E. Y. Ponomareva
Full Text Available Three-year observation of acute tricuspid infective endocarditis in intravenous drug abused patient: diagnosis, clinical features, visceral lesions, the possibility of cardiac surgery and conservative treatment, outcome.
E. Y. Ponomareva
Full Text Available Three-year observation of acute tricuspid infective endocarditis in intravenous drug abused patient: diagnosis, clinical features, visceral lesions, the possibility of cardiac surgery and conservative treatment, outcome.
Full Text Available Background. Parenteral drug abuse is the most common cause of infected femoral artery pseudoaneurysms (IFAP. This complication of intravenous drug abuse is not only limb threatening but can also be life threatening. The management of the IFAP is difficult and controversial. Generally speaking, ligation and excision of the pseudoaneurysm without revascularization is accepted procedure in majority of the patients. However it is not regarded as an appropriate procedure for cases where the high probability of amputation is expected from acute interruption of the femoral artery flow.Patients, methods and results. We present three cases of young (average 20 years, range 18–24 patients with IFAP, in which a primary reconstruction was performed due to absence of doppler signal over pedal arteries after ligation of common femoral artery. In two of them complications in form of haemorrhage and repeated infection developed in late postoperative period. The first one, had an excision and ligation while the second one had a reconstruction made by means of a silver impregnated dacron prosthesis. None of the patients required an amputation.Conclusions. Overall prognosis and prognosis of the reconstruction in parenteral drug abuse patients is uncertain because there is a high incidence of postoperative drug injection despite aggressive drug rehabilitation.
McCarroll, K.A.; Fisher, D.R.; Cawthon, L.A.; Donovan, K.R.; Roszler, M.H.; Kling, G.A.
Our large population of intravenous drug abusers has increasingly resorted to supraclavicular central venous injection for vascular access. Few reports of complications associated with the practice of supraclavicular ''pocket'' injection have appeared in the radiologic literature. The authors describe the complications associated with this practice, including pneumothorax, mycotic aneurysm, arteriovenous fistula, jugular vein thrombosis, cellulitis, foreign body reaction, and neck abscess. In addition, the authors provide examples of sternoclavicular osteomyelitis. The anatomy of the ''pocket,'' and the pathophysiology and radiographic manifestations of these complications, are reviewed
Shetty, P.C.; Krasicky, G.A.; Sharma, R.P.; Vemuri, B.R.; Burke, M.M.
Two-hundred thirteen intravenous digital subtraction angiographic (DSA) examinations were performed on 195 intravenous drug abusers to rule out the possibility of a mycotic aneurysm in a groin, neck, or upper extremity infection. Twenty-three surgically proved cases of mycotic aneurysm were correctly identified with no false positive results. In addition, six cases of major venous occlusion were documented. The authors present the results of their experience and conclude that DSA is an effective and cost-efficient method of examining this high risk patient population
Leslie Gamache MD
Full Text Available Objective . We present the clinical, biochemical, and imaging findings of a woman with vitamin D deficiency and severe osteomalacia related to intravenous heroin addiction. Results . A 54-year-old woman with a medical history significant for long-standing heroin abuse presented with complaints of bone pain, muscle cramping, and a left hip ulcer. She had been bed bound for approximately 1 year secondary to pain of uncertain etiology, and her husband was bringing her both food and drugs. She was admitted to the hospital for debridement of a right ischial ulcer. Further workup revealed osteomyelitis of the left hip and severe vitamin D deficiency. Radiologic evaluation demonstrated diffuse osteopenia with pseudofractures, as well as true fractures. Conclusion . This is the first case reported in the English literature of advanced osteomalacia resulting from a debilitating narcotic dependency. Vitamin D deficiency should be considered in patients with poor nutrition and prolonged sunlight deprivation from any cause.
A case of gallium localization within the breast occurred secondary to intravenous drug abuse. In the appropriate clinical setting, prior self-administered injections should be considered as a cause of Ga-67 accumulation at unusual sites
Conclusions and importance: An iris abscess is a rare clinical presentation of intravenous drug use-associated endogenous endophthalmitis and as a result may present a diagnostic challenge as it requires a high level of clinical suspicion and a detailed social history to elicit the drug abuse. Early diagnosis and aggressive therapy is the key to better visual outcomes in these patients.
Full Text Available Introduction. Venous aneurysm (VA is a rare condition that can be presented in both superficial and deep venous system. Secondary VAs as well as pseudoaneurysms are usually caused by external spontaneous or iatrogenic trauma. They are often misdiagnosed and inadequately treated. Complications include thrombosis, phlebitis, eventual pulmonary embolism and rupture. Case report. We presented a case of secondary VA of the great saphenous vein developed in a young addict following chronic intravenous drug application in the groin region. Aneurysm required urgent surgical treatment due to bleeding complication as it was previously misdiagnosed for hematoma (or abscess and punctuated by a general surgeon. Complete resection of VA with successful preservation of continuity of the great saphenous vein was performed. Postoperative course was uneventful. Regular venous flow through the great saphenous vein was confirmed on control ultrasound examination. Conclusion. VAs are uncommon, among them secondary VA being extremely rare. In cases with a significant diameter or threatening complications surgical treatment is recommended. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON175008 i br. III41007
E. Y. Ponomareva
Full Text Available The aim – definition of distinguished characteristics of the right-sided infective endocarditis (IE inintravenous drugs abused with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS.Materials and methods. The study included 10 patients with right-sided IE in conjunction with HIV/AIDS. All patients were male, age – from 28to 36 years.Results. Course of the IE in HIV/AIDS among intravenous drugs abused in general corresponds to features specific to IE in intravenous drug users without HIV infection. Distinctive features of IE in these patients are a large burden of lung disease, its disseminated character, more tissue oxygenation disorders and marked pulmonary hypertension and haematological disorders (lymphopenia, anemia, and late diagnosis of IE.Conclusion. Features of the current right-sided IE in intravenous drugs abused with HIV/AIDS are distinguished . Difficulties in diagnosis of IE inHIV infection are due to variety of causes of prolonged fever, which should guide doctors to more frequent use of transthoracic echocardiography during prolonged fever in HIV-infected patients.
Full Text Available Patients with history of intravenous drug abuse are noted to be at risk of several infections including HIV, endocarditis, and other opportunistic infections. We report the case of a patient with sustained Bacillus cereus bacteremia despite use of multiple antibiotic regimens during his inpatient stay. Our case highlights the importance of high suspicion for active drug use inside the hospital in such patients. This is important in order to minimize unnecessary diagnostic workup and provide adequate treatment and safe hospital stay for these patients.
Jamil, M.; Usman, R.; Afzal, M.; Malik, N.I.
Objective: To find out the optimal primary surgical treatment options for infected pseudoaneurysm in intravenous drug abusers. Study Design: Cross sectional descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Vascular Surgery, Combined Military Hospital Lahore, from Jan 2010 to Jun 2015. Material and Methods: A total of 31 consecutive patients with a history of intravenous drug abuse and an infected pseudoaneurysm in the groin or elbow, presenting in emergency department; were included in this study. All patients were primarily treated with ligation of the artery, excision of infected pseudoaneurysm and debridement of necrotic tissues. Only one patient underwent additional revascularization procedure. Results: All patients who underwent ligation and excision procedures did well initially. One (3.2%) patient developed severe distal ischemia after ligation of femoral artery within first 24 hours, so extra anatomic revascularization procedure was performed. Five (16.1%) patients required revascularization procedure after 16 weeks due to disabling distal ischemia. No amputation was needed and mortality rate was zero. Conclusion: Primary ligation of the artery with excision of infected pseudoaneurysm and necrotic material was found the optimal initial management for infected pseudoaneurysm in intravenous drug addicts. Ischemic complications if develop should be treated with early or late revascularization.
Keltanen, T; Mariottini, C; Walta, A M; Rahikainen, A L; Ojanperä, I
Buprenorphine and methadone are commonly used medications for opioid maintenance treatment (OMT), using sublingual and oral administration, respectively. Although beneficial for OMT, these drugs can also be abused by intravenous administration. In intravenous abuse cases, the adjuvants lactose and sucrose are excreted in urine without hydrolysis to monosaccharides, since there are no disaccharidases in the blood. We validated enzymatic methods for the analysis of lactose and sucrose in urine. The analytical performance of both assays was considered appropriate for detecting intravenous drug abuse. The principle was proven by analyzing 93 postmortem (PM) urine samples for lactose, following comprehensive toxicological drug screening. In addition, 32 clinical urine samples from potential drug abusers were analyzed to assess the effect of PM changes on the assay. The mean level of lactose was low in clinical samples and relatively low in PM samples in which no drugs were found. Markedly elevated levels were seen in many of the buprenorphine positive samples, suggesting intravenous administration. Enzymatic methods could provide a simple and cost effective way to assess the intravenous administration of OMT drugs or drugs of abuse. Very high levels of glucose in urine may interfere with the assays. Furthermore, other causes for elevated urine disaccharides, such as hypolactasia and increased intestinal permeability, need to be considered in the interpretation of the results. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
... Cocaine Heroin Inhalants Marijuana Prescription drugs, including opioids Drug abuse also plays a role in many major social problems, such as drugged driving, violence, stress, and child abuse. Drug abuse can lead to ...
Full Text Available Dekel Shlomi1, David Shitrit1, Daniele Bendayan1, Gidon Sahar2, Yitshak Shechtman3, Mordechai R Kramer11Pulmonary Institute, Departments of 2Cardiothoracic Surgery and 3Pathology, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Campus, Petah Tiqwa, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, IsraelAbstract: Talcosis due to intravenous injection of oral drugs can cause severe pulmonary disease with progressive dyspnea even when drug use is discontinued. We describe a 54-yearold woman with severe emphysema who underwent left lung transplantation. The patient had a remote history of intravenous injection of crushed methylphenidate (Ritalin tablets. Chest computed tomography showed severe emphysematous changes, more prominent in the lower lobes. Microscopic examination of the extracted lung demonstrated multinucleated giant cells with birefringent crystals, compatible with talcosis. At follow-up, daily symptoms were completely alleviated and lung function was good. We recommend that lung transplantation be considered as a viable option in the treatment of talcosis.Keywords: methylphenidate (Ritalin, emphysema
... People Abuse » Other Drugs of Abuse Other Drugs of Abuse Listen There are many other drugs of abuse, ... and Rehab Resources About the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) | About This Website Tools and Resources | Contact ...
Simon, T.R.; Seastrunk, J.W.; Malone, G.; Knesevich, M.A.; Hickey, D.C.
This paper reports that this study used SPECT to examine patients who have abused drugs to determine whether SPECT could identify abnormalities and whether these findings have clinical importance. Fifteen patients with a history of substance abuse (eight with cocaine, six with amphetamine, and one with organic solvent) underwent SPECT performed with a triple-headed camera and Tc-99m HMPAO both early for blood flow and later for functional information. These images were then processed into a 3D videotaped display used in group therapy. All 15 patients had multiple areas of decreased tracer uptake peppered throughout the cortex but mainly affecting the parietal lobes, expect for the organic solvent abuser who had a large parietal defect. The videotapes were subjectively described by a therapist as an exceptional tool that countered patient denial of physical damage from substance abuse. Statistical studies of recidivism between groups is under way
... drug abuse. And it's illegal, just like taking street drugs. Why Do People Abuse Prescription Drugs? Some people abuse prescription drugs ... common risk of prescription drug abuse is addiction . People who abuse ... as if they were taking street drugs. That's one reason most doctors won't ...
... use of these drugs is a form of drug abuse. Medicines that are for treating a health problem ... about local resources. Alternative Names Overdose from drugs; Drug abuse first aid References Myck MB. Hallucinogens and drugs ...
Schmidt, R.A.; Glenny, R.W.; Godwin, J.D.; Hampson, N.B.; Cantino, M.E.; Reichenbach, D.D.
We studied a distinctive group of young intravenous Ritalin abusers with profound obstructive lung disease. Clinically, they seemed to have severe emphysema, but the pathologic basis of their symptoms had not been investigated previously. Seven patients have died and been autopsied: in four, the lungs were fixed, inflated, dried, and examined in detail radiologically, grossly, microscopically, and by electron probe X-ray microanalysis. All seven patients had severe panlobular (panacinar) emphysema that tended to be more severe in the lower lung zones and that was associated with microscopic talc granulomas. Vascular involvement by talc granulomas was variable, but significant interstitial fibrosis was not present. Five patients were tested for alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency and found to be normal, as were six similar living patients. These findings indicate that some intravenous drug abusers develop emphysema that clinically, radiologically, and pathologically resembles that caused by alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency but which must have a different pathogenesis. Talc from the Ritalin tablets may be important, but the mechanism remains to be elucidated
... what the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug abuse. It could be Taking a medicine that ... purpose, such as getting high Abusing some prescription drugs can lead to addiction. These include opioids, sedatives, ...
Wilford, B B
An estimated 3% of the United States population deliberately misuse or abuse psychoactive medications, with severe consequences. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, more than half of patients who sought treatment or died of drug-related medical problems in 1989 were abusing prescription drugs. Physicians who contribute to this problem have been described by the American Medical Association as dishonest--willfully misprescribing for purposes of abuse, usually for profit; disable...
mortality and prevalence of HIV infection. Design. We conducted a ... Table I. Other complications of intravenous drug abuse ... In 2 cases (2%) an initial screen positivity .... patients with Gram-negative, anaerobic or fungal organisms. Our study ...
Wilford, B B
An estimated 3% of the United States population deliberately misuse or abuse psychoactive medications, with severe consequences. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, more than half of patients who sought treatment or died of drug-related medical problems in 1989 were abusing prescription drugs. Physicians who contribute to this problem have been described by the American Medical Association as dishonest--willfully misprescribing for purposes of abuse, usually for profit; disabled by personal problems with drugs or alcohol; dated in their knowledge of current pharmacology or therapeutics; or deceived by various patient-initiated fraudulent approaches. Even physicians who do not meet any of these descriptions must guard against contributing to prescription drug abuse through injudicious prescribing, inadequate safeguarding of prescription forms or drug supplies, or acquiescing to the demands or ruses used to obtain drugs for other than medical purposes. PMID:2349801
Sutter, M E; Chenoweth, J; Albertson, T E
The incidence of drug abuse with alternative agents is increasing. The term "alternative drugs of abuse" is a catch-all term for abused chemicals that do not fit into one of the classic categories of drugs of abuse. The most common age group abusing these agents range from 17 to 25 years old and are often associated with group settings. Due to their diverse pharmacological nature, legislative efforts to classify these chemicals as a schedule I drug have lagged behind the development of new alternative agents. The potential reason for abuse of these agents is their hallucinogenic, dissociative, stimulant, anti-muscarinic, or sedative properties. Some of these drugs are easily obtainable such as Datura stramonium (Jimson Weed) or Lophophora williamsii (Peyote) because they are natural plants indigenous to certain regions. The diverse pharmacology and clinical effects of these agents are so broad that they do not produce a universal constellation of signs and symptoms. Detailed physical exams are essential for identifying clues leading one to suspect an alternative drug of abuse. Testing for the presence of these agents is often limited, and even when available, the results do not return in a timely fashion. Intoxications from these agents pose unique challenges for health care providers. Physician knowledge of the physiological effects of these alternative agents and the local patterns of drug of abuse are important for the accurate diagnosis and optimal care of poisoned patients. This review summarizes the current knowledge of alternative drugs of abuse and highlights their clinical presentations.
Albertson, Timothy E
The use of recreational drugs of abuse continues to expand without limitations to national boundaries, social status, race, or education. Beyond the prevalence of illicit drug use and dependence, their contribution to the global burden of disease and death are large and troubling. All medical providers should be aware of the evolving drugs of abuse and their medical and social consequences. In addition to heroin and stimulants such as cocaine and methamphetamine, new designer stimulants called "bath salts" and cannabinoids called "spice," along with the abuse of prescription drugs and volatile substances, are now widely recognized problems in many societies. The wide variety and continuingly expanding clinical manifestations of toxicity of recreational drugs of abuse is not widely appreciated by clinicians. This edition attempts to summarize six major classes of drugs of abuse and their clinical effects with special emphasis on their immunological and respiratory effects.
Xie, Jiang; Liu, Shuang; Yang, Jinghua; Xu, Jie; Zhu, Guangfa
The use of transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) to identify right-sided infective endocarditis (RSIE) vegetation is controversial. Data are scarce for patients with no history of intravenous drug abuse (IVDA) or cardiac device insertion. This study analysed the consistency of presurgical echocardiographic results with surgical findings for vegetation identification, and the factors that influence accuracy of echocardiography. This retrospective trial divided infective endocarditis (IE) patients into three subgroups according to the results of their presurgical TTE: left-sided native IE (LSNIE), left-sided prosthetic valve IE (LSPIE) and RSIE. The accuracy of TTE was tested by comparing vegetation (number and location), detected presurgery by TTE, with actual findings during surgery. In total, 416 patients were analysed, 322 with LSNIE, 31 with LSPIE and 63 with RSIE. Consistency between TTE findings and surgical results was lower in the RSIE group compared with the LSPIE and LSNIE groups. Consistency was lowered by the presence of vegetation in multiple locations and atypical distribution--both of which were increased in the RSIE group. The chance of vegetation in both sides of the heart rose with increased numbers of vegetation locations in RSIE patients. A high proportion of RSIE patients had congenital heart defects, mostly ventricular septal defects. TTE may be unsuitable for RSIE patients with no history of IVDA or cardiac device insertion, because multifocal and atypically distributed vegetation may influence detection accuracy. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Zule, W A; Vogtsberger, K N; Desmond, D P
This study reviewed the literature on the history of needle sharing and intravenous drug abuse. Reports suggest that needle sharing was practiced by drug abusers as early as 1902 in China and 1914 in the United States. Intravenous drug abuse was first mentioned in the literature in 1925. However other references suggest that some opioid users were injecting intravenously prior to 1920. Outbreaks of malaria in Egypt, the United States, and China between 1929 and 1937 were attributed to needle sharing and intravenous injection of opioids. These reports suggest that both needle sharing and intravenous drug use were common by 1937. Factors such as medical use of intravenous injections, enactment and zealous enforcement of antinarcotic laws, and interactions among drug users in institutional settings such as regional hospitals and prisons may have contributed to the spread of both needle sharing and the intravenous technique among drug abusers.
P. N. Vlasov
Full Text Available Launching four intravenous antiepileptic drugs: valproate (Depakene and Convulex, lacosamide (Vimpat, and levetiracetam (Keppra – into the Russian market has significantly broadened the possibilities of rendering care to patients in seizure emergency situations. The chemi- cal structure, mechanisms of action, indications/contraindications, clinical effectiveness and tolerability, advantages/disadvantages, and adverse events of using these drugs in urgent and elective neurology are discussed.
Losa, J E; Miro, J M; Del Rio, A; Moreno-Camacho, A; Garcia, F; Claramonte, X; Marco, F; Mestres, C A; Azqueta, M; Gatell, J M
To add to the limited information on infective endocarditis (IE) not related to intravenous drug abuse (IVDA) in HIV-1-infected patients. We have reviewed the characteristics of eight cases of IE in non-IVDA HIV-1 infected patients diagnosed in our institution between 1979 and 1999 as well as cases in the literature. All our patients were male, and the mean age was 44 years (range 29-64). HIV-1 risk factors were: homosexuality in five, heterosexuality in two, and the use of blood products in one. HIV stage C was found in six cases, and the median (range) CD4 cell count was 22/microL (4-274 cells/microL). IE was caused by Enterococcus faecalis in three cases, staphylococci in two cases, and Salmonella enteritidis, viridans group streptococci and Coxiella burnetii in one case each. Three patients acquired IE while in the hospital. All IE cases involved a native valve, and underlying valve disease was found in three patients. The aortic valve was the most frequently affected (five cases). Two patients underwent surgery, with a good outcome, and one patient died. Fourteen cases of IE not related to IVDA in HIV-1-infected patients were found in the literature review. The most common causative agents were Salmonella spp. and fungi (four cases each). Two patients had prosthetic valve IE, and the mitral valve was the most frequently affected (10 cases). The remaining clinical characteristics and the outcome were similar to those in the present series. IE not related to IVDA is rare in HIV-1-infected patients. In more than half of the cases, IE develops in patients with advanced HIV-1 disease. A wide etiologic range is found, reflecting different clinical and environmental conditions. None of the patients who underwent surgery died, and the overall mortality rate was not higher than in non-HIV-1-infected patients with IE.
Nelson, Michael E; Bryant, Sean M; Aks, Steven E
Many new emerging drugs of abuse are marketed as legal highs despite being labeled "not for human consumption" to avoid regulation. The availability of these substances over the Internet and in "head shops" has lead to a multitude of emergency department visits with severe complications including deaths worldwide. Despite recent media attention, many of the newer drugs of abuse are still largely unknown by health care providers. Slight alterations of the basic chemical structure of substances create an entirely new drug no longer regulated by current laws and an ever-changing landscape of clinical effects. The purity of each substance with exact pharmacokinetic and toxicity profiles is largely unknown. Many of these substances can be grouped by the class of drug and includes synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, phenethylamines, as well as piperazine derivatives. Resultant effects generally include psychoactive and sympathomimetic-like symptoms. Additionally, prescription medications, performance enhancing medications, and herbal supplements are also becoming more commonly abused. Most new drugs of abuse have no specific antidote and management largely involves symptom based goal directed supportive care with benzodiazepines as a useful adjunct. This paper will focus on the history, epidemiology, clinical effects, laboratory analysis, and management strategy for many of these emerging drugs of abuse. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Claudia L Reardon, Shane Creado Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA Abstract: Drug abuse occurs in all sports and at most levels of competition. Athletic life may lead to drug abuse for a number of reasons, including for performance enhancement, to self-treat otherwise untreated mental illness, and to deal with stressors, such as pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from sport. This review examines the history of doping in athletes, the effects of different classes of substances used for doping, side effects of doping, the role of anti-doping organizations, and treatment of affected athletes. Doping goes back to ancient times, prior to the development of organized sports. Performance-enhancing drugs have continued to evolve, with “advances” in doping strategies driven by improved drug testing detection methods and advances in scientific research that can lead to the discovery and use of substances that may later be banned. Many sports organizations have come to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs and have very strict consequences for people caught using them. There is variable evidence for the performance-enhancing effects and side effects of the various substances that are used for doping. Drug abuse in athletes should be addressed with preventive measures, education, motivational interviewing, and, when indicated, pharmacologic interventions. Keywords: doping, athletes, steroids, drug abuse, mental illness
Rech, Megan A; Donahey, Elisabeth; Cappiello Dziedzic, Jacqueline M; Oh, Laura; Greenhalgh, Elizabeth
Drug abuse is a common problem and growing concern in the United States, and over the past decade, novel or atypical drugs have emerged and have become increasingly popular. Recognition and treatment of new drugs of abuse pose many challenges for health care providers due to lack of quantitative reporting and routine surveillance, and the difficulty of detection in routine blood and urine analyses. Furthermore, street manufacturers are able to rapidly adapt and develop new synthetic isolates of older drugs as soon as law enforcement agencies render them illegal. In this article, we describe the clinical and adverse effects and purported pharmacology of several new classes of drugs of abuse including synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, salvia, desomorphine, and kratom. Because many of these substances can have severe or life-threatening adverse effects, knowledge of general toxicology is key in recognizing acute intoxication and overdose; however, typical toxidromes (e.g., cholinergic, sympathomimetic, opioid, etc.) are not precipitated by many of these agents. Medical management of patients who abuse or overdose on these drugs largely consists of supportive care, although naloxone may be used as an antidote for desomorphine overdose. Symptoms of aggression and psychosis may be treated with sedation (benzodiazepines, propofol) and antipsychotics (haloperidol or atypical agents such as quetiapine or ziprasidone). Other facets of management to consider include treatment for withdrawal or addiction, nutrition support, and potential for transmission of infectious diseases. © 2014 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.
Becker, Jill B.; Hu, Ming
Sex differences are present for all of the phases of drug abuse (initiation, escalation of use, addiction, and relapse following abstinence). While there are some differences among specific classes of abused drugs, the general pattern of sex differences is the same for all drugs of abuse. Females begin regularly self-administering licit and illicit drugs of abuse at lower doses than do males, use escalates more rapidly to addiction, and females are at greater risk for relapse following abstin...
Scorzelli, James F.
This report examines the incidence of drug abuse and the methods of treatment and prevention of drug abuse used in Southeast Asia. Countries studied include Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Because of Malaysia's intensive effort to eliminate its drug abuse problem, emphasis is placed on this country's treatment and…
Becker, Jill B; Hu, Ming
Sex differences are present for all of the phases of drug abuse (initiation, escalation of use, addiction, and relapse following abstinence). While there are some differences among specific classes of abused drugs, the general pattern of sex differences is the same for all drugs of abuse. Females begin regularly self-administering licit and illicit drugs of abuse at lower doses than do males, use escalates more rapidly to addiction, and females are at greater risk for relapse following abstinence. In this review, sex differences in drug abuse are discussed for humans and in animal models. The possible neuroendocrine mechanisms mediating these sex differences are discussed.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT:Drug abuse is the willful misuse of either licit or illicit drugs for the purpose of recreation, perceived necessity or convenience. Drug abuse is a more intense and often willful misuse of drugs often to the point of addiction. In the eastern world the incidence shows a decline or a static pattern but the number of drug addicts is still enormous.. The major drug of abuse are heroin and marijuana but designer drugs are shown to be on the increase. The aim of the study is to determine the ratio of the drug abuse in student. For this purpose we selected different institutions including “the university of Lahore”, “Forman Christian college”(private sector and Punjab university(Govt sector and conducted survey in 500 student. High proportion of students was found abusing drugs. From this study, we came across multiple factors which are the main cause of drug abuse in medical student including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, as well as personality disorder like antisocial personality disorder. The most commonly abused drugs include stimulants, opioids, and benzodiazepines, antihistamines. Although survey have indicated high rate of illicit and prescription drugs misuse among college students, few have assessed the negative consequences, personel concerns, or interest in intervention for drugs use. Drug abuse although regarded as a personality disorder, may also be seen as worldwide epidemic with evolutionary genetic, physiology and environmental influences Controlling and affecting human behavior. Globally, the use has reached all time high. The study showed males are more drug abusers as compared to females. The drug abuse ratio in students of private sector is more as compared to Govt sector.
Lian Xuhui; Chen Zhong; Ye Wenqin
Objective: To study the imaging findings of the chest disease due to intravenous heroin abuse. Methods: Twenty-five cases of clinically confirmed chest disease due to intravenous heroin abuse were retrospectively analyzed. 25 cases had conventional X-ray film, 6 cases had CT scanning, and 6 cases had echocardiography scanning. Results: On X-ray and CT, the following signs were found: lung making manifold (n = 5), small patchy shadow (n = 15), pneumatocele (n = 16), small cavity (n = 16), small node (n = 7), pleural effusion (n = 8 ), pneumothorax (n = 2), hydropneumothorax (n = 6), pulmonary edema (n = 2), megacardia (n = 11), multiple-shaped lesion (n = 20). On echocardiography, tricuspid vegetation (n = 4) and tricuspid insufficiency (n = 4) were found. Conclusion: The X-ray and CT manifestations of chest inflammation due to intravenous heroin abuse are multiple. The multiple small cavities and pneumatoceles sign are of some value in the diagnosis of lung inflammation due to intravenous heroin abuse among young patients
Neiman, J; Haapaniemi, H M; Hillbom, M
Drug abuse is associated with a variety of neurological complications. The use of certain recreational drugs shows a marked temporal association with the onset of both haemorrhagic and ischaemic strokes, the majority of which develop within minutes to 1 h after the administration of the index drug. Delayed onset of stroke has also been observed. Acute, severe elevation of blood pressure, cardiac dysrhythmias, cerebral vasospasm, vasculitis, embolization due to infective endocarditis or dilated cardiomyopathy, embolization due to foreign material injected with the diluents under non-sterile conditions and 'street drug' contaminants with cardiovascular effects have been suggested as possible underlying mechanisms. Rupture of aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations have been detected in up to half of the patients with haemorrhagic stroke due to cocaine abuse. The less common findings reported have included a mycotic cerebrovascular aneurysm in a patient with infective endocarditis and haemorrhagic stroke. In addition to stroke, cocaine seems to provoke vascular headache. Seizures precipitated by recreational drug abuse are usually caused by acute intoxication in contrast to the withdrawal seizures encountered in subjects with alcohol abuse. Movement disorders and cerebral atrophy correlating with the duration of abuse have been described. Snorting of organic solvents may cause encephalopathy. Cases of spongiform leukoencephalopathy in heroin addicts have also been reported. Peripheral neuropathy is occasionally precipitated by drug poisoning after intravenous administration. Impurities of the drug, risky administration techniques, and the use of mixtures of various drugs, frequently with simultaneous alcohol drinking, should be taken into account when assessing the background of the adverse event as well as the overall lifestyle of the addicted subjects.
Sloat, Robert S.
Discussed from a teacher's perspective are the legal and cultural ramifications of drug abuse. The importance of teachers' examining their own values concerning drug use is emphasized. Also reviewed are the history of drug use and of narcotics legislation. Recommendations concerning legislative reform are discussed. (CL)
... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Drug Abuse Prevention Starts with Parents Page Content Article Body ... for a time when drugs may be offered. Drug abuse prevention starts with parents learning how to talk ...
Ling, W; Wesson, D R
Treating opiate-dependent patients can be difficult for many physicians because the patients' life-styles, values, and beliefs differ from those of the physicians. Primary care physicians, however, are often involved in the treatment of the medical complications of opiate abuse, and physicians must often manage a patient's opiate dependence until appropriate referral to a drug abuse treatment program can be arranged. Treatment is guided by an understanding of the patient's addictive disease, ...
Tatiana dos Reis Nunes
Full Text Available The authors report the case of a pregnant woman admitted to cocaine overdose and discuss maternal and fetal complications of cocaine abuse in pregnancy. Considering the increased frequency of users in the female population, the obstetric team should be able to make the patient's care and your baby.
Full Text Available Introduction: Drug abuse is a global phenomenon, affecting almost every country, but its extent and characteristics differ from region to region. India too is caught in this vicious circle of drug abuse, and the numbers of drug addicts are increasing day by day. The bane of drug abuse in Punjab has acquired the proportions of a pestilence that has shaken the entire society in the state. It is observed that in Punjab “drug abuse” is a raging epidemic, especially among the young. Methodology: The present cross-sectional study was conducted on 400 adolescents and young adults (11–35 years from 15 villages of Jalandhar District. Systematic sampling (probability proportionate to size was used for the selection of study subjects. A preformed, semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information on type and frequency of drugs abused and other sociodemographic variables. The statistical evaluation of the data was performed using SPSS software, version 21.0. Results: The prevalence of substance abuse among study group was 65.5% and most common substance abused was alcohol (41.8%, followed by tobacco (21.3%. A high prevalence of heroin abusers was noted among study subjects (20.8%. The prevalence of nonalcohol and nontobacco substance abuse was 34.8%. A significant association of drug abuse was observed with male gender, illiteracy, and age above 30 years. Conclusions: The problem of drug abuse in youth of Punjab is a matter of serious concern as every third person is hooked to drugs other than alcohol and tobacco. The other striking observations were the high prevalence of heroin and intravenous drug abuse.
Markham, Kara B; Scrape, Scott R; Prasad, Mona; Rossi, Karen Q; O'Shaughnessy, Richard W
Objectives The objective is to present a pregnancy complication associated with intravenous drug use, namely, that of red blood cell alloimmunization and hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. Methods An observational case series is presented including women with red blood cell alloimmunization most likely secondary to intravenous drug abuse Results Five pregnancies were identified that were complicated by red blood cell alloimmunization and significant hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn, necessitating intrauterine transfusion, an indicated preterm birth, or neonatal therapy. Conclusions As opioid abuse continues to increase in the United States, clinicians should be aware of the potential for alloimmunization to red blood cell antibodies as yet another negative outcome from intravenous drug abuse.
Joseph, Donald E., Ed.
This Drug Enforcement Administration publication delivers clear, scientific information about drugs in a factual, straightforward way, combined with precise photographs shot to scale. The publication is intended to serve as an A to Z guide for drug history, effects, and identification information. Chapters are included on the Controlled Substances…
State Employees Advisory Board on Alcoholism and Drug Abuse DHSS State of Alaska Home Divisions and ; Advisory Board on Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Page Content Alison Kulas Executive Director If you, a family Kulas Begins Tenure as Executive Director The Advisory Board on Alcoholism and Drug Abuse, The Alaska
... were prescribed to someone else or if your child is already taking other prescription medications. Set rules. Let your teen know that it's not OK to share medications with others — or to take drugs prescribed for others. Emphasize the importance of taking the prescribed dose and talking with ...
Soini, Erkki J; Leussu, Miina; Hallinen, Taru
Background Cost-effectiveness studies explicitly reporting infusion times, drug-specific administration costs for infusions or real-payer intravenous drug cost are few in number. Yet, administration costs for infusions are needed in the health economic evaluations assessing intravenously-administered drugs. Objectives To estimate the drug-specific administration and total cost of biologic intravenous rheumatoid arthritis (RA) drugs in the adult population and to compare the obtained costs wit...
Maiara Benevides Moreira
Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To analyze potential intravenous drug interactions, and their level of severity associated with the administration of these drugs based on the prescriptions of an intensive care unit. METHOD Quantitative study, with aretrospective exploratory design, and descriptive statistical analysis of the ICU prescriptions of a teaching hospital from March to June 2014. RESULTS The sample consisted of 319 prescriptions and subsamples of 50 prescriptions. The mean number of drugs per patient was 9.3 records, and a higher probability of drug interaction inherent to polypharmacy was evidenced. The study identified severe drug interactions, such as concomitant administration of Tramadol with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor drugs (e.g., Metoclopramide and Fluconazole, increasing the risk of seizures due to their epileptogenic actions, as well as the simultaneous use of Ranitidine-Fentanyl®, which can lead to respiratory depression. CONCLUSION A previous mapping of prescriptions enables the characterization of the drug therapy, contributing to prevent potential drug interactions and their clinical consequences.
Mursaleen, Leah R; Stamford, Jonathan A
The term "drug of abuse" is highly contextual. What constitutes a drug of abuse for one population of patients does not for another. It is therefore important to examine the needs of the patient population to properly assess the status of drugs of abuse. The focus of this article is on the bidirectional relationship between patients and drug abuse. In this paper we will introduce the dopaminergic systems of the brain in Parkinson's and the influence of antiparkinsonian drugs upon them before discussing this synergy of condition and medication as fertile ground for drug abuse. We will then examine the relationship between drugs of abuse and Parkinson's, both beneficial and deleterious. In summary we will draw the different strands together and speculate on the future merit of current drugs of abuse as treatments for Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Robertson, A.S.; Jain, S.; O'Neil, R.A.
A case of spongiform leucoencephalopathy in a known intravenous heroin abuser is presented. To our knowledge, this is the only case of heroin-related spongiform leucoencephalopathy reported in Australia. The relationship to intravenous rather than inhaled heroin is particularly unusual with only one other possible case documented in the literature. The imaging and histopathological findings are described. Neurological examination revealed disorientation in time and place, memory loss and cognitive impairment but no focal signs. Biochemical and haematological profiles were normal. Viral serology was positive for hepatitis C but negative for hepatitis B and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Cerebral CT revealed diffuse symmetrical hypodensity of the cerebral white matter. The ventricles and subarachnoid spaces were of normal size. Magnetic resonance imaging showed diffuse symmetrical signal abnormality in the cerebral white matter. These changes were hyperintense on proton density, T2-weighted, modified T2-weighted (FLAIR) and diffusion-weighted images. T1 -weighted scans showed corresponding hypointensity. There was no enhancement after intravenous gadolinium. Cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) specimens were negative for a variety of virological, immunological and bacteriological markers. No viral or bacterial growth was demonstrated. Oligoclonal bands for multiple sclerosis and Protein 134 for Wilson's disease were negative. Right frontal brain biopsy showed spongiform white matter and degenerative change with prominent fibrous gliosis. In severely affected areas, loss of normal myelin staining and axonal loss were present, accompanied by scattered foamy macrophages. Loss of oligodendroglial nuclei was also present. There was no evidence of inflammation or progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy. No bacteria or virus particles were seen on electron microscopic examination of the brain tissue. Following the biopsy, the patient discharged himself from hospital and the
This article provides an overview on prescription drug abuse and highlights a number of related legislative bills introduced during the 112th Congress in response to this growing epidemic. Prescription drug abuse has emerged as the nation's fastest growing drug problem. Although prescription drugs have been used effectively and appropriately for decades, deaths from prescription pain medicine in particular have reached epidemic proportions. Bills related to prescription drug abuse introduced during the 112th Congress focus on strengthening provider and consumer education, tracking and monitoring prescription drug abuse, improving data collection on drug overdose fatalities, combating fraud and abuse in Medicare and Medicaid programs, reclassifying drugs to make them more difficult to prescribe and obtain, and enforcing stricter penalties for individuals who operate scam pain clinics and sell pain pills illegitimately. This article underscores the importance of a multifaceted approach to combating prescription drug abuse and concludes with implications for nursing. Copyright © 2013. Published by Mosby, Inc.
Weymann, Alexander; Borst, Tobias; Popov, Aron-Frederik; Sabashnikov, Anton; Bowles, Christopher; Schmack, Bastian; Veres, Gabor; Chaimow, Nicole; Simon, Andre Rüdiger; Karck, Matthias; Szabo, Gábor
Infective endocarditis is a life threatening complication of intravenous drug abuse, which continues to be a major burden with inadequately characterised long-term outcomes. We reviewed our institutional experience of surgical treatment of infective endocarditis in active intravenous drug abusers with the aim of identifying the determinants long-term outcome of this distinct subgroup of infective endocarditis patients. A total of 451 patients underwent surgery for infective endocarditis between January 1993 and July 2013 at the University Hospital of Heidelberg. Of these patients, 20 (7 female, mean age 35 ± 7.7 years) underwent surgery for infective endocarditis with a history of active intravenous drug abuse. Mean follow-up was 2504 ± 1842 days. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common pathogen detected in preoperative blood cultures. Two patients (10%) died before postoperative day 30. Survival at 1, 5 and 10 years was 90%, 85% and 85%, respectively. Freedom from reoperation was 100%. Higher NYHA functional class, higher EuroSCORE II, HIV infection, longer operating time, postoperative fever and higher requirement for red blood cell transfusion were associated with 90-day mortality. In active intravenous drug abusers, surgical treatment for infective endocarditis should be performed as extensively as possible and be followed by an aggressive postoperative antibiotic therapy to avoid high mortality. Early surgical intervention is advisable in patients with precipitous cardiac deterioration and under conditions of staphylococcal endocarditis. However, larger studies are necessary to confirm our preliminary results.
Garrido-González, Iria; Bugarín-González, Rosendo; Machín-Fernández, Antonio Javier
To determine the patterns of substance abuse of students attending the Lugo School of Nursing. Observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study in the classroom carried out by survey research in April 2015. 61.5% of students participated (185), 83.2% of whom were females. The first addictive substance consumed by participants was tobacco (at 15 years old). In the last month cigarettes were consumed by 36.2% of students, while alcohol was consumed by 89.9% (58.4% of the total got drunk). 2.2% were consuming tranquilizers/hypnotics in the same time period. The most widely used illegal drug was cannabis (17.8%) and then cocaine (2.2%). There is a significant correlation between illegal drug consumption and being male, smoking cigarettes or drinking alcohol, living alone or with friends (not family), have poor academic performance and public drinking (botellón). There were no association between illegal drugs and sports or reading. Polydrug use was also studied: a 16.2% declared to have consumed alcohol and cannabis simultaneously, and a 4.9% alcohol and cocaine. Consumption patterns are similar compared to the general population in that age group, with some of them being higher. Therefore, it is necessary to take measures in order to prevent substance abuse at the university level. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drug abuse education course. 550.51... DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.51 Drug abuse education course. (a) Purpose of the drug abuse education course. All institutions provide a drug abuse education course to: (1) Inform...
Department of Justice, Washington, DC. National Drug Intelligence Center.
Prescription drugs, a category of psychotherapeutics that comprises prescription-type pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, and sedatives, are among the substances most commonly abused by young people in the United States. Prescription drugs are readily available and can easily be obtained by teenagers who abuse these drugs to experience a…
Mohammad Mahdi Mir-Nasseri
Full Text Available
Moreira, Maiara Benevides; Mesquita, Maria Gefé da Rosa; Stipp, Marluci Andrade Conceição; Paes, Graciele Oroski
To analyze potential intravenous drug interactions, and their level of severity associated with the administration of these drugs based on the prescriptions of an intensive care unit. Quantitative study, with aretrospective exploratory design, and descriptive statistical analysis of the ICU prescriptions of a teaching hospital from March to June 2014. The sample consisted of 319 prescriptions and subsamples of 50 prescriptions. The mean number of drugs per patient was 9.3 records, and a higher probability of drug interaction inherent to polypharmacy was evidenced. The study identified severe drug interactions, such as concomitant administration of Tramadol with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor drugs (e.g., Metoclopramide and Fluconazole), increasing the risk of seizures due to their epileptogenic actions, as well as the simultaneous use of Ranitidine-Fentanyl®, which can lead to respiratory depression. A previous mapping of prescriptions enables the characterization of the drug therapy, contributing to prevent potential drug interactions and their clinical consequences. Analisar as potenciais interações medicamentosas intravenosas e seu grau de severidade associadas à administração desses medicamentos a partir das prescrições do Centro de Terapia Intensiva. Estudo quantitativo, tipologia retrospectiva exploratória, com análise estatística descritiva das prescrições medicamentosas do Centro de Terapia Intensiva de um Hospital Universitário, no período de março-junho/2014. A amostra foi composta de 319 prescrições e subamostras de 50 prescrições. Constatou-se que a média de medicamentos por paciente foi de 9,3 registros, e evidenciou-se maior probabilidade para ocorrência de interação medicamentosa inerente à polifarmácia. O estudo identificou interações medicamentosas graves, como a administração concomitante de Tramadol com medicamentos inibidores seletivos da recaptação da serotonina, (exemplo: Metoclopramida e Fluconazol
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...
Mar 2, 1974 ... experience in modern marketing techniques could develop a promotional campaign to increase drug abuse. ... Drug abuse-identity ... conforms to the same social, intellectual and cultural ... The brand names should also be chosen carefu11y. ... In this market the mass media offer the greatest coverage.
Drug abuse is a global public health problem that impacts negatively on health, ... and Marijuana and farming occupation was a determinant of drug abuse. ... area, there is need for health education campaigns on harmful effects of drug abuse.
Taplin, Chris; Saddichha, Sahoo; Li, Kathy; Krausz, Michael R
Childhood maltreatment may lead to development of future substance use; however the contributions of a family history of substance use is unclear. To better understand the relationship between childhood abuse, family history of alcohol and drug abuse, and injecting drug use initiation in a cohort of chronic opioid users. A cross-sectional survey of long-term and difficult to treat intravenous opiate users of the North American Opiate Medication Initiative (NAOMI) cohort was conducted in two Canadian cities (Vancouver and Montreal). For the analysis, we selected a subsample (n = 87) of the population reported experiencing childhood abuse and completed a 12-month follow up. The sample was 41.4% female and 14.9% First Nations, with a mean age of 38 years. This sample then completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) beside others. Maternal alcohol and drug use was significantly associated with childhood sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and physical neglect. Paternal alcohol and drug use was significantly associated with childhood physical abuse. Increased severity of all types of childhood trauma was related to an earlier age of first injection. CONCLUSIONS/IMPORTANCE: Family history of drug and alcohol use is strongly associated with childhood trauma, which may, in turn, lead to an earlier initiation to the dangerous routes of drug injection.
Davis, Gregory G
Drug abusers have access to new, more potent compounds that evade existing laws by virtue of their novel chemical structures. These drugs are available for purchase at stores and over the internet. The drugs are not illegal because they are so new that laws have not yet been passed to ban them. These drugs are leading to emergency department visits for cardiovascular, neurologic, and psychiatric complications. Standard drug screens are not designed to detect these new substances. The internet provides access to drugs for substance abusers but also provides physicians speed of access to the habits of substance abusers.
Wetterling, Tilman; Schneider, Barbara
Due to demographic changes there will be a fraction of elderly patients with substance use disorders. However, only a few data have been published about elderly abusers of prescription drugs. Since substance abuse is frequently comorbid with psychiatric disorders, treatment in a psychiatric hospital is often needed. In this explorative study elderly people with prescription drug abuse who required psychiatric inpatient treatment should be characterized. This study was part of the gerontopsychiatry study Berlin (Gepsy-B), an investigation of the data of all older inpatients (≥ 65 years) admitted to a psychiatric hospital within a period of 3 years. Among 1266 documented admissions in 110 cases (8.7 %) (mean age: 75.7 ± 7.1 years) prescription drug abuse, mostly of benzodiazepines was diagnosed. Females showed benzodiazepine abuse more often than males. In only a small proportion of the cases the reason for admission was withdrawal of prescribed drugs. 85.5 % suffered from psychiatric comorbidity, mostly depression. As risk factors for abuse depressive symptoms (OR: 3.32) as well as concurrent nicotine (OR: 2.69) or alcohol abuse (OR: 2.14) were calculated. Psychiatric inpatient treatment was primarily not necessary because of prescription drug abuse but because of other psychopathological symptoms. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Seyede Maryam Vahdat-Shariat-Panahi
Full Text Available Objective: Having the information about pattern of substance abuse in the community and its epidemiological features is one of the most important protocols for evaluation, follow–up and control of the use of these substances. The aim of this study was to evaluate the patterns of substances abuse among narcotic anonymous (N. A. addicted patients. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive and analytical study, three hundred patients from narcotic abusers anonymous (N. A. association who were referred to a treatment center in Tehran were participated consecutively. The information about demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, type of drug and the patterns of substance abuse of all cases were collected by researcher made questionnaire. Data were analyzed by Chi–Square test. Results: 80% of the patients were male. Almost 65. 2% of cases aged less than 40 years. More than two–third of cases had free jobs and 21. 2% of them were unemployed. Also, 32% of patients had college degrees. The most common types of abused substance were opium (88%, cigarette (76.7%, and alcohol (63% and 34% of them used substances intravenously. The use of alcohol (P=0.033, cannabis (P<0.001, cocaine (P=0.009 and ecstasy (P<0.001 was more prevalent significantly in the cases less than 40 years old than the elderly. Conclusion: It seems that the trend of substance abuse has been changed to younger population. The pattern of drug abuse in young adults is more toward psychosis drugs such as cocaine and ecstasy.
Highland Medical Research Journal ... More than 50% knew the meaning of drug abuse, the dangers in using drugs wrongly and the legal status of drug abuse. ... Drug and alcohol education should therefore be strengthened in schools ...
... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Alcohol and drug abuse programs. 634.13 Section... and drug abuse programs. (a) Commanders will refer military personnel suspected of drug or alcohol abuse for evaluation in the following circumstances: (1) Behavior indicative of alcohol or drug abuse...
Drasbek, Kim Ryun; Christensen, Jakob; Jensen, Kimmo
γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a drug of abuse that causes euphoria, anxiolysis and hypnosis. The recent rise in the recreational intake of GHB, as well as its association with “drug rape”, has turned the attention to GHB in acute hospital settings. Acutely admitted GHB intoxicated patients may display...... available. As a basis for understanding the clinical features of GHB intoxication and abuse, we here review the pharmacological and neurophysiological knowledge about GHB, which stems from decades of clinical and basic GHB research. Also, we discuss the latest discoveries in the quest for distinct GHB...... receptors in the brain, and their possible implications for future therapies of GHB abuse....
Full Text Available Narcotics is a highly addictive drug that acts as a stimulant or depresant for the central nervous system. The prevalence of various diseases found to be higher in the group of drug users then those who not use drugs such as endocarditis, hepatitis and HIV. Further evidence that the drug effects the oral health which includes the effect of the hard tissues by increased incidence of caries and periodontitis and the effect of the soft tissues in the form of leukoplakia and oral mucosal fibrosis, reduced production, especially the parotid salivary glands in amphetamine and cannabis users. In addition to the drug is a predisposing of oral infections such as candidiasis and gingivitis. Reduced volume of saliva on abusers may result in reduced immune function of saliva in maintaining oral health. Consequently the drug abusers increased number of bacteria and fungi in the oral cavity, including anaerobic bacteria and Candida albicans, especially in cases of abuse of cannabis. Gingival plaque formation and the growing colonies of anaerobic bacteria may increase the occurrence of gingivitis in the drug abusers. Lack of awareness of drug abusers in oral hygiene causing the gingivitis develops into periodontitis followed by alveolar bone loss.
Full Text Available Introduction and Aim. Further gains in the prevention of drug abuse disorders require in-depth and holistic understanding of the risk factors of addiction from different perspectives. Lay persons and experts have different concepts of risk which could complement each other. The purpose of this study was to elaborate drug abuse risk factors through the story of individuals who had become drug dependent. Design and Methods. In this qualitative research, 33 individuals attending treatment centres for drug abuse were interviewed about the story of their addiction in Kerman, Iran. Interview questions were around the story of the participants. Results. All participants were male and in the age range of 18–40 years. Narrative analysis identified five themes as the main risk factors: family factors, peer pressure, the effect of gateway drugs (especially waterpipe, individual characteristics, and the community factors. More emphasis was placed upon the role of family factors, peer influence, and gateway effect. Discussion and Conclusion. This study elicited information from drug dependent subjects regarding the risk factors of drug abuse. According to drug dependent individuals’ views, more attention should be devoted to family and peer influences by policy makers, in developing culture-based preventive strategies.
al-Haddad, M K; Khashaba, A S; Baig, B Z; Khalfan, S
A 12-month study was conducted to identify risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections among intravenous drug users (IDU) attending drug rehabilitation clinic of the Psychiatric Hospital, Manama, Bahrain. Patients provided demographic and behavioural information based on a questionnaire. Two hundred and forty male IDUs participated in the study on voluntary basis. The seroprevalence of HIV was 21.1 per cent. The presence of HIV antibody was associated with educational status, frequency of injecting drugs and needle sharing.
Mahmoudi, Morteza; Pakpour, Sepideh; Perry, George
Opioid drug abuse and dependence/addiction are complex disorders regulated by a wide range of interacting networks of genes and pathways that control a variety of phenotypes. Although the field has been extensively progressed since the birth of the National Institute on Drug Abuse in 1974, the fundamental knowledge and involved mechanisms that lead to drug dependence/addiction are poorly understood, and thus, there has been limited success in the prevention of drug addiction and development of therapeutics for definitive treatment and cure of addiction disease. The lack of success in both identification of addiction in at-risk populations and the development of efficient drugs has resulted in a serious social and economic burden from opioid drug abuse with global increasing rate of mortality from drug overdoses. This perspective aims to draw the attention of scientists to the potential role of nanotechnologies, which might pave the way for the development of more practical platforms for either drug development or identification and screening of patients who may be vulnerable to addiction after using opioid drugs.
... Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription Drugs & Cold Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...
The causes of drug abuse and criminal behavior are closely linked. Not surprisingly, there is a high percentage of prisoners who during sentence execution abuse or are dependent on drugs. Antisocial personality disorder can be considered a common predictor of committing criminal offenses and drug abuse. A review of studies has revealed a high prevalence of inmates who use drugs while serving a sentence. Also, prison environment represents only a new context of the continuum of drug abuse by i...
Mastropietro, David J; Muppalaneni, Srinath; Omidian, Hossein
This study aimed to determine whether selected superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) could be used as a suitable alternative to thwart extraction, filtration, and syringeability attempts for abuse. Many abuse-deterrent formulations (ADFs) rely on high molecular weight polymers such as poly(ethylene oxide) to provide crush and extraction resistance. However, these polymers suffer from slow dissolution kinetics, and are susceptible to a variety of abuse conditions. Several commercially available SAPs were evaluated for swelling behavior in extraction solvents, and tableting properties. Post-compaction abuse properties were evaluated by recoverable volume and syringeability after solvent extraction. Drug release and percent drug extraction were conducted using tramadol HCl as a model drug. Certain SAPs had the ability to rapidly imbibe solvent and effectively stop extraction processes in a variety of solvents, including water and water/alcohol mixtures. Tablets containing SAP and drug showed no effect on drug release in vitro. SAPs possess adequate properties for tableting, and maintain their high and fast swelling properties after compaction. The fast and extensive interactions of SAPs with aqueous medium are a major advantage over non-crosslinked high molecular weight viscosifying agents such as poly(ethylene oxide).
..., HHS). (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.279, Drug Abuse and Addiction Research... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute On Drug Abuse; and National Cancer Institute; Notice of....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism...
Staack, Roland F; Maurer, Hans H
Abuse of designer drugs is widespread among young people, especially in the so-called "dance club scene" or "rave scene", worldwide. Severe and even fatal poisonings have been attributed to the consumption of such drugs of abuse. However, in contrast to new medicaments, which are extensively studied in controlled clinical studies concerning metabolism, including cytochrome P450 isoenzyme differentiation, and further pharmacokinetics, designer drugs are consumed without any safety testing. This paper reviews the metabolism of new designer drugs of abuse that have emerged on the black market during the last years. Para-methoxyamphetamine (PMA), para-methoxymethamphetamine (PMMA) and 4-methylthioamphetamine (4-MTA), were taken into consideration as new "classical" amphetamine-derived designer drugs. Furthermore, N-benzylpiperazine (BZP), 1-(3, 4-methylenedioxybenzyl)piperazine (MDBP), 1-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazine (TFMPP), 1-(3-chlorophenyl)piperazine (mCPP) and 1-(4-methoxyphenyl)piperazine (MeOPP) were taken into consideration as derivatives of the class of piperazine-derived designer drugs, as well as alpha-pyr-rolidinopropiophenone (PPP), 4'-methoxy-alpha-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (MOPPP), 3', 4'-methylenedioxy-alpha-pyrrolidino-propiophenone (MDPPP), 4'-methyl-alpha-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (MPPP), and 4'-methyl-alpha-pyrrolidinoexanophenone (MPHP) as derivatives of the class of alpha-pyrrolidinophenone-derived designer drugs. Papers describing identification of in vivo or in vitro human or animal metabolites and cytochrome P450 isoenzyme dependent metabolism have been considered and summarized.
Simeon J. Crawford
Full Text Available Candida osteoarticular infections are being reported with increasing frequency, possibly due to an expanding population at risk. However, Candida costochondritis is uncommon. We report two cases of Candida costochondritis in patients who presented with subacute-onset chest wall swelling and whose only identifiable risk factor was a history of recent intravenous drug use.
Nubukpo, Philippe; Clément, Jean-Pierre
Drug addiction is often underestimated among the aged. Opiate drugs (mostly pain killers) are the most frequently implicated in drug addiction after benzodiazepines (BZD) in the aged. The subjects aged of 65 years or more are the most represented among the BZD users in France. Frequency of BZD use varies according to various studies from 39 to 55% in this age group. Leading a lonely life is associated with the use of psychotropic drugs among retired people (OR=1.7). Vulnerability at this age must take into account not only polypathology, but also the faster aging of a minority of the population under opiate drugs substitution treatment (OST), more subjects to drugs interaction. Drug addiction among elderly often reflects the drift of "lawful" doctor's instructions that leads to an increase in drugs use. The difficulty has to do with a lack of specificity of diagnosis of addiction at this age, but perhaps also with physicans'instructions in the aged. Some authors suggest that continued and prolonged use should be considered the main criterion for BZD addiction at this age, with or without increase in doses and failed attempt at cessation. Besides, the prescription of BZD increases after retirement and loneliness.
Byrd, Oliver E.
Summaries are presented of over 150 articles in the recent medical and psychiatric literature. Topics covered are: effects of drugs, tobacco, alcohol, drugs used in medicine, vapor sniffing, marijuana, barbiturates, tranquilizers, amphetamines, methamphetamine, lysergic acid diethylamide, other hallucinogens, heroin and the opiates, psychiatric…
Hall, James A.; Vaughan Sarrazin, Mary S.; Huber, Diane L.; Vaughn, Thomas; Block, Robert I.; Reedy, Amanda R.; Jang, MiJin
Objective: The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of a comprehensive, strengths-based model of case management for clients in drug abuse treatment. Method: 503 volunteers from residential or intensive outpatient treatment were randomly assigned to one of three conditions of Iowa Case Management (ICM) plus treatment as usual…
Effect of Contemporary Social Environment, Drug Abuse and Cultism on the Health of ... This health situation comes as results of substance abuse which these ... the patent medicine stores, from hard drugs like (marijuana, cannabis) or others ...
... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drugs with potential for abuse. 314.104 Section 314.104 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... and Abbreviated Applications § 314.104 Drugs with potential for abuse. The Food and Drug...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drug use and abuse. 638.511 Section 638.511... TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.511 Drug use and abuse. The Job... and education programs related to drug and alcohol use and abuse. ...
... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alcoholism and drug abuse. 700.545 Section 700.545... Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.545 Alcoholism and drug abuse. An employee who habitually uses... and drug abuse as serious and treatable illnesses. Excessive absence and poor work performance are two...
Brooks, Gary D.; Brooks, Bonnie S.
This is a bibliographical compilation of much of the literature pertinent to the current drug emphasis which has appeared since c. 1960. It is divided into two general sections: (1) books and pamphlets; and (2) articles. In all, there are 13 books and pamphlets on LSD, three on marihuana, and 52 of a more general nature. Articles are more…
Meth, Marcia; Chalmers, Rebecca; Bassin, Gail
This report serves as a source of information on drug abuse and drug markets. It aims to describe drug-abusing populations; emerging drugs; new routes of administration; varying use patterns; changing demand for treatment; drug-related criminal activity; and shifts in supply and distribution patterns. It is not designed to be used as a law…
Frauger, Elisabeth; Moracchini, Christophe; Le Boisselier, Reynald; Braunstein, David; Thirion, Xavier; Micallef, Joëlle
It is important to assess drug abuse liability in 'real life' using different surveillance systems. Some are based on specific population surveys, such as individuals with drug abuse or dependence, or under opiate maintenance treatment, because this population is very familiar with drugs and is more likely to divert or abuse them. In France, an original surveillance system based on this specific population and called 'Observation of illegal drugs and misuse of psychotropic medications (OPPIDUM) survey' was set up in 1990 as the first of its kind. The aim of this article is to describe this precursor of French drug abuse surveillance using different examples, to demonstrate its ability to effectively give health authorities and physicians interesting data on drug abuse. OPPIDUM is an annual, cross-sectional survey that anonymously collects information on abuse and dependence observed in patients recruited in specialized care centers dedicated to drug dependence. From 1990 to 2010, a total of 50,734 patients were included with descriptions of 102,631 psychoactive substance consumptions. These data have outlined emergent behaviors such as the misuse of buprenorphine by intravenous or nasal administration. It has contributed to assess abuse liability of emergent drugs such as clonazepam or methylphenidate. This surveillance system was also able to detect the decrease of flunitrazepam abuse following implementation of regulatory measures. OPPIDUM's twenty years of experience clearly demonstrate that collection of valid and useful data on drug abuse is possible and can provide helpful information for physicians and health authorities. © 2013 The Authors Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology © 2013 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.
McHugh, R. Kathryn; Nielsen, Suzanne; Weiss, Roger D.
Prescription drug abuse has reached an epidemic level in the United States. The prevalence of prescription drug abuse escalated rapidly beginning in the late 1990s, requiring a significant increase in research to better understand the nature and treatment of this problem. Since this time, a research literature has begun to develop and has provided important information about how prescription drug abuse is similar to, and different from the abuse of other substances. This introduction to a spe...
Meyer, Markus R; Peters, Frank T
The steady increase of new drugs of abuse on the illicit drug market is a great challenge for analytical toxicologists. Because most of these new drugs or drug classes are not included in established analytical methods targeting classic drugs of abuse, analytical procedures must be adapted or new procedures must be developed to cover such new compounds. This review summarizes procedures for analysis of these drugs of abuse published from January 2009 to January 2012 covering the following classes of emerging drugs of abuse as follows: β-keto-amphetamines, pyrrolidinophenones, tryptamines, and synthetic cannabinoids.
Full Text Available The intention of this article is to demonstrate, within the framework of cognitive linguistics (Lakoff and Johnson, 1980a, how slang words associated with substance abuse are conceptualized via metaphors. This study analyses recreational drug slang terms found in the Drug Slang Dictionary in order to reveal categories of metaphors involved in drug users’ language. The results of the data analysis effectively reveal that, within a thematic approach, classes of metaphor are coded to enable connections between metaphorical concepts and drug addicts’ physiological experiences in order to present their personal meanings and cognitive processes. The study also involves drug addicts’ narratives to identify conceptual metaphors in their experiences. Notably, it is argued within this research that figurative language use is also connected to the cultural background of users to a great extent.
Andrabi, Sara; Greene, Spencer; Moukaddam, Nidal; Moukkadam, Nidal; Li, Benjamin
New drugs of abuse continue to emerge, including synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, and hallucinogens. It is important to recognize their individual psychopharmacologic properties, symptoms of intoxication, and symptoms of withdrawal. Providers must be vigilant of acute medical or psychiatric complications that may arise from use of these substances. Treatment of the patient also includes recognition of any substance use disorders as well as comorbid psychiatric disorders. Although pharmacologic treatments for substance use disorder (of the drugs included in this article) are limited, there are a variety of psychotherapeutic modalities that may be of some benefit. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Full Text Available A simple random survey of 9863 population out of the total 70,000 population is one slum pocket of Bombay revealed drug dependence in 104 persons. Out of 104, 83.65% smoked ′brown sugar′ 10.68% used cannabis and 5.77% opium. Most of the addicts (95.2% belonged to large families. Family history of alcoholism and drug abuse was present in 41.35%. Parental deprivation was additional contributing factor in 30.7%.
Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012
This "Issues in Prevention" focuses on emerging issues concerning drug abuse on college campuses. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Drug Abuse Trends; (2) Q&A With Jim Lange; (3) Bath Salts; (4) Refuse to Abuse; (5) Related Federal Resource; and (6) Higher Education Center Resources.
Ortiz, Óscar Medina
Drug use among patients with bipolar disorder is greater than the one observed in the general population; psychotic episodes are likely to occur after consumption. This has implications in the prevention, etiology, management, and treatment of the disease. Bipolar disorder pathology is likely to have positive response to pharmacological treatment. Therefore, identifying the strategies with better results to be applied in these patients is fundamental for psychiatrists and primary care physicians. Review literature in order to determine the prevalence and characteristics of drug abuse in patients with bipolar disorder and establish the pharmacological strategies that have produced better results. Literature review. A great variety of studies demonstrate the relationship between bipolar disorder and drug use disorder. These patients are hospitalized more frequently, have an earlier onset of the disease, and present a larger number of depressive episodes and suicide attempts which affect the course of the disease. The drug with better results in the treatment of these patients is Divalproate. Satisfactory results have been also obtained with other mood stabilizers such as carbamazepine, lamotrigine, and the antipsychotic aripiprazole. Substance abuse is present in a large number of patients with bipolar disorder. The Divalproate is the drug that has shown better results in the studies. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
St. Souver, F. Gerald; Plunkett, Thomas G.
This booklet is concerned with providing information on drug abuse. A brief history of drug traffic and today's problem begin the pamphlet. The second part discusses the identification of drugs including opium, heroin, and marihuana. The next section is concerned with non-narcotic drug abuse, including Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD) mascaline,…
Ingold, F R
A study of deaths related to drug abuse, based on information available in France and Europe, shows that data on such deaths are divergent and difficult to compare between countries because the definition of "death related to drug abuse" may vary from country to country. For this reason, the author attaches little importance to the use of such data as an indirect indicator for assessing the incidence and prevalence of drug abuse. The author carried out an in-depth study of 99 deaths of this type recorded by the police in the Paris area in 1983, which showed that 80 per cent of the cases involved heroin that had been injected intravenously. An analysis of the biographical background of persons who had died as a result of drug abuse revealed that, in addition to severe drug intoxication, the length of drug abuse and psychopathological disorders, a number of so-called "risk situations" were important factors contributing to their deaths. The risk situations included use of heroin for a long period of time, recent discontinuation of heroin use, regular and intensive use of psychotropic substances and alcohol, and injection of drugs in public places where there was no way of testing the drugs beforehand.
Ramos, R.R.N.; Etchebehere, E.C.S.C.; Santos, A.O.; Lima, M.C.L.; Ramos, C.D.; Camargo, E.E.; Silva, C.A.M.; Serrat, S.M.
Polydrug abuse in children and adolescents is a major social problem. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate brain perfusion in polydrug abuser adolescents with brain SPECT imaging (BSI) using 99m Tc-HMPAO. Materials and Methods: Sixteen male polydrug abuser patients (11 to 18 years) were submitted to BSI. Forty-eight normal individuals (26 males, 22 females; 18 to 31 years) were used as a control group. Images were performed after an intravenous injection of 99m Tc-HMPAO in a dark, quiet room. Images were acquired in a camera-computer system equipped with a fan beam collimator. The images were reconstructed in the transaxial, coronal and sagittal views and submitted to semi-quantitative analysis using the thalami as reference, by placing regions of interest (ROIs) in the cerebral and cerebellar cortices. Patients were also submitted to neuropsychology tests and neurologic examination. Results: Significant hypoperfusion was found in the inferior portion of the frontal lobes (left and right: p<0.0001), temporal lobes (left lateral: p=0.0392; right lateral: p=0.0044; left and right mesial: p<0.0005), right parietal lobe (p=0.025), visual cortex (p=0.0013), pons (p = 0.0002), cerebellar hemispheres (left: p=0.0216; right: p=0.0005) and vermis (p=0.0015). An inverse relationship was observed between the degree of perfusion and the duration of drug abuse in the inferior left frontal lobe (? = -0.55; p=0.0255), superior right frontal lobe (? = -0.51; p=0.043), lateral right temporal lobe (? = -0.58; p=0.0172), mesial left temporal lobe (? -0.52; p=0.0384), left parietal lobe (? = -0.51; p=0.0416), basal ganglia (left: ? = -0.70; p=0.0022; right: ? = -0.65; p=0.0056) and cingulate gyrus (? = -0.66; p=0.0054). A significant correlation was observed between the perfusion of the temporal lobes with the Bender-Koppits test (left and right lateral: p=0.0559). Significant correlation was also noted between the perfusion of the lateral left temporal lobe (p=0.0559), parietal
Anne Marie Ciobanu; Daniela Baconi; Cristian Bălălău; Carolina Negrei; Miriana Stan; Maria Bârcă
Consumption of drugs of abuse is a scourge of modern world. Abuse, drug addiction and their consequences are one of the major current problems of European society because of the significant repercussions in individual, family, social and economic level. In this context, toxicological analysis of the drugs of abuse in biological samples is a useful tool for: diagnosis of drug addiction, checking an auto-response, mandatory screening in some treatment programs, identification of a substance ...
Drug abuse is both a personal and a public issue, raising questions about individual rights and the boundaries of law, as well as about national sovereignty and international control. Ethical issues that arise under these headings may be related to certain broad ethical positions. The implications of adopting utilitarian assumptions may be contrasted with basing ethics on a theory of individual rights, closely related to a theory of human nature. Neither position justifies a libertarian presumption against control, for, first, an individual decision to expose one's mind and personality to the control of drugs cannot be ethically justified and, second, there are no ethical reasons, nor any compelling arguments from social and political theory, for decriminalizing non-medical drug use.
Sun, Hong-qiang; Bao, Yan-ping; Zhou, Shuang-jiang; Meng, Shi-qiu; Lu, Lin
Drug abuse has resulted in a huge burden on public health and the economy in China. Since the reemergence of drug abuse in China in the 1980s, the number of drug addicts has increased dramatically, especially the proportion of users of synthetic drugs, such as amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS). Further, the proportion of opiate addicts has decreased among the new initiates. This review describes the new pattern of drug abuse and the resultant intervention strategy in China. The demographics regarding drug abuse in China point to a trend of younger users, and indicate that Internet and telephone are facilitating drug trafficking. Furthermore, polydrug use is common. Many heroin addicts have used ATS and other synthetic drugs, and some synthetic drug abusers have used opiate drugs too. HIV infection and psychosis comorbidity are primarily associated with drug abuse in China. Although opiate drug use and its associated harm have been controlled effectively in some areas, the synthetic drugs and new designer drugs have complicated the drug abuse scene. A national system of management and intervention for synthetic drugs and associated diseases urgently needs to be established in China.
Negus, S Stevens; Miller, Laurence L
Intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) is a behavioral procedure in which operant responding is maintained by pulses of electrical brain stimulation. In research to study abuse-related drug effects, ICSS relies on electrode placements that target the medial forebrain bundle at the level of the lateral hypothalamus, and experimental sessions manipulate frequency or amplitude of stimulation to engender a wide range of baseline response rates or response probabilities. Under these conditions, drug-induced increases in low rates/probabilities of responding maintained by low frequencies/amplitudes of stimulation are interpreted as an abuse-related effect. Conversely, drug-induced decreases in high rates/probabilities of responding maintained by high frequencies/amplitudes of stimulation can be interpreted as an abuse-limiting effect. Overall abuse potential can be inferred from the relative expression of abuse-related and abuse-limiting effects. The sensitivity and selectivity of ICSS to detect abuse potential of many classes of abused drugs is similar to the sensitivity and selectivity of drug self-administration procedures. Moreover, similar to progressive-ratio drug self-administration procedures, ICSS data can be used to rank the relative abuse potential of different drugs. Strengths of ICSS in comparison with drug self-administration include 1) potential for simultaneous evaluation of both abuse-related and abuse-limiting effects, 2) flexibility for use with various routes of drug administration or drug vehicles, 3) utility for studies in drug-naive subjects as well as in subjects with controlled levels of prior drug exposure, and 4) utility for studies of drug time course. Taken together, these considerations suggest that ICSS can make significant contributions to the practice of abuse potential testing. Copyright © 2014 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.
Traub, S J; Levine, M D
Many substances can affect the central nervous system, and may cause patients to become critically ill. Acute central neurotoxicologic syndromes associated with drugs of abuse are usually caused by an overdose of sedative-hypnotic agents (including alcohol) or opioids, withdrawal from sedative-hypnotic agents, or an overdose of anticholinergic or sympathomimetic agents. Clinical findings are often syndromic, making physical examination the most important diagnostic tool in the approach to the patient with an unknown ingestion. Treatment focusses on supportive care as the most important intervention for all such patients, augmented by antidotal therapy when appropriate. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
drug abuse among secondary school students in nine schools in Kisumu town, ... Kenya. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of age, gender and peer .... A preliminary survey of drug abuse was conducted among secondary school ..... illegal and medically prescribed psychotropic drugs from adolescence to.
Drug Abuse: A seminar organised at the Government Secondary School, Aliero, Kebbi State, Nigeria as a community development service Summary: Drug abuse is the use against its action. It is worst when hard drugs are used and this is common among the youths and schoolchildren resulting in untoward effects and even ...
Full Text Available Objectives: There are researches to point epidemiology of addiction to drugs, chemical and solvent abuse in elderlies. Drug and Solvent abuse is considered as one of these addictions. This study was point to chemical abuse among elderly population of Ahwaz an Iranian city during year of 2007. Methods & Materials: Research method is description-exploration with use to questionnaire, clinical interview and survey of medical and clinical reports among volunteer clients. Statistical community is all elderly population at one of citizen region in Ahwaz city (Iran. Seventy four dossiers were considered via random sampling; with 30 Elder volunteer clients been interviewed and replied to Elderly Drug Abuse Questionnaire (EDAQ. Results: Signification of hypothesis with X2 test was considered significant relation between age and addiction record variables to solvent abuse; this relation is very significant to second value of drug's derivations such as Morphine, Codeine, Tebaine and Heroine. Interview showed psychological dependent due to appeal them to solvent abuse. Kind of abuse among elderly was snuffing and abuse of medicine drugs which were been recommended to them by their physician. Conclusion: Although study of solvent and chemical abuse's epidemiology pointed less average of this addiction in samples, should be considered important and notice in studies. Finally, researchers were suggested to avoid of this new drug abuse and so to control behavior and interaction of these addicted and their behavior development; it's better to control on distribution of solvent and glue materials and recommending of medicine drug via physicians visiting exderlies.
Fattore, Liana; Fadda, Paola; Fratta, Walter
Many studies have provided evidence for important sex-dependent differences in the origins, outcomes and treatment of drug abuse and dependence. Preclinical studies typically have employed animal models of addiction, such as oral or intravenous self-administration, to untangle the environmental, neurobiological and genetic factors that contribute to the shift from occasional, recreational use to compulsive, uncontrolled intake of drugs. Craving and relapse of drug seeking in abstinent individuals have also been found to differ between men and women. Identification of the neurobiological basis of craving and drug dependence continues to pose a challenge to addiction research. Significant sex differences are emerging in substance-abuse-related behavior, which has increased the demand for research on how drug consumption may have different causes, progression and consequences in men and women. In keeping with epidemiological data in humans, differences between the two sexes in drug seeking and intake have been well-documented in animal studies, with most recent findings related to abuse of cannabinoids. Clinical and preclinical findings indicate that sex and gonadal hormones may account for individual differences in susceptibility to the reinforcing effects of addictive substances, and that differences in vulnerability to drug abuse may be mediated by the same biological mechanisms. This review focuses on the differences between males and females in relation to drug self-administration and how such behavior may be affected by hormonal status.
Wiencek, Joesph R; Colby, Jennifer M; Nichols, James H
Laboratory testing for drugs of abuse has become standard practice in many settings both forensic and clinical. Urine is the predominant specimen, but other specimens are possible including hair, nails, sweat, and oral fluid. Point-of-care test kits provide for rapid analysis at the site where specimens are collected allowing for immediate action on the results. POCT is based on immunochromatography where the drug in the patient's sample competes with drug and antibody conjugates in the test to develop or block the development of a colored line. Most POCTs are visually interpreted in a few minutes. The potential for false positives is possible due to drug cross-reactivity with the antibodies in the test. False negatives are also possible due to dilution of the sample and the potential for adulteration or sample substitution by the patient. POCT shows more variability than central laboratory testing because of the variety of operators involved in the testing process, but POCT has good agreement for most tests with mass spectrometry provided comparable cutoffs and cross-reactivity of drugs/metabolites are considered. Validation of the test performance with the intended operators will identify potential interferences and operational issues before implementing the test in routine practice. POCT offers faster turnaround of test results provided the limitations and challenges of the test are considered. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Leal, Karla Dalliane Batista; Leopoldino, Ramon Weyler Duarte; Martins, Rand Randall; Veríssimo, Lourena Mafra
To investigate potential intravenous drug incompatibilities and related risk factors in a pediatric unit. A cross-sectional analytical study conducted in the pediatric unit of a university hospital in Brazil. Data on prescriptions given to children aged 0-15 years from June to October 2014 were collected. Prescriptions that did not include intravenous drugs and prescriptions with incomplete dosage regimen or written in poor handwriting were excluded. Associations between variables and the risk of potential incompatibility were investigated using the Student's t test and ANOVA; the level of significance was set at 5% (ppenicilina G e ceftriaxona. Quase 85% das crianças apresentaram ao menos uma potencial incompatibilidade, razão de 1,2 incompatibilidades/paciente. Os tipos de incompatibilidades mais comuns foram: não testada (93,4%), precipitação (5,5%), turbidez (0,7%) e decomposição química (0,4%). Os fatores associados a potenciais incompatibilidades foram: número de medicamentos e a prescrição dos medicamentos diazepam, fenitoína, fenobarbital e metronidazol. A maioria das prescrições pediátricas apresentou potenciais incompatibilidades e a incompatibilidade não testada foi o tipo mais comum. O número de medicamentos e a prescrição dos medicamentos diazepam, fenobarbital, fenitoína e metronidazol foram fatores de risco para potenciais incompatibilidades.
Deykin, Eva Y.; And Others
Interviews of 434 college students revealed that prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) was 6.8 percent; of alcohol abuse, 8.2 percent; and of substance abuse, 9.4 percent. Alcohol and substance abuse were associated with MDD. Substance abuse was associated with other psychiatric diagnoses as well. MDD usually preceded alcohol or substance…
Full Text Available The causes of drug abuse and criminal behavior are closely linked. Not surprisingly, there is a high percentage of prisoners who during sentence execution abuse or are dependent on drugs. Antisocial personality disorder can be considered a common predictor of committing criminal offenses and drug abuse. A review of studies has revealed a high prevalence of inmates who use drugs while serving a sentence. Also, prison environment represents only a new context of the continuum of drug abuse by inmates. There are different theoretical approaches in explaining this phenomenon. Treatment programs based on empirically validated principles that guarantee the effectiveness, may be one strategy for solving the problem of drug abuse in prisons, with multiple positive effects.
Fowler, J.S.; Volkow, N.D.; Ding, Y.S.; Logan, J.; Wang, G.J.
There is overwhelming evidence that addiction is a disease of the brain (Leshner, 1997). Yet public perception that addiction is a reflection of moral weakness or a lack of willpower persists. The insidious consequence of this perception is that we lose sight of the fact that there are enormous medical consequences of addiction including the fact that a large fraction of the total deaths from cancer and heart disease are caused by smoking addiction. Ironically the medical school that educates physicians in addiction medicine and the cancer hospital that has a smoking cessation clinic are vanishingly rare and efforts at harm reduction are frequently met with a public indignation. Meanwhile the number of people addicted to substances is enormous and increasing particularly the addictions to cigarettes and alcohol. It is particularly tragic that addiction usually begins in adolescence and becomes a chronic relapsing problem and there are basically no completely effective treatments. Clearly we need to understand how drugs of abuse affect the brain and we need to be creative in using this information to develop effective treatments. Imaging technologies have played a major role in the conceptualization of addiction as a disease of the brain (Fowler et al., 1998a; Fowler et al., 1999a). New knowledge has been driven by advances in radiotracer design and chemistry and positron emission tomography (PET) instrumentation and the integration of these scientific tools with the tools of biochemistry, pharmacology and medicine. This topic cuts across the medical specialties of neurology, psychiatry, cancer and heart disease because of the high medical, social and economic toll that drugs of abuse, including and especially the legal drugs, cigarettes and alcohol, take on society. In this chapter we will begin by highlighting the important role that chemistry has played in making it possible to quantitatively image the movement of drugs as well as their effects on the human brain
Pardo Lozano, Ricardo; Alvarez García, Yolanda; Barral Tafalla, Diego; Farré Albaladejo, Magí
Coffee, tea, chocolate and caffeinated drinks are the main sources of caffeine, which is consumed in almost all ages and socioeconomic levels. Caffeine acts as a non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist in the central nervous system. Its main effects are as psychostimulant, acting in addition on the respiratory, muscular and cardiovascular systems. Basically, caffeine is metabolized by the hepatic cytochrome P-450 1A2 enzymes (CYP1A2). Several drugs can interact with its metabolism. The observed interindividual differences of its effects can be explained by variations in its metabolism. The main therapeutic use of caffeine is bronchodilator in respiratory diseases. Other possible uses are under investigation. Acute or chronic consumption of caffeine can induce several adverse effects, including intoxication that can be lethal. Finally, caffeine can be considered a drug of abuse. It has positive reinforcing actions, produces tolerance, and a withdrawal syndrome after stopping its consumption. Caffeine can cause different mental disorders such as dependence, which is not included in the DSM-IV-R, withdrawal syndrome and intoxication. Depending on its use, caffeine can be considered a nutrient, a drug or a drug of abuse.
... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse, and National Cancer Advisory Board... Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse, and National...: National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse, and...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) series measures the prevalence and correlates of drug use in the United States. The surveys are designed to...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) series measures the prevalence and correlates of drug use in the United States. The surveys are designed to...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) series measures the prevalence and correlates of drug use in the United States. The surveys are designed to...
Before, the use of illicit drugs was blamed on family background and peer influence. This ... prevalence of both depression and drug abuse among the students. There is ... recommended that homes and school environment should be made more friendly to enable the students .... abuse can expose children to behaviour.
The purpose of the study was to survey drug abuse problems among students of selected secondary schools in Ile-Ife in Osun State. Specifically, the study was to find out the reasons for drug abuse among students. The major instrument used to collect needed information was the questionnaire which was distributed to ...
identification, prevention and management of drug misuse and abuse. Results: A total number .... problem among families/friends, a little more than one-quarter of students ..... treatment of over-the-counter drug misuse and abuse in community ...
Nenadic-Bilan, Diana; Vigato, Teodora
The national strategies of drug abuse prevention across Europe have come to recognise that the drug abuse problem presents a complex set of issues of which there is no simple solution. There is a considerable increase in investment in prevention, treatment and harm-reduction activities and increased focus on supply reduction. School settings are…
Jones, Beth A.; Fullwood, Harry; Hawthorn, Melissa
With the growing awareness of adolescent prescription drug abuse, communities and schools are beginning to explore prevention and intervention strategies which are appropriate for their youth. This article provides a framework for developing a collaborative approach to prescription drug abuse prevention--called the Prevention Awareness Team--that…
Descriptive (simple percentage) and inferential statistics (t-test, chi square and ANOVA) were used in analyzing the quota for the students. The result showed that male students are more susceptible to drug abuse than their female counterpart, that students mainly abuse drugs such as Alcohol, Cigarettes, Indian hemp, and ...
LeBlanc, Kimberly H; Maidment, Nigel T; Ostlund, Sean B
The incentive sensitization theory of addiction posits that repeated exposure to drugs of abuse, like cocaine, can lead to long-term adaptations in the neural circuits that support motivated behavior, providing an account of pathological drug-seeking behavior. Although pre-clinical findings provide strong support for this theory, much remains unknown about the conditions that support incentive sensitization. The current study examined whether the mode of cocaine administration is an important factor governing that drug's long-term impact on behavior. Separate groups of rats were allowed either to self-administer intravenous cocaine or were given an equivalent number and distribution of unsignaled cocaine or saline infusions. During the subsequent test of incentive motivation (Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer), we found that rats with a history of cocaine self-administration showed strong cue-evoked food seeking, in contrast to rats given unsignaled cocaine or saline. This finding indicates that the manner in which cocaine is administered can determine its lasting behavioral effects, suggesting that subjective experiences during drug use play a critical role in the addiction process. Our findings may therefore have important implications for the study and treatment of compulsive drug seeking. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Johanson, C E
In order to place appropriate restrictions upon the availability of certain therapeutic agents to limit their abuse, it is important to assess abuse liability, an important aspect of drug safety evaluation. However, the negative consequences of restriction must also be considered. Drugs most likely to be tested are psychoactive compounds with therapeutic indications similar to known drugs of abuse. Methods include assays of pharmacological profile, drug discrimination procedures, self-administration procedures, and measures of drug-induced toxicity including evaluations of tolerance and physical dependence. Furthermore, the evaluation of toxicity using behavioural end-points is an important component of the assessment, and it is generally believed that the most valid procedure in this evaluation is the measurement of drug self-administration. However, even this method rarely predicts the extent of abuse of a specific drug. Although methods are available which appear to measure relative abuse liability, these procedures are not validated for all drug classes. Thus, additional strategies, including abuse liability studies in humans, modelled after those used with animals, must be used in order to make a more informed prediction. Although there is pressure to place restrictions on new drugs at the time of marketing, in light of the difficulty of predicting relative abuse potential, a better strategy might be to market a drug without restrictions, but require postmarketing surveillance in order to obtain more accurate information on which to base a final decision.
Kantak, Kathleen M
Drug addiction is a chronically relapsing brain disorder. There is an urgent need for new treatment options for this disease because the relapse rate among drug abusers seeking treatment is quite high. During the past decade, many groups have explored the feasibility of using vaccines directed against drugs of abuse as a means of eliminating illicit drug use as well as drug overdose and neurotoxicity. Vaccines work by inducing drug-specific antibodies in the bloodstream that bind to the drug of abuse and prevent its entry into the brain. The majority of work in this area has been conducted with vaccines and antibodies directed against cocaine and nicotine. On the basis of preclinical work, vaccines for cocaine and nicotine are now in clinical trials because they can offer long-term protection with minimal treatment compliance. In addition, vaccines and antibodies for phencyclidine, methamphetamine and heroin abuse are currently under development. An underlying theme in this research is the need for high concentrations of circulating drug-specific antibodies to reduce drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviour when the drug is repeatedly available, especially in high doses. Although vaccines against drugs of abuse may become a viable treatment option, there are several drawbacks that need to be considered. These include: a lack of protection against a structurally dissimilar drug that produces the same effects as the drug of choice;a lack of an effect on drug craving that predisposes an addict to relapse; and tremendous individual variability in antibody formation. Forced or coerced vaccination is not likely to work from a scientific perspective, and also carries serious legal and ethical concerns. All things considered, vaccination against a drug of abuse is likely to work best with individuals who are highly motivated to quit using drugs altogether and as part of a comprehensive treatment programme. As such, the medical treatment of drug abuse will not be radically
... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis..., National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room 4227, MSC 9550, 6001 Executive Boulevard, Bethesda, MD....279, Drug Abuse and [[Page 23829
... evaluation of individual intramural programs and projects conducted by the National Institute on Drug Abuse... individual investigators. Place: Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, Johns... Psychologist, Clinical Pharmacology Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse...
Kumar, Santosh; Rao, P S S; Earla, Ravindra; Kumar, Anil
Substance abuse is a common problem among HIV-infected individuals. Importantly, addictions as well as moderate use of alcohol, smoking, or other illicit drugs have been identified as major reasons for non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among HIV patients. The literature also suggests a decrease in the response to ART among HIV patients who use these substances, leading to failure to achieve optimal virological response and increased disease progression. This review discusses the challenges with adherence to ART as well as observed drug interactions and known toxicities with major drugs of abuse, such as alcohol, smoking, methamphetamine, cocaine, marijuana, and opioids. The lack of adherence and drug interactions potentially lead to decreased efficacy of ART drugs and increased ART, and drugs of abuse-mediated toxicity. As CYP is the common pathway in metabolizing both ART and drugs of abuse, we discuss the possible involvement of CYP pathways in such drug interactions. We acknowledge that further studies focusing on common metabolic pathways involving CYP and advance research in this area would help to potentially develop novel/alternate interventions and drug dose/regimen adjustments to improve medication outcomes in HIV patients who consume drugs of abuse.
Freisthler, Bridget; Wolf, Jennifer Price; Wiegmann, Wendy; Kepple, Nancy J
Although drug use is considered a risk factor for child maltreatment, very little work has examined how the drug environment may affect physical abuse and neglect by parents. Utilizing information from a telephone survey with 2,597 respondents from 43 cities with valid police data on narcotics incidents, we analyzed the relationship between drug use, drug availability, and child maltreatment using multilevel models. City-level rates of drug abuse and dependence were related to more frequent physical abuse. Parents who use drugs in areas with greater availability of drugs reported more physical abuse and physical neglect. Emotional support was protective of all types of maltreatment. While most child welfare interventions focus on reducing parental drug use in order to reduce child abuse, these findings suggest environmental prevention or neighborhood strengthening approaches designed to reduce the supply of illicit drugs may also reduce child abuse through multiple mechanisms.
Busto, U; Bendayan, R; Sellers, E M
The present review discusses the available data on the kinetic properties of non-opiate abused drugs including psychomotor stimulants, hallucinogens and CNS-depressants. Some of the drugs of abuse reviewed here are illicit drugs (e.g. cannabis, cocaine), while others are effective pharmacological agents but have the potential to be abused (e.g. benzodiazepines). Although some of the drugs mentioned in this review have been in use for centuries (e.g. caffeine, nicotine, cocaine, cannabis), knowledge of their kinetics and metabolism is very recent and in some cases still incomplete. This is partially due to the difficulties inherent in studying drugs of abuse in humans, and to the complex metabolism of some of these drugs (e.g. cannabis, caffeine) which has made it difficult to develop sensitive assays to determine biological pathways. Although drugs of abuse may have entirely different intrinsic pharmacological effects, the kinetic properties of such drugs are factors contributing to abuse and dependence. The pharmacokinetic properties that presumably contribute to self-administration and drug abuse include rapid delivery of the drug into the central nervous system and high free drug clearance. Kinetic characteristics also play an important role in the development of physical dependence and on the appearance of a withdrawal syndrome: the longer the half-life, the greater the likelihood of the development of physical dependence; the shorter the half-life, the earlier and more severe the withdrawal. The balance between these 2 factors, which has not yet been carefully studied, will also influence abuse patterns. The clinical significance of kinetic characteristics with respect to abuse is discussed where possible.
Prescription drug abuse is a growing problem in the United States and many other countries. Estimates of prescription drug abuse rates during pregnancy range from 5% to 20%. The primary prescription drugs designated as controlled drugs with abuse potential in pregnancy are opiates prescribed for pain, benzodiazepines prescribed for anxiety, and stimulants prescribed for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Prescription drugs are obtained for abuse through diversion methods, such as purchasing them from others or by doctor shopping. The use of prescription drugs puts both the mother and the fetus at high risk during pregnancy. Identification of women who are abusing prescription drugs is important so that treatment can be ensured. It is crucial for healthcare professionals to use a multidisciplinary approach and be supportive and maintain a good rapport with pregnant women who abuse prescription drugs. Management includes inpatient hospitalization for detoxification and withdrawal symptoms, and in the case of opiate abuse, opiate maintenance is recommended for pregnant women for the duration of their pregnancy to reduce relapse rates and improve maternal and fetal outcomes. Other recommendations include referral for support groups and supportive housing.
Musiał, Barbara; Czaja-Bulsa, Grazyna; Szechter-Grycewicz, Aneta; Brodzińska, Beata; Marasz, Agata
The aim of this work was to determine the extent and causes of drinking and drug abuse by the youth. A questionnaire was administered to 918 students aged 13-16 years from five gymnasia in Stettin. The results were analyzed statistically. In the group of 918 students, 76% were alcohol drinkers and 15% abused psychoactive substances. Among causes of drinking and drug abuse were family and personal problems, impressing colleagues, fashion, advertisements, and stress. Alcohol drinking and drug abuse are not only a response to personal and family problems, but also the result of role models accepted by gymnasium students. Lack of control and support within the family are factors liberating alcohol consumption and drug abuse among the youth.
Anne Marie Ciobanu
Full Text Available Consumption of drugs of abuse is a scourge of modern world. Abuse, drug addiction and their consequences are one of the major current problems of European society because of the significant repercussions in individual, family, social and economic level. In this context, toxicological analysis of the drugs of abuse in biological samples is a useful tool for: diagnosis of drug addiction, checking an auto-response, mandatory screening in some treatment programs, identification of a substance in the case of an overdose, determining compliance of the treatment. The present paper aims to address the needs of healthcare professionals involved in drugs addiction treatment through systematic presentation of information regarding their toxicological analysis. Basically, it is a tool that help you to select the suitable biological sample and the right collecting time, as well as the proper analysis technique, depending on the purpose of analysis, pharmacokinetic characteristics of the drugs of abuse, available equipment and staff expertise.
... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a... meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse. The meeting will be open to the public, with attendance limited to space available...
Office of Policy Development, Washington, DC.
This document describes the Federal response to drug abuse and drug trafficking. The actions of President Reagan, in Executive Order 12368, establishing an official advisor on drug abuse policy matters, and the priorities, issues, and objectives (international cooperation, drug law enforcement, education and prevention, detoxification and…
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Non-residential drug abuse treatment... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.52 Non-residential drug abuse treatment services. All institutions must have non-residential drug abuse treatment services, provided...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Residential Drug Abuse Treatment Program... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.53 Residential Drug Abuse Treatment... components: (1) Unit-based component. Inmates must complete a course of activities provided by drug abuse...
Weller, I V; Cohn, D; Sierralta, A; Mitcheson, M; Ross, M G; Montano, L; Scheuer, P; Thomas, H C
Heroin abusers are frequently found to have abnormal liver function tests and hepatic histology. Hepatitis viruses A, B, and NANB, other drugs or drug contaminants and excessive alcohol consumption are factors thought to contribute. One hundred and sixteen heroin abusers attending a London treatment centre were studied. Sixty two (53%) had a raised aspartate transaminase. This was not explained by current infection with hepatitis A and B, cytomegalo or Epstein-Barr viruses, excessive alcohol consumption (greater than 80 g/day) or concomitant drug taking. Abnormal liver function tests were as frequent in those with markers of current or past HBV infection as those without and there was evidence that both HBV infection and the cause of the abnormal liver function tests were acquired in the first few years of intravenous drug abuse. Liver biopsies from eight patients showed chronic hepatitis with a mild lobular and portal inflammatory infiltrate, fatty change and prominent sinusoidal cells. Electron microscopy showed cytoplasmic trilaminar tubular structures and dense fused membranes in dilated endoplasmic reticulum. These clinical, biochemical, serological, and histological features would suggest a major role for NANB virus infection in the aetiology of hepatitis in heroin abusers. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:6423458
Martinez, Diana; Narendran, Rajesh
Previous studies have shown that imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) radiotracers that are specific for brain dopamine receptors can be used to indirectly image the change in the levels of neurotransmitters within the brain. Most of the studies in addiction have focused on dopamine, since the dopamine neurons that project to the striatum have been shown to play a critical role in mediating addictive behavior. These imaging studies have shown that increased extracellular dopamine produced by psychostimulants can be measured with PET and SPECT. However, there are some technical issues associated with imaging changes in dopamine, and these are reviewed in this chapter. Among these are the loss of sensitivity, the time course of dopamine pulse relative to PET and SPECT imaging, and the question of affinity state of the receptor. In addition, animal studies have shown that most drugs of abuse increase extracellular dopamine in the striatum, yet not all produce a change in neurotransmitter that can be measured. As a result, imaging with a psychostimulant has become the preferred method for imaging presynaptic dopamine transmission, and this method has been used in studies of addiction. The results of these studies suggest that cocaine and alcohol addiction are associated with a loss of dopamine transmission, and a number of studies show that this loss correlates with severity of disease.
It was also revealed that the above drugs and substances were the most used and abused. While snuffs and marijuana were the least abused substances. Based on the findings some counselling implications were highlighted and recommendations made.. The Nigerian Journal of Guidance Counselling Vol. 10 (1) 2005: pp ...
Drug abuse remains both a global scourge and a significant social and medical problem ... medicine at the Wits Emergency Medicine Department, ATLS Director, occasional media spokesman, .... Respiratory depression caused by morphine.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) survey is designed to capture data on emergency department (ED) episodes that are induced by or related to the use of an...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) survey is designed to capture data on emergency department (ED) episodes that are induced by or related to the use of an...
Methadone maintenance therapy as evidence based drug abuse planning in ... drugs are being used as artificial problem-solvers such as frustrations, stress or ... Drug use is a problem to users when it begins to cause some damage to their ...
farideh faraji; Neda Kakayi; Mohammad Kazem Atef Vahid; Ahmad Sohraby; Samira Purghorbani
Objective: The present study was conducted to identify risk and prediction factors of suicide attempts among drug abusers. Method: This causal-comparative study was conducted on 91 drug abusers that included 42 male and female suicide attempters and 49 male and female counterparts. Millon multi-axial personality inventory-II (MCMI-II), Dass-42 (depression, anxiety, stress), and coping styles inventory were used for data collection purposes. Results: The highest rate of suicide attempt was fou...
Michels, Ingo Ilja; Fang, Yu-Xia; Zhao, Dong; Zhao, Li-Yan; Lu, Lin
Drug abuse has a long, but also different history in Germany and China. The Opium War largely influenced the history of China in 19th century; however, China was once recognized as a drug-free nation for 3 decades from the 1950s to the 1980s. Drug abuse has spread quickly since re-emerging as a national problem in China in the late 1980s. The number of registered drug abusers increased from 70 000 in 1990 to more than 1 million by the end of 2005. In past decades, illicit drug trafficking and production have swept most provinces in China, and drug abuse has caused many problems for both abusers and the community. One major drug-related problem is the spread of HIV, which has caused major social and economic damage in China. Germany, the largest developed European country, also faces the drug and addiction problem. Germany has about 150 000 heroin addicts, for whom HIV/AIDS has become a serious threat since the mid 1980s. To control the drug problem, the German Government adopted the pAction Plan on Drugs and Addictionq in 2003; the China Central Government approved a similar regulation in the antidrug campaign in 2005. Germany has experience in reducing drug-related harm. The methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) program has run for more than 20 years and the public has become more tolerant of addicts. In 2003, China began the MMT program for controlling the spread of HIV/AIDS. It is necessary for China to learn from developed countries to acquire success in its antidrug campaign. In this review, we will go over the differences and similarities in drug abuse between Germany and China. The differences are related to history, population and economics, drug policy context, drug laws, HIV/hepatitis C virus infection, the MMT program and so on. These 2 nations have drug abuse problems with different histories and currently use different approaches to handle illicit drug marketing and use. The legal penalties for illicit drug offences reflect the social differences of
Swedberg, Michael D B
Drug discrimination studies for assessment of psychoactive properties of drugs in safety pharmacology and drug abuse and drug dependence potential evaluation have traditionally been focused on testing novel compounds against standard drugs for which drug abuse has been documented, e.g. opioids, CNS stimulants, cannabinoids etc. (e.g. Swedberg & Giarola, 2015), and results are interpreted such that the extent to which the test drug causes discriminative effects similar to those of the standard training drug, the test drug would be further characterized as a potential drug of abuse. Regulatory guidance for preclinical assessment of abuse liability by the European Medicines Agency (EMA, 2006), the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA, 2010), the International Conference of Harmonization (ICH, 2009), and the Japanese Ministry of Health Education and Welfare (MHLW, 1994) detail that compounds with central nervous system (CNS) activity, whether by design or not, need abuse and dependence liability assessment. Therefore, drugs with peripheral targets and a potential to enter the CNS, as parent or metabolite, are also within scope (see Swedberg, 2013, for a recent review and strategy). Compounds with novel mechanisms of action present a special challenge due to unknown abuse potential, and should be carefully assessed against defined risk criteria. Apart from compounds sharing mechanisms of action with known drugs of abuse, compounds intended for indications currently treated with drugs with potential for abuse and or dependence are also within scope, regardless of mechanism of action. Examples of such compounds are analgesics, anxiolytics, cognition enhancers, appetite control drugs, sleep control drugs and drugs for psychiatric indications. Recent results (Swedberg et al., 2014; Swedberg & Raboisson, 2014; Swedberg, 2015) on the metabotropic glutamate receptor type 5 (mGluR5) antagonists demonstrate that compounds causing hallucinatory effects in humans did not exhibit
Full Text Available Magalie Paillet-Loilier,1 Alexandre Cesbron,1 Reynald Le Boisselier,2 Joanna Bourgine,1 Danièle Debruyne1,2 1Toxicology and Pharmacology Laboratory, 2Centre d'Evaluation et d'Information sur la Pharmacodépendance – Addictovigilance (CEIP-A, Department of Pharmacology, University Hospital Centre, Caen, France Abstract: Substituted cathinones are synthetic analogs of cathinone that can be considered as derivatives of phenethylamines with a beta-keto group on the side chain. They appeared in the recreational drug market in the mid-2000s and now represent a large class of new popular drugs of abuse. Initially considered as legal highs, their legal status is variable by country and is rapidly changing, with government institutions encouraging their control. Some cathinones (such as diethylpropion or pyrovalerone have been used in a medical setting and bupropion is actually indicated for smoking cessation. Substituted cathinones are widely available from internet websites, retail shops, and street dealers. They can be sold under chemical, evocative or generic names, making their identification difficult. Fortunately, analytical methods have been developed in recent years to solve this problem. Available as powders, substituted cathinones are self-administered by snorting, oral injestion, or intravenous injection. They act as central nervous system stimulants by causing the release of catecholamines (dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin and blocking their reuptake in the central and peripheral nervous system. They may also decrease dopamine and serotonin transporter function as nonselective substrates or potent blockers and may inhibit monoamine oxidase effects. Nevertheless, considerable differences have been found in the potencies of the different substituted cathinones in vitro. Desired effects reported by users include increased energy, empathy, and improved libido. Cardiovascular (tachycardia, hypertension and psychiatric
Full Text Available Objective: The present study was conducted to identify risk and prediction factors of suicide attempts among drug abusers. Method: This causal-comparative study was conducted on 91 drug abusers that included 42 male and female suicide attempters and 49 male and female counterparts. Millon multi-axial personality inventory-II (MCMI-II, Dass-42 (depression, anxiety, stress, and coping styles inventory were used for data collection purposes. Results: The highest rate of suicide attempt was found in young male drug abusers with these characteristics: single, junior school graduate, unemployed, suicide history, sex and physical abuse history during childhood, legal problems, suicide and self-injury witness, and violence and suicide in family members. Compared to non-attempters, suicide attempters obtained higher scores in depressive, obsessive, masochistic, and borderline personality disorders clinical somatoform symptoms, alcohol abuse in addition to drug use, major depressive disorder, and stress. Suicide attempters also used lower levels of task-focused and avoidance-focused strategies and higher levels of emotion-focused strategies to cope with stressors. Conclusion: The findings of this study can contribute to suicide identification and prevention among drug abusers.
Romach, Myroslava K; Schoedel, Kerri A; Sellers, Edward M
Psychoactive drugs that increase alertness, attention and concentration and energy, while also elevating mood, heart rate and blood pressure are referred to as stimulants. Despite some overlapping similarities, stimulants cannot be easily categorized by their chemical structure, mechanism of action, receptor binding profile, effects on monoamine uptake, behavioral pharmacology (e.g., effects on locomotion, temperature, and blood pressure), therapeutic indication or efficacy. Because of their abuse liability, a pre-market assessment of abuse potential is required for drugs that show stimulant properties; this review article focuses on the clinical aspects of this evaluation. This includes clinical trial adverse events, evidence of diversion or tampering, overdoses and the results of a human abuse potential study. While there are different types of human experimental studies that can be employed to evaluate stimulant abuse potential (e.g., drug discrimination, self-administration), only the human abuse potential study and clinical trial adverse event data are required for drug approval. The principal advances that have improved human abuse potential studies include using study enrichment strategies (pharmacologic qualification), larger sample sizes, better selection of endpoints and measurement strategies and more carefully considered interpretation of data. Because of the methodological advances, comparisons of newer studies with historical data is problematic and may contribute to a biased regulatory framework for the evaluation of newer stimulant-like drugs, such as A2 antagonists. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'CNS Stimulants'. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ryan, Joseph P.; Marsh, Jeanne C.; Testa, Mark F.; Louderman, Richard
Alcohol and other drug abuse is a major problem for children and families involved with public child welfare. Substance abuse compromises appropriate parenting practices and increases the risk of child maltreatment. A substantial proportion of substantiated child abuse and neglect reports involve parental substance abuse. Once in the system,…
Schiffer, Wynne K. [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)], E-mail: email@example.com; Liebling, Courtney N.B.; Patel, Vinal; Dewey, Stephen L. [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)
Although imaging studies in and of themselves have significant contributions to the study of human behavior, imaging in drug abuse has a much broader agenda. Drugs of abuse bind to molecules in specific parts of the brain in order to produce their effects. Positron emission tomography (PET) provides a unique opportunity to track this process, capturing the kinetics with which an abused compound is transported to its site of action. The specific examples discussed here were chosen to illustrate how PET can be used to map the regional distribution and kinetics of compounds that may or may not have abuse liability. We also discussed some morphological and functional changes associated with drug abuse and different stages of recovery following abstinence. PET measurements of functional changes in the brain have also led to the development of several treatment strategies, one of which is discussed in detail here. Information such as this becomes more than a matter of academic interest. Such knowledge can provide the bases for anticipating which compounds may be abused and which may not. It can also be used to identify biological markers or changes in brain function that are associated with progression from drug use to drug abuse and also to stage the recovery process. This new knowledge can guide legislative initiatives on the optimal duration of mandatory treatment stays, promoting long-lasting abstinence and greatly reducing the societal burden of drug abuse. Imaging can also give some insights into potential pharmacotherapeutic targets to manage the reinforcing effects of addictive compounds, as well as into protective strategies to minimize their toxic consequences.
Schiffer, Wynne K.; Liebling, Courtney N.B.; Patel, Vinal; Dewey, Stephen L.
Although imaging studies in and of themselves have significant contributions to the study of human behavior, imaging in drug abuse has a much broader agenda. Drugs of abuse bind to molecules in specific parts of the brain in order to produce their effects. Positron emission tomography (PET) provides a unique opportunity to track this process, capturing the kinetics with which an abused compound is transported to its site of action. The specific examples discussed here were chosen to illustrate how PET can be used to map the regional distribution and kinetics of compounds that may or may not have abuse liability. We also discussed some morphological and functional changes associated with drug abuse and different stages of recovery following abstinence. PET measurements of functional changes in the brain have also led to the development of several treatment strategies, one of which is discussed in detail here. Information such as this becomes more than a matter of academic interest. Such knowledge can provide the bases for anticipating which compounds may be abused and which may not. It can also be used to identify biological markers or changes in brain function that are associated with progression from drug use to drug abuse and also to stage the recovery process. This new knowledge can guide legislative initiatives on the optimal duration of mandatory treatment stays, promoting long-lasting abstinence and greatly reducing the societal burden of drug abuse. Imaging can also give some insights into potential pharmacotherapeutic targets to manage the reinforcing effects of addictive compounds, as well as into protective strategies to minimize their toxic consequences
Lupattelli, Tommaso; Garaci, Francesco Giuseppe; Basile, Antonio; Minnella, Daniela Paola; Casini, Andrea; Clerissi, Jacques
Mycotic false aneurysm caused by local arterial injury from attempted intravenous injections in drug addicts remains a challenging clinical problem. The continued increase in drug abuse has resulted in an increased incidence of this problem, particularly in high-volume urban centres. In the drug-abusing population, mycotic arterial pseudoaneurysms most often occur because of missed venous injection and are typically seen in the groin, axilla, and antecubital fossa. Mycotic aneurysms may lead to life-threatening haemorrhage, limb loss, sepsis, and even death. Any soft-tissue swelling in the vicinity of a major artery in an intravenous drug abuser should be suspected of being a false aneurysm until proven otherwise and should prompt immediate referral to a vascular surgeon for investigation and management. We report a case of rupturing mycotic pseudoaneurysm of the left common femoral artery treated by surgical resection followed by vessel reconstruction with autologous material. Unfortunately, at the time of discharge a sudden leakage from the vein graft anastomosis occurred, with subsequent massive bleeding, and required emergent endovascular covered stenting. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of femoral artery bleeding in a drug abuser treated by stent graft placement.
Sutanto, Azizah, Afina; Widyaningsih, Purnami; Saputro, Dewi Retno Sari
Drug abuse in the world quite astonish and tend to increase. The increase and decrease on the number of drug abusers showed a pattern of spread that had the same characteristics with patterns of spread of infectious disease. The susceptible infected removed (SIR) and susceptible exposed infected removed (SEIR) epidemic models for infectious disease was developed to study social epidemic. In this paper, SEIR model for disease epidemic was developed to study drug abuse epidemic with rehabilitation treatment. The aims of this paper were to analogize susceptible exposed infected isolated recovered (SEIIrR) model on the drug abusers, to determine solutions of the model, to determine equilibrium point, and to do simulation on β. The solutions of SEIIrR model was determined by using fourth order of Runge-Kutta algorithm, equilibrium point obtained was free-drug equilibrium point. Solutions of SEIIrR showed that the model was able to suppress the spread of drug abuse. The increasing value of contact rate was not affect the number of infected individuals due to rehabilitation treatment.
Friedmann, P D; Lemon, S C; Stein, M D
To determine whether certain types of transportation assistance improve outpatient treatment retention beyond thresholds shown to have therapeutic benefits, we analyzed data from 1,144 clients in 22 outpatient methadone maintenance (OMM) programs and 2,031 clients in 22 outpatient drug-free (ODF) programs in the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcomes Study (DATOS), a national, 12-month, longitudinal study of drug abuse treatment programs. Directors' surveys provided information about provision of car, van, or contracted transportation services or individual vouchers/payment for public transportation. Chart-abstracted treatment retention was dichotomized at 365 days for OMM and 90 days for ODF. Separate multivariate hierarchical linear models revealed that provision of car, van, or contracted transportation services improved treatment retention beyond these thresholds for both OMM and ODF, but individual vouchers or payment for public transportation did not. Future research should validate whether car, van, or contracted transportation services improve retention and other treatment outcomes in outpatient drug abuse treatment.
Texas, USA, where alcohol was found to be the primary drug of abuse in ... distributed among inpatients at 2 selected treatment centres ... group participants attributed their reasons for drug use to family ... NW provinces, where one currently finds limited data. .... full-time, 26% were unemployed, and 25% were students.
Hawkins, J. David; And Others
A test was conducted of a supplemental skills training and social-network-development aftercare program with 130 drug abusers from four residential therapeutic communities. The intervention produced positive effects on subjects' performance at the conclusion of treatment. Performance improved in situations involving avoidance of drug use, coping…
HILL, PATRICIA J.; KITZINGER, ANGELA
THIS SOURCEBOOK CONTAINS INFORMATION TO HELP TEACHERS INSTRUCT ABOUT DRUGS AND DISCOURAGE DRUG ABUSE. THE INFORMATION IS APPLICABLE TO ANY GROUP OR GRADE LEVEL BUT IT IS PRIMARILY DIRECTED AT A K-12 PROGRAM. THE CONTENT HAS BEEN SELECTED, ORGANIZED, AND PRESENTED IN TERMS OF PRESUMED TEACHER NEED AND IS NOT INTENDED FOR DIRECT PUPIL USE.…
Downey, Ann M.
Explored the hypothesis that the increased use, misuse, and abuse of drugs is one of the myriad explanations for the escalation in youth suicidal behavior during the past 25 years. Used clinical case histories and research results to exemplify the impact of heightened drug usage as an argument for the upsurge in youth suicide. (Author/LLL)
Shimon, Jane; Gibson, Terry-Ann; Spear, Caile
Objectives: By participating in this Stop the Tears teaching strategy, students will be able to: (1) analyze how alcohol and drug abuse could affect their lives as well as the lives of their friends and family and, (2) create a media message, such as a poster, pamphlet, poem, or song, in which alcohol and drug prevention is advocated specific to…
Porter, Novelli and Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.
This booklet, written for adolescents, focuses on the individual's role and responsibility, both to themselves and their friends, in preventing drug abuse problems. Short statements define the influence of peer pressure on prevention, friendship, and intervention. The results of a ninth grade student survey list 22 reasons for using drugs,…
Gu, Zhengtian; Wong, Anissa; Raquinio, Elvira; Nguyen, Alice
Intravenous (IV) infusions of telavancin for injection are generally administered in-hospital, but in some circumstances they may be administered in an outpatient environment. In that setting, antibiotics may be premixed and frozen. This study determined the chemical stability of nonpreserved telavancin in various commonly used reconstitution diluents stored in IV bags (polyvinyl chloride [PVC] and PVC-free) at -20°C (-4°F) without light. Telavancin (750 mg/vial) was reconstituted with 5% dextrose injection USP (D5W) or 0.9% sodium chloride injection USP (NS) to obtain drug solutions at approximately 15 mg/mL. Infusion solutions of telavancin at diluted concentrations of 0.6 mg/mL and 8.0 mg/mL covering the range utilized in clinical practice were prepared in both PVC and PVC-free IV bags using D5W or NS solutions. The infusion solutions were stored under frozen conditions (-20°C ± 5°C [-4°F ± 41°F]) and the chemical stability was evaluated for up to 32 days. Telavancin concentration, purity, and degradant levels were determined using a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Telavancin IV infusion solutions in D5W or NS at 0.6 mg/mL and 8 mg/mL and stored at -20°C (-4°F) met the chemical stability criteria when tested on days 0, 7, 14, and 32. The assayed telavancin concentration at each time point was within 97% to 103% of the initial mean assay value. The total degradants quantified by the HPLC stability-indicating method did not show any significant change over the 32-day study period. Telavancin IV infusion solutions (in D5W or NS) in both PVC and PVC-free IV bags were stable for at least 32 days when stored at -20°C (-4°F) without light. These results provide prolonged frozen stability data further to that previously established for 7 days under refrigerated conditions (2°C-8°C [36°F -46°F]), and for 12 hours at room temperature when diluted into IV bags containing D5W, NS, or lactated Ringer's solution.
Full Text Available Background. The aim of the study was to explore the epidemiology of drug abuse treatment in South Africa. Methods. Treatment demand statistics were analysed from South African National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the South African Community Epidemiology Network on Drug Use records, and a rapid situation assessment was conducted. Twenty-one key informant interviews were conducted in all 9 provinces among provincial substance abuse co-ordinators, and one manager per treatment centre from a sample of treatment centres. Three focus groups were conducted and 46 self-administered questionnaires were distributed among inpatients at 2 selected treatment centres in Free State and North West provinces. Qualitative data were analysed using grounded theory, and quantitative data analysed using SPSS. Results. Treatment records show that the most frequent substance of abuse was alcohol (51%, followed by cannabis (21%, crack/cocaine (9.6%, heroin/opiates (7.9%, methamphetamine (Tik (4.5%, prescription/over-the-counter drugs (2.0%, and cannabis/mandrax (1.7%. More substance abusers were male, of lower education, white or black, than were female, more highly educated, coloured and Indian/Asian. Key informant interviews showed that females are the ‘hidden’ substance abusers and tend not to be identified in research statistics and at treatment centres. Poverty, unemployment, lack of recreational facilities, being surrounded by substance abusers, and long work shifts were also mentioned as factors contributing to substance abuse. The age of initiation of substance abuse using non-drugs such as glue was 9 years old, alcohol 10 - 12 years old, dagga 11 - 12 years old, poly-drug use (alcohol, tobacco and dagga 14 years old, and harder drugs such as cocaine and heroin at 16 - 17 years old, as reported by key informants. Family care and support, improved socio-economic conditions and increased law enforcement would help to discourage substance
Korpi, Esa R; den Hollander, Bjørnar; Farooq, Usman; Vashchinkina, Elena; Rajkumar, Ramamoorthy; Nutt, David J; Hyytiä, Petri; Dawe, Gavin S
Adaptation of the nervous system to different chemical and physiologic conditions is important for the homeostasis of brain processes and for learning and remembering appropriate responses to challenges. Although processes such as tolerance and dependence to various drugs of abuse have been known for a long time, it was recently discovered that even a single pharmacologically relevant dose of various drugs of abuse induces neuroplasticity in selected neuronal populations, such as the dopamine neurons of the ventral tegmental area, which persist long after the drug has been excreted. Prolonged (self-) administration of drugs induces gene expression, neurochemical, neurophysiological, and structural changes in many brain cell populations. These region-specific changes correlate with addiction, drug intake, and conditioned drugs effects, such as cue- or stress-induced reinstatement of drug seeking. In rodents, adolescent drug exposure often causes significantly more behavioral changes later in adulthood than a corresponding exposure in adults. Clinically the most impairing and devastating effects on the brain are produced by alcohol during fetal development. In adult recreational drug users or in medicated patients, it has been difficult to find persistent functional or behavioral changes, suggesting that heavy exposure to drugs of abuse is needed for neurotoxicity and for persistent emotional and cognitive alterations. This review describes recent advances in this important area of research, which harbors the aim of translating this knowledge to better treatments for addictions and related neuropsychiatric illnesses. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.
Gururajan, Anand; Manning, Elizabeth E; Klug, Maren; van den Buuse, Maarten
There is considerable evidence to suggest that the abuse of illicit drugs, particularly cannabis and methamphetamine, has aetiological roles in the pathogenesis of psychosis and schizophrenia. Factors that may increase susceptibility to the propsychotic effects of these drugs include the age at which the abuse starts as well as family history of genetic polymorphisms relevant to the pathophysiology of this disorder. However, the neurobiological mechanisms involved in drug abuse-associated psychosis remain largely unclear. This paper presents an overview of the available evidence, including clinical, animal model, and molecular studies, with a focus on brain regions and neurotransmitters systems, such as dopamine and glutamate, previously implicated in psychosis. It is clear that further studies are urgently needed to provide a greater insight into the mechanisms that mediate the long-term and neurodevelopmental effects of cannabis and methamphetamine. A dialogue between basic science and clinical research may help to identify at-risk individuals and novel pathways for treatment and prevention.
Riley, Anthony L; Hempel, Briana J; Clasen, Matthew M
The study of sex as a biological variable is a necessary emphasis across a wide array of endpoints, including basic neuroscience, medicine, mental health, physiology and behavior. The present review summarizes work from clinical and preclinical populations on sex differences in drug use and abuse, ranging from initiation to escalation/dysregulation and from drug cessation/abstinence to relapse. These differences are analyzed in the context of the addiction cycle conceptualization of Koob and his colleagues and address patterns of drug use (binge/intoxication), motivation underlying its use (withdrawal/negative affect) and likelihood and causes of craving and relapse of drug taking (preoccupation/anticipation). Following this overview, an assessment of the basis for the reported sex differences is discussed in the context of the affective (rewarding and aversive) properties of drugs of abuse and how such properties and their balance vary with sex and contribute to drug intake. Finally, the interaction of sex with several experiential (drug history) and subject (age) factors and how these interactions affect reward and aversion are discussed to highlight the importance of understanding such interactions in predicting drug use and abuse. We note that sex as a biological variable remains one of critical evaluation and that such investigations of sex differences in drug use and abuse continue and be expanded to assess all facets of their mediation, including these affective properties, how their balance may be impacted by the multiple conditions under which drugs are taken and how this overall balance affects drug use and addiction vulnerability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lin, Jian-You; Arthurs, Joe; Reilly, Steve
We consider conditioned taste aversion to involve a learned reduction in the palatability of a taste (and hence in amount consumed) based on the association that develops when a taste experience is followed by gastrointestinal malaise. The present article evaluates the well-established finding that drugs of abuse, at doses that are otherwise considered rewarding and self-administered, cause intake suppression. Our recent work using lick pattern analysis shows that drugs of abuse also cause a palatability downshift and, therefore, support conditioned taste aversion learning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available There has been an increase in the frequency of substance abuse among hospitalized burn injury patients. However, few studies have investigated substance abuse among burn patients. This study was aimed to identify the incidence of substance abuse in burn injury patients using the "Drug Abuse Screening Test" (DAST-20. We determined the validity of DAST-20 in spring 2010. Subsequently, this descriptive study was performed on 203 burn injury patients who fit the study's inclusion criteria. We chose a score of 6 as the cutoff and thus achieved a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 85% for the DAST-20. During the study, we gathered demographic data, burn features and DAST-20 results for all patients. Patients with scores of 6 or more were considered to be substances abusers. A statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS v16 software. According to the DAST-20 results, 33% of the patients were in the user group. The mean score of DAST-20 was significantly higher among users than it was among nonusers (P<0.05. The level of substance abuse was severe in 77% of users. No significant differences were found among the substances, with the exception of alcohol. Substance abuse is an important risk factor for burn patients. In addition, this study showed that DAST-20 is a valid screening measure for studies on burn patients.
Kinn, Michael; Holzbach, Rüdiger; Pajonk, Frank-Gerald Bernhard
For the first time since the year 2000 the number of death due to substance abuse of illegal drugs has increased in Germany in 2007 (+8 % compared to 2006). Emergency situations due to drug abuse are frequent, particular in big cities. They may be, however, difficult to diagnose and/or treat for an emergency physician on scene because of a lack of diagnostic tools, the local and personal surroundings, and the unknown number and nature of drugs. Many drug intoxications must be considered suicidal. On the other hand, drug intoxications may mask (other) life-threatening conditions. Emergency situations due to withdrawal offer the possibility to motivate patients to take advantage of specialist-guided abstinence programs.
Filges, Trine; Andersen, Ditte; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint
trials. Meta-analytic methods were used to quantitatively synthesize study results. Results: The search yielded five studies that met inclusion criteria. MDFT was found to be more effective than other treatments on drug abuse problem severity and drug use frequency in the short run but not in the long...... run and demonstrated positive effects on treatment retention compared to control conditions. Discussion: While additional research is needed, the review offers support for MDFT as a treatment to young nonopioid drug abusers. The number of studies included in this review was limited, however......Purpose: This review evaluates the evidence of the effects of multidimensional family therapy (MDFT) on drug use reduction in young people for the treatment of nonopioid drug use. Method: We followed Campbell Collaboration guidelines to conduct a systematic review of randomized and nonrandomized...
Howell, Leonard Lee; Murnane, Kevin Sean
Positron emission tomography (PET) neuroimaging in nonhuman primates has led to significant advances in our current understanding of the neurobiology and treatment of stimulant addiction in humans. PET neuroimaging has defined the in vivo biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of abused drugs and related these findings to the time course of behavioral effects associated with their addictive properties. With novel radiotracers and enhanced resolution, PET neuroimaging techniques have also characterized in vivo drug interactions with specific protein targets in the brain, including neurotransmitter receptors and transporters. In vivo determinations of cerebral blood flow and metabolism have localized brain circuits implicated in the effects of abused drugs and drug-associated stimuli. Moreover, determinations of the predisposing factors to chronic drug use and long-term neurobiological consequences of chronic drug use, such as potential neurotoxicity, have led to novel insights regarding the pathology and treatment of drug addiction. However, similar approaches clearly need to be extended to drug classes other than stimulants. Although dopaminergic systems have been extensively studied, other neurotransmitter systems known to play a critical role in the pharmacological effects of abused drugs have been largely ignored in nonhuman primate PET neuroimaging. Finally, the study of brain activation with PET neuroimaging has been replaced in humans mostly by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). There has been some success in implementing pharmacological fMRI in awake nonhuman primates. Nevertheless, the unique versatility of PET imaging will continue to complement the systems-level strengths of fMRI, especially in the context of nonhuman primate drug abuse research.
... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; Development of Alternate Drug Delivery Dosage Forms for Drug Abuse Studies. Date: January 7, 2011..., National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room 213, MSC 8401, 6101 Executive Boulevard, Bethesda, MD...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Community Transitional Drug Abuse... JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.56 Community Transitional Drug Abuse Treatment Program (TDAT). (a) For inmates to successfully complete all components of...
... invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel... Furr, Contract Review Specialist, Office of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, [email protected] . Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; National Drugged...
... invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel E... Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, 6001 Executive Blvd., Room 4229, MSC 9550... Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel Rapid Portable Devices to Measure Drug Use (1206). Date: May 1, 2012...
The formation of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) and the Special Action Office for Drug Abuse Prevention (SAODAP) in the early 1970s dramatically expanded scientific and medical efforts to control alcoholism and drug abuse in the United States. Drawing on a variety of primary, secondary, and archival sources, this article describes the creation and early years of these agencies. I show that while the agencies appeared at roughly the same time, their creation involved separate sets of issues and actors. In addition, I show that SAODAP received more money and resources, even though advocates for alcoholics mobilized a stronger lobbying campaign. Two factors explain this discrepancy in money and resources: (1) alcoholism was framed as a public health problem, whereas drug abuse was drawn into broader debates about crime and social decline; and (2) alcohol programs relied on congressional support, whereas drug programs found champions at high levels of the Nixon administration. These political and cultural factors help explain why current programs for illegal drugs receive more federal support, despite alcohol's greater public health burden. © 2013 Milbank Memorial Fund.
Context The formation of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) and the Special Action Office for Drug Abuse Prevention (SAODAP) in the early 1970s dramatically expanded scientific and medical efforts to control alcoholism and drug abuse in the United States. Methods Drawing on a variety of primary, secondary, and archival sources, this article describes the creation and early years of these agencies. Findings I show that while the agencies appeared at roughly the same time, their creation involved separate sets of issues and actors. In addition, I show that SAODAP received more money and resources, even though advocates for alcoholics mobilized a stronger lobbying campaign. Conclusions Two factors explain this discrepancy in money and resources: (1) alcoholism was framed as a public health problem, whereas drug abuse was drawn into broader debates about crime and social decline; and (2) alcohol programs relied on congressional support, whereas drug programs found champions at high levels of the Nixon administration. These political and cultural factors help explain why current programs for illegal drugs receive more federal support, despite alcohol's greater public health burden. PMID:23488713
Leung, Leslie T F; Papp, Anthony
Accelerants are flammable substances that may cause explosion when added to existing fires. The relationships between drug abuse and accelerant-related burns are not well elucidated in the literature. Of these burns, a portion is related to drug manufacturing, which have been shown to be associated with increased burn complications. 1) To evaluate the demographics and clinical outcomes of accelerant-related burns in a Provincial Burn Centre. 2) To compare the clinical outcomes with a control group of non-accelerant related burns. 3) To analyze a subgroup of patients with history of drug abuse and drug manufacturing. Retrospective case control study. Patient data associated with accelerant-related burns from 2009 to 2014 were obtained from the British Columbia Burn Registry. These patients were compared with a control group of non-accelerant related burns. Clinical outcomes that were evaluated include inhalational injury, ICU length of stay, ventilator support, surgeries needed, and burn complications. Chi-square test was used to evaluate categorical data and Student's t-test was used to evaluate mean quantitative data with the p value set at 0.05. A logistic regression model was used to evaluate factors affecting burn complications. Accelerant-related burns represented 28.2% of all burn admissions (N=532) from 2009 to 2014. The accelerant group had higher percentage of patients with history of drug abuse and was associated with higher TBSA burns, ventilator support, ICU stay and pneumonia rates compared to the non-accelerant group. Within the accelerant group, there was no difference in clinical outcomes amongst people with or without history of drug abuse. Four cases were associated with methamphetamine manufacturing, all of which underwent ICU stay and ventilator support. Accelerant-related burns cause significant burden to the burn center. A significant proportion of these patients have history of drug abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights
It's a drug prevention conversation--and program--that was largely missing as recently as a decade ago in most middle and high schools. In those days, the principal concern of health educators and disciplinarians alike was to keep students from misusing alcohol and illegal street drugs such as ecstasy, cocaine and even heroine. But driven by the…
Hser, Yih-Ing; Liang, Di; Lan, Yu-Ching; Vicknasingam, Balasingam Kasinather; Chakrabarti, Amit
Drug abuse and co-occurring infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Asian countries are particularly vulnerable to the deleterious consequences of these risks/problems, as they have some of the highest rates of these diseases. This review describes drug abuse, HIV, and hepatitis C (HCV) in Asian countries. The most commonly used illicit drugs include opioids, amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS), cannabis, and ketamine. Among people who inject drugs, HIV rates range from 6.3 % in China to 19 % in Malaysia, and HCV ranges from 41 % in India and Taiwan to 74 % in Vietnam. In the face of the HIV epidemics, drug policies in these countries are slowly changing from the traditional punitive approach (e.g., incarcerating drug users or requiring registration as a drug user) to embrace public health approaches, including, for example, community-based treatment options as well as harm reduction approaches to reduce needle sharing and thus HIV transmission. HIV and HCV molecular epidemiology indicates limited geographic diffusion. While the HIV prevalence is declining in all five countries, use of new drugs (e.g., ATS, ketamine) continues to increase, as well as high-risk sexual behaviors associated with drug use-increasing the risk of sexual transmission of HIV, particularly among men who have sex with men. Screening, early intervention, and continued scaling up of therapeutic options (drug treatment and recovery support, ART, long-term HIV and HCV care for drug users) are critical for effective control or continued reduction of drug abuse and co-infections.
Palmstierna, T; Olsson, D
To simultaneously evaluate actuarial and dynamic predictors of severe in-patient violence among women involuntarily admitted for severe drug abuse. All patients admitted to special facilities for involuntary treatment of absconding-prone, previously violent, drug abusing women in Sweden were assessed with the Staff Observation Aggression Scale, revised. Actuarial data on risk factors for violence were collected and considered in an extended Cox proportional hazards model with multiple events and daily assessments of the Broset Violence Checklist as time-dependent covariates. Low-grade violence and being influenced by illicit drugs were the best predictors of severe violence within 24 h. Significant differences in risk for violence between different institutions were also found. In-patient violence risk is rapidly varying over time with being influenced by illicit drugs and exhibiting low-grade violence being significant dynamic predictors. Differences in violence between patients could not be explained by patient characteristics.
van der Aa, M.; Bijlsma, L.; Emke, E.; Dijkman, E.; van Nuijs, A.L.N.; van de Ven, B.M.; Hernández, F.; Versteegh, A.; de Voogt, P.
A screening campaign of drugs of abuse (DOA) and their relevant metabolites in the aqueous environment was performed in the Netherlands. The presence of DOA, together with the potential risks for the environment and the possible human exposure to these compounds through consumption of drinking water
This study was undertaken to investigate the influence of health education on prevention of drug abuse. 192 adolescents comprising of male and females, randomly selected from two secondary schools and a university were used as sample with ages ranging from 12-22years with a mean of 17years. The questionnaire ...
The problem of drug abuse is both international and multifactorial. Traditional approaches toward finding a solution have so far achieved little. Lateral thinking, a recent concept providing freedom from the constraints of logic, offers the basis for a different kind of evaluation of the problem. The normal concepts are reversed ...
Some of the aetiological factors are given as well as an outline of the extent of drug abuse in many countries, age of addiction and also the role of the medical practitioner. The main problem facing the profession in South Africa, at this stage, is to educate the public in the dangers of dagga. Five principles are ...
Examined the sex-role attitude of the drug abuse treatment counselor. Found: 1) male counselors viewed clients of both sexes more negatively; 2) male clients were viewed more negatively by counselors of both sexes; 3) counselors with less education had more negative attitudes; and 4) attitudes differed with treatment program type. (Author/RC)
Dennis G. Fisher; Robert Malow; Rhonda Rosenberg; Grace L. Reynolds; Nisha Farrell; Aditya Jaffe
Until recently, the Viagra connection to HIV was anchored in older adults. However, CDC investigation showed stability in 50+ HIV diagnoses on the heels of upward trends in risk indicators among men who have sex with men (MSM) and substance abusing populations. Signs have increasingly pointed to recreational drug use among younger populations, to which Viagra is being added to th...
Davis, Sharon J.; Sneed, Zachery B.; Koch, D. Shane
Using the Counselor Trainee Attitudes Measure (CTAM) to assess student attitudes toward alcohol and other drug abuse (AODA), results indicated that students had more positive attitudes toward AODA when they were in recovery or had a family member in recovery. Furthermore, completion of AODA related courses predicted more positive attitudes toward…
... consequences and effects of drug abuse. An asset for health care professionals and the general public because of its easy-to-follow structure, index, and extensively researched com- prehensive sections. . . . A very useful guide for medical and other health professions students who need to have this type of information at their fingertips as...
Fu, Qining; Meng, Xiyun; Li, Fenghe; Wang, Xuehu; Cheng, Jun; Huang, Wen; Ren, Wei; Zhao, Yu
PurposeExplore the application of endovascular covered stent-graft (SG) placement in femoral pseudoaneurysms in intravenous drug addicts.Materials and MethodsWe evaluated a consecutive series of pseudoaneurysm in intravenous drug addicts treated with SGs from August 2010 to December 2013.Results15 patients with 16 arterial pseudoaneurysms were enrolled in this study. All were males with a mean age of 36.9 years. Hemorrhage was the most common reason (93.8 %) for seeking medical care, and 3 of these patients were in hemorrhagic shock at admission. All patients received broad-spectrum antibiotics, and debridement and drainage were implemented after SG placement. 7 of the 13 cases which had microbiologic results showed mixed infections, while gram-negative bacteria were the major pathogens. Except for 2 patients, who were lost to follow-up, two new pseudoaneurysms formed due to delayed debridement, and one stent thrombosis occurred, none of the remaining cases had SG infection or developed claudication.ConclusionsSG placement controls massive hemorrhage rapidly, gives enough time for subsequent treatment for pseudoaneurysms due to intravenous drug abuse, and reduces the incidence of postoperative claudication. With appropriate broad-spectrum antibiotics and early debridement, the incidence of SG infection is relatively low. It is an effective alternative especially as temporary bridge measure for critical patients. However, the high cost, uncertain long-term prospects, high demand for medical adherence, and the risk of using the conduits for re-puncture call for a cautious selection of patients. More evidence is required for the application of this treatment
Fu, Qining, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Meng, Xiyun, E-mail: email@example.com; Li, Fenghe, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Wang, Xuehu, E-mail: email@example.com; Cheng, Jun, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Huang, Wen, E-mail: email@example.com; Ren, Wei, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Zhao, Yu, E-mail: email@example.com [The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Department of Vascular Surgery (China)
PurposeExplore the application of endovascular covered stent-graft (SG) placement in femoral pseudoaneurysms in intravenous drug addicts.Materials and MethodsWe evaluated a consecutive series of pseudoaneurysm in intravenous drug addicts treated with SGs from August 2010 to December 2013.Results15 patients with 16 arterial pseudoaneurysms were enrolled in this study. All were males with a mean age of 36.9 years. Hemorrhage was the most common reason (93.8 %) for seeking medical care, and 3 of these patients were in hemorrhagic shock at admission. All patients received broad-spectrum antibiotics, and debridement and drainage were implemented after SG placement. 7 of the 13 cases which had microbiologic results showed mixed infections, while gram-negative bacteria were the major pathogens. Except for 2 patients, who were lost to follow-up, two new pseudoaneurysms formed due to delayed debridement, and one stent thrombosis occurred, none of the remaining cases had SG infection or developed claudication.ConclusionsSG placement controls massive hemorrhage rapidly, gives enough time for subsequent treatment for pseudoaneurysms due to intravenous drug abuse, and reduces the incidence of postoperative claudication. With appropriate broad-spectrum antibiotics and early debridement, the incidence of SG infection is relatively low. It is an effective alternative especially as temporary bridge measure for critical patients. However, the high cost, uncertain long-term prospects, high demand for medical adherence, and the risk of using the conduits for re-puncture call for a cautious selection of patients. More evidence is required for the application of this treatment.
Sulkowski, T.S.; Lathrop, G.D.; Merritt, J.H.; Landez, J.H.; Noe, E.R.
A rapid, semiautomated radioimmunoassay system for detection of morphine, barbiturates, and amphetamines is described. The assays are applicable to large drug abuse screening programs. The heart of the system is the automatic pipetting station which can accomplish 600 pipetting operations per hour. The method uses 15 to 30 μl for the amphetamine and combined morphine/barbiturate assays. A number of other drugs were tested for interference with the assays and the results are discussed
Sayed Hadi Sayed Alitabar; Mojtaba Habibi; Maryam Falahatpisheh; Musa Arvin
Background and Objective: According to the increasing of substance use in the country, more researches about this phenomenon are necessary. This Study Investigates the Validity, Reliability and Confirmatory Factor Structure of the Drug Abuse Screening test (DAST). Materials and Methods: The Sample Consisted of 381 Patients (143 Women and 238 Men) with a Multi-Stage Cluster Sampling of Areas 2, 6 and 12 of Tehran Were Selected from Each Region, 6 Randomly Selected Drug Rehabilitation Center. T...
... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; The Diversity-promoting Institutions Drug Abuse Research Program (DIDARP). Date: March 26, 2013. [[Page 9066
... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...
at this stage, is to educate the public in the dangers of ... embroiled in a rebellion against 'The Establishment', where ... incidence of addicts, varying with the type of drug, to be .... behaviour disturbances. ... and personality disturbances.75.
exposed to a drug of abuse do not develop addiction, or abuse the drug . For example, the overwhelming majority of patients that receive opiates for...addiction, nor abuse the drug . For example, the overwhelming majority of patients that receive opiates for pain relief while hospitalized do not develop... drugs of abuse. Though this project has been completed, our future plans are clearly centered around understanding how HMGB1 mediates stress-induced
Kozlowski, L T; Henningfield, J E; Keenan, R M; Lei, H; Leigh, G; Jelinek, L C; Pope, M A; Haertzen, C A
Relationships were explored among the frequencies of use of various drugs by a sample of drug-abusing clients of the Addiction Research Foundation (ARF) in Toronto and by drug abusers volunteering to participate in research at the Addiction Research Center (ARC) in Baltimore. The two groups of drug-abusing individuals differed in a number of characteristics. Those from ARF were admitted primarily for diagnosis and possible treatment for alcohol and non-opioid drug problems, whereas those from the ARC were admitted for participation in research on other drugs of abuse, primarily involving opioids. Patterns of use of certain drugs tended to covary in both groups. Of particular interest was the finding that severity of alcoholism was directly related to various measures of tobacco and caffeinated beverage use. In contrast, there was little correlation between the frequency of use among other drugs of abuse (e.g., heroin, cannabis, glue) and the use of tobacco and caffeine. These findings suggest that dependence on nicotine, caffeine, and alcohol may be governed by the same factors and possibly should be considered jointly in the treatment of alcoholic persons. Frequency of use of other drugs examined may be controlled by other factors than those which determine level of use of tobacco and caffeine.
Office of National Drug Control Policy, Washington, DC.
This Interim Drug Strategy is intended to give a new sense of direction and to reinvigorate the nation's efforts against drug trafficking and abuse. The preface to the report lists eight new strategies that the Administration will implement: (1) make drug policy a cornerstone of domestic and social policy; (2) target pregnant women, children, and…
Holm-Hadulla, Rainer M; Bertolino, Alina
Alcohol and drug abuse is frequent among performers and pop musicians. Many of them hope that alcohol and drugs will enhance their creativity. Scientific studies are scarce and conclusions limited for methodological reasons. Furthermore, extraordinary creativity can hardly be grasped by empirical-statistical methods. Thus, ideographic studies are necessary to learn from extraordinarily creative persons about the relationship of creativity with alcohol and drugs. The pop icon Jim Morrison can serve as an exemplary case to investigate the interrelation between alcohol and drug abuse and creativity. Morrison's self-assessments in his works and letters as well as the descriptions by others are analyzed under the perspective of creativity research. In the lyrics of Jim Morrison and in biographical descriptions, we can see how Jim Morrison tried to cope with traumatic events, depressive moods and uncontrolled impulses through creative activities. His talent, skill and motivation to write creatively were independent from taking alcohol and drugs. He used alcohol and drugs to transgress restrictive social norms, to broaden his perceptions and to reinforce his struggle for self-actualization. In short, his motivation to create something new and authentic was reinforced by alcohol and drugs. More important was the influence of a supportive group that enabled Morrison's talents to flourish. However, soon the frequent use of high doses of alcohol and drugs weakened his capacity to realize creative motivation. Jim Morrison is an exemplary case showing that heavy drinking and the abuse of LSD, mescaline and amphetamines damages the capacity to realize creative motivation. Jim Morrison is typical of creative personalities like Amy Winehouse, Janis Joplin, Brian Jones and Jimmy Hendrix who burn their creativity in early adulthood through alcohol and drugs. We suppose that the sacrificial ritual of their decay offers some benefits for the excited spectators. One of these is the
... Pittsburgh is looking at whether teaching healthy caregiving strategies to parents can help promote self-regulation skills in children and prevent substance abuse later on. Starting when children are two years old, Shaw’s study enrolls families at risk of substance use problems ...
Baumrind, D; Moselle, K A
Adolescent drug use is placed in an historical and developmental perspective. Existing evidence concerning causes and consequences of adolescent drug use is inconclusive. In the absence of conclusive empirical evidence and cogent theories, we present a prima facie case against early adolescent drug use by defending six propositions which posit specific cognitive, conative, and affective negative consequences including impairment of attention and memory; developmental lag imposing categorical limitations on the level of maximum functioning available to the user in cognitive, moral and psychosocial domains; amotivational syndrome; consolidation of diffuse or negative identity; and social alienation and estrangement. We call for a program of research which could provide credible evidence to support or rebut these propositions, and thus address the factual claims underlying the sociomoral concerns of social policy planners.
Kessler, R; Ryser, D H
Acute drug intoxication is a medical emergency considering its potential interference with vital functions. All 157 cases with drug overdose admitted to the emergency department of the "Inselspital" in Berne over 183 days between July 1989 and June 1990 were analyzed retrospectively. In the vast majority of cases heroin overdose was involved. In mixed poisonings with heroin mostly flunitrazepam and alcohol contributed to the clinical picture, less commonly cocaine. There were very few intoxications with cocaine alone. A practical approach to the management of patients with certain or suspected drug intoxication presenting with coma and depressed respiration is proposed. In the therapy of acute intoxications with opiates and benzodiazepines there are specific antagonists available. In contrast, therapy of cocaine overdose remains symptomatic. The medical complications of acute heroin and cocaine intoxications are discussed separately.
Rogol Alan D
Full Text Available Abstract Doping with endocrine drugs is quite prevalent in amateur and professional athletes. The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA has a list of banned drugs for athletes who compete and a strategy to detect such drugs. Some are relatively easy, anabolic steroids and erythropoietin, and others more difficult, human growth hormone (rhGH and insulin like growth factor I (IGF-I. The use of such compounds is likely less in adolescent athletes, but the detection that much more difficult given that the baseline secretion of the endogenous hormone is shifting during pubertal development with the greatest rise in testosterone in boys occuring about the time of peak height velocity and maximal secretion of hGH and IGF-I. This review notes the rationale, physiology, performance enhancement, adverse events and the detection of doping with insulin, rhGH, rhIGF-I, erythropoietin, and anabolic-androgenic steroids.
... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse; Special... Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room 220, MSC 8401, 6101 Executive Boulevard... Drug Abuse, Special Emphasis Panel, P30 Centers Review. Date: February 22, 2010. Time: 8 a.m. to 5 p.m...
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... invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel... on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room 4245, MSC 9550, 6001 Executive Blvd., Bethesda, MD 20892-9550, 301-451-4530, [email protected] . Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; NIDA...
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... individual intramural programs and projects conducted by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, including.... Place: Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, Johns Hopkins Bayview Campus..., Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, 251 Bayview Boulevard, Baltimore...
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... unwarranted invasion of person al privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special..., Contract Review Specialist, Office of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room... . Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel Clinical Worlds: Enhancing...
Lettieri, Dan J., Ed.
Presented are 18 papers on predicting adolescent drug abuse. The papers have the following titles: "Current Issues in the Epidemiology of Drug Abuse as Related to Psychosocial Studies of Adolescent Drug Use"; "The Quest for Interpersonal Predictors of Marihuana Abuse in Adolescents"; "Assessing the Interpersonal Determinants of Adolescent Drug…
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... U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse... administrative, legislative and program developments in the drug abuse field. Place: National Institutes of.... (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos.: 93.279, Drug Abuse and Addiction Research Programs...
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... U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse..., legislative and program developments in the drug abuse field. Place: National Institutes of Health...: Teresa Levitin, Ph.D., Director, Office of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH...
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... U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse... announcements and reports of administrative, legislative and program developments in the drug abuse field. Place... Person: Teresa Levitin, PhD, Director, Office of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse...
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... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; Mechanism for Time-Sensitive Drug Abuse Research. Date: April 8, 2010. Time: 12 p.m. to 3 p.m. Agenda: To review and..., Office of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, DHHS, 6101...
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... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel Collaborative Clinical Trials in Drug Abuse--PAR 10- 099. Date: October 4, 2012. Time: 11 a.m. to... on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, 6001 Executive Blvd., Room 4238, MSC 9550, Bethesda, MD 20892-9550, 301-402...
... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; Rapid Assessment for Drug Abuse and Risky Sex (5556). Date: February 16, 2010. Time: 1:30 p.m. to..., Contract Review Specialist, Office of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room...
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... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; NIDA Center... Review Officer, Office of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room 4227, MSC... Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos.: 93.279, Drug Abuse and Addiction Research Programs, National...
... U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse... developments in the drug abuse field. Place: National Institutes of Health, Neuroscience Center, 6001 Executive..., Office of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room 4243, MSC 9550, 6001...
... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; Quantification of Drugs of Abuse and Related Substances in Biological Specimens (7788). Date: November 7, 2013..., National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room 4227, MSC 9550, 6001 Executive Boulevard, Bethesda, MD...
... invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel... Drug Abuse, NIH, Room 4228, MSC 9550, 6001 Executive Blvd., Bethesda, MD 20892-9550, (301) 451-3086, [email protected] . Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel...
Filges, Trine; Rasmussen, Pernille; Andersen, Ditte
The main objectives of this review are to evaluate the current evidence on the effects of MDFT on drug abuse reduction for young people (aged 11-21 years) in treatment for non-opioid drug abuse, and if possible to examine moderators of drug abuse reduction effects, specifically analysing whether...
... U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse..., legislative and program developments in the drug abuse field. Place: National Institutes of Health... Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room 4243, MSC 9550, 6001 Executive Boulevard, Bethesda, MD 20892-89550, (301...
... invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel..., [email protected] . Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; Seek... on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, 6001 Executive Blvd., Room 4245, MSC 9550, Bethesda, MD 20892-9550, 301-451...
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... invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis [email protected] . Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel Strategic..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Office of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH...
... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; NIH Pathway... limitations imposed by the review and funding cycle. Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse... on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, 6001 Executive Blvd., Room 4238, MSC 9550, Bethesda, MD 20892-9550, 301-402...
... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel Confirming Compliance with Experimental Pharmacotherapy Treatment of Drug Abuse (2227) Date: January 17, 2012. Time: 9 a..., National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room 4234, MSC 9550, 6001 Executive Blvd., Bethesda, MD 20892...
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... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel PAR-12-297: Mechanism for Time-Sensitive Drug Abuse Research. Date: April 9, 2013. Time: 12:00 p.m. to 2:00 p.m. Agenda... Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, 6001 Executive Blvd., Room 4226, MSC 9550, Bethesda, MD 20892-9550, 301...
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... individual intramural programs and projects conducted by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, including.... Place: Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, Johns Hopkins Bayview Campus..., Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, 251 Bayview Boulevard, Baltimore...
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... U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse..., legislative and program developments in the drug abuse field. Place: National Institutes of Health...: Teresa Levitin, PhD, Director, Office of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS...
... U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse... administrative, legislative and program developments in the drug abuse field. Place: National Institutes of... of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos.: 93.279, Drug Abuse and Addiction Research Programs...
... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel...., Scientific Review Officer, Office of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, Room 4228... . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos.: 93.279, Drug Abuse and Addiction Research Programs...
... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis..., Office of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room 4234, MSC 9550, 6001... Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel CEBRA Conflict Review. Date: November 29, 2012. Time: 4:00 p...
... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis... Specialist, Office of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room 220, MSC 8401... Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.279, Drug Abuse and Addiction Research Programs, National...
... U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse... on Drug Abuse. Date: September 4, 2013. Closed: 8:30 AM to 10:30 AM. Agenda: To review and evaluate... program developments in the drug abuse field. Place: National Institutes of Health, Neuroscience Center...
... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel Systems... Administrator, Office of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room 220, MSC 8401... review and funding cycle. Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel 2010...
... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel, SecuRX..., Scientific Review Officer, Office of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, Room 4228....nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos.: 93.279, Drug Abuse and Addiction...
... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis... Furr, Contract Review Specialist, Office of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH....gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.279, Drug Abuse and Addiction Research...
... individual intramural programs and projects conducted by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, including.... Place: Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, Johns Hopkins Bayview Campus..., Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, 251 Bayview Boulevard, Baltimore...
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... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis... Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room 4234, MSC 9550, 6001 Executive Blvd., Bethesda... of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos.: 93.279, Drug Abuse and Addiction Research Programs...
... HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.1 Statutory authority for confidentiality of drug abuse patient records. The restrictions of these regulations upon the disclosure and use of drug abuse patient records were initially authorized by section 408...
... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis... Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, Room 4228, MSC 9550, 6001 Executive Blvd.... (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos.: 93.279, Drug Abuse and Addiction Research Programs...
... invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel... Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, 6001 Executive Blvd., Room 4229, MSC 9550... Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; Profile Screening and Predictive Toxicology (8909). Date: February...
... Drug Abuse. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with attendance limited to space... on Drug Abuse. Date: February 2, 2011. Closed: 8:30 a.m. to 12 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate... developments in the drug abuse field. Place: National Institutes of Health, Neuroscience Center, 6001 Executive...
... invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel, I... Branch, Office of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room 4235, MSC 9550...: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel, B/START Review Committee. Date: October 14, 2011...
... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel Rodent Testing...: Lyle Furr, Contract Review Specialist, Office of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse..., lf33c.nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos.: 93.279, Drug Abuse and Addiction...
... invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel....D., Scientific Review Officer, Office of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH... . Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel NIDA B/START Small Grant...
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... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; N01DA-11-7777.... Ruiz, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Office of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse....: 93.279, Drug Abuse and Addiction Research Programs, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: May 26...
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Trezza, V.; Baarendse, P.J.J.; Vanderschuren, L.J.M.J.
Rationale Social factors influence drug abuse. Conversely, drugs of abuse alter social behavior. This is especially pertinent during post-weaning development, when there are profound changes in the social repertoire, and the sensitivity to the positive and negative effects of drugs of abuse is
Landayan, Dan; Wolf, Fred W
The neural circuitry and molecules that control the rewarding properties of food and drugs of abuse appear to partially overlap in the mammalian brain. This has raised questions about the extent of the overlap and the precise role of specific circuit elements in reward and in other behaviors associated with feeding regulation and drug responses. The much simpler brain of invertebrates including the fruit fly Drosophila, offers an opportunity to make high-resolution maps of the circuits and molecules that govern behavior. Recent progress in Drosophila has revealed not only some common substrates for the actions of drugs of abuse and for the regulation of feeding, but also a remarkable level of conservation with vertebrates for key neuromodulatory transmitters. We speculate that Drosophila may serve as a model for distinguishing the neural mechanisms underlying normal and pathological motivational states that will be applicable to mammals. Copyright © 2016 Chang Gung University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The neural circuitry and molecules that control the rewarding properties of food and drugs of abuse appear to partially overlap in the mammalian brain. This has raised questions about the extent of the overlap and the precise role of specific circuit elements in reward and in other behaviors associated with feeding regulation and drug responses. The much simpler brain of invertebrates including the fruit fly Drosophila, offers an opportunity to make high-resolution maps of the circuits and molecules that govern behavior. Recent progress in Drosophila has revealed not only some common substrates for the actions of drugs of abuse and for the regulation of feeding, but also a remarkable level of conservation with vertebrates for key neuromodulatory transmitters. We speculate that Drosophila may serve as a model for distinguishing the neural mechanisms underlying normal and pathological motivational states that will be applicable to mammals.
Miller, Lindsey N; Mercer, Susan L
To describe the design, implementation, and student perceptions of a Drugs of Abuse and Addiction elective course utilizing an integrated teaching model. Third-year pharmacy students enrolled in the two credit hour elective. Teaching methodology included didactic lecture, journal club, simulated addiction assignment with reflection, debates, external speakers, site visit to a residential drug court program and research paper with presentation. A course objective survey was administered upon course completion. All students strongly agreed that having science- and clinical-based faculty members develop and deliver course content was beneficial. Additionally, all students agree to strongly agree that their research project helped them integrate and comprehend the science and practice surrounding drugs of abuse and addiction. Students enjoyed an integrated teaching approach and multiple teaching methodologies leading to increased engagement and enhancement of student learning. Course enrollment was beneficial for personalized learning, but limited student perspective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yeniad, Baris; Canturk, Serife; Esin Ozdemir, Fatma; Alparslan, Nilufer; Akarcay, Koray
To describe 8 cases of toxic keratopathy due to abuse of topical anesthetic drugs. Clinical findings from patients with toxic keratopathy were investigated retrospectively. Two patients had toxic keratopathy bilaterally. Five of 8 patients had an ocular history of a corneal foreign body, 1 had basal membrane dystrophy, 1 had ultraviolet radiation, and 1 had chemical burn. All patients had undergone psychiatric consultation. Four patients had anxiety disorder and 1 had bipolar disease. Clinical signs were improved in all patients with discontinuation of topical anesthetic drug use along with adjunctive psychiatric treatment. Penetrating keratoplasty was performed in 2 patients. Toxic keratopathy due to topical anesthetic abuse is a curable disease. Early diagnosis and prevention of topical anesthetic drug use are the most important steps in the treatment of this condition. As these patients commonly exhibit psychiatric disorders, adjunctive psychiatric treatment may help to break the chemical addiction.
Walker, Deena M; Cates, Hannah M; Heller, Elizabeth A; Nestler, Eric J
Drug addiction involves long-term behavioral abnormalities and gene expression changes throughout the mesolimbic dopamine system. Epigenetic mechanisms establish/maintain alterations in gene expression in the brain, providing the impetus for investigations characterizing how epigenetic processes mediate the effects of drugs of abuse. This review focuses on evidence that epigenetic events, specifically histone modifications, regulate gene expression changes throughout the reward circuitry. Drugs of abuse induce changes in histone modifications throughout the reward circuitry by altering histone-modifying enzymes, manipulation of which reveals a role for histone modification in addiction-related behaviors. There is a complex interplay between these enzymes, resulting in a histone signature of the addicted phenotype. Insights gained from these studies are key to identifying novel targets for diagnosis and therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Recent studies show that as many as three to five percent of the employees of a medium- to large-sized plant may be dependent on drugs as a way of life. The detrimental effects of drug abuse in the workplace can be measured in lost productivity, poor quality control and other areas at an annual cost to the American economy of $30 billion. However, a price tag cannot be attached to the lives affected by this unrelenting problem. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the employee screening and hiring techniques available to industry to detect and eliminate potentially dangerous or fatal situations involving drug abuse in the workplace. The techniques are universal and can be effectively applied by the nuclear industry as well as other businesses to ensure that its work force is a reputable and reliable one
Janda, Kim D; Treweek, Jennifer B
The advent of vaccines targeting drugs of abuse heralded a fundamentally different approach to treating substance-related disorders. In contrast to traditional pharmacotherapies for drug abuse, vaccines act by sequestering circulating drugs and terminating the drug-induced 'high' without inducing unwanted neuromodulatory effects. Drug-targeting vaccines have entered clinical evaluation, and although these vaccines show promise from a biomedical viewpoint, the ethical and socioeconomic implications of vaccinating patients against drugs of abuse merit discussion within the scientific community.
Lowe, David J; Torrance, Hazel J; Ireland, Alastair J; Bloeck, Felix; Stevenson, Richard
Novel psychoactive substance (NPS) as a form of recreational drug use has become increasingly popular. There is a paucity of information with regard to the prevalence and clinical sequelae of these drugs. The aim of this study was to detect NPS in patients presenting to the emergency department with suspected toxicological ingestion. The prospective study was performed in a large emergency department in the UK. During a 3-month period 80 patients were identified by clinicians as having potentially ingested a toxicological agent. Urine samples were analysed using liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry, and basic clinical data was gathered. Eighty patients with a history of illicit or recreational drug consumption had urine screenings performed. Forty-nine per cent (39) of the patients undergoing a screen had more than one illicit substance detected. Twenty per cent (16) of the patients tested positive for at least one NPS. Almost half of the presented patients revealed ingestion of multiple substances, which correlated poorly with self-reporting of patients. Developing enhanced strategies to monitor evolving drug trends is crucial to the ability of clinicians to deliver care to this challenging group of patients.
Lisha, Nadra E.; Sun, Ping; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Unger, Jennifer B.; Sussman, Steve
The present study provides an implementation fidelity, process, and immediate outcomes evaluation of Project Towards No Drug Abuse (TND), a drug prevention program targeting continuation high school youth (n = 1426) at risk for drug abuse. A total of 24 schools participated in three randomized conditions: TND Only, TND and motivational…
Purohit, Vishnudutt; Rapaka, Rao; Frankenheim, Jerry; Avila, Albert; Sorensen, Roger; Rutter, Joni
The National Institute on Drug Abuse organized a symposium on drugs of abuse, dopamine, and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND)/HIV-associated dementia (HAD) in Rockville, Maryland, October 4, 2011. The purpose of this symposium was to evaluate the potential role of dopamine in the potentiation of HAND/HAD by drugs of abuse. A summary of the symposium has been presented in this report.
Machotka, O.; Maňák, J.; Kuběna, Aleš Antonín; Vlček, J.
Roč. 159, č. 4 (2015), s. 652-656 ISSN 1213-8118 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : medical error * graph theory * graph coloring * drug administration * drug incompatibilities * applied combinatorics * decision theory * medical * medication safety * intensive care units Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 0.924, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/E/kubena-0437509.pdf
Le Moal, M
Intrinsic vulnerability is central to the transition of recreational drug use to misuse. Several factors contribute to vulnerability, inherent or acquired, and they account for the huge individual differences observed concerning the propensity to enter in the addiction process. Some of the multifactional causes for a vulnerable phenotype will be examined: genetic factors, age and gender influences, various comorbidities and epidemiological observations. Stress-induced vulnerability will be particularly reviewed because it provides a good model for a pathophysiological research and for relating environmental events to biological consequences of drug vulnerability, namely through the striato-cortical dopamine system. Experimental studies are generally blind concerning these historical factors that contribute vulnerability and a critical evaluation of current animal models is needed. The transition of the last stage of the process, addiction, is conceptualized as a progression from homeostasis to allostasis and then, to pathology.
Ananda P. Dasanayake
Full Text Available Alcohol and drug abuse are detrimental to general and oral health. Though we know the effects of these harmful habits on oral mucosa, their independent and combined effect on the dental caries experience is unknown and worthy of investigation. We compared 363 “alcohol only” abusers to 300 “alcohol and drug” abusers to test the hypothesis that various components of their dental caries experience are significantly different due to plausible sociobiological explanations. After controlling for the potential confounders, we observe that the “alcohol and drug” group had a 38% higher risk of having decayed teeth compared to the “alcohol only” group (<.05. As expected, those who belonged to a higher social class (OR=1.98; 95% CI=1.43–2.75 and drank wine (OR=1.85; 95% CI=1.16–2.96 had a higher risk of having more filled teeth. We conclude that the risk of tooth decay among “alcohol only” abusers is significantly lower compared to “alcohol and drug” abusers.
Reports of the use of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) to produce a highly addictive drug called nyaope or whoonga are of major concern as ARVs are easily accessible in sub-Saharan Africa, including to pregnant women. Use of illicit drugs by pregnant women may result in serious adverse effects in their infants. We have ...
Thadani, Pushpa V
Use or abuse of licit and illicit substances is often associated with environmental stress. Current clinical evidence clearly demonstrates neurobehavioral, somatic growth and developmental deficits in children born to drug-using mothers. However, the effects of environmental stress and its interaction with prenatal drug exposure on a child's development is unknown. Studies in pregnant animals under controlled conditions show drug-induced long-term alterations in brain structures and functions of the offspring. These cytoarchitecture alterations in the brain are often associated with perturbations in neurotransmitter systems that are intimately involved in the regulation of the stress responses. Similar abnormalities have been observed in the brains of animals exposed to other adverse exogenous (e.g., environmental stress) and/or endogenous (e.g., glucocorticoids) experiences during early life. The goal of this article is to: (1) provide evidence and a perspective that common neural systems are influenced during development both by perinatal drug exposure and early stress exposure; and (2) identify gaps and encourage new research examining the effects of early stress and perinatal drug exposure, in animal models, that would elucidate how stress- and drug-induced perturbations in neural systems influence later vulnerability to abused drugs in adult offspring.
Full Text Available Introduction. Hepatitis C Virus infection represents not just a medical, but also a socio-economic problem. It is estimated that among 170 million infected, 60% belongs to the category of intravenous drug users (IDUs. Objective. The aim of this paper was to compare the response to the combined therapy of pegylated interferon alfa 2a and ribavirin, in the group of patients with HCV infection who were intravenous drug users (IDUs and in patients who were identified in the other way of transmission of HCV. Also to identify the influence of the therapy on diseases of addiction, during the course of HCV infection and on the effects of the combined therapy of pegylated interferon alfa 2a and ribavirin. Methods. We conducted a retrospective-prospective study, on 60 patients, treated with combined antiviral therapy-pegylated interferon alfa 2a and ribavirin. 30 patients were from the group of IDUs, and 30 patients from other epidemiological groups. Results. There were significant differences between the age of the patients (30.2±7.1 vs. 39.3±11.2 years; p=0.002, but no significant difference in the duration of the HCV infection between the two groups of patients (8.9±7.4 vs. 13.1±7.0 years; p>0.05. A large number of the patients in the group of IDUs had a problem with the abstinence of the drug abuse. In this group, there was the influence of alcohol (30% and other substances with potential hepatotoxicity: marihuana (23.3% and psycho-active drugs (73.6%. Staging of the liver fibrosis was not influenced by those two parameters and was similar in both groups (p>0.05. The genotype 3a was dominant in intravenous drug users (50.0% and genotype 1b in the control group of the patients (76.6%. In both groups, SVR was achieved at a higher percentage (86% vs. 70.00%; p>0.05, but among the intravenous drug users the relapses of HCV infection were at a lower percentage (3.3% vs. 20.0%; p=0.044. Side effects were noticed in solitary cases in both of the examined
Yasgar, Adam; Simeonov, Anton
Much has been presented and debated on the topic of drug abuse and its multidimensional nature, including the role of society and its customs and laws, economical factors, and the magnitude and nature of the burden. Given the complex nature of the receptors and pathways implicated in regulation of the cognitive and behavioral processes associated with addiction, a large number of molecular targets have been interrogated during recent years to discover starting points for development of small-molecule interventions. This review describes recent developments in the field of early drug discovery for drug abuse interventions with an emphasis on the advances published during the 2012 - 2014 period. Technologically, the processes/platforms utilized in drug abuse drug discovery are nearly identical to those used in the other disease areas. A key complicating factor in drug abuse research is the enormous biological complexity surrounding the brain processes involved and the associated difficulty in finding 'good' targets and achieving exquisite selectivity of treatment agents. While tremendous progress has been made during recent years to use the power of high-throughput technologies to discover proof-of-principle molecules for many new targets, next-generation models will be especially important in this field. Examples include: seeking advantageous drug-drug combinations, the use of automated whole-animal behavioral screening systems, advancing our understanding of the role of epigenetics in drug addiction and the employment of organoid-level 3D test platforms (also referred to as tissue-chip or organs-on-chip).
Full Text Available In our work we present the clinical, biochemical, serologic and pathohistologic characteristics of chronic HCV infection in i. v. drag abusers treated in the Clinic for infections diseases in Kragujevac, in period of 3 years (2007-2009. year. In 17 i. v. drug abusers were examined, 13 men and 4 women, with chronic hepatitis C. Average age was 26,82 years. Duration of i. v. drug use was different from 1 year to 11 years. All patients were without com- plaints. Regarding functional liver tests level of amino-transferases was elevated: AST --50,37 Ш and ALT - 97,3 7U/1, total bilimbin was normal. On pathohistologic examination in 12 was found minimal chronic hepatitis, in 3 very active chronic hepatitis with pronounced piece meal necrosis and bridging necrosis, one patient was cirrhosis.
Kruckow, Line; Linnet, Kristian; Banner, Jytte
Introduction: Psychiatric disease is overlooked in drug users. Patients with both drug abuse and a psychiatric disease – dual diagnosis – suffer decreased compliance to treatment and decreased life expectancy compared with single-diagnosis patients. Identifying the patients among either drug...... addicts or mentally ill patients is difficult. Methods: All drug addicts autopsied at the Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, in the years 1992, 2002 and 2012 were included. The group was divided into two subpopulations of possible dual diagnosis patients either according...... to police reports stating mental illness or to psychotropics found in the toxicology screening after autopsy. Results: We found a rise in possible mental illness in both subpopulations in the study period. Drug addicts with psychotropics in the blood at the time of death increased from 3.1% in 1992 to 48...
di Clemente, Riccardo; Pietronero, Luciano
We introduce a statistical agent based model to describe the phenomenon of drug abuse and its dynamical evolution at the individual and global level. The agents are heterogeneous with respect to their intrinsic inclination to drugs, to their budget attitude and social environment. The various levels of drug use were inspired by the professional description of the phenomenon and this permits a direct comparison with all available data. We show that certain elements have a great importance to start the use of drugs, for example the rare events in the personal experiences which permit to overcame the barrier of drug use occasionally. The analysis of how the system reacts to perturbations is very important to understand its key elements and it provides strategies for effective policy making. The present model represents the first step of a realistic description of this phenomenon and can be easily generalized in various directions.
Covey, Dan P.; Roitman, Mitchell F.; Garris, Paul A.
Phasic increases in brain dopamine are required for cue-directed reward seeking. While compelling within the framework of appetitive behavior, the view that illicit drugs hijack reward circuits by hyper-activating these dopamine transients is inconsistent with established psychostimulant pharmacology. However, recent work reclassifying amphetamine (AMPH), cocaine, and other addictive dopamine-transporter inhibitors (DAT-Is) supports transient hyper-activation as a unifying hypothesis of abuse...
Conclusion: Our results suggest that coinfection with hepatitis C was common in intravenous drug users with IE, and that molecular patterns of MRSA isolates had high similarity. SCCmec type III, which is usually hospital-acquired, could have caused the community-associated MRSA endocarditis in our patients.
Kosten, TR; Rosen, MI; McMahon, TL; Bridge, TP; OMalley, SS; Pearsall, R; OConnor, PG
This placebo-controlled, double blind, cross-over study tested the efficacy of two different doses of Peptide T in the treatment of nine intravenous drug users with early AIDS dementia who were also receiving methadone and AZT. Subjects received Peptide T doses of either 15 or 1.5 mg daily for four
Bali, Vishal; Raisch, Dennis W; Moffett, Maurice L; Khan, Nasreen
Previous studies have found a negative association between health insurance and nonmedical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD), and abuse or dependence on prescription drugs (ADPD); and mixed associations between health insurance and use of substance abuse treatment (SAT). However, effect of health insurance in the specific subgroups of population is largely unknown. To estimate the relationship between health insurance and (1) NMUPD, (2) ADPD, and (3) use of SAT services among 12-64 years old, noninstitutionalized individuals and to see if these relationships are different in different subgroups of population. This study used cross-sectional survey data from 2007 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted. In 2007, self-reported prevalence of NMUPD was approximately 10% (N=15,509,703). In multivariate analysis, NMUPD was negatively associated with health insurance, age, race other than non-Hispanic White, education, marital status, and income ($40,000-$74,999). Past year use of tobacco and alcohol were positively associated with NMUPD. Among those with private health insurance, Hispanics and individuals with family income less than $20,000 and $40,000-$74,999 were more likely prone to NMUPD than others. High school graduates with public health insurance were less likely prone to NMUPD. Approximately, 13% of nonmedical users reported ADPD (N=2,011,229). Health insurance and age were negatively associated with ADPD. However, people who were unmarried, reported fair/poor health, and used tobacco were more likely to report ADPD. Lastly, the use of substance abuse treatment programs was approximately 73% and 76% between NMUPD and ADPD population, respectively. Health insurance was not associated with use of substance abuse treatment. Individuals with high school education were 2.6 times more likely to use substance abuse treatment than the college graduates. Additionally, no significant interaction effects
The findings show that drug-abusers are predominantly males, single, unskilled workers, traders, unemployed and civil servants. Psychiatric hospitals and rehabilitation centres served as treatment centres for participants with previous admission records. Drug therapy, psychotherapy and occupational therapy were the ...
Alving, Carl R; Matyas, Gary R; Torres, Oscar; Jalah, Rashmi; Beck, Zoltan
Immunotherapeutic vaccines to drugs of abuse, including nicotine, cocaine, heroin, oxycodone, methamphetamine, and others are being developed. The theoretical basis of such vaccines is to induce antibodies that sequester the drug in the blood in the form of antibody-bound drug that cannot cross the blood brain barrier, thereby preventing psychoactive effects. Because the drugs are haptens a successful vaccine relies on development of appropriate hapten-protein carrier conjugates. However, because induction of high and prolonged levels of antibodies is required for an effective vaccine, and because injection of T-independent haptenic drugs of abuse does not induce memory recall responses, the role of adjuvants during immunization plays a critical role. As reviewed herein, preclinical studies often use strong adjuvants such as complete and incomplete Freund's adjuvant and others that cannot be, or in the case of many newer adjuvants, have never been, employed in humans. Balanced against this, the only adjuvant that has been included in candidate vaccines in human clinical trials to nicotine and cocaine has been aluminum hydroxide gel. While aluminum salts have been widely utilized worldwide in numerous licensed vaccines, the experience with human responses to aluminum salt-adjuvanted vaccines to haptenic drugs of abuse has suggested that the immune responses are too weak to allow development of a successful vaccine. What is needed is an adjuvant or combination of adjuvants that are safe, potent, widely available, easily manufactured, and cost-effective. Based on our review of the field we recommend the following adjuvant combinations either for research or for product development for human use: aluminum salt with adsorbed monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA); liposomes containing MPLA [L(MPLA)]; L(MPLA) adsorbed to aluminum salt; oil-in-water emulsion; or oil-in-water emulsion containing MPLA. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Bardo, Michael T; Compton, Wilson M
The current review examined recent literature to determine our state of knowledge about the potential ability of physical activity serve as a protectant against drug abuse vulnerability. Both preclinical and clinical studies were examined using either associational or random assignment study designs. In addition to examining drug use as an outcome variable, the potential neural mediators linking physical activity and drug abuse vulnerability were examined. Several important conclusions may be drawn. First, the preclinical evidence is solid in showing that physical activity in various forms is able to serve as both a preventive and treatment intervention that reduces drug use, although voluntary alcohol drinking appears to be an exception to this conclusion. Second, the clinical evidence provides some evidence, albeit mixed, to suggest a beneficial effect of physical activity on tobacco dependent individuals. In contrast, there exists only circumstantial evidence that physical activity may reduce use of drugs other than nicotine, and there is essentially no solid information from random control studies to know if physical activity may prevent initiation of problem use. Finally, both preclinical and clinical evidence shows that various brain systems are altered by physical activity, with the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) serving as one potential node that may mediate the putative link between physical activity and drug abuse vulnerability. It is concluded that novel neurobehavioral approaches taking advantage of novel techniques for assessing the physiological impact of physical activity are needed and can be used to inform the longitudinal random control studies that will answer definitively the question posed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hulvershorn, Leslie A; Schroeder, Kristen M; Wink, Logan K; Erickson, Craig A; McDougle, Christopher J
This pilot study compared the pharmacologic treatment history and clinical outcomes observed in pediatric outpatients with psychiatric disorders exposed to drugs of abuse in utero to those of an age-matched, sex-matched and psychiatric disorder-matched, non-drug-exposed group. In this matched cohort study, medical records of children treated at an academic, child and adolescent psychiatry outpatient clinic were reviewed. Children with caregiver-reported history of prenatal drug exposure were compared with a non-drug-exposed control group being cared for by the same providers. Patients were rated with the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity scale (CGI-S) throughout treatment. The changes in pre-treatment and post-treatment CGI-S scores and the total number of medication trials were determined between groups. The drug-exposed group (n = 30) had a higher total number of lifetime medication trials compared with the non-drug-exposed group (n = 28) and were taking significantly more total medications, at their final assessment. Unlike the non-drug-exposed group, the drug-exposed group demonstrated a lack of clinical improvement. These results suggest that in utero drug-exposed children may be more treatment-refractory to or experience greater side effects from the pharmacologic treatment of psychiatric disorders than controls, although we cannot determine if early environment or drugs exposure drives these findings. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Walsh, Diana Chapman; Kelleher, Susan E.
Alcohol and drug abuse have serious physical, psychological, and social consequences, and employees who abuse alcohol and/or drugs ultimately reduce their companies' profits. Employee substance abuse leads to reduced productivity as well as to increased absenteeism, health care and health insurance costs, and liability claims against employers of…
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....gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos.: 93.279, Drug Abuse and Addiction... Abuse Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis...
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...-402-6626, [email protected] . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos.: 93.279, Drug Abuse... Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as... invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel...
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..., MD 21224, (410) 550-1547. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos.: 93.279, Drug Abuse... Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as... conducted by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, including consideration of personnel qualifications and...
Background Alcohol is the most important substance of abuse in South Africa. There are, however, reports of an increase in the use of other drugs among adolescents. The aim of this study was to assess the use of alcohol and other drugs of abuse and their association with physical or sexual abuse in three urban high ...
Fridell, Mats; Hesse, Morten; Jæger, Mads Meier
Mixed findings have been made with regard to the long-term predictive validity of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) on criminal behaviour in samples of substance abusers. A longitudinal record-linkage study of a cohort of 1052 drug abusers admitted 1977–1995 was undertaken. Subjects were...... seriously in drug abusers, and be targeted in treatment to prevent crime in society....
...: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; Predictive Animal Models for Smoking Cessation... Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis...
National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.
This publication answers questions about the consequences of abusing commonly prescribed medications including opioids, central nervous system depressants, and stimulants. In addition to offering information on what research says about how certain medications affect the brain and body, this publication also discusses treatment options. It examines…
... Kids For Teens For Parents & Teachers Resolving Family Conflicts The Holidays and Alzheimer's Glossary Virtual Library Online ... Types of abuse Signs of abuse Reporting abuse Types of abuse Abuse comes in many forms: Physical: ...
Covey, Dan P; Roitman, Mitchell F; Garris, Paul A
Phasic increases in brain dopamine are required for cue-directed reward seeking. Although compelling within the framework of appetitive behavior, the view that illicit drugs hijack reward circuits by hyperactivating these dopamine transients is inconsistent with established psychostimulant pharmacology. However, recent work reclassifying amphetamine (AMPH), cocaine, and other addictive dopamine-transporter inhibitors (DAT-Is) supports transient hyperactivation as a unifying hypothesis of abused drugs. We argue here that reclassification also identifies generating burst firing by dopamine neurons as a keystone action. Unlike natural rewards, which are processed by sensory systems, drugs act directly on the brain. Consequently, to mimic natural rewards and exploit reward circuits, dopamine transients must be elicited de novo. Of available drug targets, only burst firing achieves this essential outcome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Covey, Dan P.; Roitman, Mitchell F.; Garris, Paul A.
Phasic increases in brain dopamine are required for cue-directed reward seeking. While compelling within the framework of appetitive behavior, the view that illicit drugs hijack reward circuits by hyper-activating these dopamine transients is inconsistent with established psychostimulant pharmacology. However, recent work reclassifying amphetamine (AMPH), cocaine, and other addictive dopamine-transporter inhibitors (DAT-Is) supports transient hyper-activation as a unifying hypothesis of abused drugs. We argue here that reclassification also identifies generating burst firing by dopamine neurons as a keystone action. Unlike natural rewards, which are processed by sensory systems, drugs act directly on the brain. Consequently, to mimic natural reward and exploit reward circuits, dopamine transients must be elicited de novo. Of available drug targets, only burst firing achieves this essential outcome. PMID:24656971
Schwartz, R H
Growing numbers of individuals are proposing that drugs be legalized in the United States, with claims that federal, state, and local efforts to prohibit the use of illicit drugs are irrational and unenforceable. "Drug reform" advocates include persons of all political persuasions. Ironically, the call for drug reform comes at a time when trends in drug abuse, as reflected in national and state surveys, show a promising decline. It also is contradictory to at least one recent public opinion poll, in which respondents opposed the legalization of marijuana by a five-to-one margin. While their position is by no means unanimous, proponents of drug reform generally base their arguments on several key premises, such as elimination of or reductions in drug trafficking, enforcement, and interdiction expenditures; increased tax revenues from the legal sale of drugs; and reductions in health-care expenses associated with drug treatment. Reform advocates further claim that legalization would not be followed by an increase in drug use. The validity of each of these arguments is highly questionable. Legalization is a simplistic, short-sighted solution to a complex issue with public health, economic, criminal justice, and societal ramifications. Legalization would, moreover, abrogate the position taken in 1961 by the United States and 114 other nations in ratifying the United Nations Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs. The impact of drug reform merits an unbiased study by an independent agency. Until that time, pediatricians should inform themselves of the arguments for and against drug reform and be prepared to educate patients and their families about the issue.
Evans, Suzette M; Reynolds, Brady
This special issue exemplifies one of the major goals of the current editor of Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology (Dr. Suzette Evans): to increase the number of manuscripts that emphasize females and address sex differences. Taken together, these articles represent a broad range of drug classes and approaches spanning preclinical research to treatment to better understand the role of sex differences in drug abuse. While not all studies found sex differences, we want to emphasize that finding no sex difference is just as important as confirming one, and should be reported in peer-reviewed journals. It is our intention and hope that this special issue will further advance scientific awareness about the importance of accounting for sex differences in the study of substance abuse. Participant sex is an essential variable to consider in developing a more comprehensive understanding of substance abuse. Rather than viewing investigating sex differences as burdensome, investigators should seize this opportune area ripe for innovative research that is long overdue. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Drug abuse has become a global issue of concern. It affects not only individual users, but also their families and communities. Data were retrieved from the database of the Taiwan Surveillance System of Drug Abuse and Addiction Treatment (SSDAAT from 2002 to 2011, and 147,660 cases reported by medical institutions in Taiwan were reviewed. This study showed that the top five reported abused drugs by medical institutions during the last decade were heroin, methamphetamine, benzodiazepines, ketamine, and zolpidem. Heroin and methamphetamine continued to be the first two abused drugs reported by medical institutions. Heroin abuse was significant, but has shown a downward trend. However, emerging abused drugs, such as ketamine and zolpidem, presented upward trends. 3,4-Methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA abuse seems to have re-emerged and has increased gradually since 2010. Injection without needle sharing has become the most common route of administration of abused drugs since 2002. The majority of causes for these reported drug abuses were drug dependence, followed by peer influence and stress relief. Hepatitis C was the most commonly reported infectious disease, followed by hepatitis B and AIDS in the drug abusers reported by medical institutions. It should be noted that access to drugs via the Internet increased year by year, and this is clearly an area needing constant monitoring.
Zeynep Özözen Ayas
Full Text Available At the present time the incidence of illicit drug use increases worldwide among young adults. Abuse of these substances is a rare cause of stroke in young adults. Cocaine, heroin, cannabis, and amphetamines use increase the risk of stroke. Cannabis sativa induce main effects by delta-9-hydrocannabinol. The main mechanism of marijuana-related stroke in young patients is vasospazm. The other possible mechanisms are systemic hypotension, impaired cerebral autoregulation, alteration of cerebral blood flow, cardioembolism due to atrial fibrillation. In this article a 25-year-old young male patient with paresia and paresthesia of right side who had chronic abuse of marijuana is reported. Clinicians must be alert about marijuana can be seriously harmful to cerebrovascular system in chronic use.
Othman Mohamad Hashim
Full Text Available Urinalysis was used in previous studies among higher institution students (n=16252 in Malaysia to answer the question of whether university students are involved in drug abuse. However, the use of urinalysis had faced some problems. The problems were related to human rights issues and the cost to perform the urinalysis was expensive and quite impossible to be implemented to a large population of university students. To overcome this problem, this study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of psychometric measures in screening drug, alcohol and substance abuse. The Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory A2 (SASSI-A2 was used for this purpose. SASSI-A2 is a brief screening tool designed to identify individuals who have a high probability of having a substance use disorder, including both substance abuse and substance dependence. SASSI-A2 comprises of 72 items that are rated on a two point scale with response; true and false. SASSI-A2 was translated into Malay language and it was refined through a back-translation technique and focus group approach. Psychometric testing was undertaken on a sample of 750 university students from five public universities in Malaysia. All participants were aged between 19 and 20 years. Internal consistency coefficients were calculated for the total scale and its subscales. Chronbach's alpha obtained for SASSI-A2 was 0.72. This relatively high level of Chronbach's alpha showed relatively high level of reliability. The results demonstrated that the whole SASSI-A2 meets the fundamental measurement properties and can discriminate groups of higher institution students from high to low on the substance dependency variable. The accuracy of the test has been found to be unaffected by gender, ethnicity, age and years of education. Although more rigorous validation studies are needed, it is recommended that SASSI-A2 be considered for usage to higher institution students populations when a brief, objective, and
Rumi, M A; Siddiqui, M A; Salam, M A; Iqbal, M R; Azam, M G; Chowdhury, A K; Khan AYM; Hasan, K N; Hassan, M S
Individuals seeking jobs abroad need health fitness certificates before entering into those countries. Medical screening of 43,213 Bangladeshi job seekers (M/F: 42,290/923) was carried out in our reference center during the period August, 1994 to May, 1996. Albeit male predominance, they represented middle and lower middle socio-economic class of the population from all over the country. All were young adults (age: 27.05+/-3.56 years; mean+/-SD) applying for job visas to different Asian countries. Physical examination and laboratory investigations including markers for several infectious diseases and drugs of abuse were carried out as required by countries recruiting the workers. Serological tests revealed that 1,884 (4.4%) of individuals were positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), 737 (1.7%) for Treponema pallidum hemagglutination (TPHA) and only 83 (0.2%) for antibody to human immunodeficiency virus (anti-HIV). However, we could not confirm any case of infection with HIV. Chest X-ray suggestive of pulmonary tuberculosis was found in 162 (0.4%) and on blood film, malarial parasites could be observed only in 4 cases. Their urine analysis revealed the presence of opiates or cannabinoids in 471 (1.1%) individuals. HBsAg-positive cases (p = 0.003) and abuse of opiates (p = 0.024) or cannabinoids (p = 0.002) were significantly higher among males. TPHA reactivity and chest X-ray suggestive of tuberculosis were found to be higher among opiates (p = 0.002 and 0.027) and cannabinoids (p = 0.000 for both) abused as well as with increasing age (p = 0.000). These results may represent a cross-sectional view of the prevalence of different infectious diseases and abuse of drugs among the young adult population of Bangladesh.
Flinders, Bryn; Cuypers, Eva; Porta, Tiffany; Varesio, Emmanuel; Hopfgartner, Gérard; Heeren, Ron M A
Hair testing is a powerful tool routinely used for the detection of drugs of abuse. The analysis of hair is highly advantageous as it can provide prolonged drug detectability versus that in biological fluids and chronological information about drug intake based on the average growth of hair. However, current methodology requires large amounts of hair samples and involves complex time-consuming sample preparation followed by gas or liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Mass spectrometry imaging is increasingly being used for the analysis of single hair samples, as it provides more accurate and visual chronological information in single hair samples.Here, two methods for the preparation of single hair samples for mass spectrometry imaging are presented.The first uses an in-house built cutting apparatus to prepare longitudinal sections, the second is a method for embedding and cryo-sectioning hair samples in order to prepare cross-sections all along the hair sample.
McCusker, J; Willis, G; McDonald, M; Lewis, B F; Sereti, S M; Feldman, Z T
The outcomes of counseling and testing programs related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and risk of infection among injection drug users (IDUs) are not well known or understood. A counseling and testing outcome of potential public health importance is attaining admission to drug abuse treatment by those IDUs who are either infected or who are at high risk of becoming infected. The authors investigated factors related to admission to drug abuse treatment among 519 IDUs who received HIV counseling and testing from September 1987 through December 1990 at a men's prison and at community-based testing sites in Worcester, MA. By June 1991, 123 of the 519 IDUs (24 percent) had been admitted to treatment. Variables associated with their admission included a long history of drug injection, frequent recent drug injection, cleaning injection equipment using bleach, prior drug treatment, and a positive HIV test result. Logistic regression analyses, controlling for effects of recruitment site, year, sex, and area of residence, generally confirmed the associations. IDUs in the study population who were HIV-infected sought treatment or were admitted to treatment more frequently than those who were not infected. The results indicate that access to drug abuse treatment should be facilitated for high-risk IDUs and for those who have begun to inject drugs recently.
Full Text Available Cannabinoids (Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol are the active ingredient of marijuana (cannabis which is the most commonly abused illicit drug in the USA. In addition to being known and used as recreational drugs, cannabinoids are produced endogenously by neurons in the brain (endocannabinoids and serve as important signaling molecules in the nervous system and the rest of the body. Cannabinoids have been implicated in bodily processes both in health and disease. Recent pharmacological and physiological experiments have described novel aspects of classic brain signaling mechanisms or revealed unknown mechanisms of cellular communication involving the endocannabinoid system. While several forms of signaling have been described for endocannabinoids, the most distinguishing feature of endocannabinoids is their ability to act as retrograde messengers in neural circuits. Neurons in the main olfactory bulb express high levels of cannabinoid receptors. Here, we describe the cellular mechanisms and function of this novel brain signaling system in regulating neural activity at synapses in olfactory circuits. Results from basic research have the potential to provide the groundwork for translating the neurobiology of drug abuse to the realm of the pharmacotherapeutic treatment of addiction, specifically marijuana substance use disorder.
Berry, Alessandra; Raggi, Carla; Borgi, Marta; Cirulli, Francesca
A growing body of literature shows that a link exists between substance abuse and stress and that the crosstalk of sex hormones with the neuroendocrine system might differently prime vulnerability to drug addiction in male and female subjects. Thus, understanding the neurobiological mechanisms of addiction and the identification of sex-driven determinants in vulnerability to drug abuse may help to better devise and/or implement strategic (pharmacological, behavioural, social) interventions to prevent or face the issue of addiction. Differences between sexes can be found at all stages of life (in both the animal model and human studies) and may account for genetic, epigenetic and environmental/hormonal factors that in turn affect the functionality of the whole organism leading also to a sex-driven differential vulnerability or resilience to non-communicable pathologies. These include the onset and precipitation of stress-related psychiatric disorders as well as "substance-related and addictive disorders" (as defined in the DSM-V). This paper reviews the scientific literature highlighting significant differences in male and female subjects in stress and neuroendocrine function and the implications for sex-dependent differential vulnerability to drug addiction.
Sayed Hadi Sayed Alitabar
Full Text Available Background and Objective: According to the increasing of substance use in the country, more researches about this phenomenon are necessary. This Study Investigates the Validity, Reliability and Confirmatory Factor Structure of the Drug Abuse Screening test (DAST. Materials and Methods: The Sample Consisted of 381 Patients (143 Women and 238 Men with a Multi-Stage Cluster Sampling of Areas 2, 6 and 12 of Tehran Were Selected from Each Region, 6 Randomly Selected Drug Rehabilitation Center. The DAST Was Used as Instrument. Divergent & Convergent Validity of this Scale Was Assessed with Problems Assessment for Substance Using Psychiatric Patients (PASUPP and Relapse Prediction Scale (RPS.Results: The DAST after the First Time Factor Structure of Using Confirmatory Factor Analysis Was Confirmed. The DAST Had a Good Internal Consistency (Cranach’s Alpha, and the Reliability of the Test Within a Week, 0.9, 0.8. Also this Scale Had a Positive Correlation with Problems Assessment for Substance Using Psychiatric Patients and Relapse Prediction Scale (P<0.01.Conclusion: The Overall Results Showed that the Drug Abuse Screening Test in Iranian Society Is Valid. It Can Be Said that Self-Report Scale Tool Is Useful for Research Purposes and Addiction.
Ompad, Danielle C.; Ikeda, Robin M.; Shah, Nina; Fuller, Crystal M.; Bailey, Susan; Morse, Edward; Kerndt, Peter; Maslow, Carey; Wu, Yingfeng; Vlahov, David; Garfein, Richard; Strathdee, Steffanie A.
Objectives. We examined the relation between childhood sexual abuse and injection drug use initiation among young adult injection drug users. Methods. We used mixed effect linear models to compare age at first injection among 2143 young injection drug users by first sexual abuse age categories. Results. The participants were predominantly male (63.3%) and White (52.8%). Mean age and age at first injection were 23.7 and 19.6 years, respectively; 307 participants (14.3%) reported childhood sexual abuse. After adjustment for gender, race/ethnicity, noninjection drug use before first injection drug use, and recruitment site, childhood sexual abuse was independently associated with younger age at first injection. Conclusions. Childhood sexual abuse was associated with earlier initiation of injection drug use. These data emphasize the need to integrate substance abuse prevention with postvictimization services for children and adolescents. PMID:15798133
Uhler, Ann S.; Parker, Olga V.
The authors suggest that action therapy, a group of techniques including psychodrama, drama therapy, and role training, warrants research attention to determine whether it is well suited to the special characteristics and needs of women clients. In addition, the authors call on researchers to develop a new standardized tool for counselors to use during initial interviews to determine whether women presenting for drug abuse treatment also have significant issues related to trauma. The authors believe the use of unassisted clinical judgment for trauma assessment in first interviews may drive patients away by probing for painful information that clients are not yet ready to confront or divulge. PMID:18567963
... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse... ALCOHOL ABUSE PREVENTION General § 86.1 What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations? The purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations is to implement section 22 of...
Milman, Doris H.; And Others
This document provides two separate curriculum guides for pediatrics faculty to use in teaching medical students. The first section contains the alcohol abuse curriculum guide; the second section contains the drug abuse curriculum guide. The drug abuse guide concentrates on cannabis as a paradigm for all nonalcoholic drugs of abuse. Each guide…
Calderon, Silvia N; Klein, Michael
In the United States of America (USA), the abuse potential assessment of a drug is performed as part of the safety evaluation of a drug under development, and to evaluate if the drug needs to be subject to controls that would minimize the abuse of the drug once on the market. The assessment of the abuse potential of new drugs consists of a scientific and medical evaluation of all data related to abuse of the drug. This paper describes the regulatory framework for evaluating the abuse potential of new drugs, in general, including novel stimulants. The role of the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the evaluation of the abuse potential of drugs, and its role in drug control are also discussed. A definition of abuse potential, an overview of the currently accepted approaches to evaluating the abuse potential of a drug, as well as a description of the criteria that applies when recommending a specific level of control (i.e., a Schedule) for a drug under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'CNS Stimulants'. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; NIDA Cutting... Administrator, Office of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room 220, MSC 8401... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug...
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Kruckow, Line; Linnet, Kristian; Banner, Jytte
Psychiatric disease is overlooked in drug users. Patients with both drug abuse and a psychiatric disease - dual diagnosis - suffer decreased compliance to treatment and decreased life expectancy compared with single-diagnosis patients. Identifying the patients among either drug addicts or mentally ill patients is difficult. All drug addicts autopsied at the Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, in the years 1992, 2002 and 2012 were included. The group was divided into two subpopulations of possible dual diagnosis patients either according to police reports stating mental illness or to psychotropics found in the toxicology screening after autopsy. We found a rise in possible mental illness in both subpopulations in the study period. Drug addicts with psychotropics in the blood at the time of death increased from 3.1% in 1992 to 48.1% in 2012, and this group was significantly younger at the time of death than those without psychotropics in the blood. Suspected dual diagnosis patients have increased in number. They die earlier than their drug addict counterparts. Methadone remains the leading cause of death in all subpopulations. Possible causes are misuse of treatment and/or illegally bought methadone, wrongly assigned cause of death due to unknown tolerance and/or polydrug toxicity in combination with psychotropic medicine. none. not relevant.
Isaac Chun-Jen Chen
Conclusion: Although the prevalence of drug abuse-related accidents was low, and only three patient deaths were reported in this study, many patients presented to the EDs with severe effects and later required hospitalization. Better and timely management of such patients will help to minimize the adverse health impacts associated with drug abuse. Governmental agencies and all healthcare professionals should also work together to fight against the surging trend of drug abuse in Taiwan.
Full Text Available Addiction to intravenously administered drugs has been a serious epidemiological problem for years. Among the related health complications, deep vein thrombosis (DVT is one of the most important. This paper provides an illustrative presentation of DVT in intravenous drug users (IDUs, HIV-positive subjects among them.We searched PubMed, Ovid Journals, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar and references from articles obtained. The main terms used to identify appropriate studies of DVT in IDUs were ‘intravenous drug users’, ‘substance-related disorders’ and ‘deep vein thrombosis’.No guidelines exist for DVT in intravenous drug users. As many as 47.6% of IDUs report having suffered from DVT. IDUs may constitute approx. 50% of patients under 40 years of age with DVT, this being promoted by multiple vein punctures, groin injections, lack of sterility, insoluble microparticles and other factors. The clinical appearance is more complex than in the general population, which also makes prognosis more difficult. HIV infection can worsen DVT. It often appears as proximal iliofemoral thrombosis, accompanied by local and general complications. Ultrasound with a compression test is an objective method of choice, but must often be complemented with computed tomography. Antithrombotic therapy in IDUs needs to be applied individually. The optimal method is supervised therapy at addiction treatment services.Individual and public preventive measures, among them locally prepared guidelines for DVT in IDUs, may be the most important processes capable of effectively reducing the morbidity of septic and non-septic DVT.
Seyed Mohammad Alavi
Full Text Available Summary: Background and aims: Prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV in intravenous drug users (IDU varies in different areas according to socioeconomic and geographical circumstances. The present study was performed to determine seroprevalence of HCV in IDU individuals in Ahvaz, Iran. Materials and methods: 142 IDU patients were included in this retrospective study in Ahvaz southwest Iran from 2001 to 2006. Patients were placed in two groups determined by HCV Ab positive or negative status. Data were analyzed using SPSS for Windows (version 11.5; SPSS Inc., USA software. Results: Out of total 142 cases, 74 persons (52.11% had a positive HCV-Ab test according to the ELISA method. There was no difference in age, sex, level of education, residency and co-infection with HIV and hepatitis B virus between HCV-Ab positive (HAP and HCV-Ab negative (HAN groups (p > 0.05. HCV-Ab positivity was significantly related to imprisonment and duration spent in prison [OR: 3.22, 95% (CI 2.61–3.76, p < 0.0001]. Conclusion: Patients with IDU constitute a high-risk group for acquisition of HCV infection. Transmission of HCV via sharing syringe and needle as well as blood transfusion has been a significant source of hepatitis C infection for patients with intravenous drug addiction. Keywords: Intravenous drug user, Hepatitis C virus, Seroprevalence, Ahvaz
Greberman, S B; Jasinski, D
This study was undertaken to determine differences in previous treatment patterns in individuals currently using different numbers of substances. Medical records of 1198 inpatient detoxification (detox) admissions were analyzed. Numbers of past admissions to completed detox, methadone, or other types of drug abuse treatment were totaled and ranked to determine most frequent type. Within gender, treatment histories of single and multiple drug abusers usually do not differ. The one exception is male multiple drug abusers ages 26-30, who show increased admissions. Possible explanations are that men do not seek treatment before developing medical complications of addiction or until external factors influence admission. There were differences in treatment histories between genders in multiple drug abusers only. Before age 30, women reported increased treatment of certain types. Possible explanations are that treatment priority is given to women who are, or may be, pregnant. Also, younger men may not enter or complete treatment. Previous treatment history may influence many behaviors. The results of this study delineate several valuable indicators for assessing past history.
Hussain, Fahmida; Frare, Robert W; Py Berrios, Karen L
Properly identifying patients with a history of drug abuse is the first step in providing effective dental care. Dental professionals need to be fully aware of the challenges associated with treating this population. In the current study, the authors analyzed the physical and oral manifestations of illicit drug abuse to aid in the identification of patients who abuse drugs and the pain management strategies needed to treat them. The authors also present a clinical case of a patient with unique skin lesions and discuss the typical clinical findings of drug abuse based on a literature review.
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Tang, Magdalene H Y; Ching, C K; Tse, M L; Ng, Carol; Lee, Caroline; Chong, Y K; Wong, Watson; Mak, Tony W L
To validate a locally developed chromatography-based method to monitor emerging drugs of abuse whilst performing regular drug testing in abusers. Cross-sectional study. Eleven regional hospitals, seven social service units, and a tertiary level clinical toxicology laboratory in Hong Kong. A total of 972 drug abusers and high-risk individuals were recruited from acute, rehabilitation, and high-risk settings between 1 November 2011 and 31 July 2013. A subset of the participants was of South Asian ethnicity. In total, 2000 urine or hair specimens were collected. Proof of concept that surveillance of emerging drugs of abuse can be performed whilst conducting routine drug of abuse testing in patients. The method was successfully applied to 2000 samples with three emerging drugs of abuse detected in five samples: PMMA (paramethoxymethamphetamine), TFMPP [1-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazine], and methcathinone. The method also detected conventional drugs of abuse, with codeine, methadone, heroin, methamphetamine, and ketamine being the most frequently detected drugs. Other findings included the observation that South Asians had significantly higher rates of using opiates such as heroin, methadone, and codeine; and that ketamine and cocaine had significantly higher detection rates in acute subjects compared with the rehabilitation population. This locally developed analytical method is a valid tool for simultaneous surveillance of emerging drugs of abuse and routine drug monitoring of patients at minimal additional cost and effort. Continued, proactive surveillance and early identification of emerging drugs will facilitate prompt clinical, social, and legislative management.
Sharma, Manoj; Branscum, Paul
Drug abuse, or substance abuse, is a substantial public health problem in the United States, particularly among high school students. The purpose of this article was to review school-based programs implemented in high schools for substance abuse prevention and to suggest recommendations for future interventions. Included were English language…
Hoggatt, Katherine J; Jamison, Andrea L; Lehavot, Keren; Cucciare, Michael A; Timko, Christine; Simpson, Tracy L
We conducted a systematic literature review on substance misuse, abuse, and dependence in women veterans, including National Guard/reserve members. We identified 837 articles published between 1980 and 2013. Of 56 included studies, 32 reported rates of alcohol misuse, binge drinking, or other unhealthy alcohol use not meeting diagnostic criteria for abuse or dependence, and 33 reported rates of drug misuse or diagnosed alcohol or drug use disorders. Rates ranged from 4% to 37% for alcohol misuse and from 7% to 25% for binge drinking; among Veterans Health Administration (VA) health-care system outpatients, rates ranged from 3% to 16% for substance use disorder. Studies comparing women veterans and civilians reported no clear differences in binge or heavy drinking. Substance misuse rates were generally lower among women veterans than men veterans. Substance misuse was associated with higher rates of trauma, psychiatric and medical conditions, and increased mortality and suicide rates. Most studies included only VA patients, and many used only VA medical record data; therefore, the reported substance misuse rates likely do not reflect true prevalence. Rates also varied by assessment method, source of data, and the subgroups studied. Further efforts to develop epidemiologically valid prevalence estimates are needed to capture the true health burden of substance misuse in women veterans, particularly those not using VA care. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
Klusonová, Hana; Vlková, Jana; Visnovský, Peter
Natural opium is a popular seasonal alternation for substance dependent people. Its processing, way of using, experience and change of habits was the aim of our study carried out via anonymous questionnaire and directed interview. 47 questionnaires were obtained. According to our results natural opium has been abused by people 19-42 years old, more than a half of them were male. Basic drug were pervitin in 57 %, marihuana in 33 %, a considerable part (30 %) was natural opium. Each grower produced approximately 35 g of raw opium in one season. The most frequent way of application was smoking, injecting and "opium tea" drinking. Almost a half of the clients (40 %) felt attenuation after application; relaxation, hallucination and central stimulation admitted 25 % of respondents. Health troubles had majority of the users. Combinations of natural opium with other drugs (alcohol, marihuana, pervitin) declared 45 % respondents, the effects of the combinations admitted one third of users. The examination for viral hepatitis confirmed more than a half of the clients; the major part of users from Olomouc, but only 25 % of users from Prostejov were tested for HIV. Opium consumption influenced habits of personal hygiene of more than a half of the users (57 %). Routine servicing of the spot of the needle insertion practiced a half of the responders. Majority of the abusers (79 %) obtained and closed out paraphernalia throw to the "harm reduction" program.
Low, W Y; Zulkifli, S N; Yusof, K; Batumalail, S; Aye, K W
A survey was carried out to gather information on knowledge, attitudes and perception of parents and their children in relation to drug abuse matters. Significantly more teenagers knew more of the cause of drug addiction, as well as places for treatment and rehabilitation. Both teenagers and parents were also aware of reasons why drug addicts find it difficult to change their habits, mainly lacking motivation to stop taking drugs and that drug addicts do not have the power to control themselves. Teenagers were significantly more aware of effects of negative parental attitudes contributing to drug abuse, apart from school factors. Personal experiences before abusing drugs such as knowledge of pleasurable effects of drugs and where to obtain them has also a role to play in leading to drug abuse. There was also agreement that unfulfilled needs such as 'not being respected recognised for ones capabilities' and 'not being loved or treated fairly by parents', were causes of drug abuse. Significantly more teenagers knew of the ways of abusing drugs, mainly by injection, smoking and sniffing, and also sources of information via the mass media, social clubs, rehabilitation centres and schools. However, both the parents and teenagers were relatively ignorant of the long term effects of abusing drugs.
Full Text Available Background & objectives: Addiction is one of the problems in world threating the social, economic and culture factors. It is essential to have an accurate knowledge about the characteristics of drug users in order to diminish the high-risk behaviors of intravenous drug addicts. This research has been done to assess relationship between individual characteristics and high risk behavior in intravenous drug addicts. Method: In this descriptive-analytic research, 360 drug users were selected from different places in Ardabil city and interviewed by a prepared questionnaire. The data were analyzed using descriptive and analytical tests including t-test, Pearson correlation and ANOVA with SPSS statistical software. Results: The results showed that the age, gender, material status, job position, age of addiction start, age of injection start, injection frequency, injection frequency per day, syringe supply place and the partner’s gender during recent few months had no significant difference compared to drug users with needle sharing and without needle sharing. The educational level of drug users with needle sharing was lower (P=0.037 and the number of new syringe usage per month was also lesser (P=0.001. They predicted to be more likely infected with AIDS (P=0.001 and had a less argument with their partner about using condom, also mostly have not used condom at their last sexual relationship (P=0.001. The average number of their partners during last three months was high (P=0.003 and there was a meaningful relationship between true sense of peril and using condom in drug users with needle sharing group (p=0.001. Conclusion: There is a significant relationship between the true sense of danger and the using condom. It is necessary to have an appropriate advertising to increase using condoms among injecting drug users.
Sussman, Steve; Stacy, Alan W; Johnson, C Anderson; Pentz, Mary Ann; Robertson, Elizabeth
This article introduces the scope of the Special Issue. A variety of scientific disciplines are brought together to establish theoretical integration of the arenas of drug use, misuse, "abuse," and drug misuse prevention. Transdisciplinary scientific collaboration (TDSC) is utilized as a process of integration. Introductory comments regarding the strengths and limitations of TDSC are presented. Then, the relevance of genetics to substance misuse and substance misuse prevention is presented. Next, the relevance of cognition for prevention is discussed. Specifically, neurologically plausible distinctions in cognition and implicit cognition and their relevance for prevention are discussed. At a relatively molar social-level of analysis, social network theory, systems dynamic models, geographic information systems models, cultural psychology, and political science approaches to drug misuse and its prevention are introduced. The uses of both quantitative and qualitative statistical approaches to prevention are mentioned next. Finally, targeted prevention, bridging the efficacy-effectiveness gap, and a statement on overcoming disbalance round out the Special Issue. The bridges created will serve to propel drug misuse "prevention science" forward in the years to come. Advances in understanding etiological issues, translation to programs, and ecological fit of programming are desired results.
Koster, Remco A.; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C.; Greijdanus, Ben; VanDerNagel, Joanneke E. L.; Uges, Donald R. A.
Background:To facilitate the monitoring of drug abuse by patients, a method was developed and validated for the analysis of amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, methylenedioxyamphetamine, methylenedioxyethylamphetamine, methylphenidate, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, morphine,
Subramaniam, B; Claudius, J S
Cancer therapy using chemotherapeutic drugs frequently involves injection of the drug into the body through some intravenous mode of administration, viz, continuous (drip) infusion or single/multiple bolus injection(s). An understanding of the effect of the various modes of administration upon tumor penetration of drug is essential to rational design of drug therapy. This paper investigates drug penetration into a model tumor of slab geometry (between two capillaries) in which the overall transport rate of drug is limited by intra-tumor transport characterized by an effective diffusion coefficient. Employing the method of Finite Fourier Transforms (FFT), analytical solutions have been obtained for transient drug distribution in both the plasma and the tumor following three modes of administration, viz, continuous infusion, single bolus injection and equally-spaced equal-dose multiple bolus injections, of a given amount of drug. The qualitative trends exhibited by the plasma drug distribution profiles are consistent with reported experimental studies. Two concepts, viz, the dimensionless decay constant and the plasma/tumor drug concentration trajectories, are found to be particularly useful in the rational design of drug therapy. The dimensionless decay constant provides a measure of the rate of drug decay in the plasma relative to the rate of drug diffusion into the tumor and is thus characteristic of the tumor/drug system. The magnitude of this parameter dictates the choice of drug administration mode for minimizing drug decay in the plasma while simultaneously maximizing drug transport into the tumor. The concentration trajectories provide a measure of the plasma drug concentration relative to the tumor drug concentration at various times following injection. When the tumor drug concentration exceeds the plasma drug concentration, the drug will begin to diffuse out of the tumor. Knowledge of the time at which this diffusion reversal occurs is especially useful
Mohammad Behnampoor 1 , Mohamad Reza Havasian2 , Halime Aali3 , Fatemeh Parooei4 , Morteza Salarzaei4 , Zohreh Mahmoodi
Addiction and drug abuse are among the issues that have been greatly adverted by the clinical psychologists and psychiatrists. Suicide attempt, like other social phenomena, is not uni-causal; a variety of factors affects this phenomenon. Thus, having an exact awareness of suicide factors and studying the importance of the factors seem necessary. The present research aims at studying suicidal thoughts, depression, anxiety, and stress among adolescent suicide attempters abusing drug and adolesc...
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... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel, February 22, 2011, 8 a.m. to February 25, 2011, 5 p.m...
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Kim, Dong-Hyun; So, Wi-Young
Background: Recreational drug abuse control has long been a major goal of global health and social welfare organizations. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the possible associations between recreational drug abuse and Korean adolescents' school records. Methods: In 2012, 74,186 seventh- through twelfth-grade students participated…
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel, May 11, 2010, 1:30 p.m. to May 11, 2010, 3 p.m., National...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of changes in the meeting of the National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel, October 2, 2012, 1:00 p.m. to October 2, 2012, 4:00 p.m...
An extensive amount of literature is available on drugs of abuse. However, current knowledge on cellular and molecular mechanisms of actions is insufficient and hampers treatment of intoxicated patients. Drugs of abuse cause 100.000 hospital admissions yearly only in the US. Therefore, we
National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.
This bibliography, which attempts to gather the significant research on the reproductive effects of the drugs of abuse, is one in a series prepared by the National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information on subjects of topical interest. Selection of literature is based on its currency, its significance in the field, and its availability in local…
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... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of changes in the meeting of the National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel, October 2, 2012, 8:30 a.m. to October 2, 2012, 1:00 p.m...
... Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, Johns Hopkins Bayview Campus, Baltimore, MD, 21223... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the Board of...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel, October 15, 2013, 2:00 p.m. to October 16, 2013, 1:00 p.m...
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This article reviews the use of several valuation methods as they relate to drug abuse and places them within the context of U.S. policy. First, cost-of-illness (COI) studies are reviewed and their limitations discussed. Second, three additional economic methods of valuing drug abuse are reviewed, including cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA),…
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel, October 15, 2013, 9:00 a.m. to October 15, 2013, 11:00 p.m...
... applications. Place: National Institutes of Health, Neuroscience Center, 6001 Executive Boulevard, Conference... developments in the drug abuse field. Place: National Institutes of Health, Neuroscience Center, 6001 Executive... Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos.: 93.279, Drug Abuse and Addiction Research Programs, National...
VSA Educational Services, Washington, DC. Resource Center on Substance Abuse Prevention and Disability.
This leaflet discusses alcohol and other drug abuse prevention for individuals with hidden disabilities such as cancer, epilepsy, diabetes, kidney failure, hemophilia, hypertension, early stages of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), or heart disease. Their increased risk for alcohol and other drug abuse and reasons for increased risk are…
Klisch, Yvonne; Bowling, Kristi G.; Miller, Leslie M.; Ramos, Miguel A.
Two online science education games, in which players learn about the risks of prescription drug abuse in the context of investigating crimes, were evaluated to determine shifts of prescription drug abuse attitudes attributable to game exposure. High school students from grades 11 and 12 (n = 179) were assigned to one of the games and participated…
Bolin, B Levi; Alcorn, Joseph L; Reynolds, Anna R; Lile, Joshua A; Stoops, William W; Rush, Craig R
Drug-discrimination procedures empirically evaluate the control that internal drug states have over behavior. They provide a highly selective method to investigate the neuropharmacological underpinnings of the interoceptive effects of drugs in vivo. As a result, drug discrimination has been one of the most widely used assays in the field of behavioral pharmacology. Drug-discrimination procedures have been adapted for use with humans and are conceptually similar to preclinical drug-discrimination techniques in that a behavior is differentially reinforced contingent on the presence or absence of a specific interoceptive drug stimulus. This chapter provides a basic overview of human drug-discrimination procedures and reviews the extant literature concerning the use of these procedures to elucidate the underlying neuropharmacological mechanisms of commonly abused illicit drugs (i.e., stimulants, opioids, and cannabis) in humans. This chapter is not intended to review every available study that used drug-discrimination procedures in humans. Instead, when possible, exemplary studies that used a stimulant, opioid, or Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (the primary psychoactive constituent of cannabis) to assess the discriminative-stimulus effects of drugs in humans are reviewed for illustrative purposes. We conclude by commenting on the current state and future of human drug-discrimination research.
Ferguson, Patricia, Ed.; And Others
The National Institute on Drug Abuse presents this report as the fifth in a series intended to summarize the empirical research findings and major theoretical approaches relating to the the issues of drug use and abuse. Included in this volume are summaries of the major research findings concerning the effects of nonmedical drug use on pregnancy.…
Khalily, Muhammad Tahir
This paper describes moves towards the coordination of efforts to respond to the worsening drug abuse situation in Pakistan which affects all segments of society. The efforts reported seek to rectify inconsistencies in treatment policy resulting in unsatisfactory outcomes. Examples of collaborative strategies with encouraging results need further underpinning and expansion. There is, however, a lack of realization at the policy level of the need to effect changes in treatment formulated on a consistent and evidence-based approach. Policy has therefore been reviewed and proposals made for a comprehensive treatment strategy in line with international best practices to deal with this problem effectively and efficiently. Establishment of an addiction study centre at university level to continue professional and academic development is suggested.
Allana M. Krolikowski
Full Text Available Methamphetamine and MDMA have been called safe drugs of abuse. Worldwide there is an increased consumption of these drugs, which has become a focus of research in South Africa. As the number of methamphetamine users has increased in many African countries, it is essential that emergency care practitioners are able to diagnose and manage intoxication with methamphetamine, MDMA, and other derivatives. The most common presentations include restlessness, agitation, hypertension, tachycardia, and headache while hyperthermia, hyponatraemia, and rhabdomyolysis are among the most common serious complications. Most deaths are secondary to hyperthermia complicated by multiple organ failure. A number of laboratory analyses should be obtained if locally available. We provide a review of the current recommended general and specific management approaches. Benzodiazepines are the first line therapy for hyperthermia, agitation, critical hypertension, and seizures. Patients with serious complications are best managed in an intensive care unit if available. Emergency centres should create protocols and/or further train staff in the recognition and management of intoxication with these ‘not so safe’ drugs.
Pagano, Anna; Lee, Juliet P; García, Victor; Recarte, Carlos
Access to study populations is a major concern for drug use and treatment researchers. Spaces related to drug use and treatment have varying levels of researcher accessibility based on several issues, including legality, public versus private settings, and insider/outsider status. Ethnographic research methods are indispensable for gaining and maintaining access to hidden or "hard-to-reach" populations. Here, we discuss our long-term ethnographic research on drug abuse recovery houses created by and for Latino migrants and immigrants in Northern California. We take our field work experiences as a case study to examine the problem of researcher access and how ethnographic strategies can be successfully applied to address it, focusing especially on issues of entrée, building rapport, and navigating field-specific challenges related to legality, public/private settings, and insider/outsider status. We conclude that continued funding support for ethnography is essential for promoting health disparities research focused on diverse populations in recovery from substance use disorders.
Kornblit, A L; Bilyk, A
This paper is an approach to AIDS as a topic among a drug abusers sample of the city of Buenos Aires. Research was carried out on the basis of a qualitative methodology. In an attempt at surveying opinions and attitudes of such a sample as regards AIDS (i.e. subjects' cognitive map), 21 drug abusers from three different rehabilitation programs operating in the B.A. area were interviewed. On the basis of the research performed, the authors elaborate communication strategies among drug abusers that would be helpful for authorities engaged in AIDS prevention to adopt. To boost a strategy likely to break up the AIDS-drug association existing in the mind of many an abuser would be highly advisable so that a separation be settled between both representations, thus giving drug abusers a higher motivation for self-care practice.
Peterson, Eric; Owens, S Michael; Henry, Ralph L
Drug abuse continues to be a major national and worldwide problem, and effective treatment strategies are badly needed. Antibodies are promising therapies for the treatment of medical problems caused by drug abuse, with several candidates in preclinical and early clinical trials. Monoclonal antibodies can be designed that have customized affinity and specificity against drugs of abuse, and because antibodies can be designed in various forms, in vivo pharmacokinetic characteristics can be tailored to suit specific clinical applications (eg, long-acting for relapse prevention, or short-acting for overdose). Passive immunization with antibodies against drugs of abuse has several advantages over active immunization, but because large doses of monoclonal antibodies may be needed for each patient, efficient antibody production technology is essential. In this minireview we discuss some of the antibody forms that may be effective clinical treatments for drug abuse, as well as several current and emerging production systems that could bridge the gap from discovery to patient use.
Zahoor, Bilal A
Rhizobium radiobacter, a soil-based organism, is not, usually, pathogenic unless in the immunecompromised. Endocarditis, in the immunocompromised, is a typical presentation generally as a result of catheter-based infections. We describe the presentation of R. radiobacter prosthetic valve endocarditis and the inherent challenges in its presentation and diagnosis. A patient presented with acute limb ischemia secondary to R. radiobacter-mediated endocarditis and subsequent thromboembolization of the distal superior femoral and proximal popliteal arteries in the left lower limb. He underwent an uneventful thrombolectomy that restored blood flow distal to the occlusion and restored the patency of the affected arteries. Postoperatively, the patient maintained several unexplained febrile episodes. Blood cultures remained negative for infection. A cardiac work-up demonstrated the presence of vegetative growth on the prosthetic mitral and native aortic valves. Histopathologic analysis of the extracted thrombus confirmed the presence of R. radiobacter. On further history, it was elucidated that the patient was an intravenous drug user who routinely stored drug paraphernalia in plant beds. The patient recovered uneventfully after Piptazobactam was administered. R. radiobacter, and similarly other soil-based pathogens, should be considered as a potential source of endocarditic infection and thromboembolization in patients who similarly describe a history of intravenous drug use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A quantitative epidemiological prevalence study of problem drug abuse in Sweden is the basis for a study of differences between drug abuse among men and women. A significant difference between genders was that, of those who come to the attention of the authorities, fewer women than men abuse drugs. The women were younger than the men. A greater percent of women abused amphetamines and injected heroin, as well as abusing tranquilizers/soporifics. A larger proportion of women than men were unemployed. The men had a significantly longer history of drug abuse than the women, a greater percent of them were born outside Sweden, and more of them had smoked heroin and used cannabis. A greater percent of the men had used illegal means to finance their abuse. There was a group of women (17%, median age 32) at the margins of the society, i.e. who had no work or place of residence, socialized solely with other addicts and financed their habit by illegal activities. Abuse of amphetamines and heroin was the most common. The majority of the women were polydrug abusers. Sweden has historically had, and continues to have, a large number of amphetamine abusers, but has now also developed a distinct population of heroin addicts.
Chen, Isaac Chun-Jen; Hung, Dong-Zong; Hsu, Chi-Ho; Wu, Ming-Ling; Deng, Jou-Fang; Chang, Chin-Yu; Shih, Hsin-Chin; Liu, Chen-Chi; Wang, Chien-Ying; Wen, Yi-Szu; Wu, Jackson Jer-Kan; Huang, Mu-Shun; Yang, Chen-Chang
Drug abuse is becoming more prevalent in Taiwan, as evidenced by increasing reports of drug trafficking and drug abuse-related criminal activity, and the wide use of more contemporary illicit drugs. Consequently, drug abuse-related accidents are also expected to occur with greater frequency. However, no study has yet specifically evaluated the prevalence, pattern, and outcomes of drug abuse-related accidents among patients visiting emergency departments (EDs) in Taiwan. We conducted an ambidirectional study with patients who visited the EDs of Taipei Veterans General Hospital (TVGH) and China Medical University Hospital (CMUH) due to drug abuse-related accidents from January 2007 through September 2009. Information on the patients' baseline characteristics and clinical outcomes was collected and analyzed. During the study period, a total of 166 patients visited the EDs of one of the two study hospitals due to drug abuse-related accidents. This yielded a prevalence of drug abuse of 0.1% among all patients visiting the ED due to accident and/or trauma. Fifty-six out of the 166 patients visited the ED at TVGH, most patients being between 21 and 40 years old. Opioids (41.1%) were the drugs most commonly abused by the patients, followed by benzodiazepines (32.1%). More than two-thirds of the patients (n=38, 67.9%) required hospitalization, and three patients died (5.4%). In contrast, 110 patients with drug abuse-related accidents visited the ED at CMUH during the study period. Most of these subjects had abused benzodiazepines (69.1%), were between 21 and 40 years old, and were female. Fewer than one-fifth of the patients (n=19, 17.3%) required hospitalization, with no deaths reported. There were significant between-hospital differences in terms of patient gender, drugs of choice, injury mechanisms, method and time of the ED visit, triage levels, and need for hospitalization. Although the prevalence of drug abuse-related accidents was low, and only three patient deaths
Full Text Available Objective: This research was an attempt to predict the tendency of people having borderline personality traits to smoking, drinking alcohol, and taking psychoactive drugs based on emotional dysregulation and child abuse. Method: This study employed a correlation method which is categorized in descriptive category. A sample including 600 male and female bachelor students of Tabriz University was selected by cluster sampling. Then, high risk behaviors scale, Emotional dysregulation Scale, Child abuse scale, and borderline personality scale (STB were distributed among this group. Findings: Stepwise multiple regression analysis suggested that emotional dysregulation and child abuse significantly predicted varying degrees of smoking, drug, and alcohol usage. Conclusion: The research findings suggest the basic role of initial biological vulnerability in terms of emotional regulation (dysregulation and invalidating family environment (child abuse in the prediction of catching the disorder of borderline personality traits and producing high riskbehaviorssuch as alcohol drink and drug usage.
Seely, Kathryn A.; Prather, Paul L.; James, Laura P.; Moran, Jeffery H.
Marijuana has been used recreationally and medicinally for centuries. The principle psychoactive component, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), activates CB1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1Rs). CB1R agonists and antagonists could potentially treat a wide variety of diseases; unfortunately, therapeutic doses produce unacceptable psychiatric effects. “K2” or “Spice” (K2/Spice), an emerging drug of abuse, exhibits psychotropic actions via CB1R activation. Because of structural dissimilarity to Δ9-THC, ...
Inessa Aleksandrovna Gurban
Full Text Available The paper considers issues of the assessment of the socioeconomic consequences of drug abuse in today’s conditions, which have the following features — the approaching of drug-dealers to legalize the drug market, develop the illegal drug market and their analogs and derivatives by the introduction of modern production technologies and distribution of psychoactive agents. Key tendencies observed in the contemporary world in the field of dynamics of the drug market development, which are reflected in the regions of Russia including the Ural Federal District are revealed. The procedure of assessment of socioeconomic expenses of drug abuse including assessment of drug consumers’ expenses and their surrounding people; and also; maintenance costs of the state bodies supervising drug trafficking; expenses for health care and other social expenses connected to drug use; damage to individuals of drug abuse distribution; expenses of private institutions and establishments; socioeconomic impact of drug abuse distribution. The technique uses a tool allowing to carry out a calculation (a heroin equivalent, i.e. the drugs withdrawn by law enforcement agencies and the subsequent calculation of the corresponding number of consumers of each type of drug. This method is aimed at increasing the accuracy of estimates received. On the basis of results calculated according to offered technique, the shares of socioeconomic expenses of drug abuse concerning the income of the cumulative consolidated budget and a gross regional product of the Ural Federal District are defined.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Opiates are the main drugs of abuse, and Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT is the most widely administered drug addiction treatment program in Iran. Our study aimed to investigate patterns of pre-treatment drug abuse, addiction treatment history and characteristics of patients in MMT in Tehran. Methods We applied a stratified cluster random sampling technique and conducted a cross-sectional survey utilizing a standard patient characteristic and addiction history form with patients (n = 810 in MMT. The Chi-square test and t-test served for statistical analyses. Results A clear majority of the participants were men (96%, more than 60% of whom were between 25 and 44 years of age, educated (89% had more than elementary education, and employed (>70%. The most commonly reported main drugs of abuse prior to MMT entry were opium (69% and crystalline heroin (24%. The patients’ lifetime drug experience included opium (92%, crystalline heroin (28%, cannabis (16%, amphetamines (15%, and other drugs (33%. Crystalline heroin abusers were younger than opium users, had begun abusing drugs earlier, and reported a shorter history of opiate addiction. Conclusion Opium and crystalline heroin were the main drugs of abuse. A high rate of addiction using more dangerous opiate drugs such as crystalline heroin calls for more preventive efforts, especially among young men.
Background Opiates are the main drugs of abuse, and Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) is the most widely administered drug addiction treatment program in Iran. Our study aimed to investigate patterns of pre-treatment drug abuse, addiction treatment history and characteristics of patients in MMT in Tehran. Methods We applied a stratified cluster random sampling technique and conducted a cross-sectional survey utilizing a standard patient characteristic and addiction history form with patients (n = 810) in MMT. The Chi-square test and t-test served for statistical analyses. Results A clear majority of the participants were men (96%), more than 60% of whom were between 25 and 44 years of age, educated (89% had more than elementary education), and employed (>70%). The most commonly reported main drugs of abuse prior to MMT entry were opium (69%) and crystalline heroin (24%). The patients’ lifetime drug experience included opium (92%), crystalline heroin (28%), cannabis (16%), amphetamines (15%), and other drugs (33%). Crystalline heroin abusers were younger than opium users, had begun abusing drugs earlier, and reported a shorter history of opiate addiction. Conclusion Opium and crystalline heroin were the main drugs of abuse. A high rate of addiction using more dangerous opiate drugs such as crystalline heroin calls for more preventive efforts, especially among young men. PMID:22676557
This article explores the Advertising Council's first national drug abuse prevention campaign in the 1970s. Scholarship thus far has demonstrated the ways in which the issue of drug abuse represented a chief political strategy for President Nixon. Evidence from major trade press publications, congressional hearings, and an array of archival sources suggest that this campaign was also part of a public relations crusade on behalf of the advertising industry in response to public criticism of its role in abetting a culture of drug dependence. These institutional and political pressures helped shape drug abuse prevention in the 1970 s and for the decades that followed. Copyright © 2011 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.
Full Text Available Danièle Debruyne,1,2 Reynald Le Boisselier1 1Centre for Evaluation and Information on Pharmacodependence - Addictovigilance (CEIP-A, 2Toxicology and Pharmacology Laboratory, Department of Pharmacology, University Hospital Centre Côte de Nacre, Caen, France Abstract: New psychoactive drugs that have appeared over the last decade are typically dominated by cathinones and synthetic cannabinoids (SCs. SCs have been emerging as recreational drugs because they mimic the euphoria effect of cannabis while still being legal. Sprayed on natural herb mixtures, SCs have been primarily sold as “herbal smoking blends” or “herbal incense” under brand names like “Spice” or “K2”. Currently, SCs pure compounds are available from websites for the combination with herbal materials or for the use in e-cigarettes. For the past 5 years, an ever increasing number of compounds, representative of different chemical classes, have been promoted and now represent a large assortment of new popular drugs of abuse, which are difficult to properly identify. Their legal status varies by country with many government institutions currently pushing for their control. The in vitro binding to CB1/CB2 receptors is usually well-known and considerable differences have been found in the CB1 versus CB2 selectivity and potency within the different SCs, with several structure-activity relations being evident. Desired effects by CB1 agonist users are relaxation/recreative, however, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, or psychiatric/neurological side effects are commonly reported. At present there is no specific antidote existing if an overdose of designer drugs was to occur, and no curative treatment has been approved by health authorities. Management of acute toxic effects is mainly symptomatic and extrapolated from experience with cannabis. Keywords: synthetic cannabinoids, chemistry, analysis, pharmacology, toxicology, dependence, medical care
Miller, Mark W.; Reardon, Annemarie F.; Wolf, Erika J.; Prince, Lauren B.; Hein, Christina L.
This study examined the relative influences of PTSD, other psychopathology, and intimate partner alcohol and drug use on substance-related problems in U.S. veterans (242 couples, N = 484). Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that partner alcohol and drug use severity explained more variance in veteran alcohol use and drug use (20% and 13%, respectively) than did veteran PTSD, adult antisocial behavior, or depression symptoms combined (6% for veteran alcohol use; 7% for veteran drug use). Findings shed new light on the influence of relationship factors on veteran alcohol and drug use and underscore the importance of couples-oriented approaches to treating veterans with comorbid PTSD and substance abuse. PMID:23325433
Full Text Available The complex problem of drug abuse and drug-related crimes in communities in the Western Cape province cannot be studied in isolation but through the system they are embedded in. In this paper, a theoretical model to evaluate the syndemic of substance abuse and drug-related crimes within the Western Cape province of South Africa is constructed and explored. The dynamics of drug abuse and drug-related crimes within the Western Cape are simulated using STELLA software. The simulation results are consistent with the data from SACENDU and CrimeStats SA, highlighting the usefulness of such a model in designing and planning interventions to combat substance abuse and its related problems.
... self- harm (suicide attempts). Approach: ONDCP highlighted prescription drug abuse in its 2010 National... a Possible Surgeon General Action on Prescription Drug Abuse in Youth AGENCY: National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). ACTION...
Tommasello Anthony C
Full Text Available Abstract Pharmacists, the most accessible of health care professionals, are well positioned to help prevent and treat substance use disorders and should prepare themselves to perform these functions. New research improves our knowledge about the pharmacological and behavioral risks of drug abuse, supports the clinical impression that drug dependence is associated with long-lasting neurochemical changes, and demonstrates effective pharmacological treatments for certain kinds of drug dependencies. The profession is evolving. Pharmacists are engaging in new practice behaviors such as helping patients manage their disease states. Collaborative practice agreements and new federal policies set the stage for pharmacists to assist in the clinical management of opioid and other drug dependencies. Pharmacists need to be well informed about issues related to addiction and prepared not only to screen, assess, and refer individual cases and to collaborate with physicians caring for chemically dependent patients, but also to be agents of change in their communities in the fight against drug abuse. At the end of this article the pharmacist will be better able to: 1. Explain the disease concept of chemical dependence 2. Gather the information necessary to conduct a screen for chemical dependence 3. Inform patients about the treatment options for chemical dependence 4. Locate resources needed to answer questions about the effects of common drugs of abuse (alcohol, marijuana, narcotics, "ecstasy", and cocaine 5. Develop a list of local resources for drug abuse treatment 6. Counsel parents who are concerned about drug use by their children 7. Counsel individuals who are concerned about drug use by a loved one. 8. Counsel individuals who are concerned about their own drug use
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. 864.3260 Section 864.3260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology...
Choi, Charles J; Wu, Hsin-Yu; George, Sherine; Weyhenmeyer, Jonathan; Cunningham, Brian T
In medical facilities, there is strong motivation to develop detection systems that can provide continuous analysis of fluids in medical tubing used to either deliver or remove fluids from a patient's body. Possible applications include systems that increase the safety of intravenous (IV) drug injection and point-of-care health monitoring. In this work, we incorporated a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensor comprised of an array of closely spaced metal nanodomes into flexible tubing commonly used for IV drug delivery and urinary catheters. The nanodome sensor was fabricated by a low-cost, large-area process that enables single use disposable operation. As exemplary demonstrations, the sensor was used to kinetically detect promethazine (pain medication) and urea (urinary metabolite) within their clinically relevant concentration ranges. Distinct SERS peaks for each analyte were used to demonstrate separate detection and co-detection of the analytes.
Poowanawittayakom, Nongnooch; Dutta, Anamika; Stock, Shannon; Touray, Sunkaru; Ellison, Richard T.
The epidemic of illicit intravenous drug use (IVDU) in the United States has been accompanied by a surge in drug overdose deaths and infectious sequelae. Candida albicans infections were associated with injection of contaminated impure brown heroin in the 1970s–1990s; however, candidiasis accompanying IVDU became considerably rarer as the purity of the heroin supply increased. We reviewed cases of candidemia occurring over a recent 7-year period in persons >14 years of age at a tertiary care hospital in central Massachusetts. Of the 198 patients with candidemia, 24 cases occurred in patients with a history of IVDU. Compared with non-IVDU patients, those with a history of IVDU were more likely to have non-albicans Candida, be co-infected with hepatitis C, and have end-organ involvement, including endocarditis and osteomyelitis. Thus, IVDU appears to be reemerging as a risk factor for invasive candidiasis. PMID:29553923
Brashier, Dick B S; Sharma, Ashok Kumar; Akhoon, Neha
Drug Abuse has become a major challenging problem for the society. It effects people of all countries economical strata's and all ages. According. Monetary loss all over the world regarding drug abuse is in million dollars, it not only has an impact on human productivity and healthcare cost but also on cost of crimes conducted by these drugs and alcohol abuse. Therapeutic vaccine has come as new approach to deal with this problem, after failures in search for a pharmaceutical agent to deal with drug of abuse and alcohol. Research in field of nicotine abuse has gone a way ahead with number of vaccines being tried clinically followed by cocaine, opioids, methamphetamine, phencyclidine and alcohol. All of them have a common mechanism of action by antibody production whereas alcohol acts by genetic intervention. None have being approved yet due to poor results in phase II trials, possibly due to not able to trigger an adequate immunological response. But still quest is on for cracking the ice by developing first successful vaccine against drug of abuse, that would follow for other drugs too. It would be great step in field of therapeutic vaccines for drug abuse after similar successful vaccines being approved for other diseases like cancer.
Spangler, David C; Loyd, Catherine M; Skor, Emily E
Dextromethorphan is a safe, effective cough suppressant, available without a prescription in the United States since 1958. Due to a perceived prevalence of abuse of dextromethorphan by teens, in 2007 the Drug Enforcement Administration requested the Food and Drug Administration evaluate whether dextromethorphan should be recommended for scheduling under the Controlled Substances Act. The Food and Drug Administration held an Advisory Committee meeting in 2010 to provide a scientific and medical evaluation of dextromethorphan and its abuse potential. To address reports of abuse, particularly by teens in the United States, the Consumer Healthcare Products Association initiated an abuse mitigation plan in 2010 with specific goals related to awareness of the behavior, perception of risk, social disapproval, and access to the products. In identifying abuse interventions, experts acknowledge that substance abuse among teens is a highly complex behavior and indicate that the best course of action is to address prevention by focusing on the factors that impact teen behavior. It is noteworthy that the annual prevalence of over-the-counter cough medicine abuse has sharply decreased since 2010. While a true cause-and-effect relationship cannot be assured, the Consumer Healthcare Products Association and its member companies believe that the increased awareness of the issue since the 2010 Food and Drug Administration Advisory Committee meeting, and the subsequent implementation of a well-delivered and targeted abuse mitigation plan that addressed the levers influencing teen decisions is contributing to the observed reduction in abuse. During the period of 2010-2015, reported abuse of dextromethorphan by 8(th), 10(th), and 12(th) graders decreased 35 %. The authors believe this reduction supports the view of the Consumer Healthcare Products Association at the outset of the abuse mitigation plan effort and today: Controlled substance scheduling or prescription requirements would
Badariah Mohd Saad
Full Text Available Drug and substance abuse create a social disorder that would destruct the society. This study examines factors leading to drug abuse among youth in a rehab center located in Kuala Lumpur. Out of 61 respondents surveyed, 71% was Malay, 13% was Chinese, and 10% was Indian and majority of them 80% were male. The study found that there were no significant differences in the mean of social environment, income, law enforcement and peer influence scores among the three ethnic groups. The multiple regression analysis revealed that peer influence was a significant factor leading to drug abuse among the youth.
Sigvaldason, Kristinn; Ingvarsson, Thoroddur; Thordardottir, Svava; Kristinsson, Jakob; Karason, Sigurbergur
Injecting drug abuse is a worldwide problem with serious consequences for the individual and for society. The purpose of this study was to gather information on the most serious complications of injecting drug use from two perspectives, intensive care admissions and forensic toxicology reports. Firstly, intensive care admissions related to injecting drug abuse during a five year period were reviewed for demographics, complications and 5 year survival. Secondly, information from forensic toxicology reports regarding deaths amongst known injecting drug abusers were gathered for the same period. A total of 57 patients with a history of active injecting drug use were admitted to intensive care or approximately 1% of admissions, most often for overdose (52%) or life threatening infections (39%). Median age was 26, males were 66%. The most common substances used were prescription drugs. Hospital mortality was 16% and five year survival 65%. Average time from hospital discharge to death was 916±858 days. During the study period 38 deaths of individuals with a history of injecting drugs were identified by forensic toxicology reports or 4.1/10(5) population/year (age 15-59). Cause of death was most often overdose (53%), usually from prescription opiates but multiple drug use was common. The life expectancy of injecting drug abusers after intensive care admission is substantially decreased, with 35% death rate within five years. A widespread use of prescription drugs is of concern. Injecting drug abuse seems to be a similar health problem in magnitude in Iceland as in other Scandinavian countries.
Nyhlén, Anna; Fridell, Mats; Bäckström, Martin
Background Few longitudinal cohort studies have focused on the impact of substances abused and psychiatric disorders on premature mortality. The aim of the present study was to identify predictors of increased risk of drug related death and non drug related death in substance abusers of opiates...... with a decreased risk. Neurosis, mainly depression and/or anxiety disorders, predicted drug related premature death while chronic psychosis and personality disorders did not. Chronic alcohol addiction was associated with increased risk of non drug related death. Conclusions The cohort of drug abusers had...... and barbiturate abusers over the observed period of 37 years, while stimulant abuse did not have any impact. Alcohol contributed to non drug related death. Keywords: drug related death; risk factor; gender; competing risks Cox regression; cohort study; Predictors...
Crossin, Rose; Cairney, Sheree; Lawrence, Andrew J; Duncan, Jhodie R
Abuse of inhalants containing the volatile solvent toluene is a significant public health issue, especially for adolescent and Indigenous communities. Adolescent inhalant abuse can lead to chronic health issues and may initiate a trajectory towards further drug use. Identification of at-risk individuals is difficult and diagnostic tools are limited primarily to measurement of serum toluene. Our objective was to identify the effects of adolescent inhalant abuse on subsequent drug use and growth parameters, and to test the predictive power of growth parameters as a diagnostic measure for inhalant abuse. We retrospectively analysed drug use and growth data from 118 Indigenous males; 86 chronically sniffed petrol as adolescents. Petrol sniffing was the earliest drug used (mean 13 years) and increased the likelihood and earlier use of other drugs. Petrol sniffing significantly impaired height and weight and was associated with meeting 'failure to thrive' criteria; growth diagnostically out-performed serum toluene. Adolescent inhalant abuse increases the risk for subsequent and earlier drug use. It also impairs growth such that individuals meet 'failure to thrive' criteria, representing an improved diagnostic model for inhalant abuse. Implications for Public Health: Improved diagnosis of adolescent inhalant abuse may lead to earlier detection and enhanced health outcomes. © 2016 The Authors.
Seely, Kathryn A; Prather, Paul L; James, Laura P; Moran, Jeffery H
The principal psychoactive component of marijuana, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), activates CB1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1Rs). Unfortunately, pharmacological research into the design of effective THC analogs has been hampered by psychiatric side effects. THC-based drug design of a less academic nature, however, has led to the marketing of "synthetic marijuana," labeled as K2 or "Spice," among other terms, which elicits psychotropic actions via CB1R activation. Because of structural dissimilarity to THC, the active ingredients of K2/Spice preparations are widely unregulated. The K2/Spice "phenomenon" provides a context for considering whether marijuana-based drugs will truly provide innovative therapeutics or merely perpetuate drug abuse.
Mosayeb Yarmohamadi Vasel
Full Text Available Objectives: Drug injection carries with it many risks and therefore it is important to understand the initiating factors of injection and its origins. Thus, the purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with the initiation of injection drug use among substance abusers. Methods: Study method was a cross-sectional study. The research statistics universe constitutes all people suffering from a substance dependence disorder with a pattern of injection use in Tehran and Hamedan. This study was conducted among 216 individuals with substance dependence disorders who were selected from harm reduction centers in Tehran and Hamedan. The sampling selection method was simply random. The instruments used for data collection included: demographic information, patterns of drug use and initiation of injection scales. Results: In this study, the average age of initiation to injections was 22.5 years. Factors associated with initiation of drug injection included: acquired more pleasure, easier use, faster effect of injection, ineffective previous use method, curiosity, peer pressure, lack of availability of the drug, poverty, and low quality drugs. Discussion: Results of this study indicate that initiation factors to drug injection are multifaceted (Psychological, Social, Economic and Environmental, therefore, injection interventionists should consider all these factors for prevention, treatment and harm reduction.
.... lf33c.nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.279, Drug Abuse and Addiction... Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. [[Page 9421
Bempechat, Janine; And Others
Drug and alcohol abuse and teenage pregnancy are two behaviors manifested by at-risk children that are both a cause and a result of their lack of success in school and possible subsequent dropping out. The distinction between substance use and abuse may be determined using the following criteria: (1) age of onset; (2) physiological responses; (3)…
Liu, Liang Y.
This report provides an update of the costs of alcohol and drug abuse for 1997. The 1997 costs were estimated by multiplying the percent changes in various socioeconomic factors from 1989 to 1997 by the cost estimates. The adverse health and social consequences of substance abuse extensively increased costs to the state. The total economic costs…
Drug abuse is becoming a serious problem. The course of the alarming rate of the abuse especially among the youth can be traced to the high unemployment among the youth, the frustration of highly qualified students not having access for further education and the general economic situation in the country. Marijuana has ...
Kendler, Kenneth S; Ohlsson, Henrik; Edwards, Alexis C; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina
We attempt to develop a relatively comprehensive structural model of risk factors for drug abuse (DA) in Swedish men that illustrates developmental and mediational processes. We examined 20 risk factors for DA in 48,369 men undergoing conscription examinations in 1969-70 followed until 2011 when 2.34% (n=1134) of them had DA ascertained in medical, criminal and pharmacy registries. Risk factors were organized into four developmental tiers reflecting i) birth, ii) childhood/early adolescence, iii) late adolescence, and iv) young adulthood. Structural equational model fitting was performed using Mplus. The best fitting model explained 47.8% of the variance in DA. The most prominent predictors, in order, were: early adolescent externalizing behavior, early adult criminal behavior, early adolescent internalizing behavior, early adult unemployment, early adult alcohol use disorder, and late adolescent drug use. Two major inter-connecting pathways emerged reflecting i) genetic/familial risk and ii) family dysfunction and psychosocial adversity. Generated on a first and tested on a second random half of the sample, a model from these variables predicted DA with an ROC area under the curve of 83.6%. Fifty-nine percent of DA cases arose from subjects in the top decile of risk. DA in men is a highly multifactorial syndrome with risk arising from familial-genetic, psychosocial, behavioral and psychological factors acting and interacting over development. Among the multiple predisposing factors for DA, a range of psychosocial adversities, externalizing psychopathology and lack of social constraints in early adulthood are predominant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mauri, M C; Di Pace, C; Reggiori, A; Paletta, S; Colasanti, A
The study reports a follow-up assessment of 48 patients with concomitant drug abuse at the first admission for psychosis. We focused on the diagnostic distinction between primary psychosis with concomitant drug abuse and drug induced psychosis, to observe whether the diagnoses are stable over time and whether the clinical course significantly differs. The study examined 25 primary psychotic disorder with comorbid drug abuse and 23 drug-induced psychotic disorder patients. Diagnostic and psychopathological assessments were made at baseline and at follow-up. Mean follow-up period was 4.96 years. Patients with comorbid Drug Abuse exhibited higher scores in the item Unusual Content of Thought at baseline than drug-induced psychotic disorder patients: 5.48 vs 4.39 while the two patients groups did not differ in any of the BPRS items evaluated at follow-up. The primary psychosis with comorbid drug abuse and the substance induced psychosis groups were similar regarding diagnostic stability, and a diagnosis of schizophrenia at follow-up occurred similarly. There was no evidence that Drug Induced psychotic patients' symptoms tend to improve more after cessation of drug abuse. An earlier age of onset was found in primary psychotic patients, particularly for patients diagnosed as affected by schizophrenia at follow up. These results might reflect the uncertainty of the distinction between Primary and Drug Induced Psychosis and the difficulties in applying the DSM IV-TR criteria for diagnosing comorbid drug use disorders and psychotic disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Swendsen, Joel; Burstein, Marcy; Case, Brady; Conway, Kevin P.; Dierker, Lisa; He, Jianping; Merikangas, Kathleen R.
Context Comprehensive descriptions of substance use and abuse trajectories have been lacking in nationally representative samples of adolescents. Objective To examine the prevalence, age at onset, and sociodemographic correlates of alcohol and illicit drug use and abuse among US adolescents. Design Cross-sectional survey of adolescents using a modified version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Setting Combined household and school adolescent samples. Participants Nationally representative sample of 10 123 adolescents aged 13 to 18 years. Main Outcome Measures Lifetime estimates of alcohol and illicit substance use and DSM-IV diagnoses of abuse, with or without dependence. Results By late adolescence, 78.2% of US adolescents had consumed alcohol, 47.1% had reached regular drinking levels defined by at least 12 drinks within a given year, and 15.1% met criteria for lifetime abuse. The opportunity to use illicit drugs was reported by 81.4% of the oldest adolescents, drug use by 42.5%, and drug abuse by 16.4%. The median age at onset was 14 years for alcohol abuse with or without dependence, 14 years for drug abuse with dependence, and 15 years for drug abuse without dependence. The associations observed by age, sex, and race/ ethnicity often varied significantly by previous stage of use. Conclusions Alcohol and drug use is common in US adolescents, and the findings of this study indicate that most cases of abuse have their initial onset in this important period of development. Prevention and treatment efforts would benefit from careful attention to the correlates and risk factors that are specific to the stage of substance use in adolescents. PMID:22474107
Full Text Available Background: Drug use evaluation (DUE aims at improving the patients’ care. Studying the administration pattern of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG is an important research topic due to its significant role in the treatment and controlling of many disorders, high prices, and limited availability of this drug. Methods:This observational cross-sectional study was conducted at Shahid Sadoughi Hospital in Yazd, central Iran, from May to September 2014. The orders of different wards in the hospital for IVIG given to the hospital central pharmacy were surveyed. Also, a special form developed for evaluation the method of administration. The related physician and nurse were consulted on drug complications and the causes. Finally, the gleaned data were compared to the available standards on the prescription and administration of IVIG.Results:A total of 75 patients received IVIG during this study. 58.7% of the prescriptions belonged to the cases approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA. The most frequent cause of the use of IVIG was idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP. The rate and dose of administration was suitable in most of the patients, yet, the measurement of laboratory parameters required for IVIG were observed in only a few cases. Complications occurred in 26.7% of the patients receiving it, which was mostly related to infusion-related reactions. On the whole, 3922 g IVIG was used during this study of which 1848 g belonged to the cases approved by FDA.Conclusion:Regarding the high costs of IVIG, complications, and limited information on the quality of the effect of this drug in the treatment of many cases, physicians should be cautious enough with its appropriate use. Besides, the presence of a clinical pharmacist in the health-care team not only improves the quality of drug therapy and treatment results, but also plays an important part in decreasing the treatment costs for the patients.
Huskinson, Sally L; Naylor, Jennifer E; Rowlett, James K; Freeman, Kevin B
Examination of a drug's abuse potential at multiple levels of analysis (molecular/cellular action, whole-organism behavior, epidemiological data) is an essential component to regulating controlled substances under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). We reviewed studies that examined several central nervous system (CNS) stimulants, focusing on those with primarily dopaminergic actions, in drug self-administration, drug discrimination, and physical dependence. For drug self-administration and drug discrimination, we distinguished between experiments conducted with rats and nonhuman primates (NHP) to highlight the common and unique attributes of each model in the assessment of abuse potential. Our review of drug self-administration studies suggests that this procedure is important in predicting abuse potential of dopaminergic compounds, but there were many false positives. We recommended that tests to determine how reinforcing a drug is relative to a known drug of abuse may be more predictive of abuse potential than tests that yield a binary, yes-or-no classification. Several false positives also occurred with drug discrimination. With this procedure, we recommended that future research follow a standard decision-tree approach that may require examining the drug being tested for abuse potential as the training stimulus. This approach would also allow several known drugs of abuse to be tested for substitution, and this may reduce false positives. Finally, we reviewed evidence of physical dependence with stimulants and discussed the feasibility of modeling these phenomena in nonhuman animals in a rational and practical fashion. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'CNS Stimulants'. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
...: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: National Institutes of Health, Neuroscience Center... of Health, Neuroscience Center, 6001 Executive Boulevard, Rockville, MD 20852, (Telephone Conference... Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos.: 93.279, Drug Abuse and Addiction Research Programs, National...
... Health, Neuroscience Center, 6001 Executive Boulevard, Rockville, MD 20852, (Telephone Conference Call... review and evaluate grant applications. Place: National Institutes of Health, Neuroscience Center, 6001... Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos.: 93.279, Drug Abuse and Addiction Research Programs, National...
...: National Institutes of Health, Neuroscience Center, 6001 Executive Boulevard, Rockville, MD 20852... contract proposals. Place: National Institutes of Health, Neuroscience Center, 6001 Executive Boulevard... Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos.: 93.279, Drug Abuse and Addiction Research Programs, National...
... grant applications. Place: National Institutes of Health, Neuroscience Center, 6001 Executive Boulevard... Institutes of Health, Neuroscience Center, 6001 Executive Boulevard, Rockville, MD 20852, (Virtual Meeting..., Drug Abuse and Addiction Research Programs, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: January 18, 2012...
... Emphasis Panel; SBIR Phase II Contract Review--Recovery Warrior: Behavioral Activation Video Game for... . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos.: 93.279, Drug Abuse and Addiction Research Programs...
[email protected] . Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; NIDA's Science...; Development & Manufacture of Pharmaceutical Products/Addiction Treatment (8899). Date: May 24, 2011. Time: 9 a...
Einstein, Stanley; And Others
The article outlines a plan to train a cadre of teachers extensively in various facets of drug abuse during the summer of 1970 at four federally sponsored programs, or at programs developed in each state. (Author)
... Panel E-Technology tools for Extending the Reach of Prevention Interventions in Rural and Remote.... (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos.: 93.279, Drug Abuse and Addiction Research Programs...
Cortes, Laura; Almeida, Laura; Sabra, Sally; Muniesa, Marta; Busardo, Francesco Paolo; Garcia-Algar, Oscar; Gomez-Roig, Maria Dolores
In the last two decades, the consumption of drugs of abuse among women of childbearing age has experienced a significant increase and results from analyses of surveys concerning maternal intake of psychoactive prescription drugs during pregnancy indicate that the rates of intake are increasing each year. Analyses of biological matrices such as maternal hair and neonatal meconium have recently been used for assessment of gestational consumption and consequent prenatal exposure to drugs of abuse in high-risk groups of women METHODS: Maternal hair and neonatal meconium were analyzed by validated chromatographic mass spectrometric methodologies to disclose gestational use of drugs of abuse and psychoactive prescription drugs and consequent prenatal exposure in a cohort of 513 mother-newborn dyads at the Sant Joan de Déu Barcelona Hospital, Spain, during 2012- 2013. A total of 3.9% the women reported drugs of abuse or prescription psychoactive drug consumption at any time during pregnancy. The prevalence of gestational consumption and consequent prenatal exposure to drugs of abuse (e.g. cannabis, cocaine and MDMA) was 1.2% in maternal hair and 0.4% in meconium; that of psychoactive prescription drugs (e.g. venlafaxine, citalopram, fluoxetine, clomipramine) was 1.7% in maternal hair and 1.2% in meconium. The prevalence of drugs of abuse and prescription psychoactive drug consumption was lower in our specific cohort of Spanish pregnant women than in other cohorts such as those from U.S. or Denmark. Analysis of materno-fetal matrices provides a viable alternative to study prenatal exposure to these substances and develop specific social and health intervention recommendations. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
While cannabis consumption in Egypt has a centuries-long tradition, recent evidence on drug abuse shows new patterns and trends: young people from all socio-economic strata of society are increasingly involved with both traditional drugs, such as hashish, and the new pharmaceutical psychotropic substances that are emerging. A recent survey of the university students in Egypt, carried out by the author and others, showed that 34 per cent of the students who had succeeded in their studies and 42 per cent of those who had failed used drugs. In addition to the situation in Egypt, the article briefly reviews drug abuse among young people in some other Arab countries. To cope more effectively with the problems of drug abuse among the young, the author suggests that comprehensive community-based programmes need to be organized to improve the personal and social functioning of drug-dependent persons, to promote drug education and to increase understanding between younger and older generations. Epidemiological studies of the nature and extent of drug abuse, as well as evaluative studies of ongoing prevention and treatment programmes, need to be organized and carried out with a view to improving the effectiveness of drug abuse intervention among the young in the Arab countries.
Clayton, Richard R.
Notes why the family is not considered in drug policy and programing and asserts that existing conditions demand conscious consideration of the family in efforts of federal drug agencies. Data show changing parameters of drug use-abuse. A research and prevention agenda that integrates the family is presented. (Author/BEF)
... Drug Facts Week Web site National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) For more information call 301-443-1124 2321 events registered for 2018! Check out 2018's events from around the ... Learn about Chat Day Drugs: SHATTER THE MYTHS Order Free Copies Now for ...
Khan Muhammad N
Full Text Available Abstract Background Data on the subtypes of HIV in a population help in predicting the potential foci of epidemic, tracking the routes of infection and following the patterns of the virus' genetic divergence. Globally, the most prevalent HIV infection is the HIV-1 subtype C. In Asia, predominant subtypes of HIV-1 are B, C, and CRF-01AE. During the last few years, HIV prevalence in Pakistan has taken the form of a concentrated epidemic in at least two high risk groups, namely, Intravenous Drug Users (IDUs and Male Sex Workers (MSWs. Factors that have facilitated the proliferation of HIV infection include transmission through a large number of repatriates and needle-sharing intravenous drug users, unscreened blood transfusions, and sexual illiteracy. The HIV subtypes infecting Pakistani populations have not been explored to date. In this study, we analyzed HIV-1 subtypes from in a high-risk community of IDUs in Karachi, the largest city of Pakistan. Methods Samples were collected from 34 IDUs after their informed consent. In addition, the study subjects were administered a questionnaire regarding their sexual behavior and travel history. For HIV analysis, DNA was extracted from the samples and analyzed for HIV types and subtypes using subtype-specific primers in a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The results from this PCR were further confirmed using the Heteroduplex Mobility Assay (HMA. Results We found HIV-1 subtype A in all the 34 samples analyzed. A few of the study subjects were found to have a history of travel and stay in the United Arab Emirates. The same subjects also admitted to having contact with commercial sex workers during their stay abroad. Conclusion Our study therefore shows clade A HIV-1 to be prevalent among the IDUs in Karachi. As the prevalence of HIV in Pakistan continues to rise, more work needs to be done to track the infection, and to analyze the strains of HIV spreading through the country.
Esmaeel, Hend M.; Radwan, Rania A.
Background: The progressively rising issue of drug abuse in Egypt among young adults could affect the outcome of a well known problem encountered in such age group as primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP). Objective: To assess the impact of an oral drug abuse on the outcome of primary spontaneous pneumothorax. Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted on 65 male patients, mean age 25.85 ± 5.08, admitted to the inpatient chest department, Sohag University hospital with...
Tomie, Arthur; Grimes, Kathryn L.; Pohorecky, Larissa A.
Drug abuse researchers have noted striking similarities between behaviors elicited by Pavlovian sign-tracking procedures and prominent symptoms of drug abuse. In Pavlovian sign-tracking procedures, repeated paired presentations of a small object (conditioned stimulus, CS) with a reward (unconditioned stimulus, US) elicits a conditioned response (CR) that typically consists of approaching the CS, contacting the CS, and expressing consummatory responses at the CS. Sign-tracking CR performance i...
... dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation in residential and nonresidential facilities by contract. 17... of Services of Other Federal Agencies § 17.80 Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation in residential and nonresidential facilities by contract. (a) Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse...
Brook, Judith S; Duan, Tao; Brook, David W
This longitudinal study examines the relationship between earlier paternal drug abuse, environmental factors, paternal child-rearing practices, and adolescent vulnerable personality attributes and later adolescent aggressive behavior. Data were collected at two points in time, one year apart, via individual, structured interviews. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to assess the interrelationship of the earlier factors with respect to later adolescent aggression. Interviews took place in an inner-city community, within the schools and the participants' homes. Participants included low-income, predominantly African American and Hispanic adolescents (N = 296) whose fathers abused drugs. The fathers were recruited from drug-abuse treatment programs in several U.S. cities. The outcome measure was adolescent aggressive behavior at Time 2 (T2). The findings showed that paternal drug abuse, environmental factors, and paternal child-rearing practices were mediated by the adolescent's vulnerable personality attributes. The adolescent's vulnerable personality attributes were the most proximal constructs to later adolescent aggressive behavior. Both paternal drug abuse and environmental factors were mediated by paternal child-rearing practices. The findings suggest that earlier environmental stresses, paternal drug abuse, paternal child-rearing practices, and adolescent vulnerable personality attributes are associated with later adolescent aggression.
Zhu, J; Reith, M E A
A number of studies over the last two decades have demonstrated the critical importance of dopamine (DA) in the behavioral pharmacology and addictive properties of abused drugs. The DA transporter (DAT) is a major target for drugs of abuse in the category of psychostimulants, and for methylphenidate (MPH), a drug used for treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which can also be a psychostimulant drug of abuse. Other drugs of abuse such as nicotine, ethanol, heroin and morphine interact with the DAT in more indirect ways. Despite the different ways in which drugs of abuse can affect DAT function, one evolving theme in all cases is regulation of the DAT at the level of surface expression. DAT function is dynamically regulated by multiple intracellular and extracellular signaling pathways and several protein-protein interactions. In addition, DAT expression is regulated through the removal (internalization) and recycling of the protein from the cell surface. Furthermore, recent studies have demonstrated that individual differences in response to novel environments and psychostimulants can be predicted based on individual basal functional DAT expression. Although current knowledge of multiple factors regulating DAT activity has greatly expanded, many aspects of this regulation remain to be elucidated; these data will enable efforts to identify drugs that might be used therapeutically for drug dependence therapeutics.
Delaveris, Gerd Jorunn Møller; Hoff-Olsen, Per; Rogde, Sidsel
The aim of the study was to provide information on illicit drug abuse stigmata and general pathological findings among an adult narcotic drug-using population aged 20 to 59 years whose death was nonnatural. A total of 1603 medicolegal autopsy reports from 2000 to 2009 concerning cases positive for morphine, heroin, amphetamines, ecstasy, cannabis, LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide), PCP (phencyclidine), and high levels of GHB (γ-hydroxybutyric acid) in addition to methadone and buprenorphine were investigated. Reported findings of hepatitis, portal lymphadenopathy, recent injection marks, drug user's equipment, and numbers of significant pathological conditions were registered and analyzed according to cases positive for opiates, opioids (OPs), and central nervous system (CNS)-stimulating illicit drugs, respectively. Of the selected cases, 1305 were positive for one or more opiate or OP. Cases positive for OPs had significantly more findings of noninfectious pathological conditions. Hepatitis, portal lymphadenopathy, recent injections marks findings of drug user's equipment were all findings found more frequently among the opiate OP-positive individuals. Portal lymphadenopathy was significantly more often found in cases with hepatitis than in cases with other or no infection. In the population positive for CNS stimulants, hepatitis recent injection marks were more frequent findings than in the CNS stimulant-negative group, irrespective of whether they were opiate OP positive or negative.
Young, Kimberly A; Gobrogge, Kyle L; Wang, Zuoxin
The use of addictive drugs can have profound short- and long-term consequences on social behaviors. Similarly, social experiences and the presence or absence of social attachments during early development and throughout life can greatly influence drug intake and the susceptibility to drug abuse. The following review details this reciprocal interaction, focusing on common drugs of abuse (e.g., psychostimulants, opiates, alcohol and nicotine) and social behaviors (e.g., maternal, sexual, play, aggressive and bonding behaviors). The neural mechanisms underlying this interaction are discussed, with a particular emphasis on the involvement of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gerasimov, Madina R.; Ferrieri, Richard A.; Pareto, Deborah; Logan, Jean; Alexoff, David; Ding Yushin
The phenomenon of inhalant abuse is a growing problem in the US and many countries around the world. Yet, relatively little is known about the pharmacokinetic properties of inhalants that underlie their abuse potential. While the synthesis of 11 C-labeled toluene, acetone and butane has been proposed in the literature, none of these compounds has been developed as radiotracers for PET studies. In the present report we extend our previous studies with [ 11 C]toluene to include [ 11 C]acetone and [ 11 C]butane with the goal of comparing the pharmacokinetic profiles of these three volatile abused substances. Both [ 11 C]toluene and [ 11 C]acetone were administered intravenously and [ 11 C]butane was administered via inhalation to anesthesized baboons. Rapid and efficient uptake of radiolabeled toluene and acetone into the brain was followed by fast clearance in the case of toluene and slower kinetics in the case of acetone. [ 11 C]Butane was detected in the blood and brain following inhalation, but the levels of radioactivity in both tissues dropped to half of the maximal values over the period of less than a minute. To our knowledge, this is the first reported study of the in vivo brain pharmacokinetics of labeled acetone and butane in nonhuman primates. These data provide insight into the pharmacokinetic features possibly associated with the abuse liability of toluene, acetone and butane
Full Text Available Background: About 8 percent of Iranian adult population are illicit drug abusers. Affected persons grow more each day. Ominous consequences such as divorce, prostitution, murder and other crimes and infectious diseases such as AIDS and hepatitis take place following drug abuse, as well as a loss equall to 29% of national income for our country. Traditional treatment methods wasted too much time and cost. professional inpatient clinics are not adequate for admission of all care seekers. Rapid detoxification methods are supposed to be better alternatives. Materials and Methods: 140 male drug abusers in two matched groups were assessed from March to September, 2005. They used heroin or opium. Both groups were scheduled for detoxification and were closely observed for 3 months thereafter. First group received Clonidine, Benzodiazepine and Naltrexone besides symptom relieving modalities in first 4 days of treatment. Naltrexone was continued in maintenance dose for one month. Second group received Methadone for one month. Results: Clients age was between 18 to 73 years, with mean age 34 years old. Their intelligence quotients were above the lower limit of normal range. There was no significant difference according to these parameters between two groups. Success rate in rapid detoxification group was 55 % and in Methadone group was 50 %. Relapse in rapid detoxification method occurred less frequent and slower (45 % vs. 50%. In Naltrexone group, better success rate was due to less duration of drug abuse and heroin dependency. In Methadone group, therapy had better results in patients with longer drug abuse history and opium addiction. There was no significant difference between success rate and either drug kind or job, marital status or education level. The most serious adverse effect in both groups was hypotension (10% in Naltrexone and 5 % in Methadone groups.
Since the 1970s, media frenzies about drug addiction have focused mainly on illicit drugs taken by rebellious or marginalised addicts, relegating iatrogenic drug abuse, and policies and problems linked to psychotropic pharmaceuticals available by prescription or over-the-counter to the shadows. In this article I go beyond the division between illicit drugs and medicines still configuring both public representations and historiography: using archival materials from the 1960s-1990s in France, I highlight some blind spots in drug history. Firstly I demonstrate the role of pharmaceutical abuse in the career of addicts, and then examine regulation policies, which are the dark side, however complementary, of drug policies and prohibition. Finally, I analyse the role of physicians and pharmacists in this control, and discuss the various professional debates relating to the legal supply of psychoactive drugs. In all these issues, the frame of the Cold War context will also be highlighted.
This thesis concerns addictive substance abuse in women suffering from eating disorders. In the theoretical part it defines the term eating disorder itself and furthermore briefly works with the cause of these disorders, patients' personality and commonly associating complicating diagnoses. Afterwards it defines the term addiction and illustrates some of the possible influences on development. Then it characterises commonly abused substances and their relation with eating disorders. The empir...
Harmon, Michele Alicia
DARE's effectiveness in Charleston County (South Carolina) was studied by comparing 341 DARE to 367 non-DARE fifth-grade students. DARE teaches students to recognize and resist social pressures to use drugs. DARE has positive impacts on anti-substance abuse attitudes, assertiveness, positive peer association, association with drug-using peers, and…
Gold, M S; Dackis, C A
Despite the high incidence of substance abuse, it remains a common cause of misdiagnosis. In patients who have abused or who are currently abusing drugs, symptoms of a psychiatric illness may be mimicked by either the drug's presence or absence. The laboratory can aid in making a differential diagnosis and eliminating drugs from active consideration as a cause of psychosis, depression, mania, and personality changes. Treatment planning and prevention of serious medical consequences often rest on the accuracy of the admission drug screen. Testing is widely used to assess improvement in substance abuse in both inpatient and outpatient settings. In occupational settings, testing has been used as an early indicator that a problem exists and as a successful prevention tool. The appropriate use of analytic technology in drug abuse testing requires an understanding of available test methodologies. These include drug screens by thin-layer chromatography, comprehensive testing using enzyme immunoassay, and computer-assisted gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Testing for specific drugs considered likely causes or precipitants of "psychiatric" complaints is available with enzyme assays, radioimmunoassay, or definitive forensic-quality testing using GC-MS.
Lynch, Wendy J; Roth, Megan E; Carroll, Marilyn E
The recent focus on drug abuse in women has brought attention to numerous differences between women and men. In this review, we discuss both preclinical and clinical findings of sex differences in drug abuse as well as mechanisms that may underlie these differences. Recent evidence suggests that the progression to dependence and abuse may differ between women and men; thus, different prevention and treatment strategies may be required. Similar sex differences in drug sensitivity and self-administration have been reported in laboratory animal studies. Females appear to be more vulnerable than males to the reinforcing effects of psychostimulants, opiates, and nicotine during many phases of the addiction process (e.g. acquisition, maintenance, dysregulation-escalation, relapse). Male and female animals differ in their behavioral, neurological, and pharmacological responses to drugs. Although the role of sex in the mechanisms of drug action remains unclear, preclinical and clinical studies indicate that ovarian hormones, particularly estrogen, play a role in producing sex differences in drug abuse. Future research is necessary to provide information on how to design more effective drug abuse treatment programs and resources that are sex specific.
Ivy Kiemle Trindade-Suedam
Full Text Available Abstract Objective: to assessed the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM and drug abuse in mothers of children with orofacial clefts (OFC. Methods: 325 women who had children (0-3y with clefts were interviewed. Data regarding type of diabetes, use of legal/illegal drugs during pregnancy, waist girth and fasting blood sugar at the first prenatal consult were collected. Results: twenty seven percent of the women had DM, out of these, 89% had gestational DM, 5,5% type 1 DM and 5,5% type 2 DM. The prevalence of DM in mothers of children with OFC was 27%, it is significantly higher than the average Brazilian population which is 7.6% (p<0.01 (OR=4.5, 95%CI=3.5-5.8. Regarding drug abuse during pregnancy, 32% of the mothers used drugs and a significant positive correlation was observed between drug abuse and the occurrence of clefts and other craniofacial anomalies (p=0.028 (OR=2.87; 95%CI=1.1-7.4. Conclusions: DM and drug abuse during pregnancy increases the risk for OFC and related anomalies and early diagnosis of DM and prevention of drug abuse, especially in pregnant women, should be emphasized.
Contreras Martínez, Lourdes; Molina Banqueri, Virginia; Cano Lozano, Ma Carmen
Research shows that drugs and delinquency are frequently linked, the abuse of various types of substance being a widespread practice among young offenders. At the same time, some psychosocial characteristics are associated with both drug abuse and criminal/antisocial behavior. To help us explore the relationship between young offenders' drug abuse and certain psychosocial variables, we examined closed judicial files on young offenders from the Juvenile Justice Service in Jaen (Spain) corresponding to the period 2001 to 2010. From the contents of these judicial files we analyzed demographic variables such as gender and age, as well as psychosocial variables such as drug abuse, peer group, violent behavior, self-control, tolerance to frustration and attributional style. The results show that most of the young offenders use some type of drug, as well as revealing differential patterns of use according to gender. Also observed is a link between drug abuse and deviant peer group, violent behavior and the above-mentioned psychological variables. Finally, we found some differences in these psychological variables depending on the type of drug used.
Full Text Available Background: Drug abuse has been known as a growing contributing factor to all types of trauma in the world. The goal of this article is to provide insight into demographic and substance use factors associated with trauma and to determine the prevalence of drug abuse in trauma patients. Methods: Evidence of substance abuse was assessed in trauma patients presenting to Sina trauma hospital over a 3-month period. They were interviewed and provided urine samples to detect the presence of drug/metabolites of opium, morphine, cannabis and heroin by “Morphine Check” kits. Demographic data, mechanisms of injury, history of smoking and drug abuse were recorded. Results: A total of 358 patients with a mean age of 28.4 years were studied. The Patients were predominantly male (94.7%. There was a history of smoking in 136 cases (38%. 58 cases (16.2% reported to abuse drugs (91.5% opium. The commonest route of administration was smoke inhalation (37.2%. Screening by Morphine Check test revealed 95 samples to be positive (26.5%. The preponderance of test-positive cases was among young people (of 20-30 years of age with a history of smoking. Victims of violence and those with penetrating injuries also showed a higher percentage of positive screens (P=0.038 and P<0.001, respectively. Conclusion: These results suggest that drug abuse is a contributing factor to trauma especially in violent injuries and among the young. Regarding the considerable prevalence of drug abuse among trauma patients, it’s highly recommended that all trauma patients be screened for illicit drugs
Nagar, Vittal R; Springer, Joe E; Salles, Sara
To investigate the incidence of spinal abscess and substance abuse in a tertiary care hospital after state legislation titled "House Bill 1" (HB1) mandated stricter regulation of prescription drugs of abuse in Kentucky in 2012. A retrospective case series study design was used to review the incidence of spinal abscess and drug abuse diagnoses admissions from 2010 to 2014. Variances in the incidence of spinal abscess and substance abuse were plotted across this time frame. The incidence of intraspinal abscess increased 1.56-fold in 2011 (n = 26) and 2012 (n = 25) relative to 2010 (n = 16). However, in 2013, the year following implementation of HB1 legislation, the incidence of intraspinal abscess increased 2.38-fold (n = 38) and then 4.19-fold (n = 67) in 2014. The incidence of intraspinal abscess in subjects with drug abuse diagnosis remained constant between 2010 (n = 3) and 2012 (n = 3). However, it increased twofold (n = 7) in 2013 and then ninefold (n = 27) in 2014. A correlation coefficient (rSAD ) of 0.775 revealed a strong association between the increase incidence of intraspinal abscess and diagnosis of drug abuse. The results of this retrospective study demonstrate an increased incidence of intraspinal abscess associated with drug abuse after passage of HB1 legislation regulating prescriptions of controlled medications in Kentucky. This increased incidence may be related to individuals relying on nonprescription drugs of abuse due to more highly regulated access to controlled prescription medications. However, additional factors unrelated to HB1 legislation must be taken into account. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Miller, Mark W; Reardon, Annemarie F; Wolf, Erika J; Prince, Lauren B; Hein, Christina L
This study examined the relative influences of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), other psychopathology, and intimate partner alcohol and drug use on substance-related problems in U.S. veterans (242 couples, N = 484). Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that partner alcohol and drug use severity explained more variance in veteran alcohol use and drug use (20% and 13%, respectively) than did veteran PTSD, adult antisocial behavior, or depression symptoms combined (6% for veteran alcohol use; 7% for veteran drug use). Findings shed new light on the influence of relationship factors on veteran alcohol and drug use and underscore the importance of couples-oriented approaches to treating veterans with comorbid PTSD and substance abuse. Published 2013. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Adamson, T A; Onifade, P O; Ogunwale, A
Globally, patterns of the use of psychoactive substances have been changing. To evaluate the trend in two five year periods, 1992 to 1997 versus 2002 to 2007, of alcohol and substance use disorders and associated variables in patients admitted to a drug abuse treatment facility. This was a comparative cross-sectional study involving all patients admitted into Drug Abuse Treatment, Education, and Research (DATER), Unit of the Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Aro, Nigeria within the study period. All subjects had a structured psychiatric interview, a physical examination, laboratory investigations and DATER Questionnaire protocols that elicited socio-demographic, drug and family variables. The patients in 2002 to 2007 versus those of 1992 to 1997 were younger (chi squared 13.29; p,0.01). More last borns were using drugs by 2002 to 2007 (chi squared, 11.37; p,0.01). Cannabis was the most abused drug in 2002 to 2007 (53.5%) as compared to cocaine (44%) in 1992 to 1997 (chi squared 35.5; p,0.001). Polydrug abuse was high in the two periods but significantly the drug combination changed to cannabis in combination with alcohol in 2002 to 2007 as against cocaine in combination with opiates in 1992 to 1997 chi squared 45.3, p 0.001). More patients had co-morbid psychiatric disorders in 2000 to 2007 (67.6% as against 38.5% in 1992 to 1999 chi squared 28.32, p,0.001). In both periods, co-morbidity associated with cannabis use rather than any other drug of abuse as the odds ratio was greater than one. The findings in the trend in the two five year periods underscore the imperatives of continuous evaluation of the drug abuse patient population in treatment which may help drive changes in treatment inputs.
Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Drug abuse is one of the complicated phenomenons in the human communities that it produces health problems. The effect of applying fear appeal message on attitudes and intention against drug abuse, drug resistance skills, knowledge about side effect of drugs and drug abuse related behaviors among male high school students was studied based on applying extended parallel process model as a theoretical framework. Materials & Methods: Two high schools were chosen from six state high schools as an intervention (n=86 and control (n=97 groups. Educational curriculum, that was designed, based on students’ educational needs, appealed students’ fear and recommended messages developed students' ability for resisting against drugs. Before intervention 5-6 students who were known as a favourite and leader of students, were selected by student’s opinion in each class as students' leaders. The each leader of the group had a coordinator and mediate role between his group and health educators. Henceforth a favourite teacher was chosen by students’ vote for helping health educators and participated in the educational intervention program.Results: The result showed that educational manipulation had significant effect on intervention group’s average response for intention (t= -4.03, p<0.000 and attitude against drug abuse (t= -6.19, p<0.000, peer resistance skills (t=-0.82, p<0.000, and knowledge (t= -10.88, p<0.000. In addition, it was not found positive urinary rapid immune-chromatography test for opium and marijuana in the intervention group whereas 6.3% in the control groups.Conclusion: This findings suggest that applying fear appeals theories and effective health risk message would be an efficient tool for preventing drug abuse education programs but further studies are needed to define function of EPPM as a effective model for creating social inoculation against drug abuse among non- drug expose adolescents.
Saadat, Mostafa; Vakili-Ghartavol, Roghayyeh
Consanguineous marriage is the union of individuals having at least one common ancestor. It is well established that consanguinity is a potential risk factor for many adverse health outcome of offspring. In the present case-control study we tested the hypothesis of an association between parental consanguinity marriages and risk of offspring substance abuse. The study was performed in Shiraz (Fars province, Iran). Here 156 male drug abusers (case group) and 264 randomly selected healthy blood donors, matched for age and gender as control group, were included in the study. The prevalence of parental consanguineous marriages in the studied sample was 39.1 and 28.0% among cases and controls, respectively. The difference was statistically significant. The substance abusers were more smokers and drinkers compared with the control group. There was significant negative linear trend between drug abuse and level of education. The participants stratified using drinking habits and then the analysis was carried out separately for drinker and non-drinker subjects. Among drinkers, neither before nor after adjusting for smoking status and educational level, parental consanguinity did not show association with risk of substance abuse. Among non-drinkers, after adjusting for smoking status and educational level, parental consanguineous marriage was significantly associated with increased risk of substance abuse. Our study supports a significant relationship between parental consanguinity and drug abuse among non-drinker subjects. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zuleta-Alarcón, Alix; Coffman, John C; Soghomonyan, Suren; Papadimos, Thomas J; Bergese, Sergio D; Moran, Kenneth R
The objective of this narrative review is to provide an overview of the problem of non-opioid anesthetic drug abuse among anesthesia care providers (ACPs) and to describe current approaches to screening, therapy, and rehabilitation of ACPs suffering from non-opioid anesthetic drug abuse. We first performed a search of all literature available on PubMed prior to April 11, 2016. The search was limited to articles published in Spanish and English, and the following key words were used: anesthesiology, anesthesia personnel, AND substance-related disorders. We also searched Ovid MEDLINE ® databases from 1946-April 11, 2016 using the following search terms: anesthesiology OR anesthesia, OR nurse anesthetist OR anesthesia care provider OR perioperative nursing AND substance-related disorders. Despite an increased awareness of drug abuse among ACPs and improvements in preventive measures, the problem of non-opioid anesthetic drug abuse remains significant. While opioids are the most commonly abused anesthesia medications among ACPs, the abuse of non-opioid anesthetics is a significant cause of morbidity, mortality, and professional demise. Early detection, effective therapy, and long-term follow-up help ACPs cope more effectively with the problem and, when possible, resume their professional activities. There is insufficient evidence to determine the ability of ACPs to return safely to anesthesia practice after rehabilitation, though awareness of the issue and ongoing treatment are necessary to minimize patient risk from potentially related clinical errors.
Roth, Megan E; Cosgrove, Kelly P; Carroll, Marilyn E
Clinical and preclinical findings indicate that males and females differ on several aspects of drug reinforcement. Females are more vulnerable than males during transition periods of drug use that are characteristic of drug addiction and relapse. Females are also more sensitive than males to the reinforcing effects of stimulants. It has been suggested that ovarian hormones contribute to the mechanisms of action underlying these sex differences. This review examines the preclinical literature on sex differences and ovarian hormonal influences on drug self-administration in animals. It summarizes the findings on the effects of these variables during different phases of drug addiction. Possible differences in the mechanisms of action of drugs of abuse due to interactions with sex differences or ovarian hormonal factors are considered. The animal literature on sex differences in drug abuse treatment effectiveness is also discussed.
Dutta, Raini; Roy, Sabita
Drug abuse and HIV infection are interlinked. From the onset of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, the impact of illicit drug use on HIV disease progression has been a focus of many investigations. Both laboratory-based and epidemiological studies strongly indicate that drug abuse may exacerbate HIV disease progression and increase mortality and morbidity in these patients. Increase susceptibility to opportunistic infection has been implicated as one of the major causes for this detriment. Furthermore, opioids are known to elicit prevalence of neurodegenerative disorders in HIV-infected patients. Numerous authors have delineated various molecular as well as cellular mechanisms associated with neurological complications in these patients. This review gives an overview of these findings. Understanding the mechanisms will allow for the development of targeted therapies aimed at reducing the progression of neurocognitive decline in the drug abusing HIV infected individuals.
Marais, Petro; Maithya, Redempta
Drug abuse is becoming an increasing problem among students in Kenya. The major cause for concern is that a high proportion of the Kenyan youth in secondary schools are involved in drugs (NACADA 2012). As a result, these young people eventually become addicted, posing a threat to their own health and safety. This study sought to establish the…
Roy, Dijendra Nath; Goswami, Ritobrata
Substances of abuse induce alteration in neurobehavioral symptoms, which can lead to simultaneous exacerbation of liver injury. The biochemical changes of liver are significantly observed in the abused group of people using illicit drugs or drugs that are abused. A huge amount of work has been carried out by scientists for validation experiments using animal models to assess hepatotoxicity in cases of drugs of abuse. The risk of hepatotoxicity from these psychostimulants has been determined by different research groups. Hepatotoxicity of these drugs has been recently highlighted and isolated case reports always have been documented in relation to misuse of the drugs. These drugs induce liver toxicity on acute or chronic dose dependent process, which ultimately lead to liver damage, acute fatty infiltration, cholestatic jaundice, liver granulomas, hepatitis, liver cirrhosis etc. Considering the importance of drug-induced hepatotoxicity as a major cause of liver damage, this review emphasizes on various drugs of abuse and addiction which induce hepatotoxicity along with their mechanism of liver damage in clinical aspect as well as in vitro and in vivo approach. However, the mechanisms of drug-induced hepatotoxicity is dependent on reactive metabolite formation via metabolism, modification of covalent bonding between cellular components with drug and its metabolites, reactive oxygen species generation inside and outside of hepatocytes, activation of signal transduction pathways that alter cell death or survival mechanism, and cellular mitochondrial damage, which leads to alteration in ATP generation have been notified here. Moreover, how the cytokines are modulated by these drugs has been mentioned here. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
... Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act. 0.177 Section 0.177 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF... the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act. Notwithstanding the delegation of functions... authorized to exercise the authority vested in the Attorney General by section 514 of the Comprehensive Drug...
... activity or drug abuse by household members. 960.204 Section 960.204 Housing and Urban Development... HOUSING Admission § 960.204 Denial of admission for criminal activity or drug abuse by household members. (a) Required denial of admission—(1) Persons evicted for drug-related criminal activity. The PHA...
... services for veterans with alcohol or drug dependence or abuse disabilities. 17.82 Section 17.82 Pensions... Agencies § 17.82 Contracts for outpatient services for veterans with alcohol or drug dependence or abuse... sponsored residents to adjust to and maintain freedom from dependence on or involvement with alcohol or drug...
Cruz-Antonio, L; Arauz, J; Franco-Bourland, R E; Guízar-Sahagún, G; Castañeda-Hernández, G
Laboratory investigation in rats submitted to experimental spinal cord injury (SCI). To determine the effect of acute SCI on the pharmacokinetics of diclofenac, a marker drug of intermediate hepatic extraction, administered by the intravenous and the oral routes. Female Wistar rats were submitted to complete section of the spinal cord at the T8 level. SCI and sham-injured rats received 3.2 mg kg(-1) of diclofenac sodium either intravenously or orally, diclofenac concentration was measured in whole blood samples and pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated. Diclofenac was not selected as test drug because of its therapeutic properties, but because to its biopharmaceutical properties, that is, intermediate hepatic extraction. Diclofenac bioavailability after intravenous administration was increased in injured rats compared with controls due to a reduced clearance. In contrast, oral diclofenac bioavailability was diminished in SCI animals due to a reduction in drug absorption, which overrides the effect on clearance. Acute SCI induces significant pharmacokinetic changes for diclofenac, a marker drug with intermediate hepatic extraction. SCI-induced pharmacokinetic changes are not only determined by injury characteristics, but also by the route of administration and the biopharmaceutical properties of the studied drug.
Jauregui, Paula; Estévez, Ana; Urbiola, Irache
Background and aims Pathological gambling is associated with comorbid disorders, such as anxiety, depression, and drug and alcohol abuse. Difficulties of emotion regulation may be one of the factors related to the presence of addictive disorders, along with comorbid symptomatology in pathological gamblers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the difficulties of emotion regulation, drug and alcohol abuse, and anxious and depressive symptomatology in pathological gamblers, and the mediating role of difficulties of emotion regulation between anxiety and pathological gambling. Methods The study sample included 167 male pathological gamblers (mean age = 39.29 years) and 107 non-gamblers (mean age = 33.43 years). Pathological gambling (SOGS), difficulties of emotion regulation (DERS), drug and alcohol abuse (MUTICAGE CAD-4), and anxious and depressive symptomatology (SA-45) were measured. Student's t, Pearson's r, stepwise multiple linear regression and multiple mediation analyses were conducted. The study was approved by an Investigational Review Board. Results Relative to non-gamblers, pathological gamblers exhibited greater difficulties of emotion regulation, as well as more anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Moreover, pathological gambling correlated with emotion regulation difficulties, anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Besides, emotion regulation difficulties correlated with and predicted pathological gambling, drug and alcohol abuse, and anxious and depressive symptomatology. Finally, emotion regulation difficulties mediated the relationship between anxiety and pathological gambling controlling the effect of age, both when controlling and not controlling for the effect of other abuses. Discussion and conclusions These results suggest that difficulties of emotion regulation may provide new keys to understanding and treating pathological gambling and comorbid disorders.
National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Bethesda, MD.
The use of anabolic steroids is on the increase among athletes as well as other segments of the population. Data from the "Monitoring the Future" study showed a significant increase from 1998 to 1999 in steroid abuse among middle school students. During the same year, there was a decline in the percentage of 12th graders who believed…
Samikkannu, Thangavel; Rao, Kurapati V K; Arias, Adriana Y; Kalaichezian, Aarthi; Sagar, Vidya; Yoo, Changwon; Nair, Madhavan P N
HIV infection and drugs of abuse such as methamphetamine (METH), cocaine, and alcohol use have been identified as risk factors for triggering inflammation. Acute phase proteins such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A (SAA) are the biomarkers of inflammation. Hence, the interactive effect of drugs of abuse with acute phase proteins in HIV-positive subjects was investigated. Plasma samples were utilized from 75 subjects with METH use, cocaine use, alcohol use, and HIV-positive alone and HIV-positive METH, cocaine, and alcohol users, and age-matched control subjects. The plasma CRP and SAA levels were measured by ELISA and western blot respectively and the CD4 counts were also measured. Observed results indicated that the CRP and SAA levels in HIV-positive subjects who are METH, cocaine and alcohol users were significantly higher when compared with either drugs of abuse or HIV-positive alone. The CD4 counts were also dramatically reduced in HIV-positive with drugs of abuse subjects compared with only HIV-positive subjects. These results suggest that, in HIV-positive subjects, drugs of abuse increase the levels of CRP and SAA, which may impact on the HIV infection and disease progression.
In the last 12 months, many more cases of alcohol and drug (substance) abuse in the workplace were seen in the Escravos operations of Chevron Nigeria Limited than in previous years. This called the attention to the rising prevalence of drug and alcohol abuse in contradistinction to reports from similar organizations in other parts of the world. Chevron Nigeria has a written Drug and Alcohol Policy which has been dormant for some time because of the apparent rarity of the problem of substance abuse in the workplace. This Policy is being reviewed to broaden its scope and make it more effective. A total of 30 employees were tested for drugs and alcohol .6 exceeded the legal limits of Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) and 5 tested positive for drugs. Tests were mainly post-accident, reasonable cause and random. The common substances abused were alcohol, cannabis, cocaine and morphine in that order. The findings are compared with those of similar organizations in UK and USA. Efforts to control substance abuse in the workplace are being put into place.
Strano Rossi, Sabina; Abate, Maria Gabriella; Braganò, Maria Cristina; Botrè, Francesco
The incidence of the abuse of illicit drugs in sport may be a useful indicator of the extent of the phenomenon among the youth population. Many drugs of abuse are included in the WADA (World Anti-Doping Agency) Prohibited List, and are therefore routinely tested for in antidoping controls. This study presents the data obtained in tests carried out in the period 2003- 2007 at the Antidoping Laboratory of Rome, on 44781 samples analysed. The methods used are those developed by the Laboratory for routine antidoping analyses. The percentage of positive test results ranges from 1.1 to 2%, with a high incidence of stimulants and drugs of abuse. The substance most frequently found is THC metabolite, which accounts for 0.2-0.4% of the total, followed by cocaine metabolites, accounting for 0.1%. Other stimulants found are ephedrines, carphedon, modafinil, and anorexic compounds such as phendimetrazine and norfenfluramine. No amphetamines or amphetaminelike designer drugs have been detected. These data may be indicative of the widespread incidence of cocaine and cannabis abuse among the young Italian population, bearing in mind that the phenomenon is underestimated in this study, due to the fact that drugs of abuse are investigated only in samples involved in competitive sport, and especially to the fact that people doing such activities take more care of their health and are subject to greater control in their behaviour and habits with respect to the 'normal' population.
Treister, Roi; Trudeau, Jeremiah J; Van Inwegen, Richard; Jones, Judith K; Katz, Nathaniel P
Inappropriate use of analgesic drugs has become increasingly pervasive over the past decade. Currently, drug abuse potential is primarily assessed post-marketing; no validated tools are available to assess this potential in phase II and III clinical trials. This paper describes the development and feasibility testing of a Misuse, Abuse, and Diversion Drug Event Reporting System (MADDERS), which aims to identify potentially abuse-related events and classify them according to a recently developed classification scheme, allowing the quantification of these events in clinical trials. The system was initially conceived and designed with input from experts and patients, followed by field-testing to assess its feasibility and content validity in both completed and ongoing clinical trials. The results suggest that MADDERS is a feasible system with initial validity. It showed higher rates of the triggering events in subjects taking medications with known abuse potential than in patients taking medications without abuse potential. Additionally, experts agreed on the classification of most abuse-related events in MADDERS. MADDERS is a new systematic approach to collect information on potentially abuse-related events in clinical trials and classify them. The system has demonstrated feasibility for implementation. Additional research is ongoing to further evaluate its validity. Currently, there are no validated tools to assess drug abuse potential during clinical trials. Because of its ease of implementation, its systematic approach, and its preliminary validation results, MADDERS could provide such a tool for clinical trials. (Am J Addict 2016;25:641-651). © 2016 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.
D. Y. Talukder
Full Text Available Introduction. We report a rare presentation of Castleman's disease in a hepatitis C-positive patient and present a short review of treatments described in other similar case reports and studies. Case Presentation. A 46-year-old male with untreated hepatitis C and a 16-year history of intravenous drug use presented with pleuritic chest pain and bony pain in the knee, hip, and lower back, on a background of unexplained weight loss of 40 kilograms, fevers, night sweats, and repeated infections over the last two years. Examination discovered tender hepatomegaly, a warm right knee effusion, and painless lymphadenopathy. The patient was reactive to Epstein Barr virus and cytomegalovirus; however, HIV and HHV-8 viral testing was negative. Osteomyelitis of vertebrae T8–T11 and septic arthritis of the knee were found on investigation. A lymph node biopsy revealed histology suggestive of plasmacytic Castleman's disease. The patient is to commence rituximab treatment. Conclusion. Castleman's disease continues to present in novel ways, which may lead to difficulties in clinicopathologic diagnosis. A growing body of evidence suggests larger studies are required to determine the best treatment for multicentric Castleman's disease, particularly in patients with a concomitant disease, including hepatitis C.
Amendola, A; Boschini, A; Colzani, D; Anselmi, G; Oltolina, A; Zucconi, R; Begnini, M; Besana, S; Tanzi, E; Zanetti, A R
The immunogenicity of an anti-influenza vaccine was assessed in 409 former intravenous drug user volunteers and its effect on the levels of HIV-1 RNA, proviral DNA and on CD4+ lymphocyte counts in a subset HIV-1-positive subjects was measured. HIV-1-positive individuals (n = 72) were divided into three groups on the basis of their CD4+ lymphocyte counts, while the 337 HIV-1-negative participants were allocated into group four. Haemagglutination inhibiting (HI) responses varied from 45.8 to 70% in the HIV-1-positive subjects and were significantly higher in group four (80.7% responses to the H1N1 strain, 81.6% to the H3N2 strain, and 83% to the B strain). The percentage of subjects with HI protective antibody titres (> or = 1:40) increased significantly after vaccination, especially in HIV-1 uninfected subjects. Immunization caused no significant changes in CD4+ counts and in neither plasma HIV-1 RNA nor proviral DNA levels. Therefore, vaccination against influenza may benefit persons infected by HIV-1. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Margaret E. Mattson
Full Text Available Case reports in medical literature suggest that the atypical antipsychotic quetiapine, a medication not previously considered to have abuse potential, is now being subject to misuse and abuse (MUA; ie, taken when not prescribed for them or used in a way other than instructed by their health professional. Here we present systematic, nationally representative data from the 2005 to 2011 Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN for prevalence of emergency department (ED visits among the U.S. general population involving quetiapine and related to MUA, suicide attempts, and adverse reactions. Nationally, quetiapine-related ED visits increased 90% between 2005 and 2011, from 35,581 ED visits to 67,497. DAWN data indicate that when used without medical supervision for recreational/self-medication purposes, quetiapine poses health risks for its users, especially among polydrug users and women. These findings suggest that the medical and public health communities should increase vigilance concerning this drug and its potential for MUA.
Litvintsev, B S; Odinak, M M; Kovalenko, A P; Efimtsev, A Iu; Tarumov, D A; Petrov, A D; Lisianskiĭ, D A
Authors examined 60 female and male patients (average age 25.8±2.7 years) with confirmed diagnosis - drug abuse. Average duration of drug abuse was approximately 9±3.3 years. At the moment of examination patients had been fully in remission for 3 weeks. The following non-invasive procedures were undertaken: stimulation electroneuromyogrphy and brain MRI. Received results showed that drug abuse leads to diffuse lesion of the nervous system, which manifests itself as vegetative disorders, scattered neurological symptoms, polyneuropathy. Authors gave recommendations in the field of military examination with the aim of detection of nervous disorders caused by drug abuse.
Aims: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence, demographic. Characteristics of the study population and type of substance abused among children and adolescents below the age of 18 years. Method :1160 patients below the age of 18 years who had attended psychiatric care between December 1980 and ...
Bossong, MG; Van Dijk, JP; Niesink, RJM
Recently, two new ecstasy-like substances, methylone and mCPP, were found in street drugs in the Netherlands by the Drugs Information and Monitoring System (DIMS). Methylone (3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone) is the main ingredient of a new liquid designer drug that appeared on the Dutch drug market,
Jackson, Debra; Usher, Kim; O'Brien, Louise
Drug use in young people has serious ramifications for health and well-being of young people and their families and continues to be an area of major concern for health workers. Though the task of dealing with drug-related problems falls on families, particularly parents, very little literature has explored parental experiences of managing drug use within the context of family life. Eighteen parents of drug-abusing young people were recruited into this qualitative study that aimed to develop understandings into the effects of adolescent drug use on family life. Findings revealed that the experience of having a drug-abusing adolescent family member had a profound effect on other members of the immediate family. Family relationships were fractured and split as a result of the on-going destructive and damaging behaviour of the drug-abusing young person. Five themes were identified that captured the concept of fractured families. These are: betrayal and loss of trust: 'You had to have the doors locked'; abuse, threats and violence: 'there were holes in the wall'; sibling anger and resentment: 'Better off now with him gone'; isolated, disgraced and humiliated: 'You are on your own with it'; and, feeling blamed: 'You are not a good parent'. Implications for practice and further research are drawn from the findings of this paper.
Neasta, Jeremie; Barak, Segev; Hamida, Sami Ben; Ron, Dorit
The mammalian (or mechanistic) target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1) is a serine and threonine kinase that regulates cell growth, survival, and proliferation. mTORC1 is a master controller of the translation of a subset of mRNAs. In the central nervous system mTORC1 plays a crucial role in mechanisms underlying learning and memory by controlling synaptic protein synthesis. Here, we review recent evidence suggesting that the mTORC1 signaling pathway promotes neuroadaptations following exposure to a diverse group of drugs of abuse including stimulants, cannabinoids, opiates, and alcohol. We further describe potential molecular mechanisms by which drug-induced mTORC1 activation may alter brain functions. Finally, we propose that mTORC1 is a focal point shared by drugs of abuse to mediate drug-related behaviors such as reward seeking and excessive drug intake, and offer future directions to decipher the contribution of the kinase to mechanisms underlying addiction. Recent studies suggesting that exposure to diverse classes of drugs of abuse as well as exposure to drug-associated memories lead to mTORC1 kinase activation in the limbic system. In turn, mTORC1 controls the onset and the maintenance of pathological neuroadaptions that underlie several features of drug addiction such as drug seeking and relapse. Therefore, we propose that targeting mTORC1 and its effectors is a promising strategy to treat drug disorders. © 2014 International Society for Neurochemistry.
Characteristics of substance abuse treatment programs providing services for HIV/AIDS, hepatitis C virus infection, and sexually transmitted infections: the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network.
Brown, Lawrence S; Kritz, Steven Allan; Goldsmith, R Jeffrey; Bini, Edmund J; Rotrosen, John; Baker, Sherryl; Robinson, Jim; McAuliffe, Patrick
Illicit drug users sustain the epidemics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), hepatitis C (HCV), and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Substance abuse treatment programs present a major intervention point in stemming these epidemics. As a part of the "Infections and Substance Abuse" study, established by the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network, sponsored by National Institute on Drug Abuse, three surveys were developed; for treatment program administrators, for clinicians, and for state and District of Columbia health and substance abuse department administrators, capturing service availability, government mandates, funding, and other key elements related to the three infection groups. Treatment programs varied in corporate structure, source of revenue, patient census, and medical and non-medical staffing; medical services, counseling services, and staff education targeted HIV/AIDS more often than HCV or STIs. The results from this study have the potential to generate hypotheses for further health services research to inform public policy.
Soueif, M I; Yunis, F A; Taha, H S
The article provides an integrated picture of the drug abuse situation in Egypt based on a series of large scale field surveys that the authors have conducted since 1957. Apart from the consumption of alcohol and tobacco, the results of the surveys show that cannabis remains the most widely abused psycho-active substance in Egypt. Cannabis use has been known in the country for a long time. The abuse of psychotropic substances emerged as a problem during the 1970s and has remained one of the major drug problems ever since. The abuse of cocaine and heroin first emerged as a problem in the period following the First World War. It disappeared during the early 1930s, when the country was struck by an economic crisis, only to re-emerge during the 1980s. The most recent surveys show that 30 per cent of male industrial workers and 20 per cent of male students have used drugs at some time in their lives, and, among them, approximately 25 per cent have continued to do so. The respondents rank alcohol as the most frequently abused substance, followed by natural narcotics (e.g. cannabis and opiates) and psychotropic substances. The first use of alcohol and cannabis most often occurs during some social occasion or in the company of friends, while the first use of psychotropic substances is usually an effort to cope with psychological or physical discomfort, or stress-triggering situations. In general, it is the drug users, rather than the non-users, who hear about drugs, see drugs and have personal friends and relatives who themselves abuse drugs.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The epidemiological significance of Hepatitis B virus genotypes has been well established and becoming an essential concern day by day however, much little is known about the mixed infection with more than one Hepatitis B virus genotypes and their clinical relevance. Methods Intravenous drug abusers are considered as a major risk group for the acquisition and transmission of blood borne infections like hepatitis B, however, in Pakistan, no such data has ever been reported about the epidemiology of HBV and its genotypes in Injecting Drug Users. 250 individuals were analyzed for hepatitis B virus genotypes after prior screening with serological assay for the detection of HBsAg. Results 56 (22.4% individuals were found positive on ELSIA for HBsAg. The genotype distribution was found to be as: genotype D, 62.5%; genotype A, 8.92% while 28.57% individuals were found to be infected with a mixture of genotype A and D. Conclusion There is an urgent need of the time to develop public health care policies with special emphasis towards the control of HBV transmission through high risk groups especially Injecting Drug Users.
... physical injury, leave marks, or cause pain. Sexual abuse is any type of sexual contact between an adult and anyone younger than 18; between a significantly older child and a younger child; or if one person ...
Full Text Available In recent years drug abuse has been recognised as a growing problem in Northern Ireland. The following article examines the family backgrounds of a group of young children (n=388 who were looked-after by social services and looks specifically at a group (n=162 whose family lives have involved adults who misuse drugs. Children from drug-abusing families did not show greater levels of recorded abuse or neglect than the other children in the "looked after" population nor were they more likely to stay within the care system. However, the prevalence of heroin and cocaine use in this population was extremely small. Drug abuse in this population was found to be significantly associated with alcohol abuse, mental health problems and offending behaviour within the family. There was evidence of a reduction in drug abuse within families over a two year period of social work involvement.
Oral, Resmiye; Bayman, Levent; Assad, Abraham; Wibbenmeyer, Lucy; Buhrow, Jakob; Austin, Andrea; Bayman, Emine O
Substantiation of drug exposure in cases with alleged maltreatment is important to provide proper treatment and services to these children and their families. A study performed at University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics showed that 30% of pediatric patients with burn injuries, which were due to child maltreatment, were also exposed to illicit drugs. The children presenting to the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics with alleged maltreatment have been tested for illicit substances since 2004. The objective of this study was to analyze the presence of illicit drug exposure in the pediatric subpopulation admitted to pediatric inpatient and outpatient units for an evaluation for abuse/neglect. The study design is a retrospective chart review. Using hospital databases, every pediatric chart with a child abuse/neglect allegation was retrieved. The association between risk factors and clinical presentation and illicit drug test result was assessed. Excel and SAS were used for statistical analysis. Institutional review board approval was obtained to conduct this study. Six hundred sixty-five charts met study inclusion criteria for child abuse/neglect allegation. Of those, 232 cases were tested for illicit drugs between 2004 and 2008 per the testing protocol. Thirty-four cases (14.7%) tested positive on a drug test. Positive test rates based on clinical presentation were 28.6% (18/63) in neglect cases, 16.1% (5/31) in cases with soft tissue injuries, 14.3% (4/28) in burn injuries, 10.0% (2/20) in cases with sexual abuse, 7.1% (2/28) in cases with fractures, and 4.8% (3/62) in abusive head trauma cases. There were long-term abuse findings in 129 children (55.6%). Logistic regression analysis revealed that positive drug testing was most significantly associated with clinical symptoms suggesting physical abuse or neglect versus sexual abuse (odds ratio [OR] = 6.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26-35.49; P = 0.026), no or public health insurance versus those with
Friguls, Bibiana; Joya, Xavier; Garcia-Serra, Joan; Gómez-Culebras, Mario; Pichini, Simona; Martinez, Susana; Vall, Oriol; Garcia-Algar, Oscar
This study aims to estimate the prevalence of drug use by pregnant women living in Ibiza, using structured interviews and biomarkers in maternal hair. In addition, the potentially detrimental effects of maternal drug abuse on their newborns were investigated. Ibiza has a large international night-life resort associated with clubs, music and use of recreational drugs. Hair samples were collected prospectively from January to March 2010 from a cohort of consecutive mothers after giving birth in the Hospital Can Misses in Ibiza. Opiates, cocaine, cannabis, methadone, amphetamines, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and their metabolites were detected in a 3-cm-long proximal segment of maternal hair corresponding to the last trimester of pregnancy by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (n = 107). Data on socio-demographic characteristics and on tobacco, alcohol, drugs of prescription and drugs of abuse consumption during pregnancy were collected using a structured questionnaire. Hair analysis showed an overall 16% positivity for drugs of abuse in the third trimester of pregnancy, with a specific prevalence of cannabis, cocaine, MDMA and opiates use of 10.3, 6.4, 0.9 and 0%, respectively. In the questionnaires, only 1.9% of mothers declared using drugs of abuse during pregnancy. Gestational drug of abuse consumption was associated with active tobacco smoking, a higher number of smoked cigarettes and the mother being Spanish. Illicit drug use is substantially under-reported among pregnant women living in Ibiza, particularly among Spanish nationals. Voluntary, routine objective biological toxicology screening should be considered as part of routine examinations in antenatal clinics on this Mediterranean island. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Zosel, Amy; Bartelson, Becki Bucher; Bailey, Elise; Lowenstein, Steven; Dart, Rick
Objective: To describe the characteristics and health effects of adolescent (age 13-19 years) prescription drug abuse and misuse using the Researched Abuse Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS[R])) System. Method: Secondary analysis of data collected from RADARS System participating poison centers was performed. Data for all…
Sundström, Mira; Pelander, Anna; Simojoki, Kaarlo; Ojanperä, Ilkka
The most severe consequences of drug abuse include infectious diseases, overdoses, and drug-related deaths. As the range of toxicologically relevant compounds is continually changing due to the emergence of new psychoactive substances (NPS), laboratories are encountering analytical challenges. Current immunoassays are insufficient for determining the whole range of the drugs abused, and a broad-spectrum screening method is therefore needed. Here, the patterns of drug abuse in two groups of drug users were studied from urine samples using a comprehensive screening method based on high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The two groups comprised drug abusers undergoing opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) or drug withdrawal therapy and routinely visiting a rehabilitation clinic, and drug abusers with irregular attendance at a harm reduction unit (HRU) and suspected of potential NPS abuse. Polydrug abuse was observed in both groups, but was more pronounced among the HRU subjects with a mean number of concurrent drugs per sample of 3.9, whereas among the regularly treated subjects the corresponding number was 2.1. NPS and pregabalin were more frequent among HRU subjects, and their abuse was always related to drug co-use. The most common drug combination for an HRU subject included amphetamine, cannabis, buprenorphine, benzodiazepine, and alpha-pyrrolidinovalerophenone. A typical set of drugs for treated subjects was buprenorphine, benzodiazepine, and occasionally amphetamine. Abuse of several concurrent drugs poses a higher risk of drug intoxication and a threat of premature termination of OMT. Since the subjects attending treatment used fewer concurrent drugs, this treatment could be valuable in reducing polydrug abuse. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Cartwright, William S
This article examines costs as they relate to the financial costs of providing drug abuse treatment in private and public health plans, costs to society relating to drug abuse, and many smaller costing studies of various stakeholders in the health care system. A bibliography is developed from searches across PubMed, Web of Science, and other bibliographic sources. The review indicates that a wide collection of cost findings is available to policy makers. For example, the financial aspects of health plans have been dominated by considerations of actuarial costs of parity for drug abuse treatment. Cost-of-illness methods have been developed and extended to drug abuse costing to measure the national level of burden and are important to the economic evaluation of interventions at the program level. Costing is done in many small and focused studies, reflecting the interests of different stakeholders in the health care system. For costs in programs and health plans, as well as cost offsets of the impact of substance abuse treatment on medical expenditures, findings are surprisingly important to policy makers. Maintaining ongoing research that is highly policy relevant from the point of view of health services, more is needed on costing concepts and measurement applications.