WorldWideScience

Sample records for intravenously injected water

  1. Intentional intravenous mercury injection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this case report, intravenous complications, treatment strategies and possible ... Mercury toxicity is commonly associated with vapour inhalation or oral ingestion, for which there exist definite treatment options. Intravenous mercury ... personality, anxiousness, irritability, insomnia, depression and drowsi- ness.[1] However ...

  2. Intentional intravenous mercury injection | Yudelowitz | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intravenous mercury injection is rarely seen, with few documented cases. Treatment strategies are not clearly defined for such cases, although a few options do show benefit. This case report describes a 29-year-old man suffering from bipolar disorder, who presented following self-inflicted intravenous injection of mercury.

  3. Characterization of an intravenously injected bolus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.; Raikar, U.R.; Atmaram, S.H.; Ganatra, R.D.

    1976-01-01

    A study of some parameters affecting the time activity histogram of an intravenous bolus injection of radioactivity was performed. A scoring system for bolus compactness was attempted. A score of 2 and above was considered to be a satisfactory bolus. Volumes less than 1 ml tended to result in a satisfactory bolus. The nature of radiopharmaceutical injected, different injecters and age of the patient did not affect the score. Thyrotoxic patients gave the best bolus score. (orig.) [de

  4. Successful outcome after intravenous gasoline injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domej, Wolfgang; Mitterhammer, Heike; Stauber, Rudolf; Kaufmann, Peter; Smolle, Karl Heinz

    2007-12-01

    Gasoline, ingested intentionally or accidentally, is toxic. The majority of reported cases of gasoline intoxication involve oral ingestion or inhalation. Data are scarce on complications and outcomes following hydrocarbon poisoning by intravenous injection. Following a suicide attempt by intravenous self-injection of 10 ml of gasoline, a 26-year-old medical student was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with hemoptysis, symptoms of acute respiratory failure, chest pain, and severe abdominal cramps. Gas exchange was severely impaired and a chest x-ray indicated chemical pneumonitis. Initial treatment consisted of mechanical ventilation, supportive hyperventilation, administration of nitrogen oxide (NO), and prednisone. Unfortunately, the patient developed multi-organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) complicated by life-threatening severe vasoplegia within 24 hours after gasoline injection. High doses of vasopressors along with massive amounts of parenteral fluids were necessary. Despite fluid replacement, renal function worsened and required hemofiltration on 5 sequential days. After 12 days of intensive care management, the patient recovered completely and was discharged to a psychiatric care facility. Intravenous gasoline injection causes major injury to the lungs, the organ bearing the first capillary bed encountered. Treatment of gasoline poisoning is symptomatic because no specific antidote is available. Early and aggressive supportive care may be conducive to a favorable outcome with minimal residual pulmonary sequelae.

  5. Tritium retention in the femoral bone marrow and spleens of mice receiving single intravenous injections of tritiated water and tritiated thymidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshima, Hisamasa; Matsushita, Satoru; Fukutsu, Kumiko; Kashima, Masatoshi

    1987-01-01

    To derive parameters necessary for evaluating the possible hazards of tritium, retention of tritium in total and TCA-insoluble fractions of the femoral marrow and spleen of mice were observed after single intravenous injections of tritiated water and tritiated thymidine. Retention curves of tritium in TCA-insoluble fractions of the femoral marrow and spleen were resolved fairly well into two exponential components. After injecting tritiated thymidine, most of the activity was detected in the TCA-insoluble fraction. Tritium in this fraction decreased with half-times of 2.2 days in the femoral marrow and 3.6 days in the spleen as the first component, and 23.9 days and 30.5 days, respectively, as the second component. After tritiated water injections, the tritium incorporated into the TCA-insoluble fraction was quite small. Most of the activity was considered to be in the TCA-soluble fraction. Tritium in this fraction was estimated to decrease with half-times of 2.6 days in the femoral marrow and 2.3 days in the spleen as the first component, and 8.0 days and 8.2 days, respectively, as the second component. It is concluded that the retention curves of tritium in the bone marrow are similar to those in the spleen for tritiated water, but not for tritiated thymidine. (author)

  6. Breast abscess after intravenous methamphetamine injection into the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Amanda; Ajkay, Nicolas

    2018-05-01

    Intravenous drug use is a problem plaguing our society. We present a case of a young female who injected methamphetamine into her mammary vein, resulting in the formation of a breast abscess. This case demonstrates a rare but dangerous complication of intravenous drug use and a possible differential diagnosis in a patient presenting with a breast abscess. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Acute transient phlebitis during eptifibatide intravenous injection: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Emile; Blaer, Yossef; Shlyakhover, Vladimir; Katz, Amos; Jafari, Jamal

    2010-01-01

    We present a 56-year-old man who developed acute transient phlebitis of the right cephalic vein during an intravenous injection of eptifibatide (Integrilin, Schering Plough, Kenilworth, NJ). The eptifibatide injections were discontinued, and signs of phlebitis disappeared within minutes. The patient's course was uneventful, and he was discharged home after 8 days. As far as we know, this is the first report of acute transient phlebitis during intravenous eptifibatide injections in the English-language medical literature. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Higher lung accumulation of intravenously injected organic nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitani Y

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Yoshie Maitani,1 Yuri Nakamura,1 Masao Kon,1 Emi Sanada,1 Kae Sumiyoshi,1 Natsuki Fujine,1 Masumi Asakawa,2 Masaki Kogiso,2 Toshimi Shimizu21Institute of Medicinal Chemistry, Hoshi University, Tokyo, Japan; 2Nanotube Research Center (NTRC, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST, Tsukuba, JapanAbstract: The size and shape of intravenously injected particles can affect their biodistribution and is of importance for the development of particulated drug carrier systems. In this study, organic nanotubes (ONTs with a carboxyl group at the surface, a length of approximately 2 µm and outer diameter of 70–90 nm, were injected intravenously into tumor-bearing mice. To use ONTs as drug carriers, the biodistribution in selected organs of ONTs postinjection was examined using irinotecan, as an entrapped water-soluble marker inside ONTs, and gadolinium-chelated ONT, as an ONT marker, and compared with that of a 3 µm fluorescently labeled spherical microparticle which was similar size to the length of ONTs. It was found that for irinotecan, its active metabolite and gadolinium-chelated ONTs were highly accumulated in the lung, but to a lower level in the liver and spleen. On the other hand, microparticles deposited less in the lung and more highly in the liver. Moreover, histologic examination showed ONTs distributed more in lung tissues in part, whereas microparticles were present in blood vessels postinjection. These preliminary results support the notion of using negatively charged ONTs as intravascular carriers to maximize accumulation in the lung whilst reducing sequestration by the liver and spleen. This finding suggested that ONTs are potential carriers for lung-targeting drug delivery.Keywords: organic nanotube, lung, biodistribution, microparticle, particle shape

  9. Intravenous injection of ioxilan, iohexol and diatrizoate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen, H.S.; Dorph, S.; Mygind, T.; Sovak, M.; Nielsen, H.; Rygaard, H.; Larsen, S.; Skaarup, P.; Hemmingsen, L.; Holm, J.

    1988-01-01

    Effects of intravenous ioxilan, a new third generation non-ionic contrast medium, diatrizoate, iohexol and saline on urine profiles were compared. Albumin, glucose, sodium, phosphate, and the enzymes NAG, LDH and GGT were followed in 24 normal rats over 7 days. Diatrizoate significantly affected all profile components during the first two hours. Albuminuria was significantly greater after diatrizoate than after iohexol or ioxilan, and excretion of glucose, LDH and GGT was significantly higher than after ioxilan. Both iohexol and ioxilan increased the excretion of albumin, LDH and GGT, while iohexol also significantly increased excretion of glucose and sodium. There was a greater excretion of glucose and GGT after iohexol than after ioxilan. Saline did not induce any changes. At day 7, serum sodium, urea, creatinine, and albumin were normal for all test substances, and kidney histology revealed no difference between the groups of animals. It is thus concluded that both high osmolar ionic and low osmolar non-ionic contrast media may cause temporary glomerular and tubular dysfunction in rats. In this model, the kidney is affected most by diatrizoate, less by iohexol, and least by ioxilan. (orig.)

  10. The distribution of CIK cell after intravenous injection in animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shaoliang; Chen Xuefen; Gu Yucan; Chen Shuguang; Li Beilei; Liu Wenguan; Shi Hongcheng; Xu Lanwen; Qiao Weiwei; Wu Zhijiang; Gao Qirong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this research was to investigate the in vivo distribution of cytokine induced killer (CIK) cell after intravenous injection in animals. Methods: CIK cell was labeled with 99 Tc m . Forty mice were equally divided into 8 groups. These mice were killed at 3, 15, 30 min and 1,3,6, 24, 48 h after intravenous 99 Tc m -CIK cell injection. The radioactivity of blood, heart, lung, liver, spleen, kidney, brain, bone and muscle were measured. Three New Zealand rabbits were scanned by dynamic SPECT imaging after intravenous injection of 37 MBq 99 Tc m -CIK cell. Serial images over whole body were acquired from immediately after injection to 48 h later. Results: The radiochemical purity of 99 Tc m -CIK cell was over 95% and remained stable within 6 h at room temperature. The clearance of 99 Tc m -CIK cell in blood was fast. High uptake of 99 Tc m -CIK cell was noted in lung, liver, spleen and kidney. Little uptake was found in heart, brain, bone and muscle. Dynamic SPECT imaging showed that 99 Tc m -CIK cell accumulated in lungs early after injection and cleared thereafter. Then the uptake in liver increased and remained there after 2 d. There was little uptake in heart, brain, bone and muscle. Conclusions: 99 Tc m -CIK cell clears fast in the blood after injection. Within 1 h, the tracer mainly accumulates in lungs. Then the uptake is mostly in liver and spleen. (authors)

  11. Effect of intravenous injection of galanin on plasma concentrations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-06

    Oct 6, 2008 ... The goal of this study was to determine whether intravenously galanin injection effect on plasma concentrations of growth hormone (GH), thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) and milk production in the. Saanen goats. Fifteen Saanen goats were randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 3 in each group). Each.

  12. Suicide attempt by intravenous injection of gasoline: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Katrin; Kuehnemund, Alexander; Schwab, Tilmann; Geibel-Zehender, Annette; Bley, Thorsten; Bode, Christoph; Busch, Hans-Joerg

    2010-11-01

    There is much experience with intoxication by aspiration of volatile hydrocarbon products, whereas intravenous injection of these distillates is rare. There are only few reports that describe a wide variety of associated pathological changes, predominantly in the pulmonary system. We report the case of an intravenous self-injection of gasoline by a young man in a suicide attempt. Immediately after injecting gasoline, the 22-year-old man developed bradycardia, hypotension, and increasing dyspnea. Computed tomography scan of the chest showed signs consistent with diffuse alveolar-toxic damage to the lung. These symptoms and radiological findings are similar to those commonly observed after inhalation of this type of substance. This may have been due to diffusion of gasoline into the alveoli, where its presence leads to this characteristic damage. In this patient, gasoline entered the intramuscular tissue, and the patient developed a soft-tissue phlegmon at the forearm. At operation, gas emanation and superficial necrosis were noted. Nevertheless, the patient's outcome was good, with full recovery within 3 weeks. The major changes in this patient after intravenous injection of gasoline were in the pulmonary system, including hypoxemia and radiological findings that could be related to an exhalation of the volatile substance. In addition, gas in the musculature of the injection area caused a soft-tissue phlegmon. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The effects of injected solution temperature on intravenous regional anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, D L; Logan, M R; Wildsmith, J A

    1988-05-01

    Ten healthy volunteers received three standard Bier's blocks. Prilocaine 0.5%, 40 ml was injected at a solution temperature of 0 degrees C, 22 degrees C or 37 degrees C. Recordings were made of sensory block, motor block, intravenous pressure, limb temperature and pain on injection. There were no differences between the three treatments in the rate of development or in the quality of block but there was a significant difference in the comfort of injection. Cold solutions caused most, and warm solutions least discomfort.

  14. [Reducing fear in preschool children receiving intravenous injections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yi-Chuan; Liu, Hui-Tzu; Cho, Yen-Hua

    2012-06-01

    Our pediatric medical ward administers an average of 80 intravenous injections to preschool children. We found that 91.1% exhibit behavior indicative of fear and anxiety. Over three-quarters (77.8%) of this number suffer severe fear and actively resist receiving injections. Such behavior places a greater than normal burden on human and material resources and often gives family members negative impressions that lower their trust in the healthcare service while raising nurse-patient tensions. Using observation and interviews, we found primary factors in injection fear to be: Past negative experiences, lack of adequate prior communication, measures taken to preemptively control child resistance, and default cognitive behavioral strategies from nursing staff. This project worked to develop a strategy to reduce cases of severe injection fear in preschool children from 77.8% to 38.9% and achieve a capacity improvement target for members of 50%. Our team identified several potential strategy solutions from research papers and books between August 1st, 2009 and April 30th, 2010. Our proposed method included therapeutic games, self-selection of injection position, and cognitive behavioral strategies to divert attention. Other measures were also specified as standard operating procedures for administering pediatric intravenous injections. We applied the strategy on 45 preschool children and identified a post-injection "severe fear" level of 37.8%. This project was designed to reduce fear in children to make them more accepting of vaccinations and to enhance children's positive treatment experience in order to raise nursing care quality.

  15. Suicide by intravenous injection of rocuronium-bromide: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Slobodan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Suicides by intravenous injection of an overdose of medicaments are uncommon. In this paper, we present the case of a suicide by rocuronium-bromide injection in combination with an oral overdose of metoprolol. Unfortunately, in Belgrade, there is no toxicological laboratory capable of detecting rocuronium. The interpretation of autopsy and toxicological data in this case was made difficult due to the extreme putrefaction of the body of the deceased. So, by forensic investigation, the case was solved indirectly, through circumstantial evidence: an empty ampoule of rocuronium found near the body, as well as a plastic syringe and cloth-bandage found in the left hand of the deceased.

  16. Remifentanil Prevents Withdrawal Movements Caused by Intravenous Injection of Rocuronium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Byung In; Choi, Seung Ho; Shin, Yang-Sik; Lee, Sung Jin; Yoon, Kyung Bong; Shin, Seo Kyung

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The incidence of pain induced withdrawal movement following intravenous injection of rocuronium is high. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was designed to evaluate the effect of pretreatment of remifentanil on the withdrawal movements due to intravenous injection of rocuronium during anesthetic induction. Materials and Methods Ninety adult female patients undergoing thyroidectomy were randomly allocated to three groups. Each patient intravenously received one of three solutions of equal volume (4 mL): normal saline (Group I, n = 30), 0.5 µg/kg remifentanil (Group II, n = 30) or 1 µg/kg remifentanil (Group III, n = 30). Thirty seconds after remifentanil administration, anesthesia was induced with 5 mg/kg IV thiopental. Twenty seconds after thiopental injection, 0.6 mg/kg IV rocuronium was administered (injection rate of 0.5 mL/sec) and patients' withdrawal movements were assessed. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate were assessed on arrival in the operation room, before the tracheal intubation and immediately, 1 and 2 min after the tracheal intubation. Results The incidence of withdrawal movements was significantly lower in both of the remifentanil groups (3 and 0% in Group II and III, respectively) than in the saline group (70%). Remifentanil attenuated the increase of heart rate and MAP immediately and 1 min after the tracheal intubation. Conclusion The pretreatment with 0.5 and 1.0 µg/kg remifentanil of bolus doses prevented the withdrawal movements caused by rocuronium injection, and effectively blunted cardiovascular activation following tracheal intubation. PMID:18452256

  17. Are intravenous injections of contrast media really less nephrotoxic than intra-arterial injections?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyman, Ulf [University of Lund, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Trelleborg (Sweden); Almen, Torsten [Skaane University Hospital, Department of Clinical Sciences/Medical Radiology, University of Lund, Malmoe (Sweden); Jacobsson, Bo [University of Gothenburg and the Sahlgrenska Academy, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, The Queen Silvia Children' s Hospital, Goeteborg (Sweden); Aspelin, Peter [Karolinska Institute and University Hospital, Division of Medical Imaging and Technology, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology (CLINTEC), Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-06-15

    We oppose the opinion that the intra-arterial administration of iodine-based contrast media (CM) appears to pose a greater risk of contrast medium-induced nephropathy (CIN) than intravenous administration since (1) in intra-arterial coronary procedures and most other intra-arterial angiographic examinations, CM injections are also intravenous relative to the kidneys, (2) there is a lack of comparative trials studying the risk of CIN between intra-arterial and intravenous procedures with matched risk factors and CM doses, (3) a bias selection of patients with fewer risk factors may explain the seemingly lower rate of CIN after CT in comparison with coronary interventions, (4) the rate of CIN following intra-arterial coronary procedures may also be exaggerated owing to other causes of acute kidney failure, such as haemodynamic instability and microembolisation, (5) roughly the same gram-iodine/GFR ratio ({approx}1:1) as a limit of relatively safe CM doses has preliminarily been found for both intravenous CT and intra-arterial coronary procedures and (6) the substantially higher injected intravenous CM dose rate during CT relative to an intra-arterial coronary procedure might actually pose a higher risk of CIN following CT. Key Points circle Most intra-arterial injections of contrast media are intravenous relative to the kidneys. circle No evidence that intravenous CM injections should be less nephrotoxic than intra-arterial. circle Considerably higher dose rates of CM are used for CT relative to intra-arterial procedures. circle Higher dose rates may pose higher nephrotoxic risk for intravenous based CT studies. (orig.)

  18. Cloxacillin distribution in the rabbit eye after intravenous injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salminen, L.

    1978-01-01

    Distribution of isotopically labelled and intravenously injected cloxacillin was studied in the rabbit eye. The antibiotic concentration determined by liquid scintillation counting proved to be a reliable measure of the total antibiotic concentration when controlled by microbiological assay. In the rabbit eye after an intravenous injection of 50 mg/kg of cloxacillin sodium, longlasting antibiotic concentration regarded as therapeutic against penicillinase producing staphylococci was obtained in all vascularized ocular structures and in the cornea. The antibiotic present in the iris and ciliary body, and in the retina and choroid preparations, proved to be partly intravascular, whereas it penetrated better into the extravascular tissue compartment of the sclera and limbal area. Cloxacillin failed to achieve a therapeutic antibiotic concentration in the vitreous body and in the lens. Administration of probenecid had an enhancing effect on ocular cloxacillin concentration allowing improved drug diffusion into the eye by means of an elevated plasma concentration. No specific ocular effect of probenecid was noticed. Therapeutic concentration of cloxacillin in the aqueous humour, otherwise barely achieved, was more satisfactorily obtained with a previous injection of probenecid. (author)

  19. Water injection dredging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.

    2000-01-01

    Some twenty years ago WIS-dredging has been developed in the Netherlands. By injecting water into the mud layer, the water content of the mud becomes higher, it becomes fluid mud and will start to flow. The advantages of this system are that there is no need of transporting the mud in a hopper, and

  20. Cold water injection nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kura, Masaaki; Maeda, Masamitsu; Endo, Takio.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To inject cold water in a reactor without applying heat cycles to a reactor container and to the inner wall of a feedwater nozzle by securing a perforated plate at the outlet of the cold water injection nozzle. Constitution: A disc-like cap is secured to the final end of a return nozzle of a control rod drive. The cap prevents the flow of a high temperature water flowing downward in the reactor from entering into the nozzle. The cap is perforated with a plurality of bore holes for injecting cold water into the reactor. The cap is made to about 100 mm in thickness so that the cold water passing through the bore holes is heated by the heat conduction in the cap. Accordingly, the flow of high temperature water flowing downwardly in the reactor is inhibited by the cap from backward flowing into the nozzle. Moreover, the flow of the cold water in the nozzle is controlled and rectified when passed through the bore holes in the cap and then injected into the reactor. (Yoshino, Y.)

  1. Concentration of plutonium in hair following intravenous injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toohey, R.E.; Cacic, C.G.; Oldham, R.D.; Larsen, R.P.

    1979-01-01

    The concentration of plutonium has been determined along the length of the hair of a female subject who received 11.1 kBq (0.3 μCi) of 239 Pu by intravenous injection in 1945. The subject succumbed to her preexisting illness 518 days post-injection. The growth rate of hair given for females in ICRP is 0.36 mm/day, and so a half-length of 43 +- 9 mm corresponds to a half-time of 120 +- 25 days. However, since plutonium was found in the most distal portion of the hair, an average growth rate of at least 280 mm/518 days, or 0.54 mm/ day is indicated for this individual. This value yields a half-time of 80 +- 20 days for the long-lived component of plutonium concentration in the hair and therefore also in the blood. This half-time is in excellent agreement with that of 88 +- 13 days found for the plutonium injection cases

  2. Reactor water injection facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Kazuhiro; Kinoshita, Shoichiro

    1997-05-02

    A steam turbine and an electric generator are connected by way of a speed convertor. The speed convertor is controlled so that the number of rotation of the electric generator is constant irrespective of the speed change of the steam turbine. A shaft coupler is disposed between the turbine and the electric generator or between the turbine and a water injection pump. With such a constitution, the steam turbine and the electric generator are connected by way of the speed convertor, and since the number of revolution of the electric generator is controlled to be constant, the change of the number of rotation of the turbine can be controlled irrespective of the change of the number of rotation of the electric generator. Accordingly, the flow rate of the injection water from the water injection pump to a reactor pressure vessel can be controlled freely thereby enabling to supply stable electric power. (T.M.)

  3. Modelling Framework and Assistive Device for Peripheral Intravenous Injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Kin F.; Robinson, Martin P.; Gilbert, Mathew A.; Pelah, Adar

    2016-02-01

    Intravenous access for blood sampling or drug administration that requires peripheral venepuncture is perhaps the most common invasive procedure practiced in hospitals, clinics and general practice surgeries.We describe an idealised mathematical framework for modelling the dynamics of the peripheral venepuncture process. Basic assumptions of the model are confirmed through motion analysis of needle trajectories during venepuncture, taken from video recordings of a skilled practitioner injecting into a practice kit. The framework is also applied to the design and construction of a proposed device for accurate needle guidance during venepuncture administration, assessed as consistent and repeatable in application and does not lead to over puncture. The study provides insights into the ubiquitous peripheral venepuncture process and may contribute to applications in training and in the design of new devices, including for use in robotic automation.

  4. The intravenous injection of illicit drugs and needle sharing: an historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zule, W A; Vogtsberger, K N; Desmond, D P

    1997-01-01

    This study reviewed the literature on the history of needle sharing and intravenous drug abuse. Reports suggest that needle sharing was practiced by drug abusers as early as 1902 in China and 1914 in the United States. Intravenous drug abuse was first mentioned in the literature in 1925. However other references suggest that some opioid users were injecting intravenously prior to 1920. Outbreaks of malaria in Egypt, the United States, and China between 1929 and 1937 were attributed to needle sharing and intravenous injection of opioids. These reports suggest that both needle sharing and intravenous drug use were common by 1937. Factors such as medical use of intravenous injections, enactment and zealous enforcement of antinarcotic laws, and interactions among drug users in institutional settings such as regional hospitals and prisons may have contributed to the spread of both needle sharing and the intravenous technique among drug abusers.

  5. Water injection profiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    A method of neutron-gamma logging is described, in which water, injected in a cased well borehole with peforations, is irradiated with neutrons of 10 MeV or greater, and subsequent gamma radiation is detected by a pair of detectors along the borehole. Counting rates of detectors are analyzed in terms of two gamma ray energy windows. Linear flow velocity of fluid moving downward within the casing is used in conjunction with count rate data to determine volume flow rates of water moving in other directions. Apparatus includes a sonde with a neutron source and appropriate gamma sensors

  6. Intravenous Poison Hemlock Injection Resulting in Prolonged Respiratory Failure and Encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brtalik, Douglas; Stopyra, Jason; Hannum, Jennifer

    2017-06-01

    Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum) is a common plant with a significant toxicity. Data on this toxicity is sparse as there have been few case reports and never a documented poisoning after intravenous injection. We present a case of intravenous poison hemlock injection encountered in the emergency department. We describe a 30-year-old male who presented to the emergency department after a brief cardiac arrest after injecting poison hemlock. The patient had return of spontaneous circulation in the emergency department but had prolonged muscular weakness and encephalopathy later requiring tracheostomy. Intravenous injection of poison hemlock alkaloids can result in significant toxicity, including cardiopulmonary arrest, prolonged weakness, and encephalopathy.

  7. Cooling water injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inai, Nobuhiko.

    1989-01-01

    In a BWR type reactor, ECCS system is constituted as a so-called stand-by system which is not used during usual operation and there is a significant discontinuity in relation with the usual system. It is extremely important that ECCS operates upon occurrence of accidents just as specified. In view of the above in the present invention, the stand-by system is disposed along the same line with the usual system. That is, a driving water supply pump for supplying driving water to a jet pump is driven by a driving mechanism. The driving mechanism drives continuously the driving water supply pump in a case if an expected accident such as loss of the function of the water supply pump, as well as during normal operation. That is, all of the water supply pump, jet pump, driving water supply pump and driving mechanism therefor are caused to operate also during normal operation. The operation of them are not initiated upon accident. Thus, the cooling water injection system can perform at high reliability to remarkably improve the plant safety. (K.M.)

  8. Gallium-67 detection of intramammary injection sites secondary to intravenous drug abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swayne, L.C.

    1989-01-01

    A case of gallium localization within the breast occurred secondary to intravenous drug abuse. In the appropriate clinical setting, prior self-administered injections should be considered as a cause of Ga-67 accumulation at unusual sites

  9. Intravenous vs. left ventricular injection of ionic contrast material: hemodynamic implications for digital subtraction angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancini, G.B.; Ostrander, D.R.; Slutsky, R.A.; Shabetai, R.; Higgins, C.B.

    1983-01-01

    Because of the increased use of intravenous injection of contrast material for the evaluation of cardiac structure and function by digital subtraction techniques, a study was done to assess the hemodynamic effects of contrast material when used in this fashion in man. In 10 patients, with each serving as his own control, the effects of intravenous and intraventricular injections of sodium meglumine diatrizoate (Renografin 76) in the same dose were compared. There was no difference between these two methods with respect to changes in pulmonary wedge pressures, systemic pressures, and pulmonary vascular resistance. The elevation of mean pulmonary artery and right atrial pressure was greater after the intraventricular injection (p <0.05). The elevated cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance returned to control values somewhat more quickly after the intravenous injection (p<0.001 and p<0.05, respectively); and the increase in cardiac output was greater after the intravenous injection at 1 min (p<0.05), but less than after the intraventricular injection at 2 min (p<0.05). Despite the detection of these statistically significant differences, the magnitude and timing of these differences are too small to justify the notion that imaging by intravenous injections of standard ionic contrast media provides any substantial hemodynamic benefits or decreased risk to the patient

  10. Microcosting Study of Rituximab Subcutaneous Injection Versus Intravenous Infusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihajloviç, Jovan; Bax, Pieter; van Breugel, Erwin; Blommestein, Hedwig M.; Hoogendoorn, Mels; Hospes, Wobbe; Postma, Maarten J.

    Purpose: The goal of this study is to identify and compare all direct costs of intravenous and subcutaneous rituximab given to patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in the Netherlands.  Methods: Using a prospective, observational, bottom-up microcosting study, we collected primary data on the

  11. Compatibility and Stability of VARUBI (Rolapitant) Injectable Emulsion Admixed with Intravenous Palonosetron Hydrochloride Injection and Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, George; Powers, Dan; Yeung, Stanley; Chen, Frank

    2018-01-01

    Prophylaxis or therapy with a combination of a neurokinin 1 (NK-1) receptor antagonist (RA), a 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT3) RA, and dexamethasone is recommended by international antiemesis guidelines for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting for patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy and for selected patients receiving moderately emetogenic chemotherapy. VARUBI (rolapitant) is a substance P/NK-1 RA that was recently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration as an injectable emulsion in combination with other antiemetic agents in adults for the prevention of delayed nausea and vomiting associated with initial and repeat courses of emetogenic cancer chemotherapy, including, but not limited to, highly emetogenic chemotherapy. Palonosetron is one of the 5-HT3 RAs indicated for the prevention of nausea and/or vomiting associated with initial and repeat courses of emetogenic cancer therapy, including high-dose cisplatin. Herein, we describe the physical and chemical compatibility and stability of VARUBI injectable emulsion (166.5 mg/92.5 mL [1.8 mg/mL, free base], equivalent to 185 mg of rolapitant hydrochloride) admixed with palonosetron injection 0.25 mg free base in 5 mL (equivalent to 0.28 mg hydrochloride salt) and with either 5 mL (20 mg) or 2.5 mL (10 mg) of dexamethasone sodium phosphate. Admixtures were prepared and stored in VARUBI injectable emulsion ready-to-use glass vials as supplied by the rolapitant manufacturer and in four types of commonly used intravenous administration (tubing) sets. Assessment of the physical and chemical compatibility and stability of the admixtures in the VARUBI ready-to-use vials stored at room temperature (20°C to 25°C) under fluorescent light and under refrigeration (2°C to 8°C protected from light) was conducted at 0, 1, 6, 24, and 48 hours, and that of the admixtures in the intravenous tubing sets was evaluated at 0, 2, and 6 hours of storage at 20°C to 25°C. Physical stability

  12. Intravenous dexketoprofen induces less injection pain than racemic ketoprofen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjövall, S; Kokki, M; Nokela, A; Halinen, L; Turunen, M; Kokki, H

    2015-08-01

    Ketoprofen has high analgesic efficacy against inflammatory and nociceptive pain. Additionally, when ketoprofen is administered in conjunction with an opioid during pain management, it prevents the development of opioid-induced hyperalgesia. The main limitation for racemic ketoprofen IV administration is venous irritation. Dexketoprofen is the active enantiomer of racemic ketoprofen and has a similar analgesic efficacy in a dose proportion of 1 : 2, but it causes fewer adverse effects than racemic ketoprofen. It has been claimed that dexketoprofen may cause less frequent and less severe injection pain than racemic ketoprofen. In this study, we compared the injection pain of IV administered racemic ketoprofen and dexketoprofen in elective surgical patients. The ethics committee of our institution approved this randomized, double-blinded, two-treatment, two-period, crossover clinical comparison of ketoprofen and dexketoprofen. A total of 221 ASA I-III adult patients, aged 20-75 years, were initially IV administered either 0·5 mg/kg racemic ketoprofen followed 2 h later with 0·25 mg/kg dexketoprofen (group 1) or vice versa (group 2). Both compounds were diluted in 20 mL of normal saline and were injected over 6 min. Patients reported injection pain on an 11-point numerical rating scale (NRS) (0 = no pain, 10 = most pain). Significantly less injection pain was reported after dexketoprofen administration. A total of 201 of 209 patients reported pain during racemic ketoprofen injection, and 157 of 210 patients reported pain during dexketoprofen injection, respectively. Moderate or severe pain was reported by 90 (41%) patients during racemic ketoprofen administration and by 43 (20%) during dexketoprofen injection (P = 0·001). The mean of injection pain during racemic ketoprofen injection was 4·2 (SD 2·5) and was 2·5 (2·4) during dexketoprofen injection (P = 0·001). No serious or unexpected adverse events were reported. Dexketoprofen causes

  13. Renal effects of iopentol and iohexol after intravenous injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakobsen, J.A.; Kolbenstvedt, A.N.; Berg, K.J.; National Hospital, Oslo

    1991-01-01

    Renal effects of the 2 non-ionic contrast media iopentol and iohexol were investigated and compared in a double-blind, randomized parallel study where 30 patients received iopentol, and 31 patients iohexol intravenously for abdominal CT. The dosage of contrast medium (350 mg I/ml) was 700 mg I/kg body weight. Only one patient (in the iohexol group) had an increase in serum creatinine of more than 50%. Iopentol and iohexol had no effects on the mean serum values of creatinine, urea, and β 2 -microglobulin (β 2 -MG) nor on creatinine clearance. The urinary excretion of albumin and β 2 -MG was also unchanged. The excretion of the proximal tubular enzymes alkaline phosphatase and N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase was increased. No significant difference between iopentol and iohexol was found. (orig.)

  14. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation after intravenous injection of paraffin oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasgaard, Thomas; Huynh, Anh-Nhi Thi; Gjedsted, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    We present a rare cause of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to an accidental intravascular injection of paraffin oil. While there is no specific therapy, we decided to support the patient with veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (V-V ECMO) to allow the ARDS to resolve. A...

  15. Acute Respiratory Distress following Intravenous Injection of an Oil-Steroid Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Russell

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of acute respiratory distress and hypoxemia following accidental intravenous injection of an oil-steroid solution in a body builder is presented. Chest roentography at the time of presentation showed diffuse bilateral opacities, and computed tomography revealed predominantly peripheral ground-glass opacifications. The patient’s symptoms gradually improved over 48 h and imaging of the chest was unremarkable one week later. The pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of this rare but potentially life-threatening complication of intravenous oil injection are discussed.

  16. Disposition of perfluorobutane in rats after intravenous injection of Sonazoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toft, Kim Gunnar; Hustvedt, Svein Olaf; Hals, Petter-Arnt; Oulie, Inger; Uran, Steinar; Landmark, Kristin; Normann, Per Trygve; Skotland, Tore

    2006-01-01

    The new ultrasound contrast agent Sonazoid was injected IV in rats at doses of 0.8 and 8 muL perfluorobutane (PFB)-containing microbubbles/kg body weight. Samples were obtained from blood, liver, spleen, fat, kidney, muscle, heart, lung and brain from both males and females and the PFB gas was analyzed using validated gas chromatography mass spectrometry methods. No differences were observed between genders or doses for any of the pharmacokinetic parameters. For all tissues, the highest concentrations were observed at the first time point (i.e., 5 min postinjection) (51% of injected dose in liver; total recovery of 69%). The highest concentrations of PFB in tissue were observed in spleen > liver > lung > kidney > other tissues. At 24 h after dosing, the total amount of PFB remaining in the tissues was 1.9%. These data fit well with the finding that after a Sonazoid dose of 8 microL microbubbles/kg to male rats, more than 50% of the injected PFB was recovered in exhaled air by 20 min after dosing. During the first 24 h after administration, more than 96% of the PFB dose was recovered in exhaled air.

  17. Radionuclide venography of lower limbs by subcutaneous injection; Comparison with venography by intravenous injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Chung-Chieng; Jong, Shiang-Bin (Kaohsiung Medical College, Kaohsiung (Taiwan))

    1989-11-01

    We have proved that subcutaneous injection (SC) of a small dose of Tc-99m pertechnetate (1 to 2 mCi: 37 to 74 MBq) at acupuncture points (K-3 and B-60) may offer an alternative method of radionuclide venography (RNV) of the lower limbs. In this study, we compared intravenous (IV) RNV and SC-RNV in 22 consecutive cases with typical signs and symptoms suggesting venous abnormality of the lower limb(s) from March to May 1988. They are 11 male and 11 female, aged 47.7{plus minus}15.7 years. Among the 44 limbs of the 22 cases, 4 were normal, 12 (27.3%) were found to have varicose veins in the legs only, 18 (40.9%) had partial stenosis of the deep veins (14 poplito-tibial and 4 superficial femoral), and 13 (29.6%) had complete stenosis of the deep veins (4 poplito-tibial, 1 superficial femoral and 8 ilio-femoral). SC-RNV showed almost the same results as IV-RNV in 21 (47.7%), superior to IV-RNV in 22 (50%) (including 4.6% failure of IV-RNV), and inferior to IV-RNV in 1 (2.3%). We conclude that SC-RNV is definitely an alternative method of lower-limb venography. Since it is in most cases superior to IV-RNV, we suggest that it can take the place of IV-RNV in routine work. (author) 62 refs.

  18. Comparsion of Intravenous Lignocaine, Tramadol and Keterolac for Attenuation of Propofol Injection Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Harprit Kaur; Singh, Rajinder; Sodhi, Gurdip Singh

    2016-07-01

    Propofol possesses many characteristics of an ideal intravenous anaesthetic agent, providing a smooth induction and a rapid recovery. However, it has been reported to evoke considerable pain on injection in 10-100% of patients. The cause of pain upon intravenous injection of propofol remains a mystery. To study and compare the efficacy of Lignocaine, Tramadol and Ketorolac in minimizing the propofol injection pain. Hundred adult patients (ASA grade I and grade II) scheduled for elective surgery under general anaesthesia with propofol as an inducing agent were considered for the study. Patients were randomly divided into 4 groups of 25 patients each Group L (lignocaine) Group T (tramadol) Group K (ketorolac) and Group N (normal saline). Pain scores were measured by the investigator immediately following injection of propofol. All patients' responses were graded by a verbal pain score. All the results were tabulated and analysed using the one-way ANOVA and z-test. There was no statistically significant difference among group L (24%), T (28%) and K (28%) for pain on injection, but significant difference of all 3 groups was there when compared with group N. Intravenous lignocaine, tramadol and ketorolac all 3 drugs significantly reduce propofol injection pain. However, lignocaine appears to be more acceptable cause of less pain and fewer side effects as compared to tramadol and ketorolac.

  19. Cabotegravir long acting injection protects macaques against intravenous challenge with SIVmac251.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Chasity D; Bernard, Leslie St; Poon, Amanda Yee; Mohri, Hiroshi; Gettie, Natanya; Spreen, William R; Gettie, Agegnehu; Russell-Lodrigue, Kasi; Blanchard, James; Hong, Zhi; Ho, David D; Markowitz, Martin

    2017-02-20

    We evaluated the effectiveness of cabotegravir (CAB; GSK1265744 or GSK744) long acting as preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) against intravenous simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) challenge in a model that mimics blood transfusions based on the per-act probability of infection. CAB long acting is an integrase strand transfer inhibitor formulated as a 200 mg/ml injectable nanoparticle suspension that is an effective PrEP agent against rectal and vaginal simian/human immunodeficiency virus transmission in macaques. Three groups of rhesus macaques (n = 8 per group) were injected intramuscularly with CAB long acting and challenged intravenously with 17 animal infectious dose 50% SIVmac251 on week 2. Group 1 was injected with 50 mg/kg on week 0 and 4 to evaluate the protective efficacy of the CAB long-acting dose used in macaque studies mimicking sexual transmission. Group 2 was injected with 50 mg/kg on week 0 to evaluate the necessity of the second injection of CAB long acting for protection against intravenous challenge. Group 3 was injected with 25 mg/kg on week 0 and 50 mg/kg on week 4 to correlate CAB plasma concentrations at the time of challenge with protection. Five additional macaques remained untreated as controls. CAB long acting was highly protective with 21 of the 24 CAB long-acting-treated macaques remaining aviremic, resulting in 88% protection. The plasma CAB concentration at the time of virus challenge appeared to be more important for protection than sustaining therapeutic plasma concentrations with the second CAB long acting injection. These results support the clinical investigation of CAB long acting as PrEP in people who inject drugs.

  20. Production of neutralizing antisera against viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) virus by intravenous injections of rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Lorenzen, Niels; LaPatra, S.E.

    1999-01-01

    Rabbit antisera against viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) produced by two immunization procedures were compared for neutralization and immunochemical properties against homologous and heterologous strains. The VHSV isolate used as the immunogen was a member of a serogroup not neutralized...... by previously available antisera. The results from this study suggested that frequent intravenous (IV) injections of rabbits with viral antigens were superior to adjuvant-mediated, combined subcutaneous and intraperitoneal (SC/IP) injections for the production of neutralizing antisera. All IV injected rabbits...... produced high neutralization titers against the homologous VHSV isolate but not against an isolate from a different serogroup. The SC/IP injected rabbits had no significant neutralization titers against either the homologous VHSV strain or two isolates of a heterologous VHSV strain. Sera from all injected...

  1. Dynamics of morphofunctional erythrocyte properties during intravenous glucose injection in patients with coronary heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinova, Lidia I.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Denisova, Tatyana P.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2007-02-01

    Dynamics of glucose concentration in human organism is an important diagnostic characteristic for it's parameters correlate significantly with the severity of metabolic, vessel and perfusion disorders. 36 patients with stable angina pectoris of II and III functional classes were involved in this study. All of them were men in age range of 45-59 years old. 7 patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction (aged from 49 to 59 years old) form the group of compare. Control group (n = 5) was of practically healthy men in comparable age. To all patients intravenous glucose solution (40%) in standard loading dose was injected. Capillary and vein blood samples were withdrawn before, and 5, 60, 120, 180 and 240 minutes after glucose load. At these time points blood pressure and glucose concentration were measured. In prepared blood smears shape, deformability and sizes of erythrocytes, quantity and degree of shear stress resistant erythrocyte aggregates were studied. Received data were approximated by polynomial of high degree to receive concentration function of studied parameters, which first derivative elucidate velocity characteristics of morphofunctional erythrocyte properties during intravenous glucose injection in patients with coronary heart disease and practically healthy persons. Received data show principle differences in dynamics of morphofunctional erythrocyte properties during intravenous glucose injection in patients with coronary heart disease as a possible mechanism of coronary blood flow destabilization.

  2. Cerebral blood flow in the occlusive cerebrovascular disease. 133Xe intravenous injection method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuda, Hitoshi; Mukawa, Jiro; Takara, Eiichi; Kinjo, Toshihiko; Ishikawa, Yasunari

    1988-04-01

    From December 1985 to May 1986, cerebral blood flow (CBF) was studied in 11 patients with occlusive cerebrovascular diseases confined by angiography. 133Xe (5mci) intravenous injection method designed by Kuikka and coworkers was applied for the measurement of regional-CBF and mean-CBF, and the calculation was based on the initial slope index. They were composed of 4 patients of the middle cerebral artery occlusion, 2 of the posterior cerebral artery occlusion, 1 of the internal carotid artery occlusion, 2 of the middle cerebral artery stenosis, 1 of the internal carotid artery stenosis, and 1 of the anterior cerebral artery stenosis. The period from the vascular attack to the initial CBF study was 2-29 days(mean 9.2 days). Recovery of mean-CBF was correlated with clinical and neurological improvement, and vice versa. There was no correlation between mean-CBF and neurological severity. CBF study alone is not sufficient to evaluate neuronal conditions in the occlusive disease. Additional other means, such as CT-scan, angiography and etc. should be requested for it. Intravenous 133Xe injection technique has an advantage over intracarotid injection method; less dangerous, especially in ages and capable of simultaneous measurement of bilateral hemisphere. Considering /sup c/ross talk/sup /regional-CBF of a low density area on X-ray CT-scan was equal to the one obtained by intracarotid injection method.

  3. Intravenous ibuprofen: the first injectable product for the treatment of pain and fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Brandon Bookstaver

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available P Brandon Bookstaver, April D Miller, Celeste N Rudisill, LeAnn B NorrisDepartment of Clinical Pharmacy and Outcomes Sciences, South Carolina College of Pharmacy, University of South Carolina Campus, Columbia, South Carolina, USAAbstract: This paper reviews the current data on the use of the first approved intravenous ibuprofen product for the management of post-operative pain and fever in the United States. The management of acute and post-operative pain and fever with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs is well documented. A search in Medline and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts of articles until the end of November 2009 and references of all citations were conducted. Available manufacturer data on file were also analyzed for this report. Several randomized controlled studies have demonstrated the opioid-sparing and analgesic effects of 400 and 800 mg doses of intravenous ibuprofen in a series of post-operative patient populations. Two recent studies have also noted the improvement in fever curves in critically ill and burn patients. These data, along with pharmacokinetic and pharmacologic properties, are explored in this review, which addresses the clinical utility of a parenteral NSAID in a hospitalized patient for post-operative pain management and fever reduction. Further data on intravenous ibuprofen are needed to define long-term utilization, management of acute pain, and use in special populations.Keywords: ibuprofen, intravenous, injectable, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug

  4. The effect of intravenous paracetamol for the prevention of rocuronium injection pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, Sennur; Erden, Ismail A; Canbay, Ozgur; Aypar, Ulku

    2014-11-01

    Rocuronium is a nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent used in anesthesia induction and is associated with considerable discomfort and burning pain during injection, which is reported to occur in 50-80% of patients. This study was carried out to investigate the effectiveness of intravenous paracetamol pretreatment compared with lidocaine and normal saline to prevent rocuronium injection pain. The study included 150 ASA I-II patients undergoing elective orthopedic, gastrointestinal, and gynecological procedures under general anesthesia. They were allocated into three groups according to pretreatment drugs: lidocaine (40 mg) (n = 50), paracetamol (n = 50), and normal saline group (n = 50). Before anesthesia induction with propofol, all patients were pretreated with rocuronium. The pain caused by the injection was evaluated. Local signs were assessed on the arm at the end of the injection, as well as 24 hours after recovery from anesthesia. There were no patients with blurred speech or vision and there was no respiratory depression in any group after pretreatment with the study drug. The level of pain on injection was statistically lower in those who had received paracetamol compared to normal saline (p = 0.009). There were more patients in the saline group with severe pain (p rocuronium injection pain better than normal saline but lidocaine was the best of the three drugs (p < 0.001). Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  5. The effect of intravenous paracetamol for the prevention of rocuronium injection pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sennur Uzun

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Rocuronium is a nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent used in anesthesia induction and is associated with considerable discomfort and burning pain during injection, which is reported to occur in 50–80% of patients. This study was carried out to investigate the effectiveness of intravenous paracetamol pretreatment compared with lidocaine and normal saline to prevent rocuronium injection pain. The study included 150 ASA I–II patients undergoing elective orthopedic, gastrointestinal, and gynecological procedures under general anesthesia. They were allocated into three groups according to pretreatment drugs: lidocaine (40 mg (n = 50, paracetamol (n = 50, and normal saline group (n = 50. Before anesthesia induction with propofol, all patients were pretreated with rocuronium. The pain caused by the injection was evaluated. Local signs were assessed on the arm at the end of the injection, as well as 24 hours after recovery from anesthesia. There were no patients with blurred speech or vision and there was no respiratory depression in any group after pretreatment with the study drug. The level of pain on injection was statistically lower in those who had received paracetamol compared to normal saline (p = 0.009. There were more patients in the saline group with severe pain (p < 0.001. Paracetamol relieved the rocuronium injection pain better than normal saline but lidocaine was the best of the three drugs (p < 0.001.

  6. Tolerance and biochemical effects from intravenous injection of ioxaglate in healthy volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, P.E.; Aspelin, P.; Nyman, U.; Hedner, U.; Malmoe Allmaenna Sjukhus

    1984-01-01

    The influence of intravenous injection of ioxaglate (Hexabrix, 320 mg I/ml) on various biochemical, coagulation and fibrinolytic parameters, fractionated plasma proteins, precordial ECG and blood pressure was prospectively and sequentially studied in 9 healthy volunteers. One ml/kg body weight of the contrast medium was injected within one minute into an antecubital vein. Small, but statistically significant, changes in some of the biochemical parameters were found during the observation period, 2 to 4 days. All values of the biochemical parameters were, however, within the normal reference range for each parameter. No significant alterations were seen in the coagulation parameters. Increased fibrinolysis was recorded in some subjects both before and after the injection. No fibrinolytic degradation products were found indicating that the fibrinolysis was nominal. No significant changes were observed in the fractionated plasma proteins. The heart rate decreased significantly 15 seconds after commencing the injection. No significant changes in blood pressure were recorded. Two participants became nauseated and one of them vomited during the injection. Apart from this, no adverse effects were noted. No clinically significant changes following the injections were found. (orig.)

  7. Bioaccumulation and Toxicity of Carbon Nanoparticles Suspension Injection in Intravenously Exposed Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Xie

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanoparticles suspension injection (CNSI has been widely used in tumor drainage lymph node mapping, and its new applications in drug delivery, photothermal therapy, and so on have been extensively investigated. To develop new clinical applications, the toxicity of CNSI after intravenous exposure should be thoroughly investigated to ensure its safe use. Herein, we studied the bioaccumulation of CNSI in reticuloendothelial system (RES organs and the corresponding toxicity to mice. After the intravenous injection of CNSI, no abnormal behavior of mice was observed during the 28-day observation period. The body weight increases were similar among the exposed groups and the control group. The parameters of hematology and serum biochemistry remained nearly unchanged, with very few of them showing significant changes. The low toxicity of CNSI was also reflected by the unchanged histopathological characteristics of these organs. The injection of CNSI did not induce higher apoptosis levels either. The slight oxidative stress was observed in RES organs at high dosages at day 7 post-exposure. The implication to the clinical applications and toxicological evaluations of carbon nanomaterials is discussed.

  8. Elemental mercury poisoning caused by subcutaneous and intravenous injection: An unusual self-injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wale, Jaywant; Yadav, Pankaj K; Garg, Shairy

    2010-01-01

    Elemental mercury poisoning most commonly occurs through vapor inhalation as mercury is well absorbed through the lungs. Administering subcutaneous and intravenous elemental mercury is very uncommon but with only a few isolated case reports in the literature. We present an unusual case of elemental mercury poisoning in a 20-year-old young male who presented with chest pain, fever, and hemoptysis. He had injected himself subcutaneously with elemental mercury obtained from a sphygmomanometer. The typical radiographic findings in the chest, forearm, and abdomen are discussed, with a review of the literature

  9. Elemental mercury poisoning caused by subcutaneous and intravenous injection: An unusual self-injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wale Jaywant

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Elemental mercury poisoning most commonly occurs through vapor inhalation as mercury is well absorbed through the lungs. Administering subcutaneous and intravenous elemental mercury is very uncommon but with only a few isolated case reports in the literature. We present an unusual case of elemental mercury poisoning in a 20-year-old young male who presented with chest pain, fever, and hemoptysis. He had injected himself subcutaneously with elemental mercury obtained from a sphygmomanometer. The typical radiographic findings in the chest, forearm, and abdomen are discussed, with a review of the literature.

  10. The fate of Gd and chelate following intravenous injection of gadodiamide in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moerk Kindberg, Grete; Uran, Steinar; Friisk, Grete; Martinsen, Ivar; Skotland, Tore

    2010-01-01

    The biodistribution of gadolinium (Gd) and chelate was studied in rats injected intravenously with a commercially available gadodiamide magnetic resonance contrast agent spiked with trace amounts of 14 C-labelled GdDTPA-BMA. Biodistribution of the 14 C-labelled ligand in whole animals was visualised using quantitative whole-body autoradiography, and quantified in individual tissue samples by analysing for radioactivity using beta-counting. Biodistribution of Gd was measured by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SF-MS). The injected dose was rapidly excreted, with only 1.0% remaining in the body at 24 h. The radioactivity thereafter was mainly associated with kidney cortex, liver, lung, muscle and skin, with a similar rate of clearance for both ligand and Gd from these tissues. The ratio between 14 C-labelled substance and Gd was not significantly different from that of the injected substance in most tissue samples up to 24 h after injection; the ratio then slowly decreased. The data clearly show that measurements of Gd concentration alone in tissue samples from animals injected with Gd-based contrast agents (GBCAs) cannot be used as a measure of Gd released from the ligand. To our knowledge, such measurements comparing Gd and ligand concentrations and distribution in tissue samples have not been published previously for any of the commercial GBCAs. (orig.)

  11. Long-term follow-up of a case of intravenous elementary mercury injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, E.

    1986-01-01

    Elementary mercury is usually intravenously injected with suicidal intent. It is floated to the heart and lungs but is also deposited in the abdominal organs. Case histories presented in the literature so far have been followed up clinically and roentgenologically for up to three years. We report one patient attempting suicidal mercury injection, whom we were able to follow up for 10 years. It could be demonstrated that quite in contrast to former suggestions elementary mercury is dissolved and oxidised in the body. Chronic poisoning with mercury compounds causes continuing damage, particularly to the kidneys. Apart from that question, the element's pattern of spread within the body, toxicological issues, particular pathologic anatomic changes, their demonstrability on X-ray films and their clinical relevance are all discussed in this paper. (orig.) [de

  12. In vivo behavior of detergent-solubilized purified rabbit thrombomodulin on intravenous injection into rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlich, H.J.; Esmon, N.L.; Bang, N.U.

    1990-01-01

    Thrombomodulin is a thrombin endothelial cell membrane receptor. The thrombomodulin-thrombin complex rapidly activates protein C resulting in anticoagulant activity. We investigated the anticoagulant effects and pharmacokinetic behavior of detergent-solubilized purified rabbit thrombomodulin labeled with iodine 125 when intravenously injected into rabbits. Thrombomodulin half-life (t1/2) was determined by tracking the 125I-radiolabeled protein and the biologic activity as determined by the prolongation of the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and thrombin clotting time (TCT). When 200 micrograms/kg 125I-thrombomodulin was injected into rabbits, the APTT and TCT were immediately prolonged, whereas no effect on the prothrombin time was seen. In vitro calibration curves enabled us to convert the prolongations of the clotting times into micrograms per milliliter thrombomodulin equivalents. The best fit (r greater than 0.99) for the disappearance curves was provided by a two-compartment model with mean t1/2 alpha (distribution phase) of 18 minutes for 125I, 12 minutes for APTT, and 20 minutes for TCT, and mean t1/2 beta (elimination phase) of 385 minutes for 125I, 460 for APTT, and 179 for TCT. The administration of two doses of endotoxin (50 micrograms/kg) 24 hours apart did not accelerate the turnover rate of 125I-thrombomodulin as measured by the disappearance of 125I from the circulation. Thus, detergent-solubilized purified thrombomodulin administered intravenously circulates in a biologically active form for appreciable time periods

  13. Calculation method of water injection forward modeling and inversion process in oilfield water injection network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Long; Liu, Wei

    2018-04-01

    A forward modeling and inversion algorithm is adopted in order to determine the water injection plan in the oilfield water injection network. The main idea of the algorithm is shown as follows: firstly, the oilfield water injection network is inversely calculated. The pumping station demand flow is calculated. Then, forward modeling calculation is carried out for judging whether all water injection wells meet the requirements of injection allocation or not. If all water injection wells meet the requirements of injection allocation, calculation is stopped, otherwise the demand injection allocation flow rate of certain step size is reduced aiming at water injection wells which do not meet requirements, and next iterative operation is started. It is not necessary to list the algorithm into water injection network system algorithm, which can be realized easily. Iterative method is used, which is suitable for computer programming. Experimental result shows that the algorithm is fast and accurate.

  14. Compatibility and Stability of VARUBI (Rolapitant) Injectable Emulsion Admixed with Intravenous Granisetron Hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, George; Powers, Dan; Yeung, Stanley; Chen, Frank; Neelon, Kelly

    2018-01-01

    Prophylaxis or therapy with a combination of a neurokinin 1 (NK-1) receptor antagonist (RA), a 5-hydroxytryptamine- 3 (5-HT3) RA, and dexamethasone is recommended by international antiemesis guidelines for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting for patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy and for select patients receiving moderately emetogenic chemotherapy. VARUBI (rolapitant) is a substance P/NK-1 RA that was recently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration as an injectable emulsion in combination with other antiemetic agents in adults for the prevention of delayed nausea and vomiting associated with initial and repeat courses of emetogenic cancer chemotherapy, including, but not limited to, highly emetogenic chemotherapy. Granisetron Hydrochloride Injection USP is one of the 5-HT3 RAs indicated for the prevention of nausea and/or vomiting associated with initial and repeat courses of emetogenic cancer therapy, including high-dose cisplatin. Herein, we describe the physical and chemical compatibility and stability of VARUBI (rolapitant) injectable emulsion (166.5 mg/92.5 mL [1.8 mg/mL], equivalent to 185 mg of rolapitant hydrochloride) admixed with Granisetron Hydrochloride Injection USP (1.0 mg/mL, equivalent to 1.12 mg/mL hydrochloride). Binary admixtures of VARUBI injectable emulsion and Granisetron Hydrochloride Injection USP were prepared and stored in VARUBI ready-to-use glass vials and in four types of commonly used intravenous administration (tubing) sets. Evaluation of the physical and chemical compatibility and stability of the admixtures in the VARUBI ready-to-use vials stored at room temperature (20°C to 25°C) under fluorescent light and under refrigeration (2°C to 8°C protected from light) was conducted at 0, 1, 6, 24, and 48 hours, and that of the admixtures in the intravenous tubing sets was evaluated at 0, 2, and 6 hours of storage at 20°C to 25°C. Physical stability was evaluated by visual examination

  15. Sudden bilateral sensorineural hearing loss after intravenous cocaine injection: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenner, Markus; Stürmer, Konrad; Beutner, Dirk; Klussmann, Jens Peter

    2009-12-01

    Little is known about the effects of intravenous abuse of cocaine, especially on the inner ear. We report on a 26-year-old man who presented to our outpatient department with a sudden severe hearing loss after intravenous injection of cocaine. The audiogram on admission showed symmetric air conduction levels up to 80 dB at 4 kHz. After treatment with intravenous sodium chloride, prednisolone, and pentoxifylline, the audiogram 2 days later showed a bilateral normacusis. A review of the literature on the topic is given and possible reasons for inner ear damages caused by cocaine are discussed.

  16. Intravenous and intratracheal mesenchymal stromal cell injection in a mouse model of pulmonary emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibboel, Jeroen; Keijzer, Richard; Reiss, Irwin; de Jongste, Johan C; Post, Martin

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the evolution of lung function and -structure in elastase-induced emphysema in adult mice and the effect of mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) administration on these parameters. Adult mice were treated with intratracheal (4.8 units/100 g bodyweight) elastase to induce emphysema. MSCs were administered intratracheally or intravenously, before or after elastase injection. Lung function measurements, histological and morphometric analysis of lung tissue were performed at 3 weeks, 5 and 10 months after elastase and at 19, 20 and 21 days following MSC administration. Elastase-treated mice showed increased dynamic compliance and total lung capacity, and reduced tissue-specific elastance and forced expiratory flows at 3 weeks after elastase, which persisted during 10 months follow-up. Histology showed heterogeneous alveolar destruction which also persisted during long-term follow-up. Jugular vein injection of MSCs before elastase inhibited deterioration of lung function but had no effects on histology. Intratracheal MSC treatment did not modify lung function or histology. In conclusion, elastase-treated mice displayed persistent characteristics of pulmonary emphysema. Jugular vein injection of MSCs prior to elastase reduced deterioration of lung function. Intratracheal MSC treatment had no effect on lung function or histology.

  17. Pharmacokinetic evaluation of Shenfu Injection in beagle dogs after intravenous drip administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqiao Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Shenfu Injection (SFI is a well-defined Chinese herbal formulation that is obtained from red ginseng and processed aconite root. The main active constituents in SFI are ginsenosides and aconitum alkaloids. In this work, ginsenosides (ginsenoside Rg1, ginsenoside Rb1 and ginsenoside Rc and aconitum alkaloids (benzoylmesaconine and fuziline were used as the index components to explore the pharmacokinetic behavior of SFI. A selective and sensitive HPLC–MS/MS method was developed for the quantification of ginsenosides and aconitum alkaloids in dog plasma and was used to characterize the pharmacokinetics of the five index components after intravenous drip of three different dosages of SFI in beagle dogs. The pharmacokinetic properties of the index components were linear over the dose range of 2–8 mL/kg.

  18. Vestibulo-ocular reflexes in rabbits: reduction by intravenous injection of diazepam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmack, N H; Pettorossi, V E

    1980-11-01

    We have studied the influence of intravenously administered diazepam on the horizontal (HVOR) and vertical (VVOR) vestibulo-ocular reflexes of the rabbit. The HVOR and VVOR were evoked by sinusoidal oscillation of rabbits on a rate table (0.01 to 0.8 Hz, +/- 10 degrees), and eye movements were measured with an infrared light-projection technique. The gains of the HVOR and VVOR (evoked eye velocity/head velocity) were reduced by diazepam injections of 5 microgram/kg. The dose required to produce a 50% reduction in HVOR gain was 500 microgram/kg. The time required to reduce the HVOR gain to 50% of its maximal reduction at dose of 400 microgram/kg (0.4 Hz +/- 10 degrees) was 60 s. These data suggest that diazepam might be effective as an anti-motion-sickness agent.

  19. Review of adverse reactions, including anaphylaxis, in 4,260 intravenous bolus injections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanal, E.; Applegate, G.R.; Gillen, C.P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper evaluates the incidence and type of adverse reactions to Gd-DTPA (Magnevist) after bolus administration in an active clinical MR setting. Between May 1988 and March 1990, 4,260 bolus intravenous injections of Gd-DTPA, 0.1 mmol/kg, were administered during clinical MR examinations. Patient tolerance and reactions were recorded in each instance. All cases of suspected local infiltration were excluded from this study. Review of this data revealed 15 instances of nausea and 12 of emesis following contrast administration. In addition, there were five or fewer cases of associated headaches, dizziness, odd tastes, seizures (with prior seizure histories) mild chest pain, palpitations, hives, or wheezing

  20. Insulin signaling in various equine tissues under basal conditions and acute stimulation by intravenously injected insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnken, Tobias; Brehm, Ralph; Feige, Karsten; Huber, Korinna

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze key proteins of the equine insulin signaling cascade and their extent of phosphorylation in biopsies from muscle tissue (MT), liver tissue (LT), and nuchal AT, subcutaneous AT, and retroperitoneal adipose tissues. This was investigated under unstimulated (B1) and intravenously insulin stimulated (B2) conditions, which were achieved by injection of insulin (0.1 IU/kg bodyweight) and glucose (150 mg/kg bodyweight). Twelve warmblood horses aged 15 ± 6.8 yr (yr), weighing 559 ± 79 kg, and with a mean body condition score of 4.7 ± 1.5 were included in the study. Key proteins of the insulin signaling cascade were semiquantitatively determined using Western blotting. Furthermore, modulation of the cascade was assessed. The basal expression of the proteins was only slightly influenced during the experimental period. Insulin induced a high extent of phosphorylation of insulin receptor in LT (P < 0.01) but not in MT. Protein kinase B and mechanistic target of rapamycin expressed a higher extent of phosphorylation in all tissues in B2 biopsies. Adenosine monophosphate protein kinase, as a component related to insulin signaling, expressed enhanced phosphorylation in MT (P < 0.05) and adipose tissues (nuchal AT P < 0.05; SCAT P < 0.01; retroperitoneal adipose tissue P < 0.05), but not in LT at B2. Tissue-specific variations in the acute response of insulin signaling to intravenously injected insulin were observed. In conclusion, insulin sensitivity in healthy horses is based on a complex concerted action of different tissues by their variations in the molecular response to insulin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Study of the Effects of Intravenous Injection of Hyoscine on Parturition (Labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Bekhradi Nasab

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite wide use of hyoscine by midwives and doctors as an adjunct to labor, the obstetrics literature contains few references to the effect of this drug. This study was a double blinded, randomized controlled trial of primigravidas in Iran to determine the effects of hyoscine intravenous injection on parturition (labor. Methods:One hundred primigravidas in uncomplicated spontaneous labor with cervical dilation less than 4 cm and cervical effacement < 50% were randomly assigned into two groups; the experimental group ( N = 50 receiving 20 mg hyoscine and the control group ( N = 50 receiving placebo, with predetermined codes injected at the beginning of the active phase of labor. The groups were compared for labor progress, fetal tachycardia and bradycardia after 0.5 and 1h of injection, Apgar score and birth weight. Statistical methods for normally distributed variables included 2- tailed student T test and chi- square analysis. The accepted level of significance was p < 0.05. Results:The two groups were similar in respect to maternal age, gestational age , initial cervical effacement & dilation and mean birth weight. The mean change in the cervical effacement and dilation after 1 & 2 h of injection was significantly higher in those receiving hyoscine (p< 0.0001. There was a significant difference in the duration of active phase and second stage of labor in the two groups ( p < 0.0001 . Fetal tachycardia and bradycardia occurred more frequently in patients in the hyoscine group as compared to the control group but the difference was not significant. The difference between the mean first and fifth- minute Apgar score was not significant, too. Conclusion: This small study suggests the benefits of a single dose of hyoscine for labor progress and represents the first attempt to evaluate this medication. However, larger randomized studies are needed to establish the efficacy, safety, and optimal dose of hyoscine .

  2. Distribution of 14C-lindane in the rat after a single dose intraperitoneal and intravenous injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lievremont, Maurice; Le Flohic, J.-F.; Pascaud, Marc

    1981-01-01

    14 C-Lindane retentions in rat tissues were studied until 24 hrs after a single dose pesticide administration. Each organ shows particular kinetics. Adipose tissue is the most active in pesticide fixation but the lungs retain momentarily a large fraction of Lindane after intravenous injection [fr

  3. Intravenous contrast injection significantly affects bone mineral density measured on CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pompe, Esther; Willemink, Martin J.; Dijkhuis, Gawein R.; Verhaar, Harald J.J.; Hoesein, Firdaus A.A.M.; Jong, Pim A. de [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Internal Medicine-Geriatrics, Postbus 85500, Postbox: E.03.511, GA, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2014-09-05

    The objective is to evaluate the effect of intravenous contrast media on bone mineral density (BMD) assessment by comparing unenhanced and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) examinations performed for other indications. One hundred and fifty-two patients (99 without and 53 with malignant neoplasm) who underwent both unenhanced and two contrast-enhanced (arterial and portal venous phase) abdominal CT examinations in a single session between June 2011 and July 2013 were included. BMD was evaluated on the three examinations as CT-attenuation values in Hounsfield Units (HU) in the first lumbar vertebra (L1). CT-attenuation values were significantly higher in both contrast-enhanced phases, compared to the unenhanced phase (p < 0.01). In patients without malignancies, mean ± standard deviation (SD) HU-values increased from 128.8 ± 48.6 HU for the unenhanced phase to 142.3 ± 47.2 HU for the arterial phase and 147.0 ± 47.4 HU for the portal phase (p < 0.01). In patients with malignancies, HU-values increased from 112.1 ± 38.1 HU to 126.2 ± 38.4 HU and 130.1 ± 37.3 HU (p < 0.02), respectively. With different thresholds to define osteoporosis, measurements in the arterial and portal phase resulted in 7-25 % false negatives. Our study showed that intravenous contrast injection substantially affects BMD-assessment on CT and taking this into account may improve routine assessment of low BMD in nonquantitative CT. (orig.)

  4. Intravenous contrast injection significantly affects bone mineral density measured on CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pompe, Esther; Willemink, Martin J.; Dijkhuis, Gawein R.; Verhaar, Harald J.J.; Hoesein, Firdaus A.A.M.; Jong, Pim A. de

    2015-01-01

    The objective is to evaluate the effect of intravenous contrast media on bone mineral density (BMD) assessment by comparing unenhanced and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) examinations performed for other indications. One hundred and fifty-two patients (99 without and 53 with malignant neoplasm) who underwent both unenhanced and two contrast-enhanced (arterial and portal venous phase) abdominal CT examinations in a single session between June 2011 and July 2013 were included. BMD was evaluated on the three examinations as CT-attenuation values in Hounsfield Units (HU) in the first lumbar vertebra (L1). CT-attenuation values were significantly higher in both contrast-enhanced phases, compared to the unenhanced phase (p < 0.01). In patients without malignancies, mean ± standard deviation (SD) HU-values increased from 128.8 ± 48.6 HU for the unenhanced phase to 142.3 ± 47.2 HU for the arterial phase and 147.0 ± 47.4 HU for the portal phase (p < 0.01). In patients with malignancies, HU-values increased from 112.1 ± 38.1 HU to 126.2 ± 38.4 HU and 130.1 ± 37.3 HU (p < 0.02), respectively. With different thresholds to define osteoporosis, measurements in the arterial and portal phase resulted in 7-25 % false negatives. Our study showed that intravenous contrast injection substantially affects BMD-assessment on CT and taking this into account may improve routine assessment of low BMD in nonquantitative CT. (orig.)

  5. Toxicological study of DTPA as a drug, (4). Effect of intravenously injected DTPA on cardiovascular system in beagle dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Satoshi; Iida, Haruzo

    1988-09-01

    We have previously reported that the side effects on cardiovascular system such as the heart failure, increases of blood pressure and pulse accompanied with hypocalcemia occurred in rats when Zn-DTPA was injected intravenously, but those did not occur by Ca-DTPA. This is in the reverse that it is generally said that Zn-DTPA is more safe than Ca-DTPA. This study was carried out to examine whether the same side effects occurred in different animal species or not. Zn-DTPA or Ca-DTPA (30, 150, 300 and 600 ..mu..mol/kg) was injected intravenously to beagle dogs. The hypocalcemia was observed in the dogs by Zn-DTPA injection, but it was not by Ca-DTPA. After Zn-DTPA injection, the increase of blood pressure and pulse, and heart failure was observed in 3 out of 5 dogs at 300 ..mu..mol/kg dose, and in 3 out of 8 dogs at 600 ..mu..mol/kg dose. These changes were the same degrees as those in rats. In the present study, it is suggested that the side effects induced by Zn-DTPA intravenous injection occur independently of animal species and the data obtained from animal experiments can be available to estimate DTPA toxicity in humans.

  6. Pharmacokinetics of Perfluorobutane after Intra-Venous Bolus Injection of Sonazoid in Healthy Chinese Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengfei; Hoppmann, Susan; Du, Ping; Li, Huiling; Evans, Paul M; Moestue, Siver A; Yu, Weiyue; Dong, Fang; Liu, Hongchuan; Liu, Lihong

    2017-05-01

    Sonazoid is an ultrasound contrast agent based on microbubbles (MB) containing perfluorobutane (PFB) gas. Sonazoid is approved in Japan, Korea and Norway for contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of focal liver lesions and focal breast lesions (Japan only). The objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics (PKs) and safety of Sonazoid in Chinese healthy volunteers (HVs) and to evaluate the potential for ethnic differences in PKs between Chinese and Caucasian HVs. Sonazoid was administered as an intra-venous bolus injection at the clinical dose of 0.12 μL or 0.60 μL MB/kg body weight to two groups of eight Chinese HVs. Expired air and blood samples were collected and analyzed using a validated gas chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry method, and the main PK parameters were calculated. The highest PFB concentrations in blood were observed shortly after intra-venous administration of Sonazoid, and elimination of PFB was rapid. In the 0.12 μL MB/kg body weight cohort, PFB concentrations above the limit of quantification were observed for only 10 to 15 min post-injection. In the 0.60 μL MB/kg body weight cohort, PFB concentrations above the limit of quantification were observed for 60 min post-injection, and the shape of the elimination curve suggested a biphasic elimination profile. The maximum observed concentration (C max ) values of PFB in blood were 2.3 ± 1.1 and 19.1 ± 9.2 ng/g for the 0.12 and 0.60 μL MB/kg body weight dose groups (mean ± standard deviation). Area under the curve values were 10.1 ± 2.7 and 90.1 ± 38.3 ng × min/g for the 0.12 and 0.60 μL MB/kg body weight dose groups. C max values of PFB in exhaled air were 0.35 ± 0.2 and 2.4 ± 0.7 ng/mL for the 0.12 and 0.60 μL MB/kg body weight dose groups. Assessment of laboratory parameters, vital signs, oxygen saturation and electrocardiograms revealed no changes indicative of a concern. The PK profile and safety data generated in the Chinese

  7. Comparative study of attenuation of the pain caused by propofol intravenous injection, by granisetron, magnesium sulfate and nitroglycerine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhananjay Kumar Singh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Propofol has the disadvantage of causing pain or discomfort on injection. The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy of pretreatment with various drugs to alleviate the propofol injection pain. Methods: One hundred American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA I and II adults, scheduled for various elective surgical procedures under general anesthesia (GA, were included in the study. They were randomly divided into four groups having 25 patients in each group. Group A received pretreatment with intravenous (i.v. magnesium sulfate, group B received i.v. granisetron, group C received i.v. nitroglycerine and group D was the control group. One-fourth of the total calculated induction dose of propofol was administered over a period of 5 seconds. The patients were asked about the pain on injection. The intensity of pain was assessed using verbal response. A score of 0-3 which corresponds to no, mild, moderate and severe pain was recorded. Results: All the three drugs reduced the incidence and intensity of pain on propofol injection but the order of efficacy in attenuation of pain on the propofol injection was granisetron > nitroglycerine > magnesium sulfate > control. Conclusion: Granisetron was the most effective followed by nitroglycerine and magnesium sulfate in attenuating pain on propofol intravenous injection.

  8. The optimal choice of medication administration route regarding intravenous, intramuscular, and subcutaneous injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin JF

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Jing-fen Jin,1 Ling-ling Zhu,2 Meng Chen,3 Hui-min Xu,3 Hua-fen Wang,1 Xiu-qin Feng,1 Xiu-ping Zhu,3 Quan Zhou31Division of Nursing, 2VIP Care Ward, Division of Nursing, 3Department of Pharmacy, The Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of ChinaBackground: Intravenous (IV, intramuscular (IM, and subcutaneous (SC are the three most frequently used injection routes in medication administration. Comparative studies of SC versus IV, IM versus IV, or IM versus SC have been sporadically conducted, and some new findings are completely different from the dosage recommendation as described in prescribing information. However, clinicians may still be ignorant of such new evidence-based findings when choosing treatment methods.Methods: A literature search was performed using PubMed, MEDLINE, and Web of Sciences™ Core Collection to analyze the advantages and disadvantages of SC, IV, and IM administration in head-to-head comparative studies.Results: “SC better than IV” involves trastuzumab, rituximab, antitumor necrosis factor medications, bortezomib, amifostine, recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, recombinant interleukin-2, immunoglobulin, epoetin alfa, heparin, and opioids. “IV better than SC” involves ketamine, vitamin K1, and abatacept. With respect to insulin and ketamine, whether IV has advantages over SC is determined by specific clinical circumstances. “IM better than IV” involves epinephrine, hepatitis B immunoglobulin, pegaspargase, and some antibiotics. “IV better than IM” involves ketamine, morphine, and antivenom. “IM better than SC” involves epinephrine. “SC better than IM” involves interferon-beta-1a, methotrexate, human chorionic gonadotropin, hepatitis B immunoglobulin, hydrocortisone, and morphine. Safety, efficacy, patient preference, and pharmacoeconomics are four principles

  9. Chondromalacia of the knee: evaluation with a fat-suppression three-dimensional SPGR imaging after intravenous contrast injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, J S; Cho, J H; Shin, K H; Kim, S J

    1996-01-01

    Twenty-one MRI studies with a fat-suppression three-dimensional spoiled gradient-recalled echo in a steady state (3D SPGR) pulse sequence after intravenous contrast injection were evaluated to assess the accuracy in depicting chondromalacia of the knee. On the basis of MR images, chondromalacia and its grade were determined in each of five articular cartilage regions (total, 105 regions) and then the results were compared to arthroscopic findings. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of MRI were 70%, 99%, and 93%, respectively. MR images depicted 7 of 11 lesions of arthroscopic grade 1 or 2 chondromalacia, and seven of nine lesions of arthroscopic grade 3 or 4 chondromalacia. The cartilage abnormalities in all cases appeared as focal lesions with high signal intensity. Intravenous contrast-injection, fat-suppression 3D SPGR imaging showed high specificity in excluding cartilage abnormalities and may be considered as an alternative to intra-articular MR arthrography when chondromalacia is suspected.

  10. Analysis of Serum Proteom after Intravenous Injection of cultivated wild ginseng pharmacopuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hee,Lee

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : To observe the changes in the serum proteins after intravenous injection of cultivated wild ginseng pharmacopuncture. Methods : Blood was collected before and after the administration of cultivated wild ginseng pharmacopuncture and only the serum was taken. Then differences in the spots on the scanned image after carrying out 2-Dimensional electrophoresis were located and conducted mass analysis and protein identification. Results : Following results were obtained from the comparative analysis of serum proteins before and after the administration of cultivated wild ginseng pharmacopuncture. 1. 28 spots were identified before and after the administration. 2. In confirming manifestation degree, spots with more than two-times increase were 204, 1302, 2205, 3105, 7104, 8006, spots with more than one-time increase were 1101, 1505, 2013, 2403, 3009, 3010, 4002, 4009, 6704, 8101, and spots with decrease were 205, 801, 803, 3205, 5202, 6105, 6106, 7103, 9001, 9003. 3. After conducting protein identification, proteins 205, 804, 1302, 4009, 6105, 6106 are unidentified yet, and 1l01 is unnamed protein. Protein 204 is identified as complement receptor CR2-C3d, 801 as YAPl protein, 803 as antitrypsin polymer, 1505 as PRO0684, 2013 and 3010 as proapolipoprotein, 2205 as USP48, 2403 as vitamin D binding protein, 3009 as complement component 4A preprotein, 3105 as immunoglobulin lambda chain, 3205 as transthyretin, 4002 as Ras-related protein Ral-A, 4204 as beta actin, 5202 and 7104 as apolipoprotein Ll, 6704 as alpha 2 macroglobulin precursor, 7103 as complement component 3 precursor, 8006 as testis-specific protein Y, 8101 as transferrin, 9001 as (Alpha-Oxy, Beta-(Cl12gdeoxy T-State Human Hemoglobin, and 9003 as human hemoglobin. 4. Immune protein CR2-C3d(204, which acts against microbes and pathogenic organisms, was increased by more than two-times after the administration of pharmacopuncture. 5. Antitrypsin(803, which is secreted with

  11. Analysis of Serum proteom before and after Intravenous Injection of wild ginseng herbal acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Sik Kang

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : To observe changes in the serum proteins before and after intravenous injection of wild ginseng herbal acupuncture. Methods : Blood was collected before and after the administration of wild ginseng herbal acupuncture and only the serum was centrifuged. Then differences in the spots on the scanned image after running 2-Dimensional electrophoresis were located and conducted mass analysis and protein identification. Results : Following results were obtained from the comparative analysis of serum proteins before and after the administration of wild ginseng herbal acupuncture. 1. 28 spots were identified before and after the administration. 2. In confirming manifestation degree, spots with more than two-times increase were 204, 803, 1505, 2205, 3105, 7104, 9001 spots, with more than one-time increase were 1101, 1302, 2013, 3009, 3010, 4002, 4009, 6706, 7103, 8006, 8101, and spots with decrease were 205, 801, 3205, 5202, 6105. 3. After conducting protein identification, proteins 205, 804, 1302, 4009, 6105, 6106 are unidentified yet, and 1101 is unnamed protein. Protein 204 is identified as complement receptor CR2-C3d, 801 as YAP1 protein, 803 as antitrypsin polymer, 1505 as PRO0684, 2013 and 3010 as proapolipoprotein, 2205 as USP48, 2403 as vitamin D binding protein, 3009 as complement component 4A preprotein, 3105 as immunoglobulin lambda chain, 3205 as transthyretin, 4002 as Ras-related protein Ral-A, 4204 as beta actin, 5202 and 7104 as apolipoprotein L1, 6704 as alpha 2 macroglobulin precursor, 7103 as complement component 3 precursor, 8006 as testis-specific protein Y, 8101 as transferrin, 9001 as (Alpha-Oxy, Beta-(C112gdeoxy T-State Human Hemoglobin, and 9003 as human hemoglobin. 4. Immune protein CR2-C3d, which acts against microbes and pathogenic organisms, and Antitrypsin(803, which is secreted with inflammatory response in the lungs, were increased by more than 200% after the administration of herbal acupuncture. 5

  12. A new mouse model for renal lesions produced by intravenous injection of diphtheria toxin A-chain expression plasmid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura Shingo

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various animal models of renal failure have been produced and used to investigate mechanisms underlying renal disease and develop therapeutic drugs. Most methods available to produce such models appear to involve subtotal nephrectomy or intravenous administration of antibodies raised against basement membrane of glomeruli. In this study, we developed a novel method to produce mouse models of renal failure by intravenous injection of a plasmid carrying a toxic gene such as diphtheria toxin A-chain (DT-A gene. DT-A is known to kill cells by inhibiting protein synthesis. Methods An expression plasmid carrying the cytomegalovirus enhancer/chicken β-actin promoter linked to a DT-A gene was mixed with lipid (FuGENE™6 and the resulting complexes were intravenously injected into adult male B6C3F1 mice every day for up to 6 days. After final injection, the kidneys of these mice were sampled on day 4 and weeks 3 and 5. Results H-E staining of the kidney specimens sampled on day 4 revealed remarkable alterations in glomerular compartments, as exemplified by mesangial cell proliferation and formation of extensive deposits in glomerular basement membrane. At weeks 3 and 5, gradual recovery of these tissues was observed. These mice exhibited proteinuria and disease resembling sub-acute glomerulonephritis. Conclusions Repeated intravenous injections of DT-A expression plasmid DNA/lipid complex caused temporary abnormalities mainly in glomeruli of mouse kidney. The disease in these mice resembles sub-acute glomerulonephritis. These DT-A gene-incorporated mice will be useful as animal models in the fields of nephrology and regenerative medicine.

  13. Tissue plasminogen activator; identifying major barriers related to intravenous injection in ischemic acute cerebral infraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariborz Khorvash

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to previous publications, in patients with acute ischemic cerebral infarction, thrombolytic therapy using intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV-tPA necessitates precise documentation of symptoms' onset. The aim of this study was to identify major barriers related to the IV-tPA injection in such patients. Materials and Methods: Between the year 2014-2015, patients with definitive diagnosis of acute cerebral infarction (n = 180 who attended the neurology ward located at the Isfahan Alzahra Hospital were studied. To investigate barriers related to door to IV-tPA needle time, personal reasons, and criteria for inclusion or exclusion of patients, three questionnaire forms were designed based on the Food and Drug Administration-approved indications or contraindications. Results: The mean age of males versus females was 60 versus 77.5 years (ranged 23–93 vs. 29–70 years, respectively. Out of total population, only 10.7% transferred to hospital in <4.5 h after the onset of symptoms. Regarding to eligibility for IV-tPA, 68.9% of total population have had criteria for such treatment. Concerning to both items such as transferring to hospital in <4.5 h after the onset of symptoms and eligibility for IV-tPA, only 6.6% of total population met the criteria for such management. There was ignorance or inattention to symptoms in 75% of population studied. There was a mean of 195.92 ± 6.65 min (182.8–209.04 min for door to IV-tPA needle time. Conclusion: Despite the international guidelines for IV-tPA injection within 3–4.5 h of ischemic stroke symptoms' onset, the results of this study revealed that falling time due to ignorance of symptoms, literacy, and living alone might need further attention. As a result, to decrease death and disability, educational programs related to the symptoms' onset by consultant neurologist in Isfahan/Iran seem to be advantageous.

  14. Comparison of intravenous and intraperitoneal [{sup 123}I]IBZM injection for dopamine D2 receptor imaging in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Philipp T. [Department of Neurology, University Hospital Aachen, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Aachen, 52074 Aachen (Germany)], E-mail: pmeyer@ukaachen.de; Salber, Dagmar [C. and O. Vogt Institute of Brain Research, University Hospital Duesseldorf, 40225 Duesseldorf (Germany); Schiefer, Johannes [Department of Neurology, University Hospital Aachen, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Cremer, Markus [Institute of Neurosciences and Biophysics - Medicine, Research Center Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Schaefer, Wolfgang M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Aachen, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Kosinski, Christoph M. [Department of Neurology, University Hospital Aachen, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Langen, Karl-Josef [Institute of Neurosciences and Biophysics - Medicine, Research Center Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2008-07-15

    Introduction: Intraperitoneal (IP) injection represents an attractive alternative route of radiotracer administration for small animal imaging, e.g., for longitudinal studies in transgenic mouse models. We explored the cerebral kinetics of the reversible dopamine D2 receptor ligand [{sup 123}I]IBZM after IP injection in mice. Methods: Cerebral [{sup 123}I]IBZM kinetics were assessed by ex vivo autoradiography in mice sacrificed between 30 and 200 min after IP or intravenous (IV) injection. The striatum-to-cerebellum (S/C) uptake ratio at 140 min was evaluated in wild-type mice and R6/2 transgenic mice (a Huntington's disease model) in comparison with in vitro autoradiography using [{sup 3}H]raclopride. Results: [{sup 123}I]IBZM uptake was slower and lower after IP injection [maximum uptake in striatum 5.6% injected dose per gram (ID/g) at 60 min] than IV injection (10.5%ID/g at 30 min). Between 60 and 120 min, striatal (cerebellar) uptake after IP injection reached 63% (91%) of the uptake after IV injection. The S/C uptake ratio increased to 15.5 at 200 min after IP injection, which corresponds to 87% of the IV injection value (17.8). Consistent with in vitro [{sup 3}H]raclopride autoradiography, the S/C ratio given by ex vivo [{sup 123}I]IBZM autoradiography (140 min after IP injection) was significantly reduced in R6/2 mice. Conclusions: Although IP injection resulted in slower kinetics, relevant measures of dopamine D2 receptor availability were comparable. Thus, IP injection represents a promising route of tracer administration for small animal [{sup 123}I]IBZM SPECT. This should considerably simplify the implementation of longitudinal small animal neuroimaging studies, e.g., in transgenic mouse models.

  15. Plateau potentials in alpha‐motoneurones induced by intravenous injection of L‐dopa and clonidine in the spinal cat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conway, B. A.; Hultborn, H.; Kiehn, O.

    1988-01-01

    1. Intracellular recordings were made from lumbar alpha‐motoneurones in unanaesthetized decerebrate acute spinal cats. The response of motoneurones to direct current pulse injection or synaptic excitation was investigated following intravenous injection of L‐beta‐3,4‐dihydroxyphenylalanine (L....... It is demonstrated that plateau potentials in the motoneurones contribute to the late long‐lasting reflexes observed in L‐DOPA‐treated spinal cats. 7. It is concluded that L‐DOPA (and clonidine) change the response properties of the motoneurones in an analogous way to 5‐hydroxy‐DL‐tryptophan (5‐HTP...

  16. Determination of the optional time for taking blood samples by single intravenous injection of 3H-leucine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Delian; Yao Junhu; Lu Jinyin; Wu Xiaobin; Liu Jun

    2003-01-01

    Twenty four young hens (1.5 kg of body weight, BW) were randomly divided into 4 groups. Every group was diet free (FAS) or force-fed a nitrogen-free diet (NFD) or the diet with 20% crude protein in which soybean meal or cotton seed meal was the sole nitrogen source (30 g DM/kg BW). 30 μCi 3 H-Leu/kg BW was intravenously injected into all birds just after force-fed or on fasting. Venous blood samples were taken at 5, 30 min, 4,24,36 and 48h after injection. The excreta during the whole period of 48h after injection was collected. Special radioactivities of nonprotein plasma at every time point and excreta were measured. The optional time of taking blood samples was 20-24 hours after injected 3 H-Leu

  17. Water injection device for reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaki, Isao.

    1996-01-01

    A pressure vessel incorporating a reactor core is placed and secured on a pedestal in a dry well of a reactor container. A pedestal water injection line is disposed opened at one end in a pedestal cavity passing through the side wall of the pedestal and led at the other end to the outside of the reactor container. A substitution dry well spray line is connected to a spray header disposed at the upper portion of the dry well. When the pressure vessel should be damaged by a molten reactor core and the molten reactor core should drop to the dry well upon occurrence of an accident, the molten reactor core on the floor of the pedestal is cooled by water injection from the pedestal water injection line. At the same time, the elevation of the pressure and the temperature in the reactor container is suppressed by the water injection of the substitution dry well spray line. This can avoid large scaled release of radioactive materials to the environmental circumference. (I.N.)

  18. Water quality considerations resulting in the impaired injectivity of water injection and disposal wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennion, D.B.; Thomas, F.B.; Imer, D.; Ma, T.

    2000-01-01

    An environmentally responsible way to improve hydrocarbon recovery is to maintain pressure by water injection. This is a desirable method because unwanted produced water from oil and gas wells can be re-injected into producing or disposal formations. The success of the operation, however, depends on injecting the necessary volume of water economically, below the fracture gradient pressure of the formation. Well placement, geometry and inherent formation quality and relative permeability characteristics are some of the many other factors which influence the success of any injection project. Poor injection or poor quality of disposal water can also compromise the injectivity for even high quality sandstone or carbonate formations. This would necessitate costly workovers and recompletions. This paper presented some leading edge diagnostic techniques and evaluation methods to determine the quality of injected water. The same techniques could be used to better understand the effect of potential contaminants such as suspended solids, corrosion products, skim/carryover oil and grease, scales, precipitates, emulsions, oil wet hydrocarbon agglomerates and many other conditions which cause injectivity degradation. 14 refs., 1 tab., 15 figs

  19. Case with high cervical intramedullary hemangioblastoma associated with arteriovenous fistula. CT with simultaneous intravenous and intrathecal injection of contrast medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Takao; Shoji, Shin-ichi; Yanagisawa, Nobuo; Tada, Tsuyoshi; Kobayashi, Naoki

    1988-02-01

    A 34-year-old woman complained of right hemiparesis and pain in the right hand. Routine X-ray of the cervical portion failed to reveal abnormal findings. CT with intravenous contrast medium showed a large high-density mass in the spinal canal at the level of C2. Right vertebral angiography showed a hypervascular mass. With simultaneous intravenous and intrathecal injections of contrast medium, the tumor was shown as a moderately high-density area and the parenchyma of cord as a thin low-density area surrounding the tumor stain on CT. These CT appearances led to the final diagnosis of high cervical intramedullary hemangioblastoma associated with arteriovenous fistulae. Pathological findings are typical of hemangioblastoma. The usefulness of CT in detecting the localization of hypervascular spinal cord lesions is stressed. (Namekawa, K.).

  20. Water injection profiling by nuclear logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to nuclear logging techniques for determining the volume flow rates and flow directions of injected water moving behind a wellbore casing. The apparatus includes a sonde equipped with a neutron source and dual radiation detectors. Oxygen in the neutron irradiated water is transmitted to 16 N and the resultant primary and Compton scattered gamma rays are detected in two energy windows by both detectors. Count rate data is analysed in terms of the windows to obtain linear flow velocities for water flow within and behind the casing. Volume flow rates are determined for upward and downward flow, and horizontal volume flow into the surrounding formation is calculated. A complete injection profile may thus be obtained. (U.K.)

  1. THE RESPONSE OF DISSEMINATED RETICULUM CELL SARCOMA TO THE INTRAVENOUS INJECTION OF COLLOIDAL RADIOACTIVE GOLD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, Philip; Levitt, Seymour H.

    1963-06-15

    Case histories of two patients treated with colloidal radiogold for diffuse reticulum cell sarcoma are presented. Further analysis of the method is suggested by the unusually long survival time of one of the patients. It was concluded that, although external radiotherapy remains the treatment of choice in localized reticulum cell sarcoma, intravenous colloidal radiogold may be a useful agent in lymphosarcomas with diffuse minute neoplastic liver and spleen involvements. Intravenous colloidal radiogold can produce bone marrow depression and thrombocytopenia which can lead to death. This factor tends to argue against therapeutic use of the agent. It is suggested that no more than 50 mC Au/sup 198/ intravenously should be used for treatment of this disease. (R.M.G.)

  2. Methodological study on determining endogenous amino acid excretion of broiler chickens by single intravenous injection of 3H-leucine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Junhu; Wang Kangning; Yang Feng; Zhou Anguo; Cai Xuelin; Duanmu Dao

    1999-01-01

    Forty broiler chickens (1.5 kg of body weight, BW) were randomly divided into 20 groups. Every fifth group was force-fed a nitrogen-free diet (NFD) or a NFd + 3.20% enzyme hydrolysed casein (EHC) diet or diets with 5% and 20% crude protein (CP) in which soybean meal (sol.) was the sole nitrogen source. 30μCi 3 H-leucine/kg BW was intravenously injected into all birds just after the force-feeding. Venous blood samples were taken at 5 min, 4h, 24h, 36h and 48h after the injection, and the amount of excreta for the whole period of 48h was collected. The amino acids excreted after force-feeding NFD + 3.20% EHC of CP5% diet were theoretically endogenous. The ratios of specific radioactivity (SR) in excreta and the value of definite integral in free plasma from 0 to 48 h after injection of labelled leucine were not different (P > 0.05) when NFD, NFD + 3.20% EHC or CP5% diet was fed. From these results and theoretical analysis, it was suggested that for the birds with CP20% diet, the ratio of SR in endogenous leucine and value of definite integral in free plasma from 0 to 48 h after injection of labelled leucine would be the same as that of the birds with NFD diet, and thus endogenous losses of leucine and other amino acids, by the endogenous amino acid pattern measured with NFD diet, could be estimated for CP20% diet. The endogenous amino acid losses measured by this new technique was 120.50% of those measured by NFD method. It was suggested that single intravenous injection of 3 H-leucine first proposed would be more valuable for determining endogenous amino acid losses, especially when practical nitrogen-containing diet was fed

  3. Intravenous contrast injection significantly affects bone mineral density measured on CT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pompe, Esther; Willemink, Martin J.; Dijkhuis, Gawein R.; Verhaar, Harald J. J.; Mohamed Hoesein, Firdaus A A; de Jong, Pim A.

    OBJECTIVE: The objective is to evaluate the effect of intravenous contrast media on bone mineral density (BMD) assessment by comparing unenhanced and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) examinations performed for other indications. METHODS: One hundred and fifty-two patients (99 without and

  4. Pharmacokinetics of ketoprofen in the green iguana (Iguana iguana) following single intravenous and intramuscular injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Allison D; Papich, Mark; Lewbart, Gregory A; Christian, Shane; Gunkel, Conny; Harms, Craig A

    2006-12-01

    The nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug ketoprofen (KTP) is a commonly used antiinflammatory and analgesic agent in reptile medicine, but no studies documenting its pharmacokinetics in this species have been published. Ketoprofen was administered as a racemic mixture to green iguanas (Iguana iguana) intravenously (i.v.) and intramuscularly (i.m.) at 2 mg/kg. Pharmacokinetic analyses were performed and indicated that ketoprofen in iguanas administered by the intravenous route has a classical two-compartmental distribution pattern, a slow clearance (67 ml/ kg/hr) and a long terminal half-life (31 hr) compared to ketoprofen studies reported in mammals. When delivered by the intramuscular route, bioavailability was 78%. These data indicate the daily dosing that is generally recommended for reptile patients, as an extrapolation from mammalian data, may be more frequent than necessary.

  5. Organ Distribution of 13N Following Intravenous Injection of [13N]Ammonia into Portacaval-Shunted Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Nancy F; Dienel, Gerald A; Patrick, Patricia A; Cooper, Arthur J L

    2017-06-01

    Ammonia is neurotoxic, and chronic hyperammonemia is thought to be a major contributing factor to hepatic encephalopathy in patients with liver disease. Portacaval shunting of rats is used as an animal model to study the detrimental metabolic effects of elevated ammonia levels on body tissues, particularly brain and testes that are deleteriously targeted by high blood ammonia. In normal adult rats, the initial uptake of label (expressed as relative concentration) in these organs was relatively low following a bolus intravenous injection of [ 13 N]ammonia compared with lungs, kidneys, liver, and some other organs. The objective of the present study was to determine the distribution of label following intravenous administration of [ 13 N]ammonia among 14 organs in portacaval-shunted rats at 12 weeks after shunt construction. At an early time point (12 s) following administration of [ 13 N]ammonia the relative concentration of label was highest in lung with lower, but still appreciable relative concentrations in kidney and heart. Clearance of 13 N from blood and kidney tended to be slower in portacaval-shunted rats versus normal rats during the 2-10 min interval after the injection. At later times post injection, brain and testes tended to have higher-than-normal 13 N levels, whereas many other tissues had similar levels in both groups. Thus, reduced removal of ammonia from circulating blood by the liver diverts more ammonia to extrahepatic tissues, including brain and testes, and alters the nitrogen homeostasis in these tissues. These results emphasize the importance of treatment paradigms designed to reduce blood ammonia levels in patients with liver disease.

  6. Therapeutic effect of flurbiprofen pretreatment on the intravenous injection pain induced by propofol in patients of different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song SHI

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the therapeutic effect of flurbiprofen pretreatment on the pain induced by propofol in patients of different ages.Methods One hundred and twenty patients with different age and undergoing general anesthesia were assigned to three groups(40 each according to their ages: 6-18 years(adolescent group,18-60 years(adult group,and over 60 years(aged group.Each group was randomly divided into two subgroups(20 each: flurbiprofen group and placebo group,and they respectively received intravenous injection of 5ml of 1mg/kg flurbiprofen(group FB or normal saline(group NS.The induction was produced by 1.5-2mg/kg Ⅳ propofol,and 1.5-2.0mg/kg Ⅳ succinylcholine was administered 20 seconds after propofol injection.Patients’ withdrawal movements,pain scores and any other discomfort complaints were assessed.Results The incidences of intravenous pain in group NS and group FB were respectively 47.9% and 11.2% in adult group,82.0% and 8.8% in adolescent group,and 28.0% and 4.7% in aged group.The incidence of withdrawal movements and pain scores were significantly lower in flurbiprofen group than in saline group regardless of ages(P < 0.05.Conclusion The pretreatment with 1.0mg/kg flurbiprofen may reduce the withdrawal movements and pain caused by propofol injection in patients of different age.

  7. Pre-treatment with intravenous granisetron to alleviate pain on propofol injection: A double-blind, randomized, controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahsan Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Propofol is one of the widely used intravenous (i.v. anaesthetics, although pain on injection still remains a considerable concern for the anaesthesiologists. A number of techniques has been tried to minimize propofol-induced pain with variable results. Recently, a 5-HT 3 antagonist, ondansetron pre-treatment, has been shown to reduce propofol-induced pain. The aim of our randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded study was to determine whether pre-treatment with intravenous granisetron, which is routinely used in our practice for prophylaxis of post-operative nausea and vomiting, would reduce propofol-induced pain. Methods: Eighty-two women, aged 18-50 years, American society of Anaesthesiologist grading (ASA I-II, scheduled for various surgeries under general anaesthesia were randomly assigned to one of the two groups. One group received 2 mL 0.9% sodium chloride while the other group received 2 mL granisetron (1 mg/mL, and were accompanied by manual venous occlusion for 1 min. Then, 2 mL propofol was injected through the same cannula. Patients were asked by a blinded investigator to score the pain on injection of propofol with a four-point scale: 0=no pain, 1=mild pain, 2=moderate pain, 3=severe pain. Results: Twenty-four patients (60% complained of pain in the group pre-treated with normal saline as compared with six (15% in the group pre-treated with granisetron. Pain was reduced significantly in the granisetron group (P<0.05. Severity of pain was also lesser in the granisetron group compared with the placebo group (2.5% vs. 37.5%. Conclusion: We conclude that pre-treatment with granisetron along with venous occlusion for 1 min for prevention of propofol-induced pain was highly successful.

  8. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and local tolerance at injection site of marbofloxacin administered by regional intravenous limb perfusion in standing horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallemand, Elodie; Trencart, Pierre; Tahier, Carine; Dron, Frederic; Paulin, Angelique; Tessier, Caroline

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic variables and local tolerance at injection-site of marbofloxacin administered via regional intravenous limb perfusion (RIVLP) in standing horses. Adult horses (n = 6). RIVLP were performed with rubber tourniquets applied to the forelimbs of standing sedated horses. Marbofloxacin (0.67 mg/kg) was randomly injected in 1 forelimb, with the contralateral limb serving as a control (0.9% NaCl solution). Samples of jugular blood and synovial fluid from the radiocarpal joint of the marbofloxacin-perfused limb were collected before and at intervals after RIVLP for determination of drug concentrations. All injection sites were evaluated before, 24 and 48 hours after RIVLP by means of ultrasonographic examination, circumferential measurements and subjective visible inflammation scores by veterinarians unaware of treatment received. No adverse effects associated with the technique or antibiotic were observed. High marbofloxacin concentrations were obtained in the synovial fluid, AUCINF was significantly higher in synovial fluid than in plasma (78.64 ± 49.41 and 2.85 ± 0.60 µg h/mL respectively, P = .028). The efficacy indices, AUC0-24 /MIC90 and Cmaxobs/MIC90 , predicted a favorable outcome in the treatment of synovial fluid infections caused by enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus aureus. After RIVLP, there was no statistically significant difference between marbofloxacin-injected and control limbs for lameness, visual inflammation score, limb circumference, and ultrasonographic appearance of the veins. Marbofloxacin injected limbs had a significantly greater subcutaneous thickness, compared with control limbs. These data suggest that RIVLP of marbofloxacin (0.67 mg/kg) could be a safe and effective method for treatment of infections of the distal portion of the limb for susceptible organisms. © Copyright 2013 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  9. Value of intravenous injection of contrast media for computerized tomography of the thorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer-Enke, S.A.; Goerich, J.; Mueller, M.; Kaick, G. van; Tuengerthal, S.

    1988-01-01

    107 patients with thoracal or mediastinal growths underwent computerized tomography of the thorax both in normal condition and after receiving intravenous applications of non-ionic X-ray contrast media. The additional information obtained by use of contrast media was established in relation to the histological findings. The method led to enhanced demarcation of the tumor of the mediastinum or hilus in 40% of the patients. Tumor perfusion was helpful in 20% of the cases for differential diagnosis. Vessel infiltrations or abnormal conditions were found in about 30% of patients. 24% of the tests yielded no additional information. Analysing CT as compared to the histological examination of lymph nodes proved CT under normal conditions to be a sensitive method in 29% of cases if the hilus was the site of the tumor; contrast media raised this sensitivity to 43%. In the mediastinal area, sensitivity was 44% without and 56% with contrast media. (orig.) [de

  10. Renal effects of the non-ionic contrast medium iopentol after intravenous injection in healthy volunteers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakobsen, J.A.; Berg, K.J.; Waaler, A.; Andrew, E. (Rikshospitalet, Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Radiology Rikshospitalet, Oslo (Norway). Renal Section Nycomed A/S, Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Clinical Research and Development)

    1990-01-01

    Renal effects of the new non-ionic contrast medium iopentol in increasing doses were assessed and compared with the effects of physiologic saline. Twenty-four healthy male volunteers, allocated to three dose groups, were given iopentol intravenously in doses of 0.3, 0.6, and 1.2 g I/kg body weight, respectively. The highest dose group was also given physiologic saline separately as a control. The diuresis increased in all groups, most in the highest dose group, and with a concomitant fall of urine osmolality and increase in osmolar clearance. A slight decrease of serum osmolality, creatinine and urea occurred at 3 hours due to hemodilution. The glomerular filtration rate was unaffected by iopentol. The urinary excretion of albumin and {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin was unchanged. However, urinary N-acetyl-{beta}-glucosaminidase and alkaline phosphatase increased significantly, most in the highest dose group. All changes were reversible. (orig.).

  11. Extrapulmonary colony formation after intravenous injection of tumour cells into heparin treated animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maat, B.

    1978-01-01

    Recent data on extrapulmonary colony formation after heparin administration are inconclusive. A systemic study of this topic was undertaken with 4 experimental tumour systems and 2 distinct periods of reduced clotting capacity in rats and mice. I.v. injection of various numbers of tumour cells into

  12. Micro-costing study of rituximab subcutaneous injection versus intravenous infusion in dutch setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihajlović, J.; Bax, P.; Van Breugel, E.; Blommestein, H.M.; Hoogendoorn, M.; Hospes, W.; Postma, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Rituximab for subcutaneous (SC) administration has recently been approved for use in common forms of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). This form of rituximab is supplied in ready-to-use vials that do not require individual dose adjustment. It is expected that SC-injection will

  13. The behavior after intravenous injection in mice of multiwalled carbon nanotube / Fe3O4 hybrid MRI contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huixia; Liu, Gang; Zhuang, Yeming; Wu, Dongmei; Zhang, Haoqiang; Yang, Hong; Hu, He; Yang, Shiping

    2011-07-01

    Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles were in situ loaded on the surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by a solvothermal method using diethylene glycol and diethanolamine as solvents and complexing agents. The as-prepared MWCNT/Fe(3)O(4) hybrids exhibited excellent hydrophilicity, superparamagnetic property at room temperature, and a high T(2) relaxivity of 175.5 mM(-1) s(-1) in aqueous solutions. In vitro experiments revealed that MWCNT/Fe(3)O(4) had an excellent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enhancement effect on cancer cells, and importantly, they displayed low cytotoxicity and neglectable hemolytic activity. After intravenous administration, the T(2)-weighted MRI signal in the liver and spleen of mice decreased significantly, suggesting the potential application of the hybrids as MRI contrast agents. The organ biodistribution studies, histological analyses and elimination investigations showed that the hybrids were uptaken by the liver, lung and spleen after intravenous injection, and could be excreted from the liver and kidney. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Disturbance of ion environment and immune regulation following biodistribution of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles injected intravenously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Jung; Kim, Sang-Wook; Yoon, Cheolho; Kim, Younghun; Kim, Jong Sung

    2016-01-22

    Although it is expected that accumulation of metal oxide nanoparticles that can induce redox reaction in the biological system may influence ion homeostasis and immune regulation through generation of free radicals, the relationship is still unclear. In this study, mice received magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (M-FeNPs, 2 and 4 mg/kg) a single via the tail vein, and their distribution in tissues was investigated over time (1, 4, and 13 weeks). In addition, we evaluated the effects on homeostasis of redox reaction-related elements, the ion environment and immune regulation. The iron level in tissues reached at the maximum on 4 weeks after injection and M-FeNPs the most distributed in the spleen at 13 weeks. Additionally, levels of redox reaction-related elements in tissues were notably altered since 1 week post-injection. While levels of K(+) and Na(+) in tissue tended to decrease with time, Ca(2+) levels reached to the maximum at 4 weeks post-injection. On 13 weeks post-injection, the increased percentages of neutrophils and eosinophils, the enhanced release of LDH, and the elevated secretion of IL-8 and IL-6 were clearly observed in the blood of M-FeNP-treated mice compared to the control. While expression of antigen presentation related-proteins and the maturation of dendritic cells were markedly inhibited following distribution of M-FeNPs, the expression of several chemokines, including CXCR2, CCR5, and CD123, was enhanced on the splenocytes of the treated groups. Taken together, we suggest that accumulation of M-FeNPs may induce adverse health effects by disturbing homeostasis of the immune regulation and ion environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pharmacokinetics of cefquinome in red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans) after single intravenous and intramuscular injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uney, K; Altan, F; Cetin, G; Aboubakr, M; Dik, B; Sayın, Z; Er, A; Elmas, M

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of cefquinome (CFQ) following single intravenous (IV) or intramuscular (IM) injections of 2 mg/kg body weight in red-eared slider turtles. Plasma concentrations of CFQ were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and analyzed using noncompartmental methods. The pharmacokinetic parameters following IV injection were as follows: elimination half-life (t 1/2λz ) 21.73 ± 4.95 hr, volume of distribution at steady-state (V dss ) 0.37 ± 0.11 L/kg, area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC 0-∞ ) 163 ± 32 μg hr -1  ml -1 , and total body clearance (Cl T ) 12.66 ± 2.51 ml hr -1  kg -1 . The pharmacokinetic parameters after IM injection were as follows: peak plasma concentration (C max ) 3.94 ± 0.84 μg/ml, time to peak concentration (T max ) 3 hr, t 1/2λz 26.90 ± 4.33 hr, and AUC 0-∞ 145 ± 48 μg hr -1  ml -1 . The bioavailability after IM injection was 88%. Data suggest that CFQ has a favorable pharmacokinetic profile with a long half-life and a high bioavailability in red-eared slider turtles. Further studies are needed to establish a multiple dosage regimen and evaluate clinical efficacy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Effects of intravenously injected lanthanum chloride on the femur of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyagawa, Makoto; Daimon, Tateo

    2010-01-01

    Lanthanum (La) is widely used in industry and medicine. Because of lanthanum's physicochemical resemblance to calcium, the possible effects of it on bone have to be considered. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of La on bone toxicity. Rats were intravenously administrated with lanthanum chloride at 5 mg La/kg per week for five weeks. Histomorphometric analysis of femurs were performed using micro-CT scan. Compared with normal controls, the total bone area of the femur did not show any change in La-administrated rats, whereas the trabecular area slightly decreased. The trabecular bone mineral density in the experimented rats was higher than that in the normal controls, although the mineral density of the cortical bone and cancerou one was unchanged after the administration of La. La did not alter mechanical barometers of the femur such as mean cross-sectional moment of inertia, minimum cross-sectional moment of inertia and polar moment of inertia. Additionally, light microscopic analysis of the femurs revealed that histological features of osteoid, calcification front and bone matrix were normal after the administration of La. La was detected in the macrophages in the bone marrow, but not in the bone matrix by histological stain for La and X-ray fluorescence microanalysis. Thus, these micro-CT imaging and microscopy of the femurs did not reveal toxic changes due to La. (author)

  17. Risk Factors Associated with Unsafe Injection Practices at the First Injection Episode among Intravenous Drug Users in France: Results from PrimInject, an Internet Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guichard, Anne; Guignard, Romain; Lert, France; Roy, Elise

    2015-01-01

    Background. New drug use patterns may increase the risk of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis infections. In France, new injection patterns among youths with diverse social backgrounds have emerged, which may explain the persistently high rates of hepatitis C virus infection. This study explores factors associated with injection risk behaviours at first injection among users who began injecting in the post-2000 era. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted on the Internet from October 2010 to March 2011, through an online questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression identified the independent correlates of needle sharing and equipment (cooker/cotton filter) sharing. Results. Among the 262 respondents (mean age 25 years), 65% were male. Both risk behaviours were positively associated with initiation before 18 years of age (aOR 3.7 CI 95% 1.3-10.6 and aOR 3.0 CI 95% 1.3-7.0) and being injected by another person (aOR 3.1 CI 95% 1.0-9.9 and aOR 3.0 CI 95% 1.3-7.1). Initiation at a party was an independent correlate of equipment sharing (aOR 2.6 95% CI 1.0-6.8). Results suggest a need for innovative harm reduction programmes targeting a variety of settings and populations, including youths and diverse party scenes. Education of current injectors to protect both themselves and those they might initiate into injection is critically important.

  18. Sensation of smell and taste during intravenous injection of iodinated contrast media in CT examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Naoto; Yamaguchi, Aiko; Nagasawa, Naoki; Taketomi-Takahashi, Ayako; Suto, Takayuki; Tsushima, Yoshito

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To assess the incidence and types of sensation of smell and taste during i.v. injection of five kinds of contrast media (CM) in CT examinations. Methods: 735 patients who underwent contrast-enhanced CT (CE-CT) between 14 March 2016 and 5 April 2016 were enrolled. Medical staff asked patients whether they felt heat sensation and sensation of smell and taste during i.v. injection of CM (one of the following: iopromide, iomeprol, iopamidol, iohexol and ioversol) after their CE-CT. If the patients stated having felt the sensation of smell or taste, they were also asked what kind of smell or taste they sensed. Next, 30 ml of each CM was poured into high-purity pet cups for radiological technologists to smell directly. Radiological technologists were asked whether or not each CM had any smell. Results: The sensations of smell and taste incidence for iopromide were 24.3% and 18.9%, respectively, which were significantly higher than those for other CM (p < 0.05). The highest incidence of the sensation of smell was medicine-ish, and the most frequently noted taste was bitterness. All radiological technologists could directly smell only iopromide, which has an ether group on a side chain and fewer hydroxyl groups. Conclusion: Iopromide showed a higher incidence of sensation of smell and taste than other CM. Advances in knowledge: This was the first investigation of sensation of smell and taste during i.v. injection of CM, and a specific CM showed a higher incidence, which is suspected to be due to its chemical structure. PMID:27805431

  19. Are referring clinicians aware of patients at risk from intravenous injection of iodinated contrast media?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konen, Eli; Konen, Osnat; Katz, Miriam; Levy, Yair; Rozenman, Judith; Hertz, Marjorie

    2002-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of our study was to assess the level of awareness of referring clinicians to populations at risk for complications of intravascular administration of iodinated contrast media. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Two hundred and three physicians from three university hospitals completed an anonymous questionnaire regarding risk factors and contraindications to the intravenous administration of iodinated contrast media. The questionnaire included medical conditions with increased risk for anaphylactoid reaction (asthma, hay fever and food allergy) as well as chemotoxic (ischaemic heart disease, phaeochromocytoma and myasthenia gravis) adverse reactions, some with dependence on renal function (metformin treatment, diabetes mellitus and multiple myeloma). Two additional multiple-choice questions addressed pre-medication protocols and risk of nephrotoxicity in diabetic patients. RESULTS: Asthma, food allergy and hay fever were recognized as risk factors by 81·3%, 77·8% and 61·6% of respondents respectively, while ischaemic heart disease, phaeochromocytoma and myasthenia gravis were defined as such only by 9·8%, 30·0% and 28·6% respectively. Metformin treatment, diabetes mellitus and multiple myeloma, in the presence of normal renal function, were considered as risk factors by 46·3%, 38·9% and 58·1% of respondents respectively. One of the generally accepted pre-medication protocols was selected by 89·8%. The risk of nephrotoxicity in a diabetic patient was correctly assessed by 63·5% of respondents. CONCLUSION: We found a relatively high awareness among referring clinicians of a potential anaphylactoid reaction and nephrotoxicity due to iodinated contrast media. However, additional chemotoxic adverse reactions are less well known. Future efforts to improve communication between clinicians and radiologists should be focused in this direction. Konen, E. et al. (2002)

  20. Are referring clinicians aware of patients at risk from intravenous injection of iodinated contrast media?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konen, Eli; Konen, Osnat; Katz, Miriam; Levy, Yair; Rozenman, Judith; Hertz, Marjorie

    2002-02-01

    AIM: The purpose of our study was to assess the level of awareness of referring clinicians to populations at risk for complications of intravascular administration of iodinated contrast media. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Two hundred and three physicians from three university hospitals completed an anonymous questionnaire regarding risk factors and contraindications to the intravenous administration of iodinated contrast media. The questionnaire included medical conditions with increased risk for anaphylactoid reaction (asthma, hay fever and food allergy) as well as chemotoxic (ischaemic heart disease, phaeochromocytoma and myasthenia gravis) adverse reactions, some with dependence on renal function (metformin treatment, diabetes mellitus and multiple myeloma). Two additional multiple-choice questions addressed pre-medication protocols and risk of nephrotoxicity in diabetic patients. RESULTS: Asthma, food allergy and hay fever were recognized as risk factors by 81{center_dot}3%, 77{center_dot}8% and 61{center_dot}6% of respondents respectively, while ischaemic heart disease, phaeochromocytoma and myasthenia gravis were defined as such only by 9{center_dot}8%, 30{center_dot}0% and 28{center_dot}6% respectively. Metformin treatment, diabetes mellitus and multiple myeloma, in the presence of normal renal function, were considered as risk factors by 46{center_dot}3%, 38{center_dot}9% and 58{center_dot}1% of respondents respectively. One of the generally accepted pre-medication protocols was selected by 89{center_dot}8%. The risk of nephrotoxicity in a diabetic patient was correctly assessed by 63{center_dot}5% of respondents. CONCLUSION: We found a relatively high awareness among referring clinicians of a potential anaphylactoid reaction and nephrotoxicity due to iodinated contrast media. However, additional chemotoxic adverse reactions are less well known. Future efforts to improve communication between clinicians and radiologists should be focused in this direction. Konen

  1. Risk Factors Associated with Unsafe Injection Practices at the First Injection Episode among Intravenous Drug Users in France: Results from PrimInject, an Internet Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Guichard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. New drug use patterns may increase the risk of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis infections. In France, new injection patterns among youths with diverse social backgrounds have emerged, which may explain the persistently high rates of hepatitis C virus infection. This study explores factors associated with injection risk behaviours at first injection among users who began injecting in the post-2000 era. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted on the Internet from October 2010 to March 2011, through an online questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression identified the independent correlates of needle sharing and equipment (cooker/cotton filter sharing. Results. Among the 262 respondents (mean age 25 years, 65% were male. Both risk behaviours were positively associated with initiation before 18 years of age (aOR 3.7 CI 95% 1.3–10.6 and aOR 3.0 CI 95% 1.3–7.0 and being injected by another person (aOR 3.1 CI 95% 1.0–9.9 and aOR 3.0 CI 95% 1.3–7.1. Initiation at a party was an independent correlate of equipment sharing (aOR 2.6 95% CI 1.0–6.8. Conclusions. Results suggest a need for innovative harm reduction programmes targeting a variety of settings and populations, including youths and diverse party scenes. Education of current injectors to protect both themselves and those they might initiate into injection is critically important.

  2. MnDPDP enhancement in rabbit liver after intravenous bolus injection and slow infusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorstensen, Oe.; Isberg, B.; Jorulf, H.; Westman, L.; Svahn, U.; Venizelos, N.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the MR-enhancing effect of mangafodipir trisodium (MnDPDP, Teslascan) in the rabbit liver in relation to dose, mode of administration and imaging window. Material and Methods: MnDPDP was administered to 18 rabbits at a dose of 10 μmol/kg or 20 μmol/kg, as a bolus injection or infusion. MR imaging of the liver was performed at different time intervals. Results: Peak liver enhancement was typically observed 10-30 min after administration and the enhancement declined with a half-time of about 5 h. This pattern was observed in all sequences (SE 400/15, FLASH, and SE 132/10), with both doses and with both rates of administration. The peak enhancement was greater, though not significantly so after 20 μmol/kg than after 10 μmol/kg. A higher relative peak signal was observed with SE 132/10 than with FLASH or SE 400/15. (orig./AJ)

  3. Intravenous injection of unfunctionalized carbon-based nanomaterials confirms the minimal toxicity observed in aqueous and dietary exposures in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, David; Sutton, Paul A; Handy, Richard D; Henry, Theodore B

    2018-01-01

    Numerous ecotoxicology studies of carbon-based nanomaterials (CNMs) have been conducted in fishes; however, different approaches have been used to make CNM dispersions and dose tanks for aqueous exposures, and to prepare food containing CNMs for dietary studies. This diversity of experimental methods has led to conflicting results and difficulties in comparing studies. The objective of the present study was to evaluate intravenous injection of unfunctionalized CNMs in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), as a means of delivering a known internal dose, on tissue biochemistry and histopathological lesions; then, subsequently, to compare the results with our previous work on aqueous and dietary exposures of rainbow trout to CNMs. Rainbow trout were injected in the caudal vein with corn oil dispersions of 200 μg (approximately 1 μg g -1 ) of either the fullerene C 60 , single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), or amorphous carbon black. After 96 h, injected fish were euthanized and tissue samples collected for biochemistry and histology. Histological examination of the kidney of fish injected intravenously indicated the presence of black material consistent with the injected carbon treatments. However, there were no additional lesions associated with CNM exposure compared to controls. There were also no significant changes in haematology, or ionoregulatory disturbance in blood plasma among the intravenously injected fish. Significant elevation in lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances TBARS) was detected only in kidney and spleen of fish injected with SWCNTs, but not the other carbon treatments. The elevated TBARS following injection contrasted with CNMs delivered via aqueous or dietary routes in our previous studies, suggesting that the latter exposure routes may not lead to absorption and toxicity in the internal tissues. Comparison of the effects of injected CNMs with aqueous and dietary CNMs exposures indicates that these materials are of

  4. Analysis of Dynamic Characteristics of Water Injection Pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Myeong; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Ha, Jeong Min; Ahn, Byung Hyun; Kim, Won Cheol; Choi, Byeong Keun [Gyeongsang Nat' l Univ., Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Water injection pump outputs oil with high pressure during this process, seawater is injected into the well to recover the well pressure and maintain high productivity. A water injection pump has high productivity, and herefore, it serves as a key piece of equipment in marine plants. In this light, water injection pumps are being studied widely in industry. In this study, the rotor dynamics is analyzed to determine the natural frequency according to the bearing stiffness and operation speed change. This study aims to establish the pump reliability through critical speed, stability, and unbalance response analysis.

  5. IND-directed safety and biodistribution study of intravenously injected cetuximab-IRDye800 in cynomolgus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinn, Kurt R; Korb, Melissa; Samuel, Sharon; Warram, Jason M; Dion, David; Killingsworth, Cheryl; Fan, Jinda; Schoeb, Trenton; Strong, Theresa V; Rosenthal, Eben L

    2015-02-01

    The use of receptor-targeted antibodies conjugated to fluorophores is actively being explored for real-time imaging of disease states; however, the toxicity of the bioconjugate has not been assessed in non-human primates. To this end, the in vivo toxicity and pharmacokinetics of IRDye800 conjugated to cetuximab (cetuximab-IRDye800; 21 mg/kg; equivalent to 250 mg/m(2) human dose) were assessed in male cynomolgus monkeys over 15 days following intravenous injection and compared with an unlabeled cetuximab-dosed control group. Cetuximab-IRDye800 was well tolerated. There were no infusion reactions, adverse clinical signs, mortality, weight loss, or clinical histopathology findings. The plasma half-life for the cetuximab-IRDye800 and cetuximab groups was equivalent (2.5 days). The total recovered cetuximab-IRDye800 in all tissues at study termination was estimated to be 12 % of the total dose. Both cetuximab-IRDye800 and cetuximab groups showed increased QTc after dosing. The QTc for the cetuximab-dosed group returned to baseline by day 15, while the QTc of the cetuximab-IRDye800 remained elevated compared to baseline. IRDye800 in low molar ratios does not significantly impact cetuximab half-life or result in organ toxicity. These studies support careful cardiac monitoring (ECG) for human studies using fluorescent dyes.

  6. Influence of polyethylene glycol coating on biodistribution and toxicity of nanoscale graphene oxide in mice after intravenous injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li B

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bo Li,1,2 Xiao-Yong Zhang,1 Jian-Zhong Yang,1 Yu-Jie Zhang,1 Wen-Xin Li,1 Chun-Hai Fan,1 Qing Huang1 1Laboratory of Physical Biology, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 2Department of Human Anatomy, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, People’s Republic of China Abstract: In this study, we assessed the in vivo behavior and toxicology of nanoscale graphene oxide (NGO in mice after intravenous injection. The influence of a polyethylene glycol (PEG coating on the distribution and toxicity of the NGO was also investigated. The results show that NGO is mainly retained in the liver, lung, and spleen. Retention in the lung is partially due to NGO aggregation. The PEG coating reduces the retention of NGO in the liver, lung, and spleen and promotes the clearance of NGO from these organs, but NGO and NGO-PEG are still present after 3 months. The PEG coating effectively reduces the early weight loss caused by NGO and alleviates NGO-induced acute tissue injuries, which can include damage to the liver, lung, and kidney, and chronic hepatic and lung fibrosis. Keywords: graphene oxide, biodistribution, toxicity, polyethylene glycol

  7. Steam injection into water-saturated porous rock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruining, J.; Marchesin, D.; Duijn, van C.J.

    2003-01-01

    We formulate conservation laws governing steam injection in a linear porous medium containing water. Heat losses to the outside are neglected. We find a complete and systematic description of all solutions of the Riemann problem for the injection of a mixture of steam and water into a

  8. A comparative study of peripheral to central circulation delivery times between intraosseous and intravenous injection using a radionuclide technique in normovolemic and hypovolemic canines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, J.L.; Fontanarosa, P.B.; Passalaqua, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    Intraosseous infusion is considered a useful technique for administration of medications and fluids in emergency situations when peripheral intravascular access is unobtainable. This study examined the effectiveness of intraosseous infusion for delivery of substances to the central circulation. Central deliveries of a radionuclide tracer administered by the intraosseous and intravenous routes were evaluated during normovolemic and hypovolemic states. Intraosseous infusion achieved peripheral to central circulation transit times comparable to those achieved by the intravenous route. Analysis of variance revealed no statistically significant differences between the peripheral to central delivery times comparing intraosseous and intravenous administration. The results demonstrate that intraosseous infusion is a rapid and effective method of delivery to the central circulation and is an alternative method for intravascular access. This study also suggests that a radionuclide tracer is useful for the evaluation of transit times following intraosseous injection

  9. Radiotracer investigations in oil production and water injection wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eapen, A.C.; Jain, S.K.; Kirti

    1977-01-01

    Injection of gamma emitting radiotracers into oil wells followed by logging provides information on several aspects such as the identification of zones of seepage of water in the water injection wells and also the location of source of water entering oil producting wells. The experience gained in the application of bromine-82 and rubidium-86 as radiotracers in such studies at the Ankleshwar and Kalol oil fields in Gujarat and Nazira in Assam has been briefly reported. (author)

  10. An experimental study on tissue damage following subcutaneous injection of water soluble contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Hyup; Park, Jae Hyung; Kang, Heung Sik; Kim, Chu Wan; Han, Man Chung; Kim, Yong Il

    1989-01-01

    The water soluble contrast media cause tissue necrosis infrequently by extravasation during intravenous injection in various radiological examinations. However, it has not been well documented that what kind and what concentration of contrast media can cause tissue necrosis. And also, the mechanism of tissue necrosis by extravasated contrast media has not been well known. The purpose of this experimental study was to evaluate the frequency and severity of tissue damage following subcutaneous injection of various water soluble contrast media to investigate the characteristics of the contrast media acting on the tissue damage, and to provide the basic data for the clinical application. Meglumine ioxithalamate,sodium and meglumine ioxithalamate, iopromide, iopamidol, ioxaglate,meglumine diatrizoate and sodium diatrizoate of various iodine content and osmolality were injected into subcutaneous tissue of the dorsum of 970 feet of 485 rats. The tissue reaction of injection sites were grossly examined with period from 1 day to 8 weeks after the injection. Representative gross changes were correlated with histologic findings. The results were as follows; 1. The basic tissue damage by extravasated contrast media was acute and chronic inflammatory reaction of the soft tissue with subsequent progress into the hemorrhagic and necrotizing lesion. 2. Lager volume of contrast media caused more severe tissue damage. 3. Contrast media of higher osmolality caused more severe tissue damage. 4. At same osmolality, contrast media of higher iodine content caused more severe tissue damage

  11. Kinetics of intravenous radiographic contrast medium injections as used on CT: simulation with time delay differential equations in a basic human cardiovascular multicompartment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violon, D

    2012-12-01

    To develop a multicompartment model of only essential human body components that predicts the contrast medium concentration vs time curve in a chosen compartment after an intravenous injection. Also to show that the model can be used to time adequately contrast-enhanced CT series. A system of linked time delay instead of ordinary differential equations described the model and was solved with a Matlab program (Matlab v. 6.5; The Mathworks, Inc., Natick, MA). All the injection and physiological parameters were modified to cope with normal or pathological situations. In vivo time-concentration curves from the literature were recalculated to validate the model. The recalculated contrast medium time-concentration curves and parameters are given. The results of the statistical analysis of the study findings are expressed as the median prediction error and the median absolute prediction error values for both the time delay and ordinary differential equation systems; these are situated well below the generally accepted maximum 20% limit. The presented program correctly predicts the time-concentration curve of an intravenous contrast medium injection and, consequently, allows an individually tailored approach of CT examinations with optimised use of the injected contrast medium volume, as long as time delay instead of ordinary differential equations are used. The presented program offers good preliminary knowledge of the time-contrast medium concentration curve after any intravenous injection, allowing adequate timing of a CT examination, required by the short scan time of present-day scanners. The injected volume of contrast medium can be tailored to the individual patient with no more contrast medium than is strictly needed.

  12. Intentional intravenous mercury injection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elemental mercury is the well-known silver liquid and usually causes pulmonary, neurological and ... suicidal ideation or features of major depression. Clinically the patient was .... medically at this stage and consider surgical intervention later.

  13. Time Savings with Rituximab Subcutaneous Injection versus Rituximab Intravenous Infusion: A Time and Motion Study in Eight Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cock, Erwin; Kritikou, Persefoni; Sandoval, Mariana; Tao, Sunning; Wiesner, Christof; Carella, Angelo Michele; Ngoh, Charles; Waterboer, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Background Rituximab is a standard treatment for non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The SABRINA trial (NCT01200758) showed that a subcutaneous (SC) rituximab formulation did not compromise efficacy or safety compared with intravenous (IV) infusion. We aimed to quantify active healthcare professional (HCP) time and patient chair time for rituximab SC and IV, including potential time savings. Methods This non-interventional time and motion study was run in eight countries and 30 day oncology units. Rituximab SC data were collected alongside the MabCute trial (NCT01461928); IV data were collected per routine real-world practice. Trained observers recorded active HCP time for pre-specified tasks (stopwatch) and chair time (time of day). A random intercept model was used to analyze active HCP time (by task and for all tasks combined) in the treatment room and drug preparation area, drug administration duration, chair time and patient treatment room time by country and/or across countries. Active HCP and chair time were extrapolated to a patient’s first year of treatment (11 rituximab sessions). Results Mean active HCP time was 35.0 and 23.7 minutes for IV and SC process, respectively (-32%, p time was 27–58%. Absolute reduction in extrapolated active HCP time (first year of treatment) was 1.1–5.2 hours. Mean chair time was 262.1 minutes for IV, including 180.9 minutes infusion duration, vs. 67.3 minutes for SC, including 8.3 minutes SC injection administration (-74%, p time for the first year of treatment was 3.1–5.5 eight-hour days. Conclusions Compared with rituximab IV, rituximab SC was associated with reduced chair time and active HCP time. The latter could be invested in other activities, whereas the former may lead to more available appointments, reducing waiting lists and increasing the efficiency of day oncology units. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01200758 PMID:27362533

  14. Particle retention in porous media: Applications to water injectivity decline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wennberg, Kjell Erik

    1998-12-31

    This thesis studies the problem of migration and deposition of colloidal particles within porous media, theoretically and by computerized simulation. Special emphasis is put on the prediction of injectivity decline in water injection wells due to inherent particles in the injection water. The study of particle deposition within porous media requires a correct prediction of the deposition rate or filtration coefficient. A thorough review of the modeling approaches used in the past are combined with new ideas in order to arrive at an improved model for the prediction of the filtration coefficient. A new way of determining the transition time for the dominant deposition mechanism to change from internal deposition to external cake formation is proposed. From this fundamental theory, equations are given for water injectivity decline predictions. A computer program called WID for water injectivity decline predictions was developed. Using water quality, formation properties, injection rate/pressure and completion information as input, WID predicts decline in vertical and horizontal injection wells with openhole, perforated and fractured completions. The calculations agree fairly well with field data; in some cases the agreement is excellent. A poor match in a few cases indicates that more mechanisms may be responsible for injectivity decline than those presently accounted for by the simulator. The second part of the study deals with a theoretical investigation of the multi-dimensional nature of particle deposition in porous media. 112 refs., 100 figs., 9 tabs.

  15. Specific dose-dependent damage of Lieberkuehn crypts promoted by large doses of type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein nigrin b intravenous injection to mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gayoso, M.J.; Munoz, R.; Arias, Y.; Villar, R.; Rojo, M.A.; Jimenez, P.; Ferreras, J.M.; Aranguez, I.; Girbes, T.

    2005-01-01

    Nigrin b is a non-toxic type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein as active as ricin at ribosomal level but 10 5 and 5 x 10 3 times less toxic for animal cell cultures and mice, respectively, than ricin. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the effects of intravenous injection of large amounts of nigrin b to the mouse. Injection through the tail vein of 16 mg/kg body weight killed all mice studied before 2 days. Analysis of several major tissues by light microscopy did not reveal gross nigrin b-promoted changes, except in the intestines which appeared highly damaged. As a consequence of the injury, the villi and crypt structures of the small intestine disappeared, leading to profuse bleeding and death. In contrast, intravenous injection of 5 mg/kg body weight was not lethal to mice but did trigger reversible toxic effects. In both cases, lethal and sub-lethal doses, the target of nigrin b appeared to be the highly proliferating stem cells of the intestinal crypts, which had undergone apoptotic changes. In contrast to nigrin b, the injection of 3 μg/kg of ricin kills all mice in 5 days but does not trigger apoptosis in the crypts. Therefore, the effect seen with sub-lethal nigrin b concentrations seems to be specific. Nigrin b killed COLO 320 human colon adenocarcinoma cells with an IC 50 of 3.1 x 10 -8 M and the effect was parallel to the extent of DNA fragmentation of these cells. Accordingly, despite the low general toxicity exerted by nigrin b as compared with ricin, intravenous injection of large amounts of nigrin b is able to kill mouse intestinal stem cells without threatening the lives of the animals, thereby opening a door for its use for the targeting of intestinal stem cells

  16. Reduction of Altitude Diffuser Jet Noise Using Water Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgood, Daniel C.; Saunders, Grady P.; Langford, Lester A.

    2011-01-01

    A feasibility study on the effects of injecting water into the exhaust plume of an altitude rocket diffuser for the purpose of reducing the far-field acoustic noise has been performed. Water injection design parameters such as axial placement, angle of injection, diameter of injectors, and mass flow rate of water have been systematically varied during the operation of a subscale altitude test facility. The changes in acoustic far-field noise were measured with an array of free-field microphones in order to quantify the effects of the water injection on overall sound pressure level spectra and directivity. The results showed significant reductions in noise levels were possible with optimum conditions corresponding to water injection at or just upstream of the exit plane of the diffuser. Increasing the angle and mass flow rate of water injection also showed improvements in noise reduction. However, a limit on the maximum water flow rate existed as too large of flow rate could result in un-starting the supersonic diffuser.

  17. Economics of water injected air screw compressor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venu Madhav, K.; Kovačević, A.

    2015-08-01

    There is a growing need for compressed air free of entrained oil to be used in industry. In many cases it can be supplied by oil flooded screw compressors with multi stage filtration systems, or by oil free screw compressors. However, if water injected screw compressors can be made to operate reliably, they could be more efficient and therefore cheaper to operate. Unfortunately, to date, such machines have proved to be insufficiently reliable and not cost effective. This paper describes an investigation carried out to determine the current limitations of water injected screw compressor systems and how these could be overcome in the 15-315 kW power range and delivery pressures of 6-10 bar. Modern rotor profiles and approach to sealing and cooling allow reasonably inexpensive air end design. The prototype of the water injected screw compressor air system was built and tested for performance and reliability. The water injected compressor system was compared with the oil injected and oil free compressor systems of the equivalent size including the economic analysis based on the lifecycle costs. Based on the obtained results, it was concluded that water injected screw compressor systems could be designed to deliver clean air free of oil contamination with a better user value proposition than the oil injected or oil free screw compressor systems over the considered range of operations.

  18. Biomass fueled closed cycle gas turbine with water injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardi, Silvia [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    2001-01-01

    Direct water injection has been studied for a small scale ({approx} 8 MW fuel input) closed cycle gas turbine coupled to a biomass fueled CFB furnace. Two different working fluids have been considered (helium-water mixture and nitrogen-water mixture). The water injection could take place between the compressor stages, as an intercooler, or after the high pressure compressor, as an aftercooler. Both this options have been studied, varying the relative humidity levels after the injection and the temperatures of the injected water. The effect of water injection on thermodynamic properties of the working fluids has been studied, together with its effect on turbomachinery isentropic efficiency. A sensitivity analysis on turbomachinery efficiency and cycle base pressure has been included. The results from this study have been compared to the performance of a dry closed cycle without water injection. The wet cycle shows an electric efficiency in the range 29-32% with helium-water mixture as working fluid and 30-32% with nitrogen-water mixture as working fluid, while the total efficiency (referring to the fuel LHV) is always higher than 100%. In the non-injected cycle the electric efficiency is 30-35% with helium and 32-36 with nitrogen. The total efficiency in the dry case with two level intercooling and postcooling is 87-89%, while is higher than 100% when only one stage inter- and postcooling is present. Aside from this, the study also includes a sizing of the heat exchangers for the different cycle variations. The heat transfer area is very sensible to the working fluid and to the amount of injected water and it's always higher when a nitrogen-water mixture is used. Compared to the cycle without water injection, by the way, the number of heat exchangers is reduced. This will lead to a lower pressure drop and a simpler plant layout. The total heat transfer area, however, is higher in the wet cycle than in the dry cycle.

  19. Multiple intravenous injections of allogeneic equine mesenchymal stem cells do not induce a systemic inflammatory response but do alter lymphocyte subsets in healthy horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kol, Amir; Wood, Joshua A; Carrade Holt, Danielle D; Gillette, Jessica A; Bohannon-Worsley, Laurie K; Puchalski, Sarah M; Walker, Naomi J; Clark, Kaitlin C; Watson, Johanna L; Borjesson, Dori L

    2015-04-15

    Intravenous (IV) injection of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is used to treat systemic human diseases and disorders but is not routinely used in equine therapy. In horses, MSCs are isolated primarily from adipose tissue (AT) or bone marrow (BM) and used for treatment of orthopedic injuries through one or more local injections. The objective of this study was to determine the safety and lymphocyte response to multiple allogeneic IV injections of either AT-derived MSCs (AT-MSCs) or BM-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) to healthy horses. We injected three doses of 25 × 10(6) allogeneic MSCs from either AT or BM (a total of 75 × 10(6) MSCs per horse) into five and five, respectively, healthy horses. Horses were followed up for 35 days after the first MSC infusion. We evaluated host inflammatory and immune response, including total leukocyte numbers, serum cytokine concentration, and splenic lymphocyte subsets. Repeated injection of allogeneic AT-MSCs or BM-MSCs did not elicit any clinical adverse effects. Repeated BM-MSC injection resulted in increased blood CD8(+) T-cell numbers. Multiple BM-MSC injections also increased splenic regulatory T cell numbers compared with AT-MSC-injected horses but not controls. These data demonstrate that multiple IV injections of allogeneic MSCs are well tolerated by healthy horses. No clinical signs or clinico-pathologic measurements of organ toxicity or systemic inflammatory response were recorded. Increased numbers of circulating CD8(+) T cells after multiple IV injections of allogeneic BM-MSCs may indicate a mild allo-antigen-directed cytotoxic response. Safety and efficacy of allogeneic MSC IV infusions in sick horses remain to be determined.

  20. Analysis on inflowing of the injecting Water in faulted formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Youjun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As to low permeability reservoir, faults and fractures have a significant impact on effect of water injection and may lead up to the lower efficiency of oil displacement, which will bring about low efficiency of injecting water, and the intended purpose of improving recovery factor by water injection will not be reached. In order to reveal the mechanism for channeling of injecting water, research work is conducted as follows: First of all, based on seepage mechanics, fluid mechanics, rock mass mechanics, and multifield coupling theory, the mathematical model considering fluid–solid coupling of water-flooding development for low permeability reservoir is established, the numerical solution of the coupling model is obtained, and by creating an interface program between the seepage simulation procedure and stress computation program, we set up a feasible method to simulate the process of development of reservoir considering deformation of reservoir stratum; second, some cores are selected to test the stress sensitivity of rock in reservoir, and the relation of permeability and stress is proposed to connect the field parameters of the coupling model; finally, taking the S11 block of Daqing Oilfield, for instance, the seepage field and deformation of reservoir stratum is analyzed, and then the mechanism for leakage of injecting water in this block is given out, and the advice for adjustment of injection–production scheme in the future development stage is provided.

  1. Jet Injection of 1% buffered lidocaine versus topical ELA-Max for anesthesia before peripheral intravenous catheterization in children: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanos, Stephanie; Booth, Rebekah; Koenig, Heidi; Sikes, Kendra; Gracely, Edward; Kim, In K

    2008-08-01

    Peripheral intravenous (PIV) catheter insertion is a frequent, painful procedure that is often performed with little or no anesthesia. Current approaches that minimize pain for PIV catheter insertion have several limitations: significant delay for onset of anesthesia, inadequate anesthesia, infectious disease exposure risk from needlestick injuries, and patients' needle phobia. Comparison of the anesthetic effectiveness of J-Tip needle-free jet injection of 1% buffered lidocaine to the anesthetic effectiveness of topical 4% ELA-Max for PIV catheter insertion. A prospective, block-randomized, controlled trial comparing J-Tip jet injection of 1% buffered lidocaine to a 30-minute application of 4% ELA-Max for topical anesthesia in children 8 to 15 years old presenting to a tertiary care pediatric emergency department for PIV catheter insertion. All subjects recorded self-reported visual analog scale (VAS) scores for pain at time of enrollment and pain felt following PIV catheter insertion. Jet injection subjects also recorded pain of jet injection. Subjects were videotaped during jet injection and PIV catheter insertion. Videotapes were reviewed by a single blinded reviewer for observer-reported VAS pain scores for jet injection and PIV catheter insertion. Of the 70 children enrolled, 35 were randomized to the J-Tip jet injection group and 35 to the ELA-Max group. Patient-recorded enrollment VAS scores for pain were similar between groups (P = 0.74). Patient-recorded VAS scores were significantly different between groups immediately after PIV catheter insertion (17.3 for J-Tip jet injection vs 44.6 for ELA-Max, P ELA-Max, P = 0.23). J-Tip jet injection of 1% buffered lidocaine provided greater anesthesia than a 30-minute application of ELA-Max according to patient self-assessment of pain for children aged 8 to 15 years undergoing PIV catheter insertion.

  2. Flow improvers for water injection based on surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oskarsson, H.; Uneback, I.; Hellsten, M.

    2006-03-15

    In many cases it is desirable to increase the flow of injection water when an oil well deteriorates. It is very costly in offshore operation to lay down an additional water pipe to the injection site. Flow improvers for the injection water will thus be the most cost-effective way to increase the flow rate. During the last years water-soluble polymers have also been applied for this purpose. These drag-reducing polymers are however only slowly biodegraded which has been an incentive for the development of readily biodegradable surfactants as flow improvers for injection water. A combination of a zwitterionic and an anionic surfactant has been tested in a 5.5 inch, 700 m long flow loop containing sulphate brine with salinity similar to sea water. A drag reduction between 75 and 80% was achieved with 119 ppm in solution of the surfactant blend at an average velocity of 1.9 m/s and between 50 and 55% at 2.9 m/s. The surfactants in this formulation were also found to be readily biodegradable in sea water and low bio accumulating which means they have an improved environmental profile compared to the polymers used today. Due to the self-healing properties of the drag-reducing structures formed by surfactants, these may be added before the pump section - contrary to polymers which are permanently destroyed by high shear forces. (Author)

  3. [Reasonable and safe application of Shuxuetong injection and intravenous medication's combined application in acute cerebral infarction's therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Quan; Xie, Yan-Ming; Zhao, Jian-Jun

    2012-09-01

    Shuxuetong injection is a kind of compound injection which is made from traditional Chinese medicine Hirudo and Pheretime, which has a clear anticoagulant, fibrinolytic promoting, blood rheology improving, blood lipids regulating and cell protecting effect, and the injection has been widely used in clinical. Especially, the injection has often been combined with other Chinese and modern medicine in the treatment of cerebral infarction disease. However, there are still many non-standard and irrational aspects in clinical practice so as to make a more reasonable and safer use of Shuxuetong injection. In order to avoid the occurrence of adverse reactions to provide a reference for regulating the use of the injection,the paper systematically expounds the Shuxuetong injection's main clinical problems and the reasonable combination.

  4. Medical resource utilization in dermatomyositis/polymyositis patients treated with repository corticotropin injection, intravenous immunoglobulin, and/or rituximab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knight T

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Tyler Knight,1 T Christopher Bond,1 Breanna Popelar,2 Li Wang,3 John W Niewoehner,4 Kathryn Anastassopoulos,1 Michael Philbin4 1Covance Market Access Services Inc., Gaithersburg, MD, 2Xcenda, LLC, Palm Harbor, FL, 3STATinMED Research, Ann Arbor, MI, 4Mallinckrodt, LLC, Hazelwood, MO, USA Background: Dermatomyositis and polymyositis (DM/PM are rare, incurable inflammatory diseases that cause progressive muscle weakness and can be associated with increased medical resource use (MRU. When corticosteroid treatment is unsuccessful, patients may receive intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg, rituximab, or repository corticotropin injection (RCI. This study compared real-world, non-medication MRU between patients treated with RCI and those treated with IVIg and/or rituximab for DM/PM.Methods: Claims of DM/PM patients were analyzed from the combination of three commercial health insurance databases in the United States from July 2009 to June 2014. Patients treated with RCI were propensity score matched to those treated with IVIg, rituximab, and both (IVIg+rituximab based on demographics, prior clinical characteristics, and prior MRU. Per-patient per-month (PPPM MRU and costs were compared using Poisson regression and generalized linear modeling, respectively.Results: One-hundred thirty-two RCI, 1,150 IVIg, and 562 rituximab patients had an average age of 52.6, 46.6, and 51.7 years, respectively, and roughly two-thirds were female. After matching, there were no significant differences in demographics or prior clinical characteristics. RCI patients had fewer PPPM hospitalizations (0.09 vs 0.17; P=0.049, shorter length of stay (LOS; 3.24 days vs 4.55 days; P=0.004, PPPM hospital outpatient department (HOPD visits (0.60 vs 1.39; P<0.001, and PPPM physician office visits (2.01 vs 2.33; P=0.035 than IVIg. RCI had fewer PPPM HOPD visits (0.56 vs 0.92; P<0.001 than rituximab. Patients treated with RCI had shorter LOS (2.18 days vs 5.15; P<0.001 and less PPPM HOPD

  5. Plasma and milk concentrations of vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 following intravenous injection of vitamin D3 or 25-hydroxy vitamin D3.

    OpenAIRE

    Hidiroglou, M; Knipfel, J E

    1984-01-01

    Plasma levels of vitamin D3 or 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in ewes after administration of a single massive intravenous dose of vitamin D3 (2 X 10(6) IU) or 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 (5 mg) were determined at zero, one, two, three, five, ten and 20 days postinjection. In six ewes injected with vitamin D3 conversion of vitamin D3 to 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 resulted in a six-fold increase in the plasma 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 level within one day. Elevated levels were maintained until day 10 but by day 20 a s...

  6. Multi-Phase Modeling of Rainbird Water Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Bruce T.; Moss, Nicholas; Sampson, Zoe

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the use of a Volume of Fluid (VOF) multiphase model to simulate the water injected from a rainbird nozzle used in the sound suppression system during launch. The simulations help determine the projectile motion for different water flow rates employed at the pad, as it is critical to know if water will splash on the first-stage rocket engine during liftoff.

  7. New evidence of neuroprotection by lactate after transient focal cerebral ischaemia: extended benefit after intracerebroventricular injection and efficacy of intravenous administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthet, Carole; Castillo, Ximena; Magistretti, Pierre J; Hirt, Lorenz

    2012-01-01

    Lactate protects mice against the ischaemic damage resulting from transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) when administered intracerebroventricularly at reperfusion, yielding smaller lesion sizes and a better neurological outcome 48 h after ischaemia. We have now tested whether the beneficial effect of lactate is long-lasting and if lactate can be administered intravenously. Male ICR-CD1 mice were subjected to 15-min suture MCAO under xylazine + ketamine anaesthesia. Na L-lactate (2 µl of 100 mmol/l) or vehicle was administered intracerebroventricularly at reperfusion. The neurological deficit was evaluated using a composite deficit score based on the neurological score, the rotarod test and the beam walking test. Mice were sacrificed at 14 days. In a second set of experiments, Na L-lactate (1 µmol/g body weight) was administered intravenously into the tail vein at reperfusion. The neurological deficit and the lesion volume were measured at 48 h. Intracerebroventricularly injected lactate induced sustained neuroprotection shown by smaller neurological deficits at 7 days (median = 0, min = 0, max = 3, n = 7 vs. median = 2, min = 1, max = 4.5, n = 5, p mouse brain against ischaemic damage when supplied intracerebroventricularly during reperfusion with behavioural and histological benefits persisting 2 weeks after ischaemia. Importantly, lactate also protects after systemic intravenous administration, a more suitable route of administration in a clinical emergency setting. These findings provide further steps to bring this physiological, commonly available and inexpensive neuroprotectant closer to clinical translation for stroke. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Water conservation and allocation guideline for oilfield injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This paper was prepared as a guide for regulatory agencies and developers using non-saline water sources in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) schemes. A systems approach was used to achieve specific environmental outcomes that adhered to the Water Conservation and Allocation Policy for Oilfield Injection. The guide was applicable to licence renewal applications for projects operating and licensed to use non-saline water resources, as well as new licence applications for oilfield injection use. The guide provided recommended water conservation practices and application requirements, and outlined regulatory procedures and steps for obtaining a Water Act licence. The guideline was prepared to eliminate the use of non-saline water in EOR projects where feasible alternatives existed, as well as to identify areas with water shortages and reduce the use of non-saline water. The guide included monitoring and reporting requirements to improve the evaluation of water use practices and outlined current initiatives to address water conservation and research. It was concluded that outcomes from the program will include reliable quality water supplies for a sustainable economy, healthy aquatic ecosystems, and safe, secure drinking water supplies for Albertans. 3 tabs., 5 figs

  9. Delayed Gadolinium-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (dGEMRIC) of Hip Joint Cartilage: Better Cartilage Delineation after Intra-Articular than Intravenous Gadolinium Injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, M.; Jensen, K.E.; Quistgaard, E.

    2006-01-01

    years) with clinical and radiographic hip osteoarthritis (OA; Kellgren score II-III), MRI of the hip was performed twice on a clinical 1.5T MR scanner: On day 1, before and 90-180 min after 0.3 mmol/kg body weight i.v. Gd-DTPA and, on day 8, 90-180 min after ultrasound-guided i.a. injection of a 4 mmol......PURPOSE: To investigate and compare delayed gadolinium (Gd-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of cartilage (dGEMRIC) in the hip joint using intravenous (i.v.) or ultrasound-guided intra-articular (i.a.) Gd-DTPA injection. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 10 patients (50% males, mean age 58......) in the joint cartilage compared to the non-enhanced images (P I.a. Gd-DTPA provided significantly higher SNR and CNR compared to i.v. Gd-DTPA (P

  10. Critical comparison of intravenous injection of TiO2 nanoparticles with waterborne and dietary exposures concludes minimal environmentally-relevant toxicity in juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, David; Al-Bairuty, Genan A.; Henry, Theodore B.; Handy, Richard D.

    2013-01-01

    A critical comparison of studies that have investigated tissue accumulation and toxicity of TiO 2 -NPs in fish is necessary to resolve inconsistencies. The present study used identical TiO 2 -NPs, toxicological endpoints, and fish (juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss) as previous studies that investigated waterborne and dietary toxicity of TiO 2 -NPs, and conducted a critical comparison of results after intravenous caudal-vein injection of 50 μg of TiO 2 -NPs and bulk TiO 2 . Injected TiO 2 -NPs accumulated only in kidney (94% of measured Ti) and to a lesser extent in spleen; and injected bulk TiO 2 was found only in kidney. No toxicity of TiO 2 was observed in kidney, spleen, or other tissues. Critical comparison of these data with previous studies indicates that dietary and waterborne exposures to TiO 2 -NPs do not lead to Ti accumulation in internal tissues, and previous reports of minor toxicity are inconsistent or attributable to respiratory distress resulting from gill occlusion during waterborne exposure. -- Highlights: •Critical comparison of TiO 2 -NP toxicity studies in rainbow trout. •No evidence of TiO 2 -NP absorption in internal tissues. •Conclude minimal environmentally relevant toxicity of TiO 2 -NPs in rainbow trout. -- Critical evaluation of directly comparable investigations of TiO 2 -NP toxicity by waterborne, dietary, and intravenous injection exposures conclude minimal toxicity in juvenile rainbow trout

  11. A 125I-radiolabelled probe for vinblastine and vindesine radioimmunoassays: applications to measurements of vindesine plasma levels in man after intravenous injections and long-term infusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmani, R.; Barbet, J.; Cano, J.-P.

    1983-01-01

    The transformation of vinblastine into a reactive acid azide was used for the preparation of a vindesine-glycyl-tyrosine conjugate. This conjugate was radiolabelled [ 125 I] and used as a tracer for the radioimmunoassay of vinblastine and vindesine with antisera developed by the Eli Lilly Research Laboratories and by the authors. Its higher specific activity as compared to tritiated vinblastine significantly increases the sensitivity of the assay (0.05 μg/l as compared to 0.6 μg/l). It was then possible to monitor vindesine plasma levels for more than 60 h after intravenous bolus injection and to evaluate the elimination rates more accurately. When plasma levels were also measurable using tritiated vinblastine a satisfactory agreement was observed with determinations performed with radioiodinated vindesine-glycyl-tyrosine. Furthermore, the use of a #betta#-emitting probe simplifies the radioimmunoassay procedure and accordingly increases its reproducibility. A few examples of vindesine level measurements in human plasma collected after bolus intravenous injection and during long-term infusion are given. (Auth.)

  12. The effect of hot water injection on sandstone permeability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbrand, Esther; Haugwitz, Christian; Jacobsen, Peter Sally Munch

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal energy storage can be achieved by hot water injection in geothermal sandstone aquifers. We present an analysis of literature data in combination with new short-term flow through permeability experiments in order to address physical and physico-chemical mechanisms that can alter...

  13. Re-injection of produced water: ''Environmental friendliness pays off''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjerke, E.

    1995-01-01

    The article deals with the re-injection of produced water for minimizing the emission of polluting components and for enhancing the oil recovery on the Norwegian oil field Ula. A closed cycle system is installed increasing the oil production by 4-5.000 bbl per day

  14. Highly efficient 6-stroke engine cycle with water injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szybist, James P; Conklin, James C

    2012-10-23

    A six-stroke engine cycle having improved efficiency. Heat is recovered from the engine combustion gases by using a 6-stroke engine cycle in which combustion gases are partially vented proximate the bottom-dead-center position of the fourth stroke cycle, and water is injected proximate the top-dead-center position of the fourth stroke cycle.

  15. Differences in microbial community composition between injection and production water samples of water flooding petroleum reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Gao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbial communities in injected water are expected to have significant influence on those of reservoir strata in long-term water flooding petroleum reservoirs. To investigate the similarities and differences in microbial communities in injected water and reservoir strata, high-throughput sequencing of microbial partial 16S rRNA of the water samples collected from the wellhead and downhole of injection wells, and from production wells in a homogeneous sandstone reservoir and a heterogeneous conglomerate reservoir were performed. The results indicate that a small number of microbial populations are shared between the water samples from the injection and production wells in the sandstone reservoir, whereas a large number of microbial populations are shared in the conglomerate reservoir. The bacterial and archaeal communities in the reservoir strata have high concentrations, which are similar to those in the injected water. However, microbial population abundance exhibited large differences between the water samples from the injection and production wells. The number of shared populations reflects the influence of microbial communities in injected water on those in reservoir strata to some extent, and show strong association with the unique variation of reservoir environments.

  16. Maintenance and Recovery of Water System for Injection (WFI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Anuar Wan Awang; Ahmad Firdaus Jalil; Wan Mohd Firdaus Wan Ishak

    2015-01-01

    Water system for injection (WFI) is one of the main component in manufacturing pharmaceutical materials and radiopharmaceuticals. This system accredited in 2005. Water quality produced analyzed and give the unsatisfied results. The operation of WFI was stopped temporarily due to technical problems. In 2013, recovery works were implemented with budget of RM 226,500.00. Comprehensive maintenance were implemented by Rykertech (Asia) Sdn. Bhd. With duration of 24 months (October 2014 until September 2016) with cost RM 473,550.00. Now, this system operated in good condition and produced water that meet with the specifications. (author)

  17. Melt quenching and coolability by water injection from below: Co-injection of water and non-condensable gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Dae H.; Page, Richard J.; Abdulla, Sherif H.; Anderson, Mark H.; Klockow, Helge B.; Corradini, Michael L.

    2006-01-01

    The interaction and mixing of high-temperature melt and water is the important technical issue in the safety assessment of water-cooled reactors to achieve ultimate core coolability. For specific advanced light water reactor (ALWR) designs, deliberate mixing of the core melt and water is being considered as a mitigative measure, to assure ex-vessel core coolability. The goal of our work is to provide the fundamental understanding needed for melt-water interfacial transport phenomena, thus enabling the development of innovative safety technologies for advanced LWRs that will assure ex-vessel core coolability. The work considers the ex-vessel coolability phenomena in two stages. The first stage is the melt quenching process and is being addressed by Argonne National Lab and University of Wisconsin in modified test facilities. Given a quenched melt in the form of solidified debris, the second stage is to characterize the long-term debris cooling process and is being addressed by Korean Maritime University via test and analyses. In this paper, experiments on melt quenching by the injection of water from below are addressed. The test section represented one-dimensional flow-channel simulation of the bottom injection of water into a core melt in the reactor cavity. The melt simulant was molten lead or a lead alloy (Pb-Bi). For the experimental conditions employed (i.e., melt depth and water flow rates), it was found that: (1) the volumetric heat removal rate increased with increasing water mass flow rate and (2) the non-condensable gas mixed with the injected water had no impairing effect on the overall heat removal rate. Implications of these current experimental findings for ALWR ex-vessel coolability are discussed

  18. An emergency water injection system (EWIS) for future CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, Andre L.F.; Todreas, Neil E.; Driscoll, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals with the investigation of the feasibility and effectiveness of water injection into the annulus between the calandria tubes and the pressure tubes of CANDU reactors. The purpose is to provide an efficient decay heat removal process that avoids permanent deformation of pressure tubes severe accident conditions, such as loss of coolant accident (LOCA). The water injection may present the benefit of cost reduction and better actuation of other related safety systems. The experimental work was conducted at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), in a setup that simulated, as close as possible, a CANDU bundle annular configuration, with heat fluxes on the order of 90 kW/m 2 : the inner cylinder simulates the pressure tube and the outer tube represents the calandria tube. The experimental matrix had three dimensions: power level, annulus water level and boundary conditions. The results achieved overall heat transfer coefficients (U), which are comparable to those required (for nominal accident progression) to avoid pressure tube permanent deformation, considering current CANDU reactor data. Nonetheless, future work should be carried out to investigate the fluid dynamics such as blowdown behavior, in the peak bundle, and the system lay-out inside the containment to provide fast water injection. (author)

  19. Cellular internalization and morphological analysis after intravenous injection of a highly hydrophilic octahedral rhenium cluster complex - a new promising X-ray contrast agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasilnikova, Anna A; Solovieva, Anastasiya O; Trifonova, Kristina E; Brylev, Konstantin A; Ivanov, Anton A; Kim, Sung-Jin; Shestopalov, Michael A; Fufaeva, Maria S; Shestopalov, Alexander M; Mironov, Yuri V; Poveshchenko, Alexander F; Shestopalova, Lidia V

    2016-11-01

    The octahedral cluster compound Na 2 H 8 [{Re 6 Se 8 }(P(C 2 H 4 CONH 2 )(C 2 H 4 COO) 2 ) 6 ] has been shown to be highly radio dense, thus becoming a promising X-ray contrast agent. It was also shown that this compound had low cytotoxic effect in vitro, low acute toxicity in vivo and was eliminated rapidly from the body through the urinary tract. The present contribution describes a more detailed cellular internalization assay and morphological analysis after intravenous injection of this hexarhenium cluster compound at different doses. The median lethal dose (LD 50 ) of intravenously administrated compound was calculated (4.67 ± 0.69 g/kg). Results of the study clearly indicated that the cluster complex H n [{Re 6 Se 8 }(P(C 2 H 4 CONH 2 )(C 2 H 4 COO) 2 ) 6 ] n-10 was not internalized into cells in vitro and induced only moderate morphological alterations of kidneys at high doses without any changes in morphology of liver, spleen, duodenum, or heart of mice. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. The research of new type stratified water injection process intelligent measurement technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin

    2017-10-01

    To meet the needs of injection and development of Daqing Oilfield, the injection of oil from the early stage of general water injection to the subdivision of water is the purpose of improving the utilization degree and the qualified rate of water injection, improving the performance of water injection column and the matching process. Sets of suitable for high water content of the effective water injection technology supporting technology. New layered water injection technology intelligent measurement technology will be more information testing and flow control combined into a unified whole, long-term automatic monitoring of the work of the various sections, in the custom The process has the characteristics of "multi-layer synchronous measurement, continuous monitoring of process parameters, centralized admission data", which can meet the requirement of subdivision water injection, but also realize the automatic synchronization measurement of each interval, greatly improve the efficiency of tiered injection wells to provide a new means for the remaining oil potential.

  1. Economics of water injected air screw compressor systems

    OpenAIRE

    Madhav, K. V.; Kovacevic, A.

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing need for compressed air free of entrained oil to be used in industry. In many cases it can be supplied by oil flooded screw compressors with multi stage filtration systems, or by oil free screw compressors. However, if water injected screw compressors can be made to operate reliably, they could be more efficient and therefore cheaper to operate. Unfortunately, to date, such machines have proved to be insufficiently reliable and not cost effective. This paper describes an in...

  2. Urinary excretion and patterns of protein binding of iodipamide (Biligrafin forte). A comparison of the infusion technique with the single bolus injection in intravenous cholangiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husband, J; Saxton, H M [Guy' s Hospital, London (UK)

    1978-01-01

    It has been suggested that the bile ducts are seen better during intravenous cholangiography when the contrast medium is given by infusion rather than by injection in a single bolus. As an explanation, it has been proposed that a greater amount of contrast medium is bound to plasma proteins after infusion, resulting in a smaller quantity of contrast medium being excreted in the urine, so leaving a larger total for excretion by the liver. In this study, the urinary excretion of /sup 125/I labelled iodipamide methylglucamine (50% w/v Biligrafin forte) has been measured in 42 patients. The patients were divided into two groups. One group received a slow infusion of radioactive iodipamide over 45 minutes and the other an intravenous injection over five minutes. When a relatively high dose (0.6 mg/kg body weight) was used, no difference in urinary excretion was noted between these two groups; but with a lower dose (0.2 mg/kg body weight), slow infusion resulted in a reduced urinary excretion; however the total difference in contrast lost in the urine was too small to affect biliary concentration. The patterns of protein binding of iodipamide have been examined in 12 of these patients. The results showed that at the low dose a higher percentage of radioactive iodipamide was bound to protein in patients given contrast by infusion. There was clear evidence that the contrast binding capacity of plasma was limited so that with higher doses, much contrast remained unbound. At any given dose level, there was inverse correlation between the proportion of contrast bound to protein and the urinary excretion. The factors affecting contrast binding in individual subjects were not clear.

  3. Analysis of effect of late water injection on RCS repressurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Jun; Cao Xuewu

    2011-01-01

    Effect of late water injection on RCS repressurization during high pressure severe accident sequence in a typical PWR was analyzed. As the results shown, late water injection could increase RCS pressure when RPV failed without RCS passive depressurization. Especially in the condition of opening one PORV, RCS pressure could reach high pressure limit when RPV failed and the risk of HPME and DCH was dramatically increased. Integrity of containment could be threatened. However, in the condition of RCS passive depressurization induced by pressurizer surge line creep failure, RCS pressure could be decreased to very low level even only one PORV was opened and two trains of emergency core cooling were implemented. The risk of HPME and DCH was eliminated. The more PORVs were opened, the faster accident progression was and the earlier RPV failed. RCS pressure was a little higher when PRV failed if two trains of emergency core cooling was implemented comparing with the condition with only one train of emergency core cooling. However the time of RPV failure was obviously delayed. From the point of delaying RPV failure and preventing containment early failure of view, the optimized late water injection was opening three PORVs and implementing two trains of emergency core cooling. (authors)

  4. Comparative Evaluation of U.S. Brand and Generic Intravenous Sodium Ferric Gluconate Complex in Sucrose Injection: Physicochemical Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dajun Sun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate physicochemical equivalence between brand (i.e., Ferrlecit and generic sodium ferric gluconate (SFG in sucrose injection by conducting a series of comparative in vitro characterizations using advanced analytical techniques. The elemental iron and carbon content, thermal properties, viscosity, particle size, zeta potential, sedimentation coefficient, and molecular weight were determined. There was no noticeable difference between brand and generic SFG in sucrose injection for the above physical parameters evaluated, except for the sedimentation coefficient determined by sedimentation velocity analytical ultracentrifugation (SV-AUC and molecular weight by asymmetric field flow fractionation-multi-angle light scattering (AFFF-MALS. In addition, brand and generic SFG complex products showed comparable molecular weight distributions when determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC. The observed minor differences between brand and generic SFG, such as sedimentation coefficient, do not impact their biological activities in separate studies of in vitro cellular uptake and rat biodistribution. Coupled with the ongoing clinical study comparing the labile iron level in healthy volunteers, the FDA-funded post-market studies intended to illustrate comprehensive surveillance efforts ensuring safety and efficacy profiles of generic SFG complex in sucrose injection, and also to shed new light on the approval standards on generic parenteral iron colloidal products.

  5. Measuring and Modeling the Displacement of Connate Water in Chalk Core Plugs during Water Injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsbech, Uffe C C; Aage, Helle Karina; Andersen, Bertel Lohmann

    2006-01-01

    and forms a mixed water bank with almost 100% connate water in the front behind which a gradual transition to pure injection water occurs. This result underpins log interpretations from waterflooded chalk reservoirs. An ad hoc model was set up by use of the results, and the process was examined...

  6. Water Injection on Commercial Aircraft to Reduce Airport Nitrogen Oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daggett, David L.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Fucke, Lars; Eames, David J. H.

    2010-01-01

    The potential nitrogen oxide (NO(x) reductions, cost savings, and performance enhancements identified in these initial studies of waterinjection technology strongly suggest that it be further pursued. The potential for engine maintenance cost savings from this system should make it very attractive to airline operators and assure its implementation. Further system tradeoff studies and engine tests are needed to answer the optimal system design question. Namely, would a low-risk combustor injection system with 70- to 90-percent NO(x) reduction be preferable, or would a low-pressure compressor (LPC) misting system with only 50-percent NO(x) reduction but larger turbine inlet temperature reductions be preferable? The low-pressure compressor injection design and operability issues identified in the report need to be addressed because they might prevent implementation of the LPC type of water-misting system. If water-injection technology challenges are overcome, any of the systems studied would offer dramatic engine NO(x) reductions at the airport. Coupling this technology with future emissions-reduction technologies, such as fuel-cell auxiliary power units will allow the aviation sector to address the serious challenges of environmental stewardship, and NO(x) emissions will no longer be an issue at airports.

  7. A comparison of the natural survival of beagle dogs injected intravenously with low levels of 239Pu, 226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th, or 90Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruenger, F.W.; Miller, S.C.; Lloyd, R.D.

    1991-01-01

    The natural survival, relative to properly chosen controls, of 26 beagle dogs injected once intravenously with an average of 0.58 +/- 0.04 kBq 239 Pu/kg, 23 dogs injected with 2.31 +/- 0.43 kBq 226 Ra/kg, 13 dogs injected with 1.84 +/- 0.26 kBq 228 Ra/kg, 12 dogs injected with 0.56 +/- 0.030 kBq 228 Th/kg, and 12 dogs injected with 21.13 +/- 1.74 kBq 90 Sr/kg was evaluated statistically. The amounts of these radionuclides are related directly to the estimated maximum permissible body burdens for humans suggested in ICRP II (1959). They constitute a level of exposure that initially was assumed to cause no deleterious effects in dogs. This study had two objectives: (1) identification of homogeneous control groups against which to evaluate the survival of the irradiated groups and (2) comparison of the survival characteristics and estimation of mortality or hazard rate ratios for control dogs vs dogs injected with the baseline dosages given above. It was shown, by goodness-of-fit plots, that the Cox proportional hazards model was an appropriate method of analysis. Therefore, covariates that possibly could influence survival were tested for significance. Only the effects of grand mal seizure, which is caused in epileptic dogs by an external stimulus and can be fatal if untreated, were significant (P less than 0.0001). Consequently, in the final model, death from grand mal seizure was considered as accidental. After censoring the dogs dying from grand mal seizure, it was established that the data for the control groups from previous and contemporary experiments could be pooled. The change in hazard rates relative to controls resulting from exposure to the baseline radionuclide level was modest, 1.6 times for 239 Pu (P = 0.033), 1.0(4) for 226 Ra (P = 0.86), 1.9 for 228 Ra (P = 0.035), 2.5 for 228 Th (P less than 0.001), and 0.52 for 90 Sr (P = 0.041)

  8. Alternative water injection device to reactor equipment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Masahiro.

    1995-01-01

    The device of the present invention injects water to the reactor and the reactor container continuously for a long period of time for preventing occurrence of a severe accident in a BWR type reactor and maintaining the integrity of the reactor container even if the accident should occur. Namely, diesel-driven pumps disposed near heat exchangers of a reactor after-heat removing system (RHR) are operated before the reactor is damaged by the after heat to cause reactor melting. A sucking valve disposed to a pump sucking pipeline connecting a secondary pipeline of the RHR heat exchanger and the diesel driving pump is opened. A discharge valve disposed to a pump discharge pipeline connecting a primary pipeline of the RHR heat exchanger and the diesel driving pump is opened. With such procedures, sea water is introduced from a sea water taking port through the top end of the secondary pipeline of the RHR heat exchanger and water is injected into the inside of the pressure vessel or the reactor container by way of the primary pipeline of the RHR heat exchanger. As a result, the reactor core is prevented from melting even upon occurrence of a severe accident. (I.S.)

  9. An intravenously injectable emulsified iodinated oil contrast agent for liver CT. Experimental study of lipiodol emulsion emulsified by lecithin (LEL38) in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamei, Tsuyoshi

    1994-01-01

    LEL38 (lipiodol emulsion emulsified by lecithin 38 mgI/ml, mean diameter 200 nm) is a new intravenously injectable oil contrast agent for liver CT. The aim of this report was to evaluate its ability to enhance contrast in the liver of 46 rabbits with regard to the correlation of density with time at an injected dose of 76 mgI/kg (before to 120 minutes after), the correlation of density with dose (0-760 mgI/kg) and the detectability of liver mass. The time-density correlation of LEL38 in the liver, that is, peak density, was achieved after 30 minutes, and it was elevated to 20.9 H. U. Thereafter, it decreased slowly. In the blood vessels, it reached a sharp peak after immediately being elevated to 14. 7 H. U. Thereafter detectability decreased quickly. The maximum difference in density between liver and blood vessels was 34 H. U. after 60 minutes. The dose-density correlation in the liver and blood vessels was linear. Tumors were detected as clear areas of low density. The minimal detectability was about 3 mm. LEL38 may be an effective contrast agent for screening CT studies of liver disease. (author)

  10. Visualization and in vivo tracking of the exosomes of murine melanoma B16-BL6 cells in mice after intravenous injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yuki; Nishikawa, Makiya; Shinotsuka, Haruka; Matsui, Yuriko; Ohara, Saori; Imai, Takafumi; Takakura, Yoshinobu

    2013-05-20

    The development of exosomes as delivery vehicles requires understanding how and where exogenously administered exosomes are distributed in vivo. In the present study, we designed a fusion protein consisting of Gaussia luciferase and a truncated lactadherin, gLuc-lactadherin, and constructed a plasmid expressing the fusion protein. B16-BL6 murine melanoma cells were transfected with the plasmid, and exosomes released from the cells were collected by ultracentrifugation. Strong luciferase activity was detected in the fraction containing exosomes, indicating their efficient labeling with gLuc-lactadherin. Then, the labeled B16-BL6 exosomes were intravenously injected into mice, and their tissue distribution was evaluated. Pharmacokinetic analysis of the exosome blood concentration-time profile revealed that B16-BL6 exosomes disappeared very quickly from the blood circulation with a half-life of approximately 2min. Little luciferase activity was detected in the serum at 4h after exosome injection, suggesting rapid clearance of B16-BL6 exosomes in vivo. Moreover, sequential in vivo imaging revealed that the B16-BL6 exosome-derived signals distributed first to the liver and then to the lungs. These results indicate that gLuc-lactadherin labeling is useful for tracing exosomes in vivo and that B16-BL6 exosomes are rapidly cleared from the blood circulation after systemic administration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Delayed Gadolinium-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (dGEMRIC) of Hip Joint Cartilage: Better Cartilage Delineation after Intra-Articular than Intravenous Gadolinium Injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, M.; Jensen, K.E.; Quistgaard, E.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate and compare delayed gadolinium (Gd-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of cartilage (dGEMRIC) in the hip joint using intravenous (i.v.) or ultrasound-guided intra-articular (i.a.) Gd-DTPA injection. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 10 patients (50% males, mean age 58...... years) with clinical and radiographic hip osteoarthritis (OA; Kellgren score II-III), MRI of the hip was performed twice on a clinical 1.5T MR scanner: On day 1, before and 90-180 min after 0.3 mmol/kg body weight i.v. Gd-DTPA and, on day 8, 90-180 min after ultrasound-guided i.a. injection of a 4 mmol....../l Gd-DTPA solution. Coronal STIR, coronal T1 fat-saturated spin-echo, and a cartilage-sensitive gradient-echo sequence (3D T1 SPGR) in the sagittal plane were applied. RESULTS Both the post-i.v. and post-i.a. Gd-DTPA images showed significantly higher signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise (CNR...

  12. Studies on the pathogenesis of fever with influenzal viruses. I. The appearance of an endogenous pyrogen in the blood following intravenous injection of virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATKINS, E; HUANG, W C

    1958-03-01

    A substance with pyrogenic properties appears in the blood streams of rabbits made febrile by the intravenous inoculation of the PR8 strain of influenza A and Newcastle disease viruses (NDV). By means of a technique involving passive transfer of sera from animals given virus to recipient rabbits, the titer of circulating pyrogen was found to be closely correlated with the course of fever produced by virus. Certain properties of the pyrogen are described which differentiate it from the originally injected virus and suggest that the induced pyrogen is of endogenous origin. These properties resemble those of endogenous pyrogens occurring in other forms of experimental fever. The source of virus-induced pyrogen is unknown. In vitro incubation of virus with various constituents of the circulation did not result in the appearance of endogenous pyrogen. Granulocytopenia induced by HN(2) failed to influence either fever or the production of endogenous pyrogen in rabbits injected with NDV. Similarly, the intraperitoneal inoculation of NDV into prepared exudates did not modify the febrile response. These findings do not lend support to the possibility that the polymorphonuclear leukocyte is a significant source of endogenous pyrogen in virus-induced fever. It is concluded that the liberation of an endogenous pyrogen from some as yet undefined source is an essential step in the pathogenesis of fever caused by the influenza group of viruses.

  13. A lyophilized etoposide submicron emulsion with a high drug loading for intravenous injection: preparation, evaluation, and pharmacokinetics in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Shi, Shuai; Zhao, Mingming; Zhang, Ling; He, Haibing; Tang, Xing

    2010-12-01

    To develop a submicron emulsion for etoposide with a high drug loading capacity using a drug-phospholipid complex combined with drug freeze-drying techniques. An etoposide-phospholipid complex (EPC) was prepared and its structure was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry analysis. A freeze-drying technique was used to produce lyophilized etoposide emulsions (LEPE), and LEPE was investigated with regard to their appearance, particle size, and zeta potential. The pharmacokinetic study in vivo was determined by the UPLC/MS/MS system. It showed that EPC significantly improved the liposolubility of etoposide, indicating a high drug loading intravenous emulsion could be easily prepared by EPC. Moreover, the obtained loading of etoposide in the submicron emulsion was 3.0 mg/mL, which was three times higher than that of the previous liquid emulsions. The optimum cryoprotectant was trehalose (15%) in freeze-drying test. The median diameter, polydispersity index, and zeta potential of the optimum formulation of LEPE were 226.1 ± 5.1 nm, 0.107 ± 0.011, and -36.20 ± 1.13 mV, respectively. In addition, these parameters had no significant change during 6 months storage at 4 ± 2°C. The main pharmacokinetic parameters exhibited no significant differences between LEPE and etoposide commercial solution except for area under the concentration-time curve and clearance. The stable etoposide emulsion with a high drug loading was successfully prepared, indicating the amount of excipients such as the oil phase and emulsifiers significantly decreased following administration of the same dose of drug, effectively reducing the metabolism by patients while increasing their compliance. Therefore, LEPE has a great potential for clinical applications.

  14. Bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of oral and injectable formulations of methadone after intravenous, oral, and intragastric administration in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linardi, Renata L; Stokes, Ashley M; Keowen, Michael L; Barker, Steven A; Hosgood, Giselle L; Short, Charles R

    2012-02-01

    To characterize the bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of oral and injectable formulations of methadone after IV, oral, and intragastric administration in horses. 6 healthy adult horses. Horses received single doses (each 0.15 mg/kg) of an oral formulation of methadone hydrochloride orally or intragastrically or an injectable formulation of the drug orally, intragastrically, or IV (5 experimental treatments/horse; 2-week washout period between each experimental treatment). A blood sample was collected from each horse before and at predetermined time points over a 360-minute period after each administration of the drug to determine serum drug concentration by use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis and to estimate pharmacokinetic parameters by use of a noncompartmental model. Horses were monitored for adverse effects. In treated horses, serum methadone concentrations were equivalent to or higher than the effective concentration range reported for humans, without induction of adverse effects. Oral pharmacokinetics in horses included a short half-life (approx 1 hour), high total body clearance corrected for bioavailability (5 to 8 mL/min/kg), and small apparent volume of distribution corrected for bioavailability (0.6 to 0.9 L/kg). The bioavailability of methadone administered orally was approximately 3 times that associated with intragastric administration. Absorption of methadone in the small intestine in horses appeared to be limited owing to the low bioavailability after intragastric administration. Better understanding of drug disposition, including absorption, could lead to a more appropriate choice of administration route that would enhance analgesia and minimize adverse effects in horses.

  15. [Effects of intravenous alimentation on adjuvant chemotherapy--an experimental study on the distribution of 5-FU after injection of tegafur (2)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimoto, M; Nagano, H; Sano, K

    1987-10-01

    The stomach, small and large intestines, heart, lungs, bone and kidneys were removed from 48 Sato lung cancer-bearing rats used in the previous experiments and given 90 mg/kg of tegafur (FT-207) by single intravenous administration and tissue 5-FU and FT-207 concentrations were measured. FT-207 concentration in the alimentary canal was somewhat lower than the blood concentration, but both were lowered in parallel. 5-FU concentration in the stomach and large intestines showed virtually identical changes in both IVH and PO groups, but IVH group tended to have higher concentration. IVH group showed higher values than PO group anytime, particularly in the large intestines. A reduction of the side effects on the digestive system via intravenous alimentation was thought due to the elimination of mechanical stimulation via a cessation of oral feeding. 5-FU concentration in the bone was highest in PO group at six hours after administration and blood concentration changes were parallel, but there was virtually no change in IVH group. Maximum values were found one hour after administration and slowly declined thereafter; at 24 hrs the values were 0.059 +/- 0.013 microgram/g, relatively high compared to the PO group at 0.041 +/- 0.022 microgram/g. In the present study under intravenous alimentation, the concentration changes were slight in spite of 5-FU maximum concentration being lower than that by oral feeding and the long-term high concentration which was maintained; this is thought to be a disadvantageous action with regard to the bone marrow. FT-207 concentration in the kidney, heart and lungs was the same as that for the blood, with a gradual reduction in IVH group. 5-FU concentration was the same for the kidneys and IVH group quickly reached to the high levels compared to PO group with only slight changes thereafter. Effects of continuous water load might be involved but not clear.

  16. Cold water injection into two-phase mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    This report presents the results of a review of the international literature regarding the dynamic loadings associated with the injection of cold water into two-phase mixtures. The review placed emphasis on waterhammer in nuclear power plants. Waterhammmer incidence data were reviewed for information related to thermalhydraulic conditions, underlying causes and consequential damage. Condensation induced waterhammer was found to be the most significant consequence of injecting cold water into a two-phase system. Several severe waterhammer incidents have been attributed to slug formation and steam bubble collapse under conditions of stratified steam and cold water flows. These phenomena are complex and not well understood. The current body of experimental and analytical knowledge is not large enough to establish maps of expected regimes of condensation induced waterhammer. The Electric Power Research Institute, in the United States, has undertaken a major research and development programme to develop the knowledge base for this area. The limited models and data currently available show that mechanical parameters are as important as thermodynamic conditions for the initiation of condensation induced waterhammer. Examples of bounds for avoiding two-phase waterhammer are given. These bounds are system specific and depend upon parameters such as pump capacity, pipe length and pipe orientation

  17. Drug-induced MR urography: the effects of furosemide and intravenous saline injection on MR urography of obstructed and non-obstructed urinary tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeong Ha; Lee, Myung Jun; Lee, Chang Joon [National Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-10-01

    To determine the usefulness of MR urography technique for the evaluation of urinary systems in patients with obstructed urinary tract and normal volunteers with non-obstructed urinary tract after intravenous normal saline and diuretic injection. Three normal volunteers and 12 patients with urinary tract obstruction [ureteral calculi (n=8), extraurinary mass (n=1), ureteral tumor invasion (n=3)] underwent MR urography using a 1.0T scanner and a 2D non-breath-hold heavily T2-weighted fast spin-cho sequence. These acquisition were post-processed with a maximum intensity projection (MIP) algorithm. Two acquisitions were performed, the first prior to saline solution infusion following standard MR urography procedures, and the second, within 2-3 minutes of the infusion of 250 ml saline solution followed by 20 mg of Lasix administered intravenously. For this latter, drug-induced MR urography procedures were followed. In healthy volunteer (n=3) and those experiencing partial obstruction (n=4) by a urinary stone, drug-induced MR urography provided better images of the urinary tract than did standard MR urography. In those in whom a urinary stone or tumor had caused complete obstruction (n=8), standard MR urography provided good images, as did drug-induced MR urography. In patients with a partially or non-obstructed urinary tract, drug-induced MR urography provided better anatomic and functional details of the kidney and urinary tract than did standard MR urography. In those experiencing complete obstruction of the urinary tract, however, standard or drug-induced MR urography permitted very adequate evaluation of the tract, and drug-induced MR urography was unnecessary.

  18. Aging study of boiling water reactor high pressure injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conley, D.A.; Edson, J.L.; Fineman, C.F.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of high pressure injection systems is to maintain an adequate coolant level in reactor pressure vessels, so that the fuel cladding temperature does not exceed 1,200 degrees C (2,200 degrees F), and to permit plant shutdown during a variety of design basis loss-of-coolant accidents. This report presents the results of a study on aging performed for high pressure injection systems of boiling water reactor plants in the United States. The purpose of the study was to identify and evaluate the effects of aging and the effectiveness of testing and maintenance in detecting and mitigating aging degradation. Guidelines from the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program were used in performing the aging study. Review and analysis of the failures reported in databases such as Nuclear Power Experience, Licensee Event Reports, and the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, along with plant-specific maintenance records databases, are included in this report to provide the information required to identify aging stressors, failure modes, and failure causes. Several probabilistic risk assessments were reviewed to identify risk-significant components in high pressure injection systems. Testing, maintenance, specific safety issues, and codes and standards are also discussed

  19. Urinary stone detection and characterisation with dual-energy CT urography after furosemide intravenous injection: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botsikas, Diomidis; Hansen, Catrina; Stefanelli, Salvatore; Becker, Christoph D.; Montet, Xavier [Geneva University Hospital, Radiology Department, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-03-15

    To investigate the added advantage of IV furosemide injection and the subsequent urine dilution in the detection of urinary calculi in the excretory phase of dual-source dual-energy (DE) computed tomography (CT) urography, and to investigate the feasibility of characterising the calculi through diluted urine. Twenty-three urinary calculi were detected in 116 patients who underwent DECT urography for macroscopic haematuria with a split bolus two- or three-acquisition protocol, including a true unenhanced series and at least a mixed nephrographic excretory phase. Virtual unenhanced images were reconstructed from contrast-enhanced DE data. Calculi were recorded on all series and characterised based on their X-ray absorption characteristics at 100 kVp and 140 kVp in both true unenhanced and nephrographic excretory phase series. All calculi with a diameter more than 2 mm were detected in the virtual unenhanced phase and in the nephrographic excretory phase. Thirteen of these calculi could be characterised in the true unenhanced phase and in the mixed nephrographic excretory phase. The results were strictly identical for both phases, six of them being recognised as non-uric acid calculi and seven as uric acid calculi. Mixed nephrographic excretory phase DECT after furosemide administration allows both detection and characterisation of clinically significant calculi, through the diluted urine. (orig.)

  20. Methodology for surge pressure evaluation in a water injection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meliande, Patricia; Nascimento, Elson A. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Civil; Mascarenhas, Flavio C.B. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Hidraulica Computacional; Dandoulakis, Joao P. [SHELL of Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Predicting transient effects, known as surge pressures, is of high importance for offshore industry. It involves detailed computer modeling that attempts to simulate the complex interaction between flow line and fluid in order to ensure efficient system integrity. Platform process operators normally raise concerns whether the water injection system is adequately designed or not to be protected against possible surge pressures during sudden valve closure. This report aims to evaluate the surge pressures in Bijupira and Salema water injection systems due to valve closure, through a computer model simulation. Comparisons among the results from empirical formulations are discussed and supplementary analysis for Salema system were performed in order to define the maximum volumetric flow rate for which the design pressure was able to withstand. Maximum surge pressure values of 287.76 bar and 318.58 bar, obtained in Salema and Bijupira respectively, using empirical formulations have surpassed the operating pressure design, while the computer model results have pointed the greatest surge pressure value of 282 bar in Salema system. (author)

  1. Pharmacokinetics of meloxicam in red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans) after single intravenous and intramuscular injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uney, Kamil; Altan, Feray; Aboubakr, Mohammed; Cetin, Gul; Dik, Burak

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the pharmacokinetics of meloxicam after single IV and IM injections in red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans). ANIMALS 8 healthy red-eared slider turtles. PROCEDURES Turtles received 1 dose of meloxicam (0.2 mg/kg) IV or IM (4 turtles/route), a 30-day washout period was provided, and then turtles received the same dose by the opposite route. Blood samples were collected at predetermined times for measurement of plasma meloxicam concentration. Pharmacokinetic values for each administration route were determined with a 2-compartment open model approach. RESULTS For IV administration, mean ± SD values of major pharmacokinetic variables were 1.02 ± 0.41 hours for distribution half-life, 9.78 ± 2.23 hours for elimination half-life, 215 ± 32 mL/kg for volume of distribution at steady state, 11.27 ± 1.44 μg•h/mL for area under the plasma concentration versus time curve, and 18.00 ± 2.32 mL/h/kg for total body clearance. For IM administration, mean values were 0.35 ± 0.06 hours for absorption half-life, 0.72 ± 0.06 μg/mL for peak plasma concentration, 1.5 ± 0.0 hours for time to peak concentration, 3.73 ± 2.41 hours for distribution half-life, 13.53 ± 1.95 hours for elimination half-life, 11.33 ± 0.92 μg•h/mL for area under the plasma concentration versus time curve, and 101 ± 6% for bioavailability. No adverse reactions were detected. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Long half-life, high bioavailability, and lack of immediate adverse reactions of meloxicam administered IM at 0.2 mg/kg suggested the possibility of safe and effective clinical use in turtles. Additional studies are needed to establish appropriate administration frequency and clinical efficacy.

  2. Intravenous injection of artificial red cells and subsequent dye laser irradiation causes deep vessel impairment in an animal model of port-wine stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikihisa, Naoaki; Tominaga, Mai; Watanabe, Shoji; Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki; Saito, Yoshiaki; Sakai, Hiromi

    2018-03-15

    Our previous study proposed using artificial blood cells (hemoglobin vesicles, Hb-Vs) as photosensitizers in dye laser treatment for port-wine stains (PWSs). Dye laser photons are absorbed by red blood cells (RBCs) and hemoglobin (Hb) mixture, which potentially produce more heat and photocoagulation and effectively destroy endothelial cells. Hb-Vs combination therapy will improve clinical outcomes of dye laser treatment for PWSs because very small vessels do not contain sufficient RBCs and they are poor absorbers/heaters of lasers. In the present study, we analyzed the relationship between vessel depth from the skin surface and vessel distraction through dye laser irradiation following intravenous Hb-Vs injection using a chicken wattle model. Hb-Vs were administered and chicken wattles underwent high-energy irradiation at energy higher than in the previous experiments. Hb-Vs location in the vessel lumen was identified to explain its photosensitizer effect using human Hb immunostaining of the irradiated wattles. Laser irradiation with Hb-Vs can effectively destroy deep vessels in animal models. Hb-Vs tend to flow in the marginal zone of both small and large vessels. Increasing laser power combined with Hb-Vs injection contributed for deep vessel impairment because of the synergetic effect of both methods. Newly added Hb tended to flow near the target endothelial cells of the laser treatment. In Hb-Vs and RBC mixture, heat transfer to endothelial cells from absorbers/heater may increase. Hb-Vs function as photosensitizers to destroy deep vessels within a restricted distance that the photon can reach.

  3. Delayed Gadolinium-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (dGEMRIC) of Hip Joint Cartilage: Better Cartilage Delineation after Intra-Articular than Intravenous Gadolinium Injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boesen, M.; Jensen, K. E.; Qvistgaard, E.; Danneskiold-Samsoe, B.; Thomsen, C.; Oestergaard, M.; Bliddal, H.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate and compare delayed gadolinium (Gd-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of cartilage (dGEMRIC) in the hip joint using intravenous (i.v.) or ultrasound-guided intra-articular (i.a.) Gd-DTPA injection. Material and Methods: In 10 patients (50% males, mean age 58 years) with clinical and radiographic hip osteoarthritis (OA; Kellgren score II-III), MRI of the hip was performed twice on a clinical 1.5T MR scanner: On day 1, before and 90-180 min after 0.3 mmol/kg body weight i.v. Gd-DTPA and, on day 8, 90-180 min after ultrasound-guided i.a. injection of a 4 mmol/l Gd-DTPA solution. Coronal STIR, coronal T1 fat-saturated spin-echo, and a cartilage-sensitive gradient-echo sequence (3D T1 SPGR) in the sagittal plane were applied. Results: Both the post-i.v. and post-i.a. Gd-DTPA images showed significantly higher signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise (CNR) in the joint cartilage compared to the non-enhanced images ( P <0.002). I.a. Gd-DTPA provided significantly higher SNR and CNR compared to i.v. Gd-DTPA ( P <0.01). Furthermore, a better delineation of the cartilage in the synovial/cartilage zone and of the chondral/subchondral border was observed. Conclusion: The dGEMRIC MRI method markedly improved delineation of hip joint cartilage compared to non-enhanced MRI. The i.a. Gd-DTPA provided the best cartilage delineation. dGEMRIC is a clinically applicable MRI method that may improve identification of early subtle cartilage damage and the accuracy of volume measurements of hip joint cartilage

  4. Evaluation of Water Injection Effect on NO(x) Formation for a Staged Gas Turbine Combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, L.; Yang, S. L.; Kundu, K. P.

    1996-01-01

    NO(x) emission control by water injection on a staged turbine combustor (STC) was modeled using the KIVA-2 code with modification. Water is injected into the rich-burn combustion zone of the combustor by a single nozzle. Parametric study for different water injection patterns was performed. Results show NO(x) emission will decrease after water being injected. Water nozzle location also has significant effect for NO formation and fuel ignition. The chemical kinetic model is also sensitive to the excess water. Through this study, a better understanding of the physics and chemical kinetics is obtained, this will enhance the STC design process.

  5. Intravenous carbon dioxide as an echocardiographic contrast agent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.S. Meltzer (Richard); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); P.G. Hugenholtz (Paul); J.R.T.C. Roelandt (Jos)

    1981-01-01

    textabstractIntravenous carbon dioxide (CO2) was employed to cause echocardiographic contrast in 40 patients. One to 3 cc of medically pure CO2 were agitated with 5 to 8 cc of 5% dextrose in water and rapidly injected into an upper extremity vein. Contrast was obtained in all patients. In 33

  6. The effect of low capacity injection systems on transient initiated loss of vessel water injection at Browns Ferry unit one

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, L.T.

    1983-01-01

    Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) analyses have indicated the transient initiated loss of vessel water injection (TQUV sequence) to be a dominant accident scenario for BWR plants. The PRA studies assumed the low capacity injection systems to be unimportant in severe accidents. The results of a Severe Accident Sequence Analysis (SASA) Program study have shown that these systems are capable of preventing or significantly delaying core damage in a TQUV sequence

  7. Intravenous injection of gadobutrol in an epidemiological study group did not lead to a difference in relative signal intensities of certain brain structures after 5 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kromrey, Marie-Luise; Liedtke, Kim Rouven; Langner, Soenke; Kirsch, Michael; Kuehn, Jens-Peter [University Medicine Greifswald, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology and Neuroradiology, Greifswald (Germany); Ittermann, Till [University Medicine Greifswald, Institute for Community Medicine, Greifswald (Germany); Weitschies, Werner [University Greifswald, Institute of Biopharmacy and Pharmaceutical Technology, Greifswald (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    To investigate if application of macrocyclic gadolinium-based contrast agents in volunteers is associated with neuronal deposition detected by magnetic resonance imaging in a 5-year longitudinal survey. Three hundred eighty-seven volunteers who participated in a population-based study were enrolled. Subjects underwent plain T1-weighted brain MRI at baseline and 5 years later with identical sequence parameters. At baseline, 271 participants additionally received intravenous injection of the macrocyclic contrast agent gadobutrol (1.5 mmol/kg). A control group including 116 subjects received no contrast agent. Relative signal intensities of thalamus, pallidum, pons and dentate nucleus were compared at baseline and follow-up. No difference in relative signal intensities was observed between contrast group (thalamus, p = 0.865; pallidum, p = 0.263; pons, p = 0.533; dentate nucleus, p = 0.396) and control group (thalamus, p = 0.683; pallidum; p = 0.970; pons, p = 0.773; dentate nucleus, p = 0.232) at both times. Comparison between both groups revealed no significant differences in relative signal intensities (thalamus, p = 0.413; pallidum, p = 0.653; pons, p = 0.460; dentate nucleus, p = 0.751). The study showed no significant change in globus pallidus-to-thalamus or dentate nucleus-to-pons ratios. Five years after administration of a 1.5-fold dose gadobutrol to normal subjects, signal intensity of thalamus, pallidum, pons and dentate nucleus did not differ from participants who had not received gadobutrol. (orig.)

  8. Intravenous injection of gadobutrol in an epidemiological study group did not lead to a difference in relative signal intensities of certain brain structures after 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kromrey, Marie-Luise; Liedtke, Kim Rouven; Ittermann, Till; Langner, Sönke; Kirsch, Michael; Weitschies, Werner; Kühn, Jens-Peter

    2017-02-01

    To investigate if application of macrocyclic gadolinium-based contrast agents in volunteers is associated with neuronal deposition detected by magnetic resonance imaging in a 5-year longitudinal survey. Three hundred eighty-seven volunteers who participated in a population-based study were enrolled. Subjects underwent plain T1-weighted brain MRI at baseline and 5 years later with identical sequence parameters. At baseline, 271 participants additionally received intravenous injection of the macrocyclic contrast agent gadobutrol (0.15 mmol/kg). A control group including 116 subjects received no contrast agent. Relative signal intensities of thalamus, pallidum, pons and dentate nucleus were compared at baseline and follow-up. No difference in relative signal intensities was observed between contrast group (thalamus, p = 0.865; pallidum, p = 0.263; pons, p = 0.533; dentate nucleus, p = 0.396) and control group (thalamus, p = 0.683; pallidum; p = 0.970; pons, p = 0.773; dentate nucleus, p = 0.232) at both times. Comparison between both groups revealed no significant differences in relative signal intensities (thalamus, p = 0.413; pallidum, p = 0.653; pons, p = 0.460; dentate nucleus, p = 0.751). The study showed no significant change in globus pallidus-to-thalamus or dentate nucleus-to-pons ratios. Five years after administration of a 1.5-fold dose gadobutrol to normal subjects, signal intensity of thalamus, pallidum, pons and dentate nucleus did not differ from participants who had not received gadobutrol. • Gadobutrol does not lead to neuronal signal alterations after 5 years. • Neuronal deposition of macrocyclic contrast agent could not be confirmed. • Macrocyclic contrast agents in a proven dosage are safe.

  9. Efficacy of intravenous plus intrathecal/intracerebral ventricle injection of polymyxin B for post-neurosurgical intracranial infections due to MDR/XDR Acinectobacter baumannii: a retrospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Sijun; Huang, Xiaofang; Wang, Yesong; Li, Li; Zhao, Changyun; Yao, Zhongxiang; Cui, Wei; Zhang, Gensheng

    2018-01-01

    Background Post-neurosurgical intracranial infections caused by multidrug-resistant or extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii are difficult to treat and associated with high mortality. In this study, we analyzed the therapeutic efficacy of intravenous combined with intrathecal/intracerebral ventricle injection of polymyxin B for this type of intracranial infection. Methods This retrospective study was conducted from January 2013 to September 2017 at the Second Affiliated Hospital,...

  10. Efficacy of intravenous plus intrathecal/intracerebral ventricle injection of polymyxin B for post-neurosurgical intracranial infections due to MDR/XDR Acinectobacter baumannii: a retrospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Sijun Pan; Xiaofang Huang; Yesong Wang; Li Li; Changyun Zhao; Zhongxiang Yao; Wei Cui; Gensheng Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Post-neurosurgical intracranial infections caused by multidrug-resistant or extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii are difficult to treat and associated with high mortality. In this study, we analyzed the therapeutic efficacy of intravenous combined with intrathecal/intracerebral ventricle injection of polymyxin B for this type of intracranial infection. Methods This retrospective study was conducted from January 2013 to September 2017 at the Second Affiliated ...

  11. The RESPITE trial: remifentanil intravenously administered patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) versus pethidine intramuscular injection for pain relief in labour: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Matthew; MacArthur, Christine; Gao Smith, Fang; Homer, Leanne; Handley, Kelly; Daniels, Jane

    2016-12-12

    The commonest opioid used for pain relief in labour is pethidine (meperidine); however, its effectiveness has long been challenged and the drug has known side effects including maternal sedation, nausea and potential transfer across the placenta to the foetus. Over a third of women receiving pethidine require an epidural due to inadequate pain relief. Epidural analgesia increases the risk of an instrumental vaginal delivery and its associated effects. Therefore, there is a clear need for a safe, effective, alternative analgesic to pethidine. Evidence suggests that remifentanil patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) reduces epidural conversion rates compared to pethidine; however, no trial has yet investigated this as a primary endpoint. We are, therefore, comparing pethidine intramuscular injection to remifentanil PCA in a randomised controlled trial. Women in established labour, requesting systemic opioid pain relief, will be randomised to either intravenously administered remifentanil PCA (intervention) or pethidine intramuscular injection (control) in an unblinded, 1:1 individual randomised trial. Following informed consent, 400 women in established labour, who request systemic opioid pain relief, from NHS Trusts across England will undergo a minimised randomisation by a computer or automated telephone system to either pethidine or remifentanil. In order to balance the groups this minimisation is based on four parameters; parity (nulliparous versus multiparous), maternal age (Asian (Pakistani/Indian/Bangladeshi) versus Other) and induced versus spontaneous labour. The effectiveness of pain relief provided by each technique will be recorded every 30 min after time zero, until epidural placement, delivery or transfer to theatre, quantified by Visual Analogue Scale. Incidence of maternal side effects including sedation, delivery mode, foetal distress requiring delivery, neonatal status at delivery and rate of initiation of breastfeeding within the first hour of birth

  12. Renal haemodynamics, sodium and water reabsorption during continuous intravenous infusion of recombinant interleukin-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertsen, P F; von der Maase, H; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    1998-01-01

    1. Renal haemodynamics, lithium and sodium clearance were measured in 14 patients treated with recombinant interleukin-2 for metastatic renal cell carcinoma. 2. Patients were studied before and after 72 h of continuous intravenous infusion of recombinant interleukin-2 (18x10(6) i.u..24 h-1.m-2) a...... effect. Changes in renal prostaglandin synthesis may contribute to the decrease in renal blood flow. The lithium clearance data suggest that an increased proximal tubular reabsorption rate may contribute to the decreased sodium clearance during recombinant interleukin-2 treatment....

  13. UV disinfection of injection and drinking water - an accepted method on offshore oil platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, H.; Klein, H.P.

    1985-01-01

    Ultraviolet disinfection packages have been developed for the treatment of drinking water and injection water on offshore oil platforms. Large-scale tests with sulphate reducing bacteria out outlined. (Auth.)

  14. Efficacy of intravenous plus intrathecal/intracerebral ventricle injection of polymyxin B for post-neurosurgical intracranial infections due to MDR/XDR Acinectobacter baumannii: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijun Pan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-neurosurgical intracranial infections caused by multidrug-resistant or extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii are difficult to treat and associated with high mortality. In this study, we analyzed the therapeutic efficacy of intravenous combined with intrathecal/intracerebral ventricle injection of polymyxin B for this type of intracranial infection. Methods This retrospective study was conducted from January 2013 to September 2017 at the Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine (Hangzhou,China and included 61 cases for which cerebrospinal fluid (CSF cultures were positive for multidrug-resistant or extensively drug-resistant A. baumannii after a neurosurgical operation. Patients treated with intravenous and intrathecal/intracerebral ventricle injection of polymyxin B were assigned to the intrathecal/intracerebral group, and patients treated with other antibiotics without intrathecal/intracerebral injection were assigned to the intravenous group. Data for general information, treatment history, and the results of routine tests and biochemistry indicators in CSF, clinical efficiency, microbiological clearance rate, and the 28-day mortality were collected and analyzed. Results The rate of multidrug-resistant or extensively drug-resistant A. baumannii infection among patients who experienced an intracranial infection after a neurosurgical operation was 33.64% in our hospital. The isolated A. baumannii were resistant to various antibiotics, and most seriously to carbapenems (100.00% resistance rate to imipenem and meropenem, cephalosporins (resistance rates of 98.38% to cefazolin, 100.00% to ceftazidime, 100.00% to cefatriaxone, and 98.39% to cefepime. However, the isolated A. baumannii were completely sensitive to polymyxin B (sensitivity rate of 100.00%, followed by tigecycline (60.66% and amikacin (49.18%. No significant differences in basic clinical data were observed between the two

  15. Pilot test of pressure maintenance by water injection and gas injection in the M'Bega field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodee, B

    1965-02-01

    The M'Bega reservoir, Gabon, is one that is both fractured and fissured, and its reservoir rock, improperly referred to as silicified clay, is made up of opal-cement silt. At the time it began production, the major unknown factor in this field was the amount of oil it contained. The factor was finally determined after 18 mo. of production, once data was obtained concerning the advance of aquifiers. Up until that time, applied comparisons of successive data could not differentiate between the activity of aquifers and that of dissolved gas expansion with partial segregation. Consequently, a pilot test was made in which pressure was maintained by water injection. Then, with a double drainage phenomena (the tops by the gas, and the flanks by the aquifer water), production of the field consisted of bringing about a coincidence between the water and gas fronts at the level of the existing wells by means of gas injection.

  16. Reducing invasiveness, duration, and cost of magnetic resonance imaging in rheumatoid arthritis by omitting intravenous contrast injection -- Does it change the assessment of inflammatory and destructive joint changes by the OMERACT RAMRIS?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mikkel; Conaghan, Philip G; O'Connor, Philip

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Gadolinium (Gd)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides highly sensitive assessment of inflammatory and destructive changes in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) joints, but intravenous (IV) Gd injection prolongs examination time and increases cost, invasiveness, and patient discomfort...... images, whereas complete image sets were available for the second reading. RESULTS: Gd contrast injection appeared unimportant to MRI scores of bone erosions and bone edema in RA wrist and MCP joints. However, when post-Gd MRI was considered the standard reference, MRI without Gd provided only moderate......: Omitting IV contrast injection did not change scores of bone erosions and bone edema, but decreased the reliability of synovitis scores. However, this disadvantage may for some purposes be outweighed by the possibility to assess more joints and/or greater feasibility....

  17. Method of injecting cooling water in emergency core cooling system (ECCS) of PWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobajima, Makoto; Adachi, Michihiro; Tasaka, Kanji; Suzuki, Mitsuhiro.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a cooling water injection method in an ECCS, which can perform effective cooling of the reactor core. Method: In a method of injecting cooling water in an ECCS as a countermeasure against a rupture accident of a pwr type reactor, cooling water in the first pressure storage injection system is injected into the upper plenum of the reactor pressure vessel at a set pressure of from 50 to 90 atg. and a set temperature of from 80 to 200 0 C, cooling water in the second pressure storage injection system is injected into the lower plenum of the reactor pressure vessel at a pressure of from 25 to 60 atg. which is lower than the set pressure and a temperature less than 60 0 C, and further in combination with these procedures, cooling water of less than 60 0 C is injected into a high-temperature side piping, in the high-pressure injection system of upstroke of 100 atg. by means of a pump and the low-pressure injection system of upstroke of 20 atg. also by means of a pump, thereby cooling the reactor core. (Aizawa, K.)

  18. Finding Balance Between Biological Groundwater Treatment and Treated Injection Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Mark A.; Nielsen, Kellin R.; Byrnes, Mark E.; Simmons, Sally A.; Morse, John J.; Geiger, James B.; Watkins, Louis E.; McFee, Phillip M.; Martins, K.

    2015-01-14

    At the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company operates the 200 West Pump and Treat which was engineered to treat radiological and chemical contaminants in groundwater as a result of the site’s former plutonium production years. Fluidized bed bioreactors (FBRs) are used to remove nitrate, metals, and volatile organic compounds. Increasing nitrate concentrations in the treatment plant effluent and the presence of a slimy biomass (a typical microorganism response to stress) in the FBRs triggered an investigation of nutrient levels in the system. Little, if any, micronutrient feed was coming into the bioreactors. Additionally, carbon substrate (used to promote biological growth) was passing through to the injection wells, causing biological fouling of the wells and reduced specific injectivity. Adjustments to the micronutrient feed improved microorganism health, but the micronutrients were being overfed (particularly manganese) plugging the injection wells further. Injection well rehabilitation to restore specific injectivity required repeated treatments to remove the biological fouling and precipitated metal oxides. A combination of sulfamic and citric acids worked well to dissolve metal oxides and sodium hypochlorite effectively removed the biological growth. Intensive surging and development techniques successfully removed clogging material from the injection wells. Ultimately, the investigation and nutrient adjustments took months to restore proper balance to the microbial system and over a year to stabilize injection well capacities. Carefully tracking and managing the FBRs and well performance monitoring are critical to balancing the needs of the treatment system while reducing fouling mechanisms in the injection wells.

  19. 40 CFR 60.4335 - How do I demonstrate compliance for NOX if I use water or steam injection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... if I use water or steam injection? 60.4335 Section 60.4335 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... compliance for NOX if I use water or steam injection? (a) If you are using water or steam injection to... monitor and record the fuel consumption and the ratio of water or steam to fuel being fired in the turbine...

  20. Disposition in male volunteers of a subanaesthetic intravenous dose of an oil in water emulsion of 14C-propofol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, P J; Cockshott, I D; Douglas, E J; Gordon, E A; Hopkins, K; Rowland, M

    1988-04-01

    1. An intravenous dose of 14C-propofol (0.47 mg/kg) administered to six male volunteers was rapidly eliminated with 88% recovered in the urine in 5 days and less than 2% in faeces. 2. The dose was cleared by metabolism with less than 0.3% excreted unchanged. The major metabolites were the glucuronic acid conjugate of propofol and the glucuronic acid and sulphate conjugates of its hydroxylated derivative, 2,6-diisopropyl-1,4-quinol. Propofol glucuronide accounted for about 53% of the urinary radioactivity and was the major metabolite in plasma from 30 min post dose. 3. The blood concentration of propofol declined in a biphasic manner from a maximum mean value of 0.44 microgram/ml, 2 min after injection. The half-lives of the first and second exponential phases, mean values 5 min and 97 min respectively, varied widely among subjects. A proportion of the dose was cleared slowly, probably due to slow release from less well perfused tissues. Propofol accounted for 94% of the total blood radioactivity at 2 min but only about 6% from 3 to 8 h post dose. 4. Propofol has a volume of distribution equivalent to about 3 to 4 times body weight, and a mean total body clearance of 2.2 1/min.

  1. Dosimetry of intravenously administered oxygen-15 labelled water in man: a model based on experimental human data from 21 subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T.; Tong, C.; Lammertsma, A.A.; Butler, K.R.; Schnorr, L.; Watson, J.D.G.; Ramsay, S.; Clark, J.C.; Jones, T.

    1994-01-01

    Models based on uniform distribution of tracer in total body water underestimate the absorbed dose from H 2 15 O because of the short half-life (2.04 min) of 15 O, which leads to non-uniform distribution of absorbed dose and also complicates the direct measurement of organ retention curves. However, organ absorbed doses can be predicted by the present kinetic model based on the convolution technique. The measured time course of arterial H 2 15 O concentration following intravenous administration represents the input function to organs. The impulse response of a given organ is its transit time function determined by blood flow and the partition of water between tissue and blood. Values of these two parameters were taken from the literature. Integrals of the arterial input function and organ transit time functions were used to derive integrals of organ retention functions (organ residence times). The latter were used with absorbed dose calculation software (MIRDOSE-2) to obtain estimates for 24 organs. From the mean values of organ absorbed doses, the effective dose equivalent (EDE) and effective dose (ED) were calculated. From measurements on 21 subjects, the average value for both EDE and ED was calculated to be 1.2 μSv.MBq -1 compared with a value of about 0.5 μSv.MBq -1 predicted by uniform water distribution models. Based on the human data, a method of approximating H 2 15 O absorbed dose values from body surface area is described. (orig.)

  2. GROUND WATER ISSUE: STEAM INJECTION FOR SOIL AND AQUIFER REMEDIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this Issue Paper is to provide to those involved in assessing remediation technologies for specific sites basic technical information on the use of steam injection for the remediation of soils and aquifers that are contaminated by volatile or semivolatile organic c...

  3. Regional cerebral blood flow measurement with intravenous [15O]water bolus and [18F]fluoromethane inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herholz, K.; Pietrzyk, U.; Wienhard, K.; Hebold, I.; Pawlik, G.; Wagner, R.; Holthoff, V.; Klinkhammer, P.; Heiss, W.D.

    1989-01-01

    In 20 patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease, classic migraine, or angiomas, we compared paired dynamic positron emission tomographic measurements of regional cerebral blood flow using both [ 15 O]water and [ 18 F]fluoromethane as tracers. Cerebral blood flow was also determined according to the autoradiographic technique with a bolus injection of [ 15 O]water. There were reasonable overall correlations between dynamic [ 15 O]water and [ 18 F]fluoromethane values for cerebral blood flow (r = 0.82) and between dynamic and autoradiographic [ 15 O]water values for cerebral blood flow (r = 0.83). We found a close correspondence between abnormal pathologic findings and visually evaluated cerebral blood flow tomograms obtained with the two tracers. On average, dynamic [ 15 O]water cerebral blood flow was 6% lower than that measured with [ 18 F]fluoromethane. There also was a general trend toward a greater underestimation with [ 15 O]water in high-flow areas, particularly in hyperemic areas, probably due to incomplete first-pass extraction of [ 15 O]water. Underestimation was not detected in low-flow areas or in the cerebellum. Absolute cerebral blood flow values were less closely correlated between tracers and techniques than cerebral blood flow patterns. The variability of the relation between absolute flow values was probably caused by confounding effects of the variation in the circulatory delay time. The autoradiographic technique was most sensitive to this type error

  4. Fault Diagnosis Of A Water For Injection System Using Enhanced Structural Isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Morten; Blanke, Mogens; Düstegör, Dilek

    2008-01-01

    A water for injection system supplies chilled sterile water as solvent to pharmaceutical products. There are ultimate requirements to the quality of the sterile water, and the consequence of a fault in temperature or in flow control within the process may cause loss of one or more batches...

  5. Air-water mixing experiments for direct vessel injection of KNGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Do Hyun

    2000-02-01

    Two air-water mixing experiments are conducted to understand the flow behavior in the downcomer for Direct Vessel Injection (DVI) of Korean Next Generation Reactor (KNGR). In the first experiment which is an air-water experiment in the rectangular channel with the gap size of 1cm, the width of water film is proportional to the water and air velocities and the inclined angle is proportional to the water velocity only, regardless of the water velocity injected in the rectangular channel. It is observed that the amount of entrained water is negligible. In the second experiment which is a full-scaled water jetting experiment without air flow, the width of water film is proportional to the flow rate injected from the pipe exit and the film thickness of water varies from 1.0mm to 5.0mm, and the maximum thickness does not exceed 5.0mm. The amount of water separated from the liquid film after striking of water jetting on the wall is measured. The amount of separation water is proportional to the flow rate, but the separation ratio in the full-scaled water jetting is not over 15%. A simplified physical model, which is designed to predict the trajectories of the width of water film, is validated through the comparison with experiment results. The 13 .deg. upward water droplet of the water injected from the pipe constitutes the outermost boundary at 1.7m below from pipe level, after the water impinges against the wall. In the model, the parameter, η which represents the relationship between the jetting velocity and the initial spreading velocity, is inversely proportional to the water velocity when it impinges against the wall. The error of the predictions by the model is decreased within 14% to the experimental data through use of exponential fitting of η for the jetting water velocity

  6. Performance indicators for water injections projects; Indicadores de desempenho para projetos de injecao de agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hastenreiter, Livia; Correa, Antonio C. de F.; Mendes, Roberta A. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Currently, the water injection process into oil reservoirs is the method of secondary recovery more important to increase the recovery factor. Thus, it is necessary an efficient project management, with constant data acquisitions and interpretation. This paper aims to present some indicators to evaluate the performance of water injection projects. Each indicator is presented based on a methodology that transforms the data collected in information. The results are expressed in graphical form for better viewing of the indicators measurement. (author)

  7. Efficacy of intravenous plus intrathecal/intracerebral ventricle injection of polymyxin B for post-neurosurgical intracranial infections due to MDR/XDR Acinectobacter baumannii: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Sijun; Huang, Xiaofang; Wang, Yesong; Li, Li; Zhao, Changyun; Yao, Zhongxiang; Cui, Wei; Zhang, Gensheng

    2018-01-01

    Post-neurosurgical intracranial infections caused by multidrug-resistant or extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii are difficult to treat and associated with high mortality. In this study, we analyzed the therapeutic efficacy of intravenous combined with intrathecal/intracerebral ventricle injection of polymyxin B for this type of intracranial infection. This retrospective study was conducted from January 2013 to September 2017 at the Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine (Hangzhou,China) and included 61 cases for which cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures were positive for multidrug-resistant or extensively drug-resistant A. baumannii after a neurosurgical operation. Patients treated with intravenous and intrathecal/intracerebral ventricle injection of polymyxin B were assigned to the intrathecal/intracerebral group, and patients treated with other antibiotics without intrathecal/intracerebral injection were assigned to the intravenous group. Data for general information, treatment history, and the results of routine tests and biochemistry indicators in CSF, clinical efficiency, microbiological clearance rate, and the 28-day mortality were collected and analyzed. The rate of multidrug-resistant or extensively drug-resistant A. baumannii infection among patients who experienced an intracranial infection after a neurosurgical operation was 33.64% in our hospital. The isolated A. baumannii were resistant to various antibiotics, and most seriously to carbapenems (100.00% resistance rate to imipenem and meropenem), cephalosporins (resistance rates of 98.38% to cefazolin, 100.00% to ceftazidime, 100.00% to cefatriaxone, and 98.39% to cefepime). However, the isolated A. baumannii were completely sensitive to polymyxin B (sensitivity rate of 100.00%), followed by tigecycline (60.66%) and amikacin (49.18%). No significant differences in basic clinical data were observed between the two groups. Compared with the intravenous group, the

  8. Influence of Steam Injection and Water-in-Oil Emulsions on Diesel Fuel Combustion Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Meagan

    Water injection can be an effective strategy for reducing NOx because water's high specific heat allows it to absorb heat and lower system temperatures. Introducing water as an emulsion can potentially be more effective at reducing emissions than steam injection due to physical properties (such as microexplosions) that can improve atomization and increase mixing. Unfortunately, the immiscibility of emulsions makes them difficult to work with so they must be mixed properly. In this effort, a method for adequately mixing surfactant-free emulsions was established and verified using high speed cinematography. As the water to fuel mass ratio (W/F) increased, emulsion atomization tests showed little change in droplet size and spray angle, but a shorter overall breakup point. Dual-wavelength planar laser induced fluorescence (D-PLIF) patternation showed an increase in water near the center of the spray. Steam injection flames saw little change in reaction stability, but emulsion flames experienced significant losses in stability that limited reaction operability at higher W/F. Emulsions were more effective at reducing NOx than steam injection, likely because of liquid water's latent heat of vaporization and the strategic injection of water into the flame core. OH* chemiluminescence showed a decrease in heat release for both methods, though the decrease was greater for emulsions. Both methods saw decreases in flame length for W/F 0.15. Lastly, flame imaging showed a shift towards a redder appearance with the addition or more water, as well as a reduction in flame flares.

  9. Prediction of the extent of formation damage caused by water injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Homadhi, Emad S. [King Saud Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Petroleum Engineering Dept.

    2013-06-15

    As a general practice water is injected along the O/W contact to maintain reservoir pressure during production. Down hole analysis of the injected water shows that, even after surface treatment, it still can contain a considerable amount of solid particles. These particles can bridge formation pores and cause a considerable reduction in the injectivity. To ensure good injectivity over a longer term, the concentration and size of these solids should not exceed certain limits. In this article core flood tests were carried out to simulate high rate injectors. The injected brine contained solid particles in different concentrations and sizes. Particle concentration was between 5 and 20 ppm and the particle mean size was between 2 and 9 {mu}m. The results were presented as damaging ratio versus pore volume injected. Contrarily to previous studies instead of using experimental results in calibrating or evaluating certain theoretical models, the results in this study were directly fitted to produce equations which can predict the extent of damage caused by injected water by knowing the mean size and concentration of the solid particles contained in that water. (orig.)

  10. Permeability of fissured rock - an experimental study with special regard to the water injection test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    The permeability to water of fissured rock is one of the most important design parameters for many underground projects, such as, e.g. the final deposition of radioactive waste. Because the conventional water injection test according to LUGEON for the calculation of permeability to water is associated with a high degree of uncertainty, new test equipment was developed. This equipment works on the principle of the water injection tracer test and multi-level measurements, enabling detailed measurement of the flow process at injection site and in the rock. The tests were carried out in Bunter sandstone and granite. The LUGEON test concept was varied in short-term and long-term tests at identical geological boundary conditions, and with test control at constant pressure on the one hand and at constant injection volume on the other. The test results show that non-steady-state flow occurs with short injection times, whereby the range is limited to the local rock at injection site. An increasing in injection time can lead to an increase in range by a number of factors as well as to steady-state flow conditions. The permeability of the rock types investigated is inhomgeneous and anistropic as a result of the fissured structure. (orig./HP) With 114 figs., 4 tabs [de

  11. Integrated hydraulic and organophosphate pesticide injection simulations for enhancing event detection in water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Rafi; Lahav, Ori; Ostfeld, Avi

    2014-10-15

    As a complementary step towards solving the general event detection problem of water distribution systems, injection of the organophosphate pesticides, chlorpyrifos (CP) and parathion (PA), were simulated at various locations within example networks and hydraulic parameters were calculated over 24-h duration. The uniqueness of this study is that the chemical reactions and byproducts of the contaminants' oxidation were also simulated, as well as other indicative water quality parameters such as alkalinity, acidity, pH and the total concentration of free chlorine species. The information on the change in water quality parameters induced by the contaminant injection may facilitate on-line detection of an actual event involving this specific substance and pave the way to development of a generic methodology for detecting events involving introduction of pesticides into water distribution systems. Simulation of the contaminant injection was performed at several nodes within two different networks. For each injection, concentrations of the relevant contaminants' mother and daughter species, free chlorine species and water quality parameters, were simulated at nodes downstream of the injection location. The results indicate that injection of these substances can be detected at certain conditions by a very rapid drop in Cl2, functioning as the indicative parameter, as well as a drop in alkalinity concentration and a small decrease in pH, both functioning as supporting parameters, whose usage may reduce false positive alarms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Environmental response nanosilica for reducing the pressure of water injection in ultra-low permeability reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peisong; Niu, Liyong; Li, Xiaohong; Zhang, Zhijun

    2017-12-01

    The super-hydrophobic silica nanoparticles are applied to alter the wettability of rock surface from water-wet to oil-wet. The aim of this is to reduce injection pressure so as to enhance water injection efficiency in low permeability reservoirs. Therefore, a new type of environmentally responsive nanosilica (denote as ERS) is modified with organic compound containing hydrophobic groups and "pinning" groups by covalent bond and then covered with a layer of hydrophilic organic compound by chemical adsorption to achieve excellent water dispersibility. Resultant ERS is homogeneously dispersed in water with a size of about 4-8 nm like a micro-emulsion system and can be easily injected into the macro or nano channels of ultra-low permeability reservoirs. The hydrophobic nanosilica core can be released from the aqueous delivery system owing to its strong dependence on the environmental variation from normal condition to injection wells (such as pH and salinity). Then the exposed silica nanoparticles form a thin layer on the surface of narrow pore throat, leading to the wettability from water-wet to oil-wet. More importantly, the two rock cores with different permeability were surface treated with ERS dispersion with a concentration of 2 g/L, exhibit great reduce of water injection pressure by 57.4 and 39.6%, respectively, which shows great potential for exploitation of crude oil from ultra-low permeability reservoirs during water flooding. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  13. Thermo-hydraulic behavior of saturated steam-water mixture in pressure vessel during injection of cold water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aya, Izuo; Kobayashi, Michiyuki; Inasaka, Fujio; Nariai, Hideki.

    1983-01-01

    The thermo-hydraulic behavior of saturated steam water mixture in a pressure vessel during injection of cold water was experimentally investigated with the Facility for Mixing Effect of Emergency Core Cooling Water. The dimensions of the pressure vessel used in the experiments were 284mm ID and 1,971mm height. 11 experiments were conducted without blowdown in order to comprehend the basic process excluding the effect of blowdown at injection of cold water. The initial pressure and water level, the injection flow rate and the size of injection nozzle were chosen as experimental parameters. Temperatures and void fractions at 6 elevations as well as pressure in the pressure vessel were measured, and new data especially on the pressure undershoot just after the initation of water injection and the vertical distribution of temperature and void fraction were gotten. The transients of pressure, average temperature and void fraction were caluculated using single-volume analysis code BLODAC-1V which is based on thermal equilibrium and so-called bubble gradient model. Some input parameters included in the analysis code were evaluated through the comparison of analysis with experimental data. Moreover, the observed pressure undershoot which is evaluated to be induced by a time lag of vapourization in water due to thermal nonequilibrium, was also discussed with the aid of another simple analysis model. (author)

  14. Effect of cold water injection on operation of and oil production from formations of Romashkino field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingareev, R Sh; Vakhitov, G G; Sultanov, S A

    1968-11-01

    Each year about 130 million cu m of cold water are injected into this field. Since cold water can lower reservoir temperature, increase oil viscosity, deposit paraffin in the formation, and reduce oil recovery, a thermal survey of this field was conducted. The survey showed that the average reservoir temperature was not reduced by cold-water injection for 15 yr. However, local cooling was observed at distances less than 400 m from the water injection well. Through these wells more than 4 PV of water have passed. The thermal front lags 1,500 m behind the advancing water front. For this reason, cold-water injection does not reduce oil recovery where there is uniform advance of the floodwater. When the formation is heterogeneous so that water advances more rapidly in high-permeability sand than in adjoining low-permeability sand, then the cooling effect can reduce oil recovery. For this reason, it is advisable to force water into the entire interval of the oil formation. An isotherm map of the Romashkino field is shown.

  15. Three Dimensional Visualization for the Steam Injection into Water Pool using Electrical Resistance Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khambampati, Anil Kumar; Lee, Jeong Seong; Kim, Sin; Kim, Kyung Youn

    2010-01-01

    The direct injection of steam into a water pool is a method of heat transfer used in many process industries. The amount of research in this area however is limited to the nuclear industry, with applications relating to reactor cooling systems. Electrical resistance tomography (ERT), a low cost, non-invasive and which has high temporal resolution characteristics, can be used as a visualization tool for the resistivity distribution for the steam injection into water pool such as IRWST. In this paper, three dimensional resistivity distribution of the process is obtained through ERT using iterative Gauss-Newton method. Numerical experiments are performed by assuming different resistive objects in the water pool. Numerical results show that ERT is successful in estimating the resistivity distribution for the injection of steam in the water pool

  16. Research on the performance of water-injection twin screw compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianfeng; Wu Huagen; Wang Bingming; Xing Ziwen; Shu Pengcheng

    2009-01-01

    Due to the development of the automotive fuel cell systems, the study on water-injection twin screw compressor has been aroused again. Twin screw compressors with water injection can be used to supply the clean compressed air for the Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems. In this research, a thermodynamic model of the working process of water-injection twin screw compressor was established based on the equations of conservation of mass and energy. The effects of internal leakage and air-water heat transfer were taken into account simultaneously in the present mathematical model. The experiments of the performance of a prototype compressor operating under various conditions were conducted to verify the model. The results show that the predictions of the model are in reasonable agreement with the experimental data.

  17. Evaluation of an accident management strategy of emergency water injection using fire engines in a typical pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Soo Yong; Ahn, Kwang Il

    2015-01-01

    Following the Fukushima accident, a special safety inspection was conducted in Korea. The inspection results show that Korean nuclear power plants have no imminent risk for expected maximum potential earthquake or coastal flooding. However long- and short-term safety improvements do need to be implemented. One of the measures to increase the mitigation capability during a prolonged station blackout (SBO) accident is installing injection flow paths to provide emergency cooling water of external sources using fire engines to the steam generators or reactor cooling systems. This paper illustrates an evaluation of the effectiveness of external cooling water injection strategies using fire trucks during a potential extended SBO accident in a 1,000 MWe pressurized water reactor. With regard to the effectiveness of external cooling water injection strategies using fire engines, the strategies are judged to be very feasible for a long-term SBO, but are not likely to be effective for a short-term SBO

  18. Evaluation of an accident management strategy of emergency water injection using fire engines in a typical pressurized water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soo Yong; Ahn, Kwang Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Following the Fukushima accident, a special safety inspection was conducted in Korea. The inspection results show that Korean nuclear power plants have no imminent risk for expected maximum potential earthquake or coastal flooding. However long- and short-term safety improvements do need to be implemented. One of the measures to increase the mitigation capability during a prolonged station blackout (SBO) accident is installing injection flow paths to provide emergency cooling water of external sources using fire engines to the steam generators or reactor cooling systems. This paper illustrates an evaluation of the effectiveness of external cooling water injection strategies using fire trucks during a potential extended SBO accident in a 1,000 MWe pressurized water reactor. With regard to the effectiveness of external cooling water injection strategies using fire engines, the strategies are judged to be very feasible for a long-term SBO, but are not likely to be effective for a short-term SBO.

  19. The study of indicators of bone marrow and peripheral blood of rats with diabetes and transplanted liver tumor after intravenous injection of gold nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikht, Nataliya I.; Bucharskaya, Alla B.; Maslyakova, Galina N.; Terentyuk, Georgy S.; Matveeva, Olga V.; Navolokin, Nikita A.; Khlebtsov, Boris N.; Khlebtsov, Nikolai G.

    2015-03-01

    In study the evaluation of the influence of gold nanorods on morphological indicators of red bone marrow and peripheral blood of rats with diabetes and transplanted liver tumor after intravenous administration of gold nanorods was conducted. We used gold nanorods with length 41 ± 8 nm and diameter of 10.2±2 nm, synthesized in the laboratory of nanobiotechnology IBPPM RAS (Saratov). After intravenous administration of gold nanorods the decrease of leukocytes, platelets and lymphocytes was observed in animals of control group in blood. It was marked the decrease of the number of mature cellular elements of the leukocyte germ in bone marrow - stab neutrophils and segmented leukocytes, and the increase of immature elements- metamyelocytes, indicating the activation of leukocyte germ after nanoparticle administration. The decrease of leukocyte amount was noted in blood and the increase of cellular elements of the leukocyte germ was revealed in bone marrow, indicating the activation of leukocyte germ in rats with alloxan diabetes and transplanted tumors. The changes of morphological indicators of blood and bone marrow testify about stimulation of myelocytic sprouts of hemopoiesis in bone marrow as a result of reduction of mature cells in peripheral blood after gold nanoparticle administration.

  20. A new approach of proration-injection allocation for water-flooding mature oilfields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyong Hu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method of injection-production allocation estimation for water-flooding mature oilfields. The suggested approach is based on logistic growth rate functions and several type-curve matching methods. Using the relationship between these equations, oil production and water injection rate as well as injection-production ratio can be easily forecasted. The calculation procedure developed and outlined in this paper requires very few production data and is easily implemented. Furthermore, an oilfield case has been analyzed. The synthetic and field cases validate the calculation procedure, so it can be accurately used in forecasting production data, and it is important to optimize the whole injection-production system.

  1. Determination of nitrate in water by flow-injection analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikuška, Pavel; Večeřa, Zbyněk

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2001), s. 115-120 ISSN 1231-7098 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/98/0943 Grant - others:COPERNICUS(BE) SUB-AERO EVK2-1999-000327 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : nitrate * chemiluminescence * water Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  2. Investigation of Cooling Water Injection into Supersonic Rocket Engine Exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Hansen; Jeansonne, Christopher; Menon, Shyam

    2017-11-01

    Water spray cooling of the exhaust plume from a rocket undergoing static testing is critical in preventing thermal wear of the test stand structure, and suppressing the acoustic noise signature. A scaled test facility has been developed that utilizes non-intrusive diagnostic techniques including Focusing Color Schlieren (FCS) and Phase Doppler Particle Anemometry (PDPA) to examine the interaction of a pressure-fed water jet with a supersonic flow of compressed air. FCS is used to visually assess the interaction of the water jet with the strong density gradients in the supersonic air flow. PDPA is used in conjunction to gain statistical information regarding water droplet size and velocity as the jet is broken up. Measurement results, along with numerical simulations and jet penetration models are used to explain the observed phenomena. Following the cold flow testing campaign a scaled hybrid rocket engine will be constructed to continue tests in a combusting flow environment similar to that generated by the rocket engines tested at NASA facilities. LaSPACE.

  3. Hemodynamic effects of ropivacaine and levobupivacaine intravenous injection in swines Efeitos hemodinâmicos da injeção endovenosa de ropivacaína e levobupivacaína em suínos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Udelsmann

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare the hemodynamic effects following a toxic dose of either agent after intravenous injection in swines, as might accidentally occur during regional anesthesia in humans. METHODS: Large White pigs were anesthetized with thiopental, tracheal intubation was performed and mechanical ventilation was instituted. Hemodynamic variables were recorded with invasive pressure monitoring and pulmonary artery catheterization. After a 30-minute resting period, the animals were randomly divided into two groups in a double-blinded fashion and received a bolus intravenous injection of 4 mg.kg-1 of either agent. Hemodynamic results were evaluated at rest and 1, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 minutes after intoxication. RESULTS: Hemodynamic repressions of acute intoxication with levobupivacaine were more important and more prolonged than those of ropivacaína. CONCLUSION: In pigs, levobupivacaine was shown to be more toxic than ropivacaine when the same large doses are injected intravenously.OBJETIVO: Comparar as repercussões hemodinâmicas após a injeção endovenosa dos dois agentes em suínos simulando a intoxicação que pode ocorrer durante uma anestesia locorregional em humanos. MÉTODOS: Suínos da raça Large-White foram anestesiados com tiopental, realizada intubação traqueal e instituída ventilação controlada mecânica. As variáveis hemodinâmicas foram medidas através de monitorização invasiva da pressão arterial e cateterização de artéria pulmonar. Após período de repouso de 30 minutos os animais foram aleatoriamente e em duplo-cego divididos em dois grupos e receberam por via endovenosa 4 mg.kg-1 de um ou outro agente. Os resultados hemodinâmicos foram avaliados em repouso e 1, 5, 10, 15, 20 e 30 minutos após a intoxicação. RESULTADOS: As repercussões hemodinâmicas da intoxicação aguda com levobupivacaína foram mais importantes e mais prolongadas do que as com ropivacaína. CONCLUSÃO: Em suínos, a levobupivaca

  4. Construction of a Direct Water-Injected Two-Stroke Engine for Phased Direct Fuel Injection-High Pressure Charging Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somsel, James P.

    1998-01-01

    The development of a water injected Orbital Combustion Process (OCP) engine was conducted to assess the viability of using the powerplant for high altitude NASA aircraft and General Aviation (GA) applications. An OCP direct fuel injected, 1.2 liter, three cylinder, two-stroke engine has been enhanced to independently inject water directly into the combustion chamber. The engine currently demonstrates low brake specific fuel consumption capability and an excellent power to weight ratio. With direct water injection, significant improvements can be made to engine power, to knock limits/ignition advance timing, and to engine NO(x) emissions. The principal aim of the testing was to validate a cyclic model developed by the Systems Analysis Branch at NASA Ames Research Center. The work is a continuation of Ames' investigations into a Phased Direct Fuel Injection Engine with High Pressure Charging (PDFI-ITPC).

  5. Experimental investigation of the effects of direct water injection parameters on engine performance in a six-stroke engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arabaci, Emre; İçingür, Yakup; Solmaz, Hamit; Uyumaz, Ahmet; Yilmaz, Emre

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Exhaust gas temperature and specific fuel consumption decreased with six stroke engine. • Thermal efficiency increased with water injection. • NO emissions decreased with water injection as the temperature decreased at the end of cycle. • Injection timing should be advanced with the increase of engine speed. • HC and CO emissions decrease until 3000 rpm engine speed. - Abstract: In this study, the effects of water injection quantity and injection timing were investigated on engine performance and exhaust emissions in a six-stroke engine. For this purpose, a single cylinder, four-stroke gasoline engine was converted to six-stroke engine modifying a new cam mechanism and adapting the water injection system. The experiments were conducted at stoichometric air/fuel ratio (λ = 1) between 2250 and 3500 rpm engine speed at full load with liquid petroleum gas. Water injection was performed at three different stages as before top dead center, top dead center and after top dead center at constant injection duration and four different injection pressure 25, 50, 75 and 100 bar. The test results showed that exhaust gas temperature and specific fuel consumption decreased by about 7% and 9% respectively. In contrast, fuel consumption and power output increased 2% and 10% respectively with water injection. Thermal efficiency increased by about 8.72% with water injection. CO and HC emissions decreased 21.97% and 18.23% until 3000 rpm respectively. NO emissions decreased with water injection as the temperature decreased at the end of cycle. As a result, it was seen that engine performance improved when suitable injection timing and injected water quantity were selected due to effect of exhaust heat recovery with water injection

  6. In situ water and gas injection experiments performed in the Hades Underground Research Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volckaert, G.; Ortiz, L.; Put, M. [SCK-CEN, Mol (Belgium). Geological Waste Disposal Unit

    1995-12-31

    The movement of water and gas through plastic clay is an important subject in the research at SCK-CEN on the possible disposal of high level radioactive waste in the Boom clay layer at Mol. Since the construction of the Hades underground research facility in 1983, SCK-CEN has developed and installed numerous piezometers for the geohydrologic characterization and for in situ radionuclide migration experiments. In situ gas and water injection experiments have been performed at two different locations in the underground laboratory. The first location is a multi filter piezometer installed vertically at the bottom of the shaft in 1986. The second location is a three dimensional configuration of four horizontal multi piezometers installed from the gallery. This piezometer configuration was designed for the MEGAS (Modelling and Experiments on GAS migration through argillaceous rocks) project and installed in 1992. It contains 29 filters at distances between 10 m and 15 m from the gallery in the clay. Gas injection experiments show that gas breakthrough occurs at a gas overpressure of about 0.6 MPa. The breakthrough occurs by the creation of gas pathways along the direction of lowest resistance i.e. the zone of low effective stress resulting from the drilling of the borehole. The water injections performed in a filter -- not used for gas injection -- show that the flow of water is also influenced by the mechanical stress conditions. Low effective stress leads to higher hydraulic conductivity. However, water overpressures up to 1.3 MPa did not cause hydrofracturing. Water injections performed in a filter previously used for gas injections, show that the occluded gas hinders the water flow and reduces the hydraulic conductivity by a factor two.

  7. Effect Of Hot Water Injection On Sandstone Permeability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbrand, Esther; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2012-01-01

    of published results regarding the effect of temperature on sandstone permeability. These tests are performed with mineral oil, nitrogen gas, distilled water and solutions of NaCl, KCl, CaCl2 as well as brines that contain a mixture of salts. Thirteen sandstone formations, ranging from quartz arenites...... to formations with a significant fraction of fine particles including clay minerals are investigated. The porosities range from 0.10 to 0.30 and permeabilities span the range from 1 to 1000 md. To compare different rock types, specific surface is determined from permeability and porosity using Kozeny’s equation...... not account for all the permeability reductions observed. Permeablity reduction occurs both when distilled water is the saturating fluid as well as in tests with NaCl, KCl or CaCl2 solutions, however, this is not the case in tests with mineral oil or nitrogen gas. The formation of a filter cake or influx...

  8. Assessment of ground water quality in a fractured aquifer under continue wastewater injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrieri, C.; Masciopinto, C.

    2000-01-01

    Experimental studies have been carried out in a fractured coastal aquifer of the Salento Region (Nardo' (Le) Italy), subject since 1991 to injection of 12000 m 3 /d of treated municipal wastewater in a natural sink. The analytical parameters of ground water sampled in monitoring wells, have been compared before and after the injection started. The mound of water table (1.5 m), the reduction of seawater extent of 2 km and the spreading of pollutants injected were evaluated by means of mathematical model results. After ten years operation, the volume of the available resource for agricultural and drinking use has been increased, without notable decrease of the pre existent ground water quality. Moreover for preserving such resource from pollution, the mathematical model allowed the standards of wastewater quality for recharge to be identified. Around the sink, a restricted area was also defined with prohibition of withdrawals, to avoid infection and other risks on human health [it

  9. SATCAP-C : a program for thermal hydraulic design of pressurized water injection type capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harayama, Yasuo; Someya, Hiroyuki; Asoh, Tomokazu; Niimi, Motoji

    1992-10-01

    There are capsules called 'Pressure Water Injection Type Capsule' as a kind of irradiation devices at the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). A type of the capsules is a 'Boiling Water Capsule' (usually named BOCA). The other type is a 'Saturated Temperature Capsule' (named SATCAP). When the water is kept at a constant pressure, the water temperature does not become higher than the saturated temperature so far as the water does not fully change to steam. These type capsules are designed on the basis of the conception of applying the water characteristic to the control of irradiation temperature of specimens in the capsules. In designing of the capsules in which the pressurized water is injected, thermal performances have to be understood as exactly as possible. It is not easy however to predict thermal performances such as axially temperature distribution of water injected in the capsule, because there are heat-sinks at both side of inner and outer of capsule casing as the result that the water is fluid. Then, a program (named SATCAP-C) for the BOCA and SATCAP was compiled to grasp the thermal performances in the capsules and has been used the design of the capsules and analysis of the data obtained from some actual irradiation capsules. It was confirmed that the program was effective in thermal analysis for the capsules. The analysis found out the values for heat transfer coefficients at various surfaces of capsule components and some thermal characteristics of capsules. (author)

  10. Water injection into vapor- and liquid-dominated reservoirs: Modeling of heat transfer and mass transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruess, K.; Oldenburg, C.; Moridis, G.; Finsterle, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper summarizes recent advances in methods for simulating water and tracer injection, and presents illustrative applications to liquid- and vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs. High-resolution simulations of water injection into heterogeneous, vertical fractures in superheated vapor zones were performed. Injected water was found to move in dendritic patterns, and to experience stronger lateral flow effects than predicted from homogeneous medium models. Higher-order differencing methods were applied to modeling water and tracer injection into liquid-dominated systems. Conventional upstream weighting techniques were shown to be adequate for predicting the migration of thermal fronts, while higher-order methods give far better accuracy for tracer transport. A new fluid property module for the TOUGH2 simulator is described which allows a more accurate description of geofluids, and includes mineral dissolution and precipitation effects with associated porosity and permeability change. Comparisons between numerical simulation predictions and data for laboratory and field injection experiments are summarized. Enhanced simulation capabilities include a new linear solver package for TOUGH2, and inverse modeling techniques for automatic history matching and optimization.

  11. Perspectives on Severe Accident Management by Depressurization and External Water Injection under Extended SBO Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seol, Wookcheol; Park, Jongwoon

    2014-01-01

    Three major issues of severe accident management guideline (SAMG) after this sort of extended SBO would be depressurization of the primary system, external water injection and hydrogen management inside a containment. Under this situation, typical SAM actions would be depressurization and external water delivery into the core. However, limited amount of external water would necessitate optimization between core cooling, containment integrity and fission product removal. In this paper, effects of SAM actions such as depressurization and external water injection on the reactor and containment conditions after extended SBO are analyzed using MAAP4 code. Positive and negative aspects are discussed with respect to core cooling and fission product retention inside a primary system. Conclusions are made as following: Firstly, early depressurization action itself has two-faces: positive with respect to delay of the reactor vessel failure but negative with respect to the containment failure and fission product retention inside the primary system. Secondly, in order to prevent containment overpressure failure after external water injection, re-closing of PORV later should be considered in SAM, which has never been considered in the previous SAMG. Finally, in case of external water injection, the flow rate should be optimized considering not only the cooling effect but also the long term fission product retention inside the primary system

  12. Study on the integration of layered water injection technology and subdivision adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yancui

    2018-06-01

    With oil many infillings, thin and poor reservoir exploitation changes gradually to low permeability, thin and poor reservoir development characteristics of multiple layers thickness, low permeability, in the actual development process, the General Department of oil layers of encryption perforation long thin and poor mining, interlayer contradiction more prominent, by conventional layered water injection that can alleviate the contradiction between layers to a certain extent, by the injection interval and other factors can not fundamentally solve the problem, leading to the potential well area key strata or layers is difficult to determine, the layering test and slicing technology is difficult to adapt to the need of tap water control block. This paper through numerical simulation using the conceptual model and the actual block, it has a great influence on the low permeability reservoir of different stratified water permeability combination of permeability technology and application limits, profit and loss balance principle, low oil prices on the lower series of subdivision technical and economic limit, so the reservoir subdivision reorganization, narrow wells mining, reduce the interference between layers, from the maximum fundamental improvement of layered water injection efficiency. At the same time, in order to meet the needs of reservoir subdivision adjustment, subdividing distance with water, a small interlayer wells subdivision technology for further research in the pickup, solved using two ordinary bridge eccentric water regulator with injection of two layers, by throwing exercise distance limit card from the larger problem, the water distribution card size from 7.0m to 1.0m, and the testing efficiency is improved, and provide technical support for further subdivision water injection wells.

  13. The analysis of scaling mechanism for water-injection pipe columns in the Daqing Oilfield

    OpenAIRE

    Jing, Guolin; Tang, Shan; Li, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Huaiyuan

    2013-01-01

    Although water-injection in mature reservoirs is a promising low-cost method of enhanced oil recovery (EOR), in the process of development in the oilfield, scale has been produced in water-injection pipe columns. The ability to prevent and control the deposition of scale is critical to the efficient recovery of crude oil from hard environments, as part of the broader discipline of “flow assurance” in the petroleum industry. To this end laboratory-scale deposition tests have been useful to und...

  14. An additive to well injection water for increasing the oil yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Absov, M.T.; Abutalybov, M.G.; Aslanov, S.M.; Movruzov, E.N.; Musaev, R.A.; Tairov, N.D.

    1979-03-05

    This invention relates to oil production using flooding. The goal of this invention is to increase the oil yield of a producing formation. This is achieved by using a saponin solution as an additive to the water injected into the formation (with related organic substances which are complex organic nitrogen-free compounds from the glycoside group; these substances yield solution that foam easily with an agitation). The use of saponin facilitates good solubility in fresh, sea and formation (alkaline and hard) waters, as well as the absence of sediment formation during dissolution, low solid adsorption, and a significant decrease in the surface water tension on the oil-water boundary. The aqueous saponin solution makes it possible to decrease the production cost of oil, as well as to decrease the development time of the fields and the volume of water injected into the formation and to significantly increase the oil yield.

  15. Teduglutide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who need additional nutrition or fluids from intravenous (IV) therapy. Teduglutide injection is in a class of medications ... of the ingredients.tell your doctor and pharmacist what other prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking ...

  16. Can Water-Injected Turbomachines Provide Cost-Effective Emissions and Maintenance Reductions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Daggett, David L.; Shouse, Dale T.; Roquemore, William M.; Brankovic, Andreja; Ryder, Robert C., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    An investigation has been performed to evaluate the effect of water injection on the performance of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB)) experimental trapped vortex combustor (TVC) over a range of fuel-to-air and water-to-fuel ratios. Performance is characterized by combustor exit quantities: temperature and emissions measurements using rakes, and overall pressure drop, from upstream plenum to combustor exit. Combustor visualization is performed using gray-scale and color still photographs and high-frame-rate videos. A parallel investigation evaluated the performance of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool for the prediction of the reacting flow in a liquid fueled combustor (e.g., TVC) that uses water injection for control of pollutant emissions and turbine inlet temperature. Generally, reasonable agreement is found between data and NO(x) computations. Based on a study assessing the feasibility and performance impact of using water injection on a Boeing 747-400 aircraft to reduce NO(x) emissions during takeoff, retrofitting does not appear to be cost effective; however, an operator of a newly designed engine and airframe might be able to save up to 1.0 percent in operating costs. Other challenges of water injection will be discussed.

  17. Evaluation the short term effects on serum creatinine concentration in patients with normal renal function, mild and moderate renal insufficiency after intravenous injection of gadopentetate dimeglumine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Jian; Liu Jing; Wang Xiaoying; Yang Xuedong; Jiang Xuexiang

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effects of gadopentetate dimeglumine injection on renal function. Methods: The study included 623 consecutive patients. Their serum creatinine concentrations before and within 3 days after injection of gadopentetate dimeglumine were analyzed. Their eGFR (estimated glomerular filtration rate) were calculated. Patients were divided into two groups according to their injection dose: group received single dose and group received double dose. Patients in each group were subdivided into three subgroups according to their eGFR: subgroup of normal renal function, subgroup of mild renal insufficiency and subgroup of moderate renal insufficiency. Paried sample t test and group design paired sample Rank Sum test were used for statistical analysis. Results: There was no adverse reaction or occurrence of acute renal insufficiency. The mean level of serum creatinine dropped from (74.0± 17.2) μmol/L to (71.5±19.0) μmol/L (t=5.39, P 0.05) in subgroup of mild renal insufficiency under group received double dose and increased from (118.3±15.3) μmol/L to (135.7±8.5) μmol/L (t=2.02, P<0.05) in subgroup of moderate renal insufficiency under group received double dose, the mean level of serum creatinine dropped in all other subgroups. Conclusions: Single dose gadopentetate dimeglumine is safe for patients with normal renal function and mild, moderate renal insufficiency in short term, but patients with abnormal renal function should be followed up after double dose injection. (authors)

  18. Synthesis and evaluation of inhaled [11C]butane and intravenously injected [11C]acetone as potential radiotracers for studying inhalant abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerasimov, Madina R.; Ferrieri, Richard A.; Pareto, Deborah; Logan, Jean; Alexoff, David; Ding Yushin

    2005-01-01

    The phenomenon of inhalant abuse is a growing problem in the US and many countries around the world. Yet, relatively little is known about the pharmacokinetic properties of inhalants that underlie their abuse potential. While the synthesis of 11 C-labeled toluene, acetone and butane has been proposed in the literature, none of these compounds has been developed as radiotracers for PET studies. In the present report we extend our previous studies with [ 11 C]toluene to include [ 11 C]acetone and [ 11 C]butane with the goal of comparing the pharmacokinetic profiles of these three volatile abused substances. Both [ 11 C]toluene and [ 11 C]acetone were administered intravenously and [ 11 C]butane was administered via inhalation to anesthesized baboons. Rapid and efficient uptake of radiolabeled toluene and acetone into the brain was followed by fast clearance in the case of toluene and slower kinetics in the case of acetone. [ 11 C]Butane was detected in the blood and brain following inhalation, but the levels of radioactivity in both tissues dropped to half of the maximal values over the period of less than a minute. To our knowledge, this is the first reported study of the in vivo brain pharmacokinetics of labeled acetone and butane in nonhuman primates. These data provide insight into the pharmacokinetic features possibly associated with the abuse liability of toluene, acetone and butane

  19. Comparative Evaluation of U.S. Brand and Generic Intravenous Sodium Ferric Gluconate Complex in Sucrose Injection: In Vitro Cellular Uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency anemia is a common clinical consequence for people who suffer from chronic kidney disease, especially those requiring dialysis. Intravenous (IV iron therapy is a widely accepted safe and efficacious treatment for iron deficiency anemia. Numerous IV iron drugs have been approved by U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA, including a single generic product, sodium ferric gluconate complex in sucrose. In this study, we compared the cellular iron uptake profiles of the brand (Ferrlecit® and generic sodium ferric gluconate (SFG products. We used a colorimetric assay to examine the amount of iron uptake by three human macrophage cell lines. This is the first published study to provide a parallel evaluation of the cellular uptake of a brand and a generic IV iron drug in a mononuclear phagocyte system. The results showed no difference in iron uptake across all cell lines, tested doses, and time points. The matching iron uptake profiles of Ferrlecit® and its generic product support the FDA’s present position detailed in the draft guidance on development of SFG complex products that bioequivalence can be based on qualitative (Q1 and quantitative (Q2 formulation sameness, similar physiochemical characterization, and pharmacokinetic bioequivalence studies.

  20. A randomized clinical trial to compare the efficacy of submucosal aprotinin injection and intravenous dexamethasone in reducing pain and swelling after third molar surgery: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakeri, Gururaj; Rai, Kirthi Kumar; Shivakumar, H R; Jayade, Bhushan

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare two different groups of drugs, aprotinin and dexamethasone for its efficacy in reducing post operative swelling and pain after third molar surgery. Fifty consecutive patients requiring surgical removal of single mandibular third molar (class II position B) under local anesthesia were randomly divided into two groups, each group consisting of 25 patients. One group was administered 8 mg dexamethasone through intravenous route pre-operatively. The other group received 1 ml of Aprotinin through submucosal route in operating area after the onset of local anesthesia. Swelling was assessed by measuring facial contours at baseline and at 1st, 3rd and 7th post-operative days. Pain was measured on the 1st, 3rd and 7th post-operative days using visual analog scale. Based on statistical analysis (paired t test and Wilcoxon's signed ranking test), the results showed statistically significant difference in post operative swelling and pain on 3rd postoperative day in dexamethasone group as compared to aprotinin group. The results of present study showed a similar reduction in the severity of pain and swelling at the aprotinin and dexamethasone sites on 1st and 7th postoperative day. It was also noticed that the aprotinin promoted a greater reduction of swelling and pain on 3rd postoperative day. It appeared that, benefits of aprotinin against the risks of dexamethasone and its efficacy in controlling pain and swelling after third molar surgery makes aprotinin to be a valuable alternative to dexamethasone.

  1. Does intravenous ketamine enhance analgesia after arthroscopic shoulder surgery with ultrasound guided single-injection interscalene block?: a randomized, prospective, double-blind trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jae Hee; Kim, Youn Jin; Baik, Hee Jung; Han, Jong In; Chung, Rack Kyung

    2014-07-01

    Ketamine has anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antihyperalgesic effect and prevents pain associated with wind-up. We investigated whether low doses of ketamine infusion during general anesthesia combined with single-shot interscalene nerve block (SSISB) would potentiate analgesic effect of SSISB. Forty adult patients scheduled for elective arthroscopic shoulder surgery were enrolled and randomized to either the control group or the ketamine group. All patients underwent SSISB and followed by general anesthesia. During an operation, intravenous ketamine was infused to the patients of ketamine group continuously. In control group, patients received normal saline in volumes equivalent to ketamine infusions. Pain score by numeric rating scale was similar between groups at 1, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 hr following surgery, which was maintained lower than 3 in both groups. The time to first analgesic request after admission on post-anesthesia care unit was also not significantly different between groups. Intraoperative low dose ketamine did not decrease acute postoperative pain after arthroscopic shoulder surgery with a preincisional ultrasound guided SSISB. The preventive analgesic effect of ketamine could be mitigated by SSISB, which remains one of the most effective methods of pain relief after arthroscopic shoulder surgery.

  2. Investigation of Amourphous Deposits and Potential Corrosion Mechanisms in Offshore Water Injection Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eroini, Violette; Oehler, Mike Christian; Graver, Britt Kathrine

    2017-01-01

    Increasing incidence of amorphous deposits in both production and water injection systems has caused considerable problems for offshore oil fields. Amorphous deposits, which are a widely recognized, but often poorly explained phenomenon, are typically comprised of both organic (biological...... or hydrocarbons) and inorganic material, but with compositions that vary considerably. One recurrent form of deposits, found in offshore water injection flowlines and wells, consisting mainly of magnetite as the corrosion product, was further investigated with the objectives of explaining its formation......, composed of both organic and inorganic compounds, has caused concerns within operating assets due to the detrimental effect on production and injection, in addition to challenges with intervention and integrity. The variety of deposits and poor understanding of their nature has led to confusion...

  3. Role of passive valves & devices in poison injection system of advanced heavy water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapra, M.K.; Kundu, S.; Vijayan, P.K.; Vaze, K.K.; Sinha, R.K.

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) is a 300 MWe pressure tube type boiling light water (H 2 O) cooled, heavy water (D 2 O) moderated reactor. The reactor design is based on well-proven water reactor technologies and incorporates a number of passive safety features such as natural circulation core cooling; direct in-bundle injection of light water coolant during a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) from Advanced Accumulators and Gravity Driven Water Pool by passive means; Passive Decay Heat Removal using Isolation Condensers, Passive Containment Cooling System and Passive Containment Isolation System. In addition to above, there is another passive safety system named as Passive Poison Injection System (PPIS) which is capable of shutting down the reactor for a prolonged time. It is an additional safety system in AHWR to fulfill the shutdown function in the event of failure of wired shutdown systems i.e. primary and secondary shut down systems of the reactor. When demanded, PPIS injects the liquid poison into the moderator by passive means using passive valves and devices. On increase of main heat transport (MHT) system pressure beyond a predetermined value, a set of rupture disks burst, which in-turn actuate the passive valve. The opening of passive valve initiates inrush of high pressure helium gas into poison tanks to push the poison into the moderator system, thereby shutting down the reactor. This paper primarily deals with design and development of Passive Poison Injection System (PPIS) and its passive valves & devices. Recently, a prototype DN 65 size Poison Injection Passive Valve (PIPV) has been developed for AHWR usage and tested rigorously under simulated conditions. The paper will highlight the role of passive valves & devices in PPIS of AHWR. The design concept and test results of passive valves along with rupture disk performance will also be covered. (author)

  4. Injection and Combustion of RME with Water Emulsions in a Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cisek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents ways of using the fully-digitised triggerable AVL VideoScope 513D video system for analysing the injection and combustion inside a diesel engine cylinder fuelled by RME with water emulsions.The research objects were: standard diesel fuel, rapeseed methyl ester (RME and RME – water emulsions. With the aid of a helical flow reactor, stable emulsions with the water fraction up to 30 % weight were obtained, using an additive to prevent the water from separating out of the emulsion.An investigation was made of the effect of the emulsions on exhaust gas emissions (NOX, CO and HC, particulate matter emissions, smoke and the fuel consumption of a one-cylinder HD diesel engine with direct injection. Additionally, the maximum cylinder pressure rise was calculated from the indicator diagram. The test engine was operated at a constant speed of 1 600 rpm and 4 bar BMEP load conditions. The fuel injection and combustion processes were observed and analysed using endoscopes and a digital camera. The temperature distribution in the combustion chamber was analysed quantitatively using the two-colour method. The injection and combustion phenomena were described and compared.A way to reduce NOX formation in the combustion chamber of diesel engines by adding water in the combustion zone was presented. Evaporating water efficiently lowers the peak flame temperature and the temperature in the post-flame zone. For diesel engines, there is an exponential relationship between NOX emissions and peak combustion temperatures. The energy needed to vaporize the water results in lower peak temperatures of the combusted gases, with a consequent reduction in nitrogen oxide formation. The experimental results show up to 50 % NOX emission reduction with the use of 30% water in an RME emulsion, with unchanged engine performance.

  5. Test facility for fast gas injections into a vessel filled with water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, D.; Kirstahler, M.

    1987-11-01

    The Fast Gas Injection Facility (SGI) was set up to study the hydrodynamics during the expansion of a gas bubble into a vessel filled with water. The gas stored in a pressure vessel expands against gravity through a circular duct into a large cylindrical vessel partly with water. This report covers the description of the test facility and the data acquisition. Results of the first test series are added. (orig.) [de

  6. Method for reducing heat loss during injection of hot water into an oil stratum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evgenev, A E; Kalashnikov, V N; Raiskii, Yu D

    1968-07-01

    A method is described for reduction of heat loss during the injection of hot water into an oil stratum. During the transportation of the hot water to the face of the bore holes, it has high-molecular polymers added to it. The high-molecular polymer may be guanidine or polyoxyethylene in the quantity of 0.01 to 0.03% by wt.

  7. Ground-Water Nutrient Flux to Coastal Waters and Numerical Simulation of Wastewater Injection at Kihei, Maui, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Charles D.

    2007-01-01

    Water sampling and numerical modeling were used to estimate ground-water nutrient fluxes in the Kihei area of Maui, where growth of macroalgae (seaweed) on coral reefs raises ecologic concerns and accumulation on beaches has caused odor and removal problems. Fluxes and model results are highly approximate, first-order estimates because very few wells were sampled and there are few field data to constrain model calibration. Ground-water recharge was estimated to be 22.6 Mgal/d (million gallons per day) within a 73-square-mile area having a coastline length of 8 miles or 13 km (kilometers). Nearly all of the recharge discharges at the coast because ground-water withdrawals are small. Another 3.0 Mgal/d of tertiary-treated wastewater effluent is injected into the regional aquifer at a County treatment plant midway along the coast and about a mile from shore. The injection plume is 0.93 miles wide (1.5 km) at the shore, as estimated from a three-dimensional numerical ground-water model. Wastewater injected beneath the brackish ground-water lens rises buoyantly and spreads out at the top of the lens, diverting and mixing with ambient ground water. Ground water discharging from the core of the injection plume is less than 5 years old and is about 60 percent effluent at the shore, according to the model. Dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in treated effluent were 7.33 and 1.72 milligrams per liter, roughly 6 and 26 times background concentrations at an upgradient well. Background nitrogen and phosphorus fluxes carried by ground water are 7.7 and 0.44 kg/d-km (kilograms per day per kilometer of coast). Injected wastewater fluxes distributed across the plume width are 55 and 13 kg/d-km nitrogen and phosphorus, roughly 7 and 30 times background flux. However, not all of the injected load reaches coastal waters because nutrients are naturally attenuated in the oxygen-depleted effluent plume. Water from a downgradient well reflects this attenuation and provides a

  8. Performance of single cylinder, direct injection Diesel engine using water fuel emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Zaid, M.

    2004-01-01

    A single cylinder Diesel engine study of water-in-Diesel emulsions was conducted to investigate the effect of water emulsification on the engine performance and gases exhaust temperature. Emulsified Diesel fuels of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 water/Diesel ratios by volume, were used in a single cylinder, direct injection Diesel engine, operating at 1200-3300 rpm. The results indicate that the addition of water in the form of emulsion improves combustion efficiency. The engine torque, power and brake thermal efficiency increase as the water percentage in the emulsion increases. The average increase in the brake thermal efficiency for 20% water emulsion is approximately 3.5% over the use of Diesel for the engine speed range studied. The proper brake specific fuel consumption and gases exhaust temperature decrease as the percentage of water in the emulsion increases

  9. The Effect of Temperature and Injection Rate during Water Flooding Using Carbonate Core Samples: An Experimental Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaser Ahmadi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In many reservoirs, after water flooding, a large volume of oil is still left behind. Hot water injection is the most basic type of thermal recovery which increase recovery by improved sweep efficiency and thermal expansion of crude.In the present work, the effects of injection rate and the temperature of the injected water were surveyed by using core flooding apparatus. Water flooding was performed at different rates (0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 cc/min and temperatures (20 and 90 °C, and the reservoir temperature was about 63 °C. Oil recovery during hot water injection was more than water injection. Moreover, it was concluded that at injection rates of 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 cc/min breakthrough time in hot water injection occurred 10 min later in comparison to water injection. The results showed that higher oil recovery and longer breakthrough time were obtained as a result of reducing injection rate. In the first 50 minutes, the oil recovery at injection rates of 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 cc/min was 27.5, 34, and 46% respectively. It was found that at the beginning of injection, thermal and non-thermal injection recovery factors are approximately equal. Moreover, according to the results, recovery factor at the lowest rate in hot water (T=90 °C and q=0.2 cc/min is the best condition to obtain the highest recovery.

  10. Accident tolerant high-pressure helium injection system concept for light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massey, Caleb; Miller, James; Vasudevamurthy, Gokul

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Potential helium injection strategy is proposed for LWR accident scenarios. • Multiple injection sites are proposed for current LWR designs. • Proof-of-concept experimentation illustrates potential helium injection benefits. • Computational studies show an increase in pressure vessel blowdown time. • Current LOCA codes have the capability to include helium for feasibility calculations. - Abstract: While the design of advanced accident-tolerant fuels and structural materials continues to remain the primary focus of much research and development pertaining to the integrity of nuclear systems, there is a need for a more immediate, simple, and practical improvement in the severe accident response of current emergency core cooling systems. Current blowdown and reflood methodologies under accident conditions still allow peak cladding temperatures to approach design limits and detrimentally affect the integrity of core components. A high-pressure helium injection concept is presented to enhance accident tolerance by increasing operator response time while maintaining lower peak cladding temperatures under design basis and beyond design basis scenarios. Multiple injection sites are proposed that can be adapted to current light water reactor designs to minimize the need for new infrastructure, and concept feasibility has been investigated through a combination of proof-of-concept experimentation and computational modeling. Proof-of-concept experiments show promising cooling potential using a high-pressure helium injection concept, while the developed choked-flow model shows core depressurization changes with added helium injection. Though the high-pressure helium injection concept shows promise, future research into the evaluation of system feasibility and economics are needed.Classification: L. Safety and risk analysis

  11. Immunomodulatory treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin and prednisone in patients with recurrent miscarriage and implantation failure after in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyborg, Kathinka Marie; Kolte, Astrid Marie; Larsen, Elisabeth Clare

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess outcome in terms of live-birth rate after fresh or frozen IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles where immunomodulation was given to patients with recurrent pregnancy loss after prior ART treatments. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study....... SETTING: Tertiary care university hospital. PATIENT(S): Fifty-two patients with a history of at least three consecutive pregnancy losses after ART who underwent at least one further ART cycle with concurrent immunomodulation in 2003-2012. INTERVENTION(S): Immunomodulation with IV immunoglobulin...... and prednisone starting from before ET and continuing in the first trimester if pregnancy was established. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Live-birth rate per ET and cumulative live-birth rate after up to five ETs. RESULT(S): Nineteen patients (36.5%) achieved a live birth after the first ET with immunomodulation...

  12. Comparison of clinical applications of single-dose intravenous injection of mivacurium and cisatracurium in adults’ vocalcordpolyps resection under self-retaining laryngoscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Fanglei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Through comparing the clinical observation of mivacurium and cisatracurium in vocal polyp extraction, to study the advantage of mivacurium in vocal polyp extraction. Methods: Forty American Society of Anesthesiologists(ASA physical status I~II patients for vocal polyp extraction, aged 18~60 years old, were randomly divided into two groups as Mivacurium injection group(Group M and Cis-atracurium injection group(Group C, each group includes 20 subjects. None of the patients are allergic, has serious diseases of cardiovascular system, liver or kidney.None of them has asthma, airway high response, difficult airway or neuromuscular diseases.Those patients who use beta-blockers or calcium channel blockers for a long time were excluded .All the subjects had the same premedication, fasting and fluid fobidden time. All the subjects who get into the operating room get the routine monitoring of electrocardiogram(EEG, blood pressure(BP, heart rate(HR, pulse oxygen saturation(SpO2 and the TOF WATCH SX. Each group gives the same medicine other than the muscle relaxant during induction of general anesthesia to do the vocal polyp extraction by the same experienced operator. Two groups were recorded in each index of anesthesia induction and tracheal intubation conditions, operation conditions, anesthesia, muscle relaxation monitoring. Results: There are no statistically significant in Cormack-Lehane grading system,Cooper’s grading system and operation satifaction(p>0.05. 2. Group A have shorter intubation time than Group B(p0.05. Conclusion: 1. A single intubating dose of mivacurium can provide similar intubation and surgeon satisfaction for the vocal polyp extraction. 2. Compared with cis-atracurium, mivacurium can shorten the intubation time and the recovery time of anesthesia. The adverse reactions of mivacurium is mild, and it has less Residual muscle relaxation. Therefore mivacurium is more suitable for the vocal polyp extraction than cis-atracurium.

  13. Tumor tropism of intravenously injected human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural stem cells and their gene therapy application in a metastatic breast cancer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Lam, Dang Hoang; Goh, Sally Sallee; Lee, Esther Xingwei; Zhao, Ying; Tay, Felix Chang; Chen, Can; Du, Shouhui; Balasundaram, Ghayathri; Shahbazi, Mohammad; Tham, Chee Kian; Ng, Wai Hoe; Toh, Han Chong; Wang, Shu

    2012-05-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells can serve as an accessible and reliable source for the generation of functional human cells for medical therapies. In this study, we used a conventional lentiviral transduction method to derive human-induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from primary human fibroblasts and then generated neural stem cells (NSCs) from the iPS cells. Using a dual-color whole-body imaging technology, we demonstrated that after tail vein injection, these human NSCs displayed a robust migratory capacity outside the central nervous system in both immunodeficient and immunocompetent mice and homed in on established orthotopic 4T1 mouse mammary tumors. To investigate whether the iPS cell-derived NSCs can be used as a cellular delivery vehicle for cancer gene therapy, the cells were transduced with a baculoviral vector containing the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase suicide gene and injected through tail vein into 4T1 tumor-bearing mice. The transduced NSCs were effective in inhibiting the growth of the orthotopic 4T1 breast tumor and the metastatic spread of the cancer cells in the presence of ganciclovir, leading to prolonged survival of the tumor-bearing mice. The use of iPS cell-derived NSCs for cancer gene therapy bypasses the sensitive ethical issue surrounding the use of cells derived from human fetal tissues or human embryonic stem cells. This approach may also help to overcome problems associated with allogeneic transplantation of other types of human NSCs. Copyright © 2012 AlphaMed Press.

  14. Study of the Effect of Clay Particles on Low Salinity Water Injection in Sandstone Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Rezaei Gomari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The need for optimal recovery of crude oil from sandstone and carbonate reservoirs around the world has never been greater for the petroleum industry. Water-flooding has been applied to the supplement primary depletion process or as a separate secondary recovery method. Low salinity water injection is a relatively new method that involves injecting low salinity brines at high pressure similar to conventional water-flooding techniques, in order to recover crude oil. The effectiveness of low salinity water injection in sandstone reservoirs depends on a number of parameters such as reservoir temperature, pressure, type of clay particle and salinity of injected brine. Clay particles present on reservoir rock surfaces adsorb polar components of oil and modify wettability of sandstone rocks to the oil-wet state, which is accountable for the reduced recovery rates by conventional water-flooding. The extent of wettability alteration caused by three low salinity brines on oil-wet sandstone samples containing varying clay content (15% or 30% and type of clay (kaolinite/montmorillonite were analyzed in the laboratory experiment. Contact angles of mica powder and clay mixture (kaolinite/montmorillonite modified with crude oil were measured before and after injection with three low salinity sodium chloride brines. The effect of temperature was also analyzed for each sample. The results of the experiment indicate that samples with kaolinite clay tend to produce higher contact angles than samples with montmorillonite clay when modified with crude oil. The highest degree or extent of wettability alteration from oil-wet to intermediate-wet state upon injection with low salinity brines was observed for samples injected with brine having salinity concentration of 2000 ppm. The increase in temperature tends to produce contact angles values lying in the higher end of the intermediate-wet range (75°–115° for samples treated at 50 °C, while their corresponding

  15. The intravenous injection of oxidized LDL- or Apolipoprotein B100 – Coupled splenocytes promotes Th1 polarization in wildtype and Apolipoprotein E – Deficient mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinmetz, Martin; Ponnuswamy, Padmapriya; Laurans, Ludivine; Esposito, Bruno; Tedgui, Alain; Mallat, Ziad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Th1 responses in atherosclerosis are mainly associated with the aggravation of atherosclerotic plaques, whereas Th2 responses lead to a less pronounced disease in mouse models. The fixation of antigens on cells by means of ethylene carbodiimide (ECDI), and subsequent injection of these antigen-coupled splenocytes (Ag-SP) to induce tolerance against the attached antigens, has been successfully used to treat murine type 1 diabetes or encephalomyelitis in. We analyzed this approach in a mouse model for atherosclerosis. Methods and results: OTII-transgenic mice that were treated with a single dose of 5 × 10 7 OVA-coupled splenocytes (OVA-SP), had decreased splenocyte proliferation, and lower IFNγ production in vitro upon antigen recall. However, in vivo CD4 cell activation was increased. To try lipoprotein-derived, “atherosclerosis-associated” antigens, we first tested human oxidized LDL. In wild type mice, an increase of IFNγ production upon in vitro recall was detected in the oxLDL-SP group. In Apolipoprotein E − deficient (ApoE−/−) mice that received oxLDL-SP every 5 weeks for 20 weeks, we did not find any difference of atherosclerotic plaque burden, but again increased IFNγ production. To overcome xenogenous limitations, we then examined the effects of mouse Apolipoprotein B100 peptides P3 and P6. ApoB100-SP treatment again promoted a more IFNγ pronounced response upon in vitro recall. Flow cytometry analysis of cytokine secreting spleen cells revealed CD4 positive T cells to be mainly the source for IFNγ. In ApoE−/− mice that were administered ApoB100-SP during 20 weeks, the atherosclerotic plaque burden in aortic roots as well as total aorta was unchanged compared to PBS treated controls. Splenocyte proliferation upon antigen recall was not significantly altered in ApoB100-SP treated ApoE−/− mice. Conclusion: Although we did not observe a relevant anti-atherosclerotic benefit, the treatment with antigen

  16. The intravenous injection of oxidized LDL- or Apolipoprotein B100 – Coupled splenocytes promotes Th1 polarization in wildtype and Apolipoprotein E – Deficient mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinmetz, Martin, E-mail: martin.steinmetz@ukb.uni-bonn.de [INSERM, Unit 970, Paris Cardiovascular Research Center, 75015 Paris (France); Internal Medicine II, University Hospital Bonn, 53105 Bonn (Germany); Ponnuswamy, Padmapriya; Laurans, Ludivine; Esposito, Bruno; Tedgui, Alain [INSERM, Unit 970, Paris Cardiovascular Research Center, 75015 Paris (France); Mallat, Ziad [INSERM, Unit 970, Paris Cardiovascular Research Center, 75015 Paris (France); Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge, CB2 2QQ (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-14

    Background: Th1 responses in atherosclerosis are mainly associated with the aggravation of atherosclerotic plaques, whereas Th2 responses lead to a less pronounced disease in mouse models. The fixation of antigens on cells by means of ethylene carbodiimide (ECDI), and subsequent injection of these antigen-coupled splenocytes (Ag-SP) to induce tolerance against the attached antigens, has been successfully used to treat murine type 1 diabetes or encephalomyelitis in. We analyzed this approach in a mouse model for atherosclerosis. Methods and results: OTII-transgenic mice that were treated with a single dose of 5 × 10{sup 7} OVA-coupled splenocytes (OVA-SP), had decreased splenocyte proliferation, and lower IFNγ production in vitro upon antigen recall. However, in vivo CD4 cell activation was increased. To try lipoprotein-derived, “atherosclerosis-associated” antigens, we first tested human oxidized LDL. In wild type mice, an increase of IFNγ production upon in vitro recall was detected in the oxLDL-SP group. In Apolipoprotein E − deficient (ApoE−/−) mice that received oxLDL-SP every 5 weeks for 20 weeks, we did not find any difference of atherosclerotic plaque burden, but again increased IFNγ production. To overcome xenogenous limitations, we then examined the effects of mouse Apolipoprotein B100 peptides P3 and P6. ApoB100-SP treatment again promoted a more IFNγ pronounced response upon in vitro recall. Flow cytometry analysis of cytokine secreting spleen cells revealed CD4 positive T cells to be mainly the source for IFNγ. In ApoE−/− mice that were administered ApoB100-SP during 20 weeks, the atherosclerotic plaque burden in aortic roots as well as total aorta was unchanged compared to PBS treated controls. Splenocyte proliferation upon antigen recall was not significantly altered in ApoB100-SP treated ApoE−/− mice. Conclusion: Although we did not observe a relevant anti-atherosclerotic benefit, the treatment with antigen

  17. Effect of water injection on nitric oxide emissions of a gas turbine combustor burning natural gas fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchionna, N. R.; Diehl, L. A.; Trout, A. M.

    1973-01-01

    The effect of direct water injection on the exhaust gas emissions of a turbojet combustor burning natural gas fuel was investigated. The results are compared with the results from similar tests using ASTM Jet-A fuel. Increasing water injection decreased the emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and increased the emissions of carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons. The greatest percentage decrease in NOX with increasing water injection was at the lowest inlet-air temperature tested. The effect of increasing inlet-air temperature was to decrease the effect of the water injection. The reduction in NOX due to water injection was almost identical to the results obtained with Jet-A fuel. However, the emission indices of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and percentage nitric oxide in NOX were not.

  18. Zinc injection on the EDF pressurized light water reactors. Current results and operating experience feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piana, Olivier; Duval, Arnaud; Moleiro, Edgar; Benfarah, Moez; Bretelle, Jean-Luc; Chaigne, Guy

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, zinc injection, as well as pH management and hydrogen control, is increasingly considered as an essential element of PWR Primary Water Chemistry worldwide. After a first implementation of zinc injection at Bugey 2 since 2004 and Bugey 4 since 2006, EDF decided to extend this practice, which constitutes a modification of primary circuit chemical conditioning, to other units of its fleet. Currently, 15 among the 58 reactors of the French fleet are injecting depleted zinc acetate into the primary coolant water. Three main goals were identified at the beginning of this program. Indeed, the expected benefits of zinc injection were: Reduction of the rate of generalized corrosion and mitigation of stress corrosion cracking initiation on nickel based alloys (Material goal). Curative or preventive reduction of radiation sources to which workers are exposed (Radiation fields' goal). Mitigation of the AOA or CIPS risks by reduction of corrosion products releases and mitigation of crud deposition (Fuel protection goal). To monitor the zinc addition, EDF has defined a complete survey program concerning: chemistry and radiochemistry responses (primary coolant monitoring of corrosion and fission products and calculation of zinc injected, zinc removed and zinc incorporated in RCS surfaces) ; radiation fields (dose rates and deposited activities measurements) ; materials (statistical analysis of SG tube cracks) ; fuel (oxide thickness measurements and visual exams) ; effluents (corrosion products releases and isotopic distribution follow up) ; wastes (radiochemical characterization of filters). This paper will detail the present results of this monitoring program. It appears that the expected benefits of zinc injection have yet to be fully realized; further operating experience will be required in order to fully evaluate its impact. (author)

  19. The effect of intravenous injection of Ghrelin on the mean plasma concentrations of insulin in immature camels fed different levels of their energy requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-11-01

    Ghrelin is a peptide hormone secreted into the circulation from the stomach, but this peptide is also synthetized in a number of different body tissues including the brain and pancreas, suggesting both endocrine and paracrine effects. These include: stimulation of GH and ACTH secretion, an increase in appetite and diabetogenic effect on carbohydrate metabolism. Furthermore, ghrelin is the natural ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R. Ghrelin and its mRNAas well as GH secretagogue receptor mRNAs are expressed in the pancreas and islet cells and regulates insulin release and glucose metabolism, but because the effect of ghrelin on insulin secretion before puberty in semiruminant animals has never been examined,   therefore the purpose of the present research was to determine the effect of ghrelin on insulin secretion before puberty in camels. In this investigation 12 camels were randomly divided into two groups. Animals in each group were fed either 50% and 100% energy content in diet for 2 weeks. After 2 weeks camels received 8 μg ghrelin/kg body weight via their jugular vein for 4 days. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein of all animals before, during (30 minutes after injection of ghrelin and after the intervention for 4 continuous days and plasma insulin concentrations determined by RIA. Data obtained were analyzed by repeated measures –ANOVA and paired t-Test. p

  20. Bacterial diversity in water injection systems of Brazilian offshore oil platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenblum, Elisa; Valoni, Erika; Penna, Mônica; Seldin, Lucy

    2010-01-01

    Biogenic souring and microbial-influenced corrosion is a common scenario in water-flooded petroleum reservoirs. Water injection systems are continuously treated to control bacterial contamination, but some bacteria that cause souring and corrosion can persist even after different treatments have been applied. Our aim was to increase our knowledge of the bacterial communities that persist in the water injection systems of three offshore oil platforms in Brazil. To achieve this goal, we used a culture-independent molecular approach (16S ribosomal RNA gene clone libraries) to analyze seawater samples that had been subjected to different treatments. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the bacterial communities from the different platforms were taxonomically different. A predominance of bacterial clones affiliated with Gammaproteobacteria, mostly belonging to the genus Marinobacter (60.7%), were observed in the platform A samples. Clones from platform B were mainly related to the genera Colwellia (37.9%) and Achromobacter (24.6%), whereas clones obtained from platform C were all related to unclassified bacteria. Canonical correspondence analyses showed that different treatments such as chlorination, deoxygenation, and biocide addition did not significantly influence the bacterial diversity in the platforms studied. Our results demonstrated that the injection water used in secondary oil recovery procedures contained potentially hazardous bacteria, which may ultimately cause souring and corrosion.

  1. Chaotic behavior of water column oscillator simulating pressure balanced injection system in passive safety reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, Y.; Madarame, H.; Okamoto, K.

    2001-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) proposed a passive safety reactor called the System-integrated Pressurized Water Reactor (SPWR). In a loss of coolant accident, the Pressurizing Line (PL) and the Injection Line (IL) are passively opened. Vapor generated by residual heat pushes down the water level in the Reactor Vessel (RV). When the level is lower than the inlet of the PL, the vapor is ejected into the Containment Vessel (CV) through the PL. Then boronized water in the CV is injected into the RV through the IL by the static head. In an experiment using a simple apparatus, gas ejection and water injection were found to occur alternately under certain conditions. The gas ejection interval was observed to fluctuate considerably. Though stochastic noise affected the interval, the experimental results suggested that the large fluctuation was produced by an inherent character in the system. A set of piecewise linear differential equations was derived to describe the experimental result. The large fluctuation was reproduced in the analytical solution. Thus it was shown to occur even in a deterministic system without any source of stochastic noise. Though the derived equations simulated the experiment well, they had ten independent parameters governing the behavior of the solution. There appeared chaotic features and bifurcation, but the analytical model was too complicated to examine the features and mechanism of bifurcation. In this study, a new simple model is proposed which consists of a set of piecewise linear ordinary differential equations with only four independent parameters. (authors)

  2. Evaluation of an accident management strategy of emergency water injection using fire engines in a typical pressurized water reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Yong Park

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Following the Fukushima accident, a special safety inspection was conducted in Korea. The inspection results show that Korean nuclear power plants have no imminent risk for expected maximum potential earthquake or coastal flooding. However long- and short-term safety improvements do need to be implemented. One of the measures to increase the mitigation capability during a prolonged station blackout (SBO accident is installing injection flow paths to provide emergency cooling water of external sources using fire engines to the steam generators or reactor cooling systems. This paper illustrates an evaluation of the effectiveness of external cooling water injection strategies using fire trucks during a potential extended SBO accident in a 1,000 MWe pressurized water reactor. With regard to the effectiveness of external cooling water injection strategies using fire engines, the strategies are judged to be very feasible for a long-term SBO, but are not likely to be effective for a short-term SBO.

  3. Effects on infarct size and left ventricular function of early intravenous injection of anistreplase in acute myocardial infarction. The APSIM Study Investigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassand, J P; Bernard, Y; Lusson, J R; Machecourt, J; Cassagnes, J; Borel, E

    1990-03-01

    A total of 231 patients suffering from a first acute myocardial infarction were randomly allocated within 4 hours following the onset of symptoms either to anistreplase or anisoylated plasminogen streptokinase activator complex (APSAC), 30 U over 5 minutes, or to conventional heparin therapy, 5000 IU in bolus injection. Heparin was reintroduced in both groups 4 h after initial therapy at a dosage of 500 IU/kg per day. A total of 112 patients received anistreplase and 119 received heparin within a mean period of 188 +/- 62 min following the onset of symptoms. Infarct size was estimated from single photon emission computerized tomography and expressed in percentage of the total myocardial volume. The patency rate of the infarct-related artery was 77% in the anistreplase group and 36% in the heparin group (p less than 0.001). Left ventricular ejection fraction determined from contrast angiography was significantly higher in the anistreplase group than in the heparin group (6 absolute percentage point difference). A significant 31% reduction in infarct size was found in the anistreplase group (33% for the anterior wall infarction subgroup [p less than 0.05] and 16% for the inferior wall infarction subgroup, NS). A close inverse relation was found between the values of left ventricular ejection fraction and infarct size (r = -.73, p less than 0.01). In conclusion, early infusion of anistreplase in acute myocardial infarction produced a high early patency rate, a significant limitation of infarct size, and a significant preservation of left ventricular systolic function, mainly in the anterior wall infarctions.

  4. Toxicity of methylmercury injected into eggs when dissolved in water versus corn oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Klimstra, J.D.; Stebbins, K.R.; Kondrad, S.L.

    2011-01-01

    In a previous study, the embryotoxicity of methylmercury dissolved in corn oil was compared among 26 species of birds. Corn oil is not soluble in the water-based matrix that constitutes the albumen of an egg. To determine whether the use of corn oil limited the usefulness of this earlier study, a comparison was made of the embryotoxicity of methylmercury dissolved in corn oil versus water. Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and chicken (Gallus gallus) eggs were injected with methylmercury chloride dissolved in corn oil or water to achieve concentrations of 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6??g/g mercury in the egg on a wet weight basis. Hatching success at each dose of mercury was compared between the two solvents. For mallards, 16.4% of the eggs injected with 1.6??g/g mercury dissolved in water hatched, which was statistically lower than the 37.6% hatch rate of eggs injected with 1.6??g/g mercury dissolved in corn oil, but no differences in hatching success were observed between corn oil and water at any of the other doses. With chicken eggs, no significant differences occurred in percentage hatch of eggs between corn oil and water at any of the mercury doses. Methylmercury dissolved in corn oil seems to have a toxicity to avian embryos similar to that of does methylmercury dissolved in water. Consequently, the results from the earlier study that described the toxicity of methylmercury dissolved in corn oil to avian embryos were probably not compromised by the use of corn oil as a solvent. ?? 2011 SETAC.

  5. Improved process for the injection of water for secondary recovery of petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1967-07-24

    In this process for the secondary recovery of petroleum from the formation, an aqueous displacing medium is injected through an injection well in communication with the formation. In this aqueous medium, a polymer is dissolved and the petroleum is thus displaced toward a producing well also in communication with the formation. The polymer is a liquid organic polymer, substantially linear, water-soluble, and having a resistance characteristic of at least 1.5. The polymer is dissolved in water in sufficient quantity such that the viscosity of the displacing medium is 0.5-15% of the viscosity of the crude oil to be displaced. The displacing medium is substantially free of molecular oxygen.

  6. Contingency power for small turboshaft engines using water injection into turbine cooling air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesiadny, Thomas J.; Berger, Brett; Klann, Gary A.; Clark, David A.

    1987-01-01

    Because of one engine inoperative requirements, together with hot-gas reingestion and hot day, high altitude takeoff situations, power augmentation for multiengine rotorcraft has always been of critical interest. However, power augmentation using overtemperature at the turbine inlet will shorten turbine life unless a method of limiting thermal and mechanical stresses is found. A possible solution involves allowing the turbine inlet temperature to rise to augment power while injecting water into the turbine cooling air to limit hot-section metal temperatures. An experimental water injection device was installed in an engine and successfully tested. Although concern for unprotected subcomponents in the engine hot section prevented demonstration of the technique's maximum potential, it was still possible to demonstrate increases in power while maintaining nearly constant turbine rotor blade temperature.

  7. Contingency power for a small turboshaft engine by using water injection into turbine cooling air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesiadny, Thomas J.; Klann, Gary A.

    1992-01-01

    Because of one-engine-inoperative (OEI) requirements, together with hot-gas reingestion and hot-day, high-altitude take-off situations, power augmentation for multiengine rotorcraft has always been of critical interest. However, power augmentation by using overtemperature at the turbine inlet will shorten turbine life unless a method of limiting thermal and mechanical stress is found. A possible solution involves allowing the turbine inlet temperature to rise to augment power while injecting water into the turbine cooling air to limit hot-section metal temperatures. An experimental water injection device was installed in an engine and successfully tested. Although concern for unprotected subcomponents in the engine hot section prevented demonstration of the technique's maximum potential, it was still possible to demonstrate increases in power while maintaining nearly constant turbine rotor blade temperature.

  8. Influence of capillary forces on water injection into hot rock, saturated with superheated vapour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsypkin, G.G. [Institute for Problems in Mechanics, RAS, Vernadskogo Ave. 101, 119420 Moscow (Russian Federation); Calore, C. [Istituto di Geoscienze e Georisorse - CNR, Sezione di Firenze, via La Pira 4, 50121 Florence (Italy)

    2007-07-15

    The results of a theoretical study and numerical analysis of the role of capillary pressure of cold water injection into depleted geothermal reservoirs are presented. A simplified 1-D mathematical model is developed, that describes the motion of a sharp vaporization front. Some asymptotic estimates for a wide range of parameters are given and a similarity solution is derived. Analytical results are then compared with those obtained from the numerical reservoir simulator TOUGH2, showing a good agreement between the two. (author)

  9. A comparison of water-diesel emulsion and timed injection of water into the intake manifold of a diesel engine for simultaneous control of NO and smoke emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, K.A.

    2011-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to compare the effects of water-diesel emulsion and water injection into the intake manifold on performance, combustion and emission characteristics of a DI diesel engine under similar operating conditions. The water to diesel ratio for the emulsion was 0.4:1 by mass. The same water-diesel ratio was maintained for water injection method in order to assess both potential benefits. All tests were done at the constant speed of 1500 rpm at different outputs. The static injection timing of 23 o BTDC was kept as constant for all experimental tests. In the first phase, experiments were carried out to asses the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of the engine using the water-diesel emulsion. The emulsion was prepared using the surfactant of HLB:7. The emulsion was injected using the conventional injection system during the compression stroke. The second phase of work was that water was injected into the intake manifold of the engine using an auxiliary injector during the suction stroke. An electronic control unit (ECU) was developed to control the injector operation such as start of injection and water injection duration with respect to the desired crank angle. The experimental result indicates the both methods (emulsion and injection) could reduce NO emission drastically in diesel engines. At full load, NO emission decreased drastically from 1034 ppm with base diesel to 645 ppm with emulsion and 643 ppm with injection. But, NO emission reduction is lesser with injection than emulsion at part loads. Smoke emission is lower with the emulsion (2.7 BSU) than with water injection (3.2 BSU) as compared to base diesel (3.6 BSU). However, CO and HC levels were higher with emulsion than water injection. As regards NO and smoke reduction, the emulsion was superior to injection at all loads. Peak pressure, ignition delay and maximum rate of pressure rise were lesser with water injection as compared to the emulsion. It is well demonstrated

  10. Exhaust gas heat recovery through secondary expansion cylinder and water injection in an internal combustion engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassiri Toosi Ali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To enhance thermal efficiency and increase performance of an internal combustion engine, a novel concept of coupling a conventional engine with a secondary 4-stroke cylinder and direct water injection process is proposed. The burned gases after working in a traditional 4-stroke combustion cylinder are transferred to a secondary cylinder and expanded even more. After re-compression of the exhaust gases, pre-heated water is injected at top dead center. The evaporation of injected water not only recovers heat from exhaust gases, but also increases the mass of working gas inside the cylinder, therefore improves the overall thermal efficiency. A 0-D/1-D model is used to numerically simulate the idea. The simulations outputs showed that the bottoming cycle will be more efficient at higher engines speeds, specifically in a supercharged/turbocharged engine, which have higher exhaust gas pressure that can reproduce more positive work. In the modeled supercharged engine, results showed that brake thermal efficiency can be improved by about 17%, and brake power by about 17.4%.

  11. Numerical investigation of CAI Combustion in the Opposed- Piston Engine with Direct and Indirect Water Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyszczek, R.; Mazuro, P.; Teodorczyk, A.

    2016-09-01

    This paper is focused on the CAI combustion control in a turbocharged 2-stroke Opposed-Piston (OP) engine. The barrel type OP engine arrangement is of particular interest for the authors because of its robust design, high mechanical efficiency and relatively easy incorporation of a Variable Compression Ratio (VCR). The other advantage of such design is that combustion chamber is formed between two moving pistons - there is no additional cylinder head to be cooled which directly results in an increased thermal efficiency. Furthermore, engine operation in a Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) mode at high compression ratios (CR) raises a possibility of reaching even higher efficiencies and very low emissions. In order to control CAI combustion such measures as VCR and water injection were considered for indirect ignition timing control. Numerical simulations of the scavenging and combustion processes were performed with the 3D CFD multipurpose AVL Fire solver. Numerous cases were calculated with different engine compression ratios and different amounts of directly and indirectly injected water. The influence of the VCR and water injection on the ignition timing and engine performance was determined and their application in the real engine was discussed.

  12. Study of the method of water-injected meat identifying based on low-field nuclear magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianmei; Lin, Qing; Yang, Fang; Zheng, Zheng; Ai, Zhujun

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study to apply low-field nuclear magnetic resonance technique was to study regular variation of the transverse relaxation spectral parameters of water-injected meat with the proportion of water injection. Based on this, the method of one-way ANOVA and discriminant analysis was used to analyse the differences between these parameters in the capacity of distinguishing water-injected proportion, and established a model for identifying water-injected meat. The results show that, except for T 21b, T 22e and T 23b, the other parameters of the T 2 relaxation spectrum changed regularly with the change of water-injected proportion. The ability of different parameters to distinguish water-injected proportion was different. Based on S, P 22 and T 23m as the prediction variable, the Fisher model and the Bayes model were established by discriminant analysis method, qualitative and quantitative classification of water-injected meat can be realized. The rate of correct discrimination of distinguished validation and cross validation were 88%, the model was stable.

  13. Automatic estimation of aquifer parameters using long-term water supply pumping and injection records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ning; Illman, Walter A.

    2016-09-01

    Analyses are presented of long-term hydrographs perturbed by variable pumping/injection events in a confined aquifer at a municipal water-supply well field in the Region of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Such records are typically not considered for aquifer test analysis. Here, the water-level variations are fingerprinted to pumping/injection rate changes using the Theis model implemented in the WELLS code coupled with PEST. Analyses of these records yield a set of transmissivity ( T) and storativity ( S) estimates between each monitoring and production borehole. These individual estimates are found to poorly predict water-level variations at nearby monitoring boreholes not used in the calibration effort. On the other hand, the geometric means of the individual T and S estimates are similar to those obtained from previous pumping tests conducted at the same site and adequately predict water-level variations in other boreholes. The analyses reveal that long-term municipal water-level records are amenable to analyses using a simple analytical solution to estimate aquifer parameters. However, uniform parameters estimated with analytical solutions should be considered as first rough estimates. More accurate hydraulic parameters should be obtained by calibrating a three-dimensional numerical model that rigorously captures the complexities of the site with these data.

  14. Laboratory evaluation and field application of a water swellable polymer for fracture shutoff in injection wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creel, Prentice [Kinder Morgan, Houston, TX (United States); Vasquez, Julio; Eoff, Larry [Halliburton, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents the laboratory evaluation and field application of a water swelling polymer (WSP) that can be bullheaded to shut off fractures in injection wells. The WSP is capable of absorbing 30 to 400 times its own weight in water. The material was evaluated for its effectiveness in providing controllable swelling rates, shutting off the flow of water in synthetic cores with simulated fractures, and providing long-term stability in H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2} environments. In addition, this paper presents the field implementation of this technology along with successful case histories in west Texas. The water swellable material is mixed on the fly, entering fissures and fracture systems as they swell without invading the matrix of the rock. The rate of absorption can be controlled based on the specified particle size ranging from 600-mesh size up to 14 mm and the type of carrier fluid. This WSP presents an innovative technology for fracture, fissure, and highly eroded out permeability shutoff to improve the sweep efficiency of water and gas injection. In addition, the WSP is resistant to acid contamination and CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S environments. To date, more than 200 jobs have been performed with this technology. (author)

  15. Air Sparging Versus Gas Saturated Water Injection for Remediation of Volatile LNAPL in the Borden Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, J.; Nelson, L.; Doughty, C.; Thomson, N.; Lambert, J.

    2009-05-01

    In the shallow, rather homogeneous, unconfined Borden sand aquifer, field trials of air sparging (Tomlinson et al., 2003) and pulsed air sparging (Lambert et al., 2009) have been conducted, the latter to remediate a residual gasoline source emplaced below the water table. As well, a supersaturated (with CO2) water injection (SWI) technology, using the inVentures inFusion system, has been trialed in two phases: 1. in the uncontaminated sand aquifer to evaluate the radius of influence, extent of lateral gas movement and gas saturation below the water table, and 2. in a sheet pile cell in the Borden aquifer to evaluate the recovery of volatile hydrocarbon components (pentane and hexane) of an LNAPL emplaced below the water table (Nelson et al., 2008). The SWI injects water supersaturated with CO2. The supersaturated injected water moves laterally away from the sparge point, releasing CO2 over a wider area than does gas sparging from a single well screen. This presentation compares these two techniques in terms of their potential for remediating volatile NAPL components occurring below the water table in a rather homogeneous sand aquifer. Air sparging created a significantly greater air saturation in the vicinity of the sparge well than did the CO2 system (60 percent versus 16 percent) in the uncontaminated Borden aquifer. However, SWI pushed water, still supersaturated with CO2, up to about 2.5 m from the injection well. This would seem to provide a considerable advantage over air sparging from a point, in that gas bubbles are generated at a much larger radius from the point of injection with SWI and so should involve additional gas pathways through a residual NAPL. Overall, air sparging created a greater area of influence, defined by measurable air saturation in the aquifer, but air sparging also injected about 12 times more gas than was injected in the SWI trials. The pulsed air sparging at Borden (Lambert et al.) removed about 20 percent (4.6 kg) of gasoline

  16. An analysis on water hammer in liquid injection shutdown system of CANDU-9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T. H.; Heo, J.; Han, S. K.; Choi, H. Y.; No, T. S.

    2000-01-01

    The water hammer analysis code, PTRAN, is used for computation of transient pressures and pressure differentials in the Liquid Injection Shutdown System(LISS) piping network of CANDU-9 to ensure that the design allowables for LEVEL C Service Limit are met for the water hammer loads resulting from the water hammer. The LISS piping network of CANDU-9 has incorporated design improvement in considering the water hammer, such as declining the horizontal part of helium header, and raising the elevation of the overall system piping configuration, etc. The maximum pressure in the LISS piping network is found to be 7.92 MPa(a) at the closed valve in the vent line, which is below the allowable working pressure and the valve design pressure under Level C service conditions. And it is also shown that the maximum pressure in CANDU-9 is much lower than that in CANDU-6

  17. Effect of capillary number on the oil recovery using oil-water emulsion injection in core flooding experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillen Nunez, Victor Raul; Carvalho, Marcio da Silveira [Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering], E-mail: msn@puc-rio.br; Basante, Vladimir Alvarado [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Chemical/Petroleum Engineering], E-mail: valvard@uwyo.edu

    2010-07-01

    The Water injection flooding is a common method to improve reservoir sweep and pressure maintenance. The heavy-oil-recovery efficiency is in part limited by the high water-to-oil mobility ratio. Several enhanced oil recovery methods are being developed as more efficient alternatives to water flooding. Dispersion injection, in particular oil-water emulsion injection, has been tried with relative success as an enhanced oil recovery method, but the technique is not fully developed or understood. If emulsion injection proves to be an effective EOR method, its use would bring the added benefit of disposing produced water with small oil content that could be modified to serve as the injected oil-water emulsion. The use of such methods requires a detailed analysis of the different flow regimes of emulsions through the porous space of a reservoir rock. If the drop size of the disperse phase is of the same order of magnitude as the pore size, the drops may agglomerate and partially block water flow through pores. This flow regime may be used to control the mobility of the injected liquid, leading to higher recovery factor. We have shown in recent experiments of oil displacement in a sandstone core that, the oil recovery factor could be raised from approximately 40 %, obtained with water injection only, up to approximately 75 % by alternating water and emulsion injection. Although these results clearly show the improvement in the recovery factor, the mechanisms responsible for the phenomenon have not been clearly elucidated. In this work, two sandstone cores were used to demonstrate the effect of flow rate (capillary number) on the mobility control by emulsion injection. Figure 1 shows a schematic representation of the experiment set-up. The experiments show that raising the flow rate by a factor of 10 (0.03 ml/min to 0.3 ml/min), the oil recovered factor decreases considerably. (author)

  18. Corrosion Study of the Injection Equipments in Water in Al-Ahdeb Wells ‐Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Abdulkadhim Alwan Alsaadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Water injection equipments such as pipelines, which are used in the second recovery of oil in the Al-Ahdeb wells, suffer from the corrosion in water during maintaining vacuum deoxygenated tower that used to decrease concentration of the dissolved oxygen gas in the water from 6.2-9.1 ppm to o.5 ppm. This study involved calculation the corrosion rates of the internal surfaces of the pipelines either during operation of the vacuum unit or when the tower out of operation. Finally, find the solution by one of the following suggestions. In the first suggestion removal of the dissolved O2 from water is achieved by increasing the dosage of the oxygen scavenger (sodium sulphite. The second suggestion involves removing the dissolved O2 from water by bubbling the oxygenated water with nitrogen gas. The study showed that the corrosion rates of various inside diameter pipelines are between 0.13 mm/yr and 1.5 mm/yr during operation of the vacuum tower and between 3.2 mm/yr and 18.5 mm/yr when the tower out of the operation. While the results showed that the corrosion rate of the pipelines when the tower out of operation reached to the acceptable value of 0.1 mm/y when the dissolved oxygen in the injected water removed by increasing the dosage of the sodium sulphite (Na2SO3 to 48-72 ppm. The results also explained that corrosion rates of the pipelines reached to 0.5 mm/y when the dissolved oxygen removed by bubbling the water with nitrogen gas.

  19. Impact on caesarean section rates following injections of sterile water (ICARIS): a multicentre randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nigel; Mårtensson, Lena B; Homer, Caroline; Webster, Joan; Gibbons, Kristen; Stapleton, Helen; Dos Santos, Natalie; Beckmann, Michael; Gao, Yu; Kildea, Sue

    2013-05-03

    Sterile water injections have been used as an effective intervention for the management of back pain during labour. The objective of the current research is to determine if sterile water injections, as an intervention for back pain in labour, will reduce the intrapartum caesarean section rate. A double blind randomised placebo controlled trialSetting: Maternity hospitals in AustraliaParticipants: 1866 women in labour, ≥18 years of age who have a singleton pregnancy with a fetus in a cephalic presentation at term (between 37 + 0 and 41 + 6 weeks gestation), who assess their back pain as equal to or greater than seven on a visual analogue scale when requesting analgesia and able to provide informed consent. Participants will be randomised to receive either 0.1 to 0.3 millilitres of sterile water or a normal saline placebo via four intradermal injections into four anatomical points surrounding the Michaelis' rhomboid over the sacral area. Two injections will be administered over the posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS) and the remaining two at two centimetres posterior, and one centimetre medial to the PSIS respectively. Proportion of women who have a caesarean section in labour.Randomisation: Permuted blocks stratified by research site.Blinding (masking):Double-blind trial in which participants, clinicians and research staff blinded to group assignment. Funded by the National Health and Medical Research CouncilTrial registration:Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (No ACTRN12611000221954). Sterile water injections, which may have a positive effect on reducing the CS rate, have been shown to be a safe and simple analgesic suitable for most maternity settings. A procedure that could reduce intervention rates without adversely affecting safety for mother and baby would benefit Australian families and taxpayers and would reduce requirements for maternal operating theatre time. Results will have external validity, as the technique may be easily applied to

  20. Influence of ph on corrosion control of carbon steel by peroxide injection in sour water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Martins Magda; Baptista, Walmar; Joia, Carlos Jose Bandeira de Mello [PROTEMP - PETROBRAS/CENPES, Cidade Universitaria, Quadra 7, Rio de Janeiro, CEP 21949-900 (Brazil); Ponciano, Gomes Jose Antonio da Cunha [Departamento de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais-COPPE/UFRJ, Cidade Universitaria, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Sour hydrogen damage is considered the most important corrosive process in the light-ends recovery section of Fluid Catalytic Cracking Units (FCCU). Corrosion in this condition is due to heavy gas oil that originates great amount of contaminants, such as H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3} and HCN. Hydrogen absorption is promoted by the presence of free cyanides in the environment. The attenuation of this process requires the use of some inhibitors, such as oxygen, hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) or commercial polysulfides. The effect of these compounds is to neutralize free cyanides (CN{sup -}) into thio-sulfides (SCN{sup -}). When peroxide injection is selected, cyanide concentration in sour water has been used as key parameter to start the peroxide introduction. However, the importance of pH in this system has been pointed out by many authors. The aim of this work is to investigate the influence of pH when peroxide injection is carried out in less alkaline conditions of sour water. Electrochemical techniques - like anodic polarization and hydrogen permeation tests - and weight loss measurements were used to evaluate the effectiveness of corrosion control of carbon steel. It was concluded that at pH 7.5 peroxide injection can drive to an increment of the corrosion rate. Besides that, it was concluded that hydrogen permeation into the metal is promoted. Both detrimental effects were due to elemental sulfur generation in this pH range. The adoption of pH as a key parameter for peroxide injection is then suggested. (authors)

  1. Surface self-potential patterns related to transmissive fracture trends during a water injection test

    Science.gov (United States)

    DesRoches, A. J.; Butler, K. E.; MacQuarrie, K. TB

    2018-03-01

    Variations in self-potential (SP) signals were recorded over an electrode array during a constant head injection test in a fractured bedrock aquifer. Water was injected into a 2.2 m interval isolated between two inflatable packers at 44 m depth in a vertical well. Negative SP responses were recorded on surface corresponding to the start of the injection period with strongest magnitudes recorded in electrodes nearest the well. SP response decreased in magnitude at electrodes further from the well. Deflation of the packer system resulted in a strong reversal in the SP signal. Anomalous SP patterns observed at surface at steady state were found to be aligned with dominant fracture strike orientations found within the test interval. Numerical modelling of fluid and current flow within a simplified fracture network showed that azimuthal patterns in SP are mainly controlled by transmissive fracture orientations. The strongest SP gradients occur parallel to hydraulic gradients associated with water flowing out of the transmissive fractures into the tighter matrix and other less permeable cross-cutting fractures. Sensitivity studies indicate that increasing fracture frequency near the well increases the SP magnitude and enhances the SP anomaly parallel to the transmissive set. Decreasing the length of the transmissive fractures leads to more fluid flow into the matrix and into cross-cutting fractures proximal to the well, resulting in a more circular and higher magnitude SP anomaly. Results from the field experiment and modelling provide evidence that surface-based SP monitoring during constant head injection tests has the ability to identify groundwater flow pathways within a fractured bedrock aquifer.

  2. The effect of water injection on nitric oxide emissions of a gas turbine combustor burning ASTM Jet-A fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchionna, N. R.; Diehl, L. A.; Trout, A. M.

    1973-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the effect of water injection on oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions of a full annular, ram induction gas turbine combustor burning ASTM Jet-A fuel. The combustor was operated at conditions simulating sea-level takeoff and cruise conditions. Water at ambient temperature was injected into the combustor primary zone at water-fuel ratios up to 2. At an inlet-air temperature of 589 K (600 F) water injection decreased the NOx emission index at a constant exponential rate: NOx = NOx (o) e to the -15 W/F power (where W/F is the water-fuel ratio and NOx(o) indicates the value with no injection). The effect of increasing combustor inlet-air temperature was to decrease the effect of the water injection. Other operating variables such as pressure and reference Mach number did not appear to significantly affect the percent reduction in NOx. Smoke emissions were found to decrease with increasing water injection.

  3. 40 CFR 60.4340 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance for NOX if I do not use water or steam injection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... compliance for NOX if I do not use water or steam injection? 60.4340 Section 60.4340 Protection of....4340 How do I demonstrate continuous compliance for NOX if I do not use water or steam injection? (a) If you are not using water or steam injection to control NOX emissions, you must perform annual...

  4. Increasing hydro turbine operation range and efficiencies using water injection in draft tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francke, Haakon Hjort

    2010-09-15

    It is a well known fact that most Francis turbines, because of the fixed blade design, faces challenges when running at partial load operation. Especially in the operating range below approximately 50 % of the rated output, it is common to observe severe pressure pulsations and surge in the draft tube. These pressure fluctuations are believed to be related to the swirling flow exiting the runner. By using water jets in the draft tube cone directed towards the swirling flow, the swirl strength is believed to be reduced and thereby also the pressure fluctuations produced by the swirl. This system thus has a potential of increasing the turbine operating range. The system can be activated when needed, and will not affect the turbine when running at its best efficiency point.Based on the main hypothesis, a simplified swirl rig was designed and constructed in order to investigate the nozzle influence on the swirling flow and on the pressure pulsations in a simplified environment. To expand the understanding of the nozzle performance in a Francis turbine, experiments were conducted in a model turbine with a prototype of movable nozzles. To establish a link between laboratory nozzle measurements and full scale nozzle measurements, field measurements were carried out on full scale Francis turbines running at partial discharge. For this purpose the turbines installed at Skarsfjord Power Station and Skibotn Power Station were used, where full scale nozzle injection systems were installed. The test results suggested that the concept of water injection worked, but not unconditionally. A reduction in pressure fluctuations was achieved both in laboratory and field experiments, as well as a noticeable reduction regarding fluctuations in the shaft run-out at Skibotn. In addition, water injection gave a surprisingly positive effect at overload conditions in the model turbine, even though the nozzle angle was directed in the same direction as the overload swirl. Ideally, the results

  5. Uniform and non-uniform inlet temperature of a vertical hot water jet injected into a rectangular tank

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed; Sun, Shuyu

    2010-01-01

    In most of real-world applications, such as the case of heat stores, inlet is not kept at a constant temperature but it may vary with time during charging process. In this paper, a vertical water jet injected into a rectangular storage tank is measured experimentally and simulated numerically. Two cases of study are considered; one is a hot water jet with uniform inlet temperature (UIT) injected into a cold water tank, and the other is a cold water jet with non-uniform inlet temperature (NUIT) injected into a hot water tank. Three different temperature differences and three different flow rates are studied for the hot water jet with UIT which is injected into a cold water tank. Also, three different initial temperatures with constant flow rate as well as three different flow rates with constant initial temperature are considered for the cold jet with NUIT which is injected into a hot water tank. Turbulence intensity at the inlet as well as Reynolds number for the NUIT cases are therefore functions of inlet temperature and time. Both experimental measurements and numerical calculations are carried out for the same measured flow and thermal conditions. The realizable k-ε model is used for modeling the turbulent flow. Numerical solutions are obtained for unsteady flow while pressure, velocity, temperature and turbulence distributions inside the water tank are analyzed. The simulated results are compared to the measured results, and they show a good agreement at low temperatures. © 2010 IEEE.

  6. Uniform and non-uniform inlet temperature of a vertical hot water jet injected into a rectangular tank

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed

    2010-12-01

    In most of real-world applications, such as the case of heat stores, inlet is not kept at a constant temperature but it may vary with time during charging process. In this paper, a vertical water jet injected into a rectangular storage tank is measured experimentally and simulated numerically. Two cases of study are considered; one is a hot water jet with uniform inlet temperature (UIT) injected into a cold water tank, and the other is a cold water jet with non-uniform inlet temperature (NUIT) injected into a hot water tank. Three different temperature differences and three different flow rates are studied for the hot water jet with UIT which is injected into a cold water tank. Also, three different initial temperatures with constant flow rate as well as three different flow rates with constant initial temperature are considered for the cold jet with NUIT which is injected into a hot water tank. Turbulence intensity at the inlet as well as Reynolds number for the NUIT cases are therefore functions of inlet temperature and time. Both experimental measurements and numerical calculations are carried out for the same measured flow and thermal conditions. The realizable k-ε model is used for modeling the turbulent flow. Numerical solutions are obtained for unsteady flow while pressure, velocity, temperature and turbulence distributions inside the water tank are analyzed. The simulated results are compared to the measured results, and they show a good agreement at low temperatures. © 2010 IEEE.

  7. Perfil de los usuarios de drogas por vía parenteral que mantienen conductas de riesgo relacionadas con la inyección en Cataluña Characteristics of intravenous drug users who share injection equipment in Catalonia (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinta Folch

    2012-02-01

    between 2008 and 2009 in harm reduction centers. Behavioral data were collected using anonymous questionnaires administered by trained interviewers. Results: Of the 748 respondents, 31.5% had shared syringes at least once in the previous 6 months and 55.2% reported sharing injection paraphernalia (spoons, water, filters. A higher risk of syringe sharing was found among IDUs who injected daily (OR=1.5, injected cocaine (OR=1.6, had less than half their supply of syringes from a free source (OR=2.5, had an IDU sexual partner (OR=1.8 or who reported indirect sharing (OR=4.1. A higher risk of indirect sharing was found in respondents who had an illegal source of income (OR=1.5, injected daily (OR=1, 5, injected cocaine (OR=1.4, reported sharing syringes (OR=3.9, or who reported a previous overdose (OR=1.5. Conclusions: Despite the widespread use of harm reduction programs in Catalonia, a significant proportion of IDUs continue to practise injection-related risk behaviors. Further reductions in risk behaviors could be achieved by improving access to all sterile injecting equipment, especially among cocaine injectors and IDUs who inject frequently, and by including IDU sexual partners within the current network of harm reduction centers.

  8. Intraosseous Urography Compared with Intravenous Urography: An Experimental Study in the Rabbit Model

    OpenAIRE

    SAĞLAM, Mutlu; UĞUREL, Şahin

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the feasibility of bone injection gun assisted intraosseous administration of contrast media as an alternative to the intravenous route for urography. Intravenous urographies were obtained in 6 rabbits. Urographic examinations by the intraosseous route were performed in the same animals 48 h later. After adequate anesthesia, the retroauricular vein was punctured for intravenous injection and a bone injection gun was used for intraosseous injections to the ...

  9. Stable isotope reactive transport modeling in water-rock interactions during CO2 injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Juan J.; Lagneau, Vincent; Agrinier, Pierre

    2010-05-01

    Stable isotopes can be of great usefulness in the characterization and monitoring of CO2 sequestration sites. Stable isotopes can be used to track the migration of the CO2 plume and identify leakage sources. Moreover, they provide unique information about the chemical reactions that take place on the CO2-water-rock system. However, there is a lack of appropriate tools that help modelers to incorporate stable isotope information into the flow and transport models used in CO2 sequestration problems. In this work, we present a numerical tool for modeling the transport of stable isotopes in groundwater reactive systems. The code is an extension of the groundwater single-phase flow and reactive transport code HYTEC [2]. HYTEC's transport module was modified to include element isotopes as separate species. This way, it is able to track isotope composition of the system by computing the mixing between the background water and the injected solution accounting for the dependency of diffusion on the isotope mass. The chemical module and database have been expanded to included isotopic exchange with minerals and the isotope fractionation associated with chemical reactions and mineral dissolution or precipitation. The performance of the code is illustrated through a series of column synthetic models. The code is also used to model the aqueous phase CO2 injection test carried out at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory site (Palisades, New York, USA) [1]. References [1] N. Assayag, J. Matter, M. Ader, D. Goldberg, and P. Agrinier. Water-rock interactions during a CO2 injection field-test: Implications on host rock dissolution and alteration effects. Chemical Geology, 265(1-2):227-235, July 2009. [2] Jan van der Lee, Laurent De Windt, Vincent Lagneau, and Patrick Goblet. Module-oriented modeling of reactive transport with HYTEC. Computers & Geosciences, 29(3):265-275, April 2003.

  10. Flow injection spectrophotometric determination of low concentrations of orthosphate in natural waters employing ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessenda, L.C.R.

    1981-01-01

    A simple and fast method for the determination of low concentrations of orthophosphate in natural waters is described. Ion exchange is incorporated into a flow injection system by usina a resin column in the sample loop of a proportion injector. Effects of sample aspiration rate, sampling time, eluting agent concentration, pumping rate of the sample carrier stream and interfaces, were investigated both using 32 PO 3- 4 or 31 PO 3- 4 with columns coupled to a gerger-muller detector and incorporated in a flow system with molybdenum blue colorinetry. (M.A.C.) [pt

  11. Debinding behaviour of a water soluble PEG/PMMA binder for Ti metal injection moulding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Gang [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Cao, Peng, E-mail: p.cao@auckland.ac.nz [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Wen, Guian [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Edmonds, Neil [School of Chemical Science, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand)

    2013-05-15

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been becoming a common component in the design of water soluble binder systems for metal injection moulding. Similar to solvent debinding, PEG can be leached out by water and the mechanism of debinding was proposed in the literature with somehow misleading information about the debinding mechanism, particularly about the formation of PEG gel. This work investigates the debinding behaviours of a PEG-based binder in titanium compacts. Titanium powder is formulated with PEG, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and stearic acid (SA) to formulate titanium feedstock. To determine the debinding kinetics, the PEG removal percentages are measured at three different temperatures and for various specimen thicknesses. A mathematic model based on diffusion-controlled debinding process is established. The evolution of porous microstructure during the water debinding process is observed using scanning electron microscopy. Based on these observations, a water debinding mechanism for titanium alloy compacts formulated with PEG-based binders is proposed. - Highlights: ► The water-debinding behaviours of the PEG binder system were investigated. ► PEG dissolution and transportation, and the pore structure development. ► A water debinding mechanism of PEG-based binders is proposed. ► Incorrect explanation of PEG gelling in the literature is corrected. ► Correction/modification made as per the reviewers' comments and suggestions.

  12. Water-hammer in the cold leg during an SBLOCA due to cold ECCS injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, M.G.; Ghan, L.S.

    1991-01-01

    Water-hammer might occur in the cold leg of pressurized water reactors (PWR) during small break loss-of-coolant accidents (SBLOCA's), when cold emergency core cooling system (ECCS) water is injected into a pipe that may be partially filled with saturated steam. The water may mix with the steam and cause it to condense abruptly. Depending on the flow regime present, slugs of liquid may then be accelerated towards each other or against the piping structure. The possibility of this phenomenon is of concern to us because it may become a dominant phenomenon and change the character of the transient. In performing the code scaling, applicability, and uncertainty study (CSAU) on a SBLOCA scenario, we had to examine the possibility that the transient being analyzed could experience water-hammer and thus depart from the scope of the study. Two criteria for water-hammer initiation were investigated and tested using a RELAP5/MOD3 simulation of the transient. Our results indicated a very low likelihood of occurrence of the phenomenon. 8 refs., 6 figs

  13. Debinding behaviour of a water soluble PEG/PMMA binder for Ti metal injection moulding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Gang; Cao, Peng; Wen, Guian; Edmonds, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been becoming a common component in the design of water soluble binder systems for metal injection moulding. Similar to solvent debinding, PEG can be leached out by water and the mechanism of debinding was proposed in the literature with somehow misleading information about the debinding mechanism, particularly about the formation of PEG gel. This work investigates the debinding behaviours of a PEG-based binder in titanium compacts. Titanium powder is formulated with PEG, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and stearic acid (SA) to formulate titanium feedstock. To determine the debinding kinetics, the PEG removal percentages are measured at three different temperatures and for various specimen thicknesses. A mathematic model based on diffusion-controlled debinding process is established. The evolution of porous microstructure during the water debinding process is observed using scanning electron microscopy. Based on these observations, a water debinding mechanism for titanium alloy compacts formulated with PEG-based binders is proposed. - Highlights: ► The water-debinding behaviours of the PEG binder system were investigated. ► PEG dissolution and transportation, and the pore structure development. ► A water debinding mechanism of PEG-based binders is proposed. ► Incorrect explanation of PEG gelling in the literature is corrected. ► Correction/modification made as per the reviewers' comments and suggestions

  14. A respiration-metabolism chamber system and a GC-MS method developed for studying exhalation of perfluorobutane in rats after intravenous injection of the ultrasound contrast agent Sonazoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uran, Steinar; Landmark, Kristin; Normann, Per Trygve; Hals, Petter-Arnt; Toft, Kim Gunnar; Skotland, Tore

    2005-09-15

    Sonazoid is a new contrast agent for ultrasound imaging comprising an aqueous suspension of lipid-stabilised perfluorobutane (PFB) gas microbubbles. A respiration-metabolism chamber system was developed to collect exhaled air following intravenous administration of Sonazoid to rats. Analysis of PFB in the exhaled rat air was performed using a modified version of an earlier published method for blood samples, i.e. an automatic headspace gas chromatographic mass spectrometric (GC-MS) method using electron impact ionisation. The calibration standards were PFB diluted in air (2.5-1800 pg/ml). Perfluoropentane (PFP) was used as an internal standard and the MS detector was set to single ion monitoring of the base fragment ions of PFB (m/z 69 and 119) and PFP (m/z 69). The calibration curve, made by plotting the peak area ratios of PFB (m/z 69) to PFP (m/z 69) against the theoretical concentration of PFB, was fitted to a linear equation with weighting 1/y2 and found to be reproducible. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 2.5 pg PFB/ml. The between-day variation of the method was below 2.6% relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) and the within-day variation of the method was below 6.4% R.S.D. The accuracy of the method was evaluated and showed a relative error less than 5.2%. PFB was found to be stable for 14 days when stored in Tedlar sample bags at room temperature. An even lower detection limit may be obtained by using the more time-consuming process of solid-phase micro extraction; thus, by concentrating PFB on carboxen-PDMS fibres an LLOQ of 0.5 pg PFB/ml was obtained. When five rats were given an i.v. bolus injection of Sonazoid at a dose of 8 microl microbubbles/kg a mean recovery of 96% (range, 81-110%) was found during 24 h; more than 50% was exhaled during the first 30 min after injection.

  15. Detailed evaluation of the natural circulation mass flow rate of water propelled by using an air injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Rae-Joon; Ha, Kwang-Soon; Kim, Jae-Cheol; Hong, Seong-Wan; Kim, Sang-Baik

    2008-01-01

    One-dimensional (1D) air-water two-phase natural circulation flow in the thermohydraulic evaluation of reactor cooling mechanism by external self-induced flow - one-dimensional' (THERMES-1D) experiment has been verified and evaluated by using the RELAP5/MOD3 computer code. Experimental results on the 1D natural circulation mass flow rate of water propelled by using an air injection have been evaluated in detail. The RELAP5 results have shown that an increase in the air injection rate to 50% of the total heat flux leads to an increase in the water circulation mass flow rate. However, an increase in the air injection rate from 50 to 100% does not affect the water circulation mass flow rate, because of the inlet area condition. As the height increases in the air injection part, the void fraction increases. However, the void fraction in the upper part of the air injector maintains a constant value. An increase in the air injection mass flow rate leads to an increase in the local void fraction, but it has no influence on the local pressure. An increase in the coolant inlet area leads to an increase in the water circulation mass flow rate. However, the water outlet area does not have an influence on the water circulation mass flow rate. As the coolant outlet moves to a lower position, the water circulation mass flow rate decreases. (author)

  16. Acute toxicity of intravenously administered titanium dioxide nanoparticles in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaying Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With a wide range of applications, titanium dioxide (TiO₂ nanoparticles (NPs are manufactured worldwide in large quantities. Recently, in the field of nanomedicine, intravenous injection of TiO₂ nanoparticulate carriers directly into the bloodstream has raised public concerns on their toxicity to humans. METHODS: In this study, mice were injected intravenously with a single dose of TiO₂ NPs at varying dose levels (0, 140, 300, 645, or 1387 mg/kg. Animal mortality, blood biochemistry, hematology, genotoxicity and histopathology were investigated 14 days after treatment. RESULTS: Death of mice in the highest dose (1387 mg/kg group was observed at day two after TiO₂ NPs injection. At day 7, acute toxicity symptoms, such as decreased physical activity and decreased intake of food and water, were observed in the highest dose group. Hematological analysis and the micronucleus test showed no significant acute hematological or genetic toxicity except an increase in the white blood cell (WBC count among mice 645 mg/kg dose group. However, the spleen of the mice showed significantly higher tissue weight/body weight (BW coefficients, and lower liver and kidney coefficients in the TiO₂ NPs treated mice compared to control. The biochemical parameters and histological tissue sections indicated that TiO₂ NPs treatment could induce different degrees of damage in the brain, lung, spleen, liver and kidneys. However, no pathological effects were observed in the heart in TiO₂ NPs treated mice. CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous injection of TiO₂ NPs at high doses in mice could cause acute toxicity effects in the brain, lung, spleen, liver, and kidney. No significant hematological or genetic toxicity was observed.

  17. Study of the effect of injecting cold or hot water on the operation of an oil field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gusein-Zade, M A; Kolosovskaya, A K; Lebedev, V V; Chicherov, L G

    1968-11-01

    Several Soviet reservoirs contain either highly paraffinic or viscous crude oils, where recovery by an ordinary waterflood is poor. Under such circumstances, hot water injection appears to be advantageous. Hot water injection is advisable when: (1) the reservoir is heterogeneous and contains low-permeability sections; (2) the oil is saturated with paraffin at reservoir temperature; and (3) reservoir pressure is only slightly higher than static pressure. In Uzen field, hot water injection should recover 1.5 times more oil than would be recovered with cold water. Various problems involved with hot water injection such as equipment and methods of heating the water, transportation of the water of the wellhead, heat losses in transport of hot water, and well equipment for handling hot water are discussed. Calculations indicate that it should be possible to transport 100/sup 0/C water through a 5 km pipeline with a 4/sup 0/ to 6/sup 0/C temperature drop; then deliver to the well bottom at a temperature of 90/sup 0/ to 92/sup 0/C.

  18. Simulation bidimensional of water and gas alternative injection; Simulacao bidimensional de injecao alternada de agua e gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, Ana Paula Silva C. de

    1999-07-01

    This dissertation presents a study of the unidimensional of water and gas alternate injection (WAG) using the stream line theory. It is considered incompressible fluid., unit mobility ratio, negligible capillary and gravitational effects, homogeneous and isotropic reservoir, isothermal flow two phases, oil and water, and three components, oil, water and gas. In the stream line theory, the following injection schemes are considered: staggered line five-spot, direct line and seven-spot. It is also considered that there is no flow among the streams. In the WAG calculations it is used the fractional flow theory and the method of characteristics, which consists of shock waves and rarefactions. The composition of these waves is said compatible if it satisfies the entropy condition. The solution goes through a certain path from the left to the right side constrained by the initial and boundary conditions. The gas injection is at a high pressure to ensure miscible displacement. It is considered first injection of a water bank and then, injection of a gas bank. We concluded that the gas injection at a high pressure recoveries all residual oil and the water saturation remains is greater than initial saturation. (author)

  19. Effects of temperature on SCC propagation in high temperature water injected with hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Junichi; Sato, Tomonori; Kato, Chiaki; Yoshiyuki, Kaji; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Tsukada, Takashi

    2012-09-01

    To understand the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behaviour of austenitic stainless steels (SSs) in the boiling water reactor (BWR) coolant environment, it is significant to investigate the effect of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) produced by the radiolysis of water on SCC under the various water chemistry and operational conditions. At the start-up or shut-down periods, for example, the conditions of radiation and temperature on the structural materials are different from those during the plant normal operation, and may be influencing on SCC behaviour. Therefore, the effect of temperature on SCC in high temperature water injected with H 2 O 2 was evaluated by SCC propagation test at the present study. Oxide films on the metal surface in crack were examined and the thermal equilibrium diagram was calculated to estimate the environmental situation in the crack. On the thermally sensitized type 304 SS, crack growth tests were conducted in high temperature water injected with H 2 O 2 to simulate water radiolysis in the core. Small CT type specimens with a width of 15.5 mm and thickness of 6.2 mm were machined from the sensitized SS. SCC growth tests were conducted in high temperature water injected with 100 ppb H 2 O 2 at 453 and 561 K. To minimize H 2 O 2 decomposition by a contact with metal surface of autoclave, the CT specimen was isolated from inner surface of the autoclave by the inner modules made of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), and PTFE lining was also used for the inner surface of inlet and sampling tubes. Base on the measurement of sampled water, it was confirmed that 80-90 % of injected H 2 O 2 remained around the CT specimen in autoclave. Constant load at initial K levels of 11-20 MPam 1/2 was applied to the CT specimens during crack growth tests. After crack growth tests, CT specimens were split into two pieces on the plane of crack propagation. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) examination and laser Raman spectroscopy for outer oxide layer of oxide

  20. A fast alternative to core plug tests for optimising injection water salinity for EOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassenkam, Tue; Andersson, Martin Peter; Hilner, Emelie Kristin Margareta

    2014-01-01

    of the clays which would lead to permanent reservoir damage but evidence of effectiveness at moderate salinity would offer the opportunity to dispose of produced water. The goal is to define boundary conditions so injection water salinity is high enough to prevent reservoir damage and low enough to induce...... the low salinity effect while keeping costs and operational requirements at a minimum. Traditional core plug testing for optimising conditions has some limitations. Each test requires a fresh sample, core testing requires sophisticated and expensive equipment, and reliable core test data requires several...... experiments can be done relatively quickly on very little material, it gives the possibility of testing salinity response on samples from throughout a reservoir and for gathering statistics. Our approach provides a range of data that can be used to screen core plug testing conditions and to provide extra data...

  1. Numerical analysis of water hammer induced by injection of subcooled water into steam flow in a horizontal pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minato, Akihiko; Nagoyoshi, Takuji; Nakamura, Akira; Fujii, Yuzo; Aya, Izuo; Yamane, Kenji

    2004-01-01

    Subcooled water injection into steam flow in piping systems may generate a water column containing a large steam slug. The steam slug collapses due to rapid condensation and interfaces on both sides collides with each other. Water hammer takes place and sharp pressure pulse propagates through the pipe. The purpose of this study is to show capability of the present numerical simulation method for predictions of pressure transient and loads on a piping system following steam slug collapse. A three-dimensional computer code for transient gas-liquid two-phase flow was applied to simulate an experiment of steam-condensation-induced water hammer with a horizontal polycarbonate pipe. The code was based on the extended two-fluid model, which treated interface motion using the VOF (Volume of Fluid) technique. The Godunov scheme of highly compressible single-phase flow was modified for application to the Riemann problem solution of gas-liquid mixture. Analysis of local steam slug collapse resulted in comparable peak pressure and pulse width of pressure transients with the observation. The calculation of pressure pulse propagation and impact load on piping system showed the quasi-steady pressure load was imposed especially on elbow at 1/10 of water hammer peak pressure. (author)

  2. Design and experimental investigations on six-stroke SI engine using acetylene with water injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Keshav; Suthar, Kishanlal; Jain, Sheetal Kumar; Agarwal, Ghanshyam Das; Nayyar, Ashish

    2018-06-02

    In the present study, a four-stroke cycle gasoline engine is redesigned and converted into a six-stroke cycle engine and experimental study has been conducted using gasoline and acetylene as fuel with water injection at the end of the recompression stroke. Acetylene has been used as an alternative fuel along with gasoline and performance of the six-stroke spark ignition (SI) engine with these two fuels has been studied separately and compared. Brake power and thermal efficiency are found to be 5.18 and 1.55% higher with acetylene as compared to gasoline in the six-stroke engine. However, thermal efficiency is found to be 45% higher with acetylene in the six-stroke engine as compared to four-stroke SI engine. The CO and HC emissions were found to be reduced by 13.33 and 0.67% respectively with acetylene as compared to gasoline due to better combustion of acetylene. The NO x emission was reduced by 5.65% with acetylene due to lower peak temperature by water injection. The experimental results showed better engine performance and emissions with acetylene as fuel in the six-stroke engine.

  3. Indian primacy procedures handbook for the public water system supervision (PWSS) program and the underground injection control (UIC) program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The handbook defines primacy, the responsibilities of primacy, primacy's advantages and limitations, and how to seek primacy. Primacy is a provision in the 1986 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). It allows Indian Tribes the opportunity to assume principal responsibility in the enforcement of public drinking water and/or underground injection control (UIC) regulations within the Indian Tribe's jurisdiction. To attain primacy a Tribe must have drinking water and underground injection control regulations which are at least as strict as EPA regulations, and must have an independent agency or organization within the Tribal government that has the power to enforce its regulations

  4. Identification of temperature-dependent water quality changes during a deep well injection experiment in a pyritic aquifer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prommer, H.; Stuijfzand, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    Artificial recharge is a technique used increasingly to supplement drinking water supplies. To assess the potential water quality changes that occur during subsurface passage, a comprehensive deep-well injection experiment was carried out for a recharge scheme, where pretreated, aerobic surface

  5. Study on the Effect of water Injection Momentum on the Cooling Effect of Rocket Engine Exhaust Plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kan; Qiang, Yanhui; Zhong, Chenghang; Yu, Shaozhen

    2017-10-01

    For the study of water injection momentum factors impact on flow field of the rocket engine tail flame, the numerical computation model of gas-liquid two phase flow in the coupling of high temperature and high speed gas flow and low temperature liquid water is established. The accuracy and reliability of the numerical model are verified by experiments. Based on the numerical model, the relationship between the flow rate and the cooling effect is analyzed by changing the water injection momentum of the water spray pipes. And the effective mathematical expression is obtained. What’s more, by changing the number of the water spray and using small flow water injection, the cooling effect is analyzed to check the application range of the mathematical expressions. The results show that: the impact and erosion of the gas flow field could be reduced greatly by water injection, and there are two parts in the gas flow field, which are the slow cooling area and the fast cooling area. In the fast cooling area, the influence of the water flow momentum and nozzle quantity on the cooling effect can be expressed by mathematical functions without causing bifurcation flow for the mainstream gas. The conclusion provides a theoretical reference for the engineering application.

  6. Integrated use of NMR, petrel and modflow in the modeling of SAGD produced water re-injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, K.; Phair, C; Alloisio, S; Novotny, M; Raven, S

    2011-01-01

    In the oil industry, steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is a method used to enhance oil recovery in which production water disposal is a challenge. During this process, production water is re-injected into the reservoir and operators have to verify that it will not affect the quality of the surrounding fresh groundwater. This research aimed at determining the flow path and the time that produced water would take to reach an adjacent aquifer. This study was carried out on a horizontal well pair at the Axe Lake Area in northwestern Saskatchewan, using existing site data in Petrel to create a static hydrogeological model which was then exported to Modflow to simulate injection scenarios. This innovative method provided flow path of the re-injected water and time to reach the fresh with advantages over conventional hydrogeological modeling. The innovative workflow presented herein successfully provided useful information to assess the feasibility of the SAGD project and could be used for other projects.

  7. Development of flow injection method for indirect copper determination with amperometric detection in drinking water samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić-Mandić Snežana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A gas-diffusion flow injection method with amperometric detection for indirect copper determination on a silver electrode is developed. The flow through system is equipped with two injection valves and a gas-diffusion unit. In the first step, a signal of cyanide solution was recorded. In the following step a signal of cyanide in the presence of copper was measured. Interferences (Cd(II, Co(II, Ag(I, Ni(II, Fe(III, Hg(II and Zn(II were investigated and successfully removed. The calibration graph is linear in the range 1-90 μmol dm-3 of copper, correlation coefficient is 0.993, the regression equation is I = (0.0455±0.0015c + (0.4611±0.0671, I is relative signal decrease in μA and c is concentration in μmol dm-3. Relative standard deviation for six consecutive injections of 30 μmol dm-3 copper(II was 1.47 % and for 1 μmol dm-3 copper(II was 3.40 %. The detection limit, calculated as 3 s/m (where s is a standard deviation of nine measurement of a reagent blank and m is the slope of the calibration curve, was 0.32 μmol dm-3, which corresponds to 2.44 ng of copper(II (loop volume was 0.12 cm3. The method enables 60 analyses per hour and it was successfully applied on determination of copper in drinking water samples. [Acknowledgements. The authors acknowledge the grant from the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia, Project number 172051

  8. Experimental and numerical study on the fracture of rocks during injection of CO2-saturated water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Wu, Zhishen; Lei, Xing-Lin; Murakami, Yutaka; Satoh, Takashi

    2007-02-01

    Geological sequestration of CO2 into depleted hydrocarbon reserviors or saline aquifers presents the enormous potential to reduce greenhouse gas emission from fossil fuels. However, it may give rise to a complicated coupling physical and chemical process. One of the processes is the hydro-mechanical impact of CO2 injection. During the injection project, the increase of pore pressures of storing formations can induce the instability, which finally results in a catastrophic failure of disposal sites. This paper focuses mainly on the role of CO2-saturated water in the fracturing behavior of rocks. To investigate how much the dissolved CO2 can influence the pore pressure change of rocks, acoustic emission (AE) experiments were performed on sandstone and granite samples under triaxial conditions. The main innovation of this paper is to propose a time dependent porosity method to simulate the abrupt failure process, which is observed in the laboratory and induced by the pore pressure change due to the volume dilatancy of rocks, using a finite element scheme associated with two-phase characteristics. The results successfully explained the phenomena obtained in the physical experiments.

  9. Flow structure of conical distributed multiple gas jets injected into a water chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Jiajun; Yu, Yonggang [Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing (China)

    2017-04-15

    Based on an underwater gun firing project, a mock bullet with several holes on the head was designed and experimented to observe the combustion gas injected into a cylindrical water chamber through this mock bullet. The combustion gas jets contain one vertical central jet and 4 to 8 slant lateral jets. A high speed camera system was used to record the expansion of gas jets in the experimental study. In numerical simulations, the Euler two-fluid model and volume of fluid method were adopted to describe the gas-liquid flow. The results show the backflow zone in lateral jet is the main factor influencing the gas-liquid turbulent mixing in downstream. On cross sections, the gas volume fraction increased with time but the growth rate decreased. With a change of nozzle structure, the gas fraction was more affected than the shock structure.

  10. The adverse effects of inadvertent intraoperative intravenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inadvertent intravenous injection of 1% phenylephrine (10 mg) induced severe hypertension and tachycardia in a previously healthy female patient undergoing elective gynaecological surgery. This medical error was investigated using the criticalincident technique that is available in our department. This case report ...

  11. Cost-minimization of mabthera intravenous versus subcutaneous administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bax, P.; Postma, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To identify and compare all costs related to preparing and administrating MabThera for the intravenous and subcutaneous formulations in Dutch hematological patients. The a priori notion is that the costs of subcutaneous MabThera injections are lower compared to intravenous infusion due

  12. Comparison of Microbial Community Compositions of Injection and Production Well Samples in a Long-Term Water-Flooded Petroleum Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Song, Zhi-yong; Rupert, Wieger; Gao, Guang-Jun; Guo, Sheng-xue; Zhao, Li-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Water flooding plays an important role in recovering oil from depleted petroleum reservoirs. Exactly how the microbial communities of production wells are affected by microorganisms introduced with injected water has previously not been adequately studied. Using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approach and 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis, the comparison of microbial communities is carried out between one injection water and two production waters collected from a working block of the water-flooded Gudao petroleum reservoir located in the Yellow River Delta. DGGE fingerprints showed that the similarities of the bacterial communities between the injection water and production waters were lower than between the two production waters. It was also observed that the archaeal composition among these three samples showed no significant difference. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene clone libraries showed that the dominant groups within the injection water were Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Methanomicrobia, while the dominant groups in the production waters were Gammaproteobacteria and Methanobacteria. Only 2 out of 54 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and 5 out of 17 archaeal OTUs in the injection water were detected in the production waters, indicating that most of the microorganisms introduced by the injection water may not survive to be detected in the production waters. Additionally, there were 55.6% and 82.6% unique OTUs in the two production waters respectively, suggesting that each production well has its specific microbial composition, despite both wells being flooded with the same injection water. PMID:21858049

  13. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Process Conditions on Residual Wall Thickness and Cooling and Surface Characteristics of Water-Assisted Injection Molded Hollow Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungpil Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, water-assisted injection molding was employed in the automobile industry to manufacture three-dimensional hollow tube-type products with functionalities. However, process optimization is difficult in the case of water-assisted injection molding because of the various rheological interactions between the injected water and the polymer. In this study, the boiling phenomenon that occurs because of the high melt temperature when injecting water and the molding characteristics of the hollow section during the water-assisted injection process were analyzed by a water-assisted injection molding analysis. In addition, the changes in the residual wall thickness accompanying changes in the process conditions were compared with the analysis results by considering water-assisted injection molding based on gas-assisted injection molding. Furthermore, by comparing the cooling characteristics and inner wall surface qualities corresponding to the formation of the hollow section by gas and water injections, a water-assisted injection molding technique was proposed for manufacturing hollow products with functionality.

  14. Analysis of gas turbine engines using water and oxygen injection to achieve high Mach numbers and high thrust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberry, Hugh M.; Snyder, Christopher A.

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of gas turbine engines using water and oxygen injection to enhance performance by increasing Mach number capability and by increasing thrust is described. The liquids are injected, either separately or together, into the subsonic diffuser ahead of the engine compressor. A turbojet engine and a mixed-flow turbofan engine (MFTF) are examined, and in pursuit of maximum thrust, both engines are fitted with afterburners. The results indicate that water injection alone can extend the performance envelope of both engine types by one and one-half Mach numbers at which point water-air ratios reach 17 or 18 percent and liquid specific impulse is reduced to some 390 to 470 seconds, a level about equal to the impulse of a high energy rocket engine. The envelope can be further extended, but only with increasing sacrifices in liquid specific impulse. Oxygen-airflow ratios as high as 15 percent were investigated for increasing thrust. Using 15 percent oxygen in combination with water injection at high supersonic Mach numbers resulted in thrust augmentation as high as 76 percent without any significant decrease in liquid specific impulse. The stoichiometric afterburner exit temperature increased with increasing oxygen flow, reaching 4822 deg R in the turbojet engine at a Mach number of 3.5. At the transonic Mach number of 0.95 where no water injection is needed, an oxygen-air ratio of 15 percent increased thrust by some 55 percent in both engines, along with a decrease in liquid specific impulse of 62 percent. Afterburner temperature was approximately 4700 deg R at this high thrust condition. Water and/or oxygen injection are simple and straightforward strategies to improve engine performance and they will add little to engine weight. However, if large Mach number and thrust increases are required, liquid flows become significant, so that operation at these conditions will necessarily be of short duration.

  15. Effects of zinc injection on electrochemical corrosion and cracking behavior of stainless steels in borated and lithiated high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xinqiang; Liu Xiahe; Han Enhou; Ke Wei

    2014-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) injection water chemistry (ZWC) adopted in primary coolant system in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) is to reduce the radiation buildup as well as retard the corrosion degradation in high temperature pressurized water through improving the characteristics of oxide scales formed on components materials. However, Zn injection involved corrosion and cracking behavior and related mechanisms are still under discussion. The understanding of Zn-bearing oxide scale characteristics and their protective property is of significance to clarify the environmentally assisted material failure problems in PWRs power plants. In the present work, in-situ potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectra measurements in high temperature borated and lithiated water as well as ex-situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses have been done to investigate the effects of temperature (R.T.-603 K), pH T value at 573 K (6.9-7.4) and Zn-injection concentration (0-150 ppb) on electrochemical corrosion behavior and oxide scale characteristics of nuclear-grade stainless steels. The protective property of oxide scales under Zn-free and Zn-injected conditions degraded with increasing temperature, with Cr-rich oxide layer playing a key role on retarding further corrosion. The composition of oxide scales appeared slightly pH T dependent: rich in chromites and ferrites at pH T =6.9 and pH T =7.4, respectively. The corrosion rate decreased significantly in the high pH T value solution with Zn injection due to the formation of thin and compact oxide scales. The ≤50 ppb Zn injection could significantly affect the formation of Zn-bearing oxides on the surfaces, while >50 ppb Zn injection showed no obvious influence on the oxide scales. A modified point defect model was proposed to discuss the effects of injected Zn concentrations on the oxide scales in high temperature water. A 10 ppb Zn injection obviously decreased the intergranular cracking susceptibility of

  16. Adherence of radiopharmaceuticals and labeled cells to intravenous tubing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segall, G.M.; Gurevich, N.; McDougall, I.R.

    1986-01-01

    A survey of 67 nuclear medicine departments revealed no agreement on which radiolabeled agents could be injected through intravenous lines (IVs) and which required direct venipuncture. Labeled cells and several common radiopharmaceuticals were tested for adherence to intravenous tubing. Residual activity remaining in the tubing after an adequate flush was less than 1% of the injected dose in each case. Administration of radiolabeled agents through existing IVs is an acceptable alternative to direct venipuncture in many cases

  17. Acute Toxicity of Intravenously Administered Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Jiaying; Shi, Hongbo; Ruth, Magaye; Yu, Hongsheng; Lazar, Lissy; Zou, Baobo; Yang, Cui; Wu, Aiguo; Zhao, Jinshun

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With a wide range of applications, titanium dioxide (TiO₂) nanoparticles (NPs) are manufactured worldwide in large quantities. Recently, in the field of nanomedicine, intravenous injection of TiO₂ nanoparticulate carriers directly into the bloodstream has raised public concerns on their toxicity to humans. METHODS: In this study, mice were injected intravenously with a single dose of TiO₂ NPs at varying dose levels (0, 140, 300, 645, or 1387 mg/kg). Animal mortality, blood biochem...

  18. Reverse flow injection spectrophotometric determination of thiram and nabam fungicides in natural water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asghar, M.; Yaqoob, M.; Nabi, A.

    2014-01-01

    A reverse flow injection (rFI) spectrophotometric method is reported for determination of thiram and nabam fungicides in natural water samples. The method is based on the reduction of iron(III) in the presence of thiram/nabam in acidic medium at 60 degree C and formation of iron(II)-ferricyanide complex was measured at 790 nm. The limits of detection (3s blank) were 0.01 and 0.05 micro g mL1 for thiram and nabam respectively with a sample throughput of 60 h1. Calibration graphs were linear over the range of 0.02 - 8.0 micro g mL1 (R2 = 0.9999, n = 8) and 0.1 - 30 micro g mL1 (R2 = 0.9982, n = 10) for thiram and nabam with relative standard deviations (RSDs; n = 3) in the range of 0.8 - 1.6% respectively. Experimental parameters and potential interferences were examined. Thiram and nabam were determined in natural water samples using solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure and recoveries were in the range of 93+-3 - 105+-2% and 87+-4 - 102+-3% respectively. The results obtained were not significantly different compared with a HPLC method. (author)

  19. A multisyringe flow injection method for the determination of thorium in water samples using spectrophotometric detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman-Mar, J.L.; Aracely Hernandez-Ramirez; Lopez-Chuken, U.J.; Lopez-de-Alba, P.L.; Victor Cerda

    2011-01-01

    A fast and simple multisyringe flow injection analysis (MSFIA) method for routine determination of thorium in water samples was developed. The methodology was based on the complexation reaction of thorium with arsenazo (III) at pH 2.0. Thorium concentrations were spectrophotometrically detected at 665 nm. Under optimal conditions, Beer's law was obeyed over the range from 0.2 to 4.5 μg mL -1 thorium, a 3σ detection limit of 0.05 μg mL -1 , and a 10σ quantification limit of 0.2 μg mL -1 were obtained. The relative standard deviations (RSD, %) at 0.5, 2.5 and 4.5 μg mL -1 was 2.8, 1.5 and 0.8%, respectively (n = 10). It was found that most of the common metal ions and anions did not interfere with the thorium determination. The proposed method was successfully applied to its analysis in various water samples. (author)

  20. Determination of Nitrite and Nitrate in Natural Waters Using Flow Injection with Spectrophotometric Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaqoob, M.; Nabi, A.

    2013-01-01

    A simple and sensitive flow injection spectrophotometric method is reported for the room temperature determination of nitrite and nitrate based on the Griess reaction and a copperised cadmium column for reduction of nitrate. Calibration graphs were linear over the range 2 - 1000 micro g N L /sup -1/ (R2 = 0.9997 and 0.9999, n = 9) with a limit of detection (3 s.d.) of 1.0 micro g N L and relative standard deviations (n = 10) of 0.9 and 1.2% for 50 micro g N L nitrite and nitrate respectively. The sample throughput was 50 h. The effect of reagent concentrations, physical parameters (flow rate, sample volume, reaction coil and copperised cadmium column length) and the potential interferences are reported. The effect of salinity on the blank and on the determination of nitrite and nitrate are also presented. The method was applied to natural waters (rainwater, freshwater and estuarine water) and the results for nitrite + nitrate (140 - 7310 micro g N L/sup -1/) were not significantly different (95% confidence interval) from results obtained using a segmented flow analyser reference method with spectrophotometric detection. (author)

  1. Estimate for interstage water injection in air compressor incorporated into gas-turbine cycles and combined power plants cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kler, A. M.; Zakharov, Yu. B.; Potanina, Yu. M.

    2017-05-01

    The objects of study are the gas turbine (GT) plant and combined cycle power plant (CCPP) with opportunity for injection between the stages of air compressor. The objective of this paper is technical and economy optimization calculations for these classes of plants with water interstage injection. The integrated development environment "System of machine building program" was a tool for creating the mathematic models for these classes of power plants. Optimization calculations with the criterion of minimum for specific capital investment as a function of the unit efficiency have been carried out. For a gas-turbine plant, the economic gain from water injection exists for entire range of power efficiency. For the combined cycle plant, the economic benefit was observed only for a certain range of plant's power efficiency.

  2. Numerical simulation of MH growth/dissociation by hot water injection on the Lab. experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temma, N.; Sakamoto, Y.; Komai, T.; Yamaguchi, T.; Pawar, R.; Zyvoloski, G.

    2005-12-01

    Methane Hydrate (MH) is considered to be one of the new-generation energy resources. Aiming to develop the method of extraction of methane gas from MH, laboratory experiments have been performed in order to grasp the MH property in the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba in Japan. In this paper, we present the results of the numerical simulation of experiment using by the hot water injection. In this calculation, FEHM (Finite Element Heat and Mass transfer) code is used. This code is developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. In this experiment, temperature, pressure and cumulative gas production were measured. From these data, we suppose that MH growth/dissociation occurred by the flow of the hot water. And we make the model of the growth/dissociation. As this model consist of many parameters, it is difficult to determine parameters. Thus, we use PEST (Parameter ESTimation ) in order to determine parameters for the model of the MH growth/ dissociation. We use temperature data of experiment, as observed data. We make two observed data sets at the beginning and later term of experiment. At the results of PEST, we obtain two sets of parameters to get good match the observed data. We think that these sets indicate both the maximum and the minimum values of the MH growth/dissociation model. And, on this range, we continue to calculate until we get the good match. Finally, we obtain the numerical model of the experiment. Also, we conducted the sensitive analysis for the MH growth/ dissociation using this model.

  3. Vapour explosions (fuel-coolant interactions) resulting from the sub-surface injection of water into molten metals: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asher, R.C.; Bullen, D.; Davies, D.

    1976-03-01

    Preliminary experiments are reported on the relationship between the injection mode of contact and the occurrence and magnitude of vapour explosions. Water was injected beneath the surface of molten metals, chiefly tin at 250 to 900 0 C. Vapour explosions occurred in many, but not all, cases. The results are compared with Dullforce's observations (Culham Report (CLM-P424) on the dropping mode of contact and it appears that rather different behaviour is found; in particular, the present results suggest that the Temperature Interaction Zone is different for the two modes of contact. (author)

  4. Distribution and utilization of 15N in cowpeas injected into the stem under influence of water deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götz K-P; Herzog, H

    2000-01-01

    Investigations were carried out on Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. to estimate the distribution and utilization of 15N in different organs after stem injection during vegetative, flowering and pod filling stage. During flowering effects of water deficit were also examined. In well watered plants, within 4 days after injection, 65% of 15N accumulated in leaves. This was drastically reduced to 42% by water deficit. 15N accumulation in stems increased under water deficit. The translocation of 15N from the stem base to roots were not altered by water deficit. During pod filling 62% of recovered 15N in the plants had accumulated in seeds, 24% in leaves and 11% in stems within 4 days, whereas the uptake of nitrogen in pod walls and roots remained low (2%). These results demonstrate that the method of injecting very small quantities (1 mg/plant) of 15N into the stem base allows an exact and detailed quantitative assessment of N translocation/distribution with regard to different organs, different growth stages and different treatments.

  5. A gas production system from methane hydrate layers by hot water injection and BHP control with radial horizontal wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamakawa, T.; Ono, S.; Iwamoto, A.; Sugai, Y.; Sasaki, K. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    Reservoir characterization of methane hydrate (MH) bearing turbidite channel in the eastern Nankai Trough, in Japan has been performed to develop a gas production strategy. This paper proposed a gas production system from methane hydrate (MH) sediment layers by combining the hot water injection method and bottom hole pressure control at the production well using radial horizontal wells. Numerical simulations of the cylindrical homogeneous MH layer model were performed in order to evaluate gas production characteristics by the depressurization method with bottom hole pressure control. In addition, the effects of numerical block modeling and averaging physical properties of MH layers were presented. According to numerical simulations, combining the existing production system with hot water injection and bottom hole pressure control results in an outward expansion of the hot water chamber from the center of the MH layer with continuous gas production. 10 refs., 15 figs.

  6. Sensation of Cold during the Ice Water Test Corresponds to the Perception of Pain during Botulinum Toxin Bladder Wall Injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, André; Hüsch, Tanja; Doggweiler, Regula; Buse, Stephan; Haferkamp, Axel

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the association of bladder cold sensation (BCS) during the ice water test (IWT) and pain perception when botulinum toxin injections (BTI) are administered into the bladder wall. In 86 patients with idiopathic overactive bladder, the BCS during the IWT was investigated. Patients were divided into 2 groups: with and without BCS. During subsequent administration of BTI, the number of perceived and painful injections as well as the pain levels on a 0-100 pain scale were compared in both groups using Student t test. Thirty-five patients reported a BCS, while 51 did not. After 10 BTI, the mean number of perceived injections was 7.9 in patients with and 2.4 in patients without BCS (p sensation (p perceptions of cold and pain in the urinary bladder may use similar receptors and neuronal pathways. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Fluid-structure interaction analysis of a water pool under loading caused by steam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timperi, A.; Paettikangas, T.; Niemi, J.; Ilvonen, M.

    2006-04-01

    CFD and structural analysis codes. MpCCI 3.0 was used for coupling Fluent CFD code with ABAQUS FE code. ES-FSI was used for coupling Star-CD CFD code with ABAQUS. FSI analyses, in which the calculation was carried out entirely in ABAQUS, were also performed. In this case, acoustic elements were used for the fluid and the acoustic and structural domains were coupled. FSI calculations were performed for simple test cases and for a test pool at Lappeenranta University of Technology. The Method of Images was studied as an alternative method for the analyses of the pool. Particularly, the determination of pressure source for the method was studied. Earlier work carried out with the homogenous two-phase model was continued by testing the model with Fluent. Calculation of condensation of steam in a water pool was tested with a new implementation. The two-directionally coupled simulations of the pool with MpCCI and ES-FSI were found to be numerically instable. It was concluded that an implicit coupling method may have to be used in order to avoid the instability. Calculations of the pool were finally performed by using one directional coupling. In the simulations with MpCCI, the incompressible and compressible VOF models of Fluent were used. With ES-FSI, the incompressible VOF model of Star-CD was used for modelling the beginning of a steam injection experiment. The magnitudes of pressure and stress peaks in the simulation and experiment were of comparable size. Otherwise, however, differences between the simulation and experiment were large due to the simplifications used in the simulation. Results obtained with the acoustic-structural FE analyses were compared to analytical and experimental results. The results indicated that the coupled acoustic-structural analysis can be used for calculating the coupled Eigenmodes of BWR pressure suppression pools. (au)

  8. Fluid-structure interaction analysis of a water pool under loading caused by steam injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timperi, A.; Paettikangas, T.; Niemi, J.; Ilvonen, M. [VTT Technical Researc Centre of Finland (Finland)

    2006-04-15

    CFD and structural analysis codes. MpCCI 3.0 was used for coupling Fluent CFD code with ABAQUS FE code. ES-FSI was used for coupling Star-CD CFD code with ABAQUS. FSI analyses, in which the calculation was carried out entirely in ABAQUS, were also performed. In this case, acoustic elements were used for the fluid and the acoustic and structural domains were coupled. FSI calculations were performed for simple test cases and for a test pool at Lappeenranta University of Technology. The Method of Images was studied as an alternative method for the analyses of the pool. Particularly, the determination of pressure source for the method was studied. Earlier work carried out with the homogenous two-phase model was continued by testing the model with Fluent. Calculation of condensation of steam in a water pool was tested with a new implementation. The two-directionally coupled simulations of the pool with MpCCI and ES-FSI were found to be numerically instable. It was concluded that an implicit coupling method may have to be used in order to avoid the instability. Calculations of the pool were finally performed by using one directional coupling. In the simulations with MpCCI, the incompressible and compressible VOF models of Fluent were used. With ES-FSI, the incompressible VOF model of Star-CD was used for modelling the beginning of a steam injection experiment. The magnitudes of pressure and stress peaks in the simulation and experiment were of comparable size. Otherwise, however, differences between the simulation and experiment were large due to the simplifications used in the simulation. Results obtained with the acoustic-structural FE analyses were compared to analytical and experimental results. The results indicated that the coupled acoustic-structural analysis can be used for calculating the coupled Eigenmodes of BWR pressure suppression pools. (au)

  9. A New Treatment Strategy for Inactivating Algae in Ballast Water Based on Multi-Trial Injections of Chlorine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jinyang; Wang, Junsheng; Pan, Xinxiang; Yuan, Haichao

    2015-06-09

    Ships' ballast water can carry aquatic organisms into foreign ecosystems. In our previous studies, a concept using ion exchange membrane electrolysis to treat ballast water has been proven. In addition to other substantial approaches, a new strategy for inactivating algae is proposed based on the developed ballast water treatment system. In the new strategy, the means of multi-trial injection with small doses of electrolytic products is applied for inactivating algae. To demonstrate the performance of the new strategy, contrast experiments between new strategies and routine processes were conducted. Four algae species including Chlorella vulgaris, Platymonas subcordiformis, Prorocentrum micans and Karenia mikimotoi were chosen as samples. The different experimental parameters are studied including the injection times and doses of electrolytic products. Compared with the conventional one trial injection method, mortality rate time (MRT) and available chlorine concentration can be saved up to about 84% and 40%, respectively, under the application of the new strategy. The proposed new approach has great potential in practical ballast water treatment. Furthermore, the strategy is also helpful for deep insight of mechanism of algal tolerance.

  10. Diversity of Microbial Communities in Production and Injection Waters of Algerian Oilfields Revealed by 16S rRNA Gene Amplicon 454 Pyrosequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenchi, Nesrine; İnceoğlu, Özgül; Kebbouche-Gana, Salima; Gana, Mohamed Lamine; Llirós, Marc; Servais, Pierre; García-Armisen, Tamara

    2013-01-01

    The microorganisms inhabiting many petroleum reservoirs are multi-extremophiles capable of surviving in environments with high temperature, pressure and salinity. Their activity influences oil quality and they are an important reservoir of enzymes of industrial interest. To study these microbial assemblages and to assess any modifications that may be caused by industrial practices, the bacterial and archaeal communities in waters from four Algerian oilfields were described and compared. Three different types of samples were analyzed: production waters from flooded wells, production waters from non-flooded wells and injection waters used for flooding (water-bearing formations). Microbial communities of production and injection waters appeared to be significantly different. From a quantitative point of view, injection waters harbored roughly ten times more microbial cells than production waters. Bacteria dominated in injection waters, while Archaea dominated in production waters. Statistical analysis based on the relative abundance and bacterial community composition (BCC) revealed significant differences between production and injection waters at both OTUs0.03 and phylum level. However, no significant difference was found between production waters from flooded and non-flooded wells, suggesting that most of the microorganisms introduced by the injection waters were unable to survive in the production waters. Furthermore, a Venn diagram generated to compare the BCC of production and injection waters of one flooded well revealed only 4% of shared bacterial OTUs. Phylogenetic analysis of bacterial sequences indicated that Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria were the main classes in most of the water samples. Archaeal sequences were only obtained from production wells and each well had a unique archaeal community composition, mainly belonging to Methanobacteria, Methanomicrobia, Thermoprotei and Halobacteria classes. Many of the bacterial genera retrieved had already

  11. Theoretical study of hydraulic jump during circular horizontal hot leg injection in pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Hawary, Shehab; Abu-Elyazeed, Osayed S.M.; Fahmy, Adel Alyan; Meglaa, Khairy

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The model is developed to predict the occurrence of onset hydraulic jump in a circular pipe. • Theoretical results are in agreement with experimental results and theory. • Effects of diameter of the injection pipe, Froude number and injected coolant mass are studied. - Abstract: One important phenomenon occurring during Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) is Counter-Current Flow Limitation (CCFL). The incidence of such CCFL is introduced by the onset of hydraulic jump. In the present work, a one dimensional model was modified to fit circular hot channel. The model was used to study the factors affecting the initial Froude number, the location of the occurrence of the hydraulic jump, and the critical coolant flow depth during circular horizontal hot leg injection in US-APWR Mitsubishi Reactor. The results showed good agreement with published experimental data of the Upper Plenum Test Facility (UPTF) at Mannheim, Germany. It was found that higher injected coolant mass flow rate increases the initial Froude number, the location of the occurrence of the hydraulic jump, and the critical injection depth divided by the diameter of the injection pipe. Such behavior is thought to be due to the increase of the inertia force by increasing of the injected coolant mass flow rate and the inverse of the diameter of the injection pipe. It was found also that, the location of the occurrence of hydraulic jump increases with decreasing load effect. Therefore, these results reveal that the avoidance of CCFL as well as hydraulic jump through hot leg at maximum load can be achieved by decreasing the distance between the injection point and the pressure vessel to below 0.3 m, and with diameter of 4 in (10.16 cm) as the design diameter of the injection pipe in US-APWR Mitsubishi Reactor. Moreover, the maximum critical depth (56 cm) is less than the diameter of the hot leg (78.74 cm) at an injected coolant mass flow of 400 kg/s, and with diameter of 4 in (10.16 cm) as the

  12. The process of isothermal compression of gasses at sub-atmospheric pressures through regulated water injection in Braysson cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiou, Demos P.; Xenos, Triantafyllos

    2011-01-01

    Although the Braysson cycle constitutes the ideal limit for the Combined Cycle Power Plants, its actual implementation has not been achieved due to the difficulty in building the required isothermal compressor. The present study proposes the incorporation of regulated water injection during the final compression, which could maintain the temperature constant due to the evaporation. The analysis for the thermodynamic implications of the injection on the ideal version of the Braysson cycle indicates that the (ideal cycle) efficiency reduction will be minimal. The study provides an analysis for the water injection rate that will permit such a process and shows that the additional work needed to drive the process will not be affected significantly by the injection. In addition, it shows that the minimum temperature of the Braysson cycle will be lower than the corresponding level of the conventional (Gas-Steam turbine Combined cycle plants), something that could improve the efficiency as well. Finally it shows that the process may be expressed by a polytropic relationship of the type pv β = constant, where β ∼ 1.06.

  13. Synchronized droplet size measurements for Coal-Water-Slurry (CWS) diesel sprays of an electronically-controlled fuel injection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihm, K. D.; Terracina, D. P.; Payne, S. E.; Caton, J. A.

    Experiments were completed to study intermittent coal-water slurry (CWS) fuel sprays injected from an electronically-controlled accumulator injector system. A laser diffraction particle analyzing (LDPA) technique was used to measure the spray diameters (Sauter mean diameter, SMD) assuming the Rosin-Rammler two parameter model. In order to ensure an accurate synchronization of the measurement with the intermittent sprays, a new synchronization technique was developed using the light extinction signal as a triggering source for the data taking initiation. This technique allowed measurement of SMD's near the spray tip where the light extinction was low and the data were free from the multiscattering bias. Coal-water slurry fuel with 50% coal loading in mass containing 5 (mu)m mass median diameter coal particulates was considered. Injection pressures ranging from 28 to 110 MPa, two different nozzle orifice diameters, 0.2 ad 0.4 mm, and four axial measurement locations from 60 to 120 mm from the nozzle orifice were studied. Measurements were made for pressurized (2.0 MPa in gauge) and for ambient chamber conditions. The spray SMD showed an increase with the distance of the axial measurement location and with the ambient gas density, and showed a decrease with increasing injection pressure. A correlation of the Sauter mean diameter with the injection conditions was determined. The results were also compared with previous SMD correlations that were available only for diesel fuel sprays.

  14. Experiment HFR-B1: A preliminary analysis of the water-vapor injection experiments in capsule 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, B.F.

    1993-01-01

    A preliminary analysis of the response of uranium oxycarbide (UCO) fuel to water vapor addition in capsule 3 of experiment HFR-B1 (HFR-B1/3) has been conducted. The analysis provides an early indication of the behavior of fission gas release under a wider range of water-vapor pressures and of temperatures than heretofore studied. A preliminary analysis of selected aspects of the water-vapor injection tests in capsule 3 of experiment HFR-B1 is presented. The release of fission gas stored in bubbles and the diffusive release of fission-gas atoms are distinguished. The dependence of the release of stored fission gas ( 85m Kr) on water-vapor pressure, P(H 2 O), and temperature were established taking into account the contributing mechanisms of gaseous release, the effect of graphite hydrolysis, and the requirement of consistency with experiment HRB-17 in which similar water-vapor injection tests were conducted. The dependence on P(H 2 O) becomes weaker as temperatures increase above 770 degree C; the activation energy for release of stored-fission gas is 393 kJ/mol. Isorelease curves for the pressure-temperature plane were deduced from a derived functional relation. The stored-fission gas releases as a function of P(H 2 O) at a common temperature for experiments HFR-B1 and HRB-17 differ by a factor of 4; this discrepancy could be attributed to the differences in fission-rate density and neutron flux between the two experiments. Diffusive release of fission gas occurred during and after the release of stored gas. The ratio of diffusive release during water-vapor injection to that prior to injection varied in contrast to the results from HRB-17. The variation was attributed to the practice of injecting water vapor into HFR-B1 before sintering of the fuel, hydrolyzed in the previous test, was completed. The derived activation energy for diffusive release is 23.6 kJ/mol

  15. Experiment HFR-B1: A preliminary analysis of the water-vapor injection experiments in capsule 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, B.F.

    1993-08-01

    A preliminary analysis of the response of uranium oxycarbide (UCO) fuel to water vapor addition in capsule 3 of experiment HFR-B1 (HFR-B1/3) has been conducted. The analysis provides an early indication of the behavior of fission gas release under a wider range of water-vapor pressures and of temperatures than heretofore studied. A preliminary analysis of selected aspects of the water-vapor injection tests in capsule 3 of experiment HFR-B1 is presented. The release of fission gas stored in bubbles and the diffusive release of fission-gas atoms are distinguished. The dependence of the release of stored fission gas ({sup 85m}Kr) on water-vapor pressure, P(H{sub 2}O), and temperature were established taking into account the contributing mechanisms of gaseous release, the effect of graphite hydrolysis, and the requirement of consistency with experiment HRB-17 in which similar water-vapor injection tests were conducted. The dependence on P(H{sub 2}O) becomes weaker as temperatures increase above 770{degree}C; the activation energy for release of stored-fission gas is 393 kJ/mol. Isorelease curves for the pressure-temperature plane were deduced from a derived functional relation. The stored-fission gas releases as a function of P(H{sub 2}O) at a common temperature for experiments HFR-B1 and HRB-17 differ by a factor of 4; this discrepancy could be attributed to the differences in fission-rate density and neutron flux between the two experiments. Diffusive release of fission gas occurred during and after the release of stored gas. The ratio of diffusive release during water-vapor injection to that prior to injection varied in contrast to the results from HRB-17. The variation was attributed to the practice of injecting water vapor into HFR-B1 before sintering of the fuel, hydrolyzed in the previous test, was completed. The derived activation energy for diffusive release is 23.6 kJ/mol.

  16. Geological Factors Affecting Flow Spatial Continuity in Water Injection of Units Operating in the LGITJ–0102 Ore Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilver M. Soto-Loaiza

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the investigation was to identify the geological factors affecting the spatial continuity of the flow during the process of flank water injection in the units operating in the Lower Lagunilla Hydrocarbon Ore Body. This included the evaluation of the recovery factor, the petro-physic properties such as porosity, permeability, water saturation and rock type and quality in each flow unit. it was observed that the rock type of the geologic structure in the ore body is variable. The lowest values for the petro-physic properties were found in the southern area while a high variability of these parameters was observed in the northern and central areas. It was concluded that the northern area has a great potential for the development of new injection projects for petroleum recovery.

  17. The feasibility of water injection into the turbine coolant to permit gas turbine contingency power for helicopter application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Fossen, G. J.

    1983-01-01

    It is pointed out that in certain emergency situations it may be desirable to obtain power from a helicopter engine at levels greater than the maximum rating. Yost (1976) has reported studies concerning methods of power augmentation in the one engine inoperative (OEI) case. It was found that a combination of water/alcohol injection into the inlet and overtemperature/overspeed could provide adequate emergency power. The present investigation is concerned with the results of a feasibility study which analytically investigated the maximum possible level of augmentation with constant gas generator turbine stress rupture life as a constraint. In the proposed scheme, the increased engine output is obtained by turbine overtemperature, however, the temperature of the compressor bleed air used for hot section cooling is lowered by injecting and evaporating water.

  18. Effect of administration of water enriched in O2 by injection or electrolysis on transcutaneous oxygen pressure in anesthetized pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charton, Antoine; Péronnet, François; Doutreleau, Stephane; Lonsdorfer, Evelyne; Klein, Alexis; Jimenez, Liliana; Geny, Bernard; Diemunsch, Pierre; Richard, Ruddy

    2014-01-01

    Oral administration of oxygenated water has been shown to improve blood oxygenation and could be an alternate way for oxygen (O2) supply. In this experiment, tissue oxygenation was compared in anesthetized pigs receiving a placebo or water enriched in O2 by injection or a new electrolytic process. Forty-two pigs randomized in three groups received either mineral water as placebo or water enriched in O2 by injection or the electrolytic process (10 mL/kg in the stomach). Hemodynamic parameters, partial pressure of oxygen in the arterial blood (PaO2), skin blood flow, and tissue oxygenation (transcutaneous oxygen pressure, or TcPO2) were monitored during 90 minutes of general anesthesia. Absorption and tissue distribution of the three waters administered were assessed using dilution of deuterium oxide. Mean arterial pressure, heart rate, PaO2, arteriovenous oxygen difference, and water absorption from the gut were not significantly different among the three groups. The deuterium to protium ratio was also similar in the plasma, skin, and muscle at the end of the protocol. Skin blood flow decreased in the three groups. TcPO2 slowly decreased over the last 60 minutes of the experiment in the three groups, but when compared to the control group, the values remained significantly higher in animals that received the water enriched in O2 by electrolysis. In this protocol, water enriched in O2 by electrolysis lessened the decline of peripheral tissue oxygenation. This observation is compatible with the claim that the electrolytic process generates water clathrates which trap O2 and facilitate O2 diffusion along pressure gradients. Potential applications of O2-enriched water include an alternate method of oxygen supply.

  19. Late biological effects of 137CsCl injected in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikula, K.J.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Griffith, W.C.; Hahn, F.F.; Boecker, B.B.

    1994-01-01

    The toxicity of intravenously administered 137 CsCl in the Beagle dog was investigated as part of the ITRI program to evaluate the biological effects of internally deposited fission product radionuclides. The toxicity and health effects of 137 Cs are important to understand because 137 Cs is produced in large amounts in light-water nuclear reactors. Also, large quantities of cesium radioisotopes have entered the human food chain as a result of atmospheric nuclear weapons tests and additonal cesium radioisotopes were released during the Chernobyl accident. The intravenous route of exposure was chosen because it was known that after intravenous injection, inhalation, or ingestion, internally deposited 137 CsCl is rapidly adsorbed and distributed throughout the body, exposing the whole body to beta and gamma radiation, and because of the reduced radiation protection problems associated with high-level exposure via injection compared to these other routes

  20. Testing and modelling of a novel oil-free co-rotating scroll machine with water injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, Luis Carlos; Lemofouet, Sylvain; Schiffmann, Jürg

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Performance of novel oil-free co-rotating scroll expander presented. • Water injection allows reaching quasi-isothermal expansion process. • Comparison between experimental data, semi-empirical and deterministic models. • Flank leakage, water injection and rotor speed effects have been analyzed experimentally. • Design guidelines for co-rotating scroll improvement proposed. - Abstract: Efficient compressed air energy storage requires reversible isothermal compression and expansion devices. The isothermal compression and expansion processes can either be approached by several stages with intercooling or by the more convenient injection of a liquid, often water. While volumetric machines are readily available for dry processes the compression and expansion of a gas with the presence of liquid is still problematic. The concept of a co-rotating scroll has been identified as a promising technology to cope with the presence of liquid. The current paper discusses the first experimental results of an oil-free co-rotating scroll prototype tested in expansion mode on a wide range of rotational speeds, varying water injection flow rates and with different nominal flank clearances. A maximal overall isothermal efficiency of 34% and a maximum output power of 1.74 kW_e_l were measured with this first prototype, providing the proof of the technical feasibility of the oil-free co-rotating scroll expander concept. The experimental data indicate a positive effect of water injection suggesting good heat transfer behaviour between the water and the air in the individual chambers, which is a result of the relatively long residence time compared to other volumetric concepts. The experimental sensitivity analysis yields a strong dependency of the machine performance on both the nominal flank clearance and on the injected water rate. The analysis through a semi-empirical model suggests the inversion of a classical trend, i.e. the increase in total leakage area with

  1. Unit operation optimization for the manufacturing of botanical injections using a design space approach: a case study of water precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xingchu; Chen, Huali; Chen, Teng; Qu, Haibin

    2014-01-01

    Quality by design (QbD) concept is a paradigm for the improvement of botanical injection quality control. In this work, water precipitation process for the manufacturing of Xueshuantong injection, a botanical injection made from Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, was optimized using a design space approach as a sample. Saponin recovery and total saponin purity (TSP) in supernatant were identified as the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of water precipitation using a risk assessment for all the processes of Xueshuantong injection. An Ishikawa diagram and experiments of fractional factorial design were applied to determine critical process parameters (CPPs). Dry matter content of concentrated extract (DMCC), amount of water added (AWA), and stirring speed (SS) were identified as CPPs. Box-Behnken designed experiments were carried out to develop models between CPPs and process CQAs. Determination coefficients were higher than 0.86 for all the models. High TSP in supernatant can be obtained when DMCC is low and SS is high. Saponin recoveries decreased as DMCC increased. Incomplete collection of supernatant was the main reason for the loss of saponins. Design space was calculated using a Monte-Carlo simulation method with acceptable probability of 0.90. Recommended normal operation region are located in DMCC of 0.38-0.41 g/g, AWA of 3.7-4.9 g/g, and SS of 280-350 rpm, with a probability more than 0.919 to attain CQA criteria. Verification experiment results showed that operating DMCC, SS, and AWA within design space can attain CQA criteria with high probability.

  2. Unit operation optimization for the manufacturing of botanical injections using a design space approach: a case study of water precipitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingchu Gong

    Full Text Available Quality by design (QbD concept is a paradigm for the improvement of botanical injection quality control. In this work, water precipitation process for the manufacturing of Xueshuantong injection, a botanical injection made from Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, was optimized using a design space approach as a sample. Saponin recovery and total saponin purity (TSP in supernatant were identified as the critical quality attributes (CQAs of water precipitation using a risk assessment for all the processes of Xueshuantong injection. An Ishikawa diagram and experiments of fractional factorial design were applied to determine critical process parameters (CPPs. Dry matter content of concentrated extract (DMCC, amount of water added (AWA, and stirring speed (SS were identified as CPPs. Box-Behnken designed experiments were carried out to develop models between CPPs and process CQAs. Determination coefficients were higher than 0.86 for all the models. High TSP in supernatant can be obtained when DMCC is low and SS is high. Saponin recoveries decreased as DMCC increased. Incomplete collection of supernatant was the main reason for the loss of saponins. Design space was calculated using a Monte-Carlo simulation method with acceptable probability of 0.90. Recommended normal operation region are located in DMCC of 0.38-0.41 g/g, AWA of 3.7-4.9 g/g, and SS of 280-350 rpm, with a probability more than 0.919 to attain CQA criteria. Verification experiment results showed that operating DMCC, SS, and AWA within design space can attain CQA criteria with high probability.

  3. An injectable hybrid nanoparticle-in-oil-in-water submicron emulsion for improved delivery of poorly soluble drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuo; Wang, Hua; Liang, Wenquan; Huang, Yongzhuo

    2012-04-01

    Poor drugability problems are commonly seen in a class of chemical entities with poor solubility in water and oil, and moreover, physicochemical instability of these compounds poses extra challenges in design of dosage forms. Such problems contribute a significant high failure rate in new drug development. A hybrid nanoparicle-in-oil-in-water (N/O/W) submicron emulsion was proposed for improved delivery of poorly soluble and unstable drugs (e.g., dihydroartemisinin (DHA)). DHA is known for its potent antimalarial effect and antitumor activity. However, its insolubility and instability impose big challenges for formulations, and so far, no injectable dosage forms are clinically available yet. Therefore, an injectable DHA N/O/W system was developed. Unlike other widely-explored systems (e.g., liposomes, micelles, and emulsions), in which low drug load and only short-term storage are often found, the hybrid submicron emulsion possesses three-fold higher drug-loading capacity than the conventional O/W emulsion. Of note, it can be manufactured into a freeze-drying form and can render its storage up to 6 months even in room temperature. The in vivo studies demonstrated that the PK profiles were significantly improved, and this injectable system was effective in suppressing tumor growth. The strategy provides a useful solution to effective delivery of such a class of drugs.

  4. Developing Optimal Procedure of Emergency Outside Cooling Water Injection for APR1400 Extended SBO Scenario Using MARS Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Jong Rok; Oh, Seung Jong [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this study, we examined optimum operator actions to mitigate extended SBO using MARS code. Particularly, this paper focuses on analyzing outside core cooling water injection scenario, and aimed to develop optimal extended SBO procedure. Supplying outside emergency cooling water is the key feature of flexible strategy in extended SBO situation. An optimum strategy to maintain core cooling is developed for typical extended SBO. MARS APR1400 best estimate model was used to find optimal procedure. Also RCP seal leakage effect was considered importantly. Recent Fukushima accident shows the importance of mitigation capability against extended SBO scenarios. In Korea, all nuclear power plants incorporated various measures against Fukushima-like events. For APR1400 NPP, outside connectors are installed to inject cooling water using fire trucks or portable pumps. Using these connectors, outside cooling water can be provided to reactor, steam generators (SG), containment spray system, and spent fuel pool. In U. S., similar approach is chosen to provide a diverse and flexible means to prevent fuel damage (core and SFP) in external event conditions resulting in extended loss of AC power and loss of ultimate heat sink. Hence, hardware necessary to cope with extended SBO is already available for APR1400. However, considering the complex and stressful condition encountered by operators during extended SBO, it is important to develop guidelines/procedures to best cope with the event.

  5. Thermal shock studies associated with injection of emergency core coolant in pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheverton, R.D.; Bolt, S.E.; Iskander, S.K.

    1977-01-01

    Studies to determine the accuracy of calculational techniques for predicting crack initiation and arrest in PWR vessels due to thermal shock from ECC injection are described. The reference calculational model is reviewed, the experimental program and facilities are described, and some thermal shock experiments and results are discussed

  6. Reverse radiometric flow injection analysis (RFIA) of radioactive waste-waters with an ASIA (Ismatec) analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myint, U; Win, N; San, K; Han, B; Myoe, K M [Yangon Univ. (Myanmar). Dept. of Chemistry; Toelgyessy, J [Slovak Technical Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia). Dept. of Environmental Science

    1994-07-01

    A new application of reverse radiometric flow injection analysis is described. RFIA was used for the analysis of radioactive wastewaters. ASIA (Ismatec) analyzer with NaI(Tl) scintillation detector was used in the study of analysis of [sup 131]I containing waste-aster. (author) 4 refs.; 3 figs.

  7. Numerical study of hot-leg ECC injection into the upper plenum of a pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daly, B.J.; Torrey, M.D.; Rivard, W.C.

    1981-01-01

    In certain pressurized water reactor (PWR) designs, emergency core coolant (ECC) is injected through the hot legs into the upper plenum. The condensation of steam on this subcooled liquid stream reduces the pressure in the hot legs and upper plenum and thereby affects flow conditions throughout the reactor. In the present study, we examine countercurrent steam-water flow in the hot leg to determine the deceleration of the ECC flow that results from an adverse pressure gradient and from momentum exchange from the steam by interfacial drag and condensation. For the parameters examined in the study, water flow reversal is observed for a pressure drop of 22 to 32 mBar over the 1.5 m hot leg. We have also performed a three-dimensional study of subcooled water injection into air and steam environments of the upper plenum. The ECC water is deflected by an array of cylindrical guide tubes in its passage through the upper plenum. Comparisons of the air-water results with data obtained in a full scale experiment shows reasonable agreement, but indicates that there may be too much resistance to horizontal flow about the columns because of the use of a stair-step representation of the cylindrical guide tube cross section. Calculations of flow past single columns of stair-step, square and circular cross section do indicate excessive water deeentrainment by the noncircular column. This has prompted the use of an arbitrary mesh computational procedure to more accuratey represent the circular cross-section guide tubes. 15 figures

  8. Strontium isotopes test long-term zonal isolation of injected and Marcellus formation water after hydraulic fracturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Courtney A Kolesar; Capo, Rosemary C; Stewart, Brian W; Wall, Andrew J; Schroeder, Karl T; Hammack, Richard W; Guthrie, George D

    2014-08-19

    One concern regarding unconventional hydrocarbon production from organic-rich shale is that hydraulic fracture stimulation could create pathways that allow injected fluids and deep brines from the target formation or adjacent units to migrate upward into shallow drinking water aquifers. This study presents Sr isotope and geochemical data from a well-constrained site in Greene County, Pennsylvania, in which samples were collected before and after hydraulic fracturing of the Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale. Results spanning a 15-month period indicated no significant migration of Marcellus-derived fluids into Upper Devonian/Lower Mississippian units located 900-1200 m above the lateral Marcellus boreholes or into groundwater sampled at a spring near the site. Monitoring the Sr isotope ratio of water from legacy oil and gas wells or drinking water wells can provide a sensitive early warning of upward brine migration for many years after well stimulation.

  9. FLOW INJECTION ANALYSIS SYSTEM COUPLED WITH ICP-EOS FOR DETERMINATION OF SOME METALLIC ELEMENTS IN DRINKING WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Dinu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Drinking Water Directive (98/83/EC, transposed in Romanian Legislation as Low 458/2002, amended by Low 311/2004, imposes the limit of concentration for metallic elements in water intended for human consumption. The toxic metals arsenic and selenium are among these elements and the limit value is 10 μg/L. In the paper there are presented the working conditions for determination of As and Se from drinking water using modern techniques based on the fl ow injection-hydride generation with the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (FIAS-ICP-EOS. The analyses were performed on Optima 5300 DV Perkin Elmer equipment with FIAS 400 Flow Injection System, Perkin Elmer type. For the hydride generation two types of solution were used: 10% (v/v HCl as a carrier solution and 0.2 % NaBH4 in 0.05%NaOH solution as a reducing agent [1]. The treatment step of the samples and standard solutions consisted in reducing with mixed solutions of KI and ascorbic acid in acidic condition (HCl for As and only with HCl and high temperature for Se [2,3]. The paper contains the characteristic parameters of the methods, such as: low detection limit, quantifi cation limit, repeatability, precision, recovery, which were evaluated using Certifi ed Reference Materials for each element.

  10. The choice between two designs for the safety-injection system of a pressurized-water reactor, using probabilistic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villemeur, Alain

    1982-01-01

    A probabilistic study has been carried out to compare two designs for the safety-injection circuit of a pressurized-water reactor. It appears that unavailability of the circuit after an accident involving loss of coolant decreases little when one moves from a 2-line to a 3-line system. These results are compared with the disadvantages arising from increased redundancy, and in particular the increased cost of the installations. The 2-line circuit appears the optimum one on the basis of cost and reliability criteria. It has been chosen for the 1300-MWe units [fr

  11. Anticipated transient without scram analysis of the simplified boiling water reactor following main steam isolation valve closure with boron injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, H.J.; Cheng, H.S.; Rohatgi, U.S.

    1996-01-01

    The simplified boiling water reactor (SBWR) operating in natural circulation is designed with many passive safety features. An anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) initiated by inadvertent closure of the main steam isolation valve (MSIV) in an SBWR has been analyzed using the RAMONA-4B code of Brookhaven National Laboratory. This analysis demonstrates the predicted performance of the SBWR during an MSIV closure ATWS, followed by shutdown of the reactor through injection of boron into the reactor core from the standby liquid control system

  12. Recurrence of Intravenous Talc Granulomatosis following Single Lung Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C Cook

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced pulmonary disease is an unusual consequence of the intravenous injection of oral medications, usually developing over a period of several years. A number of patients with this condition have undergone lung transplantation for respiratory failure. However, a history of drug abuse is often considered to be a contraindication to transplantation in the context of limited donor resources. A patient with pulmonary talc granulomatosis secondary to intravenous methylphenidate injection who underwent successful lung transplantation and subsequently presented with recurrence of the underlying disease in the transplanted lung 18 months after transplantation is reported.

  13. Effect of injection water quality on permeability of productive sands in Shaimsk group of oil fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreeva, N I; Ivanov, V N; Lazarev, V N; Maksimov, V P

    1966-01-01

    Water from the Kond River is used to flood Shaimsk oil fields. Effect of raw and filtered waters on permeability of Shaimsk cores was experimentally determined. The raw river water contained 26 mg/liter of suspended solids, 10.7 mg/liter of total iron, 4.3 mg/liter of suspended iron oxide, and a pH of 6.4. The filtered river water was free of suspended solids and had a pH of 6.2. It was found that both raw and filtered water decreased core permeability. The unfiltered water decreased permeability 2 to 7 times more than the filtered water. Also, the decrease in permeability occurs much more slowly with the filtered than the unfiltered water. The effect of water on core permeability is essentially irreversible. Efforts to restore core permeability by reversing flow direction were not successful. Among the reasons for the permeability decrease were hydration and swelling of clays and evolution of gases from water in the cores. (10 refs.)

  14. Pore Pressure and Field stress variation from Salt Water Injection; A case Study from Beaver Lodge Field in Williston Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, R. A.; Khatibi, S.

    2017-12-01

    One of the major concerns in producing from oil and gas reservoirs in North American Basins is the disposal of high salinity salt water. It is a misconception that Hydro frack triggers Earthquakes, but due to the high salinity and density of water being pumped to the formation that has pore space of the rock already filled, which is not the case in Hydro-frack or Enhanced Oil Recovery in which fracturing fluid is pumped into empty pore space of rocks in depleted reservoirs. A review on the Bakken history showed that the concerns related to induce seismicity has increased over time due to variations in Pore pressure and In-situ stress that have shown steep changes in the region over the time. In this study, we focused on Pore pressure and field Stress variations in lower Cretaceous Inyan Kara and Mississippian Devonian Bakken, Inyan Kara is the major source for class-II salt-water disposal in the basin. Salt-water disposal is the major cause for induced seismicity. A full field study was done on Beaver Lodge Field, which has many salt-water disposal wells Adjacent to Oil and Gas Wells. We analyzed formation properties, stresses, pore-pressure, and fracture gradient profile in the field and. The constructed Mechanical Earth Model (MEM) revealed changes in pore pressure and stresses over time due to saltwater injection. Well drilled in the past were compared to recently drilled wells, which showed much stress variations. Safe mud weight Window of wells near proximity of injection wells was examined which showed many cases of wellbore instabilities. Results of this study will have tremendous impact in studying environmental issues and the future drilling and Fracking operations.

  15. New method for simultaneous determination of Fe(II) and Fe(III) in water using flow injection technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozak, J.; Gutowski, J.; Kozak, M.; Wieczorek, M.; Koscielniak, P.

    2010-01-01

    The method exploits the possibilities of flow injection gradient titration in a system of reversed flow with spectrophotometric detection. In the developed approach a small amount of titrant (EDTA) is injected into a stream of sample containing a mixture of indicators (sulfosalicylic acid and 1,10-phenanthroline). In acid environment sulfosalicylic acid forms a complex with Fe(III), whereas 1,10-phenanthroline forms a complex with Fe(II). Measurements are performed at wavelength λ = 530 nm when radiation is absorbed by both complexes. After injection EDTA replaces sulfosalicylic acid and forms with Fe(III) more stable colourless complex. As a result, a characteristic 'cut off' peak is registered with a width corresponding to the Fe(III) concentration and with a height corresponding to the Fe(II) concentration. Calibration was performed by titration of four two-component standard solutions of the Fe(II)/Fe(III) concentrations established in accordance with 2 2 factorial plan. The method was tested with the use of synthetic samples and then it was applied to the analysis of water samples taken from artesian wells. Under optimized experimental conditions Fe(II) and Fe(III) were determined with precision less than 0.8 and 2.5% (RSD) and accuracy less than 3.2 and 5.1% (relative error) within the concentration ranges of 0.1-3.0 and 0.9-3.5 mg L -1 of both analytes, respectively.

  16. Evaluation and investigation of regional cerebral blood flow by 1 point arterial blood collection method using 99mTc-ECD. Intravenous injection for 4 minutes with constant speed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Takeo; Shibata, Kazuhiro; Sudoh, Hideaki; Tanaka, Masato; Itoh, Kenjiro; Ueno, Yasushi

    1998-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured using a 99m Tc-ECD through the 4-min constant intravenous infusion/one point arterial blood sampling method, proposed by Nakagawara et al. of Nakamura Memorial Hospital, and 133Xenon ( 133 Xe)-SPECT was performed on the same subjects to investigate the reproducibility of this method. We also determined whether cerebral blood flow (CBF) could be measured on the day of blood sampling through dilution of the obtained blood because it was difficult to measure the radioactivity in the blood on the day of blood sampling by this method. More, we investigated fixation of an octanol extraction rate and the substitution of venous blood for arterial blood in this method. The results revealed that CBF measured by this method with a 99m Tc-ECD were closely correlated to those measured by 133 Xe-SPECT, indicating the reliability as a method of measuring CBF. rCBF could be measured on the day of blood sampling through appropriate dilution of the obtained arterial blood. Octanol extraction rates were almost constant, indicating possible omission of cumbersome extraction procedure by fixation. However, the substitution of venous blood for arterial blood showed no correlation under the study system examined. (author)

  17. Computed tomography intravenous cholangiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, S.; Murray, W.; Wilson, P.

    1997-01-01

    Indications for direct visualization of the bile ducts include bile duct dilatation demonstrated by ultrasound or computed tomography (CT) scanning, where the cause of the bile duct dilatation is uncertain or where the anatomy of bile duct obstruction needs further clarification. Another indication is right upper quadrant pain, particularly in a post-cholecystectomy patient, where choledocholithiasis is suspected. A possible new indication is pre-operative evaluation prior to laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The bile ducts are usually studied by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), or, less commonly, trans-hepatic cholangiography. The old technique of intravenous cholangiography has fallen into disrepute because of inconsistent bile-duct opacification. The advent of spiral CT scanning has renewed interest in intravenous cholangiography. The CT technique is very sensitive to the contrast agent in the bile ducts, and angiographic and three-dimensional reconstructions of the biliary tree can readily be obtained using the CT intravenous cholangiogram technique (CT IVC). Seven patients have been studied using this CT IVC technique, between February 1995 and June 1996, and are the subject of the present report. Eight further studies have since been performed. The results suggest that CT IVC could replace ERCP as the primary means of direct cholangiography, where pancreatic duct visualization is not required. (authors)

  18. Tomographic Imaging of Water Injection and Withdrawal in PEMFC Gas Diffusion Layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGill U; Gostick, J. T.; Gunterman, H. P.; Weber, A. Z.; Newman, J. S.; Kienitz, B. L.; MacDowell, A. A.

    2010-06-25

    X-ray computed tomography was used to visualize the water configurations inside gas diffusion layers for various applied capillary pressures, corresponding to both water invasion and withdrawal. A specialized sample holder was developed to allow capillary pressure control on the small-scale samples required. Tests were performed on GDL specimens with and without hydrophobic treatments.

  19. Geochemical and hydrological characterization of shallow aquifer water following a nearby deep CO2 injection in Wellington, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, S.; Andree, I.; Johannesson, K. H.; Kempton, P. D.; Barker, R.; Birdie, T. R.; Watney, W. L.

    2017-12-01

    Salinization or CO2 leakage from local Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) projects has become a possible source for contamination and water quality degradation for local irrigation or potable well users in Wellington, Kansas. Shallow domestic and monitoring wells, as well as surface water samples collected from the site, were analyzed for a wide array of geochemical proxies including major and trace ions, rare earth elements (REE), stable isotopes, dissolved organic carbon and dissolved hydrocarbons; these analytes were employed as geotracers to understand the extent of hydrologic continuity throughout the Paleozoic stratigraphic section. Previous research by Barker et al. (2012) laid the foundation through a mineralogical and geochemical investigation of the Arbuckle injection zone and assessment of overlying caprock integrity, which led to the conclusion that the 4,910-5,050' interval will safely sequester CO2 with high confidence of a low leakage potential. EOR operations using CO2 as the injectant into the Mississippian 3,677-3,706' interval was initiated in Jan 2016. Two groundwater sampling events were conducted to investigate any temporal changes in the surface and subsurface waters. Dissolved (Ca+Mg)/Na and Na/Cl mass ratio values of two domestic wells and one monitoring well ranged from 0.67 to 2.01 and 0.19 to 0.39, respectively, whereas a nearby Mississippian oil well had values of 0.20 and 0.62, respectively . δ18O and δ2H ranged from -4.74 to -5.41 ‰VSMOW and -31.4 to -34.3 ‰VSMOW, respectively, among the domestic wells and shallowest monitoring well. Conservative ion relationships in drill-stem-test waters from Arbuckle and Mississippian injection zones displayed significant variability, indicating limited vertical hydrologic communication. Total aquifer connectivity is inconclusive based on the provided data; however, a paleoterrace and incised valley within the study site are thought to be connected through a Mississippian salt plume migration

  20. Potentials of cooled EGR and water injection for knock resistance and fuel consumption improvements of gasoline engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozza, Fabio; De Bellis, Vincenzo; Teodosio, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • 1D simulation of a turbocharged VVA engine under knock limited operation. • Description of turbulence, combustion and knock by phenomenological models. • Comparison of EGR and ported water injection at high load for knock mitigation and fuel economy. • Virtual calibration of engine control parameters by a 1D model. - Abstract: It is well known that the downsizing philosophy allows the improvement of the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) at part load operation for spark ignition (SI) engines. On the other hand, the BSFC is penalized at high load because of the knock occurrence and of further limitations on the turbine inlet temperature (TIT). Knock control forces the adoption of a late combustion phasing, causing a deterioration of the thermodynamic efficiency, while the TIT control requires the enrichment of the air-to-fuel ratio (A/F), with additional BSFC drawbacks. In this work, two promising techniques are investigated by a 1D approach with the aim of improving the fuel economy of a turbocharged SI engine at full load knock-limited operation. The first technique is the recirculation of low-pressure cooled exhaust gas (EGR), while the second is the injection of liquid water at the intake ports. Proper “in-house developed” sub-models are used to describe the turbulence, combustion and knock phenomena. The effects of the above techniques are studied in six operating points at full load and different speeds for various A/F levels and inert content, by varying the EGR rate and water-to-fuel ratio. The presented results highlight that both the solutions involve significant BSFC improvements, especially in the operating conditions at medium engine speeds. In fact, the introduction of inert gas in the cylinder contributes to reduce the knock tendency, resulting in the possibility to advance the combustion phasing and reduce, or even avoid, the mixture over-fuelling. The heat subtracted by the water evaporation enhances the above effects

  1. A highly efficient six-stroke internal combustion engine cycle with water injection for in-cylinder exhaust heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conklin, James C.; Szybist, James P.

    2010-01-01

    A concept adding two strokes to the Otto or Diesel engine cycle to increase fuel efficiency is presented here. It can be thought of as a four-stroke Otto or Diesel cycle followed by a two-stroke heat recovery steam cycle. A partial exhaust event coupled with water injection adds an additional power stroke. Waste heat from two sources is effectively converted into usable work: engine coolant and exhaust gas. An ideal thermodynamics model of the exhaust gas compression, water injection and expansion was used to investigate this modification. By changing the exhaust valve closing timing during the exhaust stroke, the optimum amount of exhaust can be recompressed, maximizing the net mean effective pressure of the steam expansion stroke (MEP steam ). The valve closing timing for maximum MEP steam is limited by either 1 bar or the dew point temperature of the expansion gas/moisture mixture when the exhaust valve opens. The range of MEP steam calculated for the geometry of a conventional gasoline engine and is from 0.75 to 2.5 bars. Typical combustion mean effective pressures (MEP combustion ) of naturally aspirated gasoline engines are up to 10 bar, thus this concept has the potential to significantly increase the engine efficiency and fuel economy.

  2. Pilot Experimental Works on Injection of Hot Water with Surfactants into Bobrikovian Deposits of Berket-Klyuchevsky Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.N. Khusnutdinov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem of developing and introducing new methods of enhancing oil recovery is especially important for heavy oil fields, the share of which in the structure of reserves is steadily growing. Conventional methods of oil recovery and stimulation of well productivity applied on heavy oil fields are often ineffective, in this regard, the increase in the efficiency of geological and technical measures at such objects is becoming increasingly dependent on the concentration of intensifying factors of influence on the reservoir and the proper choice of technology in accordance with geological and geophysical conditions. The authors have developed and introduced into production the resource-saving technology of complex stimulation on the productive layer, which includes a combination of physical, chemical, thermal and hydrodynamic factors of stimulation. A rational combination of these factors made it possible to increase the efficiency of developing a heavy oil deposit – to stabilize the decline and increase oil production. Technologically, the implemented development method consists in injecting hot water into the injection wells with a calculated content of surfactants. Associated gas of this section of the field, previously burned on the flare, is used as fuel for heating water. The introduction of the technology allowed to completely solve the problem of utilization of associated gas at the site: the flare was extinguished, as a result of which the emissions and technogenic load on the environment were also reduced.

  3. Influence of Zn injection on corrosion behavior and oxide film characteristics of 304 stainless steel in borated and lithiated high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Xinqiang; Liu, Xiahe; Han, En-Hou; Ke, Wei

    2012-09-01

    Water chemistry of the reactor coolant system plays a major role in maintaining safety and reliability of light water reactor nuclear power plants (NPPs). Zn water chemistry into pressurized water reactors (PWRs) in order to reduce the radiation buildup in primary coolant system has been widely applied, and the reduction effect has been experimentally confirmed. Zn injection can also lessen the corrosion phenomena in high temperature pressurized water by changing oxide films formed on components materials. Both the radiation buildup and material corrosion resistance in PWR coolant system are closely dependent on the oxide films formed. However, the influence of Zn injection on the chemical composition and structure of the oxide films on their protective properties is still a matter of considerable debate. The influence of Zn injection on corrosion inhibition and environmental degradation has not been fully clarified yet. Therefore, the understanding of corrosion behaviour, oxide film characteristics and their protective property is of significance to clarify the environmentally assisted material failure problems in NPPs. In the present work, oxide films formed on nuclear-grade 304 SS exposed to borated and lithiated high temperature water environments at 300 deg. C up to 4000 h with or without 10 ppb Zn injection were investigated ex-situ. Without Zn injection, the oxide films mainly consisted of Fe 3 O 4 and FeCr 2 O 4 . With Zn injection, ZnFe 2 O 4 and ZnCr 2 O 4 were detected in the oxide films at the initial stage of immersion and ZnCr 2 O 4 became dominant after long-term immersion. It was believed that the above Zn-Fe and Zn-Cr spinel oxides were formed by substitution reactions between Zn 2+ and Fe 2+ . At the initial stage of immersion, water chemistry significantly affected the formation of the oxide films. Once a stable oxide film formed, it is rather difficult to change its structure through changing water chemistry. The potential-pH diagrams for Zn

  4. A tomographic approach to intravenous coronary arteriography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritman, E.L.; Bove, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    Coronary artery anatomy can be visualized using high speed, volume scanning X-ray CT. A single scan during a bolus injection of contrast medium provides image data for display of all angles of view of the opacified coronary arterial tree. Due to the tomographic nature of volume image data the superposition of contrast filled cardiac chambers, such as would occur in the levophase of an intravenous injection of contrast agent, can be eliminated. Data are presented which support these statements. The Dynamic Spatial Reconstructor (DSR) was used to scan a life-like radiologic phantom of an adult human thorax in which the left atrial and ventricular chambers and the major epicardial coronary arteries were opacified so as to simulate the levophase of an intravenous injection of contrast agent. A catheter filled with diluted contrast agent and with regions of luminal narrowing (i.e. 'stenoses') was advanced along a tract equivalent to a right ventricular catheterization. Ease of visualization of the catheter 'stenoses' and the accuracy with which they can be measured are presented. (Auth.)

  5. Study on Mixed Solvency Concept in Formulation Development of Aqueous Injection of Poorly Water Soluble Drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Singh Solanki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, mixed-solvency approach has been applied for the enhancement of aqueous solubility of a poorly water- soluble drug, zaltoprofen (selected as a model drug, by making blends (keeping total concentrations 40% w/v, constant of selected water-soluble substances from among the hydrotropes (urea, sodium benzoate, sodium citrate, nicotinamide; water-soluble solids (PEG-4000, PEG-6000; and co-solvents (propylene glycol, glycerine, PEG-200, PEG-400, PEG-600. Aqueous solubility of drug in case of selected blends (12 blends ranged from 9.091 ± 0.011 mg/ml–43.055 ± 0.14 mg/ml (as compared to the solubility in distilled water 0.072 ± 0.012 mg/ml. The enhancement in the solubility of drug in a mixed solvent containing 10% sodium citrate, 5% sodium benzoate and 25 % S cosolvent (25% S cosolvent contains PEG200, PEG 400, PEG600, Glycerine and Propylene glycol was more than 600 fold. This proved a synergistic enhancement in solubility of a poorly water-soluble drug due to mixed cosolvent effect. Each solubilized product was characterized by ultraviolet and infrared techniques. Various properties of solution such as pH, viscosity, specific gravity and surface tension were studied. The developed formulation was studied for physical and chemical stability. This mixed solvency shall prove definitely a boon for pharmaceutical industries for the development of dosage form of poorly water soluble drugs.

  6. Managing Injected Water Composition To Improve Oil Recovery: A Case Study of North Sea Chalk Reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahid, Adeel; Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2012-01-01

    of the temperature dependence of the oil recovery indicated that the interaction of the ions contained in brine with the rock cannot be the only determining mechanism of enhanced recovery. We observed no substitution of Ca2+ ions with Mg2+ ions at high temperatures for both rocks. Not only the injection brine......In recent years, many core displacement experiments of oil by seawater performed on chalk rock samples have reported SO42–, Ca2+, and Mg2+ as potential determining ions for improving oil recovery. Most of these studies were carried out with outcrop chalk core plugs. The objective of this study...... is to investigate the potential of the advanced waterflooding process by carrying out experiments with reservoir chalk samples. The study results in a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in increasing the oil recovery with potential determining ions. We carried out waterflooding instead of spontaneous...

  7. Enhanced oil recovery by nitrogen and carbon dioxide injection followed by low salinity water flooding for tight carbonate reservoir: experimental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges Lwisa, Essa; Abdulkhalek, Ashrakat R.

    2018-03-01

    Enhanced Oil Recovery techniques are one of the top priorities of technology development in petroleum industries nowadays due to the increase in demand for oil and gas which cannot be equalized by the primary production or secondary production methods. The main function of EOR process is to displace oil to the production wells by the injection of different fluids to supplement the natural energy present in the reservoir. Moreover, these injecting fluids can also help in the alterations of the properties of the reservoir like lowering the IFTs, wettability alteration, a change in pH value, emulsion formation, clay migration and oil viscosity reduction. The objective of this experiment is to investigate the residual oil recovery by combining the effects of gas injection followed by low salinity water injection for low permeability reservoirs. This is done by a series of flooding tests on selected tight carbonate core samples taken from Zakuum oil field in Abu Dhabi by using firstly low salinity water as the base case and nitrogen & CO2injection followed by low salinity water flooding at reservoir conditions of pressure and temperature. The experimental results revealed that a significant improvement of the oil recovery is achieved by the nitrogen injection followed by the low salinity water flooding with a recovery factor of approximately 24% of the residual oil.

  8. Experimental investigation of hydrogen energy share improvement in a compression ignition engine using water injection and compression ratio reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chintala, V.; Subramanian, K.A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy efficiency (EE) increased with increase in hydrogen (H_2) energy share. • H_2 energy share increased from 19% to 79% with combined CR reduction and water. • In-cylinder temperature decreased significantly with water addition and CR reduction. • HC, CO, smoke and NO_x emissions with water and CR are lower than base diesel. - Abstract: This study deals with the effect of water addition on enhancement of maximum hydrogen energy share in a compression ignition engine (7.4 kW rated power at 1500 rpm) under dual fuel mode. The specific water consumption (SWC) was varied from 130 to 480 g/kW h in step of 70 g/kW h using manifold and port injection methods. Subsequently, the combined effect of reduction of compression ratio (CR) of the engine (from 19.5:1 (base) to 16.5:1 and 15.4:1) along with water addition on further enhancement of hydrogen energy share is investigated. The hydrogen energy share was limited to 18.8% with conventional dual fuel mode due to knocking. However, the energy share increased to 66.5% with water addition (maximum SWC: 480 g/kW h), and 79% with combined control strategies (SWC of 340 g/kW h and CR reduction to 16.5:1). Thermal efficiency of the engine under water added dual fuel mode is higher than base diesel mode (single fuel mode), but it is lower than the conventional dual fuel mode without water. The efficiency of the engine with reduced CR and water addition is lower than the conventional dual fuel mode, however at the CR of 16.5:1 and SWC of 340 g/kW h, the efficiency is comparable with base diesel mode efficiency. Hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, smoke, and oxides of nitrogen emissions of the engine with water addition (340 g/kW h) and CR reduction (to 16.5:1) decreased significantly as compared to base diesel mode, but slightly higher than conventional dual fuel mode.

  9. Flow Injection Analysis with Electrochemical Detection for Rapid Identification of Platinum-Based Cytostatics and Platinum Chlorides in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marketa Kominkova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Platinum-based cytostatics, such as cisplatin, carboplatin or oxaliplatin are widely used agents in the treatment of various types of tumors. Large amounts of these drugs are excreted through the urine of patients into wastewaters in unmetabolised forms. This phenomenon leads to increased amounts of platinum ions in the water environment. The impacts of these pollutants on the water ecosystem are not sufficiently investigated as well as their content in water sources. In order to facilitate the detection of various types of platinum, we have developed a new, rapid, screening flow injection analysis method with electrochemical detection (FIA-ED. Our method, based on monitoring of the changes in electrochemical behavior of analytes, maintained by various pH buffers (Britton-Robinson and phosphate buffer and potential changes (1,000, 1,100 and 1,200 mV offers rapid and cheap selective determination of platinum-based cytostatics and platinum chlorides, which can also be present as contaminants in water environments.

  10. Calculation of temperature field for complex heat exchange environments in multiple-layer reservoir systems on ''cold'' water injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlasova, S.P.; Sukharev, G.M.; Koval' skii, E.V.

    1981-04-01

    Owing to the exhaustion of oil deposits in the arthesian basin of Eastern Subcaucasus situated in the Chechen-Ingush ASSR, it is proposed to inject cold wastewater into the wells for 25 years in order to cause underground thermal waters to rise and thus provide a steady supply of hot water for 25-30 years.

  11. Effects of intracutaneous injections of sterile water in patients with acute low back pain: a randomized, controlled, clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Z. Cui

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Intracutaneous sterile water injection (ISWI is used for relief of low back pain during labor, acute attacks of urolithiasis, chronic neck and shoulder pain following whiplash injuries, and chronic myofascial pain syndrome. We conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the effect of ISWI for relief of acute low back pain (aLBP. A total of 68 patients (41 females and 27 males between 18 and 55 years old experiencing aLBP with moderate to severe pain (scores ≥5 on an 11-point visual analogue scale [VAS] were recruited and randomly assigned to receive either ISWIs (n=34 or intracutaneous isotonic saline injections (placebo treatment; n=34. The primary outcome was improvement in pain intensity using the VAS at 10, 45, and 90 min and 1 day after treatment. The secondary outcome was functional improvement, which was assessed using the Patient-Specific Functional Scale (PSFS 1 day after treatment. The mean VAS score was significantly lower in the ISWI group than in the control group at 10, 45, and 90 min, and 1 day after injection (P<0.05, t-test. The mean increment in PSFS score of the ISWI group was 2.9±2.2 1 day after treatment, while that in the control group was 0.9±2.2. Our study showed that ISWI was effective for relieving pain and improving function in aLBP patients at short-term follow-up. ISWI might be an alternative treatment for aLBP patients, especially in areas where medications are not available, as well as in specific patients (e.g., those who are pregnant or have asthma, who are unable to receive medications or other forms of analgesia because of side effects.

  12. An Energy Analysis on Gasification of Sewage Sludge by a Direct Injection in Supercritical Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yukananto, Riza; Louwes, Alexander Charnchai; Bramer, Eduard A.; Brem, Gerrit

    2017-01-01

    Supercritical Water Gasification is an efficient technology in converting wet biomass into H2 and CH4 in comparison to other conventional thermochemical processes. Coke deposition, however, remains as a major challenge in this technology. Coke formation is the result of polymerization reactions that

  13. Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii transient fungemia after intravenous self-inoculation

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Lola; Ranque, Stéphane; Raoult, Didier

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a young psychotic intravenous drug user injecting herself with Saccharomyces cervisiae (boulardii). She experienced a 24 h fever, resolving spontaneously confirming, quasi experimentally, the inocuity of this yeast in a non-immunocompromised host.

  14. A Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of Post-Compression Water Injection in a Rolls-Royce M250 Gas Turbine Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-18

    ROLLS-ROYCE M250 GAS TURBINE ENGINE by Midshipman 1/C Brian R. He United States Naval Academy Annapolis, Maryland...Injection in a Rolls- Royce M250 Gas Turbine Engine 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) He...output, efficiency, operating conditions, and emissions of injecting water at the compressor discharge of a Rolls-Royce M250 . The results

  15. Subcutaneous injection of water-soluble multi-walled carbon nanotubes in tumor-bearing mice boosts the host immune activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Jie; Yang Man; Jia Fumin; Kong Hua; Zhang Weiqi; Xu Haiyan; Wang Chaoying; Xie Sishen; Xing Jianmin

    2010-01-01

    The immunological responses induced by oxidized water-soluble multi-walled carbon nanotubes on a hepatocarcinoma tumor-bearing mice model via a local administration of subcutaneous injection were investigated. Experimental results show that the subcutaneously injected carbon nanotubes induced significant activation of the complement system, promoted inflammatory cytokines' production and stimulated macrophages' phagocytosis and activation. All of these responses increased the general activity of the host immune system and inhibited the progression of tumor growth.

  16. Subcutaneous injection of water-soluble multi-walled carbon nanotubes in tumor-bearing mice boosts the host immune activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jie; Yang, Man; Jia, Fumin; Kong, Hua; Zhang, Weiqi; Wang, Chaoying; Xing, Jianmin; Xie, Sishen; Xu, Haiyan

    2010-04-01

    The immunological responses induced by oxidized water-soluble multi-walled carbon nanotubes on a hepatocarcinoma tumor-bearing mice model via a local administration of subcutaneous injection were investigated. Experimental results show that the subcutaneously injected carbon nanotubes induced significant activation of the complement system, promoted inflammatory cytokines' production and stimulated macrophages' phagocytosis and activation. All of these responses increased the general activity of the host immune system and inhibited the progression of tumor growth.

  17. Subcutaneous injection of water-soluble multi-walled carbon nanotubes in tumor-bearing mice boosts the host immune activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jie, Meng; Man, Yang; Fumin, Jia; Hua, Kong; Weiqi, Zhang; Haiyan, Xu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences and School of Basic Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, 5 Dong Dan San Tiao, Beijing 100005 (China); Chaoying, Wang; Sishen, Xie [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 8 Nan San Jie, Zhongguancun, Beijing100080 (China); Xing Jianmin, E-mail: xuhy@pumc.edu.cn [Centre for Evidence-Based Chinese Medicine, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, 11 Bei San Huan Dong Lu, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2010-04-09

    The immunological responses induced by oxidized water-soluble multi-walled carbon nanotubes on a hepatocarcinoma tumor-bearing mice model via a local administration of subcutaneous injection were investigated. Experimental results show that the subcutaneously injected carbon nanotubes induced significant activation of the complement system, promoted inflammatory cytokines' production and stimulated macrophages' phagocytosis and activation. All of these responses increased the general activity of the host immune system and inhibited the progression of tumor growth.

  18. Usefulness of modified intravenous analgesia: initial experience in uterine artery embolization for leiomyomata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Seung Boo; Jung, Young Jin [Soonchunhyang University, Gumi Hospital, Gumi (Korea, Republic of); Goo, Dong Erk; Jang, Yun Woo [Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-04-15

    We wanted to evaluate the usefulness of modified intravenous analgesia for the management of pain during uterine artery embolization for leiomyomata. Between April 2004 and July 2004, 15 patients with symptomatic fibroids underwent uterine artery embolization and pain management. Except the three patients for whom the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score was not obtained, twelve patients were included in this study. For pain management, epidural PCA (Patient Controlled Analgesia) was used in two patients, intravenous PCA was used in two patients and modified intravenous analgesia injection was used in eight patients. For all the patients, we used the 2.8 Fr coaxial microcatheter and 500-710 {mu} m PVA particles for the embolic materials. The protocol of the modified intravenous analgesia injection was as follow, 1) prior to femoral artery puncture, 30 mg of ketorolac tromethamine (Tarasyn)was injected via an intravenous route. 2) At the time that the one side uterine artery embolization was finished, normal saline mixed 150 mg meperidine (Demerol) was administered through the side port of the intravenous line that was used for hydration. 3) Additional ketorolac tromethamine 30 mg was injected after 6 hour. The VAS score and side effects were then checked. After 12 hours, the VAS score was rechecked. If the VAS score was above 4, this was considered as failure of pain management. The VAS scores, complications and side effects for the modified intravenous analgesia injection were compared with that of IV PCA and epidural PCA. The average VAS score of the modified intravenous analgesia injection, intravenous PCA and epidural PCA was 1.4, 1 and 0, respectively; the number of additional intramuscular injections of analgesia was 0.5, 0.5 and 0, respectively. All the patients who underwent epidural PCA had back pain at the puncture site and 1 patient who underwent modified intravenous analgesia injection experienced mild dyspnea, but they easily recovered with such

  19. Usefulness of modified intravenous analgesia: initial experience in uterine artery embolization for leiomyomata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Seung Boo; Jung, Young Jin; Goo, Dong Erk; Jang, Yun Woo

    2006-01-01

    We wanted to evaluate the usefulness of modified intravenous analgesia for the management of pain during uterine artery embolization for leiomyomata. Between April 2004 and July 2004, 15 patients with symptomatic fibroids underwent uterine artery embolization and pain management. Except the three patients for whom the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score was not obtained, twelve patients were included in this study. For pain management, epidural PCA (Patient Controlled Analgesia) was used in two patients, intravenous PCA was used in two patients and modified intravenous analgesia injection was used in eight patients. For all the patients, we used the 2.8 Fr coaxial microcatheter and 500-710 μ m PVA particles for the embolic materials. The protocol of the modified intravenous analgesia injection was as follow, 1) prior to femoral artery puncture, 30 mg of ketorolac tromethamine (Tarasyn)was injected via an intravenous route. 2) At the time that the one side uterine artery embolization was finished, normal saline mixed 150 mg meperidine (Demerol) was administered through the side port of the intravenous line that was used for hydration. 3) Additional ketorolac tromethamine 30 mg was injected after 6 hour. The VAS score and side effects were then checked. After 12 hours, the VAS score was rechecked. If the VAS score was above 4, this was considered as failure of pain management. The VAS scores, complications and side effects for the modified intravenous analgesia injection were compared with that of IV PCA and epidural PCA. The average VAS score of the modified intravenous analgesia injection, intravenous PCA and epidural PCA was 1.4, 1 and 0, respectively; the number of additional intramuscular injections of analgesia was 0.5, 0.5 and 0, respectively. All the patients who underwent epidural PCA had back pain at the puncture site and 1 patient who underwent modified intravenous analgesia injection experienced mild dyspnea, but they easily recovered with such

  20. Research and application of multi-hydrogen acidizing technology of low-permeability reservoirs for increasing water injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Mengmeng; Che, Hang; Kong, Weizhong; Wang, Peng; Liu, Bingxiao; Xu, Zhengdong; Wang, Xiaochao; Long, Changjun; Zhang, Bin; Wu, Youmei

    2017-12-01

    The physical characteristics of Xiliu 10 Block reservoir is poor, it has strong reservoir inhomogeneity between layers and high kaolinite content of the reservoir, the scaling trend of fluid is serious, causing high block injection well pressure and difficulty in achieving injection requirements. In the past acidizing process, the reaction speed with mineral is fast, the effective distance is shorter and It is also easier to lead to secondary sedimentation in conventional mud acid system. On this point, we raised multi-hydrogen acid technology, multi-hydrogen acid release hydrogen ions by multistage ionization which could react with pore blockage, fillings and skeletal effects with less secondary pollution. Multi-hydrogen acid system has advantages as moderate speed, deep penetration, clay low corrosion rate, wet water and restrains precipitation, etc. It can reach the goal of plug removal in deep stratum. The field application result shows that multi-hydrogen acid plug removal method has good effects on application in low permeability reservoir in Block Xiliu 10.

  1. Modelling transient temperature distribution for injecting hot water through a well to an aquifer thermal energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shaw-Yang; Yeh, Hund-Der; Li, Kuang-Yi

    2010-10-01

    Heat storage systems are usually used to store waste heat and solar energy. In this study, a mathematical model is developed to predict both the steady-state and transient temperature distributions of an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system after hot water is injected through a well into a confined aquifer. The ATES has a confined aquifer bounded by aquicludes with different thermomechanical properties and geothermal gradients along the depth. Consider that the heat is transferred by conduction and forced convection within the aquifer and by conduction within the aquicludes. The dimensionless semi-analytical solutions of temperature distributions of the ATES system are developed using Laplace and Fourier transforms and their corresponding time-domain results are evaluated numerically by the modified Crump method. The steady-state solution is obtained from the transient solution through the final-value theorem. The effect of the heat transfer coefficient on aquiclude temperature distribution is appreciable only near the outer boundaries of the aquicludes. The present solutions are useful for estimating the temperature distribution of heat injection and the aquifer thermal capacity of ATES systems.

  2. Determination of pesticides and pesticide degradates in filtered water by direct aqueous-injection liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstrom, Mark W.; Kanagy, Leslie K.; Anderson, Cyrissa A.; Kanagy, Christopher J.

    2016-01-11

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for determination of 229 pesticides compounds (113 pesticides and 116 pesticide degradates) in filtered water samples from stream and groundwater sites. The pesticides represent a broad range of chemical classes and were selected based on criteria such as current-use intensity, probability of occurrence in streams and groundwater, and toxicity to humans or aquatic organisms. More than half of the analytes are pesticide degradates. The method involves direct injection of a 100-microliter (μL) sample onto the LC-MS/MS without any sample preparation other than filtration. Samples are analyzed with two injections, one in electrospray ionization (ESI) positive mode and one in ESI negative mode, using dynamic multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) conditions, with two MRM transitions for each analyte. The LC-MS/MS instrument parameters were optimized for highest sensitivity for the most analytes. This report describes the analytical method and presents characteristics of the method validation including bias and variability, detection levels, and holding-time studies.

  3. Studies on the distribution of radioactivity in the organism and rate of incorporation of radioactivity into the tissue proteins of monogastric animals after intravenous injection of tracer amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, O.; Muenchmeyer, R.; Bergner, H.; Zebrowska, T.

    1976-01-01

    Radioactive amino acids ( 14 C leucine and 3 H lysine) were administrated to pigs by means of a catheter tube into the jugular vein. Subsequently, the time pattern of the distribution of the specific amino acid radioactivity was followed in the TCE soluble and TCE precipitable fractions of the blood plasma (TCE = trichloroacetic acid). Rats were injected 14 C into the portal vein. The animals were killed after incorporation periods of 2 to 60 minutes, and the levels of specific radioactivity were estimated in the TCE soluble and TCE precipitable fractions of the blood plasma, in the liver and in the skeletal muscles. The experimental results indicated that the specific radioactivity of the tracer amino acids and the rate of incorporation of radioactivity into tissue proteins were influenced by the size of the free amino acid pool within the range of distribution of the tracer. An estimation of the magnitude of the pool of free amino acids within the distribution range of the tracer can be obtained from the curve pattern for the decline of specific radioactivity of the corresponding free amino acid in the blood plasma. This pool exhibits a high rate of turnover. In all studies made to evaluate in vivo processes of protein synthesis using radioactive tracer amino acids it will be particularly important that consideration is given to the specific radioactivity of the amino acid in the precursor pool for protein synthesis. (author)

  4. Sequential determination of multi-nutrient elements in natural water samples with a reverse flow injection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kunning; Ma, Jian; Yuan, Dongxing; Feng, Sichao; Su, Haitao; Huang, Yongming; Shangguan, Qipei

    2017-05-15

    An integrated system was developed for automatic and sequential determination of NO 2 - , NO 3 - , PO 4 3- , Fe 2+ , Fe 3+ and Mn 2+ in natural waters based on reverse flow injection analysis combined with spectrophotometric detection. The system operation was controlled by a single chip microcomputer and laboratory-programmed software written in LabVIEW. The experimental parameters for each nutrient element analysis were optimized based on a univariate experimental design, and interferences from common ions were evaluated. The upper limits of the linear range (along with detection limit, µmolL -1 ) of the proposed method was 20 (0.03), 200 (0.7), 12 (0.3), 5 (0.03), 5 (0.03), 9 (0.2) µmolL -1 , for NO 2 - , NO 3 - , PO 4 3- , Fe 2+ , Fe 3+ and Mn 2+ , respectively. The relative standard deviations were below 5% (n=9-13) and the recoveries varied from 88.0±1.0% to 104.5±1.0% for spiked water samples. The sample throughput was about 20h -1 . This system has been successfully applied for the determination of multi-nutrient elements in different kinds of water samples and showed good agreement with reference methods (slope 1.0260±0.0043, R 2 =0.9991, n=50). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Determination of hydrogen peroxide in water by chemiluminescence detection, (1). Flow injection type hydrogen peroxide detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashiro, Naoya; Uchida, Shunsuke; Satoh, Yoshiyuki; Morishima, Yusuke; Yokoyama, Hiroaki; Satoh, Tomonori; Sugama, Junichi; Yamada, Rie

    2004-01-01

    A flow injection type hydrogen peroxide detection system with a sub-ppb detection limit has been developed to determine hydrogen peroxide concentration in water sampled from a high temperature, high pressure hydrogen peroxide water loop. The hydrogen peroxide detector is based on luminol chemiluminescence spectroscopy. A small amount of sample water (20 μl) is mixed with a reagent mixture, an aqueous solution of luminol and Co 2+ catalyst, in a mixing cell which is installed just upstream from the detection cell. The optimum values for pH and the concentrations of luminol and Co 2+ ion have been determined to ensure a lower detectable limit and a higher reproducibility. The photocurrent detected by the detection system is expressed by a linear function of the hydrogen peroxide concentration in the region of lower concentration ([H 2 O 2 ] 2 O 2 ] in the region of higher concentration ([H 2 O 2 ] > 10 ppb). The luminous intensity of luminol chemiluminescence is the highest when pH of the reagent mixture is 11.0. Optimization of the major parameters gives the lowest detectable limit of 0.3 ppb. (author)

  6. Mapping water exchange rates in rat tumor xenografts using the late-stage uptake following bolus injections of contrast agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Colleen; Moosvi, Firas; Stanisz, Greg J

    2014-05-01

    To map the intra-to-extracellular water exchange rate constant in rat xenografts using a two-compartment model of relaxation with water exchange and a range of contrast agent concentrations and compare with histology. MDA-MB-231 cells were xenografted into six nude rats. Three bolus injections of gadodiamide were administered. When uptake in the tumor demonstrated a steady-state, T1 data were acquired by spoiled gradient recalled acquisitions at four flip angles. A global fit of data to a two-compartment model incorporating exchange was performed, assuming a distribution volume of 20% of the rat. Voxels that did not reach steady-state and were excluded from parametric maps tended to be in large necrotic areas. TUNEL-negative (nonapoptotic) regions tended to have well-defined error bounds, with an average intra-to-extracellular exchange rate constant of 0.6 s(-1) . Apoptotic regions had higher exchange, but poorly determined upper bounds, with goodness of fit similar to that for a model assuming infinitely fast exchange. A lower bound of >3 s(-1) was used to establish voxels where the exchange rate constant was fast despite a large upper bound. Water exchange rates were higher in apoptotic regions, but examination of statistical errors was an important step in the mapping process. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Feasibility of water injection into the turbine coolant to permit gas turbine contingency power for helicopter application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanfossen, G. J.

    1983-01-01

    A system which would allow a substantially increased output from a turboshaft engine for brief periods in emergency situations with little or no loss of turbine stress rupture life is proposed and studied analytically. The increased engine output is obtained by overtemperaturing the turbine; however, the temperature of the compressor bleed air used for hot section cooling is lowered by injecting and evaporating water. This decrease in cooling air temperature can offset the effect of increased gas temperature and increased shaft speed and thus keep turbine blade stress rupture life constant. The analysis utilized the NASA-Navy-Engine-Program or NNEP computer code to model the turboshaft engine in both design and off-design modes. This report is concerned with the effect of the proposed method of power augmentation on the engine cycle and turbine components. A simple cycle turboshaft engine with a 16:1 pressure ratio and a 1533 K (2760 R) turbine inlet temperature operating at sea level static conditions was studied to determine the possible power increase and the effect on turbine stress rupture life that could be expected using the proposed emergency cooling scheme. The analysis showed a 54 percent increse in output power can be achieved with no loss in gas generator turbine stress rupture life. A 231 K (415 F) rise in turbine inlet temperature is required for this level of augmentation. The required water flow rate was found to be .0109 kg water per kg of engine air flow.

  8. Corrosion of low carbon steel by microorganisms from the 'pigging' operation debris in water injection pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Claudia; Rosas, Omar; Sztyler, Magdalena; Doma, Jemimah; Beech, Iwona; Basseguy, Régine

    2014-06-01

    Present in all environments, microorganisms develop biofilms adjacent to the metallic structures creating corrosion conditions which may cause production failures that are of great economic impact to the industry. The most common practice in the oil and gas industry to annihilate these biofilms is the mechanical cleaning known as "pigging". In the present work, microorganisms from the "pigging" operation debris are tested biologically and electrochemically to analyse their effect on the corrosion of carbon steel. Results in the presence of bacteria display the formation of black corrosion products allegedly FeS and a sudden increase (more than 400mV) of the corrosion potential of electrode immersed in artificial seawater or in field water (produced water mixed with aquifer seawater). Impedance tests provided information about the mechanisms of the interface carbon steel/bacteria depending on the medium used: mass transfer limitation in artificial seawater was observed whereas that in field water was only charge transfer phenomenon. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) results proved that bacterial diversity decreased when cultivating the debris in the media used and suggested that the bacteria involved in the whole set of results are mainly sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) and some other bacteria that make part of the taxonomic order Clostridiales. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Sub-1min separation in sequential injection chromatography for determination of synthetic water-soluble dyes in pharmaceutical formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davletbaeva, Polina; Chocholouš, Petr; Bulatov, Andrey; Šatínský, Dalibor; Solich, Petr

    2017-09-05

    Sequential Injection Chromatography (SIC) evolved from fast and automated non-separation Sequential Injection Analysis (SIA) into chromatographic separation method for multi-element analysis. However, the speed of the measurement (sample throughput) is due to chromatography significantly reduced. In this paper, a sub-1min separation using medium polar cyano monolithic column (5mm×4.6mm) resulted in fast and green separation with sample throughput comparable with non-separation flow methods The separation of three synthetic water-soluble dyes (sunset yellow FCF, carmoisine and green S) was in a gradient elution mode (0.02% ammonium acetate, pH 6.7 - water) with flow rate of 3.0mLmin -1 corresponding with sample throughput of 30h -1 . Spectrophotometric detection wavelengths were set to 480, 516 and 630nm and 10Hz data collection rate. The performance of the separation was described and discussed (peak capacities 3.48-7.67, peak symmetries 1.72-1.84 and resolutions 1.42-1.88). The method was represented by validation parameters: LODs of 0.15-0.35mgL -1 , LOQs of 0.50-1.25mgL -1 , calibration ranges 0.50-150.00mgL -1 (r>0.998) and repeatability at 10.0mgL -1 of RSD≤0.98% (n=6). The method was used for determination of the dyes in "forest berries" colored pharmaceutical cough-cold formulation. The sample matrix - pharmaceuticals and excipients were not interfering with vis determination because of no retention in the separation column and colorless nature. The results proved the concept of fast and green chromatography approach using very short medium polar monolithic column in SIC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Contrast agent choice for intravenous coronary angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeman, H.D.; Siddons, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    The screening of the general population for coronary artery disease would be practical if a method existed for visualizing the extent of occlusion after an intravenous injection of contrast agent. Measurements performed with monochromatic synchrotron radiation x-rays and an iodine containing contrast agent at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory have shown that such an intravenous angiography procedure would be possible with an adequately intense monochromatic x-ray source. Because of the size and cost of synchrotron radiation facilities it would be desirable to make the most efficient use of the intensity available, while reducing as much as possible the radiation dose experienced by the patient. By choosing contrast agents containing elements with a higher atomic number than iodine, it is possible to both improve the image quality and reduce the patient radiation dose, while using the same synchrotron source. By using Si monochromator crystals with a small mosaic spread, it is possible to increase the x-ray flux available for imaging by over an order of magnitude, without any changes in the storage ring or wiggler magnet. The most critical imaging task for intravenous coronary angiography utilizing synchrotron radiation x-rays is visualizing a coronary artery through the left ventricle or aorta which also contains a contrast agent. Calculations have been made of the signal to noise ratio expected for this imaging task for various contrast agents with atomic numbers between that of iodine and bismuth

  11. Multi Organ Failure Following Intravenous Gasoline for Suicide: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Hadi Hamishehkar; Hassan Soleimanpour; Ata Mahmoodpoor

    2012-01-01

    Hydrocarbons are ubiquitous in daily life and include plant and animal fats, alcohols, solvents, natural gas, petroleum derivates. Majority of intoxication reports of hydrocarbons are due to inhalation or ingestion, but there is few reports about intravenous injection of gasoline. We report a 58 year-old man who injected gasoline intravenously for suicide. He developed soft tissue necrosis of forearm and bilateral pulmonary infiltration. He underwent fasciotomy and extensive debridement of ne...

  12. 1-3-7 minute intravenous urography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahk, Yong Whee; Yoon, Sei Chul; Lee, Myung Hee

    1980-01-01

    Intravenous urography (IVU) as it is used widely today was probably started in early 1950's after the introduction of triiodobenzoic acid compounds as contrast media. This long cherished traditional method consists of taking radiograms at 5, 15 and 25 minutes after the injection of contrast medium. There are a few modifications of this standard urographic examination such as five minute IVU (Woodruff, 1959), minute-sequence pyelogram (Maxwell et al., 1964), drip infusion pyelography (Schencker, 1964) and nephrotomography (Evans et al., 1955). The present study has been undertaken to test if the conventional standard IVU can be more rapidly performed without losing essential informational contents of urograms. In this new clinical trial, urograms were taken at the end of 1, 3 and 7 minutes instead of 5, 15 and 25 minutes after the intravenous injection of contrast medium. We injected 40 ml of meglumine diatrizoate solution within 30 seconds using an 18G iv needle. (The amount of injected contrast medium has been reduced recently to ordinary single dose of 20 ml for subjects weighing less than 8 kg). Upon viewing the 7 minute film in front of an automatic processor, the examination was terminated after obtaining an upright view unless any further radiogram was indicated. As shown in Tables and Figures, our new 1-3-7 minute method has been proven to provide us with as much essential and useful information as conventional 5-15-25 minute urography. Thus, we were able to finish one examination within 10 minutes without losing any necessary diagnostic information. In some of patients with obstructive uropathy such as stone the examination was extended as long as it was desired. Side reactions were occasional nausea, flushing and rare mild vomiting which never prevented the examination

  13. Direct injection analysis of fatty and resin acids in papermaking process waters by HPLC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valto, Piia; Knuutinen, Juha; Alén, Raimo

    2011-04-01

    A novel HPLC-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/MS (HPLC-APCI/MS) method was developed for the rapid analysis of selected fatty and resin acids typically present in papermaking process waters. A mixture of palmitic, stearic, oleic, linolenic, and dehydroabietic acids was separated by a commercial HPLC column (a modified stationary C(18) phase) using gradient elution with methanol/0.15% formic acid (pH 2.5) as a mobile phase. The internal standard (myristic acid) method was used to calculate the correlation coefficients and in the quantitation of the results. In the thorough quality parameters measurement, a mixture of these model acids in aqueous media as well as in six different paper machine process waters was quantitatively determined. The measured quality parameters, such as selectivity, linearity, precision, and accuracy, clearly indicated that, compared with traditional gas chromatographic techniques, the simple method developed provided a faster chromatographic analysis with almost real-time monitoring of these acids. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Intravenous versus oral etoposide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Abir Salwa; Grönberg, Malin; Langer, Seppo W.

    2018-01-01

    High-grade gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NENs, G3) are aggressive cancers of the digestive system with poor prognosis and survival. Platinum-based chemotherapy (cisplatin/carboplatin + etoposide) is considered the first-line palliative treatment. Etoposide is frequently...... administered intravenously; however, oral etoposide may be used as an alternative. Concerns for oral etoposide include decreased bioavailability, inter- and intra-patient variability and patient compliance. We aimed to evaluate possible differences in progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS......) in patients treated with oral etoposide compared to etoposide given as infusion. Patients (n = 236) from the Nordic NEC study were divided into three groups receiving etoposide as a long infusion (24 h, n = 170), short infusion (≤ 5 h, n = 33) or oral etoposide (n = 33) according to hospital tradition. PFS...

  15. Preface to the injection tables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Twelve groups of dogs received intravenous injections of various doses of 226 Ra, 239 Pu, 228 Ra, 228 Th, 90 Sr, 241 Am, 249 Cf, or 252 Cf at approximately 17 months of age. The animals were euthanized when death appeared imminent. Data are presented on the calculated radiation dose to the skeleton and pathological changes observed at autopsy

  16. Role of angiotensin II and vasopressin receptors within the supraoptic nucleus in water and sodium intake induced by the injection of angiotensin II into the medial septal area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antunes V.R.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the effects of the injection into the supraoptic nucleus (SON of non-peptide AT1- and AT2-angiotensin II (ANG II receptor antagonists, DuP753 and PD123319, as well as of the arginine-vasopressin (AVP receptor antagonist d(CH25-Tyr(Me-AVP, on water and 3% NaCl intake induced by the injection of ANG II into the medial septal area (MSA. The effects on water or 3% NaCl intake were assessed in 30-h water-deprived or in 20-h water-deprived furosemide-treated adult male rats, respectively. The drugs were injected in 0.5 ml over 30-60 s. Controls were injected with a similar volume of 0.15 M NaCl. Antagonists were injected at doses of 20, 80 and 180 nmol. Water and sodium intake was measured over a 2-h period. Previous administration of the AT1 receptor antagonist DuP753 into the SON decreased water (65%, N = 10, P<0.01 and sodium intake (81%, N = 8, P<0.01 induced by the injection of ANG II (10 nmol into the MSA. Neither of these responses was significantly changed by injection of the AT2-receptor antagonist PD123319 into the SON. On the other hand, while there was a decrease in water intake (45%, N = 9, P<0.01, ANG II-induced sodium intake was significantly increased (70%, N = 8, P<0.01 following injection of the V1-type vasopressin antagonist d(CH25-Tyr(Me-AVP into the SON. These results suggest that both AT1 and V1 receptors within the SON may be involved in water and sodium intake induced by the activation of ANG II receptors within the MSA. Furthermore, they do not support the involvement of MSA AT2 receptors in the mediation of these responses.

  17. The immunostimulatory effects of hot-water extract of Gelidium amansii via immersion, injection and dietary administrations on white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and its resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yu-Win; Hou, Wen-Ying; Yeh, Su-Tuen; Li, Chiu-Hsia; Chen, Jiann-Chu

    2007-06-01

    The total haemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase activity, and respiratory burst were examined when white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei were immersed in seawater (34 per thousand) containing hot-water extract of red alga Gelidium amansii at 200, 400 and 600 mg l(-1), injected with hot-water extract at 4 and 6 microg g(-1) shrimp, and fed diets containing hot-water extract at 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g kg(-1). These parameters increased significantly when shrimp were immersed in seawater containing hot-water extract at 400 and 600 mg l(-1) after 1h, when shrimp were injected with hot-water extract at 6 microg g(-1) shrimp after one day, and when shrimp were fed diets containing hot-water extract at 1.0 and 2.0 g kg(-1) after 14 days. Phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency were significantly higher for the shrimp that were fed diets containing hot-water extract at 1.0 and 2.0 g kg(-1) than those of shrimp that were fed diets containing hot-water extract at 0 and 0.5 g kg(-1) after 14 and 28 days. In a separate experiment, L. vannamei which had received hot-water extract via injection, or fed diets containing hot-water extract, were challenged after 3h or 28 days with V. alginolyticus at 2 x 10(6) cfu shrimp(-1) and 1 x 10(6) cfu shrimp(-1), respectively, and then placed in seawater. The survival of shrimp that were injected with hot-water extract at 6 microg g(-1) was significantly higher than that of control shrimp after 1 day, and the survival of shrimp fed diets containing hot-water extract at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g kg(-1) increased significantly after 3 days as well as at the end of the experiment (6 days after the challenge), respectively. It was concluded that L. vannamei that were immersed in hot-water extract at 400 mg l(-1), injected with hot-water extract at 6 microg g(-1) shrimp, and fed hot-water extract of G. amansii at 2.0 g kg(-1) or less showed increased immune ability as well as resistance to V. alginolyticus infection.

  18. Determination of thiram in natural waters using flow-injection with cerium(IV)-quinine chemiluminescence system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waseem, Amir; Yaqoob, Mohammad; Nabi, Abdul

    2010-01-01

    A simple and rapid flow-injection chemiluminescence method has been developed for the determination of dithiocarbamate fungicide thiram based on the chemiluminescence reaction of thiram with ceric sulfate and quinine in aqueous sulfuric acid. The present method allowed the determination of thiram in the concentration range of 7.5-2500 ng/mL and the detection limit (signal-to-noise ratio = 3) was 7.5 ng/mL with sample throughput of 120/h. The relative standard deviation was 2.5% for 10 replicate analyses of 500 ng/mL thiram. The effects of foreign species including various anions and cations present in water at environmentally relevant concentrations and some pesticides were also investigated. The proposed method was applied to determine thiram in spiked natural waters using octadecyl bonded phase silica (C(18)) cartridges for solid-phase extraction. The recoveries were in the range 99 +/- 1 to 104 +/- 1%. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Influence of binder system and temperature on rheological properties of water atomized 316L powder injection moulding feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uğur GÖKMEN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain a proper powder injection molding the rheological behavior of feedstocks should be known. To determine the binder effect on the rheological behavior of 316L stainless steel powders feedstock two different feedstock were prepared. In the current experiments water atomized 316L stainless steel powders (-20 µm were used. Two types of binders, one of which is mainly paraffin wax can be dissolved in heptane and the other Polietilenglikol (PEG based and can be dissolved in water, were used. Polypropylene was used as binder and steric acid was used as lubricant for both binder systems as skeleton binder. Dry binder system were mixed for 30 min in a three dimensional Turbola. Capillary rheometer was used to characterize the rheological properties of feed stocks at 150-200 °C and a pressures of 0.165-2.069 MPa. Powder loading capacity of PEG and PW based feed stocks were found to be %55 and %61 respectively. The lowest viscosity of PEG and PW based feed stocks were found to be 304.707 Pa.s and 48.857 Pa.s respectively.Keywords: PIM, Binder, Rheological properties

  20. Determination of picloram in natural waters employing sequential injection square wave voltammetry using the hanging mercury drop electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Luciana B O; Masini, Jorge C

    2007-05-15

    This paper describes the development of a sequential injection analysis method to automate the determination of picloram by square wave voltammetry exploiting the concept of monosegmented flow analysis to perform in-line sample conditioning and standard addition. To perform these tasks, an 800muL monosegment is formed, composed by 400muL of sample and 400muL of conditioning/standard solution, in medium of 0.10molL(-1) H(2)SO(4). Homogenization of the monosegment is achieved by three flow reversals. After homogenization the mixture zone is injected toward the flow cell, which is adapted to the capillary of a hanging drop mercury electrode, at a flow rate of 50muLs(-1). After a suitable delay time, the potential is scanned from -0.5 to -1.0V versus Ag/AgCl at frequency of 300Hz and pulse height of 25mV. The linear dynamic range is observed for picloram concentrations between 0.10 and 2.50mgL(-1) fitting to the linear equation I(p)=(-2.19+/-0.03)C(picloram)+(0.096+/-0.039), with R(2)=0.9996, for which the slope is given in muALmg(-1). The detection and quantification limits are 0.036 and 0.12mgL(-1), respectively. The sampling frequency is 37h(-1) when the standard addition protocol is followed, but can be increased to 41h(-1) if the protocol to obtain in-line external calibration curve is used for quantification. The method was applied for determination of picloram in spiked water samples and the accuracy was evaluated by comparison with high performance liquid chromatography using molecular absorption at 220nm for detection. No evidences of statistically significant differences between the two methods were observed.

  1. Methods of preparing and using intravenous nutrient compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beigler, M.A.; Koury, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    A method for preparing a stable, dry-packaged, sterile, nutrient composition which upon addition of sterile, pyrogen-free water is suitable for intravenous administration to a mammal, including a human, is described. The method comprises providing the nutrients in a specific dry form and state of physical purity acceptable for intravenous administration, sealing the nutrients in a particular type of container adapted to receive and dispense sterile fluids and subjecting the container and its sealed contents to a sterilizing, nondestructive dose of ionizing radiation. The method results in a packaged, sterile nutrient composition which may be dissolved by the addition of sterile pyrogen-free water. The resulting aqueous intravenous solution may be safely administered to a mammal in need of nutrient therapy. The packaged nutrient compositions of the invention exhibit greatly extended storage life and provide an economical method of providing intravenous solutions which are safe and efficacious for use. (author)

  2. Repeated intravenous doxapram induces phrenic motor facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, M S; Lee, K Z; Gonzalez-Rothi, E J; Fuller, D D

    2013-12-01

    Doxapram is a respiratory stimulant used to treat hypoventilation. Here we investigated whether doxapram could also trigger respiratory neuroplasticity. Specifically, we hypothesized that intermittent delivery of doxapram at low doses would lead to long-lasting increases (i.e., facilitation) of phrenic motor output in anesthetized, vagotomized, and mechanically-ventilated rats. Doxapram was delivered intravenously in a single bolus (2 or 6mg/kg) or as a series of 3 injections (2mg/kg) at 5min intervals. Control groups received pH-matched saline injections (vehicle) or no treatment (anesthesia time control). Doxapram evoked an immediate increase in phrenic output in all groups, but a persistent increase in burst amplitude only occurred after repeated dosing with 2mg/kg. At 60min following the last injection, phrenic burst amplitude was 168±24% of baseline (%BL) in the group receiving 3 injections (Pphrenic response to doxapram (2mg/kg) was reduced by 68% suggesting that at low doses the drug was acting primarily via the carotid chemoreceptors. We conclude that intermittent application of doxapram can trigger phrenic neuroplasticity, and this approach might be of use in the context of respiratory rehabilitation following neurologic injury. © 2013.

  3. Intravenous digital subtraction angiography of transplanted kidney artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tessier, J.P; Teyssou, H.; Verdier, J.P.; Tison, E.; Meyblum, J.; Marchal, M.

    1986-01-01

    Results of 351 intravenous digital subtraction angiographs (AN) of transplanted kidneys emphasized reliability of this examination for detection of renal artery stenosis. A prospective study of 219 patients (188 interpretable AN) showed significant stenosis of grafted artery in 22% of cases: 17% of the 126 patients with normal blood pressure and 34% of the 62 cases of hypertension. Digital subtraction allows, with a single injection, assessment of renal artery, nephrogram and excretory cavities, but it is not a substitute for conventional intravenous urography 1 to 2 months after grafting [fr

  4. Relapse of Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder Associated with Intravenous Lidocaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiyuki Uzawa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lidocaine unmasks silent symptoms and eases neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis patients; however, the effects of lidocaine in neuromyelitis optica have never been reported. We describe the case of a 59-year-old Japanese woman with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder who developed optic neuritis 1 day after intravenous lidocaine injection for treating allodynia. Her symptom seemed to result from a relapse of neuromyelitis optica induced by lidocaine administration, and not because of the transient effects of intravenous lidocaine administration. The possibility that lidocaine administration results in relapse of neuromyelitis optica due to its immunomodulating effects cannot be ruled out.

  5. Comparison of field-enhanced and pressure-assisted field-enhanced sample injection techniques for the analysis of water-soluble vitamins using CZE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingqing; Liu, Yaling; Guan, Yu; Jia, Li

    2009-04-01

    A new online concentration method, namely pressure-assisted field-enhanced sample injection (PA-FESI), was developed and compared with FESI for the analysis of water-soluble vitamins by CZE with UV detection. In PA-FESI, negative voltage and positive pressure were simultaneously applied to initialize PA-FESI. PA-FESI uses the hydrodynamic flow generated by the positive pressure to counterbalance the reverse EOF in the capillary column during electrokinetic sample injection, which allowed a longer injection time than usual FESI mode without compromising the separation efficiency. Using the PA-FESI method, the LODs of the vitamins were at ng/mL level based on the S/N of 3 and the RSDs of migration time and peak area for each vitamin (1 microg/mL) were less than 5.1%. The developed method was applied to the analysis of water-soluble vitamins in corns.

  6. Development and Validation of a Fast Procedure to Analyze Amoxicillin in River Waters by Direct-Injection LC-MS/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homem, Vera; Alves, Arminda; Santos, Lu´cia

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory application with a strong component in analytical chemistry was designed for undergraduate students, in order to introduce a current problem in the environmental science field, the water contamination by antibiotics. Therefore, a simple and rapid method based on direct injection and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass…

  7. Development and Validation of a Fast Procedure To Analyze Amoxicillin in River Waters by Direct-Injection LC-MS/MS

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Homem; Arminda Alves; Lúcia Silveira Santos

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory application with a strong component in analytical chemistry was designed for undergraduate students, in order to introduce a current problem in the environmental science field, the water contamination by antibiotics. Therefore, a simple and rapid method based on direct injection and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed and optimized for the determination of amoxicillin in river water. Students learned the main optimization steps...

  8. External and Intraparticle Diffusion of Coumarin 102 with Surfactant in the ODS-silica Gel/water System by Single Microparticle Injection and Confocal Fluorescence Microspectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    NAKATANI, Kiyoharu; MATSUTA, Emi

    2015-01-01

    The release mechanism of coumarin 102 from a single ODS-silica gel microparticle into the water phase in the presence of Triton X-100 was investigated by confocal fluorescence microspectroscopy combined with the single microparticle injection technique. The release rate significantly depended on the Triton X-100 concentration in the water phase and was not limited by diffusion in the pores of the microparticle. The release rate constant was inversely proportional to the microparticle radius s...

  9. Ultrasonography versus intravenous urography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslaksen, A.

    1991-01-01

    The present study was performed to compare the clinical value of urography and ultrasonography in a non-selected group of patients referred for urography to a university hospital. The conslusions and clinical implications of the study are as follows: Intravenous urography remains the cornerstone imaging examination in the evaluation of ureteral calculi. Ultrasonography is a valuable adjunct in cases of non- visualization of the kidneys, in distal obstruction and known contrast media allergy. When women with recurrent urinary tract infection are referred for imaging of the urinary tract, ultrasonography should be used. Ultrasonography should replace urography for screening of non-acute hydronephrosis like in female genital cancer and benign prostate hyperplasia. There is good correlation between urography and ultrasonography in assessing the degree of hydronephrosis. However, more researh on the relationship between hydronephrosis and obstruction is necessary. Ultrasonography should be used as the only imaging method of the upper urinary tract in patients with microscopic hematuria. In patients less than 50 years with macroscopic hematuria, ultrasonography should be used as the only imaging of the upper urinary tract, and an examination of the urinary bladder should be included. In patients over 50 years, urography supplied with ultrasonography should be used, but more research is necessary on the subject of imaging method and age. 158 refs

  10. Advancement of In-Flight Alumina Powder Spheroidization Process with Water Droplet Injection Using a Small Power DC-RF Hybrid Plasma Flow System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Juyong; Takana, Hidemasa; Park, Sangkyu; Nishiyama, Hideya

    2012-09-01

    The correlation between plasma thermofluid characteristics and alumina powder spheroidization processes with water droplet injection using a small power DC-RF hybrid plasma flow system was experimentally clarified. Micro-sized water droplets with a low water flow rate were injected into the tail of thermal plasma flow so as not to disturb the plasma flow directly. Injected water droplets were vaporized in the thermal plasma flow and were transported upstream in the plasma flow to the torch by the backflow. After dissociation of water, the production of hydrogen was detected by the optical emission spectroscopy in the downstream RF plasma flow. The emission area of the DC plasma jet expanded and elongated in the vicinity of the RF coils. Additionally, the emission area of RF plasma flow enlarged and was visible as red emission in the downstream RF plasma flow in the vicinity below the RF coils due to hydrogen production. Therefore, the plasma flow mixed with produced hydrogen increased the plasma enthalpy and the highest spheroidization rate of 97% was obtained at a water flow rate of 15 Sm l/min and an atomizing gas flow rate of 8 S l/min using a small power DC-RF hybrid plasma flow system.

  11. Model experiment on change of seismic properties of a fracture caused by injecting/draining water; Chusui/haisui ni yoru kison kiretsu no dansei denpa tokusei no henka ni kansuru model jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, T; Koizumi, T; Sassa, K [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-05-27

    Effect of water injection/draining on elastic waves penetrating through cracks is examined by measuring elastic waves before, during, and after the injection/draining of water into/from cracks in presence in granite. Two blocks of rock, with their crack-containing surfaces in contact with each other, are placed in a vessel, and water injection/draining is done through a hole on a vessel bottom side so that water will penetrate into the cracks. When the blocks are dry, there is almost no contact between the cracks, and so no crack penetrating waves are observed. Crack penetrating waves are produced when water is injected, and the position of the receiver sensing the penetrating waves changes as the water level rises. When the water level is lowered from the high water level, the waveform changes again as the level changes. The change in waveform is not so remarkable, however, as that observed during water injection thanks to the water residual in the cracks. It is now inferred that crack investigation is more effective when it is carried out with water being injected into dry cracks. The difference produced between the dry state and wet state when water is injected into dry cracks is used to detect the presence of cracks in this experiment, and this may be applied also to the investigation of cracks in the shallow part of the ground. 4 refs., 11 figs.

  12. Testosterone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... typical male characteristics. Testosterone injection works by supplying synthetic testosterone to replace the testosterone that is normally ... as a pellet to be injected under the skin.Testosterone injection may control your symptoms but will ...

  13. A Methodology for the Optimization of Flow Rate Injection to Looped Water Distribution Networks through Multiple Pumping Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian León-Celi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The optimal function of a water distribution network is reached when the consumer demands are satisfied using the lowest quantity of energy, maintaining the minimal pressure required at the same time. One way to achieve this is through optimization of flow rate injection based on the use of the setpoint curve concept. In order to obtain that, a methodology is proposed. It allows for the assessment of the flow rate and pressure head that each pumping station has to provide for the proper functioning of the network while the minimum power consumption is kept. The methodology can be addressed in two ways: the discrete method and the continuous method. In the first method, a finite set of combinations is evaluated between pumping stations. In the continuous method, the search for the optimal solution is performed using optimization algorithms. In this paper, Hooke–Jeeves and Nelder–Mead algorithms are used. Both the hydraulics and the objective function used by the optimization are solved through EPANET and its Toolkit. Two case studies are evaluated, and the results of the application of the different methods are discussed.

  14. The Influence of CO2 Solubility in Brine on Simulation of CO2 Injection into Water Flooded Reservoir and CO2 WAG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2010-01-01

    Injection of CO2 into depleted oil reservoirs is not only a traditional way to enhance oil recovery but also a relatively cheaper way to sequester CO2 underground since the increased oil production can offset some sequestration cost. CO2 injection process is often applied to water flooded...... simulations were made for seven oil samples within a wide range of temperature, pressure and salinity. The results were analyzed in terms of the change in oil recovery due to different phase equilibrium descriptions, the delay in breakthrough and the CO2 lost to the aqueous phase. The influence of different...

  15. Coolant Mixing in a Pressurized Water Reactor: Deboration Transients, Steam-Line Breaks, and Emergency Core Cooling Injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasser, Horst-Michael; Grunwald, Gerhard; Hoehne, Thomas; Kliem, Soeren; Rohde, Ulrich; Weiss, Frank-Peter

    2003-01-01

    emergency core cooling (ECC) water entering the RPV through the ECC injection into the cold leg. The experimental results show an incomplete mixing with typical concentration and temperature distributions at the core inlet, which strongly depend on the boundary conditions. Computational fluid dynamics calculations were found to be in good agreement with the experiments

  16. External and Intraparticle Diffusion of Coumarin 102 with Surfactant in the ODS-silica Gel/water System by Single Microparticle Injection and Confocal Fluorescence Microspectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Kiyoharu; Matsuta, Emi

    2015-01-01

    The release mechanism of coumarin 102 from a single ODS-silica gel microparticle into the water phase in the presence of Triton X-100 was investigated by confocal fluorescence microspectroscopy combined with the single microparticle injection technique. The release rate significantly depended on the Triton X-100 concentration in the water phase and was not limited by diffusion in the pores of the microparticle. The release rate constant was inversely proportional to the microparticle radius squared, indicating that the rate-determining step is the external diffusion between the microparticle and the water phase.

  17. External and intraparticle diffusion of coumarin 102 with surfactant in the ODS-silica gel/water system by single microparticle injection and confocal fluorescence microspectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatani, Kiyoharu; Matsuta, Emi

    2015-01-01

    The release mechanism of coumarin 102 from a single ODS-silica gel microparticle into the water phase in the presence of Triton X-100 was investigated by confocal fluorescence microspectroscopy combined with the single microparticle injection technique. The release rate significantly depended on the Triton X-100 concentration in the water phase and was not limited by diffusion in the pores of the microparticle. The release rate constant was inversely proportional to the microparticle radius squared, indicating that the rate-determining step is the external diffusion between the microparticle and the water phase. (author)

  18. Contrast agent choice for intravenous coronary angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeman, H.D.; Siddons, D.P.

    1990-01-01

    The screening of the general population for coronary artery disease would be practical if a method existed for visualizing the extent of occlusion after an intravenous injection of contrast agent. Measurements performed with monochromatic synchrotron radiation X-rays and an iodine-containing contrast agent at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory have shown that such an intravenous angiography procedure would be possible with an adequately intense monochromatic X-ray source. Because of the size and cost of synchrotron radiation facilities it would be desirable to make the most efficient use of the intensity available, while reducing as much as possible the radiation dose experienced by the patient. By choosing contrast agents containing elements with a higher atomic number than iodine, it is possible to both improve the image quality and reduce the patient radiation dose, while using the same synchrotron radiation source. By using Si monochromator crystals with a small mosaic spread, it is possible to increase the X-ray flux available for imaging by over an order of magnitude, without any changes in the storage ring or wiggler magnet. The most critical imaging task for intravenous coronary angiography utilizing synchrotron radiation X-rays is visualizing a coronary artery through the left ventricle or aorta which also contain contrast agent. Calculations have been made of the signal to noise ratio expected for this imaging task for various contrast agents with atomic numbers between that of iodine and bismuth. The X-ray energy spectrum of the X-17 superconduction wiggler beam line at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory has been used for these calculations. Both perfect Si crystals and Si crystals with a small mosaic spread are considered as monochromators. Contrast agents containing Gd or Yb seem to have about the optimal calculated signal to noise ratio. (orig./HSI)

  19. Intravenous Iron Carboxymaltose as a Potential Therapeutic in Anemia of Inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas Lofruthe

    Full Text Available Intravenous iron supplementation is an effective therapy in iron deficiency anemia (IDA, but controversial in anemia of inflammation (AI. Unbound iron can be used by bacteria and viruses for their replication and enhance the inflammatory response. Nowadays available high molecular weight iron complexes for intravenous iron substitution, such as ferric carboxymaltose, might be useful in AI, as these pharmaceuticals deliver low doses of free iron over a prolonged period of time. We tested the effects of intravenous iron carboxymaltose in murine AI: Wild-type mice were exposed to the heat-killed Brucella abortus (BA model and treated with or without high molecular weight intravenous iron. 4h after BA injection followed by 2h after intravenous iron treatment, inflammatory cytokines were upregulated by BA, but not enhanced by iron treatment. In long term experiments, mice were fed a regular or an iron deficient diet and then treated with intravenous iron or saline 14 days after BA injection. Iron treatment in mice with BA-induced AI was effective 24h after iron administration. In contrast, mice with IDA (on iron deficiency diet prior to BA-IA required 7d to recover from AI. In these experiments, inflammatory markers were not further induced in iron-treated compared to vehicle-treated BA-injected mice. These results demonstrate that intravenous iron supplementation effectively treated the murine BA-induced AI without further enhancement of the inflammatory response. Studies in humans have to reveal treatment options for AI in patients.

  20. Usefulness of MR cholangiopancreatography after intravenous morphine administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, So Jung; Ko, Ji Ho; Cho, Young Duk; Jung, Mi Hee; Yoon, Byung Chull

    2007-01-01

    We wanted to assess the usefulness of MRCP after intravenous morphine administration in the evaluation of the hepatopancreatic pancreatico-biliary ductal system. We studied 15 patients who were suspected of having disease of hepatopancreatic ductal system and they did not have any obstructive lesion on ultrasonography and/or CT. MRCP was acquired before and after morphine administration (0.04 mg/kg, intravenously). Three radiologists scored the quality of the images of the anatomic structures in the hepatopancreatic ductal system. We directly compared the quality of the images obtained with using the two methods and the improvement of the artifacts by pulsatile vascular compression. The MRCP images obtained after intravenous morphine administration were better than those obtained before morphine administration for visualizing the hepatopancreatic ductal system. On direct comparison, the MRCP images obtained after morphine administration were better in 12 cases, equivocal in two cases, and the images before morphine administration were better in only one case. In three patients, MRCP before morphine injection showed signal loss at the duct across the pulsatile hepatic artery. In two of three patients, MRCP after morphine injection showed no signal loss in this ductal area. MRCP after intravenous morphine administration enables physicians to see the hepatopancreatic ductal system significantly better and the artifacts caused by pulsation of the hepatic artery can be avoided

  1. Apparent Km of mitochondria for oxygen computed from Vmax measured in permeabilized muscle fibers is lower in water enriched in oxygen by electrolysis than injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoll, Joffrey; Bouitbir, Jamal; Sirvent, Pascal; Klein, Alexis; Charton, Antoine; Jimenez, Liliana; Péronnet, François R; Geny, Bernard; Richard, Ruddy

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that oxygen (O2) diffusion could be favored in water enriched in O2 by a new electrolytic process because of O2 trapping in water superstructures (clathrates), which could reduce the local pressure/content relationships for O2 and facilitate O2 diffusion along PO2 gradients. Mitochondrial respiration was compared in situ in saponin-skinned fibers isolated from the soleus muscles of Wistar rats, in solution enriched in O2 by injection or the electrolytic process 1) at an O2 concentration decreasing from 240 µmol/L to 10 µmol/L (132 mmHg to 5 mmHg), with glutamate-malate or N, N, N', N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride (TMPD)-ascorbate (with antimycin A) as substrates; and 2) at increasing adenosine diphosphate (ADP) concentration with glutamate-malate as substrate. As expected, maximal respiration decreased with O2 concentration and, when compared to glutamate-malate, the apparent Km O2 of mitochondria for O2 was significantly lower with TMPD-ascorbate with both waters. However, when compared to the water enriched in O2 by injection, the Km O2 was significantly lower with both electron donors in water enriched in O2 by electrolysis. This was not associated with any increase in the sensitivity of mitochondria to ADP; no significant difference was observed for the Km ADP between the two waters. In this experiment, a higher affinity of the mitochondria for O2 was observed in water enriched in O2 by electrolysis than by injection. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that O2 diffusion can be facilitated in water enriched in O2 by the electrolytic process.

  2. Adverse reactions to iotroxate at intravenous cholangiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, U.

    1987-01-01

    The number and type of adverse reactions to meglumine iotroxate at intravenous infusion cholangiography, performed one day prior to elective cholecystectomy, were recorded in a prospective investigation of 196 asymptomatic, anicteric patients. One hundred ml (50 mg I/ml) of contrast medium was infused over a period of 30 minutes. Only 2 minor (1%) and no severe or fatal reactions were noted. A review of the literature on the use of iotroxate in 2492 patients, including those in the present investigation, revealed a complication rate of 3.5% (3.0% minor, 0.3% moderate and 0.2% severe reactions) at infusion of iotroxate (5.0-8.0 g I) over a period of 30 to 120 minutes. This compared favourably with the 5% complication rate (4% minor, 0.5% moderate and 0.5% severe reactions) at infusion of iodoxamate and the 9% complication rate (5% minor, 1% moderate and 3% severe reactions) at infusion of ioglycamide. Irrespective of the contrast agent used, the frequency of adverse reactions at infusion was found to be 3 times lower than when equal amounts (5.0-5.6 g I) of the same medium were injected. It is concluded that, at present, infusion of iotroxate in an amount which approximates to the transportation maximum of the liver is the least toxic way of performing intravenous cholangiography with an optimum filling of the bile ducts. (orig.)

  3. CT angiography. Abdominal CT using intravenous aortography for contrast enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagai, J; Nakauma, Y; Egawa, J; Kawamura, M [Teikyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1980-04-01

    To obtain imaging effects close to those of abdominal aortography and investigate a technique with little invasion to patients, intravenous aortography was applied to contrast enhancement (CE) in abdominal CT, and its usefulness was discussed. Intravenous aortography could clearly visualize lesions with rich neovascularity such as hepatocellular carcinoma and renal cell carcinoma. Differing from a drip infusion method, this method has complexities in its technique that contrast medium is injected at once, blood circulation time which is represented by the time between the injection and the time when the patients feel bitterness (10 - 12 seconds) must be measured before CE, and scanning begins 2 seconds before the patients feel bitterness. However, the invasion to patients due to this method is slight, and the capacity of this method to visualize neovascularity is superior to CE by a drip infusion method. Therefore, qualitative diagnosis by CT will be improved by using this method together with a drip infusion method.

  4. Switching between intravenous and subcutaneous trastuzumab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gligorov, Joseph; Curigliano, Giuseppe; Müller, Volkmar

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To assess the safety and tolerability of switching between subcutaneous (SC) and intravenous (IV) trastuzumab in the PrefHer study (NCT01401166). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with HER2-positive early breast cancer completed (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy and were randomised to receive four...... cycles of SC trastuzumab, via single-use injection device (SID; Cohort 1) or hand-held syringe (Cohort 2), followed by four cycles of IV, or vice versa (the crossover period presented here) as part of their 18 standard cycles of adjuvant trastuzumab treatment. Adverse events (AEs) were reported using....... Rates of clinically important events, including grade ≥3 AEs, serious AEs, AEs leading to study drug discontinuation and cardiac AEs, were low and similar between treatment arms (trastuzumab were observed. CONCLUSIONS: PrefHer revealed...

  5. Multi-dimensional Mixing Behavior of Steam-Water Flow in a Downcomer Annulus during LBLOCA Reflood Phase with a DVI Injection Mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, T.S.; Yun, B.J.; Euh, D.J.; Chu, I.C.; Song, C.H.

    2002-01-01

    Multi-dimensional thermal-hydraulic behavior in the downcomer annulus of a pressurized water reactor vessel with a Direct Vessel Injection (DVI) mode is presented based on the experimental observation in the MIDAS (Multi-dimensional Investigation in Downcomer Annulus Simulation) steam-water test facility. From the steady-state test results to simulate the late reflood phase of a Large Break Loss-of-Coolant Accidents(LBLOCA), isothermal lines show the multidimensional phenomena of a phasic interaction between steam and water in the downcomer annulus very well. MIDAS is a steam-water separate effect test facility, which is 1/4.93 linearly scaled-down of 1400 MWe PWR type of a nuclear reactor, focused on understanding multi-dimensional thermalhydraulic phenomena in downcomer annulus with various types of safety injection during the refill or reflood phase of a LBLOCA. The initial and the boundary conditions are scaled from the pre-test analysis based on the preliminary calculation using the TRAC code. The superheated steam with a superheating degree of 80 K at a given downcomer pressure of 180 kPa is injected equally through three intact cold legs into the downcomer. (authors)

  6. Numerical Investigation into the Impact of CO2-Water-Rock Interactions on CO2 Injectivity at the Shenhua CCS Demonstration Project, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 100,000 t/year demonstration project for carbon dioxide (CO2 capture and storage in the deep saline formations of the Ordos Basin, China, has been successfully completed. Field observations suggested that the injectivity increased nearly tenfold after CO2 injection commenced without substantial pressure build-up. In order to evaluate whether this unique phenomenon could be attributed to geochemical changes, reactive transport modeling was conducted to investigate CO2-water-rock interactions and changes in porosity and permeability induced by CO2 injection. The results indicated that using porosity-permeability relationships that include tortuosity, grain size, and percolation porosity, other than typical Kozeny-Carman porosity-permeability relationship, it is possible to explain the considerable injectivity increase as a consequence of mineral dissolution. These models might be justified in terms of selective dissolution along flow paths and by dissolution or migration of plugging fines. In terms of geochemical changes, dolomite dissolution is the largest source of porosity increase. Formation physical properties such as temperature, pressure, and brine salinity were found to have modest effects on mineral dissolution and precipitation. Results from this study could have practical implications for a successful CO2 injection and enhanced oil/gas/geothermal production in low-permeability formations, potentially providing a new basis for screening of storage sites and reservoirs.

  7. Multiscale Characterization and Quantification of Arsenic Mobilization and Attenuation During Injection of Treated Coal Seam Gas Coproduced Water into Deep Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, Bhasker; Siade, Adam J.; Donn, Michael J.; Helm, Lauren; Morris, Ryan; Davis, James A.; Berg, Michael; Prommer, Henning

    2017-12-01

    Coal seam gas production involves generation and management of large amounts of co-produced water. One of the most suitable methods of management is injection into deep aquifers. Field injection trials may be used to support the predictions of anticipated hydrological and geochemical impacts of injection. The present work employs reactive transport modeling (RTM) for a comprehensive analysis of data collected from a trial where arsenic mobilization was observed. Arsenic sorption behavior was studied through laboratory experiments, accompanied by the development of a surface complexation model (SCM). A field-scale RTM that incorporated the laboratory-derived SCM was used to simulate the data collected during the field injection trial and then to predict the long-term fate of arsenic. We propose a new practical procedure which integrates laboratory and field-scale models using a Monte Carlo type uncertainty analysis and alleviates a significant proportion of the computational effort required for predictive uncertainty quantification. The results illustrate that both arsenic desorption under alkaline conditions and pyrite oxidation have likely contributed to the arsenic mobilization that was observed during the field trial. The predictive simulations show that arsenic concentrations would likely remain very low if the potential for pyrite oxidation is minimized through complete deoxygenation of the injectant. The proposed modeling and predictive uncertainty quantification method can be implemented for a wide range of groundwater studies that investigate the risks of metal(loid) or radionuclide contamination.

  8. Simulation of the injection system of cooling water to low pressure (Lpci) for a boiling water reactor (BWR) based on RELAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado C, R. A.; Lopez S, E.; Chavez M, C.

    2012-10-01

    The present article describes the modeling and simulation of the Injection System of Cooling Water to Low Pressure (Lpci) for the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde. Is very important to be able to predict the behavior of the nuclear plant in the case of an emergency stop, and while nearer to the reality are the results of a simulation, better is the safety protocol that can be devised. In the Engineering Faculty of the UNAM at the present is had logical models of the safety systems, but due to the nature of the same, these simulations do not provide of the quantity of enough information to be able to reproduce with more accuracy the behavior of the Lpci in the case of a severe accident. For this reason, the RELAP code was used for the flows modeling, components and structures of heat transfers in relation to the system Lpci. The modeling of the components is carried out with base on technical information of the nuclear plant and the results will be corroborated with information in reference documents as the Rasp (the Reactor analysis support package) and the Fsar (Final safety analysis report) for the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde. (Author)

  9. HIV antibodies among intravenous drug users in Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Haddad, M K; Khashaba, A S; Baig, B Z; Khalfan, S

    1994-09-01

    A 12-month study was conducted to identify risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections among intravenous drug users (IDU) attending drug rehabilitation clinic of the Psychiatric Hospital, Manama, Bahrain. Patients provided demographic and behavioural information based on a questionnaire. Two hundred and forty male IDUs participated in the study on voluntary basis. The seroprevalence of HIV was 21.1 per cent. The presence of HIV antibody was associated with educational status, frequency of injecting drugs and needle sharing.

  10. Binders of intravenously administered zinc 65 in rat liver cytoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stortenbeek, A.J.; Hamer, C.J.A. van den.

    1976-01-01

    The fate of intravenously injected trace amounts of 65 Zn 2+ in the rat was studied over a period of ten days after injection. Tissue distributions were determined and a special study was made of 65 Zn-binders in liver cytoplasm. A total of six 65 Zn-binding fractions was found and a tentative identification of the main 65 Zn-binders in these six fractions is given using the collected data regarding their apparent molecular weight, time dependent prominence and content of stable zinc

  11. Why not to ''pocket shoot'': Radiology of intravenous drug abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarroll, K.A.; Fisher, D.R.; Cawthon, L.A.; Donovan, K.R.; Roszler, M.H.; Kling, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    Our large population of intravenous drug abusers has increasingly resorted to supraclavicular central venous injection for vascular access. Few reports of complications associated with the practice of supraclavicular ''pocket'' injection have appeared in the radiologic literature. The authors describe the complications associated with this practice, including pneumothorax, mycotic aneurysm, arteriovenous fistula, jugular vein thrombosis, cellulitis, foreign body reaction, and neck abscess. In addition, the authors provide examples of sternoclavicular osteomyelitis. The anatomy of the ''pocket,'' and the pathophysiology and radiographic manifestations of these complications, are reviewed

  12. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy as an Analytical Process Technology for the On-Line Quantification of Water Precipitation Processes during Danhong Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuesong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper used near-infrared (NIR spectroscopy for the on-line quantitative monitoring of water precipitation during Danhong injection. For these NIR measurements, two fiber optic probes designed to transmit NIR radiation through a 2 mm flow cell were used to collect spectra in real-time. Partial least squares regression (PLSR was developed as the preferred chemometrics quantitative analysis of the critical intermediate qualities: the danshensu (DSS, (R-3, 4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid, protocatechuic aldehyde (PA, rosmarinic acid (RA, and salvianolic acid B (SAB concentrations. Optimized PLSR models were successfully built and used for on-line detecting of the concentrations of DSS, PA, RA, and SAB of water precipitation during Danhong injection. Besides, the information of DSS, PA, RA, and SAB concentrations would be instantly fed back to site technical personnel for control and adjustment timely. The verification experiments determined that the predicted values agreed with the actual homologic value.

  13. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy as an Analytical Process Technology for the On-Line Quantification of Water Precipitation Processes during Danhong Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuesong; Wu, Chunyan; Geng, Shu; Jin, Ye; Luan, Lianjun; Chen, Yong; Wu, Yongjiang

    2015-01-01

    This paper used near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for the on-line quantitative monitoring of water precipitation during Danhong injection. For these NIR measurements, two fiber optic probes designed to transmit NIR radiation through a 2 mm flow cell were used to collect spectra in real-time. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) was developed as the preferred chemometrics quantitative analysis of the critical intermediate qualities: the danshensu (DSS, (R)-3, 4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid), protocatechuic aldehyde (PA), rosmarinic acid (RA), and salvianolic acid B (SAB) concentrations. Optimized PLSR models were successfully built and used for on-line detecting of the concentrations of DSS, PA, RA, and SAB of water precipitation during Danhong injection. Besides, the information of DSS, PA, RA, and SAB concentrations would be instantly fed back to site technical personnel for control and adjustment timely. The verification experiments determined that the predicted values agreed with the actual homologic value.

  14. Comparison of MELCOR modeling techniques and effects of vessel water injection on a low-pressure, short-term, station blackout at the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbajo, J.J.

    1995-06-01

    A fully qualified, best-estimate MELCOR deck has been prepared for the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station and has been run using MELCOR 1.8.3 (1.8 PN) for a low-pressure, short-term, station blackout severe accident. The same severe accident sequence has been run with the same MELCOR version for the same plant using the deck prepared during the NUREG-1150 study. A third run was also completed with the best-estimate deck but without the Lower Plenum Debris Bed (BH) Package to model the lower plenum. The results from the three runs have been compared, and substantial differences have been found. The timing of important events is shorter, and the calculated source terms are in most cases larger for the NUREG-1150 deck results. However, some of the source terms calculated by the NUREG-1150 deck are not conservative when compared to the best-estimate deck results. These results identified some deficiencies in the NUREG-1150 model of the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station. Injection recovery sequences have also been simulated by injecting water into the vessel after core relocation started. This marks the first use of the new BH Package of MELCOR to investigate the effects of water addition to a lower plenum debris bed. The calculated results indicate that vessel failure can be prevented by injecting water at a sufficiently early stage. No pressure spikes in the vessel were predicted during the water injection. The MELCOR code has proven to be a useful tool for severe accident management strategies

  15. Single-dose Intramuscular-injection Toxicology Test of Water-soluble Carthami-flos and Cervi cornu parvum Pharmacopuncture in a Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunju Park

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study is to investigate both the single-dose intramuscular injection toxicity and the approximate lethal dose of water-soluble Carthami-flos and Cervi cornu parvum pharmacopuncture (WCFC in male and female Sprague-Dawley (SD rats. Methods: The study was conducted at Biotoxtech Co. according to the Good Laboratory Practice (GLP regulation and the toxicity test guidelines of the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS after approval of the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Dosages for the control, high dose, middle dose and low dose groups were 0.5 mL/animal of saline and 0.5, 0.25 and 0.125 mL/animal of WCFC, respectively. WCFC was injected into the muscle of the left femoral region by using a disposable syringe (1 mL, 26 gauge. The general symptoms and mortality were observed 30 minutes, 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours after the first injection and then daily for 14 days after the injection. The body weights of the SD rats were measured on the day of the injection (before injection and on the third, seventh, and fourteenth days after the injection. Serum biochemical and hematologic tests, necropsy examinations, and histopathologic examinations at the injection site were performed after the observation period. Results: No deaths, abnormal clinical symptoms, or significant weight changes were observed in either male or female SD rats in the control or the test (0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 mL/animal groups during the observation period. No significant differences in hematology and serum biochemistry and no macroscopic abnormalities at necropsy were found. No abnormal reactions at injection sites were noted on the topical tolerance tests. Conclusion: The results of this single-dose toxicity study show that WCFC is safe, its lethal doses in male and female SD rats being estimated to be higher than 0.5 mL/animal.

  16. Dual cloud point extraction coupled with hydrodynamic-electrokinetic two-step injection followed by micellar electrokinetic chromatography for simultaneous determination of trace phenolic estrogens in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yingying; Li, Jinhua; Liu, Junshen; Lu, Wenhui; Ma, Jiping; Chen, Lingxin

    2013-07-01

    A dual cloud point extraction (dCPE) off-line enrichment procedure coupled with a hydrodynamic-electrokinetic two-step injection online enrichment technique was successfully developed for simultaneous preconcentration of trace phenolic estrogens (hexestrol, dienestrol, and diethylstilbestrol) in water samples followed by micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) analysis. Several parameters affecting the extraction and online injection conditions were optimized. Under optimal dCPE-two-step injection-MEKC conditions, detection limits of 7.9-8.9 ng/mL and good linearity in the range from 0.05 to 5 μg/mL with correlation coefficients R(2) ≥ 0.9990 were achieved. Satisfactory recoveries ranging from 83 to 108% were obtained with lake and tap water spiked at 0.1 and 0.5 μg/mL, respectively, with relative standard deviations (n = 6) of 1.3-3.1%. This method was demonstrated to be convenient, rapid, cost-effective, and environmentally benign, and could be used as an alternative to existing methods for analyzing trace residues of phenolic estrogens in water samples.

  17. An experimental study on the cathode humidification and evaporative cooling of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells using direct water injection method at high current densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Seong Hoon; Kim, Min Soo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Proposal of a cathode humidification and evaporative cooling system for PEM fuel cells. • An external-mixing air-assist atomizer is used to produce a very fine water spray. • The system is effective in both cathode humidification and stack cooling. • Increased water flow rate improves stack performance and evaporative cooling capacity. • At a given water flow rate, lower stack temperatures cause greater humidification effect. - Abstract: Humidification and cooling are critical issues in enhancing the efficiency and durability of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). However, existing humidifiers and cooling systems have the disadvantage that they must be quite large to achieve adequate PEMFC performance. In this study, to eliminate the need for a bulky humidifier and to lighten the cooling load of PEMFCs, a cathode humidification and evaporative cooling system using an external-mixing air-assist atomizer was developed and its performance was investigated. The atomization performance of the nozzle was analyzed experimentally under various operating conditions with minimal changes in the system design. Experiments with a five-cell PEMFC stack with an active area of 250 cm"2 were carried out to analyze the effects of various parameters (such as the operating temperature, current density, and water injection flow rate) on the evaporation of injected water for humidification and cooling performances. The experimental results demonstrate that the direct water injection method proposed in this study is quite effective in cathode humidification and stack cooling in PEM fuel cells at high current densities. The stack performance was improved by humidification effect and the coolant temperature at the stack outlet decreased by evaporative cooling effect.

  18. Orthostatic stability with intravenous levodopa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan H. Siddiqi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous levodopa has been used in a multitude of research studies due to its more predictable pharmacokinetics compared to the oral form, which is used frequently as a treatment for Parkinson’s disease (PD. Levodopa is the precursor for dopamine, and intravenous dopamine would strongly affect vascular tone, but peripheral decarboxylase inhibitors are intended to block such effects. Pulse and blood pressure, with orthostatic changes, were recorded before and after intravenous levodopa or placebo—after oral carbidopa—in 13 adults with a chronic tic disorder and 16 tic-free adult control subjects. Levodopa caused no statistically or clinically significant changes in blood pressure or pulse. These data add to previous data that support the safety of i.v. levodopa when given with adequate peripheral inhibition of DOPA decarboxylase.

  19. Experimental study on thermal-hydraulic behaviors of a pressure balanced coolant injection system for a passive safety light water reactor JPSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satoh, Takashi; Watanabe, Hironori; Araya, Fumimasa; Nakajima, Katsutoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Iwamura, Takamichi; Murao, Yoshio

    1998-02-01

    A conceptual design study of a passive safety light water reactor JPSR has been performed at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute JAERI. A pressure balanced coolant injection experiment has been carried out, with an objective to understand thermal-hydraulic characteristics of a passive coolant injection system which has been considered to be adopted to JPSR. This report summarizes experimental results and data recorded in experiment run performed in FY. 1993 and 1994. Preliminary experiments previously performed are also briefly described. As the results of the experiment, it was found that an initiation of coolant injection was delayed with increase in a subcooling in the pressure balance line. By inserting a separation device which divides the inside of core make-up tank (CMT) into several small compartments, a diffusion of a high temperature region formed just under the water surface was restrained and then a steam condensation was suppressed. A time interval from an uncovery of the pressure balance line to the initiation of the coolant injection was not related by a linear function with a discharge flow rate simulating a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) condition. The coolant was injected intermittently by actuation of a trial fabricated passive valve actuated by pressure difference for the present experiment. It was also found that the trial passive valve had difficulties in setting an actuation set point and vibrations noises and some fraction of the coolant was remained in CMT without effective use. A modification was proposed for resolving these problems by introducing an anti-closing mechanism. (author)

  20. Injection, injectivity and injectability in geothermal operations: problems and possible solutions. Phase I. Definition of the problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetter, O.J.; Crichlow, H.B.

    1979-02-14

    The following topics are covered: thermodynamic instability of brine, injectivity loss during regular production and injection operations, injectivity loss caused by measures other than regular operations, heat mining and associated reservoir problems in reinjection, pressure maintenance through imported make-up water, suggested solutions to injection problems, and suggested solutions to injection problems: remedial and stimulation measures. (MHR)

  1. Granisetron Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granisetron immediate-release injection is used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy and to ... nausea and vomiting that may occur after surgery. Granisetron extended-release (long-acting) injection is used with ...

  2. Edaravone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edaravone injection is used to treat amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, Lou Gehrig's disease; a condition in which ... die, causing the muscles to shrink and weaken). Edaravone injection is in a class of medications called ...

  3. Meropenem Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infection.Antibiotics such as meropenem injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  4. Chloramphenicol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria..Antibiotics such as chloramphenicol injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  5. Colistimethate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as colistimethate injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  6. Defibrotide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defibrotide injection is used to treat adults and children with hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD; blocked blood ... the body and then returned to the body). Defibrotide injection is in a class of medications called ...

  7. Nalbuphine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called opioid agonist-antagonists. It works by changing the way ... suddenly stop using nalbuphine injection, you may experience withdrawal symptoms including restlessness; teary eyes; runny nose; yawning; ...

  8. Evaluation of intravenous fluorescein in intradermal allergy testing in psittacines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nett, Claudia S; Hosgood, Giselle; Heatley, J Jill; Foil, Carol S; Tully, Thomas N

    2003-12-01

    This study was designed to improve the clinical feasibility of intradermal skin testing of psittacine birds using intravenous fluorescein stain. Twenty-five healthy, anaesthetized Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) were injected intravenously with 10 mg kg-1 fluorescein-sodium 1% followed by intradermal injections of 0.02 mL phosphate-buffered saline, histamine phosphate (1:100,000 w/v) and codeine phosphate (1:100,000 w/v) at the sternal apteria. Wheal diameters of reaction sites were measured grossly and under illumination with a Wood's lamp after 5 and 10 min. Fluorescence-enhanced injection sites were scored between 0 and 2, with 0 equivalent to normal skin and 2 equivalent to a plucked feather follicle. The presence of a fluorescent halo around intradermal injections was also recorded. Under Wood's light illumination at 10 min, histamine and saline were evaluated as positive and negative controls, respectively, based on a positive test having a halo and a score of 2. Sensitivity and specificity were each 76% for halo, 84 and 42% for score and 64 and 77% for combination of score and halo, respectively. Further, mean histamine reactions were significantly larger than codeine phosphate and saline (8.8 +/- 0.4 mm; 7.2 +/- 0.3 mm; 5.9 +/- 0.6 mm); however, this finding was not consistent in individual birds. Wheal size, halo presence and score were affected by site location independent from the injected compound. Intravenous fluorescein improved the readability of avian skin tests; however, the compounds tested raised inconsistent reactions in wheal size, score or halo presence. The compound-independent site effect raises concern on the validity of avian skin testing and warrants investigation of other techniques such as in vitro allergy testing. Based on our findings, intradermal allergy testing in psittacines with or without fluorescein is unreliable and cannot be recommended for practical clinical use.

  9. Review and problem definition of water/rock reactions associated with injection of spent geothermal fluids from a geothermal plant into aquifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elders, W.A.

    1986-07-01

    Among the technical problems faced by the burgeoning geothermal industry is the disposal of spent fluids from power plants. Except in unusual circumstances the normal practice, especially in the USA, is to pump these spent fluids into injection wells to prevent contamination of surface waters, and possibly in some cases, to reduce pressure drawdown in the producing aquifers. This report is a survey of experience in geothermal injection, emphasizing geochemical problems, and a discussion of approaches to their possible mitigation. The extraction of enthalpy from geothermal fluid in power plants may cause solutions to be strongly supersaturated in various dissolved components such as silica, carbonates, sulfates, and sulfides. Injection of such supersaturated solutions into disposal wells has the potential to cause scaling in the well bores and plugging of the aquifers, leading to loss of injectivity. Various aspects of the geochemistry of geothermal brines and their potential for mineral formation are discussed, drawing upon a literature survey. Experience of brine treatment and handling, and the economics of mineral extraction are also addressed in this report. Finally suggestions are made on future needs for possible experimental, field and theoretical studies to avoid or control mineral scaling.

  10. intravenous infusion of chlorimipramine (anafranil)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the already extensive outpatient facilities at Johannesburg. Hospital as well as the Tara Neuro-Psychiatric Hospital for long-term therapy. Technique of Chlorimipramine Infusion. Initially 1 ampoule of chlorimipramine 25 mg in 250 mg of 5°~ dextrose saline was administered intravenously at the rate of 60 drops per minute.

  11. Fluid injection for salt water disposal and enhanced oil recovery as a potential problem for the WIPP: Proceedings of a June 1995 workshop and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M.K.

    1996-08-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a facility of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), designed and constructed for the permanent disposal of transuranic (TRU) defense waste. The repository is sited in the New Mexico portion of the Delaware Basin, at a depth of 655 meters, in the salt beds of the Salado Formation. The WIPP is surrounded by reserves and production of potash, crude oil and natural gas. In selecting a repository site, concerns about extensive oil field development eliminated the Mescalero Plains site in Chaves County and concerns about future waterflooding in nearby oil fields helped eliminate the Alternate II site in Lea County. Ultimately, the Los Medanos site in Eddy County was selected, relying in part on the conclusion that there were no oil reserves at the site. For oil field operations, the problem of water migrating from the injection zone, through other formations such as the Salado, and onto adjacent property has long been recognized. In 1980, the DOE intended to prohibit secondary recovery by waterflooding in one mile buffer surrounding the WIPP Site. However, the DOE relinquished the right to restrict waterflooding based on a natural resources report which maintained that there was a minimal amount of crude oil likely to exist at the WIPP site, hence waterflooding adjacent to the WIPP would be unlikely. This document presents the workshop presentations and analyses for the fluid injection for salt water disposal and enhanced oil recovery utilizing fluid injection and their potential effects on the WIPP facility

  12. Assessment of MARS for downcomer multi-dimensional thermal hydraulics during LBLOCA reflood using KAERI air-water direct vessel injection tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won-Jae, Lee; Kwi-Seok, Ha; Chul-Hwa, Song [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    The MARS code has been assessed for the downcomer multi-dimensional thermal hydraulics during a large break loss-of-coolant accident (LBLOCA) reflood of Korean Next Generation Reactor (KNGR) that adopted an upper direct vessel injection (DVI) design. Direct DVI bypass and downcomer level sweep-out tests carried out at 1/50-scale air-water DVI test facility are simulated to examine the capability of MARS. Test conditions are selected such that they represent typical reflood conditions of KNGR, that is, DVI injection velocities of 1.0 {approx} 1.6 m/sec and air injection velocities of 18.0 {approx} 35.0 m/sec, for single and double DVI configurations. MARS calculation is first adjusted to the experimental DVI film distribution that largely affects air-water interaction in a scaled-down downcomer, then, the code is assessed for the selected test matrix. With some improvements of MARS thermal-hydraulic (T/H) models, it has been demonstrated that the MARS code is capable of simulating the direct DVI bypass and downcomer level sweep-out as well as the multi-dimensional thermal hydraulics in downcomer, where condensation effect is excluded. (authors)

  13. [Matrix effect and application of field-amplified sample injection in the analysis of four tetracyclines in waters by capillary electrohoresis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The system abilities of two chromatographic techniques, capillary electrophoresis (CE) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), were compared for the analysis of four tetracyclines (tetracycline, chlorotetracycline, oxytetracycline and doxycycline). The pH, concentration of background electrolyte (BGE) were optimized for the analysis of the standard mixture sample, meanwhile, the effects of separation voltage and water matrix (pH value and hardness) effects were investigated. In hydrodynamic injection (HDI) mode, a good quantitative linearity and baseline separation within 9. 0 min were obtained for the four tetracyclines at the optimal conditions; the analytical time was about half of that of HPLC. The limits of detection (LODs) were in the range of 0. 28 - 0. 62 mg/L, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) (n= 6) of migration time and peak area were 0. 42% - 0. 56% and 2. 24% - 2. 95%, respectively. The obtained recoveries spiked in tap water and fishpond water were at the ranges of 96. 3% - 107. 2% and 87. 1% - 105. 2%, respectively. In addition, the stacking method, field-amplified sample injection (FASI), was employed to improve the sensitivity, and the LOD was down to the range of 17.8-35.5 μg/L. With FASI stacking, the RSDs (n=6) of migration time and peak area were 0. 85%-0. 95% and 1. 69%-3.43%, respectively. Due to the advantages of simple sample pretreatment and fast speed, CE is promising in the analysis of the antibiotics in environmental water.

  14. Synthesis of diamond films by pulsed liquid injection chemical vapor deposition using a mixture of acetone and water as precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apatiga, L.M.; Morales, J.

    2009-01-01

    A chemical vapor deposition reactor based on the flash evaporation of an organic liquid precursor was used to grow diamond films on Si substrates. An effective pulsed liquid injection mechanism consisting of an injector, normally used for fuel injection in internal combustion engines, injects micro-doses of the precursor to the evaporation zone at 280 o C and is instantly evaporated. The resulting vapor mixture is transported by a carrier gas to the high-temperature reaction chamber where the diamond nucleates and grows on the substrate surface at temperatures ranging from 750 to 850 o C. The injection frequency, opening time, number of pulses and other injector parameters are controlled by a computer-driven system. The diamond film morphology and structure were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The as-deposited diamond films show a ball-shaped morphology with a grain size that varies from 100 to 400 nm, as well as the characteristic diamond Raman band at 1332 cm -1 . The effects of the experimental parameters and operation principle on the diamond films quality are analyzed and discussed in terms of crystallinity, composition, structure, and morphology.

  15. Physicochemical characterization and an injection formulation study of water insoluble ZCVI₄-2, a novel NO-donor anticancer compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Li, Li; Zhang, Jianjun; Su, Feng; Gong, Zhenhua; Lai, Yisheng; Zhang, Yihua

    2012-07-01

    ZCVI(4)-2 was a novel nitric oxide-releasing glycosyl derivative of oleanolic acid that displayed strong cytotoxicity selectively against human hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro and in vivo. In this study, ZCVI(4)-2 was characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffractometry, Raman spectroscopy, hygroscopicity and stability. A high performance liquid chromatography method was also established for the quantitative determination of solubility and additional stability profile of ZCVI(4)-2. ZCVI(4)-2 was found to be an amorphous and stable solid with low solubility of less than 10 μg/mL. Based on the solubilization tests that included methods of cosolvency and micellization, the solution mixture of 5% Solutol HS-15, 5% 1, 2-propylene glycol and 5% anhydrous ethanol was determined to be the system for the preparation of the ZCVI(4)-2 early injection solution. The effect of pH, temperature, light and injectable isotonic glucose or NaCl solution on ZCVI(4)-2 injection was also investigated. Good stability was observed at all testing conditions. Under the conditions studied, the NO-releasing rate and amount of ZCVI(4)-2 from the early injection solution in rat plasma demonstrated a promising therapeutic efficacy while maintaining a good safety profile.

  16. Optimization of powder injection molding of feedstock based on aluminum oxide and multicomponent water-soluble polymer binder

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hausnerová, B.; Marcaníková, L.; Filip, Petr; Sáha, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 7 (2011), s. 1376-1382 ISSN 0032-3888 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/08/1307 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : powder injection molding * viscosity * thermogravimetric analysis Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.302, year: 2011

  17. Intravenous alcohol self-administration in the P rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windisch, Kyle A; Kosobud, Ann E K; Czachowski, Cristine L

    2014-08-01

    Alcohol consumption produces a complex array of effects that can be divided into two types: the explicit pharmacological effects of ethanol (which can be temporally separate from time of intake) and the more temporally "relevant" effects (primarily olfactory and taste) that bridge the time from intake to onset of the pharmacological effects. Intravenous (IV) self-administration of ethanol limits the confounding "non-pharmacological" effects associated with oral consumption, allows for controlled and precise dosing, and bypasses first order absorption kinetics, allowing for more direct and better-controlled assessment of alcohol's effect on the brain. IV ethanol self-administration has been reliably demonstrated in mouse and human experimental models; however, models of IV self-administration have been historically problematic in the rat. An operant multiple-schedule study design was used to elucidate the role of each component of a compound IV-ethanol plus oral-sucrose reinforcer. Male alcohol-preferring P rats had free access to both food and water during all IV self-administration sessions. Animals were trained to press a lever for orally delivered 1% sucrose (1S) on a fixed ratio 4 schedule, and then surgically implanted with an indwelling jugular catheter. Animals were then trained to respond on a multiple FR4-FR4 schedule composed of alternating 2.5-min components across 30-min sessions. For the multiple schedule, two components were used: an oral 1S only and an oral 1S plus IV 20% ethanol (25 mg/kg/injection). Average total ethanol intake was 0.47 ± 0.04 g/kg. We found significantly higher earning of sucrose-only reinforcers and greater sucrose-lever error responding relative to the compound oral-sucrose plus IV-ethanol reinforcer. These response patterns suggest that sucrose, not ethanol, was responsible for driving overall responding. The work with a compound IV ethanol-oral sucrose reinforcer presented here suggests that the existing intravenous ethanol

  18. Pressure-assisted electrokinetic injection for on-line enrichment in capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry: a sensitive method for measurement of ten haloacetic acids in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huijuan; Zhu, Jiping; Aranda-Rodriguez, Rocio; Feng, Yong-Lai

    2011-11-07

    Haloacetic acids (HAAs) are by-products of the chlorination of drinking water containing natural organic matter and bromide. A simple and sensitive method has been developed for determination of ten HAAs in drinking water. The pressure-assisted electrokinetic injection (PAEKI), an on-line enrichment technique, was employed to introduce the sample into a capillary electrophoresis (CE)-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry system (ESI-MS/MS). HAAs were monitored in selected reaction monitoring mode. With 3 min of PAEKI time, the ten major HAAs (HAA10) in drinking water were enriched up to 20,000-fold into the capillary without compromising resolution. A simple solid phase clean-up method has been developed to eliminate the influence of ionic matrices from drinking water on PAEKI. Under conditions optimized for mass spectrometry, PAEKI and capillary electrophoresis, detection limits defined as three times ratio of signal to noise have been achieved in a range of 0.013-0.12 μg L(-1) for ten HAAs in water sample. The overall recoveries for all ten HAAs in drinking water samples were between 76 and 125%. Six HAAs including monochloro- (MCAA), dichloro- (DCAA), trichloro- (TCAA), monobromo- (MBAA), bromochloro- (BCAA), and bromodichloroacetic acids (BDCAA) were found in tap water samples collected. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis of the influence of well spacing on the injection rate behaviour for water injection under fracturing conditions; Analise da influencia do espacamento de pocos na determinacao da vazao de injecao para o processo de injecao com pressao cima da pressao de fratura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz Mazo, Eduin Orlando [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Centro de Estudo do Petroleo. Lab. de Simulacao de Fluxo em Meios Porosos (UNISIM); Costa, Odair Jose; Schiozer, Denis Jose [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Engenharia de Petroleo

    2008-07-01

    Water injection under fracturing conditions is a proved manner of overcoming injectivity loss in reservoirs affected by formation damage. Nevertheless, as shown by Munoz Mazo et al. (2006), there is the possibility of the generated and propagated fractures intercept the producer wells making that the injected water shall be re-circulated into the reservoir instead of its main function which is to drive the oil contained in the reservoir pore space. The objective of this work is to determine the influence of well spacing on the determination of the water injection rate under fracturing conditions, aiming to study its effects on the production performance and the sweep efficiency. To accomplish the work, an analytical model for representing the absolute permeability reduction near the wellbore and a model which reproduces the fracture propagation in a coupled manner are used. In this way the model sensitivity to several well spacing and the injection rate effects are analyzed using the Net Present Value and the sweep efficiency is evaluated as a function of the Recovery Factor. The results show that the water injection under fracturing conditions is an effective way of overcoming the injectivity loss problem and evidence its sensitivity to different spacing between the injector and the producer wells. (author)

  20. Characterization and Alteration of Wettability States of Alaskan Reserviors to Improve Oil Recovery Efficiency (including the within-scope expansion based on Cyclic Water Injection - a pulsed waterflood for Enhanced Oil Recovery)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhijit Dandekar; Shirish Patil; Santanu Khataniar

    2008-12-31

    Numerous early reports on experimental works relating to the role of wettability in various aspects of oil recovery have been published. Early examples of laboratory waterfloods show oil recovery increasing with increasing water-wetness. This result is consistent with the intuitive notion that strong wetting preference of the rock for water and associated strong capillary-imbibition forces gives the most efficient oil displacement. This report examines the effect of wettability on waterflooding and gasflooding processes respectively. Waterflood oil recoveries were examined for the dual cases of uniform and non-uniform wetting conditions. Based on the results of the literature review on effect of wettability and oil recovery, coreflooding experiments were designed to examine the effect of changing water chemistry (salinity) on residual oil saturation. Numerous corefloods were conducted on reservoir rock material from representative formations on the Alaska North Slope (ANS). The corefloods consisted of injecting water (reservoir water and ultra low-salinity ANS lake water) of different salinities in secondary as well as tertiary mode. Additionally, complete reservoir condition corefloods were also conducted using live oil. In all the tests, wettability indices, residual oil saturation, and oil recovery were measured. All results consistently lead to one conclusion; that is, a decrease in injection water salinity causes a reduction in residual oil saturation and a slight increase in water-wetness, both of which are comparable with literature observations. These observations have an intuitive appeal in that water easily imbibes into the core and displaces oil. Therefore, low-salinity waterfloods have the potential for improved oil recovery in the secondary recovery process, and ultra low-salinity ANS lake water is an attractive source of injection water or a source for diluting the high-salinity reservoir water. As part of the within-scope expansion of this project

  1. A Multitracer Approach to Detecting Wastewater Plumes from Municipal Injection Wells in Nearshore Marine Waters at Kihei and Lahaina, Maui, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Charles D.; Rosa, Sarah N.

    2009-01-01

    Municipal wastewater plumes discharging from aquifer to ocean were detected by nearshore wading surveys at Kihei and Lahaina, on the island of Maui in Hawaii. Developed in cooperation with the Hawaii State Department of Health, the survey methodology included instrument trolling to detect submarine groundwater discharge, followed by analysis of water and macroalgae for a suite of chemical and isotopic constituents that constitute a 'multitracer' approach. Surveys were conducted May 6-28, 2008, during fair-weather conditions and included: (1) wading and kayak trolling with a multiparameter water-quality sonde, (2) marine water-column sampling, and (3) collection of benthic algae samples. Instrument trolling helped guide the water sampling strategy by providing dense, continuous transects of water properties on which groundwater discharge zones could be identified. Water and algae samples for costly chemical and isotopic laboratory analyses were last to be collected but were highly diagnostic of wastewater presence and nutrient origin because of low detection levels and confirmation across multiple tracers. Laboratory results confirmed the presence of wastewater constituents in marine water-column samples at both locales and showed evidence of modifying processes such as denitrification and mixing of effluent with surrounding groundwater and seawater. Carbamazepine was the most diagnostic pharmaceutical, detected in several marine water-column samples and effluent at both Kihei and Lahaina. Heavy nitrogen-isotope compositions in water and algae were highly diagnostic of effluent, particularly where enriched to even heavier values than effluent source compositions by denitrification. Algae provided an added advantage of time-integrating their nitrogen source during growth. The measured Kihei plume coincided almost exactly with prior model predictions, but the Lahaina plume was detected well south of the expected direct path from injection wells to shore and may be

  2. Effect of Intravenous Dexamethasone on Preparing the Cervix and Labor Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Laloha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of corticosteroids is one of the methods put forward for the strengthening and speeding up the process of labor. After identification of glucocorticoid receptors in human amnion, the role of corticosteroids in starting the process of labor has been studied in numerous studies. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of intravenous Dexamethasone on preparing the cervix and on labor induction. A randomized, clinical, and double – blind trial was conducted on 172 women divided into a control and an experimental group. The inclusion criteria were that they had to be primparous, in or before the 40th week of pregnancy, and with Bishop scores (B.S.s of 4 or lower. The exclusion criteria were diabetes, preeclampsia, macrosomia, twin pregnancy, rupture of the membrane (ROM, breech, and women suffering from background diseases. The B.S.s of the women was measured in charge of the study, and each woman was intravenously injected with eight milligrams of Dexamethasone or eight milligrams of distilled water. Four hours after the injections, the B.S.s of the participants was measured, and they were put under the conditions of labor induction using oxytocin. Information was collected in checklists A and B. The patients were compared with respect to B.S., the time the induction started, the average interval between the start of induction and the beginning of the active phase of childbirth, and the average length of time between the start of the active phase and the second stage of childbirth. The first and five minutes Apgar scores of the two groups of women were compared. The frequencies, the means,  and the standard deviations were calculated using the SPSS – 16 software, and analysis of the results was performed with the Student’s t- test and the chi-square test with PPPP

  3. Intravenous Therapy: Hazards, Complications and Their Prevention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breaks in aseptic techniques, faulty handling of parenteral fluid containers, failure to discard out-dated intravenous solutions and tubings contribute to occurrence of intravenous-associated sepsis. Improper technique and lack of pharmaceutical knowledge when adding drugs into intravenous fluids contribute to ...

  4. Comparison of the samples injection systems with ultrasonic nebulizer and with pneumatic nebulizer for the metal determination in water by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin, Sergio R; Pismante, Paola A

    2005-01-01

    The natural waters, depending on their use, must fulfill the exigencies and requirements that fix national and international norms. These establish conditions with respect to the concentration levels that must be some metals. In this work the development of inductively coupled plasma emission optical spectrometry with ultrasonic injection system is presented. The determination of aluminum, arsenic, barium, cadmium, zinc, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead, strontium and vanadium, at levels of ultra-trace in water samples is studied by this technique. The wavelengths that represented better sensitivity and minors spectral interferences, were selected from the Literature specialized in the analysis of this type of material. Also the conditions of work for the ultrasonic nebulization: temperature, pressure, flow speed of argon, and flow speed of sample was determined. The greater sensitivity of the injection system by ultrasonic nebulization forehead to the injection system by pneumatic nebulization, is verified when comparing the spectral intensity of the selected wavelengths. Also the limits of detection and quantification was obtained by both systems. The validity of the results obtained in this method is verified applying the test of Fisher, who determines the degree of homogeneity of the variances, and the test of Student, to determine the trazability obtained with these values. For these studies, the certified material of reference TM-24.2 of National Water Research Institute Environment Canada (NWRI), was used. The positive answer to the criteria of evaluation E and Z-Score, obtained by this technique, allows to verify that it fulfills the exigencies to be used in the determination of metals at the required levels (au)

  5. PET radioligand injection for pig neuroimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Munk, Ole Lajord; Landau, Anne M.

    2018-01-01

    Pigs are useful models in neuroimaging studies with positron emission tomography. Radiolabeled ligands are injected intravenously at the start of the scan and in pigs, the most easily accessible route of administration is the ear vein. However, in brain studies the short distance between the brai...

  6. Intravenous Antiepileptic Drugs in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Vlasov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Launching four intravenous antiepileptic drugs: valproate (Depakene and Convulex, lacosamide (Vimpat, and levetiracetam (Keppra – into the Russian market has significantly broadened the possibilities of rendering care to patients in seizure emergency situations. The chemi- cal structure, mechanisms of action, indications/contraindications, clinical effectiveness and tolerability, advantages/disadvantages, and adverse events of using these drugs in urgent and elective neurology are discussed. 

  7. Candida glabrata olecranon bursitis treated with bursectomy and intravenous caspofungin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skedros, John G; Keenan, Kendra E; Trachtenberg, Joel D

    2013-01-01

    Orthopedic surgeons are becoming more involved in the care of patients with septic arthritis and bursitis caused by yeast species. This case report involves a middle-aged immunocompromised female who developed a Candida glabrata septic olecranon bursitis that developed after she received a corticosteroid injection in the olecranon bursa for presumed aseptic bursitis. Candida (Torulopsis) glabrata is the second most frequently isolated Candida species from the bloodstream in the United States. Increased use of fluconazole and other azole antifungal agents as a prophylactic treatment for recurrent Candida albicans infections in immunocompromised individuals is one reason why there appears to be increased resistance of C. glabrata and other nonalbicans Candida (NAC) species to fluconazole. In this patient, this infection was treated with surgery (bursectomy) and intravenous caspofungin, an echinocandin. This rare infectious etiology coupled with this intravenous antifungal treatment makes this case novel among cases of olecranon bursitis caused by yeasts.

  8. Pharmacokinetics of high-dose intravenous melatonin in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars P H; Werner, Mads U; Rosenkilde, Mette Marie

    2016-01-01

    This crossover study investigated the pharmacokinetics and adverse effects of high-dose intravenous melatonin. Volunteers participated in 3 identical study sessions, receiving an intravenous bolus of 10 mg melatonin, 100 mg melatonin, and placebo. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 0, 60......, 120, 180, 240, 300, 360, and 420 minutes after the bolus. Quantitative determination of plasma melatonin concentrations was performed using a radioimmunoassay technique. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated by a compartmental pharmacokinetic analysis. Adverse effects included assessments...... of sedation and registration of other symptoms. Sedation, evaluated as simple reaction times, was measured at baseline and 120, 180, 300, and 420 minutes after the bolus. Twelve male volunteers completed the study. Median (IQR) Cmax after the bolus injections of 10 mg and 100 mg of melatonin were 221...

  9. Subcutaneous Injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Maria

    This thesis is about visualization and characterization of the tissue-device interaction during subcutaneous injection. The tissue pressure build-up during subcutaneous injections was measured in humans. The insulin pen FlexTouchr (Novo Nordisk A/S) was used for the measurements and the pressure ...

  10. Hydromorphone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... anyone else to use your medication. Store hydromorphone injection in a safe place so that no one else can use it accidentally or on purpose. Keep track of how much medication is left so ... with hydromorphone injection may increase the risk that you will develop ...

  11. Ketorolac Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an older adult, you should know that ketorolac injection is not as safe as other medications that can be used to treat your condition. Your doctor may choose to prescribe a different medication ... to ketorolac injection.Your doctor or pharmacist will give you the ...

  12. Paclitaxel Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    (pak'' li tax' el)Paclitaxel injection must be given in a hospital or medical facility under the supervision of a doctor who is experienced in giving chemotherapy medications for cancer.Paclitaxel injection may cause a large decrease in the number of white blood cells (a type of blood cell ...

  13. Determination of human-use pharmaceuticals in filtered water by direct aqueous injection: high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, Edward T.; Noriega, Mary C.; Kanagy, Christopher J.; Kanagy, Leslie K.; Coffey, Laura J.; Burkhardt, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes a method for the determination of 110 human-use pharmaceuticals using a 100-microliter aliquot of a filtered water sample directly injected into a high-performance liquid chromatograph coupled to a triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer using an electrospray ionization source operated in the positive ion mode. The pharmaceuticals were separated by using a reversed-phase gradient of formic acid/ammonium formate-modified water and methanol. Multiple reaction monitoring of two fragmentations of the protonated molecular ion of each pharmaceutical to two unique product ions was used to identify each pharmaceutical qualitatively. The primary multiple reaction monitoring precursor-product ion transition was quantified for each pharmaceutical relative to the primary multiple reaction monitoring precursor-product transition of one of 19 isotope-dilution standard pharmaceuticals or the pesticide atrazine, using an exact stable isotope analogue where possible. Each isotope-dilution standard was selected, when possible, for its chemical similarity to the unlabeled pharmaceutical of interest, and added to the sample after filtration but prior to analysis. Method performance for each pharmaceutical was determined for reagent water, groundwater, treated drinking water, surface water, treated wastewater effluent, and wastewater influent sample matrixes that this method will likely be applied to. Each matrix was evaluated in order of increasing complexity to demonstrate (1) the sensitivity of the method in different water matrixes and (2) the effect of sample matrix, particularly matrix enhancement or suppression of the precursor ion signal, on the quantitative determination of pharmaceutical concentrations. Recovery of water samples spiked (fortified) with the suite of pharmaceuticals determined by this method typically was greater than 90 percent in reagent water, groundwater, drinking water, and surface water. Correction for ambient environmental

  14. Development of a sequential injection-square wave voltammetry method for determination of paraquat in water samples employing the hanging mercury drop electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Luciana B O; Infante, Carlos M C; Masini, Jorge C

    2010-03-01

    This work describes the development and optimization of a sequential injection method to automate the determination of paraquat by square-wave voltammetry employing a hanging mercury drop electrode. Automation by sequential injection enhanced the sampling throughput, improving the sensitivity and precision of the measurements as a consequence of the highly reproducible and efficient conditions of mass transport of the analyte toward the electrode surface. For instance, 212 analyses can be made per hour if the sample/standard solution is prepared off-line and the sequential injection system is used just to inject the solution towards the flow cell. In-line sample conditioning reduces the sampling frequency to 44 h(-1). Experiments were performed in 0.10 M NaCl, which was the carrier solution, using a frequency of 200 Hz, a pulse height of 25 mV, a potential step of 2 mV, and a flow rate of 100 µL s(-1). For a concentration range between 0.010 and 0.25 mg L(-1), the current (i(p), µA) read at the potential corresponding to the peak maximum fitted the following linear equation with the paraquat concentration (mg L(-1)): i(p) = (-20.5 ± 0.3)C (paraquat) - (0.02 ± 0.03). The limits of detection and quantification were 2.0 and 7.0 µg L(-1), respectively. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by recovery studies using spiked water samples that were also analyzed by molecular absorption spectrophotometry after reduction of paraquat with sodium dithionite in an alkaline medium. No evidence of statistically significant differences between the two methods was observed at the 95% confidence level.

  15. Anaphylaxis after intravenous infusion of dexketoprofen trometamol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sertac Guler

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Dexketoprofen trometamol (DT, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is a highly water-soluble salt and active enantiomer of rac-ketoprofen. Its parenteral form is commonly used for acute pain management in emergency departments of our country. Side effects such as diarrhea, indigestion, nausea, stomach pain, and vomiting may be seen after the use of DT. Anaphylactic shock (AS secondary to infusion of DT is very rare and, to our knowledge, it is the first case report describing this side effect. This case report was presented to emphasize that AS may be seen after the use of DT. Keywords: Anaphylactic shock, Dexketoprofen trometamol, Intravenous infusion (MeSH database

  16. Flow-through solid-phase based optical sensor for the multisyringe flow injection trace determination of orthophosphate in waters with chemiluminescence detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morais, Ines P.A.; Miro, Manuel; Manera, Matias; Estela, Jose Manuel; Cerda, Victor; Souto, M. Renata S.; Rangel, Antonio O.S.S.

    2004-01-01

    In this work, a novel flow-through solid-phase based chemiluminescence (CL) optical sensor is described for the trace determination of orthophosphate in waters exploiting the multisyringe flow injection analysis (MSFIA) concept with multicommutation. The proposed time-based injection flow system relies upon the in-line derivatisation of the analyte with ammonium molybdate in the presence of vanadate, and the transient immobilisation of the resulting heteropolyacid in a N-vinylpyrrolidone/divinylbenzene copolymer packed spiral shape flow-through cell located in front of the window of a photomultiplier tube. The simultaneous injection of well-defined slugs of luminol in alkaline medium and methanol solution towards the packed reactor is afterwards performed by proper switching of the solenoid valves. Then, the light emission from the luminol oxidation by the oxidant species retained onto the sorbent material is readily detected. At the same time, the generated molybdenum-blue compound is eluted by the minute amount of injected methanol, rendering the system prepared for a new measuring cycle. Therefore, the devised sensor enables the integration of the solid-phase CL reaction with elution and detection of the emitted light without the typical drawbacks of the molybdenum-blue based spectrophotometric procedures regarding the excess of molybdate anion, which causes high background signals due to its self-reduction. The noteworthy features of the developed CL-MSFIA system are the feasibility to accommodate reactions with different pH requirements and the ability to determine trace levels of orthophosphate in high silicate content samples (Si/P ratios up to 500). Under the optimised conditions, a dynamic linear range from 5 to 50 μg P l -1 for a 1.8 ml sample, repeatability better than 3.0% and a quantification limit of 4 μg P l -1 were attained. The flowing stream system handles 11 analysis h -1 and has been successfully applied to the determination of trace levels of

  17. Determination of uranium in natural waters and high-purity aluminum by flow-injection on-line preconcentration and ICP-MS detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Tatsuya; Oguma, Koichi

    2004-01-01

    A flow injection method has been developed for the determination of uranium is natural waters and high-purity aluminum by use of on-line preconcentration on a U/TEVA TM column and ICP-MS detection. The sample solution prepared as a nitric acid solution in 3 mol l -1 was passed through the U/TEVA TM column to collect uranium and uranium adsorbed was eluted with 0.1 mol l -1 nitric acid. The effluent was introduced directly into the nebulizer of the ICP-MS and 238 U was measured. The detection limit, calculated as 3-times the standard deviation of the background noise, was 3pg and the sample throughput was about 10 per hour. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of uranium in river-water reference materials, a seawater reference material and high-purity aluminum reference materials. (author)

  18. The Use of Flow-Injection Analysis with Chemiluminescence Detection of Aqueous Ferrous Iron in Waters Containing High Concentrations of Organic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrick M. Eggleston

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation of flow-injection analysis with chemiluminescence detection (FIA-CL to quantify Fe2+(aq in freshwaters was performed. Iron-coordinating and/or iron-reducing compounds, dissolved organic matter (DOM, and samples from two natural water systems were used to amend standard solutions of Fe2+(aq. Slopes of the response curves from ferrous iron standards (1 – 100 nM were compared to the response curves of iron standards containing the amendments. Results suggest that FIA-CL is not suitable for systems containing ascorbate, hydroxylamine, cysteine or DOM. Little or no change in sensitivity occurred in solutions of oxalate and glycine or in natural waters with little organic matter.

  19. Ground-water quality at the site of a proposed deep-well injection system for treated wastewater, West Palm Beach, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, William A.; Meyer, Frederick W.

    1976-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collected scientific and technical information before, during, and after construction of a deep test well at the location of a future regional waste-water treatment plant to be built for the city of West Palm Beach, Florida. Data from the test well will be used by the city in the design of a proposed deep-well injection system for disposal of effluent from the treatment plant. Shallow wells in the vicinity of the drilling site were inventoried and sampled to provide a data base for detecting changes in ground water quality during construction and later operation of the deep wells. In addition, 16 small-diameter monitor wells, ranging in depth from 10 to 162 feet, were drilled at the test site. During the drilling of the deep test well, water samples were collected weekly from the 16 monitor wells for determination of chloride content and specific conductance. Evidence of small spills of salt water were found in monitor wells ranging in depth from 10 to 40 feet. Efforts to remove the salt water from the shallow unconfined aquifer by pumping were undertaken by the drilling contractor at the request of the city of West Palm Beach. The affected area is small and there has been a reduction of chloride concentration.

  20. Iodine speciation in coastal and inland bathing waters and seaweeds extracts using a sequential injection standard addition flow-batch method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Inês C; Mesquita, Raquel B R; Bordalo, Adriano A; Rangel, António O S S

    2015-02-01

    The present work describes the development of a sequential injection standard addition method for iodine speciation in bathing waters and seaweeds extracts without prior sample treatment. Iodine speciation was obtained by assessing the iodide and iodate content, the two inorganic forms of iodine in waters. For the determination of iodide, an iodide ion selective electrode (ISE) was used. The indirect determination of iodate was based on the spectrophotometric determination of nitrite (Griess reaction). For the iodate measurement, a mixing chamber was employed (flow batch approach) to explore the inherent efficient mixing, essential for the indirect determination of iodate. The application of the standard addition method enabled detection limits of 0.14 µM for iodide and 0.02 µM for iodate, together with the direct introduction of the target water samples, coastal and inland bathing waters. The results obtained were in agreement with those obtained by ICP-MS and a colorimetric reference procedure. Recovery tests also confirmed the accuracy of the developed method which was effectively applied to bathing waters and seaweed extracts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The determination of acrylamide in environmental and drinking waters by large-volume injection - hydrophilic-interaction liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backe, Will J; Yingling, Virginia; Johnson, Todd

    2014-03-21

    A simple and sensitive analytical method was developed to quantify levels of acrylamide in environmental and drinking waters. The analytical method consisted of solvent exchanging acrylamide from 2mL of water into 2mL of dichloromethane using acetonitrile as an intermediate. The sample was then directly analyzed by large-volume (750μL) injection - hydrophilic-interaction liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. The method detection limit and reporting level were 2.4ng/L and 17ng/L of acrylamide, respectively. The recovery of acrylamide during solvent exchange was 95±2.8% and the matrix effects were 12±2.2% in river water. The use of atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization reduced matrix effects; however, it also reduced method sensitivity by a factor of 2.2 compared to electrospray ionization. Matrix effects were compensated for by the use of an isotopically-labeled internal standard and the method accuracy was 89±3.0% at 25ng/L of acrylamide and 102±2.6% at 250ng/L of acrylamide. The precision of the method was less than 6% relative standard deviation at both 25ng/L and 250ng/L of acrylamide. Samples from a sand-and-gravel mine and a drinking-water treatment plant were acquired to demonstrate the method. The concentrations of acrylamide at the sand-and-gravel mine were up to 280ng/L. In the drinking-water treatment plant, the concentration of acrylamide was approximately double in the finished drinking water when compared to other stages in the drinking-water treatment process. Disinfection or fluoridation may result in higher concentrations of acrylamide in finished drinking water; however, further research in this area is necessary. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Safety evaluation of intravenously administered mono-thioated aptamer against E-selectin in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Shin-Ae; Tsolmon, Bilegtsaikhan [Stephenson Cancer Center, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, 975 NE, 10th, Oklahoma City, OK 73104 (United States); Mann, Aman P. [Institute of Molecular Medicine, Department of NanoMedicine and Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, 1825 Hermann Pressler, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Zheng, Wei; Zhao, Lichao; Zhao, Yan Daniel [Stephenson Cancer Center, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, 975 NE, 10th, Oklahoma City, OK 73104 (United States); Volk, David E.; Lokesh, Ganesh L.-R. [Institute of Molecular Medicine, Department of NanoMedicine and Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, 1825 Hermann Pressler, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Morris, Lynsie; Gupta, Vineet; Razaq, Wajeeha [Stephenson Cancer Center, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, 975 NE, 10th, Oklahoma City, OK 73104 (United States); Rui, Hallgeir [Thomas Jefferson University, 1020 Locust St, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States); Suh, K. Stephen [John Theurer Cancer Center, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack, NJ 07601 (United States); Gorenstein, David G. [Institute of Molecular Medicine, Department of NanoMedicine and Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, 1825 Hermann Pressler, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Tanaka, Takemi, E-mail: takemi-tanaka@ouhsc.edu [Stephenson Cancer Center, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, 975 NE, 10th, Oklahoma City, OK 73104 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    The medical applications of aptamers have recently emerged. We developed an antagonistic thioaptamer (ESTA) against E-selectin. Previously, we showed that a single injection of ESTA at a dose of 100 μg inhibits breast cancer metastasis in mice through the functional blockade of E-selectin. In the present study, we evaluated the safety of different doses of intravenously administered ESTA in single-dose acute and repeat-dose subacute studies in ICR mice. Our data indicated that intravenous administration of up to 500 μg ESTA did not result in hematologic abnormality in either study. Additionally, intravenous injection of ESTA did not affect the levels of plasma cytokines (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, GM-CSF, IFN-γ, and TNF-α) or complement split products (C3a and C5a) in either study. However, repeated injections of ESTA slightly increased plasma ALT and AST activities, in accordance with the appearance of small necrotic areas in the liver. In conclusion, our data demonstrated that intravenous administration of ESTA does not cause overt hematologic, organs, and immunologic responses under the experimental conditions. - Highlights: • Intravenous administration of ESTA was well tolerated. • ESTA up to 500 μg does not cause hematologic, organs, and immunologic responses. • ESTA-mediated hepatic abnormality was considered minor.

  3. Safety evaluation of intravenously administered mono-thioated aptamer against E-selectin in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Shin-Ae; Tsolmon, Bilegtsaikhan; Mann, Aman P.; Zheng, Wei; Zhao, Lichao; Zhao, Yan Daniel; Volk, David E.; Lokesh, Ganesh L.-R.; Morris, Lynsie; Gupta, Vineet; Razaq, Wajeeha; Rui, Hallgeir; Suh, K. Stephen; Gorenstein, David G.; Tanaka, Takemi

    2015-01-01

    The medical applications of aptamers have recently emerged. We developed an antagonistic thioaptamer (ESTA) against E-selectin. Previously, we showed that a single injection of ESTA at a dose of 100 μg inhibits breast cancer metastasis in mice through the functional blockade of E-selectin. In the present study, we evaluated the safety of different doses of intravenously administered ESTA in single-dose acute and repeat-dose subacute studies in ICR mice. Our data indicated that intravenous administration of up to 500 μg ESTA did not result in hematologic abnormality in either study. Additionally, intravenous injection of ESTA did not affect the levels of plasma cytokines (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, GM-CSF, IFN-γ, and TNF-α) or complement split products (C3a and C5a) in either study. However, repeated injections of ESTA slightly increased plasma ALT and AST activities, in accordance with the appearance of small necrotic areas in the liver. In conclusion, our data demonstrated that intravenous administration of ESTA does not cause overt hematologic, organs, and immunologic responses under the experimental conditions. - Highlights: • Intravenous administration of ESTA was well tolerated. • ESTA up to 500 μg does not cause hematologic, organs, and immunologic responses. • ESTA-mediated hepatic abnormality was considered minor

  4. Cardiac complications of intravenous digital subtraction angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neergaard, K.; Dirksen, K.L.; Andersen, I.; Galloee, A.M.; Madsen, E.B.

    1989-01-01

    In a prospective study of 103 patients the incidence of cardiac events during intravenous digital subtraction angiography (i.v. DSA) was investigated. Of 103 patients 17 had known ischaemic heart disease. The examination was performed with an ionic contrast medium, Urografin 76% (sodium megluminediatrizoate), administered by bolus injection into the right atrium. Patients with severe cardiac disease were examined only if the procedure was considered of vital importance. Cardiac events were defined as ST-segment changes of more than 0.1 mV, changes in heart rate of more than 20%, arrhythmias and such symptoms as chest pain and dyspnoea. Ischaemic ST-segment changes during i.v. DSA were observed in approximately 20% of the patients and were not related to the presence of known ischaemic heart disease. Three patients developed angina during the procedure. Among 12 patients with known angina only one patient developed angina during the procedure. In this study chest pain was infrequent (3%), but there was a relative high frequency of ECG changes (20%) not related to patients with ischaemic heart disease only. It is concluded that there is a risk of cardiac events during i.v. DSA, but the risk is not increased in patients with known ischaemic heart disease (if they do not suffer from congestive heart failure) as compared with other patients without known ischaemic heart disease. (orig.)

  5. MYCOTIC FEMORAL PSEUDOANEURYSMS FROM INTRAVENOUS DRUG ABUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojko Flis

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Parenteral drug abuse is the most common cause of infected femoral artery pseudoaneurysms (IFAP. This complication of intravenous drug abuse is not only limb threatening but can also be life threatening. The management of the IFAP is difficult and controversial. Generally speaking, ligation and excision of the pseudoaneurysm without revascularization is accepted procedure in majority of the patients. However it is not regarded as an appropriate procedure for cases where the high probability of amputation is expected from acute interruption of the femoral artery flow.Patients, methods and results. We present three cases of young (average 20 years, range 18–24 patients with IFAP, in which a primary reconstruction was performed due to absence of doppler signal over pedal arteries after ligation of common femoral artery. In two of them complications in form of haemorrhage and repeated infection developed in late postoperative period. The first one, had an excision and ligation while the second one had a reconstruction made by means of a silver impregnated dacron prosthesis. None of the patients required an amputation.Conclusions. Overall prognosis and prognosis of the reconstruction in parenteral drug abuse patients is uncertain because there is a high incidence of postoperative drug injection despite aggressive drug rehabilitation.

  6. Safe havens and rough waters: networks, place, and the navigation of risk among injection drug-using Malaysian fishermen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Brooke S; Choo, Martin; El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; Wu, Elwin; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba

    2014-05-01

    HIV prevalence among Malaysian fishermen is ten times that of the general population. Fishing boats are a key place where drug use occurs, but we know little about how these environments shape HIV risk behaviour. Utilizing Rhodes' 'risk environment' framework, we assessed drug use contexts and how characteristics of place associated with fishing and fishermen's social networks served as key axes along which drug use and HIV risk behaviour occurred. Data were collected during 2009-2011 in Kuantan, a fishing port on the eastern coast of Malaysia, and include 28 in-depth interviews and 398 surveys collected using RDS. Logistic regression was used to determine the effect of occupational, network and risk environment characteristics on unsafe injection behaviour and access to clean needles/syringes; qualitative data were coded and analyzed thematically. Drug injecting was common and occurred on boats, often with other crewmembers. Captains and crewmembers were aware of drug use. Unsafe injection practices were significantly associated with having a larger proportion of drug injectors in network (OR=3.510, 95% CI=1.053-11.700) and having a captain provide drugs for work (OR=2.777, 95% CI=1.018-7.576). Size of fishermen network (OR=0.987, 95% CI=0.977-0.996), crewmembers' knowledge of drug use (OR=7.234, 95% CI=1.430-36.604), and having a captain provide drugs for work (OR=0.134, 95% CI=0.025-0.720) predicted access to clean needles/syringes. Qualitative analyses revealed that occupational culture and social relationships on boats drove drug use and HIV risk. While marginalized in broader society, the acceptance of drug use within the fishing community created occupational networks of risk. Fishing boats were spaces of both risk and safety; where drug users participated in the formal economy, but also where HIV risk behaviour occurred. Understanding the interplay between social networks and place is essential for developing HIV prevention and harm reduction policies

  7. Complications of intravenous DSA: Results in 500 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross-Fengels, W.; Neufang, K.F.R.; Beyer, D.; Steinbrich, W.

    1987-01-01

    500 patients were studied respectively for complications of intravenous digital subtraction angiography (IV-DSA) performed with non-ionic contrast media, using a central venous injection technique. In 21 patients (4,2%) during or shortly after the procedure 23 systemic, 1 neurologic, and 7 local complications occurred. In addition, 1 patient developed acute renal failure 26 hours after the IV-DSA, whereas 4 patients later showed on thromboses of the catheterised vein. No permanent neurologic or systemic complications and severe allergic reactions were seen. (orig.) [de

  8. Influence of Gamma Radiation on the Treatment of Sulfate Reducing Bacteria in the Injection Water Used for the Enhanced Oil Recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shahawy, M.R.; Ramzi, M.; Farag, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    The counts of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in the water samples collected from the well head (formation water) and outlet of petroleum treatment plant (Produced water) in a petroleum field in middle delta- Egypt were determined. The data showed a low count of (SRB) in the collected formation water sample and there was an obvious increase in the bacterial counts which appeared in the produced water, that may reveal that the presence of appropriate conditions for the growth of (SRB) in the closed system in treatment plant. Two scale inhibitors were tested through jar test, the scale inhibitor I had maximum efficiency at 20 ppm, two SRB biocides were screened for their bactericidal activities. It was found that the biocides A was slightly superior in respect to the antibacterial efficacy compared to B in presence of 20 ppm scale inhibitor. These biocides were test for the study of the combined treatment with gamma radiation to maximize the efficiency on sulfate reducing bacteria using the minimum effective dose of both radiation and biocides to eliminate the negative impacts of the chemicals used and the radiation applied. The results demonstrated that, the lethal doses of biocides were (300 ppm) of biocides A or (400 ppm) of biocides B at 1 kGy irradiation dose. The treated produced water was evaluated in respect of enhanced oil recovery, the data showed increase of the recovery capacity by the irradiation and chemical treatment. This technology could be used for the water that are injected into reservoirs, and suitable for oil field and pipeline operators, and presented a viable bacteria control method

  9. Determination of photoformation rates and scavenging rate constants of hydroxyl radicals in natural waters using an automatic light irradiation and injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatani, Nobutake; Hashimoto, Norichika; Shindo, Hirotaka; Yamamoto, Masatoshi; Kikkawa, Megumi; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    Photoformation rates and scavenging rate constants of hydroxyl radicals (·OH) in natural water samples were determined by an automatic determination system. After addition of benzene as a chemical probe to a water sample in a reaction cell, light irradiation and injection of irradiated water samples into an HPLC as a function of time were performed automatically. Phenol produced by the reaction between ·OH and the benzene added to the water sample was determined to quantify the ·OH formation rate. The rate constants of ·OH formation from the photolysis of nitrate ions, nitrite ions and hydrogen peroxide were comparable with those obtained in previous studies. The percent of expected ·OH photoformation rate from added nitrate ion were high in drinking water (97.4%) and river water (99.3%). On the other hand, the low percent (65.0%) was observed in seawater due to the reaction of ·OH with the high concentrations of chloride and bromide ions. For the automatic system, the coefficient of variance for the determination of the ·OH formation rate was less than 5.0%, which is smaller than that in the previous report. When the complete time sequence of analytical cycle was 40 min for one sample, the detection limit of the photoformation rate and the sample throughput were 8 x 10 -13 M s -1 and 20 samples per day, respectively. The automatic system successfully determined the photoformation rates and scavenging rate constants of ·OH in commercial drinking water and the major source and sink of ·OH were identified as nitrate and bicarbonate ions, respectively

  10. A flow injection analysis system for monitoring silver (I) ion and iodine residuals in recycled water from recovery systems used for spaceflight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, Jill P.; Emmert, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A device for on-line monitoring of the water disinfectants silver (I) ion or iodine in recycled water is presented. Simply change the reagents and the sample loop volume to switch between silver ion and iodine configurations. -- Highlights: •Automated FIA device for monitoring Ag + or I 2 residuals in recycled drinking water. •Method detection limits of Ag + of 52 μg L −1 and I 2 of 2 μg L −1 . •Mean % recoveries for Ag + of 104 ± 1% and for I 2 of 96.2 ± 0.1%. •% relative standard deviation estimates for Ag + of 1.4% and for I 2 of 5.7%. •Bias measurements agreed to 11.3 μg L −1 for Ag + and to 27.3 μg L −1 for I 2 . -- Abstract: A laboratory-built flow injection analyzer is reported for monitoring the drinking water disinfectants silver (I) ion and iodine in water produced from NASA's water recovery system. This analyzer uses spectrophotometric detection with a custom made 10 cm optical flow cell. Optimization and interference studies are discussed for the silver (I) ion configuration. Subsequent results using the silver (I) configuration with minor modifications and alternative reagents gave promising results for iodine determinations as well. The estimated MDL values for Ag + and I 2 are 52 μg L −1 Ag + and 2 μg L −1 I 2 ; the mean percent recoveries were 104% and 96.2% for Ag + and I 2 respectfully; and percent relative standard deviations were estimated at 1.4% for Ag + and 5.7% for I 2 . The agreement of this potentially multifunctional analyzer to reference methods for each respective water disinfectant is measured using Bland–Altman analysis as well as more traditional estimates

  11. LHI (low head safety injection) emergency cooling pump test for the EPR trademark in operation with solid matter loaded water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganzmann, I.; Schulte, C.

    2010-01-01

    Emergency cooling pumps are essential and indispensable components of the NPP safety philosophy. In case of a loss-of coolant accident solid matter (debris: fibrous insulation material, concrete dust, pigment particles) might be released into the coolant, LHSI (low head safety injection) pumps have to ensure their performance capacity for a certain amount of debris without damage or loss of power. The authors describe the development of a test facility. The LHSI was tested in continuous operation over a time period of 14 days with a debris content of 1500 ppm (90% mineral wool fibers, 3% concrete dust, 3% pigment particles, 4% microporous insulation material). The pump did not show any damage or loss of hydraulic power. Further tests including thermoshock conditions (temperature changes of 160 C) are planned.

  12. Temozolomide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... balance or coordination fainting dizziness hair loss insomnia memory problems pain, itching, swelling, or redness in the place where the medication was injected changes in vision Some side effects can be serious. If you ...

  13. Buprenorphine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called opiate partial agonists. It works to prevent withdrawal symptoms ... help. If the victim has collapsed, had a seizure, has trouble breathing, or can't be awakened, ...

  14. Risperidone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... release (long-acting) injection is used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual ... may help control your symptoms but will not cure your condition. Continue to keep appointments to receive ...

  15. Haloperidol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... haloperidol extended-release injection are used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual ... may help control your symptoms but will not cure your condition. Continue to keep appointments to receive ...

  16. Omalizumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is used to decrease the number of asthma attacks (sudden episodes of wheezing, shortness of breath, and ... about how to treat symptoms of a sudden asthma attack. If your asthma symptoms get worse or if ...

  17. Injection Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, V

    2009-01-01

    The success of the start-up of the LHC on 10th of September was in part due to the preparation without beam and injection tests in 2008. The injection tests allowed debugging and improvement in appropriate portions to allow safe, efficient and state-of-the-art commissioning later on. The usefulness of such an approach for a successful start-up becomes obvious when looking at the problems we encountered before and during the injection tests and could solve during this period. The outline of the preparation and highlights of the different injection tests will be presented and the excellent performance of many tools discussed. A list of shortcomings will follow, leading to some planning for the preparation of the run in 2009.

  18. Cefotaxime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefotaxime injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  19. Cefuroxime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefuroxime injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  20. Doripenem Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as doripenem injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  1. Daptomycin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in a class of medications called cyclic lipopeptide antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as daptomycin injection will not work for treating colds, flu, or other viral infections. ...

  2. Ceftaroline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftaroline injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  3. Aztreonam Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as aztreonam injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  4. Cefazolin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefazolin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  5. Ceftazidime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftazidime injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  6. Cefotetan Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefotetan injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  7. Cefoxitin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephamycin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefoxitin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  8. Tigecycline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called tetracycline antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infection.Antibiotics such as tigecycline injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  9. Ertapenem Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ertapenem injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  10. Ceftriaxone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftriaxone injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections.Using ...

  11. Cefepime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefepime injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  12. Telavancin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called lipoglycopeptide antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infection.Antibiotics such as telavancin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  13. Doxycycline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called tetracycline antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as doxycycline injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  14. Vancomycin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called glycopeptide antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as vancomycin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  15. Octreotide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... carton and protect it from light. Dispose of multi-dose vials of the immediate-release injection 14 ... and immediately place the medication in a safe location – one that is up and away and out ...

  16. Moxifloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tendon area, or inability to move or to bear weight on an affected area.Using moxifloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...

  17. Delafloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a tendon area, or inability to move or bear weight on an affected area.Using delafloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...

  18. Levofloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tendon area, or inability to move or to bear weight on an affected area.Using levofloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...

  19. Ciprofloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a tendon area, or inability to move or bear weight on an affected area.Using ciprofloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...

  20. Alirocumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor monoclonal antibodies. It works by blocking the production of LDL cholesterol in the body ... hives difficulty breathing or swallowing swelling of the face, throat, tongue, lips, and eyes Alirocumab injection may ...