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Sample records for intravenosa con tramadol

  1. Analgesia postoperatoria en la queiloplastia del lactante. Estudio comparativo: bloqueo infraorbitario intraoral bilateral con bupivacaína 0,25% con adrenalina vs. analgesia intravenosa con tramadol Postoperative analgesia for the management of chieloplasty in the breast-fed baby. Comparative study: bilateral intraoral blockade of the infraorbitary nerve with bupivacaine 0.25% plus adrenaline versus intravenous analgesia with tramadol

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    J. A. Delgado; A. Martínez-Tellería; M. E. Cano; J. Galera; R. Fernández-Valades; A. Ruiz-Montes

    2005-01-01

    Objetivo: Comparar la eficacia y duración del bloqueo del nervio infraorbitario intraoral bilateral frente a la analgesia intravenosa convencional con tramadol en el control del dolor postoperatorio en lactantes sometidos a queiloplastia por labio leporino. Material y métodos: Tras la realización de una adecuada valoración preanestésica y la obtención del consentimiento informado de los padres, realizamos un estudio prospectivo, controlado aleatorizado y doble ciego en 25 niños, ASA I, con ed...

  2. Farmacocinética do tramadol administrado pela via intravenosa e intramuscular em cadelas submetidas a ovário - salpingo - histerectomia

    OpenAIRE

    Altamir Benedito de Sousa; Augusto César Dias dos Santos; Jorge Camilo Florio; Helenice de Souza Spinosa

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to implant a method using a sensitive and specific system, and validate the whole analytical method to obtain an efficient tool for analyses of tramadol in plasma dogs, and to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of tramadol following intravenous (i.v.) and intramuscular (i.m.) administration of this drug in females dogs submitted to castration. The pharmacokinetics of tramadol were examined following i.v. or i.m. tramadol administration to five female dogs in ...

  3. Farmacocinética do tramadol administrado pela via intravenosa e intramuscular em cadelas submetidas a ovário - salpingo - histerectomia

    OpenAIRE

    SOUSA, Altamir Benedito de; SANTOS, Augusto César Dias dos; FLÓRIO, Jorge Camilo; SPINOSA, Helenice de Souza

    2008-01-01

    O objetivo do presente estudo foi de implantar um método sensível e específico, e validar toda a metodologia para obter uma ferramenta eficiente para a análise do tramadol em plasma de cadelas, e avaliar a farmacocinética do tramadol após a administração do mesmo pelas vias i.v. e i.m. em cadelas submetidas à castração. A farmacocinética do tramadol foi examinada após a administração do tramadol por ambas as vias, em cinco cadelas em cada grupo submetidas à ovário histerectomia (dose = 2 mg/k...

  4. Farmacocinética do tramadol administrado pela via intravenosa e intramuscular em cadelas submetidas a ovário - salpingo - histerectomia

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    Altamir Benedito de Sousa

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to implant a method using a sensitive and specific system, and validate the whole analytical method to obtain an efficient tool for analyses of tramadol in plasma dogs, and to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of tramadol following intravenous (i.v. and intramuscular (i.m. administration of this drug in females dogs submitted to castration. The pharmacokinetics of tramadol were examined following i.v. or i.m. tramadol administration to five female dogs in each group submitted to ovariohysterectomy (dosage=2 mg/kg. In relation to intravenous administration, the half-time for the distribution process (t1/2d = 0.18 ± 0.12 h; the total body clearance was 0.60 ± 0.50 L/h/kg, half-life of elimination (t1/2² was 1.24 ± 0.69 h. Statistically differences between parameters obtained after i.v. and i.m. was significant only to AUC0[i: 3362.07 ± 1008 and 1604.55 ± 960.02 (ng.h/mL, respectively. The F was 48.00 ± 43.30%. The assay for tramadol described has been demonstrated to meet all requirements for clinical PK studies. In particular, the method has satisfactory specificity, linearity, accuracy and precision range over the concentration examined.

  5. Eventos adversos en 1395 infusiones con diferentes preparados de gammaglobulina intravenosa

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    Alejandro Malbrán

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Los procesos de aislamiento y esterilización de la gammaglobulina endovenosa (IVIG afectan las características del producto terminado y, por lo tanto, su tolerabilidad. Distintos productos tienen diferentes incidencias de reacciones adversas. Este trabajo cuantifica los eventos adversos (EA inmediatos provocados por distintas preparaciones de IVIG. Analizamos 1395 infusiones en 28 pacientes, con una mediana de 32.5 por sujeto (rango 2-214, utilizando seis preparados distintos de IVIG, con una dosis total promedio de 40.3 ± 8.3 g. Analizamos retrospectivamente 1 031 infusiones y 364 prospectivamente. Los pacientes utilizaron una media de 2.68 ± 1.8 IVIG diferentes, con una mediana de 2 (rango 1-6 por persona. El número de marcas comerciales utilizadas se relacionó con el número de infusiones recibidas, r = 0.73. En 24 (2.3% de 1031 infusiones analizadas en forma retrospectiva se registraron EA que afectaron a 11 de los 23 casos incluidos, con una media de 2.18 ± 1.08 EA por afectado. De 24 pacientes y de 364 infusiones prospectivas, en 14 pacientes y en 32 (7.2% procedimientos se observaron EA. Veinticuatro (42.9% de 56 EA fueron leves, 31 (55.5% moderados y uno (1.8% fue grave. La velocidad de infusión fue de 9.04 ± 4.6 g/h para las que presentaron EA vs. 10.6 ± 4.6 g/h para las que no (p = 0.31. La incidencia, la gravedad y la proporción de pacientes afectados con EA para cada marca comercial de IVIG fueron muy diferentes entre sí. Esta información debe ser tomada en cuenta en el momento de selección de la IVIG a utilizar.

  6. Evaluación del efecto analgésico postoperatorio de infusiones intraoperatorias de tramadol y tramadol/lidocaína/ketamina en comparación con morfina/lidocaína/ketamina en hembras caninas sometidas a ovariohisterectomía Evaluation of postoperative analgesic effect of intraoperative infusions of tramadol and tramadol/lidocaine/ketamine compared with morphine/lidocaine/ketamine in female dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy

    OpenAIRE

    MA Fajardo; MA Lesmes; LA Cardona

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar y comparar la eficacia analgésica postoperatoria de infusiones intraoperatorias de tramadol y tramadol/lidocaína/ketamina en comparación con morfina/lidocaína/ketamina en hembras caninas sometidas a ovariohisterectomía. Se usaron 30 hembras caninas sin distinción de raza con una edad entre 1 y 10 años y un peso entre 2,5 y 37 kilogramos, conformando tres grupos aleatorios de 10 animales cada uno: grupo tramadol, grupo tramadol/lidocaína/ ketamina y grup...

  7. Citocinas pró-inflamatórias em pacientes com dor neuropática submetidos a tratamento com Tramadol Interleucinas proinflamatorias en pacientes con dolor neuropático sometidos a tratamiento con Tramadol Proinflammatory cytokines in patients with neuropathic pain treated with Tramadol

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    Durval Campos Kraychete

    2009-06-01

    la fisiopatología de los síndromes dolorosos neuropáticos. El objetivo de este estudio, fue evaluar los niveles plasmáticos de interleucinas proinflamatorias antes y después del tratamiento con tramadol en pacientes con hernia de disco y síndrome del túnel del carpo, y compararlos con individuos normales. MÉTODO: Se investigaron 38 pacientes con dolor neuropático por hernia de disco o síndrome del túnel del carpo. Todos los pacientes fueron tratados con tramadol de liberación controlada (100 mg en 12h durante 10 días. Se realizaron muestras de sangre venosa (5 mL, por la mañana, antes del tratamiento y en el 11º día, y las mismas se almacenaron para ser analizadas (-70ºC. Se utilizaron test enzimáticos ELISA para la dosificación de las interleucinas plasmáticas (TNF-±, IL-1, IL-6 y receptores sTNF-R1, (R & D Systems. Se realizó la dosificación de interleucinas en suero de 10 voluntarios sanos. RESULTADOS: La concentración de TNF-± antes (5,8 ± 2,8 pg.mL-1 fue significativamente mayor que después del tramadol (4,8 ± 2,1 pg.mL-1; p = 0,04, Test de Mann-Whitney. No hubo diferencia significativa de IL-1², IL-6 y sTNF-R1 antes y después del tratamiento. Las concentraciones plasmáticas de TNF-± (sanos: 1,4 ± 0,5; pacientes con dolor: 5,8 ± 2,8 pg.mL-1; p = 0.01 y IL-6 (sanos: 1,2 ± 0,8; pacientes con dolor: 3.5 ± 2,6 pg.mL-1; p = 0,01 fueron significativamente mayores en los pacientes con dolor neuropático que en los voluntarios, test de Mann-Whitney. CONCLUSIONES: En los pacientes con hernia discal y síndrome del túnel del carpo, las concentraciones plasmáticas de TNF-± y IL-6, fueron más elevadas que en los voluntarios sanos, no habiendo ninguna diferencia en las concentraciones de sTNF-R y IL-1². Hubo una reducción de la concentración plasmática de TNF-±; después del tratamiento con tramadol (100 mg en 12h, pero no de IL-6 sTNF-R y IL-1².BACKGROUND AND METHODS: Proinflammatory cytokines play an important role in the

  8. Uso de kits desechables para optimizar tiempos, movimientos y apego a protocolos de la terapia intravenosa

    OpenAIRE

    José Juan Escamilla Zamudio; Gretta Itzel Ramírez Chávez

    2017-01-01

    Introducción: En México un 95% de los pacientes hospitalizados requerirán un acceso vascular y terapia intravenosa; sin embargo, el uso de intervenciones estandarizadas favorece a la prevención y reducción de infecciones asociadas a catéter vascular. El objetivo es demostrar el beneficio al implementar el uso de kits desechables en procedimientos de terapia intravenosa en comparación con el método tradicional en instituciones de salud en México. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio prospectivo cuasi...

  9. SISTEMA COMPUTARIZADO EN LAZO CERRADO PARA EL SUMINISTRO DE LA ANESTESIA INTRAVENOSA

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    Alberto Vanegas-Saavedra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El sistema de suministro de la anestesia total intravenosa en lazo cerrado es una técnica reciente que ofrece ventajas sobre las técnicas actuales como la estabilidad intraoperatoria y la menor y más segura dosificación. OBJETIVO: El objetivo general de este artículo es el de resumir los hallazgos sobre un nuevo método computarizado sencillo, en lazo cerrado, para suministrar la anestesia total intravenosa de forma automatizada y segura bajo la supervisión permanente del Anestesiólogo. Este sistema se ha desarrollado para la administración de anestesia intravenosa implementando varios subsistemas. Un modelo multicompartimental de distribución de fármacos en el paciente, un algoritmo para determinar la curva de velocidades del hipnótico (propofol a infundir, un protocolo de comunicación para establecer las velocidades de infusión y un lazo de realimentación para controlar la profundidad hipnótica mediante el índice biespectral. RESULTADO: El resultado final ha sido el desarrollo de un instrumento de fácil uso, con una interfaz interactiva, que facilita la operación anestésica por parte del anestesiólogo valiéndose de un computador convencional y un monitor de profundidad hipnótica. CONCLUSIÓN: Se ha implementado una herramienta informática dotada de un modelo farmacocinético multicompartimental de gran interés académico y clínico, que tal y como se ha demostrado de forma cuantitativa, proporciona idénticos resultados a los ofrecidos por equipos comerciales; con importantes ventajas adicionales como una interfaz de usuario interactiva y la posibilidad de administrar anestesia total intravenosa.

  10. Efeitos do tramadol sobre variáveis clínicas e limiar nociceptivo mecânico em equinos

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    Franco, Leandro Guimarães; Moreno, Juan Carlos Duque; Teixeira Neto, Antônio Raphael; Souza, Moisés Caetano e; Silva, Luiz Antônio Franco da

    2014-01-01

    Avaliaram-se os efeitos clínicos e o potencial antinociceptivo mecânico de diferentes doses de tramadol administradas por via intravenosa (IV) em equinos. Sete animais foram tratados com 1 (Tr1), 2 (Tr2) ou 3 (Tr3) mg kg-1de tramadol IV em um estudo cruzado do tipo cego e randomizado. Foram avaliados frequência cardíaca, frequência respiratória, temperatura retal, pressão arterial, nível de sedação, motilidade gastrointestinal, alterações comportamentais e limiar antinociceptivo mecânico (Von...

  11. EVALUACIÓN DE LOS PARÁMETROS CARDIOVASCULARES DE LA ADMINISTRACIÓN DE LIDOCAÍNA Y DEXMEDETOMIDINA POR VÍA INTRAVENOSA EN PERROS ANESTESIADOS CON SEVOFLURANO.

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    MORÁN MUÑOZ, RAFAEL

    2015-01-01

    La administración de anestésicos inhalatorios deprime la función cardio-respiratoria de manera dependiente de la dosis. En el área de la anestesiología existe un gran interés por la utilización de fármacos capaces de disminuir los requerimientos de los anestésicos inhalatorios. El diseño de este estudio fue cruzado aleatorio prospectivo y experimental. Se incluyeron 6 perros adultos de raza criolla, castrados con un peso de 21 ± 3 Kg. La inducción se llevó a cabo con sevoflurano a través de m...

  12. Adolescent tramadol use and abuse in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassiony, Medhat M; Salah El-Deen, Ghada M; Yousef, Usama; Raya, Yasser; Abdel-Ghani, Mohamed M; El-Gohari, Hayam; Atwa, Samar A

    2015-05-01

    Tramadol abuse liability is underestimated and the evidence of abuse and dependence is emerging. It has many health and social consequences especially in adolescents. Tramadol abuse has not been well studied in Egypt. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and associated correlates of tramadol use and abuse among school students in Egypt. A total of 204 students, aged 13-18 years, from six schools in Zagazig, Egypt, were screened for tramadol use using The Drug Use Disorders Identification Test and a urine screen for tramadol. The prevalence of tramadol use was 8.8% among school students and the average age at onset of tramadol use was 16.5 ± 1.1. Some 83% of the users were using tramadol alone while the rest (17%) were using a combination of tramadol, alcohol, and cannabis. Two-thirds of these students started with tramadol as the first drug after the onset of tobacco smoking. Over one third of tramadol users had drug-related problems and 6% had dependence. There was a significant association between tramadol use and older age, male gender, and smoking. Drug-related problems were negatively correlated with age at onset of tramadol use. Tramadol use was common among adolescents and over one third of tramadol users had drug-related problems. Population-based longitudinal studies are needed to investigate tramadol use and the possible role of tramadol as a gateway drug in the development of substance abuse in Egypt.

  13. Comparação de morfina administrada por via intravenosa e via epidural com/sem bupivacaína ou ropivacaína no tratamento da dor pós-toracotomia com a técnica de analgesia controlada pelo paciente Comparación de la morfina administrada por vía intravenosa y vía epidural con /sin bupivacaína o ropivacaína en el tratamiento del dolor pos toracotomía con la técnica de analgesia controlada por el paciente Comparison of intravenous morphine, epidural morphine with/without bupivacaine or ropivacaine in postthoracotomy pain management with patient controlled analgesia technique

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    Esra Mercanoğlu

    2013-04-01

    ón por vía intravenosa o epidural de morfina, bupivacaína o ropivacaína en el tratamiento del dolor pos toracotomía. MÉTODOS: Sesenta pacientes sometidos a procedimientos de toracotomía electiva fueron aleatoriamente ubicados en cuatro grupos con el uso de la técnica de sobres lacrados. Los grupos MIV, ME, MEB y MER recibieron morfina controlada por el paciente por vía intravenosa, epidural, morfina-bupivacaína y morfina-ropivacaína, respectivamente. La frecuencia cardíaca, presión arterial y la saturación de oxígeno perioperatorias y el dolor postoperatorio en reposo y durante la tos, los efectos colaterales y la necesidad de analgésicos de rescate fueron registrados a los 30 y 60 minutos y las 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 y 72 horas. RESULTADOS: La necesidad de sodio diclofenaco durante el estudio fue menor en el grupo ME. El área bajo la curva de tiempo en la VAS fue menor en el grupo ME en comparación con el Grupo MIV, pero similar al Grupo MEB y MER. Las puntuaciones de dolor en reposo fueron mayores en los tiempos 12, 24, 36 y 48 horas en el Grupo MIV en comparación con el grupo ME. Las puntuaciones de dolor en reposo fueron mayores a los 30 y 60 minutos en los Grupos ME y MIV en comparación con el Grupo MEB. Las puntuaciones de dolor durante la tos a los 30 minutos fueron mayores en el grupo ME en comparación con el Grupo MEB. No hubo diferencia entre los Grupos MIV y MER. CONCLUSIONES: La morfina administrada por vía epidural fue más eficaz que por la vía intravenosa. La eficacia fue mayor en el grupo EM en el período postoperatorio tardío y en el Grupo MEB en el período postoperatorio inicial. Concluimos entonces que la morfina administrada por vía epidural fue la más eficaz y nuestra preferida.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVEs: The aim of this randomized, double-blinded, prospective study was to determine the effectiveness and side effects of intravenous or epidural use of morphine, bupivacaine or ropivacaine on post-thoracotomy pain management

  14. Uso de la gammaglobulina intravenosa y sus efectos en la mortalidad por sepsis en niños

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    Izaida Montero López

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión sistemática sobre el uso de inmunoglobulina intravenosa y su efecto sobre la mortalidad en el niño menor de un año. Se analizaron artículos originales y revisiones sistemáticas realizadas en los últimos años acerca del tema; se incluyeron artículos originales publicados en los años 2002 al 2011 y las revisiones sistemáticas publicadas en los años 2007 al 2011, que resultaron en total siete. Se concluye que no existe un consenso en la prescripción de inmunoglobulina intravenosa en el tratamiento de la sepsis y aunque no existe reducción significativa de la mortalidad, se evidencia un mayor número de vidas salvadas en el grupo de pacientes con este tratamiento

  15. Tramadol use in zoologic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Marcy J; Cox, Sherry K

    2011-01-01

    Numerous analgesics are available for use in animals, but only a few have been used or studied in zoologic species. Tramadol is a relatively new analgesic that is available in an inexpensive, oral form, and is not controlled. Studies examining the effect of tramadol in zoologic species suggest that significant differences exist in pharmacokinetics parameters as well as analgesic dynamics. This article reviews the current literature on the use of tramadol in humans, domestic animals, and zoologic species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluación cardiorrespiratoria de conejos (Oryctolagus cuniculus) anestesiados con una combinación de tramadol, acepromacina, xilazina y ketamina

    OpenAIRE

    JJ Pérez-Rivero; E Rendón-Franco

    2014-01-01

    Los conejos son considerados animales difíciles de anestesiar, debido a sus peculiaridades anatómicas y fisiológicas. Durante la anestesia general se presenta una mortalidad superior al 5%, además las combinaciones anestésicas utilizadas pocas veces incluyen analgésicos de manera transoperatoria. 25 conejos Nueva Zelanda clínicamente sanos fueron anestesiados con la combinación de ketamina (50mg/kg), xilacina (5mg/kg), acepromacina (0,5 mg/ kg), por vía intramuscular, 10 minutos después se ap...

  17. Complicações decorrentes da terapia intravenosa em pacientes cirúrgicos Complicaciones causadas por la terapia intravenosa en pacientes quirúrgicos Complications due to intravenous therapy in surgical patients

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    Renata Cristina de Campos Pereira

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available A enfermagem desempenha papel primordial na prevenção e redução das complicações relacionadas ao acesso venoso. O estudo teve como objetivo o levantamento das complicações decorrentes da terapia intravenosa. Os dados de maior expressividade obtidos foram: 77,3% das punções foram realizadas pelo auxiliar de enfermagem; 68% não usaram luvas durante o procedimento; 60% das punções tiveram cuidado de enfermagem insatisfatório; 47% dos dispositivos permaneceram "in situ" de 24 a 72 horas; dentre as complicações, 20% relacionaram-se com infiltração, 5,4% infiltração e hematoma e 5,3% obstrução. Os dados sugerem a necessidade de um aprimoramento da equipe de enfermagem relacionado a terapia intravenosa.Enfermería desempeña un papel primordial en la prevención y reducción de complicaciones relacionadas con el acceso venoso. El estudio tiene como objetivo la identificación de complicaciones ocurridas en la terapia intravenosa. Los datos más relevantes que fueron obtenidos son: 77,3% de las punciones fueron realizadas por auxiliares de enfermería; 68% no usaron guantes durante el procedimiento; 60% de las punciones tuvieron cuidado de enfermería insatisfactorio; 20% relacionados con infiltraciones; 5,4% con infiltraciones y hematomas y, 5,3% con obstrucciones. Los datos sugieren la necesidad de capacitar al equipo de enfermería con respecto a la terapia intravenosa.Nursing plays an important role in prevention and reduction of complications related to venous access. This study had the purpose to find complications derived from intravenous therapy. Major data were: 77.3% of the venous accesses were performed by auxiliary nursing; 68% of the procedures were performed without gloves; 60% of the accesses were not satisfactorily performed by nurses; 47% of the cannulae were "in situ" between 24 and 72 hours; among the complications, 20% were related to infiltration, 5.4% to infiltration and hematoma and 5.3% to obstruction. Data

  18. Anestesia venosa total (AVT em lactente com doença de Werdnig-Hoffmann: relato de caso Anestesia general intravenosa (AVT en lactante con enfermedad de Werdnig-Hoffmann: relato de caso Total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA in an infant with Werdnig-Hoffmann disease: case report

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    Marco Antonio Cardoso de Resende

    2010-04-01

    á presente después del nacimiento su pronóstico empeora. La debilidad muscular simétrica, la arreflexia y las fasciculaciones de la lengua son sus características. La mayoría de los lactantes fallece antes de los dos años por insuficiencia respiratoria. El presente relato presenta un caso con la técnica venosa total durante la anestesia. RELATO DEL CASO: Paciente femenina, blanca, de un año, 10 kg, estado físico ASA III, con enfermedad de Werdnig-Hoffmann diagnosticada desde los dos meses de edad. Candidata a la gastrostomía y fundoplicatura en la técnica abierta y traqueostomía. Monitorización con cardioscopio, presión arterial no invasiva, oxímetro de pulso, estetoscopio precordial y temperatura rectal posterior a la venoclisis. Fue preoxigenada y después de recibir el bolo de atropina (0,3 mg, se le realizó la inducción anestésica con remifentanil bolo (20 µg y propofol (30 mg. Después de la intubación traqueal fue ventilada de forma controlada manualmente, en sistema sin absorvedor de CO2, Baraka, FAG de 4 L.min-1, FiO2 0,5 (0(2/N(20. Mantenida bajo anestesia con propofol 250 µg.kg-1.min-1 y remifentanil 0,3 µg.kg-1.min-1 en infusión continua manual. El tiempo quirúrgico fue de 150 minutos. El despertar se dio en 8 minutos después del término de la infusión, con ventilación espontánea. A las dos horas, fue transferida a la unidad pediátrica y recibió alta al 4º día del postoperatorio. CONCLUSIONES: La elección de la técnica anestésica prioriza la seguridad que proviene de la familiaridad del manejo de los fármacos existentes. En los niños con enfermedades neuromusculares, la anestesia general intravenosa con remifentanil y propofol en sistemas de infusión, por la duración de la acción extremadamente corta, puede influir en la evolución de la enfermedad favorablemente.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Werdnig-Hoffmann disease is the most common cause of hypotonia in infants and its prognosis is worse if it is present shortly after

  19. Tramadol and o-desmethyl tramadol clearance maturation and disposition in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allegaert, Karel; Holford, Nick; Anderson, Brian J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We aimed to study the impact of size, maturation and cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) genotype activity score as predictors of intravenous tramadol disposition. METHODS: Tramadol and O-desmethyl tramadol (M1) observations in 295 human subjects (postmenstrual age 25 weeks to...

  20. Acciones inmunofarmacológicas de las inmunoglobulinas intravenosas

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    Amaury Noda

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Se ha recorrido un largo camino en la comprensión de los mecanismos de acción relativos a la infusión de preparados de inmunoglobulinas intravenosas desde los días donde un crudo de fracción II de Cohn obtenido de plasma humano fue administrado intramuscularmente a pacientes aquejados de agammaglobulinemia de Brutton, hasta nuestros días. Debemos hacer una distinción entre los mecanismos de acción al nivel del patógeno que provoca la enfermedad, de aquellos al nivel de una enfermedad dada provocada por la reacción del huésped contra el patógeno. El efecto de supresión de las inmunoglobulinas intravenosas en las respuestas autoinmunes abre nuevas perspectivas terapéuticas y permite un nuevo acercamiento a la comprensión de los mecanismos básicos que explican la autoinmunidad patológica.

  1. Cortisol sérico e glicemia em cadelas tratadas com tramadol e submetidas à ovário-histerectomia

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    Caldeira Fátima Maria Caetano

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O tramadol é um analgésico opióide usado em medicina veterinária, embora existam poucos estudos sobre este fármaco. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito analgésico promovido pela administração do tramadol, mensurando o cortisol sérico e a glicemia de cadelas. Para isso, foram utilizadas 15 fêmeas, submetidas a ovário-histerectomia sob anestesia geral com isofluorano. Os animais foram divididos em três grupos. Grupo 1 (Tep receberam tramadol pela via epidural (1,0mg kg-1 diluído em água bidestilada ao volume final de 3,0mL e, após 15 minutos, 3,0mL de água bidestilada pela via intravenosa. No grupo 2 (Tiv, foi administrado 3,0mL de água bidestilada pela via epidural e, após 15 minutos, tramadol pela via intravenosa (1,0mg kg-1 diluído em água bidestilada ao volume final de 3,0mL. No grupo 3 (CT, os animais receberam 3,0mL de água bidestilada pela via epidural e, após 15 minutos, 3,0mL de água bidestilada pela via intravenosa. A eficácia de cada regime analgésico foi avaliada durante 12 horas após a administração da injeção epidural. Não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos experimentais para as variáveis estudadas (P>0,05. Foram observadas diferenças significativas dentro de cada tratamento. No grupo Tep houve aumento do cortisol sérico aos 25 minutos do trans-operatório (M3, em relação ao valor obtido imediatamente após a indução anestésica (M2 (P>0,05. Nos tratamentos Tiv e CT, verificou-se elevação das variáveis, duas (M4 e quatro (M5 horas da injeção epidural (P<0,05, quando comparadas ao pré-tratamento (M1. Nesses períodos, as variáveis estudadas no tratamento Tep foram estatisticamente semelhantes ao pré-tratamento (M1. Com base nos resultados, conclui-se que: 1 a metodologia empregada foi sensível para determinar os momentos de maior estresse cirúrgico, dentre os estudados e 2 o tramadol por via epidural produz analgesia mais duradoura quando comparado à administra

  2. Diferentes doses de tramadol em cães: ações analgésicas, sedativas e sobre o sistema cardiorrespiratório Different doses of tramadol in dogs: analgesic, sedative and cardiopulmonary effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Jesus Paolozzi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se comparar os efeitos cardiorrespiratório, analgésico e sedativo de diferentes doses de tramadol em cadelas submetidas à ovariosalpingohisterectomia (OSH. Foram avaliadas 24 cadelas SRD, adultas, distribuídas aleatoriamente em três grupos de oito animais, tratados com tramadol pela via intravenosa (IV nas doses de 1, 2 e 4mg kg-1 (T1, T2 e T4, respectivamente. Na medicação pré-anestésica, foi administrada acepromazina (0,05mg kg-1 IV. Vinte minutos após, a anestesia foi induzida com propofol (4mg kg-1 IV, com posterior manutenção anestésica com isofluorano. O tramadol foi administrado 5 minutos antes da incisão cirúrgica em todos os tratamentos. Foram mensurados: frequência cardíaca, frequência respiratória, temperatura retal, pressão arterial sistólica, grau de analgesia, grau de sedação, concentração sérica de cortisol e efeitos adversos. Mínimas alterações cardiorrespiratórias foram observadas, sem diferença entre os tratamentos. O cortisol, o grau de sedação e o grau de analgesia não variaram entre os tratamentos, com exceção da terceira hora pós-cirúrgica, em que menores escores de dor foram observados no T4. Vômito foi observado em 50% dos animais do T4. Conclui-se que as diferentes doses de tramadol induziram efeitos analgésicos semelhantes, com discreto efeito sedativo e mínimas alterações cardiorrespiratórias. Paralelamente, a dose de 4mg kg-1 de tramadol induziu alta incidência de vômito em cadelas submetidas à OSH.The aim of this study was compare the cardiopulmonary, analgesic and sedative effects of different doses of tramadol in bitches undergoing to ovariohysterectomy. Twenty four adult crossbreed bitches were randomly assigned to three treatments of 8 animals and received intravenously (IV tramadol 1, 2 or 4mg kg-1 (T1, T2 and T4, respectively. Pre-anesthetic medication was acepromazine (0.05mg kg-1 IV. Anesthesia was induced with propofol (4mg kg-1 IV and maintained with

  3. Mechanisms of tramadol-related neurotoxicity in the rat: Does diazepam/tramadol combination play a worsening role in overdose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagard, Camille; Chevillard, Lucie; Malissin, Isabelle; Risède, Patricia; Callebert, Jacques; Labat, Laurence; Launay, Jean-Marie; Laplanche, Jean-Louis; Mégarbane, Bruno

    2016-11-01

    Poisoning with opioid analgesics including tramadol represents a challenge. Tramadol may induce respiratory depression, seizures and serotonin syndrome, possibly worsened when in combination to benzodiazepines. Our objectives were to investigate tramadol-related neurotoxicity, consequences of diazepam/tramadol combination, and mechanisms of drug-drug interactions in rats. Median lethal-doses were determined using Dixon-Bruce's up-and-down method. Sedation, seizures, electroencephalography and plethysmography parameters were studied. Concentrations of tramadol and its metabolites were measured using liquid-chromatography-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry. Plasma, platelet and brain monoamines were measured using liquid-chromatography coupled to fluorimetry. Median lethal-doses of tramadol and diazepam/tramadol combination did not significantly differ, although time-to-death was longer with combination (P=0.04). Tramadol induced dose-dependent sedation (Pdiazepam/tramadol combination abolished seizures but significantly enhanced sedation (Pdiazepam/tramadol combination. Interestingly neither pretreatment with cyproheptadine (a serotonin-receptor antagonist) nor a benserazide/5-hydroxytryptophane combination (enhancing brain serotonin) reduced tramadol-induced seizures. Our study shows that diazepam/tramadol combination does not worsen tramadol-induced fatality risk but alters its toxicity pattern with enhanced respiratory depression but abolished seizures. Drug-drug interaction is mainly pharmacodynamic but increased plasma M1 and M5 metabolites may also contribute to enhancing respiratory depression. Tramadol-induced seizures are independent of brain serotonin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Seizures after intravenous tramadol given as premedication

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    Lalit Kumar Raiger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year-old, 50-kg female with a history of epilepsy was scheduled for elective breast surgery (fibroadenoma under general anaesthesia. She was given glycopyrrolate 0.2 mg, ondansetron 4 mg and tramadol 100 mg i.v. as premedication. Within 5 min, she had an acute episode of generalised tonic-clonic seizure that was successfully treated with 75 mg thiopentone i.v. and after 30 min, she was given general anaesthesia with endotracheal intubation. Surgery, intra-operative period, extubation and post-operative period were uneventful. We conclude that tramadol may provoke seizures in patients with epilepsy even within the recommended dose range.

  5. Uso de kits desechables para optimizar tiempos, movimientos y apego a protocolos de la terapia intravenosa

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    José Juan Escamilla Zamudio

    2017-09-01

    Cómo citar este artículo: Escamilla JJ, Ramírez GI. Uso de kits desechables para optimizar tiempos, movimientos y apego a protocolos de la terapia intravenosa. Rev Cuid. 2017; 8(3: 1749-57. http://dx.doi.org/10.15649/cuidarte.v8i3.412

  6. comparative developmental effects of tramadol hydrochloride and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ekrane T. and Odo P. E.

    laboratory research such as in toxicological and forensic sciences. (Goff et al., 1999; Hedouim et al.,1999). This study compares effects of cypermethrin (a pyrethroid pesticide) and tramadol (an opioid) on the development pattern of. Chrysomyia albiceps (Diptera: Calliphoridae) from intoxicated rabbit (Orctylagus cunicunus) ...

  7. A comparison of extradural tramadol and extradural morphine for postoperative analgesia in female dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy Tramadol peridural comparativamente à morfina para analgesia pós-operatória em cadelas submetidas à ovariosalpingohisterectomia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Sawaya Neves

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare the postoperative analgesic effects of the extradural tramadol or morphine in female dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy. METHODS: Sixteen female dogs were randomly assigned to two groups of eight animals each and received morphine (0.1mg kg-1 M group or tramadol (2mg kg-1 T group. The pre-anesthetic medication was intravenously (iv acepromazine (0.05mg kg-1. Anesthesia was induced with propofol (4mg kg-1iv and maintained with isoflurane. The degree of analgesia was evaluated using a numerical rating scale that included physiologic and behavior variables. Dogs were scored at one, three, six and 12 hours after surgery by one blinded observer. Dogs were treated with morphine (0.5mg kg-1 if their scores were >6. Serum cortisol was measured before the pre-anesthetic medication was administered (basal, at the time of the ovarian pedicle clamping (T0, and at 1 (T1, 6 (T6 and 12 (T12 hours postoperative. RESULTS: The pain score did not differ between morphine and tramadol treatments. Rescue analgesia was administered to one dog in the T treatment group. Serum cortisol did not differ between treatments. CONCLUSION: The extradural administration of morphine or tramadol is a safe and effective method of inducing analgesia in female dogs undergoing ovariohyterectomy.OBJETIVO: Comparar o efeito analgésico pós-operatório do tramadol em relação à morfina quando utilizados por via peridural em cadelas submetidas à ovariosalpingohisterectomia (OSH. MÉTODOS: Dezesseis cadelas foram aleatoriamente distribuídas em dois tratamentos, com oito animais em cada, tratadas com morfina (0,1mg kg-1, M e tramadol (2mg kg-1, T. A medicação pré-anestésica foi feita por via intravenosa (iv com acepromazina (0,05mg kg-1, seguindo-se indução e manutenção anestésicas com propofol (4mg kg-1 iv e isofluorano, respectivamente. O grau de analgesia foi avaliado uma, três, seis e 12 horas após o término da cirurgia, com escala descritiva num

  8. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus and HIV infection among injection drug users in two Mexican cities bordering the U.S Prevalencia de los virus de la hepatitis C y de la inmunodeficiencia humana entre usuarios de drogas intravenosas, en dos ciudades mexicanas fronterizas con los Estados Unidos de America

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    Emily Faye White

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of the hepatitis C virus (HCV and HIV infection and associated risk behaviors among injection drug users (IDUs in two northern Mexican cities. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between February and April 2005, IDUs were recruited in Tijuana (N=222 and Ciudad Juarez (N=206 using respondent-driven sampling (RDS, a chain referral sampling approach. Interviewer-administered questionnaires assessed drug-using behaviors during the prior six months. Venous blood was collected for immunoassays to detect HIV and HCV antibodies. For HIV, Western blot or immunofluorescence assay was used for confirmatory testing. Final HCV antibody prevalence was estimated using RDS adjustments. RESULTS: Overall, HCV and HIV prevalence was 96.0% and 2.8%, respectively, and was similar in both cities. Most IDUs (87.5% reported passing on their used injection equipment to others, and 85.9% had received used equipment from others. CONCLUSIONS: HIV prevalence was relatively high given the prevalence of HIV in the general population, and HCV prevalence was extremely high among IDUs in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez. Frequent sharing practices indicate a high potential for continued transmission for both infections. HCV counseling and testing for IDUs in Mexico and interventions to reduce sharing of injection equipment are needed.OBJETIVO: Estimar las prevalencias de los virus de hepatitis C (VHC y de VIH y los comportamientos de riesgo asociados con ellos, entre usuarios de drogas inyectables (UDI en dos ciudades del norte de México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Entre febrero y abril de 2005, se reclutaron UDIs en Tijuana (N=222 y en Ciudad Juárez (N=206, mediante un método de muestreo llamado en inglés "respondent-driven sampling" (RDS, lo cual es un sistema basado en cadenas de referencia. Los participantes contestaron una encuesta aplicada por entrevista, la cual indagó acerca de los comportamientos en el uso de drogas durante los seis meses previos. Una

  9. Worldwide research productivity on tramadol: a bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweileh, Waleed M; Shraim, Naser Y; Zyoud, Sa'ed H; Al-Jabi, Samah W

    2016-01-01

    Pain management and safe use of analgesics is an important medical issue. Tramadol is an old analgesic with controversial properties. Evaluation of worldwide scientific output on tramadol has not been explored. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to give a bibliometric overview of global research productivity on tramadol. SciVerse Scopus was used to retrieve and quantitatively and qualitatively analyze worldwide publications on tramadol. A total of 2059 original and review research articles on tramadol were retrieved from Scopus. Forty-six documents (2.23 %) were published in Anesthesia and Analgesia Journal whereas 30 (1.46 %) were published in Arzneimittel Forschung Drug Research Journal. Retrieved tramadol documents were published from 71 countries and appeared in 160 peer reviewed journals. Although the United States of America (259; 12.86 %) had the largest contribution to tramadol publications; the contribution by other countries like Turkey (232; 11.27) India (189; 8.09 %) and Germany (176; 8.56 % was not far away from that of USA. The most productive institution was Grunenthal, Germany (47; 2.28 %) followed by Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran (29; 1.41 %), and, Ortho-McNeil Pharmaceutical Incorporated, USA (25; 1.21 %). Of the 2059 documents, there were 370 documents about dependence. The leading institution in documents pertaining to tramadol dependence was Grunenthal GmbH (18; 4.86 %) followed by Ortho-McNeil Pharmaceutical Incorporated (17; 4.59 %). The current study showed that there is an obvious interest in tramadol research. More efforts are needed to clarify the abuse potential and safety profile of tramadol to help in determining the legal status of tramadol. Collaboration among pharmaceutical industry, clinical researchers and academic institutions can improve research quantity and quality on tramadol.

  10. Uso do tramadol venoso e subcutâneo em herniorrafia inguinal: estudo comparativo Uso del tramadol venoso y subcutáneo en herniorrafía inguinal: estudio comparativo Intravenous and subcutaneous tramadol for inguinal herniorrhaphy: comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Oliveira Dias dos Santos

    2010-10-01

    procedimiento, siempre que presente analgesia satisfactoria y la ausencia de náuseas y vómitos. El tramadol es un fármaco analgésico que puede ser utilizado para la analgesia postoperatoria, pero que presenta, como importantes efectos colaterales, náuseas y vómitos, y su incidencia puede variar de 0% a 50%, dependiendo del uso. El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar la incidencia de náuseas y vómitos y la calidad de la analgesia postoperatoria del tramadol por la vía subcutánea y endovenosa en pacientes sometidos a la herniorrafía inguinal. MÉTODOS: Estudio prospectivo con 30 pacientes sometidos a la herniorrafía inguinal. Se dividieron en dos grupos: Grupo C (n = 15 que recibió Tramadol 1,5 mg.kg-1 subcutáneo y el Grupo V (n = 15 que recibió Tramadol 1,5 mg.kg-1 endovenoso. A todos los pacientes se les practicó la anestesia epidural continua con levobupivacaína a 0,5%. Fueron registrados los datos antropométricos, la calidad de la analgesia y la incidencia de náuseas y vómitos en el postoperatorio (en las primeras ocho horas. RESULTADOS: No hubo diferencia estadística entre los grupos con relación a los datos antropométricos, calidad de la analgesia e incidencia de náuseas y vómitos. CONCLUSIONES: En este estudio llegamos a la conclusión de que no existe diferencia estadísticamente significante cuanto a la incidencia de náuseas y vómitos y a la calidad de la analgesia cuando se utiliza el tramadol por vía venosa y subcutáneaBACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Inguinal herniorrhaphy is one of the most common surgeries in men. Neuroaxis block is the anesthetic technique used more often and in the majority of the cases the patient is ready to be discharged from the hospital a few hours after the procedure, as long as satisfactory analgesia is present and nausea and vomiting are absent. Tramadol is an analgesic drug that can be used in postoperative analgesia, but it has important side effects, such as nausea and vomiting whose incidence can range from 0

  11. Tramadol Versus Low Dose Tramadol-paracetamol for Patient Controlled Analgesia During Spinal Vertebral Surgery

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    Esad Emir

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Pain intensity may be high in the postoperative period after spinal vertebral surgery. The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness and cost of patient controlled analgesia (PCA with tramadol versus low dose tramadol-paracetamol on postoperative pain. A total of 60 patients were randomly divided into two groups. One group received 1.5 mg/kg tramadol (Group T while the other group received 0.75 mg/kg tramadol plus 1 g of paracetamol (Group P intravenously via a PCA device immediately after surgery and the patients were transferred to a recovery room, Tramadol was continuously infused at a rate of 0.5 mL/h in both groups, at a dose of 10 mg/mL in Group T and 5 mg/mL in Group P. The bolus and infusion programs were adjusted to administer a 1 mL bolus dose of tramadol with a lock time of 10 minutes. In Group P, 1 g of paracetamol was injected intravenously every 6 hours. The four-point nausea scale, numeric rating scale for pain assessment, Ramsey sedation scale, blood pressure, heart rate, respiration rate, peripheral oxygen saturation values and side effects were recorded at 0, 15 and 30 minutes, and at 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, 18 and 24 hours. The time to reach an Aldrete score of 9 was also recorded. A cost analysis for both groups was performed. In Group P, the numeric rating scale scores were significantly lower than that in Group T at 0 and 15 minutes. The number of side effects, additional analgesic requirement and the total dose of tramadol were lower in Group P than in Group T. However, the total cost of postoperative analgesics was significantly higher in Group P than in Group T (p < 0.001. We conclude that PCA using tramadol-paracetamol could be used safely for postoperative pain relief after spinal vertebral surgery, although at a higher cost than with tramadol alone.

  12. Pharmacokinetics of orally administered tramadol in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Marcy J; Greenacre, Cheryl B; Cox, Sherry K

    2008-08-01

    To determine the pharmacokinetics of an orally administered dose of tramadol in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). 6 healthy adult sexually intact female New Zealand White rabbits. Physical examinations and plasma biochemical analyses were performed to ensure rabbits were healthy prior to the experiment. Rabbits were anesthetized with isoflurane, and IV catheters were placed in a medial saphenous or jugular vein for collection of blood samples. One blood sample was collected before treatment with tramadol. Rabbits were allowed to recover from anesthesia a minimum of 1 hour before treatment. Then, tramadol (11 mg/kg, PO) was administered once, and blood samples were collected at various time points up to 360 minutes after administration. Blood samples were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography to determine plasma concentrations of tramadol and its major metabolite (O-desmethyltramadol). No adverse effects were detected after oral administration of tramadol to rabbits. Mean +/- SD half-life of tramadol after administration was 145.4 +/- 81.0 minutes; mean +/- SD maximum plasma concentration was 135.3 +/- 89.1 ng/mL. Although the dose of tramadol required to provide analgesia in rabbits is unknown, the dose administered in the study reported here did not reach a plasma concentration of tramadol or O-desmethyltramadol that would provide sufficient analgesia in humans for clinically acceptable periods. Many factors may influence absorption of orally administered tramadol in rabbits.

  13. An Assessment of Tramadol-Xylazine-Ketamine-Diazepam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two sets of trials were carried out to evaluate the influence of tramadol premedication on xylazine-diazepam-ketamine anaesthesia in horses. Five horses comprising of both sexes (mean weight 276±39kg) were each anaesthetized twice. Treatment A (TXDK) consisted of intravenous injection of tramadol (2.5 mg kg -1), ...

  14. Predisposing factors for peripheral intravenous puncture failure in children Factores predisponentes para fracaso de la punción intravenosa periférica en niños Fatores predisponentes para insucesso da punção intravenosa periférica em crianças

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    Daniela Cavalcante de Negri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify predisposing factors for peripheral intravenous puncture failure in children. METHODS: Cross-sectional cohort study conducted with 335 children in a pediatric ward of a university hospital after approval of the ethics committee. The Wald Chi-squared, Prevalence Ratio (PR and backward procedure (p≤0.05 tests were applied. RESULTS: Success of peripheral intravenous puncture was obtained in 300 (89.5% children and failure in 35 (10.4%. The failure rates were significantly influenced by: presence of clinical history of difficult venous access, malnourishment, previous use of peripherally inserted central venous catheter, previous use of central venous catheter, and history of phlebitis or infiltration. In the multivariate model, being malnourished and having previously been submitted to central venous catheterization were the predisposing factors for the failure. CONCLUSION: The failure rate of 10.4% is similar to that identified in analogous studies and was influenced by characteristics of the children and intravenous therapy. In association with this, malnutrition and previous use of a central venous catheter were the most important variables influencing increase in peripheral intravenous puncture failure.OBJETIVO: Verificar factores predisponentes para el fracaso de la punción intravenosa periférica realizada en niños. MÉTODO: Estudio de cohorte transversal realizado con 335 niños internados en unidad pediátrica de un hospital universitario, después de la aprobación del mérito ético. Se utilizaron testes Jue-cuadrado de Wald, Razón de Superioridad (RP y procedimiento de backward (p≤0,05. RESULTADOS: se evidenció éxito de la punción en 300 (89,5% niños e fracaso en 35 (10,4%. Influenciaron significantemente las proporciones de fracaso: presentar historia clínica para dificultad en la punción, estar desnutrido, uso previo de catéter central de inserción periférica, uso previo de catéter venoso central

  15. Toxicidad hepática recurrente secundaria a metilprednisolona intravenosa Recurrent acute liver toxicity from intravenous methyprednisolone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rivero Fernández

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Las reacciones adversas hepáticas relacionadas con la administración de fármacos (hepatotoxicidad son cuadros relativamente frecuentes que presentan una amplia variabilidad clínica e histológica. La identificación precoz de estos cuadros es fundamental en la práctica clínica debido a su potencial gravedad. En la mayoría de los casos la suspensión del fármaco desencadenante es suficiente para la resolución del cuadro clínico. A pesar de que los esteroides son utilizados en una amplia variedad de situaciones clínicas, la notificación de cuadros de hepatotoxicidad secundaria a esteroides intravenosos es excepcional. Presentamos el caso clínico de una mujer diagnosticada de esclerosis múltiple, que recibió metilprednisolona a altas dosis en forma de "pulsos" intravenosos como tratamiento de las reagudizaciones de su enfermedad y presentó 3 brotes recurrentes de hepatitis de predominio hepatocelular con un patrón clínico, analítico e histológico compatible con toxicidad hepática aguda secundaria a metilprednisolona intravenosa. En el tercer episodio se realizó una biopsia hepática que demostró un patrón de hepatitis aguda con necrosis líticas confluentes, histología no descrita previamente en pacientes tratados con esteroides intravenosos.Adverse drug reactions (hepatotoxicity are a frequent cause of acute liver injury with a wide clinical and histological spectrum. An early recognition of drug-related liver disease has been considered essential in clinical practice due to potential risks. In most cases exposure discontinuation improves the clinical picture. Steroids are used in a variety of clinical settings. However, intravenous steroids have rarely been associated with hepatotoxicity. We report the case of a middle-aged woman with multiple sclerosis who received a bolus of methylprednisolone on three occasions for the management of relapsing disease, with the development of repeated episodes of elevated liver enzymes

  16. Assessment of phlebitis, infiltration and extravasation events in neonates submitted to intravenous therapy Avaliacion de la ocurrencia de flebitis, infiltración y extravasamiento en neonatos submetidos a terapia intravenosa Avaliação da ocorrência de flebite, infiltração e extravasamento em neonatos submetidos à terapia intravenosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Caroline Rodrigues Gomes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe phlebitis, infiltration and extravasation events in newborn infants hospitalized at the neonatal intensive care unit of a public maternity in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A quantitative and descriptive study was carried out, involving 36 newborns under intravenous therapy and indicated for the removal of the peripheral intravenous device. Fifty puncture sites were assessed immediately after the peripheral catheter removal, resulting in an average 1.40 punctures per infant. Complications were responsible for 48% of catheter removals before discharge from treatment, predominantly infiltration (79.2%, followed by phlebitis (16.7% and extravasation (4.2%. To avoid aggravations and enhance the security of newborns submitted to intravenous therapy, the nursing team should periodically assess the peripheral venous access and gain knowledge on interventions needed when signs of complications are detected.El objetivo de este estudio fue describir la ocurrencia de flebitis, infiltración y extravasamiento en recién nacidos internados en la unidad de terapia intensiva neonatal de una maternidad pública de Rio de Janeiro. Se trata de un estudio cuantitativo descriptivo con 36 recién nacidos en uso de terapia intravenosa y con indicación de remoción del dispositivo intravenoso periférico. Fueron evaluados 50 sitios de punción inmediatamente después de la remoción de catéteres periféricos originando una media de 1,40 punciones venosas por neonato. Las complicaciones fueron responsables por 48% de las remociones de los catéteres, antes del alta del tratamiento, con predominio de infiltraciones (79,2%, seguida por flebitis (16,7% e extravasamiento (4,2%. Con el fin de evitar los lesiones y promover la seguridad de los recién nacidos sometidos a terapia intravenosa, el equipo de enfermería debe evaluar periódicamente el acceso venoso periférico y obtener conocimiento acerca de las intervenciones necesarias cuando

  17. Efecto del tramadol en la motilidad del ciego en dos equinos sanos (estudio preliminar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Cruz-Carrillo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available El tramadol (analgésico opioide atípico es utilizado ampliamente en humanos y, en menor proporción, en animales, por falta de productos comerciales de uso veterinario. Es un analgésico eficaz que produce efectos adversos suaves, en comparación con los opioides típicos. Se propone su uso como alternativa en el manejo del dolor en equinos, a partir de la hipótesis de que al estimular los receptores opioides de manera suave, los efectos adversos en los equinos deben ser menores. Así, el objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar el efecto del tramadol en la motilidad de la musculatura lisa de la base del ciego en equinos sanos. Se utilizaron tres equinos, a los cuales, mediante intervención quirúrgica, se les colocaron dos electrodos en la base del ciego, y se exteriorizaron sus extensiones por la pared abdominal, para conectarlas a un equipo de registro electromiográfico que permitió la valoración de la actividad intestinal 15 días después de colocados los electrodos y después de aplicar 1,2 mg de tramadol/kg de peso. Se comprobó que después de aplicar el tramadol hubo un descenso leve de la intensidad de las contracciones musculares, los sonidos intestinales estuvieron presentes, no hubo atonía, cólico ni estreñimiento. Adicionalmente, se comprobó su gran eficacia analgésica y la ausencia de cualquier efecto adverso. Se concluye que bajo las condiciones aquí planteadas, el tramadol no deprimió la motilidad del ciego en equinos sanos, aunque disminuyó la intensidad de las contracciones musculares en el ciego.

  18. Representations sociales de la consommation de tramadol au Niger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pain medications. Its smuggling, diversion and abuse have become a social problem in Niger. The objective of this study was to describe the social representations of tramadol evaluated through the knowledge and attitudes of communities ...

  19. Formulation and evaluation of tramadol hydrochloride rectal suppositories

    OpenAIRE

    Saleem M; Taher M; Sanaullah S; Najmuddin M; Ali Javed; Humaira S; Roshan S

    2008-01-01

    Rectal suppositories of tramadol hydrochloride were prepared using different bases and polymers like PEG, cocoa butter, agar and the effect of different additives on in vitro release of tramadol hydrochloride was studied. The agar-based suppositories were non-disintegrating/non-dissolving, whereas PEGs were disintegrating/dissolving and cocoa butter were melting suppositories. All the prepared suppositories were evaluated for various physical parameters like weight variation, drug content a...

  20. Tramadol as an adjuvant to intravenous regional anesthesia with lignocaine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, Ahsan K.; Mowafi, Hany A.; Al-Ghamdi, A.; Ismail, Salah A.; Abuzeid, Haitham A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to assess the effect of different doses of tramadol when added to lignocaine during intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA). Sixty patients, scheduled for hand surgery under IVRA in King Fahd University Hospital, Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia from January 2006 to January 2007 were randomly allocated into 3 groups (20 patients each) in a double blind controlled study. All patients received 0.5% lignocaine, 40ml plus 2ml of a study solution containing either isotonic saline (control group), or tramadol 50mg (group T50) or tramadol100mg (group T100). Hemodynamic changes, sensory and motor block onset and recovery time, tourniquet tolerance time, the quality of intraoperative anesthesia and the duration of postoperative analgesia were assessed. All patients 20 in each group completed the study period. Patients who received tramadol had earlier onset of sensory block (5.2+-1.2; 4.9+-1.2 min in the T50; and T100 groups) compared with the control group (7.6+-1.4 min). Patients who received 100mg of tramadol had better tolerance of tourniquet (p=0.011), and less intraoperative fentanyl supplementation (p=0.042). They had also a longer time to the first postoperative analgesic request (p=0.001) compared with the control group. Tramadol 100 mg is a beneficial additive to lignocaine for IVRA since it shortened the onset of sensory block, enhanced the tourniquet tolerance and improved the perioperative analgesia. (author)

  1. Tramadol Induced Adrenal Insufficiency: Histological, Immunohistochemical, Ultrastructural, and Biochemical Genetic Experimental Study

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelaleem, Shereen Abdelhakim; Hassan, Osama A.; Ahmed, Rasha F.; Zenhom, Nagwa M.; Rifaai, Rehab A.; El-Tahawy, Nashwa F.

    2017-01-01

    Tramadol is a synthetic, centrally acting analgesic. It is the most consumed narcotic drug that is prescribed in the world. Tramadol abuse has dramatically increased in Egypt. Long term use of tramadol can induce endocrinopathy. So, the aim of this study was to analyze the adrenal insufficiency induced by long term use of tramadol in experimental animals and also to assess its withdrawal effects through histopathological and biochemical genetic study. Forty male albino rats were used in this ...

  2. Tramadol suppositories are less suitable for post-operative pain relief than rectal acetaminophen/codeine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluim, M. A.; Wegener, J. T.; Rupreht, J.; Vulto, A. G.

    1999-01-01

    The suitability of tramadol suppositories for inclusion in our hospital formulary for the treatment of mild to moderate post-operative pain was evaluated. In an open randomized trial, rectal tramadol was compared with our standard treatment acetaminophen/codeine suppositories. We expected tramadol

  3. SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC, ATOMIC ABSORPTION AND CONDUCTOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF TRAMADOL HYDROCHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M. Anis

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Six simple and sensitive spectroscopic and conductometric procedures (A-F were developed for the determination of tramadol hydrochloride. Methods A, B and C are based on the reaction of cobalt (II thiocyanate with tramadol to form a stable ternary complex, which could be measured by spectrophotometric (method A, atomic absorption (method B or conductometric (method C procedures. Methods D and E depend on the reaction of molybdenum thiocyanate with tramadol to form a stable ternary complex, measured by spectrophotometric means (method D or by atomic absorption procedures (method E, while method F depends on the formation of an ion pair complex between the studied drug and bromothymol blue which is extractable into methylene chloride. Tramadol hydrochloride could be assayed in the range of 80-560 and 40-–220 μg ml-1, 1-15 mg ml-1 and 2.5-22.5, 1.25-11.25 and 5-22 μg ml-1 using methods A,B,C,D,E and F, respectively. Various experimental conditions were studied. The results obtained showed good recoveries. The proposed procedures were applied successfully to the analysis of tramadol in its pharmaceutical preparations and the results were favorably comparable with the official method.

  4. Tramadole withdrawal in a neonate: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borna H

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tramadol is a synthetics 4-phenyl-piperidine analogue of codeine used for treating moderate to severe pain. Tramadol is a FDA pregnancy category C medication which induces release of serotonin and inhibits the reuptake of norepinephrine. Chronic use of this drug during pregnancy may lead to physical dependency and withdrawal syndrome in the neonate.Case presentation: We report the newborn of a woman admitted in the delivery ward of Mostafa Khomeini Hospital in Tehran, Iran in 2011. The mother suffered from chronic low back pain and headache and frequently took tramadol during pregnancy. The infant had a gestational age of 38.5 w, a birth weight of 2950 gr and an Apgar score of 9/10 at 1 and 5 minutes after birth. The first signs of withdrawal syndrome occurred after 24 h with nausea, vomiting, poor feeding, and tremor. Later, agitation, tremor, hyprertonicity, and repeated multifocal myoclonus, and generalized tonic-clonic seizures developed. Clinical signs of withdrawal syndrome waned under phenobarbital therapy.Conclusion: Drug withdrawal syndrome should be considered in the neonates of pregnant mothers who chronically take tramadol. Tramadol administration during pregnancy should be restricted to carefully selected cases.

  5. Refractory Seizures in Tramadol Poisoning: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Majidi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tramadol, an analgesic drug abused by opioid addicts, is also abused accidentally or for suicidal purposes. Tramadol poisoning can induce CNS depression, seizures, coma, and ultimately death. Case: In this report, a 30-year-old male was admitted to the emergency department due to suicidal attempt with ingestion of 14000 mg (140 tablet 100 mg of tramadol. He had history of suicidal attempts in past years as well as depression in his past medical history, but he had not abused tramadol and other drugs in his history. There was no history of epilepsy or head trauma in. He presented with generalized seizures two hours post ingestion, and, then, he was referred to hospital four hours later. Generalized seizures were poorly controlled by multiple medications. Due to respiratory arrest, endotracheal tube was inserted and he was admitted to the ICU immediately. At admission, he experienced hypovolemic shock, hypoglycemia, coma, apnea, refractory seizures, muscle spasms, acute respiratory distress syndrome, coagolative disorder, rhabdomyolysis, and acute renal failure. Despite medical managements, he died 38 days after ingestion. Conclusion: In this report, despite using inhalational anesthetic drugs, seizures continued and were very poorly controlled. Cause of death in this patient can be seen as the side effects of tramadol poisoning.

  6. Postoperative Analgesia in Children- Comparative Study between Caudal Bupivacaine and Bupivacaine plus Tramadol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Doda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty children, ASAI-II, aged between 2yrs-5yrs, undergoing sub umbilical operation (inguinal and penile surgery were selected for this double blind study. They were randomly divided in two groups, group Aand group B. Group A(n15 received 0.25%bupivacaine 0.5ml.kg -1 and Group B (n=15 received 0.25% bupivaeaine 0.5ml.kg -1 and tramadol 2mg.kg -1 as single shot caudal block. Postoperative pain was assessed by a modified TPPPS (Toddler-Preschool Postoperative Pain Scale and analgesic given only when the score was more than 3. In the first 24 hrs it was observed that the mean duration of time interval between the caudal block and first dose of analgesic was significantly long(9. lhrs in Group B as compared to Group A (6.3hrs which was much shorter(p< 0.01.There was no significant haemodynamie changes, motor weakness or respiratory depression in both groups. This study con-cluded that addition of tramadol 2mg.kg -1 to caudal 0.25% bupivacaine 0.5ml.kg -1 significantly prolong the duration of postoperative analgesia in children withoutprodueing much adverse effects.

  7. Tramadol and Tramadol+Caffeine Synergism in the Rat Formalin Test Are Mediated by Central Opioid and Serotonergic Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Carrillo-Munguía

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Different analgesic combinations with caffeine have shown this drug to be capable of increasing the analgesic effect. Many combinations with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs have been carried out, but, in regard to opioids, only combinations with morphine and tramadol have been reported. The antinociceptive synergism mechanism of these combinations is not well understood. The purpose of the present study was to determine the participation of spinal and supraspinal opioidergic and serotonergic systems in the synergic effect of the tramadol+caffeine combination in the rat formalin test. At the supraspinal level, the opioid antagonist, naloxone, completely reversed the effect of the drug combination, whereas ketanserin, a 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, inhibited the effect by 60%; however, ondansetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, did not alter the combination effect. When the antagonists were intrathecally administered, there was a significant reduction in all tramadol-caffeine combination effects. With respect to tramadol alone, there was significant participation of the opioid system at the supraspinal level, whereas it was the serotonergic system that participated at the spinal level by means of the two receptors studied. In conclusion, the tramadol+caffeine combination synergically activated the opioid and serotonergic systems at the supraspinal level, as well as at the spinal level, to produce the antinociception.

  8. Segurança do paciente: análise do preparo de medicação intravenosa em hospital da rede sentinela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Giron Camerini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La investigación tubo como objetivo identificar el tipo y frecuencia de los errores en la preparación de medicamentos intravenosos. Se trata de una investigación observacional transversal, en tres unidades de un hospital. Se observaron 365 dosis de medicamentos por vía intravenosa preparados por 35 técnicos de enfermería. Los datos se recolectaron de enero a febrero de 2008. Se encontraron tasas de errores en todos los sectores, por encima de 70,00%. Los errores se agruparon en las siguientes categorías: cambio de jeringas, desinfección de las ampollas, higiene de la encimera, hora y dosis errada. Las tasas de errores fueron superiores a 50,00% en todos las categorías, excepto en la dosis errada (6,58%. Se concluye que estas tasas pueden afectar la seguridad microbiológica del procedimiento, aumentando la posibilidad de daño si ocurre la contaminación del medicamento. La preparación en el momento equivocado, antes de una hora, se produjo con tenoxicam y dipirona. La estabilidad de los medicamentos pudo haber sido comprometida, al producir cambios en el resultado terapéutico esperado, lo que puede dar lugar a consecuencias indeseables para los pacientes.

  9. Catatonia Associated with Coadministration of Tramadol and Meperidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Chih Chang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Tramadol and meperidine are frequently prescribed medications in the management of oncologic patients. The pharmacologic interaction of these two drugs may induce mental disturbance. This was demonstrated by our case of a 39-year-old woman with gastric mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALToma, stage III after chemotherapy. She was admitted to our medical ward with the complaint of abdominal pain. Pantoprazole 40 mg and tramadol 150 mg daily were prescribed with intravenous route after hospitalization. Two days later, the patient developed transient visual hallucinations and disorientation after additional injection of meperidine (25 mg. Six hours later, catatonic features appeared. The duty doctor stopped all the medications. Two days later, the catatonic features disappeared. From the clinical course, we suggest that the catatonia was caused by drug interactions between tramadol and meperidine. The pharmacodynamic mechanism might be related to the dopamine and serotonin systems. [J Formos Med Assoc 2007;106(4:323-326

  10. The effects of tramadol on postoperative shivering after sevoflurane and remifentanil anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Taku; Hashimoto, Miki; Hashimoto, Yasunori; Shirozu, Kazuhiro; Hoka, Sumio

    2017-01-03

    Remifentanil has been reported to cause post-anesthetic shivering (PAS). Higher doses of remifentanil reportedly induce more intense PAS. Tramadol, a synthetic opioid that acts at multiple sites, is considered to be an effective treatment for PAS, but the evidence for its therapeutic benefit after remifentanil anesthesia is limited. We investigated the effect of tramadol on the incidence of PAS after remifentanil anesthesia. Sixty-three patients who had undergone upper abdominal surgery under general anesthesia were studied retrospectively. Tramadol was administered at induction of anesthesia. The patients were divided into four groups: HT(+), high dose remifentanil (1-1.5 μg/kg/min) with tramadol; HT(-), high dose remifentanil without tramadol; LT(+), low dose remifentanil (0.15-0.25 μg/kg/min) with tramadol; and LT(-), low dose remifentanil without tramadol. We recorded perioperative changes in nasopharyngeal temperature and episodes of PAS on emergence from anesthesia. The incidences of PAS in both tramadol treatment groups were significantly lower than the groups that did not receive tramadol. Nasopharyngeal temperature after surgery fell significantly more from baseline in the tramadol treatment groups compared with the non-treatment groups. Tramadol administered at induction of anesthesia appears to suppress PAS following remifentanil anesthesia.

  11. A Comparative Study of the Efficacy of IV Dexketoprofen, Lornoxicam, and Diclophenac Sodium on Postoperative Analgesia and Tramadol Consumption in Patients Receiving Patient-Controlled Tramadol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıçkaya, Refika; Güleç, Ersel; Ünlügenç, Hakkı; Gündüz, Murat; Işık, Geylan

    2015-06-01

    This study was designed to compare the effects of dexketoprofen, lornoxicam, and diclophenac sodium on postoperative analgesia and tramadol consumption in patients receiving postoperative patient-controlled tramadol after a major abdominal surgery. Eighty patients were randomized to receive one of the four study drugs. Patients in group dexketoprofen (DT) received IV 50 mg dexketoprofen, group lornoxicam (LR) received IV 8 mg lornoxicam, group diclophenac sodium (DS) received 75 mg IV diclophenac sodium and group saline (S) received 0.9% saline in 2 mL syringes, 20 min before the end of anaesthesia. A standardized (1 mg kg(-1)) dose of tramadol was routinely administered to all patients as the loading dose at the end of surgery. Postoperatively, whenever patients requested, they were allowed to use a tramadol patient-controlled analgesia device giving a bolus dose (0.2 mg kg(-1)) of tramadol. Pain, discomfort, and sedation scores, cumulative tramadol consumption, supplemental meperidine requirement, and side effects were recorded. Visual rating scale and patient discomfort scores were significantly lower in DT, LR and DS groups compared to those in in group S (pdexketoprofen to patient-controlled tramadol resulted in lower pain scores, smaller tramadol consumption, less rescue supplemental analgesic requirement, and fewer side effects compared with the tramadol alone group.

  12. Efecto terapéutico del alprostadil en pacientes con isquemia crítica terminal de los miembros inferiores

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    Alfredo J. Karles-Ernotte

    2017-01-01

    Conclusiones: El tratamiento de pacientes con isquemia crítica de miembro inferior con alpostadil por infusión intravenosa, con bolos diarios de entre 60 y 120 mcg durante 28 días, este medicamento es seguro y presenta mínimos efectos secundarios. Esta terapia mejora sustancialmente el estadio funcional de Rutherford en estos pacientes y evita amputaciones mayores.

  13. Algoritmo assistencial de enfermagem para infusão de amiodarona intravenosa

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    Francimar Tinoco de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos fueron identificar publicaciones científicas sobre flebitis causado por amiodarona y proponer un algoritmo de atención de enfermería para intervenciones en la administración intravenosa de amiodarona, basada en la Infusion Nursing Society y Center for Disease Control and Prevention . Estudio descriptivo, llevado a cabo por revisión integradora en bases MedLine, LILACS, IBECS, BDENF, Biblioteca Cochrane y Scielo, publicados de 2006 a 2013. La muestra consistió de nueve artículos. Las evidencias señalaron incidencia de flebitis debido a la infusión de amiodarona y la necesidad de su control. El algoritmo propuesto nortea los materiales que deben ser utilizados y el procedimiento de administración del medicamento, objetivando minimizar agravios. Esto algoritmo, además de subsidiar el desarrollo de futuros estudios, también promueve la incorporación de mejores recomendaciones para la práctica clínica de forma intervencionista y legítima.

  14. Microencapsulación de tramadol en ácido poliláctico mediante secado por aspersión Microencapsulation of Tramadol in polyactic acid by aspersion drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orestes Darío López Hernández

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Un tema de gran interés para la industria farmacéutica moderna lo constituye sin duda, la búsqueda de tecnologías para la obtención de formas farmacéuticas para la administración y transporte de citostáticos, antiinflamatorios, péptidos y hormonas, entre otros fármacos, que impliquen una reducción de su toxicidad o una liberación controlada del principio activo para lograr con ello un aumento de su eficacia. En el presente trabajo se estudió la influencia del flujo de líquido de alimentación, del flujo de aire de atomización y de secado, y se evaluaron diferentes características fisicoquímicas y morfológicas (tamaño, forma, porosidad y distribución de tamaño de partículas, eficiencia de encapsulación del principio activo de microesferas de tramadol. Como resultado se obtuvo que es posible lograr microesferas con un tamaño de 18,93 ± 2,31 µm con forma esférica, una superficie no porosa, y se demostró mediante difractometría de rayos X la encapsulación del tramadol en el polímero.An interesting subject for pharmaceutical industry is the search of technologies to achieve pharmaceutical ways for administration and transportation of cytostatics, anti-inflammatories, peptides and hormones among other drugs implicating a reduction of its toxicity or a contolled releasing of active principle to increase its effectiveness. In present paper authors studied the influence of fluid flow in feeding, of atomization air and of driying; different physicochemical and morphological features (size, shape, porosity and distribution in the particles size, and the effectiveness of active principle encapsulation of Tramadol's microspheres. As result, it was possible to achieve microspheres of 18.93 ± 2.31 µm with an spherical shape, a non-porous surface demostrating it by X-ray difractometry and Tramadol encapsulation in the polymer.

  15. Intrathecal tramadol versus intrathecal fentanyl for visceral pain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-10-29

    Oct 29, 2013 ... warmed fluid, covering with more drapes. In addition, the air conditioner in the operating room was switched off,. 100 mg tramadol was on stand by in case the ..... and motor block when 25 μg of fentanyl with 12 mg of bupivacaine was administered to a particular group of patients. They found that time to first ...

  16. Ondansetron versus Tramadol in the Prevention of Postanaesthesia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haemodynamic variables, neonatal outcome and perioperative complications were comparable between the 3 groups. Conclusion: Ondansetron 4mg was comparable to tramadol 0.5mg/kg but superior to placebo in protecting Caesarean section patients undergoing spinal anaesthesia against shivering. Ondansetron ...

  17. Formulation and Evaluation of Tramadol HCl Matrix Tablets Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To formulate and prepare controlled release (CR) matrix tablets of tramadol HCl using Carbopol 974P and 934 polymers as rate-controlling agents. Methods: The tablets were prepared by direct compression method using various drug to polymer (D:P) ratios. Co-excipients, including carboxymethylcellulose, starch ...

  18. Intrathecal tramadol versus intrathecal fentanyl for visceral pain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intrathecal tramadol versus intrathecal fentanyl for visceral pain control during bupivacaine subarachnoid block for open appendicectomy. ... Visual analog scale scores and frequency of subjective symptoms among patients in the three groups formed the primary outcome measure of this study. Results: Effective ...

  19. Effects of Tramadol Premedication on Ketamine Anaesthesia in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of anaesthesia with tramadol -ketamine combination on behavioural, physiological and plasma cortisol changes was evaluated following surgical castration in pigs. Ten Large-white breed of pigs (9.8± 1.6 kg) were used in the study. The pigs were randomly assigned into two groups. Pigs in group one (KT) were ...

  20. Efficacy of peritonsillar infilltration of ketamine, tramadol, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Backgrounds: Tonsillectomy is one of the most common surgeries in children. Controlling pain after tonsillectomy is still controversial. In this study, the efficacy of peritonsillar injection of lidocaine, tramadol, ketamine,and placebo is compared on post tonsillectomy pain. Methods: In a randomized double-blind clinical trial, ...

  1. Microencapsulation of tramadol hydrochloride and physicochemical evaluation of formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murtaza, G.; Ahmad, M.

    2009-01-01

    The present project involves the microencapsulation of tramadol hydrochloride with ethocel using a non-solvent addition coacervation technique. The concentration of ethocel was varied to get a prolonged release profile. Then microparticles were compressed into tablets to study the variation of drug release between the microparticles and tablets. The microparticles were off white, aggregated and irregular in morphology having good percentage entrapment efficiency and percentage production yield. Dissolution study was made using USP XXIV apparatus I and II respectively, in 900 ml double distilled water at 50 rpm maintained at 37 degree C. An Initial burst effect was noted in the drug release behavior. Polyisobutylene concentration affected inversely the rate of drug release from microparticles. Dissolution media and stirring speed affected insignificantly (p>.05) the release pattern. Tramadol hydrochloride tablets showed good stability and reproducibility. UV and FTIR spectroscopy and X-Ray diffractometry proved that tramadol hydrochloride was completely and uniformly distributed in ethocel with out any strong interaction. The mechanism of drug release was anomalous diffusion that was best fit to Higuchi's equation. It can be concluded that multi-unit, slow-release tramadol hydrochloride microparticles can be formulated efficiently with non-solvent addition coacervation technique using ethocel. (author)

  2. Bijwerkingen van tramadol : 12 jaar ervaring in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabel, J S; van Puijenbroek, E P

    2005-01-01

    Tramadol is a synthetic opioid that has been available in the Netherlands since 1992 and is usually used as a centrally-acting analgesic when paracetamol or an NSAID provides insufficient relief. In the period 1 January 1992--30 November 2003, the Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Centre Lareb received

  3. Medical and Psychiatric Effects of Long-Term Dependence on High Dose of tramadol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hadidy, Mohmed Adel; Helaly, Ahmed Mohamed Nabil

    2015-04-01

    Tramadol dependence has been studied recently after large-scale exposure. Although tramadol dependence has increased rapidly in Egypt since 2004, no studies have evaluated the effect of high dose long-term tramadol dependence. To address the chronic sequel of tramadol dependence over at least 5 years duration with a large dose (more than 675 mg/day, three tablets or more, each tablet of 225 mg). The study was aimed to check the physical and psychiatric status during tramadol dependence and 3 months after complete treatment. The present study was applied on 79 patients with single tramadol-dependence dose of 675 mg or more for 5 years or more. We examined the physical and psychological impact of tramadol abuse before and after 3 months of stoppage of the drug. The blood chemistry was nearly within normal parameters, although slight nonsignificant rise in liver enzymes was reported in some cases. Patients during tramadol dependence period were angry, hostile, and aggressive. On the other hand, after treatment the main problem observed was the significant increase in comorbid anxiety, depressive, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms, but no increase was found in psychotic symptoms. Tramadol-dependence dose was more important than duration of use in psychiatric illness. Tramadol dependence on high dose could be physically safe to some limit, but psychiatrically it has many side effects.

  4. Tramadol Induced Adrenal Insufficiency: Histological, Immunohistochemical, Ultrastructural, and Biochemical Genetic Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shereen Abdelhakim Abdelaleem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tramadol is a synthetic, centrally acting analgesic. It is the most consumed narcotic drug that is prescribed in the world. Tramadol abuse has dramatically increased in Egypt. Long term use of tramadol can induce endocrinopathy. So, the aim of this study was to analyze the adrenal insufficiency induced by long term use of tramadol in experimental animals and also to assess its withdrawal effects through histopathological and biochemical genetic study. Forty male albino rats were used in this study. The rats were divided into 4 groups (control group, tramadol-treated group, and withdrawal groups. Tramadol was given to albino rats at a dose of 80 mg/kg body weight for 3 months and after withdrawal periods (7–15 days rats were sacrificed. Long term use of tramadol induced severe histopathological changes in adrenal glands. Tramadol decreased the levels of serum cortisol and DHEAS hormones. In addition, it increased the level of adrenal MDA and decreased the genetic expression of glutathione peroxidase and thioredoxin reductase in adrenal gland tissues. All these changes started to return to normal after withdrawal of tramadol. Thus, it was confirmed that long term use of tramadol can induce severe adrenal insufficiency.

  5. Tramadol Induced Adrenal Insufficiency: Histological, Immunohistochemical, Ultrastructural, and Biochemical Genetic Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaleem, Shereen Abdelhakim; Hassan, Osama A; Ahmed, Rasha F; Zenhom, Nagwa M; Rifaai, Rehab A; El-Tahawy, Nashwa F

    2017-01-01

    Tramadol is a synthetic, centrally acting analgesic. It is the most consumed narcotic drug that is prescribed in the world. Tramadol abuse has dramatically increased in Egypt. Long term use of tramadol can induce endocrinopathy. So, the aim of this study was to analyze the adrenal insufficiency induced by long term use of tramadol in experimental animals and also to assess its withdrawal effects through histopathological and biochemical genetic study. Forty male albino rats were used in this study. The rats were divided into 4 groups (control group, tramadol-treated group, and withdrawal groups). Tramadol was given to albino rats at a dose of 80 mg/kg body weight for 3 months and after withdrawal periods (7-15 days) rats were sacrificed. Long term use of tramadol induced severe histopathological changes in adrenal glands. Tramadol decreased the levels of serum cortisol and DHEAS hormones. In addition, it increased the level of adrenal MDA and decreased the genetic expression of glutathione peroxidase and thioredoxin reductase in adrenal gland tissues. All these changes started to return to normal after withdrawal of tramadol. Thus, it was confirmed that long term use of tramadol can induce severe adrenal insufficiency.

  6. The effect of local tramadol injection in post appendectomy pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Khazaei

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been demonstrated that tramadol, asemisynthetic opioid, is an effective analgesic with systemic (central and local (peripheral anesthetic effects. The aim of this study was to compare the post-operative anesthetic effect of subcutaneous wound infiltration of tramadol with normal saline as placebo in the incision wounds after appendectomy and measuring the average need to petidine during the next 24 hours after the appendectomy. Materials and Method: This double blind study was carried out on 60 patients over 15 years old. Patients were randomly divided in two equal groups. At the end of procedure after repairing fascia 100mg of tramadol that was diluted with water for injection up to 10 cc in one syringe or 10 cc of normal saline in another syringe was infiltrated subcutaneously by surgeon before suturing the skin. The intensity of pain (NRS was recorded in the recovery room, after 6 and 24 hours post-operation as well as total amount of administered petidine in the same period. At the end of study the intensity of pain in the mentioned times and the average use of petidine compared in two groups. Results: A significant difference was noted in the severity of pain between two groups in recovery time, 6 and 24 hours afetr operation that was lower in tramadol group (p<0.0001. Also the average use of petidine was significantly lower in tramadol group in 24 hours (p<0.05. The average severity of pain by NRS in recovery was 5.36 for control (N and 3.08 for tramadol (T groups; and after 6 hours it was 5.36 for (N and 3.36 for (T and after 24 hours reached to 3.08 for (N and 2.08 for (T and the average number of injected 25mg ampoules of petidine was 1.56 in (N and 0.76 in (T.Conclusion: Local wound infiltration of tramadol is a good choice for reduction of post appendectomy pain and decreasing need for high potent opioid analgesics

  7. Local analgesic effect of tramadol is not mediated by opioid receptors in early postoperative pain in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Maria Sousa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Tramadol is known as a central acting analgesic drug, used for the treatment of moderate to severe pain. Local analgesic effect has been demonstrated, in part due to local anesthetic-like effect, but other mechanisms remain unclear. The role of peripheral opioid receptors in the local analgesic effect is not known. In this study, we examined role of peripheral opioid receptors in the local analgesic effect of tramadol in the plantar incision model. METHODS: Young male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups: control, intraplantar tramadol, intravenous tramadol, intravenous naloxone-intraplantar tramadol, intraplantar naloxone-intraplantar tramadol, intravenous naloxone-intravenous tramadol, and intravenous naloxone. After receiving the assigned drugs (tramadol 5 mg, naloxone 200 µg or 0.9% NaCl, rats were submitted to plantar incision, and withdrawal thresholds after mechanical stimuli with von Frey filaments were assessed at baseline, 10, 15, 30, 45 and 60 min after incision. RESULTS: Plantar incision led to marked mechanical hyperalgesia during the whole period of observation in the control group, no mechanical hyperalgesia were observed in intraplantar tramadol group, intraplantar naloxone-intraplantar tramadol group and intravenous naloxone-intraplantar tramadol. In the intravenous tramadol group a late increase in withdrawal thresholds (after 45 min was observed, the intravenous naloxone-intravenous tramadol group and intravenous naloxone remained hyperalgesic during the whole period. CONCLUSIONS: Tramadol presented an early local analgesic effect decreasing mechanical hyperalgesia induced by plantar incision. This analgesic effect was not mediated by peripheral opioid receptors.

  8. Spectral characteristics of tramadol in different solvents and β-cyclodextrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton Smith, A.; Manavalan, R.; Kannan, K.; Rajendiran, N.

    2009-10-01

    Effect of solvents and β-cyclodextrin on the absorption and fluorescence spectra of tramadol drug has been investigated and compared with anisole. The solid inclusion complex of tramadol with β-CD is investigated by FT-IR, 1H NMR, scanning electron microscope (SEM), DSC and semiempirical methods. The thermodynamic parameter (Δ G) of inclusion process is determined. A solvent study shows (i) the spectral behaviour of both tramadol and anisole molecules is similar to each other and (ii) the cyclohexanol group in tramadol is not effectively conjugated with anisole group. However, in β-CD, due to space restriction of the CD cavity, a weak interaction is present between the above groups in tramadol. β-Cyclodextrin studies show that tramadol forms 1:2 inclusion complex with β-CD. A mechanism is proposed for the inclusion process.

  9. Tratamento das formas severas de miastenia pelo ACTH por via intravenosa

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    José Lamartine de Assis

    1960-12-01

    Full Text Available O autor inicia o trabalho referindo as bases bioquímicas, fisiopatológicas e anátomo-patológicas do tratamento da miastenia pelo ACTH. Na miastenia grave há diminuição da síntese da acetilcolina no organismo, atuando o ACTH no sentido de aumentar esta síntese seja diretamente, por ativação da colinacetilase, seja indiretamente, mediante a redução da massa dos tecidos linfóides, em particular do timo, responsáveis pela elaboração de substâncias que diminuem a síntese da acetilcolina. O autor empregou o ACTH "Armour" e a Cortrofina "Organon", nas doses de 2,5 a 25 mg, sempre pela via intravenosa, diluídos em 250 a 1.000 ml de soluto glicosado a 5%, administrado gota a gôta, na velocidade média de 20 gôtas por minuto, durante 8 horas. Como medicação associada foi administrada a Prostigmina a todos os pacientes, substituída, depois, em alguns casos, pelo Mestinon ou pela Mytelaze. Como adjuvantes foram empregados o cloreto de potássio (2 a 8 g por dia e o sulfato de efedrina (25 mg 3 vêzes ao dia. Os pacientes foram mantidos em regime hiperprotéico e acloretado, sendo tomados todos os cuidados inerentes ao uso do ACTH. Foram estudados 10 pacientes portadores de miastenia com sintomatologia acentuada (8 casos e média (2 casos. Todos os doentes vinham sendo tratados com drogas anticolinesterásicas em doses adequadas (Prostigmina, Mestinon, Mytelaze e a sua sintomatologia respondia cada vez menos a esta terapêutica. Em alguns casos haviam sido tentados outros tratamentos (timectomia, denervação do seio carotídeo, irradiação da região tímica sem resultado. É de notar que as remissões espontâneas neste grupo de enfermos foram excepcionais e de curta duração. A evolução foi acompanhada do ponto de vista clínico, com a sintomatologia classificada como muito acentuada, acentuada, média e leve. Em todos os casos houve remissão completa ou quase completa da sintomatologia após dosagens variáveis de ACTH; no

  10. Effects of tramadol and acepromazine on intraocular pressure and pupil diameter in young healthy cats

    OpenAIRE

    Schroder, Deise Cristine; Monteiro, Bianca Garay; Pytlak, Deborah Braga; Souza, Mayara Carvalho de; Mendonça, Adriane Jorge; Ribeiro, Alexandre Pinto

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to investigate the effects of the systemic administration of acepromazine, tramadol and the association of both on intraocular pressure (IOP) and pupil diameter (PD) in young healthy cats. Cats were randomly allocated into three groups (n=10/each) and intramuscular acepromazine (AG), tramadol (TG) or acepromazine combined with tramadol (ATG) were injected. PD (electronic caliper) and IOP (applanation tonometry) were assessed before (baseline) and following 15, 30, 6...

  11. A comparative study on the efficacy of dexmedetomidine and tramadol on post-spinal anesthesia shivering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundra, Tanveer Singh; Kuthiala, Gaurav; Shrivastava, Anupam; Kaur, Parminder

    2017-01-01

    Shivering is a common postanesthesia adverse event with multiple etiologies. At present tramadol is a widely used drug for the control of shivering. However, tramadol may cause a lot of nausea and vomiting. Hence, the need to find a better drug with less of side effects. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of dexmedetomidine and tramadol in the treatment of post-spinal anesthesia (SA) shivering as well as to compare their side-effect profile. This prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial was conducted in a tertiary care hospital. A total of 100 patients having shivering after SA were enrolled, out of which fifty received dexmedetomidine (Group A) and 50 received tramadol (Group B). The response rate, time to cessation of shivering and side effects (if any) was noted. All the results were analyzed using Student's t -test and Chi-square test. All patients who received dexmedetomidine as well as tramadol had cessation of shivering. The time to cessation of shivering was significantly less with dexmedetomidine (174.12 ± 14.366 s) than with tramadol (277.06 ± 23.374 s) ( P shivering with dexmedetomidine was less (6%) as compared to tramadol (16%). Nausea and vomiting was found to be higher in the case of tramadol. On the other hand, dexmedetomidine caused moderate sedation (modified Ramsay sedation score = 3-4) from which the patient could be easily awoken up. Dexmedetomidine offers better results than tramadol with fewer side effects.

  12. Does Tramadol Increase the Severity of Nicotine Dependence? A Study in an Egyptian Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaby, Amr Said; El-Hady Sweilum, Ola Abd; Ads, Mahmoud Khalid

    2015-01-01

    In Egypt, tramadol abuse is increasing, especially among youths and the middle- aged. Tobacco smoking is a worldwide health problem responsible for more deaths and disease than any other noninfectious cause. To investigate if there is a relationship between tramadol and nicotine dependence. 48 tramadol addicts completed a demographic sheet, drug use questionnaire, and the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND). Numbers of cigarettes smoked were recorded every week or two weeks at follow-up or by phone calls, and the FTND was completed again five weeks after abstinence. All participants underwent full psychiatric assessment, plus a urine toxicology screening at first visit, and once again during follow-ups. All subjects of the study were cigarette smokers. The mean numbers of cigarettes smoked per day were 13, 31.8, 20.2, and 14.3 during the phase before tramadol taking, addiction phase, two weeks and five weeks after stopping tramadol. The mean FTND score dropped from 6.67 during the tramadol addiction phase to 4.31 only five weeks after stopping tramadol. Tramadol increases the severity of nicotine dependence. The relation seems to be bi-directional, so increased cigarette smoking also increases tramadol intake.

  13. O eletrencefalograma nas hemorragias uterinas disfuncionais: ação dos estrogênios por via intravenosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. De Guarnieri Netto

    1961-01-01

    Full Text Available Em 10 pacientes do sexo feminino, portadoras de hemorragia uterina disfuncional, foi investigada a existência de manifestações epilépticas (clínicas e eletrencefalográficas : dos 10 casos, 7 apresentavam antecedentes e/ou sintomas de natureza provável ou certamente epilépticos: o eletrencefalograma foi anormal em 5 casos. Foi estudada a ação do Premarin por via intravenosa, na dose de 20 mg, durante registro eletrencefalográfico. Não houve piora do traçado durante ou após a injeção.

  14. Alterações cardiovasculares de gatos submetidos à toracotomia intercostal, pré-medicados com associação de tramadol, butorfanol e atropina e anestesiados com propofol e halotano Cardiovascular changes in cats submitted to intercostal thoracotomy, premedication with association tramadol, butorphanol, atropine, anesthetised with propofol and halothane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Tabarelli Brondani

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available A toracotomia é um procedimento cirúrgico que produz estímulo doloroso intenso. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito cardiovascular da associação tramadol, butorfanol e atropina na medicação pré-anestésica de gatos anestesiados com propofol e halotano. Doze animais, SRD, machos ou fêmeas, com peso médio de 2,7 ± 0,62kg receberam como medicação pré-anestésica (MPA, a associação de tramadol (2,0mg kg-1, butorfanol (0,4mg kg-1 e atropina (0,044mg kg-1, via intramuscular. Trinta minutos após MPA, a indução foi realizada com propofol (5,0mg kg-1 por via intravenosa. A manutenção anestésica foi obtida com halotano e oxigênio 100% sob ventilação artificial manual. Os gatos foram submetidos à toracotomia intercostal para implante de um segmento autólogo de pericárdio no diafragma. As variáveis avaliadas foram: freqüência cardíaca (bpm, saturação de oxigênio da hemoglobina (%, pressão arterial sistólica (mmHg e vaporização de halotano (%. As variáveis foram mensuradas 20 minutos após a MPA (TMPA, 10 minutos após indução e a cada 10 minutos até o final do procedimento cirúrgico (T10 a T100.Os dados obtidos foram analisados estatisticamente através de ANOVA e teste de Bonferroni (pIntercostal thoracotomy is a very painful procedure that deserves proper prevention and treatment. In this study we aimed to investigate the cardiovascular effect of the association of tramadol, butorphanol and atropine in the premedication of cats anesthetised with propofol and halothane. Twelve cats of mixed breed, female and male, with mean body weight of 2.7 ± 0.62kg were premedicated with 2.0mg kg-1 tramadol and 0.4mg kg-1 butorphanol and 0.044mg kg-1 atropine combined in the same syringe intramuscularly administered. After 30 minutes of premedication, anesthetic induction was obtained with 5.0mg kg-1 propofol intravenously. Anesthetic maintenance was done with halothane and 100% oxygen with manual artificial

  15. Treatment of Neurogenic Cough with Tramadol: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Gregory R; Teng, Stephanie E; Achlatis, Efstratios; Fang, Yixin; Amin, Milan R

    2017-07-01

    This study employs validated cough assessment tools to prospectively determine the impact of tramadol on cough severity and quality of life in subjects with neurogenic cough. The study was a prospective case series with planned data collection at a tertiary care academic medical center laryngology practice. Sixteen consecutive collected subjects with neurogenic cough prospectively completed pre- and posttreatment validated cough assessment tools, the cough severity index (CSI) and Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ). All subjects in the study reported at least some improvement in their cough symptoms. In a Wilcoxon signed rank test that compared paired results, CSI scores improved from 23 to 14 and LCQ scores improved from 74 to 103 ( P = .003 and P = .005, respectively). This small preliminary assessment suggests that tramadol warrants additional evaluation as a treatment for neurogenic cough.

  16. Necrolisis epidérmica tóxica. Terapia en UCI con inmunoglobulinas intravenosas en un caso

    OpenAIRE

    Andresen H,Max; Boghero,Yerko; Molgó,Montserrat; Dougnac L,Alberto; Díaz,Orlando

    2000-01-01

    We report a 27 years old homosexual male with AIDS that was admitted to the ICU dehydrated, with fever and severe malaise. He had irregular bullae, an extensive purpuric exanthema and a zone of epidermic detachment in the right arm. A toxic epidermal necrolysis was diagnosed and therapy with i.v. immunoglobulins was started. After four days of treatment, bullous lesions disappeared and the extension of exanthema decreased. Toxic epidermal necrolysis is a potentially fatal disease and the use ...

  17. Cumplimiento con la quimioterapia intravenosa y algunos factores asociados a éste en pacientes oncológicos adultos

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    Mariana Díaz-Amaya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available According to literature, the noncompliance rates in cancers chemotherapy are high (10 % - 80 %, which makes this treatment ineffective resulting in a raise of the morbidity, of the mortality and of the health care costs. However, in Colombia there are no studies about it. Objective: To establish the prevalence of compliance with intravenous chemotherapy on adult oncology patients that started and finished the treatment between January of 2011 and January of 2012 in the Hemato-Oncology service of a general hospital. Specifically, we sought to characterize the sample and recognize the associated factors of noncompliance. Sample: 107 cancer patients that met the inclusion criteria. Method: Study with a quantitative approach, non-experimental, cross exploratory. The statistical analysis was done with the program SPSS making an analysis of the central tendency measures, the frequency distribution, and contingency tables applying the chi-square (X2 test and Fisher’s test. Results: The prevalence of noncompliance of chemotherapy was 68 % and the prevalence of compliance was 32 %. Disease stage was found to be an associated factor. Conclusion: Noncompliance has a high prevalence in the studied sample, indicating the importance of bigger scale studies to gain nation-wide information on the prevalence of the phenomenon, as well as the associated factors, to generate proposals of appropriate interventions to the Colombian population considering the role of psychologists in the development and implementation of these strategies and interventions because it should not be forgotten that compliance is a behavioral issue.

  18. Effectiveness of tramadol/paracetamol compared with etoricoxib as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choy Y. Choy

    fibroadenoma, with a total of 20 cases (Table 2). The mean duration of the surgical procedures for the etoricoxib group was 85.7 [standard deviation (SD) of 39.5] minutes and 72.7. (SD of 27.2) minutes for the tramadol/paracetamol group. (p-value 0.35). The sum of pain intensity differences for etoricoxib were 0.77.

  19. Usage Addict Du Tramadol Chez Les Soignants En Milieu Tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les pays en voie de développement connaissent une montée croissante de cas d'intoxication médicamenteuse volontaire aux dérivés morphiniques particulièrement au tramadol avec le risque accru de syndrome de sevrage exposant à la dépendance mais il n'existe pas de centre adapté pour ces prises en charges ...

  20. Comparison of dexmedetomidine, pethidine and tramadol in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Table 1: Demographic, anaesthetic and surgical data*. Data. Group. Dexmedetomidine (n = 20). Pethidine (n = 20). Tramadol (n = 20). Age (years). 45.0 ± 14.3. 47.7 ± 15.3. 48.6 ± 13.2. Gender. Male. 9 (45). 5 (20). 5 (25). Female. 11 (55). 16 (80). 15 (75). Race. Malay. 12 (60). 15 (75). 10 (50). Chinese. 6 (30). 4 (20). 8 (40).

  1. Efficacy of tramadol versus fentanyl for postoperative analgesia in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Ana Julia Couto; Sanudo, Adriana; Sampaio, Virginia Maria Ramos; Góis, Rôsicler Pereira; Benevides, Fernando Antônio Barbosa; Guinsburg, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    To assess, in newborn infants submitted to surgical procedures, the efficacy of two opioids-fentanyl and tramadol-regarding time to extubate, time to achieve 100 ml/kg of enteral feeding and pain in the first 72 h after surgery. Controlled, blind, randomised clinical trial. Neonatal intensive care unit. 160 newborn infants up to 28 days of life requiring major or minor surgeries. Patients were randomised to receive analgesia with fentanyl (1-2 μg/kg/h intravenously) or tramadol (0.1-0.2 mg/kg/h intravenously) in the first 72 h of the postoperative period, stratified by surgical size and by patient's gender. Pain assessed by validated neonatal scales (Crying, Requires oxygen, Increased vital signs, Expression and Sleepless Scale and the Neonatal Facial Coding System), time until extubation and time to reach 100 ml/kg enteral feeding. Statistical analysis included repeated measures analysis of variance adjusted for confounding variables and Kaplan-Meier curve adjusted by a Cox model of proportional risks. Neonatal characteristics were (mean±SD) birth weight of 2924±702 g, gestational age of 37.6±2.2 weeks and age at surgery of 199±63 h. The main indication of surgery was gastrointestinal malformation (85 newborns; 53%). Neonates who received fentanyl or tramadol were similar regarding time until extubation, time to reach 100 ml/kg of enteral feeding and pain scores in the first 72 h after surgery. Tramadol was as effective as fentanyl for postoperative pain relief in neonates but does not appear to offer advantages over fentanyl regarding the duration of mechanical ventilation and time to reach full enteral feeding. Trial registration NCT00713726.

  2. Panicolytic-like effect of tramadol is mediated by opioid receptors in the dorsal periaqueductal grey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiaes, Gislaine Cardoso de Souza; Roncon, Camila Marroni; Sestile, Caio Cesar; Maraschin, Jhonatan Christian; Souza, Rodolfo Luis Silva; Porcu, Mauro; Audi, Elisabeth Aparecida

    2017-05-30

    Tramadol is a synthetic opioid prescribed for the treatment of moderate to severe pain, acting as agonist of μ-opioid receptors and serotonin (5-HT) and noradrenaline (NE) reuptake inhibitor. This study evaluated the effects of tramadol in rats submitted to the elevated T-maze (ETM), an animal model that evaluates behavioural parameters such as anxiety and panic. Male Wistar rats were intraperitoneally (i.p.) treated acutely with tramadol (16 and 32mg/kg) and were submitted to the ETM. Tramadol (32mg/kg) promoted a panicolytic-like effect. Considering that dorsal periaqueductal grey (dPAG) is the main brain structure related to the pathophysiology of panic disorder (PD), this study also evaluated the participation of 5-HT and opioid receptors located in the dPAG in the panicolytic-like effect of tramadol. Seven days after stereotaxic surgery for implantation of a cannula in the dPAG, the animals were submitted to the test. To assess the involvement of 5-HT 1A receptors on the effect of tramadol, we combined the 5-HT 1A receptor antagonist, WAY100635 (0.37nmol), microinjected intra-dPAG, 10min prior to the administration of tramadol (32mg/kg, i.p.). WAY100635 did not block the panicolytic-like effect of tramadol. We also associated the non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone, systemically (1mg/kg, i.p.) or intra-dPAG (0.5nmol) administered 10min prior to tramadol (32mg/kg, i.p.). Naloxone blocked the panicolytic-like effect of tramadol in both routes of administrations, showing that tramadol modulates acute panic defensive behaviours through its interaction with opioid receptors located in the dPAG. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of tramadol, clonazepam, and their combination on brain mitochondrial complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Tarek Mostafa; Ghaffar, Hamdy M Abdel; El Husseiny, Rabee M R

    2015-12-01

    The present study is an unsubstantiated qualitative assessment of the abused drugs-tramadol and clonazepam. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether the effects of tramadol, clonazepam, and their combination on mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) complexes were influential at therapeutic or at progressively increasing doses. The study comprised of a total of 70 healthy male rats, aged 3 months. According to the drug intake regimen, animals were divided into seven groups: control, tramadol therapeutic, clonazepam therapeutic, combination therapeutic, tramadol abuse, clonazepam abuse, and combination abuse group. At the end of the experiment, brain mitochondrial ETC complexes (I, II, III, and IV) were evaluated. Histopathological examinations were also performed on brain tissues. The results showed that groups that received tramadol (therapeutic and abuse) suffered from weight loss. Tramadol abuse group and combination abuse group showed significant decrease in the activities of I, III, and IV complexes but not in the activity of complex II. In conclusion, tramadol but not clonazepam has been found to partially inhibit the activities of respiratory chain complexes I, III, and IV but not the activity of complex II and such inhibition occurred only at doses that exceeded the maximum recommended adult human daily therapeutic doses. This result explains the clinical and histopathological effects of tramadol, such as seizures and red neurons (marker for apoptosis), respectively. © The Author(s) 2012.

  4. Tramadol Overdose Induced Transient Paresthesia and Decreased Muscle Strength: A Case Series

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    Khosrow Ghasempouri

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Transient paresthesia and transient symmetrical decline in muscle strength of upper and lower limbs are potential neurologic complications following tramadol abuse and overdose. Further studies are needed to fully clarify the pathogenesis and mechanism of these complications following tramadol overdose.

  5. Effect of paracetamol injection on the analgesic effect of tramadol in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five dogs each were randomly treated with 30mg/kg paracetamol (treatment KXDTA) intravenously or equal volume of normal saline (treatment KXDTS) to evaluate if paracetamol potentiate the analgesic effects of tramadol during the intra-operative period. Thirty minutes later, both groups were treated with 3mg/kg tramadol ...

  6. Effect of single oral dose of tramadol on gastric secretions pH

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    Khan Mueen Ullah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tramadol is an atypical analgesic agent. It has been shown that intramuscular or intravenous injection tramadol is able to inhibit M3 muscarinic receptors. Tramadol is able to mediate smooth muscles contraction and glandular secretions. We have evaluated the effects of single oral dose of tramadol given preoperatively on gastric juices pH in patients electively scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Materials and Methods: Sixty adult, American Society of Anesthesiologist I and II patients scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were included in the study. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either placebo (n = 30 or oral tramadol 50 mg (n = 30. General anesthesia was induced using propofol, fentanyl and cisatracurium. After induction of anesthesia 5 ml of gastric fluid was aspirated through orogastric tube. The gastric fluid pH was measured using pH meter. Result: There was no significant difference in the pH between the groups. Gastric pH of the placebo and tramadol groups was 1.97 versus 1.98 (P = 0.092 respectively. Conclusion: Preoperatively single oral dose of tramadol was unable to elevate the desired level of gastric acid secretions pH (>2.5. This may be due to pharmacokinetic disparity between the analgesic and pH elevating properties of tramadol.

  7. 78 FR 65923 - Schedules of Controlled Substances: Placement of Tramadol Into Schedule IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... opioid withdrawal syndrome displayed by patients with mild to moderate addiction to heroin. Another study... opioid- dependent adults. A modest suppression of opioid withdrawal produced by tramadol was also...\\ See infra footnote 2. Background Tramadol is an opioid analgesic that produces its primary opioid...

  8. [The effects of preemptive dexketoprofen use on postoperative pain relief and tramadol consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Inci; Tuncer, Sema; Erol, Atilla; Reisli, Ruhiye

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the efficacy of preemptive dexketoprofen usage on postoperative pain relief and tramadol consumption was evaluated. Fifty American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA)-I or ASA-II patients undergoing plastic surgery were randomized into two groups. Group 1 received dexketoprofen 25 mg and Group 2 received placebo tablets 1 hour (h) before surgery. All patients received a standard anesthetic protocol. At the end of the surgery, all patients received intravenous tramadol with Patient Controlled Analgesia (PCA) device. Pain scores was evaluated with visual analog scale during the postoperative 1st, 8th and 24th h. Tramadol consumption, adverse effects and patient satisfaction were recorded. The pain scores and tramadol consumption were significantly lower in Group 1 (pdexketoprofen reduced postoperative tramadol consumption and incidence of adverse events.

  9. ANALGESIC EFFICACY OF TRAMADOL IN PEDIATRIC TONSILLECTOMY WITH ADENOIDECTOMY

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    Janez Benedik

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tonsillectomy is one of the most commonly performed surgical prcedures in childhood. Acute pain after tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy can be treated with non-opioid and opioid analgesics. Our hypothesis stated that tramadol iv after induction of anaesthesia has superior analgesic effect compared to acetaminophen.Methods:  In a prospective, randomised study we compared analgesic efficacy of tramadol (group T: 2 mg/kgBW iv and acetaminophen (group A: elixir 15 mg/kgBW before op. procedure in a group of 108 children (age 3-7 years. Exclusion critheria: allergy, liver or kidney failure, epilepsy, febrile convulsions. A standard anaesthetic technique was used: propofol, alfentanil, vecuronium, positive pressure ventilation with 60% nitrous oxide in oxygen. After the procedure each child received acetaminophen suppositories (10 mg/kgBW/4-6h and combined suppositories. Monitoring: vital signs during and after op. procedure, pain intensity on the ward (facial pain score.    Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups in age distribution (mean age 5,2 years, ASA physical status, body weight, operative procedure, pain scores (VAS 6h after operative procedure; group T: 4,21±1,45; group A: 4,06±1,33, oxygen saturation, pulse frequency and the consumption of acetaminophen suppositories. Significant difference was in the consumption of combined suppositories (group T: 1,85±0,79; group A: 1,43±0,69, p=0,003.   Conclusion: Our study has shown, that tramadol is not a superior analgesic for the relief of posttonsillectomy pain in children compared to acetaminophen. 

  10. Analgesic efficacy of tramadol in cats with naturally occurring osteoarthritis.

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    Beatriz P Monteiro

    Full Text Available This study aimed to (1 compare outcome assessments in normal and osteoarthritic cats and (2 evaluate the analgesic efficacy of tramadol in feline osteoarthritis (OA, in a prospective, randomised, blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover design.Twenty cats were included after clinical examination, blood work and full body radiographs were performed. In Phase 1, outcome assessments aimed to differentiate normal (n = 5; i.e. exempt of any radiographic and clinical sign of OA from OA (n = 15 cats. In Phase 2, OA cats were treated twice daily with a placebo (PG: cornstarch 15 mg or tramadol (TG: 3 mg/kg orally for 19 days, with a 3-month washout period between treatments. Evaluations were performed in normal and OA cats at baseline and consisted of: 1 peak vertical force (PVF after staircase exercise; 2 telemetered night-time motor activity (NMA; and 3 response to mechanical temporal summation (RMTS. After treatment, PVF, NMA and RMTS evaluations were repeated in OA cats. Data were analysed with mixed model methods with an alpha-threshold of 5%.Phase 1: 1 PVF (% of body weight; mean ± SD was higher in normal (59 ± 10.5 than in OA cats (50.6 ± 5.7 (p = 0.005; 2 NMA (no unit was not different between groups; 3 RMTS (number of stimuli; median (range was higher in normal [29.5 (23.5-30] than in OA cats [14 (8.5-28] (p < 0.0001. Phase 2: PVF, NMA and RMTS presented a treatment effect (p = 0.024, p = 0.008 and p = 0.018, respectively. No clinically important adverse-effects were observed.Outcome assessments such as kinetics (PVF and evaluation of central sensitisation (RMTS are discriminant of OA status. Mobility measured by NMA was not discriminant of OA status, however it increased in OA cats with tramadol treatment. Nociceptive hypersensitivity quantified by RMTS was evident in OA cats and was responsive to tramadol treatment.

  11. The effect of opioid antagonists on synergism between dexketoprofen and tramadol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegpi, C; Gonzalez, C; Pinardi, G; Miranda, H F

    2009-10-01

    The antinociceptive activity of dexketoprofen was studied in mice using the formalin assay for orofacial pain. The interaction between dexketoprofen and co-administered tramadol was studied using isobolographic analysis. The intraperitoneal administration of dexketoprofen or tramadol, showed dose-dependent antinociceptive activity in both phases of the assay. When administered together, the interaction was mildly synergistic during the first phase, and antagonistic in the second phase. Selective opioid receptor antagonists where used in order to measure the analgesic activity of tramadol in other regions of the CNS. The co-administration of dexketoprofen and tramadol, with previous administration of naltrexone, showed high synergistic activity during the first phase, and less but still synergistic during the second. When using naltrindole, the interaction was mildly more synergistic than the mixture dexketoprofen+tramadol during both phases. Using norbinaltorphimine, the interaction was synergistic in both phases, more marked in the second. These results suggest that the opioid activity of tramadol has an inhibiting effect in antinociceptive activity of the interaction between dexketoprofen and tramadol during the inflammatory (late) stages of pain.

  12. Antinociceptive effects of tramadol hydrochloride after intravenous administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geelen, Saskia; Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; Souza, Marcy J; Cox, Sherry; Keuler, Nicholas S; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R

    2013-02-01

    To determine the antinociceptive and sedative effects of tramadol in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) following IV administration. 11 healthy Hispaniolan Amazon parrots of unknown sex. Tramadol hydrochloride (5 mg/kg, IV) and an equivalent volume (≤ 0.34 mL) of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution were administered to parrots in a complete crossover study design. Foot withdrawal response to a thermal stimulus was determined 30 to 60 minutes before (baseline) and 15, 30, 60, 120, and 240 minutes after treatment administration; agitation-sedation scores were determined for parrots at each of those times. The estimated mean changes in temperature from the baseline value that elicited a foot withdrawal response were 1.65° and -1.08°C after administration of tramadol and saline solution, respectively. Temperatures at which a foot withdrawal response was elicited were significantly higher than baseline values at all 5 evaluation times after administration of tramadol and were significantly lower than baseline values at 30, 120, and 240 minutes after administration of saline solution. No sedation, agitation, or other adverse effects were observed in any of the parrots after administration of tramadol. Tramadol hydrochloride (5 mg/kg, IV) significantly increased the thermal nociception threshold for Hispaniolan Amazon parrots in the present study. Sedation and adverse effects were not observed. These results are consistent with results of other studies in which the antinociceptive effects of tramadol after oral administration to parrots were determined.

  13. Tramadol differentially regulates M1 and M2 macrophages from human umbilical cord blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Chen, Liang; Sun, Yunyun; Li, Yuanhai

    2017-03-17

    Tramadol is an analgesic drug and relieves pain through activating μ-opioid receptors and inhibiting serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake. Emerging evidence shows that it also stimulates immune cells, including NK cells, splenocytes, and lymphocytes, and elevates IL-2 production. However, it remains unknown whether and how tramadol directly affects macrophages. To answer these questions, we collected human umbilical cord blood, isolated macrophages, and examined their responses to tramadol. Although tramadol did not alter resting macrophages and the antigen-presenting function in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages, it regulated M1 and M2 macrophages, which are, respectively, transformed by IFN-γ and IL-4. Interestingly, tramadol inhibits production and secretion of cytokines in M1 macrophages, but facilitates the production of inflammation-responding molecules, synthesized in M2 macrophages. We also found that STAT6 cascade pathway in M2 macrophages was significantly enhanced by tramadol. Therefore, this study reveals that tramadol regulates inflammation by inhibiting M1 macrophages (killing process), but promoting the function of M2 macrophages (healing process).

  14. Pharmacokinetics of intravenous and oral tramadol in the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Marcy J; Martin-Jimenez, Tomas; Jones, Michael P; Cox, Sherry K

    2009-12-01

    Analgesia is becoming increasingly important in veterinary medicine, and little research has been performed that examined pain control in avian species. Tramadol is a relatively new drug that provides analgesia by opioid (mu), serotonin, and norepinephrine pathways, with minimal adverse effects. To determine the pharmacokinetics of tramadol and its major metabolite O-desmethyltramadol (M1) in eagles, 6 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) were each dosed with tramadol administered intravenously (4 mg/kg) and orally (11 mg/kg) in a crossover study. Blood was collected at various time points between 0 and 600 minutes and then analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography to determine levels of tramadol and M1, the predominate active metabolite. The terminal half-life of tramadol after intravenous dosing was 2.46 hours. The maximum plasma concentration, time of maximum plasma concentration, and terminal half life for tramadol after oral dosing were 2156.7 ng/ml, 3.75 hours, and 3.14 hours, respec vely. In addition, the oral bioavailability was 97.9%. Although plasma concentrations of ramadol and M1 associated with analgesia in any avian species is unknown, based on the obtained data and known therapeutic levels in humans, a dosage of 5 mg/kg PO q12h is recommended for bald eagles. Pharmacodynamic studies are needed to better determine plasma levels of tramadol and M1 associated with analgesia in birds.

  15. Pharmacokinetics of tramadol hydrochloride and its metabolite O-desmethyltramadol in peafowl (Pavo cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Peter A; Cox, Sherry K; Macek, Michael; Tieber, Anne; Junge, Randall E

    2010-12-01

    Tramadol is a centrally acting opiate analgesic that has not been well studied in avian species. Tramadol and its metabolites exert their effects at multiple sites, including opiate (mu, kappa, and delta), adrenergic (alpha-2), and serotonin (5HT) receptors. This multi-receptor mode of action is advantageous for avian patients because the mechanisms for analgesia have not been fully elucidated in all species. The objective of this study was to document the pharmacokinetics of tramadol and its active metabolite O-desmethyltramadol (M1) in common peafowl (Pavo cristatus). Based on results from a pilot animal, six adult peafowl (three male, three female) judged to be clinically healthy based on physical exam and routine bloodwork were selected for this study. Each bird was anesthetized for placement of a jugular catheter, and 7.5 mg/kg tramadol was administered orally via gavage tube. Blood samples were collected just prior to drug administration; at 30 min; and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24, and 34 hr. Plasma levels of tramadol and M1 were measured and the pharmacokinetics for each drug was calculated. Although tramadol was quickly metabolized, plasma levels of M1 remained at or near human analgesic levels for 12-24 hr. Based on these data, tramadol may be a practical option as an orally administered analgesic agent in avian patients. Further studies, including antinociceptive studies, are needed.

  16. Percutaneous sciatic nerve block with tramadol induces analgesia and motor blockade in two animal pain models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Sousa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Local anesthetic efficacy of tramadol has been reported following intradermal application. Our aim was to investigate the effect of perineural tramadol as the sole analgesic in two pain models. Male Wistar rats (280-380 g; N = 5/group were used in these experiments. A neurostimulation-guided sciatic nerve block was performed and 2% lidocaine or tramadol (1.25 and 5 mg was perineurally injected in two different animal pain models. In the flinching behavior test, the number of flinches was evaluated and in the plantar incision model, mechanical and heat thresholds were measured. Motor effects of lidocaine and tramadol were quantified and a motor block score elaborated. Tramadol, 1.25 mg, completely blocked the first and reduced the second phase of the flinching behavior test. In the plantar incision model, tramadol (1.25 mg increased both paw withdrawal latency in response to radiant heat (8.3 ± 1.1, 12.7 ± 1.8, 8.4 ± 0.8, and 11.1 ± 3.3 s and mechanical threshold in response to von Frey filaments (459 ± 82.8, 447.5 ± 91.7, 320.1 ± 120, 126.43 ± 92.8 mN at 5, 15, 30, and 60 min, respectively. Sham block or contralateral sciatic nerve block did not differ from perineural saline injection throughout the study in either model. The effect of tramadol was not antagonized by intraperitoneal naloxone. High dose tramadol (5 mg blocked motor function as well as 2% lidocaine. In conclusion, tramadol blocks nociception and motor function in vivo similar to local anesthetics.

  17. Serotonin syndrome: is it a reason to avoid the use of tramadol with antidepressants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Susie H; Wackernah, Robin C; Stimmel, Glen L

    2014-02-01

    There is a warning associated with all serotonergic antidepressants and its concomitant use with tramadol due to the concern for a drug-drug interaction resulting in serotonin syndrome (SS). The prescribing of antidepressants with tramadol may be unnecessarily restricted due to fear of causing this syndrome. There are 3 objectives of this review. To (1) review case reports of SS associated with the combination of tramadol and antidepressant drugs in recommended doses, (2) describe the mechanisms of the drug interaction, and (3) identify the potential risk factors for SS. Case reports of SS associated with tramadol and antidepressants were identified via Cochrane Library, PubMed, and Ovid (through October 2012) using search terms SS, tramadol, antidepressants, fluoxetine, sertraline, paroxetine, fluvoxamine, citalopram, escitalopram, venlafaxine, desvenlafaxine, duloxetine, mirtazapine, milnacipran, trazodone, vilazodone, and bupropion. Cases involving monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) and tricyclic antidepressants were excluded. Nine articles were identified describing 10 cases of suspected SS associated with therapeutic doses of tramadol combined with an antidepressant. Mechanisms of the drug-drug interactions involve pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetic, and possible pharmacogenetic factors. Review of the available case reports of tramadol combined with antidepressant drugs in therapeutic doses indicates caution in regard to the potential for SS but does not constitute a contraindication to their use. Tramadol is only contraindicated in combination with MAOIs but not other antidepressants in common use today. These case reports do suggest several factors associated with a greater risk of SS, including increased age, higher dosages, and use of concomitant potent cytochrome P450 2D6 inhibitors. Tramadol can be safely combined with antidepressants; however, monitoring and counseling patients are prudent when starting a new serotonergic agent or when doses are

  18. Tramadol Abuse Status and Related Factors among Three College Students in Hamadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fathi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Abuse of prescription drugs is on the rise in Iran and tramadol is not an exception. Tramadol abuse can lead to a wide range of illegal and risky behaviors; therefore, the need to understand the tramadol abuse status among students is necessary. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and related factors of tramadol abuse among college students in Hamadan.Materials & Methods: This cross sectional descriptive study was carried out on 400 college students of Hamadan recruited with a stratified sampling method. The participants completed a self-administered questionnaire. Data analysis was done with the SPSS software (version 16, using χ2 test and logistic regression methods.Results: The result showed that lifetime, past-year and past-month prevalence of tramadol use were 12.5, 11 and 9.5%, respectively. Also, significant relationship between tramadol abuse and demographic variables such as gender, educational status and dwelling of students were showed (P<0.05. Cigarette smoking and illicit drug abuse were other factors associated with tramadol abuse among students (P<0.05. In logistic regression, factors influencing tramadol use were smoking and use of other drugs (P< 0.05.Conclusion: The study concluded that there is a worrying increase in tramadol abuse among students. The results of this study as an introduction to designing effective strategies to prevention of drug abuse, particularly in the colleges play a very effective role.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012;19(3:23-29

  19. Percutaneous sciatic nerve block with tramadol induces analgesia and motor blockade in two animal pain models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, A.M.; Ashmawi, H.A.; Costa, L.S.; Posso, I.P. [LIM-08 - Anestesiologia Experimental, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Slullitel, A. [Departamento de Anestesiologia, Hospital Santa Paula, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-12-23

    Local anesthetic efficacy of tramadol has been reported following intradermal application. Our aim was to investigate the effect of perineural tramadol as the sole analgesic in two pain models. Male Wistar rats (280-380 g; N = 5/group) were used in these experiments. A neurostimulation-guided sciatic nerve block was performed and 2% lidocaine or tramadol (1.25 and 5 mg) was perineurally injected in two different animal pain models. In the flinching behavior test, the number of flinches was evaluated and in the plantar incision model, mechanical and heat thresholds were measured. Motor effects of lidocaine and tramadol were quantified and a motor block score elaborated. Tramadol, 1.25 mg, completely blocked the first and reduced the second phase of the flinching behavior test. In the plantar incision model, tramadol (1.25 mg) increased both paw withdrawal latency in response to radiant heat (8.3 ± 1.1, 12.7 ± 1.8, 8.4 ± 0.8, and 11.1 ± 3.3 s) and mechanical threshold in response to von Frey filaments (459 ± 82.8, 447.5 ± 91.7, 320.1 ± 120, 126.43 ± 92.8 mN) at 5, 15, 30, and 60 min, respectively. Sham block or contralateral sciatic nerve block did not differ from perineural saline injection throughout the study in either model. The effect of tramadol was not antagonized by intraperitoneal naloxone. High dose tramadol (5 mg) blocked motor function as well as 2% lidocaine. In conclusion, tramadol blocks nociception and motor function in vivo similar to local anesthetics.

  20. Effect of intravenous administration of tramadol hydrochloride on the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Christine M; Souza, Marcy J; Greenacre, Cheryl B; Cox, Sherry K; Rohrbach, Barton W

    2009-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of IV administration of tramadol hydrochloride on the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane (ISOMAC) that prevented purposeful movement of rabbits in response to a noxious stimulus. Six 6- to 12-month-old female New Zealand White rabbits. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. A baseline ISOMAC was determined by clamping a pedal digit with sponge forceps until gross purposeful movement was detected or a period of 60 seconds elapsed. Subsequently, tramadol (4.4 mg/kg) was administered IV and the posttreatment ISOMAC (ISOMAC(T)) was measured. Mean +/- SD ISOMAC and ISOMAC(T) values were 2.33 +/- 0.13% and 2.12 +/- 0.17%, respectively. The ISOMAC value decreased by 9 +/- 4% after tramadol was administered. Plasma tramadol and its major metabolite (M1) concentrations at the time of ISOMAC(T) determination varied widely (ranges, 181 to 636 ng/mL and 32 to 61 ng/mL, respectively). Intervals to determination of ISOMAC(T) and plasma tramadol and M1 concentrations were not correlated with percentage change in the ISOMAC. Heart rate decreased significantly immediately after tramadol administration but by 10 minutes afterward was not different from the pretreatment value. Systolic arterial blood pressure decreased to approximately 60 mm Hg for approximately 5 minutes in 3 rabbits after tramadol administration. No adverse effects were detected. As administered, tramadol had a significant but clinically unimportant effect on the ISOMAC in rabbits. Higher doses of tramadol may provide clinically important reductions but may result in a greater degree of cardiovascular depression.

  1. Comparative analgesic and sedative effects of tramadol, tramadol-lidocaine and lidocaine for caudal epidural analgesia in donkeys (Equus asinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzok, Mohamed A; El-khodery, Sabry A

    2015-03-01

    To compare anti-nociceptive and sedative effects of tramadol, a combination of tramadol-lidocaine, and lidocaine alone for perineal analgesia in donkeys. Experimental 'blinded' randomized cross-over study. Six healthy adult donkeys. Treatments were tramadol (TR) (1.0 mg kg(-1) ), tramadol-lidocaine (TRLD) (0.5 and 0.2 mg kg(-1) respectively) and lidocaine (LD) (0.4 mg kg(-1) ) given into the epidural space. The volume of all treatments was 0.02 mL kg(-1) . Nociception was tested at the perineal region by pin prick, followed, if no reaction, by pressure from a haemostat clamp. Times to onset, degree and duration of anti-nociception of the perineal region were recorded. Response was tested immediately after drug administration and at: 2, 5, 10, 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes post-administration and then at 30 minute intervals thereafter until a response re-occurred. Physiologic data and degree of sedation and ataxia were recorded pre-administration and at intervals for 240 minutes post-administration. Results were analyzed using anova, Kruskal-Wallis tests, and Wilks' Lambda test as relevant. Significance was taken as p < 0.05. Times (minutes, mean ± SD) to onset and duration of anti-nociception, respectively were; TR 13 ± 1.6 and 220 ± 4.6; TRLD 6 ± 0.8 and 180 ± 8.5; LD 4 ± 1.4 and 75 ± 4. Onset and duration times were significantly longer with TR than the other two treatments. TR never produced complete anti-nociception, whereas the TRLD and LD induced complete anti-nociceptive effects. Duration was significantly longer with TRLD than with LD alone. Epidural injections of TR and TRLD induced mild sedation. Epidural combination of TRLD produced an anti-nociceptive effect in the perineum, which was rapid in onset and had a longer duration of action than LD alone. An epidural single dose of TRLD combination would appear to provide an acceptable analgesic effect in the perineal region of donkeys. © 2014 Association of Veterinary

  2. Serum cortisol and blood glucose in bitches treated with tramadol and submitted to ovariohysterectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Caldeira, Fátima Maria Caetano; Oliveira, Humberto Pereira; Melo, Eliane Gonçalves; Martins, Claudia; Vieira, Marilisa Souza; Silva, Cristiano Nicomedes da

    2006-01-01

    O tramadol é um analgésico opióide usado em medicina veterinária, embora existam poucos estudos sobre este fármaco. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito analgésico promovido pela administração do tramadol, mensurando o cortisol sérico e a glicemia de cadelas. Para isso, foram utilizadas 15 fêmeas, submetidas a ovário-histerectomia sob anestesia geral com isofluorano. Os animais foram divididos em três grupos. Grupo 1 (Tep) receberam tramadol pela via epidural (1,0mg kg-1 diluído em ...

  3. Perforated peptic ulcer and short-term mortality among tramadol users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, Marie Louise; Riis, Anders; Christensen, Steffen

    2007-01-01

    AIM: Use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) increases risk and worsens prognosis for patients with complicated peptic ulcer disease. Therefore, patients who are at high risk of peptic ulcer often use tramadol instead of NSAIDs. Tramadol's effect on peptic ulcer prognosis is unknown....... The aim was to examine mortality in the 30 days following hospitalization for perforated peptic ulcer among tramadol and NSAID users compared with non-users. METHODS: The study was based on data on reimbursed prescriptions and hospital discharge diagnoses for the 1993-2004 period, extracted from...... population-based healthcare databases. All patients with a first-time diagnosis of perforated peptic ulcer were identified, excluding those with previous ulcer diagnoses or antiulcer drug use. Cox regression was used to estimate 30-day mortality rate ratios for tramadol and NSAID users compared with non...

  4. Magnetized solutions altered the absorbance of tramadol hcl: uv-spectrophotometer study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nimer, Marwan S M; Neda, Fezaa Sh; Lateef, Zainab W Abdul

    2010-03-01

    Magnetized water showed alterations in the electrolyte potential and vibration modes. This study aimed to investigate the effect of magnetic water and physiological solutions on the UV-spectra of tramadol HCl. Distilled water as well as full strength or diluted physiological solutions are magnetized by magnetic disc. Then tramadol HCl was dissolved in each magnetic and in non-magnetic solution to obtain the following final concentrations: 0, 25, 50, 100, and 200μg/mL. The pH of each solution and the absorbance (O.D.) was recorded at wavelength 271 nm. Magnetized water or physiological solutions showed alterations in pH as well as in the absorbance (O.D.) of tramadol HCl detected by ultraviolet spectra at λ271 nm. It concludes that magnetized physiological solutions adversely altered the stability of tramadol HCl.

  5. Comparison of Tramadol and Pethidine for Postanesthetic Shivering in Elective Cataract Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    H Zahedi

    2004-01-01

    Background: Postoperative shivering is a common event of unknown etiology with an incidence of 5-65%. This study intended to compare the efficacy of tramadol with that of pethidine in controlling postanesthetic shivering. Methods: This double-blind clinical trial was performed on 300 consecutive patients underwent general anesthesia for elective cataract surgery. Intravenous tramadol 1 mg/kg or pethidine 0.5 mg/kg was administered for alternate subjects who developed postanesthetic shivering....

  6. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EFFICACY AND TOLERABILITY OF TRAMADOL AND ACECLOFENAC IN TREATMENT OF OSTEOARTHRITIS

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    Ganga

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is a leading cause of musculoskeletal disability in elderly patients. It is a slow evolving disorder causing degeneration of articular cartilage associated with symptoms of joint tenderness, stiffness and limitation of movement. These symptoms get more worsened with weight bearing and movement. Non-steroidal anti- inflammatory (NSAIDS drugs and often Opioid analgesics offers a symptomatic relief in the management of osteoarthritis. So, the present study is conducted to compare the efficacy and tolerability of Tramadol and Aceclofenac in patients of osteoarthritis. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study is a randomized, single centered, prospective clinical study and was conducted on 140 patients. INCLUSION CRITERIA Patients of sex, aged 40-60 years, suffering with symptoms of OA of knee who are radiologically diagnosed. EXCLUSION CRITERIA  Patients 60 years of age.  Patients with a history of peptic ulcers and hypersensitivity to NSAIDs/Opioids.  Patients with history of bleeding tendencies, cirrhosis and oesophageal varices.  Patients who have previously received Tramadol or Aceclofenac for treatment of osteoarthritis. After initial clinical assessment and baseline investigations, Aceclofenac tablet was given to 70 patients and Tramadol tablet was given orally to another 70 patients for 8 weeks. At the follow up, the results were analysed and compared statistically by paired t- test, unpaired t-test, Fischer’s exact test. RESULTS Aceclofenac has shown significant change than Tramadol in efficacy parameters like Western Ontario Mac Master (WOMAC scores (p<0.0001, joint tenderness (p<0.0001, investigator assessment for disease status (p=0.01 and response to therapy (p=0.038. Incidence of adverse effects is significant with Tramadol (p=0.02. DISCUSSION Aceclofenac was found superior than Tramadol in improving the patient’s clinical condition. Aceclofenac was found to be well tolerated than Tramadol in terms of

  7. Does the Addition of Tramadol and Ketamine to Ropivacaine Prolong the Axillary Brachial Plexus Block?

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    Ahmet Can Senel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. A prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trial to assess the effect of tramadol and ketamine, 50 mg, added to ropivacaine in brachial plexus anesthesia. Methods. Thirty-six ASA physical statuses I and II patients, between 18 and 60 years of age, scheduled for forearm and hand surgery under axillary brachial plexus block, were allocated to 3 groups. Group R received 0.375% ropivacaine in 40 mL, group RT received 0.375% ropivacaine in 40 mL with 50 mg tramadol, and group RK received 0.375% ropivacaine in 40 mL with 50 mg ketamine for axillary brachial plexus block. The onset times and the duration of sensory and motor blocks, duration of analgesia, hemodynamic parameters, and adverse events (nausea, vomiting, and feeling uncomfortable were recorded. Results. The onset time of sensorial block was the fastest in ropivacaine + tramadol group. Duration of sensorial and motor block was the shortest in the ropivacaine + tramadol group. Duration of analgesia was significantly longer in ropivacaine + tramadol group. Conclusion. We conclude that when added to brachial plexus analgesia at a dose of 50 mg, tramadol extends the onset and duration time of the block and improves the quality of postoperative analgesia without any side effects.

  8. Clonidine versus tramadol for post spinal shivering during caesarean section: A randomized double blind clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velayudha S Reddy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Control of post spinal shivering is essential for optimal perioperative care, which can be achieved either by oral or parental medications. The present study is designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravenous low-dose clonidine and tramadol in the treatment of post spinal shivering. Materials and Methods : In this prospective, a double blind, randomized study, 90 ASA grade I or II, parturients aged 18 - 35 years, undergoing caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia, who subsequently developed shivering grade 3 or 4, were randomized into two groups, to receive either clonidine or tramadol. The efficacy and response rate of the study drugs were evaluated and recorded. Side effects like, nausea, vomiting, hypotension, bradycardia, dry mouth, sedation, skin rash and headache, if present, were recorded. All data were analyzed by using the Chi square test and the Z-test. Results : There were significant differences in the response rate between the drugs (P < 0.05. Time taken from the starting of treatment to cessation of shivering was significantly less with the tramadol group (P < 0.05, however, the frequency of nausea, vomiting, sedation and headache were also significantly more in the tramadol group Conclusion : In our study we concluded that both clonidine and tramadol control shivering. However, the response rate was higher and time taken to control shivering was lesser with tramadol, but the response rate and the side effects were lesser with clonidine.

  9. Pharmacokinetics after oral and intravenous administration of a single dose of tramadol hydrochloride to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Marcy J; Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R; Cox, Sherry K

    2012-08-01

    To determine pharmacokinetics after IV and oral administration of a single dose of tramadol hydrochloride to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 9 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (3 males, 5 females, and 1 of unknown sex). Tramadol (5 mg/kg, IV) was administered to the parrots. Blood samples were collected from -5 to 720 minutes after administration. After a 3-week washout period, tramadol (10 and 30 mg/kg) was orally administered to parrots. Blood samples were collected from -5 to 1,440 minutes after administration. Three formulations of oral suspension (crushed tablets in a commercially available suspension agent, crushed tablets in sterile water, and chemical-grade powder in sterile water) were evaluated. Plasma concentrations of tramadol and its major metabolites were measured via high-performance liquid chromatography. Mean plasma tramadol concentrations were > 100 ng/mL for approximately 2 to 4 hours after IV administration of tramadol. Plasma concentrations after oral administration of tramadol at a dose of 10 mg/kg were 100 ng/mL for approximately 6 hours after administration. Oral administration of the suspension consisting of the chemical-grade powder resulted in higher plasma tramadol concentrations than concentrations obtained after oral administration of the other 2 formulations; however, concentrations differed significantly only at 120 and 240 minutes after administration. Oral administration of tramadol at a dose of 30 mg/kg resulted in plasma concentrations (> 100 ng/mL) that have been associated with analgesia in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots.

  10. A CLINICAL COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ANALGESIC EFFECT OF TRAMADOL AND PENTAZOCINE IN POST - OPERATIVE PATIENTS FOLLOWING UPPER ABDOMINAL SURGERY

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    Jamuna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The post - operative pain can be treated by various approaches. Aim of this randomised prospective study was to compare two drugs (Tramadol and Pentazocine . 100 adult patients of both sexes of ASA status 1 & 2 posted for elective upper abdominal surgery were randomly assigned into two groups of 50 each, where Group 1 received Tramadol intravenously and Group 2 received Pentazocine intravenously as post - opera tive pain management. The efficacy of the analgesic effect of intravenous Tramadol & Pentazocine was compared during post - operative pain management. It was observed that Tramadol has got more potent analgesic action compared to equianalgesic dose of Pentaz ocine.

  11. Desarrollo tecnológico de sulfato de cinc 5 mg/mL infusión intravenosa Technological development of zinc sulphate 5 mg/mL intravenous infusion

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    Armando Gato del Monte

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló una formulación de sulfato de cinc 5 mg/mL para infusión intravenosa que cumplió con las especificaciones de calidad de la USP 26, así como con el estudio de la estabilidad física, química, microbiológica y biológica de la solución, almacenada en envases de vidrio neutro de 5 mL de calidad hidrolítica I. El producto se expuso al calor por 90 días, y al calor y acción de la luz durante un período de 180 días, así como a vida de estante en condiciones normales de temperatura ambiente. Se comprobó la efectividad de los preservativos antimicrobianos presentes en la formulación. De los estudios realizados se determinó que la solución es estable por un período de más de 18 meses, almacenada a temperatura ambiente.A formulation of zinc sulphate 5 mg/mL for intravenous infusion was developed. It met the quality specifications of the USP 26, and it underwent the study of physical, chemical, microbiological and biological stability of the solution stored in neutral glass flasks of 5 ml of hydrolitic quality I. The product was exposed to heat for 90 days and to heat and the action of light for a period of 180 days, as well as to a shelf life under normal conditions of room temperature. It was proved the effectivity of the antimicrobial preservatives present in the formulation. According to the conducted studies, it was determined that the solution is stable for more than 18 months stored at room temperature.

  12. Pharmacokinetics of repeated oral administration of tramadol hydrochloride in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Marcy J; Gerhardt, Lillian; Cox, Sherry

    2013-07-01

    To determine the pharmacokinetics of tramadol hydrochloride (30 mg/kg) following twice-daily oral administration in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 9 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. Tramadol hydrochloride was administered to each parrot at a dosage of 30 mg/kg, PO, every 12 hours for 5 days. Blood samples were collected just prior to dose 2 on the first day of administration (day 1) and 5 minutes before and 10, 20, 30, 60, 90, 180, 360, and 720 minutes after the morning dose was given on day 5. Plasma was harvested from blood samples and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Degree of sedation was evaluated in each parrot throughout the study. No changes in the parrots' behavior were observed. Twelve hours after the first dose was administered, mean ± SD concentrations of tramadol and its only active metabolite M1 (O-desmethyltramadol) were 53 ± 57 ng/mL and 6 ± 6 ng/mL, respectively. At steady state following 4.5 days of twice-daily administration, the mean half-lives for plasma tramadol and M1 concentrations were 2.92 ± 0.78 hours and 2.14 ± 0.07 hours, respectively. On day 5 of tramadol administration, plasma concentrations remained in the therapeutic range for approximately 6 hours. Other tramadol metabolites (M2, M4, and M5) were also present. On the basis of these results and modeling of the data, tramadol at a dosage of 30 mg/kg, PO, will likely need to be administered every 6 to 8 hours to maintain therapeutic plasma concentrations in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots.

  13. Antinociceptive effects after oral administration of tramadol hydrochloride in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; Souza, Marcy J; Braun, Jana M; Cox, Sherry K; Keuler, Nicholas S; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate antinociceptive effects on thermal thresholds after oral administration of tramadol hydrochloride to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). Animals-15 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. 2 crossover experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, 15 parrots received 3 treatments (tramadol at 2 doses [10 and 20 mg/kg] and a control suspension) administered orally. In the second experiment, 11 parrots received 2 treatments (tramadol hydrochloride [30 mg/kg] and a control suspension) administered orally. Baseline thermal foot withdrawal threshold was measured 1 hour before drug or control suspension administration; thermal foot withdrawal threshold was measured after administration at 0.5, 1.5, 3, and 6 hours (both experiments) and also at 9 hours (second experiment only). For the first experiment, there were no overall effects of treatment, hour, period, or any interactions. For the second experiment, there was an overall effect of treatment, with a significant difference between tramadol hydrochloride and control suspension (mean change from baseline, 2.00° and -0.09°C, respectively). There also was a significant change from baseline for tramadol hydrochloride at 0.5, 1.5, and 6 hours after administration but not at 3 or 9 hours after administration. Tramadol at a dose of 30 mg/kg, PO, induced thermal antinociception in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. This dose was necessary for induction of significant and sustained analgesic effects, with duration of action up to 6 hours. Further studies with other types of noxious stimulation, dosages, and intervals are needed to fully evaluate the analgesic effects of tramadol hydrochloride in psittacines.

  14. When the Safe Alternative Is Not That Safe: Tramadol Prescribing in Children

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    Frédérique Rodieux

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Children represent a vulnerable population in which management of nociceptive pain is complex. Drug responses in children differ from adults due to age-related differences. Moreover, therapeutic choices are limited by the lack of indication for a number of analgesic drugs due to the challenge of conducting clinical trials in children. Furthermore the assessment of efficacy as well as tolerance may be complicated by children’s inability to communicate properly. According to the World Health Organization, weak opioids such as tramadol and codeine, may be used in addition to paracetamol and ibuprofen for moderate nociceptive pain in both children and adults. However, codeine prescription has been restricted for the last 5 years in children because of the risk of fatal overdoses linked to the variable activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP 2D6 which bioactivates codeine. Even though tramadol has been considered a safe alternative to codeine, it is well established that tramadol pharmacodynamic opioid effects, efficacy and safety, are also largely influenced by CYP2D6 activity. For this reason, the US Food and Drug Administration recently released a boxed warning regarding the use of tramadol in children. To provide safe and effective tramadol prescription in children, a personalized approach, with dose adaptation according to CYP2D6 activity, would certainly be the safest method. We therefore recommend this approach in children requiring chronic or recurrent nociceptive pain treatment with tramadol. In case of acute inpatients nociceptive pain management, prescribing tramadol at the minimal effective dose, in a child appropriate dosage form and after clear instructions are given to the parents, remains reasonable based on current data. In all other situations, morphine should be preferred for moderate to severe nociceptive pain conditions.

  15. Control of Intraoperative Shivering Under Spinal Anaesthesia- A Prospective Randomized Comparative Study of Butorphanol with Tramadol

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    Astha Palan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Shivering is very uncomfortable and distressing for the patient, anaesthesiologist and the surgeon, especially when the patient is under regional anaesthesia. Aim and Objectives: The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of butorphanol and tramadol in the control of shivering under spinal anaesthesia and to compare their side effects. To compare the efficacy, potency, response time, hemodynamic alterations, and adverse effects of intravenously administered tramadol and butorphanol for relief of shivering occurring during spinal anaesthesia. Material and Methods: This randomized prospective study was conducted in 100 patients who developed shivering under spinal anaesthesia during various abdominal, orthopaedic, urological and gynaecological procedures. Patients with fever, acute infections, drug allergy and compromised cardiorespiratory functions were not included in the study. On shivering, patients were randomly allocated in two groups of 50 patients each who received intravenously 1mg of butorphanol or 50 mg of tramadol in a double blinded manner. Control of shivering, time taken for cessation, recurrence, hemodynamic changes, axillary temperatures and side effects were noted and compared for both the groups. Collected data were analysed using Chi square test and Student's unpaired t test. Results: All patients were relieved of shivering after butorphanol, 58% within 1 min, 82% within 3min and 100% within 5 min. Tramadol relieved shivering in 98% of patients, 32% within 1 min, 60% within 3 min, 98% within 5 mins (p<0.05. There was higher incidence of side effects like nausea and vomiting with tramadol (16% and 12% respectively as compared to butorphanol. Conclusion: Both the drugs, tramadol and butorphanol are effective to control shivering after spinal anaesthesia. Butorphanol is better as compared to tramadol in treating shivering under spinal anaesthesia because of its quicker onset of action, higher success rate

  16. Long-Term Stability of Tramadol and Ketamine Solutions for Patient-Controlled Analgesia Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Junfeng; Qin, Wengang; Chen, Fuchao; Xia, Zhongyuan

    2015-08-26

    Subanesthetic doses of ketamine as an adjuvant to tramadol in patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) for postoperative pain have been shown to improve the quality of analgesia. However, there are no such commercially available drug mixtures, and the stability of the combination has rarely been assessed. Admixtures were assessed for periods of up to 14 days at 4°C and 25°C. Three different mixtures of tramadol and ketamine (tramadol 5.0 mg/mL + ketamine 0.5 mg/mL, tramadol 5.0 mg/mL + ketamine 1.0 mg/mL, and tramadol 5.0 mg/mL + ketamine 2.0 mg/mL) were prepared in polyolefin bags by combining these 2 drugs with 0.9% sodium chloride (normal saline [NS]). The chemical stability of the admixtures was evaluated by a validated high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method and by measurement of pH values. Solution appearance and color were assessed by observing the samples against black and white backgrounds. Solutions were considered stable if they maintained 90% of the initial concentration of each drug. The percentages of initial concentration of tramadol and ketamine in the various solutions remained above 98% when stored at 4°C or 25°C over the testing period. No changes in color or turbidity were observed in any of the prepared solutions. Throughout this period, pH values remained stable. The results indicate that the drug mixtures of tramadol with ketamine in NS for PCA delivery systems were stable for 14 days when stored in polyolefin bags at 4°C or 25°C.

  17. [Determination of tramadol and its active metabolite O-desmethyltramadol in plasma and amniotic fluid using LC/MS/MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li-mei; Chen, Xiao-yan; Cui, Jian-jun; Sunita, Maleku; Zhong, Da-fang

    2004-06-01

    To determinate tramadol and O-desmethyltramadol in human plasma and amniotic fluid by LC/MS/MS, and distribution of tramadol and O-desmethyltramadol in maternity and fetus were studied. Samples containing tramadol, O-desmethyltramadol and diphenhydramine (internal standard, IS ) were extracted using liquid-liquid extraction, followed by liquid chromatographic separation and on-line MS/MS using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization as an interface detection. The analytes were detected in the selected reaction monitoring mode. The calibration curves for tramadol and O-desmethytramadol in plasma and amniotic fluid were linear in the range from 8.0 to 800.0 microg x L(-1) (plasma) and 1.0 to 400.0 microg x L(-1) (amniotic fluid). The method was applied to the measurement of tramadol and O-desmethytramadol concentrations in maternal vein, umbilical vein, umbilical artery and amniotic fluid. Following intramuscular pre-operative administration 1.5 mg x kg(-1) doses of tramadol to parturients, plasma concentrations of tramadol were significantly higher than those in amniotic fluid. The concentrations of O-desmethyltramadol in plasma were lower, and were not detected in amniotic fluid. The method is shown to be accurate, robust and convenient, and suitable for clinical pharmacokinetics studies of tramadol and O-desmethyltramadol.

  18. A comparison of the effects of tramadol and morphine on gastric emptying in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, D B; Sutton, A; Prescott, L F; Murphy, M B

    1997-12-01

    In a previous study using an electrical bioimpedance technique and the paracetamol absorption test, we demonstrated that 0.09 mg.kg-1 of morphine delayed gastric emptying in healthy human volunteers. The aim of this study was to investigate whether analgesic doses of tramadol would cause a delay in gastric emptying similar to conventional opioids. Using the same volunteers and techniques as in our previous study, placebo or tramadol (1 mg.kg-1) was given in a randomised, double-blinded, cross-over placebo-controlled study. Gastric emptying was measured concurrently by a noninvasive epigastric bioimpedance technique and by the paracetamol absorption test. After the ingestion of 500 ml of deionised water plus paracetamol 1.5 g, the mean (SEM) time taken for gastric volume to decrease to 50% (t0.5) was recorded. No difference in gastric emptying rates (t0.5) between placebo, 7.7 (1 min), and tramadol, 9.5 (2 min), was noted. In our previous study, morphine prolonged t0.5 to 21 (3) min (p < 0.03). The maximum concentration and area under the curve of serum paracetamol concentrations following morphine were significantly different from placebo (p < 0.05) and tramadol (p < 0.05). We conclude that tramadol at a dose of 1 mg.kg-1 does not delay gastric emptying in humans.

  19. Tramadol Alleviates Myocardial Injury Induced by Acute Hindlimb Ischemia Reperfusion in Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takhtfooladi, Hamed Ashrafzadeh; Asl, Adel Haghighi Khiabanian [Department of Pathobiology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahzamani, Mehran [Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Takhtfooladi, Mohammad Ashrafzadeh, E-mail: dr-ashrafzadeh@yahoo.com [Young Researchers and Elites Club, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Allahverdi, Amin [Department of Surgery, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khansari, Mohammadreza [Department of Physiology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Organ injury occurs not only during periods of ischemia but also during reperfusion. It is known that ischemia reperfusion (IR) causes both remote organ and local injuries. This study evaluated the effects of tramadol on the heart as a remote organ after acute hindlimb IR. Thirty healthy mature male Wistar rats were allocated randomly into three groups: Group I (sham), Group II (IR), and Group III (IR + tramadol). Ischemia was induced in anesthetized rats by left femoral artery clamping for 3 h, followed by 3 h of reperfusion. Tramadol (20 mg/kg, intravenous) was administered immediately prior to reperfusion. At the end of the reperfusion, animals were euthanized, and hearts were harvested for histological and biochemical examination. The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were higher in Groups I and III than those in Group II (p < 0.05). In comparison with other groups, tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in Group II were significantly increased (p < 0.05), and this increase was prevented by tramadol. Histopathological changes, including microscopic bleeding, edema, neutrophil infiltration, and necrosis, were scored. The total injuryscore in Group III was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) compared with Group II. From the histological and biochemical perspectives, treatment with tramadol alleviated the myocardial injuries induced by skeletal muscle IR in this experimental model.

  20. Tramadol versus methadone for the management of acute opioid withdrawal: an add-on study

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    M Salehi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Opioid agonists such as methadone have been used widely in controlling opioid withdrawal symptoms. Tramadol, a partial opioid agonist, also has been prescribed to manage acute and chronic pain. We sought to compare the efficacy of tramadol and methadone in reducing the severity of opioid withdrawal symptoms. METHODS: In a double blind clinical trial 70 opioid dependent patients who used daily opium equal to 15 mg methadone randomly were assigned in two groups. In one group, methadone was started at 15 mg/day while in the other group 450 mg/day tramadol was prescribed. Both drugs were tapered in a week and placebo was prescribed in the 2nd week. The severity of withdrawal symptoms were assessed five times by short opioid withdrawal scale (SOWS. Data were analyzed by Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance, Mann-Whitney U, and Wilcoxon tests. RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences between two groups in the severity of anxiety (P = 0.015, irritability (P = 0.044, palpitation (P = 0.018, agitation (P = 0.037, and dysphoria (P = 0.044 that all were more common in methadone group. Comparison of side effects revealed statistically significant differences in sweating (P = 0.003 and drowsiness (P = 0.019 between two groups that were more frequent in methadone group. DISCUSSION: Tramadol was more efficacious in controlling opioid withdrawal symptoms with lower side effects. KEYWORDS: Methadone, tramadol, opioid withdrawal.

  1. Prophylactic Use of Intravenous Clonidine Compared to Tramadol in Prevention of Intraoperative Shivering under Regional Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha (Banerjee), Sarmila; Nath, Pallab Kumar; Halder, Rita; Bandyopadhyay, Ujjwal

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the relative efficacy of prophylactic intravenous (IV) clonidine and tramadol for control of intraoperative shivering following spinal anesthesia. Materials and Methods: After institutional ethical clearance, 142 patients were chosen from either gender, aged 20–60 years, physical status American Society of Anesthesiology Class I and II scheduled for elective infraumbilical surgery under spinal anesthesia. Patients were randomized into two groups: Group C (n = 71) received injection clonidine 50 μg) IV in 100 ml normal saline (NS) over 10 min and Group T (n = 71) received injection tramadol 50 mg IV. In 100 ml NS over 10 min after spinal anesthesia. Results: Incidence of shivering was not significant when compared between the two groups (P > 0.05). The axillary temperatures fell significantly in Group C from the baseline and remained at a significantly lower level up to 60 min after rescue drug was administered in patients who shivered. There was a similar fall in axillary temperature in Group T in patients having shivering, but the difference was not significant. When compared between the two groups among patients who shivered, the difference in fall of temperature was not significant. Side effects such as hypotension, bradycardia, and sedation were significantly more common in clonidine group, whereas nausea was significantly more common patients of tramadol group. Conclusion: Prophylactic administration of both tramadol and clonidine is effective for controlling shivering under spinal anesthesia. However, tramadol is better because of higher response rate, less sedation, and lesser hemodynamic alterations. PMID:28663645

  2. Effects of tramadol and acepromazine on intraocular pressure and pupil diameter in young healthy cats

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    Deise Cristine Schroder

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study aimed to investigate the effects of the systemic administration of acepromazine, tramadol and the association of both on intraocular pressure (IOP and pupil diameter (PD in young healthy cats. Cats were randomly allocated into three groups (n=10/each and intramuscular acepromazine (AG, tramadol (TG or acepromazine combined with tramadol (ATG were injected. PD (electronic caliper and IOP (applanation tonometry were assessed before (baseline and following 15, 30, 60, and 120 minutes of treatments. It was verified that in AG, PD decreased significantly from time point 30 to 120 (P=0.002, but such reduction did not differ significantly from baseline (P=0.89. In TG, PD increased significantly from the first 15 minutes, until the last time point of evaluation (P0.05. It can be concluded that tramadol alone or in association with acepromazine produced significant mydriasis for up to 120 minutes, without changing IOP values in normal cats. Results of this study suggested that tramadol alone or in association with acepromazine caused significant mydriasis and did not change IOP values in normal cats. Therefore, it may be considered a satisfactory pre-anesthetic combination for ophthalmic surgery in cats. However, further studies are warranted on the use of such protocols in cats with ophthalmic diseases undergoing ocular or intraocular surgery.

  3. Effects of opioid (tramadol) treatment on testicular functions in adult male rats: The role of nitric oxide and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Marwa A; Kurkar, Adel

    2014-04-01

    Nowadays, tramadol hydrochloride is frequently used as a pain reliever, and for the treatment of premature ejaculation. Decreased semen quality was noted in chronic tramadol users. The present study aimed to elucidate the effects of tramadol on the testicular functions of adult male rats. A total of 40 albino adult male rats were divided into control and tramadol groups, with 20 rats for each group. Rats of the tramadol group were subcutaneously injected with 40 mg/kg three times per week for 8 weeks. The control group received normal saline 0.9%. Blood samples from each animal were obtained. Plasma levels of different biochemical substances were determined. Nitric oxide was measured in testicular tissue samples. Those samples together with epididymal tissue samples were processed for histopathological examination. Tramadol significantly reduced plasma levels of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, testosterone and total cholesterol, but elevated prolactin and estradiol levels compared with the control group. In addition, tramadol increased the testicular levels of nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation, and decreased the anti-oxidant enzymes activities significantly compared with the control group. The tramadol group showed decreased sperm count and motility, and numbers of primary spermatocytes, rounded spermatid and Leydig cells. Immunohistochemical examinations showed that tramadol increased the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in testicular tissues. The present study showed that tramadol treatment affects the testicular function of adult male rats, and these effects might be through the overproduction of nitric oxide and oxidative stress induced by this drug. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Comparison of Tramadol and Pethidine for Postanesthetic Shivering in Elective Cataract Surgery

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    H Zahedi

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postoperative shivering is a common event of unknown etiology with an incidence of 5-65%. This study intended to compare the efficacy of tramadol with that of pethidine in controlling postanesthetic shivering. Methods: This double-blind clinical trial was performed on 300 consecutive patients underwent general anesthesia for elective cataract surgery. Intravenous tramadol 1 mg/kg or pethidine 0.5 mg/kg was administered for alternate subjects who developed postanesthetic shivering. They were monitored in the recovery room for 1 hour and the cessation time of shivering, recurrence of the event, duration of recovery, respiratory depression, nausea, vomiting, and arterial O2 saturation were recorded. Results: One hundred and twenty patients (40% had postanesthetic shivering. In the tramadol group, shivering terminated within 8 minutes after injection (mean 5 min. They had not recurrence of shivering, respiratory depression, reduction in SpO2 and nausea or vomiting during recovery. In the pethidine group, shivering terminated within 13 minutes (mean 9 min after injection, but in 10 patients it recurred after 30 minutes. In this group 28 patients had respiratory depression, reduction in SpO2, nausea and vomiting but none of them needed any medication. Conclusion: Tramadol is superior to pethidine as it induced a faster termination of postanesthetic shivering and did not entail adverse effects on the respiratory system and SpO2, recurrence of shivering or nausea and vomiting. Easy availability and minimum monitoring requirements are other advantages of tramadol. Keywords: Postoperative Shivering, General Anesthesia, Postoperative Complications, Tramadol, Pethidine.

  5. Tramadol effects on clinical variables and the mechanical nociceptive threshold in horses

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    Franco,Leandro Guimarães; Moreno,Juan Carlos Duque; Teixeira Neto,Antônio Raphael; Souza,Moisés Caetano e; Silva,Luiz Antônio Franco da

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the clinical effects and the mechanical antinociceptive potential of intravenous (IV) tramadol in horses.A blinded and randomized study was designed with 7 horses treated with 1 (Tr1), 2 (Tr2) or 3 (Tr3) mg kg-1 of tramadol IV. The heart rate, respiratory rate (fR), arterial pressure, degree of sedation, gastrointestinal motility (GI), behavior changes and the mechanical nociceptive threshold (MNT) were evaluated. The MNT was determined with von Frey device method.Tr3 had ...

  6. Clinical and Laboratory Findings in Patients with Tramadol Intoxication Referred to Razi Hospital During 2005-06

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    Morteza Rahbar Taromsari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Frequency of Tramadol intoxication is increasing as a result of its useas a drug for suppression of withdrawal symptoms by opioids abusers and its wideaccessibility of this drug. Tramadol intoxication can lead to death and, therefore, earlyidentification of its clinical manifestations is crucial since early detection of theintoxication and its treatment could improve patients' survival This study investigatedthe frequency of clinical and laboratory findings in Tramadol intoxication.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, patients with Tramadol intoxication whoreferred to Razi Hospital in Rasht, Iran, during 2005-06 were examined. Theirmedical records were surveyed for demographic data, past medical history,neurological examination, and routine laboratory tests. All data were statisticallyanalyzed by SPSS software version 14.Result: The majority of the 306 patients (83.3% male were in the age range of 20-40 years and 68.6% of them had been educated up to high school. The mean dose ofingested Tramadol was 746± 453mg (mean± SD. Agitation (25.2% and seizure(20.3% were the most frequent reported symptoms. Among laboratory abnormalities,the most common findings were prolonged PT (18.3% and increased ALT (5.6%.Conclusion: The most common clinical presentation was agitation and the mostcommon laboratory finding was prolonged PT. Of all the patients, 3 cases wereadmitted to ICU. Although Tramadol poisoning might lead to death, there was onlyone death after Tramadol poisoning in the current study.

  7. Avaliação da buprenorfina pelas vias intravenosa ou intramuscular em cães anestesiados pelo desfluorano

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    Souza Almir Pereira de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar comparativamente os efeitos da buprenorfina, administrada pelas vias intramuscular(IM ou intravenosa (IV, sobre variáveis cardiovasculares, em cães anestesiados com desfluorano. Para tanto, foram utilizados dezesseis cães adultos, clinicamente saudáveis, distribuídos em dois grupos (n=8 denominados de GI e GII. Em ambos os grupos, a anestesia foi induzida com propofol (8 mg/kg, IV e em seguida os animais foram intubados com sonda orotraqueal de Magill, a qual foi conectada ao aparelho de anestesia volátil para administração de desfluorano (1,5 CAM. Após 30 minutos do início da anestesia inalatória, foi aplicado no GI buprenorfina na dose de 0,02 mg/kg pela via IV, enquanto no GII administrou-se o opióide na mesma dose porém pela via IM. Avaliaram-se: freqüência cardíaca (FC; pressões arteriais sistólica, diastólica e média (PAS, PAD e PAM; débito cardíaco (DC; pressão venosa central (PVC e pressão da artéria pulmonar (PAP. As colheitas foram feitas nos seguintes momentos: M1 - 30 minutos após o início da anestesia inalatória antes da aplicação do opióide; M2 - 15 minutos após a administração da buprenorfina; M3, M4 e M5 - de 15 em 15 minutos após M2. A avaliação estatística dos dados foi efetuada por meio de Análise de Perfil (p<0,05. As variáveis PAS, PAM, DC, PVC e PAP, não apresentaram alterações significativas de seus valores em ambos os grupos. Entretanto, a FC e a PAD apresentaram reduções significativas após a administração do opióide apenas no GI. Assim, pôde-se concluir que a buprenorfina administrada pelas vias IV ou IM não interferiu nos índices cardiovasculares de forma a manifestar efeitos clínicos importantes em cães anestesiados com desfluorano.

  8. Chlorination of tramadol: Reaction kinetics, mechanism and genotoxicity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hanyang; Song, Dean; Chang, Yangyang; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui

    2015-12-01

    Tramadol (TRA) is one of the most detected analgesics in environmental matrices, and it is of high significance to study the reactivity of TRA during chlorination considering its potential toxicity to the environment. The chlorine/TRA reaction is first order with respect to the TRA concentration, and a combination of first-order and second-order with respect to chlorine concentration. The pH dependence of the observed rate constants (kobs) showed that the TRA oxidation reactivity increased with increasing pH. kobs can be quantitatively described by considering all active species including Cl2, Cl2O and HOCl, and the individual rate constants of HOCl/TRA(0), HOCl/TRAH(+), Cl2/TRA and Cl2O/TRA reactions were calculated to be (2.61±0.29)×10(3)M(-1)s(-1), 14.73±4.17M(-1)s(-1), (3.93±0.34)×10(5)M(-1)s(-1) and (5.66±1.83)×10(6)M(-1)s(-1), respectively. Eleven degradation products were detected with UPLC-Q-TOF-MS, and the corresponding structures of eight products found under various pH conditions were proposed. The amine group was proposed to be the initial attack site under alkaline pH conditions, where reaction of the deprotonated amine group with HOCl is favorable. Under acidic and neutral pH conditions, however, two possible reaction pathways were proposed. One is an electrophilic substitution on the aromatic ring, and another is an electrophilic substitution on the nitrogen, leading to an N-chlorinated intermediate, which can be further oxidized. Finally, the SOS/umu test showed that the genotoxicity of TRA chlorination products increased with increasing dosage of chlorine, which was mostly attributed to the formation of some chlorine substitution products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of tramadol as an adjuvant to local anesthetics for brachial plexus block: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Hye Won Shin

    Full Text Available Tramadol, a 4-phenyl-piperidine analog of codeine, has a unique action in that it has a central opioidergic, noradrenergic, serotonergic analgesic, and peripheral local anesthetic (LA effect. Many studies have reported contradictory findings regarding the peripheral analgesic effect of tramadol as an adjuvant to LA in brachial plexus block (BPB. This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the effects of tramadol as an adjunct to LA in BPB during shoulder or upper extremity surgery.We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, KoreaMed databases, and Google Scholar for eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs that compared BPB with LA alone and BPB with LA and tramadol. Primary outcomes were the effects of tramadol as an adjuvant on duration of sensory block, motor block, and analgesia. Secondary outcomes were the effects of tramadol as an adjuvant on time to onset of sensory block and motor block and on adverse effects. We performed the meta-analysis using Review Manager 5.3 software.We identified 16 RCTs with 751 patients. BPB with tramadol prolonged the duration of sensory block (mean difference [MD], -61.5 min; 95% CI, -95.5 to -27.6; P = 0.0004, motor block (MD, -65.6 min; 95% CI, -101.5 to -29.7; P = 0.0003, and analgesia (MD, -125.5 min; 95% CI, -175.8 to -75.3; P < 0.0001 compared with BPB without tramadol. Tramadol also shortened the time to onset of sensory block (MD, 2.1 min; 95% CI, 1.1 to 3.1; P < 0.0001 and motor block (MD, 1.2 min; 95% CI, 0.2 to 2.1; P = 0.010. In subgroup analysis, the duration of sensory block, motor block, and analgesia was prolonged for BPB with tramadol 100 mg (P < 0.05 but not for BPB with tramadol 50 mg. The quality of evidence was high for duration of analgesia according to the GRADE system. Adverse effects were comparable between the studies.In upper extremity surgery performed under BPB, use of tramadol 100 mg as an adjuvant to LA appears to prolong the duration of sensory block, motor block, and analgesia, and

  10. Cortisol sérico e glicemia em cadelas tratadas com tramadol e submetidas à ovário-histerectomia

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    Caldeira Fátima Maria Caetano; Oliveira Humberto Pereira; Melo Eliane Gonçalves; Martins Claudia; Vieira Marilisa Souza; Silva Cristiano Nicomedes da

    2006-01-01

    O tramadol é um analgésico opióide usado em medicina veterinária, embora existam poucos estudos sobre este fármaco. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito analgésico promovido pela administração do tramadol, mensurando o cortisol sérico e a glicemia de cadelas. Para isso, foram utilizadas 15 fêmeas, submetidas a ovário-histerectomia sob anestesia geral com isofluorano. Os animais foram divididos em três grupos. Grupo 1 (Tep) receberam tramadol pela via epidural (1,0mg kg-1 diluído em ...

  11. Comparison of caudal bupivacaine and bupivacaine-tramadol for postoperative analgesia in children with hypospadias repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.; Memon, M.I.

    2008-01-01

    To compare the effects after caudal bupivacaine alone and bupivacaine-tramadol in young children with hypospadias repair. Randomized controlled trial. Sixty children aged between 13-53 months coming for hypospadias repair were divided randomly into two groups A and B. A caudal block was performed immediately after induction of general anaesthesia. The patients in group A received 0.125% bupivacaine 1 ml/kg with tramadol 1 mg/kg body weight caudally. Group B patients received 0.25% bupivacaine 1 ml/kg body weight caudally. Anaesthesia was discontinued after completion of surgery. In the recovery area, ventilatory frequency and pain scores were recorded at 1 hourly interval for first 6 hours and then every 2 hours for next 6 hours postoperatively. A modified TPPPS (Toddler-Preschool Postoperative Pain Scale) was used to assess the pain. Episodes of vomiting, facial flush and pruritus were noted, if present. The duration of analgesia was significantly prolonged in group A patients (p-value=0.001). A low frequency of postoperative vomiting was observed in both groups i.e. 10% in group A and 6.66% in group B (p-value=0.64). No respiratory depression, flushing and pruritus were observed. Low dose combination of bupivacaine and tramadol, when administered caudally, had an additive effect and provided prolonged and effective postoperative analgesia with minimal side effects. The risk of toxicity from bupivacaine decreased when combined with tramadol in low doses. (author)

  12. Economic evaluation of tramadol/paracetamol combination tablets for osteoarthritis pain in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Liedgens (Hiltrud); M.J.C. Nuijten (Mark); B.P. Nautrup (Barbara Poulsen)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To compare the costs of treating osteoarthritis (OA) pain using combination tramadol/paracetamol tablets, NSAIDs alone, NSAIDs plus proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), or NSAIDs plus histamine H2-receptor antagonists (H2RAs) from the perspective of the Dutch healthcare system.

  13. The analgesic efficacy of intravenous versus oral tramadol for preventing postoperative pain after third molar surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ong, Cliff K. S.; Lirk, Phillip; Tan, Juliana M. H.; Sow, Belle W. Y.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the analgesic efficacy of single-dose preoperative intravenous versus oral tramadol for preventing pain after third molar surgery. Seventy-two patients undergoing elective third molar surgery were randomized to receive either intravenous (n = 36) or oral (n = 36)

  14. Effect of ondansetron on the analgesic efficacy of tramadol used for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Archana Murmua, Sudeshna Bhar Kundua, Amita Pahari, Anisha De, D Adhikari, S Pal, Abhimanyu Bhattacharya, Chiranjib Bhattacharyya ... Patients were divided into group O and group C. At the time of closure of strap muscles, patients in group O received tramadol 1.5 mg/kg IV and ondansetron 0.1 mg/kg (diluted to 4 ...

  15. Tramadol relieves pain and allodynia in polyneuropathy: a randomised, double-blind, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindrup, S H; Andersen, G; Madsen, C; Smith, T; Brøsen, K; Jensen, T S

    1999-10-01

    It is generally believed that opioids relieve neuropathic pain less effectively than nociceptive pain and that they have no effect on some of the key characteristics of neuropathic pain such as touch-evoked pain (allodynia). Tramadol is an analgesic drug acting directly on opioid receptors and indirectly on monoaminergic receptor systems. The aim of this trial was to determine whether tramadol relieved painful polyneuropathy and reduced allodynia. The study design was randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled and cross-over. After baseline observations, 45 patients were assigned to one of the two treatment sequences. The dose of tramadol slow-release tablets was titrated to at least 200 mg/day and at highest 400 mg/day. During the two treatment periods of 4 weeks duration, patients rated pain, paraesthesia and touch-evoked pain by use of 0-10 point numeric rating scales. Mechanical allodynia induced by stimulation with an electronic toothbrush was rated at the end of each treatment period with a similar scale. Thirty-four patients completed the study. Their ratings for pain (median 4 vs. 6, P=0.001), paraesthesia (4 vs. 6, P=0.001) and touch-evoked pain (3 vs. 5, P/=50% pain relief was 4.3 (95% confidence interval 2.4-20). It is concluded that tramadol appears to relieve both ongoing pain symptoms and the key neuropathic pain feature allodynia in polyneuropathy.

  16. Simultaneous quantitative determination of paracetamol and tramadol in tablet formulation using UV spectrophotometry and chemometric methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavanović, Siniša; Glavanović, Marija; Tomišić, Vladislav

    2016-03-01

    The UV spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous quantitative determination of paracetamol and tramadol in paracetamol-tramadol tablets were developed. The spectrophotometric data obtained were processed by means of partial least squares (PLS) and genetic algorithm coupled with PLS (GA-PLS) methods in order to determine the content of active substances in the tablets. The results gained by chemometric processing of the spectroscopic data were statistically compared with those obtained by means of validated ultra-high performance liquid chromatographic (UHPLC) method. The accuracy and precision of data obtained by the developed chemometric models were verified by analysing the synthetic mixture of drugs, and by calculating recovery as well as relative standard error (RSE). A statistically good agreement was found between the amounts of paracetamol determined using PLS and GA-PLS algorithms, and that obtained by UHPLC analysis, whereas for tramadol GA-PLS results were proven to be more reliable compared to those of PLS. The simplest and the most accurate and precise models were constructed by using the PLS method for paracetamol (mean recovery 99.5%, RSE 0.89%) and the GA-PLS method for tramadol (mean recovery 99.4%, RSE 1.69%).

  17. Tramadol effects on clinical variables and the mechanical nociceptive threshold in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Guimarães Franco

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the clinical effects and the mechanical antinociceptive potential of intravenous (IV tramadol in horses.A blinded and randomized study was designed with 7 horses treated with 1 (Tr1, 2 (Tr2 or 3 (Tr3 mg kg-1 of tramadol IV. The heart rate, respiratory rate (fR, arterial pressure, degree of sedation, gastrointestinal motility (GI, behavior changes and the mechanical nociceptive threshold (MNT were evaluated. The MNT was determined with von Frey device method.Tr3 had a significant increase in their fR and more pronounced behavioral changes than other treatments.The Tr1 showed a significant increase in arterial pressure. The GI reduced significantly, mainly in Tr2. The tramadol did not change the MNT of the horses.The clinical alterations observed with the different treatments were considered mild and transitory, being most evident in Tr2. However the tramadol did not have any analgesic effect with any of the doses evaluated.

  18. Educação sem distâncias: utilização do WebCT como ferramenta de apoio para o ensino da Terapia Intravenosa na graduação em Enfermagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Costa Dias

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigação focalizou o ambiente de aprendizagem por meio da Internet, onde foi abordado o ensino da terapia intravenosa(TIV. Dentre os vários conteúdos que poderiam ser ministrados em um ambiente de aprendizagem via Internet foi escolhida a TIV pois trata-se de um tema complexo que abrange não apenas os procedimentos técnicos mas também aspectos conceituais que podem ser discutidos em um ambiente virtual de aprendizagem. Os objetivos da investigação foram desenvolver material educacional sobre Terapia Intravenosa, utilizando a Internet para orientar o aprendizado de conceitos relacionados a terapia intravenosa, proceder avaliação por especialistas do material educacional sobre Terapia Intravenosa produzido e avaliar a utilização do mesmo pelos alunos em termos de dificuldades e/ou facilidades, participação/interação no ambiente, usabilidade das ferramentas disponíveis no ambiente. O ambiente utilizado para disponibilizar o curso na Internet foi o WebCT.

  19. Comparing efficacy of preemptively used dexketoprofen and tramadol for postoperative pain in patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süreyya Özkan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In our study, we aimed to compare effects of preoperative dexketoprofen and tramadol administered by intravenous route on intraoperative and postoperative analgesic consumption, postoperative pain, durations of hospital stay and patient satisfaction in patients, undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods:After approval of ethic committee and written consent of patients were obtained, 60 patients between 18-70 years old with ASA I-II were included in the study. After routine monitorization and 20 minutes before induction of anesthesia, dexketoprofen 50 mg in 100 cc 0.9% NaCl was administered in Dexketoprofen Group and tramadol 100 mg in 100 cc 0.9% NaCl in Tramadol Group as intravenous infusion during 20 minutes. Intraoperative hemodynamic parameters, analgesic-anesthetic consumptions and complications of patients, on whom standard general anesthesia was applied, were recorded. Pain severity, degree of sedation, morphine consumptions and hemodynamic parameters were recorded at postoperative 30 th minute, and 4 th, 8th, 12th and 24 th hours. Additional analgesia requirement, times for requiring first analgesia, duration of hospital stay, postoperative complications and patient satisfactions were recorded. Results: Intraoperative analgesic-anesthetic consumptions, postoperative visual analogue scale (VAS scores, sedation degrees, intravenous patient controlled analgesia (PCA and morphine consumptions, times for requiring first analgesic, durations of hospital stay, intraoperative-postoperative complications developed and patient satisfactions were similar in both groups. Consequently, postoperative analgesic efficacy of pre-emptive dexketoprofen intravenous 50 mg and tramadol intravenous 100 mg administered was found to be similar in cases, who had laparoscopic cholecystectomy operation. Conclusion:Because VAS scores were low in our patients, morphine consumptions with intravenous PCA were similar in both groups, and there wasn

  20. Single dose caudal tramadol with bupivacaine and bupivacaine alone in pediatric inguinoscrotal surgeries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, A.; Siddiqui, S.Z.; Aftab, S.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the postoperative analgesic effect of Tramadol when given with caudally administered Bupivacaine in children undergoing inguinoscrotal surgeries. A total of 60 children, undergoing inguinoscrotal surgeries, aged from 1 to 12 years, ASA 1 and 2, were included. The patients were divided into two equal groups. The group given Bupivacaine with Tramadol was called group BT and the group which was given only Bupivacaine was labeled as group B. Group BT was given 0.25%, 0.8 ml/kg Bupivacaine and Tramadol 2 mg/kg while the other group B was given 0.25%, 0.8 ml/kg Bupivacaine through caudal route after induction of general anesthesia. No other analgesic was given intraoperatively. The postoperative pain was evaluated by using visual analogue scale/Ocher face scale/CHEOPS and sedation was assessed by 5 points sedation score at immediate postoperative period 1,2,3,4,6,12 and 24 hours. Supplemental analgesia in the form of paracetamol suppositories and syrup ibuprofen was given accordingly. SaO 2, pulse, blood pressure, and motor block were monitored in all the patients. Addition of Tramadol with Bupivacaine resulted in meaningfully increased postoperative analgesic period (16.06 +- 4.04 hours). No other side effects like respiratory depression, pruritus, urinary retention were found in both the groups except for nausea and vomiting. The demand for supplemental analgesia was more in the patients belonging to B group than BT group. The sedation scores were similar in both the groups. The use of Tramadol as an additive with local anesthetics can prolong the postoperative analgesic period when administered caudally. Its use is safe in children. (author)

  1. Abuse liability, behavioral pharmacology, and physical-dependence potential of opioids in humans and laboratory animals: lessons from tramadol

    OpenAIRE

    Epstein, David H.; Preston, Kenzie L.; Jasinski, Donald R.

    2006-01-01

    Assessment of abuse potential of opioid analgesics has a long history in both laboratory animals and humans. This article reviews the methods used in animals and in humans and then presents the data collected in the evaluation of tramadol, an atypical centrally acting opioid analgesic approved for marketing in the United States in 1998. Finally, data on the abuse of tramadol from postmarketing surveillance and case reports are presented. The consistency between animal and human study results ...

  2. Tramadol Pretreatment Enhances Ketamine-Induced Antidepressant Effects and Increases Mammalian Target of Rapamycin in Rat Hippocampus and Prefrontal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several lines of evidence have demonstrated that acute administration of ketamine elicits fast-acting antidepressant effects. Moreover, tramadol also has potential antidepressant effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pretreatment with tramadol on ketamine-induced antidepressant activity and was to determine the expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR in rat hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Rats were intraperitoneally administrated with ketamine at the dose of 10 mg/kg or saline 1 h before the second episode of the forced swimming test (FST. Tramadol or saline was intraperitoneally pretreated 30 min before the former administration of ketamine or saline. The locomotor activity and the immobility time of FST were both measured. After that, rats were sacrificed to determine the expression of mTOR in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Tramadol at the dose of 5 mg/kg administrated alone did not elicit the antidepressant effects. More importantly, pretreatment with tramadol enhanced the ketamine-induced antidepressant effects and upregulated the expression of mTOR in rat hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Pretreatment with tramadol enhances the ketamine-induced antidepressant effects, which is associated with the increased expression of mTOR in rat hippocampus and prefrontal cortex.

  3. Efficacy of extended-release tramadol for treatment of prescription opioid withdrawal: A two-phase randomized controlled trial*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofwall, Michelle R.; Babalonis, Shanna; Nuzzo, Paul A.; Siegel, Anthony; Campbell, Charles; Walsh, Sharon L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Tramadol is an atypical analgesic with monoamine and modest mu opioid agonist activity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate: 1) the efficacy of extended-release (ER) tramadol in treating prescription opioid withdrawal and 2) whether cessation of ER tramadol produces opioid withdrawal. Methods Prescription opioid users with current opioid dependence and observed withdrawal participated in this inpatient, two-phase double blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial. In Phase 1 (days 1-7), participants were randomly assigned to matched oral placebo or ER tramadol (200 or 600 mg daily). In Phase 2 (days 8-13), all participants underwent double blind crossover to placebo. Breakthrough withdrawal medications were available for all subjects. Enrollment continued until 12 completers/group was achieved. Results Use of breakthrough withdrawal medication differed significantly (popioid withdrawal. Mild opioid withdrawal occurred after cessation of treatment with 600 mg tramadol. These data support the continued investigation of tramadol as a treatment for opioid withdrawal. PMID:23755929

  4. Efficacy of extended-release tramadol for treatment of prescription opioid withdrawal: a two-phase randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofwall, Michelle R; Babalonis, Shanna; Nuzzo, Paul A; Siegel, Anthony; Campbell, Charles; Walsh, Sharon L

    2013-11-01

    Tramadol is an atypical analgesic with monoamine and modest mu opioid agonist activity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate: (1) the efficacy of extended-release (ER) tramadol in treating prescription opioid withdrawal and (2) whether cessation of ER tramadol produces opioid withdrawal. Prescription opioid users with current opioid dependence and observed withdrawal participated in this inpatient, two-phase double blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial. In Phase 1 (days 1-7), participants were randomly assigned to matched oral placebo or ER tramadol (200 or 600 mg daily). In Phase 2 (days 8-13), all participants underwent double blind crossover to placebo. Breakthrough withdrawal medications were available for all subjects. Enrollment continued until 12 completers/group was achieved. Use of breakthrough withdrawal medication differed significantly (popioid withdrawal. Mild opioid withdrawal occurred after cessation of treatment with 600 mg tramadol. These data support the continued investigation of tramadol as a treatment for opioid withdrawal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Fluorescence detection of tramadol in healthy Chinese volunteers by high-performance liquid chromatography and bioequivalence assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou X

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Xiao Zhou, Ji Liu Department of Anesthesia, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Abstract: This study developed a revised high-performance liquid chromatography fluorescence method to determine plasma tramadol concentration, and thereby to examine the bioequivalence of two tramadol formulations among healthy male Chinese volunteers. The study used a double-blind, randomized, 2×2 crossover-design principle. Calculated pharmacokinetic parameters for both formulations were consistent with previous reports. According to the observation of vital signs and laboratory measurement, no subjects had any adverse reactions. The geometric mean ratios (90% confidence interval of the test drug/reference drug for tramadol were 100.2% (95.3%–103.4% for the area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC from time zero to the last measurable concentration, 99.6% (94.2%–102.7% for the AUC from administration to infinite time, and 100.8% (93.1%–106.4% for maximum concentration. For the 90% confidence intervals of the test/reference AUC ratio and maximum concentration ratio of tramadol, both were in the acceptance range for bioequivalence. According to the two preparations by pharmacokinetic parameter statistics, the half-life, mean residence time, and clearance values showed no significant statistical differences. Therefore, the conclusion of this study was that the two tramadol formulations (tablets and capsules were bioequivalent. Keywords: tramadol hydrochloride, in vitro release, pharmacokinetic, bioequivalence, fluorescence detector

  6. A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized comparison of pre and postoperative administration of ketorolac and tramadol for dental extraction pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitesh Mishra

    2012-01-01

    Results: Ketorolac and tramadol were significantly better than placebo in relieving molar tooth extraction pain. Postoperative administration of tramadol was found to be more efficacious than preoperative administration in relieving the pain, whereas the preoperative administration of ketorolac was better than its postoperative administration. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that tramadol is equally effective to ketorolac in relieving pain in the first 6 h after molar extraction and therefore can be tried in patients who are intolerant to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

  7. Efeitos do uso crônico do tramadol sobre a prenhez da rata albina Effects of chronic use of tramadol on pregnant albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Silva Santos

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: analisar os efeitos do cloridrato de tramadol sobre o binômio materno-fetal da rata albina. Métodos: foram constituídos 5 grupos de 10 ratas prenhes tratadas, desde o 1º até o 20º dia de prenhez, da seguinte forma: GI = controles intactas; GII = controles que receberam 0,5 ml de água destilada (veículo do fármaco, 1 vez ao dia, por gavagem; GIII, GIV e GV = grupos que receberam respectivamente 6,7, 20,1 e 45,6 mg/kg por dia de cloridrato de tramadol dissolvidos em água destilada, uma vez ao dia, por gavagem, sempre em volume de 0,5 ml. O ganho de peso durante a gestação foi acompanhado por pesagens no dia 0 e nos dias 7º, 14º e 20º da prenhez. Após sacrifício por depressão respiratória com éter anestésico, quantificou-se o número de implantações, de reabsorções, de fetos, de placentas, de malformações maiores, de mortalidade materna e fetal e os pesos dos fetos e das placentas. Resultados: O ganho de peso corporal materno durante a gestação foi significativamente afetado pelo tramadol, e o efeito foi mais evidente nos grupos IV e V (reduções médias de 41 e 56% no ganho de peso, respectivamente. No grupo III, o ganho foi mais afetado aos 7 e 14 dias (33% em média do que aos 20 dias de gestação (19%. O tratamento com o fármaco afetou significativamente, e de forma dose-dependente, os seguintes parâmetros: peso individual dos fetos (GV = -39,2%, peso da ninhada (GIV = -51,7%; GV = -44,2%, número de placentas (GIV = -28,4%; GV = --11,6%, peso individual das placentas (GV = -10% e peso do conjunto das placentas (GIV = -28,4%; GV = -16,8%. Apesar de ter havido aumento do número de reabsorções e de natimortos nos grupos tratados, os dados não foram significativamente diferentes dos controles. Conclusões: O tramadol tem definidos efeitos deletérios sobre a prenhez da rata albina, afetando não só a matriz como também o concepto. Os efeitos foram, de modo geral, mais expressivos aos 14 do que aos

  8. Effect of submucosal application of tramadol on postoperative pain after third molar surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gönül, Onur; Satılmış, Tülin; Bayram, Ferit; Göçmen, Gökhan; Sipahi, Aysegül; Göker, Kamil

    2015-10-14

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of submucosal application of tramadol, for acute postoperative facial pain, following the extraction of impacted third molar teeth. This prospective, double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled study included 60 ASA I-II patients undergoing impacted third molar surgery under local anaesthesia. Following the surgical procedure, patients were randomly divided into two groups; group T (1 mg/kg tramadol) and group S (2-mL saline). Treatments were applied submucosally after surgery. Pain after extraction was evaluated using a visual analogue scale (VAS) 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h postoperatively. The time at which the first analgesic drug was taken, the total analgesic dose used, and adverse tissue reactions were also evaluated. In group T, postoperative VAS scores were significantly lower compared to that in group S (p third molar surgery.

  9. Crise convulsive chez les abuseurs de Tramadol et caféine: à ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nous rapportons Huit cas de crises convulsives diagnostiquées comme maladie épileptique après ingestion de Tramadol et d'autres substances psychotropes dont la Caféine dans une région ou maladie épileptique et addiction au café sont fréquentes. L'objectif de ce travail était d'informer les praticiens sur le risque de ...

  10. Effects of tramadol on tear production, intraocular pressure, and pupil size in dogs: clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Ruiz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of tramadol on tear production, intraocular pressure (IOP and pupil diameter (PD in healthy dogs. Dogs were randomly assigned to receive 4mg kg-1 (n=11 and 6mg kg-1 (n=11 of tramadol hydrochloride intramuscularly. Tear production (Schirmer tear test, STT-1, IOP (applanation tonometry and the PD (electronic pachymetry were assessed before, 30 and 60 minutes after administration of tramadol. Data were compared by analysis of variance for repeated measures (P<0.05. Parameters evaluated before, at 30 and 60min, in dogs treated with 4 and 6mg kg-1, were respectively: (STT-1 22.50±3.38, 21.14±3.94 and 21.09±2.99mm min-1; and 23.05±3.73,22.64±3.76 and 22.82±3.25mm min-1. (IOP 18.14±2.68, 17.68±2.59 and 18.23±3.84mmHg; and 19.05±2.27, 18.91±2.74 and 17.64±2.34mmHg. (PD 6.71±0.65, 7.22±1.42 and 6.90±1.39mm; and 6.25±1.08, 6.80±1.27 and 6.49±0.90mm. All parameters evaluated did not change significantly among time points and dose regimen. Based on the conditions under which the experiments were conducted, tramadol did not affect tear production, IOP and PD in dogs, and could be used as a preoperative analgesic for intraocular surgery and pain control for any cause in patients affected by uveitis, glaucoma and keratoconjunctivitis sicca

  11. Fentanyl versus tramadol with levobupivacaine for combined spinal-epidural analgesia in labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena Chatrath

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neuraxial labor analgesia using new local anesthetics such as levobupivacaine has become very popular by virtue of the safety and lesser motor blockade caused by these agents. Combined spinal-epidural analgesia (CSEA has become the preferred method for labor analgesia as it combines benefits of both spinal analgesia and flexibility of the epidural catheter. Adding opioids to local anesthetic drugs provide rapid onset and prolonged analgesia but may be associated with several maternal and fetal adverse effects. The purpose of this study is to compare fentanyl and tramadol used in CSEA in terms of duration of analgesia and frequency of the adverse fetomaternal outcome. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 primiparas with a singleton pregnancy in active labor were given CSEA after randomly allocating them in two groups of 30 each. Group I received intrathecal 2.5 mg levobupivacaine + 25 μg fentanyl followed by epidural top ups of 20 ml 0.125% solution of the same combination. Group II received 25 mg tramadol instead of fentanyl. Epidural top ups were given when parturient complained of two painful contractions (visual analogue scale ≥ 4. Data collected were demographic profile of the patients, analgesic qualities, side- effects and the fetomaternal outcome. Results: Patients in Group II had significantly prolonged analgesia (145 ± 9 minutes than in Group I (95 ± 7 minutes. Patients receiving fentanyl showed rapid onset of analgesia, but there were more incidence of side-effects like shivering, pruritus, transient fetal bradycardia, hypotension, nausea and vomiting. Only side-effect in the tramadol group was nausea and vomiting. During labor, maternal satisfaction was excellent. Conclusions: Adding tramadol to local anesthetic provides prolonged analgesia with minimal side effects. Fentanyl, when used as adjuvant to local anesthetic, has a rapid onset of analgesia but has certain fetomaternal side-effects.

  12. Postoperative analgesic effects of dexketoprofen, buprenorphine and tramadol in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgaz, J; Navarrete, R; Muñoz-Rascón, P; Domínguez, J M; Fernández-Sarmiento, J A; Gómez-Villamandos, R J; Granados, M M

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the postoperative analgesic effects of dexketoprofen, tramadol, and buprenorphine in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy. Seventy-five adult female dogs were randomly assigned to receive an intravenous injection (IV) of 1mg/kg of dexketoprofen (D), 0.02 mg/kg of buprenorphine (B) or 2mg/kg of tramadol (T). Pain assessment was performed during 48 h after ovariohysterectomy using a dynamic interactive visual analogue scale (DIVAS) and Glasgow composite measure pain scale (CMPS-SF). Rescue analgesia was required in 43%, 21%, and 5% of dogs in the B, T, and D groups, respectively, with significant differences between B and D (p=0.010) groups. The DIVAS and CMPS-SF values of the B group were significantly higher than those of the T and D groups. The most common undesirable effect was dysphoria in dexketoprofen group. Tramadol and dexketoprofen provide superior postoperative analgesia compared with buprenorphine in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Application of ion mobility spectrometry for the determination of tramadol in biological samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sheibani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a simple and rapid ion mobility spectrometry (IMS method has been described for the determination of tramadol. The operating instrumental parameters that could influence IMS were investigated and optimized (temperature; injection: 220 and IMS cell: 190°C, flow rate; carrier: 300 and drift: 600 mL/minute, voltage; corona: 2300 and drift: 7000 V, pulse width: 100 μs. Under optimum conditions, the calibration curves were linear within two orders of magnitude with R2 ≥ 0.998 for the determination of tramadol in human plasma, saliva, serum, and urine samples. The limits of detection and the limits of quantitation were between 0.1 and 0.3 and 0.3 and 1 ng/mL, respectively. The relative standard deviations were between 7.5 and 8.8%. The recovery results (90–103.9% indicate that the proposed method can be applied for tramadol analysis in different biological samples.

  14. [Randomized study comparing piroxicam analgesia and tramadol analgesia during outpatient electromagnetic extracorporeal lithotripsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andréou, Andréas; Sibert, Louis; Montes, Ricardo; Hacpille, Lucie; Pfister, Christian; Grise, Philippe

    2006-04-01

    To analyse the efficacy of two types of analgesia protocols during outpatient electromagnetic extracorporeal lithotripsy (ESWL) with a STORZ Modulith SLX second generation lithotriptor. One hundred and seventy one patients were prospectively randomized to 2 groups. Group 1 (n-82) received 40 mg of Piroxicam IM, and group 2 (n=89) received 100 mg Tramadol IV Lithotripsy was performed in 2 sequences, T1 and T2, during which quantitative evaluation of pain (VE) was performed according to a VAS scale and qualitative evaluation of pain (QE) was performed according to the McGill questionnaire. Endpoints included the mean VE and QE pain scores at T1 and T2, the maximum power tolerated at T2, the postoperative pain at the 6th, 12th and 24th hours after ESWL, the pain score according to the power and according to the frequency and adverse effects. Comparisons were performed by analyses of variance (significant for p 0.05) and significant difference was observedfor pain with the two drugs used. Pain was more severe as frequency and power increased. Only one intervention was stopped because of pain. Data analysis suggests that tramadol induces more adverse effects. Piroxicam and tramadol are two analgesics commonly used in clinical practice and both are suitable for the treatment of pain during outpatient extracorporeal lithotripsy.

  15. Comparative analysis of preemptive analgesic effect of tramadol chlorhydrate and nimesulide following third molar surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa Araújo, Fábio Andrey; de Santana Santos, Thiago; de Morais, Hécio Henrique Araújo; Laureano Filho, José Rodrigues; de Oliveira E Silva, Emanuel Dias; Vasconcellos, Ricardo José Holanda

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this prospective, randomized, controlled, paired trial was to perform a comparative analysis of the preemptive analgesic effect of nimesulide and tramadol chlorhydrate during third molar surgery. The study was carried out between March and November 2009, involving 94 operations in 47 male and female patients with bilateral impacted lower third molars in comparable positions. The sample was divided into two groups. Group A received an oral dose of 100 mg of nimesulide 1 h prior to surgery. Group B received an oral dose of 100 mg of tramadol chlorhydrate 1 h prior to surgery. The following aspects were evaluated in the postoperative period: adverse effects of the drugs; amount of rescue medication used (acetaminophen 750 mg); and pain 5, 6, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72 and 84 h after surgery using a visual analog pain scale. Peak pain occurred 5 h after surgery in both groups, with a mean pain score of 2.3 in Group A and 3.0 in Group B; this difference did not achieve statistical significance (p > 0.141). Based on the sample studied, nimesulide and tramadol chlorhydrate demonstrate similar preemptive analgesic effects when used in lower third molar surgeries. Copyright © 2012 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Analgesic and adjuvant anesthetic effect of submucosal tramadol after mandibular third molar surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccheti, Marcelo Minharro; Negrato, Giovana Vigário; Peres, Maria Paula Siqueira de Melo; Deboni, Maria Cristina Zindel; Naclério-Homem, Maria da Graça

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess analgesic and adjuvant anesthetic effects of submucosal tramadol after third molar extraction. In this double-blind, split-mouth, placebo-controlled, single-dose, crossover investigation, 52 patients underwent mandibular third molar extraction under local anesthesia. Surgical side was randomly assigned to submucosal 2 mL 100 mg tramadol injection (group T) or normal saline solution (group P) immediately after surgery. Anesthetic blockade duration, time of intake and amount of analgesic rescue drug, and postoperative pain intensity were recorded immediately after anesthesia cessation and 4, 8, 24, 48, and 72 hours after surgery. Data were submitted to analysis of variance and Wilcoxon tests. Anesthetic blockade duration between groups was similar. Group T took significantly less rescue drug after 72 hours (P = .008). Time elapsed before first intake of rescue drug was longer (P = .006), and pain intensity was significantly lower (P = .001) in group T. Submucosal tramadol injection after oral surgery improved postoperative analgesia, but did not extend anesthetic action duration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Safety of adjunct pre-emptive intravenous tramadol with midazolam sedation for third molar surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Lars B; Tegelberg, Åke

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate patient safety, in terms of adverse events, alterations in blood pressure or oxygen saturation (SpO2) in two routine sedation procedures, with and without intravenous analgesia. Patients referred for surgical removal of mandibular third molars were treated in a randomized, controlled, single-blinded procedure. Eighty-seven men and women, aged 18 to 44 years, were allotted to either of two treatment groups, midazolam + tramadol (M + T) and midazolam + saline (M + S) or to a control group (C), given no sedation. Tramadol at 1 mg/kg body weight resulted in a higher frequency of oxygen desaturation (SpO2 surgery. In both the test groups, there was a significant decrease in diastolic blood pressure (p surgery. The results confirm that pre-emptive intravenous tramadol, administered at 1 mg/kg body weight as an adjunct to midazolam sedation for third molar surgery, offers a safe method. But, it should be noted that our previous study shows that it is not a particularly effective analgesic. Further testing is therefore warranted, using other doses or other drugs, to find a better intravenous protocol for postoperative analgesia, with maximum effect and minimal risk, in outpatient oral and maxillofacial surgery procedures.

  18. Preemptive analgesic effectiveness of oral ketorolac plus local tramadol after impacted mandibular third molar surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isiordia-Espinoza, Mario A; Pozos-Guillén, Amaury J; Martínez-Rider, Ricardo; Herrera-Abarca, Jorge E; Pérez-Urizar, José

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare preemptive analgesia of oral ketorolac plus submucous local placebo with oral ketorolac plus submucous local tramadol after impacted mandibular third molar surgery. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted. Patients were randomized into two treatment groups (n = 15 per group): group A, oral ketorolac 10 mg, 30 minutes before surgery plus submucous local placebo (1 mL saline solution); group B, oral ketorolac 10 mg, 30 minutes before surgery plus submucous local tramadol (50 mg diluted in 1 mL saline solution). We evaluated the intensity of pain, time for the first analgesic rescue medication, and total analgesic consumption. Pain intensity, number of patients requiring analgesic rescue medication, number of patients in each group not requiring analgesic rescue medication, and total analgesic consumption showed statistical significance. Preemptive use of oral ketorolac plus submucous local tramadol is an alternative treatment for acute pain after surgical removal of an impacted mandibular third molar.

  19. Designing and characterizing of tramadol hydrochloride transdermal patches prepared with Ficus carica fruit mucilage and povidone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahad, Hindustan Abdul; Ishaq, Beludari Mohammed; Shaik, Muneer; Bandagisa, Faheem

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to prepare matrix type transdermal patches of Tramadol HCl using various ratios of Ficus carica fruit mucilage and Povidone. The matrix type transdermal patches were prepared using Tramadol HCl with Ficus carica fruit mucilage and Povidone. The interactions between Tramadol HCl with F. carica fruit mucilage and Povidone were performed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The prepared patches were examined for physicochemical characterization and in vitro drug permeation studies (using a Keshary-Chien diffusion cell across hairless Albino rat skin), skin irritation studies and accelerated stability studies. The drug was found to be free from negligible interactions with the polymers used. The formulated patches possessed satisfactory physicochemical properties, in vitro drug permeation and devoid of serious skin irritation. The selected formulation (F-5) was retains the characteristics even after the accelerated environmental conditions. The study concludes that F. carica fruit mucilage with Povidone is a good combination for preparing transdermal patches.

  20. The Effects of Preemptive Tramadol and Dexmedetomidine on Shivering During Arthroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semsettin Bozgeyik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Shivering, the rate of which in regional anesthesia is 39% is an undesired complication seen postoperatively. Aims: This study aims to compare the ability of preventing the shivering of preemptive tramadol and dexmedetomidine during the spinal anesthesia (SA. Methods: A total of 90 patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I-II, aged 18-60 years and undergoing elective arthroscopic surgery with SA were divided into three groups randomly. After spinal block, 100 mg tramadol in 100 ml saline was applied in group T- (n = 30 and 0.5 μg/kg dexmedetomidine in 100 ml saline was applied in group D- (n = 30 and 100 ml saline was administered in group P- (n = 30 in 10 min. The hemodynamics, oxygen saturation, tympanic temperature, shivering and sedation scores were evaluated and recorded intraoperatively and 45 min after a postoperative period. Results: In group T and D, shivering scores were significantly lower when compared with group P in the intraoperative 20 th min (P = 0.01. Sedation scores in group D were significantly higher than the baseline values (P = 0.03 and values in group T and P (P = 0.04. Conclusions: Preemptive tramadol and dexmedetomidine are effective in preventing the shivering under SA. In addition, dexmedetomidine was superior in increasing the level of sedation which is sufficient to prevent the anxiety without any adverse effects.

  1. A comparative study of the effect of clonidine and tramadol on post-spinal anaesthesia shivering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Shukla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, potency and side effects of clonidine as compared to tramadol in post-spinal anaesthesia shivering. In this prospective double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial, 80 American Society of Anaesthesiologists grade-l (ASAI patients aged between 18 and 45 years scheduled for various surgical procedures under spinal anaesthesia, who developed shivering were selected.The patients were divided into two groups: Group C (n=40 comprised of patients who received clonidine 0.5mg/kg intravenously (IV and group patients who received tramadol 0.5 mg/kg IV. Grade of shivering, disappearance of shivering, haemodynamics and side effects were observed at scheduled intervals. Disappearance of shivering was significantly earlier in group C (2.54±0.76 than in group T (5.01±1.02 (P=.0000001. Response rate to treatment in group C was higher (97.5% than in group T (92.5%, but the difference was not significant. Nausea, vomiting and dizziness were found to be higher in group T (P=0.001, 0.005, 0.001, respectively, while the patients in group C were comparatively more sedated (sedation level, 2; group C, 25%. We conclude that clonidine gives better thermodynamics than tramadol, with fewer side effects.

  2. Tramadol as adjunct to psoas compartment block with levobupivacaine 0.5%: a randomized double-blinded study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mannion, S

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Tramadol has been administered peripherally to prolong analgesia after brachial plexus and neuraxial blocks. Our aim was to evaluate the systemic and perineural effects of tramadol as an analgesic adjunct to psoas compartment block (PCB) with levobupivacaine. METHODS: In a randomized, prospective, double-blinded trial, 60 patients (ASA I-III), aged 49-88 yr, undergoing primary total hip or knee arthroplasty underwent PCB and subsequent bupivacaine spinal anaesthesia. Patients were randomized into three groups. Each patient received PCB with levobupivacaine 0.5%, 0.4 ml kg(-1). The control group (group L, n=21) received i.v. saline, the systemic tramadol group (group IT, n=19) received i.v. tramadol 1.5 mg kg(-1) and the perineural tramadol group (group T, n=20) received i.v. saline and PCB with tramadol 1.5 mg kg(-1). Postoperatively patients received regular paracetamol 6-hourly and diclofenac sodium 12-hourly. Time to first morphine analgesia, 24-hour morphine consumption, sensory block, pain and sedation scores and haemodynamic parameters were recorded. RESULTS: Time (h) to first morphine analgesia was similar in the three groups [mean (SD)]: group L, 11.2 (6.6); group T, 14.5 (8.0); group IT, 14.6 (6.8); P=0.35. Twenty-four-hour cumulative morphine (mg) consumption was also similar in the three groups [group L, 21.9 (10.1); group T, 19.8 (6.7), group IT, 16.5 (9.5)], as were durations of sensory and motor block. There were no differences in the incidence of adverse effects except that patients in group IT were more sedated at 14 h than group L (P=0.02). CONCLUSION: We conclude that our data do not support a clinically important local anaesthetic or peripheral analgesic effect of tramadol as adjunct to PCB with levobupivacaine 0.5%.

  3. Effect of Nigella sativa Linn oil on tramadol-induced hepato- and nephrotoxicity in adult male albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Elkhateeb

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the role of Nigella sativa Linn (NsL oil against subacute tramadol-induced hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity as well as oxidative stress in adult male albino rats. Sixty adult male albino rats were divided into four groups. Group I: control group; 30 rats equally subdivided into: Ia; −ve control group, Ib; +ve control group received saline, Ic; +ve control group received corn oil. Group II: 10 rats received NsL oil; 1 mg/kg in 1 ml corn oil/day, group III: 10 rats received tramadol; 30 mg/kg/day, group IV: 10 rats received tramadol + NsL oil in the previous doses. Treatments were given by gavage for 30 days. Then rats were sacrificed and specimens from the livers and kidneys were taken for biochemical and histopathological study. Biochemical data showed elevated liver enzymes; alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT, bilirubin as well as urea and creatinine in tramadol group. A significant increase in hepatic and renal malondialdehyde (MDA and a decrease in glutathione peroxidase (GPx levels were also noticed. Histological analysis of the liver showed vacuolated hepatocyte cytoplasm indicating hydropic degeneration with binucleated cells, apoptotic nuclei, congested central veins, cellular infiltration and hemorrhage. Kidney sections revealed atrophied glomeruli with collapsed tufts and wide Bowman's space, degenerated tubules, hemorrhage and mononuclear cellular infiltration. There was also an increase in area % of collagen fibers in both organs. Concomitant use of NsL oil with tramadol induced partial improvement in the hepato- and nephrotoxic effects. In conclusion, this study suggested that concomitant use of NsL oil with tramadol proved to be capable of ameliorating tramadol-induced hepato- and nephrotoxicity which might be due to its antioxidant potential.

  4. [A prospective, randomized, double-blinded control study on comparison of tramadol, clonidine and dexmedetomidine for post spinal anesthesia shivering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatraman, Rajagopalan; Karthik, Krishnamoorthy; Pushparani, Anand; Mahalakshmi, Annadurai

    Shivering, a common intraoperative problem under spinal anesthesia increases the oxygen consumption considerably and is uncomfortable and distressing to the patient, anesthesiologist as well as surgeon. The present study was designed to explore the effectiveness of tramadol, clonidine and dexmedetomidine in the treatment of post spinal anesthesia shivering and to look for their adverse effects. This prospective, randomized, double blinded control study was done on 90 patients who developed shivering under spinal anesthesia. They were randomly allocated into three groups with Group T receiving tramadol 1mg.kg -1 , Group C getting clonidine 1mcg.kg -1 and Group D patients receiving dexmedetomidine 0.5mcg.kg -1 . The time taken to control shivering, recurrence rate, hemodynamic variables, sedation score and adverse effects were observed. Dexmedetomidine was faster in the control of shivering in 5.7±0.79minutes (min) whereas tramadol took 6.76±0.93min and clonidine was slower with 9.43±0.93min. The recurrence rate was much lower in the dexmedetomidine group with 3.3% than for clonidine (10%) and tramadol (23.3%) group. The sedation achieved with dexmedetomidine was better than clonidine and tramadol. The tramadol group had more cases of vomiting (four) and dexmedetomidine group had six cases of hypotension and two cases of bradycardia. Two of the clonidine patients encountered bradycardia and hypotension. Dexmedetomidine is better than tramadol and clonidine in the control of shivering because of its faster onset and less recurrence rate. Though complications are encountered in the dexmedetomidine group, they are treatable. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. The role of tramadol in pain management in Latin America: a report by the Change Pain Latin America Advisory Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Garcia, Joäo Batista; Lech, Osvandré; Campos Kraychete, Durval; Rico, María Antonieta; Hernández-Castro, John Jairo; Colimon, Frantz; Guerrero, Carlos; Sempértegui Gallegos, Manuel; Lara-Solares, Argelia; Flores Cantisani, José Alberto; Amescua-Garcia, César; Guillén Núñez, María Del Rocío; Berenguel Cook, María Del Rosario; Jreige Iskandar, Aziza; Bonilla Sierra, Patricia

    2017-09-01

    Change Pain Latin America (CPLA) was created to enhance chronic pain understanding and develop pain management improving strategies in this region. During its seventh meeting (August 2016), the main objective was to discuss tramadol's role in treating pain in Latin America. Furthermore, potential pain management consequences were considered, if tramadol was to become more stringently controlled. Key topics discussed were: main indications for prescribing tramadol, its pharmacological characteristics, safety and tolerability, effects of restrictions on its availability and use, and consequent impact on pain care quality. The experts agreed that tramadol is used to treat a wide spectrum of non-oncological pain conditions (e.g. post-surgical, musculoskeletal, post-traumatic, neuropathic, fibromyalgia), as well as cancer pain. Its relevance when treating special patient groups (e.g. the elderly) is recognized. The main reasons for tramadol's high significance as a treatment option are: its broad efficacy, an inconspicuous safety profile and its availability, considering that access to strong analgesics - mainly controlled drugs (classical opioids) - is highly restricted in some countries. The CPLA also agreed that tramadol is well tolerated, without the safety issues associated with long-term nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use, with fewer opioid-like side effects than classical opioids and lower abuse risk. In Latin America, tramadol is a valuable and frequently used medication for treating moderate to severe pain. More stringent regulations would have significant impact on its availability, especially for outpatients. This could cause regression to older and frequently inadequate pain management methods, resulting in unnecessary suffering for many Latin American patients.

  6. Assessment of abuse liability of Tramadol among experienced drug users: Double-blind crossover randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Mrinmay; Jain, Raka; Dhawan, Anju; Kaur, Amandeep

    Tramadol is a widely used opioid analgesic. Different preclinical, clinical, and postmarketing surveillance studies show conflicting results regarding abuse potential of this drug. A randomized double-blind complete crossover study was conducted at National Drug Dependence Treatment Centre, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. Total subjects were 10, comprising total 120 observations (each subject assessed at baseline, 5, 45, and 240 minutes). Subjects with history of substance abuse were included after detoxification and informed consent. Assessment was done using modified single dose opiate questionnaire, morphine benzedrine group (MBG), pentobarbital chlorpromazine alcohol group (PCAG), and two bipolar visual analogue scales (VAS) after administration of three drugs-Tramadol (100 mg), Buprenorphine (0.6 mg), and Placebo (Normal Saline) intramuscularly, at 5-day interval. In intra-group analysis, there was statistically significant increase in scores of all four scales from baseline to all three time points after Tramadol and Buprenorphine administration. In inter-group analysis, statistically higher scores were seen for Buprenorphine in comparison to Tramadol at 5, 45, and 240 minutes for MBG scale; the score was significantly higher for Buprenorphine in VAS for pleasurable effect at 45 and 240 minutes, but not at baseline and 5 minutes. There was no significant difference in score at any point of time between Tramadol and Buprenorphine in PCAG scale and VAS for sedative/alertness effect. The scores were statistically insignificant in case of Placebo. All the subjects liked Buprenorphine most and then Tramadol followed by Placebo. Tramadol has abuse potential (even in therapeutic doses) more than Placebo but less than or comparable to Buprenorphine.

  7. Development and validation of a new GC-MS method for the detection of tramadol, O-desmethyltramadol, 6-acetylmorphine and morphine in blood, brain, liver and kidney of Wistar rats treated with the combination of heroin and tramadol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdy, Tarek; El-Shihi, Taha H; Emara, Mostafa M; Chericoni, Silvio; Giusiani, Mario; Giorgi, Mario

    2012-10-01

    Heroin is one of the most dangerous abused drugs in the world. Tramadol is an additive recently found at high concentration levels in street heroin seizures in Egypt. This substance could affect the usual analytical method for the detection of heroin and metabolites, as well as the pharmacokinetic and disposition of single analytes. One shortfall regarding this issue is present in the literature. This study describes a validated, simple, sensitive and selective method to determine tramadol, O-desmethyltramadol, 6-acetylmorphine and free morphine in the blood, brain, liver and kidney of Wistar rats, intraperitoneally treated with a combination of heroin and tramadol (10 and 70 mg/kg, respectively) using liquid-liquid extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection. The calibration curves of tramadol, O-desmethyltramadol and 6-acetylmorphine in blood were linear in the concentration range from 25-5,000 ng/mL and morphine was found in the concentration range 50-5,000 ng/mL. The analytes were detected in all tested matrices, except 6-acetylmorphine, which was not detected in liver. The highest concentrations of tramadol and O-desmethyltramadol were observed in kidney (22,9381 and 28,498 ng/g), while 6-acetylmorphine and morphine were found at the highest levels in brain (3,280 and 3,899 ng/g, respectively). The present method is simple, rapid and sensitive and can be used to study the pharmacokinetics, disposition and interaction of these drugs in several animal models.

  8. "Weak" opioid analgesics. Codeine, dihydrocodeine and tramadol: no less risky than morphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    So-called weak opioid analgesics are often used to treat severe pain, or when paracetamol or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) proves inadequate. But are weak opioids any more effective than paracetamol or NSAIDs on nociceptive pain, and are they better tolerated than morphine? To answer these questions, we conducted a review of literature using the standard Prescrire methodology. The potency of codeine and tramadol is strongly influenced by the cytochrome P450 isoenzyme CYP2D6 genotype, which varies widely from one person to another. This explains reports of overdosing or underdosing after administration of standard doses of the two drugs. The potency of morphine and that of buprenorphine, an opioid receptor agonist-antagonist, appears to be independent of CYP2D6 activity. All "weak" opioids can have the same dose-dependent adverse effects as morphine. There is no evidence that, at equivalent analgesic efficacy, weak opioids carry a lower risk of addiction than low-dose morphine. Respiratory depression can occur in ultrarapid metabolisers after brief exposure to standard doses of codeine or tramadol. Similar cases have been reported with dihydrocodeine in patients with renal failure. In addition, tramadol can cause a serotonin syndrome, hypoglycaemia, hyponatraemia and seizures. Several trials have compared different weak opioids in patients with post-operative pain. A single dose of a weak opioid, possibly combined with paracetamol, has greater analgesic efficacy than paracetamol alone but is not more effective than an NSAID alone. There is a dearth of evidence on weak opioids in patients with chronic pain. Available trials fail to show that a weak opioid has markedly superior analgesic efficacy to paracetamol or an NSAID. Sublingual buprenorphine at analgesic doses appears less likely to cause respiratory depression, but it seems to have weak analgesic efficacy. In practice, when opioid therapy is needed, there is no evidence that codeine

  9. Influencia del pH sobre la estabilidad de preparados de Inmunoglobulinas intravenosas para uso humano durante el almacenamiento

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    Ma Esther Castellano

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available La eliminación o disociación de los agregados de IgG, es uno de los requisitos que debe poseer cualquier método de purificación de inmunoglobulinas para uso intravenoso. Se demostró con el uso de la Cromatografía en Gel y la Espectrofotometría, que el pH ácido (4,5, confiere una mayor estabilidad molecular a la IgG, permitiendo la disociación de la mayor parte de los agregados durante el almacenamiento prolongado utilizando dextrosa (5% como estabilizante, fenómeno que está influido por la fuerza iónica del medio para cada uno de los pH. Muestras con contenido de polímeros entre 1% y 3% pierden los mismos en un período inferior a los seis meses. A su vez el uso de pH 4,0, mostró ventajas en la no formación de polímeros durante el calentamiento, en comparación con los pH más básicos. A los 5 minutos de calentamiento, la absorvancia de la muestra a pH 7,0, aumentó en un 60% en comparación con la muestra a pH 4,0.

  10. Steroidogenic disruptive effects of the serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors duloxetine, venlafaxine and tramadol in the H295R cell assay and in a recombinant CYP17 assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islin, Julie; Munkboel, Cecilie Hurup; Styrishave, Bjarne

    2018-01-01

    as end point, the margin of safety (defined as NOAEL/Cmax) for duloxetine was 1.6 indicating that duloxetine may have endocrine disrupting effects. In contrast, venlafaxine and tramadol showed higher margins of safety (venlafaxine: 24; tramadol: 157) indicating a lower potential to disrupt the human...

  11. Fast-release orodispersible tramadol as analgesia in hysterosalpingography with a metal cannula or a balloon catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoop, D; De Brucker, M; Haentjens, P; Talebian, A; de Mey, J; Devroey, P

    2010-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the potential benefit, in terms of pain relief, of the new oral fast-release orodispersible galvanic form of tramadol in women undergoing hysterosalpingography (HSG) with either a metal cannula or a balloon catheter. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2 x 2 factorial-design trial, conducted at a single academic centre, 128 women were assigned into groups: (I) tramadol and a metal cannula, (II) tramadol and a balloon catheter, (III) placebo and a metal cannula or (IV) placebo and a balloon catheter. The primary end-point was pain registered by the patients on 10-cm visual analogue scales (VASs) at various times during and after the procedure. Secondary end-points included side effects and pain as assessed by the same physician during HSG. The main effect of tramadol versus placebo medication (i.e. I and II versus III and IV) was a statistically significant difference (P effect of the balloon catheter versus metal cannula (i.e. II and IV versus I and III) was a non-significant (P = 0.82) difference in patient-reported VAS of -0.05 (-0.49 to +0.39) and -2% (-21% to +17%). There were no medication-HSG device interactions and no differences in side effects. During and after HSG, fast-release orodispersible tramadol significantly reduces pain without increasing side effects.

  12. Comparison of Pethidine and Tramadol for Control of Shivering in Patients undergoing Elective Surgery under Spinal Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Sharma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Shivering is a common problem faced by an anesthesiologist during intraoperative as well as in postoperative period, specially after sub-arachnoid block (SAB. It is unpleasant and undesirable and is secondary to vasodilation following sympathetic blockade. The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of pethidine on postoperative shivering following SAB and to compare its effects with those of tramadol. Methods: This randomized, prospective study was conducted in American society of anesthesiologists (ASA grade I and II  patients undergoing surgery under SAB, to compare the efficacy of tramadol  and pethidine for control of shivering. Patients received tramadol or pethidine in a dose of 0.5mg/kg intra-venously after the appearance of shivering. Disappearance of shivering, side-effects as well as hemodynamics were observed at scheduled intervals. Results: There were a total of 79 patients randomized into two groups. There were 44 patients receiving pethidine (Group P and the rest 35 receiving tramadol (Group T. Shivering score was significantly lower in Group P at 10, 15, 20, and 30 minutes compared to that in Group T. Sedation score was higher in pethidine group. Adverse effects in terms of nausea and vomiting was significantly higher in Group T. Conclusion: Pethidine provide better anti-shivering effect then tramadol with less side effects (nausea and vomiting  but more sedation.

  13. Single fixed-dose oral dexketoprofen plus tramadol for acute postoperative pain in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derry, Sheena; Cooper, Tess E; Phillips, Tudor

    2016-09-22

    Combining two different analgesics in fixed doses in a single tablet can provide better pain relief than either drug alone in acute pain. This appears to be broadly true across a range of different drug combinations, in postoperative pain and migraine headache. A new combination of dexketoprofen (a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug) plus tramadol (an opioid) has been tested in acute postoperative pain conditions. It is not yet licensed for use. This review is one of a series on oral analgesics for acute postoperative pain. Individual reviews have been brought together in two overviews to provide information about the relative efficacy and harm of the different interventions. To assess the analgesic efficacy and adverse effects of a single fixed-dose of oral dexketoprofen plus tramadol, compared with placebo, for moderate to severe postoperative pain in adults, using methods that permit comparison with other analgesics evaluated in standardised trials using almost identical methods and outcomes. A secondary objective was to compare the combination with the individual analgesics alone. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) via CRSO, MEDLINE via Ovid, and Embase via Ovid from inception to 31 May 2016. We also searched the reference lists of retrieved studies and reviews, and two online clinical trial registries. Randomised, double-blind trials of oral dexketoprofen plus tramadol administered as a single oral dose, for the relief of acute postoperative pain in adults, and compared to placebo. Two review authors independently considered trials for inclusion in the review, examined issues of study quality and potential bias, and extracted data. For dichotomous outcomes, we calculated risk ratio (RR) and number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNT) for dexketoprofen plus tramadol, compared with placebo with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We collected information on the number of participants with at least 50% of

  14. The effect of intra-articular hyaluronate and tramadol injection on patients with adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-Hee; Suh, Jung-Woo; Oh, Ki Young

    2017-08-03

    Local administration of opioids causes effective analgesia without adverse effects related to the central nervous system. After the beneficial demonstration of peripheral opioid receptors in joint synovia, intra-articular opioid injections were used for pain treatment. Clinical studies have reported the safety and efficacy of hyaluronate injection in the shoulder joint of patients with osteoarthritis, periarthritis, rotator cuff tears, and adhesive capsulitis. To estimate the efficacy of intra-articular hyaluronate and tramadol injection for adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder compared with that of intra-articular hyaluronate injection alone. Thirty patients with adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder were randomized to the hyaluronate group (n= 16) or the tramadol group (n= 14). Hyaluronate group members were administered five weekly intra-articular hyaluronate injections; tramadol group members were administered three weekly intra-articular hyaluronate and tramadol injections and then two weekly intra-articular injections of hyaluronate. Visual Analog Scale (VAS), passive range of motion (PROM) of the shoulder joint, and Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) scores were assessed at baseline and weeks 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 after the initial injection. A significant improvement was observed in VAS, PROM, and SPADI scores between time points in both groups. In comparison in both groups at weeks 1 and 2 after the initial injection the VAS scores of the tramadol group were significantly lower than those of the hyaluronate group. Intra-articular hyaluronate with tramadol showed more rapid and strong analgesic effects than intra-articular hyaluronate alone and did not induce any adverse effects.

  15. Metoclopramide improves the quality of tramadol PCA indistinguishable to morphine PCA: a prospective, randomized, double blind clinical comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Weiwu; Liu, Yu-Cheng; Maboudou, Edgard; Chen, Tom Xianxiu; Chois, John M; Liao, Cheng-Chun; Wu, Rick Sai-Chuen

    2013-09-01

    Multimodal analgesia has been effectively used in postoperative pain control. Tramadol can be considered "multimodal" because it has two main mechanisms of action, an opioid agonist and a reuptake inhibitor of norepinephrine and serotonin. Tramadol is not as commonly used as morphine due to the increased incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). As metoclopramide is an antiemetic and an analgesic, it was hypothesized that when added to reduce PONV, metoclopromide may enhance the multimodal feature of tramadol by the analgesic property of metoclopramide. Therefore, the effectiveness of postoperative patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) with morphine was compared against PCA with combination of tramadol and metoclopramide. A prospective, randomized, double blind clinical trial. Academic pain service of a university hospital. Sixty patients undergoing elective total knee arthroplasty with general anesthesia. Sixty patients were randomly divided into Group M and Group T. In a double-blinded fashion, Group M received intraoperative 0.2 mg/kg morphine and postoperative PCA with 1 mg morphine per bolus, whereas Group T received intraoperative tramadol 2.5 mg/kg and postoperative PCA with 20 mg tramadol plus 1 mg metoclopramide per bolus. Lockout interval was 5 minutes in both groups. Pain scale, satisfaction rate, analgesic consumption, PCA demand, and side effects were recorded by a blind investigator. These two groups displayed no statistically significant difference between the items and variables evaluated. This combination provides analgesia equivalent to that of morphine and can be used as an alternative to morphine PCA. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Tramadol and the risk of fracture in an elderly female population: a cost utility assessment with comparison to transdermal buprenorphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, Alexander; Knight, Chris; Hirst, Matt; Dunlop, Will; Akehurst, Ron

    2016-03-01

    Opioid treatment for chronic pain is a known risk factor for falls and/or fractures in elderly patients. The latter cause a significant cost to the National Health Service and the Personal Social Services in the UK. Tramadol has a higher risk of fractures than some other opioid analgesics used to treat moderate-to-severe pain and, in the model described here, we investigate the cost effectiveness of transdermal buprenorphine treatment compared with tramadol in a high-risk population. A model was developed to assess the cost effectiveness of tramadol compared with transdermal buprenorphine over a 1-year time horizon and a patient population of high-risk patients (female patients age 75 or older). To estimate the total cost and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) of treatment, published odds ratios are used in combination with the published incidence rates of four types of fracture: hip, wrist, humerus and other. The model shows tramadol to be associated with 1,058 more fractures per 100,000 patients per year compared with transdermal buprenorphine, resulting in transdermal buprenorphine being cost-effective with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of less than £7,000 compared with tramadol. Sensitivity analysis found this result to be robust. In the UK data, there is uncertainty regarding the transdermal buprenorphine odds ratios for fractures. Odds ratios published in Danish and Swedish studies show similar point estimates but are associated with less uncertainty. Transdermal buprenorphine is cost-effective compared to tramadol at a willingness-to-pay threshold of £20,000 per QALY.

  17. Use of oral tramadol to prevent perianesthetic shivering in patients undergoing transurethral resection of prostate under subarachnoid blockade

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    Anurag Tewari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Under regional anesthesia, geriatric patients are prone to shivering induced perioperative complications that Anesthesiologists should prevent rather than treat. Aim: We investigated the prophylactic efficacy of oral tramadol 50 mg to prevent the perioperative shivering after transurethral resection of prostate (TURP surgery under subarachnoid blockade (SAB. Shivering is usually overlooked in patients undergoing urological surgery under spinal anesthesia and may result in morbidity, prolonged hospital stay and increased financial burden. Use of prophylactic measures to reduce shivering in geriatric patients who undergo urological procedures could circumvent this. Oral formulation of tramadol is a universally available cost-effective drug with the minimal side-effects. Settings and Design: Prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. Patients and Methods: A total of 80 patients who were scheduled for TURP surgery under subarachnoid block were randomly selected. Group I and II (n = 40 each received oral tramadol 50 mg and placebo tablet respectively. After achieving subarachnoid block, the shivering, body temperature (tympanic membrane, axillary and forehead, hemodynamic parameters and arterial saturation were recorded at regular intervals. Statistical Analysis Used: T-test, analysis of variance test, Z-test and Fisher exact test were utilized while Statistical Product and Service Solutions, IBM, Chicago (SPSS statistics (version 16.0, software was used for analysis. Results: Incidence of shivering was significantly less in patients who received tramadol (7.5% vs. 40%; P < 0.01. The use of tramadol was associated with clinically inconsequential side-effects. Conclusion: We conclude that the use of oral tramadol 50 mg is effective as a prophylactic agent to reduce the incidence, severity and duration of perioperative shivering in patients undergoing TURP surgery under SAB.

  18. Órfãos de terapia medicamentosa: a administração de medicamentos por via intravenosa em crianças hospitalizadas

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    Peterlini Maria Angélica Sorgini

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudo descritivo, realizado em um hospital universitário, que verificou quantidade e tipo de medicamentos administrados por via intravenosa em crianças, além da adequação da apresentação farmacológica para uso em pediatria e custo estimado de administração de algumas drogas. Em trinta dias, foram administradas 8.245 doses de medicamentos, com média diária de 274,83 doses, e projeção anual de 98.940. Os principais medicamentos utilizados foram metilpredinosolona, vancomicina, furosemida, ranitidina, penicilina, amicacina, midazolan, fentanil, ceftriaxone e cefalotina. Nenhum dos 41 medicamentos identificados possuía apresentação pediátrica, acarretando, em alguns casos, maior manipulação durante o preparo, risco de contaminação e perda da estabilidade. Observou-se que a falta de apresentação pediátrica gerou aumento dos custos de atendimento; na prescrição de uma criança em pós-operatório, com tempo de internação estimado de cinco dias, a terapia administrada diária foi de US$ 6.71, e US$ 39.52 de medicamentos tiveram que ser desprezados, por excederem as necessidades terapêuticas da criança.

  19. Effect of the CYP2D6 gene polymorphism on postoperative analgesia of tramadol in Han nationality nephrectomy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hong; Lu, Shu-Jun; Zhang, Rui; Liu, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Yan-Zhuo; Song, Chun-Yu

    2015-06-01

    Tramadol is a synthetic opioid which has analgesic efficacy in the postoperative pain. It is metabolized by polymorphic enzyme cytochrome P450 (CYP2D6). Patients with different CYP2D6 genotypes would have different responses to tramadol in pain relief. The CYP2D6*10 allele is the most common allele in a Chinese population. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the different CYP2D6*10 genotypes have an effect on the postoperative tramadol analgesia in the Chinese population after elective nephrectomy. One hundred and twenty patients after performed elective nephrectomy were enrolled in this study after being approved by the local Ethics Committee. The patients were given patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) which included 10 mg/ml tramadol after receiving a loading dose of 100 mg tramadol and 1 mg granisetron intravenously. Blood samples were collected after induction of anesthesia. The CYP2D6*10 polymorphism was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). According to the results, the patients were divided into three groups (CYP2D6*1/*1, n = 33; CYP2D6*1/*10, n = 28; CYP2D6*10/*10, n = 50). The total consumption of tramadol, visual analogue scale (VAS) score, and PCA control times among the three genotype groups for 2, 4, 24, 48, and 72 h after operation were compared. Nine out of 120 patients were dropped out of the study; 111 patients completed the study. The frequency of CYP2D6*10 allele was 57.7%. The demographic data among the three groups were comparable. The consumption of tramadol, patient self-control times of pump, and VAS score in CYP2D6*10/*10 group were significantly higher than that in CYP2D6*1/*1 or CYP2D6*1/*10 group at 2 and 4 h (P 0.05). There was no difference in the incidence of nausea and vomiting among the three groups (P > 0.05). No sever apnea was recorded in these groups. Different CYP2D6*10 genotypes have an influence on the analgesic effect of tramadol in Han nationality patients after

  20. Isobolographic analysis of the antinociceptive interaction between ursolic acid and diclofenac or tramadol in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Déciga-Campos, Myrna; Cortés, Alejandra; Pellicer, Francisco; Díaz-Reval, Irene; González-Trujano, María Eva

    2014-02-01

    It is considered that natural products used in folk medicine can potentiate the effect of drugs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacological interaction between ursolic acid, a triterpene isolated from herbal medicines to treat pain, and the analgesics diclofenac or tramadol. Individual dose-response curves of the antinociceptive effect of these compounds were built to calculate the ED50, as well as the pharmacological interaction, by using isobolographic analysis. All treatments decreased significantly and in a dose-dependent manner the writhing behavior with ED50 values of 103.50 ± 19.66, 20.54 ± 6.05, and 9.60 ± 1.69 mg/kg, for ursolic acid, diclofenac, and tramadol, respectively. An isobolographic analysis allowed the characterization of the pharmacological interaction produced by a fixed ratio combination of 1 : 1 and 1 : 3 of equi-effective doses of these compounds. Theoretical antinociceptive ED50 values of ursolic acid-diclofenac were 62.12 ± 10.28 and 41.43 ± 6.69 mg/kg, respectively, not statistically different from those obtained experimentally (44.52 ± 5.25 and 44.89 ± 49.05 mg/kg, respectively), reporting an additive interaction. Theoretical antinociceptive ED50 values of ursolic acid-tramadol (56.56 ± 9.87 and 33.08 ± 5.07 mg/kg, respectively) were significantly lower than those observed experimentally (138.36 ± 49.05 and 67.34 ± 18.98 mg/kg, respectively) reporting antagonism in this interaction. Antinociceptive response obtained from isobolograms in the writhing test was corroborated by using formalin test in mice. Adverse effects such as gastric damage in the ursolic acid-diclofenac combination did not increase in an additive form similarly as with antinociception. Conversely, sedative response was significantly increased in the ursolic acid-tramadol combination. As observed in the formalin test, the antagonism on the antinociceptive response between ursolic acid

  1. Efficacy of Tramadol Extended-Release for Opioid Withdrawal: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Kelly E; Tompkins, D Andrew; Bigelow, George E; Strain, Eric C

    2017-09-01

    Opioid use disorder (OUD) is a significant public health problem. Supervised withdrawal (ie, detoxification) from opioids using clonidine or buprenorphine hydrochloride is a widely used treatment. To evaluate whether tramadol hydrochloride extended-release (ER), an approved analgesic with opioid and nonopioid mechanisms of action and low abuse potential, is effective for use in supervised withdrawal settings. A randomized clinical trial was conducted in a residential research setting with 103 participants with OUD. Participants' treatment was stabilized with morphine, 30 mg, administered subcutaneously 4 times daily. A 7-day taper using clonidine (n = 36), tramadol ER (n = 36), or buprenorphine (n = 31) was then instituted, and patients were crossed-over to double-blind placebo during a post-taper period. The study was conducted from October 25, 2010, to June 23, 2015. Retention, withdrawal symptom management, concomitant medication utilization, and naltrexone induction. Results were analyzed over time and using area under the curve for the intention-to-treat and completer groups. Of the 103 participants, 88 (85.4%) were men and 43 (41.7%) were white; mean (SD) age was 28.9 (10.4) years. Buprenorphine participants (28 [90.3%]) were significantly more likely to be retained at the end of the taper compared with clonidine participants (22 [61.1%]); tramadol ER retention was intermediate and did not differ significantly from that of the other groups (26 [72.2%]; χ2 = 8.5, P = .01). Time-course analyses of withdrawal revealed significant effects of phase (taper, post taper) for the Clinical Opiate Withdrawal Scale (COWS) score (taper mean, 5.19 [SE, .26]; post-taper mean, 3.97 [SE, .23]; F2,170 = 3.6, P = .03) and Subjective Opiate Withdrawal Scale (SOWS) score (taper mean,8.81 [SE, .40]; post-taper mean, 4.14 [SE, .30]; F2,170 = 15.7, P withdrawal severity between the taper and post-taper periods for clonidine (taper mean, 13.1; post

  2. Evaluation of the Analgesic Efficacy of Dexketoprofen and Tramadol in Thyroid Surgery

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    Ayşe Çiğdem Tütüncü

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the analgesic efficacy and side-effects of dexketoprofen and tramadol administered intravenously before thyroid surgery. Methods: A group of 63 patients, who were graded as American Society of Anaesthesiologists physical status (ASA I-II and in whom a thyroid surgery was planned, were randomly divided into 3 groups: the patients in Group D (n=21, Group T (n=21 and Group K (n=21 received 50 mg (2ml of dexketoprofen, 100 mg (2 ml of tramadol and 2 ml 0.9% NaCl serum, respectively, before surgery. Standard anesthesia monitoring, induction and maintenance was performed in all patients. At the end of the surgery, the incision line was infiltrated with bupivacaine in all patients. Visual analogue scale (VAS scores (0: no pain,10: worst pain ever were recorded in all groups at the beginning (in the recovery room, at the 1st, 6th, 12th and 24th hour post-operatively. Nausea-vomiting, head and neck pain, sore throat, dizziness and other possible side-effects were also asked and recorded. Results: VAS scores were statistically higher in Group K than in Group T and Group D at the 1st, 6th, 12th, and 24th hours postoperatively. There was no significant difference between Group T and Group D in VAS scores evaluated at all time points.. The fentanyl consumption in Group K was higher than in the other two groups. The incidence of headache, sore throat nausea, vomiting was higher in Group K compared with that in Group T and Group D. Conclusion: We determined that preoperative tramadol and dexketoprofen had similar analgesic effect and dexketoprofen caused less side-effects. (The Me­di­cal Bul­le­tin of Ha­se­ki 2014; 52: 5-9

  3. The release behavior and kinetic evaluation of tramadol HCl from chemically cross linked Ter polymeric hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malana, Muhammad A; Zohra, Rubab

    2013-01-18

    Hydrogels, being stimuli responsive are considered to be effective for targeted and sustained drug delivery. The main purpose for this work was to study the release behavior and kinetic evaluation of Tramadol HCl from chemically cross linked ter polymeric hydrogels. Ter-polymers of methacrylate, vinyl acetate and acrylic acid cross linked with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) were prepared by free radical polymerization. The drug release rates, dynamic swelling behavior and pH sensitivity of hydrogels ranging in composition from 1-10 mol% EGDMA were studied. Tramadol HCl was used as model drug substance. The release behavior was investigated at pH 8 where all formulations exhibited non-Fickian diffusion mechanism. Absorbency was found to be more than 99% indicating good drug loading capability of these hydrogels towards the selected drug substance. Formulations designed with increasing amounts of EGDMA had a decreased equilibrium media content as well as media penetrating velocity and thus exhibited a slower drug release rate. Fitting of release data to different kinetic models indicate that the kinetic order shifts from the first to zero order as the concentration of drug was increased in the medium, showing gradual independency of drug release towards its concentration. Formulations with low drug content showed best fitness with Higuchi model whereas those with higher concentration of drug followed Hixson-Crowell model with better correlation values indicating that the drug release from these formulations depends more on change in surface area and diameter of tablets than that on concentration of the drug. Release exponent (n) derived from Korse-Meyer Peppas equation implied that the release of Tramadol HCl from these formulations was generally non-Fickian (n > 0.5 > 1) showing swelling controlled mechanism. The mechanical strength and controlled release capability of the systems indicate that these co-polymeric hydrogels have a great potential to

  4. Application of ion mobility spectrometry for the determination of tramadol in biological samples

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Sheibani; Najmeh Haghpazir

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a simple and rapid ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) method has been described for the determination of tramadol. The operating instrumental parameters that could influence IMS were investigated and optimized (temperature; injection: 220 and IMS cell: 190°C, flow rate; carrier: 300 and drift: 600 mL/minute, voltage; corona: 2300 and drift: 7000 V, pulse width: 100 μs). Under optimum conditions, the calibration curves were linear within two orders of magnitude with R2 ≥ 0.998 for ...

  5. Efecto analgésico y sobre la neuroconducta de la interacción entre tramadol y diclofenaco en dosis escalonada en ratones

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar Granara, Alberto Alcibíades; Torres Acosta, Lorena; Siles de la Portilla, Andrea; Palacios Ramírez, Stephanie; Vergara Ascenzo, Carlos Alberto; Torres Angulo, Carlos; Pante Medina, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Acta Médica Peruana es una publicación del Colegio Médico del Perú OBJETIVO: Determinar el efecto sobre el dolor y el sistema nervioso de la interacción entre tramadol y diclofenaco, en dosis escalonadas. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Se utilizaron 60 ratones albinos, distribuidos en diez grupos; cuatro grupos fueron de interacción y recibieron VO tramadol 10 mg/Kg y diclofenaco en dosis escalonada (10, 15, 20 y 25 mg/Kg). Seis grupos recibieron VO tramadol, 10 mg/Kg; diclofenaco...

  6. The efficacy of adding dexketoprofen trometamol to tramadol with patient controlled analgesia technique in post-laparoscopic cholecystectomy pain treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmekçi, Perihan; Kazak Bengisun, Züleyha; Kazbek, Baturay Kansu; Öziş, Salih Erpulat; Taştan, Huri; Süer, Arif Hikmet

    2012-01-01

    Pain treatment in laparoscopic cholecystectomy, which is performed in increasing numbers as an ambulatory procedure, is an important issue.Although laparoscopic cholecystectomy is regarded as an ambulatory procedure, patients are often hospitalized due to pain and this increases opioid consumption and side effects caused by opioids. This study aims at evaluating the efficacy of adding dexketoprofen trometamol to tramadol with patient controlled analgesia (PCA) in postlaparoscopic cholecystectomy pain treatment. 40 patients in ASA I-II risk groups aged between 18-65 years were enrolled in the study and were randomized using closed envelope method. In Group TD 600 mg tramadol and 100 mg dexketoprofen trometamol, in Group T 600 mg tramadol was added to 100 ml 0.9% normal saline for PCA. 8 mg lornoxicam iv was given if VAS >40 in the postoperative period. There was no statistically significant difference in terms of adverse effects (hypotension, bradycardia, sedation) but in Group T 4 patients complained of nausea and 3 complained of vomiting. Opioid consumption was lower and patient satisfaction was higher in group TD. This study has shown that adding dexketoprofen trometamol to tramadol in patient controlled analgesia following laparoscopic cholecystectomy lowers VAS scores, increases patient satisfaction and decreases opioid consumption.

  7. [Serious adverse drug reactions with tramadol reported to the French pharmacovigilance database between 2011 and 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulis, Florence; Rousseau, Vanessa; Abadie, Delphine; Masmoudi, Kamel; Micallef, Joëlle; Vigier, Caroline; Pierre, Sabrina; Dautriche, Anne; Montastruc, François; Montastruc, Jean-Louis

    2017-12-01

    Tramadol is an opioid and a serotonin reuptake inhibitor drug. It is approved for moderate to severe pain in adults. The aim of this study was to assess tramadol safety through a national pharmacovigilance study in France since dextropropoxyphen withdrawal in 2011. We described all serious adverse drug reactions (SADRs) reported with tramadol in adults in the French National PharmacoVigilance Database from August 1st, 2011 to December 31st, 2015. We identified 1512 SADRs during the study period. The most frequently reported SADRs were neurological (29.4%, including troubles of consciousness [13.2%] and seizures [6.7%]), psychiatric (22.8%, including confusions [14.6%] and hallucinations [7.3%]) and gastrointestinal (17.0%, mostly nausea and vomiting [9.6%]). Unexpected SADRs were also reported: hyponatremia, cholestatic hepatitis, serotonin syndrome. This study demonstrates new unexpected hepatic and metabolic SADRs. Tramadol alone can induce serotonin syndrome in overdose situations. Copyright © 2017 Société française de pharmacologie et de thérapeutique. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Acute Post Mastectomy Pain: A Double Blind Randomised Controlled Trial: Intravenous Tramadol Vs Bupivacaine Irrigation through Surgical Drains

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    Anjum S KhanJoad

    2008-01-01

    Both groups had good pain relief. The T group had significantly more nausea (P< 0.007. The T group patients had a higher incidence of vomiting, catheterisation and delayed oral intake, but this was not significant statistically. Bupivacaine administered through the surgical drain offered equivalent postoperative pain relief to intravenous tramadol, with significantly less nausea.

  9. The analgesics morphine and tramadol do not alter the acute toxicity induced by Bothrops asper snake venom in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez, José María; Herrera Arias, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Analgesics tramadol and morphine were used in mice injected with Bothrops asper venom. Analgesics did not alter the acute toxicity of B. asper venom in mice. Precautionary (prophylactic) analgesia should be introduced routinely in Toxinology. UCR::Investigación::Unidades de Investigación::Ciencias de la Salud::Instituto Clodomiro Picado (ICP)

  10. The comparison of intraincisional injection tramadol, pethidine and bupivacaine on postcesarean section pain relief under spinal anesthesia

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    Mitra Jabalameli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bupivacaine, tramadol, and pethidine has local anesthetic effect. The aim of this study was to compare effect of subcutaneous (SC infiltration of tramadol, pethidine, and bupivacaine on postoperative pain relief after cesarean delivery. Materials and Methods: 120 patient, scheduled for elective cesarean section under spinal anesthesia, were randomly allocated to 1 of the 4 groups according to the drugs used for postoperative analgesia: Group P (Pethidine 50 mg ,Group T (Tramadol 40 mg, Group B (Bupivacaine 0.25% 0.7 mg/kg, and Group C (control 20CC normal saline injection in incision site of surgery. Pain intensity (VAS = visual analogous scale at rest and on coughing and opioid consumption were assessed on arrival in the recovery room, and then 15, 30, 60 minutes and 2, 6, 12, 24 hours after that. Results: VAS scores were significantly lower in groups T and P compared with groups B and C except for 24 hours (VAS rest and 6 hours (VAS on coughing postoperatively (P < 0.05. The number of patients requiring morphine were significantly different between the groups (105 doses vs. 87, 56, 46, doses for group C, B, T and P, respectively, P < 0.05 in all the times, except for 2 and 6 hours postoperatively. Conclusions: The administration of subcutaneous pethidine or tramadol after cesarean section improves analgesia and has a significant morphine-sparing effect compared with bupivacaine and control groups.

  11. Ultra Low-Dose Naloxone and Tramadol/Acetaminophen in Elderly Patients Undergoing Joint Replacement Surgery: A Pilot Study

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    Ngozi N Imasogie

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: A pilot study was conducted to assess whether both the rationale and feasibility exist for future randomized clinical trials to evaluate the combined use of naloxone infusion and tramadol/acetaminophen as opioid-sparing drugs in elderly patients undergoing lower extremity joint replacement surgery.

  12. Hemodynamic and Behavioral Differences after Administration of Meloxicam, Buprenorphine, or Tramadol as Analgesics for Telemeter Implantation in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rätsep, Matthew T; Barrette, Valerie F; Winterborn, Andrew; Adams, Michael A; Croy, B Anne

    2013-01-01

    Cannulation of the common carotid artery for chronic, continuous radiotelemetric recording of aortic hemodynamic properties in mice is a highly invasive recovery surgery. Radiotelemetric recording, by its continuous nature, gives the most accurate measurements of hemodynamic variables in experimental animals, and is widely used in the study of cardiovascular diseases including hypertension. The American Heart Association has recommended data acquisition by radiotelemetric recording but did not provide guidelines regarding postoperative analgesic support. We assessed hemodynamic parameters, locomotor activity, food intake, and weight loss in radiotransmitter-implanted CD1 female mice receiving analgesic support during the first 48 h after surgery. The efficacy of analgesic support from the NSAID meloxicam was compared with that of the widely used opioid agonist buprenorphine and the related compound, tramadol. Meloxicam-treated mice recovered lost body weight more rapidly than did tramadol- or buprenorphine-treated mice. Furthermore, meloxicam-treated mice maintained circadian rhythm after surgery and had tighter regulation of mean arterial pressure than did tramadol- or buprenorphine-treated mice. Meloxicam was also superior with regard to food intake, locomotor activity, and limiting variance in hemodynamic parameters. This study indicates that when compared with buprenorphine and tramadol, meloxicam should be the postoperative analgesic of choice for radiotelemeter implantation in mice. PMID:24041211

  13. Efficacy of tramadol in preventing postoperative shivering using thiopentone or propofol as induction agent: A randomized controlled trial

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    Beena Yousuf

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postoperative shivering (POS is a common and distressing experience occurring in up to 60% patients postoperatively. This study was designed to compare the efficacy of tramadol in preventing POS when used with two different induction agent, propofol or thiopentone. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty-four ASA I and II adult patients, aged between 18-60 years, undergoing general anesthesia of intermediate duration (60-240 min for orthopedic, gynecological, and general surgical procedures were randomly divided to receive either thiopentone or propofol as induction agent. Each group was further subdivided (31 patients in each group to receive either tramadol or saline 15 min before wound closure. Presence of POS after extubation till discharge from post anesthesia care unit (PACU was recorded at six different time intervals. Results: The highest incidence of POS was observed in thiopentone-saline (TS group 77.4%, while the lowest (12.9% was in propofol-tramadol (PT group (P < 0.001. Total number of shivering episodes was 122 out of which, 35 (28.7% were of grade 2 and 3 (significant shivering requiring treatment. The incidence of significant shivering was similar to the episodes of POS, highest in TS group and lowest being in PT group (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The prophylactic use of tramadol in a dose of 1 mg/kg with propofol as an induction agent significantly reduces the incidence of POS in patients recovering from general anesthesia of intermediate duration.

  14. Stability of tramadol with three 5-HT3 receptor antagonists in polyolefin bags for patient-controlled delivery systems

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    Chen FC

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fu-chao Chen,1 Jun Zhu,1 Bin Li,1 Fang-jun Yuan,1 Lin-hai Wang2 1Department of Pharmacy, Dongfeng Hospital, 2Department of Pharmacy, Renmin Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan, Hubei, People’s Republic of China Background: Mixing 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT3 receptor antagonists with patient-controlled analgesia (PCA solutions of tramadol has been shown to decrease the incidence of nausea and vomiting associated with the use of tramadol PCA for postoperative pain. However, such mixtures are not commercially available, and the stability of the drug combinations has not been duly studied. The study aimed to evaluate the stability of tramadol with three 5-HT3 receptor antagonists in 0.9% sodium chloride injection for PCA administration.Materials and methods: Test samples were prepared by adding 1,000 mg tramadol hydrochloride, 8 mg ondansetron hydrochloride, and 6 mg granisetron hydrochloride or 5 mg tropisetron hydrochloride to 100 mL of 0.9% sodium chloride injection in polyolefin bags. The samples were prepared in triplicates, stored at either 25°C or 4°C for 14 days, and assessed using the following compatibility parameters: precipitation, cloudiness, discoloration, and pH. Chemical stability was also determined using a validated high-pressure liquid chromatography method.Results: All of the mixtures were clear and colorless throughout the initial observation period. No change in the concentration of tramadol hydrochloride occurred with any of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists during the 14 days. Similarly, little or no loss of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists occurred over the 14-day period.Conclusion: Our results suggest that mixtures of tramadol hydrochloride, ondansetron hydrochloride, granisetron hydrochloride, or tropisetron hydrochloride in 0.9% sodium chloride injection were physically and chemically stable for 14 days when stored in polyolefin bags at both 4°C and 25°C. Keywords: tramadol, ondansetron, granisetron

  15. Encuesta nacional sobre los conocimientos impartidos en escuelas de medicina de Colombia sobre rehidratación parenteral en niños eutróficos mayores de un año con deshidratación por enfermedad diarreicaIván

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    Iván Darío Flórez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Ante la deshidratación grave por diarrea y la contraindicación para rehidratación oral, la rehidratación en niños debe realizarse por vía intravenosa. La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS recomienda la rehidratación rápida.Objetivos. Describir los métodos de rehidratación intravenosa enseñados en las escuelas de medicina colombianas y confrontarlos con las recomendaciones de la OMS.Materiales y métodos. Se elaboró una encuesta para docentes de pediatría en escuelas de medicina. Se hicieron preguntas directas y se detallaron casos clínicos de niños deshidratados para ser resueltos. Se preguntó por las indicaciones para la hidratación intravenosa y la forma de hacerla (volumen, solución, concentraciones y velocidad de infusión.Resultados. Se aplicaron 41 encuestas (82 % de escuelas. Se mencionaron las contraindicaciones inadecuadas para el tratamiento de rehidratación oral en 41 % de ellas. Se recomendó rehidratación intravenosa rápida en 71 %, lenta en 29 % y con bolos en 57 %. Menos de la mitad de los encuestados recomendaron adecuadamente el volumen por infundir y, el 85 %, la concentración de sodio. En 56 % de las escuelas no se usa glucosa en las soluciones y en 65,9 % usan lactato de Ringer. También, se utilizan solución salina normal, dextrosa con electrolitos y solución polielectrolítica.Conclusiones. Existen ideas erróneas para contraindicar el tratamiento de la rehidratación oral. La tercera parte de las escuelas indican el tratamiento lento a pesar de la superioridad del rápido en la literatura. Falta uniformidad en los esquemas de tratamiento rápido. Es común la hidratación con bolos, sin sustento en la literatura científica. Es necesario actualizar los conceptos sobre hidratación en las escuelas de medicina y proponer una guía nacional para la rehidratación intravenosa.

  16. Dexketoprofen/tramadol: randomised double-blind trial and confirmation of empirical theory of combination analgesics in acute pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R Andrew; Gay-Escoda, C; Figueiredo, R; Tóth-Bagi, Z; Dietrich, T; Milleri, S; Torres-Lagares, D; Hill, C M; García-García, A; Coulthard, P; Wojtowicz, A; Matenko, D; Peñarrocha-Diago, M; Cuadripani, S; Pizà-Vallespir, B; Guerrero-Bayón, C; Bertolotti, M; Contini, M P; Scartoni, S; Nizzardo, A; Capriati, A; Maggi, C A

    2015-01-01

    Combination analgesics are effective in acute pain, and a theoretical framework predicts efficacy for combinations. The combination of dexketoprofen and tramadol is untested, but predicted to be highly effective. This was a randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, single-dose trial in patients with moderate or severe pain following third molar extraction. There were ten treatment arms, including dexketoprofen trometamol (12.5 mg and 25 mg) and tramadol hydrochloride (37.5 mg and 75 mg), given as four different fixed combinations and single components, with ibuprofen 400 mg as active control as well as a placebo control. The study objective was to evaluate the superior analgesic efficacy and safety of each combination and each single agent versus placebo. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with at least 50 % max TOTPAR over six hours. 606 patients were randomised and provided at least one post-dose assessment. All combinations were significantly better than placebo. The highest percentage of responders (72%) was achieved in the dexketoprofen trometamol 25 mg plus tramadol hydrochloride 75 mg group (NNT 1.6, 95% confidence interval 1.3 to 2.1). Addition of tramadol to dexketoprofen resulted in greater peak pain relief and greater pain relief over the longer term, particularly at times longer than six hours (median duration of 8.1 h). Adverse events were unremarkable. Dexketoprofen trometamol 25 mg combined with tramadol hydrochloride 75 mg provided good analgesia with rapid onset and long duration in a model of moderate to severe pain. The results of the dose finding study are consistent with pre-trial calculations based on empirical formulae. EudraCT (2010-022798-32); Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01307020).

  17. Plasma concentrations, analgesic and physiological assessments in horses with chronic laminitis treated with two doses of oral tramadol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, A; Knych, H; Hood, D

    2016-07-01

    Laminitis is a painful disease for which adequate pain management remains a challenging and largely unmet medical need. To investigate plasma concentrations, analgesic and physiological effects of 2 doses of tramadol in horses with chronic laminitis. Nonrandomised trial. Four horses with naturally occurring chronic laminitis received 5 mg/kg bwt and then 10 mg/kg bwt tramadol orally every 12 h for one week with a one-week washout between. Noninvasive arterial blood pressure, heart and respiratory rates, intestinal sounds and forelimb off-loading frequency were evaluated before and during treatments. Plasma tramadol and metabolite (M1 and M2) concentrations were measured on predetermined days and times after the morning dosing. Forelimb off-loading frequency decreased significantly with 10 mg/kg bwt (40%, P = 0.02) but not with 5 mg/kg bwt (9%, P = 0.4). Physiological variables did not change significantly with either treatment. For 5 and 10 mg/kg bwt treatments, respectively, individual maximum plasma concentrations (μg/l) ranged from 329 to 728 and 628 to 1330 (tramadol), 12-24 and 32-80 (M1), and 90-157 and 239-362 (M2). Respective median area under the concentration vs. time curves (h μg/l) were 727 and 1426, 33 and 88, 303 and 1003. Twice daily oral tramadol at 10 mg/kg bwt may produce analgesic plasma levels in horses with chronic laminitis. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  18. Efficacy of tramadol as a preincisional infiltration anesthetic in children undergoing inguinal hernia repair: a prospective randomized study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Numanoğlu KV

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Kemal Varim Numanoğlu,1 Hilal Ayoğlu,2 Duygu Tatli,1 Ebubekir Er11Department of Pediatric Surgery, 2Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Bülent Ecevit University, Kozlu, Zonguldak, TurkeyBackground: Preincisional local anesthetic infiltration at the surgical site is a therapeutic option for postoperative pain relief for pediatric inguinal hernia. Additionally, tramadol has been used as an analgesic for postoperative pain in children. Recently, the local anesthetic effects of tramadol have been reported. The aim of this study was to determine both the systemic analgesic and the local anesthetic effects of tramadol and to determine how it differs from bupivacaine when administered preincisionally.Methods: Fifty-two healthy children, aged 2–7 years, who were scheduled for elective herniorrhaphy were randomly allocated to receive either preincisional infiltration at the surgical site with 2 mg/kg tramadol (Group T, n=26 or 0.25 mL/kg 0.5% bupivacaine (Group B, n=26. At the time of anesthetic administration, perioperative hemodynamic parameters were recorded. The pain assessments were performed 10 minutes after the end of anesthesia and during the first 6-hour period, using pain scores. The time of first dose of analgesia and need for additional analgesia were recorded.Results: Between T and B groups, the anesthesia time, perioperative hemodynamic changes, and pain scores were not statistically different. However, in group B, the postoperative analgesic requirement was higher than in group T.Conclusion: Tramadol shows equal analgesic effect to bupivacaine and decreases additional analgesic requirement, when used for preincisional infiltration anesthesia in children undergoing inguinal herniorrhaphy.Keywords: bupivacaine, postoperative analgesia, pain scores

  19. Inhibidores de la bomba de protones por vía intravenosa en la hemorragia por úlcera péptica: ¿es necesaria la supresión ácida máxima para disminuir el resangrado?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Garrido

    Full Text Available Objetivo: comparar dos pautas de pantoprazol por vía intravenosa en pacientes con hemorragia digestiva alta (HDA ulcerosa de alto riesgo para presentar persistencia o recidiva hemorrágica. Material y método: se randomizaron los pacientes en dos grupos: grupo 0: tratamiento con bolo de 80 mg i.v. de pantoprazol y perfusión continua a 8 mg/h durante 72 horas; grupo 1: tratamiento con 40 mg i.v. de pantoprazol diarios. Se analizó el porcentaje de persistencia/recidiva hemorrágica entre ambos grupos, requerimientos transfusionales, necesidad de cirugía y mortalidad del episodio hemorrágico. Resultados: se incluyeron 20 pacientes en el grupo 0 y 21 en el grupo 1. No se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en cuanto al sexo, edad, hábito tabáquico, consumo de AINE, presencia de inestabilidad hemodinámica, estigma sobre el nicho ulceroso (Forrest Ia 5 vs. 14,3%, p = 0,322; Forrest Ib 30 vs. 33,3%, p = 0,819; Forrest IIa 60 vs. 50,1%, p = 0,753. El 90% de los pacientes del grupo 0 recibió tratamiento endoscópico vs. el 100% del grupo 1, p = 0,232. El 50% de los pacientes del grupo 0 recibió transfusión vs. el 52,4% del grupo 1, p = 0,879. Dos pacientes (10,5% del grupo 0 presentaron recidiva hemorrágica vs. 3 pacientes (14,3% del grupo 1, precisando cirugía 1 paciente de cada grupo y falleciendo 1 paciente del grupo 0. Conclusiones: la inhibición ácida máxima de la secreción ácida gástrica mediante bolo e infusión continua de pantoprazol no ofrece resultados superiores al tratamiento con dosis convencionales en el episodio hemorrágico agudo.

  20. Modulatory effect of cilostazol on tramadol-induced behavioral and neurochemical alterations in rats challenged across the forced swim despair test

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    Noha M. Gamil

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pain-associated depression is encountered clinically in some cases such as cancer, chronic neuropathy, and after operations. Tramadol is an opioid analgesic drug that may modulate monoaminergic neurotransmission by inhibition of noradrenaline and serotonin reuptake that may contribute to its antidepressant-like effects. Clinically, tramadol is used either alone or in combination with other NSAIDs in the treatment of cases associated with pain and depression, e.g. low back pain, spinal cord injury, and post-operative pain management. However, tramadol monotherapy as an antidepressant is impeded by severe adverse effects including seizures and serotonin syndrome. Interestingly, phosphodiesterase-III inhibitors demonstrated novel promising antidepressant effects. Among which, cilostazol was reported to attenuate depression in post-stroke cases, geriatrics and patients undergoing carotid artery stenting. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the possible antidepressant-like effects of tramadol and/or cilostazol on the behavioral level in experimental animals, and to examine the neurochemical and biochemical effects of tramadol, cilostazol and their combination in rats, in order to explore the probable mechanisms of action underlying their effects. To achieve our target, male albino mice and rats were randomly allocated into five groups and administered either vehicle for control, fluoxetine (20 mg/kg, p.o., tramadol HCl (20 mg/kg, p.o., cilostazol (100 mg/kg, p.o., or combination of both tramadol and cilostazol. At day 14, mice and rats were challenged in the tail suspension test and forced swim test, respectively. Rats were sacrificed and brains were isolated for determination of brain monoamines, MDA, NO, SOD, and TNF-α. The current results showed that concurrent administration of cilostazol to tramadol-treated animals modulated depression on the behavioral level, and showed ameliorative neurochemical and biochemical effects

  1. Lornoxicam versus tramadol for post-operative pain relief in patients undergoing ENT procedures

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    Ashraf A Abdelhalim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pain following ear-nose and throat surgery is one of the most important complaints for which, several drugs are used. This prospective, randomized, double-blind controlled trial was designed to compare the analgesic effect of tramadol versus lornoxicam for post-operative pain relief in patients undergoing ENT surgical procedures. Methods: One hundred and twenty patients of ASA class I-II, who had undergone elective ENT surgical procedures under general anesthesia, were assigned in a randomized manner into three equal groups. Group L received lornoxicam8 mg IV, Group T received tramadol 1 mg/kg IV and Group C received IV saline after induction of anesthesia before the start of the surgery. Post-operative pain was assessed using the visual analogue scale (VAS and sedation level was evaluated during stay in the post-anesthesia care unit with a four-point sedation scale. Intraoperative blood loss was estimated using the Five-Point Scale. Adverse events in the first 24 h post-operative were recorded. Results: The VAS pain scores were significantly higher in Group C as compared with those in Groups L and T at 30 min and 1, 2, 4and 6 h post-operatively, with no significant difference between Group L and Group T. The amount of morphine consumption post-operatively was significantly lower in Group L (5.2 ± 2.5 mg and Group T (5.0 ± 2.0 mg as compared with that in Group C (7.4 ± 2.3 mg (P = 0.001. The time for the first analgesic requirement was significantly less in Group L (92.62 ± 24.23 min and Group T (88 ± 21.43 min as compared with that in Group C (42.82 ± 25.61 min, with no significant difference between the other two groups. Estimated intraoperative blood loss score by the surgeons showed no significant difference between the three groups. The most frequent side-effects in the three groups were nausea and vomiting, and their incidence was significantly higher in the placebo group as compared with the other two groups. Conclusion

  2. Evaluación de una solución gluco-electrolítica isotónica e isoclorada propuesta como recurso único a emplear en la rehidratación intravenosa a ritmo genérico de las distintas deshidrataciones por pérdidas digestivas en la edad pediátrica

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Buselo, María Teresa

    2015-01-01

    La rehidratación intravenosa (RIV) es a menudo inevitable cuando hay impedimento absoluto para satisfacer la deseable rehidratación oral (RHO). Coexisten históricamente dos modalidades de rehidratación intravenosa (RIV) en Pediatría: la convencional (RIC), basada en los estudios de Darrow (1949), Holliday y Segar (1957), y la llamada “rápida” (RIR), fundamentada en los de Hirschhorn (1968), y Rahman (1979), bajo cuya denominación se han publicado métodos muy dispares. Cada una ofrece alguna v...

  3. Tramadol reduces the 5-HTP-induced head-twitch response in mice via the activation of mu and kappa opioid receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hong-Lei; Zheng, Ji-Wang; Wang, Keng; Liu, Rui-Ke; Liang, Jian-Hui

    2003-01-31

    Tramadol, an atypical opioid analgesic, stimulates both opiatergic and serotonergic systems. Here we have investigated the effect of tramadol in mice on 5-hydroxyptrytophan (5-HTP)-induced head twitch response (HTR), which is an animal model for the activation of the CNS 5-HT(2A) receptors in mice. Tramadol attenuated 5-HTP-induced HTR in a dose-dependent manner as morphine. Furthermore, the nonselective opioid receptor antagonists, naloxone and diprenorphine (M5050), reversed the effect of tramadol on 5-HTP-induced HTR dose-dependently. Interestingly, in contrast to the selective delta opioid receptor antagonist NTI, beta-FNA, a selective mu receptor antagonist, and nor-BNI, a selective kappa opioid receptor antagonist, antagonized the attenuation of 5-HTP-induced HTR by tramadol. In conclusion, administration of tramadol systemically inhibits 5-HTP-induced HTR in mice by activating opiatergic system in the CNS. Our findings show that mu and kappa opioid receptors, but not delta opioid receptor, play an important role in the regulation of serotonergic function in the CNS.

  4. A logistic equation to determine the validity of tramadol from related gene polymorphisms and psychological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qin; Sun, Jianguo; Tao, Yifu; Wang, Shukui; Jiang, Chunzhi; Zhu, Yubing; Yu, Feng; Zhu, Junrong

    2014-03-01

    This study was performed to develop an algorithm using polymorphisms of CYP2D6, p-gp, OPRM1, COMT and psychological variables to predict tramadol response in Chinese patients recovering from upper limb fracture internal fixation surgery. A total of 250 Han Chinese patients recovering from fracture in the upper limb were enrolled. CYP2D6*10, p-gp G2677T, p-gp C3435T, OPRM1 A118G and COMT Val158Met were detected by the ligase detection reaction (LDR) method. The algorithm was developed with binary logistic regression in cohort 1 (200 patients) and assessed with Wilcoxon signed-rank test in cohort 2 (50 patients). According to cohort 1, the predictive equation was calculated with the following logistic regression parameters: Logit (1) = 2.304-4.841 × (anxiety I) - 23.709 × (anxiety II) + 2.823 × (p-gp 3435CT) + 5.737 × (p-gp 3435 TT) - 1.586 × (CYP2D6*10 CT) - 4.542 × (CYP2D6*10 TT). The cutoff point for the prediction was defined as a probability value ≥0.5. The equation's positive predictive value is 90%. When applied to a new sample, the equation's positive predictive value is 86%. The Nagelkerke R² of the model is 0.819, the results of the Hosmer and Leme test show a value of 0.981. The nonparametric correlations between predicted and observed response showed significant correlation (coefficient = 0.879; p < 0.001). The algorithm we have developed might predict tramadol response in Chinese upper limb fracture patients.

  5. Ketamine and tramadol for the prevention of shivering during spinal anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayah, M N; Liu, C Y; Joanna, O S M

    2014-01-01

    Anaesthesia and surgery promote significant thermal disorder in the human body. Spinal anaesthesia causes lower limb vasodilation and redistribution of body heat from central to the peripheral compartments. This was a prospective, randomised, double-blind clinical study to compare the effectiveness of IV ketamine and tramadol in the prevention of shivering associated with spinal anaesthesia. We prospectively studied 150 ASA classification I and II patients between 18 and 70 years old scheduled for any elective surgery performed under spinal anaesthesia. Patients were randomly allocated to receive either prophylactic IV ketamine 0.5 mg/kg (Group K), IV tramadol 0.5 mg/kg (Group T) or normal saline as control (Group P) after intrathecal injection of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine 12.5 mg (2.5 ml) and 25 mcg fentanyl. The frequency and degree of shivering, haemodynamic parameters, core body temperature and side effects of the studied drugs were recorded for the first 30 minutes. The incidence of shivering was 8% in Group K, 16% in Group T and 24% in Group P. This result was statistically significant between Groups K and P. Patients from Group K also exhibited significantly higher mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate at 5 and 15 minutes post intrathecal injection while their mean core temperature was also significantly higher. Side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hallucination, agitation and sweating were comparable between all three groups. Patients from Group K however, had significant higher incidence of behavioural changes (blunted affect or catatonic state) and nystagmus. Prophylactic use of IV ketamine 0.5 mg/kg significantly reduced the frequency and the intensity of perioperative shivering associated with spinal anaesthesia but also exhibited some side effects of the drug. Lower doses of prophylactic ketamine should be studied.

  6. Tramadol/paracetamol combination tablet for postoperative pain following ambulatory hand surgery: a double-blind, double-dummy, randomized, parallel-group trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawal N

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Narinder Rawal1, Valery Macquaire2, Elena Catalá3, Marco Berti4, Rui Costa5, Markus Wietlisbach61Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; 2Clinique du Parc Leopold, Brussels, Belgium; 3Pain Clinic, Department Anesthesiology, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain; 4Department of Anesthesiology and Reanimation, Parma Hospital, Parma, Italy; 5Garcia de Orta Hospital, Almada, Portugal; 6Department of Anesthesiology, Sursee Hospital, Sursee, SwitzerlandAbstract: This randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, multicenter trial compared efficacy and safety of tramadol HCL 37.5 mg/paracetamol 325 mg combination tablet with tramadol HCL 50 mg capsule in the treatment of postoperative pain following ambulatory hand surgery with iv regional anesthesia. Patients received trial medication at admission, immediately after surgery, and every 6 hours after discharge until midnight of the first postoperative day. Analgesic efficacy was assessed by patients (n = 128 in each group, full analysis set and recorded in a diary on the evening of surgery day and of the first postoperative day. They also documented the occurrence of adverse events. By the end of the first postoperative day, the proportion of treatment responders based on treatment satisfaction (primary efficacy variable was comparable between the groups (78.1% combination, 71.9% tramadol; P = 0.24 and mean pain intensity (rated on a numerical scale from 0 = no pain to 10 = worst imaginable pain had been reduced to 1.7 ± 2.0 for both groups. Under both treatments, twice as many patients experienced no pain (score = 0 on the first postoperative day compared to the day of surgery (35.9% vs 16.4% for tramadol/paracetamol and 36.7% vs 18% for tramadol treatment. Rescue medication leading to withdrawal (diclofenac 50 mg was required by 17.2% patients with tramadol/paracetamol and 13.3% with tramadol. Adverse events (mainly nausea, dizziness

  7. Efficacy of tramadol as a preincisional infiltration anesthetic in children undergoing inguinal hernia repair: a prospective randomized study

    OpenAIRE

    Numanoğlu, Kemal Varım; Ayoğlu, Hilal; Er, Duygu TatlıEbubekir

    2014-01-01

    Kemal Varim Numanoğlu,1 Hilal Ayoğlu,2 Duygu Tatli,1 Ebubekir Er11Department of Pediatric Surgery, 2Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Bülent Ecevit University, Kozlu, Zonguldak, TurkeyBackground: Preincisional local anesthetic infiltration at the surgical site is a therapeutic option for postoperative pain relief for pediatric inguinal hernia. Additionally, tramadol has been used as an analgesic for postoperative pain in children. Recently, the local anesthetic eff...

  8. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PROPHYLACTIC METOCLOPRAMIDE VERSUS ONDANSETRON FOR CONTROL OF POSTOPERATIVE NAUSEA AND VOMITING (PONV ASSOCIATED WITH IV TRAMADOL

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    Anjali P.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: This prospective double blind randomized study was conducted to compare: 1. The efficacy and safety of prophylactic administration of Metoclopramide versus Ondansetron in the control of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients receiving intravenous Tr amadol as postoperative analgesic. 2. To study the incidence of post operative nausea and vomiting with IV bolus Tramadol. METHODS: 90 patients ASA grade I and II, age 18 - 60 years, posted for hernia, hydrocele and other peripheral lower limb surgeries under subarachnoid block were selected . Patients were randomly allocated into three groups of thirty each. All surgeries were performed under subarachnoid block and received IV Tramadol 100 m g 8 hourly for 24 hours as post - operative analgesic. Group N received no prophylactic antiemetic. Group M received 10 mg Metoclopramide 12 hourly. Group O received 4 mg Ondansetron 12 hourly. Vital signs, nausea, vomiting, pain, sedation, need for rescue a ntiemetic, rescue analgesic and adverse effects were recorded for 24 hours. RESULTS: Ondansetron group (Group O significantly reduced the incidence of PONV as compared to Metoclopramide (Group M and no antiemetic group (Group N .But Metoclopramide was fo und to be not significantly effective in controlling PONV in patients receiving Tramadol as analgesic. None of the patients in Group O required rescue antiemetic as compared to 13.3% patients in Group M and 26.7% patients in Group N. There was statisticall y no significant difference between the 3 groups with respect to requirement of rescue analgesic. No major adverse effects were observed which can be attributed to either Metoclopramide or Ondansetron. CONCLUSION: Ondansetron was more effective than Metoclopramide in controlling PONV, in patients receiving IV Tramadol as post-operative analgesia

  9. Randomized clinical trial of dexketoprofen/tramadol 25 mg/75 mg in moderate-to-severe pain after total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuay, H J; Moore, R A; Berta, A; Gainutdinovs, O; Fülesdi, B; Porvaneckas, N; Petronis, S; Mitkovic, M; Bucsi, L; Samson, L; Zegunis, V; Ankin, M L; Bertolotti, M; Pizà-Vallespir, B; Cuadripani, S; Contini, M P; Nizzardo, A

    2016-02-01

    The aim was to evaluate the analgesic efficacy and safety of the dexketoprofen/tramadol 25 mg/75 mg fixed-dose combination vs dexketoprofen (25 mg) and tramadol (100 mg) in moderate-to-severe acute pain after total hip arthroplasty. This was a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study in patients experiencing pain of at least moderate intensity on the day after surgery, compared with placebo at first administration to validate the pain model. The study drug was administered orally every 8 h throughout a 5 day period. Rescue medication, metamizole 500 mg, was available during the treatment period. The evaluation of efficacy was based on patient assessments of pain intensity and pain relief. The primary end point was the mean sum of the pain intensity difference values throughout the first 8 h (SPID8). Overall, 641 patients, mean age 62 (range 29-80) yr, were analysed; mean (sd) values of SPID8 were 247 (157) for dexketoprofen/tramadol, 209 (155) for dexketoprofen, 205 (146) for tramadol, and 151 (159) for placebo. The primary analysis confirmed the superiority of the combination over dexketoprofen 25 mg (P=0.019; 95% confidence interval 6.4-73) and tramadol 100 mg (P=0.012; 95% confidence interval 9.5-76). The single components were superior to placebo (Pdexketoprofen/tramadol over its single components, even at higher doses (tramadol), with a safety profile fully in line with that previously known for these agents in monotherapy. EudraCT 2012-004548-31 (https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu/ctr-search/search?query=eudract_number:2012-004548-31);ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01902134 (https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01902134?term=NCT01902134&rank=1). © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia.

  10. Direct conversion from tramadol to tapentadol prolonged release for moderate to severe, chronic malignant tumour-related pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, H G; Koch, E D; Kosturski, H; Steup, A; Karcher, K; Dogan, C; Etropolski, M; Eerdekens, M

    2016-10-01

    A recent randomized-withdrawal, active- and placebo-controlled, double-blind phase 3 study showed that tapentadol prolonged release (PR) was effective and well tolerated for managing moderate to severe, chronic malignant tumour-related pain in patients who were opioid naive or dissatisfied with current treatment (Pain Physician, 2014, 17, 329-343). This post hoc, subgroup analysis evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of tapentadol PR in patients who previously received and were dissatisfied with tramadol for any reason and who had a pain intensity ≥5 (11-point numerical rating scale) before converting directly to tapentadol PR. In the original study, eligible patients had been randomized (2:1) and titrated to their optimal dose of tapentadol PR (100-250 mg bid) or morphine sulphate-controlled release (40-100 mg bid) over 2 weeks. The present report focuses on results during the titration period for a subgroup of patients randomized to tapentadol PR after having been on tramadol treatment prior to randomization in the study (n = 129). Results for this subgroup are compared with results for all 338 patients who received tapentadol PR during titration (overall tapentadol PR group). Responder rates (responders: completed titration, mean pain intensity <5 [0-10 scale] and ≤20 mg/day rescue medication during last 3 days) were slightly better for the tramadol/tapentadol PR subgroup (69.8% [90/129]) vs. the overall tapentadol PR group (63.9% [214/335]). Tolerability profiles were comparable for both groups. Results of this subgroup analysis indicate that patients with cancer pain could safely switch from prior treatment with the weak centrally acting analgesic tramadol directly to the strong centrally acting analgesic tapentadol PR, for an improved analgesic therapy for severe pain. WHAT DOES THIS STUDY ADD?: Results of this post hoc analysis show that patients who had received prior tramadol therapy could switch directly to tapentadol PR, with the majority

  11. Comparação de ibuprofeno via oral e indometacina intravenosa no tratamento da persistência do canal arterial em neonatos com extremo baixo peso ao nascer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Mi Yang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Existem poucos relatórios publicados com relação à eficácia do ibuprofeno via oral no tratamento da persistência do canal arterial (PCA em neonatos com extremo baixo peso ao nascer (EBPN. Comparamos o ibuprofeno via oral à indometacina intravenosa no que diz respeito à eficácia e segurança no tratamento de PCA em neonatos com peso inferior a 1.000 g ao nascer. MÉTODO: Este foi um estudo retrospectivo em um único centro. Coletamos dados de neonatos com EBPN que tiveram PCA ecocardiograficamente confirmada. Os neonatos foram tratados tanto com indometacina intravenosa quanto com ibuprofeno via oral. A taxa de fechamento do canal, a necessidade de tratamentos adicionais, os efeitos colaterais ou as complicações relacionadas ao medicamento e a mortalidade foram comparados entre os dois grupos de tratamento. RESULTADO: Examinamos 26 neonatos que receberam indometacina e 22 que receberam ibuprofeno. A taxa geral de fechamento do canal foi semelhante nos dois tratamentos: o fechamento do canal ocorreu em 23 dos 26 neonatos (88,5% no grupo indometacina, e em 18 dos 22 neonatos (81,8% no grupo ibuprofeno (p = 0,40. A taxa de ligadura cirúrgica (11,5% em comparação a 18,2%; p = 0,40 não diferiu de forma significativa entre os dois grupos de tratamento. Após o tratamento, não foi encontrada nenhuma diferença significativa nas concentrações de creatinina sérica entre os dois grupos. Não houve diferenças significativas com relação a efeitos colaterais ou complicações adicionais. CONCLUSÃO: Em neonatos com EBPN, o ibuprofeno via oral é tão eficaz quanto a indometacina intravenosa no tratamento da PCA. Não há diferenças entre os medicamentos no que diz respeito à segurança. O ibuprofeno via oral poderia ser usado como um agente alternativo no tratamento da PCA em neonatos com EBPN.

  12. Trasplante renal en pacientes con anticuerpos dirigidos contra donante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Cicora

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available En trasplante renal, los anticuerpos donante-específicos por ensayos de fase sólida predicen el rechazo temprano mediado por anticuerpos, incluso con resultados negativos de citometría de flujo o citotoxicidad dependiente del complemento. Aquí se describen los protocolos de inmunosupresión y los resultados a diez meses de cuatro pacientes en los que se detectó anticuerpos donante-específicos anti-antígenos leucocitarios humanos (HLA por Luminex®, pero no detectados por el método de citotoxicidad dependiente de complemento (CDC ni por citometría de flujo. Los cuatro pacientes recibieron tratamiento de inducción con 5 dosis de timoglobulina de 1.25 mg/kg y 5 dosis de inmunoglobulina intravenosa (IVIG de 400 mg/kg. Además, uno recibió 20 mg de basiliximab el mismo día del trasplante y el día 4 postrasplante; otro recibió 3 sesiones de plasmaféresis en los días -5, -3, y -1 y eculizumab en dosis de 1200 mg antes del trasplante, 900 mg el día 1, and 600 mg por semana durante un mes. En todos los casos, la inmunosupresión de mantenimiento consistió en tacrolimus, micofenolato y deltisona. Todos presentaron buenos resultados en el corto plazo. Nuestra experiencia sugiere que los pacientes con anticuerpos donante-específicos anti-HLA detectados solo por Luminex® deben recibir un seguimiento estricto y que en esta población se pueden obtener buenos resultados a partir del uso de terapia de inducción con timoglobulina e IVIG.

  13. Involvement of nitric oxide and ATP-sensitive potassium channels in the peripheral antinoceptive action of a tramadol-dexketoprofen combination in the formalin test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isiordia-Espinoza, Mario A; Pozos-Guillén, Amaury; Pérez-Urizar, José; Chavarría-Bolaños, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    Systemic coadministration of tramadol and dexketoprofen can produce antinociceptive synergism in animals. There has been only limited evaluation of this drug combination in the peripheral nervous system in terms of the antinociceptive interaction and its mechanisms. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the peripheral antinociceptive interaction between tramadol and dexketoprofen in the formalin test and the involvement of the nitric oxide (NO)-cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway and ATP-sensitive K(+) channels. Different doses of tramadol or dexketoprofen were administered locally to the formalin-injured mouse paw and the antinociceptive effect evaluated. ED50 values were calculated for both drugs alone and in combination. Coadministration of tramadol and dexketoprofen produced an antinociceptive synergistic interaction during the second phase of the formalin test. Pretreatment with NO antagonists, including l-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester and 1H-[1,2,4]-oxadiazolo-[4,3-a]-quinoxalin-1-one, or the ATP-sensitive K(+) channel antagonist glibenclamide reversed the antinociceptive synergistic effect of the tramadol-dexketoprofen combination, suggesting that NO and ATP-sensitive K(+) channels were involved. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. High Rates of Tramadol Use among Treatment-Seeking Adolescents in Malmö, Sweden: A Study of Hair Analysis of Nonmedical Prescription Opioid Use

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    Martin O. Olsson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nonmedical prescription opioid use (NMPOU is a growing problem and tramadol has been suggested as an emerging problem in young treatment-seeking individuals. The aim of the present study was to investigate, through hair analysis, NMPOU in this group and, specifically, tramadol use. Methods. In a study including 73 treatment-seeking adolescents and young adults at an outpatient facility for young substance users, hair specimens could be obtained from 59 subjects. Data were extracted on sociodemographic background variables and psychiatric diagnoses through MINI interviews. Results. In hair analysis, tramadol was by far the most prevalent opioid detected. Thirty-two percent screened positive for opioids, and of those, all but one were positive for tramadol. Ninety-eight percent reported problematic cannabis use. Significantly more opioid-positive patients also screened positive for other (noncannabis drugs, compared to nonopioid users. Sixty-four percent fulfilled criteria of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders, other than substance use disorders according to MINI. Fifty-three percent met the symptom criteria count of ADHD above cut-off level. Conclusion. In the present setting, tramadol, along with high rates of cannabis use, may represent a novel pattern of substance use among young treatment-seeking subjects with problematic substance use and high rates of concurrent psychiatric problems.

  15. Paroxetine, a cytochrome P450 2D6 inhibitor, diminishes the stereoselective O-demethylation and reduces the hypoalgesic effect of tramadol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, S; Enggaard, T P; Pedersen, R S

    2005-01-01

    . The sums of differences between postmedication and premedication values of pain measures differed between the placebo/tramadol and the placebo/placebo combination, with median values as follows: pressure pain tolerance threshold, 390 kPa (95% confidence interval [CI], 211 to 637 kPa) versus -84 kPa (95% CI.......2 cm x s (95% CI, -6.8 to -1.9 cm x s) versus -0.4 cm x s (-1.4 to 1.4 cm x s) (P = .002); and discomfort, -4.7 cm (95% CI, -10.6 to -2.8 cm) versus 0.5 cm (-0.1 to 1.4 cm) (P = .002). The sums of differences of the paroxetine/tramadol combination also differed from placebo/tramadol for some...... of the measures, with median values as follows: cold pressor pain, -2.2 cm x s (95% CI, -3.7 to -0.4 cm x s) (P = .036, compared with placebo/tramadol); and discomfort, -2.0 cm (95% CI, -5.6 to -1.2 cm) (P = .056). For the other measures, the hypoalgesic effect was retained on the paroxetine/tramadol combination...

  16. Inibição da corrente de cálcio tipo L por tramadol e enantiômeros em miócitos cardíacos de ratos Inhibition of L-type calcium current by tramadol and enantiomers in cardiac myocytes from rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Medei

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: O tramadol é um analgésico de ação central cujo mecanismo de ação envolve a ativação de um receptor opioide. Anteriormente, mostramos que o tramadol e seus enantiômeros apresentavam um efeito inotrópico negativo sobre o músculo papilar no qual o (+-enantiômero era mais potente que (-- e (±-tramadol. OBJETIVO: No presente trabalho, investigamos os efeitos do tramadol e seus enantiômeros na corrente de cálcio tipo L (I Ca-L. MÉTODOS: Os experimentos foram realizados em miócitos ventriculares isolados de ratos Wistar utilizando a técnica de patch-clamp com configuração de célula inteira. RESULTADOS: O tramadol (200 µM reduziu a amplitude de pico do I Ca-L em potenciais de 0 a +50 mV. Em 0 mV, a I Ca-L foi reduzida em 33,7 ± 7,2%. (+- e (--tramadol (200 µM produziram uma inibição semelhante da I Ca-L, na qual a amplitude do pico foi reduzida em 64,4 ± 2,8% e 68,9 ± 5,8%, respectivamente a 0 mV (P > 0,05. O tramadol, (+- e (--tramadol mudaram a inativação de estado estacionário de I Ca-L para potenciais de membrana mais negativos. Além disso, tramadol e (+-tramadol alteraram significativamente a curva de recuperação dependente de tempo da I Ca-L para a direita e reduziram a recuperação de I Ca-L da inativação. A constante de tempo foi aumentada de 175,6 ± 18,6 a 305,0 ± 32,9 ms (P BACKGROUND: Tramadol is a centrally acting analgesic, whose mechanism of action involves opioid-receptor activation. Previously, we have shown that tramadol and its enantiomers had a negative inotropic effect on the papillary muscle in which the (+-enantiomer is more potent than (-- and (±-tramadol. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we investigated the effects of tramadol and its enantiomers on L-type calcium current (I Ca-L. RESULTS: Tramadol (200 µM reduced the peak amplitude of I Ca-L at potentials from 0 to +50 mV. At 0 mV, I Ca-L was reduced by 33.7 ± 7.2%. (+- and (--tramadol (200 µM produced a similar inhibition of I Ca

  17. Anemia y fiebre en el postrasplante renal: su relación con el parvovirus humano B19

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    Yanet Parodis López

    2017-03-01

    Presentamos el caso clínico de un varón de 65 años con trasplante renal de donante cadáver en septiembre de 2014. A los 38 días del trasplante comienza con anemia progresiva y resistente a los agentes estimulantes de la eritropoyesis. A los 64 días se produce hipertermia, con deterioro progresivo de su estado general. La serología vírica resultó negativa, al igual que la PCR inicial en sangre del parvovirus humano B19. A los 4 meses y 19 días se realiza una biopsia de médula ósea en la que se observan eritroblastos gigantes con inclusiones víricas nucleares compatibles con parvovirus, por lo que se realiza una PCR en dicho tejido que confirma el diagnóstico. Una segunda PCR en sangre resultó positiva. Tras el tratamiento con inmunoglobulinas intravenosas (IGIV y la suspensión temporal del micofenolato de mofetilo, se produce una remisión completa de la enfermedad, aunque persistía positiva la PCR para el parvovirus B19 en sangre, lo que hace necesario vigilar probables recidivas.

  18. Uso adecuado de las soluciones electrolíticas intravenosas en la deshidratación por diarreas en pediatría. Actualización

    OpenAIRE

    Ariel Efrén Uriarte Méndez; Jesús Vila Díaz; Kendrie Villavicencio Cardoso; Andrés Prieto Apesteguía; Jorge Luis Capote; Dunia Chávez Amaro

    2012-01-01

    La deshidratación por diarreas en el paciente pediátrico, es una de las primeras causas de ingreso en las unidades de cuidados intensivos. A pesar de ello, no existen textos cubanos que aborden con claridad y sentido práctico algunos pasos fundamentales del tratamiento. Se hace una revisión de todos los aspectos a tener en cuenta en el tratamiento de la deshidratación, con un enfoque sencillo, resumido, didáctico y en concordancia con los conceptos actuales. Se advierte sobre la frecuente uti...

  19. Optimization of Carboxymethyl-Xyloglucan-Based Tramadol Matrix Tablets Using Simplex Centroid Mixture Design

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    Ashwini R. Madgulkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to determine the release-modifying effect of carboxymethyl xyloglucan for oral drug delivery. Sustained release matrix tablets of tramadol HCl were prepared by wet granulation method using carboxymethyl xyloglucan as matrix forming polymer. HPMC K100M was used in a small amount to control the burst effect which is most commonly seen with natural hydrophilic polymers. A simplex centroid design with three independent variables and two dependent variables was employed to systematically optimize drug release profile. Carboxymethyl xyloglucan , HPMC K100M , and dicalcium phosphate were taken as independent variables. The dependent variables selected were percent of drug release at 2nd hour and at 8th hour . Response surface plots were developed, and optimum formulations were selected on the basis of desirability. The formulated tablets showed anomalous release mechanism and followed matrix drug release kinetics, resulting in regulated and complete release from the tablets within 8 to 10 hours. The polymer carboxymethyl xyloglucan and HPMC K100M had significant effect on drug release from the tablet (. Polynomial mathematical models, generated for various response variables using multiple regression analysis, were found to be statistically significant (. The statistical models developed for optimization were found to be valid.

  20. Effects of opioids on local anesthesia in the rat: a codeine and tramadol study

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    Talita Girio Carnaval

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Opioids are central analgesics that act on the CNS (central nervous system and PNS (peripheral nervous system. We investigated the effects of codeine (COD and tramadol (TRAM on local anesthesia of the sciatic nerve. Eighty Wistar male rats received the following SC injections in the popliteal fossa: local anesthetic with epinephrine (LA; local anesthetic without vasoconstrictor (LA WV; COD; TRAM; LA + COD; LA + TRAM; COD 20 minutes prior to LA (COD 20' + LA or TRAM 20 minutes prior to LA (TRAM 20' + LA. As a nociceptive function, the blockade was considered the absence of a paw withdraw reflex. As a motor function, it was the absence of claudication. As a proprioceptive function, it was the absence of hopping and tactile responses. All data were compared using repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA. Opioids showed a significant increase in the level of anesthesia, and the blockade duration of LA + COD was greater than that of the remaining groups (p < 0.05. The associated use of opioids improved anesthesia efficacy. This could lead to a new perspective in controlling dental pain.

  1. Sublingual ketorolac versus sublingual tramadol for moderate to severe post-traumatic bone pain in children: a double-blind, randomised, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Elena; Maestro, Alessandra; Minen, Federico; Montico, Marcella; Ronfani, Luca; Zanon, Davide; Favret, Anna; Messi, Gianni; Barbi, Egidio

    2013-09-01

    To assess the effectiveness of sublingual ketorolac versus sublingual tramadol in reducing the pain associated with fracture or dislocation of extremities in children. A double-blind, randomised, controlled, non-inferiority trial was conducted in the paediatric emergency department of a research institute. One hundred and thirty-one children aged 4-17 years with suspected bone fracture or dislocation were enrolled. Eligible children were randomised to ketorolac (0.5 mg/kg) and placebo, or to tramadol (2 mg/kg) and placebo by sublingual administration, using a double-dummy technique. Pain was assessed by the patients every 20 min, for a maximum period of 2 h, using the McGrath scale for patients up to 6 years of age, and the Visual Analogue Scale for those older than 6 years of age. The mean pain scores fell significantly from eight to four and five in the ketorolac and tramadol groups, respectively, by 100 min (Wilcoxon sign rank test, p<0.001). The mean pain scores for ketorolac were lower than those for tramadol, but these differences were not significant at any time point (Mann-Whitney U Test, p values: 0-20 min: 0.167; 20-40 min: 0.314; 40-60 min: 0.223; 60-80 min: 0.348; 80-100 min: 0.166; 100-120 min: 0.08). The rescue dose of paracetamol-codeine was administered in 2/60 children in the ketorolac group versus 8/65 in the tramadol group (Fisher exact test, p=0.098). There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in the frequency of adverse effects. Both sublingual ketorolac and tramadol were equally effective for pain management in children with suspected fractures or dislocations.

  2. [Treating pain after dental surgery: a randomised, controlled, double-blind trial to assess a new formulation of paracetamol, opium powder and caffeine versus tramadol or placebo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borel, Jean-François; Deschaumes, Christophe; Devoize, Laurent; Huard, Cédric; Orliaguet, Thierry; Dubray, Claude; Baudet-Pommel, Martine; Dallel, Radhouane

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the analgesic efficacy and the safety of the association, paracetamol, opium prepared and caffeine, in two different dosages as compared to the conventional analgesic tramadol hydrochloride, on acute postoperative dental pain. We conducted a randomised, double-blind, multicentre, parallel-group clinical trial to test the efficacy and safety of single doses of two associations; paracetamol 500 mg, caffeine 50mg, opium prepared 25, and paracetamol 500 mg, caffeine 50mg, opium prepared 50mg, as compared to tramadol hydrochloride 100mg (called hereafter tramadol 100), and placebo, in the control of postoperative pain following the removal of 2 ipsilateral impacted third molars. The primary efficacy criterion was the sum of pain intensity differences as assessed every 30 minutes within 3 hours after the baseline assessment and administration of study treatment (SPID(0-3h)). Of the 232 randomised patients, 228 (98%) completed the study. Analysis of the primary efficacy criterion (SPID(0-3h)) established: (i) the superiority of the 3 active study treatments vs. placebo (popium 25mg, and paracetamol, caffeine, and opium 50mg vs. tramadol. Besides, both formulations of paracetamol, caffeine, and opium showed: (i) a faster onset of analgesic effect as compared to tramadol 100; (ii) a significantly stronger analgesic efficacy than tramadol 100, as measured 1 hour after the treatment intake; this superiority lasted all over the study duration for paracetamol, caffeine, and opium 50mg but not for paracetamol, caffeine, and opium 25mg. No unexpected safety concerns occurred, the two formulations of paracetamol, caffeine, and opium showed a good safety profile especially with paracetamol, caffeine, and opium 25mg as compared to tramadol. This study evidenced the non-inferiority of the paracetamol, caffeine, and opium 25mg or 50mg vs. tramadol 100, and even though the strengths of the tested formulations were higher than that of the 2009

  3. Multimodal analgesia in moderate-to-severe pain: a role for a new fixed combination of dexketoprofen and tramadol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varrassi, Giustino; Hanna, Magdi; Macheras, Giorgos; Montero, Antonio; Montes Perez, Antonio; Meissner, Winfried; Perrot, Serge; Scarpignato, Carmelo

    2017-06-01

    Untreated and under-treated pain represent one of the most pervasive health problems, which is worsening as the population ages and accrues risk for pain. Multiple treatment options are available, most of which have one mechanism of action, and cannot be prescribed at unlimited doses due to the ceiling of efficacy and/or safety concerns. Another limitation of single-agent analgesia is that, in general, pain is due to multiple causes. Combining drugs from different classes, with different and complementary mechanism(s) of action, provides a better opportunity for effective analgesia at reduced doses of individual agents. Therefore, there is a potential reduction of adverse events, often dose-related. Analgesic combinations are recommended by several organizations and are used in clinical practice. Provided the two agents are combined in a fixed-dose ratio, the resulting medication may offer advantages over extemporaneous combinations. Dexketoprofen/tramadol (25 mg/75 mg) is a new oral fixed-dose combination offering a comprehensive multimodal approach to moderate-to-severe acute pain that encompasses central analgesic action, peripheral analgesic effect and anti-inflammatory activity, together with a good tolerability profile. The analgesic efficacy of dexketoprofen/tramadol combination is complemented by a favorable pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile, characterized by rapid onset and long duration of action. This has been well documented in both somatic- and visceral-pain human models. This review discusses the available clinical evidence and the future possible applications of dexketoprofen/tramadol fixed-dose combination that may play an important role in the management of moderate-to-severe acute pain.

  4. Inhibidores de la bomba de protones por vía intravenosa en la hemorragia por úlcera péptica: ¿es necesaria la supresión ácida máxima para disminuir el resangrado? Intravenous proton-pump for acute peptic ulcer bleeding: is profound acid supression beneficial to reduce the risk of rebleeding?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Garrido

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: comparar dos pautas de pantoprazol por vía intravenosa en pacientes con hemorragia digestiva alta (HDA ulcerosa de alto riesgo para presentar persistencia o recidiva hemorrágica. Material y método: se randomizaron los pacientes en dos grupos: grupo 0: tratamiento con bolo de 80 mg i.v. de pantoprazol y perfusión continua a 8 mg/h durante 72 horas; grupo 1: tratamiento con 40 mg i.v. de pantoprazol diarios. Se analizó el porcentaje de persistencia/recidiva hemorrágica entre ambos grupos, requerimientos transfusionales, necesidad de cirugía y mortalidad del episodio hemorrágico. Resultados: se incluyeron 20 pacientes en el grupo 0 y 21 en el grupo 1. No se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en cuanto al sexo, edad, hábito tabáquico, consumo de AINE, presencia de inestabilidad hemodinámica, estigma sobre el nicho ulceroso (Forrest Ia 5 vs. 14,3%, p = 0,322; Forrest Ib 30 vs. 33,3%, p = 0,819; Forrest IIa 60 vs. 50,1%, p = 0,753. El 90% de los pacientes del grupo 0 recibió tratamiento endoscópico vs. el 100% del grupo 1, p = 0,232. El 50% de los pacientes del grupo 0 recibió transfusión vs. el 52,4% del grupo 1, p = 0,879. Dos pacientes (10,5% del grupo 0 presentaron recidiva hemorrágica vs. 3 pacientes (14,3% del grupo 1, precisando cirugía 1 paciente de cada grupo y falleciendo 1 paciente del grupo 0. Conclusiones: la inhibición ácida máxima de la secreción ácida gástrica mediante bolo e infusión continua de pantoprazol no ofrece resultados superiores al tratamiento con dosis convencionales en el episodio hemorrágico agudo.Objective: to compare two regimens of pantoprazole administered intravenously in patients with ulcerative gastrointestinal bleeding (UGB, and a high risk of presenting with persitent or recurrent hemorrhage. Material and method: patients were randomized into two groups: group 0 - treatment with a 80 mg bolus of pantoprazole administered intravenously, followed by continuous infusion of

  5. Tramadol/paracetamol fixed-dose combination in the treatment of moderate to severe pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pergolizzi Jr JV

    2012-08-01

    enhanced analgesic efficacy. Fixed-dose combination analgesics with two or more agents may offer additive or synergistic benefits to treat the multiple mechanisms of pain. Therefore, pain may be effectively treated while toxicity is reduced due to lower doses. One recent fixed-dose combination analgesic product combines tramadol, a centrally acting weak opioid analgesic, with low-dose paracetamol. Evidence-based guidelines recognize the potential value of combination analgesics in specific situations. The current guideline-based paradigm for pain treatment recommends NSAIDs for ongoing use with analgesics such as opioids to manage flares. However, the treatment model should evolve how to use low-dose combination products to manage pain with occasional use of NSAIDs for flares to avoid long-term and high-dose treatment with these analgesics. A next step in pain management guidelines should be targeted therapy when possible, or low-dose combination therapy or both, to achieve maximal efficacy with minimal toxicity.Keywords: NSAIDs, opioids, combination analgesics, moderate pain, severe pain, analgesics, tramadol/paracetamol

  6. Electrochemical oxidation of tramadol in low-salinity reverse osmosis concentrates using boron-doped diamond anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lütke Eversloh, Christian; Schulz, Manoj; Wagner, Manfred; Ternes, Thomas A

    2015-04-01

    The electrochemical treatment of low-salinity reverse osmosis (RO) concentrates was investigated using tramadol (100 μM) as a model substance for persistent organic contaminants. Galvanostatic degradation experiments using boron-doped diamond electrodes at different applied currents were conducted in RO concentrates as well as in ultra-pure water containing either sodium chloride or sodium sulfate. Kinetic investigations revealed a significant influence of in-situ generated active chlorine besides direct anodic oxidation. Therefore, tramadol concentrations decreased more rapidly at elevated chloride content. Nevertheless, reduction of total organic carbon (TOC) was found to be comparatively low, demonstrating that transformation rather than mineralization was taking place. Early stage product formation could be attributed to both direct and indirect processes, including demethylation, hydroxylation, dehydration, oxidative aromatic ring cleavage and halogenation reactions. The latter led to various halogenated derivatives and resulted in AOX (adsorbable organic halogens) formation in the lower mg/L-range depending on the treatment conditions. Characterisation of transformation products (TPs) was achieved via MS(n) experiments and additional NMR measurements. Based on identification and quantification of the main TPs in different matrices and on additional potentiostatic electrolysis, a transformation pathway was proposed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. High-amylose sodium carboxymethyl starch matrices: development and characterization of tramadol hydrochloride sustained-release tablets for oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabais, Teresa; Leclair, Grégoire

    2014-01-01

    Substituted amylose (SA) polymers were produced from high-amylose corn starch by etherification of its hydroxyl groups with chloroacetate. Amorphous high-amylose sodium carboxymethyl starch (HASCA), the resulting SA polymer, was spray-dried to obtain an excipient (SD HASCA) with optimal binding and sustained-release (SR) properties. Tablets containing different percentages of SD HASCA and tramadol hydrochloride were produced by direct compression and evaluated for dissolution. Once-daily and twice-daily SD HASCA tablets containing two common dosages of tramadol hydrochloride (100 mg and 200 mg), a freely water-soluble drug, were successfully developed. These SR formulations presented high crushing forces, which facilitate further tablet processing and handling. When exposed to both a pH gradient simulating the pH variations through the gastrointestinal tract and a 40% ethanol medium, a very rigid gel formed progressively at the surface of the tablets providing controlled drug-release properties. These properties indicated that SD HASCA was a promising and robust excipient for oral, sustained drug-release, which may possibly minimize the likelihood of dose dumping and consequent adverse effects, even in the case of coadministration with alcohol.

  8. Dexketoprofen/tramadol 25 mg/75 mg: randomised double-blind trial in moderate-to-severe acute pain after abdominal hysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R A; McQuay, H J; Tomaszewski, J; Raba, G; Tutunaru, D; Lietuviete, N; Galad, J; Hagymasy, L; Melka, D; Kotarski, J; Rechberger, T; Fülesdi, B; Nizzardo, A; Guerrero-Bayón, C; Cuadripani, S; Pizà-Vallespir, B; Bertolotti, M

    2016-01-22

    Dexketoprofen trometamol plus tramadol hydrochloride is a new oral combination of two analgesics, which have different mechanisms of action for the treatment of moderate to severe acute pain. Randomised, double-blind, parallel, placebo and active-controlled, single and multiple-dose study to evaluate the analgesic efficacy and safety of dexketoprofen/tramadol 25 mg/75 mg in comparison with the single agents (dexketoprofen 25 mg and tramadol 100 mg) in moderate to severe acute pain after abdominal hysterectomy. Patients received seven consecutive doses of study drug within a 3-day period, each dose separated by an 8-hour interval. A placebo arm was included during the single-dose phase to validate the pain model. Efficacy assessments included pain intensity, pain relief, patient global evaluation and use of rescue medication. The primary endpoint was the mean sum of pain intensity differences over the first 8 h (SPID8). The efficacy analysis included 606 patients, with a mean age of 48 years (range 25-73). The study results confirmed the superiority of the combination over the single agents in terms of the primary endpoint (p dexketoprofen/tramadol 25 mg/75 mg over the single components in the management of moderate to severe acute pain, as confirmed by the single-dose efficacy, repeated-dose sustained effect and good safety profile observed. EU Clinical Trials Register (EudraCT number 2012-004545-32, registered 04 October 2012); Clinicaltrials.gov ( NCT01904149, registered 17 July 2013).

  9. Comparison of the analgesic efficacy of oral ketorolac versus intramuscular tramadol after third molar surgery: A parallel, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isiordia-Espinoza, M-A; Pozos-Guillen, A; Martinez-Rider, R; Perez-Urizar, J

    2016-09-01

    Preemptive analgesia is considered an alternative for treating the postsurgical pain of third molar removal. The aim of this study was to evaluate the preemptive analgesic efficacy of oral ketorolac versus intramuscular tramadol after a mandibular third molar surgery. A parallel, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial was carried out. Thirty patients were randomized into two treatment groups using a series of random numbers: Group A, oral ketorolac 10 mg plus intramuscular placebo (1 mL saline solution); or Group B, oral placebo (similar tablet to oral ketorolac) plus intramuscular tramadol 50 mg diluted in 1 mL saline solution. These treatments were given 30 min before the surgery. We evaluated the time of first analgesic rescue medication, pain intensity, total analgesic consumption and adverse effects. Patients taking oral ketorolac had longer time of analgesic covering and less postoperative pain when compared with patients receiving intramuscular tramadol. According to the VAS and UAC results, this study suggests that 10 mg of oral ketorolac had superior analgesic effect than 50 mg of tramadol when administered before a mandibular third molar surgery.

  10. "Perdeu a veia": significados da prática da terapia intravenosa na unidade de terapia intensiva neonatal "The vein is missed": meanings of intravenous therapy practice in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

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    Elisa da Conceição Rodrigues

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A terapia intravenosa (TIV destaca-se entre as tecnologias imprescindíveis para garantir a sobrevivência dos recém-nascidos de risco. Contudo, é fonte de dor, estresse e complicações graves. O objeto de estudo foram os significados da prática da terapia intravenosa na unidade de terapia intensiva neonatal (UTIN, mais especificamente: analisar os significados atribuídos à prática da TIV pela equipe e discutir como esses significados refletem no cuidado do recém-nascido. Trata-se de um estudo de caso etnográfico com referencial teórico da antropologia cultural, realizado em uma UTIN pública do município do Rio de Janeiro. Os sujeitos foram nove enfermeiros, quatro médicos, três técnicos e quatro auxiliares de enfermagem. Os dados foram coletados através de entrevista semiestruturada e observação participante. A análise qualitativa das entrevistas foi realizada utilizando-se o método da interpretação dos sentidos. Os significados, quando entrelaçados na "teia cultural", revelaram que a prática da TIV é reduzida a técnicas de punção venosa periférica, acarretando sérios agravos para os recém-nascidos e desgaste emocional para a equipe e a família. A ressignificação da prática da terapia intravenosa será possível a partir da reflexão crítica dos padrões culturais nos quais ela se estrutura.Intravenous Therapy (IVT is an important item among the necessary technologies for the survival of high-risk new-born babies. However, it is also a source of pain, stress and risk of serious complications. This article aims to assess the meanings of IVT as ascribed by care teams and to discuss the reflection of such meanings on the attention to new-born babies. The article, with a theoretical referential in Cultural Anthropology, presents an ethnographic case study carried out in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of municipal administration in Rio de Janeiro. Subjects were nine nurses, four doctors, and three nurse assistants

  11. Preparación de mezclas intravenosas citostáticas: experiencia de un año de trabajo del Servicio Farmacéutico del Instituto Nacional de Oncología y Radiobiología Preparation of intravenous cytostatic mixtures: one-year work experience at the Pharmaceutical Service of the Nacional Institute of Oncology and Radiobiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonieta Arbesú Michelena

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Desde octubre de 2006 a septiembre de 2007, fecha en que el Servicio Farmacéutico del Instituto Nacional de Oncología y Radiobiología comenzó a elaborar las mezclas intravenosas citostáticas, se obtuvieron resultados que se decidieron analizar. Se seleccionaron indicadores como: número de errores de medicación detectados y/o evitados, consumo de citostáticos, tratamientos recuperados por la elaboración centralizada y la aplicación de las Buenas Prácticas de Elaboración y Farmacia, y los resultados se compararon con igual etapa de años anteriores. Se apreció que con la presencia del farmacéutico en el equipo de quimioterapia oncológica se recuperaron tratamientos tan costosos como el docetaxel 80 mg, paclitaxel 300 mg y trastuzomab 150 mg bulbos. En ese orden y potencialmente se pudieron beneficiar 121 pacientes, fundamentalmente de cáncer de mama; se minimizó el consumo de citostáticos como la vincristina 1 mg y la bleomicina 15 mg bulbos; con la aplicación del control técnico y económico, se evidenció un incremento en el uso de presentaciones de la ciclofosfamida de 200 mg y el cisplatino de 10 mg bulbos Además, se detectaron y evitaron el 1,3 % de errores de medicación en la prescripción, valor aún elevado. Se concluye que la presencia del farmacéutico mejora la calidad del servicio hospitalario que atiende a pacientes oncológicos y se propone la incorporación de este personal en otros centros hospitalarios del país, ya que favorece el incremento en la aplicación de las Buenas Prácticas de Elaboración y se contribuye a minimizar la ocurrencia de errores de medicación.From October 2006 to September 2007, which marked the beginning of the preparation of intravenous cytostatic mixtures by the Pharmaceutical Service of the National Institute of Oncology and Radiobiology, a number of results were achieved and then considered for analysis in this paper. The selected indicators included the number of detected and

  12. Os níveis plasmáticos, farmacocinética e regime de dosagem de gatifloxacina administrado por via intravenosa em bezerros búfalos (Bubalus bubalis na administração concomitante com meloxicam

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    Vinod Kumar Dumka

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigou-se a farmacocinética da gatifloxacina, administrada por via intravenosa, concomitante à aplicação de meloxicam em bezerros búfalos. O meloxicam foi administrado por via subcutânea (0,5 mg.kg-1, imediatamente seguido pela administração intravenosa de gatifloxacina (4 mg.kg-1. A concentração plasmática de gatifloxacina foi estimada por ensaio microbiológico. Os parâmetros farmacocinéticos foram calculados e a posologia adequada foi computada. A concentração plasmática do fármaco-terapêutico foi mantida por 12 h. A gatifloxacina foi rapidamente distribuída a partir de sangue para o compartimento de tecido, o que ficou evidente a partir dos valores elevados da taxa constante de distribuição, α1 (11.9 ± 0.52 h-1 e a proporção de velocidade constante de transferência de droga a partir de centrais para os compartimentos periféricos e vice-versa, K12/K21 (3.05 ± 0.36 e K13/K31 (2.04 ± 0.12. A área sob a curva plasmática de concentração-tempo da droga e o volume aparente de distribuição foi de 12.0 ± 0.68 µg.ml-1.h e 2.69 ± 0.14 L.kg-1, respectivamente. A meia-vida (t1/2β, a depuração corporal total (ClB e relação da droga presente no sangue periférico para o compartimento central (P/C foram 5.59 ± 0.40 h, 337.6 ± 19.9 ml.kg-1.h-1 e 8.04 ± 0.50, respectivamente. O presente estudo revelou que o regime de dosagem mais adequado de gatifloxacina quando administrada concomitantemente com meloxicam em bezerros búfalos seria 2,5 mg.kg-1 seguida de 2,0 mg.kg-1 em intervalos de 12 h.

  13. Administração de clonidina intravenosa e sua capacidade de reduzir a pressão da artéria pulmonar em pacientes submetidos a cirurgia cardíaca

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    Benedito Barbosa João

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar a capacidade da clonidina de reduzir a pressão arterial pulmonar de pacientes com hipertensão pulmonar, submetidos a cirurgia cardíaca, seja pela diminuição dos valores pressóricos a partir da aferição direta da pressão de artéria pulmonar, seja pela redução ouabolição da necessidade de dobutamina e nitroprussiato de sódio no intraoperatório. Método: Trata-se de estudo controlado, comparativo, randomizado e duplamente encoberto feito com 30 pacientes portadores de hipertensão arterial pulmonar tipo 2, submetidos a cirurgia cardíaca. Avaliaram-se a pressão média de artéria pulmonar e a posologia de dobutaminae nitroprussiato de sódio em quatro momentos: (M0 antes da administração de 2 µg/kg declonidina intravenosa ou placebo; (M1 decorridos 30 minutos do tratamento testado e antes da circulação extracorpórea; (M2 imediatamente após a circulação extracorpórea; e (M310 minutos após a injeção de protamina. Resultados: Não houve diferenças significativas em relação à pressão média de artéria pulmonarem nenhum dos momentos estudados. Entre os grupos não houve também diferença significativa entre as demais variáveis estudadas, como pressão arterial sistêmica média, frequência cardíaca, dosagem total de dobutamina, dosagem total de nitroprussiato de sódio e necessidade do hipnoanalgésico fentanil. Conclusão: A análise dos dados obtidos dos pacientes incluídos neste estudo permite concluir que a clonidina, na dose de 2 µg/kg administrada via intravenosa, não foi capaz de reduzir a pressão média de artéria pulmonar de pacientes com hipertensão pulmonar do grupo 2 (hipertensão venosa pulmonar, submetidos a cirurgia cardíaca, e nem reduzir ou abolir a necessidade da administração de dobutamina e nitroprussiato de sódio no intraoperatório.

  14. Comparison between oral and intra-articular antinociceptive effect of dexketoprofen and tramadol combination in monosodium iodoacetate-induced osteoarthritis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cialdai, Cecilia; Giuliani, Sandro; Valenti, Claudio; Tramontana, Manuela; Maggi, Carlo Alberto

    2013-08-15

    Dexketoprofen and tramadol, alone or in combination, were evaluated after oral or intra-articular administration on knee osteoarthritis nociception induced by intra-articular (i.ar.) monosodium iodoacetate (MIA, 1 mg/25 µl) in the rat right knee while the left knee received saline (25 µl). Seven days after MIA treatment, dexketoprofen, tramadol, their combination or the vehicle were administered. Nociception was evaluated as alteration in hind limb weight distribution with Incapacitance tester at different time-points after drug administration. Oral dexketoprofen (0.1-1 mg/kg) or tramadol (0.5-5 mg/kg) induced maximal antinociception at 1 and 5 mg/kg, respectively. Their combination dose-dependently increased the intensity and duration of antinociception, that was additive and lasted up to 3 days. Also the intra-articular administration of dexketoprofen or tramadol (10-100 µg/25 µl) inhibited MIA-induced nociception, and the combination of the lower doses (10 µg/25 µl) produced a long lasting more than additive antinociceptive effect indicating a synergistic interaction between the two drugs. This effect was significantly reduced by naloxone (10 μg/25 μl, i.ar.) co-administered with both compounds. The intra-articular administration of both drugs at 10 µg/25 µl in the contralateral control knee joint provoked a marked synergistic antinociceptive effect indicating significant systemic diffusion through synovial membrane. The oral or intra-articular combination of dexketoprofen and tramadol produced additive or synergistic antinociceptive effects, respectively, in the model of MIA-induced osteoarthritis in rats, that might allow to obtain therapeutic advantages with lower side effects. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A Study on Epidural Tramadol Compared with Epidural Fentanyl Combined with Low Dose Bupivacaine for the Control of Metastatic Cancer Pain

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    Resham Bahadur Rana

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite advances in the knowledge of pathophysiology of pain and its management, patients continue to suffer from pain in many terminal stage cancer. Tramadol hydrochloride is a weak opioid with analgesic properties, and can be tried for cancer pain management. Objectives: This study was performed to find out the efficacy of the analgesic property of Tramadol through epidural route in cancer patients as an combination with low dose(.125% Bupivacaine and to compare with Fentanyl, a μ opioid agonist. Methods: 50 Cancer patients with or without previous pain management were randomly allocated to one of the two study regime- Group-A (tramadol 50 mg and Group-B (Fentanyl 50 mgm in combination with .125% Bupivacaine. Drugs were administered epidurally 6 hourly, 8 hourly and 12 hourly respectively for the 1st, 2nd and 3rd day. Low dose bupivacaine was added to both groups to enhance quality. Pain scores, blood pressure, respiratory rate, heart rate, side effects and patients' satisfaction score was recorded 6 hourly for 72 hrs. The data yielded from this study were compiled and analyzed by unpaired and paired ‘t' test with 95% confidence limit. A value of P< 0.05 was considered to be significant. ÷ square test was done for some of the data. Results: Pain scores were significantly decreased in both the groups but were not significantly different. The incidence of side effects including nausea and vomiting was found in both the groups and was not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusion: The use of epidural Tramadol in selected cancer pain patients (especially pain in lower abdomen and lower back may be very useful and is comparable to opioid in certain situations. Key words: Metastatic cancer pain; Epidural tramadol. DOI: 10.3329/bsmmuj.v2i2.4760 BSMMU J 2009; 2(2: 66-72

  16. [Conversion to tapentadol PR improves analgesia and quality of life in patients with severe and chronic pain despite using tramadol > 300 mg/d].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Uwe; Waldmann-Rex, Susanne; Lehmann, Ute

    2015-06-01

    This subgroup analysis of a non-interventional study involving general practitioners and internists investigated the administration of tapentadol PR (prolonged release) in patients with widely-utilized tramadol pretreatment in routine clinical practice in Germany. Data of all patients in the study cohort who had tramadol as the only opioid in their previous therapy were included in the analysis (n = 685); among them especially the 99 patients with tramadol dosages exceeding 300 mg/d were focused. Data collection during the 3-month observation period included previous and concomitant analgesic treatment, tapentadol PR dosage, pain intensity, sleep and quality of life parameters, and tolerability of tapentadol PR. Back pain was the most common cause of pain (n = 86/99), other pain diagnoses were (partly additionally) recorded in 68 cases. A mixed type of pain dominated. The previous tramadol therapy was usually combined with non-opioids (n = 74), co-analgesics (n = 44) and analgesic rescue medication (n = 35). Tapentadol PR therapy reduced the mean initial pain intensity of 7.3 ± 1.5 to 3.1 ± 1.8 points (NRS-11, 11-point pain scale, n = 96) at the end of observation, using an average dosage of 218.7 mg/d. Tapentadol PR was finally applied as the sole analgesic in 32/95 patients. 69/96 patients achieved a clinically meaningful pain relief of at least 50 %, while 63 patients gained a pain reduction of ≥ 4 NRS-points. 89/95 patients reached or exceeded their additional individual treatment goal. This was accompanied by a significant decrease in pain-related impairments of daily activities and an improvement in quality of life with an overall good tolerability of tapentadol PR. Treatment with tapentadol PR was assessed positively by physicians and patients. Data analysis shows a clinically relevant benefit in patients unsuccessfully pretreated with tramadol by consecutive conversion to the potent analgesic tapentadol PR.

  17. Efficacy of intravenous tramadol and low-dose ketamine in the prevention of post-spinal anesthesia shivering following cesarean section: a double-blinded, randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lema, Girmay Fitiwi; Gebremedhn, Endale Gebreegziabher; Gebregzi, Amare Hailekiros; Desta, Yilkal Tadesse; Kassa, Adugna Aregawi

    2017-01-01

    Shivering is a frequent and undesirable complication of spinal anesthesia. It is a physiologic response to increase the body core temperature in an attempt to raise metabolic heat production. However, shivering may trigger myocardial ischemia; increase intraocular and intracranial pressures, increase wound pain, delay wound healing and interfere with pulse rate, blood pressure and electrocardiogram monitoring. We aimed to compare the efficacy of intravenous (IV) ketamine with IV tramadol for the prevention of shivering in patients who underwent cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia. A prospective, randomized, double-blind study was conducted. One hundred and twenty-three American Society of Anesthesiologist I and II patients, aged between 18 and 39 years, who underwent cesarean section were included in the study. Patients were randomly allocated to one of three groups: group S (n=41; control group) received saline, group K (n=41) received ketamine 0.2 mg/kg and group T (n=41) received tramadol 0.5 mg/kg. Incidence and grade of shivering and side effects between the treatment groups were recorded. The incidence of shivering was significantly reduced in the ketamine and tramadol groups (41.5% and 53.7%, respectively) compared to the saline group (70.7%; p =0.028). Grade 3 shivering occurred in 16 (39%) patients in the saline group, compared to 9 (22%) in the tramadol group and 8 (19.5%) in the ketamine group ( p =0.011). Only two cases in the saline group developed grade 4 shivering ( p shivering. We recommend low-dose IV ketamine or tramadol prophylaxis for parturients undergoing cesarean section under spinal anesthesia.

  18. Antibioticoterapia Intravenosa domiciliaria mediante bomba de perfusión continua de la sobreinfección respiratoria por Pseudomonas aeruginosa en el paciente con enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica.

    OpenAIRE

    Baena Tamargo, Begoña

    2012-01-01

    La malaltia pulmonar obstructiva crónica (MPOC) té una prevalença elevada al nostra medi i un gran impacte econòmic. La sobreinfecció respiratoria en els pacients MPOC avançats, es bàsicament, per Pseudomonas. L'antibioticoteràpia domiciliaria endovenosa en aquest tipus de sobreinfecció es de gran importància. La forma d'administració de l'antibiòtic es mitjançant bombes d'infusió continues i bombes d'infusió intermitents. Es tracta d'un estudi comparatiu dels dos tipus de bombes d'infusió pe...

  19. Photocatalytic degradation kinetics, mechanism and ecotoxicity assessment of tramadol metabolites in aqueous TiO{sub 2} suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonopoulou, U. [Department of Environmental and Natural Resources Management, University of Patras, 30100 Agrinio (Greece); Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Hela, D. [Department of Business Administration of Food and Agricultural Products, University of Patras, Agrinio 30100 (Greece); Konstantinou, I., E-mail: iokonst@cc.uoi.gr [Department of Environmental and Natural Resources Management, University of Patras, 30100 Agrinio (Greece); Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece)

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated for the first time the photocatalytic degradation of three well-known transformation products (TPs) of pharmaceutical Tramadol, N-desmethyl-(N-DES), N,N-bidesmethyl (N,N-Bi-DES) and N-oxide-tramadol (N-OX-TRA) in two different aquatic matrices, ultrapure water and secondary treated wastewater, with high (10 mg L{sup −1}) and low (50 μg L{sup −1}) initial concentrations, respectively. Total disappearance of the parent compounds was attained in all experiments. For initial concentration of 10 mg L{sup −1}, the target compounds were degraded within 30–40 min and a mineralization degree of more than 80% was achieved after 240 min of irradiation, while the contained organic nitrogen was released mainly as NH{sub 4}{sup +} for N-DES, N,N-Bi-DES and NO{sub 3}{sup −} for N-OX-TRA. The degradation rates of all the studied compounds were considerably decreased in the wastewater due to the presence of inorganic and organic constituents typically found in effluents and environmental matrices which may act as scavengers of the HO{sup •}. The effect of pH (4, 6.7, 10) in the degradation rates was studied and for N-DES-TRA and N,N-Bi-DES-TRA, the optimum pH value was 6.7. In contrast, N-OX-TRA showed an increasing trend in the photocatalytic degradation kinetic in alkaline solutions (pH 10). The major transformation products were identified by high resolution accurate mass spectrometry coupled with liquid chromatography (HR-LC–MS). Scavenging experiments indicated for all studied compounds the important role of HO{sup •} in the photocatalytic degradation pathways that included mainly hydroxylation and further oxidation of the parent compounds. In addition, Microtox bioassay (Vibrio fischeri) was employed for evaluating the ecotoxicity of photocatalytically treated solutions. Results clearly demonstrate the progressive decrease of the toxicity and the efficiency of the photocatalytic process in the detoxification of the irradiated solutions

  20. Sedative and cardiopulmonary effects of xylazine alone or in combination with methadone, morphine or tramadol in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Leonardo L; Nishimura, Lilian T; Borges, Luisa P B; Cerejo, Sofia A; Villela, Isadora O J; Auckburally, Adam; de Mattos-Junior, Ewaldo

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the cardiopulmonary and sedative effects of xylazine alone or in combination with methadone, morphine or tramadol in sheep. Experimental, prospective, crossover, randomized, blinded study. Six Santa Inês breed sheep (females) aged 12 ± 8 months and weighing 39.5 ± 7.4 kg. Sheep were sedated with each of four treatments in a randomized, crossover design, with a minimum washout period of 7 days between treatments. Treatments were: X [xylazine (0.1 mg kg(-1))]; XM [xylazine (0.1 mg kg(-1)) and methadone (0.5 mg kg(-1))]; XMO [xylazine (0.1 mg kg(-1)) and morphine (0.5 mg kg(-1))], and XT [xylazine (0.1 mg kg(-1)) and tramadol (5 mg kg(-1))]. Each drug combination was mixed in the syringe and injected intravenously. Sedation, heart rate (HR), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), rectal temperature (RT°C), respiratory rate (fR), arterial blood gases and electrolytes were measured before drug administration (T0) and then at 15 minute intervals for 120 minutes (T15-T120). Heart rate significantly decreased in all treatments compared with T0. PaCO2 values in XM and XMO were higher at all time points compared with T0. In treatments X and XM, pH, bicarbonate (HCO3-) and base excess were increased at all time points compared with T0. PaO2 was significantly decreased at T15-T75 in XM, at all time points in XMO, and at T15 and T30 in XT. Sedation at T15 and T30 in XM and XMO was greater than in the other treatments. The combinations of methadone, morphine or tramadol with xylazine resulted in cardiopulmonary changes similar to those induced by xylazine alone in sheep. The combinations provided better sedation, principally at 15 minutes and 30 minutes following administration. © 2015 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  1. Upgrading of Wastewater Treatment Plants Through the Use of Unconventional Treatment Technologies: Removal of Lidocaine, Tramadol, Venlafaxine and Their Metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelm Püttmann

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence and removal efficiencies of the pharmaceuticals lidocaine (LDC, tramadol (TRA and venlafaxine (VEN, and their major active metabolites monoethylglycinexylidide (MEGX, O-desmethyltramadol (ODT and O-desmethylvenlafaxine (ODV were studied at four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs equipped with activated sludge treatment technologies. In parallel to activated sludge treatment, the removal efficiency of the compounds in pilot- and full-scale projects installed at the WWTPs was investigated. Within these projects two different treatment methods were tested: adsorption onto powdered/granulated activated carbon (PAC/GAC and ozonation. The metabolite MEGX was not detected in any sample. The concentrations of the target analytes in wastewater effluents resulting from activated sludge treatment ranged from 55 to 183 (LDC, 88 to 416 (TRA, 50 to 245 (ODT, 22 to 176 (VEN and 77 to 520 ng L−1 (ODV. In the pilot project with subsequent treatment with PAC/GAC, the mean concentrations of the analytes were between

  2. Comparative study of intravenous Tramadol versus Ketorolac for preventing postoperative pain after third molar surgery--a prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalraju, Prathibha; Lalitha, Ramanujapuram Manikarnike; Prasad, Kavitha; Ranganath, Krishnappa

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this comparative, prospective, randomized, controlled study was to evaluate two different regimens of analgesics: a preoperative intravenous dose of either Tramadol or Ketorolac given 10 min prior to surgery to assess their impact on clinical recovery after third molar surgery. Forty patients requiring surgical extraction of unilateral impacted mandibular third molars similar in position were enrolled in the study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups based on permuting the numbers. Patients in Group 1 and Group 2 were administered either Tramadol 50 mg or Ketorolac 30 mg, intravenously, 10 min prior to surgery. The difference in postoperative pain was assessed by four primary points: pain intensity as measured by a 10 mm visual analogue scale hourly for 12 h, median time to rescue analgesics, number of analgesics consumed and patient's overall 5-point global assessment scale. Throughout the 12 h investigation period, patients treated with Ketorolac reported significantly lower pain intensity scores, significantly longer time to rescue analgesics (Acetaminophen 500 mg) and less intake of postoperative analgesics. In Group 2, 40% of the patient had good overall assessment as compared to Group 1 where only 25% of patients had good overall assessment. The current study shows that pre-emptive use of Inj. Ketorolac 30 mg intravenously can reduce the severity of the postoperative sequelae of asymptomatic impacted mandibular third molar surgery. Copyright © 2013 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Efficacy and Safety of Transdermal Buprenorphine versus Oral Tramadol/Acetaminophen in Patients with Persistent Postoperative Pain after Spinal Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Hyup Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Control of persistent pain following spinal surgery is an unmet clinical need. This study compared the efficacy and safety of buprenorphine transdermal system (BTDS to oral tramadol/acetaminophen (TA in Korean patients with persistent, moderate pain following spinal surgery. Methods. Open-label, interventional, randomized multicenter study. Adults with persistent postoperative pain (Numeric Rating Scale [NRS] ≥ 4 at 14–90 days postsurgery were enrolled. Patients received once-weekly BTDS (n=47; 5 μg/h titrated to 20 μg/h or twice-daily TA (n=40; tramadol 37.5 mg/acetaminophen 325 mg, one tablet titrated to 4 tablets for 6 weeks. The study compared pain reduction with BTDS versus TA at week 6. Quality of life (QoL, treatment satisfaction, medication compliance, and adverse events (AEs were assessed. Findings. At week 6, both groups reported significant pain reduction (mean NRS change: BTDS −2.02; TA −2.76, both P<0.0001 and improved QoL (mean EQ-5D index change: BTDS 0.10; TA 0.19, both P<0.05. The BTDS group achieved better medication compliance (97.8% versus 91.0%. Incidence of AEs (26.1% versus 20.0% and adverse drug reactions (20.3% versus 16.9% were comparable between groups. Implications. For patients with persistent pain following spinal surgery, BTDS is an alternative to TA for reducing pain and supports medication compliance. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01983111.

  4. Tramadol/acetaminophen combination as add-on therapy in the treatment of patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jhi-Kai; Yu, Chen-Tung; Lee, Ming-Yung; Yeo, Kj; Chang, I-Chang; Tsou, Hsi-Kai; Wei, James Cheng-Chung

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the safety and efficacy of tramadol 37.5 mg/acetaminophen 325 mg combination tablets (Ultracet®) in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). This was a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Sixty patients with active AS according to the Modified New York Criteria were enrolled. Active disease was defined by Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) for more than 3 at randomization. Subjects were randomized equally into two groups: the treatment group received aceclofenac plus Ultracet® one tablet twice a day, and the control group received aceclofenac plus placebo for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was a difference of Assessment in Ankylosing Spondylitis (ASAS20) response criteria between two groups at week 12. At week 12, ASAS20 was achieved by 53.3 % of the aceclofenac plus Ultracet group and 31 % of the aceclofenac alone group (p = 0.047). For the pain visual analogue scale at week 12, there was a reduction of 45.6 % in aceclofenac plus Ultracet group and 25.7 % in the aceclofenac alone group (p = 0.087). There was no statistically significant difference between two groups in BASDAI, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Global Index, Physician Global Assessment, spinal mobility, ESR, hs-CRP, and Ankylosing Spondylitis Quality of Life Questionnaire. A slight increase in total adverse events was noted with dizziness (7.5 vs 1.5 %), vertigo (4.5 vs 1.5 %), and nausea/vomiting (6 vs 0 %) in the Ultracet arm compared to placebo. The tramadol 37.5 mg/acetaminophen 325 mg combination tablet (Ultracet®) might has additional effect to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the treatment of patients with ankylosing spondylitis. It showed marginal benefit in pain and disease activity. However, a slight increase in minor adverse events was noted.

  5. Changes in antioxidant capacity of blood due to mutual action of electromagnetic field (1800 MHz) and opioid drug (tramadol) in animal model of persistent inflammatory state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodera, Paweł; Stankiewicz, Wanda; Zawada, Katarzyna; Antkowiak, Bożena; Paluch, Małgorzata; Kieliszek, Jarosław; Kalicki, Bolesław; Bartosiński, Andrzej; Wawer, Iwona

    2013-01-01

    The biological effects and health implications of electromagnetic field (EMF) associated with cellular mobile telephones and related wireless systems and devices have become a focus of international scientific interest and world-wide public concern. It has also been proved that EMF influences the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in different tissues. Experiments were performed in healthy rats and in rats with persistent inflammatory state induced by Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) injection, which was given 24 h before EMF exposure and drug application. Rats were injected with CFA or the same volume of paraffin oil into the plantar surface of the left hind paw. Animals were exposed to the far-field range of an antenna at 1800 MHz with the additional modulation which was identical to that generated by mobile phone GSM 1800. Rats were given 15 min exposure, or were sham-exposed with no voltage applied to the field generator in control groups. Immediately before EMF exposure, rats were injected intraperitoneally with tramadol in the 20 mg/kg dose or vehicle in the 1 ml/kg volume. Our study revealed that single EMF exposure in 1800 MHz frequency significantly reduced antioxidant capacity both in healthy animals and those with paw inflammation. A certain synergic mode of action between applied electromagnetic fields and administered tramadol in rats treated with CFA was observed. The aim of the study was to examine the possible, parallel/combined effects of electromagnetic radiation, artificially induced inflammation and a centrally-acting synthetic opioid analgesic drug, tramadol, (used in the treatment of severe pain) on the antioxidant capacity of blood of rats. The antioxidant capacity of blood of healthy rats was higher than that of rats which received only tramadol and were exposed to electromagnetic fields.

  6. Preincisional analgesia with subcutaneous administration of tramadol reduces postoperative pain in patients after open urologic surgeries: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safavi, M.; Honarmand, A.; Ghaedi, F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Blockade of parietal nociceptive afferent nerves by wound infiltration with tramadol may be advantageous in the management of postoperative pain. The purpose of the present study was to assess the efficacy of preincisional subcutaneous administration of two doses of tramadol on postoperative pain relief after open urologic surgeries. Methodology: Ninety-six patients scheduled for open urologic surgeries were enrolled in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Patients were divided into three groups of 32 subjects each, and they received subcutaneous administrations of tramadol at 1 mg.kg/sup -1/ (Group T1) or 2 mg.kg/sup -1 (Group T2) or subcutaneous administrations of 10 mL of normal saline (Group C) before undergoing the surgeries. Visual analog scale (VAS) scores and analgesic use were monitored for 24 h after the operation. Results: VAS scores were significantly lower at 15, 30, and 60 min after arrival at the post anesthesia care unit in Group T2 compared with Group T1 and Group C (P < 0.05). Postoperative VAS scores were significantly lower at 4, 8, 16 and 24 h postoperatively in Group T2 compared with Group T1 and Group C. There were no significant differences between Group T1 and Group C on VAS scores at any time point. The time to first rescue analgesia in the postoperative period was significantly lower in Group T2 compared with Group T1 and Group C. The need for postoperative analgesia was significantly lower in Group T2 compared with Group T1 and Group C. Conclusion: Preincisional subcutaneous administration of tramadol at 2 mg.kg/sup -1/ provides effective analgesia during the first 24 hour after open urologic surgeries and does not produce significant side effects. (author)

  7. Comparison of Prophylactic Intravenous Magnesium Sulfate with Tramadol for Postspinal Shivering in Elective Cesarean Section: A Placebo Controlled Randomized Double-blind Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachidananda, Roopa; Basavaraj, K.; Shaikh, Safiya I.; Umesh, G.; Bhat, Triveni; Arpitha, B.

    2018-01-01

    Background and Aims: Cesarean sections are performed mostly under spinal anesthesia. Shivering is one of the distressing complications. The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of intravenous (i.v) magnesium sulfate and tramadol with placebo (normal saline) on postspinal shivering in elective cesarean section when used as prophylaxis. Methods: One hundred and thirty-five pregnant women between 18 and 35 years age, belonging to the American Society of Anesthesiologists’ physical Status II, undergoing elective cesarean section under spinal anesthesia were enrolled into the study. Patients belonging to Group C (control group, n = 45) received isotonic saline 100 mL i.v, Group T (tramadol group, n = 45) received tramadol 0.5 mg/kg in 100 mL isotonic saline i.v, whereas those in Group M (magnesium sulfate group, n = 45) received magnesium sulfate 30 mg/kg in 100 mL isotonic saline i.v after administering spinal anesthesia. Incidence and grades of shivering were noted. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA test and Chi-square test. Results: The incidence of shivering in Group C, Group T, and Group M were 67.5%, 43.9%, and 39%, respectively. The incidence of shivering in Group M and Group T was significantly low when compared to Group C (P = 0.008; P = 0.026), whereas there was no statistically significant difference between Groups T and M (P = 0.654). Conclusion: Magnesium sulfate and tramadol significantly reduce the incidence of shivering compared to placebo when used as prophylaxis in pregnant women undergoing cesarean section under spinal anesthesia. Magnesium sulfate reduces the severity of the shivering.

  8. Combination of tramadol, diazepam, xylazine and ketamine as anesthetic protocol for canine ovariohysterectomy in sterilization campaigns and its effects on vital signs

    OpenAIRE

    Huayta Huanca, Jhon David; Escuela Profesional de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Facultad de Ciencias e Ingenierías Biológicas y Químicas, Universidad Católica de Santa María, Arequipa; Ureta Escobedo, Alexander; Escuela Profesional de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Facultad de Ciencias e Ingenierías Biológicas y Químicas, Universidad Católica de Santa María, Arequipa

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to determine changes in respiratory and heart rate, pulse, saturation of oxygen, temperature and blood pressure caused by the combination of tramadol, diazepam, xylazine and ketamine during canine ovariohysterectomy for possible use in sterilization campaigns. Ten bitches between 10 months and 6 years of age of different breeds and sizes, clinically healthy, with hemogram and leucogram normal and classified as ASA I and II, were subjected to elective surgery ovariohysterectomy...

  9. The Effect of Acepromazine Alone or in Combination with Methadone, Morphine, or Tramadol on Sedation and Selected Cardiopulmonary Variables in Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Toshiko Nishimura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The sedative and selected cardiopulmonary effects of acepromazine alone or in combination with methadone, morphine, or tramadol were compared in sheep. Six ewes were randomly assigned to treatments: A (0.05 mg/kg acepromazine, AM (A plus 0.5 mg/kg methadone, AMO (A plus 0.5 mg/kg morphine, and AT (A plus 5 mg/kg tramadol. Parameters were assessed before sedative drug administration (baseline and every 15 minutes thereafter, for two hours. Treatments A and AM were associated with increases in sedation score for 60 minutes and treatments AMO and AT for 30 minutes; however, there were no significant differences between treatments. There was a decrease in mean arterial pressure compared to baseline values in treatment A at 15, 45, 60, and 90 minutes, in treatment AM at 15 minutes, and in treatment AT from 45 to 120 minutes. Arterial blood carbon dioxide pressure increased at all time points in all treatments. Arterial oxygen pressure decreased in treatment AMO at 15, 30, and 120 minutes and in treatment AT at 15–45, 105, and 120 minutes, compared to baseline. Acepromazine alone causes a level of sedation similar to that observed when it is coadministered with opioids methadone, morphine, and tramadol. These combinations did not cause clinical cardiopulmonary changes.

  10. Escitalopram is a weak inhibitor of the CYP2D6 catalyzed O-demethylation of (+)-tramadol but does not reduce the hypoalgesic effect in experimental pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noehr-Jensen, L; Zwisler, S T; Larsen, F

    2009-01-01

    Tramadol is O–demethylated to the active metabolite (+)–O–desmethyltramadol ((+)–M1) via CYP2D6, an enzyme that is weakly inhibited by escitalopram. We investigated the possibility of a pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) effect of escitalopram on tramadol metabolism. Fifteen healthy...... subjects completed this randomized, double–blind, three–phase, crossover trial. Combinations of escitalopram 20 mg/day or placebo together with tramadol 150 mg or placebo were used. Blood samples for pharmacokinetics were drawn at 0–24 h after medication. The analgesic effect of (+)–M was assessed...... by the cold pressor test (CPT) (area under effect curve, 1–12 h after medication (AUEC1–12)). The median area under plasma concentration–time curve extrapolated to infinity (AUC0–∞) of (+)–M1 was 2.75 µmol/l·h after placebo pretreatment compared with 1.95 µmol/l·h after escitalopram (P = 0.0027). The mean...

  11. Effects of spray drying conditions on the physicochemical properties of the Tramadol-Hcl microparticles containing Eudragit® RS and RL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A S Patel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of Tramadol-HCL spray-dried microspheres can be affected by the long drug recrystallization time. Polymer type and drug-polymer ratio as well as manufacturing parameters affect the preparation. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the possibility to obtain tramadol spray-dried microspheres using the Eudragit® RS and RL; the influence of the spray-drying parameters on morphology, dimension, and physical stability of microspheres was studied. The effects of matrix composition on microparticle properties were characterized by Laser Light scattering, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, X-ray diffraction study, FT-infrared and UV-visible spectroscopy. The spray-dried microparticles were evaluated in terms of shape (SEM, size distribution (Laser light scattering method, production yield, drug content, initial drug loding and encapsulation efficiency. The results of X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis reveals the conversion of crystalline drug to amorphous. FTIR analysis confirmed the absence of any drug polymer interaction. The results indicated that the entrapment efficiency (EE, and product yield were depended on polymeric composition and polymeric ratios of the microspheres prepared. Tramadol microspheres based on Eudragit® blend can be prepared by spray-drying and the nebulization parameters do not influence significantly on particle properties.

  12. [Study of codeine-paracetamol combination treatment compared with tramadol-paracetamol in the control of moderate-to-severe low back pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colini Baldeschi, G; Cobianchi, M R

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the analgesic efficacy and tolerability of tramadol hydrochloride compared with codeine phosphate in combination with paracetamol in patients with moderate-to-severe low back pain caused by osteoarthritis. In fact, while paracetamol is the analgesic of choice for this disease, in cases where this treatment may be ineffective, the therapeutic choice involves the addition of weak opioids. Due to the chronic nature of the disease, these drugs represent a safer alternative compared to anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and selective inhibitors of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2). In the present study two combination treatments were considered: codeine-paracetamol (respectively 30 mg and 500 mg) and tramadol-paracetamol (respectively 37.5 mg and 325 mg). The study duration was 4 weeks and involved 38 patients (mean age 64.7 years). The effectiveness of the two treatments was assessed in terms of analgesic efficacy, tolerability and safety. The results recorded after a week of treatment and at the end of the study showed a difference in favour of codeine-paracetamol association which showed slightly higher values ​​in pain improvement and, above all, was better tolerated in terms of adverse events and drop out. The study, although conducted on a limited number of patients and for a relatively short time, demonstrates the greater efficacy and tolerability of the association codeine-paracetamol compared to tramadol-paracetamol.

  13. Evaluación de 61 episodios de endocarditis infecciosa en pacientes adictos a drogas intravenosas e infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana tipo-1 Evaluation of 61 episodes of infective endocarditis in intravenous drug abusers and human immunodeficiency tipe-1 virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Corti

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron las características clínicas y de laboratorio de 61 episodios de endocarditis infecciosa (EI en adictos a drogas intravenosas (ADIV infectados por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana tipo-1 (HIV-1. Cuarenta y nueve hombres y 6 mujeres con edades comprendidas entre 15 y 55 años. La totalidad de los pacientes estudiados presentó 61 episodios de EI, los que tuvieron fiebre y soplo cardíaco. Cuarenta y tres (70,4% presentaron hepatomegalia y 29 (47,5% esplenomegalia. Treinta y ocho (62,3% tuvieron tos, que en 9 (14,7% resultó hemoptoica. En 25 casos (41% se observó disnea y en 5 (8,2% ingurgitación yugular. El fondo de ojo mostró alteraciones en 3 pacientes (4,9%. La confirmación bacteriológica se obtuvo en 41 episodios (67,2%. Se identificaron por hemocultivos: Staphylococcus aureus en 30 casos (73,1%, Streptococcus viridans en 8 (19,5%, Staphylococcus epidermidis en 1 (2,4%, Staphylococcus hominis en 1 (2,4% y Streptococcuspneumoniae en 1 (2,4%. Se comprobó compromiso de la válvula tricúspide en 51 episodios (83,6%, aórtica en 6 (9,8%, mitral en 3 (4,9% y pulmonar en 1 (1,6%. En 3 pacientes la afectación fue bivalvular: en 2 (3,2% de la tricúspide y pulmonar y en 1 (1,6% de la tricúspide y mitral. En 19 episodios (31,1% se detectó derrame pericárdico. En la etapa aguda de la enfermedad fallecieron 6 (10,9% pacientes.We conducted a retrospective evaluation to determine the clinical and microbiological characteristics of 61 episodes of infective endocarditis (IE in intravenous drug abusers (IDA, HIV seropositive patients. Forty-nine males and 6 females between 15 and 42 years of age were included in the study. All the included patients presented 61 episodes of IE. Fever and cardiac murmur were present in all episodes; 43 (70,4% had hepatomegaly; 29 (47,5% had splenomegaly. Thirty-eight (62,3% presented cough (9 with hemoptysis; 25 (41% had dyspnea, and 5 (8,2% had jugular ingurgitation. Fundoscopy showed

  14. The effect of dexketoprofen pre-emptively administered on the consumption of tramadol and the incidence of nausea and vomiting after laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costea D.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study has been to assess the comparative use of the two NSAIDs, dexketoprofen and ketoprofen, for postoperative analgesia after laparoscopic cholecystectomy mainly following: the quality of the analgesia, the incidence of potential adverse effects (for example, postoperative nausea and vomiting and the rescue analgesics consumption (tramadol. This prospective, randomized, double-blind study included 90 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anaesthesia. Patients were randomly assigned into 2 groups: group D (n = 45 - patients that have received dexketoprofen 50 mg in dilution with10 ml saline solution iv., 30 minutes before the induction and group K (n = 45 - patients that have received ketoprofen 100 mg in dilution with 10 ml saline solution iv., 30 minutes before the induction (preemptive analgesia. Surgical interventions were conducted under general anaesthesia, with identical protocol for the two groups of study. Post-surgery analgesic regime consisting in 4 g of paracetamol administered for example in the first 24 hours, was started immediately after surgery. Boluses of tramadol of 100 mg (until 400 mg /daily have been used as rescue analgesia. The main objectives of our study have been: post-surgery analgesia (VAS at mobilization, 0-100 mm at 0, 2, 6, 12 and 24 hours after the surgery,the consumption of tramadol, incidence of PONV and the length of hospitalization period (LOS. Secondary objectives of the study have been: the incidence of gastrointestinal symptoms and the incidence of postsurgery blood losses. In the two study groups there have not been any differences concerning demographic data, post-surgery gastro-intestinal symptoms, postsurgery loss of blood and the hospitalization period. VAS was significantly lower in group D vs. K, at 0 and 6 hours after the surgery (p <0,05. The incidence of PONV was lower in the group of patients who received preemptive analgesia with dexketoprofen (p <0

  15. Effect of UV and UV/H2O2 in the presence of chloramines on NDMA formation potential of tramadol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radjenovic, Jelena; Farré, Maria José; Gernjak, Wolfgang

    2012-08-07

    This study evaluates the effect of UV-C and UV-C/H(2)O(2) in the presence of chloramines on the N-nitrosodimethylamine formation potential (NDMA FP) of tramadol as a model precursor. The experiments were performed at high initial concentrations of TMDL (i.e., 20 mg/L) in order to elucidate the structures of TMDL byproducts. Twenty-four byproducts were identified in UV-C, UV-C/monochloramine, and UV/H(2)O(2)/monochloramine oxidation of tramadol using MS(3) capabilities of a hybrid quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer, combined with online hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange experiments. Oxidative cleavage of methoxy and methoxybenzene moiety, O-demethylation, hydroxylation, and cyclohexane ring-opening were identified as major reaction mechanisms of tramadol in UV oxidation. Addition of monochloramine decreased the degradation rates of tramadol and its byproducts and yielded several monochlorinated derivatives. The oxidation rates were significantly enhanced in the presence of H(2)O(2), and byproducts of oxidative benzene ring-opening were detected. The majority of the identified byproducts are likely to have a higher NDMA FP than the parent compound due to a reduced steric hindrance and/or insertion of electron-donating hydroxyl groups in the N,N-dimethylamine side chain. This was confirmed by the results of NDMA FP tests, which showed that the formation of NDMA was enhanced up to four times depending on the process conditions in UV alone and in UV and UV/H(2)O(2) in the presence of monochloramine. Prolonged oxidation by hydroxyl radicals in UV/H(2)O(2)/monochloramine process mineralized some of the byproducts and slightly reduced the NDMA FP at the end of the treatment. The obtained degradation pathway of tramadol allowed the correlation of changes in NDMA FP during oxidation with its major oxidative transformation reactions. This manuscript demonstrates the significance of oxidation byproducts as NDMA precursors and emphasizes the need for their

  16. Inibição da corrente de cálcio tipo L por tramadol e enantiômeros em miócitos cardíacos de ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Medei

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: O tramadol é um analgésico de ação central cujo mecanismo de ação envolve a ativação de um receptor opioide. Anteriormente, mostramos que o tramadol e seus enantiômeros apresentavam um efeito inotrópico negativo sobre o músculo papilar no qual o (+-enantiômero era mais potente que (-- e (±-tramadol. OBJETIVO: No presente trabalho, investigamos os efeitos do tramadol e seus enantiômeros na corrente de cálcio tipo L (I Ca-L. MÉTODOS: Os experimentos foram realizados em miócitos ventriculares isolados de ratos Wistar utilizando a técnica de patch-clamp com configuração de célula inteira. RESULTADOS: O tramadol (200 µM reduziu a amplitude de pico do I Ca-L em potenciais de 0 a +50 mV. Em 0 mV, a I Ca-L foi reduzida em 33,7 ± 7,2%. (+- e (--tramadol (200 µM produziram uma inibição semelhante da I Ca-L, na qual a amplitude do pico foi reduzida em 64,4 ± 2,8% e 68,9 ± 5,8%, respectivamente a 0 mV (P > 0,05. O tramadol, (+- e (--tramadol mudaram a inativação de estado estacionário de I Ca-L para potenciais de membrana mais negativos. Além disso, tramadol e (+-tramadol alteraram significativamente a curva de recuperação dependente de tempo da I Ca-L para a direita e reduziram a recuperação de I Ca-L da inativação. A constante de tempo foi aumentada de 175,6 ± 18,6 a 305,0 ± 32,9 ms (P < 0,01 para o tramadol e de 248,1 ± 28,1 ms para 359,0 ± 23,8 ms (P < 0,05 para o (+-tramadol. O agonista do receptor µ-opioide (DAMGO não tem nenhum efeito na I Ca-L. CONCLUSÃO: A inibição da I Ca-L induzida por tramadol e seus enantiômeros não teve relação com a ativação de receptores opioides e poderia explicar, pelo menos em parte, seu efeito inotrópico negativo cardíaco.

  17. Nuevas orientaciones en el tratamiento de la infección puerperal generalizada por los antivirus en inyección intravenosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José del Carmen Acosta

    1932-11-01

    Full Text Available El tratamiento de la infección puerperal ha sido tema de constante preocupación y estudio de los médicos de todas las épocas, desde Hipócrates hasta nuestros días; hubo en la antigüedad verdaderas epidemias que diezmaban los servicios hospitalarios y aún la clientela civil, como fué la estudiada por Mauriceau, en 1660, que causó una mortalidad de los dos tercios de las puérperas del Hotel Dieu de París, posteriormente se registraron epidemias semejantes, si no tan generalizadas, sí muy alarmantes, en Leipzig, Londres, Edimburgo, Berlín, etc., etc. En todas ellas, como era natural, se hicieron estudios diversos sobre su etiología y su tratamiento, que si todavía no han resuelto el problema, sí han contribuido grandemente a discriminar y simplificar los distintos puntos que abarca: hoy están clasificadas y claramente separadas las infecciones localizadas, de las generalizadas; él tratamiento de las primeras, especialmente en lo que se refiere a las endcmetritis, es un punto definitivamente adquirido con la aplicación de los filtrados o antivirus de Besredka, como lo demuestra el importante trabajo que sobre este asunto presentó a la Facultad el actual Jefe de Clínica del Servicio a mi cargo, Dr. Carlos J. Mojica; el pronóstico de esas formas en lo generales benigno, aun cuando la evolución pueda. prolongarse. por mas o menos días. En lo que respecta a las formas generalizadas, cuya etiología fué prevista por el gran sabio vienés Semmelweis (1847 y más tarde confirmada por los estudios de la éra pasteuríana, subsisten hoy como un espectro amenazador, porque la terapéutica empleada contra ellas sólo ha servido para demostrar nuestra impotencia y poner de manifiesto el completo fracaso de las drogas empleadas para combatirlas.

  18. Implantable biodegradable sponges: effect of interpolymer complex formation of chitosan with gelatin on the release behavior of tramadol hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Nagwa H; El-laithy, Hanan M; Tadros, Mina I

    2007-01-01

    The effect of interpolymer complex formation between positively charged chitosan and negatively charged gelatin (Type B) on the release behavior of tramadol hydrochloride from biodegradable chitosan-gelatin sponges was studied. Mixed sponges were prepared by freeze-drying the cross-linked homogenous stable foams produced from chitosan and gelatin solutions where gelatin acts as a foam builder. Generation of stable foams was optimized where concentration, pH of gelatin solution, temperature, speed and duration of whipping process, and, chitosan-gelatin ratio drastically affect the properties and the stability of the produced foams. The prepared sponges were evaluated for their morphology, drug content, and microstructure using scanning electron microscopy, mechanical properties, uptake capacity, drug release profile, and their pharmacodynamic activity in terms of the analgesic effect after implantation in Wistar rats. It was revealed that whipping 7% (w/w) gelatin solution, of pH 5.5, for 15 min at 25 degrees C with a stirring speed of 1000 rpm was the optimum conditions for stable gelatin foam generation. Moreover, homogenous, uniform chitosan-gelatin foam with small air bubbles were produced by mixing 2.5% w/w chitosan solution with 7% w/w gelatin solution in 1:5 ratio. Indeed, polyionic complexation between chitosan and gelatin overcame the drawbacks of chitosan sponge mechanical properties where, pliable, soft, and compressible sponge with high fluid uptake capacity was produced at 25 degrees C and 65% relative humidity without any added plasticizer. Drug release studies showed a successful retardation of the incorporated drug where the t50% values of the dissolution profiles were 0.55, 3.03, and 4.73 hr for cross-linked gelatin, un-cross-linked chitosan-gelatin, and cross-linked chitosan-gelatin sponges, respectively. All the release experiments followed Higuchi's diffusion mechanism over 12 hr. The achieved drug prolongation was a result of a combined effect

  19. Ropivacaína isolada e associada ao fentanil ou ao tramadol administrados pela via peridural em cães Ropivacaine individually and in combination with fentanyl or tramadol, administered by peridural via in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Monteiro da Silva

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A anestesia peridural é amplamente difundida no meio veterinário, utilizando-se o anestésico local isolado ou associado aos opióides, capazes de promover aumento do efeito analgésico. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a função cardiorrespiratória e analgésica da ropivacaína isolada ou associada ao fentanil ou tramadol. Para tanto, oito cães foram tranqüilizados com acepromazina, submetidos à anestesia peridural com um dos seguintes protocolos: GR (ropivacaína, GRF (ropivacaína + fentanil, GRT (ropivacaína + tramadol, em volume total de 0,25ml kg-1, e foram avaliados os parâmetros: freqüência cardíaca e respiratória, temperatura retal, pressão arterial sistólica, e gasometria do sangue arterial, os bloqueios sensitivo e motor, o grau de sedação e a ocorrência de possíveis efeitos indesejáveis. A diminuição da freqüência cardíaca nos grupos GRF e GRT foi mais intensa e ocorreu hipotermia significativa no GRF. Foi evidenciada sedação severa em GRF e GRT. O período de recuperação foi mais curto nos animais de GRT. O GRT foi o grupo que apresentou bloqueio mais cranial. Foram observadas bradicardia, hipotermia e síndrome de Shiff-Sherrington no período trans-anestésico em animais de todos os grupos. Nas 24 horas de período pós-anestésico, não foram evidenciados efeitos indesejáveis nos grupos. O GRF apresentou maior duração de anestesia e analgesia, enquanto que o GRT apresentou a menor duração de anestesia com analgesia intermediária e o GR apresentou duração intermediária, com menor analgesia. Não foram encontradas alterações respiratórias e hemogasométricas, porém, bradicardia, hipotermia e síndrome de Schiff-Sherrington, alterações trans-anestésicas comuns na anestesia peridural foram encontradas.Peridural anesthesia is broadly applied in the Veterinary field, using the isolated local anesthetic or in combination with opiates capable to increase the analgesic effect. This research

  20. Antihyperalgesic effects of dexketoprofen and tramadol in a model of postoperative pain in mice - effects on glial cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Alejo, Elizabeth; Puig, Margarita M; Romero, Asunción

    2016-08-01

    To define likely targets (i.e. glia) and protocols (analgesic combinations) to improve postoperative pain outcomes and reduce chronic pain after surgery. Specifically, to assess the antihyperalgesic effects of the dexketoprofen : tramadol (DEX : TRM) combination, exploring the implication of glial activation. In a mouse model of postincisional pain, we evaluated mechanical nociceptive thresholds (Von Frey) for 21 days postoperatively. We assessed DEX and TRM alone and combined (1 : 1 ratio) on postoperative hyperalgesia (POH, day 1) and delayed latent pain sensitisation (substantiated by a naloxone challenge; PS, day 21). The interactions were analysed using isobolograms, and concomitant changes in spinal glial cell activation were measured. On day 1, DEX completely blocked POH, whereas TRM induced 32% inhibition. TRM, but not DEX, partially (47%) protected against PS, at 21 days. Co-administration of DEX : TRM (1 : 1 ratio) showed additivity for antihyperalgesia. Both drugs and their combination totally inhibited surgery-induced microglia activation on day 1, but had no effect on surgery-induced astrocyte activation (1 day) or re-activation after naloxone (21 days). The DEX : TRM combination could have clinical advantages: a complete prevention of POH after surgery, together with a substantial (48%) inhibition of the development of PS by TRM. Microglia, but not astrocyte activation, could play a relevant role in the development of postoperative pain hypersensitivity. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  1. A Comparison of Anesthetic and Cardiorespiratory Effects of Tiletamine-Zolazepam/Xylazine and Tiletamine-Zolazepam/Xylazine/Tramadol in Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Zhang Lu, Sheng Jiang1, Shi-Ming Yu and Hong-Gang Fan1*

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the anesthetic and cardiorespiratory effects of 3 intramuscular anesthetic combinations in 8 dogs. Tiletamine-zolazepam (8 mg kg-1 and xylazine (0.5 mg kg-1 (TZX; Tiletamine-zolazepam (8 mg kg-1, xylazine (0.5 mg kg-1 and tramadol (2 mg kg-1 (TZXT; or the TZXT protocol plus atipamezole (0.05 mg kg-1 given 30 min later to reverse xylazine, were administered. Immobilization and analgesia scores of the dogs and baseline physiological parameters (heart rate, respiratory rate, non-invasive systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressures, arterial hemoglobin oxygen saturation, and rectal temperature were determined. All 3 combinations effectively induced anesthesia, and dogs became laterally recumbent within 5 min. The changes in physiological parameters after administration of the drug combinations remained within biologically acceptable limits. While both TZX and TZXT appeared to be effective injectable anesthetic combinations, TZXT provided significantly better analgesia with a longer duration than did TZX. Atipamezole administration provided effective antagonism and no adverse effects were observed in this study.

  2. Continuous twin screw melt granulation of glyceryl behenate: Development of controlled release tramadol hydrochloride tablets for improved safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, Justin M; Foley, Connor J; Hughey, Justin R; Bennett, Ryan C; Jannin, Vincent; Rosiaux, Yvonne; Marchaud, Delphine; McGinity, James W

    2015-06-20

    Interest in granulation processes using twin screw extrusion machines is rapidly growing. The primary objectives of this study were to develop a continuous granulation process for direct production of granules using this technique with glyceryl behenate as a binder, evaluate the properties of the resulting granules and develop controlled release tablets containing tramadol HCl. In addition, the granulation mechanism was probed and the polymorphic form of the lipid and drug release rate were evaluated on stability. Granules were prepared using a Leistritz NANO16 twin screw extruder operated without a constricting die. The solid state of the granules were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. Formulated tablets were studied in 0.1N HCl containing 0-40% ethanol to investigate propensity for alcohol induced dose dumping. The extrusion barrel temperature profile and feed rate were determined to be the primary factors influencing the particle size distribution. Granules were formed by a combination immersion/distribution mechanism, did not require subsequent milling, and were observed to contain desirable polymorphic forms of glyceryl behenate. Drug release from tablets was complete and controlled over 16 h and the tablets were determined to be resistant to alcohol induced dose dumping. The drug release rate from the tablets was found to be stable at 40°C and 75% relative humidity for the duration of a 3 month study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison between tramadol hydrochloride & nalbuphine hydrochloride in the treatment of per-operative shivering after spinal anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, M F; Rashid, M H; Rahaman, M S; Islam, M R

    2011-04-01

    Per-operative shivering following spinal anaesthesia is a common problem in the operation theatre. Adequate management of shivering during operation is one of the goals of anesthesiologists for the benefit of the patient. Because there are many unpleasant and harmful effects caused by shivering in many patients especially respiratory and cardiac disease patients. For this reason aggressive and optimal treatment of per-operative shivering is essential to reduce the morbidity of the patients. Our observations were that occurrence of shivering was more in younger patients than older patients, thin patients than obese patients, anxious patients than non-anxious patients and more frequent in patients who received vasoconstrictor drugs, administration of fluid at running rate just before or during operation, administration of cold local anaesthetic agents (by taking drug from the freeze) into subarachnoid space. And shivering was better managed by administration of nalbuphine HCl and surface skin warming (wrapping of the skin). There are many studies regarding the incidence, prevention & treatment of post-operative shivering but there is no study regarding the incidence & treatment of per-operative shivering by nalbuphine following spinal anaesthesia. This study was designed to compare the anti-shivering efficacy and side effects (Nausea, Vomiting, and Somnolence) of tramadol hydrochloride with that of nalbuphine hydrochloride in the treatment of per-operative shivering following spinal anaesthesia. This study was also done to observe the incidence of shivering during operation following spinal anesthesia.

  4. Efeito alcalinizante de soluções eletrolíticas intravenosas com concentrações elevadas de lactato de sódio infundidas em bezerros sadios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R.C. Junqueira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de investigar o potencial alcalinizante de soluções eletrolíticas com concentrações elevadas de lactato de sódio em bezerros sadios, foram idealizadas seis soluções contendo 28, 56 e 84mEq/L de lactato (L28, L56 e L84 ou de bicarbonato (B28, B56 e B84, com concentrações de sódio, de potássio e de cálcio semelhantes às da solução de Ringer com lactato (SRL. As soluções contendo bicarbonato de sódio foram utilizadas como padrão para comparação. Seis bezerros receberam, por via intravenosa, todas as seis soluções, uma a cada vez, com intervalo de quatro a cinco dias entre as infusões, em volume correspondente a 10% do peso corporal, durante cinco horas (20mL/kg/h. Amostras de sangue venoso e de urina foram coletadas antes de iniciar a infusão, na metade do volume, ao término e duas horas e meia após o término da infusão. Determinaram-se concentração de proteína plasmática total, pH sanguíneo e urinário, pCO2, HCO3 -, BE, concentração plasmática e urinária de lactato L e concentrações séricas e urinárias de Na+, K+, Cl- e creatinina. A solução L28, idêntica à SRL, provocou discreto incremento da reserva alcalina e, consequentemente, produziu efeito alcalinizante insuficiente para a correção de estados de acidose metabólica. A solução L84, além de provar-se segura, provocou o maior aumento da reserva alcalina, equivalente à B84, e, assim, produziu efeito capaz de corrigir o grau moderado de acidose metabólica.

  5. Efeitos hemodinâmicos da anestesia em plano profundo com infusão intravenosa contínua de propofol ou propofol associado à lidocaína em cães

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Mannarino

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos hemodinâmicos da anestesia total intravenosa com propofol ou propofol associado à lidocaína foram estudados em 12 cães. No grupo P (n=6, os animais receberam bolus de 6mg kg-1 de propofol e infusão contínua de 1,25mg kg-1 min-1. No grupo PL (n=6, os animais receberam bolus de 6mg kg-1 de propofol e 1,5mg kg-1 de lidocaína, seguido de infusão de 1,0mg kg-1 min-1 e 0,25mg kg-1 min-1, dos mesmos fármacos, respectivamente. Os animais foram instrumentados para mensuração das variáveis hemodinâmicas e do índice bispectral (BIS, aos 75, 90, 105 e 120 minutos de anestesia. Foram observados valores menores de índice cardíaco, índice sistólico, pressões arteriais sistólica, diastólica e média no grupo P do que no grupo PL (P<0,05. Não foram observadas diferenças entre os grupos na frequência cardíaca, índice de resistência vascular sistêmica e BIS. As concentrações plasmáticas de propofol foram menores no grupo PL do que no grupo P (medianas de 5,7 a 6,1µg mL-1 no grupo P versus 3,1 a 3,7µg mL-1 no grupo PL. As concentrações plasmáticas de lidocaína (medianas de 2,27 a 2,51µg mL-1 mensuradas encontram-se na faixa que resulta em analgesia e abaixo de valores que resultam em toxicidade em cães. Os valores de BIS obtidos nos dois grupos foram compatíveis com plano profundo de anestesia (médias de 43 a 46 e 45 a 49 nos grupos P e PL, respectivamente. A manutenção da anestesia em plano profundo com lidocaína-propofol causa menor depressão cardiovascular do que a anestesia com dose equipotente de propofol isoladamente.

  6. Comparison of patient-controlled intravenous analgesia with sufentanil versus tramadol in post-cesarean section pain management and lactation after general anesthesia - a prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Xiaohui; Li, Man; Mei, Wei; Liao, Mingfeng

    2017-01-01

    Acute pain is a common complication following cesarean section under general anesthesia. Post-cesarean section pain management is important for both the mother and the newborn. This study compared the effects of patient-controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA) using sufentanil or tramadol on postoperative pain control and initiation time of lactation in patients who underwent cesarean section under general anesthesia. Primiparas (n=146) scheduled for cesarean section under general anesthesia were randomized to receive PCIA with sufentanil or tramadol. Movement-evoked and rest-pain intensity were assessed by the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) postoperatively. The number of PCIA attempts, amount of drug consumed, initiation time of lactation, and Quality of Recovery Score 40 (QoR-40) were recorded at 4, 8, 12, and 24 h postoperatively. Pre- and postoperative serum prolactin levels were recorded. No between-group difference existed in the NRS at rest at any time point postoperatively. Patients on sufentanil had more movement-evoked pain and a higher sedation score at 4, 8, and 12 h postoperatively, as compared with the tramadol group. At 24 h, the QoR-40 was higher in the tramadol group compared with the sufentanil group. No significant between-group differences were present in patient satisfaction and nausea/vomiting scores. Postpartum prolactin levels were significantly higher in the tramadol group versus the sufentanil group, corresponding with a significant delay in initiation of lactation in the latter. PCIA with tramadol may be preferred due to lower movement-evoked pain, higher quality of recovery, and earlier lactation in patients following cesarean section under general anesthesia.

  7. The addition of tramadol to the standard of i.v. acetaminophen and morphine infusion for postoperative analgesia in neonates offers no clinical benefit: a randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olischar, Monika; Palmer, Greta M; Orsini, Francesca; Davidson, Andrew J; Perkins, Elizabeth J; Lee, Katherine J; Everest, Neil J; Cranswick, Noel E; Hunt, Rod W

    2014-11-01

    Tramadol is used following neonatal cardiac and general surgery. However, its ability to opioid-spare or facilitate earlier extubation in postoperative neonates is unquantified. This randomized placebo-controlled trial aimed to assess whether tramadol's addition to standard analgesia resulted in earlier extubation or reduced analgesic/sedative requirements in postsurgical neonates. Neonates born ≥32 weeks postmenstrual age received either tramadol [T] 2 mg·kg(-1) or placebo [P] 6-hourly for up to 5 days postthoracoabdominal surgery in addition to morphine (commenced at 20 mcg·kg(-1) ·h(-1)) and 6-hourly i.v. acetaminophen. Time to extubation, morphine and midazolam amounts, hourly pain scores, and seizure activity were compared using an intention-to-treat and per-protocol analysis. Seventy-one neonates participated. Median survival time to extubation was similar between the groups (T 67 h [95% CI 51, 84] vs P 52 h [95%CI 43, 65]; P = 0.4), and similar numbers were extubated by 96 h (T 69% vs P 77%; difference -8%, 95%CI -28, 13%). Morphine and midazolam exposure was similar, with low pain scores in both groups (mean percentage of time with a pain score >5/20 during the 5 days: T 13% vs P 11%, difference in means 2.8 [95% CI -1.8, 7.6], P = 0.20). Most participants had normal cranial ultrasounds (T 86% vs P 86%); no seizures occurred clinically or electroencephalographically. Tramadol's addition to standard analgesia in this small group of postsurgical neonates did not appear to have any positive effect on time to extubation, morphine or midazolam exposure, or pain scores. This questions the benefit of tramadol for postsurgical neonates. Importantly, no seizures occurred in these ill neonates who may potentially be at greater risk of tramadol toxicity compared with adults. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The Analgesic Effects of Morphine and Tramadol Added to Intra-articular Levobupivacaine-Tenoxicam Combination for Arthroscopic Knee Surgery on Postoperative Pain; a Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral, Ebru Gelici; Hanci, Ayse; Ulufer Sivrikaya, Gulcihan; Dobrucali, Hale; Turkoglu Kilinc, Leyla

    2015-06-01

    Arthroscopic knee surgery is commonly performed as an outpatient procedure and is often associated with postoperative pain. We aimed to compare the effects of intra-articular levobupivacaine-tenoxicam-tramadol and levobupivacaine-tenoxicam-morphine combinations on postoperative pain in patients undergoing elective arthroscopic knee surgery. A total of 90 ASA I-II patients undergoing elective arthroscopic meniscectomy under general anesthesia were enrolled. The participants were randomly allocated to three groups to receive the following intra-articular medications after completion of the surgery and before deflation of the tourniquet: Group S, 20 mL of saline; Group T, 35 mg of levobupivacaine, 20 mg of tenoxicam, and 100 mg of tramadol in 20 mL saline; and Group M, 35 mg of levobupivacaine, 20 mg of tenoxicam, and 4 mg of morphine in 20 mL saline. Visual analogue scale values at rest (VASr) and at active flexion of knee (VASa) at postoperation hours 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24, duration of analgesia, total analgesic consumption, and number of rescue analgesia at 24 hours were evaluated. VASr and VASa were significantly higher in group S in comparison to other groups (P < 0.05). Duration of analgesia was significantly longer in Group T and Group M than in Group S (P < 0.05). The difference between group T and group M was also significant (P < 0.05). Number of rescue analgesia and total analgesic consumption at postoperative hour 24 was significantly fewer in group M compared with other groups (P < 0.05). Intra-articular levobupivacaine-tenoxicam-morphine combination provides effective pain relief, longer analgesic duration, and less analgesic requirement when compared with intra-articular levobupivacaine-tenoxicam-tramadol combination and saline after knee arthroscopic surgery.

  9. Meloxicam associado ou não ao tramadol no controle da dor após ovário-histerectomia videoassistida em cadelas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.T. Oliveira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficácia do meloxicam associado ou não ao tramadol, no controle da dor após ovário-histerectomia (OVH laparoscópica com dois portais. Foram selecionadas 14 cadelas hígidas. Os animais foram separados de forma aleatória, em dois grupos. O grupo M (GM recebeu meloxicam (0,2mg kg-1, s.i.d., enquanto os animais do grupo MT (GMT receberam a associação de meloxicam (0,2mg kg-1, s.i.d. e tramadol (4mg kg-1, t.i.d., ambos durante dois dias de pós-operatório. Para avaliação da dor pós-cirúrgica, foram utilizadas as escalas de Melbourne e escala visual analógica (EVA, além de mensurações de glicemia e cortisol sérico. Não houve diferença ao se avaliarem os grupos GM e GMT pela escala de Melbourne nem pela EVA. As mensurações de cortisol não atingiram valores superiores aos de referência para a espécie, enquanto os valores de glicemia não apresentaram variação significativa ao longo do tempo de avaliação nem entre grupos. Com os resultados deste estudo, foi possível concluir que a utilização de meloxicam associado ou não ao tramadol, nas doses e posologias propostas, é eficaz para controlar a dor pós-operatória de cadelas submetidas à OVH laparoscópica com dois portais.

  10. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EFFICACY OF HYOSCINE BROMIDE (IV VERSUS TRAMADOL (IM VERSUS PARACETAMOL (IV ON CERVICAL DILATATION IN ACTIVE LABOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampathukumari S

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Labour is a natural process, which involves a series of regular and progressive uterine contractions causing effacement and dilatation of cervix leading to birth of the baby. In order to minimise the perinatal morbidity and mortality caused by the prolonged labour, several drugs have been tried to hasten the process of cervical dilatation and this study in one such exercise. AIM OF THE STUDY 1 To compare the efficacy of Hyoscine Bromide (IV vs. Tramadol (IM vs. Paracetamol (IV on cervical dilatation in active labour. 2 To compare the duration of active phase of labour. 150 full-term women with gestational age 37-42 weeks, primi and multi singleton pregnancy with cephalic presentation in active labour were included in the study. Cases were divided into 3 groups - Group A: 50 cases of labour accelerated by Hyoscine Bromide 20 mg (IV, Group B: 50 cases of labour accelerated by Tramadol 50 mg (IM and Group C: 50 cases of labour accelerated by Paracetamol 500 mg (IV. Mean duration of active phase of 1st stage of labour was 3 hrs. 8 mins. (primi and 2 hrs. 3 mins. (multi in Hyoscine Bromide group and 4 hrs. 8 mins. (primi and 3 hrs. 5 mins. (multi in Tramadol group and 4 hrs. 2 mins. (primi and 2 hrs. 5 mins. (multi in Paracetamol group. Mean rate of cervical dilatation was 1.5 cm/hr (primi and 2.6 cm/hr (multi in Hyoscine Bromide group, 1.2 cm/hr (primi and 1.6 cm/hr (multi in Tramadol group and 1.3 cm/hr (primi and 1.6 cm/hr (multi in the Paracetamol group. The difference between the groups A and B and A and C is significant (p=0.0001 and thus it is concluded that Hyoscine Bromide hastened the rate of cervical dilatation and reduced the duration of active phase of 1 st stage of labour. Divide the abstract into materials and methods, results and conclusion.

  11. Infusão intravenosa de vasopressina causa efeitos cardiovasculares adversos dose-dependentes em cães anestesiados Infusión intravenosa de vasopresina causa efectos cardiovasculares adversos dependientes de la dosis en canes anestesiados Vasopressin intravenous infusion causes dose dependent adverse cardiovascular effects in anesthetized dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Cláudio Martins

    2010-02-01

    que 0,01 U/kg/min forem necessárias.FUNDAMENTO: La arginina-vasopresina (AVP ha sido ampliamente utilizada en el tratamiento del choque vasodilatador. No obstante, hay muchos aspectos relativos a su uso clínico, especialmente en altas dosis, pues su utilización puede estar asociada a efectos cardíacos adversos. OBJETIVO: Investigar los efectos cardiovasculares de la AVP en infusión IV continua en los parámetros hemodinámicos en canes. MÉTODOS: Dieciséis canes saludables sin raza definida, anestesiados con pentobarbital, recibieron un catéter intravascular y fueron aleatoriamente designados para dos grupos: control (solución salina - placebo; n=8 y AVP (n=8. El grupo del estudio recibió infusión de AVP por tres períodos consecutivos de 10 minutos a dosis logarítimicamente progresivas (0,01; 0,1 y 1,0 U/kg/min, a intervalos de 20 minutos La frecuencia cardíaca (HR y las presiones intravasculares fueron registradas continuamente. El débito cardíaco fue medido a través del método de termodilución. RESULTADOS: No se observó ningún efecto hemodinámico significativo durante la infusión de 0,01 U/kg/min de AVP, pero con las dosis más altas, de 0,1 y 1,0 U/kg/min, hubo un aumento progresivo en la presión arterial media (PAM y en el índice de resistencia vascular sistémica (IRVS, con significativa disminución en la frecuencia cardíaca (FC e índice cardíaco (IC. Con la dosis 1,0 U/kg/min, también se observó un aumento significativo en el índice de resistencia vascular pulmonar (IRVP, principalmente debido a la disminución en el IC. CONCLUSIÓN: La AVP en dosis entre 0,1 y 1,0 U/kg/min resultó en significativos aumentos en la PAM y en el IRVS, con efectos inotrópicos y cronotrópicos negativos en animales saludables. Aunque estas dosis sean de 10 a 1.000 veces mayores que las rutinariamente utilizadas en el tratamiento del choque vasodilatador, nuestros datos confirman que la AVP debería ser usada cuidadosamente y bajo rígido monitoreo

  12. Intravenous sodium fluorescein enhances the visibility of vitreous during vitrectomy surgery for diabetic retinopathy Fluoresceína sódica intravenosa aumenta a visibilidade do vítreo durante a cirurgia de vitrectomia para retinopatia diabética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Camargo Siqueira

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To observe the effectiveness of intravenous sodium fluorescein visibility in the vitreous during vitrectomy surgery in patients with diabetic retinopathy. METHODS: Fourteen consecutive cases of vitreoretinal surgery for vitreous hemorrhage and tractional retinal detachment secondary to diabetic retinopathy underwent intravenous injection of sodium fluorescein to 20% 1 hour before the surgery. The images of the steps of the surgeries were recorded. RESULTS: The sodium fluorescein stained green from the vitreous peripheral, vitreous base, posterior hyaloid, further improving visibility to a complete and more secure vitrectomy. The sodium fluorescein also stained fibrous points (sites of neovascularization with high intensity making it easier its visibility. No complications associated with the dye injection were observed in all cases. CONCLUSION: Intravenous sodium fluorescein can be used safely for facilitating the observation of the vitreous, vitreous base, posterior hyaloid and sites of neovascularization. This technique can facilitate the process of vitrectomy in patients with diabetic retinopathy.OBJETIVO: Observar a eficácia da fluoresceína sódica intravenosa, na visibilidade do vítreo, durante a cirurgia de vitrectomia nos pacientes com retinopatia diabética. MÉTODOS: Quatorze casos consecutivos de cirurgia vitreorretiniana para hemorragia vítrea e descolamento tracional da retina secundário à retinopatia diabética, foram submetidos à injeção de fluoresceína intravenosa a 20%, 1 hora antes da cirurgia.As imagens de todos os passos das cirurgias foram gravadas. RESULTADOS: A fluoresceína corou de verde o vítreo periférico, base vítrea, hialóide posterior melhorando a visibilidade para uma vitrectomia completa e mais segura. A fluoresceína também corou pontos fibrosos (sítios de neovascularização com alta intensidade tornando mais fácil sua observação. Nenhuma complicação associada com a injeção do

  13. Estudos clínico, laboratorial e eletrocardiográfico dos efeitos da solução hipertônica de cloreto de sódio a 7,5%, intravenosa, em cães clinicamente sadios

    OpenAIRE

    Nogueira, Fábio dos Santos [UNESP

    2003-01-01

    A solução hipertônica de cloreto de sódio a 7,5% é uma solução hiperosmolar (2566mOsm/L) que promove aumento da tonicidade e da osmolaridade sérica e, consequentemente, a troca de líquidos entre os compartimentos extracelular e intracelular. Quando administrada por via intravenosa, apresenta efeitos de expansão plasmática ou seja: aumento do débito cardíaco, vasodilatações pulmonar e sistêmica, redução do edema das células endoteliais e, proporcionando, melhora do fluxo sangüíneo capilar, dim...

  14. Sistemas integrados con Arduino

    OpenAIRE

    EL YAKOUTI, MOHAMMED

    2017-01-01

    Design of a robot prototype remotely controllable from Bluetooth using Arduino. Control and testing of sensors and events interacting with Arduino and Bluetooth. Diseño de un prototipo de robot controlable remotamente con Bluetooth utilizando Arduino. Control y verificación de los sensores y eventos que interactúan mediante el Arduino y el Bluetooth. El Yakouti, M. (2017). Sistemas integrados con Arduino. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/89274. TFGM

  15. Videojuego con Realidad Virtual

    OpenAIRE

    González Mora, César

    2017-01-01

    El objetivo del proyecto es el desarrollo de un videojuego deportivo que utilice realidad mixta. El videojuego se podrá utilizar con dispositivos de tipo cardboard, y utilizará realidad aumentada para la interacción del jugador con el videojuego. En el desarrollo se utilizará el motor Unity para conseguir una aplicación multiplataforma, y la librería Vuforia para implementar realidad mixta.

  16. A "novel" association to treat pain: tramadol/dexketoprofen. The first drug of a "new pharmacological class".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornasari, D; Allegri, M; Gerboni, S; Fanelli, Guido

    2017-04-28

     Acute and chronic pain have an important socio-economical impact. In order to help physicians to choose the appropriate drug, especially for cancer pain, in 1986 WHO has developed a three-step analgesic "ladder" for cancer pain relief in adults. Later it has also been used for acute pain and chronic non-cancer pain. In step I nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are considered with or without adjuvants, in step II the use of weak opioids for mild-moderate pain, with or without NSAIDs and adjuvant, is suggested, while the step III is reserved to strong opioids for moderate-severe pain with or without non-opioids or adjuvants. In the last two decades, a better pathophysiology knowledge has improved pain management shifting our view from the pain ladder to a modern pain pyramid, in which drugs are selected not only on the basis of pain intensity, but mainly according to mechanisms underlying pain, including peripheral and spinal sensitization which is the main trigger of chronic pain. The best pharmacological approach has become multimodal, in which drugs belonging to different steps should be combined, matching the mechanisms of action with the type of pain. An important corollary of combining analgesic drugs with different mechanism of action is that proper matching achieves the same effect with lower doses, better outcome and fewer adverse effects. In this new perspective, fixed-dose pharmaceutical combinations of different drugs are very useful to fulfil pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics and adherence criteria, enriching the pain pyramid of half-steps between the first and second step and between the second and third step. Hence, a new fixed combination of a NSAID with peripheral and central anti-infilammatory activities, such as dexketoprofen, and a weak opioid, such as tramadol, with double analgesic activity in the spinal cord as an opioid and, at the same time, on the descending modulatory pathways, is expected to cover a wide range of acute and

  17. Investigando con personas con dificultades de aprendizaje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja González Luna

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo muestra los orígenes de lo que Walmsley (2008 denomina «investigación inclusiva». Para comprender qué se entiende por investigación inclusiva tenemos que remontarnos a los debates epistemológicos sobre las metodologías cuantitativas y cualitativas, acontecidos en la década de los 90, en torno a la revista Disability & Society. A partir de una síntesis de dichos debates, focalizados en el ámbito de la «discapacidad intelectual y del desarrollo», se exponen dos estrategias de colaboración con dicha población: a una aproximación etnográfica (de trabajo grupal, y b una aproximación biográfica (de trabajo individual. A continuación se esboza un posible diseño de trabajo de campo que intenta superar el paradigma cualitativo «clásico» con el objetivo de incluir a dicho colectivo más allá del rol de «sujetos de la investigación». Para finalizar se recoge el debate sobre la accesibilidad de los resultados de la investigación a los participantes en dichas investigaciones, y con ello la necesaria innovación en el ámbito de las «devoluciones» de los resultados, cuando se trata de incluir a personas que presentan limitaciones para la comprensión del lenguaje abstracto oral y/o escrito.

  18. Efficacy of mepivacaine-tramadol combination on the success of inferior alveolar nerve blocks in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Wong, L; Pozos-Guillen, A; Silva-Herzog, D; Chavarría-Bolaños, D

    2016-04-01

    To compare the success of an inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) after injecting a combination of mepivacaine and tramadol or mepivacaine alone in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis (SIP) in mandibular permanent molars. This study was a double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Two study groups were selected, each consisting of 28 patients who exhibited SIP on the first or second mandibular molars. All included patients presented with moderate-to-severe preoperative pain according to the modified Heft-Parker visual analogue scale (VAS). Patients were anaesthetized using the IANB technique employing identical cartridges that contained either 1.3 mL of 2% mepivacaine with epinephrine 1 : 100 000 plus 0.5 mL of tramadol 50 mg mL(-1) (experimental group) or 1.8 mL of 2% mepivacaine with epinephrine 1 : 100 000 (control group). After 15 min, anaesthesia was evaluated by a progressive four-test examination, that is numbness of the lip, positive or negative cold test, asymptomatic management of dental hard tissues and access to dental pulp. Success of the IANB was defined as the absence of pain during any of these evaluations. The data were analysed with a chi-square, Fisher's or Mann-Whitney U test. A total of 74 patients were initially assessed, with 56 patients eventually included and 18 excluded. No significant differences in age (P = 0.384) or gender (P = 1) were found between the two groups. The success rates of anaesthesia with the IANB for the experimental and control groups were 57.1 and 46.4%, respectively. The success rate of anaesthesia in the experimental group was not significantly different (P ˃ 0.05) from that of the control group. The duration of the anaesthetic effect was significantly longer for the experimental group (P = 0.026). The combination of mepivacaine-tramadol achieved similar success rates for IANB when compared to mepivacaine 2% epinephrine 1 : 100 000. There was no significant difference in the anaesthetic efficacy

  19. Impact of wastewater treatment plant discharge of lidocaine, tramadol, venlafaxine and their metabolites on the quality of surface waters and groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rúa-Gómez, Paola C; Püttmann, Wilhelm

    2012-05-01

    The presence of the anesthetic lidocaine (LDC), the analgesic tramadol (TRA), the antidepressant venlafaxine (VEN) and the metabolites O-desmethyltramadol (ODT) and O-desmethylvenlafaxine (ODV) was investigated in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents, in surface waters and in groundwater. The analytes were detected in all effluent samples and in only 64% of the surface water samples. The mean concentrations of the analytes in effluent samples from WWTPs with wastewater from only households and hospitals were 107 (LDC), 757 (TRA), 122 (ODT), 160 (VEN) and 637 ng L(-1) (ODV), while the mean concentrations in effluents from WWTPs treating additionally wastewater from pharmaceutical industries as indirect dischargers were for some pharmaceuticals clearly higher. WWTP effluents were identified as important sources of the analyzed pharmaceuticals and their metabolites in surface waters. The concentrations of the compounds found in surface waters ranged from Infiltration of the target analytes into groundwater was not observed.

  20. Thermodynamic and analytical studies of drugs binary systems of paracetamol mixed with pseudoephedrine.HCl, dextropropoxyphene.HCl and tramadol.HCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boumrah, Yacine [Laboratoire de thermodynamique et modélisation moléculaire, Faculté de chimie, USTHB, BP 32 El-Alia, 16111, Bab-Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria); Institut National de Criminalistique et de Criminologie (INCC-GN), Bouchaoui, Alger (Algeria); Bouzahia, Imane; Bouanani, Sabrina [Institut National de Criminalistique et de Criminologie (INCC-GN), Bouchaoui, Alger (Algeria); Khimeche, Kamel [Ecole Militaire Polytechnique EMP, BP 17 Bordj-El-Bahri, Alger (Algeria); Dahmani, Abdallah, E-mail: adahmani@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de thermodynamique et modélisation moléculaire, Faculté de chimie, USTHB, BP 32 El-Alia, 16111, Bab-Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria)

    2016-06-20

    Highlights: • Solid–liquid equilibria of binary drug mixtures were investigated by DSC. • The study revealed a simple eutectic behavior of the investigated drug binary systems. • DSC results have been exploited for quantification purpose. • DSC quantification results were in good agreement with those obtained by HPTLC. - Abstract: In this paper, we report a DSC investigation of solid–liquid equilibria in three binary mixtures of paracetamol, namely with pseudoephedrine, dextropropoxyphene and tramadol, resulting in a temperature-composition phase diagrams with eutectic equilibrium. Eutectic mole fractions, temperatures and enthalpies were determined and reported for each system. The study reports also a direct exploitation of the DSC results for the quantification purpose, which were in good agreement with those obtained by a standard analytical method namely high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), used in this work for comparison purpose.

  1. Entrevista con Fredrik Barth

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    Robert Anderson

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Durante una estancia en la Universidad de Cambridge en el curso 2004-2005 y mientras trabajaba en un estudio sobre los orígenes biográficos de la obra Political Systems of Highland Burma, conversé con varias personas en relación a los recuerdos que tenían de Edmund Leach. Así fue como contacté con Fredrik Barth y le pedí permiso para grabar nuestra conversación y formar parte de la serie anthropological ancestors coordinada por Alan Macfarlane en Cambridge.

  2. Giochiamo con i robot

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    Andrea Bonarini

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available "Giochiamo con i robot" e' un laboratorio interattivo per grandi e piccini realizzato per l'edizione 2007 del Festival della Scienza di Genova. Lungo un percorso che va dalla telerobotica alla robotica evolutiva, il laboratorio sviluppa il tema di dare intelligenza ai robot. Questo percorso, le cui tappe sono le varie installazioni, si conclude nella "bottega" dove e' possibile costruire e programmare i propri robot o smontare e modificare quelli esposti durante il percorso didattico. I visitatori sono coinvolti in attivita' ludiche grazie alle quali possonoentrare in contatto con alcune delle idee potenti della robotica,

  3. Comparison of oral midazolam with oral tramadol, triclofos and zolpidem in the sedation of pediatric dental patients: An in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Bhatnagar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: oral sedation is the simplest and most convenient sedation method for managing uncooperative child patients because it is easy to administer and there is no need for nasal hood or injection. Oral midazolam is the most commonly used preanesthetic medication for children. When given in amounts between 0.5 and 0.75 mg/kg of body weight, oral midazolam has been found to be an effective sedative agent for pediatric outpatients. Tramadol is a synthetic, centrally acting analgesic indicated for moderate to severe pain. Chloral hydrate is one of the sedatives most commonly used, has excellent absorption, fast induction, and exert minimal effects on respiration. zolpidem is the most commonly prescribed hypnotic due to its clinical efficacy, safety, and ability to be well tolerated with patients. Materials and Methods: 60 anxious and fearful children who reported to the department were treated under conscious sedation for the accomplishment of dental treatment. Patients were randomly assigned to four groups. Statistical analysis was done using Kruskal Wallis Test and decision criterion was to reject the null hypothesis if the P-value is less than 0.05. Results: it was observed that there is a statistically significant difference in median scores recorded for the level of sedation between the different groups (P < 0.001. Conclusion: this study concluded that midazolam is the best drug for producing conscious sedation followed by tramadol and triclofos. Zolpidem was not able to produce a sufficient level of sedation and it cannot be supported as a sedative agent at the present dosage.

  4. fertilizada con diferentes abonos

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    Jorge Alberto Elizondo-Salazar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Producción y calidad de la biomasa de morera (Morus alba fertilizada con diferentes abonos. Se llevó a cabo un experimento en la Estación Experimental “Alfredo Volio Mata” de la Universidad de Costa Rica con el fi n de evaluar la aplicación de 150 kg de N/ha/año proveniente de dos abonos orgánicos: lombriabono y compostaje; y de un fertilizante químico, sobre la producción y calidad de la biomasa de morera. El periodo experimental comprendió un ciclo de 12 meses, iniciando en julio del 2003 y fi nalizando en julio del 2004. Se utilizó una plantación de morera de 12 años de establecida con una densidad de siembra de 27.777 plantas/ ha. Se empleó un diseño de bloques completos al azar con cuatro tratamientos: dos abonos orgánicos, nitrato de amonio (33,5% N y un control. Las plantas se podaron a 0,6 m sobre el nivel del suelo al inicio del ensayo. Durante el periodo experimental, las plantas fueron podadas consecutivamente cada 90 días. Las hojas y los tallos fueron separados y analizados para determinar el contenido de materia seca y proteína cruda. La producción de materia seca fue 23% superior y el contenido de proteína cruda fue signifi cativamente mayor con el nitrógeno químico, mientras que el contenido de materia seca fue menor. No se encontraron diferencias signifi cativas entre el tratamiento control y los tratamientos orgánicos.

  5. Tramadol hydrochloride 75 mg/dexketoprofen 25 mg oral fixed-dose combination in moderate-to-severe acute pain: sustained analgesic effect over a 56-h period in the postoperative setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero Matamala, A; Bertolotti, M; Contini, M P; Guerrero Bayón, C; Nizzardo, A; Paredes Lario, I; Pizà Vallespir, B; Scartoni, S; Tonini, G; Capriati, A; Pellacani, A

    2017-06-01

    Multimodal analgesia constitutes a common strategy in pain management. A tramadol hydrochloride 75 mg/dexketoprofen 25 mg oral fixed combination (TRAM/DKP 75 mg/25 mg) has been recently registered and released in Europe for the treatment of moderate-to-severe acute pain. This paper provides additional analyses on the results of two phase III clinical trials (DEX-TRA-04 and DEX-TRA-05) on postoperative pain to document its sustained effect. The analysis was applied to a modified intention-to-treat population (mITT, n = 933) of patients undergoing active treatment from the first dose, to assess the sustained effect of TRAM/DKP 75 mg/25 mg on pain intensity (PI-VAS 0-100) over 56 h from first drug intake. The superior analgesic effect of TRAM/DKP 75 mg/25 mg over 56 h in terms of difference in PI-VAS (mean [SE]) was shown for DEX-TRA-04 (-11.0 [0.55] over dexketoprofen 25 mg and -9.1 [0.55] over tramadol 100 mg, P ≤ 0.0001) and for DEX-TRA-05 (-10.4 [0.51] over dexketoprofen 25 mg and -8.3 [0.51] over tramadol 100 mg, P ≤ 0.0001). The statistical analysis performed on data coming from both studies confirms the superior sustained analgesia of TRAM/DKP 75 mg/25 mg over tramadol 100 mg and dexketoprofen 25 mg. These results are consistent with the previously published data obtained on the ITT population and strongly support the role of this oral fixed-dose combination in the treatment of moderate-to-severe acute pain. Copyright 2017 Clarivate Analytics.

  6. Comparison of the effects of tramadol, codeine, and ketoprofen alone or in combination on postoperative pain and on concentrations of blood glucose, serum cortisol, and serum interleukin-6 in dogs undergoing maxillectomy or mandibulectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Teresinha L; Kahvegian, Márcia A P; Noel-Morgan, Jessica; Leon-Román, Marco A; Otsuki, Denise A; Fantoni, Denise T

    2010-09-01

    To compare analgesic effects of tramadol, codeine, and ketoprofen administered alone and in combination and their effects on concentrations of blood glucose, serum cortisol, and serum interleukin (IL)-6 in dogs undergoing maxillectomy or mandibulectomy. 42 dogs with oral neoplasms. 30 minutes before the end of surgery, dogs received SC injections of tramadol (2 mg/kg), codeine (2 mg/kg), ketoprofen (2 mg/kg), tramadol+ketoprofen, or codeine+ketoprofen (at the aforementioned dosages). Physiologic variables, analgesia, and sedation were measured before (baseline) and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 24 hours after surgery. Blood glucose, serum cortisol, and serum IL-6 concentrations were measured 1, 3, 5, and 24 hours after administration of analgesics. All treatments provided adequate postoperative analgesia. Significant increases in mean+/-SD blood glucose concentrations were detected in dogs receiving tramadol (96+/-14 mg/dL), codeine (120+/-66 mg/dL and 96+/-21 mg/dL), ketoprofen (105+/-22 mg/dL), and codeine+ketoprofen (104+/-16 mg/dL) at 5, 1 and 3, 5, and 3 hours after analgesic administration, respectively, compared with preoperative (baseline) values. There were no significant changes in physiologic variables, serum IL-6 concentrations, or serum cortisol concentrations. Dogs administered codeine+ketoprofen had light but significant sedation at 4, 5, and 24 hours. Opioids alone or in combination with an NSAID promoted analgesia without adverse effects during the 24-hour postoperative period in dogs undergoing maxillectomy or mandibulectomy for removal of oral neoplasms.

  7. Total intravenous anaesthesia with propofol-racemic ketamine and propofol-S-ketamine: a comparative study and haemodynamic evaluation in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy Anestesia total intravenosa com propofolquetamina racêmica e propofol-quetamina-S: estudo comparativo e avaliação hemodinâmica em cães submetidos à ovariohisterectomia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana R. Intelisano

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA with propofol and ketamine proved to be very satisfactory from a clinical point of view. This blind randomised controlled trial was designed to compare induction and maintenance of anaesthesia under continuous infusion of propofol-racemic ketamine (PRK with that of propofol-S-ketamine (PSK and evaluate their haemodynamic, metabolic and ventilatory effects. Seven female dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy were involved in each group. Anaesthesia was induced: in Group PRK, with propofol (4.0mg kg-1 and racemic ketamine (2.0mg kg-1 intravenous (i.v., followed by i.v. infusion of propofol (initial dose of 0.5mg kg-1 min-1 and racemic ketamine (0.2mg kg-1 min-1; in Group PSK, with propofol (4.0mg kg-1 and S-ketamine (1.0 mg kg¹ i.v., followed by i.v. infusion of propofol (initial dose of 0.5mg kg-1 min-1 and S-ketamine (0.1mg kg-1 min-1. Parameters were assessed before anaesthesia and in 6 time points after induction. In both groups, heart rate increased significantly at all time points. There was a slight decrease in systemic blood pressure, cardiac output and cardiac index in both groups. The systolic index decrease significantly and intense respiratory depression was observed in all groups, making assisted ventilation necessary.A anestesia total intra-venosa (TIVA com propofol e quetamina proporciona um efeito muito satisfatório do ponto de vista clínico. Este estudo, cego e randomizado, comparou a indução e manutenção da anestesia com infusão contínua de propofolquetamina racêmica (PRK e propofol-quetamina-S (PSK em cães, e avaliou seus efeitos hemodinâmicos, metabólicos e ventilatórios. Foram avaliadas sete cadelas em cada grupo, submetidas à ovariohisterectomia. A anestesia foi induzida no Grupo PRK, com propofol (4.0mg kg-1 e cetamina (2.0mg kg-1 por via intravenosa (i.v., seguida de infusão contínua de propofol (dose inicial de 0.5mg kg-1 min-1 e cetamina racêmica(0.2mg kg-1 min-1 i.v. No

  8. Comparação de ibuprofeno via oral e indometacina intravenosa no tratamento da persistência do canal arterial em neonatos com extremo baixo peso ao nascer Comparison of oral ibuprofen and intravenous indomethacin for the treatment of patent ductus arteriosus in extremely low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Mi Yang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Existem poucos relatórios publicados com relação à eficácia do ibuprofeno via oral no tratamento da persistência do canal arterial (PCA em neonatos com extremo baixo peso ao nascer (EBPN. Comparamos o ibuprofeno via oral à indometacina intravenosa no que diz respeito à eficácia e segurança no tratamento de PCA em neonatos com peso inferior a 1.000 g ao nascer. MÉTODO: Este foi um estudo retrospectivo em um único centro. Coletamos dados de neonatos com EBPN que tiveram PCA ecocardiograficamente confirmada. Os neonatos foram tratados tanto com indometacina intravenosa quanto com ibuprofeno via oral. A taxa de fechamento do canal, a necessidade de tratamentos adicionais, os efeitos colaterais ou as complicações relacionadas ao medicamento e a mortalidade foram comparados entre os dois grupos de tratamento. RESULTADO: Examinamos 26 neonatos que receberam indometacina e 22 que receberam ibuprofeno. A taxa geral de fechamento do canal foi semelhante nos dois tratamentos: o fechamento do canal ocorreu em 23 dos 26 neonatos (88,5% no grupo indometacina, e em 18 dos 22 neonatos (81,8% no grupo ibuprofeno (p = 0,40. A taxa de ligadura cirúrgica (11,5% em comparação a 18,2%; p = 0,40 não diferiu de forma significativa entre os dois grupos de tratamento. Após o tratamento, não foi encontrada nenhuma diferença significativa nas concentrações de creatinina sérica entre os dois grupos. Não houve diferenças significativas com relação a efeitos colaterais ou complicações adicionais. CONCLUSÃO: Em neonatos com EBPN, o ibuprofeno via oral é tão eficaz quanto a indometacina intravenosa no tratamento da PCA. Não há diferenças entre os medicamentos no que diz respeito à segurança. O ibuprofeno via oral poderia ser usado como um agente alternativo no tratamento da PCA em neonatos com EBPN.OBJECTIVE: There are few published reports concerning the efficacy of oral ibuprofen for the treatment of patent ductus arteriosus

  9. pacientes con falla cardiaca

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    Diana Marcela Achury Saldaña

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: determinar la adherencia al tratamiento de pacientes con falla cardiaca hospitalizados, al aplicar un plan educativo quefomenta el autocuidado.Método: estudio cuasiexperimental (entrevistas enfermera-paciente realizado entre diciembre de 2004 y mayo de 2006, con unamuestra de 50 pacientes seleccionados por conveniencia. Se diseñó un instrumento para evaluar los comportamientos de los pacientes,con base en algunos resultados de la adherencia y sus respectivos indicadores de la taxonomía NOC (Nursing out comes classification. Laadherencia al tratamiento fue medida en dos momentos: el primero durante la hospitalización, seguido de la aplicación del plan educativoantes del alta, que proporcionaba información en el manejo de su enfermedad desde una dimensión física, psicológica y social quepromueve el autocuidado; y el segundo un mes después del alta en su domicilio.Resultados: diferencias estadísticamente significativas (P=0,0001 que demuestran cómo mediante la capacitación al paciente enel manejo de su tratamiento farmacológico y no farmacológico, el establecimiento de una sana relación entre el profesional de enfermeríay el paciente, y la participación de la familia, se logra una total adherencia al tratamiento.Conclusiones: para lograr una adherencia total del paciente con falla cardiaca al tratamiento es necesario un proceso educativo y unseguimiento continuo y personalizado que motive permanentemente al paciente y se le reconozca el papel protagónico en su cuidado y manejo de la enfermedad.

  10. Encuentros con Elena Poniatowska

    OpenAIRE

    Uzquiza González, José Ignacio

    2008-01-01

    El autor analiza, desde su encuentro con Elena Poniatowska, la vertiente de la literatura testimonial como literatura de mujeres. Un análisis interior de la relación entre realidad y ficción, entre Elena, Jesusa o Tinísima. The author analyzes testimonial literature from the perspective of female literature through his meeting with Elena Poniatowska. An analysis of reality vs. Fiction in Elena, Jesusa and Tinisima.

  11. Lectura con adolescentes

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    Silvia Méndez Anchía

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Con base en la premisa de que la lectura de textos literarios tiene una función formadora y que esta se acentúa en la adolescencia, me propongo demostrar que el cuento “Rapunzel” puede utilizarse como estrategia para explorar algunas situaciones que los sujetos adolescentes perciben como particulares en relación con su vida, pero que se inscriben dentro de grandes problemáticas estudiadas por varias disciplinas. Para ello, he identificado, desde dos marcos de referencia (sociológico y psicoanalítico, diversas problemáticas y discursos que se desprenden de la lectura del cuento realizada por dos mujeres adolescentes, quienes respondieron una guía de lectura y participaron en una entrevista a profundidad. Concluyo que la lectura y comentario del cuento hacen posible que una serie de experiencias que los sujetos adolescentes viven como únicas (como el embarazo de una amiga, las críticas de las personas adultas y las exigencias de padres y madres, ingresen en el circuito de los conocimientos generales al relacionarlas con los discursos y problemáticas en que se inscriben (por ejemplo, el discurso de la “crisis” de la adolescencia, el enfoque de derechos humanos, el mundo fantasmático materno. Por ello, recomiendo la lectura y comentario de textos literarios como estrategia didáctica para contribuir a la elaboración de la subjetividad de personas adolescentes.

  12. Hemogasometria em cães com desidratação experimental tratados com soluções eletrolíticas comerciais administradas por via intravenosa Blood gas analysis in dogs with experimental dehidration treated with commercial electrolytes solutions by intravenous route

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    José Dantas Ribeiro Filho

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo, foram comparados os efeitos da administração intravenosa de três soluções eletrolíticas comerciais sobre o equilíbrio ácido-base em cães desidratados experimentalmente por restrição hídrica e poliúria. Os animais foram aleatoriamente distribuídos em três grupos e tratados com três diferentes soluções eletrolíticas comerciais durante 12 horas: Ringer com lactato de sódio (RL, Ringer simples (RS e Glicofisiológico (GF. Entre os tratamentos testados, a fluidoterapia intravenosa com solução de Ringer com lactato de sódio (RL foi o tratamento que apresentou efeito alcalinizante, sinalizado por pequeno aumento nos valores do pH(a, cHCO3(aP, ctCO2(aP e cBase(a, podendo ser utilizada no tratamento de animais com acidose metabólica de intensidade discreta a moderada. As soluções Ringer simples (RS e glicofisiológica (GF determinaram discreta diminuição na concentração de base titulável do sangue arterial (cBase, demonstrando efeito acidificante, o que as tornam uma opção para tratar cães com alcalose metabólica.Three commercial intravenous electrolyte solutions were compared as for their effects on the blood acid-base status in dogs experimentally dehydrated by withholding water and inducing polyuria. Animals were randomly divided into three groups which were rehydrated with the following commercial electrolyte solutions during 12 hours: Lactate Ringer´s solution (RL, Ringer´s solution (RS and a normal saline solution (0.9% sodium chloride containing 5% dextrose (GF. The RL´s intravenous fluid therapy resulted in an alkalinizing effect demonstrated by a mild increase in arterial blood pH, ctCO2, bicarbonate (cHCO-3, and arterial blood base concentration (cBase and, thus, can be used in animals exhibiting mild to moderate metabolic acidosis. In contrast, the RS and GF therapies led to a mild decrease in the concentration of arterial blood tritiable base (cBase inducing an acidifying effect, which

  13. Estudo de lidocaína a 0,5% e combinação de lidocaína a 0,25% com fentanil e vecurônio em anestesia regional intravenosa para cirurgias de membros superiores

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    Santhosh MCB

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A anestesia regional intravenosa (ARIV para cirurgias de membros superiores com a tradicional alta dose de lidocaína pode levar a efeitos colaterais potencialmente letais. A fim de evitar esses efeitos, muitas técnicas modificadas de ARIV foram experimentadas com o uso de uma dose baixa de lidocaína, relaxante muscular e opioide. MÉTODOS: O presente estudo foi feito com 60 pacientes não medicados previamente, com classificação ASA 1-2, para comparar as características sensoriais e motoras, os parâmetros cardiorrespiratórios e os efeitos colaterais durante o período intraoperatório e de deflação pós-torniquete entre os pacientes que receberam 40 mL de lidocaína a 0,5% (n = 30 e aqueles que receberam uma combinação de 40 mL de lidocaína a 0,25% com 0,05 mg de fentanil e 0,5 mg de vecurônio (n = 30 em ARIV para cirurgias ortopédicas de membros superiores. Os resultados foram analisados com o uso do teste t de Student pareado para identificar a significância estatística. RESULTADO: A diferença entre os dois grupos em relação ao tempo médio de início e completo bloqueio sensitivo e motor foi estatisticamente significante. Porém, houve completo bloqueio sensitivo e motor em ambos os grupos 15 minutos após a injeção da solução anestésica. CONCLUSÃO: Embora a pequena demora observada no início e na obtenção completa dos bloqueios sensitivo e motor possa, teoricamente, atrasar o início da cirurgia em 10-15 minutos, clinicamente esse tempo seria gasto na preparação do campo cirúrgico. Portanto, essa combinação pode ser usada com segurança e eficácia em anestesia regional intravenosa para cirurgias ortopédicas de membros superiores com menor possibilidade de toxicidade anestésica local.

  14. Notas clínicas: intervención quirúrgica en un hemofílico, con resultado altamente satisfactorio

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    Cioran S.

    1936-09-01

    Full Text Available Se anticipa que el informante no tenía idea del estado hemofílico del paciente y que la operación era absolutamente urgente. Soldado E. R. hospitalizado el 26 de marzo de 1934, en la sección quirúrgica del hospital militar en Timisoara. Diagnóstico: Flemones apendiculares. Operación el mismo día: extirpación del apéndice perforado. Durante la operación ligera hemorragia de las masas musculares cortadas y adherencias. La hemorragia persiste 24 horas sin la menor tendencia a la coagulación. Después de mucho insistir el enfermo se acuerda débilmente de que de vez en cuando padecía de fuertes hemorragias nasales de uno hasta dos dias, El 27 de marzo se le hizo además de la aplicación de los remedios hemostípticos usuales (calcio, gelatina, stryphnon, sueros, etc., una transfusión de 350 grs. de sangre pura. La hemorragia continúa sin cambiar. El 28 de marzo segunda transfusión con el mismo resultado negativo. Por la tarde del 28 se le aplican en 2 dosis 90 e.e. de Clauden por la vía intravenosa.

  15. Cementos con cenizas volantes

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    Ossa M., Mauricio

    1984-03-01

    additions of 20 and 30% .

    Casi la generalidad de los estudios realizados sobre cementos con adición de cenizas volantes se refieren a sus características y comportamiento en pastas, morteros y hormigones, siempre en relación con aquéllos del cemento portland. Esta vez, se desarrolló un trabajo experimental orientado a relacionar entre sí los cementos con adiciones de cenizas volantes y de puzolana natural. Para ello se fabricaron a escala de laboratorio cementos de ambos tipos, empleando como materias primas comunes clinker y yeso y, como variables, diferentes porcentajes de las dos adiciones, que cumplieron previamente los requisitos normalizados en cuanto a sus actividades puzolánicas. La calidad de los cementos fabricados resultó adecuada y concordante con la del cemento portland-puzolánico obtenido a escala industrial con los mismos clinker, yeso y puzolana natural de este estudio. Posteriormente, se determinaron las características de los cementos experimentales y se confeccionaron morteros normales para la realización de ensayos físicos y mecánicos. Los resultados de ensayos indicaron que los cementos con adición de cenizas volantes (CCV requieren menos agua para consistencia normal, presentan tiempos de fraguado mayores y expansiones en autoclave menores que los cementos con adición de puzolana (CP. Los calores de hidratación a 7 y 28 días de edad fueron aproximadamente similares para ambos tipos de cemento. En morteros normales, los cementos CCV mostraron menor retracción de secado, mayor retentividad y mayor fluidez (para igual cantidad de agua que los cementos CP. En los ensayos de exudación se observó que ésta depende más de la finura que el tipo de adición. Finalmente, los ensayos mecánicos señalaron que las resistencias a compresión y flexotracción de los morteros con cementos CCV son menores a edades inferiores que 14 días (del orden de 5 a 10% a un día de edad, pero que a partir de entonces pasan a ser mayores que las de

  16. Conversazione con Margherita Botto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Sini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Conversazione con Margherita Botto è la trascrizione di un’intervista condotta da Stefania Sini e Sara Sullam a Milano il 16 maggio 2012, della quale si pubblica anche la versione video. La redazione di Enthymema ringrazia la professoressa Botto per la sua disponibilità e la sua generosità. Di seguito trovate i video della Conversazione. Parte 1 di 7 Parte 2 di 7 Parte 3 di 7 Parte 4 di 7 Parte 5 di 7 Parte 6 di 7 Parte 7 di 7

  17. Construir con Madera

    OpenAIRE

    Olabe-Velasco, F. (Fermín); Val-Hernández, Y. (Yolanda); Varela-de-la-Cruz, P. (Perla); Cabrero-Ballarín, J.M. (José Manuel)

    2010-01-01

    Guía divulgativa ‘Construir con madera’, elaborada por la Cátedra Madera de la Universidad de Navarra y el Gobierno de Navarra. La publicación pretende explicar de forma sencilla los beneficios y posibilidades de este material en la construcción, tanto en lo que respecta a su resistencia, comportamiento frente al fuego, durabilidad, capacidad de aislamiento, propiedades acústicas, estética, respeto al medio ambiente y sostenibilidad como fuente de energía. A modo de ejemplo, en la ...

  18. Atender con ansiedad

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    Alberto Acosta

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Tener una personalidad ansiosa o estar ansioso en una determinada situación hace que atendamos de modo diferente a lo que acontece. Investigaciones recientes están descubriendo las relaciones específicas de la ansiedad-rasgo y de la ansiedad-estado con diferentes procesos atencionales. La intervención terapéutica para aliviar los trastornos de ansiedad, tan frecuentes en nuestra época, se va a beneficiar de este conocimiento.

  19. Eugenistas, pero con prudencia

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    Pogliano, Claudio

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Thinking that one could not describe eugenics like a unique movement, since numerous bound varians took place related to the geographical and cultural context, this article tries to demostrate the peculiarity of the Italian case. If already in 1889 Giuseppe Sergi wanted that the artificial selection take it to end what should make the natural, avoiding the risk of the so called «degeneration», only in the face of the First World War seems to grow the alarm for the decadent quality of the population, finding a more and more wide echo. In 1919 the Siges was born (Società italiana de genetica ed eugenica shocked under the impression of the difusse fear about the butcher the war had caused. From there from now on fastens a «nazional» direction closely related to the traditional thought and also with the new political temper. A «moderate» direction, Fascist, Catholic, that was built in consonance with the pronatalism of the regime and in rough polemic with the presumed Anglo-Saxon eugenics aberration.

    Partiendo de la base de que no se puede describir la eugénica como un movimiento unitario, ya que se produjeron numerosas variantes ligadas al contexto geográfico y cultural, este artículo intenta demostrar la peculiaridad del caso italiano. Si ya en 1889 Giuseppe Sergi deseaba que la selección artificial llevase a cabo lo que debía de hacer la natural, evitando así el riesgo de la «degeneración », sólo ante la Primera Guerra Mundial parece crecer la alarma por la decadente calidad de la población, encontrando un eco cada vez más amplio. En 1919 nació la Sige (Società italiana de genetica ed eugenica bajo la impresión del difuso temor que la carnicería bélica había provocado. De ahí en adelante prende rápidamente una dirección «nazional» que se imbrica tanto con una tradición del pensamiento como con el nuevo temple político. Una dirección «moderada» fascista, católica, que se construyó en consonancia con el

  20. Anaesthetic, analgesic and cardiorespiratory effects of intramuscular medetomidine-ketamine combination alone or with morphine or tramadol for orchiectomy in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiler, Gareth E; Dzikiti, Brighton T; Fosgate, Geoffrey T; Stegmann, Frik G; Venter, Frans J; Rioja, Eva

    2014-07-01

    To compare the anaesthetic, analgesic and cardiorespiratory effects of intramuscular (IM) medetomidine and ketamine administered alone or combined with morphine or tramadol, for orchiectomy in cats. Randomised, blinded, prospective clinical study. Thirty client-owned cats. Cats (n = 10 in each group) received a combination of medetomidine (60 μgkg(-1) ) and ketamine (10 mg kg(-1) ) alone (MedK); combined with morphine (0.2 mg kg(-1) ) (MedKM), or combined with tramadol (2 mg kg(-1) ) (MedKT) IM. Time of induction, surgical and recovery events were recorded, and physiological parameters measured and recorded. Analgesia was evaluated with a visual analogue scale, a composite scoring system and the von Frey mechanical threshold device, every hour from three to eight hours post-drug administration injection. Data were analyzed with a linear mixed model, Kruskal-Wallis or Chi-square tests (p < 0.05). Median (IQR) induction and recovery times (minutes) were not significantly (p = 0.125) different between groups: 5.6 (2.7-8.0), 7.4 (5.1-9.6) and 8.0 (5.8-14.9) for induction and 128.5 (95.1-142.8), 166.4 (123.1-210.0) and 142.9 (123.4-180.2) for recovery, with MedK, MedKT and MedKM, respectively. Two cats (MedKM) required alfaxalone for endotracheal intubation. In all groups, three or four cats required additional isoflurane for surgery. Arterial oxygen tension overall (mean ± SD: 66 ± 2 mmHg) was low. Surgery resulted in increased systolic arterial blood pressure (p < 0.001), haemoglobin saturation (p < 0.001), respiratory (p = 0.003) and heart rates (p = 0.002). Pain scores did not differ significantly between groups. Von Frey responses decreased over time; changes over time varied by treatment (p < 0.001), MedK returning to baseline values more rapidly than MedKM and MedKT. No cat required rescue analgesics. All three protocols can provide adequate anaesthesia and analgesia for orchiectomy in cats. However, rescue intervention to maintain surgical anaesthesia may be

  1. Entrevista con Patricia Ariza

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    Esperanza Londoño La Rotta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pensamiento, Palabra y Obra entrevista a una artista, feminista y activista política, quien como mujer y artista ha permitido pensar el arte más allá de un simple espectáculo. Toda una vida dedicada al teatro y a darle voz, a través de sus obras, a víctimas del conflicto colombiano, defensora de derechos humanos; además de hacer evidente en su vida y a través de la plataforma “Artistas por la paz”, las múltiples relaciones que se pueden establecer entre el arte, la construcción de paz y la resolución de conflictos. Hablamos en su casa, en medio del calor de la bienvenida con Patricia Ariza, directora del festival alternativo de teatro, de Mujeres en Escena y de la Corporación Colombiana de Teatro, entre otras muchas actividades que voluntariamente su espíritu libertario ha asumido. Esta entrevista se realizó antes del 2 de octubre, pero con la revisión de los acuerdos que propició el plebiscito ganado por una ínfima minoría por el no, sigue siendo vigente este planteamiento.

  2. Entrevista con Giovanni Levi

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    Monica Oliveira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available En esta entrevista, Giovanni Levi - como un conocedor del tema de Familia - realiza una importante evaluación sobre el actual estado de las investigaciones realizadas en el Brasil y em el exterior. Con estilo franco, agudo y lucido critica las visiones tradicionales y sus ilusiones ypropone nuevos conceptos y métodos. La historia de la familia debería ceder espacio para el estudio de las redes relacionales o de los mundos relacionales. De la misma forma, la historia cuantitativa debería abrir espacio para el estudio de las cualidades. Ya con relación a la historia de las elites, tan estudiada y reproducida en una diversidad de trabajos, que deberíase mirar en otra perspectiva. Es decir, no mirar a las reglas sociales predeterminadas, sino a los desvíos y a las variaciones. Levi defiende que los historiadores deben trascender a los documentos que se encuentran fácilmente y que pueden fortalecer perspectivas deformadas y esequilibradas de la sociedad. Para él, los historiadores deben esforzarse por estudiar a aquellos grupos que dejaron pocos rastros documentales. En ese esfuerzo existiría una nueva mirada sobre la historia de la familia.

  3. Tratamiento ambulatorio del paciente con neutropenia febril Outpatient therapy in patients with febrile neutropenia

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    Andrés Londoño Gallo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available

    El tratamiento de los pacientes con neoplasia y neutropenia febril plantea muchas dudas. Una de ellas, que genera ansiedad en el personal de la salud, el paciente y sus familiares, es la necesidad de hospitalización porque ésta implica exponer a gérmenes intrahospitalarios potencialmente resistentes a un paciente cuyo sistema inmune puede no estar en las mejores condiciones; incluso con un aislamiento óptimo existe el riesgo de adquirir una infección nosocomial. Muchos estudios han tratado de validar métodos para clasificar a los pacientes con fiebre y neutropenia en grupos de diferente riesgo, como fundamento para implementar estrategias de tratamiento selectivo; así se ha abierto la posibilidad de utilizar medidas más conservadoras para el tratamiento de los episodios de bajo riesgo, entre ellas la administración de regímenes orales ambulatorios de antibióticos de amplio espectro; ello sin demeritar la necesidad de aplicar un juicio clínico adecuado, hacer un buen seguimiento y tener acceso a la atención médica inmediata. La neutropenia es una de las consecuencias graves de la quimioterapia para el cáncer, y se ha demostrado que el tratamiento del paciente neutropénico febril con antibióticos intravenosos reduce la mortalidad. La terapia oral podría ser una alternativa aceptable para pacientes bien seleccionados. Ella puede mejorar la calidad de vida de los pacientes con cáncer, evitar las complicaciones asociadas con la terapia intravenosa y disminuir los costos del tratamiento.

    Treatment of patients with neoplasia and febrile neutropenia, as a consequence of chemotherapy, poses many doubts, among them the need for hospitalization, since this implies exposure to potentially resistant nosocomial microorganisms. Even under the best isolation techniques, there may

  4. preescolares desnutridos con madres con obesidad y sin obesidad

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    Viridiana Vanessa Conzuelo-González

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El primer objetivo fue conocer cuántos menores de cinco años con diferentes grados de desnutrición tienen una madre con sobrepeso/obesidad/ en una comunidad indígena que vive en extrema pobreza y bajo condiciones de migración masculina internacional. El segundo fue comparar tres variables socionutricionales (ingreso familiar, educación de la madre y adecuación nutrimental de la dieta diaria entre estos hogares y los hogares con desnutrición infantil y madres sin obesidad. Se realizó un estudio transversal (2006-2007, en la comunidad mazahua de San Francisco Tepeolulco, Municipio de Temascalcingo; que incluyó a 85 hogares integrados por preescolares con desnutrición inscritos al programa Oportunidades. Se determinó el estado nutrición de los preescolares con indicadores antropométricos y se obtuvo el IMC de las madres de estos infantes. Se aplicó una encuesta socionutricional, incluida el recordatorio de 24 horas, y complementado con la observación participante (cualitativa. Se encontró que 83% de las madres mazahuas presentaron sobrepeso u obesidad. El estado de nutrición de los preescolares con madres con obesidad presentó un porcentaje mayor de desnutrición (76%. En la variable género, se encontró que 54% de los niños con madres con obesidad tenía baja talla. Al relacionar el nivel educativo de la madre, esta variable resultó ser estadísticamente significativa (p=0.015, donde el analfabetismo está más relacionado con la desnutrición infantil que tienen madres de bajo y/o peso normal. La elevada prevalencia de hogares conformados con preescolares con desnutrición y madres con obesidad, es un síntoma más de la pobreza en zonas indígenas en México, con bajo índice de desarrollo humano.

  5. Alumnos con necesidades educativas especiales

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Pérez, Luis

    1995-01-01

    La autora con este trabajo pretende orientar, y guiar al profesor de Educación Física en sus clases para que los alumnos con Necesidades Educativas Especiales, no se sientan excluidos, discriminados por su discapacidad y hacer ver a los alumnos, que todos somos iguales, pero a la vez todos somos diferentes, todos tenemos necesidades educativas diferentes , no solo la persona con discapacidad.

  6. autorregulado con estudiantes universitarios

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    Jairo Andrés Montes

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito del presente estudio es describir la forma en la que se presentan los procesos de aprendizaje autorregulado con un grupo de estudiantes (22 estudiantes de tercer semestre de Psicología de la PUJ, Cali, en el evento de preparación para la presentación un examen. Asimismo se describen las correlaciones que ocurren entre las distintas fases de dicho proceso de autorregulación del aprendizaje. Para conseguir los objetivos propuestos se ha hecho uso de una observación de desempeño en tiempo real, es decir, de la observación durante una sesión de preparación de examen de los estudiantes, en la cual se emplearon protocolos verbales para dar cuenta de lo que «pasaba por su mente» mientras estudiaban. Una entrevista semi-estructurada y una prueba objetiva. Los resultados fueron analizados a la luz del modelo mixto de procesamiento de información y constructivismo abordado por Winne(1998. Como resultado se encontró una relación significativa entre los niveles de desempeño en el proceso de ARR y el resultado del examen. Igualmente se encontraron bajos niveles de regulación en una parte importante de la muestra y un desfase significativo entre conocimiento declarativo de ARR y desempeño en el mismo

  7. Safety and efficacy of transdermal buprenorphine versus oral tramadol for the treatment of post-operative pain following surgery for fracture neck of femur: A prospective, randomised clinical study

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    Sameer N Desai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transdermal buprenorphine, which is used in chronic pain management, has rarely been studied for use in acute pain management. The aim of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of transdermal buprenorphine patch to oral tramadol for post-operative analgesia, following proximal femur surgeries. Methodology: Fifty adult patients undergoing surgery for hip fracture under spinal anaesthesia were included in this study. One group (Group TDB received transdermal buprenorphine 10 mcg/h patch applied a day before the surgery and other group received oral tramadol 50 mg three times a day for analgesia (Group OT. They were allowed to take diclofenac and paracetamol tablets for rescue analgesia. Pain scores at rest, on movement, rescue analgesic requirement and side effects were compared between the groups over 7 days. Chi-square and independent sample t-test were used for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Results: Resting pain scores and pain on movement were significantly lower in TDB Group on all 7 days starting from 24 h post-operatively. Rescue analgesic requirement was significantly lower in TDB Group compared to OT Group. All the patients needed rescue analgesic in OT Group whereas 68% of the patients needed the same in TDB Group. Incidence of vomiting was less and satisfaction scores were much higher in TDB Group as compared to OT Group (79% vs. 66%, P < 0.001. Conclusion: Transdermal buprenorphine can be safely used for post-operative analgesia and is more efficacious in reducing post-operative pain after 24 hours, with fewer side effects when compared to oral tramadol.

  8. Evaluación de la administración de carboximaltosa férrica intravenosa en la consulta de enfermedad renal crónica avanzada, para el control de la anemia

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    Esther García García

    Full Text Available La carboximaltosa férrica es una formulación de hierro endovenosa segura y de fácil dosificación, se puede administrar hasta 1 gramo iv en una sola sesión y permite ahorro de tiempo de los pacientes y de enfermería. Presentamos los resultados de su administración en una consulta de enfermedad renal crónica, analizando sus resultados y la repercusión en la carga de trabajo del personal de enfermería. Material y Métodos: Se analizaron todos los pacientes en seguimiento de la consulta de enfermedad renal crónica en nuestro centro desde Ene-11 hasta Dic-14 que recibieron carboximaltosa férrica iv. Se registraron sus datos basales y los resultados clínicos y analíticos a los seis meses. Resultados: Fueron identificados 85 pacientes en ese periodo. Edad media de 72±12 años, con un filtrado glomerular estimado basal de 28±11ml/min y a los seis meses de 30±11 (p:n.s. La hemoglobina basal y a los seis meses fueron de 10±4 y 11±3 g/dl respectivamente (p: <0,001. El hematocrito basal y final fueron: 34±4 vs 39±6 % (p:<0,001. Los niveles de ferritina e índice de saturación de transferrina basales vs seis meses fueron respectivamente: 88±97 vs 308±327 ng/ml (p: <0,001 y 11,2±6 vs 22,3±11 (p <0,001. Dado que el tiempo medio de administración de cualquier formulación de hierro endovenoso es de 30 minutos, la estimación en base al número de administraciones es de un ahorro de 85 y 170 horas en estos 4 años si se compara con formulaciones que requieren de tres a cinco sesiones respectivamente. A su vez el número de punciones se ha reducido, sin observarse complicaciones asociadas. Conclusiones: La carboximaltosa férrica es segura y eficaz mostrando una recuperación de los niveles de hemoglobina y de los depósitos de hierro. Su facilidad de administración ha permitido ahorros sustanciales de tiempo. Esto junto a sus escasos efectos secundarios la hacen idónea para la administración ambulatoria.

  9. Puentes con vigas pretensadas

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    Editorial, Equipo

    1965-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes one of the three bridges which Hidrocivil, S. A., has built in Catalonia (northern Spain, over the river Ripoll. The other two bridges are very similar to this one, both in construction and design, and show only minor adjustments to the local topography. The contracting firm proposed several alterations in the prefabrication and constructional procedure, in relation to the initial project, and these changes were accepted. The main feature of these projects is the use of prestressed beams, built at the workshop in sections, and joined together by means of sixty 7 mm cables in each beam. As the shear forces are more acute at the joints, the end of each section has a kind of diaphragm, to provide a large contact area, and hence greater surface to transmit the shear forces. The methods of construction are also of interest. Briefly, they involve building the bridge piles, and use these to support a provisional structure with transversal movement. This provisional structure, in turn, served as platform for two bridge cranes, which lifted the girders to their final location. After the first span was completed, the deck was concreted and the auxiliary structure pushed forward to the next span, to repeat the same operations. This arrangement saved the use of provisional framework.En este trabajo se describe uno de los tres puentes que Hidrocivil, S. A., ha construido.—previo concurso— en la región catalana; concretamente, el que salva el río Ripoll. Los otros dos no han sido objeto de descripción general por ser muy similares, en lo que a ejecución y concepción se refiere, con la única variante que presentan las características topográficas locales. La empresa propuso ciertas variantes— que fueron aceptadas— en la prefabricación y métodos de construcción. El interés de estas obras se centra en el empleo de vigas pretensadas, prefabricadas en taller por trozos, y solidarizados en el mismo mediante las operaciones

  10. Violencia con el anciano

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    Rita Campillo Motilva

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available La violencia doméstica es tan antigua como la humanidad misma y se reconocen la violencia infantil, contra la mujer y al anciano, fundamentalmente; siendo este último grupo una población en ascenso por las mayores expectativas de vida de los últimos años. Como resultado de ello, el número de casos de abuso en el anciano se incrementará y el impacto de este abuso sobre la salud debe ser considerado de forma adecuada. La gama de maltratos es variadísima e incluye el abuso físico, emocional, financiero, sexual, por negligencia, negación a brindarle ayuda y otras formas más. Los ancianos con deterioro cognitivo son los más vulnerables. El médico en la atención primaria de salud es un pilar importante en la prevención y educación de este problema.Domestic violence is as old as humanity itself. Child, women and elderly abuse are mainly recognized. The elderly group is increasing due to the higher life expectancy experimented during the last years. As a result, the number of battered elderly will grow and the impact of this abuse on health should be adequately considered. The range of abuse is very wide and it includes physical, emotional, financial and sexual abuse, negligence, rejection to give assistance and others. The elderly with cognitive deterioration are the most vulnerable. The physician at the primary health care level is an important milestone in the prevention and education of this problem.

  11. Terapêutica intravenosa com metilprednisolona e ciclofosfamida na vasculite do sistema nervoso periférico: avaliação de oito pacientes Intravenous theraphy with methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide in vasculitis of peripheral nervous system: evaluation of eight patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANGELINA M.M. LINO

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available O comprometimento do sistema nervoso periférico é frequente nas vasculites sistêmicas e contribui decisivamente para o diagnóstico. Oito pacientes foram estudados: sete do sexo feminino e um do sexo masculino; cinco brancos, dois negros, um amarelo; média de idade de 55,9 anos; quatro com poliarterite nodosa, um com lúpus eritematoso sistêmico, um com artrite reumatóide, um com vasculite isolada do sistema nervoso periférico e um com vasculite livedóide. Todos foram submetidos a terapêutica intravenosa com pulsos mensais de metilprednisolona (1 g/dia/3dias e ciclofosfamida (1 g/dia. Cinco pacientes melhoraram, dois permaneceram inalterados e um faleceu. A melhora neurológica objetiva ocorreu após o terceiro ou quarto pulso e nos pacientes com menor duração da doença.The peripheral nervous system is frequently involved in systemic vasculitis and it may be helpful in the disease diagnosis. We report on eight patients: seven women and one man; five white, two black and one yellow; age mean 55.9 years; four had polyarteritis nodosa, one had systemic lupus erythematosus, one had isolated peripheral nerve vasculitis and one had livedoid vasculitis. All of them received endovenous therapy with "pulse" of methylprednisolone (1 g/day/3days and cyclophosphamide (1 g/1day. Five patients improved, two remained unchanged and one died. The neurological improvement occurred after the third or fourth pulse and in the patients who have had a shorter time of disease.

  12. Aspectos clínicos e hematológicos em cães submetidos à fluidoterapia intravenosa, nutrição enteral e parenteral Clinical and hematological aspects in dogs allotted to intravenous fluid therapy, enteral and parenteral nutrition

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    R.C. Valadares

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se peso vivo, temperatura retal, comportamento, escore fecal e hemograma em 20 cães, sem raça definida, distribuídos aleatoriamente em quatro grupos experimentais com cinco animais cada, duas fêmeas e três machos, submetidos ao arraçoamento padrão (grupo I - controle, à fluidoterapia intravenosa (grupo II, à nutrição enteral por gastrostomia (grupo III e à nutrição parenteral total (grupo IV. Os tratamentos duraram sete dias, precedidos por dois dias de jejum alimentar. Os animais do grupo II apresentaram a maior perda de peso (P0,05. Os animais do grupo II apresentaram valores abaixo dos de referência para hemácias, hemoglobina e hematócrito, sugerindo anemia normocítica normocrômica. A fixação da sonda gástrica, via endoscopia, levou a alterações no número total de leucócito (PBody weight, rectal temperature, behavior, fecal score and hemogram were evaluated in 20 crossbred dogs, randomly alloted in four experimental groups, being five animals in each group, two females and three males. Those animals were alloted to standard feeding (group I - control, intravenous fluid therapy (group II, enteral nutrition through gastrotomy (group III and total parenteral nutrition (group IV. The treatments lasted seven days, preceded by two days of fasting. The animals of group II showed the highest weigth loss (P0.05, however, the animals of group II showed lower values of erythrocytes, hemoglobin and hematocrit, suggesting normocytic normochromic anemia. The gastric tube placement, through endoscopy, led to alteration of the total number of leukocytes (P<0.05, causing a regenerative left shift in the animals of group II. The administration rate of the parenteral nutrition solution must be monitored when a peripheral venous access is used.

  13. Efeitos da associação de tiletamina/zolazepam ou cetamina S(+/midazolam/tramadol para contenção química em bugios-ruivos (Allouatta guariba clamitans Effects of tiletamine/zolazepam or S(+ ketamine/midazolam/tramadol for chemical contention in red howler monkeys (Allouatta guariba clamitans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pâmela Spolti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se dois protocolos para contenção química em bugios-ruivos. Para tal, foram utilizados 12 macacos bugios, hígidos, com peso médio de 6,4±0,4 kg, os quais foram submetidos a jejum alimentar e hídrico de seis e duas horas, respectivamente. Os animais foram alocados em dois grupos que receberam injeção via intramuscular: TZ (n=6, os quais receberam uma associação de tiletamina e zolazepam (Zoletil® na dose de 3,6mg/kg e CEMTRA (n=6, que receberam cetamina S(+, midazolam e tramadol (Cemtra ®, lote piloto 001/10, Ouro Fino Saúde Animal Ltda., Cravinhos, SP-Brasil, constituído por 100mg/ml de cetamina S+, 20mg/ml de tramadol e 10mg/ml de midazolam na dose de 1ml da associação para cada 10kg de peso corporal, correspondendo às doses de 10mg/kg, 1mg/kg e 2mg/kg, respectivamente. Anteriormente a administração dos fármacos (M0 foram avaliadas: frequência cardíaca (FC e respiratória (f, temperatura retal (TR, tempo de preenchimento capilar (TPC, pressão arterial sistólica (PAS, saturação de oxigênio na hemoglobina (SpO2, presença de salivação, grau de miorrelaxamento e sedação, índice Bispectral (BIS e Sinal de Qualidade do BIS (SQI, resposta ao pinçamento interdigital e tempos de latência, deambulação e de recuperação total (TRT. Os parâmetros foram reavaliados em M5, M10, M20, M30, M40 e M50 (5, 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50 minutos após a administração dos fármacos. No TZ os animais foram mais responsivos ao pinçamento interdigital ao longo dos tempos. Os animais do CEMTRA apresentaram maior grau de miorrelaxamento e de sedação. A f do CEMTRA foi menor após a administração do tratamento em todos os momentos em relação ao M0. Entre grupos a f do CEMTRA foi menor em relação ao TZ em M2 e M4. Os tempos totais de sedação e de recuperação foram de 48±4 e 150,1±42,1 min para o CEMTRA e de 38±7 e 73,1±20,6 para o TZ. Conclui-se que ambas as formulações são seguras para contenção química de

  14. con mala calidad de vida

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    Agustín Martín-Rodríguez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio ex post facto se ha analizado si los familiares de pacientes con mala calidad de vida presentan diferencias en las variables clínicas de personalidad y relaciones familiares en función de que el paciente haya estado o no ingresado en una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos. Seleccionamos dos grupos: 29 familiares de pacientes traumatizados graves transcurridos cuatro años de su ingreso en una UCI de Traumatología y con mala calidad de vida (debido a secuelas físicas y/o psicológicas tras el ingreso, tales como traumatismos craneoencefálicos, politraumatismos y tetraplejias traumáticas y 32 familiares de pacientes con mala calidad de vida con cuatro años de evolución de su enfermedad física (hipertensión, diabetes, artritis reumatoide y síndrome de intestino irritable que no han estado ingresados en la UCI. Para alcanzar nuestro objetivo empleamos una Encuesta Psicosocial y los siguientes instrumentos: Cuestionario de Análisis Clínico, Escala de Clima Social en la Familia y Escala de Adaptación Psicosocial de la Enfermedad. Los resultados mostraron que los familiares de pacientes con mala calidad de vida que estuvieron ingresados en la UCI hace cuatro años, presentan diferencias significativas en las variables agitación y expresividad comparados con los familiares de pacientes con mala calidad de vida que no han estado ingresados en la UCI.

  15. Encuentro con el tiempo: Adagio con variaciones de Alfredo Aracil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Rodríguez Hernández

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Examinando analíticamente la obra sinfónica Adagio con variaciones de Aracil, estudiaremos los principales componentes para concluir con una evaluación de los mismos. A través de la cronología de la obra de Aracil175, observamos la importancia que adquiere en su trayectoria la memoria; su pensamiento va siempre unido a ésta. Uno de sus recursos principales es la cita; es Adagio con variaciones donde claramente observaremos la memoria lejana e inmediata al tiempo: Wagner es el punto de referencia al pasado, Wolf impulsa hacia el presente, y, Aracil advierte el devenir en cada una de sus variaciones.

  16. Tratamiento con implantes Leader-Nano en paciente con oligodoncia

    OpenAIRE

    Salvador Javier Santos Medina; Mayelín Cruz Acosta; Danilo Córdova González

    2015-01-01

    Los implantes dentales de titanio han revolucionado el mundo de la rehabilitación desde su surgimiento. De manera particular, el empleo de implantes de carga inmediata acorta el tiempo quirúrgico y protésico, con el consiguiente bienestar estético. Se presenta el caso de una paciente femenina de 32 años de edad, con antecedentes de oligodoncia de ambos incisivos laterales superiores y portadora de prótesis parcial acrílica. Fue atendida por el equipo multidisciplinario de implantes en la Clín...

  17. Tratamiento con implantes Leader-Nano en paciente con oligodoncia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Javier Santos Medina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Los implantes dentales de titanio han revolucionado el mundo de la rehabilitación desde su surgimiento. De manera particular, el empleo de implantes de carga inmediata acorta el tiempo quirúrgico y protésico, con el consiguiente bienestar estético. Se presenta el caso de una paciente femenina de 32 años de edad, con antecedentes de oligodoncia de ambos incisivos laterales superiores y portadora de prótesis parcial acrílica. Fue atendida por el equipo multidisciplinario de implantes en la Clínica Estomatológica Docente “3 de Octubre” y se le realizó tratamiento de rehabilitación integral con implantes Leader-Nano y prótesis fija con corona acrílica sobre dichos implantes. La implantología fue satisfactoria en la paciente; la mejoría estética y funcional, así como la satisfacción de la paciente, fueron los principales logros obtenidos

  18. Huevos enriquecidos con omega 3

    OpenAIRE

    Viteri, Evelyn

    2013-01-01

    El presente trabajo es una contribución al estudio de usos de ingredientes no tradicionales; harina de algas, Macrocystis pyrifera, y la inclusión en raciones para aves de postura destinado a aumentar la concentración de omega 3 del huevo. Objetivo: Evaluar en la alimentación de la gallina la inclusión de harina de alga marina Macrocystis pyrifera con el fin de aumentar el valor de omega 3 en el huevo, y el grado de aceptación de un producto elaborado con el mismo en estudiante...

  19. con dietas suplementadas con Cromo-L-metionina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram\\u00F3n Garc\\u00EDa-Castillo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Un total de 48 cerdos (Sus scrofa domesticus; 24 machos castrados y 24 hembras cruzados (Yorkshire, Hampshire, Duroc y Landrace de 3,5 a 4,0 meses de edad y 60,0 ± 5,0 kg PV en finalización. Se alimentaron con dietas isoproteícas (14,5 % PC e isoenergéticas (3.400 kcal EM/kg de MS, adicionadas con Cr-L-metionina (MiCroPlex® (0, 200, 400 y 600 ppb. El experimento tuvo una duración de 45 días y se realizó de agosto a noviembre del 2002 en las instalaciones de la Universidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro, localizada en Saltillo, Coahuila, México. Al tener los animales aproximadamente 95 kg PV, se tomó muestra de 15 ml de sangre por cada animal para determinar la concentración de glucosa, ácido úrico, creatinina, urea, proteinas totales y colesterol. Se aplicó un diseño completamente al azar con arreglo factorial 2 x 4; dos para el factor sexo y cuatro para nivel de cromo. Los metabolitos en suero no fueron afectados (P>0,05 por el factor sexo. La glucosa en suero disminuyó (P<0,05 y el colesterol incrementó (P<0,05 con cromo en la dieta. Se concluye que el Cr incrementa el metabolismo de glucosa y disminuye el de colesterol, con lo cual puede haber energía disponible para síntesis de proteína la cual es necesaria para el crecimiento de los animales

  20. Comparison of the Effect of Pre-operative Single Oral Dose of Tramadol and Famotidine on Gastric Secretions pH and Volume in Patients Scheduled for Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M. U.; Aqil, M.; Hussain, A.; Zahrani, T. A.; Hillis, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate and compare the effects of pre-operative single oral dose of tramadol and famotidine on gastric secretions pH and volume in patients electively scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Study Design: Randomized control trial. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Anaesthesia, King Saud University Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from August 2011 to June 2013. Methodology: Ninety adult, ASA-I and II patients scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were included in the study. Patients were randomly assigned to receive pre-operatively either placebo (Group-C, n=30), oral tramadol 100 mg (Group-T, n=30) or famotidine 40 mg (Group-F, n=30). After induction of general anaesthesia, gastric fluid was aspirated through orogastric tube. The gastric secretions volume and pH was measured using pH meter. Results:There was no statistically difference between groups in age, weight and gender. The gastric secretions mean pH was 2.06 ± 0.22,2.04 ± 0.20, 5.79 ± 0.77 and volume was 0.59 ± 0.17, 0.59 ± 0.14 and 0.28 ± 0.16 ml/kg in Group-C, Group-T and Group-F respectively. There was a significant statistical difference in the mean pH values between Group-C vs. Group-F (p greater than 0.001) and Group-Tvs. Group-F (p greater than 0.001). Statistically significant difference was also found in the mean gastric secretions volume between Group - C vs. Group-F (p greater than 0.001) and Group-Tvs. Group-F (p greater than 0.001). There was no significant difference in the mean gastric fluid pH values (p=0.99) and mean gastric secretions volume (p=0.99) between Group-Tand Group-C. Conclusion:As compared to famotidine, pre-operative single oral dose of tramadol was unable to elevate the desired level of gastric fluid pH (less than 2.5) and decrease in gastric secretions volume (greater than 0.4ml/kg). (author)

  1. Micro CHP con motores Stirling

    OpenAIRE

    Aranceta Aguirre, Francisco Javier

    2017-01-01

    Situación actual dela legislación y la tecnología de micro CHP con especial enfoque en la utilización de motores stirling. Universidad de Málaga. Campus de Excelencia Internacional Andalucía Tech.

  2. A vueltas con Samuel Beckett

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Fernández Cardo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A propósito de la obra de Lourdes Carriedo, Mª Luisa Guerrero, Carmen Méndez y Fabio Vericat(eds.: A vueltas con Beckett. Aproximaciones críticas en su centenario (Madrid, Ediciones de La Discreta,col. «Bártulos», 2009, 362 páginas, ISBN: 978-84-96322-29-5.

  3. Contratos con consumidores y usuarios

    OpenAIRE

    Botana García, Gema Alejandra

    2008-01-01

    Exposición exegética que analiza la regulación legal de las disposiciones generales sobre los contratos con los consumidores y usuarios, el derecho de desistimiento, los contratos celebrados a distancia, los celebrados fuera de los establecimientos mercantiles y los viajes combinados. No data (2008)

  4. Mejora del cumplimiento con hipolipemiantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Iglesias JC

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN La baja adherencia en el cumplimiento farmacoterapéutico de los pacientes en tratamiento con estatinas compromete la efectividad de la terapia hipolipemiante. El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar la intervención del farmacéutico, mediante acciones de educación para la salud (EpS en la dispensación, en el cumplimiento del tratamiento con estatinas y en el conocimiento de la enfermedad y del tratamiento por parte de los pacientes. MÉTODOS Estudio experimental controlado y aleatorizado realizado en 10 farmacias comunitarias de la provincia de Pontevedra a 124 pacientes en tratamiento con estatinas. En el grupo intervención (GI se realizó una dispensación protocolizada y EpS y en el grupo control (GC una entrega “habitual” de medicamentos. Se midió el cumplimiento farmacoterapéutico con estatinas a los 2 meses y al final del estudio, el conocimiento de la enfermedad y del tratamiento al inicio y al final, y las modificaciones en el estilo de vida después de la intervención. RESULTADOS 102 pacientes terminaron el estudio. En el global del estudio, en el GC fue cumplidor el 68,0% y en el GI el 90,4% (p = 0,005. El conocimiento de los pacientes del GC al final del estudio fue de 12,7 ± 1,9 puntos y de 14,2 ± 1,9 puntos en el GI (p<0,001. No hubo modificaciones en el estilo de vida de los pacientes. CONCLUSIONES La intervención educativa del farmacéutico durante la dispensación logra un mejor cumplimiento en el tratamiento con estatinas y mejora el conocimiento de la hipercolesterolemia y de su tratamiento por parte del paciente.

  5. Single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of biphasic immediate-release/extended-release hydrocodone bitartrate/acetaminophen (MNK-155 compared with immediate-release hydrocodone bitartrate/ibuprofen and immediate-release tramadol HCl/acetaminophen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devarakonda K

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Krishna Devarakonda,1 Kenneth Kostenbader,2 Michael J Giuliani,3 Jim L Young41Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Mallinckrodt Pharmaceuticals, 2Mallinckrodt Pharmaceuticals, 3Research and Development, Mallinckrodt Pharmaceuticals, 4Department of Clinical Affairs and Program Management, Mallinckrodt Pharmaceuticals, Hazelwood, MO, USAObjective: To characterize the single-dose and steady-state pharmacokinetics (PK of biphasic immediate-release/extended-release hydrocodone bitartrate/acetaminophen (IR/ER HB/APAP, IR HB/ibuprofen, and IR tramadol HCl/APAP.Methods: In this single-center, open-label, randomized, four-period crossover study, healthy participants received four treatments under fasted conditions: 1 a single dose of two IR/ER HB/APAP 7.5/325 mg tablets (15/650 mg total dose on day 1, followed by two tablets every 12 hours (q12h beginning on day 3; 2 a single dose of IR HB/ibuprofen 15/400 mg (divided as one 7.5/200 mg tablet at hour 0 and 6, followed by one tablet every 6 hours (q6h beginning on day 3; 3 a single dose of IR tramadol HCl/APAP 75/650 mg (divided as one 37.5/325 mg tablet at hour 0 and 6, followed by one tablet q6h beginning on day 3; and 4 a single dose of three IR/ER HB/APAP 7.5/325 mg tablets (22.5/975 mg total dose on day 1, a three-tablet initial dose at 48 hours followed by two-tablet doses q12h beginning on day 3. Hydrocodone and APAP single-dose and steady-state PK were assessed. Adverse events were monitored.Results: The PK analysis was carried out on 29 of 48 enrolled participants who completed all treatment periods. Single-dose hydrocodone exposure was similar for IR/ER HB/APAP 22.5/975 mg and IR HB/ibuprofen 15/400 mg; time to maximum observed plasma concentration was shorter and half-life was longer for IR/ER HB/APAP (22.5/975 mg and 15/650 mg vs IR HB/ibuprofen. Single-dose APAP exposure was similar for IR/ER HB/APAP 15/650 mg and IR tramadol HCl/APAP 75/650 mg. Steady-state hydrocodone and APAP exposures

  6. Efeitos da associação de tiletamina/zolazepam ou cetamina S(+)/midazolam/tramadol para contenção química em bugios-ruivos (Allouatta guariba clamitans)

    OpenAIRE

    Spolti,Pâmela; Moraes,Aury N. de; Tamanho,Renato B.; Gehrcke,Martielo I.; Souza Júnior,Júlio C.; Oleskovicz,Nilson

    2013-01-01

    Avaliaram-se dois protocolos para contenção química em bugios-ruivos. Para tal, foram utilizados 12 macacos bugios, hígidos, com peso médio de 6,4±0,4 kg, os quais foram submetidos a jejum alimentar e hídrico de seis e duas horas, respectivamente. Os animais foram alocados em dois grupos que receberam injeção via intramuscular: TZ (n=6), os quais receberam uma associação de tiletamina e zolazepam (Zoletil®) na dose de 3,6mg/kg e CEMTRA (n=6), que receberam cetamina S(+), midazolam e tramadol ...

  7. Con

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szpirt, Wladimir; Schwartz, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    The rationale behind the use of plasma exchange (PE) includes the removal of autoantibodies and other plasma constituents, such as cytokines, complement components, neutrophil extracellular traps, and microparticles, and the substitution of missing plasma factors. The more established indications...

  8. Con

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Scientific evidence to support the recommended salt intake of salt reduction (SR) below 5.8 g on health outcomes. The effect of SR on blood pressure (BP) reaches maximal efficacy...... prospective observational population studies directly associating salt intake with mortality, which show that salt intake high salt intake >12.2 g is associated with increased mortality. However, since...... high amounts of salt, SR at the population level should not be a public health priority. Consequently, this policy should be abolished, not because any attempt to implement it has failed, and not because it costs taxpayers and food consumers unnecessary billions...

  9. Experiencia en Cuba del tratamiento de la litiasis renoureteral con litotricia extracorpórea por ondas de choque en niños

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Victoria Labrada Rodríguez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la litiasis urinaria en el niño resulta una enfermedad poco frecuente si se compara con su incidencia en el adulto. Objetivos: describir el resultado del tratamiento en Cuba de la litiasis del aparato urinario en niños, mediante la litotricia extracorpórea por ondas de choque, así como validar la eficacia del método. Métodos: la muestra corresponde a 227 niños, tratados en el Centro de Tratamiento de la Litiasis Urinaria del Hospital Clinicoquirúrgico "Hermanos Ameijeiras'' de La Habana, entre abril de 1986 y octubre de 2011, utilizando 3 tipos de litotritores: el HM3 (Dornier, Lithostar Plus (Siemens y Medical Modulith® SLX (Storz. Resultados: las edades límites fueron 2 y 18 años. De manera general resultó similar el total de pacientes tratados del sexo femenino que el masculino (51 %/49 %. El síntoma predominante fue el cólico nefrítico con cálculos renales (81,9 %, y en el uréter (18,1 %. La superficie media fue de 1,20 cm². Se utilizó anestesia general orotraqueal (34,4 % y general intravenosa (65,6 %. Los retratamientos fueron necesarios en 8 casos (3,52 %. Las complicaciones fueron la infección urinaria aguda (3,08 % y el hematoma subcapsular renal (0,88 %. Resultó libre de material litiásico el 96,04 %. Conclusiones: la terapéutica mediante la litotricia extracorpórea por ondas de choque resulta efectiva, con baja tasa de morbilidad y de complicaciones graves, por lo que creemos debe defenderse científicamente como la primera opción terapéutica en la resolución de la litiasis urinaria en estas edades. Debe recordarse que eliminar el cálculo no es suficiente, hay que identificar la enfermedad, su tratamiento de fondo, y evitar las recidivas.

  10. Santiago, una ciudad con temor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Oviedo S.

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo general de este artículo es evaluar los efectos de la inseguridad ciudadana en el uso del espacio público. Dicha evaluación exige analizar dos relaciones que se establecen en el ámbito de la violencia: la relación entre victimización y percepción de inseguridad; y la que se establece entre actitudes sociales y resolución pacífica de conflictos nacionales. Para ello, se analizaron las variables victimización, percepción de inseguridad, uso del espacio físico, actitudes hacia el sistema institucional político y social y hacia la resolución de conflictos nacionales, y las posibles relaciones entre ellas. Los datos para realizar el estudio se obtuvieron por medio de una encuesta que se llevó a cabo con 1 200 personas de 18 y 70 años de edad residentes en la ciudad de Santiago. Los resultados indican que Santiago es una ciudad de habitantes con temor y que el aumento de la percepción de inseguridad de sus habitantes contrasta con el hecho de que las tasas de victimización se hayan mantenido, más o menos, constantes en los años que precedieron a la encuesta. El temor se relaciona con el abandono del espacio público físico y sociopolítico, así como con el refugio en los espacios y la vida privados. La actitud de resolver los conflictos por medios no pacíficos es frecuente y se asocia en mayor medida con la inseguridad, la actitud negativa hacia la democracia y la falta de expectativas sobre el futuro del país. Los resultados de este estudio respaldan la idea de que para superar el temor la gente tiende a adaptarse a la realidad adoptando una postura conformista, homogeneizando las creencias y los comportamientos, y sobreestimando la fuerza como medio para resolver las diferencias.

  11. Santiago, una ciudad con temor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oviedo S. Enrique

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo general de este artículo es evaluar los efectos de la inseguridad ciudadana en el uso del espacio público. Dicha evaluación exige analizar dos relaciones que se establecen en el ámbito de la violencia: la relación entre victimización y percepción de inseguridad; y la que se establece entre actitudes sociales y resolución pacífica de conflictos nacionales. Para ello, se analizaron las variables victimización, percepción de inseguridad, uso del espacio físico, actitudes hacia el sistema institucional político y social y hacia la resolución de conflictos nacionales, y las posibles relaciones entre ellas. Los datos para realizar el estudio se obtuvieron por medio de una encuesta que se llevó a cabo con 1 200 personas de 18 y 70 años de edad residentes en la ciudad de Santiago. Los resultados indican que Santiago es una ciudad de habitantes con temor y que el aumento de la percepción de inseguridad de sus habitantes contrasta con el hecho de que las tasas de victimización se hayan mantenido, más o menos, constantes en los años que precedieron a la encuesta. El temor se relaciona con el abandono del espacio público físico y sociopolítico, así como con el refugio en los espacios y la vida privados. La actitud de resolver los conflictos por medios no pacíficos es frecuente y se asocia en mayor medida con la inseguridad, la actitud negativa hacia la democracia y la falta de expectativas sobre el futuro del país. Los resultados de este estudio respaldan la idea de que para superar el temor la gente tiende a adaptarse a la realidad adoptando una postura conformista, homogeneizando las creencias y los comportamientos, y sobreestimando la fuerza como medio para resolver las diferencias.

  12. Enuresis infantil tratada con imipramina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuris Rodríguez Vargas

    Full Text Available Introducción: la enuresis, que se define como la emisión involuntaria de orina después de la edad en que el control vesical debía haberse alcanzado, alrededor de los 5 años, es un trastorno conocido desde épocas remotas, que ha merecido la atención de numerosos investigadores, y sobre el cual se plantean aún en la actualidad criterios muy disímiles en relación con su etiología. Objetivo: identificar la efectividad de la imipramina en la enuresis nocturna. Métodos: se investigan 150 niños de ambos sexos procedentes del área de salud del Policlínico Docente Plaza de la Revolución que presentaban enuresis nocturna, previamente estudiados, sin encontrar lesión orgánica. Se les impuso tratamiento con imipramina durante un año. Se analizan en estos pacientes variables como la edad y el sexo, se estudió la escolaridad, la clasificación de la enuresis, la frecuencia de las micciones y el umbral de sueño recogido de forma muy subjetiva. Resultados: se obtuvo que el grupo mayor de niños osciló entre los 6 a 8 años de edad, con predominio del sexo femenino en todos los grupos de edades. La escolaridad fue normal en 145 niños, que representa la inmensa mayoría de la muestra. Predominó ampliamente la enuresis primaria, que se manifestó en 148 pacientes, y fueron más frecuentes las micciones diarias y más de una vez por semana en el grupo de 6 a 8 años de edad. Casi todos los pacientes (132 permanecían dormidos después de orinarse. El tratamiento con imipramina se realizó con dosis crecientes de acuerdo con la edad, hasta una dosis máxima de 75 mg, y resultó eficaz en el 48,6 % de los pacientes, en los cuales desapareció totalmente la sintomatología, y en un 28 % se produjo mejoría en la presentación del síntoma. Conclusiones: la imipramina fue eficaz en la mayoría de los pacientes, pues desapareció totalmente la sintomatología.

  13. Anestesia total intravenosa (ATI) para herniorrafias umbilicais em bezerros

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Paulo Sergio Patto dos [UNESP; Oliva, Valéria Nobre Leal de Souza [UNESP; Rodrigues, Celso Antonio [UNESP; Araújo, Marcelo Augusto de [UNESP; Bovino, Fernanda [UNESP; Teodoro, Piero Henrique Miranda [UNESP

    2010-01-01

    The total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) is an option for some surgeries in bovines for fields. The aim of this study was to evaluate blood gases effects, cardiorespiratory and glycemia on calves submitted the umbilical herniorraphy. We used eight calves aged from 9 ± 4 months, weighting 111 ± 43 kg. The animals were pre-treated with xylazine (0.05 mg/kg IV) and after 15 minutes was administered ketamine (2.0 mg/kg IV) followed by the continuous infusion of xylazine (0.05 mg/ml), guaifenesin (...

  14. Palabra plena. Conversaciones con psicoanalistas

    OpenAIRE

    Ordóñez R., Alejandra; Universidad de San Buenaventura

    2013-01-01

    Palabra plena es a grandes rasgos un libro de entrevistas realizadas a diferentes psicoanalistas en momentos y lugares distintos. Diversas nacionalidades y disímiles recorridos académicos y profesionales convergen en este libro que como su título lo sugiere, es un acercamiento al psicoanálisis a través de conversaciones con algunos de sus principales representantes.

  15. pacientes con insuficiencia renal terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Herrera Herrera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación fundamenta en la clínica psicoanalítica el estudio de dos casos de tres personas diagnosticadas con IRT que reciben tratamiento de hemodiálisis, en razón a que dadas las características y el aumento de los reportes que se presentan, ya esto se considera un problema de salud pública. El objetivo principal es describir las características dinámicas del proceso de duelo en pacientes con IRT en un centro de terapia renal de la ciudad de Cartagena. El procedimiento metodológico empleó un diseño de tipo cualitativo; la investigación se desarrolló con un diseño clínico mediante el estudio de casos, y fundamentada en la hermenéutica psicoanalítica. Todo esto respaldado en la historia clínica, la entrevista semiestructurada individual y familiar, los test proyectivos, test del dibujo de la figura humana Machover y TAT de Murray, para la debida integración de los análisis. Se concluye que predominan funciones fallidas de los progenitores y que son individuos provenientes de familias psicosomáticas, que utilizan la enfermedad para obtener un beneficio secundario.

  16. Protein Supplements: Pros and Cons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samal, Jay Rabindra Kumar; Samal, Indira R

    2018-05-04

    To provide a comprehensive analysis of the literature examining the pros and cons of protein supplementation, various articles on protein supplementation were obtained from Google Scholar, PubMed, and National Center for Biotechnology Information. Over the past few years, protein supplementation has become commonplace for gym-goers as well as for the public. A large segment of the general population relies on protein supplementation for meal replacement, weight reduction, and purported health benefits. These protein supplements have varying pros and cons associated with them, which are often overlooked by the public. This review aims to assimilate existing studies and form a consensus regarding the benefits and disadvantages of protein supplementation. The purported health benefits of protein supplementation have led to overuse by both adults and adolescents. Although the pros and cons of protein supplementation is a widely debated topic, not many studies have been conducted regarding the same. The few studies that exist either provide insufficient evidence or have not employed proper conditions for the conduct of the tests. It should be considered that protein supplements are processed materials and often do not contain other essential nutrients required for the sustenance of a healthy lifestyle. It is suggested that the required protein intake should be obtained from natural food sources and protein supplementation should be resorted to only if sufficient protein is not available in the normal diet.

  17. con bajo peso al nacer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Mora Antó

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación dio cuenta de la relación entre el estilo de funcionamiento familiar, los patrones de crianza y las edades de desarrollo evolutivo en niños, nacidos con bajo peso. El estudio descriptivo correlacional se realizó con 41 niños y sus madres, aplicándose cuestionarios sobre funcionamiento familiar, prácticas de crianza y desarrollo infantil. Los resultados señalaron la existencia de un funcionamiento familiar caracterizado por una cohesión amalgamada y una adaptabilidad caótica, una disciplina complaciente, falta de control y de límites claros en la díada madre-hijo. Se trataba de familias monoparentales, donde la temprana edad de concepción, el madresolterismo y el apoyo de la familia extensa eran constantes. Las edades evolutivas registradas indicaron un desarrollo inferior a la edad cronológica, en la mayor parte de los casos; sin embargo, éstas tendieron a ser superiores al compararlas con la edades reales de los infantes. No se encontró una correlación estadísticamente significativa entre la edad de desarrollo y los diferentes factores del funcionamiento familiar para algunos de los rangos de edad considerados; sin embargo, no se lo descartó por completo, especialmente en lo referente al optimismo familiar

  18. Contact with hospital syringes containing body fluids: implications for medical waste management regulation Jeringas en contacto con sangre y fluidos corporales utilizadas en el hospital: implicaciones para el manejo de desechos hospitalarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Volkow

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine amount of syringes used in the hospital and extent of contact with blood and body fluids of these syringes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Syringe use was surveyed at a tertiary care center for one week; syringes were classified into the following four categories according to use: a contained blood; b contained other body fluids (urine, gastric secretion, cerebrospinal fluid, wound drainage; c used exclusively for drug dilution and application in plastic intravenous (IV tubes, and d for intramuscular (IM, subcutaneous (SC, or intradermic (ID injections. RESULTS: A total of 7 157 plastic disposable syringes was used; 1 227 (17% contained blood during use, 346 (4.8%, other body fluids, 5 257 (73% were used exclusively for drug dilution and application in plastic IV lines, and 327 (4.5% were utilized for IM, SC, or ID injections. An estimated 369 140 syringes used annually, or eight syringes per patient per in-hospital day. All syringes were disposed of as regulated medical waste, in observance of the law. CONCLUSIONS: There is an urgent need to review recommendations for medical waste management by both international agencies and local governments, based on scientific data and a cost-benefit analysis, to prevent resource waste and further environmental damage.OBJETIVO: Cuantificar el número de jeringas que se utilizan en el hospital y calcular cuántas de éstas entran en contacto con sangre o fluidos corporales. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se hizo una encuesta del uso de jeringas en un hospital de tercer nivel de atención durante toda una semana. Se clasificaron, de acuerdo con el uso que se les dio, en cuatro categorías: a aspiración de sangre, b otros fluidos corporales (orina, secreción gástrica, líquido cefalorraquídeo, drenaje de herida, etcétera, c uso exclusivo para diluir medicamentos y administrarlos a través de tubos de terapia intravenosa, d para aplicación de inyecciones intramusculares (IM, subcutáneas (SC o

  19. Delirio dermatozoo en pacientes con organicidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Humarán Fernández

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan 2 pacientes con diagnóstico de delirio dermatozoo, al realizar una revisión de dicha entidad a propósito de la presentación; en ambos casos aparece una asociación causal con la afección orgánica. El tratamiento indicado con fluspirileno resultó novedoso y de buena evolución, y no había sido reportado con anterioridad.

  20. Welfare – con o senza stato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Steen

    Welfare – con o senza stato analizza una vasta gamma di servizi sociali presenti a Padova, comprandoli con quelli di una cittá di dimensioni simili, Århus. La ricerca pertanto illustra la concreta erticolazione del sisterma di sicurezza sociale danese, confrontadolo con quello realizzato del nord...

  1. Secadero tendalero con chimenea solar

    OpenAIRE

    Iriarte, Adolfo Antonio; Bistoni, S.; Luque, V.; Lara, M.; Brizuela, L.

    2017-01-01

    El secado solar de frutas y hortalizas está siendo utilizado en distintos lugares del mundo y particularmente en Argentina. Si bien existen numerosos diseños de distinta complejidad, se presentan algunos problemas que requieren atención y estudio, especialmente en lo que se refiere a la tecnología de secaderos en convección natural. En el presente trabajo se detallan los aspectos constructivos de un tendalero adaptado para funcionar como secadero solar pasivo con una chimenea solar incorporad...

  2. Tratamiento del paciente con artrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas Negrín, Francisco; Medina Abellán, María D.; Hermosa Hernán, Juan Carlos; de Felipe Medina, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    El manejo terapéutico del paciente con artrosis tiene como objetivo disminuir la sintomatología dolorosa e inflamatoria, mejorar la capacidad funcional del paciente y la aplicación de intervenciones terapéuticas eficaces y lo más seguras posibles. Un enfoque centrado en el paciente implica su participación activa en el diseño del plan terapéutico y en la toma de decisiones informadas oportunas en todas las etapas de la enfermedad. La educación terapéutica, la actividad física y el ejercicio t...

  3. Conversaciones con Eduardo Ibarra Colado

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Porter Galetar

    2014-01-01

    Este artículo narra, en forma intimista y coloquial, el contexto en el que dos amigos y colaboradores universitarios integran un grupo de trabajo y escriben un libro. El objetivo del libro es curativo, busca recuperar la esperanza, la sensibilidad y el buen humor. Es útil, o intenta serlo, en el sentido de ilustrar con ejemplos algunos procesos de vida por los que pasan los miembros de la planta académica. Puede ser de interés para los que se preocupan por el desarrollo en la carrera de ...

  4. Conversando con...Momoyo Kaijima

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Alonso, Carlos; Álvarez Isidro, Eva; Torres Barchino, Ana

    2017-01-01

    [ES] Momoyo Kaijima es profesora en la Facultad de Arte y Diseño de la Universidad de Tsukuba en la Prefectura de Ibaraki y profesora visitante en la ETH de Zürich, en Royal Academy of Fine Arts, en Rice School of Architecture y en Harvard GSD. A lo largo de los años, Atelier Bow Wow ha colaborado con Krešimir Rogina, arquitecto de Zagreb y socio de la firma internacional Penezic&Rogina, en la realización del Grožnjan International Summer School of Architecture, siendo Rogina el nexo indispen...

  5. Paniculitis en paciente con dermatomiositis

    OpenAIRE

    Arias,Mariana; Hernández,María Inés; Cunha,Lais Gomes Barbosa; Kien,María Cristina; Abeldaño,Alejandra

    2011-01-01

    La paniculitis es una manifestación cutánea infrecuente de la dermatomiositis. Puede preceder hasta en 14 meses a otras manifestaciones de la dermatomiositis. En todos los casos, la miositis y la paniculitis presentan mejoría simultánea durante el tratamiento. Describimos una paciente de sexo femenino de 30 años que presenta lesiones clínica e histológicamente compatibles con paniculitis luego de 2 meses de que el compromiso muscular y cutáneo permitió el diagnóstico de dermatomiositis. Las l...

  6. Tratamiento del paciente con artrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Vargas Negrín

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El manejo terapéutico del paciente con artrosis tiene como objetivo disminuir la sintomatología dolorosa e inflamatoria, mejorar la capacidad funcional del paciente y la aplicación de intervenciones terapéuticas eficaces y lo más seguras posibles. Un enfoque centrado en el paciente implica su participación activa en el diseño del plan terapéutico y en la toma de decisiones informadas oportunas en todas las etapas de la enfermedad. La educación terapéutica, la actividad física y el ejercicio terapéutico junto con el control de peso, en caso de sobrepeso u obesidad, constituyen el núcleo central del tratamiento. Los autocuidados individuales y por los familiares son fundamentales en el control del día a día del paciente. El uso de terapias físicas, ayudas técnicas (bastón, etc. y de fármacos tipo analgésicos simples, opioides y antiinflamatorios tiene evidencias demostradas en el control del dolor, mejora la funcionalidad y la calidad de vida del paciente y una clara recomendación de uso en el tratamiento de la artrosis. La cirugía conservadora y la de reemplazo articular se indican en los casos en los que no se logran los objetivos terapéuticos en casos concretos.

  7. Conversaciones con Eduardo Ibarra Colado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Porter Galetar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo narra, en forma intimista y coloquial, el contexto en el que dos amigos y colaboradores universitarios integran un grupo de trabajo y escriben un libro. El objetivo del libro es curativo, busca recuperar la esperanza, la sensibilidad y el buen humor. Es útil, o intenta serlo, en el sentido de ilustrar con ejemplos algunos procesos de vida por los que pasan los miembros de la planta académica. Puede ser de interés para los que se preocupan por el desarrollo en la carrera de vida, que hoy afecta a la universidad pública mexicana, con un alto promedio de edad, y corre el peligro de convertirse en una universidad de viejos. Aporta ideas sobre formas de recuperar la salud, y, en alguna medida, la juventud. Propone caminos para unir los fragmentos en que se ha quebrado la universidad y tomar conciencia de la importancia de estar conectados entre nosotros, como una comunidad inserta en una totalidad mayor, representada por el cosmos.

  8. Cons ICARUS, TIGER and Fascism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Vrečko

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Like the scientists of their time, Russian artists in the 1920s considered gravity the central problem – a view which points to the close harmony between modern physics and the avant-garde. It was only with the constructivist movement that the Icarus revolution grasped the principles of the “mobile philosophy” (3.651 which was almost at the same time recognised by modern physics as well. The static view of the world became obsolete, space and time were no longer absolute values. It was necessary to transcend Euclidean geometry, shake off the political ʻshackles on one’s hands’ and surrender to Lisicki’s imaginary space, where “At 2000 metres in the air / there is no more perspective” (Integrals 276.  Kosovel’s Icarus project accorded with Tatlin’s, and both of them accorded with the quintessential aims of the constructivist movement. It is no accident that Kosovel wished to name one of his poetry collections The Dream of Icarus. Poems on the Icarus theme, such as “Cons Icarus”, “Evacuation of the Spirit”, “Eh, Hey”, “A Heart in Alcohol” etc. belong to the group of Kosovel’s conses which follow his “mobile philosophy” (3.650 and “letters growing into space” (Int. 282.  The question “Man, do you want up in the air?” (Int. 128 will remain a question until the moment when man is finally ready to transcend the existing boundary and dive “beyond”. Hence Kosovel’s clear-cut contrast between the “green windows of an illuminated / express on a viaduct”, which moves horizontally and is, like a water current, subject to the earth’s gravity, and “the spirit in space”, whose direction of motion is “the perpendicular of the spirit”, atectonicity. “The spirit burns in space”: fire is an element that knows vertical movement alone, the only one of the elements to outgrow and transcend the earth’s gravity, therefore it is associated with another mythological figure important for

  9. Fare astronomia con piccoli telescopi

    CERN Document Server

    Gainer, Michael K

    2007-01-01

    Non sono necessariamente richiesti strumenti mastodontici per produrre risultati scientificamente validi nel campo dell’astronomia. Anche l’astrofilo dotato di un piccolo telescopio, con un diametro di soli 8-9 cm, può contribuire alla scienza del cielo realizzando utili osservazioni del Sole, della Luna, dei pianeti, delle comete, degli asteroidi, delle stelle doppie o variabili, delle nebulose e degli ammassi stellari. Il manuale di M.K. Gainer spiega quale sia la dotazione minima (un piccolo telescopio, un computer, una semplice fotocamera digitale), come utilizzarla, e quali siano le tecniche appropriate da adottare nelle osservazioni. Offre inoltre schemi per interpretare e ridurre i dati raccolti, nonché schede da compilare e da spedire ai centri di raccolta internazionali. Questo libro è il passaporto grazie al quale l’astrofilo può entrare a pieno titolo nel mondo affascinante della scienza astronomica.

  10. Un tema con muchas variaciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Kepowics Malinowska

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Se aborda el tema de ética y valores como uno de los ejes principales de la formación de la identidad de los futuros profesionistas. Se presentan los resultados de una investigación realizada con metodología cualitativa, para conocer la relación entre los valores explícitos en el proyecto universitario y los valores en los estudiantes al culminar su carrera en la Universidad. Entre las principales conclusiones, cabe destacar la heterogeneidad de los valores vividos a través de las prácticas curriculares, una discrepancia significativa entre ellos y los valores declarados en los proyectos y, por consecuencia, una diferencia entre los valores deseables y los asumidos como compromiso personal. Predomina la ética de la conveniencia y hay poca conciencia de la profesión, entendida como un servicio de calidad para la sociedad.

  11. Conversazione con Francesco Orlando Conversation with Francesco Orlando Conversazione con Francesco Orlando Conversazione con Francesco Orlando

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Diazzi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Di seguito trovate i video di Conversazione con Francesco Orlando.

    Parte 1 di 6

    Parte 2 di 6

    Parte 3 di 6

    Parte 4 di 6

    Parte 5 di 6

    Parte 6 di 6

    Ici suivants les vidéos de Conversazione con Francesco Orlando (en italien.

    Partie 1 de 6

    Partie 2 de 6

    Partie 3 de 6

    Partie 4 de 6

    Partie 5 de 6

    Partie 6 de 6

    Далее вы найдет видео Беседы с Франческо Орландо.Here following you find the videos of Conversazione con Francesco Orlando (in italian.

    Part 1 of 6

    Part 2 of 6

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  12. Tratamiento de la pseudoartrosis con P15

    OpenAIRE

    Villar González, José Luis; Pérez Cid, C.

    2002-01-01

    La reconstrucción de los defectos óseos, es un problema que se plantea con frecuencia en Cirugía Traumatológica. El objetivo de este trabajo esa evaluar la regeneración ósea en paciente con retardo de consolidación de fracturas de húmero y tibia, utilizando un factor de crecimiento (P15 combinado con Hidroxiapatita) y observar la respuesta osteoinductiva de la regeneración ósea. Se intervinieron quirúrgicamente 12 pacientes, con un seguimiento mínimo de 2 años. Describimos la metodología en c...

  13. Aprende Ajedrez con Rey - Parte 1

    OpenAIRE

    ESTÉVEZ MONTERO, RAÚL; Lloret Mauri, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Es una pieza audiovisual creada con el objeto de atraer la atención de los niños de muy corta edad con el ajedrez y familiarizarlos con todas sus piezas y movimientos. Es una animación dirigida a un público infantil presentada por dibujos animados en 2D, en la que se ha intentado respetar en todo momento el argot de la comunidad ajedredística. En este video se presenta la primera parte. Estévez Montero, R.; Lloret Mauri, J. (2016). Aprende Ajedrez con Rey - Parte 1. http://hdl.handle.net/1...

  14. Aprende Ajedrez con Rey - Parte 2

    OpenAIRE

    ESTÉVEZ MONTERO, RAÚL; Lloret Mauri, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Es una pieza audiovisual creada con el objeto de atraer la atención de los niños de muy corta edad con el ajedrez y familiarizarlos con todas sus piezas y movimientos. Es una animación dirigida a un público infantil presentada por dibujos animados en 2D, en la que se ha intentado respetar en todo momento el argot de la comunidad ajedredística. En este video se presenta la segunda parte. Estévez Montero, R.; Lloret Mauri, J. (2016). Aprende Ajedrez con Rey - Parte 2. http://hdl.handle.net/1...

  15. Hospitalidad, con y sin papeles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Penchaszadeh

    Full Text Available Resumen El objetivo de este artículo es vincular el trabajo sobre el archivo de Jacques Derrida con la experiencia de la hospitalidad. Se intentará mostrar que, por un lado, se trata siempre de los papeles, de la legitimidad que éstos otorgan o no tanto a nivel filosófico (deseo de poseer los papeles que autoricen tal o cual decisión interpretativa, como a nivel político ("tener papeles" como el principio básico de todo derecho a tener derechos, de todo derecho a la comunidad. Mas también, por otro lado, se intentará pensar aquello que arruina la idea misma de tener o no tener (papeles, la idea de propiedad, aquello que hace imposible fundar una decisión o identidad en última instancia y, por ende, una soberanía, una frontera. La hospitalidad, la llegada inminente del otro, representa un desafío político y ético para la filosofía: pues no se trata de un saber, sino de una experiencia transformando el sustrato del nos-otros, del ser común.

  16. Plantas cubanas con efecto antiinflamatorio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Ivis Regalado Veloz

    Full Text Available La actividad antiinflamatoria suscita gran interés científico en el área farmacológica, debido a que muchas enfermedades en su evolución cursan por procesos inflamatorios (artritis reumatoide, ateroesclerosis, cáncer, diabetes, gota, asma, dermatitis, trastornos neurodegenerativos y diversas dolencias menores. Las enfermedades inflamatorias constituyen un problema de salud importante, debido a la falta de medicamentos eficaces y seguros para su uso por periodos prolongados. Hoy en día se trabaja en la búsqueda de alternativas de antiinflamatorios más seguros, en el que las plantas medicinales, una de las formas más antiguas de tratamiento, constituyen una elección a considerar. En este trabajo se realizó una revisión bibliográfica, sobre especies de plantas que crecen en Cuba que le reportan propiedades farmacológicas como antinflamatorios. En la revisión de la literatura se utilizó la base de datos Medline (vía PubMed, así como revistas nacionales desde el periodo de 2000 hasta el presente, con las palabras claves "inflamación" y "plantas cubanas antiinflamatorias" o "actividad antiinflamatoria" y "plantas medicinales".

  17. Bases tratadas con cemento, en California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinchilla, M.

    1962-05-01

    Full Text Available El uso de bases tratadas con cemento para autopistas se inició en el Estado de California en 1938, empleándose para carreteras con determinadas condiciones de tráfico. Inicialmente, se especificó el uso obligatorio de plantas mezcladoras para asegurar el debido control de las proporciones adecuadas.

  18. Fuerza manual de adultos con discapacidad intelectual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Cabeza Ruiz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Presentar una descripción de la fuerza de prensión manual de hombres y mujeres con discapacidad intelectual (DI y comparar los resultados con valores de referencia de otras personas con y sin discapacidad intelectual. Método. El presente trabajo es un estudio transversal observacional, financiado por la Fundación SAMU, en el que se evaluaron a 122 personas con DI (86 hombres y 36 mujeres durante el desarrollo de unas jornadas de carácter recreativo en las que participaron varias asociaciones de atención a este colectivo. La batería de test utilizada fue el Alpaha-Fit Test Battery for Adults. Resultados. Se presentan los resultados relacionados con las variables de fuerza del miembro superior (Hand Grip Strength por grupos de edad (20-24, 25- 29, 30-34, 35-39, 40-44, 45-49, 50-54, 55-59 años. Los datos muestran valores que oscilan desde los 31 kg en los hombres más jóvenes con DI hasta los 13.3 kg del grupo más maduro de mujeres. Estos hallazgos son similares a los valores de referencia de población con DI española. Sin embargo, son muy inferiores a los obtenidos por la población sin discapacidad de la misma edad. Conclusión. Los resultados evidencian el menor rendimiento de las personas con DI en pruebas de fuerza de prensión manual por lo que se hace evidente la necesidad de llevar a cabo programas de ejercicio físico o deporte con las personas con DI.

  19. Comparação entre heparina de baixo peso molecular e heparina não fraccionada intravenosa no tratamento da embolia pulmonar — Uma meta-análise de estudos controlados randomizados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Quinlan

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: O tratamento da embolia pulmonar aguda (EPA com heparina de baixo peso molecular não é consensual. Muitos clínicos continuam a utilizar a heparina não fraccionada por considerarem que o EPA apresenta maior risco do que a trombose venosa profunda (TVP e por admitirem insuficientes as provas de eficácia e segurança relativas à heparina de baixo peso molecular.É indiscutível a maior facilidade de utilização das heparinas de baixo peso molecular. O propósito desta meta-análise é comparar a eficácia e segurança de uma dose fixa subcutânea de heparina de baixo peso molecular com uma dose variável intravenosa de heparina não fraccionada. Foram incluídos ensaios clínicos com casos de EPA sintomático ou de EPA assintomático com TVP sintomática. A variável principal foi a recorrência de tromboembolismo venoso sintomático (incluindo EPA e TVP no final do tratamento (entre 5 e 14 dias; as variáveis secundárias foram a recorrência de tromboembolismo aos 3 meses, a mortalidade e a hemorragia major ou minor. No estudo comparativo com a heparina não fraccionada foram utilizadas 6 diferentes heparinas de baixo peso molecular, e a análise total envolveu mais de 1900 doentes repartidos por 12 estudos. Os resultados mostraram: • Redução do número de casos de recorrência de tromboembolismo venoso sintomático com a heparina de baixo peso molecular comparativamente à heparina não fraccionada - 14/1023 vs 22/928. • Redução do número de casos de recorrência de tromboembolismo venoso ao final de 3 meses, nos doentes tratados com heparina de baixo peso molecular - 30/988 vs 39/895. • Mortalidade semelhante nos 2 grupos terapêuticos, quer no final do tratamento quer ao terceiro mês - 14/1023 vs 11/928 e 46/988 vs 55/895, respectivamente. • A hemorragia major foi mais frequente no grupo tratado com heparina n

  20. Descripción de resultados clínicos con una dosis modificada de amiodarona para la conversión de la fibrilación auricular aguda a ritmo sinusal Description of the clinical outcomes with an amiodarone modified dose for the conversion of acute atrial fibrillation to sinus rhythm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Uribe

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la fibrilación auricular es el disturbio del ritmo cardiaco sostenido más común. La amiodarona es un antiarrítmico que se usa para la conversión a ritmo sinusal, y la dosis que más se emplea reporta una tasa de éxito de 45% a 85% en las primeras veinticuatro horas; sin embargo, no hay consenso en cuanto a la dosis óptima para el tratamiento de la fibrilación auricular. Objetivo: evaluar la eficacia de amiodarona intravenosa durante las primeras setenta y dos horas en la conversión a ritmo sinusal de pacientes con episodios agudos de fibrilación auricular utilizando una modificación de la dosis recomendada. Métodos: estudio descriptivo-retrospectivo de un grupo de pacientes con episodio agudo de fibrilación auricular durante enero de 2000 a junio de 2006, tratados con la dosis propuesta de amiodarona intra-venosa. Resultado: se evaluaron las historias clínicas de 152 pacientes. La edad promedio fue 61,8 ± 16,9 años; 63,2% de los pacientes era de género masculino. La tasa de conversión a ritmo sinusal fue de 70,5%; de éstos, 81,3% lo hicieron en las primeras veinticuatro horas. La presencia de cardiopatía dilatada y fibrilación auricular permanente, y la respuesta ventricular lenta se asociaron al fracaso de conversión a ritmo sinusal, OR 4,7; 11,5 y 10,2 respectivamente (p Introduction: atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia. Amiodarone is an antiarrhythmic used for conversion to sinus rhythm. A success rate of 45 to 85% in the first 24 hours is reported for the most commonly used dose. However, there is no consensus as to the optimal dose for treatment of atrial fibrillation. Objetive: to evaluate the efficacy of IV amiodarone during the first 72 hours for conversion to sinus rhythm in patients with acute episodes of atrial fibrillation using a modification of the recommended dose. Methods: descriptive and retrospective study of all patients presenting with acute atrial

  1. Hiperalgesia asociada al tratamiento con opioides

    OpenAIRE

    A. Gil Martín; M. Moreno García; J. Sánchez-Rubio Ferrández; T. Molina García

    2014-01-01

    La hiperalgesia inducida por opioides es una reacción paradójica caracterizada por una percepción intensificada de dolor relacionada con el uso de estos medicamentos en ausencia de progresión de la enfermedad o de síndrome de retirada. A diferencia de los casos de tolerancia, definida como pérdida de potencia analgésica durante el uso prolongado de opioides, no se produce mejoría con el escalado de dosis. La hiperalgesia inducida por opioides se ha manifestado en pacientes con dosis de manten...

  2. Protocolo accesible para personas con discapacidad

    OpenAIRE

    Flujas, M. J.

    2006-01-01

    La mayor participación de las personas con discapacidad en la vida social exige adaptar el protocolo a sus necesidades específicas. Con ese fin, la Fundación ONCE ha publicado este libro que, lejos de presentarse como una guía de ‘protocolo diferenciado’ para personas con discapacidad, intenta orientar sobre las mejores maneras de que los actos públicos sean abiertos a toda la ciudadanía. La autora, que trabaja como responsable de protocolo en la ONCE, analiza las implicaciones espaciales, co...

  3. Tratamiento conservador en pacientes con retinoblastoma bilateral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Suárez

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: comparar el tratamiento convencional del retinoblastoma bilateral, usado hasta hace algunos años, consistente en radioterapia o enucleación bilateral, con el tratamiento conservador actual que incluye termoterapia transpupilar (TTT o TTT/quimioterapia al menos en un ojo, en niños con diagnóstico de retinoblastoma bilateral. DISEÑO: estudio retrospectivo descriptivo. MUESTRA: 20 pacientes con diagnóstico de retinoblastoma bilateral que consultaron al Hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paúl, de Medellín, Colombia, entre 1997 y 2007. MÉTODO: se hizo enucleación del ojo con el tumor de mayor tamaño. En el otro ojo se hizo tratamiento con TTT, con el láser diodo (810 nm, spot amplio, solo o combinado con otras terapias. RESULTADOS: se dividió a los pacientes en dos grupos: 16 pacientes (32 ojos en el grupo 1 tratados conservadoramente y 4 pacientes (8 ojos en el grupo 2 con tratamiento convencional. El rango de edad fue de 1-72 meses en el grupo 1 y de 1-12 meses en el grupo 2. El tiempo de seguimiento fue de 7-67 meses para el grupo 1 y de 13-73 meses para el grupo 2. En el grupo 1 se hizo enucleación de 16 ojos (50%, radioterapia externa de uno (3,1%, quimioterapia más termoterapia de 5 (15,6% y quimioterapia más termoterapia más crioterapia de 10 (31,3%. En todos los pacientes se logró preservar al menos un ojo. En el grupo 2, se enuclearon 7 ojos (87,5% y se hizo radioterapia externa más enucleación en un paciente (12.5%. Además, todos los pacientes recibieron quimioterapia. CONCLUSIÓN: la terapia conservadora actual consistente en tratamiento local (termoterapia, crioterapia o braquiterapia y quimiorreducción permite preservar al menos un ojo y en algunos casos de los dos, muchas veces con buena agudeza visual, en niños con retinoblastoma bilateral; se evitan así la enucleación bilateral y la radioterapia externa usada en el tratamiento convencional con todos sus efectos secundarios. La enucleación contin

  4. Presa con revestimiento asfáltico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Proudfit, D. P.

    1960-07-01

    Full Text Available La presa denominada Montgomery se halla situada sobre el río South Platte River, a unos 8 km aguas arriba de la ciudad de Alma, del Estado de Colorado (EE. UU., y en la ladera oriental de la cordillera Continental Divide. El cuerpo o dique de esta presa está constituido por piedra, revestida con una capa de hormigón asfáltico en el paramento de contacto con el agua.

  5. Trastornos temporomandibulares en pacientes con maloclusiones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Soto Cantero

    Full Text Available Introducción: existe una prevalencia de trastornos oclusales en gran medida relacionados con la presencia de disfunción temporomandibular. Objetivo: determinar el grado de disfunción temporomandibular según el Índice de Maglione en correspondencia con la prevalencia de maloclusiones en el área de salud del policlínico "Turcios Lima". Métodos: se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo, de corte transversal, en la consulta de ortodoncia, de junio del 2008 a junio del 2009. De un universo constituido por los 280 pacientes que acudieron al servicio de ortodoncia en el período señalado con presencia de maloclusiones, se seleccionó una muestra de 84 pacientes por muestreo aleatorio simple, teniendo en cuenta los criterios de inclusión y exclusión realizados por criterios de expertos. Resultados: presentaban disfunción temporomandibular 74 pacientes y dentro de ellos 44 (52,4 % tenían disfunción grado II (Moderada. El 97 % de los pacientes con relación molar de clase II, presentaban disfunción temporomandibular. El 42,9 % de los pacientes con una maloclusión, presentaban disfunción grado I. El 60 % de los pacientes con dos maloclusiones presentaban disfunción grado II y el 66,7 % de los pacientes con tres maloclusiones, presentaban disfunción grado III. La mayor cantidad de pacientes tuvieron disfunción grado II (Moderada. Conclusiones: el mayor por ciento de los pacientes con disfunciones presentó una clase II molar y a medida que aumentó el número de maloclusiones aumentó también la severidad de la disfunción.

  6. Infactibilidad en programas con restricciones lineales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liern Carrión, V.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo resumimos las técnicas más habituales que permiten diagnosticar las causas de infactibilidad de programas con restricciones lineales. Además, presentamos dos métodos que, con las mínimas transformaciones posibles del modelo inicial, permiten hacer viable un programa infactible. Los métodos descritos son aplicados a un modelo de selección de carteras eficientes.

  7. Efeitos da associação de tiletamina/zolazepam ou cetamina S(+/midazolam/tramadol para contenção química em bugios-ruivos (Allouatta guariba clamitans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pâmela Spolti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se dois protocolos para contenção química em bugios-ruivos. Para tal, foram utilizados 12 macacos bugios, hígidos, com peso médio de 6,4±0,4 kg, os quais foram submetidos a jejum alimentar e hídrico de seis e duas horas, respectivamente. Os animais foram alocados em dois grupos que receberam injeção via intramuscular: TZ (n=6, os quais receberam uma associação de tiletamina e zolazepam (Zoletil® na dose de 3,6mg/kg e CEMTRA (n=6, que receberam cetamina S(+, midazolam e tramadol (Cemtra ®, lote piloto 001/10, Ouro Fino Saúde Animal Ltda., Cravinhos, SP-Brasil, constituído por 100mg/ml de cetamina S+, 20mg/ml de tramadol e 10mg/ml de midazolam na dose de 1ml da associação para cada 10kg de peso corporal, correspondendo às doses de 10mg/kg, 1mg/kg e 2mg/kg, respectivamente. Anteriormente a administração dos fármacos (M0 foram avaliadas: frequência cardíaca (FC e respiratória (f, temperatura retal (TR, tempo de preenchimento capilar (TPC, pressão arterial sistólica (PAS, saturação de oxigênio na hemoglobina (SpO2, presença de salivação, grau de miorrelaxamento e sedação, índice Bispectral (BIS e Sinal de Qualidade do BIS (SQI, resposta ao pinçamento interdigital e tempos de latência, deambulação e de recuperação total (TRT. Os parâmetros foram reavaliados em M5, M10, M20, M30, M40 e M50 (5, 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50 minutos após a administração dos fármacos. No TZ os animais foram mais responsivos ao pinçamento interdigital ao longo dos tempos. Os animais do CEMTRA apresentaram maior grau de miorrelaxamento e de sedação. A f do CEMTRA foi menor após a administração do tratamento em todos os momentos em relação ao M0. Entre grupos a f do CEMTRA foi menor em relação ao TZ em M2 e M4. Os tempos totais de sedação e de recuperação foram de 48±4 e 150,1±42,1 min para o CEMTRA e de 38±7 e 73,1±20,6 para o TZ. Conclui-se que ambas as formulações são seguras para contenção química de

  8. Adolescente femenino con granulomatosis de Wegener fulminante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S C Scheffler-Mendoza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescente femenino de 13 años de edad, originaria de Guerrero, grupo étnico mixteco, padres analfabetos y con poco entendimiento del español. Sin otros antecedentes de importancia para el padecimiento. Inició un mes previo con la aparición de una pápula hipercrómica en párpado superior derecho que en los 10 días previos al ingreso aumentó de volumen generando proptosis. Al interrogatorio se negó dolor, lagrimeo, fiebre, o pérdida de peso. Ingresó con fiebre (39.0°C, palidez generalizada, proptosis derecha con exposición de córnea y conjuntiva, eritema periorbitario, movimientos oculares y agudeza visual disminuidos (i.e. contaba dedos a 1 m, pupila con tendencia a midriasis, hiperreactividad a la luz, y fondo de ojo con papila hiperémica edematosa y tortuosidad peripapilar. El resto de exploración no mostró datos relevantes. Se hospitalizó para iniciar tratamiento antimicrobiano parenteral de amplio espectro (i.e. ceftriaxona y vancomicina y abordar proptosis unilateral.

  9. RadCon: A Radiological Consequences Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, J.; Domel, R.U.

    2000-05-01

    RadCon estimates the dose received by user selected groups in the population from an accidental release of radionuclides to the environment. The exposure pathways considered are external exposure from the cloud and ground and internal exposure from inhalation and ingestion of contaminated food. Atmospheric dispersion modelling is carried out externally to RadCon.Given a two dimensional time varying air and ground concentration of radioactive elements, RadCon allows the user to: view the air and ground concentration over the affected area, select optional parameters and calculate the dose to people,display the results to the user, and change the parameter values. RadCon offers two user interfaces: 1) the standard graphical user interface which is started using Java DoseApp at the command line, or by setting up a shortcut to this command (particularly when RadCon is installed on a PC) and 2) the text based interface used to generate information for the model inter-comparison exercise . This is initiated using Java BIOMASS at the command line, or an equivalent shortcut. The text based interface was developed for research purposes and is not generally available. Appendices A, B and C provide a summary of instructions on setting up RadCon. This will generally be carried out by the computer support personnel

  10. Clinical and laboratory profile of Plasmodium vivax malaria patients hospitalized in Apartadó, Perfil clínico y de laboratorio de los pacientes con malaria por Plasmodium vivax, hospitalizados en Apartadó, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Yaned Usuga

    2012-04-01

    hospitalizados por malaria por P. vivax en Apartadó.
    Materiales y métodos. Se revisaron las historias clínicas de pacientes con malaria por P. vivax que requirieron manejo hospitalario en el Hospital “Antonio Roldán Betancur”, Empresa Social del Estado, durante los años 2004-2007.
    Resultados. Se hospitalizaron 359 pacientes con malaria por P. vivax, de los cuales, el 23,1 % (83/359 casos se complicó por anemia grave (51,8 %, 43/83, por trombocitopenia grave (15,6 %, 13/83 y por hiperbilirrubinemia (7,2 %, 6/83; algunos pacientes satisfacían varios criterios simultáneamente, incluyendo un caso de síndrome de dificultad respiratoria aguda. Los datos de laboratorio más significativos mostraron disminución de los niveles de hemoglobina, hematocrito y plaquetas, con aumento en los niveles de transaminasas y bilirrubinas. Sólo el 4,82 % (4/83 de los pacientes con malaria complicada, recibió tratamiento con quinina intravenosa, ninguno falleció.
    Conclusiones. Se destaca en este trabajo la frecuencia importante de malaria complicada por P. vivax, particularmente en los menores de cinco años, en la región de Urabá, y la necesidad de fortalecer el conocimiento de la guía para la atención clínica integral del paciente con malaria, entre el personal de salud, para hacer un diagnóstico clínico correcto y ofrecer el tratamiento apropiado.

  11. RadConEd: A Graphical Data Editor for the Radiological Consequences Model, RadCon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, J.; Domel, R.U.

    2000-05-01

    This document describes the application, RadConEd, which has been designed and implemented to enable users of the RadCon system to update these parameter files. The RadCon system is written in the Java programming language, and as such provides portability across computer platforms. The software described in this report was developed in line with the portability requirements of RadCon, thus providing a uniform user interface across computer platforms and bypassing the need of using system editors. In addition a number of data integrity measures were implemented

  12. Reversión del Atracurium con dosis residuales de Neostigmine monitoreada con TOF WATCH

    OpenAIRE

    Jaramillo Mendoza, Karol Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    Es de suma importancia conocer el momento exacto de la descurarización y las dosis más convenientes de la neostigmine y de la atropina, con la finalidad de tener resultados positivos que favorezcan al estado hemodinámico sin que haya mayores alteraciones para el paciente. Se realizó un estudio en 82 pacientes en el Hospital Enrique Sotomayor, los cuales fueron monitoreados con TOF WATCH, con la finalidad de revertir el atracurium con dosis residuales de neostigmine. El 32...

  13. Enfermedad coronaria en pacientes con psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Masson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Comunicaciones previas asociaron la psoriasis con la enfermedad coronaria. Desconocemos si en nuestro país o región existe dicha asociación. Se realizó un estudio transversal analizando los datos de la historia clínica electrónica de un sistema de salud de Buenos Aires. Analizamos todos los pacientes mayores de 18 años con diagnóstico de psoriasis entre el 1 de enero de 2003 y el 31 de julio de 2011 y los comparamos con un grupo control, en una relación 2:1, obtenido en forma aleatoria del mismo sistema de salud, apareados por edad y sexo. Determinamos la prevalencia de los factores de riesgo cardiovascular y de enfermedad coronaria. Analizamos la asociación entre la enfermedad coronaria y la psoriasis mediante análisis uni y multivariado. Se incluyeron 3 833 sujetos (1 286 pacientes con psoriasis y 2 547 controles. La prevalencia de hipertensión arterial (50% vs. 38%, p < 0.001, tabaquismo (25% vs. 17%, p < 0.001, diabetes (12% vs. 8%, p < 0.001 y enfermedad coronaria (4.98% vs. 3.06%, p = 0.003 fue mayor en los sujetos con psoriasis en comparación con el grupo control. Independientemente de la edad, la presencia de diabetes, hipertensión arterial o tabaquismo, hubo una asociación significativa entre la enfermedad coronaria y la psoriasis (OR 1.48, IC95% 1.04-2.11, p = 0.03. En conclusión, en esta población de Buenos Aires, los pacientes con psoriasis tuvieron una mayor prevalencia de diabetes, hipertensión arterial, tabaquismo y enfermedad coronaria. La asociación entre la psoriasis y la enfermedad coronaria fue independiente de los factores de riesgo explorados.

  14. Variables socionutricionales de hogares mazahuas integrados por preescolares desnutridos con madres con obesidad y sin obesidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conzuelo González, Viridiana Vanessa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El primer objetivo fue conocer cuántos menores de cinco años con diferentes grados de desnutrición tienen una madre con sobrepeso/obesidad/ en una comunidad indígena que vive en extrema pobreza y bajo condiciones de migración masculina internacional. El segundo fue comparar tres variables socionutricionales (ingreso familiar, educación de la madre y adecuación nutrimental de la dieta diaria entre estos hogares y los hogares con desnutrición infantil y madres sin obesidad. Se realizó un estudio transversal (2006-2007, en la comunidad mazahua de San Francisco Tepeolulco, Municipio de Temascalcingo; que incluyó a 85 hogares integrados por preescolares con desnutrición inscritos al programa Oportunidades. Se determinó el estado nutrición de los preescolares con indicadores antropométricos y se obtuvo el IMC de las madres de estos infantes. Se aplicó una encuesta socionutricional, incluida el recordatorio de 24 horas, y complementado con la observación participante (cualitativa. Se encontró que 83% de las madres mazahuas presentaron sobrepeso u obesidad. El estado de nutrición de los preescolares con madres con obesidad presentó un porcentaje mayor de desnutrición (76%. En la variable género, se encontró que 54% de los niños con madres con obesidad tenía baja talla. Al relacionar el nivel educativo de la madre, esta variable resultó ser estadísticamente significativa (p=0.015, donde el analfabetismo está más relacionado con la desnutrición infantil que tienen madres de bajo y/o peso normal. La elevada prevalencia de hogares conformados con preescolares con desnutrición y madres con obesidad, es un síntoma más de la pobreza en zonas indígenas en México, con bajo índice de desarrollo humano.

  15. Efecto hemodinámico esplácnico de somatostatina y octreótido en cirróticos: Estudio con ultrasonografía Doppler Splanchnic hemodynamic effects of somatostatin and octreotide in cirrhotic patients: A Doppler ultrasonographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Fernández Pérez

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: valoración ultrasonografica Doppler del efecto hemodinámico de la administración intravenosa de somatostatina y octreótido. Material y método: aleatorizamos a 45 cirróticos con varices esofágicas para recibir en una hora una infusión intravenosa de somatostatina (SOM, 250 µg, octreotido (OCT, 50 µg o placebo (PLA. Pretratamiento y a 15, 30, 45 y 60 minutos medimos velocidad media, índice de congestión, volumen de flujo y diámetro de la vena porta además del índice de resistencia en arteria mesentérica superior. Analizamos las concentraciones séricas de bradicinina y péptido intestinal vasoactivo (VIP en situación basal y a 30 y 60 minutos. Resultados: respecto de los valores basales tanto SOM como OCT provocaron un descenso significativo en la velocidad (-19,41 vs. -11.19% y flujo portal (-22,79 vs. -12,33%, con aumento del índice de congestión (+17,5 vs. +7,5% y del índice de resistencia arterial (+7,18 vs. +6,16% respecto de sus valores basales (p Aim: Doppler-ultrasound assessment of the splanchnic hemodynamic effects of intravenous somatostatin and octreotide administration. Material and method: forty-five cirrhotic patients with esophageal varices were randomized to receive 1-hour intravenous somatostatin (SOM, 250 µg, octreotide (OCT, 50 µg, or placebo (PLA. In baseline and at 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes of infusion, mean velocity, congestion index, flow volume and diameter of the portal vein, as well as the superior mesenteric artery resistivity index, were measured. Plasma bradykinine and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP concentrations were also measured at baseline and at 30 and 60 minutes. Results: while placebo caused no changes in any of the venous and arterial parameters, SOM and OCT caused a sustained decrease in portal vein velocity (-19.41 vs. -11.19% and flow (-22.79 vs. -12.33%, and an increase in the congestion index (+17.5 vs. +7.5% and resistivity index of the superior mesenteric artery (+7

  16. Epilepsia de la infancia con paroxismos occipitales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albia Pozo Alonso

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Se reporta que la epilepsia de la infancia con paroxismos occipitales constituye un síndrome epiléptico muy bien definido; se incluye en el grupo de las epilepsias idiopáticas relacionadas con localización. Los ataques comienzan habitualmente con síntomas visuales, en ocasiones seguidos por ataques hemiclónicos, parciales complejos y tónicoclónicos generalizados. El electroencefalograma interictal muestra complejos de puntaonda de localización occipital y temporal posterior que desaparecen con la apertura de los ojos. Se presenta una paciente de 8 años de edad que reúne los criterios clínicos y electroencefalográficos de la epilepsia de la infancia con paroxismos occipitales y se enfatiza en la evolución supuestamente benigna de dicho síndrome.Is is reported that epilepsy of childhood with occipital paroxysms is an epileptic syndrome that is well defined. It is included in the group of related idiopathic epilepsies with localization. Seizures habitually begin with visual symptoms, which are ocassionally followed by hemiclonic, complex partial, and generalized tonicclonic seizures. The interictal EEG shows spike-wave complexes of occipital and temporal posterior localization that are suppressed by eye opening. A patient aged 8 in whom the clinical and electroencephalographic criteria of epilepsy of childhood with occipital paroxysms are present is studied in this paper. Emphasis is made on the apparently benign evolution of this syndrome.

  17. Manejo institucionalizado del paciente con tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Ticona

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available El manejo del paciente con tuberculosis (TB a nivel institucional, que garantice la disminución del riesgo de transmisión, una adecuada vigilancia al tratamiento, y optar por medidas de soporte social, esta convirtiéndose en una propuesta para el manejo de pacientes con TB multidrogo resistente (TB MDR y extensivamente resistente a drogas (TB XDR y en especial en el manejo de casos que no cumplan con un tratamiento adecuado o tengan condiciones sociales que pongan en riesgo su adecuado seguimiento. Se plantean algunas estrategias que ya han sido utilizadas exitosamente en otros países cuya implementación debe ser valorada a nivel local.

  18. Ependimoma myxopapilar sacro gigante con osteolisis

    OpenAIRE

    Ajler, Pablo; Landriel, Federico; Goldschmidt, Ezequiel; Campero, Álvaro; Yampolsky, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Objetivo: la presentación de un caso de una paciente con un ependimoma sacro con extensa infiltración y destrucción ósea local. Descripción del caso: una mujer de 53 años acudió a la consulta por dolor lumbosacro y alteraciones sensitivas perineales y esfinterianas. La imágenes por Resonancia Magnética (IRM) y la Tomografía Axial Computada (TAC) mostraron una lesión expansiva gigante a nivel S2-S4 con extensa osteólisis e invasión de tejidos adyacentes. Se realizó una exéresis tumoral complet...

  19. Traducir utilizando Internet, Traducir con Speechy Project

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolás Fermín Pino James

    2011-01-01

    Speechy Project surgió el pasado otoño de 2009 con la intención de ayudar a estudiantes de nivel avanzado de lengua inglesa a sacarle partido a Internet. Desde entonces, este sitio web ha “tamizado” la red con el objetivo de seleccionar los mejores recursos online y clasificarlos ordenadamente en sus listas a posteriori.  En esta corriente, varias filtraciones se han llevado a cabo en diferentes campos de la lengua inglesa. Este artículo se centrará en el campo de la Traducción que se proyect...

  20. Galaxias australes con núcleo doble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, G.; Díaz, R.; Carranza, G.

    Se estudia una muestra de galaxias australes con núcleo doble a partir de una búsqueda extensiva en la literatura. Se analizan las características morfológicas, fotométricas y espectroscópicas de la muestra. Para algunas galaxias se han realizado observaciones con el espectrógrafo multifunción (EMF) de la Estación Astrofísica de Bosque Alegre a partir de las cuales se determinaron parámetros cinemáticos.

  1. Pensamiento divergente y creatividad con personas mayores

    OpenAIRE

    Modino Catalán, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    Este trabajo revisa la información existente sobre el pensamiento divergente y la creatividad considerando estos aspectos muy importantes dando importancia a la neuroeducación como la mejor manera de transmitir los conocimientos para un aprendizaje a largo plazo. Se propondrá un proyecto de intervención para realizar con personas mayores que mejore estos valores y así su vida, ralentizando así el deterioro cognitivo asociado a la edad y se fomentan valores relacionados con la sociali...

  2. Muffins con aceite de girasol alto estearico

    OpenAIRE

    González Procopio, Gimena

    2015-01-01

    Las enfermedades cardiovasculares constituyen una de las causas más importantes de discapacidad y muerte prematura en nuestro país y en todo el mundo, a su vez la modificación de los factores de riesgo puede reducir los episodios cardiovasculares y la muerte prematura tanto en las personas con enfermedad cardiovascular establecida como en aquellas con alto riesgo cardiovascular debido a uno o más factores de riesgo Objetivo: Identificar la variación en el perfil lipídico de una...

  3. Sarcoma de Kaposi en paciente con SIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Ramón León Polanco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino de 33 años de edad, con antecedentes de VIH-SIDA desde hace 10 años, que se mantiene en tratamiento con antirretrovirales. Durante todo este tiempo ha presentado varios episodios de infecciones respiratorias, incluyendo tuberculosis pulmonar 5 años atrás. Acude a consulta refiriendo edemas en miembros inferiores acompañado de lesiones en piel de color violáceo de un año de evolución, previamente interpretado como linfangitis rebelde al tratamiento y que se extendió a la cara interna de los muslos y a los miembros inferiores. Con pérdida de peso, no prurito en las lesiones, fiebre, lesiones en la mucosa oral. Se determinó hemoglobina 89 g/L, leucocitos 4,5 x 109 /L, se estudiaron las funciones hepática y renales resultando normales. Radiografías de tórax y ultrasonido abdominal normales. Se realizó estudio anatomopatológico de piel que informó Sarcoma de Kaposi. Se impuso tratamiento con quimioterapia

  4. InterCon Travel Health: Case B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truman, Gregory E.; Pachamanova, Dessislava A.; Goldstein, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    InterCon provides services to health insurers of foreign tourists who travel to the United States and Canada. Management wants to implement a new information system that will deal with several operational problems, but it is having difficulty securing the capital resources to fund the system's development. After an initial failure, the chief…

  5. Conversazioni autobiografiche con Albino Sacco-Casamassima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orazio Maria Valastro

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Nel 1948 venne Olivetti a Matera. Olivetti venne a Matera con un certo ambasciatore americano che praticamente aveva preparato o stava dando una mano per il piano Marschall, venne a Matera e mi vollero incontrare. Io sono stato chiamato dalla piazza, stavo nella piazza, era il mese di luglio, una cosa di questo genere, e andai in un bar, un bar ad angolo mi ricordo in Via Don Minzioni, dove questo Olivetti mi disse 'ma lei che cosa fa coi sassi?' 'Che cos'è questa storia?' Gli raccontai un po' che cosa facevo io con questi amici, avevamo fatto questo, insomma tutto quello che avevamo fatto nei sassi e che volevamo preparare ancora per presentare a qualcuno un piano di revisionamento dei sassi. Mi ricordo, era la prima volta che avevo visto Adriano Olivetti, ne avevo sentito parlare però non avevo mai visto quest'uomo con gli occhi celesti, minuto, coi capelli bianchi, riccioluto, con una cravatta bianca, cosa che mi fece impressione, una specie di angelo.

  6. IoT con Raspberry Pi

    OpenAIRE

    García Muelas, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Estudio de diferentes plataformas software y hardware del internet de las cosas. Aplicación real con Raspberry Pi. Estudi de diferents plataformes programari i maquinari de l'internet de les coses. Aplicació real amb Raspberry Pi. Bachelor thesis for the Telecommunication Technologies program on Telematics.

  7. REDUCCIÓN DE ÓXIDOSDE NITROGENO CON CATALIZADORES ZEOLÍTICOS INTERCAMBIADOS CON COBALTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Alexis García Moya

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un estudio sobre la reducción catalítica selectiva (RCS de NOx con metano en presencia de oxígeno en exceso con varios catalizadores a base de las zeolitas mordenita, ferrierita y ZSM-5 intercambiadas con diferentes cargas de cobalto y con las correspondientes zeolitas en forma acida. Cuando la mezcla reactiva contenía mayormente NO2 en lugar de NO, los catalizadores ácidos mostraron las más altas velocidades de formación de N2 en condiciones secas. Las mayores actividades se obtuvieron con los catalizadores Co-mordenita, siguiendo en orden de actividad los catalizadores Co-Ferrierita y Co-ZSM-5. El catalizador Co-Mordenita más activo se ensayó con una mezcla reactiva donde predominó el NO en lugar del NO2 bajo condiciones secas e hidrotérmicas y en presencia de SO2. Con la adición de 8% de agua a la mezcla de reacción se observó desactivación reversible, especialmente a bajas temperaturas. La adición de 60 ppm de SO2 disminuyó la velocidad de reacción aproximadamente a la mitad debido posiblemente al envenenamiento de algunos sitios activos.

  8. Two-step irradiance schedule versus single-dose tramadol sustained-release tablets for pain control during topical 5-aminolevulinic acid-photodynamic therapy of condyloma acuminatum in Chinese patients: a randomized comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mchepange, Uwesu O; Huang, Chun-Yan; Sun, Yi; Tu, Ya-Ting; Tao, Juan

    2014-07-01

    Photodynamic therapy with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA-PDT) offers promising results for the treatment of condyloma acuminatum. However, patients have to dwell with pain to benefit from this otherwise effective and safe "off-label" treatment modality. Several techniques have been explored to control ALA-PDT-induced pain, but the desperate search for a universally accepted method is still ongoing. This study compares the two-step irradiance approach with single-dose administration of 100 mg tramadol sustained-release tablets for pain induced by ALA-PDT of condyloma acuminatum in Chinese patients. Adult Chinese patients with condyloma acuminatum were enrolled in a randomized comparative study. Pain levels were compared using the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) at pre-defined assessment points during and after irradiation. The pain was dominated by characteristics such as burning and pricking and was almost always local and superficial. The median pain scores were lower in the two-step irradiance group at 1 minute (U = 621.5, P = 0.002) but higher at 20 minutes (U = 585.5, P = 0.002). The median pain scores between the two groups did not differ significantly at other assessment points. The pain was moderate in both groups and peaked earlier in the analgesics group (median: 5 minutes) but later in the two-step irradiance group (median: 15 minutes). The pain was generally mild. The median pain scores were equal at each assessment point, except at 3 hours where the median was lower in the analgesics group (1.0) as compared with the two-step irradiance group (2.0) (U = 725.0, P = 0.056). Pain in the two-step irradiance protocol is irradiance-dependent. The two-step irradiance approach produces significant benefits over analgesics during the initial stages of therapy but analgesics offer significant benefits thereafter. There are potential benefits of combining the two approaches in minimizing ALA-PDT-induced pain. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals

  9. Factores de Accesibilidad Relacionados con Muerte Perinatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma del Socorro Catalán Álvarez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Objetivo Describir diferencias de factores relacionados con accesibilidad a servicios de salud, entre un grupo de mujeres que tuvieron parto en instituciones prestadoras de servicios de salud de Bucaramanga, cuyos productos sufrieron muerte perinatal y otro grupo con productos vivos, procedentes de Lebrija Santander año 2004. Materiales y métodos: estudio de caso descriptivo, retrospectivo. De 15 muerte perinatal reportadas, sólo 7 cumplían criterios de inclusión. Por cada muerte perinatal, se seleccionaron por conveniencia, 3 madres con niños vivos. Las variables estudiadas, mediante frecuencia absoluta y relativa, fueron: Características de la madre, del niño, Oportunidad, Percepción de atención, Funcionalidad, Costos. Resultados: 6 muerte perinatal previsibles, 1 no previsible. 3 pertenecían al régimen subsidiado, 1 al contributivo, 3 no aseguradas. Se observó, falta de oportunidad para remisión de madres e intervención del parto. Mujeres con 3 ó más controles, presentaron mayor frecuencia relativa de muerte perinatal. También se observó insatisfacción en la percepción de atención, en 3 aspectos estudiados, en 3 niveles de atención. Discusión y Conclusiones: Implementar políticas encaminadas a mejorar la oportunidad de atención materna-perinatal, facilitando acceso oportuno para prestación de servicios de salud. Controles prenatales enfocados en búsqueda de factores relacionados con muerte perinatal. Fortalecer Sistemas de Vigilancia Epidemiológica y Centro Regulador de Urgencias. (Rev Cuid 2010;1(1:26-34.Palabras clave: Mortalidad perinatal, Accesibilidad, Servicios de Salud. (Fuente DeCs, BIREME.

  10. Manejo de conductos radiculares con curvatura marcada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Mario Nuñez Duran

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Las variaciones anatómicas en dientes con conductos que poseen dilaceraciones hacen del tratamiento de endodonciaun reto o una complicación relativa, en donde el clínico debe desarrollar toda su habilidad y el uso de instrumentosespeciales que faciliten u optimicen la terapia de conductos radiculares. La toma de radiografías previas con diferentesangulaciones y el estudio minucioso de ellas, darán una ayuda fundamental para conocer más detalladamente estacomplicación anatómica, que en algunos casos es muy frecuente. El uso de instrumental más flexible y resistentepermite llegar con mayor precisión y seguridad a la parte apical sin que se corra el riesgo de fracturar los instrumentos,limpiándolos y modelándolos en toda su extensión para poder obturarlos de una manera correcta.El uso de limas de menor calibre, precurvadas, permite acceder a la porción dilacerada de la raíz. Este es un métodoeficaz para prevenir la perdida de longitud de trabajo y evitar así las perforaciones de las raíces durante la preparación.Dentro de los errores más comunes durante la instrumentación de los conductos está la perdida de longitud detrabajo, junto con la transportación del foramen apical, ya sea de manera externa o interna. En el presente artículose menciona el uso de nuevas y mejores técnicas usadas para poder evitar este tipo de errores y se muestra un casoclínico del manejo de un molar superior con una curvatura de 40 grados que fue preparado y obturado exitosamentecon el sistema Protaper (Dentsply- maillefer.

  11. Ependimoma myxopapilar sacro gigante con osteolisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajler, Pablo; Landriel, Federico; Goldschmidt, Ezequiel; Campero, Álvaro; Yampolsky, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Objetivo: la presentación de un caso de una paciente con un ependimoma sacro con extensa infiltración y destrucción ósea local. Descripción del caso: una mujer de 53 años acudió a la consulta por dolor lumbosacro y alteraciones sensitivas perineales y esfinterianas. La imágenes por Resonancia Magnética (IRM) y la Tomografía Axial Computada (TAC) mostraron una lesión expansiva gigante a nivel S2-S4 con extensa osteólisis e invasión de tejidos adyacentes. Se realizó una exéresis tumoral completa con mejoría del estatus funcional. La anatomía patológica informó ependimoma mixopapilar. Discusión: la extensión de la resección quirúrgica es el mejor predictor de buen pronóstico. El tratamiento radiante se reserva como opción adyuvante para las resecciones incompletas y recidiva tumoral. La quimioterapia sólo debería utilizarse en casos en que la cirugía y la radioterapia estén contraindicadas. Conclusión: Los ependimomas mixopapilares sacros con destrucción ósea y presentación intra y extradural son muy infrecuentes y deben ser tenidos en cuenta entre los diagnósticos diferenciales preoperatorios. Su resección total, siempre que sea posible, es la mejor alternativa terapéutica. PMID:25165615

  12. Trabajando el arteterapia con el alumnado con N.E.E (TDAH)

    OpenAIRE

    V??lez Borja, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Presentaci??n y descripci??n del Arteterapia en el aula a trav??s de diferentes actividades art??sticas hacia alumnos con ???TDAH?????? (Trastorno con D??ficit de Atenci??n con o sin Hiperactividad), donde se recogen los resultados para obtener una conclusi??n final, entendiendo como Arteterapia utilizar las creaciones art??sticas para mejorar el proceso de desarrollo de la persona. En el presente trabajo har?? menci??n a numerosos profesores e investigadores de la educaci??n y el arte que...

  13. Tumor germinal mixto con componentes de disgerminoma y coriocarcinoma de ovario en mujer adolescente con ataxiatelangiectasia

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Augusto Gálvez-Cuitiva; Cecilia Ridaura-Sanz; Marco Antonio Yamazaki-Nakashimada; Carlos Leal-Leal; Marta Zapata-Tarrés

    2015-01-01

    Antecedentes: la ataxia-telangiectasia es una enfermedad hereditaria con patrón de herencia autosómico recesivo. Se caracteriza por deterioro neurológico, telangiectasias e inmunodeficiencia. Su causa es una mutación en el gen ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) localizado en el cromosoma 11q22.3-23.1, relacionado con la síntesis de una proteína con actividad fosfoinositol-3-cinasa que participa en la regulación del ciclo celular y en la reparación del ácido desoxirribonucleico; esto expli...

  14. Terapias alternativas con animales para niños con necesidades especiales

    OpenAIRE

    Cea-Chueca, Aihnoa

    2014-01-01

    El presente trabajo de fin de grado consiste en la realización de un análisis y descripción de la literatura acerca de las distintas terapias animales, destinadas a niños con necesidades especiales: cómo y por qué surgieron, en qué consisten las terapias, cómo podemos utilizarlas, etc. Las terapias alternativas con animales se conocen como una alternativa terapéutica, donde se utiliza a un animal como co-terapeuta para poder desarrollar diferentes capacidades de los niños con necesidades espe...

  15. Variables socionutricionales de hogares mazahuas integrados por preescolares desnutridos con madres con obesidad y sin obesidad

    OpenAIRE

    Viridiana Vanessa Conzuelo-González; Ivonne Vizcarra-Bordi

    2009-01-01

    El primer objetivo fue conocer cuántos menores de cinco años con diferentes grados de desnutrición tienen una madre con sobrepeso/obesidad/ en una comunidad indígena que vive en extrema pobreza y bajo condiciones de migración masculina internacional. El segundo fue comparar tres variables socionutricionales (ingreso familiar, educación de la madre y adecuación nutrimental de la dieta diaria) entre estos hogares y los hogares con desnutrición infantil y madres sin obesidad. Se realizó un est...

  16. Variables socionutricionales de hogares mazahuas integrados por preescolares desnutridos con madres con obesidad y sin obesidad

    OpenAIRE

    Viridiana Vanessa Conzuelo-González

    2009-01-01

    El primer objetivo fue conocer cuántos menores de cinco años con diferentes grados de desnutrición tienen una madre con sobrepeso/obesidad/ en una comunidad indígena que vive en extrema pobreza y bajo condiciones de migración masculina internacional. El segundo fue comparar tres variables socionutricionales (ingreso familiar, educación de la madre y adecuación nutrimental de la dieta diaria) entre estos hogares y los hogares con desnutrición infantil y madres sin obesidad. Se realizó un estud...

  17. ANALISIS SENSORIAL DE CARNE DE CUYES ALIMENTADOS CON DIETAS SUPLEMENTADAS CON HARINA DE PAJURO (Erithrynaedulis) - UNMSM

    OpenAIRE

    Guevara, J.; Suca, C.; Suca, F.; Barbachan, H.

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo del estudio fue determinar el análisis sensorial de la carne de cuyes alimentados con dietas suplementadas con diferentes porcentajes de harina de pajuro (Erythrinaedulis). Se llevó a cabo en las instalaciones del galpón de cuyes de la EAP de Ingeniería Agroindustrial de la UNMSM, ubicado en San Juan de Lurigancho.Se empleó un Diseño Completamente al Azar con 3 tratamientos y 3 repeticiones (pozas), considerando3 cuyes por repetición, los cuales fueron distribuidos en forma aleato...

  18. Estudio comparativo del sellado apical de obturaciones con gutapercha con distintas concentraciones de hipoclorito de sodio asociado con Edta.

    OpenAIRE

    Di Spagna Souza, Arlindo; Schmitt, P

    2005-01-01

    Recibido: Diciembre 2004 Aceptado: Febrero 2005 El objetivo de esta comparación fue evaluar la capacidad de sellado apical marginal de las obturaciones realizadas mediante la técnica de condensación lateral, variando las concentraciones de hipoclorito de sodio utilizado en la preparación de los canales radiculares,y agregandole EDTA. Para ello fueron usados 44 premolares inferiores. Estos fueron divididos en cuatro grupos de diez dientes con sus respectivas preparaciones. Grupo 1...

  19. Esporotricosis cutánea diseminada con compromiso articular en una mujer con diabetes tipo 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sendy Solorzano

    Full Text Available La esporotricosis diseminada es una presentación infrecuente de esta micosis. Aunque ha sido descrita en sujetos inmunocompetentes, con frecuencia existe compromiso de la inmunidad mediada por células T. Reportamos el caso de una mujer con diabetes tipo 2 no controlada que desarrolló esporotricosis cutánea diseminada. El curso de la enfermedad presentó varias complicaciones que incluyeron hepatitis secundaria a itraconazol y artritis de la rodilla con cultivo positivo para Sporothrix schenckii durante el tratamiento con solución saturada de ioduro de potasio. La discusión del caso incluye aspectos de la patogénesis de la esporotricosis diseminada y el manejo de la infección y sus complicaciones.

  20. GRADO DE MICROFILTRACIÓN DENTINARIA EN RESINAS REALIZADAS CON ADHESIVO DE V GENERACIÓN CON Y SIN ACONDICIONAMIENTO CON CLORHEXIDINA AL 2%, ESTUDIO COMPARATIVO IN VITRO

    OpenAIRE

    CHINCHAY PORTALATINO, IRIS MARISOL

    2014-01-01

    El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo comparar el grado de microfiltración dentinaria de resinas realizadas con adhesivo de V generación con y sin el acondicionamiento con clorhexidina al 2%. En una muestra de 36 premolares se realizaron cavidades clase V de Kennedy, luego se dividieron en dos grupos; un grupo control en donde se acondicionó las cavidades con ácido fosfórico al 37%, posteriormente se aplicó un adhesivo de V generación seguido de la obturación con una resina compuesta, y un ...

  1. Materiales nanocumpuestos basados en LDPE relleno con nanotubos de carbono con potenciales propiedades bactericidas

    OpenAIRE

    Benigno Escribano, Erika

    2015-01-01

    En este trabajo, se ha seleccionado como material de estudio polietileno de baja densidad, LDPE, ya que es un polímero con múltiples aplicaciones en diversos campos. Se busca como objetivo principal, preparar y caracterizar nuevos materiales basados en LDPE con potenciales propiedades antibacterianas. Para ello, se van a estudiar dos posibles maneras de conseguirlo: La primera de ellas, consiste en realizar un procesado mecánico sobre el polietileno, concretamente, una molienda del alta en...

  2. Riesgo familiar total en familias con mujeres diagnosticadas con neoplasia de mama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Cecilia Charrys-Bravo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar el riesgo familiar total de las familias con mujeres diagnosticadas con cáncer de mama, que asisten a un centro de salud oncológico en la ciudad de Barranquilla. Materiales y Métodos: El estudio fue de tipo descriptivo, transversal con abordaje cuantitativo. Se utilizó el instrumento Riesgo Familiar Total RFT 5-33. El universo estuvo conformado por familias con mujeres diagnosticadas con cáncer en mama. La muestra fue de 41 familias que integraron a 154 miembros; se abordó el estudio de manera censal, y no por medio de una muestra, porque el acceso a la información de la totalidad de las familia fue viable. Resultados: Los resultados mostraron que las familias, en su mayoría, son de tipo 2. El 68 % de las pacientes categorizan sus familias como amenazadas, el 5 % como familias de alto riesgo y un 27 % de las familias con un bajo riesgo. Conclusiones: Los hallazgos encontrados en esta investigación son importantes para las familias, lo cual permitirá establecer acciones y actividades que logren orientar e implementar procesos de atención específicos con el propósito de cuidar a las familias para que se mantengan sanos en un nivel de bajo riesgo; además, desarrollar controles y seguimiento a aquellas familias que se encuentran en un riesgo alto de amenazas, mediante acciones de promoción y prevención de la enfermedad de una manera amplia. Por lo anterior, se deben emprender programas más agresivos de prevención y promoción, especialmente con las familias que asisten en busca de apoyo médico para este padecimiento; de esta forma, se podrán diagnosticar los casos de forma temprana y proceder al respectivo tratamiento.

  3. Traducir utilizando Internet, Traducir con Speechy Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Fermín Pino James

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Speechy Project surgió el pasado otoño de 2009 con la intención de ayudar a estudiantes de nivel avanzado de lengua inglesa a sacarle partido a Internet. Desde entonces, este sitio web ha “tamizado” la red con el objetivo de seleccionar los mejores recursos online y clasificarlos ordenadamente en sus listas a posteriori.  En esta corriente, varias filtraciones se han llevado a cabo en diferentes campos de la lengua inglesa. Este artículo se centrará en el campo de la Traducción que se proyecta en Speechy Project como una organizada red cooperativa formada (y mantenida por seis voluntarios.

  4. Reclutando profesionales con deseos de empleo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Farfán Cabrera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años la vinculación retórica de la globalización con el empleo ha creado una serie de retos y prejuicios respecto a la forma en que la primera ha afectado la organización y producción del conocimiento dentro de las instituciones de educación superior públicas, lo que llevó a tomar caminos separados, pero ya es tiempo de generar nuevas formas de acercamiento que vinculen a los profesionistas con el actual mercado laboral y sus formas de contratación como un ejerció donde ambas partes puedan generar soluciones a problemas comunes.

  5. Experiencias y aprendizajes con juegos cooperativos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Cerdas Agüero

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo presentar experiencias y aprendizajes que  han logrado algunos grupos de docentes con los que se ha trabajado por medio de talleres de juegos cooperativos para la paz. Los talleres se han facilitado desde la actividad de extensión Aula Activa: juegos cooperativos para la Educación para la Paz que se ha implementado en el  Instituto de Estudios Latinoamericanos (IDELA desde el 2006. En este trabajo  nos enfocamos en el trabajo con docentes del Ministerio de Educación Pública (MEP de Costa Rica, proceso que deja una serie de aprendizajes actitudinales, de valores, habilidades y cognocitivos.

  6. Comunicándonos con las cosas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Delgado

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Tras la Web 2.0 y gracias a la colaboración entre las personas, Internet sigue creciendo y evolucionando, pero esta vez a través de los objetos. La siguiente evolución pretende que las personas puedan interactuar con las cosas de una forma inteligente mediante tecnologías ampliamente utilizadas como el teléfono móvil e Internet, y tecnologías que permitan etiquetar objetos.

  7. Tratamiento de la osteoporosis grave con teriparatide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo A. Sarli

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo retrospectivo fue evaluar el tratamiento de la osteoporosis grave con teriparatide (PTH y comparar nuestros resultados con los publicados en la literatura médica. Se incluyeron cuarenta y seis pacientes, cuarenta y dos mujeres y cuatro varones, edad: 69.15 ± 9.43 años. Seis eran vírgenes de tratamiento y cuarenta tratados previamente con bisfosfonatos. Treinta y dos pacientes habían tenido 93 fracturas de las cuales 86 vertebrales. Cuarenta y seis recibieron PTH 6 meses, 29 pacientes durante 12 meses y 20 completaron los 18 meses sugeridos. La densidad mineral ósea (DMO de columna lumbar aumentó significativamente desde el primer control a los 6 meses (p < 0.0001. La DMO de cuello de fémur alcanzó un incremento significativo al final del tratamiento (p = 0.002. La osteocalcina aumentó significativamente al mes, seguido por el ß crosslaps (beta-CTx, prueba en suero al tercer mes y la fosfatasa alcalina ósea, regresando los marcadores de recambio óseo a niveles basales a los 18 meses. Las calcemias y las calciurias no se modificaron significativamente, pero 8 pacientes tuvieron hipercalcemias leves y tres hipercalciurias asintomáticas. El tratamiento fue bien tolerado y no se registraron efectos adversos graves que requirieran suspender el tratamiento. En conclusión, la PTH es una alternativa útil y segura para el tratamiento de la osteoporosis grave. Nuestros resultados concuerdan con los previamente publicados en la literatura médica.

  8. Intoxicación grave con verapamilo

    OpenAIRE

    Morales,MG; Guerrero,SG; García,GR; Villalobos,SJ; Camarería,AG; Aguirre,SJ; Martínez,SJ

    2005-01-01

    Los calcioantagonistas, cada vez más usados en cardiología, son causas infrecuentes de intoxicaciones secundarias a intentos de suicidio o por mal uso de los mismos. Informamos de un caso con las manifestaciones clínicas clásicas descritas en la literatura y realizamos una investigación del tratamiento actual de dicha intoxicación

  9. Somatic cell nuclear transfer: pros and cons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumer, Huseyin; Liu, Jun; Tat, Pollyanna; Heffernan, Corey; Jones, Karen L; Verma, Paul J

    2009-01-01

    Even though the technique of mammalian SCNT is just over a decade old it has already resulted in numerous significant advances. Despite the recent advances in the reprogramming field, SCNT remains the bench-mark for the generation of both genetically unmodified autologous pluripotent stem cells for transplantation and for the production of cloned animals. In this review we will discuss the pros and cons of SCNT, drawing comparisons with other reprogramming methods.

  10. Bacteriemia en pacientes internados con celulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan S. Lasa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available La celulitis es una inflamación aguda de la dermis y tejido celular subcutáneo de causa bacteriana, que generalmente complica a heridas, úlceras y dermatosis, aunque de manera frecuente no existe sitio de entrada. Se recomienda la realización de cultivo de punción de piel y partes blandas (PPB. Los hemocultivos raramente dan resultados positivos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la prevalencia de bacteriemia en pacientes internados en nuestra institución con diagnóstico de celulitis. Se analizaron retrospectivamente los registros clínicos de los pacientes con este diagnóstico al ingreso entre junio de 2007 y marzo de 2010. Se evaluaron los datos poblacionales, presencia de comorbilidades, y resultados de los cultivos. En ese período, se internaron 140 pacientes con diagnóstico de celulitis y a todos ellos se les realizó hemocultivo y cultivos de PPB. Setenta y cuatro eran varones (52.8%. La edad promedio: 47.5 ± 19.7 años (rango 16-94. El 40% tuvo cultivos positivos de PPB, en los que el Staphylococcus aureus meticilino resistente (SAMR fue el germen más frecuentemente aislado (35.7%; la prevalencia de bacteriemia fue del 8.6%, en donde el germen más frecuente fue Streptoccocus Beta hemolítico, grupo G (33% del total de hemocultivos positivos. La bacteriemia se asoció significativamente a mayor estadía hospitalaria (10.5 ± 8.9 vs. 4.9 ± 6, p = 0.004. Se asoció con mayor riesgo de hemocultivo positivo a ser diabético, tener cultivo de PPB positivo, consumo de alcohol y/o enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica.

  11. Comunicándonos con las cosas

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Delgado; Sergio Ciruela; Nicolás Marín

    2009-01-01

    Tras la Web 2.0 y gracias a la colaboración entre las personas, Internet sigue creciendo y evolucionando, pero esta vez a través de los objetos. La siguiente evolución pretende que las personas puedan interactuar con las cosas de una forma inteligente mediante tecnologías ampliamente utilizadas como el teléfono móvil e Internet, y tecnologías que permitan etiquetar objetos.

  12. APRENDIENDO CON LAS TIC: UNA EXPERIENCIA UNIVERSITARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gabriela Regueyra Edelman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se comparte en este artículo la experiencia del uso de las TIC en dos cursos que se imparten en la carrera de Trabajo Social de la Universidad de Costa Rica. Se detallan los recursos tecnológicos utilizados y el uso que se da a cada uno: Facebook, Blogger, Moodle, correo electrónico, se complementa la experiencia con la incorporación de las opiniones de la población estudiantil matriculada en los cursos y destacando los retos que el uso de las TIC presenta a la población docentes en particular y a la Universidad de Costa Rica en general. El artículo retoma discusión de la Sociedad del Conocimiento y la Información, y las TIC como procesos que han transformado la sociedad actual, con su incorporación tanto en el campo económico, social y laboral como en los ámbitos educativo, familiar y personal, lo que ha generado nuevas interacciones sociales y una brecha entre la población que tiene acceso a la tecnología y la que no lo tiene, situación que ha impactado fundamentalmente el ámbito educativo, donde se han ido incorporando las TIC de manera progresiva, con algunas reservas tanto de la población docente como de la población estudiantil.

  13. Aprendiendo química con golosinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Rodríguez Rodríguez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Las golosinas (caramelos, chicles, nubes, palotes, papas fritas, etc. nos gustan a casi todos y gozan de una imagen positiva, a pesar de sus efectos secundarios si no se consumen con moderación. Aprovechándonos de esa buena imagen y de la gran variedad de golosinas que existen en el mercado, hemos diseñado una serie de experimentos con los que podemos explicar distintos tipos de reacciones químicas (ácido-base, oxidación reducción, endotérmicas¿, la actuación de un indicador e, incluso, podemos comparar cantidades de vitamina C. En todas las actividades se persigue explicar algún aspecto de la Química que, en general, el público desconoce, captando su atención, por ejemplo, mediante cambios de color espectaculares y con las golosinas como protagonistas. Así mismo, estas experiencias pueden emplearse como recursos didácticos para alumnos de 4º E.S.O. y Bachillerato, apoyando los contenidos teóricos del currículum.

  14. ORIENTACIONES CURRICULARES CON EL ENFOQUE CTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Corchuelo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Considerando que el propósito de la educación con un enfoque CTS propende por abordar problemas contextualizados socialmente, se busca construir una propuesta desde la práctica, con el fi n de fortalecer la formación para la participación ciudadana. Encontramos que abordar el tratamiento de las relaciones entre deporte, nutrición humana y motricidad convierte al cuerpo humano en un objeto de estudio vigente. En la ciudad de Popayán (Cauca, Colombia se vive una de las más altas tasas de bulimia y anorexia en adolescentes del país, al igual que de consumo de drogas ilícitas. Además, el bajo rendimiento de los deportistas caucanos en los últimos Juegos Nacionales, los casos de dopaje en atletas olímpicos, entre otros, abre interrogantes sobre la formación integral de nuestros estudiantes. Con el fi n de acercar la escuela a estas problemáticas locales y nacionales, se asume un trabajo interdisciplinario basado en la resolución de problemas socialmente relevantes. En esta oportunidad compartiremos los resultados del camino recorrido en torno a la pregunta: “El deporte: ¿emancipación o alienación?”.

  15. Calidad de vida, satisfacción con el tratamiento y bienestar emocional en pacientes con diabetes LADA

    OpenAIRE

    Granado Casas, Minerva

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: La calidad de vida, satisfacción con el tratamiento y bienestar emocional en pacientes con diabetes mellitus están relacionados con el control metabólico, las complicaciones y algunas variables socioeconómicas. Actualmente, no existe ningún estudio científico que analice la calidad de vida, satisfacción con el tratamiento y bienestar emocional en pacientes con diabetes LADA. Objetivos: Los objetivos principales fueron conocer la calidad de vida, satisfacción con el tratamient...

  16. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall contain...

  17. Insuficiencia renal aguda relacionada con medicamentos en pacientes hospitalizados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lujan Iavecchia

    2015-11-01

    Conclusiones: La mitad de los episodios de IRA intrahospitalaria se relacionaron con medicamentos. Los pacientes con IRA relacionada con medicamentos presentaron más antecedentes patológicos cardiovasculares, pero menos factores de riesgo de IRA y una menor mortalidad.

  18. Tumor germinal mixto con componentes de disgerminoma y coriocarcinoma de ovario en mujer adolescente con ataxiatelangiectasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Augusto Gálvez-Cuitiva

    2015-11-01

    días. Se suspendió la quimioterapia porque desarrolló choque séptico que puso en riesgo su vida. Por su enfermedad de base permaneció bajo vigilancia. Actualmente, 17 meses después, la paciente vive sin actividad tumoral.  Conclusión: existe asociación entre ataxia-telangiectasia, leucemia y linfomas. Se describe el caso clínico de una paciente con ataxia-telangiectasia y tumor germinal mixto con componente de disgerminoma y coriocarcinoma de ovario. Se propone establecer un tratamiento especial para estos pacientes inmunocomprometidos, con alto riesgo de cáncer pero, a la vez, de no tolerar los esquemas habituales.

  19. Factores prenatales relacionados con la prematuridad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Arias Macías

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron 130 madres y sus recién nacidos prematuros con su correspondiente grupo control, nacidos en el Hospital Ginecoobstétrico Provincial Docente "Justo Legón Padilla", de Pinar del Río, desde febrero hasta julio de 1998, con el objetivo de analizar algunos factores perinatales relacionados con la prematuridad. Se analizaron las variables: edad materna, paridad, peso al inicio del embarazo, talla materna, período intergenésico, edad gestacional, oligoamnios, hipertensión arterial materna y sexo del niño. Se demostró que la edad materna inferior a 17 años, la baja talla materna, el oligoamnio, la sepsis ovular y el período intergenésico de más de 5 años tuvieron resultados significativos para el nacimiento de pretérminos.130 mothers and their premature infants with their corresponding control group delivered at "Justo Legón Padilla" Provincial Gynecoobstetric Teaching Hospital, in Pinar del Río, from February to July, 1998, were studied aimed at analyzing some perinatal factors connected with prematurity. The following variables were analyzed: maternal age, parity, weight at the beginning of pregnancy, maternal height, intergenesic period, gestational age, oligohydramnios, maternal hypertension and sex of the child. It was proved that maternal age under 17, low maternal height, the oligohydramnios, vulvar sepsis and the intergenesic period of more than 5 years had significant results for the birth of preterm infants.

  20. Rescate articular con colgajo anterolateral del muslo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J. García-Bernal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available La preservación del nivel de amputación tanto de la extremidad superior como de la inferior, puede mejorar la función residual y el proceso de rehabilitación protésica de la misma. Ambas van a estar condicionadas por la longitud restante de la extremidad, la presencia o no de articulaciones operativas y la calidad de la cobertura del muñón. Presentamos 2 casos de amputaciones. El primero es un caso agudo de amputación traumática de extremidad superior a la altura del tercio proximal de antebrazo, que asocia avulsión cutánea circular desde el tercio medio del brazo y con articulación de codo conservada. El segundo, es la secuela de una amputación infracondílea de extremidad inferior por osteosarcoma que presenta fístulas cutáneas con drenaje supurativo por osteomielitis en el muñón tibial. En ambos pacientes realizamos cobertura con colgajo anterolateral de muslo anastomosado a la arteria radial en el caso de la extremidad superior, y a la arteria genicular descendente en la extremidad inferior. En los dos casos el postoperatorio transcurrió sin complicaciones, logrando preservar las articulaciones del codo y de la rodilla respectivamente, así como la posterior rehabilitación protésica. Consideramos que el colgajo anterolateral del muslo permite aportar tejido de buena calidad como cobertura del muñón de amputación. Dadas las características del tejido aportado y su volumen, es idóneo tanto para cobertura de defectos agudos como de déficits de almohadillado en casos crónicos.

  1. Tratamiento de la obesidad con productos naturales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Neri Espinosa Pire

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Los crecientes índices de obesidad alrededor del mundo, provocados principalmente por los excesos en la ingesta y la vida sedentaria, constituye uno de los grandes problemas de salud pública en nuestras sociedades. Entre otras formas como dietas y tratamientos que surgen cada día para combatir la obesidad, el uso de plantas medicinales conocido como fitoterapia, ha despertado gran interés. Existen ciertas plantas que poseen propiedades adelgazantes, sin embargo, lo mejor es ponerse en manos de especialistas en este campo, para recibir una correcta asesoría de acuerdo a las necesidades personales. Las plantas medicinales y los productos que de ellas se obtienen, constituyen remedios eficaces para combatir la obesidad, pues no tienen efectos adversos. No obstante el tratamiento debe combinarse con un cambio de hábitos alimentarios y actividad física y no conviene utilizarlos irresponsablemente, pues no todos tienen los mismos beneficios y efectos. La eficacia de la aplicación de plantas con la finalidad de bajar de peso ha sido comprobada en numerosos ensayos clínicos que se han realizado con determinadas especies vegetales. Las plantas medicinales se han utilizado tradicionalmente en forma de infusión, sin embargo esta forma de administración no permite controlar efectivamente las dosis administradas, por lo que es preferible hacerlo en preparados como cápsulas o comprimidos. Cada planta deberá administrarse de una manera específica y es importante que los preparados se tomen siempre en el mismo horario para potenciar su efectividad.

  2. Las decisiones subrogadas en pacientes con esquizofrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos Pozón, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    En este artículo analizamos el proceso de toma de decisiones por sustitución en pacientes con esquizofrenia. En primer lugar nos basamos en principios éticos que han de guiar las decisiones subrogadas. En segundo lugar analizamos la normativa jurídica referente a la tutela y al cargo tutelar. En tercer lugar exponemos unas normas de actuación para realizar el juicio por representación. En cuarto lugar desarrollamos unas normas de intervención que marcan límites a los sustitutos. Por último, r...

  3. Biorremediacion de suelos contaminados con hidrocarburos

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz, E.; Núñez, R.; Fonseca, E.; Oramas, J.; Almazán, V.; Cabranes, Y.; Miranda, A.; Barbán, O.; Martínez, C.; Díaz, Y.; Borges, G.

    2005-01-01

    En la actualidad los suelos contaminados con hidrocarburos representan el 70% del total de los eco-sistemas impactados. A partir del aislamiento, selección y conservación de bacterias marinas degra-dadoras de hidrocarburos y productoras de sustancias tensioactivas se formuló un producto denomi-nado BIOIL-FC. Este producto ha sido aplicado satisfactoriamente en derrames de hidrocarburos en el mar. En el presente trabajo fue evaluada la factibilidad del uso de los procesos de biorremediación “e...

  4. Base de agregados estabilizados con cemento baec

    OpenAIRE

    Correa Alvarez, Rommel Javier; Eguez Alava, Hugo

    2009-01-01

    Este trabajo enfoca el análisis y comportamiento de materiales triturados que se los utiliza para base y subbase para carreteras, mezclados con bajas proporciones de cemento y humedad, influenciadas por una carga de compactación. Los materiales utilizados se los obtuvo de 4 canteras cercanas a Guayaquil, se determinaron diferentes propiedades físicas de estos materiales necesarias para las diferentes metodologías utilizadas en laboratorio, se incluye también como capítulo un método para dis...

  5. Manejo preoperatorio de pacientes con Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Nazar J,Claudio; Herrera F,Christian; González A,Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    La Diabetes Mellitus es una condición crónica de hiperglicemia que afecta al 9,4% de la población chilena. Estudios han encontrado que los pacientes con Diabetes Mellitus tienen mayor probabilidad de requerir cirugía en comparación a la población general. La hiperglicemia que presentan los pacientes se ha relacionado al desarrollo de complicaciones infecciosas y cardiovasculares en el período postoperatorio. Se ha demostrado que el adecuado control glicémico preoperatorio contribuye a disminu...

  6. Una década con historia

    OpenAIRE

    Ana María Escallón

    1999-01-01

    En este intento por definir algunos acontecimientos de los que fuimos testigos durante la década de los noventa, podemos admitir que el desarrollo meteórico de la cibernética es definitivo. Por otro lado, pero en el mismo sentido, hubo una expansión sistemática del proceso de globalización con las prácticas neoliberales. La velocidad cibernética fue y sigue siendo un camino sin rumbo fijo. Pero, en la década que nos incumbe, el verbo "estar" pudo conjugarse en otras modalidades porque la virt...

  7. In volo con l’occhio termico

    OpenAIRE

    Emanuele De Angelis; Fabrizio Giulietti; Matteo Turci; Stefania Amici; Maria Fabrizia Buongiorno

    2012-01-01

    Il Laboratorio di Meccanica del Volo (MDVLab) dell’Università di Bologna nasce nel 2006 presso la Seconda Facoltà di Ingegneria e la sua attività di ricerca riguarda principalmente problematiche di modellazione, simulazione e controllo del volo atmosferico e spaziale. Un'intensa collaborazione con l’Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)  ha consentito di estendere le proprie conoscenze al di fuori del settore aerospaziale, presentando oggi un’ampia offerta di tecnologie per l’...

  8. Estilos de personalidad en pacientes con psoriasis

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Brufau, Ramón; Corbalán Berná, Francisco Javier; Brufau Redondo, Carmen; Ramirez Andreo, Antonio; Limiñana Gras, Rosa María

    2010-01-01

    La relación entre las enfermedades de la piel y los factores psicológicos ha sido ampliamente documentada en la literatura científica. Dentro de las enfermedades de la piel con claro componente psicológico se encuentra la psoriasis. La correlación entre el agravamiento de las lesiones cutáneas y un aumento de los niveles de psicopatología en respuesta a eventos estresantes ha sido descrita anteriormente en esta enfermedad. Sin embargo, los estudios que comparan pe...

  9. Intervención con menores con adicciones desde Proyecto Hombre

    OpenAIRE

    Pardo-Esteban, Belén; Escalza-González, Amaia

    2015-01-01

    En el citado seminario informaremos del programa de atención y prevención de las toxicomanías y otras adicciones, llevado a cabo por la Asociación Proyecto hombre. A continuación, trataremos la formación en adicciones y toxicomanía con los estudiantes, mediante charla, cuestionarios sobre conocimientos básicos en prevención de toxicomanía en menores y los diferentes programas de intervención posibles aducados a los perfiles de los usuarios. Terminaremos con un debate sobre los temas tra...

  10. Síndrome disejecutivo en personas con dependencia alcohólica con/sin recidivas

    OpenAIRE

    Fidalgo Martínez, Eva

    2016-01-01

    [ES]En la mayoría de las culturas el alcohol es el depresor del SNC utilizado con más frecuencia y el responsable de una morbilidad y una mortalidad considerables. En la actualidad, el consumo de bebidas alcohólicas constituye un importante problema de salud pública, especialmente en España, que es uno de los países con mayor consumo de alcohol por habitante y año. El objetivo general del estudio es determinar la existencia de diferencias significativas entre dos grupos clínicos de sujetos...

  11. Intubación con fibroscopio en paciente con estenosis traqueal severa

    OpenAIRE

    Zugasti Echarte, Orreaga; Martínez García, O; Artexte Andrés, A; Liberal Sarnago, P

    2017-01-01

    Presentamos el caso de una mujer de 80 años que acude al servicio de urgencias en abril de 2016 refiriendo disnea.En agosto de 2014 se describe en TAC bocio con componente endotorácico a expensas de crecimiento de lóbulo tiroideo izquierdo que se introduce en el tórax y desciende hasta situarse a la altura del cayado aórtico. Produce desplazamiento de la luz traqueal con estenosis y desplazamiento de luz esofágica. En ese momento la paciente fue valorada por Cirugía General que concluyó que a...

  12. Tolerancia al Ejercicio en Perros con Hipertensión Pulmonar Tratados con Sildenafil

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas-Pinto, Pedro; Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias, Universidad de La Salle, Bogotá; Pedraza-Toscano, Adriana; Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Antonio Nariño, Bogotá; Betancourt, Estefanía; Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias, Universidad de La Salle, Bogotá; González, Christian; Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias, Universidad de La Salle, Bogotá; Vargas-Pinto, Piero; Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y de Zootecnia, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá

    2016-01-01

    El estudio buscó establecer el efecto del sildenafil sobre la distancia recorrida en la prueba de marcha de seis minutos (6MWT) en caninos sanos y con hipertensión pulmonar (HP) sobre la frecuencia cardiaca (FC) y respiratoria (FR) en una zona de gran altitud (2650 m sobre el nivel del mar). Un grupo de nueve perros con diagnóstico de HP y otro de 10 perros clínicamente sanos hicieron la caminata en una pista plana de 30 metros, sin control de temperatura y humedad. Al finalizar se la prueba ...

  13. SATISFACCIÓN CON EL TRATAMIENTO EN PACIENTES DE ATENCIÓN PRIMARIA CON ARTROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Llanos Val Jiménez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentos: Al igual que en otros problemas crónicos, en el abor - daje del paciente con artrosis se tiende a un modelo de toma de decisiones compartidas, en el que el punto de vista del paciente debe ser considerado en la elección del tratamiento. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la sa - tisfacción con el tratamiento en pacientes diagnosticados de osteoartrosis y comprobar si existen diferencias entre diferentes opciones farmacológicas, así como determinar si existe asociación con el estado funcional y las carac - terísticas clínicas y sociodemográficas. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional transversal en una muestra de 487 pacientes seleccionados mediante muestreo consecutivo. La variable principal fue el nivel de satisfacción con el tratamiento (cuestionario ARTS. El estado funcional de los pacientes fue evaluado mediante la escala WO - MAC. Otras variables fueron: características del tratamiento, adherencia te - rapéutica, eventos adversos, y variables clínicas y sociodemográficas. Resultados: En el cuestionario ARTS los pacientes, en un rango entre 28 y 87, obtuvieron una puntuación media de 65,3 (DE: 9,9. La puntuación no fue significativamente diferente en consumidores de 1, 2 o más fármacos. Entre quienes consumían un solo fármaco, no hubo diferencias entre los di - ferentes tipos de fármacos. En el estado funcional se obtuvo una puntuación media de 30,2 puntos (DE: 20,8 y se observó una débil correlación negativa con el nivel de satisfacción (r= - 0,252; p<0,001. Mediante regresión lineal múltiple, se observó mayor puntuación en la escala ARTS (p<0,05 en pa - cientes con menor puntuación en la escala WOMAC, mayor edad y ausencia de eventos adversos. Conclusión : En pacientes con osteoartritis se observa un nivel mode - rado de satisfacción con el tratamiento farmacológico, condicionado por su situación funcional, sus características sociodemográficas y por la presencia de eventos

  14. Estudio de viabilidad de cajones marítimos con hormigón con fibras

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos Marquès, Òscar Gonçal

    2017-01-01

    En este TFM se estudia la viabilidad de sustituir la armadura pasiva por fibras metálicas o plásticas en cajones para obras portuarias. Para ello, en primer lugar, se estudia el procedimiento constructivo de un cajón y las propiedades de los hormigones con fibras. Una vez analizado el estado del conocimiento se procede a escoger un cajón representativo, ya construido con armadura pasiva. El cajón escogido es el cajón tipo 3 del dique est...

  15. Familias con un hijo con cáncer: ajuste, crianza parental y calidad de vida

    OpenAIRE

    Torrado Val, Elena

    2015-01-01

    El diagnóstico de Cáncer en un hijo es un evento traumático que afecta a toda la familia. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar, describir y comparar la Calidad de Vida relacionada con la Salud Infantil, el Ajuste y Crianza Parental y explorar la relación que existe entre estas variables en familias con un hijo diagnosticado de Cáncer Infantil en tratamiento. Se evaluaron 80 sujetos pertenecientes a 20 familias; distribuidos en 4 grupos de estudio: madres (N=20), padres (N=20), hijos enf...

  16. Tratamiento del astigmatismo moderado en pacientes con cataratas

    OpenAIRE

    Mateo Gabás, Javier; Ascaso Puyuelo, Francisco Javier; Cristóbal Bescós, José Ángel

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo principal de esta tesis doctoral es la comparación de los resultados obtenidos mediante dos técnicas quirúrgicas en el tratamiento del astigmatismo corneal moderado en pacientes con cataratas. La primera técnica quirúrgica es la facoemulsificación con incisiones corneales perforantes enfrentadas en el meridiano más curvo de la córnea, con implante de una lente intraocular con corrección esférica en saco capsular. La segunda técnica consiste en la facoemulsificación con implante de...

  17. Polimiositis con incapacidad ventilatoria e insuficiencia respiratoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Lopez Gaston

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Las miopatías inflamatorias son un grupo de enfermedades caracterizadas por debilidad muscular proximal y las causas mayores incluyen la polimiositis (PM, dermatomiositis y miositis por cuerpos de inclusión. Las complicaciones respiratorias son comunes y adquieren importancia por la incidencia sobre el pronóstico. Las tres formas de compromiso frecuentes son la enfermedad pulmonar intersticial, la neumopatía aspirativa y la incapacidad ventilatoria (IV por debilidad de los músculos respiratorios, que en su forma severa es de ocurrencia excepcional. Se presenta una paciente con IV sin compromiso del parénquima pulmonar, que requirió asistencia respiratoria mecánica por 4 meses con «destete» exitoso.The inflammatory diseases of muscle are a group of disorders characterized by proximal muscle weakness. Most cases fall into three major diagnostic categories, polymyositis (PM, dermatomyositis and inclusion body myositis. Respiratory complications are a common feature and are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The three main types of pulmonary involvement are interstitial lung disease, aspiration pneumonia and ventilatory incapacity (VI due to muscle weakness. There are few reported cases in which mechanical ventilation has been used in patients with PM and VI in absense of lung disease. We present a patient with PM and VI due to muscle weakness who underwent therapy maintenance with mechanical ventilator and was weaned 4 months later.

  18. Obligaciones morales con seres no humanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo J. Ocampo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Entre los modelos de reflexión ética a partir de los cuales es posible dar cuenta del debate sobre las relaciones entre seres humanos y no humanos están: el deontológico, el contractualista, el utilitarista, el neoaristotélico y el discursivo. En este artículo se examinará, a partir de ellos, la cuestión del estatus moral asignado a los animales y a la naturaleza, junto con la posibilidad de cada uno para sustentar la ampliación de las obligaciones morales. Para tal fin, se estudian los principales argumentos para reconocer o negar consideración moral a seres no humanos, así como los alcances de estas justificaciones para comprender el sentido y límites de la comunidad ética. Esto permitirá clasificar los enfoques éticos mencionados atendiendo a sus afinidades con diversas formas de antropocentrismo o biocentrismo.

  19. Valuación con opciones reales de proyectos con flujos correlacionados con fundamentales económicos y con saltos extremos Viabilidad del caso COMERCI UCB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Mendoza Sandoval

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo extiende el método de flujos de efectivo desconta - dos para valuar proyectos de inversión a través de la incorpo - ración de opciones reales. Se supone que los flujos de efectivo generados por la empresa están correlacionados con fundamen - tales macroeconómicos, particularmente con la tasa de interés; asimismo, se supone que presentan saltos cuyo tamaño está dado por una distribución de valores extremos. Estos flujos son vistos como un portafolio de opciones reales, que surgen de un proceso de optimización dinámica estocástica donde el inversionista (el empresario busca maximizar su utilidad total descontada, sujeto a la riqueza que posee. Esta riqueza incluye el proyecto de inversión, un bono libre de riesgo de incumpli - miento y un conjunto de opciones reales asociadas al proyecto.

  20. Optimización con Solver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Álvarez , I.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available La relevancia de los problemas de optimización en el mundo empresarial ha generado la introducción de herramientas de optimización cada vez más sofisticadas en las últimas versiones de las hojas de cálculo de utilización generalizada. Estas utilidades, conocidas habitualmente como «solvers», constituyen una alternativa a los programas especializados de optimización cuando no se trata de problemas de gran escala, presentado la ventaja de su facilidad de uso y de comunicación con el usuario final. Frontline Systems Inc es la empresa que desarrolla el «solver» de Excel, si bien existen asimismo versiones para Lotus y Quattro Pro con ligeras diferencias de uso. En su dirección de internet (www.frontsys.com se puede obtener información técnica sobre las diferentes versiones de dicha utilidad y diversos aspectos operativos del programa, algunos de los cuales se comentan en este trabajo.

  1. con enfermedad crónica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Refugio Zavala Rodríguez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito del estudio fue determinar el grado de correlación entre los niveles de fortaleza para la salud y de ansiedad-rasgo, en unamuestra de 200 pacientes integrada por medio de muestreo no probabilístico; los criterios de inclusión fueron: adultos de ambos génerosdiagnosticados con enfermedad crónica, con estudios de enseñanza básica y orientada. El marco teórico que guió la investigación es elModelo de Adaptación de Roy. El diseño fue descriptivo, transversal, correlacional. Se utilizó el cuestionario de fortaleza de S. Pollock y laescala de autoevaluación de ansiedad-rasgo de Spielberger; los instrumentos presentaron una consistencia interna aceptable con unAlpha de Cronbach de ,852 y ,813 respectivamente. La información se recabó de cuatro instituciones de salud ubicadas en los municipiosde Tampico-Cd. Madero Tamaulipas, México. El análisis de los datos se efectuó mediante estadística descriptiva e inferencial, se utilizó elpaquete estadístico SPSS versión 13. El rango de edad que predominó fue de 45 a 64 años (54%; el 55% fue del sexo femenino, el 48%cuenta con estudios de primaria, cerca del 90% padece de una enfermedad metabólica. El coeficiente de correlación de Spearman entrela fortaleza para la salud y la ansiedad-rasgo fue significativo (Œ,570, valor Œp,000. En la mayoría de la población participante se encontróun nivel moderado tanto de fortaleza (83% como de ansiedad (73%. El análisis de regresión múltiple indicó que la relación significativaentre estas dos variables no es afectada por la edad, el género o los años de evolución de la enfermedad crónica. Los datos de este estudiomuestran evidencia de que en los pacientes con enfermedades crónicas a mayor nivel de fortaleza menor nivel de ansiedad-rasgo. Estasituación invita a desarrollar más estudios de estos fenómenos, en la disciplina de enfermería, que sirvan como sustento teórico-prácticopara el diseño o la mejora de

  2. Diarrea recurrente por Cystoisopora belli en pacientes con infección por VIH con TARGA

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    Raúl Montalvo

    Full Text Available La Cystoisospora belli, antes denominada Isospora belli, es el agente etiológico de la cystoisosporiasis, una infección oportunista que afecta a pacientes inmunodeprimidos, caracterizada por diarrea crónica y pérdida ponderal. La incidencia de diarrea crónica por este agente, en pacientes infectados por el VIH, ha disminuido considerablemente. Ello gracias al advenimiento de la terapia antirretroviral de gran actividad (TARGA, con la que se ha logrado mejorar la respuesta inmunológica del paciente y disminuir su carga viral. Se presentan seis casos de cystoisosporiasis recurrente y refractaria en pacientes con infección por VIH, en quienes se diagnosticó cystoisosporiasis pese a que previamente se encontraban recibiendo profilaxis con trimetropin/sulfametoxazol (TMP/SMX. Cinco de ellos evolucionaron de manera tórpida y fallecieron, a pesar de una buena respuesta al TARGA (adecuado incremento de CD4 y disminución de la carga viral hasta rangos indetectables, y de tratamiento con TMP/SMX por vía oral y otros medicamentos de segunda línea.

  3. Queratitis ulcerativa periférica bilateral en paciente con artritis reumatoide: tratamiento con infliximab

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    Vicente Aldasoro-Cáceres

    2017-01-01

    Discusión: La PUK es una enfermedad rara, pero a tener en cuenta en los pacientes con AR. En la mayoría de los casos, el tratamiento de fondo debe ser intensificado; en este sentido deben considerarse los tratamientos biológicos por su eficacia y efecto rápido de acción.

  4. FORTIFICACIÓN DE PULPA DE UCHUVA CON CALCIO, OLIGOFRUCTOSA Y VITAMINA C, ESTABILIZADA CON HIDROCOLOIDE

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    ALBA LUCIA DUQUE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available La pulpa de uchuva fortificada con calcio, oligofructosa y vitamina C es un alimento funcional con grandes beneficios para la salud. Para ello se le adicionó componentes biológicamente activos, como ácidos grasos, fibra alimentaria y antioxidantes. En este trabajo se estudió la estabilidad de la pulpa enriquecida en diferentes formulaciones, teniendo en cuenta los criterios de incorporación de calcio y vitamina C (20% del valor diario recomendado VDR y para la oligofructosa (fibra dietaría en relación 1:1 con el calcio. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que la pulpa de uchuva fortificada con CMC, ologofructosa, calcio y vitamina C presentó en promedio una estabilidad de 87,7±10,0; una viscosidad de 22,8±7,9; una aw de 0,9863±0; pH de 3,3±0,1; acidez de 1,6±0,1; grados Brix de 13,3±0,7; una densidad de 1,32±0 g/mL y las mejores respuestas sensoriales en cuanto a color, aroma, fluidez y sabor.

  5. Efectos del contacto piel con piel del recién nacido con su madre

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    Camila Lucchini Raies

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: el contacto piel con piel ha sido una práctica ancestral en toda cultura, que debido a la institucionalización de la atención del parto, disminuyó en occidente. Se retomó en el marco de la atención humanizada del parto. Objetivo principal: determinar los efectos del contacto piel con piel del recién nacido con su madre. Metodología: revisión bibliográfica de 26 estudios. Límites de búsqueda: new borns, humans, clinical trials, de 10 años de publicación, en bases de datos: Pubmed, ProQuest, CINHAL, Lilacs. Resultados principales: Se observaron beneficios en las variables: duración de lactancia materna, comportamiento neurosensorial, regulación de temperatura, como alternativa al cuidado estándar, disminución en días hospitalización y niveles de cortisol, favorecedor de la interacción madre-hijo y desarrollo infantil. Conclusión principal: el contacto piel con piel brinda múltiples beneficios a recién nacidos. Se presenta como alternativa de cuidado segura, factible de implementar.

  6. ESTUDIO DE LA DIGESTION HUMANA CON ALUMNOS CON DIFICULTADES DE APRENDIZAJE

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    Mª Begoña Carretero Gómez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En esta experiencia se han seleccionado una serie de actividades relacionadas con la digestión con el fin de lograr una reestructuración de ideas y cambios conceptuales, y así con la conseguir que el alumnado aprenda a construir sus propios conocimientos acerca de cómo y donde se dan los procesos de digestión necesarios para la nutrición del organismo. El trabajo se ha llevado a cabo con alumnos de 3º de Educación Secundaria Obligatoria, pertenecientesal programa de diversificación curricular. Hemos querido hacer la ciencia más cercana para que comprendan que algunos procesos tienen su explicación científica y que la ciencia forma parte de nuestro día a día, fomentando el interés del estudiante así como su implicación en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje. Por ello hemos trabajado a base de pequeñas investigaciones, donde es el alumno el que marca su ritmo de trabajo, investiga y hace sus aportaciones. Han aprendido a trabajar de una forma meticulosa donde el rigor esfundamental, contagiándose del afán investigador de manera que al realizar las experiencias se han aproximado al trabajo científico a la vez que aclaran y reestructuran conocimientos.

  7. Disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis with peripleuritis in an AIDS patient Paracoccidioidomicosis diseminada con peripleuritis en paciente con SIDA

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    Marcelo Corti

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis is one of the most frequent systemic and endemic mycoses of Latin America caused by a dimorphic fungus. In AIDS patients, paracoccidioidomycosis appears as a severe and disseminated disease with a wide spectrum of clinical findings. The CD4 counts are usually less than 200 cell/mu L. We present a case of disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis with peripleuritis and subcutaneous abscesses on the chest wall as initial manifestation of AIDS. In endemic countries, paracoccidioidomycosis should be included as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.La paracoccidioidomicosis es una de las micosis sistémicas endémicas más frecuentes de Latinoamérica, causada por un hongo dimorfo. En los pacientes con SIDA se presenta como una enfermedad grave y diseminada, con un amplio espectro de manifestaciones clínicas. Los niveles de linfocitos T CD4 + son habitualmente < de 200 cél/myL. Presentamos un caso de paracoccidioidomicosis diseminada con peripleuritis y abscesos subcutáneos sobre la pared torácica como manifestación inicial del SIDA. En países endémicos, la paracoccidioidomicosis debe incluirse como una complicación oportunista de los pacientes con SIDA.

  8. RUPTURA CON EL EJE Y ALINEAMIENTO CON ESTADOS UNIDOS: CHILE DURANTE LA SEGUNDA GUERRA MUNDIAL

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    Raffaele Nocera

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se avanza más allá en la investigación de un tema que ya ha sido objeto de otros estudios. Se entrega un análisis pormenorizado de la posición de Chile ante el origen y primer desarrollo de la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Aunque se destacan las relaciones con EE.UU., en base principalmente a un amplio estudio de archivos chilenos y norteamericanos, se analiza la situación tanto política como económica del país en relación a la guerra. El artículo vincula las relaciones de Chile con Estados Unidos a la luz de sus propias relaciones con el conflicto europeo, y particularmente con la Alemania naziThis study advances the research of a field, which already has been subyect of other works. There is a detailed analysis on Chile's position in front of the origins and in the first stage of the Second World War. There is an emphasis on relations with the U.S., based on Chilean and American archives, on the economic and political attitudes on the war. The article links the relations between Chile and the U.S. under the light of Chilean relations with the European conflict and, specially, Nazi Germany

  9. Incidencia y factores asociados con las reacciones adversas del tratamiento antirretroviral inicial en pacientes con VIH

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    Juan Astuvilca

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available La alta incidencia de reacciones adversas medicamentosas (RAMA al tratamiento antirretroviral de gran actividad (TARGA en pacientes con VIH/SIDA puede afectar la calidad de vida y adherencia al tratamiento. Objetivos: Determinar la incidencia de RAMA del TARGA inicial e identificar los factores asociados con la ocurrencia de RAMA al recibir dicha terapia. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio de cohorte histórica con todos los pacientes VIH (+ mayores de 18 años que recibieron TARGA por primera vez en el Hospital Nacional Arzobispo Loayza, con un seguimiento de 360 días desde la primera prescripción. Se recabó las RAMA de las historias clínicas y tarjetas de control. Resultados: Se incluyeron 353 pacientes, se encontró una incidencia acumulada de 66,7% de efectos adversos al TARGA inicial y una densidad de incidencia de 9,1 eventos de RAMA por 10 personas año de seguimiento (IC95%: 8,1-10,1. Anemia (23,4%, náuseas (20,6% y rash (17,2% fueron las RAMA más frecuentes. El uso de drogas (OR 2,40; IC95% 1,01-5,67; consumo de alcohol (OR 0.32; IC95%: 0,19-0,55 y estadio SIDA (OR 0,20; IC95%: 0,04-0,95 estuvieron asociadas con la presencia de RAMA. Conclusiones: Existe un alta incidencia de RAMA, siendo la anemia la más frecuente. El uso de drogas es un factor de riesgo para presentar RAMA.

  10. Hidroxilación de fenol con catalizadores ZSM-5 modificado con cobre

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    César Augusto Caro

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se sintetizaron varios catalizadores Cu-ZSM-5 con diferentes relaciones Si/Al y Si/Cu. Usando metilamina o hidróxido de sodio como agente mineralizante. Los catalizadores se caracterizaron por DRX, IR, análisis BET, UV-VIS y análisis elemental. El desempeño catalítico de los catalizadores sintetizados se evaluó en la hidroxilación de fenol con H2O2. Se encontró que la relación catecol (CAT/(hidroquinona (HQ + p-benzoquinona (PBQ aumentó con el contenido de agua, presentó un máximo cuando la relación en peso de agua/fenol fue de 53/1 y se favoreció a altas temperaturas, con el aumento del contenido de aluminio o con la disminución en el contenido de catalizador. El contenido de cobre no fue un factor determinante para la conversión ni para la selectividad en la hidroxilación de fenol. La producción de la p-benzoquinona (PBQ, producto de oxidación de la hidroquinona, fue mínimo cuando se usaron las siguientes condiciones: 80 ºC, fenol: 1 mmol, relación molar fenol/H2O2 de 3/1, catalizador: 20 mg, agua: 5 g, tiempo de reacción: 4 h.

  11. Estudio de pacientes colombianos con homocistinuria

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    M. Bermúdez

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available La homocistinuria es una alteración bioquímica producida por causas genéticas como son la deficiencia de alguna de las enzimas involucradas en el metabolismo de metionina u homocisteína: Cistationina b sintasa, 5-10 Metilentetrahidrofolato reductasa, o Metionina sintasa al igual que a deficiencias nutricionales y asocio a otras patologías como son la enfermedad renal y problemas  vasculares. El objetivo de este trabajo es la identificación de la deficiencia bioquímica en pacientes con homocistinuria, mediante la cuantificación de las enzimas involucradas, utilizando como muestras fibroblastos y linfocitos.

  12. Cervical disc arthroplasty: Pros and cons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moatz, Bradley; Tortolani, P Justin

    2012-01-01

    Cervical disc arthroplasty has emerged as a promising potential alternative to anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) in appropriately selected patients. Despite a history of excellent outcomes after ACDF, the question as to whether a fusion leads to adjacent segment degeneration remains unanswered. Numerous US investigational device exemption trials comparing cervical arthroplasty to fusion have been conducted to answer this question. This study reviews the current research regarding cervical athroplasty, and emphasizes both the pros and cons of arthroplasty as compared with ACDF. Early clinical outcomes show that cervical arthroplasty is as effective as the standard ACDF. However, this new technology is also associated with an expanding list of novel complications. Although there is no definitive evidence that cervical disc replacement reduces the incidence of adjacent segment degeneration, it does show other advantages; for example, faster return to work, and reduced need for postoperative bracing.

  13. Accesibilidad digital para usuarios con limitaciones visuales

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    Toledo, Gabriela Alejandra

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo persigue como objetivos: recapitular y analizar los principios básicos de diseño para el desarrollo de tecnologías inclusivas; evaluar ventajas y desventajas en el uso del programa lector de pantalla (JAWS al acceder a entornos comunicacionales, desde las variables de navegabilidad, interoperabilidad, usabilidad y colaboración en la cognición; derivar sugerencias acerca del diseño de entornos de aprendizaje colaborativo, de modo de lograr una mayor efectividad de esta herramienta digital, aplicada a personas con limitaciones en la visión en diverso grado; redactar un manual complementario de orientaciones que facilite el uso de este instrumento inclusivo, aplicado a entornos de enseñanza/ aprendizaje colaborativo.

  14. Macrosiphonia petraea: Variantes poblacionales con potencial decorativo

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    FONTANA, H

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumenMacrosiphonia petraea crece sobre suelos franco-arenosos, es perenne y sus flores blancas son vespertinas. En un ensayo en macetas bajo invernáculo en Buenos Aires se evaluó el comportamiento en dichas condiciones, la existencia de polimorfismos y se identificó a los individuos atractivos. Los caracteres considerados fueron números de tallos, de flores y de días desde la siembra hasta la aparición de la primera flor de cada planta. También se midió la longitud de los tallos y se estimó la extensión del período de floración. Se halló que la floración se concentró en verano con picos en enero y en febrero y se identificaron individuos de tallos péndulos o erectos. El número de tallos fue un carácter importante para la calidad subjetivamente determinada siendo más atractivos los individuos compactos, con un mayor número de tallos. Las plantas mostraron susceptibilidad a plagas insectiles, manteniendo la turgencia aún con temperaturas altas. Se concluyó que existen polimorfismos para los caracteres observados y que por su rusticidad M. petraea podría posicionarse como una opción decorativa de bajo mantenimiento en nichos comerciales tales como jardines de roca en lugares con actividad nocturna. La selección, un programa de fertilización comercial y un manejoen exterior a partir del inicio de la época cálida, probablemente permitirían obtener un número superior flores y mejor estado sanitario.AbstractMacrosiphonia petraea grows on sandy loam soils, is perennial and its white flowers are vespertine. In a greenhouse test in pots carried out in Buenos Aires, behaviour in those conditions was evaluated, the existence of polymorphisms and attractive individuals were identified. Features considered were number of stalks, number of flowers and days since planting up to appearance of first flower in each plant. Length of stalks was also measured and length of flowering period was estimated. Flowering concentrated during

  15. Cenizas, cementos y hormigones con cenizas

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    Calleja, José

    1982-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the chemical composition and the morfological nature of pulverized coal ashes, as well as their physical characteristics. Their influences —actions and effects— on the main properties and behaviour of cements and concretes, and the more adequate conditions for their efficient use un them are also described.

    En este trabajo se exponen la composición química y la naturaleza morfológica de las cenizas pulverulentas de los carbones, así como sus características físicas. Se describen asimismo sus influencias —acciones y efectos— sobre las principales propiedades y comportamientos más importantes de los cementos y de los hormigones, así como las condiciones más idóneas para su más eficaz empleo con y en ellos.

  16. Los profesores de alumnos con altas habilidades

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    Cándido GENOVARD

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo analizamos las características de los profesores expertos para alumnos de altas habilidades. Se analizan los antecedentes del tema y el proceso instruccional para atender la diversidad de estos alumnos. Se destaca el valor de las interacciones entre profesor¿ alumnos y los estilos de enseñar y aprender. Asimismo, recogemos pautas de acción y recursos instruccionales a utilizar en el aula para la enseñanza de estos alumnos. No hay un profesor ideal para los alumnos con altas habilidades, pero los docentes deben conocer qué son y cómo funcionan los procesos de enseñanza¿aprendizaje y las variables psicológicas, de contenidos y contextuales implicadas en éstos.

  17. DESPACHO ECONOMICO CON RESTRICCIONES DE SEGURIDAD

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    Miriam López Pérez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un trabajo relativo a la optimización de la generación de potencia activa en el Sistema Eléctrico Nacional,con el usos de técnicas de programación lineal . El modelo considerado incluye las pérdidas de potencia en la red detransmisión ,y un conjunto de restricciones que garantizan la seguridad de la operación para el punto óptimo obtenidocomo solución.  This paper deals with active power generation optimization in the National Electric Power System. It uses linealprogramming techniques. The model considered take into account transmission network power losses and severalsecurity constrains in the process to obtain the optimal solution.

  18. Jícama: Producto con Identidad Territorial

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    Marisol Idrovo Avecillas

    2015-11-01

    La jícama es un producto con identidad territorial (PIT, son fragmentos de la perspectiva de tierras aptas para el cultivo, producción, comercialización sostenible que se apega al Plan Nacional del Buen Vivir, que se ajusta al cambio de la Matriz Productiva incluyendo a los sectores involucrados del país, este vegetal andino no es consumido regularmente por los ecuatorianos; los resultados obtenidos en el laboratorio nos indican que es un vegetal rico en: grasa, proteína, humedad, fibra dietética, carbohidratos totales, energía total, energía de la grasa, hierro, sodio, potasio, calcio, vitaminas, entre otras propiedades.

  19. Con motivo aparente. La Universidad a debate

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    Adelina CALVO SALVADOR

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo plantea una reflexión sobre la Universidad, consi-derando cuáles deben ser sus propósitos y tomando comoreferencia los argumentos que han esgrimido expertos y ges-tores sobre los retos a los que ésta se enfrenta. Los cambiosque se están viviendo en la institución no pueden entendersesin tener en cuenta la centralidad de la economía del cono-cimiento y la introducción de la lógica mercantilista en ladocencia, investigación y gestión. El artículo finaliza con al-gunas ideas sobre cómo construir otra Universidad, más pre-ocupada por buscar soluciones a los problemas de las per-sonas y sociedades.

  20. Ejemplos Nacionales relacionados con la Crisis

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    Nelson Loustaunau

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Buenas noches, inicialmente me voy a permitir una licencia, voy a excederme del tema que se me había confiado, el cual era tomar ejemplos nacionales relacionados con la crisis. ¿Por qué me tomo esta libertad?, por un motivo muy sencillo, si uno solamente mira el panorama nacional, puede no comprender la dimensión del problema a nivel mundial, y puede no comprender si realmente nuestro país está haciendo las cosas bien o no.Veamos, nosotros identificamos cinco tipos de medidas básicas tomadas en relación al Derecho del Trabajo, o a la salvaguarda de puestos de trabajo frente a la crisis. 

  1. Lesiones bucales relacionadas con las enfermedades digestivas

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    José A. Pacho Saavedra

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Muchas de las lesiones de la mucosa en la cavidad bucal están relacionadas con trastornos anatómicos y funcionales de los órganos del aparato digestivo; algunas forman parte del cuadro clínico de la entidad y otras aparecen como complicaciones de estas. Generalmente son de orígenes inmunológicos, nutricionales o carenciales. Estas lesiones son difíciles de tratar, por lo que es importante conocer las características clínicas que faciliten una adecuada interpretación y al mismo tiempo ofrecer una conducta terapéutica correcta. Se presenta una revisión actualizada de las características semiológicas de las lesiones bucales que forman parte del cuadro clínico de diversas enfermedades digestivas, con el fin de que los médicos generales, clínicos, estomatólogos y gastroenterólogos puedan diagnosticarlas y brindar mejor orientación y tratamiento a los pacientes.Many of the lesions of the mucosa in the oral cavity are related to anatomical and functional disorders of the organs of the digestive system. Some of them are part of the clinical picture of the entity and others appear as complications of them. Generally, they have an immunological, nutritional, or deficiency origin. These lesions are difficult to be treated and that's why it is important to know the clinical characteristics making easy an adequate interpretation, and to follow a suitable therapeutic conduct at the same time. An updated review of the semiological features of the oral lesions corresponding to the clinical picture of diverse digestive diseases is presented, so that the general physicians, clinicians, stomatologists and gastroenterologists be able to diagnose and give a better guidance and treatment to the patients.

  2. Experiencia en Cuba del tratamiento de la litiasis renoureteral con litotricia extracorpórea por ondas de choque en niños Cuban experience in the treatment of renouretheral lithiasis in children by using extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

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    María Victoria Labrada Rodríguez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la litiasis urinaria en el niño resulta una enfermedad poco frecuente si se compara con su incidencia en el adulto. Objetivos: describir el resultado del tratamiento en Cuba de la litiasis del aparato urinario en niños, mediante la litotricia extracorpórea por ondas de choque, así como validar la eficacia del método. Métodos: la muestra corresponde a 227 niños, tratados en el Centro de Tratamiento de la Litiasis Urinaria del Hospital Clinicoquirúrgico "Hermanos Ameijeiras'' de La Habana, entre abril de 1986 y octubre de 2011, utilizando 3 tipos de litotritores: el HM3 (Dornier, Lithostar Plus (Siemens y Medical Modulith® SLX (Storz. Resultados: las edades límites fueron 2 y 18 años. De manera general resultó similar el total de pacientes tratados del sexo femenino que el masculino (51 %/49 %. El síntoma predominante fue el cólico nefrítico con cálculos renales (81,9 %, y en el uréter (18,1 %. La superficie media fue de 1,20 cm². Se utilizó anestesia general orotraqueal (34,4 % y general intravenosa (65,6 %. Los retratamientos fueron necesarios en 8 casos (3,52 %. Las complicaciones fueron la infección urinaria aguda (3,08 % y el hematoma subcapsular renal (0,88 %. Resultó libre de material litiásico el 96,04 %. Conclusiones: la terapéutica mediante la litotricia extracorpórea por ondas de choque resulta efectiva, con baja tasa de morbilidad y de complicaciones graves, por lo que creemos debe defenderse científicamente como la primera opción terapéutica en la resolución de la litiasis urinaria en estas edades. Debe recordarse que eliminar el cálculo no es suficiente, hay que identificar la enfermedad, su tratamiento de fondo, y evitar las recidivas.Introduction: urinary lithiasis is a rare disease in children if compared with its incidence on the adults. Objectives: to describe the results of the treatment of urinary lithiasis in children in Cuba, by using extracorporeal shock wave lithrotripsy, and to

  3. Modelización financiera con Excel

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    Lafuente Robledo, M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available La enseñanza de la Matemática de las Operaciones Financieras ha experimentado durante la década de los noventa una transformación profunda como consecuencia de la progresiva introducción de los programas informáticos. Las hojas de cálculo, dada su gran facilidad de uso, su flexibilidad y su utilización generalizada, han sido una de las herramientas disponibles más potentes para el tratamiento de problemas financieros. De ahí que su incorporación a los programas docentes de esta disciplina se hayan convertido en una norma casi obligada para garantizar la calidad de la enseñanza en esta materia. No obstante, es preciso tener en cuenta que para aplicaciones de alto nivel se requieren programas más especializados (por ejemplo, para gestión de carteras y que cada vez están más extendidas otras herrramientas informáticas de cálculo avanzado como los programas de cálculo numérico (por ejemplo, las aplicaciones financieras específicas de Matlab o de cálculo simbólico (Mathematica, Maple, Matlab, Derive, etc.. De ahí que la hoja de cálculo haya dejado de ser el único programa informático de uso generalizado para el tratamiento de operaciones financieras, y que progresivamente sea preciso incorporar las nuevas aplicaciones en los curricula del alumno. La utilización de las hojas de cálculo en la modelización de problemas de matemática financiera representa importantes ventajas didácticas: · Dado el carácter eminentemente práctico de la misma, simplifica en gran medida la materia a impartir, ya que con los principios y razonamientos elementales permite prescindir del desarrollo de buen número de las fórmulas que la matemática financiera plantea para realizar valoraciones. · Como consecuencia se produce un gran ahorro de tiempo en cuanto a las necesidades de clases magistrales, lo cual permite dedicar más tiempo a la explicación detallada y pormenorizada de los conceptos fundamentales. · Desde el punto de vista

  4. Factores relacionados con el cumplimiento del tratamiento en pacientes con tuberculosis, Pereira, Colombia, 2012-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magally Dueñes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Según la Organización Mundial de Salud, el cumplimiento del tratamiento de la tuberculosis puede definirse como el grado en que la toma de los medicamentos por parte de un paciente coincide con el tratamiento prescrito. La suma de los pacientes curados y de quienes finalizan el tratamiento (estrategia de observación directa, son indicadores pragmáticos del cumplimiento del tratamiento. Objetivos. Determinar la relación entre el cumplimiento del tratamiento contra la tuberculosis y los factores sociodemográficos, económicos y clínicos, y los relacionados con los medicamentos, tanto de índole objetiva como subjetiva, en pacientes mayores de 18 años. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio descriptivo transversal de 174 registros de pacientes del programa de control de la tuberculosis y de 15 entrevistas semiestructuradas hechas a los pacientes que no cumplían con el tratamiento durante el periodo comprendido entre junio de 2012 y junio de 2013. Resultados. El cumplimiento del tratamiento en pacientes con tuberculosis pulmonar fue de 94,8 % y fue mayor en los pacientes del régimen contributivo (p=0,035. El incumplimiento del tratamiento fue de 5,2 %. La intolerancia a los medicamentos fue mayor en el grupo de quienes no cumplieron el tratamiento. La falta de apoyo familiar, el abandono del trabajo, el impacto económico y la insatisfacción con la oportunidad de la atención en la institución de salud, fueron factores importantes a la hora de incumplir el tratamiento. Conclusiones. El régimen de afiliación al sistema de salud y la tolerancia a los medicamentos fueron los factores objetivos relacionados con el cumplimiento del tratamiento y, la carga social y económica de la enfermedad, el factor subjetivo.

  5. Função sistólica de pacientes com infarto miocárdico submetidos a transplante autólogo da medula óssea Función sistólica de pacientes con infarto miocárdico sometidos a transplante autólogo de la médula ósea Systolic function of patients with myocardial infarction undergoing autologous bone marrow transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Belloni dos Santos Nogueira

    2009-10-01

    través del ecocardiograma la función sistólica de pacientes con infarto agudo de miocardio tras el Transplante Autólogo de Células Mononucleares da Médula Ósea (TACMMO a través de dos vías inyección: intracoronaria e intravenosa. MÉTODOS: Estudio abierto, prospectivo, randomizado. Se incluyeron a pacientes admitidos por infarto agudo de miocardio (IAM con supradesnivelamiento del segmento ST y sometidos a la reperfusión mecánica o química, dentro de 24 horas tras el inicio de los síntomas, que presentaban al ecocardiograma una reducción de la contractilidad segmentar y defecto fijo de la perfusión relacionada a la arteria responsable del IAM. Se llevó a cabo la aspiración de la médula ósea antóloga de la cresta ilíaca posterior bajo sedación y analgesia, en los pacientes randomizados para el grupo tratado. Tras la manipulación laboratorial, se inyectaron 100 millones de células mononucleares por vía intracoronaria o intravenosa. Utilizamos el ecocardiograma (Vivid 7 para evaluar la función ventricular antes y tras tres y seis meses de la infusión de células. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron a 30 pacientes, 14 en el grupo arterial (GA, 10 en el grupo venoso (GV y 6 en el grupo control (GC. No hubo diferencia estadística de los parámetros ecocardiográficos estudiados entre los grupos. CONCLUSIÓN: El transplante antólogo de células mononucleares de la médula ósea no demostró mejora de los parámetros ecocardiográficos de la función sistólica.BACKGROUND: Several studies have been published on the effect of bone-marrow stem cells on the left ventricle when acting on post- acute myocardial infarction remodeling. However, the results have been controversial. OBJECTIVE: To carry out an echocardiographic analysis of the systolic function of patients with acute myocardial infarction after autologous mononuclear bone marrow cell transplantation (AMBMCT as performed via the intracoronary and intravenous routes. METHODS: This is an open

  6. Equinoterapia en niños con autismo

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez Alvernia, Carlos Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: Autismo es un trastorno del desarrollo caracterizado por compromiso en interacción social, habilidades de lenguaje, presentando rituales con estereotipias. Sin tratamientos curativos, actualmente se buscan terapias alternativas. Un incremento de la literatura científica de terapias asistidas con animales se ha evidenciado, demostrando mejoría en pacientes autistas con la equinoterapia. Objetivo: Realizar una revisión sistemática de la literatura para evaluar efectividad de la eq...

  7. Perfil cinético de la suxibuzona para su uso en la clínica de équidos estudio comparado con la fenilbutazona /

    OpenAIRE

    Mayós Servet, Irene

    2005-01-01

    Consultable des del TDX Títol obtingut de la portada digitalitzada La Suxibuzona es un antiinflamatorio no esteroideo utilizado en la clínica equina. Químicamente se define como éster de la Fenilbutazona. Ambas moléculas están estrechamente relacionadas debido a que la Suxibuzona se metaboliza rápidamente a Fenilbutazona, ya sea al administrarla por vía oral como por vía intravenosa en el caballo. El objetivo del presente estudio es el de evaluar la relación del perfil de disponibilidad...

  8. Caracterización inmunológica de invididuos con exposición sexual persistente al virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) que permanecen seronegativos

    OpenAIRE

    Restrepo González, Clara

    2013-01-01

    Existen individuos que a pesar de repetidas exposiciones al VIH permanecen seronegativos, sin evidencia clínica ni virológica de infección por este virus. A estos individuos se les conoce como “expuestos al VIH que permanecen seronegativos” (HESN; del inglés “HIV-exposed but seronegative”). Dentro de este grupo de sujetos se han descrito trabajadoras sexuales, recién nacidos de madres infectadas, usuarios de drogas intravenosas, trabajadores sanitarios, y parejas homosexuales o he...

  9. Tratamiento periodontal en un paciente con bulimia y anorexia

    OpenAIRE

    Dolonguevich, Evelyn Ruth; Boero López, Edgardo

    2009-01-01

    En el caso clínico se trató periodontalmente a la paciente C. J., con diagnóstico de bulimia y anorexia nerviosa purgativa. Se destacó el importante trabajo de motivación, que dio como resultado una respuesta excelente en su salud bucal. Se contó con la posibilidad de colocar implantes dentales con buen resultado postoperatorio, lo cual es promisorio en cuanto a lograr rehabilitarla con una solución fija, que no sufrirán de patología...

  10. La autodeterminación en adolescentes con discapacidad intelectual

    OpenAIRE

    Margarita María Arroyave Palacio; Mónica Lilian Freyle Nieves

    2009-01-01

    El propósito de esta investigación fue analizar la incidencia que tiene un ambiente de aprendizaje apoyado en la simulación sobre la autodeterminación de un grupo de adolescentes con discapacidad intelectual. Hicieron parte de la muestra 13 adolescentes con similares niveles de desarrollo, de diferentes instituciones educativas del municipio de La Ceja del Tambo, Departamento de Antioquia. Durante ocho meses, con una intensidad de ocho horas semanales, este grupo de adolescentes con discap...

  11. La autodeterminación en adolescentes con discapacidad intelectual

    OpenAIRE

    Arroyave Palacio, Margarita María; Freyle Nieves, Mónica Lilian

    2009-01-01

    El propósito de esta investigación fue analizar la incidencia que tiene un ambiente de aprendizaje apoyado en la simulación sobre la autodeterminación de un grupo de adolescentes con discapacidad intelectual. Hicieron parte de la muestra 13 adolescentes con similares niveles de desarrollo, de diferentes instituciones educativas del municipio de La Ceja del Tambo, Departamento de Antioquia. Durante ocho meses, con una intensidad de ocho horas semanales, este grupo de adolescentes con discapaci...

  12. CERVICO HISTEROPEXIA SACRA CON REPARACIÓN PARAVAGINAL

    OpenAIRE

    Laíz R,Domingo; Urzúa V,Fernando

    2006-01-01

    Se presenta el caso de una paciente con diagnóstico de prolapso genital completo con marcado componente uterino y disfunción sexual secundaria, quien desea conservación de este órgano por paridad incompleta. Se realiza cervicosacropexia con malla de prolene y reparación de defecto paravaginal logrando buena suspensión uterina. La paciente a los seis meses de operada se encuentra sin prolapso. Se mantiene asintomática con buena función sexual y en planificación de un próximo embarazo

  13. Mi palabra favorita. Una actividad con vídeo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Cañuelo Carrión

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Mi palabra favorita es un actividad que surge a partir de la propuesta que realizael Instituto Cervantes con la web El día E (www.eldiae.es. Este portal fue creado enconmemoración del día del español, que se celebra desde 2009 el último sábado dejunio. Para festejar la vitalidad de la lengua y el interés mundial que despierta, hablantesy aprendientes de todo el mundo pueden explicar en dicho portal cuál es su palabrafavorita. Y pueden hacerlo con un texto, con un pictograma o con un vídeo.

  14. TRATAMIENTO DE LA INSUFICIENCIA RENAL CRONICA, CON LASER-PUNTURA

    OpenAIRE

    JIMENEZ SERRANO, ANTONIO

    2010-01-01

    LA INSUFICIENCIA RENAL CRONICA (IRC), ES UNA ENFERMEDAD QUE EN LOS ULTIMOS TIEMPOS SE HA PRESENTADO CON MAYOR FRECUENCIA, ORIGINANDO GASTOS MUY ALTOS PARA LA ECONOMIA DE LAS FAMILIAS, Y PARA LAS INSTITUCIONES DE SALUD. EN ESTADOS UNIDOS EN 1995 SE PRESENTARON 59.000 CASOS NUEVOS DE IRC, PARA UNA INCIDENCIA DE 214 CASOS POR MILLON DE HABITANTES. CON TERAPIA DE REEMPLAZO RENAL (EN DIALISIS O CON TRASPLANTE RENAL) Y CON UNA PREVALENCIA DE 824 PACIENTES EN DIALISIS POR MILLON DE HABITANTES. ESTE...

  15. Amiloidosis renal en paciente con osteomielitis de extremidad inferior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Vicente Santos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La amiloidosis secundaria (AA sistémica es una entidad frecuente, asociada con enfermedades inflamatorias e infecciones de larga evolución, así como con algunas neoplasias. Presentamos el caso de un varón de 58 años, con antecedente de úlcera en miembro inferior derecho de más de 30 años de evolución y con síndrome nefrótico secundario a amiloidosis AA.

  16. Infliximab en pacientes con enfermedad ocular inflamatoria, refractarios a DARMES

    OpenAIRE

    Elmer R. García-Salazar; Henry Terrazas; Javier Gonzales; Miguel Fernández

    2013-01-01

    Se describe la experiencia con infliximab (anticuerpo monoclonal con una potente acción antiinflamatoria) en el tratamiento de enfermedades oculares inflamatorias secundarias a patologías reumáticas y refractarias a drogas antirreumáticas modificadoras de la enfermedad (DARMES). Se evaluó el caso de una paciente de 50 años con artritis reumatoide (AR) de fondo activo y una paciente de 37 años con vasculitis anticuerpos anticitoplasma de neutrófilos especifico para mieloperoxidasa (ANCA MPO) s...

  17. Aprendizaje cooperativo en Educación Primaria: experiencia con alumnos con necesidades educativas especiales (ACNEES)

    OpenAIRE

    Vega Vaquero Hernández, María de la

    2013-01-01

    En el presente trabajo veremos el beneficio que aporta el aprendizaje cooperativo a todos los alumnos, incluyendo a los alumnos con necesidades educativas especiales. Además como los maestros debemos adaptarnos a los modos de acceder a los conocimientos y a los diferentes ritmos de adquisición de los aprendizajes. Las relaciones entre iguales son necesarias, el aprendizaje de las habilidades sociales, el ser competentes comunicativamente hablando, tener capacidades para la resolución d...

  18. Estudio comparativo del efecto del cepillado con una crema dental con propóleos rojos y de un gel con clorofila

    OpenAIRE

    Estela Gispert Abreu; Elena Cantillo Estrada; Aracelys Rivero López; Berta Oramas Rodríguez

    1998-01-01

    Se analiza comparativamente el efecto de un gel dental de clorofila y de una crema dental con propóleos rojos sobre varios parámetros relacionados con la caries dental, en escolares que se cepillaron durante 21 días con dichos productos. Se obtuvieron resultados favorables principalmente en la disminución del grado de infección por Streptococcus mutans y la elevación de la capacidad individual de remineralización; salvo en este último no hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas.Author...

  19. MACROHEMATURIA PERSISTENTE Y ANEMIZANTE RESUELTA CON ENALAPRIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imperiali N

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTHematuria is the presence of an excessive number of red blood cells in the urine (at least three or more erythrocytes in a high-power field in centrifuged urine. It is categorized as microscopic when it is visible only with the aid of a microscope and macroscopic when the urine is tea-colored, pink or even red.Hematuria can result from injury to the kidney or injury to another site in the urinary tract, and renal hematuria can be caused by glomerular or non-glomerular disease.Some clinical and biochemical findings contribute to understand the origin of this problem: the presence of hematuria with clots suggests an urological cause, while the presence of red blood cell casts and/or dysmorphic red blood cells in a urine sample supports a glomerular etiology.In the present report we presented a clinical case of a patient suffering from persistent and anemizing gross hematuria secondary to a mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis associated with thick glomerular basement membranes which was solved using enalapril.RESUMENLa hematuria es definida como la presencia de por lo menos tres o más eritrocitos por campo en una muestra de orina centrifugada, pudiéndose a su vez clasificar este problema en microhematuria: cuando sólo puede ser detectado con la ayuda del microscopio o macrohematuria cuando a simple vista se observa una orina color te, rosada o francamente roja.La hematuria puede ser producto de una lesión a nivel de la vía urinaria o a nivel renal, pudiendo ser esta última de etiología glomerular o no glomerular.Algunos datos clínicos y bioquímicos contribuyen a la comprensión acerca del origen de la hematuria: la presencia de coágulos en la orina sugiere una causa urológica, mientras que la presencia de cilindros eritrocitarios y/o eritrocitos dismórficos o acantocitos en la misma apoyan una etiología glomerular.En este reporte, presentamos un caso clínico de un paciente portador de una macrohematuria anemizante

  20. Enfermedad periodontal en pacientes con discapacidad en custodia versus pacientes con discapacidad independientes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermín-Guerrero-Del Ángel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Identificar el estado de salud periodontal en pacientes con discapacidad en custodia versus pacientes independientes en su higiene oral. Material y métodos: Se examinaron pacientes con discapacidad, ambos sexos, 3 a 19 años que acuden al Servicio de Odontopediatría del Centro de Rehabilitación Infantil Teletón (CRIT Tamaulipas mediante revisión de cavidad oral y aplicación del Índice de Higiene Oral Simplificado (IHOS, Índice Periodontal Comunitario de la Necesidad de Tratamiento (IPCNT y entrevista con su cuidador primario. Se agruparon en dos categorías: Independientes y de Custodia. Resultados: En el total de la muestra la Media y Desviación estándar (D.E. de IPCNT fue de 0.89±0.54, así como el IHOS de 1.88±0.77. El IPCNT en pacientes con discapacidad de Custodia fue 0.91±0.57 e Independientes de 0.86±0.49 (p=0.70, IHOS en pacientes de Custodia 1.89±0.78 e Independientes 1.87±.0.74 (p=.93. IPCNT en géneros masculino 1.03±0.54 y femenino 0.75±0.51 (p=.009. IHOS en pacientes que habitan área rural 2.41±1.25 y área urbana 1.83±0.68 (p=.02. Relación entre la edad y la necesidad de tratamiento periodontal (p=0.001. Frecuencia del cepillado del grupo Independientes 2.03±0.56 y de Custodia 2.00±0.75 (p=.84. Conclusiones: No existe diferencia en el estado de salud periodontal y el grado de higiene oral entre pacientes con discapacidad Independientes y de Custodia. La mayoría de los pacientes Independientes y de Custodia tienen una necesidad de tratamiento de Instrucción de Higiene Oral (TN1 y tienen Higiene Oral Regular.

  1. Actitudes de los adolescentes hacia personas con discapacidad: un estudio con alumnos de polimodal zona norte del conurbano bonaerense

    OpenAIRE

    Muratori, Marcela; Delfino, Gisela Isabel

    2009-01-01

    Desde una perspectiva de la Psicología Social, se plantea la necesidad de estudiar las actitudes de los adolescentes hacia personas con discapacidad y la importancia de desarrollar actitudes que sean positivas hacia la diversidad e integración del alumnado con discapacidad (Sales, Moliner & Sanchiz, 2001). El argumento esencial para defender la integración tiene que ver con un reconocimiento de los derechos de las personas y con criterios de justicia e igualdad, lo que garantizará la particip...

  2. DEPRESIÓN EN NIÑOS CON TRASTORNO POR DÉFICIT DE ATENCIÓN CON HIPERACTIVIDAD

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro Calvillo, María Elena

    2013-01-01

    El trastorno por déficit de atención con hiperactividad (TDA/H) es la afección neuropsiquiátrica más común en la población infantil. Se caracteriza por la presencia de inatención e impulsividad; puede presentarse con o sin hiperactividad en diversos grados, lo que afecta el rendimiento escolar de cada 7 a 10 pacientes, con una comorbilidad frecuente con trastornos conductuales tales como el síndrome oposicionista desafiante, el trastorno disocial, trastornos de depresión, ansiedad y de aprend...

  3. EFECTO DE LA SATISFACCION CON LA ALIMENTACION EN LA SATISFACCION CON LA VIDA: UN ESTUDIO EN ADULTOS DE CHILE

    OpenAIRE

    SEPULVEDA, JOSE ANDRES

    2013-01-01

    El propósito del presente estudio es evaluar un modelo causal entre la satisfacción con la propia alimentación y satisfacción con la propia vida mediante un modelo de ecuaciones estructurales (SEM), explorando posibles efectos moderadores de variables sociodemográficas. Se aplicó una encuesta a 1.852 personas, mayores de 18 años, hombres y mujeres, de las macrozonas Norte, Centro y Sur de Chile, incluyendo las escalas de satisfacción con la propia vida (SWLS) y de satisfacción con...

  4. Experiencias con Ipads en la escuela primaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Ebner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Los ordenadores-tablet están acaparando toda la atención en estos momentos y forman parte de nuestra vida cotidiana. Por ello, no es de extrañar que en el ámbito educativo se hayan arbitrado fórmulas para incorporarlos en las aulas. La presente investigación pretende mostrar las estrategias llevadas a cabo en determinadas experiencias con iPads en escuelas primarias austriacas. Por un lado, se describe el desarrollo de las aplicaciones (apps educativas apropiadas para su empleo en aulas. Y por otro, cada lección apoyada en las tecnologías es analizada y evaluada desde una perspectiva técnica. Las aportaciones más representativas de la investigación evidencian las diversas fórmulas de utilización de este tipo de ordenadores para promover una influencia positiva en la enseñanza, también se apuntan recomendaciones prácticas sobre cómo deberían ser usados en aulas.

  5. Note di fisica statistica (con qualche accordo)

    CERN Document Server

    Piazza, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Il testo si configura come un' introduzione alla fisica statistica rivolto in primo luogo a quei corsi di studio in ingegneria che più hanno a che fare con le proprietà fisiche dei materiali, ed ha lo scopo di fornire le basi microscopiche del comportamento termodinamico di cui si fa uso sia in molti corsi tradizionali, quali quelli di termofluidica d'interesse per l'ingegneria chimica e nucleare, che in corsi rivolti ad applicazioni avanzate nella scienza dei materiali e nelle nanotecnologie. Particolare attenzione viene quindi dedicata all'impiego di metodi di fisica statistica nella scienza dei materiali, approfondendo tematiche relative alle vibrazioni nei solidi, ai processi di nucleazione liquido/vapore, alla struttura dello stato fluido e vetroso, ai plasmi, ai materiali magnetici, al gas di Fermi e alla superfluidità. Per il suo carattere generale, e per l'accento posto sui fondamenti della meccanica quantistica, il volume si presta comunque a costituire anche un testo introduttivo alla meccanica s...

  6. derechos de las personas con VIH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elena Badilla

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El marco constitucional y legal de Costa Rica, incluida la jurisprudencia de la Sala Constitucional de la Corte Suprema de Justicia, es fiel garante de los derechos humanos. Además, la existencia de un amplio marco jurídico internacional vigente en el país sobre protección de tales derechos contribuye a llenar las lagunas que presenta la legislación nacional. Particularmente destacable ha sido el papel jugado por la citada Sala Constitucional en la defensa de los derechos humanos de las personas afectadas por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH, en especial al garantizarles sus derechos a los medicamentos antirretrovirales. También la Defensoría de los Habitantes ha instado en múltiples ocasiones a las instituciones públicas a impulsar políticas que permitan alcanzar los fines previstos en la legislación sobre la materia, la cual presenta aún importantes vacíos en relación con la perspectiva de género, la población joven, los derechos de la personalidad o el ámbito laboral, entre otros.

  7. ¿Derecho a morir con dignidad?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Ruiz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available El derecho a morir con dignidad es un concepto vago y que recibe múltiples interpretaciones, muchas de ellas inapropiadas. Se propone la necesidad de que sea el médico quien se haga responsable de proteger los derechos del paciente, de garantizar el uso racional de los recursos y de velar porque las decisiones sean apropiadas y proporcionadas a la situación del paciente, a su pronóstico, expectativas y deseos, pero también, a la utilidad esperada y a la relación costo-beneficio. Se enfatiza que la dignidad puede ser entendida de muchas maneras y que, a veces, en su nombre se somete al paciente, o lo hace él mismo, a sufrimientos, dolor y complicaciones que podrían haberse evitado, no necesariamente en busca de prolongar la vida. Se hace énfasis en que, cuando no hay probabilidades razonables de supervivencia o cuando no puede ya buscarse mejorar la calidad de vida, deben enfocarse los esfuerzos en procurar calidad de muerte.

  8. con DEPHA: equilibrio químico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladis Duperly Yaruro

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el proceso de extracción líquido-líquido para separar barrio presente en fase acuosa mediante una fase orgánica compuesta de DEPHA (bis-2-ethylhexyl phosphate, disuelto en queroseno y con alcohol isopropílico como agente modificador. Se estudiaron diferentes variables: a concentración del metal en la fase líquida, b pH de la solución, c concentración del portador orgánico d relación de volumen de fase orgánica y acuosa. Se obtuvo una eficiencia de recuperación de 89.5% usando una solución orgánica de 30% (V/V, 30% (V/V isopropil alcohol. La extracción de bario ocurre a pH 11. La fase acuosa consistió de 100 mg/L de BaCl2.2H2O. Se describió el equilibrio químico del sistema y se obtuvo KqE = 0,338. Este parámetro es útil para establecer la viabilidad del proceso industrial para la separación de bario en fase acuosa.

  9. Inhibidores de la histidina quinasa con actividad antibacteriana

    OpenAIRE

    Marina, Alberto; Velikova, Nadya; Finn, Paul; Fulle, Simone; Wells, Jerry M.

    2014-01-01

    Inhibidores de la histidina guinasa con actividad antibacteriana. La presente invención se refiere a un grupo de compuestos con actividad inhibidora de la autofosforilación y actividad antibacteriana frente a diferentes bacterias como Staphylococcus aureus y Staphylococcus epidermidis entre otras, y al uso de dichos compuestos para la fabricación de antibióticos.

  10. RoboCon: A general purpose telerobotic control center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draper, J.V.; Noakes, M.W.; Blair, L.M.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes human factors issues involved in the design of RoboCon, a multi-purpose control center for use in US Department of Energy remote handling applications. RoboCon is intended to be a flexible, modular control center capable of supporting a wide variety of robotic devices

  11. RoboCon: A general purpose telerobotic control center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draper, J.V.; Noakes, M.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Robotics and Process Systems Div.; Schempf, H. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Blair, L.M. [Human Machine Interfaces, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1997-02-01

    This report describes human factors issues involved in the design of RoboCon, a multi-purpose control center for use in US Department of Energy remote handling applications. RoboCon is intended to be a flexible, modular control center capable of supporting a wide variety of robotic devices.

  12. Tratamiento de la tiroiditis de Riedel con triamcinolona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Brito Sosa

    Full Text Available Se presenta el primer paciente con una tiroiditis de Riedel que se le aplica un tratamiento alternativo con triamcinolona creado por el profesor Juan Gualberto Vivó Núñez. Es el caso de una mujer de 48 años de edad, que acude al cuerpo de guardia por aumento de volumen de la región anterior del cuello y referir ligera disfagia. Tiene antecedente inicialmente de hipertiroidismo, a los 9 años comenzó con hipotiroidismo y hace aproximadamente un año se le diagnosticó una tiroiditis de Hashimoto, con seguimiento por endocrinología. La ecografía del tiroides muestra un aumento marcado de la glándula tiroidea y las imágenes de la biopsia por aspiración con aguja fina (BAAF son compatibles con una tiroiditis de Hashimoto. Con estos resultados se decide intervenirla quirúrgicamente eliminando así los signos compresivos. La biopsia postoperatoria describe una tiroiditis de Riedel. Por el gran tamaño de los lóbulos tiroideos, se le infiltra triamcinolona 1/2 cc en cada lóbulo, una vez al mes durante cuatro meses; logrando reducir aproximadamente el 50 % de los lóbulos tiroideos. Por lo que se puede apreciar los resultados obtenidos con el uso de la triamcinolona.

  13. Infliximab en pacientes con enfermedad ocular inflamatoria, refractarios a DARMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmer R. García-Salazar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la experiencia con infliximab (anticuerpo monoclonal con una potente acción antiinflamatoria en el tratamiento de enfermedades oculares inflamatorias secundarias a patologías reumáticas y refractarias a drogas antirreumáticas modificadoras de la enfermedad (DARMES. Se evaluó el caso de una paciente de 50 años con artritis reumatoide (AR de fondo activo y una paciente de 37 años con vasculitis anticuerpos anticitoplasma de neutrófilos especifico para mieloperoxidasa (ANCA MPO sin compromiso de órgano noble, ambas con escleritis bilateral y perforación con prolapso de iris del ojo izquierdo. Ellas recibieron infliximab EV en dosis de 3 a 5 mg/kg/dosis, según el esquema, a las 0, 2, 6 y 8 semanas. Infliximab resultó eficaz y seguro para el tratamiento de escleritis asociada a AR y vasculitis ANCA MPO positivo, refractaria a tratamiento con DARMES y corticoides en dosis altas. Los injertos de tejido esclerocorneal evolucionaron favorablemente con infliximab.

  14. Actitud de universitarios hacia las personas con discapacidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Araya-Cortés

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue describir y comparar la actitud hacia las personas con discapacidad de estudiantes de pedagogía, con estudiantes de otras profesiones y en distintos niveles de formación. Se utilizó un diseño descriptivo y correlacional en el que participaron 260 estudiantes de ambos sexos de una universidad privada de la cuidad de La Serena, Chile. Como instrumento se aplicó la Escala de Actitudes hacia las Personas con Discapacidad de Verdugo, Jenaro y Arias. Los resultados mostraron que la totalidad del alumnado presenta actitudes positivas. En relación con el tipo de carrera y nivel de estudio no se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas. Se puede inferir que los estudiantes presentan una predisposición favorable a comportarse de manera efectiva frente a personas con discapacidad, valorando positivamente sus capacidades y reconociendo sus derechos fundamentales.

  15. Refuerzo de estructuras con composites avanzados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recuero, A.

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Restoration, strengthening and rehabilitation of buildings becomes one of the more interesting aspects of the use of composites. Construction industry has not yet accepted the wide structural use of these new materials because it does not know the advantages of composites in comparison with traditional materials, such as concrete or steel. Professionals involved in design and construction are conservative and resist to changes. They require codes and specifications, what makes that an entity should lead the use of the new material or technology. At present, the experience needed to prepare those codes does not exist. Experimental tests and successful cases are necessary for the acceptance of these materials in construction. In this work, an introduction to the subject is done and notice is given of a project which is developing with the aim to provide the experimental basis, needed to update design codes and standards, and the technology for the use of these new composites in building and civil structures strengthening, taking actual pathology, quality and durability into account, as well as urban aesthetics. Research specialists in composites, structural analysis and testing, and in structural pathology, as well as composites and adhesives manufacturers and appliers, designers and final users will cooperate in this project. This will allow that all relevant aspects of the problem be considered.

    La restauración, refuerzo o rehabilitación de estructuras resulta ser uno de los campos de aplicación de mayor interés y más directamente relacionado con los nuevos materiales compuestos. La Industria de la Construcción no ha aceptado aún el uso estructural extenso de los nuevos materiales compuestos, porque todavía no conoce bien cuándo existen ventajas respecto a los materiales tradicionales, tales como el hormigón o el acero. Los profesionales implicados en el proyecto y en la ejecución de obras suelen ser conservadores y resistirse

  16. Pinturas reforzadas con hilos cortos de vidrio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández Olivares, Francisco

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Current research literature on coatings for building applications make evident the existence of important damage both in outdoors and indoors applications when the paint is used without any reinforcement because of several reasons: the low quality of some paint components, coatings extremely thin, and the unskilful of painters.This article studies the behaviour of some industrial paints for indoors and outdoors applications when reinforced with different gravimetric fractions of dispersable short cut glass fibre yarns. Jt is also studied the support influence (cement mortar, plasterboard and laminated plasterboard and the application method (handy or sprayed. A better performance and durability is obtained for the fractions by weight which are determined for each type of paint, support and application method. Neither the paint colour properties nor the brightness and texture get worse when these gravimetric fractions of glass fibre are added to the paint.La presente investigación estudia la viabilidad del empleo de refuerzos de fibra de vidrio para pinturas de interior y exterior con el fin de paliar parte de las patologías observadas en aplicaciones arquitectónicas. Se ha seleccionado un tipo de fibra de refuerzo dispersable y se ha estudiado el comportamiento de tres tipos de pinturas (temple, plástica y de impermeabilización para fracciones gravimétricas crecientes de refuerzo y distintos procesos de aplicación de la pintura.Se ha conseguido mejorar las propiedades de las pinturas industriales que existen en el mercado para aplicaciones interiores y exteriores en edificación elevando las propiedades mecánicas y de durabilidad de dichas pinturas, sin que ello suponga ningún cambio significativo en las cualidades de la pintura, como son la colorimetría, el brillo y el espesor de película.

  17. Punzonamiento de losas armadas con barras de polímeros reforzados con fibras

    OpenAIRE

    González Rodríguez, Josep Jaume

    2016-01-01

    La vida útil de las estructuras de hormigón armado se ve fuertemente limitada por la corrosión del acero que produce una degradación de las mismas con una posible disminución de la capacidad portante que puede conducir a situaciones de refuerzo estructural. El uso frecuente de cloruros para evitar las congelaciones continuas en climas invernales afecta los forjados de los parkings y tableros de puentes, deteriorándolos a un ritmo más rápido que otros elementos estructurales. Po...

  18. Comportamiento de una pista experimental de pavimento flexible con base estabilizada con cal

    OpenAIRE

    Hidalgo Montoya, César Augusto; Pandales, Carlos Arturo; Pedroza Valdés, Boris Andrés; Rodríguez Moreno, Mario Alberto

    2010-01-01

    En este trabajo se presentan resultados de una investigación realizada para determinar las propiedades de deformabilidad de bases estabilizadas con cal a partir de ensayos de campo no destructivos. Se realizaron ensayos de placa estática y viga Benkelman en un tramo de prueba de pavimento flexible de 70m de longitud. Se usaron diferentes mezclas de suelo-cal y varios espesores de la estructura para evaluar el comportamiento del pavimento. A partir de los resultados de estos ensayos fuer...

  19. Impacto del tratamiento con Teriparatida en la calidad de vida de las personas con osteoporosis

    OpenAIRE

    Osca Guadalajara, Marta; Guadalajara Olmeda, María Natividad; Escartín Martínez, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    Creative Commons: Atribución-NoComercial-SinDerivadas 3.0 Unported (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0) [ES] Fundamentos: La pérdida ósea en pacientes osteoporóticos, conlleva riesgo de fracturas, dolor óseo vertebral y disminución de la calidad de vida. El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar el efecto de la teriparatida (TPTD) en pacientes osteoporóticos y con dolor vertebral. Métodos: Estudio observacional longitudinal prospectivo, entre abril de 2006 y febrero de 2014, en los 77 pacientes...

  20. Retos de las TICs con mayores y personas mayores con dependencia

    OpenAIRE

    Lorente i Guerrero, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Aunque adivinar el futuro haya sido siempre una tentación no es lo que se trata de hacer en esta comunicación. Entre otras cosas porque desconocemos las técnicas y porque no tenemos las tecnologías adecuadas, como la bola de cristal, las cartas o los posos del té. Abandonado ese intento, se trata de analizar algunos aspectos actuales que caracterizan cómo se están utilizando, las Tecnologías de la Información y de la Comunicación (TIC) con las personas mayores.