after photosensitization reaction. Cell lethality of human umbilical vein endothelial cells under different albumin concentrations corresponding with blood and interstice concentrations were employed and their lethality 2 hours after the reaction was measured by WST assay in vitro. Almost all cells survived by 40 J/cm2 photosensitization reaction with blood albumin concentration. Laser diffuser made of plastic optical fiber with 70 mm in length was used in vivo. Red diode laser of 664nm wavelength was emitted from this diffuser with 17.1-42.9 mW/cm in 10 minutes. We estimated the fluence rate distribution by a ray-trace simulator using pre-measured optical coefficients of myocardium tissue, μa 0.12 mm-1 and μs' 0.36 mm-1. Almost all blood vessels were patent in every irradiation conditions in canine heart. Coronary artery and vein up to 1 mm diameter were patent in typical myocardium sample with 25.7 mW/cm. We estimated fluence rate distribution of this sample and found that blood vessels were patent even fluence rate over 40 J/cm2. This in vivo study could be explained by the result of in vitro study. We suggest that this blood vessel patency after our particular photosensitization reaction might be because of few photosensitizer uptake in the blood endothelial cells and/or reduced oxidation damage by thick albumin concentration in blood.

  19. Time Savings with Rituximab Subcutaneous Injection versus Rituximab Intravenous Infusion: A Time and Motion Study in Eight Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cock, Erwin; Kritikou, Persefoni; Sandoval, Mariana; Tao, Sunning; Wiesner, Christof; Carella, Angelo Michele; Ngoh, Charles; Waterboer, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Background Rituximab is a standard treatment for non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The SABRINA trial (NCT01200758) showed that a subcutaneous (SC) rituximab formulation did not compromise efficacy or safety compared with intravenous (IV) infusion. We aimed to quantify active healthcare professional (HCP) time and patient chair time for rituximab SC and IV, including potential time savings. Methods This non-interventional time and motion study was run in eight countries and 30 day oncology units. Rituximab SC data were collected alongside the MabCute trial (NCT01461928); IV data were collected per routine real-world practice. Trained observers recorded active HCP time for pre-specified tasks (stopwatch) and chair time (time of day). A random intercept model was used to analyze active HCP time (by task and for all tasks combined) in the treatment room and drug preparation area, drug administration duration, chair time and patient treatment room time by country and/or across countries. Active HCP and chair time were extrapolated to a patient’s first year of treatment (11 rituximab sessions). Results Mean active HCP time was 35.0 and 23.7 minutes for IV and SC process, respectively (-32%, p time was 27–58%. Absolute reduction in extrapolated active HCP time (first year of treatment) was 1.1–5.2 hours. Mean chair time was 262.1 minutes for IV, including 180.9 minutes infusion duration, vs. 67.3 minutes for SC, including 8.3 minutes SC injection administration (-74%, p time for the first year of treatment was 3.1–5.5 eight-hour days. Conclusions Compared with rituximab IV, rituximab SC was associated with reduced chair time and active HCP time. The latter could be invested in other activities, whereas the former may lead to more available appointments, reducing waiting lists and increasing the efficiency of day oncology units. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01200758 PMID:27362533

  20. Intentional intravenous mercury injection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three forms of mercury exist: elemental, inorganic and organic, all of which may be toxic with clinical consequences, depending on the type of exposure. Elemental mercury poisoning usually occurs via vapour inhalation, as mercury is well absorbed through the lungs. The central nervous system is then the major site of ...

  1. Neonatal intraperitoneal or intravenous injections of recombinant adeno-associated virus type 8 transduce dorsal root ganglia and lower motor neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foust, Kevin D; Poirier, Amy; Pacak, Christina A; Mandel, Ronald J; Flotte, Terence R

    2008-01-01

    Targeting lower motor neurons (LMNs) for gene delivery could be useful for disorders such as spinal muscular atrophy and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. LMNs reside in the ventral gray matter of the spinal cord and send axonal projections to innervate skeletal muscle. Studies have used intramuscular injections of adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2) to deliver viral vectors to LMNs via retrograde transport. However, treating large areas of the spinal cord in a human would require numerous intramuscular injections, thereby increasing viral titer and risk of immune response. New AAV serotypes, such as AAV8, have a dispersed transduction pattern after intravenous or intraperitoneal injection in neonatal mice, and may transduce LMNs by retrograde transport or through entry into the nervous system. To test LMN transduction after systemic injection, we administered recombinant AAV8 (rAAV8) carrying the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene by intravenous or intraperitoneal injection to neonatal mice on postnatal day 1. Tissues were harvested 5 and 14 days postinjection and analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and GFP immunohistochemistry to assess the presence of AAV genomes and GFP expression, respectively. Spinal cords were positive for AAV genomes at both time points. GFP immunohistochemistry revealed infrequent labeling of LMNs across all time points and injection routes. Somewhat surprisingly, there was extensive labeling of fibers in the dorsal horns and columns, indicating dorsal root ganglion transduction across all time points and injection routes. Our data suggest that systemic injection of rAAV8 is not an effective delivery route to target lower motor neurons, but could be useful for targeting sensory pathways in chronic pain.

  2. Packaged water-injection plant aimed at offshore use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-05-02

    A packaged, fully instrumented water treatment and injection system for offshore use has been designed by the Aker Group of Oslo, Norway. The design also could be used on shore. Its standard Akar WIP 50 plant is rated at 50,000-bpd capacity at 3,000 psi injection pressure. Units may be arranged to achieve may treatment and injection capability. Systems use treated seawater, produced water, fresh water or ground water. Water supply is chlorinated and coarse-filtered at the system intake. Water carried through plastic, Eternit, or epoxy coated pipe will not need further treatment (deaeration for example) at the intake, Aker points out. Water injected into producing formations meets well-defined specifications. Before injection, water is filtered to reduce contaminants to an acceptable level. The standard degree of filtration is finer than 10 mu which helps to avoid blocking wells. Filters are simple in design and efficient in operation. Dependability and maintenance ease are design considerations. Filters have small external dimensions, are lightweight, and provide guaranteed degrees of filtration. A self-cleaning filter (50 mu size) can be put ahead of the fine filter to remove larger particles. Vacuum stripping is seen as the oxygen-removal method for the WIP 50.

  3. Human neuroblastoma cell growth in xenogeneic hosts: comparison of T cell-deficient and NK-deficient hosts, and subcutaneous or intravenous injection routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, W J; Chatten, J; Lampson, L A

    1990-04-01

    We have examined two features of neuroblastoma cells that had not been well-characterized in a xenogeneic model: The cells display unusual immunologic properties in other experimental systems, and the original tumors display widespread and characteristic patterns of metastasis. To determine the most appropriate immunodeficient host for primary tumor growth, T cell-deficient nude mice, NK-deficient beige mice, beige-nudes, and controls were injected with the well-characterized line CHP-100. To define the pattern of tumor spread, complete autopsies were performed following subcutaneous, intraperitoneal and intravenous injections. CHP-100 consistently formed subcutaneous tumors in T cell-deficient mice (nude and beige-nude), but not in T cell-competent mice (beige, heterozygous nu/+ and bg/+, or wild-type). The growth rate and final size of the subcutaneous tumors were not greater in beige-nudes than in nudes. All mice showed early CHP-100 cell death after subcutaneous injection; the nature of the immunodeficiency was more relevant for the surviving subpopulation. Widespread dissemination was seen following intravenous injection, particularly in beige-nudes. Aspects of the growth patterns were appropriate to the tumor of origin. The behavior in immunodeficient mice suggests that T cells can play a role in controlling the growth of these cells; the next steps will be to define the effector mechanisms, and to determine if they can be exploited for human patients. The hematogenous spread following intravenous injection suggests that insights into the control of blood-borne tumor may also come from further study of this model.

  4. Specific dose-dependent damage of Lieberkuehn crypts promoted by large doses of type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein nigrin b intravenous injection to mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gayoso, M.J.; Munoz, R.; Arias, Y.; Villar, R.; Rojo, M.A.; Jimenez, P.; Ferreras, J.M.; Aranguez, I.; Girbes, T.

    2005-01-01

    Nigrin b is a non-toxic type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein as active as ricin at ribosomal level but 10 5 and 5 x 10 3 times less toxic for animal cell cultures and mice, respectively, than ricin. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the effects of intravenous injection of large amounts of nigrin b to the mouse. Injection through the tail vein of 16 mg/kg body weight killed all mice studied before 2 days. Analysis of several major tissues by light microscopy did not reveal gross nigrin b-promoted changes, except in the intestines which appeared highly damaged. As a consequence of the injury, the villi and crypt structures of the small intestine disappeared, leading to profuse bleeding and death. In contrast, intravenous injection of 5 mg/kg body weight was not lethal to mice but did trigger reversible toxic effects. In both cases, lethal and sub-lethal doses, the target of nigrin b appeared to be the highly proliferating stem cells of the intestinal crypts, which had undergone apoptotic changes. In contrast to nigrin b, the injection of 3 μg/kg of ricin kills all mice in 5 days but does not trigger apoptosis in the crypts. Therefore, the effect seen with sub-lethal nigrin b concentrations seems to be specific. Nigrin b killed COLO 320 human colon adenocarcinoma cells with an IC 50 of 3.1 x 10 -8 M and the effect was parallel to the extent of DNA fragmentation of these cells. Accordingly, despite the low general toxicity exerted by nigrin b as compared with ricin, intravenous injection of large amounts of nigrin b is able to kill mouse intestinal stem cells without threatening the lives of the animals, thereby opening a door for its use for the targeting of intestinal stem cells

  5. Toxicity assessment of repeated intravenous injections of arginine–glycine–aspartic acid peptide conjugated CdSeTe/ZnS quantum dots in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang YW

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available You-Wei Wang, Kai Yang, Hong Tang, Dan Chen, Yun-Long Bai Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China Background: Nanotechnology-based near-infrared quantum dots (NIR QDs have many excellent optical properties, such as high fluorescence intensity, good fluorescence stability, and strong tissue-penetrating ability. Integrin αvß3 is highly and specifically expressed in tumor angiogenic vessel endothelial cells of almost all carcinomas. Recent studies have shown that NIR QDs linked to peptides containing the arginine–glycine–aspartic acid (RGD sequence (NIR QDs-RGD can specifically target integrin αvß3 expressed in endothelial cells of tumor angiogenic vessels in vivo, and they offer great potential for early cancer diagnosis, in vivo tumor imaging, and tumor individualized therapy. However, the toxicity profile of NIR QDs-RGD has not been reported. This study was conducted to investigate the toxicity of NIR QDs-RGD when intravenously administered to mice singly and repeatedly at the dose required for successful tumor imaging in vivo.Materials and methods: A NIR QDs-RGD probe was prepared by linking NIR QDs with the maximum emission wavelength of 800 nm (QD800 to the RGD peptide (QD800-RGD. QD800-RGD was intravenously injected to BALB/C mice once or twice (200 pmol equivalent of QD800 for each injection. phosphate-buffered saline solution was used as control. Fourteen days postinjection, toxicity tests were performed, including complete blood count (white blood cell, red blood cell, hemoglobin, platelets, lymphocytes, and neutrophils and serum biochemical analysis (total protein, albumin, albumin/globulin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and blood urea nitrogen. The coefficients of liver, spleen, kidney, and lung weight to body weight were measured, as well as their oxidation and antioxidation indicators, including

  6. Intravenously injected human multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring cells selectively engraft into mouse aortic aneurysms and attenuate dilatation by differentiating into multiple cell types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoyama, Katsuhiro; Wakao, Shohei; Kushida, Yoshihiro; Ogura, Fumitaka; Maeda, Kay; Adachi, Osamu; Kawamoto, Shunsuke; Dezawa, Mari; Saiki, Yoshikatsu

    2018-02-21

    Aortic aneurysms result from the degradation of multiple components represented by endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, and elastic fibers. Cells that can replenish these components are desirable for cell-based therapy. Intravenously injected multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells, endogenous nontumorigenic pluripotent-like stem cells, reportedly integrate into the damaged site and repair the tissue through spontaneous differentiation into tissue-compatible cells. We evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of Muse cells in a murine aortic aneurysm model. Human bone marrow Muse cells, isolated as stage-specific embryonic antigen-3 + from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, or non-Muse cells (stage-specific embryonic antigen-3 - cells in mesenchymal stem cells), bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, or vehicle was intravenously injected at day 0, day 7, and 2 weeks (20,000 cells/injection) after inducing aortic aneurysms by periaortic incubation of CaCl 2 and elastase in severe combined immunodeficient mice. At 8 weeks, infusion of human Muse cells attenuated aneurysm dilation, and the aneurysmal size in the Muse group corresponded to approximately 62.5%, 55.6%, and 45.6% in the non-Muse, mesenchymal stem cell, and vehicle groups, respectively. Multiphoton laser confocal microscopy revealed that infused Muse cells migrated into aneurysmal tissue from the adventitial side and penetrated toward the luminal side. Histologic analysis demonstrated robust preservation of elastic fibers and spontaneous differentiation into endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells. After intravenous injection, Muse cells homed and expanded to the aneurysm from the adventitial side. Subsequently, Muse cells differentiated spontaneously into vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells, and elastic fibers were preserved. These Muse cell features together led to substantial attenuation of aneurysmal dilation. Copyright © 2018 The American Association

  7. Multiple intravenous injections of allogeneic equine mesenchymal stem cells do not induce a systemic inflammatory response but do alter lymphocyte subsets in healthy horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kol, Amir; Wood, Joshua A; Carrade Holt, Danielle D; Gillette, Jessica A; Bohannon-Worsley, Laurie K; Puchalski, Sarah M; Walker, Naomi J; Clark, Kaitlin C; Watson, Johanna L; Borjesson, Dori L

    2015-04-15

    Intravenous (IV) injection of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is used to treat systemic human diseases and disorders but is not routinely used in equine therapy. In horses, MSCs are isolated primarily from adipose tissue (AT) or bone marrow (BM) and used for treatment of orthopedic injuries through one or more local injections. The objective of this study was to determine the safety and lymphocyte response to multiple allogeneic IV injections of either AT-derived MSCs (AT-MSCs) or BM-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) to healthy horses. We injected three doses of 25 × 10(6) allogeneic MSCs from either AT or BM (a total of 75 × 10(6) MSCs per horse) into five and five, respectively, healthy horses. Horses were followed up for 35 days after the first MSC infusion. We evaluated host inflammatory and immune response, including total leukocyte numbers, serum cytokine concentration, and splenic lymphocyte subsets. Repeated injection of allogeneic AT-MSCs or BM-MSCs did not elicit any clinical adverse effects. Repeated BM-MSC injection resulted in increased blood CD8(+) T-cell numbers. Multiple BM-MSC injections also increased splenic regulatory T cell numbers compared with AT-MSC-injected horses but not controls. These data demonstrate that multiple IV injections of allogeneic MSCs are well tolerated by healthy horses. No clinical signs or clinico-pathologic measurements of organ toxicity or systemic inflammatory response were recorded. Increased numbers of circulating CD8(+) T cells after multiple IV injections of allogeneic BM-MSCs may indicate a mild allo-antigen-directed cytotoxic response. Safety and efficacy of allogeneic MSC IV infusions in sick horses remain to be determined.

  8. Multi-Phase Modeling of Rainbird Water Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Bruce T.; Moss, Nicholas; Sampson, Zoe

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the use of a Volume of Fluid (VOF) multiphase model to simulate the water injected from a rainbird nozzle used in the sound suppression system during launch. The simulations help determine the projectile motion for different water flow rates employed at the pad, as it is critical to know if water will splash on the first-stage rocket engine during liftoff.

  9. The effect of hot water injection on sandstone permeability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbrand, Esther; Haugwitz, Christian; Jacobsen, Peter Sally Munch

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal energy storage can be achieved by hot water injection in geothermal sandstone aquifers. We present an analysis of literature data in combination with new short-term flow through permeability experiments in order to address physical and physico-chemical mechanisms that can alter permeabil......Seasonal energy storage can be achieved by hot water injection in geothermal sandstone aquifers. We present an analysis of literature data in combination with new short-term flow through permeability experiments in order to address physical and physico-chemical mechanisms that can alter...

  10. Water conservation and allocation guideline for oilfield injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This paper was prepared as a guide for regulatory agencies and developers using non-saline water sources in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) schemes. A systems approach was used to achieve specific environmental outcomes that adhered to the Water Conservation and Allocation Policy for Oilfield Injection. The guide was applicable to licence renewal applications for projects operating and licensed to use non-saline water resources, as well as new licence applications for oilfield injection use. The guide provided recommended water conservation practices and application requirements, and outlined regulatory procedures and steps for obtaining a Water Act licence. The guideline was prepared to eliminate the use of non-saline water in EOR projects where feasible alternatives existed, as well as to identify areas with water shortages and reduce the use of non-saline water. The guide included monitoring and reporting requirements to improve the evaluation of water use practices and outlined current initiatives to address water conservation and research. It was concluded that outcomes from the program will include reliable quality water supplies for a sustainable economy, healthy aquatic ecosystems, and safe, secure drinking water supplies for Albertans. 3 tabs., 5 figs

  11. Plasma and milk concentrations of vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 following intravenous injection of vitamin D3 or 25-hydroxy vitamin D3.

    OpenAIRE

    Hidiroglou, M; Knipfel, J E

    1984-01-01

    Plasma levels of vitamin D3 or 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in ewes after administration of a single massive intravenous dose of vitamin D3 (2 X 10(6) IU) or 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 (5 mg) were determined at zero, one, two, three, five, ten and 20 days postinjection. In six ewes injected with vitamin D3 conversion of vitamin D3 to 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 resulted in a six-fold increase in the plasma 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 level within one day. Elevated levels were maintained until day 10 but by day 20 a s...

  12. Medical resource utilization in dermatomyositis/polymyositis patients treated with repository corticotropin injection, intravenous immunoglobulin, and/or rituximab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knight T

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Tyler Knight,1 T Christopher Bond,1 Breanna Popelar,2 Li Wang,3 John W Niewoehner,4 Kathryn Anastassopoulos,1 Michael Philbin4 1Covance Market Access Services Inc., Gaithersburg, MD, 2Xcenda, LLC, Palm Harbor, FL, 3STATinMED Research, Ann Arbor, MI, 4Mallinckrodt, LLC, Hazelwood, MO, USA Background: Dermatomyositis and polymyositis (DM/PM are rare, incurable inflammatory diseases that cause progressive muscle weakness and can be associated with increased medical resource use (MRU. When corticosteroid treatment is unsuccessful, patients may receive intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg, rituximab, or repository corticotropin injection (RCI. This study compared real-world, non-medication MRU between patients treated with RCI and those treated with IVIg and/or rituximab for DM/PM.Methods: Claims of DM/PM patients were analyzed from the combination of three commercial health insurance databases in the United States from July 2009 to June 2014. Patients treated with RCI were propensity score matched to those treated with IVIg, rituximab, and both (IVIg+rituximab based on demographics, prior clinical characteristics, and prior MRU. Per-patient per-month (PPPM MRU and costs were compared using Poisson regression and generalized linear modeling, respectively.Results: One-hundred thirty-two RCI, 1,150 IVIg, and 562 rituximab patients had an average age of 52.6, 46.6, and 51.7 years, respectively, and roughly two-thirds were female. After matching, there were no significant differences in demographics or prior clinical characteristics. RCI patients had fewer PPPM hospitalizations (0.09 vs 0.17; P=0.049, shorter length of stay (LOS; 3.24 days vs 4.55 days; P=0.004, PPPM hospital outpatient department (HOPD visits (0.60 vs 1.39; P<0.001, and PPPM physician office visits (2.01 vs 2.33; P=0.035 than IVIg. RCI had fewer PPPM HOPD visits (0.56 vs 0.92; P<0.001 than rituximab. Patients treated with RCI had shorter LOS (2.18 days vs 5.15; P<0.001 and less PPPM HOPD

  13. Highly efficient 6-stroke engine cycle with water injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szybist, James P; Conklin, James C

    2012-10-23

    A six-stroke engine cycle having improved efficiency. Heat is recovered from the engine combustion gases by using a 6-stroke engine cycle in which combustion gases are partially vented proximate the bottom-dead-center position of the fourth stroke cycle, and water is injected proximate the top-dead-center position of the fourth stroke cycle.

  14. Pulmonary edema following intravenous injection of nonionic low-osmolar contrast medium - appearance on HRCT. A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bristedt, P.; Tylen, U.

    1998-01-01

    Pulmonary edema following i.v. contrast medium injection is a rare adverse reaction. We report on a 71-year-old woman who developed pulmonary edema following i.v. injection of iohexol during spiral CT of the thorax. She developed shortness of breath during the injection, and the first radiographic signs of pulmonary edema were visible on CT images 25 s after the onset of injection. On HRCT images 15 min later, marked edema was demonstrated in both lungs in a mosaic pattern of distribution. After appropriate therapy, the patient recovered without sequelae. A repeat CT 6 days later showed complete normalization. (orig.)

  15. Critical comparison of intravenous injection of TiO2 nanoparticles with waterborne and dietary exposures concludes minimal environmentally-relevant toxicity in juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, David; Al-Bairuty, Genan A.; Henry, Theodore B.; Handy, Richard D.

    2013-01-01

    A critical comparison of studies that have investigated tissue accumulation and toxicity of TiO 2 -NPs in fish is necessary to resolve inconsistencies. The present study used identical TiO 2 -NPs, toxicological endpoints, and fish (juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss) as previous studies that investigated waterborne and dietary toxicity of TiO 2 -NPs, and conducted a critical comparison of results after intravenous caudal-vein injection of 50 μg of TiO 2 -NPs and bulk TiO 2 . Injected TiO 2 -NPs accumulated only in kidney (94% of measured Ti) and to a lesser extent in spleen; and injected bulk TiO 2 was found only in kidney. No toxicity of TiO 2 was observed in kidney, spleen, or other tissues. Critical comparison of these data with previous studies indicates that dietary and waterborne exposures to TiO 2 -NPs do not lead to Ti accumulation in internal tissues, and previous reports of minor toxicity are inconsistent or attributable to respiratory distress resulting from gill occlusion during waterborne exposure. -- Highlights: •Critical comparison of TiO 2 -NP toxicity studies in rainbow trout. •No evidence of TiO 2 -NP absorption in internal tissues. •Conclude minimal environmentally relevant toxicity of TiO 2 -NPs in rainbow trout. -- Critical evaluation of directly comparable investigations of TiO 2 -NP toxicity by waterborne, dietary, and intravenous injection exposures conclude minimal toxicity in juvenile rainbow trout

  16. Prevention of intravenous bacterial injection from health care provider hands: the importance of catheter design and handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, Randy W; Patel, Hetal M; Huysman, Bridget C; Kispert, David P; Koff, Matthew D; Gallagher, John D; Jensen, Jens T; Rowlands, John; Reddy, Sundara; Dodds, Thomas M; Yeager, Mark P; Ruoff, Kathryn L; Surgenor, Stephen D; Brown, Jeremiah R

    2012-11-01

    Device-related bloodstream infections are associated with a significant increase in patient morbidity and mortality in multiple health care settings. Recently, intraoperative bacterial contamination of conventional open-lumen 3-way stopcock sets has been shown to be associated with increased patient mortality. Intraoperative use of disinfectable, needleless closed catheter devices (DNCCs) may reduce the risk of bacterial injection as compared to conventional open-lumen devices due to an intrinsic barrier to bacterial entry associated with valve design and/or the capacity for surface disinfection. However, the relative benefit of DNCC valve design (intrinsic barrier capacity) as compared to surface disinfection in attenuation of bacterial injection in the clinical environment is untested and entirely unknown. The primary aim of the current study was to investigate the relative efficacy of a novel disinfectable stopcock, the Ultraport zero, with and without disinfection in attenuating intraoperative injection of potential bacterial pathogens as compared to a conventional open-lumen stopcock intravascular device. The secondary aims were to identify risk factors for bacterial injection and to estimate the quantity of bacterial organisms injected during catheter handling. Four hundred sixty-eight operating room environments were randomized by a computer generated list to 1 of 3 device-injection schemes: (1) injection of the Ultraport zero stopcock with hub disinfection before injection, (2) injection of the Ultraport zero stopcock without prior hub disinfection, and (3) injection of the conventional open-lumen stopcock closed with sterile caps according to usual practice. After induction of general anesthesia, the primary anesthesia provider caring for patients in each operating room environment was asked to perform a series of 5 injections of sterile saline through the assigned device into an ex vivo catheter system. The primary outcome was the incidence of bacterial

  17. Measuring and Modeling the Displacement of Connate Water in Chalk Core Plugs during Water Injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsbech, Uffe C C; Aage, Helle Karina; Andersen, Bertel Lohmann

    2006-01-01

    The movement of connate water spiked with gamma emitting 22Na was studied during laboratory water flooding of oil saturated chalk from a North Sea oil reservoir. Using a one dimensional gamma monitoring technique is was observed that connate water is piled-up at the front of the injection water...... and forms a mixed water bank with almost 100% connate water in the front behind which a gradual transition to pure injection water occurs. This result underpins log interpretations from waterflooded chalk reservoirs. An ad hoc model was set up by use of the results, and the process was examined...

  18. Differences in microbial community composition between injection and production water samples of water flooding petroleum reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Gao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbial communities in injected water are expected to have significant influence on those of reservoir strata in long-term water flooding petroleum reservoirs. To investigate the similarities and differences in microbial communities in injected water and reservoir strata, high-throughput sequencing of microbial partial 16S rRNA of the water samples collected from the wellhead and downhole of injection wells, and from production wells in a homogeneous sandstone reservoir and a heterogeneous conglomerate reservoir were performed. The results indicate that a small number of microbial populations are shared between the water samples from the injection and production wells in the sandstone reservoir, whereas a large number of microbial populations are shared in the conglomerate reservoir. The bacterial and archaeal communities in the reservoir strata have high concentrations, which are similar to those in the injected water. However, microbial population abundance exhibited large differences between the water samples from the injection and production wells. The number of shared populations reflects the influence of microbial communities in injected water on those in reservoir strata to some extent, and show strong association with the unique variation of reservoir environments.

  19. Maintenance and Recovery of Water System for Injection (WFI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Anuar Wan Awang; Ahmad Firdaus Jalil; Wan Mohd Firdaus Wan Ishak

    2015-01-01

    Water system for injection (WFI) is one of the main component in manufacturing pharmaceutical materials and radiopharmaceuticals. This system accredited in 2005. Water quality produced analyzed and give the unsatisfied results. The operation of WFI was stopped temporarily due to technical problems. In 2013, recovery works were implemented with budget of RM 226,500.00. Comprehensive maintenance were implemented by Rykertech (Asia) Sdn. Bhd. With duration of 24 months (October 2014 until September 2016) with cost RM 473,550.00. Now, this system operated in good condition and produced water that meet with the specifications. (author)

  20. An emergency water injection system (EWIS) for future CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, Andre L.F.; Todreas, Neil E.; Driscoll, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals with the investigation of the feasibility and effectiveness of water injection into the annulus between the calandria tubes and the pressure tubes of CANDU reactors. The purpose is to provide an efficient decay heat removal process that avoids permanent deformation of pressure tubes severe accident conditions, such as loss of coolant accident (LOCA). The water injection may present the benefit of cost reduction and better actuation of other related safety systems. The experimental work was conducted at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), in a setup that simulated, as close as possible, a CANDU bundle annular configuration, with heat fluxes on the order of 90 kW/m 2 : the inner cylinder simulates the pressure tube and the outer tube represents the calandria tube. The experimental matrix had three dimensions: power level, annulus water level and boundary conditions. The results achieved overall heat transfer coefficients (U), which are comparable to those required (for nominal accident progression) to avoid pressure tube permanent deformation, considering current CANDU reactor data. Nonetheless, future work should be carried out to investigate the fluid dynamics such as blowdown behavior, in the peak bundle, and the system lay-out inside the containment to provide fast water injection. (author)

  1. The research of new type stratified water injection process intelligent measurement technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin

    2017-10-01

    To meet the needs of injection and development of Daqing Oilfield, the injection of oil from the early stage of general water injection to the subdivision of water is the purpose of improving the utilization degree and the qualified rate of water injection, improving the performance of water injection column and the matching process. Sets of suitable for high water content of the effective water injection technology supporting technology. New layered water injection technology intelligent measurement technology will be more information testing and flow control combined into a unified whole, long-term automatic monitoring of the work of the various sections, in the custom The process has the characteristics of "multi-layer synchronous measurement, continuous monitoring of process parameters, centralized admission data", which can meet the requirement of subdivision water injection, but also realize the automatic synchronization measurement of each interval, greatly improve the efficiency of tiered injection wells to provide a new means for the remaining oil potential.

  2. Prenatal Nicotine Exposure Results in the Inhibition of Baroreflex Sensitivity Induced by Intravenous Injection Angiotensin II in the Adult Male Offspring Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Feng; Li, Yuexia; Yang, Jian; Qian, Jin; Li, Xining; Liu, Chongbin

    2017-04-01

    Epidemiological studies show that maternal cigarette smoking is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases in postnatal life. Baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) is an important index for evaluating the homeostasis of the cardiovascular system. This experiment was designed to investigate the possible mechanism of prenatal nicotine on the adult male offspring's heart rate (HR) increase due to BRS. Pregnant rats received the 0.3 ml of saline or nicotine (1.5 mg kg -1 ) by subcutaneous injection from gestational days 3 to 21. The male offsprings of saline injected dams were the control group, and the male offsprings of the nicotine injected dams were the nicotine group. The 90-day-old male offsprings' funny current (I f ) of their sinoatrial node (SAN) cells, BRS induced by intravenous injection of angiotensin (Ang) II in the presence or absence of the L-nitro-arginine methylester (L-NAME), cervical vagal activity, c-fos protein levels of the cervical spinal cord-8 to the thoracic spinal cord-5 (C 8 -T 5 ) lateral horn neuron, and blood hormones were tested. The results showed that prenatal nicotine exposure had no effect on the offsprings' I f of their SAN cells, but it significantly decreased the offsprings' BRS. The c-fos protein levels of the C 8 -T 5 lateral horn neurons and the blood catecholamine levels were increased in the nicotine group, but the cervical vagal activity was not changed. After intraventricular injection of L-NAME, the nicotine exposed offsprings' BRS was partly recovered. These data suggest that prenatal nicotine exposure results in hyper reactivity of the spinal sympathetic nerve center and a higher peripheral catecholamine hormone state of 90-day-old male offsprings, and these may be the reason for the BRS inhibition and HR increase. Nitric oxide (NO) may participate in the process acting as an important neurotransmitter.

  3. Measuring and Modeling the Displacement of Connate Water in Chalk Core Plugs during Water Injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsbech, Uffe C C; Aage, Helle Karina; Andersen, Bertel Lohmann

    2006-01-01

    and forms a mixed water bank with almost 100% connate water in the front behind which a gradual transition to pure injection water occurs. This result underpins log interpretations from waterflooded chalk reservoirs. An ad hoc model was set up by use of the results, and the process was examined...

  4. Morphology of the human internal vertebral venous plexus : a cadaver study after intravenous Araldite CY 221 injection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, R J; Groenewegen, Henk; van Alphen, H A; Hoogland, Piet

    1997-01-01

    Reviewing the literature on the vascular anatomy of the spinal epidural space, it appeared that the knowledge of the internal vertebral venous plexus is limited. Injection studies of the entire internal vertebral venous plexus after application of modern techniques, to the best of our knowledge,

  5. Water Injection on Commercial Aircraft to Reduce Airport Nitrogen Oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daggett, David L.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Fucke, Lars; Eames, David J. H.

    2010-01-01

    The potential nitrogen oxide (NO(x) reductions, cost savings, and performance enhancements identified in these initial studies of waterinjection technology strongly suggest that it be further pursued. The potential for engine maintenance cost savings from this system should make it very attractive to airline operators and assure its implementation. Further system tradeoff studies and engine tests are needed to answer the optimal system design question. Namely, would a low-risk combustor injection system with 70- to 90-percent NO(x) reduction be preferable, or would a low-pressure compressor (LPC) misting system with only 50-percent NO(x) reduction but larger turbine inlet temperature reductions be preferable? The low-pressure compressor injection design and operability issues identified in the report need to be addressed because they might prevent implementation of the LPC type of water-misting system. If water-injection technology challenges are overcome, any of the systems studied would offer dramatic engine NO(x) reductions at the airport. Coupling this technology with future emissions-reduction technologies, such as fuel-cell auxiliary power units will allow the aviation sector to address the serious challenges of environmental stewardship, and NO(x) emissions will no longer be an issue at airports.

  6. Comparative Evaluation of U.S. Brand and Generic Intravenous Sodium Ferric Gluconate Complex in Sucrose Injection: Physicochemical Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dajun Sun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate physicochemical equivalence between brand (i.e., Ferrlecit and generic sodium ferric gluconate (SFG in sucrose injection by conducting a series of comparative in vitro characterizations using advanced analytical techniques. The elemental iron and carbon content, thermal properties, viscosity, particle size, zeta potential, sedimentation coefficient, and molecular weight were determined. There was no noticeable difference between brand and generic SFG in sucrose injection for the above physical parameters evaluated, except for the sedimentation coefficient determined by sedimentation velocity analytical ultracentrifugation (SV-AUC and molecular weight by asymmetric field flow fractionation-multi-angle light scattering (AFFF-MALS. In addition, brand and generic SFG complex products showed comparable molecular weight distributions when determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC. The observed minor differences between brand and generic SFG, such as sedimentation coefficient, do not impact their biological activities in separate studies of in vitro cellular uptake and rat biodistribution. Coupled with the ongoing clinical study comparing the labile iron level in healthy volunteers, the FDA-funded post-market studies intended to illustrate comprehensive surveillance efforts ensuring safety and efficacy profiles of generic SFG complex in sucrose injection, and also to shed new light on the approval standards on generic parenteral iron colloidal products.

  7. Effect Of Hot Water Injection On Sandstone Permeability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbrand, Esther; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2012-01-01

    of published results regarding the effect of temperature on sandstone permeability. These tests are performed with mineral oil, nitrogen gas, distilled water and solutions of NaCl, KCl, CaCl2 as well as brines that contain a mixture of salts. Thirteen sandstone formations, ranging from quartz arenites...... not account for all the permeability reductions observed. Permeablity reduction occurs both when distilled water is the saturating fluid as well as in tests with NaCl, KCl or CaCl2 solutions, however, this is not the case in tests with mineral oil or nitrogen gas. The formation of a filter cake or influx......The seasonal imbalance between supply and demand of renewable energy requires temporary storage, which can be achieved by hot water injection in warm aquifers. This requires that the permeability and porosity of the aquifer are not reduced significantly by heating. We present an overview...

  8. Cold water injection into two-phase mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    This report presents the results of a review of the international literature regarding the dynamic loadings associated with the injection of cold water into two-phase mixtures. The review placed emphasis on waterhammer in nuclear power plants. Waterhammmer incidence data were reviewed for information related to thermalhydraulic conditions, underlying causes and consequential damage. Condensation induced waterhammer was found to be the most significant consequence of injecting cold water into a two-phase system. Several severe waterhammer incidents have been attributed to slug formation and steam bubble collapse under conditions of stratified steam and cold water flows. These phenomena are complex and not well understood. The current body of experimental and analytical knowledge is not large enough to establish maps of expected regimes of condensation induced waterhammer. The Electric Power Research Institute, in the United States, has undertaken a major research and development programme to develop the knowledge base for this area. The limited models and data currently available show that mechanical parameters are as important as thermodynamic conditions for the initiation of condensation induced waterhammer. Examples of bounds for avoiding two-phase waterhammer are given. These bounds are system specific and depend upon parameters such as pump capacity, pipe length and pipe orientation

  9. A comparison of the natural survival of beagle dogs injected intravenously with low levels of 239Pu, 226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th, or 90Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruenger, F.W.; Miller, S.C.; Lloyd, R.D.

    1991-01-01

    The natural survival, relative to properly chosen controls, of 26 beagle dogs injected once intravenously with an average of 0.58 +/- 0.04 kBq 239 Pu/kg, 23 dogs injected with 2.31 +/- 0.43 kBq 226 Ra/kg, 13 dogs injected with 1.84 +/- 0.26 kBq 228 Ra/kg, 12 dogs injected with 0.56 +/- 0.030 kBq 228 Th/kg, and 12 dogs injected with 21.13 +/- 1.74 kBq 90 Sr/kg was evaluated statistically. The amounts of these radionuclides are related directly to the estimated maximum permissible body burdens for humans suggested in ICRP II (1959). They constitute a level of exposure that initially was assumed to cause no deleterious effects in dogs. This study had two objectives: (1) identification of homogeneous control groups against which to evaluate the survival of the irradiated groups and (2) comparison of the survival characteristics and estimation of mortality or hazard rate ratios for control dogs vs dogs injected with the baseline dosages given above. It was shown, by goodness-of-fit plots, that the Cox proportional hazards model was an appropriate method of analysis. Therefore, covariates that possibly could influence survival were tested for significance. Only the effects of grand mal seizure, which is caused in epileptic dogs by an external stimulus and can be fatal if untreated, were significant (P less than 0.0001). Consequently, in the final model, death from grand mal seizure was considered as accidental. After censoring the dogs dying from grand mal seizure, it was established that the data for the control groups from previous and contemporary experiments could be pooled. The change in hazard rates relative to controls resulting from exposure to the baseline radionuclide level was modest, 1.6 times for 239 Pu (P = 0.033), 1.0(4) for 226 Ra (P = 0.86), 1.9 for 228 Ra (P = 0.035), 2.5 for 228 Th (P less than 0.001), and 0.52 for 90 Sr (P = 0.041)

  10. Aging study of boiling water reactor high pressure injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conley, D.A.; Edson, J.L.; Fineman, C.F.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of high pressure injection systems is to maintain an adequate coolant level in reactor pressure vessels, so that the fuel cladding temperature does not exceed 1,200 degrees C (2,200 degrees F), and to permit plant shutdown during a variety of design basis loss-of-coolant accidents. This report presents the results of a study on aging performed for high pressure injection systems of boiling water reactor plants in the United States. The purpose of the study was to identify and evaluate the effects of aging and the effectiveness of testing and maintenance in detecting and mitigating aging degradation. Guidelines from the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program were used in performing the aging study. Review and analysis of the failures reported in databases such as Nuclear Power Experience, Licensee Event Reports, and the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, along with plant-specific maintenance records databases, are included in this report to provide the information required to identify aging stressors, failure modes, and failure causes. Several probabilistic risk assessments were reviewed to identify risk-significant components in high pressure injection systems. Testing, maintenance, specific safety issues, and codes and standards are also discussed

  11. Methodology for surge pressure evaluation in a water injection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meliande, Patricia; Nascimento, Elson A. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Civil; Mascarenhas, Flavio C.B. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Hidraulica Computacional; Dandoulakis, Joao P. [SHELL of Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Predicting transient effects, known as surge pressures, is of high importance for offshore industry. It involves detailed computer modeling that attempts to simulate the complex interaction between flow line and fluid in order to ensure efficient system integrity. Platform process operators normally raise concerns whether the water injection system is adequately designed or not to be protected against possible surge pressures during sudden valve closure. This report aims to evaluate the surge pressures in Bijupira and Salema water injection systems due to valve closure, through a computer model simulation. Comparisons among the results from empirical formulations are discussed and supplementary analysis for Salema system were performed in order to define the maximum volumetric flow rate for which the design pressure was able to withstand. Maximum surge pressure values of 287.76 bar and 318.58 bar, obtained in Salema and Bijupira respectively, using empirical formulations have surpassed the operating pressure design, while the computer model results have pointed the greatest surge pressure value of 282 bar in Salema system. (author)

  12. [Effects of intravenous alimentation on adjuvant chemotherapy--an experimental study on the distribution of 5-FU after injection of tegafur (2)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimoto, M; Nagano, H; Sano, K

    1987-10-01

    The stomach, small and large intestines, heart, lungs, bone and kidneys were removed from 48 Sato lung cancer-bearing rats used in the previous experiments and given 90 mg/kg of tegafur (FT-207) by single intravenous administration and tissue 5-FU and FT-207 concentrations were measured. FT-207 concentration in the alimentary canal was somewhat lower than the blood concentration, but both were lowered in parallel. 5-FU concentration in the stomach and large intestines showed virtually identical changes in both IVH and PO groups, but IVH group tended to have higher concentration. IVH group showed higher values than PO group anytime, particularly in the large intestines. A reduction of the side effects on the digestive system via intravenous alimentation was thought due to the elimination of mechanical stimulation via a cessation of oral feeding. 5-FU concentration in the bone was highest in PO group at six hours after administration and blood concentration changes were parallel, but there was virtually no change in IVH group. Maximum values were found one hour after administration and slowly declined thereafter; at 24 hrs the values were 0.059 +/- 0.013 microgram/g, relatively high compared to the PO group at 0.041 +/- 0.022 microgram/g. In the present study under intravenous alimentation, the concentration changes were slight in spite of 5-FU maximum concentration being lower than that by oral feeding and the long-term high concentration which was maintained; this is thought to be a disadvantageous action with regard to the bone marrow. FT-207 concentration in the kidney, heart and lungs was the same as that for the blood, with a gradual reduction in IVH group. 5-FU concentration was the same for the kidneys and IVH group quickly reached to the high levels compared to PO group with only slight changes thereafter. Effects of continuous water load might be involved but not clear.

  13. Drug-induced MR urography: the effects of furosemide and intravenous saline injection on MR urography of obstructed and non-obstructed urinary tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeong Ha; Lee, Myung Jun; Lee, Chang Joon [National Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-10-01

    To determine the usefulness of MR urography technique for the evaluation of urinary systems in patients with obstructed urinary tract and normal volunteers with non-obstructed urinary tract after intravenous normal saline and diuretic injection. Three normal volunteers and 12 patients with urinary tract obstruction [ureteral calculi (n=8), extraurinary mass (n=1), ureteral tumor invasion (n=3)] underwent MR urography using a 1.0T scanner and a 2D non-breath-hold heavily T2-weighted fast spin-cho sequence. These acquisition were post-processed with a maximum intensity projection (MIP) algorithm. Two acquisitions were performed, the first prior to saline solution infusion following standard MR urography procedures, and the second, within 2-3 minutes of the infusion of 250 ml saline solution followed by 20 mg of Lasix administered intravenously. For this latter, drug-induced MR urography procedures were followed. In healthy volunteer (n=3) and those experiencing partial obstruction (n=4) by a urinary stone, drug-induced MR urography provided better images of the urinary tract than did standard MR urography. In those in whom a urinary stone or tumor had caused complete obstruction (n=8), standard MR urography provided good images, as did drug-induced MR urography. In patients with a partially or non-obstructed urinary tract, drug-induced MR urography provided better anatomic and functional details of the kidney and urinary tract than did standard MR urography. In those experiencing complete obstruction of the urinary tract, however, standard or drug-induced MR urography permitted very adequate evaluation of the tract, and drug-induced MR urography was unnecessary.

  14. Primary events following electron injection into water and adsorbed water layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, R.N.; Landman, U.; Nitzan, A.

    1990-01-01

    The initial stages of the evolution of an electron injected into bulk water (at 300 K) and into thin water films (1--4 monolayers) adsorbed on a Pt(111) substrate at 50 K are investigated. It is shown that for electrons injected into bulk water with an initial translational kinetic energy between 1.54 and 6.18 eV (i.e., subexcitation energies), the electron momentum time-correlation function left-angle p(0)p(t)right-angle, decays to zero on a time scale of less than 1 fs, reflecting strong backscattering of the electron by the water molecules. On this time scale the electron propagation in the medium is dominated by elastic processes. Furthermore, during this initial stage the system is well represented by a static aqueous medium. Transmission of electrons injected into thin films of adsorbed water is also dominated by elastic scattering. The dependence of the electron transmission probability on the film thickness and the initial injection energy are in accord with recent experimental results of photoinjected electrons into adsorbed water films

  15. Urinary stone detection and characterisation with dual-energy CT urography after furosemide intravenous injection: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botsikas, Diomidis; Hansen, Catrina; Stefanelli, Salvatore; Becker, Christoph D.; Montet, Xavier [Geneva University Hospital, Radiology Department, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-03-15

    To investigate the added advantage of IV furosemide injection and the subsequent urine dilution in the detection of urinary calculi in the excretory phase of dual-source dual-energy (DE) computed tomography (CT) urography, and to investigate the feasibility of characterising the calculi through diluted urine. Twenty-three urinary calculi were detected in 116 patients who underwent DECT urography for macroscopic haematuria with a split bolus two- or three-acquisition protocol, including a true unenhanced series and at least a mixed nephrographic excretory phase. Virtual unenhanced images were reconstructed from contrast-enhanced DE data. Calculi were recorded on all series and characterised based on their X-ray absorption characteristics at 100 kVp and 140 kVp in both true unenhanced and nephrographic excretory phase series. All calculi with a diameter more than 2 mm were detected in the virtual unenhanced phase and in the nephrographic excretory phase. Thirteen of these calculi could be characterised in the true unenhanced phase and in the mixed nephrographic excretory phase. The results were strictly identical for both phases, six of them being recognised as non-uric acid calculi and seven as uric acid calculi. Mixed nephrographic excretory phase DECT after furosemide administration allows both detection and characterisation of clinically significant calculi, through the diluted urine. (orig.)

  16. Pharmacokinetics of meloxicam in red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans) after single intravenous and intramuscular injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uney, Kamil; Altan, Feray; Aboubakr, Mohammed; Cetin, Gul; Dik, Burak

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the pharmacokinetics of meloxicam after single IV and IM injections in red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans). ANIMALS 8 healthy red-eared slider turtles. PROCEDURES Turtles received 1 dose of meloxicam (0.2 mg/kg) IV or IM (4 turtles/route), a 30-day washout period was provided, and then turtles received the same dose by the opposite route. Blood samples were collected at predetermined times for measurement of plasma meloxicam concentration. Pharmacokinetic values for each administration route were determined with a 2-compartment open model approach. RESULTS For IV administration, mean ± SD values of major pharmacokinetic variables were 1.02 ± 0.41 hours for distribution half-life, 9.78 ± 2.23 hours for elimination half-life, 215 ± 32 mL/kg for volume of distribution at steady state, 11.27 ± 1.44 μg•h/mL for area under the plasma concentration versus time curve, and 18.00 ± 2.32 mL/h/kg for total body clearance. For IM administration, mean values were 0.35 ± 0.06 hours for absorption half-life, 0.72 ± 0.06 μg/mL for peak plasma concentration, 1.5 ± 0.0 hours for time to peak concentration, 3.73 ± 2.41 hours for distribution half-life, 13.53 ± 1.95 hours for elimination half-life, 11.33 ± 0.92 μg•h/mL for area under the plasma concentration versus time curve, and 101 ± 6% for bioavailability. No adverse reactions were detected. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Long half-life, high bioavailability, and lack of immediate adverse reactions of meloxicam administered IM at 0.2 mg/kg suggested the possibility of safe and effective clinical use in turtles. Additional studies are needed to establish appropriate administration frequency and clinical efficacy.

  17. Intravenous injection of artificial red cells and subsequent dye laser irradiation causes deep vessel impairment in an animal model of port-wine stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikihisa, Naoaki; Tominaga, Mai; Watanabe, Shoji; Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki; Saito, Yoshiaki; Sakai, Hiromi

    2018-03-15

    Our previous study proposed using artificial blood cells (hemoglobin vesicles, Hb-Vs) as photosensitizers in dye laser treatment for port-wine stains (PWSs). Dye laser photons are absorbed by red blood cells (RBCs) and hemoglobin (Hb) mixture, which potentially produce more heat and photocoagulation and effectively destroy endothelial cells. Hb-Vs combination therapy will improve clinical outcomes of dye laser treatment for PWSs because very small vessels do not contain sufficient RBCs and they are poor absorbers/heaters of lasers. In the present study, we analyzed the relationship between vessel depth from the skin surface and vessel distraction through dye laser irradiation following intravenous Hb-Vs injection using a chicken wattle model. Hb-Vs were administered and chicken wattles underwent high-energy irradiation at energy higher than in the previous experiments. Hb-Vs location in the vessel lumen was identified to explain its photosensitizer effect using human Hb immunostaining of the irradiated wattles. Laser irradiation with Hb-Vs can effectively destroy deep vessels in animal models. Hb-Vs tend to flow in the marginal zone of both small and large vessels. Increasing laser power combined with Hb-Vs injection contributed for deep vessel impairment because of the synergetic effect of both methods. Newly added Hb tended to flow near the target endothelial cells of the laser treatment. In Hb-Vs and RBC mixture, heat transfer to endothelial cells from absorbers/heater may increase. Hb-Vs function as photosensitizers to destroy deep vessels within a restricted distance that the photon can reach.

  18. Renal haemodynamics, sodium and water reabsorption during continuous intravenous infusion of recombinant interleukin-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertsen, P F; von der Maase, H; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    1998-01-01

    1. Renal haemodynamics, lithium and sodium clearance were measured in 14 patients treated with recombinant interleukin-2 for metastatic renal cell carcinoma. 2. Patients were studied before and after 72 h of continuous intravenous infusion of recombinant interleukin-2 (18x10(6) i.u..24 h-1.m-2...

  19. Reseach on the reduction of rocket motor jet noise by water injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zou Hao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Injecting water in the mixing layer of rocket motor jets is a means to reduce jet noise. The calculation of the sound pressure signals at the prescribed receivers was performed by FW-H acoustics model under the condition of water injection and without water injection. The calculation results show that the jet noise is with obvious directivity. The total sound pressure levels are obviously much higher in 10° to 30° direction than that in other direction. The sound pressure levels at the condition of water injected are lower than that of without water injection at the all receiver points, which indicates that water injection can reduce jet noise effectively.

  20. Triggering processes of microseismic events associated with water injection in Okuaizu Geothermal Field, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Kyosuke; Yi, Li; Asanuma, Hiroshi; Okabe, Takashi; Abe, Yasuyuki; Tsuzuki, Masatoshi

    2018-02-01

    A continuous water injection test was conducted to halt the reduction in steam production in the Okuaizu Geothermal Field, Japan. Understanding the factors triggering microseismicity associated with water injection is essential to ensuring effective steam production. We identified possible triggering processes by applying methods based on microseismic monitoring, including a new method to determine the presence of water in local fractures using scattered P-waves. We found that the evolving microseismicity near the injection point could be explained by a diffusion process and/or water migration. We also found that local microseismicity on a remote fault was likely activated by stress fluctuations resulting from changes in the injection rate. A mediator of this fluctuation might be water remaining in the fracture zone. After the injection was terminated, microseismicity possibly associated with the phase transition of the liquid was found. We conclude that a variety of triggering processes associated with water injection may exist.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  1. Prediction of Turbulent Jet Mixing Noise Reduction by Water Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandula, Max

    2008-01-01

    A one-dimensional control volume formulation is developed for the determination of jet mixing noise reduction due to water injection. The analysis starts from the conservation of mass, momentum and energy for the confrol volume, and introduces the concept of effective jet parameters (jet temperature, jet velocity and jet Mach number). It is shown that the water to jet mass flow rate ratio is an important parameter characterizing the jet noise reduction on account of gas-to-droplet momentum and heat transfer. Two independent dimensionless invariant groups are postulated, and provide the necessary relations for the droplet size and droplet Reynolds number. Results are presented illustrating the effect of mass flow rate ratio on the jet mixing noise reduction for a range of jet Mach number and jet Reynolds number. Predictions from the model show satisfactory comparison with available test data on perfectly expanded hot supersonic jets. The results suggest that significant noise reductions can be achieved at increased flow rate ratios.

  2. Neuropathic pain in rats with a partial sciatic nerve ligation is alleviated by intravenous injection of monoclonal antibody to high mobility group box-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoki Nakamura

    Full Text Available High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1 is associated with the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. A previous study reported that intravenous injection of anti-HMGB1 monoclonal antibody significantly attenuated brain edema in a rat model of stroke, possibly by attenuating glial activation. Peripheral nerve injury leads to increased activity of glia in the spinal cord dorsal horn. Thus, it is possible that the anti-HMGB1 antibody could also be efficacious in attenuating peripheral nerve injury-induced pain. Following partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL, rats were treated with either anti-HMGB1 or control IgG. Intravenous treatment with anti-HMGB1 monoclonal antibody (2 mg/kg significantly ameliorated PSNL-induced hind paw tactile hypersensitivity at 7, 14 and 21 days, but not 3 days, after ligation, whereas control IgG had no effect on tactile hypersensitivity. The expression of HMGB1 protein in the spinal dorsal horn was significantly increased 7, 14 and 21 days after PSNL; the efficacy of the anti-HMGB1 antibody is likely related to the presence of HMGB1 protein. Also, the injury-induced translocation of HMGB1 from the nucleus to the cytosol occurred mainly in dorsal horn neurons and not in astrocytes and microglia, indicating a neuronal source of HMGB1. Markers of astrocyte (glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, microglia (ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba1 and spinal neuron (cFos activity were greatly increased in the ipsilateral dorsal horn side compared to the sham-operated side 21 days after PSNL. Anti-HMGB1 monoclonal antibody treatment significantly decreased the injury-induced expression of cFos and Iba1, but not GFAP. The results demonstrate that nerve injury evokes the synthesis and release of HMGB1 from spinal neurons, facilitating the activity of both microglia and neurons, which in turn leads to symptoms of neuropathic pain. Thus, the targeting of HMGB1 could be a useful therapeutic strategy in the treatment of chronic

  3. Intravenous carbon dioxide as an echocardiographic contrast agent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.S. Meltzer (Richard); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); P.G. Hugenholtz (Paul); J.R.T.C. Roelandt (Jos)

    1981-01-01

    textabstractIntravenous carbon dioxide (CO2) was employed to cause echocardiographic contrast in 40 patients. One to 3 cc of medically pure CO2 were agitated with 5 to 8 cc of 5% dextrose in water and rapidly injected into an upper extremity vein. Contrast was obtained in all patients. In 33

  4. Ketorolac Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of ketorolac by intravenous (into a vein) or intramuscular (into a muscle) injection in a hospital or ... You can also visit the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) website (http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ ...

  5. Control of microbial sulfide production by limiting sulfate dispersal in a water-injected oil field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Y; Agrawal, A; Suri, N K; An, D; Voordouw, J K; Clark, R G; Jack, T R; Miner, K; Pederzolli, R; Benko, A; Voordouw, G

    2018-01-20

    Oil production by water injection often involves the use of makeup water to replace produced oil. Sulfate in makeup water is reduced by sulfate-reducing bacteria to sulfide, a process referred to as souring. In the MHGC field souring was caused by using makeup water with 4mM (384ppm) sulfate. Mixing with sulfate-free produced water gave injection water with 0.8mM sulfate. This was amended with nitrate to limit souring and was then distributed fieldwide. The start-up of an enhanced-oil-recovery pilot caused all sulfate-containing makeup water to be used for dissolution of polymer, which was then injected into a limited region of the field. Produced water from this pilot contained 10% of the injected sulfate concentration as sulfide, but was free of sulfate. Its use as makeup water in the main water plant of the field caused injection water sulfate to drop to zero. This in turn strongly decreased produced sulfide concentrations throughout the field and allowed a decreased injection of nitrate. The decreased injection of sulfate and nitrate caused major changes in the microbial community of produced waters. Limiting sulfate dispersal into a reservoir, which acts as a sulfate-removing biofilter, is thus a powerful method to decrease souring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Efficacy of intravenous plus intrathecal/intracerebral ventricle injection of polymyxin B for post-neurosurgical intracranial infections due to MDR/XDR Acinectobacter baumannii: a retrospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Sijun; Huang, Xiaofang; Wang, Yesong; Li, Li; Zhao, Changyun; Yao, Zhongxiang; Cui, Wei; Zhang, Gensheng

    2018-01-01

    Background Post-neurosurgical intracranial infections caused by multidrug-resistant or extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii are difficult to treat and associated with high mortality. In this study, we analyzed the therapeutic efficacy of intravenous combined with intrathecal/intracerebral ventricle injection of polymyxin B for this type of intracranial infection. Methods This retrospective study was conducted from January 2013 to September 2017 at the Second Affiliated Hospital,...

  7. Efficacy of intravenous plus intrathecal/intracerebral ventricle injection of polymyxin B for post-neurosurgical intracranial infections due to MDR/XDR Acinectobacter baumannii: a retrospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Sijun Pan; Xiaofang Huang; Yesong Wang; Li Li; Changyun Zhao; Zhongxiang Yao; Wei Cui; Gensheng Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Post-neurosurgical intracranial infections caused by multidrug-resistant or extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii are difficult to treat and associated with high mortality. In this study, we analyzed the therapeutic efficacy of intravenous combined with intrathecal/intracerebral ventricle injection of polymyxin B for this type of intracranial infection. Methods This retrospective study was conducted from January 2013 to September 2017 at the Second Affiliated ...

  8. Intravenous injection of gadobutrol in an epidemiological study group did not lead to a difference in relative signal intensities of certain brain structures after 5 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kromrey, Marie-Luise; Liedtke, Kim Rouven; Langner, Soenke; Kirsch, Michael; Kuehn, Jens-Peter [University Medicine Greifswald, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology and Neuroradiology, Greifswald (Germany); Ittermann, Till [University Medicine Greifswald, Institute for Community Medicine, Greifswald (Germany); Weitschies, Werner [University Greifswald, Institute of Biopharmacy and Pharmaceutical Technology, Greifswald (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    To investigate if application of macrocyclic gadolinium-based contrast agents in volunteers is associated with neuronal deposition detected by magnetic resonance imaging in a 5-year longitudinal survey. Three hundred eighty-seven volunteers who participated in a population-based study were enrolled. Subjects underwent plain T1-weighted brain MRI at baseline and 5 years later with identical sequence parameters. At baseline, 271 participants additionally received intravenous injection of the macrocyclic contrast agent gadobutrol (1.5 mmol/kg). A control group including 116 subjects received no contrast agent. Relative signal intensities of thalamus, pallidum, pons and dentate nucleus were compared at baseline and follow-up. No difference in relative signal intensities was observed between contrast group (thalamus, p = 0.865; pallidum, p = 0.263; pons, p = 0.533; dentate nucleus, p = 0.396) and control group (thalamus, p = 0.683; pallidum; p = 0.970; pons, p = 0.773; dentate nucleus, p = 0.232) at both times. Comparison between both groups revealed no significant differences in relative signal intensities (thalamus, p = 0.413; pallidum, p = 0.653; pons, p = 0.460; dentate nucleus, p = 0.751). The study showed no significant change in globus pallidus-to-thalamus or dentate nucleus-to-pons ratios. Five years after administration of a 1.5-fold dose gadobutrol to normal subjects, signal intensity of thalamus, pallidum, pons and dentate nucleus did not differ from participants who had not received gadobutrol. (orig.)

  9. Distribution of flunixin residues in muscles of dairy cattle dosed with lipopolysaccharide or saline and treated with flunixin by intravenous or intramuscular injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenty dairy cows received flunixin meglumine at 2.2 mg/kg bw, administered once daily by either the intravenous (IV) or intra muscular (IM) route for three consecutive days with either intravenous normal saline (NS) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) providing a balanced design with five animals per group...

  10. Well-defined hydroxyethyl starch-10-hydroxy camptothecin super macromolecule conjugate: cytotoxicity, pharmacodynamics research, tissue distribution test and intravenous injection safety assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guofei; Zhao, Mingming; Zhao, Limei

    2016-10-01

    10-Hydroxy camptothecin (10-HCPT) is an antitumor agent effective in the treatment of several solid tumors but its use is hampered by poor water solubility, low lactone stability, short plasma half-life and dose-limiting toxicity. These limits of 10-HCPT had been overcome by our group through preparing super macromolecule prodrug: 10-HCPT-hydroxyethyl starch (HES) conjugate. In this study, we mainly evaluated in vitro and in vivo behavior of the prodrug, containing cytotoxicity assay, pharmacodynamics study, vascular irritation test, hemolysis experiment and tissue distribution test of rats. The irritation test results achieved much lower irritation than the commercial injection. The tissue distribution results showed that HES-10-HCPT conjugate increased significantly the 10-HCPT concentration in the tumor, liver and spleen site, whereas decreased the drug concentration in the heart and kidney. The hemolysis effect of the prepared conjugate was not obvious. The pharmacodynamics results indicated that HES-10-HCPT prodrug had a better antitumor efficiency against mice with H22 tumor than the commercial injection, and the inhibition ratio of tumor was 85.2% and 31.1%, respectively at the same dosage. These findings suggest that HES-10-HCPT prodrug is a promising drug delivery system providing improved good injection safety, greater tolerance and antitumor effect.

  11. Severe pegaspargase hypersensitivity reaction rates (grade ≥3) with intravenous infusion vs. intramuscular injection: analysis of 54,280 doses administered to 16,534 patients on children's oncology group (COG) clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Michael J; Devidas, Meenakshi; Maloney, Kelly; Angiolillo, Anne; Schore, Reuven; Dunsmore, Kimberly; Larsen, Eric; Mattano, Len A; Salzer, Wanda; Winter, Stuart S; Carroll, William; Winick, Naomi J; Loh, Mignon L; Raetz, Elizabeth; Hunger, Stephen P; Bleyer, Archie

    2017-11-08

    PEGylated asparaginase (pegaspargase) can be administered via intramuscular (IM) injection or intravenous (IV) infusion with a hypersensitivity reaction (HSR) incidence ranging 3-41%. We evaluated grade ≥3 HSRs when given IM vs. IV on six Children's Oncology Group (COG) leukemia trials (2003-2015) to determine differences in HSR rates. 54,280 doses were administered to 16,534 patients. Considering all doses of pegaspargase during induction, consolidation, and delayed intensification, grade ≥3 HSR rate with IM injection was 5.4% (n = 482/8981) compared to 3.2% for IV (n = 245/7553) (p rate following IM injection was 10.1% (n = 459/4534) compared to 5.0% (n = 222/4443) for IV (p rates to pegaspargase occurred less frequently with IV infusion than IM injection.

  12. A fast alternative to core plug tests for optimising injection water salinity for EOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassenkam, Tue; Andersson, Martin Peter; Hilner, Emelie Kristin Margareta

    2014-01-01

    Core tests have demonstrated that decreasing the salinity of injection water can increase oil recovery. Although recovery is enhanced by simply decreasing salt content, optimising injection water salinty would offer a clear economic advantage for several reasons. Too low salinity risks swelling o...

  13. Finding Balance Between Biological Groundwater Treatment and Treated Injection Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Mark A.; Nielsen, Kellin R.; Byrnes, Mark E.; Simmons, Sally A.; Morse, John J.; Geiger, James B.; Watkins, Louis E.; McFee, Phillip M.; Martins, K.

    2015-01-14

    At the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company operates the 200 West Pump and Treat which was engineered to treat radiological and chemical contaminants in groundwater as a result of the site’s former plutonium production years. Fluidized bed bioreactors (FBRs) are used to remove nitrate, metals, and volatile organic compounds. Increasing nitrate concentrations in the treatment plant effluent and the presence of a slimy biomass (a typical microorganism response to stress) in the FBRs triggered an investigation of nutrient levels in the system. Little, if any, micronutrient feed was coming into the bioreactors. Additionally, carbon substrate (used to promote biological growth) was passing through to the injection wells, causing biological fouling of the wells and reduced specific injectivity. Adjustments to the micronutrient feed improved microorganism health, but the micronutrients were being overfed (particularly manganese) plugging the injection wells further. Injection well rehabilitation to restore specific injectivity required repeated treatments to remove the biological fouling and precipitated metal oxides. A combination of sulfamic and citric acids worked well to dissolve metal oxides and sodium hypochlorite effectively removed the biological growth. Intensive surging and development techniques successfully removed clogging material from the injection wells. Ultimately, the investigation and nutrient adjustments took months to restore proper balance to the microbial system and over a year to stabilize injection well capacities. Carefully tracking and managing the FBRs and well performance monitoring are critical to balancing the needs of the treatment system while reducing fouling mechanisms in the injection wells.

  14. 40 CFR 60.4335 - How do I demonstrate compliance for NOX if I use water or steam injection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... if I use water or steam injection? 60.4335 Section 60.4335 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... compliance for NOX if I use water or steam injection? (a) If you are using water or steam injection to... monitor and record the fuel consumption and the ratio of water or steam to fuel being fired in the turbine...

  15. Efficacy of intravenous plus intrathecal/intracerebral ventricle injection of polymyxin B for post-neurosurgical intracranial infections due to MDR/XDR Acinectobacter baumannii: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijun Pan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-neurosurgical intracranial infections caused by multidrug-resistant or extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii are difficult to treat and associated with high mortality. In this study, we analyzed the therapeutic efficacy of intravenous combined with intrathecal/intracerebral ventricle injection of polymyxin B for this type of intracranial infection. Methods This retrospective study was conducted from January 2013 to September 2017 at the Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine (Hangzhou,China and included 61 cases for which cerebrospinal fluid (CSF cultures were positive for multidrug-resistant or extensively drug-resistant A. baumannii after a neurosurgical operation. Patients treated with intravenous and intrathecal/intracerebral ventricle injection of polymyxin B were assigned to the intrathecal/intracerebral group, and patients treated with other antibiotics without intrathecal/intracerebral injection were assigned to the intravenous group. Data for general information, treatment history, and the results of routine tests and biochemistry indicators in CSF, clinical efficiency, microbiological clearance rate, and the 28-day mortality were collected and analyzed. Results The rate of multidrug-resistant or extensively drug-resistant A. baumannii infection among patients who experienced an intracranial infection after a neurosurgical operation was 33.64% in our hospital. The isolated A. baumannii were resistant to various antibiotics, and most seriously to carbapenems (100.00% resistance rate to imipenem and meropenem, cephalosporins (resistance rates of 98.38% to cefazolin, 100.00% to ceftazidime, 100.00% to cefatriaxone, and 98.39% to cefepime. However, the isolated A. baumannii were completely sensitive to polymyxin B (sensitivity rate of 100.00%, followed by tigecycline (60.66% and amikacin (49.18%. No significant differences in basic clinical data were observed between the two

  16. Scale formation at various locations in a geothermal operation due to injection of imported waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetter, O.J.; Kandarpa, V.

    1982-06-22

    The injection of waters that are not native to a geothermal formation generates various physical and chemical problems. The major chemical problem resulting from such injections is the formation of sulfate scales (particularly CaSO4, BaSO4 and SrSO4) at various locations starting from the injection well through the production well to the surface facilities of any geothermal operation. One of the ways to prevent this type of scale formation is by reducing the sulfate concentration of the injection waters. The effect of sulfate deionization on scale formation at various locations of the geothermal operations is studied. Some experimental results on the CaSO4 scale formation in porous media upon heating an injection water with and without addition of scale inhibitors are also given.

  17. Cerro Prieto cold water injection: effects on nearby production wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truesdell, A.H.; Lippmann, M.J.; De Leon, J.; Rodriguez, M.H.

    1999-07-01

    The liquid-dominated Cerro Prieto geothermal field of northern Baja California, Mexico has been under commercial exploitation since 1973. During the early years of operation, all waste brines were sent to an evaporation pond built west of the production area. In 1989, cooled pond brines began to be successfully injected into the reservoir along the western boundary of the geothermal system. The injection rate varied over the years, and is at present about 20% of the total fluid extracted. As expected under the continental desert conditions prevailing in the area, the temperature and salinity of the pond brines change with the seasons, being higher during the summer and lower during the winter. The chemistry of pond brines is also affected by precipitation of silica, oxidation of H{sub 2}S and reaction with airborne clays. Several production wells in the western part of the field (CP-I area) showed beneficial effects from injection. The chemical (chloride, isotopic) and physical (enthalpy, flow rate) changes observed in producers close to the injectors are reviewed. Some wells showed steam flow increases, in others steam flow decline rates flattened. Because of their higher density, injected brines migrated downward in the reservoir and showed up in deep wells.

  18. Fault Diagnosis Of A Water For Injection System Using Enhanced Structural Isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Morten; Blanke, Mogens; Düstegör, Dilek

    2008-01-01

    A water for injection system supplies chilled sterile water as solvent to pharmaceutical products. There are ultimate requirements to the quality of the sterile water, and the consequence of a fault in temperature or in flow control within the process may cause loss of one or more batches...

  19. Performance indicators for water injections projects; Indicadores de desempenho para projetos de injecao de agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hastenreiter, Livia; Correa, Antonio C. de F.; Mendes, Roberta A. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Currently, the water injection process into oil reservoirs is the method of secondary recovery more important to increase the recovery factor. Thus, it is necessary an efficient project management, with constant data acquisitions and interpretation. This paper aims to present some indicators to evaluate the performance of water injection projects. Each indicator is presented based on a methodology that transforms the data collected in information. The results are expressed in graphical form for better viewing of the indicators measurement. (author)

  20. Dosimetry of intravenously administered oxygen-15 labelled water in man: a model based on experimental human data from 21 subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T.; Tong, C.; Lammertsma, A.A.; Butler, K.R.; Schnorr, L.; Watson, J.D.G.; Ramsay, S.; Clark, J.C.; Jones, T.

    1994-01-01

    Models based on uniform distribution of tracer in total body water underestimate the absorbed dose from H 2 15 O because of the short half-life (2.04 min) of 15 O, which leads to non-uniform distribution of absorbed dose and also complicates the direct measurement of organ retention curves. However, organ absorbed doses can be predicted by the present kinetic model based on the convolution technique. The measured time course of arterial H 2 15 O concentration following intravenous administration represents the input function to organs. The impulse response of a given organ is its transit time function determined by blood flow and the partition of water between tissue and blood. Values of these two parameters were taken from the literature. Integrals of the arterial input function and organ transit time functions were used to derive integrals of organ retention functions (organ residence times). The latter were used with absorbed dose calculation software (MIRDOSE-2) to obtain estimates for 24 organs. From the mean values of organ absorbed doses, the effective dose equivalent (EDE) and effective dose (ED) were calculated. From measurements on 21 subjects, the average value for both EDE and ED was calculated to be 1.2 μSv.MBq -1 compared with a value of about 0.5 μSv.MBq -1 predicted by uniform water distribution models. Based on the human data, a method of approximating H 2 15 O absorbed dose values from body surface area is described. (orig.)

  1. Influence of ethanol-amine injection on flow accelerated corrosion rate in pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumura, Takuya; Arioka, Koji

    2007-01-01

    Some pressurized water reactor (PWR) plants have introduced ethanol-amine (ETA) injection for the purpose of decreasing iron transfer in steam generator (SG). The ETA injection is supposed to decrease flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) rate, because of secondary system pH increase. But the water chemistry in the secondary system is very complicated. So water chemistry following ETA injection and the effect of ETA injection on FAC rate have not been studied systematically. To assess the influence of ETA injection on FAC rate, it is assumed that the model of FAC rate is proportional to the concentration gradient of magnetite. Then chemical concentration and magnetite solubility of the secondary system are calculated and the change of FAC rate is evaluated in the outline. It has been clarified that the effect of ETA injection reduces the FAC rate to about 1/3-1/22 of that of ammonia. In some portions of the secondary system, the effects of ETA injection have been measured experimentally by rotary disk test. The FAC rate of ETA injection is larger than that of ammonia at high temperature. And the FAC rate peaks at about 180degC in the case of ammonia, but the peak seems to shift to higher temperatures in the case of ETA. (author)

  2. Influence of Steam Injection and Water-in-Oil Emulsions on Diesel Fuel Combustion Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Meagan

    Water injection can be an effective strategy for reducing NOx because water's high specific heat allows it to absorb heat and lower system temperatures. Introducing water as an emulsion can potentially be more effective at reducing emissions than steam injection due to physical properties (such as microexplosions) that can improve atomization and increase mixing. Unfortunately, the immiscibility of emulsions makes them difficult to work with so they must be mixed properly. In this effort, a method for adequately mixing surfactant-free emulsions was established and verified using high speed cinematography. As the water to fuel mass ratio (W/F) increased, emulsion atomization tests showed little change in droplet size and spray angle, but a shorter overall breakup point. Dual-wavelength planar laser induced fluorescence (D-PLIF) patternation showed an increase in water near the center of the spray. Steam injection flames saw little change in reaction stability, but emulsion flames experienced significant losses in stability that limited reaction operability at higher W/F. Emulsions were more effective at reducing NOx than steam injection, likely because of liquid water's latent heat of vaporization and the strategic injection of water into the flame core. OH* chemiluminescence showed a decrease in heat release for both methods, though the decrease was greater for emulsions. Both methods saw decreases in flame length for W/F 0.15. Lastly, flame imaging showed a shift towards a redder appearance with the addition or more water, as well as a reduction in flame flares.

  3. Modeling Reservoir Formation Damage due to Water Injection for Oil Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao

    2010-01-01

    The elliptic equation for non-Fickian transport of suspension in porous media is applied to simulate the reservoir formation damage due to water injection for oil recovery. The deposition release (erosion of reservoir formation) and the suspension deposition (pore plugging) are both taken...... into account. 1-D numerical simulations are carried out to reveal the erosion of reservoir formation due to water injection. 2-D numerical simulations are carried out to obtain the suspension and deposition profiles around the injection wells. These preliminary results indicate the non-Fickian behaviors...... of suspended reservoir fines and the corresponding formation damage due to erosion and relocation of reservoir fines....

  4. Environmental response nanosilica for reducing the pressure of water injection in ultra-low permeability reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peisong; Niu, Liyong; Li, Xiaohong; Zhang, Zhijun

    2017-12-01

    The super-hydrophobic silica nanoparticles are applied to alter the wettability of rock surface from water-wet to oil-wet. The aim of this is to reduce injection pressure so as to enhance water injection efficiency in low permeability reservoirs. Therefore, a new type of environmentally responsive nanosilica (denote as ERS) is modified with organic compound containing hydrophobic groups and "pinning" groups by covalent bond and then covered with a layer of hydrophilic organic compound by chemical adsorption to achieve excellent water dispersibility. Resultant ERS is homogeneously dispersed in water with a size of about 4-8 nm like a micro-emulsion system and can be easily injected into the macro or nano channels of ultra-low permeability reservoirs. The hydrophobic nanosilica core can be released from the aqueous delivery system owing to its strong dependence on the environmental variation from normal condition to injection wells (such as pH and salinity). Then the exposed silica nanoparticles form a thin layer on the surface of narrow pore throat, leading to the wettability from water-wet to oil-wet. More importantly, the two rock cores with different permeability were surface treated with ERS dispersion with a concentration of 2 g/L, exhibit great reduce of water injection pressure by 57.4 and 39.6%, respectively, which shows great potential for exploitation of crude oil from ultra-low permeability reservoirs during water flooding. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  5. Efficacy of intravenous plus intrathecal/intracerebral ventricle injection of polymyxin B for post-neurosurgical intracranial infections due to MDR/XDR Acinectobacter baumannii: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Sijun; Huang, Xiaofang; Wang, Yesong; Li, Li; Zhao, Changyun; Yao, Zhongxiang; Cui, Wei; Zhang, Gensheng

    2018-01-01

    Post-neurosurgical intracranial infections caused by multidrug-resistant or extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii are difficult to treat and associated with high mortality. In this study, we analyzed the therapeutic efficacy of intravenous combined with intrathecal/intracerebral ventricle injection of polymyxin B for this type of intracranial infection. This retrospective study was conducted from January 2013 to September 2017 at the Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine (Hangzhou,China) and included 61 cases for which cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures were positive for multidrug-resistant or extensively drug-resistant A. baumannii after a neurosurgical operation. Patients treated with intravenous and intrathecal/intracerebral ventricle injection of polymyxin B were assigned to the intrathecal/intracerebral group, and patients treated with other antibiotics without intrathecal/intracerebral injection were assigned to the intravenous group. Data for general information, treatment history, and the results of routine tests and biochemistry indicators in CSF, clinical efficiency, microbiological clearance rate, and the 28-day mortality were collected and analyzed. The rate of multidrug-resistant or extensively drug-resistant A. baumannii infection among patients who experienced an intracranial infection after a neurosurgical operation was 33.64% in our hospital. The isolated A. baumannii were resistant to various antibiotics, and most seriously to carbapenems (100.00% resistance rate to imipenem and meropenem), cephalosporins (resistance rates of 98.38% to cefazolin, 100.00% to ceftazidime, 100.00% to cefatriaxone, and 98.39% to cefepime). However, the isolated A. baumannii were completely sensitive to polymyxin B (sensitivity rate of 100.00%), followed by tigecycline (60.66%) and amikacin (49.18%). No significant differences in basic clinical data were observed between the two groups. Compared with the intravenous group, the

  6. [The prevention and therapeutics effect of sodium bicarbonate with gastric lavage, atomization inhalation and intravenous injection on the patients with paraquat poisoning and pulmonary fibrosis induced by paraquat poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ainong; Ren, Siqing; Jian, Xiangdong; Zhang, Qing

    2015-09-01

    To observe the prevention effects of patients with lung exudation and pulmonary fibrosis induced by paraquat poisoning in sodium bicarbonate (SB) with gastric lavage, atomization inhalation and intravenous injection. To collect 38 patients with paraquat poisoning in hospital, after poison immediately with gastric lavage of 1.5% SB, and atomization inhalation of 5% SB 10~15 ml twice daily and intravenous injection of 5% SB twice a day, continuous application of 5~7 days. and the HRCT score and liver and kidney function was performed on patients with lung after treatment. And the extraction of 38 SB patients with previously untreated with SB for comparison. Lung HRCT average score in 72 h, 7 d, 30 d on patients with paraquat poisoning untreated with SB reached 2.87, 3.12, 2.13, HRCT display shows that the appearance of the wear glass shadow, grid shadow, honeycomb shadow, and other signs of fibrosis. Average HRCT reached 1.95, 2.20, 1.67 on patients treated with SB,signs of lung exudation and fibrosis was significantly reduced,compare two groups,there was statistically significance (Pparaquat poisoning with triple application of SB, the level of serum urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr) significantly decreased, the difference is statistically significant (Pparaquat poisoning,and protective effect on the function of liver and kidney is obvious, suggesting that the method for treatment of paraquat poisoning, prevention of paraquat lung and improve survival rate has the exact effect.

  7. Distribution of Flunixin Residues in Muscles of Dairy Cattle Dosed with Lipopolysaccharide or Saline and Treated with Flunixin by Intravenous or Intramuscular Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelver, Weilin L; Schneider, Marilyn J; Smith, David J

    2016-12-28

    Twenty dairy cows received flunixin meglumine at 2.2 mg/kg bw, administered once daily by either the intravenous (IV) or intramuscular (IM) route for three consecutive days with either intravenous normal saline (NS) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) providing a balanced design with five animals per group. Cows were sacrificed after a 4 day withdrawal period, and 13 muscle types were collected and assayed for flunixin by LC-MS/MS. After elimination of sample outliers, the main effects of route of administration (IV or IM), treatment (NS or LPS), and tissue type significantly (P 0.05). Intramuscular (nonlabel) flunixin administration produced greater (P administration, whereas LPS resulted in lower flunixin levels. Differences among the tissue levels indicate it is necessary to specify the tissue to be used for any monitoring of drug levels for consumer protection.

  8. Functional cardiac MR imaging with true fast imaging with steady-state free precession before and after intravenous injection of contrast medium: comparison of image quality and accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krombach, Gabriele A. [University Hospital, RWTH Aachen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Aachen (Germany); University Hospital Giessen, Department of Radiology, Justus-Liebig University Giessen, Giessen (Germany); Plum, Thorsten; Kraemer, Nils A.; Guenther, Rolf W.; Schoth, Felix [University Hospital, RWTH Aachen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Aachen (Germany); Koos, Ralf; Hoffmann, Rainer; Altiok, Ertunc [University Hospital, RWTH Aachen, Department of Cardiology, Aachen (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    To compare image quality and accuracy of left ventricular function of cine SSFP (steady-state free precession) images before and after injection of Gd-DTPA. In 30 patients T1 times of LV blood and myocardium were measured before and after injection of 0.2 mmol/kg body weight Gd-DTPA. Signal intensity of myocardium and left ventricular blood were measured on SSFP images and the contrast calculated. In 20 additional patients short axis images completely covering the left ventricle were acquired before and after injection of Gd-DTPA and parameters of left ventricular function compared. Image quality and regional function were assessed using the 17-segment model. Image quality after injection of contrast medium did not significantly change compared with unenhanced images. Contrast between myocardium and LV blood decreased from 0.6 {+-} 0.01 to 0.4 {+-} 0.03 after injection while the T1 value of myocardium decreased from 1121 {+-} 21 ms to 389 {+-} 14 ms (blood 1413 {+-} 48 ms to 222 {+-} 8 ms). Assessment of regional and global left ventricular function revealed similar results before and after the injection of contrast medium. Cine SSFP can be obtained after injection of contrast medium without loss of accuracy for regional and global LV ventricular function. This protocol can be used to decrease imaging time for thorough cardiac examination. (orig.)

  9. A new approach of proration-injection allocation for water-flooding mature oilfields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyong Hu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method of injection-production allocation estimation for water-flooding mature oilfields. The suggested approach is based on logistic growth rate functions and several type-curve matching methods. Using the relationship between these equations, oil production and water injection rate as well as injection-production ratio can be easily forecasted. The calculation procedure developed and outlined in this paper requires very few production data and is easily implemented. Furthermore, an oilfield case has been analyzed. The synthetic and field cases validate the calculation procedure, so it can be accurately used in forecasting production data, and it is important to optimize the whole injection-production system.

  10. Experimental Investigation on Dilation Mechanisms of Land-Facies Karamay Oil Sand Reservoirs under Water Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Botao; Jin, Yan; Pang, Huiwen; Cerato, Amy B.

    2016-04-01

    The success of steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is strongly dependent on the formation of a homogeneous and highly permeable zone in the land-facies Karamay oil sand reservoirs. To accomplish this, hydraulic fracturing is applied through controlled water injection to a pair of horizontal wells to create a dilation zone between the dual wells. The mechanical response of the reservoirs during this injection process, however, has remained unclear for the land-facies oil sand that has a loosely packed structure. This research conducted triaxial, permeability and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) tests on the field-collected oil sand samples. The tests evaluated the influences of the field temperature, confining stress and injection pressure on the dilation mechanisms as shear dilation and tensile parting during injection. To account for petrophysical heterogeneity, five reservoir rocks including regular oil sand, mud-rich oil sand, bitumen-rich oil sand, mudstone and sandstone were investigated. It was found that the permeability evolution in the oil sand samples subjected to shear dilation closely followed the porosity and microcrack evolutions in the shear bands. In contrast, the mudstone and sandstone samples developed distinct shear planes, which formed preferred permeation paths. Tensile parting expanded the pore space and increased the permeability of all the samples in various degrees. Based on this analysis, it is concluded that the range of injection propagation in the pay zone determines the overall quality of hydraulic fracturing, while the injection pressure must be carefully controlled. A region in a reservoir has little dilation upon injection if it remains unsaturated. Moreover, a cooling of the injected water can strengthen the dilation potential of a reservoir. Finally, it is suggested that the numerical modeling of water injection in the Karamay oil sand reservoirs must take into account the volumetric plastic strain in hydrostatic loading.

  11. Flash Atomization: A New Concept to Control Combustion Instability in Water-Injected Gas Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishwas Iyengar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to explore methods to reduce combustor rumble in a water-injected gas turbine. Attempts to use water injection as a means to reduce NOX emissions in gas turbines have been largely unsuccessful because of increased combustion instability levels. This pulsation causes chronic fretting, wear, and fatigue that damages combustor components. Of greater concern is that liberated fragments could cause extensive damage to the turbine section. Combustion instability can be tied to the insufficient atomization of injected water; large water droplets evaporate non-uniformly that lead to energy absorption in chaotic pulses. Added pulsation is amplified by the combustion process and acoustic resonance. Effervescent atomization, where gas bubbles are injected, is beneficial by producing finely atomized droplets; the gas bubbles burst as they exit the nozzles creating additional energy to disperse the liquid. A new concept for effervescent atomization dubbed “flash atomization” is presented where water is heated to just below its boiling point in the supply line so that some of it will flash to steam as it leaves the nozzle. An advantage of flash atomization is that available heat energy can be used rather than mechanical energy to compress injection gas for conventional effervescent atomization.

  12. Investigation of Cooling Water Injection into Supersonic Rocket Engine Exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Hansen; Jeansonne, Christopher; Menon, Shyam

    2017-11-01

    Water spray cooling of the exhaust plume from a rocket undergoing static testing is critical in preventing thermal wear of the test stand structure, and suppressing the acoustic noise signature. A scaled test facility has been developed that utilizes non-intrusive diagnostic techniques including Focusing Color Schlieren (FCS) and Phase Doppler Particle Anemometry (PDPA) to examine the interaction of a pressure-fed water jet with a supersonic flow of compressed air. FCS is used to visually assess the interaction of the water jet with the strong density gradients in the supersonic air flow. PDPA is used in conjunction to gain statistical information regarding water droplet size and velocity as the jet is broken up. Measurement results, along with numerical simulations and jet penetration models are used to explain the observed phenomena. Following the cold flow testing campaign a scaled hybrid rocket engine will be constructed to continue tests in a combusting flow environment similar to that generated by the rocket engines tested at NASA facilities. LaSPACE.

  13. Determination of nitrate in water by flow-injection analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikuška, Pavel; Večeřa, Zbyněk

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2001), s. 115-120 ISSN 1231-7098 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/98/0943 Grant - others:COPERNICUS(BE) SUB-AERO EVK2-1999-000327 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : nitrate * chemiluminescence * water Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  14. Construction of a Direct Water-Injected Two-Stroke Engine for Phased Direct Fuel Injection-High Pressure Charging Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somsel, James P.

    1998-01-01

    The development of a water injected Orbital Combustion Process (OCP) engine was conducted to assess the viability of using the powerplant for high altitude NASA aircraft and General Aviation (GA) applications. An OCP direct fuel injected, 1.2 liter, three cylinder, two-stroke engine has been enhanced to independently inject water directly into the combustion chamber. The engine currently demonstrates low brake specific fuel consumption capability and an excellent power to weight ratio. With direct water injection, significant improvements can be made to engine power, to knock limits/ignition advance timing, and to engine NO(x) emissions. The principal aim of the testing was to validate a cyclic model developed by the Systems Analysis Branch at NASA Ames Research Center. The work is a continuation of Ames' investigations into a Phased Direct Fuel Injection Engine with High Pressure Charging (PDFI-ITPC).

  15. Experimental investigation of the effects of direct water injection parameters on engine performance in a six-stroke engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arabaci, Emre; İçingür, Yakup; Solmaz, Hamit; Uyumaz, Ahmet; Yilmaz, Emre

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Exhaust gas temperature and specific fuel consumption decreased with six stroke engine. • Thermal efficiency increased with water injection. • NO emissions decreased with water injection as the temperature decreased at the end of cycle. • Injection timing should be advanced with the increase of engine speed. • HC and CO emissions decrease until 3000 rpm engine speed. - Abstract: In this study, the effects of water injection quantity and injection timing were investigated on engine performance and exhaust emissions in a six-stroke engine. For this purpose, a single cylinder, four-stroke gasoline engine was converted to six-stroke engine modifying a new cam mechanism and adapting the water injection system. The experiments were conducted at stoichometric air/fuel ratio (λ = 1) between 2250 and 3500 rpm engine speed at full load with liquid petroleum gas. Water injection was performed at three different stages as before top dead center, top dead center and after top dead center at constant injection duration and four different injection pressure 25, 50, 75 and 100 bar. The test results showed that exhaust gas temperature and specific fuel consumption decreased by about 7% and 9% respectively. In contrast, fuel consumption and power output increased 2% and 10% respectively with water injection. Thermal efficiency increased by about 8.72% with water injection. CO and HC emissions decreased 21.97% and 18.23% until 3000 rpm respectively. NO emissions decreased with water injection as the temperature decreased at the end of cycle. As a result, it was seen that engine performance improved when suitable injection timing and injected water quantity were selected due to effect of exhaust heat recovery with water injection

  16. Intravenous Leiomyomatosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hemostasis was well achieved. The tumor weighed 6.7 kg. The postoperative course. Intravenous Leiomyomatosis. Narayanaswamy Mariyappa, Uday Kumar Manikyam1, Dinesh Krishnamurthy2, Preeti K,. Yamini Agarwal, Prakar U. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 1Pathology and 2Anaesthesia, Sri Devaraj ...

  17. In situ water and gas injection experiments performed in the Hades Underground Research Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volckaert, G.; Ortiz, L.; Put, M.

    1995-01-01

    The movement of water and gas through plastic clay is an important subject in the research at SCK-CEN on the possible disposal of high level radioactive waste in the Boom clay layer at Mol. Since the construction of the Hades underground research facility in 1983, SCK-CEN has developed and installed numerous piezometers for the geohydrologic characterization and for in situ radionuclide migration experiments. In situ gas and water injection experiments have been performed at two different locations in the underground laboratory. The first location is a multi filter piezometer installed vertically at the bottom of the shaft in 1986. The second location is a three dimensional configuration of four horizontal multi piezometers installed from the gallery. This piezometer configuration was designed for the MEGAS (Modelling and Experiments on GAS migration through argillaceous rocks) project and installed in 1992. It contains 29 filters at distances between 10 m and 15 m from the gallery in the clay. Gas injection experiments show that gas breakthrough occurs at a gas overpressure of about 0.6 MPa. The breakthrough occurs by the creation of gas pathways along the direction of lowest resistance i.e. the zone of low effective stress resulting from the drilling of the borehole. The water injections performed in a filter -- not used for gas injection -- show that the flow of water is also influenced by the mechanical stress conditions. Low effective stress leads to higher hydraulic conductivity. However, water overpressures up to 1.3 MPa did not cause hydrofracturing. Water injections performed in a filter previously used for gas injections, show that the occluded gas hinders the water flow and reduces the hydraulic conductivity by a factor two

  18. Investigation of Amourphous Deposits and Potential Corrosion Mechanisms in Offshore Water Injection Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eroini, Violette; Oehler, Mike Christian; Graver, Britt Kathrine

    2017-01-01

    Increasing incidence of amorphous deposits in both production and water injection systems has caused considerable problems for offshore oil fields. Amorphous deposits, which are a widely recognized, but often poorly explained phenomenon, are typically comprised of both organic (biological...... or hydrocarbons) and inorganic material, but with compositions that vary considerably. One recurrent form of deposits, found in offshore water injection flowlines and wells, consisting mainly of magnetite as the corrosion product, was further investigated with the objectives of explaining its formation...... and assisting in prevention or remediation. It is proposed that the deposit formation, observed in offshore water injection systems treated with nitrate, is initiated by formation of a nitrate reducing biofilm promoting under deposit corrosion by activity of sulphate reducing and methanogenic prokaryotes...

  19. SATCAP-C : a program for thermal hydraulic design of pressurized water injection type capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harayama, Yasuo; Someya, Hiroyuki; Asoh, Tomokazu; Niimi, Motoji

    1992-10-01

    There are capsules called 'Pressure Water Injection Type Capsule' as a kind of irradiation devices at the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). A type of the capsules is a 'Boiling Water Capsule' (usually named BOCA). The other type is a 'Saturated Temperature Capsule' (named SATCAP). When the water is kept at a constant pressure, the water temperature does not become higher than the saturated temperature so far as the water does not fully change to steam. These type capsules are designed on the basis of the conception of applying the water characteristic to the control of irradiation temperature of specimens in the capsules. In designing of the capsules in which the pressurized water is injected, thermal performances have to be understood as exactly as possible. It is not easy however to predict thermal performances such as axially temperature distribution of water injected in the capsule, because there are heat-sinks at both side of inner and outer of capsule casing as the result that the water is fluid. Then, a program (named SATCAP-C) for the BOCA and SATCAP was compiled to grasp the thermal performances in the capsules and has been used the design of the capsules and analysis of the data obtained from some actual irradiation capsules. It was confirmed that the program was effective in thermal analysis for the capsules. The analysis found out the values for heat transfer coefficients at various surfaces of capsule components and some thermal characteristics of capsules. (author)

  20. Water injection into vapor- and liquid-dominated reservoirs: Modeling of heat transfer and mass transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruess, K.; Oldenburg, C.; Moridis, G.; Finsterle, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper summarizes recent advances in methods for simulating water and tracer injection, and presents illustrative applications to liquid- and vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs. High-resolution simulations of water injection into heterogeneous, vertical fractures in superheated vapor zones were performed. Injected water was found to move in dendritic patterns, and to experience stronger lateral flow effects than predicted from homogeneous medium models. Higher-order differencing methods were applied to modeling water and tracer injection into liquid-dominated systems. Conventional upstream weighting techniques were shown to be adequate for predicting the migration of thermal fronts, while higher-order methods give far better accuracy for tracer transport. A new fluid property module for the TOUGH2 simulator is described which allows a more accurate description of geofluids, and includes mineral dissolution and precipitation effects with associated porosity and permeability change. Comparisons between numerical simulation predictions and data for laboratory and field injection experiments are summarized. Enhanced simulation capabilities include a new linear solver package for TOUGH2, and inverse modeling techniques for automatic history matching and optimization.

  1. Rapid and non-destructive identification of water-injected beef samples using multispectral imaging analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinxia; Cao, Yue; Wang, Qiu; Pan, Wenjuan; Ma, Fei; Liu, Changhong; Chen, Wei; Yang, Jianbo; Zheng, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Water-injected beef has aroused public concern as a major food-safety issue in meat products. In the study, the potential of multispectral imaging analysis in the visible and near-infrared (405-970 nm) regions was evaluated for identifying water-injected beef. A multispectral vision system was used to acquire images of beef injected with up to 21% content of water, and partial least squares regression (PLSR) algorithm was employed to establish prediction model, leading to quantitative estimations of actual water increase with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.923. Subsequently, an optimized model was achieved by integrating spectral data with feature information extracted from ordinary RGB data, yielding better predictions (r = 0.946). Moreover, the prediction equation was transferred to each pixel within the images for visualizing the distribution of actual water increase. These results demonstrate the capability of multispectral imaging technology as a rapid and non-destructive tool for the identification of water-injected beef. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Perspectives on Severe Accident Management by Depressurization and External Water Injection under Extended SBO Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seol, Wookcheol; Park, Jongwoon

    2014-01-01

    Three major issues of severe accident management guideline (SAMG) after this sort of extended SBO would be depressurization of the primary system, external water injection and hydrogen management inside a containment. Under this situation, typical SAM actions would be depressurization and external water delivery into the core. However, limited amount of external water would necessitate optimization between core cooling, containment integrity and fission product removal. In this paper, effects of SAM actions such as depressurization and external water injection on the reactor and containment conditions after extended SBO are analyzed using MAAP4 code. Positive and negative aspects are discussed with respect to core cooling and fission product retention inside a primary system. Conclusions are made as following: Firstly, early depressurization action itself has two-faces: positive with respect to delay of the reactor vessel failure but negative with respect to the containment failure and fission product retention inside the primary system. Secondly, in order to prevent containment overpressure failure after external water injection, re-closing of PORV later should be considered in SAM, which has never been considered in the previous SAMG. Finally, in case of external water injection, the flow rate should be optimized considering not only the cooling effect but also the long term fission product retention inside the primary system

  3. Pharmacokinetics and pulmonary distribution of gamithromycin after intravenous administration in foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, S; Randow, T; Scheuch, E; Grube, M; Venner, M; Siegmund, W

    2017-08-01

    The long-acting azalide antibiotic gamithromycin is marketed for intramuscular treatment of bovine and swine infections. Off-label use in foals leads to severe local lesions likely caused by hyperosmolality of the injected solution. We provide evidence from a pharmacokinetic study in 10 warm-blooded healthy foals for intravenous bolus injection of gamithromycin diluted in distilled water to be a safe and well tolerated alternative. By intravenous dosing, markedly higher plasma exposure and better penetration into bronchoalveolar lavage cells but lower distribution into epithelial lining fluid are achieved as after intramuscular or subcutaneous administration. Intravenously injected gamithromycin was tolerated without any adverse drug reactions. The protocols for treatment of equine pulmonary infections caused by Rhodococcus equi should be revised accordingly. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Hemodynamic effects of ropivacaine and levobupivacaine intravenous injection in swines Efeitos hemodinâmicos da injeção endovenosa de ropivacaína e levobupivacaína em suínos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Udelsmann

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare the hemodynamic effects following a toxic dose of either agent after intravenous injection in swines, as might accidentally occur during regional anesthesia in humans. METHODS: Large White pigs were anesthetized with thiopental, tracheal intubation was performed and mechanical ventilation was instituted. Hemodynamic variables were recorded with invasive pressure monitoring and pulmonary artery catheterization. After a 30-minute resting period, the animals were randomly divided into two groups in a double-blinded fashion and received a bolus intravenous injection of 4 mg.kg-1 of either agent. Hemodynamic results were evaluated at rest and 1, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 minutes after intoxication. RESULTS: Hemodynamic repressions of acute intoxication with levobupivacaine were more important and more prolonged than those of ropivacaína. CONCLUSION: In pigs, levobupivacaine was shown to be more toxic than ropivacaine when the same large doses are injected intravenously.OBJETIVO: Comparar as repercussões hemodinâmicas após a injeção endovenosa dos dois agentes em suínos simulando a intoxicação que pode ocorrer durante uma anestesia locorregional em humanos. MÉTODOS: Suínos da raça Large-White foram anestesiados com tiopental, realizada intubação traqueal e instituída ventilação controlada mecânica. As variáveis hemodinâmicas foram medidas através de monitorização invasiva da pressão arterial e cateterização de artéria pulmonar. Após período de repouso de 30 minutos os animais foram aleatoriamente e em duplo-cego divididos em dois grupos e receberam por via endovenosa 4 mg.kg-1 de um ou outro agente. Os resultados hemodinâmicos foram avaliados em repouso e 1, 5, 10, 15, 20 e 30 minutos após a intoxicação. RESULTADOS: As repercussões hemodinâmicas da intoxicação aguda com levobupivacaína foram mais importantes e mais prolongadas do que as com ropivacaína. CONCLUSÃO: Em suínos, a levobupivaca

  5. The analysis of scaling mechanism for water-injection pipe columns in the Daqing Oilfield

    OpenAIRE

    Guolin Jing; Shan Tang; Xiaoxiao Li; Huaiyuan Wang

    2017-01-01

    Although water-injection in mature reservoirs is a promising low-cost method of enhanced oil recovery (EOR), in the process of development in the oilfield, scale has been produced in water-injection pipe columns. The ability to prevent and control the deposition of scale is critical to the efficient recovery of crude oil from hard environments, as part of the broader discipline of “flow assurance” in the petroleum industry. To this end laboratory-scale deposition tests have been useful to und...

  6. Can Water-Injected Turbomachines Provide Cost-Effective Emissions and Maintenance Reductions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Daggett, David L.; Shouse, Dale T.; Roquemore, William M.; Brankovic, Andreja; Ryder, Robert C., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    An investigation has been performed to evaluate the effect of water injection on the performance of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB)) experimental trapped vortex combustor (TVC) over a range of fuel-to-air and water-to-fuel ratios. Performance is characterized by combustor exit quantities: temperature and emissions measurements using rakes, and overall pressure drop, from upstream plenum to combustor exit. Combustor visualization is performed using gray-scale and color still photographs and high-frame-rate videos. A parallel investigation evaluated the performance of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool for the prediction of the reacting flow in a liquid fueled combustor (e.g., TVC) that uses water injection for control of pollutant emissions and turbine inlet temperature. Generally, reasonable agreement is found between data and NO(x) computations. Based on a study assessing the feasibility and performance impact of using water injection on a Boeing 747-400 aircraft to reduce NO(x) emissions during takeoff, retrofitting does not appear to be cost effective; however, an operator of a newly designed engine and airframe might be able to save up to 1.0 percent in operating costs. Other challenges of water injection will be discussed.

  7. Effect of intake manifold water injection on a natural gas spark ignition engine: an experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruga, H.; Scholl, F.; Kettner, M.; Amad, O. I.; Klaissle, M.; Giménez, B.

    2017-10-01

    Design and development of gas CHP (combined heat and power) engines are strongly influenced by the progressively more severe European NOx emissions normative. Water injection represents a promising approach to reduce these emissions while attaining high engine efficiency. In this work, the effect of intake manifold water injection on combustion parameters and performance of a single-cylinder naturally aspirated natural gas spark ignition engine is presented. First, the most appropriate injector was selected, using a spray test bed. Subsequently, engine experiments at constant indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) and engine speed were conducted with water-fuel ratios of 0.1 to 0.3. IMEP was kept constant at about 6.3 bar by adjusting both air-fuel ratio and spark timing. A NOx reduction of 0.2 g/kWhi (15 %) for a constant ISFC of about 204 g/kWhi was achieved. In the low NOx regime, water injection allows for an improvement of the NOx-ISFC trade-off, while leading to poor fuel consumption at same NOx in the high efficiency regime. Furthermore, water injection implies a reduction of intake mixture temperature, lengthened burning delay and combustion duration and a moderate increase of combustion instability.

  8. Direct injection of water vapor into the stratosphere by volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sioris, Christopher E.; Malo, Alain; McLinden, Chris A.; D'Amours, Real

    2016-07-01

    While theoretical studies show that water vapor (WV) can be directly injected into the stratosphere during a volcanic eruption, few observations of such a phenomenon exist. The Microwave Limb Sounder observed stratospheric injection of WV following the 2015 Calbuco eruption. Lower stratospheric mixing ratios exceeded 10 ppmv for a few days downwind of the injection location. Plume transport is confirmed by back trajectory modeling. Due to the short duration and limited spatial extent of the enhancement, climatic impact is expected to be negligible. This letter provides spatiotemporal analysis of a volcanogenic pulse of lower stratospheric WV as it dispersed. The inferred mass of stratospheric WV from this eruption of 2 megaton (Mt) and the rapid evanescence of the enhancement are similar to what has been observed for other eruptions, suggesting that injection by moderately explosive eruptions is not an effective mechanism for large-scale stratospheric hydration.

  9. Teduglutide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who need additional nutrition or fluids from intravenous (IV) therapy. Teduglutide injection is in a class of medications ... of the ingredients.tell your doctor and pharmacist what other prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking ...

  10. Geochemical tracers for monitoring fluid mixing during a CO2-water injection field test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, J. R.; Vu, H. P.; Haese, R. R.

    2015-12-01

    A series of injection-withdrawl (push-pull) well tests were conducted at the Otway CO2CRC field site using the CRC-2 well to determine the impact of injecting impurities (54 ppm SO2, 9 ppm NO2, 1100 ppm N2 and 6150 ppm O2) with a CO2 stream on mineral dissolution/precipitation processes in a siliciclastic reservoir. Four geochemical tracers were added to the injection waters of two sequential tests to monitor for any fluid mixing in the reservoir during the tests. Bromide and strontium were added as tracers to the injection water of test 1, and fluoresceine and lithium were added as tracers to the injection water of test 2. Injection waters in both tests were allowed to soak in the reservoir before they were back-produced to monitor for any water-rock interactions that took place. The results suggest mixing of injection and in situ formation waters as well as reactivity of some of the tracers. Bromide behaves as an inert tracer and the concentration decreases by 6 and 15% after 11 and 21 days of soaking, respectively, suggesting minor fluid mixing in the reservoir. Fluorescein drops by about 50% after two days of soaking, which may be due to adsorption onto minerals under acidic conditions. Strontium and lithium concentrations decrease over time in excess to the bromide concentration decrease, this may indicate the precipitation of Sr and Li bearing mineral phases that are calculated to be supersaturated with respect to the composition of back-produced waters. The decrease in bromide tracer concentration over time can be explained by preferential flow paths and hydrodynamic mixing during the soak period. Importantly, ideal tracer behavior was observed during a subsequent experiment where water was continuously back-produced. Our results show that typical (shallow) groundwater tracers need to be applied with caution when studying the hydrodynamics in a CO2 storage reservoir. Further geochemical and hydrodynamic modelling is underway to fully explain our observations.

  11. Flow velocity effect on the corrosion/erosion in water injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, C.; Mendez, J.

    1998-01-01

    The main causes of fails at water injection lines on the secondary petroleum recovery systems are related with corrosion/erosion problems which are influenced by the flow velocity, the presence of dissolved oxygen, solids in the medium and the microorganisms proliferation. So too, this corrosion process promotes the suspended solids generation which affects the water quality injected, causing wells tamponage and loss of injectivity, with the consequent decrease in the crude production. This situation has been impacted in meaning order at the production processes of an exploration enterprise which utilizes the Maracaibo lake as water resource for their injection by pattern projects. Stating that, it was developed a study for determining in experimental order the effect of flow velocity on the corrosion/erosion process joined to the presence of dissolved oxygen which allows to determine the optimum range of the said working velocity for the water injection systems. This range is defined by critical velocities of bio layers deposition and erosion. They were realized simulation pilot tests of the corrosion standard variables, concentration of dissolved oxygen and fluid velocity in the injection systems with filtered and non filtered water. For the development of these tests it was constructed a device which allows to install and expose cylindrical manometers of carbon steel according to predetermined conditions which was obtained the necessary information to make correlations the results of these variables. Additionally, they were determined the mathematical models that adjusts to dynamical behavior of the corrosion/erosion process, finding the optimum range of the flow velocity for the control of this process, being necessary to utilize the following techniques: Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray dispersion analysis (EDX) for encourage the surface studies. They were effected morphological analysis of the surfaces studies and the values were determined of

  12. Influence of water sorption on mechanical properties of injection-molded thermoplastic denture base resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamanaka, Ippei; Iwamoto, Misa; Lassila, Lippo; Vallittu, Pekka; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Yutaka

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the influence of water sorption on certain mechanical properties of injection-molded thermoplastic denture base resins. Six thermoplastic resins (two polyamides, two polyesters, one polycarbonate, one polymethylmethacrylate) and a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) conventional heat-polymerized denture-based polymer, selected as a control, were tested. Specimens of each denture base material were fabricated according to ISO 1567 specifications and were either dry or water-immersed for 30 days (n = 10). The ultimate flexural strength, the flexural strength at the proportional limit and the elastic modulus of the denture base materials were calculated. Water sorption significantly decreased the ultimate flexural strength, the flexural strength at the proportional limit and the elastic modulus of one of the polyamides and the PMMAs. It also significantly increased the ultimate flexural strength of the polycarbonate. The mechanical properties of some injection-molded thermoplastic denture base resins changed after water sorption.

  13. Assessment of electrical conductivity as a surrogate measurement for water samples in a tracer injection experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The transport behavior of solutes in streams depends on chemical, physical, biological, and hydrodynamic processes. Although it is a very complex system, it is known that this behavior is greatly influenced by surface and subsurface flows. For this reason, tracer injection in the water flows is one ...

  14. Is There Evidence of Convectively Injected Water Vapor in the Lowermost Stratosphere Over Boulder, Colorado?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, D. F.; Rosenlof, K. H.; Davis, S. M.; Hall, E. G.; Jordan, A. F.

    2014-12-01

    Anderson et al. (2012) reported the frequent presence of convectively injected water vapor in the lowermost stratosphere over North America during summertime, based on aircraft measurements. They asserted that enhanced catalytic ozone destruction within these wet stratospheric air parcels presents a concern for UV dosages in populated areas, especially if the frequency of deep convective events increases. Schwartz et al.(2013) analyzed 8 years of more widespread Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) measurements of lower stratospheric water vapor over North America and concluded that anomalously wet (>8 ppm) air parcels were present only 2.5% of the time during July and August. However, given the 3-km vertical resolution of MLS water vapor retrievals in the lowermost stratosphere, thin wet layers deposited by overshooting convection may be present but not readily detectable by MLS. Since 1980 the balloon-borne NOAA frost point hygrometer (FPH) has produced nearly 400 high quality water vapor profiles over Boulder, Colorado, at 5-m vertical resolution from the surface to the middle stratosphere. The 34-year record of high-resolution FPH profiles obtained over Boulder during summer months is evaluated for evidence of convectively injected water vapor in the lowermost stratosphere. A number of approaches are used to assess the contributions of deep convection to the Boulder stratospheric water vapor record. The results are compared to those based on MLS profiles over Boulder and the differences are discussed. Anderson, J. G., D. M. Wilmouth, J. B. Smith, and D. S. Sayres (2012), UV dosage levels in summer: Increased risk of ozone loss from convectively injected water vapor, Science, 337(6096), 835-839, doi:10.1126/science.1222978. Schwartz, M. J., W. G. Read, M. L. Santee, N. J. Livesey, L. Froidevaux, A. Lambert, and G. L. Manney (2013), Convectively injected water vapor in the North American summer lowermost stratosphere, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 2316-2321, doi:10

  15. Injection and Combustion of RME with Water Emulsions in a Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cisek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents ways of using the fully-digitised triggerable AVL VideoScope 513D video system for analysing the injection and combustion inside a diesel engine cylinder fuelled by RME with water emulsions.The research objects were: standard diesel fuel, rapeseed methyl ester (RME and RME – water emulsions. With the aid of a helical flow reactor, stable emulsions with the water fraction up to 30 % weight were obtained, using an additive to prevent the water from separating out of the emulsion.An investigation was made of the effect of the emulsions on exhaust gas emissions (NOX, CO and HC, particulate matter emissions, smoke and the fuel consumption of a one-cylinder HD diesel engine with direct injection. Additionally, the maximum cylinder pressure rise was calculated from the indicator diagram. The test engine was operated at a constant speed of 1 600 rpm and 4 bar BMEP load conditions. The fuel injection and combustion processes were observed and analysed using endoscopes and a digital camera. The temperature distribution in the combustion chamber was analysed quantitatively using the two-colour method. The injection and combustion phenomena were described and compared.A way to reduce NOX formation in the combustion chamber of diesel engines by adding water in the combustion zone was presented. Evaporating water efficiently lowers the peak flame temperature and the temperature in the post-flame zone. For diesel engines, there is an exponential relationship between NOX emissions and peak combustion temperatures. The energy needed to vaporize the water results in lower peak temperatures of the combusted gases, with a consequent reduction in nitrogen oxide formation. The experimental results show up to 50 % NOX emission reduction with the use of 30% water in an RME emulsion, with unchanged engine performance.

  16. An Energy Analysis on Gasification of Sewage Sludge by a Direct Injection in Supercritical Water

    OpenAIRE

    Yukananto, Riza; Louwes, Alexander Charnchai; Bramer, Eduard A.; Brem, Gerrit

    2017-01-01

    Supercritical Water Gasification is an efficient technology in converting wet biomass into H2 and CH4 in comparison to other conventional thermochemical processes. Coke deposition, however, remains as a major challenge in this technology. Coke formation is the result of polymerization reactions that take place at sub-critical conditions. Directly injecting the relatively unheated wet biomass feed into supercritical water increases the heating rate and reduces the residence time of the feed in...

  17. Intravenous (4) Fluidmaker 4. A Disposable Device for Preparation of Sterile Water for Injection in a Field Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    8217 . • .,, . ¶ ,& + , "" + +’ " •fl ’ Z Unclassified SECURITY CLASIFICATION Or *--5 PAGE REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 01W8 No 0704-0188 Is REPORT SECU.RITY C..ASSiF CATION...filter cartridges, type RS1-SG (lot number 2765), and stainless steel cartridge housing (serial no. 098430) were acquired from General Ecology...Lionville, PA. The housing, with added stainless steel tubing fittings, weighed 725 g; each filter cartridge had a dry weight of 480 g. FINE PARTICLE FILTERS

  18. Evaluation the short term effects on serum creatinine concentration in patients with normal renal function, mild and moderate renal insufficiency after intravenous injection of gadopentetate dimeglumine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Jian; Liu Jing; Wang Xiaoying; Yang Xuedong; Jiang Xuexiang

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effects of gadopentetate dimeglumine injection on renal function. Methods: The study included 623 consecutive patients. Their serum creatinine concentrations before and within 3 days after injection of gadopentetate dimeglumine were analyzed. Their eGFR (estimated glomerular filtration rate) were calculated. Patients were divided into two groups according to their injection dose: group received single dose and group received double dose. Patients in each group were subdivided into three subgroups according to their eGFR: subgroup of normal renal function, subgroup of mild renal insufficiency and subgroup of moderate renal insufficiency. Paried sample t test and group design paired sample Rank Sum test were used for statistical analysis. Results: There was no adverse reaction or occurrence of acute renal insufficiency. The mean level of serum creatinine dropped from (74.0± 17.2) μmol/L to (71.5±19.0) μmol/L (t=5.39, P 0.05) in subgroup of mild renal insufficiency under group received double dose and increased from (118.3±15.3) μmol/L to (135.7±8.5) μmol/L (t=2.02, P<0.05) in subgroup of moderate renal insufficiency under group received double dose, the mean level of serum creatinine dropped in all other subgroups. Conclusions: Single dose gadopentetate dimeglumine is safe for patients with normal renal function and mild, moderate renal insufficiency in short term, but patients with abnormal renal function should be followed up after double dose injection. (authors)

  19. Irradiation Sterilized Gelatin-Water-Glycerol Ternary Gel as an Injectable Carrier for Bone Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yantao; Han, Liwei; Yan, Jun; Li, Zhonghai; Wang, Fuli; Xia, Yang; Hou, Shuxun; Zhong, Hongbin; Zhang, Feimin; Gu, Ning

    2017-01-01

    Injectable gelatin gels offer an attractive option for filling bone defects. The challenge is to fabricate gelatin gels with optimal gelation properties, which can be irradiation sterilized. Here, a gelatin-water-glycerol (GWG) gel is reported for use as a broad-spectrum injectable carrier. This ternary gel is high in glycerol and low in water, and remains stable after gamma irradiation at doses (25 kGy). As an injectable gel, it remains a viscous solution at gelatin concentrations ≤2.0%, at room temperature. Its storage modulus increases dramatically and eventually exceeds the loss modulus around 46-50 °C, indicating a transition from a liquid-like state to an elastic gel-like state. This ternary gel ranges significantly in terms of storage modulus (12-1700 Pa) while demonstrating a narrow pH range (5.58-5.66), depending on the gelatin concentration. Therefore, it can be loaded with a variety of materials. It is highly cytocompatible compared with saline in vivo and culture media in vitro. When loaded with demineralized bone matrix, the composites show favorable injectability, and excellent osteogenesis performance, after irradiation. These features can be attributed to high hydrophilicity and fast degradability. These findings justify that this ternary gel is promising as an irradiation-sterilized and universal injectable delivery system. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Performance of single cylinder, direct injection Diesel engine using water fuel emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Zaid, M.

    2004-01-01

    A single cylinder Diesel engine study of water-in-Diesel emulsions was conducted to investigate the effect of water emulsification on the engine performance and gases exhaust temperature. Emulsified Diesel fuels of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 water/Diesel ratios by volume, were used in a single cylinder, direct injection Diesel engine, operating at 1200-3300 rpm. The results indicate that the addition of water in the form of emulsion improves combustion efficiency. The engine torque, power and brake thermal efficiency increase as the water percentage in the emulsion increases. The average increase in the brake thermal efficiency for 20% water emulsion is approximately 3.5% over the use of Diesel for the engine speed range studied. The proper brake specific fuel consumption and gases exhaust temperature decrease as the percentage of water in the emulsion increases

  1. Accident tolerant high-pressure helium injection system concept for light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massey, Caleb; Miller, James; Vasudevamurthy, Gokul

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Potential helium injection strategy is proposed for LWR accident scenarios. • Multiple injection sites are proposed for current LWR designs. • Proof-of-concept experimentation illustrates potential helium injection benefits. • Computational studies show an increase in pressure vessel blowdown time. • Current LOCA codes have the capability to include helium for feasibility calculations. - Abstract: While the design of advanced accident-tolerant fuels and structural materials continues to remain the primary focus of much research and development pertaining to the integrity of nuclear systems, there is a need for a more immediate, simple, and practical improvement in the severe accident response of current emergency core cooling systems. Current blowdown and reflood methodologies under accident conditions still allow peak cladding temperatures to approach design limits and detrimentally affect the integrity of core components. A high-pressure helium injection concept is presented to enhance accident tolerance by increasing operator response time while maintaining lower peak cladding temperatures under design basis and beyond design basis scenarios. Multiple injection sites are proposed that can be adapted to current light water reactor designs to minimize the need for new infrastructure, and concept feasibility has been investigated through a combination of proof-of-concept experimentation and computational modeling. Proof-of-concept experiments show promising cooling potential using a high-pressure helium injection concept, while the developed choked-flow model shows core depressurization changes with added helium injection. Though the high-pressure helium injection concept shows promise, future research into the evaluation of system feasibility and economics are needed.Classification: L. Safety and risk analysis

  2. Assessment of nitrification potential in ground water using short term, single-well injection experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R L; Baumgartner, L K; Miller, D N; Repert, D A; Böhlke, J K

    2006-01-01

    Nitrification was measured within a sand and gravel aquifer on Cape Cod, MA, using a series of single-well injection tests. The aquifer contained a wastewater-derived contaminant plume, the core of which was anoxic and contained ammonium. The study was conducted near the downgradient end of the ammonium zone, which was characterized by inversely trending vertical gradients of oxygen (270 to 0 microM) and ammonium (19 to 625 microM) and appeared to be a potentially active zone for nitrification. The tests were conducted by injecting a tracer solution (ambient ground water + added constituents) into selected locations within the gradients using multilevel samplers. After injection, the tracers moved by natural ground water flow and were sampled with time from the injection port. Rates of nitrification were determined from changes in nitrate and nitrite concentration relative to bromide. Initial tests were conducted with (15)N-enriched ammonium; subsequent tests examined the effect of adding ammonium, nitrite, or oxygen above background concentrations and of adding difluoromethane, a nitrification inhibitor. In situ net nitrate production exceeded net nitrite production by 3- to 6- fold and production rates of both decreased in the presence of difluoromethane. Nitrification rates were 0.02-0.28 mumol (L aquifer)(-1) h(-1) with in situ oxygen concentrations and up to 0.81 mumol (L aquifer)(-1) h(-1) with non-limiting substrate concentrations. Geochemical considerations indicate that the rates derived from single-well injection tests yielded overestimates of in situ rates, possibly because the injections promoted small-scale mixing within a transport-limited reaction zone. Nonetheless, these tests were useful for characterizing ground water nitrification in situ and for comparing potential rates of activity when the tracer cloud included non-limiting ammonium and oxygen concentrations.

  3. Assessment of nitrification potential in ground water using short term, single-well injection experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R.L.; Baumgartner, L.K.; Miller, D.N.; Repert, D.A.; Böhlke, J.K.

    2006-01-01

    Nitrification was measured within a sand and gravel aquifer on Cape Cod, MA, using a series of single-well injection tests. The aquifer contained a wastewater-derived contaminant plume, the core of which was anoxic and contained ammonium. The study was conducted near the downgradient end of the ammonium zone, which was characterized by inversely trending vertical gradients of oxygen (270 to 0 μM) and ammonium (19 to 625 μM) and appeared to be a potentially active zone for nitrification. The tests were conducted by injecting a tracer solution (ambient ground water + added constituents) into selected locations within the gradients using multilevel samplers. After injection, the tracers moved by natural ground water flow and were sampled with time from the injection port. Rates of nitrification were determined from changes in nitrate and nitrite concentration relative to bromide. Initial tests were conducted with 15N-enriched ammonium; subsequent tests examined the effect of adding ammonium, nitrite, or oxygen above background concentrations and of adding difluoromethane, a nitrification inhibitor. In situ net nitrate production exceeded net nitrite production by 3- to 6- fold and production rates of both decreased in the presence of difluoromethane. Nitrification rates were 0.02–0.28 μmol (L aquifer)−1 h−1 with in situ oxygen concentrations and up to 0.81 μmol (L aquifer)−1 h−1 with non-limiting substrate concentrations. Geochemical considerations indicate that the rates derived from single-well injection tests yielded overestimates of in situ rates, possibly because the injections promoted small-scale mixing within a transport-limited reaction zone. Nonetheless, these tests were useful for characterizing ground water nitrification in situ and for comparing potential rates of activity when the tracer cloud included non-limiting ammonium and oxygen concentrations.

  4. Comparative Evaluation of U.S. Brand and Generic Intravenous Sodium Ferric Gluconate Complex in Sucrose Injection: In Vitro Cellular Uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency anemia is a common clinical consequence for people who suffer from chronic kidney disease, especially those requiring dialysis. Intravenous (IV iron therapy is a widely accepted safe and efficacious treatment for iron deficiency anemia. Numerous IV iron drugs have been approved by U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA, including a single generic product, sodium ferric gluconate complex in sucrose. In this study, we compared the cellular iron uptake profiles of the brand (Ferrlecit® and generic sodium ferric gluconate (SFG products. We used a colorimetric assay to examine the amount of iron uptake by three human macrophage cell lines. This is the first published study to provide a parallel evaluation of the cellular uptake of a brand and a generic IV iron drug in a mononuclear phagocyte system. The results showed no difference in iron uptake across all cell lines, tested doses, and time points. The matching iron uptake profiles of Ferrlecit® and its generic product support the FDA’s present position detailed in the draft guidance on development of SFG complex products that bioequivalence can be based on qualitative (Q1 and quantitative (Q2 formulation sameness, similar physiochemical characterization, and pharmacokinetic bioequivalence studies.

  5. Synthesis and evaluation of inhaled [11C]butane and intravenously injected [11C]acetone as potential radiotracers for studying inhalant abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerasimov, Madina R.; Ferrieri, Richard A.; Pareto, Deborah; Logan, Jean; Alexoff, David; Ding Yushin

    2005-01-01

    The phenomenon of inhalant abuse is a growing problem in the US and many countries around the world. Yet, relatively little is known about the pharmacokinetic properties of inhalants that underlie their abuse potential. While the synthesis of 11 C-labeled toluene, acetone and butane has been proposed in the literature, none of these compounds has been developed as radiotracers for PET studies. In the present report we extend our previous studies with [ 11 C]toluene to include [ 11 C]acetone and [ 11 C]butane with the goal of comparing the pharmacokinetic profiles of these three volatile abused substances. Both [ 11 C]toluene and [ 11 C]acetone were administered intravenously and [ 11 C]butane was administered via inhalation to anesthesized baboons. Rapid and efficient uptake of radiolabeled toluene and acetone into the brain was followed by fast clearance in the case of toluene and slower kinetics in the case of acetone. [ 11 C]Butane was detected in the blood and brain following inhalation, but the levels of radioactivity in both tissues dropped to half of the maximal values over the period of less than a minute. To our knowledge, this is the first reported study of the in vivo brain pharmacokinetics of labeled acetone and butane in nonhuman primates. These data provide insight into the pharmacokinetic features possibly associated with the abuse liability of toluene, acetone and butane

  6. The use of chemical tracers to water injection processes applied on Romanian reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zecheru M.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The hydrocarbon reservoirs are extremely complex, each reservoir having its own identity. Reservoirs heterogeneity (mainly regarding the layered ones frequently results in low recovery efficiencies, both under the primary regime and when different agents are injected from the surface. EOR processes efficiency depends on how detailed the reservoir is known and on the information related to fluids flow through reservoir. There are certain analyzes, investigations and tests providing good knowledge about the reservoir. The tracer tests are among them, being frequently used to water injection processes. Depending on the method used, IWTT (Interwell tracer test, SWTT (Single-Well Tracer Test, TWTT (Two-Well Tracer Test, information are obtained as related to: the setting of the preferential flow path of the injected fluid, the identification of water channels, evidencing the geological barriers, determining the residual oil saturation, around the well bore or along the tracer's path between two wells. This paper is focused on ICPT Câmpina efforts related to the use of the chemical tracers to the water injection processes applied to the oil reservoirs of Romania. It describes the usual tracers and the methods used to detect them in the reaction wells. Up to now, more than 50 tests with IWTT tracers have been performed on-site and this work presents some of their results.

  7. Immunomodulatory treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin and prednisone in patients with recurrent miscarriage and implantation failure after in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyborg, Kathinka Marie; Kolte, Astrid Marie; Larsen, Elisabeth Clare

    2014-01-01

    . SETTING: Tertiary care university hospital. PATIENT(S): Fifty-two patients with a history of at least three consecutive pregnancy losses after ART who underwent at least one further ART cycle with concurrent immunomodulation in 2003-2012. INTERVENTION(S): Immunomodulation with IV immunoglobulin......OBJECTIVE: To assess outcome in terms of live-birth rate after fresh or frozen IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles where immunomodulation was given to patients with recurrent pregnancy loss after prior ART treatments. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study...

  8. Study of the Effect of Clay Particles on Low Salinity Water Injection in Sandstone Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Rezaei Gomari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The need for optimal recovery of crude oil from sandstone and carbonate reservoirs around the world has never been greater for the petroleum industry. Water-flooding has been applied to the supplement primary depletion process or as a separate secondary recovery method. Low salinity water injection is a relatively new method that involves injecting low salinity brines at high pressure similar to conventional water-flooding techniques, in order to recover crude oil. The effectiveness of low salinity water injection in sandstone reservoirs depends on a number of parameters such as reservoir temperature, pressure, type of clay particle and salinity of injected brine. Clay particles present on reservoir rock surfaces adsorb polar components of oil and modify wettability of sandstone rocks to the oil-wet state, which is accountable for the reduced recovery rates by conventional water-flooding. The extent of wettability alteration caused by three low salinity brines on oil-wet sandstone samples containing varying clay content (15% or 30% and type of clay (kaolinite/montmorillonite were analyzed in the laboratory experiment. Contact angles of mica powder and clay mixture (kaolinite/montmorillonite modified with crude oil were measured before and after injection with three low salinity sodium chloride brines. The effect of temperature was also analyzed for each sample. The results of the experiment indicate that samples with kaolinite clay tend to produce higher contact angles than samples with montmorillonite clay when modified with crude oil. The highest degree or extent of wettability alteration from oil-wet to intermediate-wet state upon injection with low salinity brines was observed for samples injected with brine having salinity concentration of 2000 ppm. The increase in temperature tends to produce contact angles values lying in the higher end of the intermediate-wet range (75°–115° for samples treated at 50 °C, while their corresponding

  9. Semi-quantification of endolymphatic size on MR imaging after intravenous injection of single-dose gadodiamide: comparison between two types of processing strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganawa, Shinji; Suzuki, Kojiro; Nakamichi, Rei; Bokura, Kiminori; Yoshida, Tadao; Sone, Michihiko; Homann, Georg; Nakashima, Tsutomu; Ikeda, Mitsuru

    2013-12-25

    Many inner ear disorders, including Ménière's disease, are believed to be based on endolymphatic hydrops. We evaluated a newly proposed method for semi-quantification of endolymphatic size in patients with suspected endolymphatic hydrops that uses 2 kinds of processed magnetic resonance (MR) images. Twenty-four consecutive patients underwent heavily T2-weighted (hT2W) MR cisternography (MRC), hT2W 3-dimensional (3D) fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) with inversion time of 2250 ms (positive perilymph image, PPI), and hT2W-3D-IR with inversion time of 2050 ms (positive endolymph image, PEI) 4 hours after intravenous administration of single-dose gadolinium-based contrast material (IV-SD-GBCM). Two images were generated using 2 new methods to process PPI, PEI, and MRC. Three radiologists contoured the cochlea and vestibule on MRC, copied regions of interest (ROIs) onto the 2 kinds of generated images, and semi-quantitatively measured the size of the endolymph for the cochlea and vestibule by setting a threshold pixel value. Each observer noted a strong linear correlation between endolymphatic size of both the cochlea and vestibule of the 2 kinds of generated images. The Pearson correlation coefficients (r) were 0.783, 0.734, and 0.800 in the cochlea and 0.924, 0.930, and 0.933 in the vestibule (P<0.001, for all). In both the cochlea and vestibule, repeated-measures analysis of variance showed no statistically significant difference between observers. Use of the 2 kinds of generated images generated from MR images obtained 4 hours after IV-SD-GBCM might enable semi-quantification of endolymphatic size with little observer dependency.

  10. Time Effect of Water Injection on the Mechanical Properties of Coal and Its Application in Rockburst Prevention in Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofei Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Coal seam water injection is widely used to prevent rockbursts in coal mines, and the duration of water injection is an important parameter related to the effectiveness of rockburst prevention, making it of practical importance to optimize the effective water injection duration. This paper presents the test results of the mechanical properties and pore structure of samples with different soaking time, obtained from a working face where rockburst occurred. Soaking time changes the mechanical properties of samples, and this time effect differs with the coal size (from centimeter to nanometer size. Results of numerical simulation and on-site tests in the Changgouyu coal mine demonstrated that water injection can effectively soften coal bodies and release or transfer stresses, and the time effect of water injection on rock prevention and control is apparent.

  11. Zinc injection on the EDF pressurized light water reactors. Current results and operating experience feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piana, Olivier; Duval, Arnaud; Moleiro, Edgar; Benfarah, Moez; Bretelle, Jean-Luc; Chaigne, Guy

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, zinc injection, as well as pH management and hydrogen control, is increasingly considered as an essential element of PWR Primary Water Chemistry worldwide. After a first implementation of zinc injection at Bugey 2 since 2004 and Bugey 4 since 2006, EDF decided to extend this practice, which constitutes a modification of primary circuit chemical conditioning, to other units of its fleet. Currently, 15 among the 58 reactors of the French fleet are injecting depleted zinc acetate into the primary coolant water. Three main goals were identified at the beginning of this program. Indeed, the expected benefits of zinc injection were: Reduction of the rate of generalized corrosion and mitigation of stress corrosion cracking initiation on nickel based alloys (Material goal). Curative or preventive reduction of radiation sources to which workers are exposed (Radiation fields' goal). Mitigation of the AOA or CIPS risks by reduction of corrosion products releases and mitigation of crud deposition (Fuel protection goal). To monitor the zinc addition, EDF has defined a complete survey program concerning: chemistry and radiochemistry responses (primary coolant monitoring of corrosion and fission products and calculation of zinc injected, zinc removed and zinc incorporated in RCS surfaces) ; radiation fields (dose rates and deposited activities measurements) ; materials (statistical analysis of SG tube cracks) ; fuel (oxide thickness measurements and visual exams) ; effluents (corrosion products releases and isotopic distribution follow up) ; wastes (radiochemical characterization of filters). This paper will detail the present results of this monitoring program. It appears that the expected benefits of zinc injection have yet to be fully realized; further operating experience will be required in order to fully evaluate its impact. (author)

  12. Chaotic behavior of water column oscillator simulating pressure balanced injection system in passive safety reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, Y.; Madarame, H.; Okamoto, K.

    2001-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) proposed a passive safety reactor called the System-integrated Pressurized Water Reactor (SPWR). In a loss of coolant accident, the Pressurizing Line (PL) and the Injection Line (IL) are passively opened. Vapor generated by residual heat pushes down the water level in the Reactor Vessel (RV). When the level is lower than the inlet of the PL, the vapor is ejected into the Containment Vessel (CV) through the PL. Then boronized water in the CV is injected into the RV through the IL by the static head. In an experiment using a simple apparatus, gas ejection and water injection were found to occur alternately under certain conditions. The gas ejection interval was observed to fluctuate considerably. Though stochastic noise affected the interval, the experimental results suggested that the large fluctuation was produced by an inherent character in the system. A set of piecewise linear differential equations was derived to describe the experimental result. The large fluctuation was reproduced in the analytical solution. Thus it was shown to occur even in a deterministic system without any source of stochastic noise. Though the derived equations simulated the experiment well, they had ten independent parameters governing the behavior of the solution. There appeared chaotic features and bifurcation, but the analytical model was too complicated to examine the features and mechanism of bifurcation. In this study, a new simple model is proposed which consists of a set of piecewise linear ordinary differential equations with only four independent parameters. (authors)

  13. Evaluation of an accident management strategy of emergency water injection using fire engines in a typical pressurized water reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Yong Park

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Following the Fukushima accident, a special safety inspection was conducted in Korea. The inspection results show that Korean nuclear power plants have no imminent risk for expected maximum potential earthquake or coastal flooding. However long- and short-term safety improvements do need to be implemented. One of the measures to increase the mitigation capability during a prolonged station blackout (SBO accident is installing injection flow paths to provide emergency cooling water of external sources using fire engines to the steam generators or reactor cooling systems. This paper illustrates an evaluation of the effectiveness of external cooling water injection strategies using fire trucks during a potential extended SBO accident in a 1,000 MWe pressurized water reactor. With regard to the effectiveness of external cooling water injection strategies using fire engines, the strategies are judged to be very feasible for a long-term SBO, but are not likely to be effective for a short-term SBO.

  14. Comparison of clinical applications of single-dose intravenous injection of mivacurium and cisatracurium in adults’ vocalcordpolyps resection under self-retaining laryngoscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Fanglei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Through comparing the clinical observation of mivacurium and cisatracurium in vocal polyp extraction, to study the advantage of mivacurium in vocal polyp extraction. Methods: Forty American Society of Anesthesiologists(ASA physical status I~II patients for vocal polyp extraction, aged 18~60 years old, were randomly divided into two groups as Mivacurium injection group(Group M and Cis-atracurium injection group(Group C, each group includes 20 subjects. None of the patients are allergic, has serious diseases of cardiovascular system, liver or kidney.None of them has asthma, airway high response, difficult airway or neuromuscular diseases.Those patients who use beta-blockers or calcium channel blockers for a long time were excluded .All the subjects had the same premedication, fasting and fluid fobidden time. All the subjects who get into the operating room get the routine monitoring of electrocardiogram(EEG, blood pressure(BP, heart rate(HR, pulse oxygen saturation(SpO2 and the TOF WATCH SX. Each group gives the same medicine other than the muscle relaxant during induction of general anesthesia to do the vocal polyp extraction by the same experienced operator. Two groups were recorded in each index of anesthesia induction and tracheal intubation conditions, operation conditions, anesthesia, muscle relaxation monitoring. Results: There are no statistically significant in Cormack-Lehane grading system,Cooper’s grading system and operation satifaction(p>0.05. 2. Group A have shorter intubation time than Group B(p0.05. Conclusion: 1. A single intubating dose of mivacurium can provide similar intubation and surgeon satisfaction for the vocal polyp extraction. 2. Compared with cis-atracurium, mivacurium can shorten the intubation time and the recovery time of anesthesia. The adverse reactions of mivacurium is mild, and it has less Residual muscle relaxation. Therefore mivacurium is more suitable for the vocal polyp extraction than cis-atracurium.

  15. Control of carbon deposition in the free space of coke oven chamber by injecting atomized water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, T.; Kudo, T.; Kamada, Y.; Suzuki, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Komaki, K. [Nippon Steel Corp. Ltd., Chiba (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    The method of the atomized water injection into the free space of coke oven chamber was studied to decrease the carbon deposits by controlling the atmospheric temperature. After the preliminary examinations, three injection lances were installed among four charging holes of an actual coke oven chamber. When the 1.7 kmol/h of water per lance was injected into the free space, the temperature decreased from 1210 to 1160 K and the carbon formation rate was decreased by 70 % (average in an oven length direction, respectively). A long-term (about two months) injection test showed that the remarkable decreases of the frequency of the manual decarbonization operation held on the oven top and the incidence of the blockage of the standpipe. It was estimated that the decrease of the carbon deposits was brought not only by the depression of the pyrolysis reaction, but also by the dilution of the carbonization gas and the reduction of the carry-over of fines.

  16. Investigation of Amourphous Deposits and Potential Corrosion Mechanisms in Offshore Water Injection Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eroini, Violette; Oehler, Mike Christian; Graver, Britt Kathrine

    2017-01-01

    Increasing incidence of amorphous deposits in both production and water injection systems has caused considerable problems for offshore oil fields. Amorphous deposits, which are a widely recognized, but often poorly explained phenomenon, are typically comprised of both organic (biological...... and assisting in prevention or remediation. It is proposed that the deposit formation, observed in offshore water injection systems treated with nitrate, is initiated by formation of a nitrate reducing biofilm promoting under deposit corrosion by activity of sulphate reducing and methanogenic prokaryotes...... and sometimes inappropriate treatment. Initial work, undertaken to classify the different substances encountered, has been previously reported.1 Systematic analysis allowed the development of a classification matrix intending to describe similar material in terms of their major components. The objective...

  17. Coal-water slurry spray characteristics of an electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caton, J. A.; Payne, S. E.; Terracina, D. P.; Kihm, K. D.

    Experiments have been complete to characterize coal-water slurry sprays from a electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injection system of diesel engine. The sprays were injected into a pressurized chamber equipped with windows. High speed movies, fuel pressures and needle lifts were obtained as a function of time, orifice diameter, coal loading, gas density in the chamber, and accumulator fuel pressure. For the base conditions 50% (by mass) coal loading, 0.4 mm diameter nozzle hole, coal-water slurry pressure of 82 MPa (12,000 psi), and a chamber density of 25 kg/m(exp 3), the break-up time was 0.30 ms. An empirical correlation for both spray tip penetration and initial jet velocity was developed. For the conditions of this study, the spray tip penetration and initial jet velocity were 15% greater for coal-water slurry than for diesel fuel or water. Cone angles of the sprays were dependent on the operating conditions and fluid, as well as the time and locations of the measurement. The time-averaged cone angle for the base case conditions was 13.6 degrees. Results of this study and the correlation are specific to the tested coal-water slurry and are not general for other coal-water slurry fuels.

  18. The intravenous injection of oxidized LDL- or Apolipoprotein B100 – Coupled splenocytes promotes Th1 polarization in wildtype and Apolipoprotein E – Deficient mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinmetz, Martin, E-mail: martin.steinmetz@ukb.uni-bonn.de [INSERM, Unit 970, Paris Cardiovascular Research Center, 75015 Paris (France); Internal Medicine II, University Hospital Bonn, 53105 Bonn (Germany); Ponnuswamy, Padmapriya; Laurans, Ludivine; Esposito, Bruno; Tedgui, Alain [INSERM, Unit 970, Paris Cardiovascular Research Center, 75015 Paris (France); Mallat, Ziad [INSERM, Unit 970, Paris Cardiovascular Research Center, 75015 Paris (France); Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge, CB2 2QQ (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-14

    Background: Th1 responses in atherosclerosis are mainly associated with the aggravation of atherosclerotic plaques, whereas Th2 responses lead to a less pronounced disease in mouse models. The fixation of antigens on cells by means of ethylene carbodiimide (ECDI), and subsequent injection of these antigen-coupled splenocytes (Ag-SP) to induce tolerance against the attached antigens, has been successfully used to treat murine type 1 diabetes or encephalomyelitis in. We analyzed this approach in a mouse model for atherosclerosis. Methods and results: OTII-transgenic mice that were treated with a single dose of 5 × 10{sup 7} OVA-coupled splenocytes (OVA-SP), had decreased splenocyte proliferation, and lower IFNγ production in vitro upon antigen recall. However, in vivo CD4 cell activation was increased. To try lipoprotein-derived, “atherosclerosis-associated” antigens, we first tested human oxidized LDL. In wild type mice, an increase of IFNγ production upon in vitro recall was detected in the oxLDL-SP group. In Apolipoprotein E − deficient (ApoE−/−) mice that received oxLDL-SP every 5 weeks for 20 weeks, we did not find any difference of atherosclerotic plaque burden, but again increased IFNγ production. To overcome xenogenous limitations, we then examined the effects of mouse Apolipoprotein B100 peptides P3 and P6. ApoB100-SP treatment again promoted a more IFNγ pronounced response upon in vitro recall. Flow cytometry analysis of cytokine secreting spleen cells revealed CD4 positive T cells to be mainly the source for IFNγ. In ApoE−/− mice that were administered ApoB100-SP during 20 weeks, the atherosclerotic plaque burden in aortic roots as well as total aorta was unchanged compared to PBS treated controls. Splenocyte proliferation upon antigen recall was not significantly altered in ApoB100-SP treated ApoE−/− mice. Conclusion: Although we did not observe a relevant anti-atherosclerotic benefit, the treatment with antigen

  19. The intravenous injection of oxidized LDL- or Apolipoprotein B100 – Coupled splenocytes promotes Th1 polarization in wildtype and Apolipoprotein E – Deficient mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinmetz, Martin; Ponnuswamy, Padmapriya; Laurans, Ludivine; Esposito, Bruno; Tedgui, Alain; Mallat, Ziad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Th1 responses in atherosclerosis are mainly associated with the aggravation of atherosclerotic plaques, whereas Th2 responses lead to a less pronounced disease in mouse models. The fixation of antigens on cells by means of ethylene carbodiimide (ECDI), and subsequent injection of these antigen-coupled splenocytes (Ag-SP) to induce tolerance against the attached antigens, has been successfully used to treat murine type 1 diabetes or encephalomyelitis in. We analyzed this approach in a mouse model for atherosclerosis. Methods and results: OTII-transgenic mice that were treated with a single dose of 5 × 10 7 OVA-coupled splenocytes (OVA-SP), had decreased splenocyte proliferation, and lower IFNγ production in vitro upon antigen recall. However, in vivo CD4 cell activation was increased. To try lipoprotein-derived, “atherosclerosis-associated” antigens, we first tested human oxidized LDL. In wild type mice, an increase of IFNγ production upon in vitro recall was detected in the oxLDL-SP group. In Apolipoprotein E − deficient (ApoE−/−) mice that received oxLDL-SP every 5 weeks for 20 weeks, we did not find any difference of atherosclerotic plaque burden, but again increased IFNγ production. To overcome xenogenous limitations, we then examined the effects of mouse Apolipoprotein B100 peptides P3 and P6. ApoB100-SP treatment again promoted a more IFNγ pronounced response upon in vitro recall. Flow cytometry analysis of cytokine secreting spleen cells revealed CD4 positive T cells to be mainly the source for IFNγ. In ApoE−/− mice that were administered ApoB100-SP during 20 weeks, the atherosclerotic plaque burden in aortic roots as well as total aorta was unchanged compared to PBS treated controls. Splenocyte proliferation upon antigen recall was not significantly altered in ApoB100-SP treated ApoE−/− mice. Conclusion: Although we did not observe a relevant anti-atherosclerotic benefit, the treatment with antigen

  20. A comparison of water-diesel emulsion and timed injection of water into the intake manifold of a diesel engine for simultaneous control of NO and smoke emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, K.A.

    2011-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to compare the effects of water-diesel emulsion and water injection into the intake manifold on performance, combustion and emission characteristics of a DI diesel engine under similar operating conditions. The water to diesel ratio for the emulsion was 0.4:1 by mass. The same water-diesel ratio was maintained for water injection method in order to assess both potential benefits. All tests were done at the constant speed of 1500 rpm at different outputs. The static injection timing of 23 o BTDC was kept as constant for all experimental tests. In the first phase, experiments were carried out to asses the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of the engine using the water-diesel emulsion. The emulsion was prepared using the surfactant of HLB:7. The emulsion was injected using the conventional injection system during the compression stroke. The second phase of work was that water was injected into the intake manifold of the engine using an auxiliary injector during the suction stroke. An electronic control unit (ECU) was developed to control the injector operation such as start of injection and water injection duration with respect to the desired crank angle. The experimental result indicates the both methods (emulsion and injection) could reduce NO emission drastically in diesel engines. At full load, NO emission decreased drastically from 1034 ppm with base diesel to 645 ppm with emulsion and 643 ppm with injection. But, NO emission reduction is lesser with injection than emulsion at part loads. Smoke emission is lower with the emulsion (2.7 BSU) than with water injection (3.2 BSU) as compared to base diesel (3.6 BSU). However, CO and HC levels were higher with emulsion than water injection. As regards NO and smoke reduction, the emulsion was superior to injection at all loads. Peak pressure, ignition delay and maximum rate of pressure rise were lesser with water injection as compared to the emulsion. It is well demonstrated

  1. Gas diffusion-flow injection determination of total inorganic carbon in water using tungsten oxide electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monser, L; Adhoum, N; Sadok, S

    2004-02-06

    A novel gas diffusion-flow injection method has been developed for the rapid and sensitive determination of total inorganic carbon (TIC) in water. The method is based on the diffusion of CO(2) across gas permeable membrane from a donor stream containing 0.1M HCl to an acceptor stream of sodium acetate (10(-5)moll(-1) and pH 10). The CO(2) trapped in the acceptor stream passes through an electrochemical flow cell contains a tungsten oxide wire and a silver/silver chloride electrode, where it was sensitively detected. The parameters affecting the sensitivity of the electrode such as buffer concentration, pH, flow rate and injected volume were studied in detail. The electrode response was linear in the concentration range from 5 to 100mugml(-1) CO(3)(2-) with a correlation coefficient (R(2)) of 0.998. Precision (R.S.D.) was 1.42% for 20mugml(-1) standard solution of CO(3)(2-) (n=10). The detection limit was 0.20mugml(-1) CO(3)(2-). The method was evaluated by the injection of real natural water samples and an average recovery of 100.1% was obtained. The sampling rate was 30 samplesh(-1). The method is simple, feasible with satisfactory accuracy and precision and thus could be used for monitoring TIC in water.

  2. The analysis of scaling mechanism for water-injection pipe columns in the Daqing Oilfield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guolin Jing

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Although water-injection in mature reservoirs is a promising low-cost method of enhanced oil recovery (EOR, in the process of development in the oilfield, scale has been produced in water-injection pipe columns. The ability to prevent and control the deposition of scale is critical to the efficient recovery of crude oil from hard environments, as part of the broader discipline of “flow assurance” in the petroleum industry. To this end laboratory-scale deposition tests have been useful to understand scale deposition mechanism. The process, mechanism and the main type of the scale in water-injection pipe columns of the fifth plant of the Daqing Oilfield were analyzed. The effect of temperature on the possibility of carbonate calcium formation on oil recovery was investigated experimentally. One of the scale samples was characterized by electron spectroscopy and the results of the element analysis were investigated. Moreover, the precautionary and control measures of scaling in oilfield pipe column systems are proposed.

  3. Exhaust gas heat recovery through secondary expansion cylinder and water injection in an internal combustion engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassiri Toosi Ali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To enhance thermal efficiency and increase performance of an internal combustion engine, a novel concept of coupling a conventional engine with a secondary 4-stroke cylinder and direct water injection process is proposed. The burned gases after working in a traditional 4-stroke combustion cylinder are transferred to a secondary cylinder and expanded even more. After re-compression of the exhaust gases, pre-heated water is injected at top dead center. The evaporation of injected water not only recovers heat from exhaust gases, but also increases the mass of working gas inside the cylinder, therefore improves the overall thermal efficiency. A 0-D/1-D model is used to numerically simulate the idea. The simulations outputs showed that the bottoming cycle will be more efficient at higher engines speeds, specifically in a supercharged/turbocharged engine, which have higher exhaust gas pressure that can reproduce more positive work. In the modeled supercharged engine, results showed that brake thermal efficiency can be improved by about 17%, and brake power by about 17.4%.

  4. Numerical investigation of CAI Combustion in the Opposed- Piston Engine with Direct and Indirect Water Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyszczek, R.; Mazuro, P.; Teodorczyk, A.

    2016-09-01

    This paper is focused on the CAI combustion control in a turbocharged 2-stroke Opposed-Piston (OP) engine. The barrel type OP engine arrangement is of particular interest for the authors because of its robust design, high mechanical efficiency and relatively easy incorporation of a Variable Compression Ratio (VCR). The other advantage of such design is that combustion chamber is formed between two moving pistons - there is no additional cylinder head to be cooled which directly results in an increased thermal efficiency. Furthermore, engine operation in a Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) mode at high compression ratios (CR) raises a possibility of reaching even higher efficiencies and very low emissions. In order to control CAI combustion such measures as VCR and water injection were considered for indirect ignition timing control. Numerical simulations of the scavenging and combustion processes were performed with the 3D CFD multipurpose AVL Fire solver. Numerous cases were calculated with different engine compression ratios and different amounts of directly and indirectly injected water. The influence of the VCR and water injection on the ignition timing and engine performance was determined and their application in the real engine was discussed.

  5. The effect of intravenous injection of Ghrelin on the mean plasma concentrations of insulin in immature camels fed different levels of their energy requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-11-01

    Ghrelin is a peptide hormone secreted into the circulation from the stomach, but this peptide is also synthetized in a number of different body tissues including the brain and pancreas, suggesting both endocrine and paracrine effects. These include: stimulation of GH and ACTH secretion, an increase in appetite and diabetogenic effect on carbohydrate metabolism. Furthermore, ghrelin is the natural ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R. Ghrelin and its mRNAas well as GH secretagogue receptor mRNAs are expressed in the pancreas and islet cells and regulates insulin release and glucose metabolism, but because the effect of ghrelin on insulin secretion before puberty in semiruminant animals has never been examined,   therefore the purpose of the present research was to determine the effect of ghrelin on insulin secretion before puberty in camels. In this investigation 12 camels were randomly divided into two groups. Animals in each group were fed either 50% and 100% energy content in diet for 2 weeks. After 2 weeks camels received 8 μg ghrelin/kg body weight via their jugular vein for 4 days. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein of all animals before, during (30 minutes after injection of ghrelin and after the intervention for 4 continuous days and plasma insulin concentrations determined by RIA. Data obtained were analyzed by repeated measures –ANOVA and paired t-Test. p

  6. Automatic estimation of aquifer parameters using long-term water supply pumping and injection records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ning; Illman, Walter A.

    2016-09-01

    Analyses are presented of long-term hydrographs perturbed by variable pumping/injection events in a confined aquifer at a municipal water-supply well field in the Region of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Such records are typically not considered for aquifer test analysis. Here, the water-level variations are fingerprinted to pumping/injection rate changes using the Theis model implemented in the WELLS code coupled with PEST. Analyses of these records yield a set of transmissivity ( T) and storativity ( S) estimates between each monitoring and production borehole. These individual estimates are found to poorly predict water-level variations at nearby monitoring boreholes not used in the calibration effort. On the other hand, the geometric means of the individual T and S estimates are similar to those obtained from previous pumping tests conducted at the same site and adequately predict water-level variations in other boreholes. The analyses reveal that long-term municipal water-level records are amenable to analyses using a simple analytical solution to estimate aquifer parameters. However, uniform parameters estimated with analytical solutions should be considered as first rough estimates. More accurate hydraulic parameters should be obtained by calibrating a three-dimensional numerical model that rigorously captures the complexities of the site with these data.

  7. Simple flow injection colorimetric system for determination of paraquat in natural water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuntib, Prakit; Jakmunee, Jaroon

    2015-11-01

    A simple and low cost flow injection colorimetric system has been developed for determination of paraquat in natural water. The developed method is based on the reduction of paraquat by using sodium dithionite as a reducing agent in an alkaline medium to produce a blue free radical ion that can be detected by a simple light emitting diode-light dependent resistor (LED-LDR) colorimeter. The standard or sample solution was injected via a set of 3-way solenoid valves into a water carrier stream and flowed to merge with reagent to generate a colored product which is proportional to the concentration of paraquat ion in the solution. Under the optimum condition of the system, i.e., mixing coil length 30 cm, flow rate 2.0 mL min(-1), sample volume 100 μL, concentrations of dithionite 0.1% (w/v) and sodium hydroxide 0.06 mol L(-1), a linear calibration graph in the range of 0.2-10.0 mg L(-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.9996, and a limit of detection of 0.15 mg L(-1) were achieved. Relative standard deviation for 9 replicate injections of 1 mg L(-1) paraquat is 3.7%. A sample throughput of 40 injections h(-1) was achieved. The limit of detection can be improved by off-line preconcentration of paraquat employing a column packed with Dowex 50WX8-100 (H) cation exchange resin and eluted with 10% (w/v) ammonium chloride in ammonium buffer solution pH 10. The eluting solution was then injected into the FI system for paraquat determination. The proposed system did not suffer from interferences of some possible ions in natural water and other herbicides. Recoveries obtained by spiking 0.5 and 5.0 mg L(-1) paraquat standard into water samples were in the range of 104-110% and 101-105%, respectively. The developed system can be conveniently applied for screening of paraquat contaminated in natural water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. An analysis on water hammer in liquid injection shutdown system of CANDU-9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T. H.; Heo, J.; Han, S. K.; Choi, H. Y.; No, T. S.

    2000-01-01

    The water hammer analysis code, PTRAN, is used for computation of transient pressures and pressure differentials in the Liquid Injection Shutdown System(LISS) piping network of CANDU-9 to ensure that the design allowables for LEVEL C Service Limit are met for the water hammer loads resulting from the water hammer. The LISS piping network of CANDU-9 has incorporated design improvement in considering the water hammer, such as declining the horizontal part of helium header, and raising the elevation of the overall system piping configuration, etc. The maximum pressure in the LISS piping network is found to be 7.92 MPa(a) at the closed valve in the vent line, which is below the allowable working pressure and the valve design pressure under Level C service conditions. And it is also shown that the maximum pressure in CANDU-9 is much lower than that in CANDU-6

  9. Surface self-potential patterns related to transmissive fracture trends during a water injection test

    Science.gov (United States)

    DesRoches, A. J.; Butler, K. E.; MacQuarrie, K. TB

    2018-03-01

    Variations in self-potential (SP) signals were recorded over an electrode array during a constant head injection test in a fractured bedrock aquifer. Water was injected into a 2.2 m interval isolated between two inflatable packers at 44 m depth in a vertical well. Negative SP responses were recorded on surface corresponding to the start of the injection period with strongest magnitudes recorded in electrodes nearest the well. SP response decreased in magnitude at electrodes further from the well. Deflation of the packer system resulted in a strong reversal in the SP signal. Anomalous SP patterns observed at surface at steady state were found to be aligned with dominant fracture strike orientations found within the test interval. Numerical modelling of fluid and current flow within a simplified fracture network showed that azimuthal patterns in SP are mainly controlled by transmissive fracture orientations. The strongest SP gradients occur parallel to hydraulic gradients associated with water flowing out of the transmissive fractures into the tighter matrix and other less permeable cross-cutting fractures. Sensitivity studies indicate that increasing fracture frequency near the well increases the SP magnitude and enhances the SP anomaly parallel to the transmissive set. Decreasing the length of the transmissive fractures leads to more fluid flow into the matrix and into cross-cutting fractures proximal to the well, resulting in a more circular and higher magnitude SP anomaly. Results from the field experiment and modelling provide evidence that surface-based SP monitoring during constant head injection tests has the ability to identify groundwater flow pathways within a fractured bedrock aquifer.

  10. 40 CFR 60.4340 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance for NOX if I do not use water or steam injection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... compliance for NOX if I do not use water or steam injection? 60.4340 Section 60.4340 Protection of....4340 How do I demonstrate continuous compliance for NOX if I do not use water or steam injection? (a) If you are not using water or steam injection to control NOX emissions, you must perform annual...

  11. Toxicological study of DTPA as a drug, 6; Effects of intravenously injected Ca-DTPA, Ca-EDTA, CBMIDA and orally administered Zn-DTPA to bone metabolism in beagle dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Satoshi; Iida, Haruzo (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)); Hseih Yuyuan; Chen Wehzhi

    1991-06-01

    Effects of four kinds of chelating agents, Ca-DTPA (calcium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid), Ca-EDTA (calcium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid), CBMIDA (catechol-3, 6-bis(methyleiminodiacetic acid)) and Zn-DTPA (zinc DTPA), on bone metabolism were examined in beagle dogs by bone histomorphometry and measurement of serum biochemical constituents related to bone metabolism. Ca-DTPA, Ca-EDTA or CBMIDA (150 {mu}mol/kg) was injected intravenously to dogs for 1 month, respectively. Three doses (30, 150 and 300 {mu}mol/kg) of Zn-DTPA were administered orally to dogs for 1 month, respectively. All dogs received twice tetracycline hydrochloride injections at an interval of 7 days before the beginning of administration of chelating agents and also twice calcein injections at the same time schedule prior to sacrifices for analyzing bone dynamics. Bone samples were obtained from ilium and undecalcified bone sections were made. Bone histomorphometry of cancellous bone area of ilium was performed using an image analyzer. Bone volume and mean trabecular thickness did not change in any of the groups. Osteoid volume in the CBMIDA group increased. Osteoid volume and mean osteoid thickness in the 150 {mu}mol/kg of Zn-DTPA group decreased. Mineral apposition rate and bone formation rate did not change in any groups except the CBMIDA and 150 {mu}mol/kg of Zn-DTPA groups, in which fluorescent bone labeling was absent or obscure, revealing inhibition of bone mineralization. Serum total calcium levels did not change in any of the groups. Serum phosphorus level decreased significantly in the 30 {mu}mol/kg dose of Zn-DTPA group. Parathyroid hormone level increased in the 30 {mu}mol/kg dose of Zn-DTPA, while it decreased in the 150 {mu}mol/kg dose of Zn-DTPA group. The results suggests that the protracted therapy using the above four kinds of chelating agents may incur damages of bone such as decrease of bone volume and inhibition of mineralization. (author).

  12. Uniform and non-uniform inlet temperature of a vertical hot water jet injected into a rectangular tank

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed

    2010-12-01

    In most of real-world applications, such as the case of heat stores, inlet is not kept at a constant temperature but it may vary with time during charging process. In this paper, a vertical water jet injected into a rectangular storage tank is measured experimentally and simulated numerically. Two cases of study are considered; one is a hot water jet with uniform inlet temperature (UIT) injected into a cold water tank, and the other is a cold water jet with non-uniform inlet temperature (NUIT) injected into a hot water tank. Three different temperature differences and three different flow rates are studied for the hot water jet with UIT which is injected into a cold water tank. Also, three different initial temperatures with constant flow rate as well as three different flow rates with constant initial temperature are considered for the cold jet with NUIT which is injected into a hot water tank. Turbulence intensity at the inlet as well as Reynolds number for the NUIT cases are therefore functions of inlet temperature and time. Both experimental measurements and numerical calculations are carried out for the same measured flow and thermal conditions. The realizable k-ε model is used for modeling the turbulent flow. Numerical solutions are obtained for unsteady flow while pressure, velocity, temperature and turbulence distributions inside the water tank are analyzed. The simulated results are compared to the measured results, and they show a good agreement at low temperatures. © 2010 IEEE.

  13. Stable isotope reactive transport modeling in water-rock interactions during CO2 injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Juan J.; Lagneau, Vincent; Agrinier, Pierre

    2010-05-01

    Stable isotopes can be of great usefulness in the characterization and monitoring of CO2 sequestration sites. Stable isotopes can be used to track the migration of the CO2 plume and identify leakage sources. Moreover, they provide unique information about the chemical reactions that take place on the CO2-water-rock system. However, there is a lack of appropriate tools that help modelers to incorporate stable isotope information into the flow and transport models used in CO2 sequestration problems. In this work, we present a numerical tool for modeling the transport of stable isotopes in groundwater reactive systems. The code is an extension of the groundwater single-phase flow and reactive transport code HYTEC [2]. HYTEC's transport module was modified to include element isotopes as separate species. This way, it is able to track isotope composition of the system by computing the mixing between the background water and the injected solution accounting for the dependency of diffusion on the isotope mass. The chemical module and database have been expanded to included isotopic exchange with minerals and the isotope fractionation associated with chemical reactions and mineral dissolution or precipitation. The performance of the code is illustrated through a series of column synthetic models. The code is also used to model the aqueous phase CO2 injection test carried out at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory site (Palisades, New York, USA) [1]. References [1] N. Assayag, J. Matter, M. Ader, D. Goldberg, and P. Agrinier. Water-rock interactions during a CO2 injection field-test: Implications on host rock dissolution and alteration effects. Chemical Geology, 265(1-2):227-235, July 2009. [2] Jan van der Lee, Laurent De Windt, Vincent Lagneau, and Patrick Goblet. Module-oriented modeling of reactive transport with HYTEC. Computers & Geosciences, 29(3):265-275, April 2003.

  14. Flow injection spectrophotometric determination of low concentrations of orthosphate in natural waters employing ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessenda, L.C.R.

    1981-01-01

    A simple and fast method for the determination of low concentrations of orthophosphate in natural waters is described. Ion exchange is incorporated into a flow injection system by usina a resin column in the sample loop of a proportion injector. Effects of sample aspiration rate, sampling time, eluting agent concentration, pumping rate of the sample carrier stream and interfaces, were investigated both using 32 PO 3- 4 or 31 PO 3- 4 with columns coupled to a gerger-muller detector and incorporated in a flow system with molybdenum blue colorinetry. (M.A.C.) [pt

  15. Debinding behaviour of a water soluble PEG/PMMA binder for Ti metal injection moulding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Gang; Cao, Peng; Wen, Guian; Edmonds, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been becoming a common component in the design of water soluble binder systems for metal injection moulding. Similar to solvent debinding, PEG can be leached out by water and the mechanism of debinding was proposed in the literature with somehow misleading information about the debinding mechanism, particularly about the formation of PEG gel. This work investigates the debinding behaviours of a PEG-based binder in titanium compacts. Titanium powder is formulated with PEG, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and stearic acid (SA) to formulate titanium feedstock. To determine the debinding kinetics, the PEG removal percentages are measured at three different temperatures and for various specimen thicknesses. A mathematic model based on diffusion-controlled debinding process is established. The evolution of porous microstructure during the water debinding process is observed using scanning electron microscopy. Based on these observations, a water debinding mechanism for titanium alloy compacts formulated with PEG-based binders is proposed. - Highlights: ► The water-debinding behaviours of the PEG binder system were investigated. ► PEG dissolution and transportation, and the pore structure development. ► A water debinding mechanism of PEG-based binders is proposed. ► Incorrect explanation of PEG gelling in the literature is corrected. ► Correction/modification made as per the reviewers' comments and suggestions

  16. Water-hammer in the cold leg during an SBLOCA due to cold ECCS injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, M.G.; Ghan, L.S.

    1991-01-01

    Water-hammer might occur in the cold leg of pressurized water reactors (PWR) during small break loss-of-coolant accidents (SBLOCA's), when cold emergency core cooling system (ECCS) water is injected into a pipe that may be partially filled with saturated steam. The water may mix with the steam and cause it to condense abruptly. Depending on the flow regime present, slugs of liquid may then be accelerated towards each other or against the piping structure. The possibility of this phenomenon is of concern to us because it may become a dominant phenomenon and change the character of the transient. In performing the code scaling, applicability, and uncertainty study (CSAU) on a SBLOCA scenario, we had to examine the possibility that the transient being analyzed could experience water-hammer and thus depart from the scope of the study. Two criteria for water-hammer initiation were investigated and tested using a RELAP5/MOD3 simulation of the transient. Our results indicated a very low likelihood of occurrence of the phenomenon. 8 refs., 6 figs

  17. Perfil de los usuarios de drogas por vía parenteral que mantienen conductas de riesgo relacionadas con la inyección en Cataluña Characteristics of intravenous drug users who share injection equipment in Catalonia (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinta Folch

    2012-02-01

    between 2008 and 2009 in harm reduction centers. Behavioral data were collected using anonymous questionnaires administered by trained interviewers. Results: Of the 748 respondents, 31.5% had shared syringes at least once in the previous 6 months and 55.2% reported sharing injection paraphernalia (spoons, water, filters. A higher risk of syringe sharing was found among IDUs who injected daily (OR=1.5, injected cocaine (OR=1.6, had less than half their supply of syringes from a free source (OR=2.5, had an IDU sexual partner (OR=1.8 or who reported indirect sharing (OR=4.1. A higher risk of indirect sharing was found in respondents who had an illegal source of income (OR=1.5, injected daily (OR=1, 5, injected cocaine (OR=1.4, reported sharing syringes (OR=3.9, or who reported a previous overdose (OR=1.5. Conclusions: Despite the widespread use of harm reduction programs in Catalonia, a significant proportion of IDUs continue to practise injection-related risk behaviors. Further reductions in risk behaviors could be achieved by improving access to all sterile injecting equipment, especially among cocaine injectors and IDUs who inject frequently, and by including IDU sexual partners within the current network of harm reduction centers.

  18. Simulation bidimensional of water and gas alternative injection; Simulacao bidimensional de injecao alternada de agua e gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, Ana Paula Silva C. de

    1999-07-01

    This dissertation presents a study of the unidimensional of water and gas alternate injection (WAG) using the stream line theory. It is considered incompressible fluid., unit mobility ratio, negligible capillary and gravitational effects, homogeneous and isotropic reservoir, isothermal flow two phases, oil and water, and three components, oil, water and gas. In the stream line theory, the following injection schemes are considered: staggered line five-spot, direct line and seven-spot. It is also considered that there is no flow among the streams. In the WAG calculations it is used the fractional flow theory and the method of characteristics, which consists of shock waves and rarefactions. The composition of these waves is said compatible if it satisfies the entropy condition. The solution goes through a certain path from the left to the right side constrained by the initial and boundary conditions. The gas injection is at a high pressure to ensure miscible displacement. It is considered first injection of a water bank and then, injection of a gas bank. We concluded that the gas injection at a high pressure recoveries all residual oil and the water saturation remains is greater than initial saturation. (author)

  19. Effective Jet Properties for the Prediction of Turbulent Mixing Noise Reduction by Water Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandula, Max; Lonergan, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    A one-dimensional control volume formulation is developed for the determination of jet mixing noise reduction due to water injection. The analysis starts from the conservation of mass, momentum and energy for the control volume, and introduces the concept of effective jet parameters (jet temperature, jet velocity and jet Mach number). It is shown that the water to jet mass flow rate ratio is an important parameter characterizing the jet noise reduction on account of gas-to-droplet momentum and heat transfer. Two independent dimensionless invariant groups are postulated, and provide the necessary relations for the droplet size and droplet Reynolds number. Results are presented illustrating the effect of mass flow rate ratio on the jet mixing noise reduction for a range of jet Mach number and jet Reynolds number. Predictions from the model show satisfactory comparison with available test data on supersonic jets. The results suggest that significant noise reductions can be achieved at increased flow rate ratios.

  20. Effects of temperature on SCC propagation in high temperature water injected with hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Junichi; Sato, Tomonori; Kato, Chiaki; Yoshiyuki, Kaji; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Tsukada, Takashi

    2012-09-01

    To understand the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behaviour of austenitic stainless steels (SSs) in the boiling water reactor (BWR) coolant environment, it is significant to investigate the effect of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) produced by the radiolysis of water on SCC under the various water chemistry and operational conditions. At the start-up or shut-down periods, for example, the conditions of radiation and temperature on the structural materials are different from those during the plant normal operation, and may be influencing on SCC behaviour. Therefore, the effect of temperature on SCC in high temperature water injected with H 2 O 2 was evaluated by SCC propagation test at the present study. Oxide films on the metal surface in crack were examined and the thermal equilibrium diagram was calculated to estimate the environmental situation in the crack. On the thermally sensitized type 304 SS, crack growth tests were conducted in high temperature water injected with H 2 O 2 to simulate water radiolysis in the core. Small CT type specimens with a width of 15.5 mm and thickness of 6.2 mm were machined from the sensitized SS. SCC growth tests were conducted in high temperature water injected with 100 ppb H 2 O 2 at 453 and 561 K. To minimize H 2 O 2 decomposition by a contact with metal surface of autoclave, the CT specimen was isolated from inner surface of the autoclave by the inner modules made of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), and PTFE lining was also used for the inner surface of inlet and sampling tubes. Base on the measurement of sampled water, it was confirmed that 80-90 % of injected H 2 O 2 remained around the CT specimen in autoclave. Constant load at initial K levels of 11-20 MPam 1/2 was applied to the CT specimens during crack growth tests. After crack growth tests, CT specimens were split into two pieces on the plane of crack propagation. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) examination and laser Raman spectroscopy for outer oxide layer of oxide

  1. Numerical method for nitrogen and steam injection in a porous medium with water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, Wanderson; Marchesin, Dan; Albuquerque, Daniel L. [Instituto de Matematica Pura e Aplicada (IMPA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bruining, Johannes [TUDELFT (Netherlands)

    2004-07-01

    The frequent widespread occurrence of contamination due to spills and leaks of organic materials, such as petroleum products, that occur during their transport, storage and disposal constitute a menace to our high-quality ground-water resources. In spite of increased awareness of the environmental impacts of oil spills, it appears to be impossible to avoid these accidents, so it is necessary to develop techniques of groundwater remediation. Traditional clean up methods of these spills, such as pump-and-treat are slow because diffusion/dissolution are the main removal mechanisms used. Removal of contaminants with steam is considered an alternative solution. Steam injection is widely studied in Petroleum Engineering see 'Bruining et. al. (2003)'. From mass balance and conservation of enthalpy equations, we formulate conservation laws governing steam and nitrogen injection in a linear porous medium containing water. Compressibility, heat conductivity and capillarity are neglected. We present an upstream semi implicit method to solve numerically this model, so that optimal clean up strategies can be developed. (author)

  2. Proof-of-concept: neonatal intravenous injection of adeno-associated virus vectors results in successful transduction of myenteric and submucosal neurons in the mouse small and large intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckinx, R; Van Remoortel, S; Gijsbers, R; Waddington, S N; Timmermans, J-P

    2016-02-01

    Despite the success of viral vector technology in the transduction of the central nervous system in both preclinical research and gene therapy, its potential in neurogastroenterological research remains largely unexploited. This study asked whether and to what extent myenteric and submucosal neurons in the ileum and distal colon of the mouse were transduced after neonatal systemic delivery of recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors (AAVs). Mice were intravenously injected at postnatal day one with AAV pseudotypes AAV8 or AAV9 carrying a cassette encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) as a reporter under the control of a cytomegalovirus promoter. At postnatal day 35, transduction of the myenteric and submucosal plexuses of the ileum and distal colon was evaluated in whole-mount preparations, using immunohistochemistry to neurochemically identify transduced enteric neurons. The pseudotypes AAV8 and AAV9 showed equal potential in transducing the enteric nervous system (ENS), with 25-30% of the neurons expressing eGFP. However, the percentage of eGFP-expressing colonic submucosal neurons was significantly lower. Neurochemical analysis showed that all enteric neuron subtypes, but not glia, expressed the reporter protein. Intrinsic sensory neurons were most efficiently transduced as nearly 80% of calcitonin gene-related peptide-positive neurons expressed the transgene. The pseudotypes AAV8 and AAV9 can be employed for gene delivery to both the myenteric and the submucosal plexus, although the transduction efficiency in the latter is region-dependent. These findings open perspectives for novel preclinical applications aimed at manipulating and imaging the ENS in the short term, and in gene therapy in the longer term. © 2015 The Authors. Neurogastroenterology & Motility Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. A respiration-metabolism chamber system and a GC-MS method developed for studying exhalation of perfluorobutane in rats after intravenous injection of the ultrasound contrast agent Sonazoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uran, Steinar; Landmark, Kristin; Normann, Per Trygve; Hals, Petter-Arnt; Toft, Kim Gunnar; Skotland, Tore

    2005-09-15

    Sonazoid is a new contrast agent for ultrasound imaging comprising an aqueous suspension of lipid-stabilised perfluorobutane (PFB) gas microbubbles. A respiration-metabolism chamber system was developed to collect exhaled air following intravenous administration of Sonazoid to rats. Analysis of PFB in the exhaled rat air was performed using a modified version of an earlier published method for blood samples, i.e. an automatic headspace gas chromatographic mass spectrometric (GC-MS) method using electron impact ionisation. The calibration standards were PFB diluted in air (2.5-1800 pg/ml). Perfluoropentane (PFP) was used as an internal standard and the MS detector was set to single ion monitoring of the base fragment ions of PFB (m/z 69 and 119) and PFP (m/z 69). The calibration curve, made by plotting the peak area ratios of PFB (m/z 69) to PFP (m/z 69) against the theoretical concentration of PFB, was fitted to a linear equation with weighting 1/y2 and found to be reproducible. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 2.5 pg PFB/ml. The between-day variation of the method was below 2.6% relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) and the within-day variation of the method was below 6.4% R.S.D. The accuracy of the method was evaluated and showed a relative error less than 5.2%. PFB was found to be stable for 14 days when stored in Tedlar sample bags at room temperature. An even lower detection limit may be obtained by using the more time-consuming process of solid-phase micro extraction; thus, by concentrating PFB on carboxen-PDMS fibres an LLOQ of 0.5 pg PFB/ml was obtained. When five rats were given an i.v. bolus injection of Sonazoid at a dose of 8 microl microbubbles/kg a mean recovery of 96% (range, 81-110%) was found during 24 h; more than 50% was exhaled during the first 30 min after injection.

  4. Intravenous and Intramuscular Formulations of Antiseizure Drugs in the Treatment of Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sima I; Birnbaum, Angela K; Cloyd, James C; Leppik, Ilo E

    2015-12-01

    Intravenous and intramuscular antiseizure drugs (ASDs) are essential in the treatment of clinical seizure emergencies as well as in replacement therapy when oral administration is not possible. The parenteral formulations provide rapid delivery and complete (intravenous) or nearly complete (intramuscular) bioavailability. Controlled administration of the ASD is feasible with intravenous but not intramuscular formulations. This article reviews the literature and discusses the chemistry, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and clinical use of currently available intravenous and intramuscular ASD formulations as well as the development of new formulations and agents. Intravenous or intramuscular formulations of lorazepam, diazepam, midazolam, and clonazepam are typically used as the initial treatment agents in seizure emergencies. Recent studies also support the use of intramuscular midazolam as easier than the intravenous delivery of lorazepam in the pre-hospital setting. However, benzodiazepines may be associated with hypotension and respiratory depression. Although loading with intravenous phenytoin was an early approach to treatment, it is associated with cardiac arrhythmias, hypotension, and tissue injury at the injection site. This has made it less favored than fosphenytoin, a water-soluble, phosphorylated phenytoin molecule. Other drugs being used for acute seizure emergencies are intravenous formulations of valproic acid, levetiracetam, and lacosamide. However, the comparative effectiveness of these for status epilepticus (SE) has not been evaluated adequately. Consequently, guidelines for the medical management of SE continue to recommend lorazepam followed by fosphenytoin, or phenytoin if fosphenytoin is not available. Intravenous solutions for carbamazepine, lamotrigine, and topiramate have been developed but remain investigational. The current ASDs were not developed for use in emergency situations, but were adapted from ASDs approved for chronic oral use. New

  5. Acute toxicity of intravenously administered titanium dioxide nanoparticles in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaying Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With a wide range of applications, titanium dioxide (TiO₂ nanoparticles (NPs are manufactured worldwide in large quantities. Recently, in the field of nanomedicine, intravenous injection of TiO₂ nanoparticulate carriers directly into the bloodstream has raised public concerns on their toxicity to humans. METHODS: In this study, mice were injected intravenously with a single dose of TiO₂ NPs at varying dose levels (0, 140, 300, 645, or 1387 mg/kg. Animal mortality, blood biochemistry, hematology, genotoxicity and histopathology were investigated 14 days after treatment. RESULTS: Death of mice in the highest dose (1387 mg/kg group was observed at day two after TiO₂ NPs injection. At day 7, acute toxicity symptoms, such as decreased physical activity and decreased intake of food and water, were observed in the highest dose group. Hematological analysis and the micronucleus test showed no significant acute hematological or genetic toxicity except an increase in the white blood cell (WBC count among mice 645 mg/kg dose group. However, the spleen of the mice showed significantly higher tissue weight/body weight (BW coefficients, and lower liver and kidney coefficients in the TiO₂ NPs treated mice compared to control. The biochemical parameters and histological tissue sections indicated that TiO₂ NPs treatment could induce different degrees of damage in the brain, lung, spleen, liver and kidneys. However, no pathological effects were observed in the heart in TiO₂ NPs treated mice. CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous injection of TiO₂ NPs at high doses in mice could cause acute toxicity effects in the brain, lung, spleen, liver, and kidney. No significant hematological or genetic toxicity was observed.

  6. Experimental Study on the Cause of Inorganic Scale Formation in the Water Injection Pipeline of Tarim Oilfield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guihong Pei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Scale formation of water injection pipeline will cause the pipeline to be corroded and increase frictional drag, which will induce the quality and quantity cannot meet the need of oil production process. The cause of scale formation in different oilfield is different because of the complex formation conditions. Taking one operation area of Tazhong oilfield as research object, the authors studied the water quality in different point along water injection pipeline through experiment studies, and analyzed the cause of inorganic scale formation and influence factors. The research results can provide theoretical guidance to anticorrosion and antiscale of oilfield pipeline.

  7. Salinity of injection water and its impact on oil recovery absolute permeability, residual oil saturation, interfacial tension and capillary pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Mohammad Salehi

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents laboratory investigation of the effect of salinity injection water on oil recovery, pressure drop, permeability, IFT and relative permeability in water flooding process. The experiments were conducted at the 80 °C and a net overburden pressure of 1700 psi using core sample. The results of this study have been shown oil recovery increases as the injected water salinity up to 200,000 ppm and appointment optimum salinity. This increase has been found to be supported by a decrease in the IFT. This effect caused a reduction in capillary pressure increasing the tendency to reduce the residual oil saturation.

  8. Identification of temperature-dependent water quality changes during a deep well injection experiment in a pyritic aquifer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prommer, H.; Stuijfzand, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    Artificial recharge is a technique used increasingly to supplement drinking water supplies. To assess the potential water quality changes that occur during subsurface passage, a comprehensive deep-well injection experiment was carried out for a recharge scheme, where pretreated, aerobic surface

  9. Study on the Effect of water Injection Momentum on the Cooling Effect of Rocket Engine Exhaust Plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kan; Qiang, Yanhui; Zhong, Chenghang; Yu, Shaozhen

    2017-10-01

    For the study of water injection momentum factors impact on flow field of the rocket engine tail flame, the numerical computation model of gas-liquid two phase flow in the coupling of high temperature and high speed gas flow and low temperature liquid water is established. The accuracy and reliability of the numerical model are verified by experiments. Based on the numerical model, the relationship between the flow rate and the cooling effect is analyzed by changing the water injection momentum of the water spray pipes. And the effective mathematical expression is obtained. What’s more, by changing the number of the water spray and using small flow water injection, the cooling effect is analyzed to check the application range of the mathematical expressions. The results show that: the impact and erosion of the gas flow field could be reduced greatly by water injection, and there are two parts in the gas flow field, which are the slow cooling area and the fast cooling area. In the fast cooling area, the influence of the water flow momentum and nozzle quantity on the cooling effect can be expressed by mathematical functions without causing bifurcation flow for the mainstream gas. The conclusion provides a theoretical reference for the engineering application.

  10. 21 CFR 522.2220 - Sulfadimethoxine injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... disease caused by Streptococcus equi (strangles). (b) It is administered by intravenous injection at an... when caused by Streptococci, Staphylococci, Escherichia, Salmonella, Klebsiella, Proteus, or Shigella...

  11. Experimental and numerical study on the fracture of rocks during injection of CO2-saturated water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Wu, Zhishen; Lei, Xing-Lin; Murakami, Yutaka; Satoh, Takashi

    2007-02-01

    Geological sequestration of CO2 into depleted hydrocarbon reserviors or saline aquifers presents the enormous potential to reduce greenhouse gas emission from fossil fuels. However, it may give rise to a complicated coupling physical and chemical process. One of the processes is the hydro-mechanical impact of CO2 injection. During the injection project, the increase of pore pressures of storing formations can induce the instability, which finally results in a catastrophic failure of disposal sites. This paper focuses mainly on the role of CO2-saturated water in the fracturing behavior of rocks. To investigate how much the dissolved CO2 can influence the pore pressure change of rocks, acoustic emission (AE) experiments were performed on sandstone and granite samples under triaxial conditions. The main innovation of this paper is to propose a time dependent porosity method to simulate the abrupt failure process, which is observed in the laboratory and induced by the pore pressure change due to the volume dilatancy of rocks, using a finite element scheme associated with two-phase characteristics. The results successfully explained the phenomena obtained in the physical experiments.

  12. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Process Conditions on Residual Wall Thickness and Cooling and Surface Characteristics of Water-Assisted Injection Molded Hollow Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungpil Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, water-assisted injection molding was employed in the automobile industry to manufacture three-dimensional hollow tube-type products with functionalities. However, process optimization is difficult in the case of water-assisted injection molding because of the various rheological interactions between the injected water and the polymer. In this study, the boiling phenomenon that occurs because of the high melt temperature when injecting water and the molding characteristics of the hollow section during the water-assisted injection process were analyzed by a water-assisted injection molding analysis. In addition, the changes in the residual wall thickness accompanying changes in the process conditions were compared with the analysis results by considering water-assisted injection molding based on gas-assisted injection molding. Furthermore, by comparing the cooling characteristics and inner wall surface qualities corresponding to the formation of the hollow section by gas and water injections, a water-assisted injection molding technique was proposed for manufacturing hollow products with functionality.

  13. Comparison of Microbial Community Compositions of Injection and Production Well Samples in a Long-Term Water-Flooded Petroleum Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Song, Zhi-yong; Rupert, Wieger; Gao, Guang-Jun; Guo, Sheng-xue; Zhao, Li-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Water flooding plays an important role in recovering oil from depleted petroleum reservoirs. Exactly how the microbial communities of production wells are affected by microorganisms introduced with injected water has previously not been adequately studied. Using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approach and 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis, the comparison of microbial communities is carried out between one injection water and two production waters collected from a working block of the water-flooded Gudao petroleum reservoir located in the Yellow River Delta. DGGE fingerprints showed that the similarities of the bacterial communities between the injection water and production waters were lower than between the two production waters. It was also observed that the archaeal composition among these three samples showed no significant difference. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene clone libraries showed that the dominant groups within the injection water were Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Methanomicrobia, while the dominant groups in the production waters were Gammaproteobacteria and Methanobacteria. Only 2 out of 54 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and 5 out of 17 archaeal OTUs in the injection water were detected in the production waters, indicating that most of the microorganisms introduced by the injection water may not survive to be detected in the production waters. Additionally, there were 55.6% and 82.6% unique OTUs in the two production waters respectively, suggesting that each production well has its specific microbial composition, despite both wells being flooded with the same injection water. PMID:21858049

  14. Groundwater thermal-effective injection systems in shallow aquifers: possible alternatives to vertical water wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Russo, Stefano; Taddia, Glenda; Cerino Abdin, Elena

    2014-05-01

    areal extent of the thermal plume that develops around the area of injection minimizing the time and the space needed for the disappearance of the thermal plume and the restoration of undisturbed temperature conditions. The reduction in plan and temporal extension of the thermal plume would have several benefits, minimizing the use of large areas around the buildings involved by the thermal perturbation, with direct implementation benefits. In order to investigate alternatives to traditional drilled water well for the re-injection and dispersion of water in aquifer downstream of the heat pump, we modeled with FEFLOW the possible reverse use of commercial draining gabions in various types of ground configuration, geometry and interconnection with systems of pre-fabricated vertical drains on a possible reliable test-site. The results highlighted that they can represent a good and efficient alternative for the groundwater dispersion in the aquifers.

  15. Pre-injection Comparison of Methods for Sampling Formation Water and Associated Gas from a Monitoring Well at a Carbon Dioxide Injection Site, Citronelle Oil Field, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conaway, C.; Thordsen, J. J.; Manning, M. A.; Cook, P. J.; Abedini, A. A.; Trautz, R. C.; Thomas, B.; Kharaka, Y. K.

    2012-12-01

    The chemical composition of formation water and associated gases from the lower Cretaceous Paluxy Formation was determined using four different sampling methods at a well in the Citronelle Oil Field, Alabama, a site that will be used for a carbon dioxide injection experiment. Prior to each of the two sampling periods, the well was cleaned from the drilling fluids and KCl solutions by producing at least three pore volumes of formation water. Accurate measurements of the chemical composition of groundwater or formation water, including dissolved gasses, and gas samples is essential in understanding subsurface geochemical processes occurring as a result of geologic carbon dioxide injection, which is used for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and has been proposed as a means of carbon sequestration. In this study, formation water and gas samples for geochemical analyses were obtained from well D-9-8 #2 at Citronelle using nitrogen lift, submersible pump, U-Tube, and a downhole (Kuster) sampler. Field chemical analyses included electrical conductivity, hydrogen sulfide, alkalinity, and pH, and laboratory analyses included major, minor and trace elements by mass spectrometry and ion chromatography, dissolved carbon, organic acid anions, free and dissolved gas species. The formation water obtained from this well is a Na-Ca-Cl brine with a salinity of 160,000 and 200,000 mg/L total dissolved solids (TDS). Differences were evident between sampling methodologies, particularly in pH, Fe and alkalinity measurements. The results of the comparison demonstrate the difficulty and importance of preserving volatile analytes in samples, with the downhole sampler and U-Tube system performing most favorably in this aspect.

  16. Cost-minimization of mabthera intravenous versus subcutaneous administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bax, P.; Postma, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To identify and compare all costs related to preparing and administrating MabThera for the intravenous and subcutaneous formulations in Dutch hematological patients. The a priori notion is that the costs of subcutaneous MabThera injections are lower compared to intravenous infusion due

  17. Geohydrology and water quality in northern Portage County, Ohio, in relation to deep-well brine injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberts, S.M.

    1991-01-01

    Geohydrology and water quality of the principal freshwater aquifers near oilfield and gasfield brine-injection wells in northern Portage County, Ohio, were evaluated. Since 1975, 13 wells in this part of the Country have been used to dispose of more than 4.5 million barrels of brine by injection into Silurian carbonate and sandstone rocks that generally are greater than 3,500 feet below land surface. More than 3,000 feet of interbedded shales, sandstones, carbonates, and evaporites separate the freshwater aquifers from these brine-injection zones. The shallowest brine-injection zone is greater than 2,200 feet below sea level. Native fluids in the injection zones have dissolved-solids concentrations greater than 125,000 milligrams per liter and are hydraulically isolated from the freshwater aquifers. No known faults or fracture systems are present in northern Portage County, although abandoned oil and gas wells could exist and serve as conduits for migration of injected brine. Pennsylvanian clastic units are freshwater bearing in northern Portage County, and two bedrock aquifers generally are recognized. The shallower bedrock aquifer (Connoquenessing Sandstone Member of the Pottsville Formation) principally consists of sandstone; this aquifer is separated from a deeper sandstone and conglomerate aquifer in the lower part of the Sharon Member (Pottsville Formation) by shale in the upper part of the Sharon Member that acts as a confining unit. The upper sandstone aquifer is the surficial aquifer where overlying glacial deposits are unsaturated in the uplands; glacial deposits comprise the surficial aquifer in buried valleys where the sandstone is absent. These two surficial aquifers are hydraulically connected and act as a single unit. The lower sandstone and conglomerate aquifer is the most areally extensive aquifer within the project area. From November 1987 through August 1988, ground-water levels remained at least 60 feet higher in the upper sandstone aquifer than

  18. Estimate for interstage water injection in air compressor incorporated into gas-turbine cycles and combined power plants cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kler, A. M.; Zakharov, Yu. B.; Potanina, Yu. M.

    2017-05-01

    The objects of study are the gas turbine (GT) plant and combined cycle power plant (CCPP) with opportunity for injection between the stages of air compressor. The objective of this paper is technical and economy optimization calculations for these classes of plants with water interstage injection. The integrated development environment "System of machine building program" was a tool for creating the mathematic models for these classes of power plants. Optimization calculations with the criterion of minimum for specific capital investment as a function of the unit efficiency have been carried out. For a gas-turbine plant, the economic gain from water injection exists for entire range of power efficiency. For the combined cycle plant, the economic benefit was observed only for a certain range of plant's power efficiency.

  19. The role of the tractus diagonalis in drinking behaviour induced by central chemical stimulation, water deprivation and salt injection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, G.K.; Slangen, J.L.

    1972-01-01

    The role of the tractus diagonalis in drinking behaviour induced by central chemical stimulation, 23-hr water deprivation and injection of a hypertonic sodium chloride solution was investigated by means of central and peripheral administration of atropine and methylatropine. The effect of the same

  20. Flow Rates Measurement and Uncertainty Analysis in Multiple-Zone Water-Injection Wells from Fluid Temperature Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José E. O. Reges

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This work is a contribution to the development of flow sensors in the oil and gas industry. It presents a methodology to measure the flow rates into multiple-zone water-injection wells from fluid temperature profiles and estimate the measurement uncertainty. First, a method to iteratively calculate the zonal flow rates using the Ramey (exponential model was described. Next, this model was linearized to perform an uncertainty analysis. Then, a computer program to calculate the injected flow rates from experimental temperature profiles was developed. In the experimental part, a fluid temperature profile from a dual-zone water-injection well located in the Northeast Brazilian region was collected. Thus, calculated and measured flow rates were compared. The results proved that linearization error is negligible for practical purposes and the relative uncertainty increases as the flow rate decreases. The calculated values from both the Ramey and linear models were very close to the measured flow rates, presenting a difference of only 4.58 m³/d and 2.38 m³/d, respectively. Finally, the measurement uncertainties from the Ramey and linear models were equal to 1.22% and 1.40% (for injection zone 1; 10.47% and 9.88% (for injection zone 2. Therefore, the methodology was successfully validated and all objectives of this work were achieved.

  1. Numerical simulation of MH growth/dissociation by hot water injection on the Lab. experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temma, N.; Sakamoto, Y.; Komai, T.; Yamaguchi, T.; Pawar, R.; Zyvoloski, G.

    2005-12-01

    Methane Hydrate (MH) is considered to be one of the new-generation energy resources. Aiming to develop the method of extraction of methane gas from MH, laboratory experiments have been performed in order to grasp the MH property in the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba in Japan. In this paper, we present the results of the numerical simulation of experiment using by the hot water injection. In this calculation, FEHM (Finite Element Heat and Mass transfer) code is used. This code is developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. In this experiment, temperature, pressure and cumulative gas production were measured. From these data, we suppose that MH growth/dissociation occurred by the flow of the hot water. And we make the model of the growth/dissociation. As this model consist of many parameters, it is difficult to determine parameters. Thus, we use PEST (Parameter ESTimation ) in order to determine parameters for the model of the MH growth/ dissociation. We use temperature data of experiment, as observed data. We make two observed data sets at the beginning and later term of experiment. At the results of PEST, we obtain two sets of parameters to get good match the observed data. We think that these sets indicate both the maximum and the minimum values of the MH growth/dissociation model. And, on this range, we continue to calculate until we get the good match. Finally, we obtain the numerical model of the experiment. Also, we conducted the sensitive analysis for the MH growth/ dissociation using this model.

  2. Vapour explosions (fuel-coolant interactions) resulting from the sub-surface injection of water into molten metals: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asher, R.C.; Bullen, D.; Davies, D.

    1976-03-01

    Preliminary experiments are reported on the relationship between the injection mode of contact and the occurrence and magnitude of vapour explosions. Water was injected beneath the surface of molten metals, chiefly tin at 250 to 900 0 C. Vapour explosions occurred in many, but not all, cases. The results are compared with Dullforce's observations (Culham Report (CLM-P424) on the dropping mode of contact and it appears that rather different behaviour is found; in particular, the present results suggest that the Temperature Interaction Zone is different for the two modes of contact. (author)

  3. Distribution and utilization of 15N in cowpeas injected into the stem under influence of water deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götz K-P; Herzog, H

    2000-01-01

    Investigations were carried out on Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. to estimate the distribution and utilization of 15N in different organs after stem injection during vegetative, flowering and pod filling stage. During flowering effects of water deficit were also examined. In well watered plants, within 4 days after injection, 65% of 15N accumulated in leaves. This was drastically reduced to 42% by water deficit. 15N accumulation in stems increased under water deficit. The translocation of 15N from the stem base to roots were not altered by water deficit. During pod filling 62% of recovered 15N in the plants had accumulated in seeds, 24% in leaves and 11% in stems within 4 days, whereas the uptake of nitrogen in pod walls and roots remained low (2%). These results demonstrate that the method of injecting very small quantities (1 mg/plant) of 15N into the stem base allows an exact and detailed quantitative assessment of N translocation/distribution with regard to different organs, different growth stages and different treatments.

  4. Sensation of Cold during the Ice Water Test Corresponds to the Perception of Pain during Botulinum Toxin Bladder Wall Injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, André; Hüsch, Tanja; Doggweiler, Regula; Buse, Stephan; Haferkamp, Axel

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the association of bladder cold sensation (BCS) during the ice water test (IWT) and pain perception when botulinum toxin injections (BTI) are administered into the bladder wall. In 86 patients with idiopathic overactive bladder, the BCS during the IWT was investigated. Patients were divided into 2 groups: with and without BCS. During subsequent administration of BTI, the number of perceived and painful injections as well as the pain levels on a 0-100 pain scale were compared in both groups using Student t test. Thirty-five patients reported a BCS, while 51 did not. After 10 BTI, the mean number of perceived injections was 7.9 in patients with and 2.4 in patients without BCS (p sensation (p perceptions of cold and pain in the urinary bladder may use similar receptors and neuronal pathways. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Cyclic injection, storage, and withdrawal of heated water in a sandstone aquifer at St. Paul, Minnesota: Field observations, preliminary model analysis, and aquifer thermal efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert T.

    1989-01-01

    In May 1980, the University of Minnesota began a project to evaluate the feasibility of storing heated (150 °C (degree Celsius)) water in the deep (180 to 240 m (meters)) Franconia-Ironton-Galesville aquifer and later recovering it for space heating. The Aquifer Thermal-Energy Storage (ATES) system was doublet-well design in which the injection/withdrawal wells were spaced approximately 250 m apart. High-temperature water from the University's steam-generation facilities supplied heat for injection. Water was pumped from one of the wells through a heat exchanger, where heat was added or removed. Water then was injected back into the aquifer through the other well. The experimental plan for testing the ATES system consisted of a series of short-term hot-water injection, storage, and withdrawal cycles. Each cycle was 24-days long, and each injection, storage, and withdrawal step of the cycle was 8 days.

  6. A New Treatment Strategy for Inactivating Algae in Ballast Water Based on Multi-Trial Injections of Chlorine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyang Sun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ships’ ballast water can carry aquatic organisms into foreign ecosystems. In our previous studies, a concept using ion exchange membrane electrolysis to treat ballast water has been proven. In addition to other substantial approaches, a new strategy for inactivating algae is proposed based on the developed ballast water treatment system. In the new strategy, the means of multi-trial injection with small doses of electrolytic products is applied for inactivating algae. To demonstrate the performance of the new strategy, contrast experiments between new strategies and routine processes were conducted. Four algae species including Chlorella vulgaris, Platymonas subcordiformis, Prorocentrum micans and Karenia mikimotoi were chosen as samples. The different experimental parameters are studied including the injection times and doses of electrolytic products. Compared with the conventional one trial injection method, mortality rate time (MRT and available chlorine concentration can be saved up to about 84% and 40%, respectively, under the application of the new strategy. The proposed new approach has great potential in practical ballast water treatment. Furthermore, the strategy is also helpful for deep insight of mechanism of algal tolerance.

  7. A New Treatment Strategy for Inactivating Algae in Ballast Water Based on Multi-Trial Injections of Chlorine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jinyang; Wang, Junsheng; Pan, Xinxiang; Yuan, Haichao

    2015-06-09

    Ships' ballast water can carry aquatic organisms into foreign ecosystems. In our previous studies, a concept using ion exchange membrane electrolysis to treat ballast water has been proven. In addition to other substantial approaches, a new strategy for inactivating algae is proposed based on the developed ballast water treatment system. In the new strategy, the means of multi-trial injection with small doses of electrolytic products is applied for inactivating algae. To demonstrate the performance of the new strategy, contrast experiments between new strategies and routine processes were conducted. Four algae species including Chlorella vulgaris, Platymonas subcordiformis, Prorocentrum micans and Karenia mikimotoi were chosen as samples. The different experimental parameters are studied including the injection times and doses of electrolytic products. Compared with the conventional one trial injection method, mortality rate time (MRT) and available chlorine concentration can be saved up to about 84% and 40%, respectively, under the application of the new strategy. The proposed new approach has great potential in practical ballast water treatment. Furthermore, the strategy is also helpful for deep insight of mechanism of algal tolerance.

  8. FEM for stability analysis against overturning of portal water injection sheet pile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingyun, Liu; Haiyan, Guo; Qi, Sun

    2006-07-01

    Portal water injection sheet pile (PWISP), as a retaining wall, appeared in seashore engineering in 2000. Although there have been many systematic methods addressing the issue, there are very few focusing on the new structure because of the difficulties in defining the earth pressure between the two piles. A new method is proposed in this paper to obtain the earth pressure between the PWISPs. Stability analysis against overturning follows as a consequence. Using Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software ANSYS, both the nonlinear characteristics of the soil and thos of the contact elements are taken into account to obtain the earth pressure distribution on the contact surface. Based on the results of the FEA, Rankin's theory and the slip plane theory, the formula of the earth pressure on the inner surfaces between the piles is given. Assuming the PWISP as the analysis object and the earth pressure as an outside force acting upon it, the equation of stability against overturning of the PWISP is presented. Finally, some parameters are discussed about the stability of the PWISP against overturning, such as the embedded depth of the front pile, the distance between the two rows of piles, the internal friction angle and the cohesion of the earth. The results show that the increase of the cohesion and the internal friction angle will decrease the distance and the embedded depth, and therefore enhance the stability against overturning. Specifically, when the distance is 1/3 2/3 of the maximal excavation depth, the two rows of piles give the best performance in stability.

  9. Temperature and injection water source influence microbial community structure in four Alaskan North Slope hydrocarbon reservoirs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvette Marisa Piceno

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental knowledge of microbial community structure in petroleum reservoirs can improve predictive modeling of these environments. We used hydrocarbon profiles, stable isotopes, and high-density DNA microarray analysis to characterize microbial communities in produced water from four Alaska North Slope hydrocarbon reservoirs. Produced fluids from Schrader Bluff (24-27°C, Kuparuk (47-70°C, Sag River (80°C, and Ivishak (80-83°C reservoirs were collected, with paired soured/non-soured wells sampled from Kuparuk and Ivishak. Chemical and stable isotope data suggested Schrader Bluff had substantial biogenic methane, whereas methane was mostly thermogenic in deeper reservoirs. Acetoclastic methanogens (Methanosaeta were most prominent in Schrader Bluff samples, and the combined δD and δ13C values of methane also indicated acetoclastic methanogenesis could be a primary route for biogenic methane. Conversely, hydrogenotrophic methanogens (e.g., Methanobacteriaceae and sulfide-producing Archaeoglobus and Thermococcus were more prominent in Kuparuk samples. Sulfide-producing microbes were detected in all reservoirs, uncoupled from souring status (e.g., the non-soured Kuparuk samples had higher relative abundances of many sulfate-reducers compared to the soured sample, suggesting sulfate-reducers may be living fermentatively/syntrophically when sulfate is limited. Sulfate abundance via long-term seawater injection resulted in greater relative abundances of Desulfonauticus, Desulfomicrobium, and Desulfuromonas in the soured Ivishak well compared to the non-soured well. In the non-soured Ivishak sample, several taxa affiliated with Thermoanaerobacter and Halomonas predominated. Archaea were not detected in the deepest reservoirs. Functional group taxa differed in relative abundance among reservoirs, likely reflecting differing thermal and/or geochemical influences.

  10. Fluid-structure interaction analysis of a water pool under loading caused by steam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timperi, A.; Paettikangas, T.; Niemi, J.; Ilvonen, M.

    2006-04-01

    CFD and structural analysis codes. MpCCI 3.0 was used for coupling Fluent CFD code with ABAQUS FE code. ES-FSI was used for coupling Star-CD CFD code with ABAQUS. FSI analyses, in which the calculation was carried out entirely in ABAQUS, were also performed. In this case, acoustic elements were used for the fluid and the acoustic and structural domains were coupled. FSI calculations were performed for simple test cases and for a test pool at Lappeenranta University of Technology. The Method of Images was studied as an alternative method for the analyses of the pool. Particularly, the determination of pressure source for the method was studied. Earlier work carried out with the homogenous two-phase model was continued by testing the model with Fluent. Calculation of condensation of steam in a water pool was tested with a new implementation. The two-directionally coupled simulations of the pool with MpCCI and ES-FSI were found to be numerically instable. It was concluded that an implicit coupling method may have to be used in order to avoid the instability. Calculations of the pool were finally performed by using one directional coupling. In the simulations with MpCCI, the incompressible and compressible VOF models of Fluent were used. With ES-FSI, the incompressible VOF model of Star-CD was used for modelling the beginning of a steam injection experiment. The magnitudes of pressure and stress peaks in the simulation and experiment were of comparable size. Otherwise, however, differences between the simulation and experiment were large due to the simplifications used in the simulation. Results obtained with the acoustic-structural FE analyses were compared to analytical and experimental results. The results indicated that the coupled acoustic-structural analysis can be used for calculating the coupled Eigenmodes of BWR pressure suppression pools. (au)

  11. Fluid-structure interaction analysis of a water pool under loading caused by steam injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timperi, A.; Paettikangas, T.; Niemi, J.; Ilvonen, M. [VTT Technical Researc Centre of Finland (Finland)

    2006-04-15

    CFD and structural analysis codes. MpCCI 3.0 was used for coupling Fluent CFD code with ABAQUS FE code. ES-FSI was used for coupling Star-CD CFD code with ABAQUS. FSI analyses, in which the calculation was carried out entirely in ABAQUS, were also performed. In this case, acoustic elements were used for the fluid and the acoustic and structural domains were coupled. FSI calculations were performed for simple test cases and for a test pool at Lappeenranta University of Technology. The Method of Images was studied as an alternative method for the analyses of the pool. Particularly, the determination of pressure source for the method was studied. Earlier work carried out with the homogenous two-phase model was continued by testing the model with Fluent. Calculation of condensation of steam in a water pool was tested with a new implementation. The two-directionally coupled simulations of the pool with MpCCI and ES-FSI were found to be numerically instable. It was concluded that an implicit coupling method may have to be used in order to avoid the instability. Calculations of the pool were finally performed by using one directional coupling. In the simulations with MpCCI, the incompressible and compressible VOF models of Fluent were used. With ES-FSI, the incompressible VOF model of Star-CD was used for modelling the beginning of a steam injection experiment. The magnitudes of pressure and stress peaks in the simulation and experiment were of comparable size. Otherwise, however, differences between the simulation and experiment were large due to the simplifications used in the simulation. Results obtained with the acoustic-structural FE analyses were compared to analytical and experimental results. The results indicated that the coupled acoustic-structural analysis can be used for calculating the coupled Eigenmodes of BWR pressure suppression pools. (au)

  12. Diversity of Microbial Communities in Production and Injection Waters of Algerian Oilfields Revealed by 16S rRNA Gene Amplicon 454 Pyrosequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenchi, Nesrine; İnceoğlu, Özgül; Kebbouche-Gana, Salima; Gana, Mohamed Lamine; Llirós, Marc; Servais, Pierre; García-Armisen, Tamara

    2013-01-01

    The microorganisms inhabiting many petroleum reservoirs are multi-extremophiles capable of surviving in environments with high temperature, pressure and salinity. Their activity influences oil quality and they are an important reservoir of enzymes of industrial interest. To study these microbial assemblages and to assess any modifications that may be caused by industrial practices, the bacterial and archaeal communities in waters from four Algerian oilfields were described and compared. Three different types of samples were analyzed: production waters from flooded wells, production waters from non-flooded wells and injection waters used for flooding (water-bearing formations). Microbial communities of production and injection waters appeared to be significantly different. From a quantitative point of view, injection waters harbored roughly ten times more microbial cells than production waters. Bacteria dominated in injection waters, while Archaea dominated in production waters. Statistical analysis based on the relative abundance and bacterial community composition (BCC) revealed significant differences between production and injection waters at both OTUs0.03 and phylum level. However, no significant difference was found between production waters from flooded and non-flooded wells, suggesting that most of the microorganisms introduced by the injection waters were unable to survive in the production waters. Furthermore, a Venn diagram generated to compare the BCC of production and injection waters of one flooded well revealed only 4% of shared bacterial OTUs. Phylogenetic analysis of bacterial sequences indicated that Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria were the main classes in most of the water samples. Archaeal sequences were only obtained from production wells and each well had a unique archaeal community composition, mainly belonging to Methanobacteria, Methanomicrobia, Thermoprotei and Halobacteria classes. Many of the bacterial genera retrieved had already

  13. Diversity of Microbial Communities in Production and Injection Waters of Algerian Oilfields Revealed by 16S rRNA Gene Amplicon 454 Pyrosequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesrine Lenchi

    Full Text Available The microorganisms inhabiting many petroleum reservoirs are multi-extremophiles capable of surviving in environments with high temperature, pressure and salinity. Their activity influences oil quality and they are an important reservoir of enzymes of industrial interest. To study these microbial assemblages and to assess any modifications that may be caused by industrial practices, the bacterial and archaeal communities in waters from four Algerian oilfields were described and compared. Three different types of samples were analyzed: production waters from flooded wells, production waters from non-flooded wells and injection waters used for flooding (water-bearing formations. Microbial communities of production and injection waters appeared to be significantly different. From a quantitative point of view, injection waters harbored roughly ten times more microbial cells than production waters. Bacteria dominated in injection waters, while Archaea dominated in production waters. Statistical analysis based on the relative abundance and bacterial community composition (BCC revealed significant differences between production and injection waters at both OTUs0.03 and phylum level. However, no significant difference was found between production waters from flooded and non-flooded wells, suggesting that most of the microorganisms introduced by the injection waters were unable to survive in the production waters. Furthermore, a Venn diagram generated to compare the BCC of production and injection waters of one flooded well revealed only 4% of shared bacterial OTUs. Phylogenetic analysis of bacterial sequences indicated that Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria were the main classes in most of the water samples. Archaeal sequences were only obtained from production wells and each well had a unique archaeal community composition, mainly belonging to Methanobacteria, Methanomicrobia, Thermoprotei and Halobacteria classes. Many of the bacterial genera

  14. Trace analysis of isothiazolinones in water samples by large-volume direct injection liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speksnijder, P; van Ravestijn, J; de Voogt, P

    2010-08-06

    Isothiazolinones are used as preservatives, biocides and disinfectants in a variety of industrial and domestic applications. Some of the isothiazolinones are difficult to isolate from water due their high polarity. A sensitive and selective analytical method was developed and optimized for the determination of sub-microg/L levels of three isothiazolinones in water samples. Three isothiazolinones are described in this paper: 2-methyl-3-isothiazolinone, 5-chloro-2-methyl-3-isothiazolinone and 4,5-dichloro-2-methyl-3-isothiazolinone. The analytical method involves a robust large-volume direct on-column loop injection of 2 mL on an Aqua ODS HPLC column and tandem MS detection (HPLC-MS/MS). After filtration, samples are directly injected without further pretreatment. Detection limits of the individual target compounds were between 0.03 and 0.1 microg/L employing Multi-Reaction Monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometry. Based on the constant ratio of two selected product-ions together with the retention time, the identification is very selective and quantification is reliable. The method was successfully applied to real samples of membrane flushings, drinking water, surface waters and waste water. Additional investigations showed the instability of the isothiazolinones in river- and waste water. Preservation of river water and waste water samples with sodium azide (NaN(3)) promotes the stability of the isothiazolines in solution. In membrane flushings, waste water, surface waters and drinking water, levels of the three isothiazolinones were all below the limit of detection. In effluents of households containing washings from normal shampoo use, isothiazolinones could be detected. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Experiment HFR-B1: A preliminary analysis of the water-vapor injection experiments in capsule 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, B.F.

    1993-08-01

    A preliminary analysis of the response of uranium oxycarbide (UCO) fuel to water vapor addition in capsule 3 of experiment HFR-B1 (HFR-B1/3) has been conducted. The analysis provides an early indication of the behavior of fission gas release under a wider range of water-vapor pressures and of temperatures than heretofore studied. A preliminary analysis of selected aspects of the water-vapor injection tests in capsule 3 of experiment HFR-B1 is presented. The release of fission gas stored in bubbles and the diffusive release of fission-gas atoms are distinguished. The dependence of the release of stored fission gas ({sup 85m}Kr) on water-vapor pressure, P(H{sub 2}O), and temperature were established taking into account the contributing mechanisms of gaseous release, the effect of graphite hydrolysis, and the requirement of consistency with experiment HRB-17 in which similar water-vapor injection tests were conducted. The dependence on P(H{sub 2}O) becomes weaker as temperatures increase above 770{degree}C; the activation energy for release of stored-fission gas is 393 kJ/mol. Isorelease curves for the pressure-temperature plane were deduced from a derived functional relation. The stored-fission gas releases as a function of P(H{sub 2}O) at a common temperature for experiments HFR-B1 and HRB-17 differ by a factor of 4; this discrepancy could be attributed to the differences in fission-rate density and neutron flux between the two experiments. Diffusive release of fission gas occurred during and after the release of stored gas. The ratio of diffusive release during water-vapor injection to that prior to injection varied in contrast to the results from HRB-17. The variation was attributed to the practice of injecting water vapor into HFR-B1 before sintering of the fuel, hydrolyzed in the previous test, was completed. The derived activation energy for diffusive release is 23.6 kJ/mol.

  16. Photo-induced flow-injection determination of nitrate in water

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikuška, Pavel; Čapka, Lukáš; Večeřa, Zbyněk; Kalinichenko, I.; Kellner, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 10 (2014), s. 1038-1049 ISSN 0306-7319 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : chemiluminescence * flow injection analysis * nitrate Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry , Separation Impact factor: 1.295, year: 2014

  17. Geological Factors Affecting Flow Spatial Continuity in Water Injection of Units Operating in the LGITJ–0102 Ore Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilver M. Soto-Loaiza

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the investigation was to identify the geological factors affecting the spatial continuity of the flow during the process of flank water injection in the units operating in the Lower Lagunilla Hydrocarbon Ore Body. This included the evaluation of the recovery factor, the petro-physic properties such as porosity, permeability, water saturation and rock type and quality in each flow unit. it was observed that the rock type of the geologic structure in the ore body is variable. The lowest values for the petro-physic properties were found in the southern area while a high variability of these parameters was observed in the northern and central areas. It was concluded that the northern area has a great potential for the development of new injection projects for petroleum recovery.

  18. Wastewater injection, aquifer biogeochemical reactions, and resultant groundwater N fluxes to coastal waters: Kā'anapali, Maui, Hawai'i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fackrell, Joseph K; Glenn, Craig R; Popp, Brian N; Whittier, Robert B; Dulai, Henrietta

    2016-09-15

    We utilize N and C species concentration data along with δ(15)N values of NO3(-) and δ(13)C values of dissolved inorganic C to evaluate the stoichiometry of biogeochemical reactions (mineralization, nitrification, anammox, and denitrification) occurring within a subsurface wastewater plume that originates as treated wastewater injection and enters the coastal waters of Maui as submarine groundwater discharge. Additionally, we compare wastewater effluent time-series data, injection rates, and treatment history with submarine spring discharge time-series data. We find that heterotrophic denitrification is the primary mechanism of N loss within the groundwater plume and that chlorination for pathogen disinfection suppresses microbial activity in the aquifer responsible for N loss, resulting in increased coastal ocean N loading. Replacement of chlorination with UV disinfection may restore biogeochemical reactions responsible for N loss within the aquifer and return N-attenuating conditions in the effluent plume, reducing N loading to coastal waters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Coal-water slurry sprays from an electronically controlled accumulator fuel injection system: Break-up distances and times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caton, J. A.; Payne, S. E.; Terracina, D. P.; Kihm, K. D.

    Experiments have been completed to characterize coal-water slurry sprays from an electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injection system of a diesel engine. The sprays were injected into a pressurized chamber equipped with windows. High speed movies, fuel pressures, and needle lifts were obtained as a function of time, orifice diameter, coal loading, gas density in the chamber, and accumulator fuel pressure. For the base conditions (50% by mass coal loading, 0.4 mm diameter nozzle hole, coal-water slurry pressure of 82 MPa (12,000 psi), and a chamber density of 25 kg/m(exp 3)), the break-up time was 0.30 ms. An empirical correlation for spray tip penetration, break-up time, and initial jet velocity was developed. For the conditions of this study, the spray tip penetration and initial jet velocity were 15% greater for coal-water slurry than for diesel fuel or water. Results of this study and the correlation are specific to the tested coal-water slurry and are not general for other coal-water slurry fuels.

  20. Effect of administration of water enriched in O2 by injection or electrolysis on transcutaneous oxygen pressure in anesthetized pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charton, Antoine; Péronnet, François; Doutreleau, Stephane; Lonsdorfer, Evelyne; Klein, Alexis; Jimenez, Liliana; Geny, Bernard; Diemunsch, Pierre; Richard, Ruddy

    2014-01-01

    Background Oral administration of oxygenated water has been shown to improve blood oxygenation and could be an alternate way for oxygen (O2) supply. In this experiment, tissue oxygenation was compared in anesthetized pigs receiving a placebo or water enriched in O2 by injection or a new electrolytic process. Methods Forty-two pigs randomized in three groups received either mineral water as placebo or water enriched in O2 by injection or the electrolytic process (10 mL/kg in the stomach). Hemodynamic parameters, partial pressure of oxygen in the arterial blood (PaO2), skin blood flow, and tissue oxygenation (transcutaneous oxygen pressure, or TcPO2) were monitored during 90 minutes of general anesthesia. Absorption and tissue distribution of the three waters administered were assessed using dilution of deuterium oxide. Results Mean arterial pressure, heart rate, PaO2, arteriovenous oxygen difference, and water absorption from the gut were not significantly different among the three groups. The deuterium to protium ratio was also similar in the plasma, skin, and muscle at the end of the protocol. Skin blood flow decreased in the three groups. TcPO2 slowly decreased over the last 60 minutes of the experiment in the three groups, but when compared to the control group, the values remained significantly higher in animals that received the water enriched in O2 by electrolysis. Conclusions In this protocol, water enriched in O2 by electrolysis lessened the decline of peripheral tissue oxygenation. This observation is compatible with the claim that the electrolytic process generates water clathrates which trap O2 and facilitate O2 diffusion along pressure gradients. Potential applications of O2-enriched water include an alternate method of oxygen supply. PMID:25210438

  1. Experimental Investigation of Gas Hydrate Production at Injection of Liquid Nitrogen into Water with Bubbles of Freon 134A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meleshkin Anton V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrodynamic processes during the injection of the cryogenic liquid into the volume of water with bubbles of gas freon 134a are studding experimentally. A processes during the explosive boiling of liquid nitrogen in the volume of water are registered. Video recording of identified gas hydrate flakes formed during this process is carried out by high speed camera. These results may be useful for the study of the new method of producing gas hydrates, based on the shock-wave method.

  2. Tolerability of hypertonic injectables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei

    2015-07-25

    Injectable drug products are ideally developed as isotonic solutions. Often, hypertonic injectables may have to be marketed for a variety of reasons such as product solubilization and stabilization. A key concern during product formulation development is the local and systemic tolerability of hypertonic products upon injection. This report reviews and discusses the tolerability in terms of local discomfort, irritation, sensation of heat and pain, along with other observed side effects of hypertonicity in both in-vitro systems and in-vivo animal and human models. These side effects clearly depend on the degree of hypertonicity. The sensation of pain among different injection routes seems to follow this order: intramuscular>subcutaneous>intravenous or intravascular. It is recommended that the upper osmolality limit should be generally controlled under 600 mOsm/kg for drug products intended for intramuscular or subcutaneous injection. For drug products intended for intravenous or intravascular injection, the recommended upper limit should be generally controlled under 1,000 mOsm/kg for small-volume injections (≤ 100 mL) and 500 mOsm/kg for large-volume injections (>100mL). Several options are available for minimization of hypertonicity-induced pain upon product administration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Testing and modelling of a novel oil-free co-rotating scroll machine with water injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, Luis Carlos; Lemofouet, Sylvain; Schiffmann, Jürg

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Performance of novel oil-free co-rotating scroll expander presented. • Water injection allows reaching quasi-isothermal expansion process. • Comparison between experimental data, semi-empirical and deterministic models. • Flank leakage, water injection and rotor speed effects have been analyzed experimentally. • Design guidelines for co-rotating scroll improvement proposed. - Abstract: Efficient compressed air energy storage requires reversible isothermal compression and expansion devices. The isothermal compression and expansion processes can either be approached by several stages with intercooling or by the more convenient injection of a liquid, often water. While volumetric machines are readily available for dry processes the compression and expansion of a gas with the presence of liquid is still problematic. The concept of a co-rotating scroll has been identified as a promising technology to cope with the presence of liquid. The current paper discusses the first experimental results of an oil-free co-rotating scroll prototype tested in expansion mode on a wide range of rotational speeds, varying water injection flow rates and with different nominal flank clearances. A maximal overall isothermal efficiency of 34% and a maximum output power of 1.74 kW el were measured with this first prototype, providing the proof of the technical feasibility of the oil-free co-rotating scroll expander concept. The experimental data indicate a positive effect of water injection suggesting good heat transfer behaviour between the water and the air in the individual chambers, which is a result of the relatively long residence time compared to other volumetric concepts. The experimental sensitivity analysis yields a strong dependency of the machine performance on both the nominal flank clearance and on the injected water rate. The analysis through a semi-empirical model suggests the inversion of a classical trend, i.e. the increase in total leakage area with

  4. Late biological effects of 137CsCl injected in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikula, K.J.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Griffith, W.C.; Hahn, F.F.; Boecker, B.B.

    1994-01-01

    The toxicity of intravenously administered 137 CsCl in the Beagle dog was investigated as part of the ITRI program to evaluate the biological effects of internally deposited fission product radionuclides. The toxicity and health effects of 137 Cs are important to understand because 137 Cs is produced in large amounts in light-water nuclear reactors. Also, large quantities of cesium radioisotopes have entered the human food chain as a result of atmospheric nuclear weapons tests and additonal cesium radioisotopes were released during the Chernobyl accident. The intravenous route of exposure was chosen because it was known that after intravenous injection, inhalation, or ingestion, internally deposited 137 CsCl is rapidly adsorbed and distributed throughout the body, exposing the whole body to beta and gamma radiation, and because of the reduced radiation protection problems associated with high-level exposure via injection compared to these other routes

  5. Unit operation optimization for the manufacturing of botanical injections using a design space approach: a case study of water precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xingchu; Chen, Huali; Chen, Teng; Qu, Haibin

    2014-01-01

    Quality by design (QbD) concept is a paradigm for the improvement of botanical injection quality control. In this work, water precipitation process for the manufacturing of Xueshuantong injection, a botanical injection made from Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, was optimized using a design space approach as a sample. Saponin recovery and total saponin purity (TSP) in supernatant were identified as the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of water precipitation using a risk assessment for all the processes of Xueshuantong injection. An Ishikawa diagram and experiments of fractional factorial design were applied to determine critical process parameters (CPPs). Dry matter content of concentrated extract (DMCC), amount of water added (AWA), and stirring speed (SS) were identified as CPPs. Box-Behnken designed experiments were carried out to develop models between CPPs and process CQAs. Determination coefficients were higher than 0.86 for all the models. High TSP in supernatant can be obtained when DMCC is low and SS is high. Saponin recoveries decreased as DMCC increased. Incomplete collection of supernatant was the main reason for the loss of saponins. Design space was calculated using a Monte-Carlo simulation method with acceptable probability of 0.90. Recommended normal operation region are located in DMCC of 0.38-0.41 g/g, AWA of 3.7-4.9 g/g, and SS of 280-350 rpm, with a probability more than 0.919 to attain CQA criteria. Verification experiment results showed that operating DMCC, SS, and AWA within design space can attain CQA criteria with high probability.

  6. Unit operation optimization for the manufacturing of botanical injections using a design space approach: a case study of water precipitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingchu Gong

    Full Text Available Quality by design (QbD concept is a paradigm for the improvement of botanical injection quality control. In this work, water precipitation process for the manufacturing of Xueshuantong injection, a botanical injection made from Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, was optimized using a design space approach as a sample. Saponin recovery and total saponin purity (TSP in supernatant were identified as the critical quality attributes (CQAs of water precipitation using a risk assessment for all the processes of Xueshuantong injection. An Ishikawa diagram and experiments of fractional factorial design were applied to determine critical process parameters (CPPs. Dry matter content of concentrated extract (DMCC, amount of water added (AWA, and stirring speed (SS were identified as CPPs. Box-Behnken designed experiments were carried out to develop models between CPPs and process CQAs. Determination coefficients were higher than 0.86 for all the models. High TSP in supernatant can be obtained when DMCC is low and SS is high. Saponin recoveries decreased as DMCC increased. Incomplete collection of supernatant was the main reason for the loss of saponins. Design space was calculated using a Monte-Carlo simulation method with acceptable probability of 0.90. Recommended normal operation region are located in DMCC of 0.38-0.41 g/g, AWA of 3.7-4.9 g/g, and SS of 280-350 rpm, with a probability more than 0.919 to attain CQA criteria. Verification experiment results showed that operating DMCC, SS, and AWA within design space can attain CQA criteria with high probability.

  7. Experimental and Numerical Studies on Mudstone's Creep Behavior During Water Injection and Its Effect on Casing Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, X. L.; Yang, C. H.; Liu, J. J.; He, X.; Xiong, J.

    2008-07-01

    During the process of water injection production in oilfield, when water cuts into the mudstone, as a result, large numbers of casings are damaged because of mudstone's creep characteristic. In order to analyze this phenomenon, the uniaxial compression experiments and creep experiments of mudstone from Daqing Oil Field under different saturation conditions were done, it was studied that how the mudstone's mechanical parameters and creep characteristic would change with the increment of water contents. The results indicate that the rock strength and elastic modulus are decreased rapidly with the increment of water contents, on the other hand, the creep strain and steady state creep strain rate are increased with the increment of water contents, and also the steady state creep strain rate is enhanced with the increment of deviatoric stress. Through the creep characteristic curves, a nonlinear creeping constitutive equation of mudstone considering the changes of water contents was established. In the deep stratum of the oilfield, the calculation model of casing-cement sheath-mudstone was built, based on the experiment results of mudstone and its creep constitutive equation, mudstone's creep pressure with time under different water contents was simulated. The simulation results show that the increasing water content accelerates the incremental rate of the creep pressure of mudstone, so the time of reaching yield state of casing will descend greatly, which means service time of casing becomes much shorter.

  8. Thermal shock studies associated with injection of emergency core coolant in pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheverton, R.D.; Bolt, S.E.; Iskander, S.K.

    1977-01-01

    Studies to determine the accuracy of calculational techniques for predicting crack initiation and arrest in PWR vessels due to thermal shock from ECC injection are described. The reference calculational model is reviewed, the experimental program and facilities are described, and some thermal shock experiments and results are discussed

  9. Strontium isotopes test long-term zonal isolation of injected and Marcellus formation water after hydraulic fracturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Courtney A Kolesar; Capo, Rosemary C; Stewart, Brian W; Wall, Andrew J; Schroeder, Karl T; Hammack, Richard W; Guthrie, George D

    2014-08-19

    One concern regarding unconventional hydrocarbon production from organic-rich shale is that hydraulic fracture stimulation could create pathways that allow injected fluids and deep brines from the target formation or adjacent units to migrate upward into shallow drinking water aquifers. This study presents Sr isotope and geochemical data from a well-constrained site in Greene County, Pennsylvania, in which samples were collected before and after hydraulic fracturing of the Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale. Results spanning a 15-month period indicated no significant migration of Marcellus-derived fluids into Upper Devonian/Lower Mississippian units located 900-1200 m above the lateral Marcellus boreholes or into groundwater sampled at a spring near the site. Monitoring the Sr isotope ratio of water from legacy oil and gas wells or drinking water wells can provide a sensitive early warning of upward brine migration for many years after well stimulation.

  10. The Influence of CO2 Solubility in Brine on Simulation of CO2 Injection into Water Flooded Reservoir and CO2 WAG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2010-01-01

    Injection of CO2 into depleted oil reservoirs is not only a traditional way to enhance oil recovery but also a relatively cheaper way to sequester CO2 underground since the increased oil production can offset some sequestration cost. CO2 injection process is often applied to water flooded...... reservoirs and in many situations alternating injection of water and CO2 is required to stabilize the injection front. Both scenarios involve a large amount of water, making CO2 solubility in brine, which is around ten times higher than methane solubility, a non-negligible factor in the relevant reservoir...... simulations. In our previous study, a 1-D slimtube simulator, which rigorously accounts for both CO2 solubility in brine and water content in hydrocarbon phases using the Peng-Robinson EoS modified by Soreide and Whitson, has been used to investigate the influence of CO2 solubility on the simulation...

  11. Design of water debinding and dissolution stages of metal injection moulded porous Ti foam production

    OpenAIRE

    Shbeh, M.M.; Goodall, R.

    2015-01-01

    Foams are advanced materials with controlled meso- and micro-structure, with huge potential in a variety of applications such as in the biomedical and automotive sectors. One promising technique for the production of Ti foams is Metal Injection Moulding in combination with Space Holders (MIMSH). Most existing work in the literature on MIM-SH foams reports very long debinding and dissolution periods that can extend for more than two days. In this paper, the effect on process speed of different...

  12. Portable Intravenous Fluid Production Device For Ground Use Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J.

    2014-01-01

    Several medical conditions require the administration of intravenous (IV) fluids,but limitations of mass, volume, shelf-life, transportation, and local resources can restrict the availability of these important fluids. Such limitations are expected in long-duration space exploration missions and in remote or austere places on Earth. This design uses regular drinking water that is pumped through two filters to produce, in minutes, sterile, ultrapure water that meets the stringent quality standards of the United States Pharmacopeia for Water for Injection (Total Bacteria, Conductivity, Endo - toxins, Total Organic Carbon). The device weighs 2.2 lb (1 kg) and is 10 in. long, 5 in. wide, and 3 in. high (˜25, 13, and 7.5 cm, respectively) in its storage configuration. This handheld device produces one liter of medical-grade water in 21 minutes. Total production capacity for this innovation is expected to be in the hundreds of liters. The device contains one battery powered electric mini-pump. Alternatively, a manually powered pump can be attached and used. Drinking water enters the device from a source water bag, flows through two filters, and final sterile production water exits into a sealed, medical-grade collection bag. The collection bag contains pre-placed crystalline salts to mix with product water to form isotonic intravenous medical solutions. Alternatively, a hypertonic salt solution can be injected into a filled bag. The filled collection bag is detached from the device and is ready for use or storage. This device currently contains one collection bag, but a manifold of several pre-attached bags or replacement of single collection bags under sterile needle technique is possible for the production of multiple liters. The entire system will be flushed, sealed, and radiation-sterilized. Operation of the device is easy and requires minimal training. Drinking water is placed into the collection bag. Inline stopcock flow valves at the source and collection bags

  13. FLOW INJECTION ANALYSIS SYSTEM COUPLED WITH ICP-EOS FOR DETERMINATION OF SOME METALLIC ELEMENTS IN DRINKING WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Dinu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Drinking Water Directive (98/83/EC, transposed in Romanian Legislation as Low 458/2002, amended by Low 311/2004, imposes the limit of concentration for metallic elements in water intended for human consumption. The toxic metals arsenic and selenium are among these elements and the limit value is 10 μg/L. In the paper there are presented the working conditions for determination of As and Se from drinking water using modern techniques based on the fl ow injection-hydride generation with the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (FIAS-ICP-EOS. The analyses were performed on Optima 5300 DV Perkin Elmer equipment with FIAS 400 Flow Injection System, Perkin Elmer type. For the hydride generation two types of solution were used: 10% (v/v HCl as a carrier solution and 0.2 % NaBH4 in 0.05%NaOH solution as a reducing agent [1]. The treatment step of the samples and standard solutions consisted in reducing with mixed solutions of KI and ascorbic acid in acidic condition (HCl for As and only with HCl and high temperature for Se [2,3]. The paper contains the characteristic parameters of the methods, such as: low detection limit, quantifi cation limit, repeatability, precision, recovery, which were evaluated using Certifi ed Reference Materials for each element.

  14. A simple simultaneous flow injection method based on phosphomolybdenum chemistry for nitrate and nitrite determinations in water and fish samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monser, L; Sadok, S; Greenway, G M; Shah, I; Uglow, R F

    2002-05-24

    A direct spectrophotometric flow injection method for the simultaneous determination of nitrite and nitrate has been developed. The method is based on the oxidation of a phosphomolybdenum blue complex by the addition of nitrite and the decrease in absorbance of the blue complex is monitored at 820 nm. The injected sample is split into two segments. One of the streams was directly reacted with the above reagent and detected as nitrite. The other stream was passed through a copperised cadmium reductor column where reduction of nitrate to nitrite occurs, and the sample was then mixed with the reagent and passed through the cell of the spectrophotometer to be detected as nitrite plus nitrate. The conditions for the flow injection manifold parameters were optimised by experimental design and the concentration of nitrite and nitrate was determined in the linear range from 0.05 to 1.15 mug ml(-1) nitrite and 0.06 to 1.6 mug ml(-1) nitrate with a detection limit of 0.01 mug ml(-1) for nitrite and 0.025 mug ml(-1) for nitrate. The method is suitable for the simultaneous determination of nitrite and nitrate in fish and water samples with a sampling rate of 25+/-2 sample per hour.

  15. Pore Pressure and Field stress variation from Salt Water Injection; A case Study from Beaver Lodge Field in Williston Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, R. A.; Khatibi, S.

    2017-12-01

    One of the major concerns in producing from oil and gas reservoirs in North American Basins is the disposal of high salinity salt water. It is a misconception that Hydro frack triggers Earthquakes, but due to the high salinity and density of water being pumped to the formation that has pore space of the rock already filled, which is not the case in Hydro-frack or Enhanced Oil Recovery in which fracturing fluid is pumped into empty pore space of rocks in depleted reservoirs. A review on the Bakken history showed that the concerns related to induce seismicity has increased over time due to variations in Pore pressure and In-situ stress that have shown steep changes in the region over the time. In this study, we focused on Pore pressure and field Stress variations in lower Cretaceous Inyan Kara and Mississippian Devonian Bakken, Inyan Kara is the major source for class-II salt-water disposal in the basin. Salt-water disposal is the major cause for induced seismicity. A full field study was done on Beaver Lodge Field, which has many salt-water disposal wells Adjacent to Oil and Gas Wells. We analyzed formation properties, stresses, pore-pressure, and fracture gradient profile in the field and. The constructed Mechanical Earth Model (MEM) revealed changes in pore pressure and stresses over time due to saltwater injection. Well drilled in the past were compared to recently drilled wells, which showed much stress variations. Safe mud weight Window of wells near proximity of injection wells was examined which showed many cases of wellbore instabilities. Results of this study will have tremendous impact in studying environmental issues and the future drilling and Fracking operations.

  16. Methodology for assessing quantities of water and proppant injection, and water production associated with development of continuous petroleum accumulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Seth S.

    2015-07-13

    The quantities of water and hydraulic fracturing proppant required for producing petroleum (oil, gas, and natural gas liquids) from continuous accumulations, and the quantities of water extracted during petroleum production, can be quantitatively assessed using a probabilistic approach. The water and proppant assessment methodology builds on the U.S. Geological Survey methodology for quantitative assessment of undiscovered technically recoverable petroleum resources in continuous accumulations. The U.S. Geological Survey assessment methodology for continuous petroleum accumulations includes fundamental concepts such as geologically defined assessment units, and probabilistic input values including well-drainage area, sweet- and non-sweet-spot areas, and success ratio within the untested area of each assessment unit. In addition to petroleum-related information, required inputs for the water and proppant assessment methodology include probabilistic estimates of per-well water usage for drilling, cementing, and hydraulic-fracture stimulation; the ratio of proppant to water for hydraulic fracturing; the percentage of hydraulic fracturing water that returns to the surface as flowback; and the ratio of produced water to petroleum over the productive life of each well. Water and proppant assessments combine information from recent or current petroleum assessments with water- and proppant-related input values for the assessment unit being studied, using Monte Carlo simulation, to yield probabilistic estimates of the volume of water for drilling, cementing, and hydraulic fracture stimulation; the quantity of proppant for hydraulic fracture stimulation; and the volumes of water produced as flowback shortly after well completion, and produced over the life of the well.

  17. Pain management in emergency department: intravenous morphine vs. intravenous acetaminophen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Talebi Doluee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain is the most common complaint in emergency department and there are several methods for its control. Among them, pharmaceutical methods are the most effective. Although intravenous morphine has been the most common choice for several years, it has some adverse effects. There are many researches about intravenous acetaminophen as an analgesic agent and it appears that it has good analgesic effects for various types of pain. We searched some electronic resources for clinical trials comparing analgesic effects of intravenous acetaminophen vs. intravenous morphine for acute pain treatment in emergency setting.In two clinical trials, the analgesic effect of intravenous acetaminophen has been compared with intravenous morphine for renal colic. The results revealed no significant difference between analgesic effects of two medications. Another clinical trial revealed that intravenous acetaminophen has acceptable analgesic effects on the post-cesarean section pain when combined with other analgesic medications. One study revealed that administration of intravenous acetaminophen compared to placebo before hysterectomy decreased consumption of morphine via patient-controlled analgesia pump and decreased the side effects. Similarly, another study revealed that the infusion of intravenous acetaminophen vs. placebo after orthopedic surgery decreased the consumption of morphine after the surgery. A clinical trial revealed intravenous acetaminophen provided a level of analgesia comparable to intravenous morphine in isolated limb trauma, while causing less side effects than morphine.It appears that intravenous acetaminophen has good analgesic effects for visceral, traumatic and postoperative pains compare with intravenous morphine.

  18. Tomographic Imaging of Water Injection and Withdrawal in PEMFC Gas Diffusion Layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGill U; Gostick, J. T.; Gunterman, H. P.; Weber, A. Z.; Newman, J. S.; Kienitz, B. L.; MacDowell, A. A.

    2010-06-25

    X-ray computed tomography was used to visualize the water configurations inside gas diffusion layers for various applied capillary pressures, corresponding to both water invasion and withdrawal. A specialized sample holder was developed to allow capillary pressure control on the small-scale samples required. Tests were performed on GDL specimens with and without hydrophobic treatments.

  19. A highly efficient six-stroke internal combustion engine cycle with water injection for in-cylinder exhaust heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conklin, James C.; Szybist, James P.

    2010-01-01

    A concept adding two strokes to the Otto or Diesel engine cycle to increase fuel efficiency is presented here. It can be thought of as a four-stroke Otto or Diesel cycle followed by a two-stroke heat recovery steam cycle. A partial exhaust event coupled with water injection adds an additional power stroke. Waste heat from two sources is effectively converted into usable work: engine coolant and exhaust gas. An ideal thermodynamics model of the exhaust gas compression, water injection and expansion was used to investigate this modification. By changing the exhaust valve closing timing during the exhaust stroke, the optimum amount of exhaust can be recompressed, maximizing the net mean effective pressure of the steam expansion stroke (MEP steam ). The valve closing timing for maximum MEP steam is limited by either 1 bar or the dew point temperature of the expansion gas/moisture mixture when the exhaust valve opens. The range of MEP steam calculated for the geometry of a conventional gasoline engine and is from 0.75 to 2.5 bars. Typical combustion mean effective pressures (MEP combustion ) of naturally aspirated gasoline engines are up to 10 bar, thus this concept has the potential to significantly increase the engine efficiency and fuel economy.

  20. Pilot Experimental Works on Injection of Hot Water with Surfactants into Bobrikovian Deposits of Berket-Klyuchevsky Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.N. Khusnutdinov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem of developing and introducing new methods of enhancing oil recovery is especially important for heavy oil fields, the share of which in the structure of reserves is steadily growing. Conventional methods of oil recovery and stimulation of well productivity applied on heavy oil fields are often ineffective, in this regard, the increase in the efficiency of geological and technical measures at such objects is becoming increasingly dependent on the concentration of intensifying factors of influence on the reservoir and the proper choice of technology in accordance with geological and geophysical conditions. The authors have developed and introduced into production the resource-saving technology of complex stimulation on the productive layer, which includes a combination of physical, chemical, thermal and hydrodynamic factors of stimulation. A rational combination of these factors made it possible to increase the efficiency of developing a heavy oil deposit – to stabilize the decline and increase oil production. Technologically, the implemented development method consists in injecting hot water into the injection wells with a calculated content of surfactants. Associated gas of this section of the field, previously burned on the flare, is used as fuel for heating water. The introduction of the technology allowed to completely solve the problem of utilization of associated gas at the site: the flare was extinguished, as a result of which the emissions and technogenic load on the environment were also reduced.

  1. A metallic cobalt electrode for the indirect potentiometric determination of calcium and magnesium in natural waters using flow injection analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z; Adams, M A

    1998-11-01

    A flow injection analysis of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) using indirect potentiometric detection in natural waters is proposed, where Ca(2+) or Mg(2+) are injected into a buffer carrier containing phosphate, resulting in the formation of Ca(3)(PO(4))(2) or Mg(3)(PO(4))(2). The consequent reduction in free phosphate in the carrier solution is detected using a metallic cobalt wire electrode. Indirect electrode response was used and the experimental conditions affecting electrode response were optimized. Responses were linear in the concentration range 5x10(-4) to 5x10(-3) M with a detection limit of 1x10(-5) M in 20 mM phosphate buffer at pH 8.0. The relative standard derivation at 1 mM of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) were 3.9 and 3.7% (n=10), respectively. EGTA and 8-hydroxyquinoline were used as the masking agents for Ca(2+) and Mg(2+), respectively. Concentrations of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) in natural waters were successfully determined by the proposed method.

  2. Condensation in the cold leg as results of ECC water injection during A LOCA: modeling and validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, J.; Frepoli, C.; Ohkawa, K.

    2011-01-01

    During postulated LOCA events in pressurized water reactors, cold water is injected into cold legs by emergency core cooling system (ECCS). As the ECC water comes into contact with steam, the amount of condensation in the cold legs which results from mixing of the two phases is expected to have an effect on the thermal hydraulic behavior of the system. During boil off period and recovery period of a small break LOCA, the condensation in the cold leg is enhanced by the impingement of the ECC jet on the layer of liquid, when the flow in the cold leg is expected to be horizontal stratified. Consequently, the reactor coolant system (RCS) depressurization is accelerated, which in turn increases ECC flow rate and promotes accumulator injection. For a large break LOCA, the condensation process in the cold leg during refill period helps to reduce bypass flow at the top of downcomer, promoting ECC penetration. The condensation in the cold leg during reflood period is an important factor in determining the ECC bypass, the break flow rate, the downcomer and core water inventory, and the liquid subcooling in the downcomer, which in turn impacts the peak cladding temperature during reflood. A cold leg condensation model was considered for the new release of WCOBRA/TRAC-TF2 safety analysis code and presented in an authors' previous work. The model was further improved to better capture relevant data and a revised model was found to be in better agreement with such experimental data. The intent of this paper is to present the validation for the cold leg condensation model. The improved cold leg condensation model is assessed against various small break and large break LOCA separate effects tests such as COSI experiments, ROSA experiments and UPTF experiments. Those experiments cover a wide range of cold leg dimensions, system pressures, mass flow rates, and fluid properties. All the predicted condensation results match reasonably well with the experimental data. (author)

  3. Influence of Zn injection on corrosion behavior and oxide film characteristics of 304 stainless steel in borated and lithiated high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Xinqiang; Liu, Xiahe; Han, En-Hou; Ke, Wei

    2012-09-01

    Water chemistry of the reactor coolant system plays a major role in maintaining safety and reliability of light water reactor nuclear power plants (NPPs). Zn water chemistry into pressurized water reactors (PWRs) in order to reduce the radiation buildup in primary coolant system has been widely applied, and the reduction effect has been experimentally confirmed. Zn injection can also lessen the corrosion phenomena in high temperature pressurized water by changing oxide films formed on components materials. Both the radiation buildup and material corrosion resistance in PWR coolant system are closely dependent on the oxide films formed. However, the influence of Zn injection on the chemical composition and structure of the oxide films on their protective properties is still a matter of considerable debate. The influence of Zn injection on corrosion inhibition and environmental degradation has not been fully clarified yet. Therefore, the understanding of corrosion behaviour, oxide film characteristics and their protective property is of significance to clarify the environmentally assisted material failure problems in NPPs. In the present work, oxide films formed on nuclear-grade 304 SS exposed to borated and lithiated high temperature water environments at 300 deg. C up to 4000 h with or without 10 ppb Zn injection were investigated ex-situ. Without Zn injection, the oxide films mainly consisted of Fe 3 O 4 and FeCr 2 O 4 . With Zn injection, ZnFe 2 O 4 and ZnCr 2 O 4 were detected in the oxide films at the initial stage of immersion and ZnCr 2 O 4 became dominant after long-term immersion. It was believed that the above Zn-Fe and Zn-Cr spinel oxides were formed by substitution reactions between Zn 2+ and Fe 2+ . At the initial stage of immersion, water chemistry significantly affected the formation of the oxide films. Once a stable oxide film formed, it is rather difficult to change its structure through changing water chemistry. The potential-pH diagrams for Zn

  4. Recurrence of Intravenous Talc Granulomatosis following Single Lung Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C Cook

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced pulmonary disease is an unusual consequence of the intravenous injection of oral medications, usually developing over a period of several years. A number of patients with this condition have undergone lung transplantation for respiratory failure. However, a history of drug abuse is often considered to be a contraindication to transplantation in the context of limited donor resources. A patient with pulmonary talc granulomatosis secondary to intravenous methylphenidate injection who underwent successful lung transplantation and subsequently presented with recurrence of the underlying disease in the transplanted lung 18 months after transplantation is reported.

  5. Evaluation and investigation of regional cerebral blood flow by 1 point arterial blood collection method using 99mTc-ECD. Intravenous injection for 4 minutes with constant speed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Takeo; Shibata, Kazuhiro; Sudoh, Hideaki; Tanaka, Masato; Itoh, Kenjiro; Ueno, Yasushi

    1998-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured using a 99m Tc-ECD through the 4-min constant intravenous infusion/one point arterial blood sampling method, proposed by Nakagawara et al. of Nakamura Memorial Hospital, and 133Xenon ( 133 Xe)-SPECT was performed on the same subjects to investigate the reproducibility of this method. We also determined whether cerebral blood flow (CBF) could be measured on the day of blood sampling through dilution of the obtained blood because it was difficult to measure the radioactivity in the blood on the day of blood sampling by this method. More, we investigated fixation of an octanol extraction rate and the substitution of venous blood for arterial blood in this method. The results revealed that CBF measured by this method with a 99m Tc-ECD were closely correlated to those measured by 133 Xe-SPECT, indicating the reliability as a method of measuring CBF. rCBF could be measured on the day of blood sampling through appropriate dilution of the obtained arterial blood. Octanol extraction rates were almost constant, indicating possible omission of cumbersome extraction procedure by fixation. However, the substitution of venous blood for arterial blood showed no correlation under the study system examined. (author)

  6. Study on Mixed Solvency Concept in Formulation Development of Aqueous Injection of Poorly Water Soluble Drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Singh Solanki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, mixed-solvency approach has been applied for the enhancement of aqueous solubility of a poorly water- soluble drug, zaltoprofen (selected as a model drug, by making blends (keeping total concentrations 40% w/v, constant of selected water-soluble substances from among the hydrotropes (urea, sodium benzoate, sodium citrate, nicotinamide; water-soluble solids (PEG-4000, PEG-6000; and co-solvents (propylene glycol, glycerine, PEG-200, PEG-400, PEG-600. Aqueous solubility of drug in case of selected blends (12 blends ranged from 9.091 ± 0.011 mg/ml–43.055 ± 0.14 mg/ml (as compared to the solubility in distilled water 0.072 ± 0.012 mg/ml. The enhancement in the solubility of drug in a mixed solvent containing 10% sodium citrate, 5% sodium benzoate and 25 % S cosolvent (25% S cosolvent contains PEG200, PEG 400, PEG600, Glycerine and Propylene glycol was more than 600 fold. This proved a synergistic enhancement in solubility of a poorly water-soluble drug due to mixed cosolvent effect. Each solubilized product was characterized by ultraviolet and infrared techniques. Various properties of solution such as pH, viscosity, specific gravity and surface tension were studied. The developed formulation was studied for physical and chemical stability. This mixed solvency shall prove definitely a boon for pharmaceutical industries for the development of dosage form of poorly water soluble drugs.

  7. Enhanced oil recovery by nitrogen and carbon dioxide injection followed by low salinity water flooding for tight carbonate reservoir: experimental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges Lwisa, Essa; Abdulkhalek, Ashrakat R.

    2018-03-01

    Enhanced Oil Recovery techniques are one of the top priorities of technology development in petroleum industries nowadays due to the increase in demand for oil and gas which cannot be equalized by the primary production or secondary production methods. The main function of EOR process is to displace oil to the production wells by the injection of different fluids to supplement the natural energy present in the reservoir. Moreover, these injecting fluids can also help in the alterations of the properties of the reservoir like lowering the IFTs, wettability alteration, a change in pH value, emulsion formation, clay migration and oil viscosity reduction. The objective of this experiment is to investigate the residual oil recovery by combining the effects of gas injection followed by low salinity water injection for low permeability reservoirs. This is done by a series of flooding tests on selected tight carbonate core samples taken from Zakuum oil field in Abu Dhabi by using firstly low salinity water as the base case and nitrogen & CO2injection followed by low salinity water flooding at reservoir conditions of pressure and temperature. The experimental results revealed that a significant improvement of the oil recovery is achieved by the nitrogen injection followed by the low salinity water flooding with a recovery factor of approximately 24% of the residual oil.

  8. Comparisons of ice packs, hot water immersion, and analgesia injection for the treatment of centipede envenomations in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaou, Chung-Hsien; Chen, Chian-Kuang; Chen, Jih-Chang; Chiu, Te-Fa; Lin, Chih-Chuan

    2009-08-01

    To compare the effectiveness of ice packs and hot water immersion for the treatment of centipede envenomations. Sixty patients envenomated by centipedes were randomized into three groups and were treated with ice packs, hot water immersion, or analgesia injection. The visual analog score (VAS) for pain was measured before the treatment and 15 min afterward. Demographic data and data on local and systemic effects after centipede bites were collected. The VAS scores and the pain decrease (DeltaVAS) were compared between the three groups. All patients suffered from pain at the affected sites; other local effects included redness (n = 49, 81.7%), swelling (n = 32, 53.3%), heat (n = 14, 23.3%), itchiness (n = 5, 8.3), and bullae formation (n = 3, 5.0%). Rare systemic effects were reported. All three groups had similar VAS scores before and after treatment. They also had similar effectiveness in reducing pain caused by centipedes bites (DeltaVAS = 2.55 +/- 1.88, 2.33 +/- 1.78, and 1.55 +/- 1.68, with ice packs, analgesia, and hot water immersion, respectively, p = 0.165). Ice packs, hot water immersion, and analgesics all improved the pain from centipede envenomation. Ice pack treatment is a safe, inexpensive, and non-invasive method for pre-hospital management in patients with centipede envenomation.

  9. Flow Injection Analysis with Electrochemical Detection for Rapid Identification of Platinum-Based Cytostatics and Platinum Chlorides in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marketa Kominkova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Platinum-based cytostatics, such as cisplatin, carboplatin or oxaliplatin are widely used agents in the treatment of various types of tumors. Large amounts of these drugs are excreted through the urine of patients into wastewaters in unmetabolised forms. This phenomenon leads to increased amounts of platinum ions in the water environment. The impacts of these pollutants on the water ecosystem are not sufficiently investigated as well as their content in water sources. In order to facilitate the detection of various types of platinum, we have developed a new, rapid, screening flow injection analysis method with electrochemical detection (FIA-ED. Our method, based on monitoring of the changes in electrochemical behavior of analytes, maintained by various pH buffers (Britton-Robinson and phosphate buffer and potential changes (1,000, 1,100 and 1,200 mV offers rapid and cheap selective determination of platinum-based cytostatics and platinum chlorides, which can also be present as contaminants in water environments.

  10. An Energy Analysis on Gasification of Sewage Sludge by a Direct Injection in Supercritical Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yukananto, Riza; Louwes, Alexander Charnchai; Bramer, Eduard A.; Brem, Gerrit

    2017-01-01

    Supercritical Water Gasification is an efficient technology in converting wet biomass into H2 and CH4 in comparison to other conventional thermochemical processes. Coke deposition, however, remains as a major challenge in this technology. Coke formation is the result of polymerization reactions that

  11. Enhancement of Biogenic Coalbed Methane Production and Back Injection of Coalbed Methane Co-Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Jin

    2007-05-31

    Biogenic methane is a common constituent in deep subsurface environments such as coalbeds and oil shale beds. Coalbed methane (CBM) makes significant contributions to world natural gas industry and CBM production continues to increase. With increasing CBM production, the production of CBM co-produced water increases, which is an environmental concern. This study investigated the feasibility in re-using CBM co-produced water and other high sodic/saline water to enhance biogenic methane production from coal and other unconventional sources, such as oil shale. Microcosms were established with the selected carbon sources which included coal, oil shale, lignite, peat, and diesel-contaminated soil. Each microcosm contained either CBM coproduced water or groundwater with various enhancement and inhibitor combinations. Results indicated that the addition of nutrients and nutrients with additional carbon can enhance biogenic methane production from coal and oil shale. Methane production from oil shale was much greater than that from coal, which is possibly due to the greater amount of available Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) from oil shale. Inconclusive results were observed from the other sources since the incubation period was too low. WRI is continuing studies with biogenic methane production from oil shale.

  12. Subcutaneous injection of water-soluble multi-walled carbon nanotubes in tumor-bearing mice boosts the host immune activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jie; Yang, Man; Jia, Fumin; Kong, Hua; Zhang, Weiqi; Wang, Chaoying; Xing, Jianmin; Xie, Sishen; Xu, Haiyan

    2010-04-01

    The immunological responses induced by oxidized water-soluble multi-walled carbon nanotubes on a hepatocarcinoma tumor-bearing mice model via a local administration of subcutaneous injection were investigated. Experimental results show that the subcutaneously injected carbon nanotubes induced significant activation of the complement system, promoted inflammatory cytokines' production and stimulated macrophages' phagocytosis and activation. All of these responses increased the general activity of the host immune system and inhibited the progression of tumor growth.

  13. Subcutaneous injection of water-soluble multi-walled carbon nanotubes in tumor-bearing mice boosts the host immune activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng Jie; Yang Man; Jia Fumin; Kong Hua; Zhang Weiqi; Xu Haiyan [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences and School of Basic Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, 5 Dong Dan San Tiao, Beijing 100005 (China); Wang Chaoying; Xie Sishen [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 8 Nan San Jie, Zhongguancun, Beijing100080 (China); Xing Jianmin, E-mail: xuhy@pumc.edu.cn [Centre for Evidence-Based Chinese Medicine, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, 11 Bei San Huan Dong Lu, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2010-04-09

    The immunological responses induced by oxidized water-soluble multi-walled carbon nanotubes on a hepatocarcinoma tumor-bearing mice model via a local administration of subcutaneous injection were investigated. Experimental results show that the subcutaneously injected carbon nanotubes induced significant activation of the complement system, promoted inflammatory cytokines' production and stimulated macrophages' phagocytosis and activation. All of these responses increased the general activity of the host immune system and inhibited the progression of tumor growth.

  14. The Evaluation of 3-Dimensional Polymerization Changes of a Denture Resin Utilizing Injection Molding with Water Bath Polymerization and Microwave Polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Dimensional change in complete dentures fabricated by injection molding and microwave processing . J Prosthet Dent, 2003. 89(1): p. 37-44. 21. Phoenix...The Evaluation of 3-Dimensional Polymerization Changes of a Denture Resin Utilizing Injection Molding with Water Bath Polymerization and Microwave...Specification 12 regarding working qualities of cured resins: “The polymer, when processed according to the instructions furnished by the manufacturer

  15. Determination of pesticides and pesticide degradates in filtered water by direct aqueous-injection liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstrom, Mark W.; Kanagy, Leslie K.; Anderson, Cyrissa A.; Kanagy, Christopher J.

    2016-01-11

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for determination of 229 pesticides compounds (113 pesticides and 116 pesticide degradates) in filtered water samples from stream and groundwater sites. The pesticides represent a broad range of chemical classes and were selected based on criteria such as current-use intensity, probability of occurrence in streams and groundwater, and toxicity to humans or aquatic organisms. More than half of the analytes are pesticide degradates. The method involves direct injection of a 100-microliter (μL) sample onto the LC-MS/MS without any sample preparation other than filtration. Samples are analyzed with two injections, one in electrospray ionization (ESI) positive mode and one in ESI negative mode, using dynamic multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) conditions, with two MRM transitions for each analyte. The LC-MS/MS instrument parameters were optimized for highest sensitivity for the most analytes. This report describes the analytical method and presents characteristics of the method validation including bias and variability, detection levels, and holding-time studies.

  16. Research and application of multi-hydrogen acidizing technology of low-permeability reservoirs for increasing water injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Mengmeng; Che, Hang; Kong, Weizhong; Wang, Peng; Liu, Bingxiao; Xu, Zhengdong; Wang, Xiaochao; Long, Changjun; Zhang, Bin; Wu, Youmei

    2017-12-01

    The physical characteristics of Xiliu 10 Block reservoir is poor, it has strong reservoir inhomogeneity between layers and high kaolinite content of the reservoir, the scaling trend of fluid is serious, causing high block injection well pressure and difficulty in achieving injection requirements. In the past acidizing process, the reaction speed with mineral is fast, the effective distance is shorter and It is also easier to lead to secondary sedimentation in conventional mud acid system. On this point, we raised multi-hydrogen acid technology, multi-hydrogen acid release hydrogen ions by multistage ionization which could react with pore blockage, fillings and skeletal effects with less secondary pollution. Multi-hydrogen acid system has advantages as moderate speed, deep penetration, clay low corrosion rate, wet water and restrains precipitation, etc. It can reach the goal of plug removal in deep stratum. The field application result shows that multi-hydrogen acid plug removal method has good effects on application in low permeability reservoir in Block Xiliu 10.

  17. Flow-Injection Determination of Thiabendazole Fungicide in Water Samples Using a Diperiodatocuprate(III)-Sulfuric Acid-Chemiluminescence System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, Mohammad; Yaqoob, Mohammad; Munawar, Nusrat; Nabi, Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Chemiluminescence (CL) with a flow-injection method is reported for the determination of thiabendazole (TBZ) fungicide based on its enhancement effect on diperiodatocuprate(III) (DPC)-sulfuric acid-CL system. The calibration graph was linear in the concentration range of 1 - 2000 μg L(-1) (R(2) = 0.9999, n = 8) with a limit of detection (S/N = 3) of 0.3 μg L(-1). The injection throughput was 160 h(-1) with relative standard deviations (RSD, n = 4) of 1.1 - 2.9% in the concentration range studied. The experimental variables e.g., reagents concentrations, flow rates, sample volume, and PMT voltage were optimized, and the potential interferences were investigated individually. The method was successfully applied to the determination of TBZ in water samples showing good agreement and recovery in the range of 92 ± 2.2 - 108 ± 3% (n = 3) using dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction (DLLME). The possible CL reaction mechanism for DPC-sulfuric acid-TBZ is also discussed.

  18. Computed tomography intravenous cholangiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, S.; Murray, W.; Wilson, P.

    1997-01-01

    Indications for direct visualization of the bile ducts include bile duct dilatation demonstrated by ultrasound or computed tomography (CT) scanning, where the cause of the bile duct dilatation is uncertain or where the anatomy of bile duct obstruction needs further clarification. Another indication is right upper quadrant pain, particularly in a post-cholecystectomy patient, where choledocholithiasis is suspected. A possible new indication is pre-operative evaluation prior to laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The bile ducts are usually studied by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), or, less commonly, trans-hepatic cholangiography. The old technique of intravenous cholangiography has fallen into disrepute because of inconsistent bile-duct opacification. The advent of spiral CT scanning has renewed interest in intravenous cholangiography. The CT technique is very sensitive to the contrast agent in the bile ducts, and angiographic and three-dimensional reconstructions of the biliary tree can readily be obtained using the CT intravenous cholangiogram technique (CT IVC). Seven patients have been studied using this CT IVC technique, between February 1995 and June 1996, and are the subject of the present report. Eight further studies have since been performed. The results suggest that CT IVC could replace ERCP as the primary means of direct cholangiography, where pancreatic duct visualization is not required. (authors)

  19. Computed tomography intravenous cholangiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, S.; Murray, W.; Wilson, P. [Pittwater Radiology, Dee Why, NSW, (Australia)

    1997-08-01

    Indications for direct visualization of the bile ducts include bile duct dilatation demonstrated by ultrasound or computed tomography (CT) scanning, where the cause of the bile duct dilatation is uncertain or where the anatomy of bile duct obstruction needs further clarification. Another indication is right upper quadrant pain, particularly in a post-cholecystectomy patient, where choledocholithiasis is suspected. A possible new indication is pre-operative evaluation prior to laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The bile ducts are usually studied by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), or, less commonly, trans-hepatic cholangiography. The old technique of intravenous cholangiography has fallen into disrepute because of inconsistent bile-duct opacification. The advent of spiral CT scanning has renewed interest in intravenous cholangiography. The CT technique is very sensitive to the contrast agent in the bile ducts, and angiographic and three-dimensional reconstructions of the biliary tree can readily be obtained using the CT intravenous cholangiogram technique (CT IVC). Seven patients have been studied using this CT IVC technique, between February 1995 and June 1996, and are the subject of the present report. Eight further studies have since been performed. The results suggest that CT IVC could replace ERCP as the primary means of direct cholangiography, where pancreatic duct visualization is not required. (authors). 11 refs., 6 figs.

  20. Reducing invasiveness, duration, and cost of magnetic resonance imaging in rheumatoid arthritis by omitting intravenous contrast injection -- Does it change the assessment of inflammatory and destructive joint changes by the OMERACT RAMRIS?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mikkel; Conaghan, Philip G; O'Connor, Philip

    2009-01-01

    scoring system (RAMRIS): Substudy A included 1.0 T/1.5 T MR images from 40 RA patients, which were scored twice by 2 experienced readers. Substudy B included 0.2 T dedicated extremity MRI (E-MRI) images from 55 patients, scored twice by one experienced reader. The first reading included only unenhanced...... to high agreement concerning assessment of synovitis, and omitting the post-Gd acquisitions increased the interreader variation on synovitis scores. Low-field (0.2 T) E-MRI in these exercises provided a lower sensitivity of unenhanced imaging for synovitis than MRI using higher-field strengths. CONCLUSION......: Omitting IV contrast injection did not change scores of bone erosions and bone edema, but decreased the reliability of synovitis scores. However, this disadvantage may for some purposes be outweighed by the possibility to assess more joints and/or greater feasibility....

  1. A tomographic approach to intravenous coronary arteriography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritman, E.L.; Bove, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    Coronary artery anatomy can be visualized using high speed, volume scanning X-ray CT. A single scan during a bolus injection of contrast medium provides image data for display of all angles of view of the opacified coronary arterial tree. Due to the tomographic nature of volume image data the superposition of contrast filled cardiac chambers, such as would occur in the levophase of an intravenous injection of contrast agent, can be eliminated. Data are presented which support these statements. The Dynamic Spatial Reconstructor (DSR) was used to scan a life-like radiologic phantom of an adult human thorax in which the left atrial and ventricular chambers and the major epicardial coronary arteries were opacified so as to simulate the levophase of an intravenous injection of contrast agent. A catheter filled with diluted contrast agent and with regions of luminal narrowing (i.e. 'stenoses') was advanced along a tract equivalent to a right ventricular catheterization. Ease of visualization of the catheter 'stenoses' and the accuracy with which they can be measured are presented. (Auth.)

  2. Pore-Scale Investigation of Crude Oil/CO2 Compositional Effects on Oil Recovery by Carbonated Water Injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seyyedi, Mojtaba; Sohrabi, Mehran

    2017-01-01

    Through coreflood and micromodel studies, it has been shown that carbonated water injection (CWI) can improve oil recovery compared to conventional waterflood. However, in most early studies, either a refined oil or dead crude oil had been used, which is not representative of a real oil reservoir...... where the oil has significant dissolved gases. In such studies, oil swelling and oil viscosity reduction had been introduced as the main mechanisms of additional oil recovery by CWI. However, in our direct flow visualization (micro model) studies reported here, we have used live crude oil, and we have......-temperature direct flow visualization (micromodel) experiments which have been performed using a live crude oil sample. These include a tertiary (post-waterflood) and a secondary (pre-waterflood) CWI experiment performed at 2500 psia and 100 degrees F. The results of our secondary and tertiary CWI showed that CWI...

  3. Determination of hydrogen peroxide in water by chemiluminescence detection, (1). Flow injection type hydrogen peroxide detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashiro, Naoya; Uchida, Shunsuke; Satoh, Yoshiyuki; Morishima, Yusuke; Yokoyama, Hiroaki; Satoh, Tomonori; Sugama, Junichi; Yamada, Rie

    2004-01-01

    A flow injection type hydrogen peroxide detection system with a sub-ppb detection limit has been developed to determine hydrogen peroxide concentration in water sampled from a high temperature, high pressure hydrogen peroxide water loop. The hydrogen peroxide detector is based on luminol chemiluminescence spectroscopy. A small amount of sample water (20 μl) is mixed with a reagent mixture, an aqueous solution of luminol and Co 2+ catalyst, in a mixing cell which is installed just upstream from the detection cell. The optimum values for pH and the concentrations of luminol and Co 2+ ion have been determined to ensure a lower detectable limit and a higher reproducibility. The photocurrent detected by the detection system is expressed by a linear function of the hydrogen peroxide concentration in the region of lower concentration ([H 2 O 2 ] 2 O 2 ] in the region of higher concentration ([H 2 O 2 ] > 10 ppb). The luminous intensity of luminol chemiluminescence is the highest when pH of the reagent mixture is 11.0. Optimization of the major parameters gives the lowest detectable limit of 0.3 ppb. (author)

  4. Mapping water exchange rates in rat tumor xenografts using the late-stage uptake following bolus injections of contrast agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Colleen; Moosvi, Firas; Stanisz, Greg J

    2014-05-01

    To map the intra-to-extracellular water exchange rate constant in rat xenografts using a two-compartment model of relaxation with water exchange and a range of contrast agent concentrations and compare with histology. MDA-MB-231 cells were xenografted into six nude rats. Three bolus injections of gadodiamide were administered. When uptake in the tumor demonstrated a steady-state, T1 data were acquired by spoiled gradient recalled acquisitions at four flip angles. A global fit of data to a two-compartment model incorporating exchange was performed, assuming a distribution volume of 20% of the rat. Voxels that did not reach steady-state and were excluded from parametric maps tended to be in large necrotic areas. TUNEL-negative (nonapoptotic) regions tended to have well-defined error bounds, with an average intra-to-extracellular exchange rate constant of 0.6 s(-1) . Apoptotic regions had higher exchange, but poorly determined upper bounds, with goodness of fit similar to that for a model assuming infinitely fast exchange. A lower bound of >3 s(-1) was used to establish voxels where the exchange rate constant was fast despite a large upper bound. Water exchange rates were higher in apoptotic regions, but examination of statistical errors was an important step in the mapping process. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Managing Injected Water Composition To Improve Oil Recovery: A Case Study of North Sea Chalk Reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahid, Adeel; Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2012-01-01

    imbibition, which has been applied in most of the previous studies. Two different flooding schemes (with and without aging) were used for flooding North Sea reservoir chalk samples. For comparison, two tests were also carried out with Stevns Klint core plugs. The flooding tests were carried out...... composition but also the formation water composition affected the oil recovery at high temperatures from the Stevns Klint chalk rock....

  6. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry direct injection analysis of organophosphorus flame retardants in Ontario surface water and wastewater effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Chunyan; Helm, Paul A; Morse, David; Reiner, Eric J

    2018-01-01

    Organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) started to be used in plastics, electronics and furnishings back in the 1960s and became popular again last decade. They are now widely present in the environment and regarded as "new" emerging organic pollutants. An effective liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) direct injection analysis (DIA) method was developed to monitor OPFR levels in aquatic environment. The removal of sample extraction and concentration steps not only improved operation efficiency, but also reduced the potential contamination commonly observed during the sample preparation process before. Positive background signals from the analytical instrument were eliminated by employing a "trap" column in front of the sample injector while an ACE C18 and an ACE C18-PFP column were compared for the separation of OPFRs. Nineteen OPFR related compounds were evaluated and rapid signal drops were observed for seven of them including TOTP, TMTP, TPTP, TEHP, T35DMPP, T2iPPP and EHDP, due to their low water solubility. The other twelve compounds, TMP, TEP, TPrP, TiPP, TBP, TCEP, TCPP, TDCPP, TPP, TBEP, BDCP and BEHP, were included for the measurement of OPFRs in drinking water, surface water, ground water and wastewater effluent samples. The instrumental detection limits of these twelve OPFRs at signal-to-noise ≥3 were in the 1.5-30 ng/L range. The method was applied for the determination of OPFRs in surface water and wastewater samples in Ontario, Canada, and BEHP, TBEP, TBP, TCEP, TCPP, TDCPP, and TEP were commonly detected. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sub-1min separation in sequential injection chromatography for determination of synthetic water-soluble dyes in pharmaceutical formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davletbaeva, Polina; Chocholouš, Petr; Bulatov, Andrey; Šatínský, Dalibor; Solich, Petr

    2017-09-05

    Sequential Injection Chromatography (SIC) evolved from fast and automated non-separation Sequential Injection Analysis (SIA) into chromatographic separation method for multi-element analysis. However, the speed of the measurement (sample throughput) is due to chromatography significantly reduced. In this paper, a sub-1min separation using medium polar cyano monolithic column (5mm×4.6mm) resulted in fast and green separation with sample throughput comparable with non-separation flow methods The separation of three synthetic water-soluble dyes (sunset yellow FCF, carmoisine and green S) was in a gradient elution mode (0.02% ammonium acetate, pH 6.7 - water) with flow rate of 3.0mLmin -1 corresponding with sample throughput of 30h -1 . Spectrophotometric detection wavelengths were set to 480, 516 and 630nm and 10Hz data collection rate. The performance of the separation was described and discussed (peak capacities 3.48-7.67, peak symmetries 1.72-1.84 and resolutions 1.42-1.88). The method was represented by validation parameters: LODs of 0.15-0.35mgL -1 , LOQs of 0.50-1.25mgL -1 , calibration ranges 0.50-150.00mgL -1 (r>0.998) and repeatability at 10.0mgL -1 of RSD≤0.98% (n=6). The method was used for determination of the dyes in "forest berries" colored pharmaceutical cough-cold formulation. The sample matrix - pharmaceuticals and excipients were not interfering with vis determination because of no retention in the separation column and colorless nature. The results proved the concept of fast and green chromatography approach using very short medium polar monolithic column in SIC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Numerical simulation of counter-current spontaneous imbibition in water-wet fractured porous media: Influences of water injection velocity, fracture aperture, and grains geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Iman; Masihi, Mohsen; Nasiri Zarandi, Masoud

    2017-11-01

    Counter-current spontaneous imbibition (SI), in which water and oil flow through the same face in opposite directions, is known as one of the most significant oil recovery mechanisms in naturally fractured reservoirs; however, this mechanism has not received much attention. Understanding the dynamic of water-oil displacement during counter-current SI is very challenging because of simultaneous impacts of multiple factors including geometry complexity and heterogeneity of naturally fractured reservoir materials, e.g., high permeability contrast between the rock matrix and fracture, wettability, and porosity. This study investigates the effects of water injection velocity, fracture aperture, and grain shape during counter-current SI at pore-scale. A robust finite element solver is used to solve the governing equations of multiphase flow, which are the coupled Navier-Stokes and Cahn-Hilliard phase-field equations. The results showed that the case with the highest injection velocity (uinj = 5 mm/s) recovered more than 15% of the matrix oil at the early times and then reached its ultimate recovery factor. However, in the case of the lowest injection velocity, i.e., uinj = 0.05 mm/s, the lowest imbibition rate was observed at the early times, but ultimately 23% of the matrix oil was recovered. The model with uinj = 5 mm/s was able to capture some pore-level mechanisms such as snap-off, oil film thinning, interface coalescence, and water film bridging. The obtained results revealed that changing the fracture aperture has a slight effect on the imbibition rate at the earlier times and ultimate recoveries would be almost equal. To assess the influences of grain shape on the imbibition process, the simulated domain was reconstructed with cubic grains. It was noticed that because of higher permeability and porosity, relatively larger oil drops were formed and resulted in higher oil recovery compared with the model with spherical grains. The developed model can be used as a

  9. Modeling Convective Injection of Water Vapor into the Lower Stratosphere in the Mid-Latitudes over North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, C.; Leroy, S. S.; Anderson, J. G.

    2015-12-01

    Water vapor in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) from the tropics to the poles is important both radiatively and chemically. Water vapor is the most important greenhouse gas, and increases in water vapor concentrations in the UTLS lead to cooling at these levels and induce warming at the surface [Forster and Shine, 1999; 2002;Solomon et al., 2010]. Water vapor is also integral to stratospheric chemistry. It is the dominant source of OH in the lower stratosphere [ Hanisco et al. , 2001], and increases in water vapor concentrations promote stratospheric ozone loss by raising the reactivity of several key heterogeneous reactions as well as by promoting the growth of reactive surface area [Anderson et al., 2012; Carslaw et al., 1995; Carslaw et al., 1997; Drdla and Muller , 2012; Kirk-Davidoff et al., 1999; Shi et al., 2001]. However, the processes that control the distribution and phase of water in this region of the atmosphere are not well understood. This is especially true at mid-latitudes where several different dynamical mechanisms are capable of influencing UTLS water vapor concentrations. The contribution by deep convective storm systems that penetrate into the lower stratosphere is the least well understood and the least well represented in global models because of the small spatial scales and short time scales over which convection occurs. To address this issue, we have begun a modeling study to investigate the convective injection of water vapor from the troposphere into the stratosphere in the mid-latitudes. Fine-scale models have been previously used to simulate convection from the troposphere to the stratosphere [e.g., Homeyer et al., 2014]. Here we employ the Advanced Research Weather and Research Forecasting model (ARW) at 3-km resolution to resolve convection over the eastern United States during August of 2007 and August of 2013. We conduct a comparison of MERRA, the reanalysis used to initialize ARW, and the model output to assess

  10. A model of reaction field in gas-injected arc-in-water method to synthesize single-walled carbon nanohorns: Influence of water temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poonjarernsilp, Chantamanee; Sano, Noriaki; Tamon, Hajime; Charinpanitkul, Tawatchai

    2009-01-01

    The method to synthesize single-walled carbon nanohorns (SWCNHs) using gas-injected arc in water (GI-AIW) has been experimentally studied. GI-AIW is known as one of the cost-effective methods to obtain SWCNHs. It was revealed that the yield of SWCNHs significantly decreases with the increase in water temperature although the purity of SWCNHs is not dependent on the temperature change. Then the model of relevant reactions in the GI-AIW system was proposed by accounting the emission of carbon vapor, formation of SWCNHs, and diffusion of water vapor in three zones inside the cathode hole (arc plasma zone, quenching zone, and downstream zone). The side reaction between H 2 O and C produces H 2 gas and consumes a certain amount of carbon vapor, resulting in the hindered SWCNH formation. Moreover the observation of the optical spectra emitting from the arc plasma zone strongly supported that the H 2 generating reaction does not occur at arc plasma zone since N 2 flow can purge H 2 O out. The model proposed in this study can precisely explain the correlation between H 2 gas production and water temperature.

  11. Usefulness of modified intravenous analgesia: initial experience in uterine artery embolization for leiomyomata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Seung Boo; Jung, Young Jin; Goo, Dong Erk; Jang, Yun Woo

    2006-01-01

    We wanted to evaluate the usefulness of modified intravenous analgesia for the management of pain during uterine artery embolization for leiomyomata. Between April 2004 and July 2004, 15 patients with symptomatic fibroids underwent uterine artery embolization and pain management. Except the three patients for whom the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score was not obtained, twelve patients were included in this study. For pain management, epidural PCA (Patient Controlled Analgesia) was used in two patients, intravenous PCA was used in two patients and modified intravenous analgesia injection was used in eight patients. For all the patients, we used the 2.8 Fr coaxial microcatheter and 500-710 μ m PVA particles for the embolic materials. The protocol of the modified intravenous analgesia injection was as follow, 1) prior to femoral artery puncture, 30 mg of ketorolac tromethamine (Tarasyn)was injected via an intravenous route. 2) At the time that the one side uterine artery embolization was finished, normal saline mixed 150 mg meperidine (Demerol) was administered through the side port of the intravenous line that was used for hydration. 3) Additional ketorolac tromethamine 30 mg was injected after 6 hour. The VAS score and side effects were then checked. After 12 hours, the VAS score was rechecked. If the VAS score was above 4, this was considered as failure of pain management. The VAS scores, complications and side effects for the modified intravenous analgesia injection were compared with that of IV PCA and epidural PCA. The average VAS score of the modified intravenous analgesia injection, intravenous PCA and epidural PCA was 1.4, 1 and 0, respectively; the number of additional intramuscular injections of analgesia was 0.5, 0.5 and 0, respectively. All the patients who underwent epidural PCA had back pain at the puncture site and 1 patient who underwent modified intravenous analgesia injection experienced mild dyspnea, but they easily recovered with such

  12. Studies on the distribution of radioactivity in the organism and rate of incorporation of radioactivity into the tissue proteins of monogastric animals after intravenous injection of tracer amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, O.; Muenchmeyer, R.; Bergner, H.; Zebrowska, T.

    1976-01-01

    Radioactive amino acids ( 14 C leucine and 3 H lysine) were administrated to pigs by means of a catheter tube into the jugular vein. Subsequently, the time pattern of the distribution of the specific amino acid radioactivity was followed in the TCE soluble and TCE precipitable fractions of the blood plasma (TCE = trichloroacetic acid). Rats were injected 14 C into the portal vein. The animals were killed after incorporation periods of 2 to 60 minutes, and the levels of specific radioactivity were estimated in the TCE soluble and TCE precipitable fractions of the blood plasma, in the liver and in the skeletal muscles. The experimental results indicated that the specific radioactivity of the tracer amino acids and the rate of incorporation of radioactivity into tissue proteins were influenced by the size of the free amino acid pool within the range of distribution of the tracer. An estimation of the magnitude of the pool of free amino acids within the distribution range of the tracer can be obtained from the curve pattern for the decline of specific radioactivity of the corresponding free amino acid in the blood plasma. This pool exhibits a high rate of turnover. In all studies made to evaluate in vivo processes of protein synthesis using radioactive tracer amino acids it will be particularly important that consideration is given to the specific radioactivity of the amino acid in the precursor pool for protein synthesis. (author)

  13. Role of angiotensin II and vasopressin receptors within the supraoptic nucleus in water and sodium intake induced by the injection of angiotensin II into the medial septal area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antunes V.R.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the effects of the injection into the supraoptic nucleus (SON of non-peptide AT1- and AT2-angiotensin II (ANG II receptor antagonists, DuP753 and PD123319, as well as of the arginine-vasopressin (AVP receptor antagonist d(CH25-Tyr(Me-AVP, on water and 3% NaCl intake induced by the injection of ANG II into the medial septal area (MSA. The effects on water or 3% NaCl intake were assessed in 30-h water-deprived or in 20-h water-deprived furosemide-treated adult male rats, respectively. The drugs were injected in 0.5 ml over 30-60 s. Controls were injected with a similar volume of 0.15 M NaCl. Antagonists were injected at doses of 20, 80 and 180 nmol. Water and sodium intake was measured over a 2-h period. Previous administration of the AT1 receptor antagonist DuP753 into the SON decreased water (65%, N = 10, P<0.01 and sodium intake (81%, N = 8, P<0.01 induced by the injection of ANG II (10 nmol into the MSA. Neither of these responses was significantly changed by injection of the AT2-receptor antagonist PD123319 into the SON. On the other hand, while there was a decrease in water intake (45%, N = 9, P<0.01, ANG II-induced sodium intake was significantly increased (70%, N = 8, P<0.01 following injection of the V1-type vasopressin antagonist d(CH25-Tyr(Me-AVP into the SON. These results suggest that both AT1 and V1 receptors within the SON may be involved in water and sodium intake induced by the activation of ANG II receptors within the MSA. Furthermore, they do not support the involvement of MSA AT2 receptors in the mediation of these responses.

  14. Depleted zinc oxide sertificate for safe zinc injection into water coolant of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurmanov, E.V.; Yurmanov, V.A.; Evropin, S.V.; Shut'ko, K.I.; Filimonov, S.V.; Zyryanov, S.M.; Timofeev, D.V.

    2015-01-01

    The prospects of the introduction of dosing of zinc depleted in the isotope 64Zn into the water coolant of WWER and RBMK are shown with the aim of removing the long-lived radionuclides accumulated in oxide films, including 60Co, which dominates in the radiation situation during parking for repairs and reloading of fuel, on the decommissioning of power units. The developed technical requirements for commercial zinc oxide powder include the allowable ranges of its granulometric characteristics (average and maximum pellet sizes) and isotopic composition (restriction of the share of the isotope 64Zn), its specific surface area and moisture content, as well as restrictions on the content of impurities to ensure its safe use in domestic NPP. The requirements for the purity of zinc oxide powder in the specification are developed taking into account the experience of its production at the enterprises of the State Corporation Rosatom for export deliveries to foreign nuclear power plants [ru

  15. Preface to the injection tables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Twelve groups of dogs received intravenous injections of various doses of 226 Ra, 239 Pu, 228 Ra, 228 Th, 90 Sr, 241 Am, 249 Cf, or 252 Cf at approximately 17 months of age. The animals were euthanized when death appeared imminent. Data are presented on the calculated radiation dose to the skeleton and pathological changes observed at autopsy

  16. Influence of binder system and temperature on rheological properties of water atomized 316L powder injection moulding feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uğur GÖKMEN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain a proper powder injection molding the rheological behavior of feedstocks should be known. To determine the binder effect on the rheological behavior of 316L stainless steel powders feedstock two different feedstock were prepared. In the current experiments water atomized 316L stainless steel powders (-20 µm were used. Two types of binders, one of which is mainly paraffin wax can be dissolved in heptane and the other Polietilenglikol (PEG based and can be dissolved in water, were used. Polypropylene was used as binder and steric acid was used as lubricant for both binder systems as skeleton binder. Dry binder system were mixed for 30 min in a three dimensional Turbola. Capillary rheometer was used to characterize the rheological properties of feed stocks at 150-200 °C and a pressures of 0.165-2.069 MPa. Powder loading capacity of PEG and PW based feed stocks were found to be %55 and %61 respectively. The lowest viscosity of PEG and PW based feed stocks were found to be 304.707 Pa.s and 48.857 Pa.s respectively.Keywords: PIM, Binder, Rheological properties

  17. Multi-reflection photometric flow cell for use in flow injection analysis of estuarine waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, Peter S.; Lyddy-Meaney, Amanda J.; Worsfold, Paul J.; McKelvie, Ian D.

    2003-01-01

    A multi-reflection flow cell suitable for flow analysis is described. Light from an LED is directed through an optical fibre into a silver coated capillary through a sidewall aperture, and emerges through a similar aperture 10 mm along the capillary after undergoing an estimated 19 reflections. This process provides a sensitivity enhancement of approximately 2.5 compared with a conventional z-cell of the same nominal path length. This enhancement is due to both the increased optical path length achieved by multiple reflection of the light beam through the sample, and minimization of physical dispersion by the use of a short, small internal diameter capillary as the flow cell. The optical design of this flow cell also minimizes the Schlieren effect. Optical and hydrodynamic characteristics of this multi-reflection cell have been evaluated using a series of bromothymol blue dye studies. Application of the flow cell to the determination of reactive phosphorus in estuarine waters with wide variation in salinity and refractive index is also described

  18. A New Dynamic Injection System of Urea-Water Solution for a Vehicular Select Catalyst Reduction System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the Euro-ІІІ standard was adopted, the main methods to inhibit NOx production in diesel engines are exhaust gas recirculation (EGR and select catalyst reduction (SCR. On these methods SCR offers great fuel economy, so it has received wide attention. However, there also exists a trade-off law between NOx conversion efficiency and NH3 slip under dynamic conditions. To inhibit NH3 slip with high NOx conversion efficiency, a dynamic control method for a urea water solution (UWS injection was investigated. The variation phenomena of SCR conversion efficiency with respect to the cross-sensitivity characteristics of the NOx sensor to NH3 have been thoroughly analyzed. The methodology of “uncertain conversion efficiency curve tangent analysis” has been applied to estimate the concentration of the slipped NH3. The correction factor “φ” of UWS injection is obtained by a comparative calculation of the NOx conversion ability and subsequent NH3 slip. It also includes methods of flow compensation and flow reduction. The proposed control method has been authenticated under dynamic conditions. In low frequency dynamic experiments, this control method has accurately justified the NH3 slip process and inhibits the NH3 emission to a lower level thereby improving the conversion efficiency to a value closer to the target value. The results of European transient cycle (ETC experiments indicate that NH3 emissions are reduced by 90.8% and the emission level of NOx is close to the Euro-Ѵ standard.

  19. Intravenous lidocaine infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, G; Naranjo González, M; Calero, F

    2018-02-26

    Systemic lidocaine used in continuous infusion during the peri-operative period has analgesic, anti-hyperalgesic, as well as anti-inflammatory properties. This makes it capable of reducing the use of opioids and inhalational anaesthetics, and the early return of bowel function, and patient hospital stay. The aim of this narrative review was to highlight the pharmacology and indications for clinical application, along with new and interesting research areas. The clinical applications of peri-operative lidocaine infusion have been reviewed in several recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses in patients undergoing open and laparoscopic abdominal procedures, ambulatory procedures, and other types of surgery. Peri-operative lidocaine infusion may be a useful analgesic adjunct in enhanced recovery protocols. Potential benefits of intravenous lidocaine in chronic post-surgical pain, post-operative cognitive dysfunction, and cancer recurrence are under investigation. Due to its immunomodulation properties over surgical stress, current evidence suggests that intravenous lidocaine could be used in the context of multimodal analgesia. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Contrast agent choice for intravenous coronary angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeman, H.D.; Siddons, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    The screening of the general population for coronary artery disease would be practical if a method existed for visualizing the extent of occlusion after an intravenous injection of contrast agent. Measurements performed with monochromatic synchrotron radiation x-rays and an iodine containing contrast agent at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory have shown that such an intravenous angiography procedure would be possible with an adequately intense monochromatic x-ray source. Because of the size and cost of synchrotron radiation facilities it would be desirable to make the most efficient use of the intensity available, while reducing as much as possible the radiation dose experienced by the patient. By choosing contrast agents containing elements with a higher atomic number than iodine, it is possible to both improve the image quality and reduce the patient radiation dose, while using the same synchrotron source. By using Si monochromator crystals with a small mosaic spread, it is possible to increase the x-ray flux available for imaging by over an order of magnitude, without any changes in the storage ring or wiggler magnet. The most critical imaging task for intravenous coronary angiography utilizing synchrotron radiation x-rays is visualizing a coronary artery through the left ventricle or aorta which also contains a contrast agent. Calculations have been made of the signal to noise ratio expected for this imaging task for various contrast agents with atomic numbers between that of iodine and bismuth

  1. Radioimmunoassay for vasopressin: plasma levels after stimulation by I-V nicotine injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conte-Devolx, B.; Rougon-Rapuzzi, G.; Millet, Y.

    1976-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay for vasopressin which permits the estimation of plasma levels as low as 0.25μIU/ml was developed. The average plasma level of ADH after overnight water restriction was found to be 5.20μIU/ml. A hypersecretion of ADH was provoked by the intravenous injection of 1-2mg of nicotine. In 10 volunteer subjects this stimulation by nicotine provoked ADH secretion which reached a maximum between 2 and 15 minutes after injection; the hormone plasma level reached an average value of 21.3μIU/ml [fr

  2. Bioavailability of diazepam after intramuscular injection of its water-soluble prodrug alone or with atropine–pralidoxime in healthy volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbara, C; Rousseau, JM; Turcant, A; Lallement, G; Comets, E; Bardot, I; Clair, P; Diquet, B

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the relative bioavailability of diazepam after administration of diazepam itself or as a water-soluble prodrug, avizafone, in humans. Experimental approach: The study was conducted in an open, randomized, single-dose, three-way, cross-over design. Each subject received intramuscular injections of avizafone (20 mg), diazepam (11.3 mg) or avizafone (20 mg) combined with atropine (2 mg) and pralidoxime (350 mg) using a bi-compartmental auto-injector (AIBC). Plasma concentrations of diazepam were quantified using a validated LC/MS–MS assay, and were analysed by both a non-compartmental approach and by compartmental modelling. Key results: The maximum concentration (Cmax) of diazepam after avizafone injection was higher than that obtained after injection of diazepam itself (231 vs. 148 ng·mL−1), while area under the curve (AUC) values were equal. Diazepam concentrations reached their maximal value faster after injection of avizafone. Injection of avizafone with atropine–pralidoxime (AIBC) had no effect on diazepam Cmax and AUC, but the time to Cmax was increased, relative to avizafone injected alone. According to the Akaike criterion, the pharmacokinetics of diazepam after injection as a prodrug was best described as a two-compartment with zero-order absorption model. When atropine and pralidoxime were injected with avizafone, the best pharmacokinetic model was a two-compartment with a first-order absorption model. Conclusion and implications: Diazepam had a faster entry to the general circulation and achieved higher Cmax after injection of prodrug than after the parent drug. Administration of avizafone in combination with atropine and pralidoxime by AIBC had no significant effect on diazepam AUC and Cmax. PMID:19681868

  3. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS OF REAL TIME SECONDARY CO-INJECTION OF WATER – DIETHYL ETHER SOLUTION IN DI-DIESEL ENGINE FUELLED WITH PALM KERNEL METHYL ESTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. V. SATYANARAYANAMURTHY

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation tests were conducted on single cylinder diesel engine fuelled with neat diesel and biodiesel palm kernel methyl ester as a base line fuel with secondary injection of Water-DEE solution through the inlet manifold. A real time control systems consists of electronic unit pump that delivers 5% to 25% vol. Water-DEE solution through injector tip mounted nearer to the inlet manifold under a pressure of 3 kgf/cm2. NOx emissions reduced to a level of 500 ppm with simultaneous reduction of soot especially for PKME. However for 15% vol. of Water-DEE injection the HC emissions are closely tallying with that of neat diesel. A global overview of the results has shown that the 15% Water-DEE solution is the optimal blend based on performance and emission characteristics.

  4. Development and Validation of a Fast Procedure to Analyze Amoxicillin in River Waters by Direct-Injection LC-MS/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homem, Vera; Alves, Arminda; Santos, Lu´cia

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory application with a strong component in analytical chemistry was designed for undergraduate students, in order to introduce a current problem in the environmental science field, the water contamination by antibiotics. Therefore, a simple and rapid method based on direct injection and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass…

  5. Model experiment on change of seismic properties of a fracture caused by injecting/draining water; Chusui/haisui ni yoru kison kiretsu no dansei denpa tokusei no henka ni kansuru model jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, T.; Koizumi, T.; Sassa, K. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-05-27

    Effect of water injection/draining on elastic waves penetrating through cracks is examined by measuring elastic waves before, during, and after the injection/draining of water into/from cracks in presence in granite. Two blocks of rock, with their crack-containing surfaces in contact with each other, are placed in a vessel, and water injection/draining is done through a hole on a vessel bottom side so that water will penetrate into the cracks. When the blocks are dry, there is almost no contact between the cracks, and so no crack penetrating waves are observed. Crack penetrating waves are produced when water is injected, and the position of the receiver sensing the penetrating waves changes as the water level rises. When the water level is lowered from the high water level, the waveform changes again as the level changes. The change in waveform is not so remarkable, however, as that observed during water injection thanks to the water residual in the cracks. It is now inferred that crack investigation is more effective when it is carried out with water being injected into dry cracks. The difference produced between the dry state and wet state when water is injected into dry cracks is used to detect the presence of cracks in this experiment, and this may be applied also to the investigation of cracks in the shallow part of the ground. 4 refs., 11 figs.

  6. Intravenous fluids: balancing solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoorn, Ewout J

    2017-08-01

    The topic of intravenous (IV) fluids may be regarded as "reverse nephrology", because nephrologists usually treat to remove fluids rather than to infuse them. However, because nephrology is deeply rooted in fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance, IV fluids belong in the realm of our specialty. The field of IV fluid therapy is in motion due to the increasing use of balanced crystalloids, partly fueled by the advent of new solutions. This review aims to capture these recent developments by critically evaluating the current evidence base. It will review both indications and complications of IV fluid therapy, including the characteristics of the currently available solutions. It will also cover the use of IV fluids in specific settings such as kidney transplantation and pediatrics. Finally, this review will address the pathogenesis of saline-induced hyperchloremic acidosis, its potential effect on outcomes, and the question if this should lead to a definitive switch to balanced solutions.

  7. Intravenous versus oral etoposide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Abir Salwa; Grönberg, Malin; Langer, Seppo W.

    2018-01-01

    High-grade gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NENs, G3) are aggressive cancers of the digestive system with poor prognosis and survival. Platinum-based chemotherapy (cisplatin/carboplatin + etoposide) is considered the first-line palliative treatment. Etoposide is frequently...... administered intravenously; however, oral etoposide may be used as an alternative. Concerns for oral etoposide include decreased bioavailability, inter- and intra-patient variability and patient compliance. We aimed to evaluate possible differences in progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS......) in patients treated with oral etoposide compared to etoposide given as infusion. Patients (n = 236) from the Nordic NEC study were divided into three groups receiving etoposide as a long infusion (24 h, n = 170), short infusion (≤ 5 h, n = 33) or oral etoposide (n = 33) according to hospital tradition. PFS...

  8. Testosterone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... typical male characteristics. Testosterone injection works by supplying synthetic testosterone to replace the testosterone that is normally ... as a pellet to be injected under the skin.Testosterone injection may control your symptoms but will ...

  9. A Methodology for the Optimization of Flow Rate Injection to Looped Water Distribution Networks through Multiple Pumping Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian León-Celi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The optimal function of a water distribution network is reached when the consumer demands are satisfied using the lowest quantity of energy, maintaining the minimal pressure required at the same time. One way to achieve this is through optimization of flow rate injection based on the use of the setpoint curve concept. In order to obtain that, a methodology is proposed. It allows for the assessment of the flow rate and pressure head that each pumping station has to provide for the proper functioning of the network while the minimum power consumption is kept. The methodology can be addressed in two ways: the discrete method and the continuous method. In the first method, a finite set of combinations is evaluated between pumping stations. In the continuous method, the search for the optimal solution is performed using optimization algorithms. In this paper, Hooke–Jeeves and Nelder–Mead algorithms are used. Both the hydraulics and the objective function used by the optimization are solved through EPANET and its Toolkit. Two case studies are evaluated, and the results of the application of the different methods are discussed.

  10. Methods of preparing and using intravenous nutrient compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beigler, M.A.; Koury, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    A method for preparing a stable, dry-packaged, sterile, nutrient composition which upon addition of sterile, pyrogen-free water is suitable for intravenous administration to a mammal, including a human, is described. The method comprises providing the nutrients in a specific dry form and state of physical purity acceptable for intravenous administration, sealing the nutrients in a particular type of container adapted to receive and dispense sterile fluids and subjecting the container and its sealed contents to a sterilizing, nondestructive dose of ionizing radiation. The method results in a packaged, sterile nutrient composition which may be dissolved by the addition of sterile pyrogen-free water. The resulting aqueous intravenous solution may be safely administered to a mammal in need of nutrient therapy. The packaged nutrient compositions of the invention exhibit greatly extended storage life and provide an economical method of providing intravenous solutions which are safe and efficacious for use. (author)

  11. Subcutaneous versus intravenous immunoglobulin in multifocal motor neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbo, T; Andersen, Henning; Hess, A

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: For treatment of multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN), we hypothesized that (i) infusion of equivalent dosages of subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIG) is as effective as intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and that (ii) subcutaneous infusion at home is associated with a better...... at the injection sites for a few weeks. All other adverse effects during SCIG were mild and transient. No differences between treatments of health-related quality of life occurred. Conclusion: In MMN, short-term subcutaneous infusion of immunoglobulin is feasible, safe and as effective as intravenous infusion...

  12. Intravenous adenosine for surgical management of penetrating heart wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokotsakis, John; Hountis, Panagiotis; Antonopoulos, Nikolaos; Skouteli, Elian; Athanasiou, Thanos; Lioulias, Achilleas

    2007-01-01

    Accurate suturing of penetrating cardiac injuries is difficult. Heart motion, ongoing blood loss, arrhythmias due to heart manipulation, and the near-death condition of the patient can all affect the outcome. Rapid intravenous injection of adenosine induces temporary asystole that enables placement of sutures in a motionless surgical field. Use of this technique improves surgical conditions, and it is faster than other methods. Herein, we describe our experience with the use of intravenous adenosine to successfully treat 3 patients who had penetrating heart wounds.

  13. Analysis of ground-water flow in the Madison aquifer using fluorescent dyes injected in Spring Creek and Rapid Creek near Rapid City, South Dakota, 2003-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Larry D.; Long, Andrew J.

    2007-01-01

    The Madison aquifer, which contains fractures and solution openings in the Madison Limestone, is used extensively for water supplies for the city of Rapid City and other suburban communities in the Rapid City, S. Dak., area. The 48 square-mile study area includes the west-central and southwest parts of Rapid City and the outcrops of the Madison Limestone extending from south of Spring Creek to north of Rapid Creek. Recharge to the Madison Limestone occurs when streams lose flow as they cross the outcrop. The maximum net loss rate for Spring and Rapid Creek loss zones are 21 and 10 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), respectively. During 2003 and 2004, fluorescent dyes were injected in the Spring and Rapid Creek loss zones to estimate approximate locations of preferential flow paths in the Madison aquifer and to measure the response and transit times at wells and springs. Four injections of about 2 kilograms of fluorescein dye were made in the Spring Creek loss zone during 2003 (sites S1, S2, and S3) and 2004 (site S4). Injection at site S1 was made in streamflow just upstream from the loss zone over a 12-hour period when streamflow was about equal to the maximum loss rate. Injections at sites S2, S3, and S4 were made in specific swallow holes located in the Spring Creek loss zone. Injection at site R1 in 2004 of 3.5 kilograms of Rhodamine WT dye was made in streamflow just upstream from the Rapid Creek loss zone over about a 28-hour period. Selected combinations of 27 wells, 6 springs, and 3 stream sites were monitored with discrete samples following the injections. For injections at sites S1-S3, when Spring Creek streamflow was greater than or equal to 20 ft3/s, fluorescein was detected in samples from five wells that were located as much as about 2 miles from the loss zone. Time to first arrival (injection at site S1) ranged from less than 1 to less than 10 days. The maximum fluorescein concentration (injection at site S1) of 120 micrograms per liter (ug/L) at well CO

  14. Water edema CT and intravenous contrast in the local staging of colorectal tumors; TC con enema de agua y contraste intrevenoso en la estadificacion local de los tumores colorrectales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cros, T.; Robledo de Dios, C.; Garcia-Maurino, M. L.; Maldonado, G.; Loeches, N.; Lozano, E. [Hospital General de Albacete (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    Determine the value of the water enema CT technique as a diagnostic method in the local staging of colorectal carcinoma using the anatomopathological study of the surgical pieces as reference method. A total of 58 cases diagnosed of colorectal carcinoma by biopsy and staged by water enema CT and intravenous contrast have been reviewed. All the cases were classified into one of the following groups. T1-T2, T3 and T4. the anatomopathology study of the local staging was performed in all the cases and was considered the gold standard only referring to the local growth of the tumor (T). Two groups are presented: T1-T2 compared to T3 and T4 that show the efficacy to differentiate early stages from advanced ones, the results of this group being the following: sensitivity 88.46%, specificity =75%, positive predictive value results=95.83%, negative predictive value result=60%. The second group was made up by the T1-T2 and T3 compared to T4, to differentiate the early and advanced stages from the non-resectable ones. The parameters in this group are: sensitivity=100%, specificity=98.14%, positive predictive value result=80%, negative predictive value result=100%. (Author) 15 refs.

  15. Apparent Km of mitochondria for oxygen computed from Vmax measured in permeabilized muscle fibers is lower in water enriched in oxygen by electrolysis than injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoll, Joffrey; Bouitbir, Jamal; Sirvent, Pascal; Klein, Alexis; Charton, Antoine; Jimenez, Liliana; Péronnet, François R; Geny, Bernard; Richard, Ruddy

    2015-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that oxygen (O2) diffusion could be favored in water enriched in O2 by a new electrolytic process because of O2 trapping in water superstructures (clathrates), which could reduce the local pressure/content relationships for O2 and facilitate O2 diffusion along PO2 gradients. Materials and methods Mitochondrial respiration was compared in situ in saponin-skinned fibers isolated from the soleus muscles of Wistar rats, in solution enriched in O2 by injection or the electrolytic process 1) at an O2 concentration decreasing from 240 µmol/L to 10 µmol/L (132 mmHg to 5 mmHg), with glutamate–malate or N, N, N′, N′-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride (TMPD)–ascorbate (with antimycin A) as substrates; and 2) at increasing adenosine diphosphate (ADP) concentration with glutamate–malate as substrate. Results As expected, maximal respiration decreased with O2 concentration and, when compared to glutamate–malate, the apparent Km O2 of mitochondria for O2 was significantly lower with TMPD–ascorbate with both waters. However, when compared to the water enriched in O2 by injection, the Km O2 was significantly lower with both electron donors in water enriched in O2 by electrolysis. This was not associated with any increase in the sensitivity of mitochondria to ADP; no significant difference was observed for the Km ADP between the two waters. Conclusion In this experiment, a higher affinity of the mitochondria for O2 was observed in water enriched in O2 by electrolysis than by injection. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that O2 diffusion can be facilitated in water enriched in O2 by the electrolytic process. PMID:26203225

  16. Ultrasonography versus intravenous urography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslaksen, A.

    1991-01-01

    The present study was performed to compare the clinical value of urography and ultrasonography in a non-selected group of patients referred for urography to a university hospital. The conslusions and clinical implications of the study are as follows: Intravenous urography remains the cornerstone imaging examination in the evaluation of ureteral calculi. Ultrasonography is a valuable adjunct in cases of non- visualization of the kidneys, in distal obstruction and known contrast media allergy. When women with recurrent urinary tract infection are referred for imaging of the urinary tract, ultrasonography should be used. Ultrasonography should replace urography for screening of non-acute hydronephrosis like in female genital cancer and benign prostate hyperplasia. There is good correlation between urography and ultrasonography in assessing the degree of hydronephrosis. However, more researh on the relationship between hydronephrosis and obstruction is necessary. Ultrasonography should be used as the only imaging method of the upper urinary tract in patients with microscopic hematuria. In patients less than 50 years with macroscopic hematuria, ultrasonography should be used as the only imaging of the upper urinary tract, and an examination of the urinary bladder should be included. In patients over 50 years, urography supplied with ultrasonography should be used, but more research is necessary on the subject of imaging method and age. 158 refs

  17. Multiscale Characterization and Quantification of Arsenic Mobilization and Attenuation During Injection of Treated Coal Seam Gas Coproduced Water into Deep Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, Bhasker; Siade, Adam J.; Donn, Michael J.; Helm, Lauren; Morris, Ryan; Davis, James A.; Berg, Michael; Prommer, Henning

    2017-12-01

    Coal seam gas production involves generation and management of large amounts of co-produced water. One of the most suitable methods of management is injection into deep aquifers. Field injection trials may be used to support the predictions of anticipated hydrological and geochemical impacts of injection. The present work employs reactive transport modeling (RTM) for a comprehensive analysis of data collected from a trial where arsenic mobilization was observed. Arsenic sorption behavior was studied through laboratory experiments, accompanied by the development of a surface complexation model (SCM). A field-scale RTM that incorporated the laboratory-derived SCM was used to simulate the data collected during the field injection trial and then to predict the long-term fate of arsenic. We propose a new practical procedure which integrates laboratory and field-scale models using a Monte Carlo type uncertainty analysis and alleviates a significant proportion of the computational effort required for predictive uncertainty quantification. The results illustrate that both arsenic desorption under alkaline conditions and pyrite oxidation have likely contributed to the arsenic mobilization that was observed during the field trial. The predictive simulations show that arsenic concentrations would likely remain very low if the potential for pyrite oxidation is minimized through complete deoxygenation of the injectant. The proposed modeling and predictive uncertainty quantification method can be implemented for a wide range of groundwater studies that investigate the risks of metal(loid) or radionuclide contamination.

  18. Numerical Investigation into the Impact of CO2-Water-Rock Interactions on CO2 Injectivity at the Shenhua CCS Demonstration Project, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 100,000 t/year demonstration project for carbon dioxide (CO2 capture and storage in the deep saline formations of the Ordos Basin, China, has been successfully completed. Field observations suggested that the injectivity increased nearly tenfold after CO2 injection commenced without substantial pressure build-up. In order to evaluate whether this unique phenomenon could be attributed to geochemical changes, reactive transport modeling was conducted to investigate CO2-water-rock interactions and changes in porosity and permeability induced by CO2 injection. The results indicated that using porosity-permeability relationships that include tortuosity, grain size, and percolation porosity, other than typical Kozeny-Carman porosity-permeability relationship, it is possible to explain the considerable injectivity increase as a consequence of mineral dissolution. These models might be justified in terms of selective dissolution along flow paths and by dissolution or migration of plugging fines. In terms of geochemical changes, dolomite dissolution is the largest source of porosity increase. Formation physical properties such as temperature, pressure, and brine salinity were found to have modest effects on mineral dissolution and precipitation. Results from this study could have practical implications for a successful CO2 injection and enhanced oil/gas/geothermal production in low-permeability formations, potentially providing a new basis for screening of storage sites and reservoirs.

  19. Simulation of the injection system of cooling water to low pressure (Lpci) for a boiling water reactor (BWR) based on RELAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado C, R. A.; Lopez S, E.; Chavez M, C.

    2012-10-01

    The present article describes the modeling and simulation of the Injection System of Cooling Water to Low Pressure (Lpci) for the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde. Is very important to be able to predict the behavior of the nuclear plant in the case of an emergency stop, and while nearer to the reality are the results of a simulation, better is the safety protocol that can be devised. In the Engineering Faculty of the UNAM at the present is had logical models of the safety systems, but due to the nature of the same, these simulations do not provide of the quantity of enough information to be able to reproduce with more accuracy the behavior of the Lpci in the case of a severe accident. For this reason, the RELAP code was used for the flows modeling, components and structures of heat transfers in relation to the system Lpci. The modeling of the components is carried out with base on technical information of the nuclear plant and the results will be corroborated with information in reference documents as the Rasp (the Reactor analysis support package) and the Fsar (Final safety analysis report) for the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde. (Author)

  20. On-line multi-bed sorption trap for VOC analysis of large-volume vapor samples: injection plug width, effects of water vapor and sample decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Juan M; Sacks, Richard D

    2005-01-01

    A multibed on-line sorption trap is used to preconcentrate organic vapors from air samples and inject the analytes into a GC separation column. Injection plug widths depend on the boiling point for the lipophilic compounds and on the polarity and boiling point for the polar compounds. Injection plug widths are sufficiently small (0.7-0.8 s) as to allow the direct injection of the most volatile compounds into the GC column without the need for a second focusing device. The presence of water in the samples has an effect on the retention of polar compounds by the trap. However, this effect is reproducible for a fixed water content and so can be overcome by using calibration standards under the same conditions of humidity as the samples. The thermal decomposition of many volatile organic compounds in an on-line sorption trap during the GC analysis of air samples is examined. The results show that degradation of unstable compounds is governed by the amount of heat transferred to the compounds during desorption (i.e., applied temperature and pulse duration). The use of an on-line trap results in the immediate transfer of desorbed compounds to the analytical column, which can reduce the formation of artifacts.

  1. Effect of intravenous injection of galanin on plasma concentrations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-06

    Oct 6, 2008 ... concentrations of growth hormone, thyroid hormones and milk production in the Saanen goat ... this study indicated that galanin may increase the plasma concentration of GH, and decrease the plasma concentration of T3 and T4, but ..... Neuroendocrine regulation of growth hormone secretion in sheep VI.

  2. Cyclic injection, storage, and withdrawal of heated water in a sandstone aquifer at St. Paul, Minnesota: Analysis of thermal data and nonisothermal modeling of short-term test cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert T.; Delin, G.N.

    1994-01-01

    In May 1980, the University of Minnesota began a project to evaluate the feasibility of storing heated water (150 degrees Celsius) in the Franconia-Ironton-Galesville aquifer (180 to 240 meters below land surface) and later recovering it for space heating. The University's steam-generation facilities supplied high-temperature water for injection. The Aquifer Thermal-Energy Storage system is a doublet-well design in which the injection-withdrawal wells are spaced approximately 250 meters apart. Water was pumped from one of the wells through a heat exchanger, where heat was added or removed. This water was then injected back into the aquifer through the other well.

  3. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy as an Analytical Process Technology for the On-Line Quantification of Water Precipitation Processes during Danhong Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuesong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper used near-infrared (NIR spectroscopy for the on-line quantitative monitoring of water precipitation during Danhong injection. For these NIR measurements, two fiber optic probes designed to transmit NIR radiation through a 2 mm flow cell were used to collect spectra in real-time. Partial least squares regression (PLSR was developed as the preferred chemometrics quantitative analysis of the critical intermediate qualities: the danshensu (DSS, (R-3, 4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid, protocatechuic aldehyde (PA, rosmarinic acid (RA, and salvianolic acid B (SAB concentrations. Optimized PLSR models were successfully built and used for on-line detecting of the concentrations of DSS, PA, RA, and SAB of water precipitation during Danhong injection. Besides, the information of DSS, PA, RA, and SAB concentrations would be instantly fed back to site technical personnel for control and adjustment timely. The verification experiments determined that the predicted values agreed with the actual homologic value.

  4. A Practical Approach for Formation Damage Control in Both Miscible and Immiscible CO2 Gas Flooding in Asphaltenic Crude Systems Using Water Slugs and Injection Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Sergio Z.

    , precipitation occurred throughout the entire reservoir due to the vaporizing drive miscibility process. While precipitation increased with the injection rate, further increase in the injection rate slightly decreased the deposition due to shear. The pressure drop in the water phase caused by the pore throat increased the local water velocity, resulting in a more effective removal of the clogging asphaltene material.

  5. Intravenous Iron Carboxymaltose as a Potential Therapeutic in Anemia of Inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas Lofruthe

    Full Text Available Intravenous iron supplementation is an effective therapy in iron deficiency anemia (IDA, but controversial in anemia of inflammation (AI. Unbound iron can be used by bacteria and viruses for their replication and enhance the inflammatory response. Nowadays available high molecular weight iron complexes for intravenous iron substitution, such as ferric carboxymaltose, might be useful in AI, as these pharmaceuticals deliver low doses of free iron over a prolonged period of time. We tested the effects of intravenous iron carboxymaltose in murine AI: Wild-type mice were exposed to the heat-killed Brucella abortus (BA model and treated with or without high molecular weight intravenous iron. 4h after BA injection followed by 2h after intravenous iron treatment, inflammatory cytokines were upregulated by BA, but not enhanced by iron treatment. In long term experiments, mice were fed a regular or an iron deficient diet and then treated with intravenous iron or saline 14 days after BA injection. Iron treatment in mice with BA-induced AI was effective 24h after iron administration. In contrast, mice with IDA (on iron deficiency diet prior to BA-IA required 7d to recover from AI. In these experiments, inflammatory markers were not further induced in iron-treated compared to vehicle-treated BA-injected mice. These results demonstrate that intravenous iron supplementation effectively treated the murine BA-induced AI without further enhancement of the inflammatory response. Studies in humans have to reveal treatment options for AI in patients.

  6. Effect of high-pressure homogenization preparation on mean globule size and large-diameter tail of oil-in-water injectable emulsions

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Peng; Wu-jun Dong; Ling Li; Jia-ming Xu; Du-jia Jin; Xue-jun Xia; Yu-ling Liu

    2015-01-01

    The effect of different high pressure homogenization energy input parameters on mean diameter droplet size (MDS) and droplets with > 5 μm of lipid injectable emulsions were evaluated. All emulsions were prepared at different water bath temperatures or at different rotation speeds and rotor-stator system times, and using different homogenization pressures and numbers of high-pressure system recirculations. The MDS and polydispersity index (PI) value of the emulsions were determined using the d...

  7. A Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of Post-Compression Water Injection in a Rolls-Royce M250 Gas Turbine Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-18

    Brian Ray 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING...for his continued help and support throughout the last four years as both his student and advisee. Additionally, I would like to thank Mr. Charles ...Daggett, David L., Silvio Ortanderl, David Eames , Jeffrey J. Berton, and Christopher A. Snyder. Revisiting Water Injection for Commercial Aircraft

  8. Evaluation of Hydroxyl Ion Diffusion in Dentin and Injectable Forms and a Simple Powder-Water Calcium Hydroxide Paste: An in Vitro Study

    OpenAIRE

    Eftekhar, Behrooz; Moghimipour, Eskandar; Eini, Ebrahim; Jafarzadeh, Mansour; Behrooz, Narges

    2014-01-01

    Background: Intra canal medicaments are used to reduce the number of bacteria and reinfection in endodontic procedures. Calcium Hydroxide was introduced to endodontics by Herman as an intracanal antimicrobial agent. Objectives: The aim of this study was to present an injectable formulation of calcium hydroxide then compare the final pH of this new formulation with Metapaste and evaluate the effect of a mixture of Calcium Hydroxide powder with water on human extracted teeth. Patients and Metho...

  9. Single-dose Intramuscular-injection Toxicology Test of Water-soluble Carthami-flos and Cervi cornu parvum Pharmacopuncture in a Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunju Park

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study is to investigate both the single-dose intramuscular injection toxicity and the approximate lethal dose of water-soluble Carthami-flos and Cervi cornu parvum pharmacopuncture (WCFC in male and female Sprague-Dawley (SD rats. Methods: The study was conducted at Biotoxtech Co. according to the Good Laboratory Practice (GLP regulation and the toxicity test guidelines of the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS after approval of the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Dosages for the control, high dose, middle dose and low dose groups were 0.5 mL/animal of saline and 0.5, 0.25 and 0.125 mL/animal of WCFC, respectively. WCFC was injected into the muscle of the left femoral region by using a disposable syringe (1 mL, 26 gauge. The general symptoms and mortality were observed 30 minutes, 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours after the first injection and then daily for 14 days after the injection. The body weights of the SD rats were measured on the day of the injection (before injection and on the third, seventh, and fourteenth days after the injection. Serum biochemical and hematologic tests, necropsy examinations, and histopathologic examinations at the injection site were performed after the observation period. Results: No deaths, abnormal clinical symptoms, or significant weight changes were observed in either male or female SD rats in the control or the test (0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 mL/animal groups during the observation period. No significant differences in hematology and serum biochemistry and no macroscopic abnormalities at necropsy were found. No abnormal reactions at injection sites were noted on the topical tolerance tests. Conclusion: The results of this single-dose toxicity study show that WCFC is safe, its lethal doses in male and female SD rats being estimated to be higher than 0.5 mL/animal.

  10. Usefulness of MR cholangiopancreatography after intravenous morphine administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, So Jung; Ko, Ji Ho; Cho, Young Duk; Jung, Mi Hee; Yoon, Byung Chull

    2007-01-01

    We wanted to assess the usefulness of MRCP after intravenous morphine administration in the evaluation of the hepatopancreatic pancreatico-biliary ductal system. We studied 15 patients who were suspected of having disease of hepatopancreatic ductal system and they did not have any obstructive lesion on ultrasonography and/or CT. MRCP was acquired before and after morphine administration (0.04 mg/kg, intravenously). Three radiologists scored the quality of the images of the anatomic structures in the hepatopancreatic ductal system. We directly compared the quality of the images obtained with using the two methods and the improvement of the artifacts by pulsatile vascular compression. The MRCP images obtained after intravenous morphine administration were better than those obtained before morphine administration for visualizing the hepatopancreatic ductal system. On direct comparison, the MRCP images obtained after morphine administration were better in 12 cases, equivocal in two cases, and the images before morphine administration were better in only one case. In three patients, MRCP before morphine injection showed signal loss at the duct across the pulsatile hepatic artery. In two of three patients, MRCP after morphine injection showed no signal loss in this ductal area. MRCP after intravenous morphine administration enables physicians to see the hepatopancreatic ductal system significantly better and the artifacts caused by pulsation of the hepatic artery can be avoided

  11. Water chemistry at Hontomín-Huermeces (Burgos, Spain): insights for a pre-, intra- and post-CO2 injection geochemical monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisi, Barbara; Vaselli, Orlando; Tassi, Franco; de Elio, Javier; Delgado Huertas, António; Mazadiego, Luis Felipe; Ortega, Marcelo F.

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the very first geochemical and isotopic data related to surface and spring waters and dissolved gases in the area of Hontomín-Huermeces (Burgos, Spain) are presented and discussed. Hontomín-Huermeces was selected as a pilot site for the injection of pure (>99 %) CO2. Injection and monitoring wells are planned to be drilled close to 6 oil wells completed in the 1980's. Stratigraphical logs indicate the presence of a confined saline aquifer at the depth of about 1,500 m into which less than 100,000 tons of liquid CO2 will be injected, possibly starting in 2013. The chemical and isotopic features of the spring waters suggest the occurrence of a shallow aquifer having a Ca2+(Mg2+)-HCO3- composition, relatively low salinity (Total Dissolved Solids ≈800 mg/L) and a meteoric isotopic signature. Some spring waters close to the oil wells are characterized by relatively high concentrations of NO3- (up to 123 mg/L), unequivocally indicating anthropogenic contamination that adds to the main water-rock interaction processes. The latter can be referred to Ca-Mg-carbonate and, at a minor extent, Al-silicate dissolution, being the outcropping sedimentary rocks characterized by Palaeozoic to Quaternary rocks. Anomalous concentrations of Cl-, SO42-, As, B and Ba were measured in two springs discharging a few hundreds meters from the oil wells and in the Rio Ubierna, possibly indicative of mixing processes, although at very low extent, between deep and shallow aquifers. Gases dissolved in spring waters show relatively high concentrations of atmospheric species, such as N2, O2 and Ar, and isotopically negative CO2 (masking any contribution related to a deep source. The geochemical and isotopic data of this study are of particular importance when a monitoring program will be established to verify whether CO2 leakages, induced by the injection of this greenhouse gas, may affect the quality of the waters of the shallow Hontomín-Huermeces hydrological circuit. In this

  12. An experimental study on the cathode humidification and evaporative cooling of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells using direct water injection method at high current densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Seong Hoon; Kim, Min Soo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Proposal of a cathode humidification and evaporative cooling system for PEM fuel cells. • An external-mixing air-assist atomizer is used to produce a very fine water spray. • The system is effective in both cathode humidification and stack cooling. • Increased water flow rate improves stack performance and evaporative cooling capacity. • At a given water flow rate, lower stack temperatures cause greater humidification effect. - Abstract: Humidification and cooling are critical issues in enhancing the efficiency and durability of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). However, existing humidifiers and cooling systems have the disadvantage that they must be quite large to achieve adequate PEMFC performance. In this study, to eliminate the need for a bulky humidifier and to lighten the cooling load of PEMFCs, a cathode humidification and evaporative cooling system using an external-mixing air-assist atomizer was developed and its performance was investigated. The atomization performance of the nozzle was analyzed experimentally under various operating conditions with minimal changes in the system design. Experiments with a five-cell PEMFC stack with an active area of 250 cm 2 were carried out to analyze the effects of various parameters (such as the operating temperature, current density, and water injection flow rate) on the evaporation of injected water for humidification and cooling performances. The experimental results demonstrate that the direct water injection method proposed in this study is quite effective in cathode humidification and stack cooling in PEM fuel cells at high current densities. The stack performance was improved by humidification effect and the coolant temperature at the stack outlet decreased by evaporative cooling effect.

  13. Adverse reactions to iotroxate at intravenous cholangiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, U.

    1987-01-01

    The number and type of adverse reactions to meglumine iotroxate at intravenous infusion cholangiography, performed one day prior to elective cholecystectomy, were recorded in a prospective investigation of 196 asymptomatic, anicteric patients. One hundred ml (50 mg I/ml) of contrast medium was infused over a period of 30 minutes. Only 2 minor (1%) and no severe or fatal reactions were noted. A review of the literature on the use of iotroxate in 2492 patients, including those in the present investigation, revealed a complication rate of 3.5% (3.0% minor, 0.3% moderate and 0.2% severe reactions) at infusion of iotroxate (5.0-8.0 g I) over a period of 30 to 120 minutes. This compared favourably with the 5% complication rate (4% minor, 0.5% moderate and 0.5% severe reactions) at infusion of iodoxamate and the 9% complication rate (5% minor, 1% moderate and 3% severe reactions) at infusion of ioglycamide. Irrespective of the contrast agent used, the frequency of adverse reactions at infusion was found to be 3 times lower than when equal amounts (5.0-5.6 g I) of the same medium were injected. It is concluded that, at present, infusion of iotroxate in an amount which approximates to the transportation maximum of the liver is the least toxic way of performing intravenous cholangiography with an optimum filling of the bile ducts. (orig.)

  14. Experimental study on thermal-hydraulic behaviors of a pressure balanced coolant injection system for a passive safety light water reactor JPSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satoh, Takashi; Watanabe, Hironori; Araya, Fumimasa; Nakajima, Katsutoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Iwamura, Takamichi; Murao, Yoshio

    1998-02-01

    A conceptual design study of a passive safety light water reactor JPSR has been performed at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute JAERI. A pressure balanced coolant injection experiment has been carried out, with an objective to understand thermal-hydraulic characteristics of a passive coolant injection system which has been considered to be adopted to JPSR. This report summarizes experimental results and data recorded in experiment run performed in FY. 1993 and 1994. Preliminary experiments previously performed are also briefly described. As the results of the experiment, it was found that an initiation of coolant injection was delayed with increase in a subcooling in the pressure balance line. By inserting a separation device which divides the inside of core make-up tank (CMT) into several small compartments, a diffusion of a high temperature region formed just under the water surface was restrained and then a steam condensation was suppressed. A time interval from an uncovery of the pressure balance line to the initiation of the coolant injection was not related by a linear function with a discharge flow rate simulating a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) condition. The coolant was injected intermittently by actuation of a trial fabricated passive valve actuated by pressure difference for the present experiment. It was also found that the trial passive valve had difficulties in setting an actuation set point and vibrations noises and some fraction of the coolant was remained in CMT without effective use. A modification was proposed for resolving these problems by introducing an anti-closing mechanism. (author)

  15. Cefoxitin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is used to treat infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) infections; and urinary tract, abdominal (stomach area), female reproductive organs, blood, ... by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefoxitin injection will not work ...

  16. Golimumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... damaged, and do not use an auto-injection device if the security seal is broken. Look through the viewing window on the prefilled syringe or auto-injection device. The liquid inside should be clear and colorless ...

  17. Doxycycline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may have been exposed to anthrax in the air. Doxycycline injection is in a class of medications ... decrease the effectiveness of hormonal contraceptives (birth control pills, patches, rings, or injections). Talk to your doctor ...

  18. Abaloparatide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection may cause osteosarcoma (bone cancer) in laboratory rats. It is not known whether abaloparatide injection increases ... too have too much calcium in the blood, hyperparathyroidism (condition in which the body produces too much ...

  19. Paliperidone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paliperidone extended-release injections (Invega Sustenna, Invega Trinza) are used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that ... interest in life, and strong or inappropriate emotions). Paliperidone extended-release injection (Invega Sustenna) is also used ...

  20. Doripenem Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such ... if you are allergic to doripenem injection; other carbapenem antibiotics such as imipenem/cilastatin (Primaxin) or meropenem ( ...

  1. Ceftriaxone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceftriaxone injection is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria such as gonorrhea (a sexually transmitted ... skin, urinary tract, blood, bones, joints, and abdomen. Ceftriaxone injection is also sometimes given before certain types ...

  2. Nalbuphine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called opioid agonist-antagonists. It works by changing the way ... suddenly stop using nalbuphine injection, you may experience withdrawal symptoms including restlessness; teary eyes; runny nose; yawning; ...

  3. Naltrexone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Drugs, Herbs and Supplements → Naltrexone Injection URL of this page: ... become depressed and sometimes try to harm or kill themselves. Receiving naltrexone injection does not decrease the ...

  4. Intravenous volume tomographic pulmonary angiography imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Ruola; Strang, John G.; Chen, Biao; Conover, David L.; Yu, Rongfeng

    1999-05-01

    This study presents a new intravenous (IV) tomographic angiography imaging technique, called intravenous volume tomographic digital angiography (VTDA) for cross sectional pulmonary angiography. While the advantages of IV-VTDA over spiral CT in terms of volume scanning time and resolution have been validated and reported in our previous papers for head and neck vascular imaging, the superiority of IV-VTDA over spiral CT for cross sectional pulmonary angiography has not been explored yet. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the advantage of isotropic resolution of IV-VTDA in the x, y and z directions through phantom and animal studies, and to explore its clinical application for detecting clots in pulmonary angiography. A prototype image intensifier-based VTDA imaging system has been designed and constructed by modifying a GE 8800 CT scanner. This system was used for a series of phantom and dog studies. A pulmonary vascular phantom was designed and constructed. The phantom was scanned using the prototype VTDA system for direct 3D reconstruction. Then the same phantom was scanned using a GE CT/i spiral CT scanner using the routine pulmonary CT angiography protocols. IV contrast injection and volume scanning protocols were developed during the dog studies. Both VTDA reconstructed images and spiral CT images of the specially designed phantom were analyzed and compared. The detectability of simulated vessels and clots was assessed as the function of iodine concentration levels, oriented angles, and diameters of the vessels and clots. A set of 3D VTDA reconstruction images of dog pulmonary arteries was obtained with different IV injection rates and isotropic resolution in the x, y and z directions. The results of clot detection studies in dog pulmonary arteries have also been shown. This study presents a new tomographic IV angiography imaging technique for cross sectional pulmonary angiography. The results of phantom and animal studies indicate that IV-VTDA is

  5. Why not to ''pocket shoot'': Radiology of intravenous drug abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarroll, K.A.; Fisher, D.R.; Cawthon, L.A.; Donovan, K.R.; Roszler, M.H.; Kling, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    Our large population of intravenous drug abusers has increasingly resorted to supraclavicular central venous injection for vascular access. Few reports of complications associated with the practice of supraclavicular ''pocket'' injection have appeared in the radiologic literature. The authors describe the complications associated with this practice, including pneumothorax, mycotic aneurysm, arteriovenous fistula, jugular vein thrombosis, cellulitis, foreign body reaction, and neck abscess. In addition, the authors provide examples of sternoclavicular osteomyelitis. The anatomy of the ''pocket,'' and the pathophysiology and radiographic manifestations of these complications, are reviewed

  6. Cyanide Antidotes for Mass Casualties: Comparison of Intramuscular Injector by Autoinjector, Intraosseous Injection, and Inhalational Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Current antidotes for cyanide poisoning must be administered by intravenous... Cyanide Poisoning ; Intramuscular Injection; Intraosseous Injection; Inhalational Delivery 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT...required in cyanide - poisoned victims, since they may be hypotensive with collapsed peripheral veins. Thus, intravenous antidote administration would not

  7. Numerical Simulation of Geostress and Pore Pressure Evolution around Oil or Water Well under Different Injection-Production Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jian-jun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Geostress evolution in the process of oil field development can directly influence wellbore stability. Therefore, it is significant to strengthen the research of the evolution rule for well drilling and casing protection. Considering the interaction between reservoir seepage and stress fields, a mathematical model to characterize the stress evolution around wellbore was built. Using the FEM Software ABAQUS, through numerical simulation, the authors studied the evolution features of pore pressure and stress changes with time under different injection-production ratio, which disclosed the dynamic change regulation of pore pressure and stress of surrounding rock nearby the injection and production wells. These results may have implications in the treatment of wellbore stability and optimizing the injection and production processes during oil and gas production.

  8. Review and problem definition of water/rock reactions associated with injection of spent geothermal fluids from a geothermal plant into aquifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elders, W.A.

    1986-07-01

    Among the technical problems faced by the burgeoning geothermal industry is the disposal of spent fluids from power plants. Except in unusual circumstances the normal practice, especially in the USA, is to pump these spent fluids into injection wells to prevent contamination of surface waters, and possibly in some cases, to reduce pressure drawdown in the producing aquifers. This report is a survey of experience in geothermal injection, emphasizing geochemical problems, and a discussion of approaches to their possible mitigation. The extraction of enthalpy from geothermal fluid in power plants may cause solutions to be strongly supersaturated in various dissolved components such as silica, carbonates, sulfates, and sulfides. Injection of such supersaturated solutions into disposal wells has the potential to cause scaling in the well bores and plugging of the aquifers, leading to loss of injectivity. Various aspects of the geochemistry of geothermal brines and their potential for mineral formation are discussed, drawing upon a literature survey. Experience of brine treatment and handling, and the economics of mineral extraction are also addressed in this report. Finally suggestions are made on future needs for possible experimental, field and theoretical studies to avoid or control mineral scaling.

  9. Response surface modeling to predict fluid loss from beef strip loins and steaks injected with salt and phosphate with or without a dehydrated beef protein water binding adjunct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowder, Austin C; Goad, Carla L; Lou, Xingqiu; Morgan, J Brad; Koh, Chern Lin; Deakins, Alisha Parsons; Mireles DeWitt, Christina A

    2013-05-01

    This study was conducted using response surface methodology to predict fluid loss from injected beef strip steaks as influenced by levels of salt and sodium phosphates (SP) in the injection brine. Also, a beef-based dehydrated beef protein (DBP) water binding ingredient was evaluated. Paired U.S. select beef strip loins were quartered before being injected with 110% of initial weight with brines containing various concentrations of salt and SP (CON) or salt, SP and 5% DBP. Steaks were sliced, overwrapped and stored in the dark for 4d. Purge values ranged from 0.6% to 4.6% for CON and 0.3% to 2.1% for DBP. Fluid losses when accounting for the fluid lost from injection to slicing were as high as 6.8% for CON brines, but only 2.8% for DBP brines. The equations generated here and the DBP product could help producers achieve acceptable purge while reducing sodium use. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Geochemical effects of CO2 injection on produced water chemistry at an enhanced oil recovery site in the Permian Basin of northwest Texas, USA: Preliminary geochemical and Li isotope results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, S.; Gardiner, J.; Phan, T. T.; Macpherson, G. L.; Diehl, J. R.; Lopano, C. L.; Stewart, B. W.; Capo, R. C.

    2014-12-01

    Injection of supercritical CO2 for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) presents an opportunity to evaluate the effects of CO2 on reservoir properties and formation waters during geologic carbon sequestration. Produced water from oil wells tapping a carbonate-hosted reservoir at an active EOR site in the Permian Basin of Texas both before and after injection were sampled to evaluate geochemical and isotopic changes associated with water-rock-CO2 interaction. Produced waters from the carbonate reservoir rock are Na-Cl brines with TDS levels of 16.5-34 g/L and detectable H2S. These brines are potentially diluted with shallow groundwater from earlier EOR water flooding. Initial lithium isotope data (δ7Li) from pre-injection produced water in the EOR field fall within the range of Gulf of Mexico Coastal sedimentary basin and Appalachian basin values (Macpherson et al., 2014, Geofluids, doi: 10.1111/gfl.12084). Pre-injection produced water 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.70788-0.70795) are consistent with mid-late Permian seawater/carbonate. CO2 injection took place in October 2013, and four of the wells sampled in May 2014 showed CO2 breakthrough. Preliminary comparison of pre- and post-injection produced waters indicates no significant changes in the major inorganic constituents following breakthrough, other than a possible drop in K concentration. Trace element and isotope data from pre- and post-breakthrough wells are currently being evaluated and will be presented.

  11. Fluid injection for salt water disposal and enhanced oil recovery as a potential problem for the WIPP: Proceedings of a June 1995 workshop and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M.K.

    1996-08-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a facility of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), designed and constructed for the permanent disposal of transuranic (TRU) defense waste. The repository is sited in the New Mexico portion of the Delaware Basin, at a depth of 655 meters, in the salt beds of the Salado Formation. The WIPP is surrounded by reserves and production of potash, crude oil and natural gas. In selecting a repository site, concerns about extensive oil field development eliminated the Mescalero Plains site in Chaves County and concerns about future waterflooding in nearby oil fields helped eliminate the Alternate II site in Lea County. Ultimately, the Los Medanos site in Eddy County was selected, relying in part on the conclusion that there were no oil reserves at the site. For oil field operations, the problem of water migrating from the injection zone, through other formations such as the Salado, and onto adjacent property has long been recognized. In 1980, the DOE intended to prohibit secondary recovery by waterflooding in one mile buffer surrounding the WIPP Site. However, the DOE relinquished the right to restrict waterflooding based on a natural resources report which maintained that there was a minimal amount of crude oil likely to exist at the WIPP site, hence waterflooding adjacent to the WIPP would be unlikely. This document presents the workshop presentations and analyses for the fluid injection for salt water disposal and enhanced oil recovery utilizing fluid injection and their potential effects on the WIPP facility

  12. Comparison of Hemostatic Efficacy of Argon Plasma Coagulation with and without Distilled Water Injection in Treating High-Risk Bleeding Ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Rung Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Argon plasma coagulation (APC is useful to treat upper gastrointestinal bleeding, but its hemostatic efficacy has received little attention. Aims. This investigation attempted to determine whether additional endoscopic injection before APC could improve hemostatic efficacy in treating high-risk bleeding ulcers. Methods. From January 2007 to April 2011, adult patients with high-risk bleeding ulcers were included. This investigation compared APC plus distilled water injection (combined group to APC alone for treating high-risk bleeding ulcers. Outcomes were assessed based on initial hemostasis, surgery, blood transfusion, hospital stay, rebleeding, and mortality at 30 days posttreatment. Results. Totally 120 selected patients were analyzed. Initial hemostasis was accomplished in 59 patients treated with combined therapy and 57 patients treated with APC alone. No significant differences were noted between these groups in recurred bleeding, emergency surgery, 30-day mortality, hospital stay, or transfusion requirements. Comparing the combined end point of mortality plus the failure of initial hemostasis, rebleeding, and the need for surgery revealed an advantage for the combined group (P=0.040. Conclusions. Endoscopic therapy with APC plus distilled water injection was no more effective than APC alone in treating high-risk bleeding ulcers, whereas combined therapy was potentially superior for patients with poor overall outcomes.

  13. Management of Anaphylactic Shock During Intravenous Fluorescein Angiography at an Outpatient Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Sue Yang

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available We report the proper management of a severe adverse reaction of anaphylactic shock during intravenous fluorescein angiography at an outpatient clinic. A 72-year-old male developed the severe, life-threatening complication after intravenous injection of sodium fluorescein dye for retinal angiography. Three minutes after receiving an intravenous injection of fluorescein, the patient developed syncope, apnea and circulatory shock. Fortunately, he recovered without any neurologic sequelae after immediate intensive resuscitation with fluid and inotropic support. We highlight the occurrence of anaphylactic shock as a potentially fatal complication during intravenous fluorescein angiography. Thus, one should be alert to the possibility of this adverse event and be prepared to deal with it when fluorescein angiography is performed. When it happens, immediate intensive medical resuscitation is essential to minimize morbidity and to avoid mortality.

  14. Intravenous pyogenic granuloma or intravenous lobular capillary hemangioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghekiere, Olivier; Galant, Christine; Berg, Bruno Vande [Cliniques Universitaires St. Luc, Department of Radiology, Brussels (Belgium)

    2005-06-01

    Lobular capillary hemangioma is a vascular neoplasm that commonly occurs as a cutaneous tumor. When it involves the skin and mucosal surfaces, ulceration and suppuration may occur, hence the classic term of pyogenic granuloma. Intravenous pyogenic granuloma is a rare solitary form of lobular capillary hemangioma that usually occurs in the veins of the neck and upper extremities. We report the ultrasonographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings of a pyogenic intravenous granuloma localized in the right cephalic vein. The imaging and pathological findings and the differential diagnoses are discussed. (orig.)

  15. Interfacial Tension and Contact Angle Determination in Water-sandstone Systems with Injection of Flue Gas and CO2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shojaikaveh, N.; Rudolph, E.S.J.; Rossen, W.R.; Van Hemert, P.; Wolf, K.H.A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) has the potential for reducing CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. This option includes storage strategies such as CO2 injection into deep saline aquifers, depleted oil and gas reservoirs, and unmineable coal seams. This process is largely controlled by the interactions

  16. Optimization of powder injection molding of feedstock based on aluminum oxide and multicomponent water-soluble polymer binder

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hausnerová, B.; Marcaníková, L.; Filip, Petr; Sáha, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 7 (2011), s. 1376-1382 ISSN 0032-3888 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/08/1307 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : powder injection molding * viscosity * thermogravimetric analysis Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.302, year: 2011

  17. Optimization of powder injection molding of feedstock based on aluminum oxide and multicomponent water-soluble polymer binder

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hausnerová, B.; Marcaníková, L.; Filip, Petr; Sáha, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 7 (2011), s. 1376-1382 ISSN 0032-3888 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/08/1307 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : powder injection mold ing * viscosity * thermogravimetric analysis Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.302, year: 2011

  18. Optimizations of packed sorbent and inlet temperature for large volume-direct aqueous injection-gas chromatography to determine high boiling volatile organic compounds in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bofan; Song, Yonghui; Han, Lu; Yu, Huibin; Liu, Yang; Liu, Hongliang

    2014-08-22

    For the expanded application area, fast trace analysis of certain high boiling point (i.e., 150-250 °C) volatile organic compounds (HVOCs) in water, a large volume-direct aqueous injection-gas chromatography (LV-DAI-GC) method was optimized for the following parameters: packed sorbent for sample on-line pretreatment, inlet temperature and detectors configuration. Using the composite packed sorbent self-prepared with lithium chloride and a type of diatomite, the method enabled safe injection of an approximately 50-100 μL sample at an inlet temperature of 150 °C in the splitless mode and separated HVOCs from water matrix in 2 min. Coupled with a flame ionization detector (FID), an electron capture detector (ECD) and a flame photometric detector (FPD), the method could simultaneously quantify 27 HVOCs that belong to seven subclasses (i.e., halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons, chlorobenzenes, nitrobenzenes, anilines, phenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organic sulfides) in 26 min. Injecting a 50 μL sample without any enrichment step, such as cryotrap focusing, the limits of quantification (LOQs) for the 27 HVOCs was 0.01-3 μg/L. Replicate analyses of the 27 HVOCs spiked source and river water samples exhibited good precision (relative standard deviations ≤ 11.3%) and accuracy (relative errors ≤ 17.6%). The optimized LV-DAI-GC was robust and applicable for fast determination and automated continuous monitoring of HVOCs in surface water. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of intravenous fluorescein in intradermal allergy testing in psittacines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nett, Claudia S; Hosgood, Giselle; Heatley, J Jill; Foil, Carol S; Tully, Thomas N

    2003-12-01

    This study was designed to improve the clinical feasibility of intradermal skin testing of psittacine birds using intravenous fluorescein stain. Twenty-five healthy, anaesthetized Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) were injected intravenously with 10 mg kg-1 fluorescein-sodium 1% followed by intradermal injections of 0.02 mL phosphate-buffered saline, histamine phosphate (1:100,000 w/v) and codeine phosphate (1:100,000 w/v) at the sternal apteria. Wheal diameters of reaction sites were measured grossly and under illumination with a Wood's lamp after 5 and 10 min. Fluorescence-enhanced injection sites were scored between 0 and 2, with 0 equivalent to normal skin and 2 equivalent to a plucked feather follicle. The presence of a fluorescent halo around intradermal injections was also recorded. Under Wood's light illumination at 10 min, histamine and saline were evaluated as positive and negative controls, respectively, based on a positive test having a halo and a score of 2. Sensitivity and specificity were each 76% for halo, 84 and 42% for score and 64 and 77% for combination of score and halo, respectively. Further, mean histamine reactions were significantly larger than codeine phosphate and saline (8.8 +/- 0.4 mm; 7.2 +/- 0.3 mm; 5.9 +/- 0.6 mm); however, this finding was not consistent in individual birds. Wheal size, halo presence and score were affected by site location independent from the injected compound. Intravenous fluorescein improved the readability of avian skin tests; however, the compounds tested raised inconsistent reactions in wheal size, score or halo presence. The compound-independent site effect raises concern on the validity of avian skin testing and warrants investigation of other techniques such as in vitro allergy testing. Based on our findings, intradermal allergy testing in psittacines with or without fluorescein is unreliable and cannot be recommended for practical clinical use.

  20. Orthostatic stability with intravenous levodopa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan H. Siddiqi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous levodopa has been used in a multitude of research studies due to its more predictable pharmacokinetics compared to the oral form, which is used frequently as a treatment for Parkinson’s disease (PD. Levodopa is the precursor for dopamine, and intravenous dopamine would strongly affect vascular tone, but peripheral decarboxylase inhibitors are intended to block such effects. Pulse and blood pressure, with orthostatic changes, were recorded before and after intravenous levodopa or placebo—after oral carbidopa—in 13 adults with a chronic tic disorder and 16 tic-free adult control subjects. Levodopa caused no statistically or clinically significant changes in blood pressure or pulse. These data add to previous data that support the safety of i.v. levodopa when given with adequate peripheral inhibition of DOPA decarboxylase.

  1. Analysis of the influence of well spacing on the injection rate behaviour for water injection under fracturing conditions; Analise da influencia do espacamento de pocos na determinacao da vazao de injecao para o processo de injecao com pressao cima da pressao de fratura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz Mazo, Eduin Orlando [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Centro de Estudo do Petroleo. Lab. de Simulacao de Fluxo em Meios Porosos (UNISIM); Costa, Odair Jose; Schiozer, Denis Jose [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Engenharia de Petroleo

    2008-07-01

    Water injection under fracturing conditions is a proved manner of overcoming injectivity loss in reservoirs affected by formation damage. Nevertheless, as shown by Munoz Mazo et al. (2006), there is the possibility of the generated and propagated fractures intercept the producer wells making that the injected water shall be re-circulated into the reservoir instead of its main function which is to drive the oil contained in the reservoir pore space. The objective of this work is to determine the influence of well spacing on the determination of the water injection rate under fracturing conditions, aiming to study its effects on the production performance and the sweep efficiency. To accomplish the work, an analytical model for representing the absolute permeability reduction near the wellbore and a model which reproduces the fracture propagation in a coupled manner are used. In this way the model sensitivity to several well spacing and the injection rate effects are analyzed using the Net Present Value and the sweep efficiency is evaluated as a function of the Recovery Factor. The results show that the water injection under fracturing conditions is an effective way of overcoming the injectivity loss problem and evidence its sensitivity to different spacing between the injector and the producer wells. (author)

  2. Characterization and Alteration of Wettability States of Alaskan Reserviors to Improve Oil Recovery Efficiency (including the within-scope expansion based on Cyclic Water Injection - a pulsed waterflood for Enhanced Oil Recovery)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhijit Dandekar; Shirish Patil; Santanu Khataniar

    2008-12-31

    Numerous early reports on experimental works relating to the role of wettability in various aspects of oil recovery have been published. Early examples of laboratory waterfloods show oil recovery increasing with increasing water-wetness. This result is consistent with the intuitive notion that strong wetting preference of the rock for water and associated strong capillary-imbibition forces gives the most efficient oil displacement. This report examines the effect of wettability on waterflooding and gasflooding processes respectively. Waterflood oil recoveries were examined for the dual cases of uniform and non-uniform wetting conditions. Based on the results of the literature review on effect of wettability and oil recovery, coreflooding experiments were designed to examine the effect of changing water chemistry (salinity) on residual oil saturation. Numerous corefloods were conducted on reservoir rock material from representative formations on the Alaska North Slope (ANS). The corefloods consisted of injecting water (reservoir water and ultra low-salinity ANS lake water) of different salinities in secondary as well as tertiary mode. Additionally, complete reservoir condition corefloods were also conducted using live oil. In all the tests, wettability indices, residual oil saturation, and oil recovery were measured. All results consistently lead to one conclusion; that is, a decrease in injection water salinity causes a reduction in residual oil saturation and a slight increase in water-wetness, both of which are comparable with literature observations. These observations have an intuitive appeal in that water easily imbibes into the core and displaces oil. Therefore, low-salinity waterfloods have the potential for improved oil recovery in the secondary recovery process, and ultra low-salinity ANS lake water is an attractive source of injection water or a source for diluting the high-salinity reservoir water. As part of the within-scope expansion of this project

  3. Pressure-assisted electrokinetic injection for on-line enrichment in capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry: a sensitive method for measurement of ten haloacetic acids in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huijuan; Zhu, Jiping; Aranda-Rodriguez, Rocio; Feng, Yong-Lai

    2011-11-07

    Haloacetic acids (HAAs) are by-products of the chlorination of drinking water containing natural organic matter and bromide. A simple and sensitive method has been developed for determination of ten HAAs in drinking water. The pressure-assisted electrokinetic injection (PAEKI), an on-line enrichment technique, was employed to introduce the sample into a capillary electrophoresis (CE)-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry system (ESI-MS/MS). HAAs were monitored in selected reaction monitoring mode. With 3 min of PAEKI time, the ten major HAAs (HAA10) in drinking water were enriched up to 20,000-fold into the capillary without compromising resolution. A simple solid phase clean-up method has been developed to eliminate the influence of ionic matrices from drinking water on PAEKI. Under conditions optimized for mass spectrometry, PAEKI and capillary electrophoresis, detection limits defined as three times ratio of signal to noise have been achieved in a range of 0.013-0.12 μg L(-1) for ten HAAs in water sample. The overall recoveries for all ten HAAs in drinking water samples were between 76 and 125%. Six HAAs including monochloro- (MCAA), dichloro- (DCAA), trichloro- (TCAA), monobromo- (MBAA), bromochloro- (BCAA), and bromodichloroacetic acids (BDCAA) were found in tap water samples collected. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Simplified Two-Time Step Method for Calculating Combustion and Emission Rates of Jet-A and Methane Fuel With and Without Water Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Melissa; Marek, C. John

    2005-01-01

    A simplified kinetic scheme for Jet-A, and methane fuels with water injection was developed to be used in numerical combustion codes, such as the National Combustor Code (NCC) or even simple FORTRAN codes. The two time step method is either an initial time averaged value (step one) or an instantaneous value (step two). The switch is based on the water concentration in moles/cc of 1x10(exp -20). The results presented here results in a correlation that gives the chemical kinetic time as two separate functions. This two time step method is used as opposed to a one step time averaged method previously developed to determine the chemical kinetic time with increased accuracy. The first time averaged step is used at the initial times for smaller water concentrations. This gives the average chemical kinetic time as a function of initial overall fuel air ratio, initial water to fuel mass ratio, temperature, and pressure. The second instantaneous step, to be used with higher water concentrations, gives the chemical kinetic time as a function of instantaneous fuel and water mole concentration, pressure and temperature (T4). The simple correlations would then be compared to the turbulent mixing times to determine the limiting rates of the reaction. The NASA Glenn GLSENS kinetics code calculates the reaction rates and rate constants for each species in a kinetic scheme for finite kinetic rates. These reaction rates are used to calculate the necessary chemical kinetic times. Chemical kinetic time equations for fuel, carbon monoxide and NOx are obtained for Jet-A fuel and methane with and without water injection to water mass loadings of 2/1 water to fuel. A similar correlation was also developed using data from NASA's Chemical Equilibrium Applications (CEA) code to determine the equilibrium concentrations of carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide as functions of overall equivalence ratio, water to fuel mass ratio, pressure and temperature (T3). The temperature of the gas entering

  5. New Reduced Two-Time Step Method for Calculating Combustion and Emission Rates of Jet-A and Methane Fuel With and Without Water Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Melissa; Marek, C. John

    2004-01-01

    A simplified kinetic scheme for Jet-A, and methane fuels with water injection was developed to be used in numerical combustion codes, such as the National Combustor Code (NCC) or even simple FORTRAN codes that are being developed at Glenn. The two time step method is either an initial time averaged value (step one) or an instantaneous value (step two). The switch is based on the water concentration in moles/cc of 1x10(exp -20). The results presented here results in a correlation that gives the chemical kinetic time as two separate functions. This two step method is used as opposed to a one step time averaged method previously developed to determine the chemical kinetic time with increased accuracy. The first time averaged step is used at the initial times for smaller water concentrations. This gives the average chemical kinetic time as a function of initial overall fuel air ratio, initial water to fuel mass ratio, temperature, and pressure. The second instantaneous step, to be used with higher water concentrations, gives the chemical kinetic time as a function of instantaneous fuel and water mole concentration, pressure and temperature (T4). The simple correlations would then be compared to the turbulent mixing times to determine the limiting properties of the reaction. The NASA Glenn GLSENS kinetics code calculates the reaction rates and rate constants for each species in a kinetic scheme for finite kinetic rates. These reaction rates were then used to calculate the necessary chemical kinetic times. Chemical kinetic time equations for fuel, carbon monoxide and NOx were obtained for Jet-A fuel and methane with and without water injection to water mass loadings of 2/1 water to fuel. A similar correlation was also developed using data from NASA's Chemical Equilibrium Applications (CEA) code to determine the equilibrium concentrations of carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide as functions of overall equivalence ratio, water to fuel mass ratio, pressure and temperature (T3

  6. A Multitracer Approach to Detecting Wastewater Plumes from Municipal Injection Wells in Nearshore Marine Waters at Kihei and Lahaina, Maui, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Charles D.; Rosa, Sarah N.

    2009-01-01

    Municipal wastewater plumes discharging from aquifer to ocean were detected by nearshore wading surveys at Kihei and Lahaina, on the island of Maui in Hawaii. Developed in cooperation with the Hawaii State Department of Health, the survey methodology included instrument trolling to detect submarine groundwater discharge, followed by analysis of water and macroalgae for a suite of chemical and isotopic constituents that constitute a 'multitracer' approach. Surveys were conducted May 6-28, 2008, during fair-weather conditions and included: (1) wading and kayak trolling with a multiparameter water-quality sonde, (2) marine water-column sampling, and (3) collection of benthic algae samples. Instrument trolling helped guide the water sampling strategy by providing dense, continuous transects of water properties on which groundwater discharge zones could be identified. Water and algae samples for costly chemical and isotopic laboratory analyses were last to be collected but were highly diagnostic of wastewater presence and nutrient origin because of low detection levels and confirmation across multiple tracers. Laboratory results confirmed the presence of wastewater constituents in marine water-column samples at both locales and showed evidence of modifying processes such as denitrification and mixing of effluent with surrounding groundwater and seawater. Carbamazepine was the most diagnostic pharmaceutical, detected in several marine water-column samples and effluent at both Kihei and Lahaina. Heavy nitrogen-isotope compositions in water and algae were highly diagnostic of effluent, particularly where enriched to even heavier values than effluent source compositions by denitrification. Algae provided an added advantage of time-integrating their nitrogen source during growth. The measured Kihei plume coincided almost exactly with prior model predictions, but the Lahaina plume was detected well south of the expected direct path from injection wells to shore and may be

  7. Intravenous urography and childhood trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Okorie, N. M.; MacKinnon, A. E.

    1982-01-01

    Results of intravenous urography (IVU) in 33 patients suspected of suffering from renal trauma were reviewed. It was concluded that when haematuria is only detected microscopically and clears within 24 hr then an IVU is not necessary, in the absence of other evidence of significant urinary tract injury.

  8. PET radioligand injection for pig neuroimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Munk, Ole Lajord; Landau, Anne M.

    2018-01-01

    Pigs are useful models in neuroimaging studies with positron emission tomography. Radiolabeled ligands are injected intravenously at the start of the scan and in pigs, the most easily accessible route of administration is the ear vein. However, in brain studies the short distance between the brai...

  9. Direct injection, simple and robust analysis of trace-level bromate and bromide in drinking water by IC with suppressed conductivity detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal, Wasiu; Gandhi, Jay; Zhang, Chunlong Carl

    2010-08-01

    Bromide is ubiquitously found in drinking water. It is introduced into source water primarily by contact with bromide-containing soils or seawater having high bromide content. Bromide is converted into carcinogenic bromate during ozonation processes employed in some drinking water and wastewater treatment plants. Therefore, monitoring of bromate in drinking water and its precursor bromide in source water is required. The purpose of this study was to survey bromide and bromate concentrations in randomly selected bottle waters of various brands and several tap water samples in the coastal Houston area using a direct-injection ion chromatography (IC) and a suppressed conductivity system. The method employs a simple isocratic IC with loop injection with calculated detection limit of 0.009 microg/L for bromate and 0.028 microg/L for bromide (250-microL sample volume). Allowing the detection of both species at the microg/L level in drinking water, this method does not require specialized instrumentation such as two-dimensional IC, expensive sample preparation, or post-column reactions. The results show that, whereas bromate remains undetected in all five tap water samples, there are significant high concentrations of bromide in the coastal Houston area (294.79 +/- 56.97 microg/L). Its link to potential seawater intrusion need to be further investigated. For bottle water samples randomly collected, 18.2% (2 out of 11) showed detectable amount of both bromide and bromate. The detection of bromate coincides with those bottle water samples that underwent ozonation treatment. Further sample campaign with exclusively ozonated bottle water samples (n = 19) showed 100% detection rate for both bromide and bromate. The 99% confidence intervals were 14.45-37.97 microg/L and 0.32-2.58 microg/L for bromide and bromate, respectively. The highest level of bromate among all ozonated bottle water samples was 7.57 microg/L, a concentration close to the U.S. EPA prescribed limit for

  10. Intérêt de l'injection d'eau alcaline en récupération assistée Significance of Allkaline Water Injection for Enhanced Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minssieux L.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'étude présentée ici s'insère dans un programme de recherche destiné à déterminer les conditions d'emploi de l'injection de soude, à partir d'une meilleure connaissance des mécanismes physico-chimiques mis en jeu dans le processus de récupération de l'huile. L'activité interfaciale de la soude est liée essentiellement à la composition chimique des huiles brutes à déplacer, en particulier à leur teneur en acides. Suivant cette teneur, l'abaissement de tension interfaciale en présence de soude peut être permanent ou juste transitoire, il dépend aussi de la concentration en soude utilisée et de la salinité de l'eau d'injection. Les tests de récupération réalisés en milieux gréseux et calcaires avec différentes huiles brutes, montrent que l'amélioration de récupération obtenue par la soude, résulte de l'action combinée de deux mécanismes - importante réduction de la tension interfaciale eau-huile ; - augmentation de la mouillabilité à l'eau de la roche. Ce dernier effet a été mis en évidence par des tests complémentaires d'imbibition ou par la comparaison des perméabilités relatives déterminées avec et sans additif dans la phase aqueuse. This article reports on a research project aimed at determining the conditions for using sodium-hydroxide injection on the basis of a better understanding of the physicochemical mechanisms involved in the cil recovery process. The interfacial activity of sodium hydroxide is mainly linked to the chemical composition of the crude cils to be displaced, in particular to their acid content. Depending on this content, the lowering of interfacial tension in the presence of sodium hydroxide may be permanent or merely transitory. It also depends on the sodium-hydroxide concentration utilized and on the salinity of the injection water. Recovery tests mode in sandstone and limestone media with different crude oils show that the improvement in recovery obtained with sodium hydroxide

  11. Determination of human-use pharmaceuticals in filtered water by direct aqueous injection: high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, Edward T.; Noriega, Mary C.; Kanagy, Christopher J.; Kanagy, Leslie K.; Coffey, Laura J.; Burkhardt, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes a method for the determination of 110 human-use pharmaceuticals using a 100-microliter aliquot of a filtered water sample directly injected into a high-performance liquid chromatograph coupled to a triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer using an electrospray ionization source operated in the positive ion mode. The pharmaceuticals were separated by using a reversed-phase gradient of formic acid/ammonium formate-modified water and methanol. Multiple reaction monitoring of two fragmentations of the protonated molecular ion of each pharmaceutical to two unique product ions was used to identify each pharmaceutical qualitatively. The primary multiple reaction monitoring precursor-product ion transition was quantified for each pharmaceutical relative to the primary multiple reaction monitoring precursor-product transition of one of 19 isotope-dilution standard pharmaceuticals or the pesticide atrazine, using an exact stable isotope analogue where possible. Each isotope-dilution standard was selected, when possible, for its chemical similarity to the unlabeled pharmaceutical of interest, and added to the sample after filtration but prior to analysis. Method performance for each pharmaceutical was determined for reagent water, groundwater, treated drinking water, surface water, treated wastewater effluent, and wastewater influent sample matrixes that this method will likely be applied to. Each matrix was evaluated in order of increasing complexity to demonstrate (1) the sensitivity of the method in different water matrixes and (2) the effect of sample matrix, particularly matrix enhancement or suppression of the precursor ion signal, on the quantitative determination of pharmaceutical concentrations. Recovery of water samples spiked (fortified) with the suite of pharmaceuticals determined by this method typically was greater than 90 percent in reagent water, groundwater, drinking water, and surface water. Correction for ambient environmental

  12. Effect of Intravenous Dexamethasone on Preparing the Cervix and Labor Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Laloha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of corticosteroids is one of the methods put forward for the strengthening and speeding up the process of labor. After identification of glucocorticoid receptors in human amnion, the role of corticosteroids in starting the process of labor has been studied in numerous studies. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of intravenous Dexamethasone on preparing the cervix and on labor induction. A randomized, clinical, and double – blind trial was conducted on 172 women divided into a control and an experimental group. The inclusion criteria were that they had to be primparous, in or before the 40th week of pregnancy, and with Bishop scores (B.S.s of 4 or lower. The exclusion criteria were diabetes, preeclampsia, macrosomia, twin pregnancy, rupture of the membrane (ROM, breech, and women suffering from background diseases. The B.S.s of the women was measured in charge of the study, and each woman was intravenously injected with eight milligrams of Dexamethasone or eight milligrams of distilled water. Four hours after the injections, the B.S.s of the participants was measured, and they were put under the conditions of labor induction using oxytocin. Information was collected in checklists A and B. The patients were compared with respect to B.S., the time the induction started, the average interval between the start of induction and the beginning of the active phase of childbirth, and the average length of time between the start of the active phase and the second stage of childbirth. The first and five minutes Apgar scores of the two groups of women were compared. The frequencies, the means,  and the standard deviations were calculated using the SPSS – 16 software, and analysis of the results was performed with the Student’s t- test and the chi-square test with PPPP

  13. Flow-through solid-phase based optical sensor for the multisyringe flow injection trace determination of orthophosphate in waters with chemiluminescence detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morais, Ines P.A.; Miro, Manuel; Manera, Matias; Estela, Jose Manuel; Cerda, Victor; Souto, M. Renata S.; Rangel, Antonio O.S.S.

    2004-01-01

    In this work, a novel flow-through solid-phase based chemiluminescence (CL) optical sensor is described for the trace determination of orthophosphate in waters exploiting the multisyringe flow injection analysis (MSFIA) concept with multicommutation. The proposed time-based injection flow system relies upon the in-line derivatisation of the analyte with ammonium molybdate in the presence of vanadate, and the transient immobilisation of the resulting heteropolyacid in a N-vinylpyrrolidone/divinylbenzene copolymer packed spiral shape flow-through cell located in front of the window of a photomultiplier tube. The simultaneous injection of well-defined slugs of luminol in alkaline medium and methanol solution towards the packed reactor is afterwards performed by proper switching of the solenoid valves. Then, the light emission from the luminol oxidation by the oxidant species retained onto the sorbent material is readily detected. At the same time, the generated molybdenum-blue compound is eluted by the minute amount of injected methanol, rendering the system prepared for a new measuring cycle. Therefore, the devised sensor enables the integration of the solid-phase CL reaction with elution and detection of the emitted light without the typical drawbacks of the molybdenum-blue based spectrophotometric procedures regarding the excess of molybdate anion, which causes high background signals due to its self-reduction. The noteworthy features of the developed CL-MSFIA system are the feasibility to accommodate reactions with different pH requirements and the ability to determine trace levels of orthophosphate in high silicate content samples (Si/P ratios up to 500). Under the optimised conditions, a dynamic linear range from 5 to 50 μg P l -1 for a 1.8 ml sample, repeatability better than 3.0% and a quantification limit of 4 μg P l -1 were attained. The flowing stream system handles 11 analysis h -1 and has been successfully applied to the determination of trace levels of

  14. Effect of Water-Alcohol Injection and Maximum Economy Spark Advance on Knock-Limited Performance and Fuel Economy of a Large Air-Cooled Cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinicke, Orville H.; Vandeman, Jack E.

    1945-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the effect of a coolant solution of 25 percent ethyl alcohol, 25 percent methyl alcohol, and 50 percent water by volume and maximum-economy spark advance on knock-limited performance and fuel economy of a large air-cooled cylinder. The knock-limited performance of the cylinder at engine speeds of 2100 and 2500 rpm was determined for coolant-fuel ratios of 0.0, 0.2, and 0.4. The effect of water-alcohol injection on fuel economy was determined in constant charge-air flow tests. The tests were conducted at a spark advance of 20 deg B.T.C. and maximum-economy spark advance.

  15. Analysis of thiabendazole, 4-tert-octylphenol and chlorpyrifos in waste and sewage water by direct injection – micellar liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Cano, Ricard; Kassuha, Diego; Peris-Vicente, Juan; Roca-Genovés, Pasqual; Carda-Broch, Samuel; Esteve-Romero, Josep

    2015-03-07

    A micellar liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the simultaneous quantification of the pesticides thiabendazole and chlorpyrifos, as well as an alkylphenol, which is included in pesticide formulations, i.e., 4-tert-octylphenol, in water. A sample was filtered and directly injected, avoiding large extraction steps using toxic solvents, thus expediting the experimental procedure. The contaminants were eluted without interferences in 0.994), limit of detection and quantification (0.2-0.3; and 0.5-0.8 mg L(-1), respectively), intra- and interday accuracy (95.2-102.9%), precision (wastewater from the fruit-processing industry, wastewater treatment plants, and in sewage water belonging to the Castelló area (Spain). The results were similar to those obtained by an already reliable method.

  16. Iodine speciation in coastal and inland bathing waters and seaweeds extracts using a sequential injection standard addition flow-batch method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Inês C; Mesquita, Raquel B R; Bordalo, Adriano A; Rangel, António O S S

    2015-02-01

    The present work describes the development of a sequential injection standard addition method for iodine speciation in bathing waters and seaweeds extracts without prior sample treatment. Iodine speciation was obtained by assessing the iodide and iodate content, the two inorganic forms of iodine in waters. For the determination of iodide, an iodide ion selective electrode (ISE) was used. The indirect determination of iodate was based on the spectrophotometric determination of nitrite (Griess reaction). For the iodate measurement, a mixing chamber was employed (flow batch approach) to explore the inherent efficient mixing, essential for the indirect determination of iodate. The application of the standard addition method enabled detection limits of 0.14 µM for iodide and 0.02 µM for iodate, together with the direct introduction of the target water samples, coastal and inland bathing waters. The results obtained were in agreement with those obtained by ICP-MS and a colorimetric reference procedure. Recovery tests also confirmed the accuracy of the developed method which was effectively applied to bathing waters and seaweed extracts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The determination of acrylamide in environmental and drinking waters by large-volume injection - hydrophilic-interaction liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backe, Will J; Yingling, Virginia; Johnson, Todd

    2014-03-21

    A simple and sensitive analytical method was developed to quantify levels of acrylamide in environmental and drinking waters. The analytical method consisted of solvent exchanging acrylamide from 2mL of water into 2mL of dichloromethane using acetonitrile as an intermediate. The sample was then directly analyzed by large-volume (750μL) injection - hydrophilic-interaction liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. The method detection limit and reporting level were 2.4ng/L and 17ng/L of acrylamide, respectively. The recovery of acrylamide during solvent exchange was 95±2.8% and the matrix effects were 12±2.2% in river water. The use of atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization reduced matrix effects; however, it also reduced method sensitivity by a factor of 2.2 compared to electrospray ionization. Matrix effects were compensated for by the use of an isotopically-labeled internal standard and the method accuracy was 89±3.0% at 25ng/L of acrylamide and 102±2.6% at 250ng/L of acrylamide. The precision of the method was less than 6% relative standard deviation at both 25ng/L and 250ng/L of acrylamide. Samples from a sand-and-gravel mine and a drinking-water treatment plant were acquired to demonstrate the method. The concentrations of acrylamide at the sand-and-gravel mine were up to 280ng/L. In the drinking-water treatment plant, the concentration of acrylamide was approximately double in the finished drinking water when compared to other stages in the drinking-water treatment process. Disinfection or fluoridation may result in higher concentrations of acrylamide in finished drinking water; however, further research in this area is necessary. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Simultaneous quantification of polar and non-polar volatile organic compounds in water samples by direct aqueous injection-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeppli, Christoph; Berg, Michael; Hofstetter, Thomas B; Kipfer, Rolf; Schwarzenbach, René P

    2008-02-15

    A direct aqueous injection-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (DAI-GC/MS) method for trace analysis of 24 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in water samples is presented. The method allows for the simultaneous quantification of benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylenes (BTEX), methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), as well as a variety of chlorinated methanes, ethanes, propane, enthenes and benzenes. Applying a liquid film polyethylene glycol or a porous layer open tubular (PLOT) divinylbenzene GC capillary column to separate the water from the VOCs, volumes of 1-10 microL aqueous sample are directly injected into the GC. No enrichment or pretreatment steps are required and sample volumes as low as 100 microL are sufficient for accurate quantification. Method detection limits determined in natural groundwater samples were between 0.07 and 2.8 microg/L and instrument detection limits of VOCs. DAI-GC/MS offers both good accuracy and precision (relative standard deviations VOC concentration measurements in a polluted aquifer. The wide range of detectable compounds and the lack of labor-intensive sample preparation illustrate that the DAI method is robust and easily applicable for the quantification of important organic groundwater contaminants.

  19. Simultaneous enhancement of electron injection and air stability in N-type organic field-effect transistors by water-soluble polyfluorene interlayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihong; Khim, Dongyoon; Kang, Rira; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Baeg, Kang-Jun; Kang, Minji; Noh, Yong-Young; Kim, Dong-Yu

    2014-06-11

    Here, we report the simultaneous attainment of efficient electron injection and enhanced stability under ambient conditions for top-gate/bottom-contact (TG/BC), n-type, organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) using water-soluble polyfluorene derivatives (WPFs). When inserting the WPF interlayers between a semiconductor and the BC Au electrodes, initially the ambipolar (6,6)-phenyl-C61butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) OFETs were fully converted to unipolar charge transport characteristics that were exclusively n-type with significantly increased electron mobilities as high as 0.12 cm(2)/(V s) and a decreased threshold voltage. These improvements were mostly attributed to the interfacial dipoles of WPF layers that aligned to form a favorable energy band structure for efficient electron injection and to effectively block counter charge carriers. These were confirmed when values for the reduced work function of metal electrodes with WPFs and their correlated contact resistance were measured via the ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy and the transmission-line method, respectively. Moreover, the WPF interlayers played an important role in air stability of PCBM OFETs that exhibited higher and appreciably enhanced by increasing the ethylene-oxide side chain lengths of WPFs, which presumably was due to the water/oxygen/ion capturing effects in the hydrophilic interlayers.

  20. Intravenous Single Dose Toxicity of Sweet Bee Venom in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Ho Lee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Anaphylactic shock can be fatal to people who become hypersensitive when bee venom pharmacopuncture (BVP is used. Thus, sweet bee venom (SBV was developed to reduce these allergic responses. SBV is almost pure melittin, and SBV has been reported to have fewer allergic responses than BVP. BVP has been administered only into acupoints or intramuscularly, but we thought that intravenous injection might be possible if SBV were shown to be a safe medium. The aim of this study is to evaluate the intravenous injection toxicity of SBV through a single-dose test in Sprague-Dawley (SD rats. Methods: Male and female 6-week-old SD rats were injected intravenously with SBV (high dosage: 1.0 mL/animal; medium dosage: 0.5 mL/animal; low dosage: 0.1 mL/animal. Normal saline was injected into the control group in a similar method. We conducted clinical observations, body weight measurements, and hematology, biochemistry, and histological observations. Results: No death was observed in any of the experimental groups. Hyperemia was observed in the high and the medium dosage groups on the injection day, but from next day, no general symptoms were observed in any of the experimental groups. No significant changes due to intravenous SBV injection were observed in the weights, in the hematology, biochemistry, and histological observations, and in the local tolerance tests. Conclusion: The results of this study confirm that the lethal dose of SBV is over 1.0 mL/animal in SD rats and that the intravenous injection of SBV is safe in SD rats.

  1. Pharmacokinetics of high-dose intravenous melatonin in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars P H; Werner, Mads U; Rosenkilde, Mette Marie

    2016-01-01

    This crossover study investigated the pharmacokinetics and adverse effects of high-dose intravenous melatonin. Volunteers participated in 3 identical study sessions, receiving an intravenous bolus of 10 mg melatonin, 100 mg melatonin, and placebo. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 0, 60......, 120, 180, 240, 300, 360, and 420 minutes after the bolus. Quantitative determination of plasma melatonin concentrations was performed using a radioimmunoassay technique. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated by a compartmental pharmacokinetic analysis. Adverse effects included assessments...... of sedation and registration of other symptoms. Sedation, evaluated as simple reaction times, was measured at baseline and 120, 180, 300, and 420 minutes after the bolus. Twelve male volunteers completed the study. Median (IQR) Cmax after the bolus injections of 10 mg and 100 mg of melatonin were 221...

  2. Candida glabrata olecranon bursitis treated with bursectomy and intravenous caspofungin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skedros, John G; Keenan, Kendra E; Trachtenberg, Joel D

    2013-01-01

    Orthopedic surgeons are becoming more involved in the care of patients with septic arthritis and bursitis caused by yeast species. This case report involves a middle-aged immunocompromised female who developed a Candida glabrata septic olecranon bursitis that developed after she received a corticosteroid injection in the olecranon bursa for presumed aseptic bursitis. Candida (Torulopsis) glabrata is the second most frequently isolated Candida species from the bloodstream in the United States. Increased use of fluconazole and other azole antifungal agents as a prophylactic treatment for recurrent Candida albicans infections in immunocompromised individuals is one reason why there appears to be increased resistance of C. glabrata and other nonalbicans Candida (NAC) species to fluconazole. In this patient, this infection was treated with surgery (bursectomy) and intravenous caspofungin, an echinocandin. This rare infectious etiology coupled with this intravenous antifungal treatment makes this case novel among cases of olecranon bursitis caused by yeasts.

  3. Safe havens and rough waters: networks, place, and the navigation of risk among injection drug-using Malaysian fishermen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Brooke S; Choo, Martin; El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; Wu, Elwin; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba

    2014-05-01

    HIV prevalence among Malaysian fishermen is ten times that of the general population. Fishing boats are a key place where drug use occurs, but we know little about how these environments shape HIV risk behaviour. Utilizing Rhodes' 'risk environment' framework, we assessed drug use contexts and how characteristics of place associated with fishing and fishermen's social networks served as key axes along which drug use and HIV risk behaviour occurred. Data were collected during 2009-2011 in Kuantan, a fishing port on the eastern coast of Malaysia, and include 28 in-depth interviews and 398 surveys collected using RDS. Logistic regression was used to determine the effect of occupational, network and risk environment characteristics on unsafe injection behaviour and access to clean needles/syringes; qualitative data were coded and analyzed thematically. Drug injecting was common and occurred on boats, often with other crewmembers. Captains and crewmembers were aware of drug use. Unsafe injection practices were significantly associated with having a larger proportion of drug injectors in network (OR=3.510, 95% CI=1.053-11.700) and having a captain provide drugs for work (OR=2.777, 95% CI=1.018-7.576). Size of fishermen network (OR=0.987, 95% CI=0.977-0.996), crewmembers' knowledge of drug use (OR=7.234, 95% CI=1.430-36.604), and having a captain provide drugs for work (OR=0.134, 95% CI=0.025-0.720) predicted access to clean needles/syringes. Qualitative analyses revealed that occupational culture and social relationships on boats drove drug use and HIV risk. While marginalized in broader society, the acceptance of drug use within the fishing community created occupational networks of risk. Fishing boats were spaces of both risk and safety; where drug users participated in the formal economy, but also where HIV risk behaviour occurred. Understanding the interplay between social networks and place is essential for developing HIV prevention and harm reduction policies

  4. Determination of photoformation rates and scavenging rate constants of hydroxyl radicals in natural waters using an automatic light irradiation and injection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakatani, Nobutake [Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University, 1-7-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8521 (Japan)]. E-mail: nnakatan@hiroshima-u.ac.jp; Hashimoto, Norichika [Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University, 1-7-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8521 (Japan); Shindo, Hirotaka [Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University, 1-7-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8521 (Japan); Yamamoto, Masatoshi [LABOTEC Co. Ltd., 4-15-48 Itsukaiti, Saeki-ku, Hiroshima 731-5128 (Japan); Kikkawa, Megumi [LABOTEC Co. Ltd., 4-15-48 Itsukaiti, Saeki-ku, Hiroshima 731-5128 (Japan); Sakugawa, Hiroshi [Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University, 1-7-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8521 (Japan)

    2007-01-09

    Photoformation rates and scavenging rate constants of hydroxyl radicals ({center_dot}OH) in natural water samples were determined by an automatic determination system. After addition of benzene as a chemical probe to a water sample in a reaction cell, light irradiation and injection of irradiated water samples into an HPLC as a function of time were performed automatically. Phenol produced by the reaction between {center_dot}OH and the benzene added to the water sample was determined to quantify the {center_dot}OH formation rate. The rate constants of {center_dot}OH formation from the photolysis of nitrate ions, nitrite ions and hydrogen peroxide were comparable with those obtained in previous studies. The percent of expected {center_dot}OH photoformation rate from added nitrate ion were high in drinking water (97.4%) and river water (99.3%). On the other hand, the low percent (65.0%) was observed in seawater due to the reaction of {center_dot}OH with the high concentrations of chloride and bromide ions. For the automatic system, the coefficient of variance for the determination of the {center_dot}OH formation rate was less than 5.0%, which is smaller than that in the previous report. When the complete time sequence of analytical cycle was 40 min for one sample, the detection limit of the photoformation rate and the sample throughput were 8 x 10{sup -13} M s{sup -1} and 20 samples per day, respectively. The automatic system successfully determined the photoformation rates and scavenging rate constants of {center_dot}OH in commercial drinking water and the major source and sink of {center_dot}OH were identified as nitrate and bicarbonate ions, respectively.

  5. Cefazolin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including skin, bone, joint, genital, blood, heart valve, respiratory tract (including pneumonia), biliary tract, and urinary tract infections. Cefazolin injection ...

  6. Atezolizumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called monoclonal antibodies. It works by blocking the action of a ... infection breath that smells fruity slowed, fast or irregular heartbeat Atezolizumab injection may cause other side effects. ...

  7. Cidofovir Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cidofovir injection is used along with another medication (probenecid) to treat cytomegaloviral retinitis (CMV retinitis) in people ... body's response to the medication.You must take probenecid tablets by mouth with each dose of cidofovir. ...

  8. Acyclovir Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It is also used to treat first-time genital herpes outbreaks (a herpes virus infection that causes sores ... in the body. Acyclovir injection will not cure genital herpes and may not stop the spread of genital ...

  9. Alirocumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... further decrease the amount of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol ('bad cholesterol') in the blood. Alirocumab injection is ... antibodies. It works by blocking the production of LDL cholesterol in the body to decrease the amount of ...

  10. Pegloticase Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... doctor if you have glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency (an inherited blood disease). Your doctor may test you for G6PD deficiency before you start to receive pegloticase injection. If ...

  11. Risperidone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of interest in life, and strong or inappropriate emotions). Risperidone extended-release injection is used alone or ... during your treatment: extreme thirst, frequent urination, extreme hunger, blurred vision, or weakness. It is very important ...

  12. Olanzapine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of interest in life, and strong or inappropriate emotions). Olanzapine injection is used to treat episodes of ... during your treatment: extreme thirst, frequent urination, extreme hunger, blurred vision, or weakness. It is very important ...

  13. Tacrolimus Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in people who have received kidney, liver, or heart transplants. Tacrolimus injection should only be used by people ... or nurse will watch you closely during the first 30 minutes of your treatment and then will ...

  14. Omalizumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is used to decrease the number of asthma attacks (sudden episodes of wheezing, shortness of breath, and ... about how to treat symptoms of a sudden asthma attack. If your asthma symptoms get worse or if ...

  15. Daclizumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... neck, armpits, or groin; diarrhea; bloody stools; stomach pain; or any new, unexplained symptom affecting any part of your body.Because of the risks with this medication, daclizumab injection is available only through a special ...

  16. Temozolomide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... balance or coordination fainting dizziness hair loss insomnia memory problems pain, itching, swelling, or redness in the place where the medication was injected changes in vision Some side effects can be serious. If you ...

  17. Moxifloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tendon area, or inability to move or to bear weight on an affected area.Using moxifloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...

  18. Delafloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a tendon area, or inability to move or bear weight on an affected area.Using delafloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...

  19. Levofloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tendon area, or inability to move or to bear weight on an affected area.Using levofloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...

  20. Ciprofloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a tendon area, or inability to move or bear weight on an affected area.Using ciprofloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...

  1. Butorphanol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Butorphanol is in a class of medications called opioid agonist-antagonists. It works by changing the way ... suddenly stop using butorphanol injection, you may experience withdrawal symptoms such as nervousness, agitation, shakiness, diarrhea, chills, ...

  2. Haloperidol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of interest in life, and strong or inappropriate emotions). Haloperidol injection is also used to control motor ... and the laboratory. Your doctor may order certain lab tests to check your body's response to haloperidol ...

  3. Intravenous Antiepileptic Drugs in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Vlasov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Launching four intravenous antiepileptic drugs: valproate (Depakene and Convulex, lacosamide (Vimpat, and levetiracetam (Keppra – into the Russian market has significantly broadened the possibilities of rendering care to patients in seizure emergency situations. The chemi- cal structure, mechanisms of action, indications/contraindications, clinical effectiveness and tolerability, advantages/disadvantages, and adverse events of using these drugs in urgent and elective neurology are discussed. 

  4. Muscle power during intravenous sedation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Matsuura

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous sedation is effective to reduce fear and anxiety in dental treatment. It also has been used for behavior modification technique in dental patients with special needs. Midazolam and propofol are commonly used for intravenous sedation. Although there have been many researches on the effects of midazolam and propofol on vital function and the recovery profile, little is known about muscle power. This review discusses the effects of intravenous sedation using midazolam and propofol on both grip strength and bite force. During light propofol sedation, grip strength increases slightly and bite force increases in a dose-dependent manner. Grip strength decreases while bite force increases during light midazolam sedation, and also during light sedation using a combination of midazolam and propofol. Flumazenil did not antagonise the increase in bite force by midazolam. These results may suggest following possibilities; (1 Activation of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors located within the temporomandibular joint region and masticatory muscles may be the cause of increasing bite force. (2 Propofol limited the long-latency exteroceptive suppression (ES2 period during jaw-opening reflex. Thus, control of masticatory muscle contraction, which is thought to have a negative feedback effect on excessive bite force, may be depressed by propofol.

  5. Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection: Volume 4 -- Gas reburning-sorbent injection at Lakeside Unit 7, City Water, Light and Power, Springfield, Illinois. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    A demonstration of Gas Reburning-Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) has been completed at a cyclone-fired utility boiler. The Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) has designed, retrofitted and tested a GR-SI system at City Water Light and Power`s 33 MWe Lakeside Station Unit 7. The program goals of 60% NO{sub x} emissions reduction and 50% SO{sub 2} emissions reduction were exceeded over the long-term testing period; the NO{sub x} reduction averaged 63% and the SO{sub 2} reduction averaged 58%. These were achieved with an average gas heat input of 22% and a calcium (sorbent) to sulfur (coal) molar ratio of 1.8. GR-SI resulted in a reduction in thermal efficiency of approximately 1% at full load due to firing natural gas which forms more moisture in flue gas than coal and also results in a slight increase in air heater exit gas temperature. Minor impacts on other areas of unit performance were measured and are detailed in this report. The project at Lakeside was carried out in three phases, in which EER designed the GR-SI system (Phase 1), completed construction and start-up activities (Phase 2), and evaluated its performance with both short parametric tests and a long-term demonstration (Phase 3). This report contains design and technical performance data; the economics data for all sites are presented in Volume 5.

  6. Enhanced sensitivity and resolution for the analysis of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in water using capillary electrophoresis with amperometric detection and field-amplified sample injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Minsheng; Chen, Xiaoyan; Guo, Yuan; Zhang, Bingyu; Tang, Fengxiang; Wu, Xiaoping

    2016-12-01

    The profiling of the most lethal paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins (PSTs) in freshwater has increased the need to establish an alternative analytical method with high sensitivity and resolution. In this paper, a coupling technique of field-amplified sample injection (FASI) and CE with end-column amperometric detection (CE-AD) was developed to improve the detection sensitivity and separation of PSTs by electrokinetically injecting a water plug of analytes to the capillary filled with a high-conductivity BGE. Parameters affecting FASI and CE process were carefully adjusted to achieve the highest response and resolution. Separation selectivity for PSTs, especially for the analogues and epimers, was greatly enhanced by using 40 mM Britton-Robinson buffer (pH 9.5) as BGE, which altered the EOF and mobility of the analytes that interacted with polyborate ions. Satisfactory linear relationship between peak current and concentration of toxins were gained over a wide range of 1.95-254 μg/L. The detection limits (S/N = 3) for five PSTs ranged from 0.63 to 3.11 μg/L, which are below the health alert level in drinking water. In comparison with the up-to-date reporting chromatographic methods, the FASI-CE-AD method was simple, low-cost, selective, and sensitive enough for direct quantification of PSTs at very low levels, implying a potential for screening and monitoring of PSTs in surface waters. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Safety evaluation of intravenously administered mono-thioated aptamer against E-selectin in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Shin-Ae; Tsolmon, Bilegtsaikhan [Stephenson Cancer Center, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, 975 NE, 10th, Oklahoma City, OK 73104 (United States); Mann, Aman P. [Institute of Molecular Medicine, Department of NanoMedicine and Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, 1825 Hermann Pressler, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Zheng, Wei; Zhao, Lichao; Zhao, Yan Daniel [Stephenson Cancer Center, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, 975 NE, 10th, Oklahoma City, OK 73104 (United States); Volk, David E.; Lokesh, Ganesh L.-R. [Institute of Molecular Medicine, Department of NanoMedicine and Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, 1825 Hermann Pressler, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Morris, Lynsie; Gupta, Vineet; Razaq, Wajeeha [Stephenson Cancer Center, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, 975 NE, 10th, Oklahoma City, OK 73104 (United States); Rui, Hallgeir [Thomas Jefferson University, 1020 Locust St, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States); Suh, K. Stephen [John Theurer Cancer Center, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack, NJ 07601 (United States); Gorenstein, David G. [Institute of Molecular Medicine, Department of NanoMedicine and Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, 1825 Hermann Pressler, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Tanaka, Takemi, E-mail: takemi-tanaka@ouhsc.edu [Stephenson Cancer Center, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, 975 NE, 10th, Oklahoma City, OK 73104 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    The medical applications of aptamers have recently emerged. We developed an antagonistic thioaptamer (ESTA) against E-selectin. Previously, we showed that a single injection of ESTA at a dose of 100 μg inhibits breast cancer metastasis in mice through the functional blockade of E-selectin. In the present study, we evaluated the safety of different doses of intravenously administered ESTA in single-dose acute and repeat-dose subacute studies in ICR mice. Our data indicated that intravenous administration of up to 500 μg ESTA did not result in hematologic abnormality in either study. Additionally, intravenous injection of ESTA did not affect the levels of plasma cytokines (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, GM-CSF, IFN-γ, and TNF-α) or complement split products (C3a and C5a) in either study. However, repeated injections of ESTA slightly increased plasma ALT and AST activities, in accordance with the appearance of small necrotic areas in the liver. In conclusion, our data demonstrated that intravenous administration of ESTA does not cause overt hematologic, organs, and immunologic responses under the experimental conditions. - Highlights: • Intravenous administration of ESTA was well tolerated. • ESTA up to 500 μg does not cause hematologic, organs, and immunologic responses. • ESTA-mediated hepatic abnormality was considered minor.

  8. Safety evaluation of intravenously administered mono-thioated aptamer against E-selectin in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Shin-Ae; Tsolmon, Bilegtsaikhan; Mann, Aman P.; Zheng, Wei; Zhao, Lichao; Zhao, Yan Daniel; Volk, David E.; Lokesh, Ganesh L.-R.; Morris, Lynsie; Gupta, Vineet; Razaq, Wajeeha; Rui, Hallgeir; Suh, K. Stephen; Gorenstein, David G.; Tanaka, Takemi

    2015-01-01

    The medical applications of aptamers have recently emerged. We developed an antagonistic thioaptamer (ESTA) against E-selectin. Previously, we showed that a single injection of ESTA at a dose of 100 μg inhibits breast cancer metastasis in mice through the functional blockade of E-selectin. In the present study, we evaluated the safety of different doses of intravenously administered ESTA in single-dose acute and repeat-dose subacute studies in ICR mice. Our data indicated that intravenous administration of up to 500 μg ESTA did not result in hematologic abnormality in either study. Additionally, intravenous injection of ESTA did not affect the levels of plasma cytokines (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, GM-CSF, IFN-γ, and TNF-α) or complement split products (C3a and C5a) in either study. However, repeated injections of ESTA slightly increased plasma ALT and AST activities, in accordance with the appearance of small necrotic areas in the liver. In conclusion, our data demonstrated that intravenous administration of ESTA does not cause overt hematologic, organs, and immunologic responses under the experimental conditions. - Highlights: • Intravenous administration of ESTA was well tolerated. • ESTA up to 500 μg does not cause hematologic, organs, and immunologic responses. • ESTA-mediated hepatic abnormality was considered minor

  9. Apparent Km of mitochondria for oxygen computed from Vmax measured in permeabilized muscle fibers is lower in water enriched in oxygen by electrolysis than injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoll J

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Joffrey Zoll,1 Jamal Bouitbir,1 Pascal Sirvent,2 Alexis Klein,3 Antoine Charton,1,4 Liliana Jimenez,3 François R Péronnet,5 Bernard Geny,1 Ruddy Richard61Physiology Department, Faculty of Medicine and EA3072, Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, 2Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, EA 3533, Laboratoire des Adaptations Métaboliques à l’Exercice en Conditions Physiologiques et Pathologiques, Clermont-Ferrand, 3Danone Research, Centre Daniel Carasso, Palaiseau, 4Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care and EA3072, Hôpital de Hautepierre, Université de Strasbourg, France; 5Kinesiology Department, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada; 6Department of Sport Medicine and Functional Explorations and INRA UMR 1019, Faculty of Medicine, Université d’Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand, FranceBackground: It has been suggested that oxygen (O2 diffusion could be favored in water enriched in O2 by a new electrolytic process because of O2 trapping in water superstructures (clathrates, which could reduce the local pressure/content relationships for O2 and facilitate O2 diffusion along PO2 gradients.Materials and methods: Mitochondrial respiration was compared in situ in saponin-skinned fibers isolated from the soleus muscles of Wistar rats, in solution enriched in O2 by injection or the electrolytic process 1 at an O2 concentration decreasing from 240 µmol/L to 10 µmol/L (132 mmHg to 5 mmHg, with glutamate–malate or N, N, N', N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride (TMPD–ascorbate (with antimycin A as substrates; and 2 at increasing adenosine diphosphate (ADP concentration with glutamate–malate as substrate.Results: As expected, maximal respiration decreased with O2 concentration and, when compared to glutamate–malate, the apparent Km O2 of mitochondria for O2 was significantly lower with TMPD–ascorbate with both waters. However, when compared to the water enriched in O2 by injection, the Km O2 was

  10. Anaphylaxis after intravenous infusion of dexketoprofen trometamol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sertac Guler

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Dexketoprofen trometamol (DT, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is a highly water-soluble salt and active enantiomer of rac-ketoprofen. Its parenteral form is commonly used for acute pain management in emergency departments of our country. Side effects such as diarrhea, indigestion, nausea, stomach pain, and vomiting may be seen after the use of DT. Anaphylactic shock (AS secondary to infusion of DT is very rare and, to our knowledge, it is the first case report describing this side effect. This case report was presented to emphasize that AS may be seen after the use of DT. Keywords: Anaphylactic shock, Dexketoprofen trometamol, Intravenous infusion (MeSH database

  11. Cefodizime in serum and skin blister fluid after single intravenous and intramuscular doses in healthy volunteers.

    OpenAIRE

    Korting, H C; Schäfer-Korting, M; Maass, L; Klesel, N; Mutschler, E

    1987-01-01

    In gonorrhea therapy, cephalosporins are conventionally administered by intramuscular (i.m.) injection, which rather frequently leads to local side effects. To investigate whether the well-tolerated intravenous (i.v.) injection of cephalosporins may be of comparable gonocidal effect, levels of cefodizime, a new broad-spectrum cephalosporin, in serum and tissue fluid (suction blister and cantharides blister fluid) were determined in six healthy men. Single doses of 1 g of cefodizime were injec...

  12. Trace analysis of isothiazolinones in water samples by large-volume direct injection liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speksnijder, P.; van Ravestijn, J.; de Voogt, P.

    2010-01-01

    Isothiazolinones are used as preservatives, biocides and disinfectants in a variety of industrial and domestic applications. Some of the isothiazolinones are difficult to isolate from water due their high polarity. A sensitive and selective analytical method was developed and optimized for the

  13. Immersed single-drop microextraction interfaced with sequential injection analysis for determination of Cr(VI) in natural waters by electrothermal-atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena, Francisco; Lavilla, Isela; Bendicho, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Single-drop microextraction (SDME) and sequential injection analysis have been hyphenated for ultratrace metal determination by Electrothermal-Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (ETAAS). The novel method was targeted on extraction of the Cr(VI)-APDC chelate and encompasses the potential of SDME as a miniaturized and virtually solvent-free preconcentration technique, the ability of sequential injection analysis to handle samples and the versatility of furnace autosamplers for introducing microliter samples in ETAAS. The variables influencing the microextraction of Cr(VI) onto an organic solvent drop, i.e., type of organic solvent, microextraction time, stirring rate of the sample solution, drop volume, immersion depth of the drop, salting-out effect, temperature of the sample, concentration of the complexing agent and pH of the sample solution were fully investigated. For a 5 and 20 min microextraction time, the preconcentration factors were 20 and 70, respectively. The detection limit was 0.02 μg/L of Cr(VI) and the repeatability expressed as relative standard deviation was 7%. The SDME-SIA-ETAAS technique was validated against BCR CRM 544 (lyophilized solution) and applied to ultrasensitive determination of Cr(VI) in natural waters

  14. CuO nanosheets-enhanced flow-injection chemiluminescence system for determination of vancomycin in water, pharmaceutical and human serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khataee, A. R.; Hasanzadeh, A.; Iranifam, M.; Fathinia, M.; Hanifehpour, Y.; Joo, S. W.

    2014-03-01

    A novel, rapid and sensitive CuO nanosheets (NSs) amplified flow-injection chemiluminescence (CL) system, luminol-H2O2-CuO nanosheets, was developed for determination of the vancomycin hydrochloride for the first time. It was found that vancomycin could efficiently inhibit the CL intensity of luminol-H2O2-CuO nanosheets system in alkaline medium. Under the optimum conditions, the inhibited CL intensity was linearly proportional to the concentration of vancomycin over the ranges of 0.5-18.0 and 18.0-40.0 mg L-1, with a detection limit (3σ) of 0.1 mg L-1. The precision was calculated by analyzing samples containing 5.0 mg L-1 vancomycin (n = 11) and the relative standard deviation (RSD) was 2.8%. Also, a high injection throughput of 120 sample h-1 was obtained. The CuO nanosheets were synthesized by a sonochemical method. Also, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses were employed to characterize the CuO nanosheets. The method was successfully employed to determine vancomycin hydrochloride in environmental water samples, pharmaceutical formulation and spiked human serum.

  15. Modeling and Analysis of Magnetic Nanoparticles Injection in Water-Oil Two-Phase Flow in Porous Media under Magnetic Field Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed F. El-Amin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the magnetic nanoparticles are injected into a water-oil, two-phase system under the influence of an external permanent magnetic field. We lay down the mathematical model and provide a set of numerical exercises of hypothetical cases to show how an external magnetic field can influence the transport of nanoparticles in the proposed two-phase system in porous media. We treat the water-nanoparticles suspension as a miscible mixture, whereas it is immiscible with the oil phase. The magnetization properties, the density, and the viscosity of the ferrofluids are obtained based on mixture theory relationships. In the mathematical model, the phase pressure contains additional term to account for the extra pressures due to fluid magnetization effect and the magnetostrictive effect. As a proof of concept, the proposed model is applied on a countercurrent imbibition flow system in which both the displacing and the displaced fluids move in opposite directions. Physical variables, including water-nanoparticles suspension saturation, nanoparticles concentration, and pore wall/throat concentrations of deposited nanoparticles, are investigated under the influence of the magnetic field. Two different locations of the magnet are studied numerically, and variations in permeability and porosity are considered.

  16. Validation of Effective Models for Simulation of Thermal Stratification and Mixing Induced by Steam Injection into a Large Pool of Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Effective Heat Source (EHS and Effective Momentum Source (EMS models have been proposed to predict the development of thermal stratification and mixing during a steam injection into a large pool of water. These effective models are implemented in GOTHIC software and validated against the POOLEX STB-20 and STB-21 tests and the PPOOLEX MIX-01 test. First, the EHS model is validated against STB-20 test which shows the development of thermal stratification. Different numerical schemes and grid resolutions have been tested. A 48×114 grid with second order scheme is sufficient to capture the vertical temperature distribution in the pool. Next, the EHS and EMS models are validated against STB-21 test. Effective momentum is estimated based on the water level oscillations in the blowdown pipe. An effective momentum selected within the experimental measurement uncertainty can reproduce the mixing details. Finally, the EHS-EMS models are validated against MIX-01 test which has improved space and time resolution of temperature measurements inside the blowdown pipe. Excellent agreement in averaged pool temperature and water level in the pool between the experiment and simulation has been achieved. The development of thermal stratification in the pool is also well captured in the simulation as well as the thermal behavior of the pool during the mixing phase.

  17. Development of a bar adsorptive micro-extraction-large-volume injection-gas chromatography-mass spectrometric method for pharmaceuticals and personal care products in environmental water matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neng, N R; Nogueira, J M F

    2012-01-01

    The combination of bar adsorptive micro-extraction using activated carbon (AC) and polystyrene-divinylbenzene copolymer (PS-DVB) sorbent phases, followed by liquid desorption and large-volume injection gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, under selected ion monitoring mode acquisition, was developed for the first time to monitor pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) in environmental water matrices. Assays performed on 25 mL water samples spiked (100 ng L(-1)) with caffeine, gemfibrozil, triclosan, propranolol, carbamazepine and diazepam, selected as model compounds, yielded recoveries ranging from 74% to 99% under optimised experimental conditions (equilibrium time, 16 h (1,000 rpm); matrix characteristics: pH 5, 5% NaCl for AC phase; LD: methanol/acetonitrile (1:1), 45 min). The analytical performance showed good precision (RSD 0.99), where the PS-DVB sorbent phase showed a much better efficiency. By using the standard addition methodology, the application of the present analytical approach on tap, ground, sea, estuary and wastewater samples allowed very good performance at the trace level. The proposed method proved to be a suitable sorption-based micro-extraction alternative for the analysis of priority pollutants with medium-polar to polar characteristics, showing to be easy to implement, reliable, sensitive and requiring a low sample volume to monitor PPCPs in water matrices.

  18. Trace analysis of pesticides in paddy field water by direct injection using liquid chromatography-quadrupole-linear ion trap-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Lucía; Martínez-Bueno, M J; Cesio, Verónica; Heinzen, Horacio; Fernández-Alba, A R

    2011-07-29

    A multiresidue method was developed for the quantification and confirmation of 70 pesticides in paddy field water. After its filtration, water was injected directly in a liquid chromatograph coupled to a hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap-mass spectrometer (QqLIT). The list of target analytes included organophosphates, phenylureas, sulfonylureas, carbamates, conazoles, imidazolinones and others compounds widely used in different countries where rice is cropped. Detection and quantification limits achieved were in the range from 0.4 to 80 ng L(-1) and from 2 to 150 ng L(-1), respectively. Correlation coefficients for the calibration curves in the range 0.1-50 μg L(-1) were higher than 0.99 except for diazinon (0.1-25 μg L(-1)). Only 9 pesticides presented more than 20% of signal suppression/enhancement, no matrix effect was observed in the studied conditions for the rest of the target pesticides. The method developed was used to investigate the occurrence of pesticides in 59 water samples collected in paddy fields located in Spain and Uruguay. The study shows the presence of bensulfuron methyl, tricyclazole, carbendazim, imidacloprid, tebuconazole and quinclorac in a concentration range from 0.08 to 7.20 μg L(-1). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Intravenous coronary angiography by electron beam computed tomography : a clinical evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensing, B J; Bongaerts, A; van Geuns, R J; van Ooijen, P; Oudkerk, M; de Feyter, P J

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: -Noninvasive detection of coronary stenoses with electron beam CT (EBCT) after intravenous injection of contrast medium has recently emerged. We sought to determine the diagnostic accuracy of EBCT angiography in the clinical setting using conventional coronary angiography as the "gold

  20. A randomised non-inferiority controlled trial of a single versus a four intradermal sterile water injection technique for relief of continuous lower back pain during labour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webster Joan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Almost one third of women suffer continuous lower back pain during labour. Evidence from three systematic reviews demonstrates that sterile water injections (SWI provide statistically and clinically significant pain relief in women experiencing continuous lower back pain during labour. The most effective technique to administer SWI is yet to be determined. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine if the single injection SWI technique is no less effective than the routinely used four injection SWI method in reducing continuous lower back pain during labour. Methods/design The trial protocol was developed in consultation with an interdisciplinary team of clinical researchers. We aim to recruit 319 women presenting at term, seeking analgesia for continuous severe lower back pain during labour. Participants will be recruited from two major maternity hospitals in Australia. Randomised participants are allocated to receive a four or single intradermal needle SWI technique. The primary outcome is the change in self-reported pain measured by visual analogue scale at baseline and thirty minutes post intervention. Secondary outcomes include VAS change scores at 10, 60, 90 and 120 min, analgesia use, mode of birth and maternal satisfaction. Statistical analysis Sample size was calculated to achieve 90% power at an alpha of 0.025 to detect a non-inferiority margin of ≤ 1 cm on the VAS, using a one-sided, two-sample t-test. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics will be analysed for comparability between groups. Differences in primary (VAS pain score and secondary outcomes between groups will be analysed by intention to treat and per protocol analysis using Student's t-test and ANOVA. Conclusion This study will determine if a single intradermal SWI technique is no less effective than the routinely used four injection technique for lower back pain during labour. The findings will allow midwives to offer women

  1. Direct large volume injection ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry determination of artificial sweeteners sucralose and acesulfame in well water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Minghuo; Qian, Yichao; Boyd, Jessica M; Hrudey, Steve E; Le, X Chris; Li, Xing-Fang

    2014-09-12

    Acesulfame (ACE) and sucralose (SUC) have become recognized as ideal domestic wastewater contamination indicators. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) analysis is commonly used; however, the sensitivity of SUC is more than two orders of magnitude lower than that of ACE, limiting the routine monitoring of SUC. To address this issue, we examined the ESI behavior of both ACE and SUC under various conditions. ACE is ionic in aqueous solution and efficiently produces simple [M-H](-) ions, but SUC produces multiple adduct ions, limiting its sensitivity. The formic acid (FA) adducts of SUC [M+HCOO](-) are sensitively and reproducibly generated under the LC-MS conditions. When [M+HCOO](-) is used as the precursor ion for SUC detection, the sensitivity increases approximately 20-fold compared to when [M-H](-) is the precursor ion. To further improve the limit of detection (LOD), we integrated the large volume injection approach (500μL injection) with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS), which reduced the method detection limit (MDL) to 0.2ng/L for ACE and 5ng/L for SUC. To demonstrate the applicability of this method, we analyzed 100 well water samples collected in Alberta. ACE was detected in 24 wells at concentrations of 1-1534ng/L and SUC in 8 wells at concentrations of 65-541ng/L. These results suggest that wastewater is the most likely source of ACE and SUC impacts in these wells, suggesting the need for monitoring the quality of domestic well water. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Sequential injection chromatography with post-column reaction/derivatization for the determination of transition metal cations in natural water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstkotte, Burkhard; Jarošová, Patrícia; Chocholouš, Petr; Sklenářová, Hana; Solich, Petr

    2015-05-01

    In this work, the applicability of Sequential Injection Chromatography for the determination of transition metals in water is evaluated for the separation of copper(II), zinc(II), and iron(II) cations. Separations were performed using a Dionex IonPAC™ guard column (50mm×2mm i.d., 9 µm). Mobile phase composition and post-column reaction were optimized by modified SIMPLEX method with subsequent study of the concentration of each component. The mobile phase consisted of 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid as analyte-selective compound, sodium sulfate, and formic acid/sodium formate buffer. Post-column addition of 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol was carried out for spectrophotometric detection of the analytes׳ complexes at 530nm. Approaches to achieve higher robustness, baseline stability, and detection sensitivity by on-column stacking of the analytes and initial gradient implementation as well as air-cushion pressure damping for post-column reagent addition were studied. The method allowed the rapid separation of copper(II), zinc(II), and iron(II) within 6.5min including pump refilling and aspiration of sample and 1mmol HNO3 for analyte stacking on the separation column. High sensitivity was achieved applying an injection volume of up to 90µL. A signal repeatability of<2% RSD of peak height was found. Analyte recovery evaluated by spiking of different natural water samples was well suited for routine analysis with sub-micromolar limits of detection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Effect of Water Injection on the Control of In-Cylinder Pressure and Enhanced Power Output in a Four-Stroke Spark-Ignition Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingrui Wei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results for liquid water injection (WI into a cylinder during the compression and expansion strokes of an internal combustion engine (ICE, with the aim of achieving an optimal in-cylinder pressure and improving power output using CFD simulation. Employing WI during the compression stroke at 80° of crank angle (CA before top dead centre (bTDC resulted in the reduction of compression work due to a reduction in peak compression pressure by a margin of about 2%. The decreased peak compression pressure also yielded the benefit of a decrease in NOx emission by a margin of 34% as well as the prevention of detonation. Using WI during the expansion stroke (after top dead centre–aTDC revealed two stages of the in-cylinder pressure: the first stage involved a decrease in pressure by heat absorption, and the second stage involved an increase in the pressure as a result of an increase in the steam volume via expansion. For the case of water addition (WA 3.0% and a water temperature of 100 °C, the percentage decrease of in-cylinder pressure was 2.7% during the first stage and a 2.5% pressure increase during the second stage. Water injection helped in reducing the energy losses resulting from the transfer of heat to the walls and exhaust gases. At 180° CA aTDC, the exhaust gas temperature decreased by 42 K, 89 K, and 136 K for WA 1.0, WA 2.0, and WA 3.0, respectively. Increasing the WI temperature to 200 °C resulted in a decrease of the in-cylinder pressure by 1.0% during the first stage, with an increase of approximately 4.0% in the second stage. The use of WI in both compression and expansion strokes resulted in a maximum increase of in-cylinder pressure of about 7%, demonstrating the potential of higher power output.

  4. Determination of octan-1-ol-water partition coefficients by flow-injection extraction without phase separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuban, V.

    1991-01-01

    Single-channel coaxial segments were used for the introduction of an aqueous or octan-1-ol solution of an organic substance directly into a continuous flow of the other solvent. The analytical signal was measured simultaneously on both aqueous and organic phase segments by an 'on-tube' fast-reading spectrophotometric detector (ca. 3 ms time resolution) and treated mathematically. The octan-1-ol-water phase signal ratio corresponds to the partition coefficient of the organic substances. The applicability of the method is demonstrated by the determination of partition coefficients of phenol, citric acid, acetylsalicylic acid and sodium salicylate. (author). 8 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  5. Determination of octan-1-ol-water partition coefficients by flow-injection extraction without phase separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuban, V. (Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Department of Analytical Chemistry)

    1991-08-01

    Single-channel coaxial segments were used for the introduction of an aqueous or octan-1-ol solution of an organic substance directly into a continuous flow of the other solvent. The analytical signal was measured simultaneously on both aqueous and organic phase segments by an 'on-tube' fast-reading spectrophotometric detector (ca. 3 ms time resolution) and treated mathematically. The octan-1-ol-water phase signal ratio corresponds to the partition coefficient of the organic substances. The applicability of the method is demonstrated by the determination of partition coefficients of phenol, citric acid, acetylsalicylic acid and sodium salicylate. (author). 8 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab.

  6. Ceftazidime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) infections; meningitis (infection of the membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord) and ... killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftazidime injection will not work ...

  7. Dexrazoxane Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are used to treat or prevent certain side effects that may be caused by chemotherapy medications. Dexrazoxane injection (Zinecard) is used to prevent or decrease heart damage caused by doxorubicin in women who are taking the medication to treat breast cancer that has spread to other parts of the ...

  8. Dulaglutide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thyroid carcinoma (MTC; a type of thyroid cancer). Laboratory animals who were given dulaglutide developed tumors, but it ... your doctor will probably tell you not to use dulaglutide injection. If you ... doctor and the laboratory. Your doctor may order certain tests to check ...

  9. Albiglutide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thyroid carcinoma (MTC; a type of thyroid cancer). Laboratory animals who were given medications similar to albiglutide developed ... your doctor will probably tell you not to use albiglutide injection. If you ... doctor and the laboratory. Your doctor may order certain tests to check ...

  10. Semaglutide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thyroid carcinoma (MTC; a type of thyroid cancer). Laboratory animals who were given semaglutide developed tumors, but it ... your doctor will probably tell you not to use semaglutide injection. If you ... doctor and the laboratory. Your doctor may order certain tests to check ...

  11. Liraglutide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thyroid carcinoma (MTC; a type of thyroid cancer). Laboratory animals who were given liraglutide developed tumors, but it ... your doctor will probably tell you not to use liraglutide injection. If you ... doctor and the laboratory. Your doctor may order certain tests to check ...

  12. Exenatide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thyroid carcinoma (MTC; a type of thyroid cancer). Laboratory animals who were given exenatide developed tumors, but it ... your doctor will probably tell you not to use exenatide injection. If you ... doctor and the laboratory. Your doctor may order certain tests to check ...

  13. Etoposide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... used in combination with other medications to treat cancer of the testicles that has not improved or that has worsened after treatment with other medications or radiation therapy. Etoposide injection ... type of lung cancer (small cell lung cancer; SCLC). Etoposide is in ...

  14. Cefepime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infection because they have a low number of white blood cells. Cefepime injection is in a class ... In case of overdose, call the poison control helpline at 1-800-222-1222. Information is also available online at https://www.poisonhelp.org/help. If the victim has ...

  15. Triptorelin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... puberty too soon, resulting in faster than normal bone growth and development of sexual characteristics) in children 2 years and older. Triptorelin injection is in a class of medications called gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists. It works by decreasing the amount ...

  16. Thermal equilibrium and prehydration processes of electrons injected into liquid water calculated by dynamic Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, Takeshi; Yokoya, Akinari; Ukai, Masatoshi; Fujii, Kentaro; Watanabe, Ritsuko

    2015-01-01

    The thermalization length and spatial distribution of electrons in liquid water were simulated for initial electron energies ranging from 0.1 eV to 100 keV using a dynamic Monte Carlo code. The results showed that electrons were decelerated for thermalization over a longer time period than was previously predicted. This long thermalization time significantly contributed to the series of processes from initial ionization to hydration. We further studied the particular deceleration process of electrons at an incident energy of 1 eV, focusing on the temporal evolution of total track length, mean traveling distance, and energy distributions of decelerating electrons. The initial prehydration time and thermalization periods were estimated to be approximately 50 and 220 fs, respectively, indicating that the initial prehydration began before or contemporaneously with the thermal equilibrium. Based on these results, the prehydrated electrons were suggested to play an important role during multiple DNA damage induction. - Highlights: • Electron deceleration process in liquid water was calculated. • Thermalization lengths calculated is consistent with previously experimental ones. • Initial prehydration may begin contemporaneously with the thermal equilibrium

  17. Pharmacokinetics of butafosfan after intravenous and intramuscular administration in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, F; Wang, J; Yang, S; Zhang, S; Shen, J; Xingyuan, C

    2017-04-01

    The pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of butafosfan in piglets were investigated following intravenous and intramuscular administration at a single dose of 10 mg/kg body weight. Plasma concentration-time data and relevant parameters were best described by noncompartmental analysis after intravenous and intramuscular injection. The data were analyzed through WinNolin 6.3 software. After intravenous administration, the mean pharmacokinetic parameters were determined as T 1/2λz of 3.30 h, Cl of 0.16 L kg/h, AUC of 64.49 ± 15.07 μg h/mL, V ss of 0.81 ± 0.44/kg, and MRT of 1.51 ± 0.27 h. Following intramuscular administration, the C max (28.11 μg/mL) was achieved at T max (0.31 h) with an absolute availability of 74.69%. Other major parameters including AUC and MRT were 48.29 ± 21.67 μg h/mL and 1.74 ± 0.29 h, respectively. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The effect of propofol administered intravenously on appetite stimulation in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, J P; Greco, S C

    2000-11-01

    Anorexia is defined as diminished appetite or aversion to food. Clinical manifestations of anorexia have multiple etiologies, which include systemic illness, pain, fever, stress, metabolic disorders, and decreased palatability and learned aversion to food. Disorders of appetite are common in companion and laboratory animal medicine. Anecdotal evidence and personal experience suggest that propofol (2, 6-diisopropylphenol), when given intravenously at subhypnotic doses, causes acute appetite stimulation in dogs. The establishment of a dose-response effect could have important clinical applications; therefore, this study attempts to qualify and quantify the effect of propofol on appetite stimulation in healthy young adult dogs. Six purpose-bred male dogs (age, 6 months) were obtained from a Class A vendor. Dogs were housed individually and provided water ad libitum throughout the study period. All dogs were fed ad libitum to ensure that test conditions and degree of satiety were identical. Each dog was assigned randomly to either an experimental group or control each day of the study. The experimental groups received single bolus intravenous injections of propofol at different dosage levels (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, or 3.0 mg/kg of body weight), and the control group received saline. The administrator was blinded to the animals identification and dose. Dosages greater than 3.0 mg/kg resulted in profound sedation and ataxia, which physically inhibited the dogs from obtaining the food; therefore 3.0 mg/kg was the highest dose tested. Dogs were weighed daily to ensure accurate dosing. Dosing was performed at the same time each day to minimize variability. Food intake amounts were recorded at 15, 30, 60, 120, and 1440 min after injection. Food intake was expressed as [food intake (g)/ body weight (kg)/ unit time (min)]. After a 1-w rest period, the study was repeated. Data were analyzed with a type RBF-65 randomized-block factoral design (ANOVA). Each dog served as its own

  19. Solid-phase extraction with slurry injection of the resin into ETAAS for trace determination of thallium in natural water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isoshi, Nukatsuka; Hiroyuki, Seitoh; Kunio, Ohzeki

    2004-01-01

    Thallium in natural water samples was determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry after 1000-fold enrichment by mini solid-phase extraction from a 100-mL sample solution. A TI-pyrrolidine-1-carbodithioate complex formed in a sample solution of pH 1.6 was extracted on fine particles of a cellulose nitrate resin dispersed in the sample solution. The cellulose nitrate resin was then collected on a membrane filter (25 mm ) by filtration under suction using a glass funnel with an effective filtration area of 0.64 cm 2 . As a result, a circular thin layer of the resin phase with a diameter of 9 mm was obtained. Then the resin phase was carved out by an acrylate resin puncher with a 10-mm hole to put it into a sample cup containing 100 μL of 10 mM HNO 3 containing 0.5 mM NaCl. The resin phase was suspended in the solution by ultrasonication. 1000-fold enrichment was thus attained within 15 min, and the suspension was delivered to electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The linear calibration graph was obtained in the range of 0-4 ng of TI in 100 mL of a sample solution. The detection limit obtained by 3 σ method was 0.19 ng. The proposed method was applied to the determination of TI in natural water samples. The results showed the concentration of TI in seawater was 12.1 ± 1.8 pg mL -1 for the calibration graph method and 12.6 ± 1.4 pg mL -1 for the standard addition method. A snowmelt sample contained 20.7 ± 1.0 pg mL -1 of TI. (author)

  20. Anti-inflammatory activity of injectable dexamethasone acetate-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xuefan; Zhao, Chunyan; Yang, Hongyun; Jian, Yanlin; Zhang, Zhirong; Huang, Yuan

    2011-01-01

    This work studied the intravenous injection formulation of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) loaded with dexamethasone acetate (DA), a poorly water-soluble drug. The goal of this study was to design nanoparticles which could improve therapeutic efficacy of DA on inflammations. Based on the optimized results of single-factor screening experiment, DA-loaded NLCs (DA-NLCs) prepared by an emulsification-ultrasound method were found to be relatively uniform in size (178 ± 4 nm) with a negative zeta potential (-38 ± 4 mV). The average drug entrapment efficiency was 91 ± 3 %. In vitro release tests indicated DA-NLCs possessed a sustained release characteristic and the accumulative release percentage was near 80 % at 23 h. DA-NLCs exhibited an average peak concentration of DA (7.6 μg/ml) in the pleural exudate after intravenous administration to an experimental model of γ-carrageenan-induced pleuritis rats, which was 8.3 times higher than that of free DA (0.9 μg/ml). The γ-carrageenan-induced edema test showed that the anti-acute inflammatory activity of DA-NLCs was stronger than that of free drug at the same drug concentration (P<0.05). In addition, biodistribution results clearly indicated that DA-NLCs preferentially accumulated in mice livers and lungs after intravenous injection. These results revealed that injectable NLCs may serve as a promising carrier for DA, greatly enhancing the selective effect on inflammatory sites, reducing systematic side effects and may be a potential carrier to increase therapeutic efficacy on inflammatory diseases.

  1. Particle size distribution and total solids suspension in samples monitoring of capturing water for optimization of water injection filtration system; Monitoramento da quantidade de particulas e do total de solidos em suspensao em amostras de agua de captacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramalhao, Adriano Gorga; Seno, Carlos Eduardo; Ribeiro, Alice [3M do Brasil, Sumare, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    There is a wide variation in the amount of particulate material in sea water by a great number of reasons. The most well-known contaminant is the organic material derived from seaweed or fish spawning causing seasonally sensitive variations in the water quality treated and injected for enhance oil recovery. This paper presents the results of one year the water monitoring form water sampled at 30 meters deep in the Roncador field, which is located 125 km from the coast with a depth of 1290 meters. It was observed the water seasonal variation with peaks in summer and winter. The monitoring was done through particle counting and distribution analysis and total solids in suspension. It was noted that even in peak with largest amount of particles and greater quantity of solid in suspension the particles had remained concentrated in the range bellow 25 {mu}m. For that reason the life of final filter elements may vary and pre-filters are many times ineffective and sometimes even bypassed due to frequent clogging and not to do the protecting job of the final filter. (author)

  2. Determination of As(III) and total inorganic As in water samples using an on-line solid phase extraction and flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigrist, Mirna, E-mail: msigrist@fiq.unl.edu.ar [Laboratorio Central, Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santiago del Estero 2654-Piso 6, (3000) Santa Fe (Argentina); Albertengo, Antonela; Beldomenico, Horacio [Laboratorio Central, Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santiago del Estero 2654-Piso 6, (3000) Santa Fe (Argentina); Tudino, Mabel [Laboratorio de Analisis de Trazas, Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Analitica y Quimica Fisica/INQUIMAE, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Pabellon II, Ciudad Universitaria (1428), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-04-15

    A simple and robust on-line sequential injection system based on solid phase extraction (SPE) coupled to a flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometer (FI-HGAAS) with a heated quartz tube atomizer (QTA) was developed and optimized for the determination of As(III) in groundwater without any kind of sample pretreatment. The method was based on the selective retention of inorganic As(V) that was carried out by passing the filtered original sample through a cartridge containing a chloride-form strong anion exchanger. Thus the most toxic form, inorganic As(III), was determined fast and directly by AsH{sub 3} generation using 3.5 mol L{sup -1} HCl as carrier solution and 0.35% (m/v) NaBH{sub 4} in 0.025% NaOH as the reductant. Since the uptake of As(V) should be interfered by several anions of natural occurrence in waters, the effect of Cl{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, HPO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, HCO{sub 3}{sup -} on retention was evaluated and discussed. The total soluble inorganic arsenic concentration was determined on aliquots of filtered samples acidified with concentrated HCl and pre-reduced with 5% KI-5% C{sub 6}H{sub 8}O{sub 6} solution. The concentration of As(V) was calculated by difference between the total soluble inorganic arsenic and As(III) concentrations. Detection limits (LODs) of 0.5 {mu}g L{sup -1} and 0.6 {mu}g L{sup -1} for As(III) and inorganic total As, respectively, were obtained for a 500 {mu}L sample volume. The obtained limits of detection allowed testing the water quality according to the national and international regulations. The analytical recovery for water samples spiked with As(III) ranged between 98% and 106%. The sampling throughput for As(III) determination was 60 samples h{sup -1}. The device for groundwater sampling was especially designed for the authors. Metallic components were avoided and the contact between the sample and the atmospheric oxygen was carried to a minimum. On-field arsenic species

  3. Determination of As(III) and total inorganic As in water samples using an on-line solid phase extraction and flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigrist, Mirna; Albertengo, Antonela; Beldomenico, Horacio; Tudino, Mabel

    2011-01-01

    A simple and robust on-line sequential injection system based on solid phase extraction (SPE) coupled to a flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometer (FI-HGAAS) with a heated quartz tube atomizer (QTA) was developed and optimized for the determination of As(III) in groundwater without any kind of sample pretreatment. The method was based on the selective retention of inorganic As(V) that was carried out by passing the filtered original sample through a cartridge containing a chloride-form strong anion exchanger. Thus the most toxic form, inorganic As(III), was determined fast and directly by AsH 3 generation using 3.5 mol L -1 HCl as carrier solution and 0.35% (m/v) NaBH 4 in 0.025% NaOH as the reductant. Since the uptake of As(V) should be interfered by several anions of natural occurrence in waters, the effect of Cl - , SO 4 2- , NO 3 - , HPO 4 2- , HCO 3 - on retention was evaluated and discussed. The total soluble inorganic arsenic concentration was determined on aliquots of filtered samples acidified with concentrated HCl and pre-reduced with 5% KI-5% C 6 H 8 O 6 solution. The concentration of As(V) was calculated by difference between the total soluble inorganic arsenic and As(III) concentrations. Detection limits (LODs) of 0.5 μg L -1 and 0.6 μg L -1 for As(III) and inorganic total As, respectively, were obtained for a 500 μL sample volume. The obtained limits of detection allowed testing the water quality according to the national and international regulations. The analytical recovery for water samples spiked with As(III) ranged between 98% and 106%. The sampling throughput for As(III) determination was 60 samples h -1 . The device for groundwater sampling was especially designed for the authors. Metallic components were avoided and the contact between the sample and the atmospheric oxygen was carried to a minimum. On-field arsenic species separation was performed through the employ of a serial connection of membrane filters and

  4. Flow injection microfluidic device with on-line fluorescent derivatization for the determination of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in water samples after solid phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Guilong; He, Qiang; Lu, Ying; Huang, Jing; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2017-02-22

    In this paper, a rapid and simple method using magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTS), as a solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbent, was successfully developed for extraction and preconcentration trace amounts of Cr(III) in water samples. The synthesized magnetic-MWCNTs nanocomposite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). A rhodamine derivative (R1) was synthesized and characterized as a highly selective and sensitive fluorescent derivatizing agent for Cr(III). After SPE procedure, Cr(III) analysis was performed by flow injection microfluidic chip with on-line fluorescent derivatization and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy detection. The parameters, which affected the efficiency of the developed method were investigated and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the method exhibited a linear dynamic range of 0-10.0 nM, with a detection limit of 0.094 nM and an enrichment factor of 38. Furthermore, real water samples were analyzed and good recoveries were obtained from 91.0 to 101.6%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Wettability determination by contact angle measurements: hvbB coal-water system with injection of synthetic flue gas and CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojai Kaveh, Narjes; Rudolph, E Susanne J; Wolf, Karl-Heinz A A; Ashrafizadeh, Seyed Nezameddin

    2011-12-01

    Geological sequestration of pure carbon dioxide (CO(2)) in coal is one of the methods to sequester CO(2). In addition, injection of CO(2) or flue gas into coal enhances coal bed methane production (ECBM). The success of this combined process depends strongly on the wetting behavior of the coal, which is function of coal rank, ash content, heterogeneity of the coal surface, pressure, temperature and composition of the gas. The wetting behavior can be evaluated from the contact angle of a gas bubble, CO(2) or flue gas, on a coal surface. In this study, contact angles of a synthetic flue gas, i.e. a 80/20 (mol%) N(2)/CO(2) mixture, and pure CO(2) on a Warndt Luisenthal (WL) coal have been determined using a modified pendant drop cell in a pressure range from atmospheric to 16 MPa and a constant temperature of 318 K. It was found that the contact angles of flue gas on WL coal were generally smaller than those of CO(2). The contact angle of CO(2) changes from water-wet to gas-wet by increasing pressure above 8.5 MPa while the one for the flue gas changes from water-wet to intermediate-wet by increasing pressure above 10 MPa. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Trace mercury determination in drinking and natural water samples by room temperature ionic liquid based-preconcentration and flow injection-cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinis, Estefania M.; Berton, Paula [Laboratory of Environmental Research and Services of Mendoza (LISAMEN), (CCT - CONICET - Mendoza), Av. Ruiz Leal S/N Parque General San Martin, CC. 131, M 5502 IRA Mendoza (Argentina); Olsina, Roberto A. [INQUISAL-CONICET, Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Quimica, Bioquimica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, San Luis (Argentina); Altamirano, Jorgelina C. [Laboratory of Environmental Research and Services of Mendoza (LISAMEN), (CCT - CONICET - Mendoza), Av. Ruiz Leal S/N Parque General San Martin, CC. 131, M 5502 IRA Mendoza (Argentina); Instituto de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Mendoza (Argentina); Wuilloud, Rodolfo G., E-mail: rwuilloud@lab.cricyt.edu.ar [Laboratory of Environmental Research and Services of Mendoza (LISAMEN), (CCT - CONICET - Mendoza), Av. Ruiz Leal S/N Parque General San Martin, CC. 131, M 5502 IRA Mendoza (Argentina); Instituto de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Mendoza (Argentina)

    2009-08-15

    A liquid-liquid extraction procedure (L-L) based on room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) was developed for the preconcentration and determination of mercury in different water samples. The analyte was quantitatively extracted with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C{sub 4}mim][PF{sub 6}]) under the form of Hg-2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol (Hg-5-Br-PADAP) complex. A volume of 500 {mu}l of 9.0 mol L{sup -1} hydrochloric acid was used to back-extract the analyte from the RTIL phase into an aqueous media prior to its analysis by flow injection-cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-CV-AAS). A preconcentration factor of 36 was achieved upon preconcentration of 20 mL of sample. The limit of detection (LOD) obtained under the optimal conditions was 2.3 ng L{sup -1} and the relative standard deviation (RSD) for 10 replicates at 1 {mu}g L{sup -1} Hg{sup 2+} was 2.8%, calculated with peaks height. The method was successfully applied to the determination of mercury in river, sea, mineral and tap water samples and a certified reference material (CRM).

  7. Water pollution screening by large-volume injection of aqueous samples and application to GC/MS analysis of a river Elbe sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, S.; Efer, J.; Engewald, W. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Analytische Chemie

    1997-03-01

    The large-volume sampling of aqueous samples in a programmed temperature vaporizer (PTV) injector was used successfully for the target and non-target analysis of real samples. In this still rarely applied method, e.g., 1 mL of the water sample to be analyzed is slowly injected direct into the PTV. The vaporized water is eliminated through the split vent. The analytes are concentrated onto an adsorbent inside the insert and subsequently thermally desorbed. The capability of the method is demonstrated using a sample from the river Elbe. By means of coupling this method with a mass selective detector in SIM mode (target analysis) the method allows the determination of pollutants in the concentration range up to 0.01 {mu}g/L. Furthermore, PTV enrichment is an effective and time-saving method for non-target analysis in SCAN mode. In a sample from the river Elbe over 20 compounds were identified. (orig.) With 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Separation and preconcentration system based on microextraction with ionic liquid for determination of copper in water and food samples by stopped-flow injection spectrofluorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeb, Mohsen; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Norouzi, Parviz; Kalaee, Mohamad Reza

    2011-05-01

    In this work, an efficient in situ solvent formation microextraction (ISFME) was combined with stopped-flow injection spectrofluorimetry (SFIS) for the determination of copper. In the proposed approach, thiamine was oxidized with copper(II) to form hydrophobic and highly fluorescent thiochrome (TC), which was subsequently extracted into ionic liquid as an extractant phase. A small amount of an ion-pairing agent (NaPF(6)) was added to the sample solution containing a water-miscible ionic liquid ([Hmim][BF(4)]) to obtain a hydrophobic ionic liquid ([Hmim][PF(6)]), which acted as the extraction phase. After centrifuging, phase separation was performed and the enriched analyte was determined by SFIS. ISFME is an efficient method for separation and preconcentration of metal ions from aqueous solutions with a high ionic strength. Variables affecting the analytical performance were studied and optimized. Under optimum experimental conditions, the proposed method provided a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.024μgL(-1) and a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 2.1%. The accuracy of the combined methodology was evaluated by recovery experiments and by analyzing certified reference material (GBW 07605 Tea). Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied to copper determination in water and food samples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Modeling and Analysis of Magnetic Nanoparticles Injection in Water-Oil Two-Phase Flow in Porous Media under Magnetic Field Effect

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed

    2017-08-28

    In this paper, the magnetic nanoparticles are injected into a water-oil, two-phase system under the influence of an external permanent magnetic field. We lay down the mathematical model and provide a set of numerical exercises of hypothetical cases to show how an external magnetic field can influence the transport of nanoparticles in the proposed two-phase system in porous media. We treat the water-nanoparticles suspension as a miscible mixture, whereas it is immiscible with the oil phase. The magnetization properties, the density, and the viscosity of the ferrofluids are obtained based on mixture theory relationships. In the mathematical model, the phase pressure contains additional term to account for the extra pressures due to fluid magnetization effect and the magnetostrictive effect. As a proof of concept, the proposed model is applied on a countercurrent imbibition flow system in which both the displacing and the displaced fluids move in opposite directions. Physical variables, including waternanoparticles suspension saturation, nanoparticles concentration, and pore wall/throat concentrations of deposited nanoparticles, are investigated under the influence of the magnetic field. Two different locations of the magnet are studied numerically, and variations in permeability and porosity are considered.

  10. Trace mercury determination in drinking and natural water samples by room temperature ionic liquid based-preconcentration and flow injection-cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinis, Estefanía M; Bertón, Paula; Olsina, Roberto A; Altamirano, Jorgelina C; Wuilloud, Rodolfo G

    2009-08-15

    A liquid-liquid extraction procedure (L-L) based on room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) was developed for the preconcentration and determination of mercury in different water samples. The analyte was quantitatively extracted with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C(4)mim][PF(6)]) under the form of Hg-2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol (Hg-5-Br-PADAP) complex. A volume of 500 microl of 9.0 mol L(-1) hydrochloric acid was used to back-extract the analyte from the RTIL phase into an aqueous media prior to its analysis by flow injection-cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-CV-AAS). A preconcentration factor of 36 was achieved upon preconcentration of 20 mL of sample. The limit of detection (LOD) obtained under the optimal conditions was 2.3ngL(-1) and the relative standard deviation (RSD) for 10 replicates at 1 microg L(-1) Hg(2+) was 2.8%, calculated with peaks height. The method was successfully applied to the determination of mercury in river, sea, mineral and tap water samples and a certified reference material (CRM).

  11. Trace mercury determination in drinking and natural water samples by room temperature ionic liquid based-preconcentration and flow injection-cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinis, Estefania M.; Berton, Paula; Olsina, Roberto A.; Altamirano, Jorgelina C.; Wuilloud, Rodolfo G.

    2009-01-01

    A liquid-liquid extraction procedure (L-L) based on room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) was developed for the preconcentration and determination of mercury in different water samples. The analyte was quantitatively extracted with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C 4 mim][PF 6 ]) under the form of Hg-2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol (Hg-5-Br-PADAP) complex. A volume of 500 μl of 9.0 mol L -1 hydrochloric acid was used to back-extract the analyte from the RTIL phase into an aqueous media prior to its analysis by flow injection-cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-CV-AAS). A preconcentration factor of 36 was achieved upon preconcentration of 20 mL of sample. The limit of detection (LOD) obtained under the optimal conditions was 2.3 ng L -1 and the relative standard deviation (RSD) for 10 replicates at 1 μg L -1 Hg 2+ was 2.8%, calculated with peaks height. The method was successfully applied to the determination of mercury in river, sea, mineral and tap water samples and a certified reference material (CRM).

  12. Deliberate, repeated self-administration of metallic mercury injection: case report and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Givica-Perez, A.; Santana-Montesdeoca, J.M.; Diaz-Sanchez, M.; Martinez-Lagares, F.J.; Castaneda, W.R.

    2001-01-01

    Self-administration of metallic mercury through the intravenous route is rare. This event has been reported in psychiatric patients and in suicide attempts. We report a case of successive intravenous self-injections of mercury demonstrated by plain film radiographs and CT scans of the thorax and abdomen. (orig.)

  13. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B markers among incarcerated intravenous drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokhodian, Zary; Yaran, Majid; Adibi, Peyman; Kassaian, Nazila; Meshkati, Marjan; Ataei, Behrooz

    2014-03-01

    Drug injection is one of the most prominent risk factors for transmission of viral hepatitis. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is generally higher in prisoners compared with the general population. The object of this study was to assess the markers of HBV and related risk factors among intravenous drug users (IVDU) in prisoners. Through a cross-sectional study in 2012 HBV infection and its risk factors were assessed in prisoners with a history of intravenous drug use in Isfahan, Iran. A checklist was fulfilled for each participant and 5 ml blood was taken from each subject. Sera were analyzed for markers of the hepatitis B: Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg), antibody to hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAb) and hepatitis B virus core antibody (HBcAb) by ELISA. We used Chi-square test and logistic regression model to analyze data and P HBcAb+. 120 (12.37%) were found positive for isolated HBsAb, 45 (4.64%) for isolated HBcAb and 67 (6.9%) for both HBsAb and HBcAb. History of sharing needle (odds ratio: 2.25, 95% confidence interval: 1.09-4.65) had a significant association with HBsAg positivity. The results suggest that history of sharing needle had a significant association with HBsAg positivity. It seems that educational programs for injecting drug related behaviors, especially syringe sharing, are needed for IVDU.

  14. Intensive intravenous infusion of insulin in diabetic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, M; Dietiker-Moretti, S; Kaufmann, K; Mueller, C; Lutz, T A; Reusch, C E; Zini, E

    2014-01-01

    Remission occurs in 10-50% of cats with diabetes mellitus (DM). It is assumed that intensive treatment improves β-cell function and increases remission rates. Initial intravenous infusion of insulin that achieves tight glycemic control decreases subsequent insulin requirements and increases remission rate in diabetic cats. Thirty cats with newly diagnosed DM. Prospective study. Cats were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups. Cats in group 1 (n = 15) received intravenous infusion of insulin with the goal of maintaining blood glucose concentrations at 90-180 mg/dL, for 6 days. Cats in group 2 (n = 15) received subcutaneous injections of insulin glargine (cats ≤4 kg: 0.5-1.0 IU, q12h; >4 kg 1.5-2.0 IU, q12h), for 6 days. Thereafter, all cats were treated with subcutaneous injections of insulin glargine and followed up for 6 months. Cats were considered in remission when euglycemia occurred for ≥4 weeks without the administration of insulin. Nonparametric tests were used for statistical analysis. In groups 1 and 2, remission was achieved in 10/15 and in 7/14 cats (P = .46), and good metabolic control was achieved in 3/5 and in 1/7 cats (P = .22), respectively. Overall, good metabolic control or remission occurred in 13/15 cats of group 1 and in 8/14 cats of group 2. In group 1, the median insulin dosage given during the 6-month follow-up was significantly lower than in group 2 (group 1: 0.32 IU/kg/day, group 2: 0.51 IU/kg/day; P = .013). Initial intravenous infusion of insulin for tight glycemic control in cats with DM decreases insulin requirements during the subsequent 6 months. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  15. Bypassing adverse injection reactions to nanoparticles through shape modification and attachment to erythrocytes