WorldWideScience

Sample records for intravascular ultrasound imaging

  1. An Axial Array for Volumetric Intravascular Ultrasound Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alles, E.J.

    2012-01-01

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is a medical imaging modality aimed at imaging blood vessel walls from within the vessel. Current commercial IVUS catheters are designed to yield two-dimensional cross-sectional images perpendicular to the vessel wall. By pulling the catheter back through the artery

  2. Mechanical scanning in intravascular ultrasound imaging: Artifacts and driving mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. ten Hoff (H.); E.J. Gussenhoven (Elma); C.M. Korbijn (Carin); F. Mastik (Frits); C.T. Lancée (Charles); N. Bom (Klaas)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Currently, intravascular ultrasound (US) imaging catheters are developed and produced to provide a complementary diagnostic method in the treatment of blood vessel obstructive disease. Typical catheter dimensions are a diameter of 1–2.5 mm and a length of 1–1.5 m. A real-time

  3. Harmonic Intravascular Ultrasound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. Frijlink (Martijn)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractMedical ultrasound is a popular imaging modality in cardiology. Harmonic Imaging is a technique that has been shown to increase the image quality of diagnostic ultrasound at frequencies below 10 MHz. However, Intravascular Ultrasound, which is a technique to acoustically investigate

  4. Discrimination of intravascular lumen and dissections in single intravascular ultrasound images using subtraction, conventional averaging and saline flush

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Pasterkamp (Gerard); M.S. van der Heiden (M.); M.J. Post (Mark); C. Borst (Cornelius); E.J. Gussenhoven (Elma); H. Pieterman; H. van Urk (Hero); N. Bom (Klaas)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractWith current 30-MHz intravascular ultrasound systems, flowing blood may cause considerable backscatter which in real-time images is characterized by dynamic speckle. However, in a single intravascular ultrasound image (still-frame) the discrimination between arterial lumen and wall may

  5. Front-end IC design for intravascular ultrasound imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaner, Yalçın Feysel; Yamaner, Yalcin Feysel; Cenkeramaddi, Linga Reddy; Bozkurt, Ayhan

    2008-01-01

    Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers(cMUT) technology is a new trend for intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging. Large bandwidth, high sensitivity and compatibility to CMOS processes makes the cMUT a better choice compared to the conventional piezoelectric transducer. To exploit the merits of cMUT technology, an accurately designed front end circuit is required. The circuit functions as an output pulse driver for the generation of the acoustic signal and buffers the return echo. F...

  6. Rotational multispectral fluorescence lifetime imaging and intravascular ultrasound: bimodal system for intravascular applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dinglong; Bec, Julien; Yankelevich, Diego R.; Gorpas, Dimitris; Fatakdawala, Hussain; Marcu, Laura

    2014-06-01

    We report the development and validation of a hybrid intravascular diagnostic system combining multispectral fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIm) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) for cardiovascular imaging applications. A prototype FLIm system based on fluorescence pulse sampling technique providing information on artery biochemical composition was integrated with a commercial IVUS system providing information on artery morphology. A customized 3-Fr bimodal catheter combining a rotational side-view fiberoptic and a 40-MHz IVUS transducer was constructed for sequential helical scanning (rotation and pullback) of tubular structures. Validation of this bimodal approach was conducted in pig heart coronary arteries. Spatial resolution, fluorescence detection efficiency, pulse broadening effect, and lifetime measurement variability of the FLIm system were systematically evaluated. Current results show that this system is capable of temporarily resolving the fluorescence emission simultaneously in multiple spectral channels in a single pullback sequence. Accurate measurements of fluorescence decay characteristics from arterial segments can be obtained rapidly (e.g., 20 mm in 5 s), and accurate co-registration of fluorescence and ultrasound features can be achieved. The current finding demonstrates the compatibility of FLIm instrumentation with in vivo clinical investigations and its potential to complement conventional IVUS during catheterization procedures.

  7. Use of Intravascular Ultrasound Imaging in Percutaneous Coronary Intervention to Treat Left Main Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Maria, Giovanni Luigi; Banning, Adrian P

    2017-05-01

    Due to its potential prognostic implications and technical complexity, revascularisation of left main coronary artery (LMCA) disease requires careful consideration. Since publication of the results of the SYNTAX study, and more recently the EXCEL and NOBLE trials, there has been particular interest in percutaneous revascularisation of the LMCA. It is becoming clear that percutaneous revascularisation of LMCA disease requires appropriate lesion preparation and carefully optimised stenting in order to offer patients a treatment option as effective as coronary artery bypass grafting. For this reason intravascular imaging, and especially intravascular ultrasound, is becoming a key procedural step in LMCA percutaneous coronary intervention. In the current review paper we analyse the role of intravascular imaging with intravascular ultrasound in LMCA percutaneous coronary intervention, focusing on the main applications in this context from lesion assessment to stent sizing and optimisation.

  8. Intravascular ultrasound for iliac artery imaging. Clinical review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogt, K G; Schroeder, T V

    2001-01-01

    IVUS is able to produce trans-sectional images of the iliac arteries at a high resolution. The three layered appearance of the arterial wall can be visualized. In the atherosclerotic diseased artery calcified plaques can be discerned from non-calcified plaques, and the distribution of the plaque......-eccentric or concentric-can be determined. IVUS seems to be superior to arteriography in quantifying the degree of stenosis, being able to relate the luminal area to the mediabounded area at the same site of the artery. The discrepancy between IVUS and arteriography is even greater when evaluating residualstenosis after...

  9. Offline fusion of co-registered intravascular ultrasound and frequency domain optical coherence tomography images for the analysis of human atherosclerotic plaques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Räber, Lorenz; Heo, Jung Ho; Radu, Maria D

    2012-01-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility and potential usefulness of an offline fusion of matched optical coherence tomography (OCT) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)/virtual histology (IVUS-VH) images.......To demonstrate the feasibility and potential usefulness of an offline fusion of matched optical coherence tomography (OCT) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)/virtual histology (IVUS-VH) images....

  10. Perspectives on Imaging the Left Main Coronary Artery Using Intravascular Ultrasound and Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry C Lowe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI for significant left main coronary artery (LMCA stenosis is increasingly being viewed as a viable alternative to Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG (1. This is leading to an expectation of increasing numbers of such procedures, with a consequent focus on both the ability to image both lesion severity, and assess more accurately the results of PCI. While there have been advances in physiologic assessment of left main severity using fractional flow reserve (FFR, imaging of the LMCA using Intravascular Ultrasound (IVUS and more recently Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT has the specific advantage of being able to provide detailed anatomical information both pre and post PCI, such that it is timely to review briefly the current status of these two imaging technologies in the context of LMCA intervention.

  11. Mapping intravascular ultrasound controversies in interventional cardiology practice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Maresca

    Full Text Available Intravascular ultrasound is a catheter-based imaging modality that was developed to investigate the condition of coronary arteries and assess the vulnerability of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in particular. Since its introduction in the clinic 20 years ago, use of intravascular ultrasound innovation has been relatively limited. Intravascular ultrasound remains a niche technology; its clinical practice did not vastly expand, except in Japan, where intravascular ultrasound is an appraised tool for guiding percutaneous coronary interventions. In this qualitative research study, we follow scholarship on the sociology of innovation in exploring both the current adoption practices and perspectives on the future of intravascular ultrasound. We conducted a survey of biomedical experts with experience in the technology, the practice, and the commercialization of intravascular ultrasound. The collected information enabled us to map intravascular ultrasound controversies as well as to outline the dynamics of the international network of experts that generates intravascular ultrasound innovations and uses intravascular ultrasound technologies. While the technology is praised for its capacity to measure coronary atherosclerotic plaque morphology and is steadily used in clinical research, the lack of demonstrated benefits of intravascular ultrasound guided coronary interventions emerges as the strongest factor that prevents its expansion. Furthermore, most of the controversies identified were external to intravascular ultrasound technology itself, meaning that decision making at the industrial, financial and regulatory levels are likely to determine the future of intravascular ultrasound. In light of opinions from the responding experts', a wider adoption of intravascular ultrasound as a stand-alone imaging modality seems rather uncertain, but the appeal for this technology may be renewed by improving image quality and through combination with

  12. Visualization of plaque distribution in a curved artery: three-dimensional intravascular ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ahnryul; McPherson, David D; Kim, Hyunggun

    2017-12-01

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging provides an excellent tool for evaluation of the type, morphology, extent, and severity of an atheromatous plaque. 3 D IVUS imaging offers additive information pertaining to morphology of the arterial structures and volumetric plaque distributions. A new 3 D IVUS visualization technique was developed to provide 3 D structural information of a curved artery. A virtual 3 D curved arterial phantom consisting of varying cross-sectional shapes, wall thicknesses, and acoustic intensity information was utilized to validate the nonlinear interpolation technique to create intermediary 2 D IVUS images. IVUS imaging was performed for the iliofemoral arterial segment of an atherosclerotic Yucatan miniswine model. These in-vivo IVUS data were utilized for intermediary IVUS image generation and volumetric 3 D IVUS visualization. Smooth transitional changes of cross-sectional shape, wall thickness and grayscale intensity were found between the intermediary images and the original arterial phantom slices. The 3 D IVUS imaging of the unfolded curved iliofemoral artery provided realistic 3 D luminal surface images of the arteries with physiologic grayscale intensity information. This unique 3 D IVUS imaging technique may help with assessment of 3 D plaque distribution across the curved arterial structure, and improve 3 D visualization of atheromatous components.

  13. The Imaging Modulography Technique Revisited for High-Definition Intravascular Ultrasound: Theoretical Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacheau, Antoine; Le Floc'h, Simon; Finet, Gérard; Doyley, Marvin M; Pettigrew, Roderic I; Cloutier, Guy; Ohayon, Jacques

    2016-03-01

    Mechanical characterization of atherosclerotic lesions remains an essential step for the detection of vulnerable plaques (VPs). Recently, an intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) elasticity reconstruction method (iMOD) has been tested in vivo by our group. The major limitation of iMOD is the need to estimate the strain field in the entire VP despite attenuated depth penetration signals when using high-definition (HD) IVUS systems. Therefore, an extended iMOD approach (E-iMOD) was designed and applied to coronary lesions of patients imaged in vivo with IVUS. The E-iMOD method (i) quantified necrotic core areas with a mean absolute relative error of 3.5 ± 3.5% and (ii) identified Young's moduli of the necrotic cores and fibrous regions with mean values of 5.7 ± 0.8 kPa and 794.5 ± 22.0 kPa instead of 5 kPa and 800 kPa, respectively. This study demonstrates the potential of the improved HD-IVUS modulography technique E-iMOD to characterize coronary VPs. Copyright © 2016 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. All rights reserved.

  14. Angled-focused 45 MHz PMN-PT single element transducer for intravascular ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sangpil; Williams, Jay; Kang, Bong Jin; Yoon, Changhan; Cabrera-Munoz, Nestor; Jeong, Jong Seob; Lee, Sang Goo; Shung, K Kirk; Kim, Hyung Ham

    2015-06-01

    A transducer with an angled and focused aperture for intravascular ultrasound imaging has been developed. The acoustic stack for the angled-focused transducer was made of PMN-PT single crystal with one matching layer, one protective coating layer, and a highly damped backing layer. It was then press-focused to a desired focal length and inserted into a thin needle housing with an angled tip. A transducer with an angled and unfocused aperture was also made, following the same fabrication procedure, to compare the performance of the two transducers. The focused and unfocused transducers were tested to measure their center frequencies, bandwidths, and spatial resolutions. Lateral resolution of the angled-focused transducer (AFT) improved more than two times compared to that of the angled-unfocused transducer (AUT). A tissue-mimicking phantom in water and a rabbit aorta tissue sample in rabbit blood were scanned using AFT and AUT. Imaging with AFT offered improved contrast, over imaging with AUT, of the tissue-mimicking phantom and the rabbit aorta tissue sample by 23 dB and 8 dB, respectively. The results show that AFT has strong potential to provide morphological and pathological information of coronary arteries with high resolution and high contrast.

  15. Mapping Intravascular Ultrasound Controversies in Interventional Cardiology Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maresca, D.; Adams, S.; Maresca, B.; Van der Steen, A.F.W.

    2014-01-01

    Intravascular ultrasound is a catheter-based imaging modality that was developed to investigate the condition of coronary arteries and assess the vulnerability of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in particular. Since its introduction in the clinic 20 years ago, use of intravascular ultrasound

  16. Mapping intravascular ultrasound controversies in interventional cardiology practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maresca, David; Adams, Samantha; Maresca, Bruno; van der Steen, Antonius F W

    2014-01-01

    Intravascular ultrasound is a catheter-based imaging modality that was developed to investigate the condition of coronary arteries and assess the vulnerability of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in particular. Since its introduction in the clinic 20 years ago, use of intravascular ultrasound

  17. Towards a Reduced-Wire Interface for CMUT-Based Intravascular Ultrasound Imaging Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jaemyung; Tekes, Coskun; Degertekin, F Levent; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2017-04-01

    Having intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging capability on guide wires used in cardiovascular interventions may eliminate the need for separate IVUS catheters and expand the use of IVUS in a larger portion of the vasculature. High frequency capacitive micro machined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) arrays should be integrated with interface electronics and placed on the guide wire for this purpose. Besides small size, this system-on-a-chip (SoC) front-end should connect to the back-end imaging system with a minimum number of wires to preserve the critical mechanical properties of the guide wire. We present a 40 MHz CMUT array interface SoC, which will eventually use only two wires for power delivery and transmits image data using a combination of analog-to-time conversion (ATC) and an impulse radio ultra-wideband (IR-UWB) wireless link. The proof-of-concept prototype ASIC consumes only 52.8 mW and occupies 4.07 [Formula: see text] in a 0.35- [Formula: see text] standard CMOS process. A rectifier and regulator power the rest of the SoC at 3.3 V from a 10 MHz power carrier that is supplied through a 2.4 m micro-coax cable with an overall efficiency of 49.1%. Echo signals from an 8-element CMUT array are amplified by a transimpedance amplifier (TIA) array and down-converted to baseband by quadrature sampling using a 40 MHz clock, derived from the power carrier. The ATC generates pulse-width-modulated (PWM) samples at 2 × 10 MS/s with 6 bit resolution, while the entire system achieved 5.1 ENOB. Preliminary images from the prototype system are presented, and alternative data transmission and possible future directions towards practical implementation are discussed.

  18. Segmentation of arterial walls in intravascular ultrasound cross-sectional images using extremal region selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraji, Mehdi; Cheng, Irene; Naudin, Iris; Basu, Anup

    2018-03-01

    Intravascular Ultrasound (IVUS) is an intra-operative imaging modality that facilitates observing and appraising the vessel wall structure of the human coronary arteries. Segmentation of arterial wall boundaries from the IVUS images is not only crucial for quantitative analysis of the vessel walls and plaque characteristics, but is also necessary for generating 3D reconstructed models of the artery. The aim of this study is twofold. Firstly, we investigate the feasibility of using a recently proposed region detector, namely Extremal Region of Extremum Level (EREL) to delineate the luminal and media-adventitia borders in IVUS frames acquired by 20 MHz probes. Secondly, we propose a region selection strategy to label two ERELs as lumen and media based on the stability of their textural information. We extensively evaluated our selection strategy on the test set of a standard publicly available dataset containing 326 IVUS B-mode images. We showed that in the best case, the average Hausdorff Distances (HD) between the extracted ERELs and the actual lumen and media were 0.22  mm and 0.45 mm, respectively. The results of our experiments revealed that our selection strategy was able to segment the lumen with ⩽0.3 mm HD to the gold standard even though the images contained major artifacts such as bifurcations, shadows, and side branches. Moreover, when there was no artifact, our proposed method was able to delineate media-adventitia boundaries with 0.31 mm HD to the gold standard. Furthermore, our proposed segmentation method runs in time that is linear in the number of pixels in each frame. Based on the results of this work, by using a 20 MHz IVUS probe with controlled pullback, not only can we now analyze the internal structure of human arteries more accurately, but also segment each frame during the pullback procedure because of the low run time of our proposed segmentation method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Multimodality Intracoronary Imaging With Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Intravascular Ultrasound in Asymptomatic Individuals With High Calcium Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madder, Ryan D; VanOosterhout, Stacie; Klungle, David; Mulder, Abbey; Elmore, Matthew; Decker, Jeffrey M; Langholz, David; Boyden, Thomas F; Parker, Jessica; Muller, James E

    2017-10-01

    This study sought to determine the frequency of large lipid-rich plaques (LRP) in the coronary arteries of individuals with high coronary artery calcium scores (CACS) and to determine whether the CACS correlates with coronary lipid burden. Combined near-infrared spectroscopy and intravascular ultrasound was performed in 57 vessels in 20 asymptomatic individuals (90% on statins) with no prior history of coronary artery disease who had a screening CACS ≥300 Agatston units. Among 268 10-mm coronary segments, near-infrared spectroscopy images were analyzed for LRP, defined as a bright yellow block on the near-infrared spectroscopy block chemogram. Lipid burden was assessed as the lipid core burden index (LCBI), and large LRP were defined as a maximum LCBI in 4 mm ≥400. Vessel plaque volume was measured by quantitative intravascular ultrasound. Vessel-level CACS significantly correlated with plaque volume by intravascular ultrasound ( r =0.69; P infrared spectroscopy ( r =0.24; P =0.07). Despite a high CACS, no LRP was detected in 8 (40.0%) subjects. Large LRP having a maximum LCBI in 4 mm ≥400 were infrequent, found in only 5 (25.0%) of 20 subjects and in only 5 (1.9%) of 268 10-mm coronary segments analyzed. Among individuals with a CACS ≥300 Agatston units mostly on statins, CACS correlated with total plaque volume but not LCBI. This observation may have implications on coronary risk among individuals with a high CACS considering that it is coronary LRP, rather than calcification, that underlies the majority of acute coronary events. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. 3-D ultrasound imaging using a forward-looking CMUT ring array for intravascular/intracardiac applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, David T; Oralkan, Omer; Wygant, Ira O; O'Donnell, Matthew; Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T

    2006-06-01

    Forward-viewing ring arrays can enable new applications in intravascular and intracardiac ultrasound. This work presents compelling, full-synthetic, phased-array volumetric images from a forward-viewing capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) ring array wire bonded to a custom integrated circuit front end. The CMUT ring array has a diameter of 2 mm and 64 elements each 100 microm x 100 microm in size. In conventional mode, echo signals received from a plane reflector at 5 mm had 70% fractional bandwidth around a center frequency of 8.3 MHz. In collapse mode, 69% fractional bandwidth is measured around 19 MHz. Measured signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the echo averaged 16 times was 29 dB for conventional operation and 35 dB for collapse mode. B-scans were generated of a target consisting of steel wires 0.3 mm in diameter to determine resolution performance. The 6 dB axial and lateral resolutions for the B-scan of the wire target are 189 microm and 0.112 radians for 8 MHz, and 78 microm and 0.051 radians for 19 MHz. A reduced firing set suitable for real-time, intravascular applications was generated and shown to produce acceptable images. Rendered three-dimensional (3-D) images of a Palmaz-Schatz stent also are shown, demonstrating that the imaging quality is sufficient for practical applications.

  1. Intravascular Ultrasound and its Use in Vascular Interventional Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepanec, A.; Vulev, I.; Vozar, M.; Balazs, T.; Madaric, J.; Holoman, M.

    2009-01-01

    Intravascular ultrasound has become in invasive vascular radiology in the last decade the important part of diagnostic and also therapeutic procedures in management of vascular diseases. The basic possibilities for the use of IVUS include diagnostic procedures in vascular pathology assessment and therapeutic indications in the field of peripheral vascular interventions (PVI). Unlike other image modalities (CT, MRI, ultrasound) IVUS enables gather unique image in r eal time r ight from the vessel lumen, what helps to add important information regarding vessel wall, plate morphology, thrombi and cross-sectional vessel area. After initial use of intravascular ultrasound in coronary circulation, using IVUS is nowadays widely extended especially in aortic diseases, carotid and renal arteries and arteries of the lower extremities. This review article summarizes possibilities of intravascular ultrasound utilization in diagnostic process and therapy from peripheral vascular diseases up to thoracoabdominal aorta diseases and our experience with this new diagnostic modality. (author)

  2. Intravascular (catheter) MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, A.M.; Hurst, G.C.; Katz, D.E.; Dverk, J.L.; Wiesen, E.J.; Czerski, L.W.; Malaya, R.; Bellon, E.M.

    1989-01-01

    Intravascular MR probes allow excellent spatial resolution and have the potential to detect arterial wall microstructure. Ultrasonic intravascular probes suggest that detailed morphologic information can assist clinical decision making. Catheter MR probes of 2--7 mm outside diameter (OD) were built of copper wire, Teflon, and parts from standard commercial catheters. The probes were connected to the surface coil receiver input of our Picker VISTA 2055HP 1.5-T imaging system. The extant (linear) body coil was used for transmit. Phantoms were constructed of coaxial glass MR tubes, filled with doped water. Watanabe rabbit aorta and human autopsy iliac artery specimens were examined within 4 hours of excision or stored by freezing. In vivo iliac arteries in dogs under general anesthesia were imaged, with percutaneous placement of the probe. Results are presented

  3. Renal denervation by intravascular ultrasound: Preliminary in vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinelnikov, Yegor; McClain, Steve; Zou, Yong; Smith, David; Warnking, Reinhard

    2012-10-01

    Ultrasound denervation has recently become a subject of intense research in connection with the treatment of complex medical conditions including neurological conditions, development of pain management, reproduction of skin sensation, neuropathic pain and spasticity. The objective of this study is to investigate the use of intravascular ultrasound to produce nerve damage in renal sympathetic nerves without significant injury to the renal artery. This technique may potentially be used to treat various medical conditions, such as hypertension. The study was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Ultrasound was applied to renal nerves of the swine model for histopathological evaluation. Therapeutic ultrasound energy was delivered circumferentially by an intravascular catheter maneuvered into the renal arteries. Fluoroscopic imaging was conducted pre-and post-ultrasound treatment. Animals were recovered and euthanized up to 30 hours post procedure, followed by necropsy and tissue sample collection. Histopathological examination showed evidence of extensive damage to renal nerves, characterized by nuclear pyknosis, hyalinization of stroma and multifocal hemorrhages, with little or no damage to renal arteries. This study demonstrates the feasibility of intravascular ultrasound as a minimally invasive renal denervation technique. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of this technique and its related clinical significance.

  4. Intravascular photoacoustic imaging of human coronary atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Krista; van der Steen, Antonius F. W.; Springeling, Geert; van Beusekom, Heleen M. M.; Oosterhuis, J. Wolter; van Soest, Gijs

    2011-03-01

    We demonstrate intravascular photoacoustic imaging of human coronary atherosclerotic plaque. We specifically imaged lipid content, a key factor in vulnerable plaques that may lead to myocardial infarction. An integrated intravascular photoacoustics (IVPA) and ultrasound (IVUS) catheter with an outer diameter of 1.25 mm was developed. The catheter comprises an angle-polished optical fiber adjacent to a 30 MHz single-element transducer. The ultrasonic transducer was optically isolated to eliminate artifacts in the PA image. We performed measurements on a cylindrical vessel phantom and isolated point targets to demonstrate its imaging performance. Axial and lateral point spread function widths were 110 μm and 550 μm, respectively, for PA and 89 μm and 420 μm for US. We imaged two fresh human coronary arteries, showing different stages of disease, ex vivo. Specific photoacoustic imaging of lipid content, is achieved by spectroscopic imaging at different wavelengths between 1180 and 1230 nm.

  5. Accuracy of electrocardiographic-gated versus nongated volumetric intravascular ultrasound measurements of coronary arterial narrowing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Thayssen, Per

    2007-01-01

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) allows precise measurements of plaque plus media (P+M) volume and neointimal hyperplasia after coronary artery stenting. Conventional IVUS volumetric analysis is performed mostly without electrocardiographically gated acquisition, and the IVUS images are selected...

  6. Recurring extracranial internal carotid artery vasospasm detected by intravascular ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembo, Tomohisa; Tanahashi, Norio

    2012-01-01

    A 24-year-old woman presented with headache and left-sided focal signs following multiple episodes of right monocular visual impairment. Magnetic resonance angiography revealed a decreased vascular image intensity due to a suspicious stenosis in the right internal carotid artery (ICA). The stenosis was not demonstrated on duplex sonography as it was beyond the field of view of the investigation. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) revealed that the outer vessel diameter was significantly reduced during stenosis, supporting the presence of vasospasm. Idiopathic recurrent extracranial ICA vasospasm was diagnosed. Recurrent vasospasms of extracranial ICA may be a distinct entity that can cause ischemic stroke.

  7. Reproducibility of intravascular ultrasound radiofrequency data analysis (virtual histology) with a 45-MHz rotational imaging catheter in ex vivo human coronary arteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Muramatsu (Takashi); H.M. Garcia-Garcia (Hector); S. Brugaletta (Salvatore); J.H. Heo (Jungho); Y. Onuma (Yoshinobu); R.J. Fedewa (Russell J.); A. Nair (Anuja); Y. Ozaki (Yukio); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Despite the frequent use of spectral analysis of intravascular ultrasound radiofrequency data (VH® IVUS) in clinical studies, the assessment for reproducibility using this with high frequency IVUS remains unexplored. Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the

  8. Ultrasound imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, E.G.; Doherty, F.J.

    1986-01-01

    Diagnostic ultrasound was used as early as 1950 in attempts to detect malignant tumors within the human breast and brain. In the years following, however, little attention was paid to this method of imaging by the radiologic community. Extensive work with this technique was not begun until the 1960s, when bistable ultrasound enabled sonographers to display organ outlines for the first time. Prior to the development of bistable ultrasound, sonographic images were limited to A-mode displays, which were merely a series of amplitude spikes on a graph. Over the past 20 or so years, major advances in ultrasound technology have gradually taken us from the simple graphic A-mode display, through bistable organ outlines, to gray-scale images with excellent parenchymal detail, and finally to real-time ultrasound

  9. Serial intravascular ultrasound assessment of changes in coronary atherosclerotic plaque dimensions and composition: an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Marc; Huisman, Jennifer; Böse, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    This manuscript reviews the use of serial intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) examination of coronary atherosclerosis in recent observational studies and randomized trials that revealed the effects of cholesterol-lowering and lipid-modifying therapies and offered novel insight into plaque progression....... Finally, we report on the evaluation of true vessel remodelling in recent serial IVUS trials and discuss the future perspective of serial invasive imaging of coronary atherosclerosis....

  10. Ultrasound imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, P.N.T.

    1983-01-01

    Ultrasound is a form of energy which consists of mechanical vibrations the frequencies of which are so high that they are above the range of human hearing. The lower frequency limit of the ultrasonic spectrum may generally be taken to be about 20 kHz. Most biomedical applications of ultrasound employ frequencies in the range 1-15 MHz. At these frequencies, the wavelength is in the range 1.5 - 0.1 mm in soft tissues, and narrow beams of ultrasound can be generated which propagate through such tissues without excessive attenuation. This chapter begins with brief reviews of the physics of diagnostic ultrasound pulse-echo imaging methods and Doppler imaging methods. The remainder of the chapter is a resume of the applications of ultrasonic imaging to physiological measurement

  11. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z General Ultrasound Ultrasound imaging uses sound waves to produce ... the limitations of General Ultrasound Imaging? What is General Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and ...

  12. High speed intravascular photoacoustic imaging of atherosclerotic arteries (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Zhonglie; Ma, Teng; Qu, Yueqiao; Li, Jiawen; Yu, Mingyue; He, Youmin; Shung, K. Kirk; Zhou, Qifa; Kim, Chang-Seok; Chen, Zhongping

    2016-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the industrialized nations. Accurate quantification of both the morphology and composition of lipid-rich vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque are essential for early detection and optimal treatment in clinics. In previous works, intravascular photoacoustic (IVPA) imaging for detection of lipid-rich plaque within coronary artery walls has been demonstrated in ex vivo, but the imaging speed is still limited. In order to increase the imaging speed, a high repetition rate laser is needed. In this work, we present a high speed integrated IVPA/US imaging system with a 500 Hz optical parametric oscillator laser at 1725 nm. A miniature catheter with 1.0 mm outer diameter was designed with a 200 μm multimode fiber and an ultrasound transducer with 45 MHz center frequency. The fiber was polished at 38 degree and enclosed in a glass capillary for total internal reflection. An optical/electrical rotary junction and pull-back mechanism was applied for rotating and linearly scanning the catheter to obtain three-dimensional imaging. Atherosclerotic rabbit abdominal aorta was imaged as two frame/second at 1725 nm. Furthermore, by wide tuning range of the laser wavelength from 1680 nm to 1770 nm, spectroscopic photoacoustic analysis of lipid-mimicking phantom and an human atherosclerotic artery was performed ex vivo. The results demonstrated that the developed IVPA/US imaging system is capable for high speed intravascular imaging for plaque detection.

  13. Intravascular imaging with a storage phosphor detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikhaliev, Polad M.; Petrek, Peter; Matthews, Kenneth L., II; Fritz, Shannon G.; Bujenovic, L. Steven; Xu, Tong

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study is to develop and test an intravascular positron imaging system based on a storage phosphor detector for imaging and detecting vulnerable plaques of human coronary arteries. The radiotracer F18-FDG accumulates in vulnerable plaques with inflammation of the overlying cap. The vulnerable plaques can, therefore, be imaged by recording positrons emitted from F18-FDG with a detector inserted into the artery. A prototype intravascular detector was constructed based on storage phosphor. The detector uses a flexible storage phosphor tube with 55 mm length, 2 mm diameter and 0.28 mm wall thickness. The intravascular detector is guided into the vessel using x-ray fluoroscopy and the accumulated x-ray signal must be erased prior to positron imaging. For this purpose, a light diffuser, 0.9 mm in diameter and 55 mm in length, was inserted into the detector tube. The light diffuser was connected to a laser source through a 2 m long optical fiber. The diffuser redirected the 0.38 W laser light to the inner surface of the phosphor detector to erase it. A heart phantom with 300 cm3 volume and three coronary arteries with 3.2 mm diameter and with several plaques was constructed. FDG solution with 0.5 µCi cm-3 activity concentration was filled in the heart and coronary arteries. The detector was inserted in a coronary artery and the signal from the plaques and surrounding background activity was recorded for 2 min. Then the phosphor detector was extracted and read out using a storage phosphor reader. The light diffuser erased the signal resulting from fluoroscopic exposure to level below that encountered during positron imaging. Vulnerable plaques with area activities higher than 1.2 nCi mm-2 were visualized by the detector. This activity is a factor of 10-20 lower than that expected in human vulnerable plaques. The detector was able to image the internal surface of the coronary vessels with 50 mm length and 360° circumference. Spatial resolution was 0

  14. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... inserted into a man's rectum to view the prostate. Transvaginal ultrasound. The transducer is inserted into a ... Stenting Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy Obstetric Ultrasound Ultrasound - Prostate Biopsies - Overview Images related to General Ultrasound Videos ...

  15. Intravascular ultrasound assessment of remodelling and reference segment plaque burden in type-2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Thayssen, Per; Mintz, Gary S

    2007-01-01

    AIMS: Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) assesses arterial remodelling by comparing the lesion external elastic membrane (EEM) with the reference segments; however, reference segments are rarely disease-free. The aim was to assess lesion and reference segment remodelling and plaque burden in patients...... with type-2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used pre-intervention IVUS to study 62 de novo lesions in 43 patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus. The lesion site was the image slice with the smallest lumen cross-sectional area (CSA). The proximal and distal reference segments were the most normal...... IVUS lumen and quantitative coronary angiographic artery...

  16. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What are the limitations of General Ultrasound Imaging? What is General Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and ... be heard with every heartbeat. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Ultrasound ...

  17. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Index A-Z General Ultrasound Ultrasound imaging uses sound waves to produce pictures of the inside of ... pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or ...

  18. The use of intravascular ultrasound imaging to improve use of inferior vena cava filters in a high-risk bariatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardys, Clark M; Stoner, Michael C; Manwaring, Mark L; Bogey, William M; Parker, Frank M; Powell, Steve

    2007-12-01

    Pulmonary embolism is the leading cause of death after gastric bypass procedures for obesity, approximating 0.5% to 4%. All bariatric patients, but especially the super-obese, which have a body mass index (BMI) >50 kg/m(2), are at significant risk for postoperative venous thromboembolism (VTE). Visualization and weight limitations of fluoroscopy tables exclude most bariatric and all super-obese patients from inferior vena cava (IVC) filter placement using fluoroscopy. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-guided IVC filter placement is the only modality that allows these high-risk patients to have an IVC filter placed. Hospital and outpatient records of the 494 patients who underwent gastric bypass procedures from January 1, 2004, to May 31, 2006, were reviewed. All patients who had concurrent IVC filter placement with the use of IVUS guidance were selected. Comorbidities, outcomes, and complications were recorded. We identified 27 patients with mean BMI of 70 +/- 3 kg/m(2); of these, 25 were super-obese (BMI >50 kg/m(2)). Procedures included five laparoscopic and 22 open gastric bypass operations. All patients underwent concurrent IVC filter placement using IVUS guidance. In addition to super-obesity, indications for IVC filter placement included history of VTE (n = 4), known hypercoagulable state (n = 2), and profound immobility (n = 21). Mean follow up was 293 +/- 40 days. Technical success rate was 96.3%. There were no catheter site complications. In one surviving patient, a nonfatal pulmonary embolism was detected by computed tomography 2 months postoperatively. Two patients died, and autopsy excluded VTE as the cause of death in both. This study suggests efficacy of IVUS-guided IVC filter placement in preventing mortality from pulmonary embolism in high-risk bariatric patients, including the super-obese. IVUS-guided IVC filter placement can be safely performed with an excellent success rate in all bariatric patients, including the super-obese, who otherwise would

  19. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Conventional ultrasound displays the images in thin, ...

  20. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z General Ultrasound Ultrasound imaging uses sound ... ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show the structure and movement of the body's ...

  1. Characterization of a saphenous vein graft aneurysm by intravascular ultrasound and computerized three-dimensional reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, B M; Zientek, D M; Ruggie, N T; Billhardt, R A; Klein, L W

    1993-04-01

    Aneurysmal dilatations in saphenous vein grafts are rare complications of coronary artery bypass surgery that mostly represent thin-wall pseudoaneurysms at anastomotic sites. We describe a case of an enlarging distal saphenous vein graft aneurysm in which intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and computerized three-dimensional reconstruction (3DR) of the IVUS images was performed to conclusively demonstrate true aneurysm morphology. Although both atherosclerotic and nonatherosclerotic mechanisms for vein graft aneurysm formation have been previously suggested, IVUS images and 3DR of the aneurysm in this case did not reveal any of the features typical for atherosclerotic lesions. Further, the IVUS images and 3DR suggest that progressive atherosclerosis is not the likely cause of aneurysm formation in this case. This application of IVUS and 3DR provides detailed information about saphenous vein graft aneurysm structure, clues to aneurysm formation, and suggests a natural history that may differ from that of pseudoaneurysms.

  2. Intravascular ultrasound assessed incomplete stent apposition and stent fracture in stent thrombosis after bare metal versus drug-eluting stent treatment the Nordic Intravascular Ultrasound Study (NIVUS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosonen, Petteri; Vikman, Saila; Jensen, Lisette Okkels

    2013-01-01

    This prospective multicenter registry used intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) in patients with definite stent thrombosis (ST) to compare rates of incomplete stent apposition (ISA), stent fracture and stent expansion in patients treated with drug-eluting (DES) versus bare metal (BMS) stents. ST...

  3. Resolution of spontaneous coronary artery dissection within 3 weeks detected by computed tomography angiography and intravascular ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Hiroshi; Chino, Chiharu; Komatsu, Miho; Sakai, Takahiro; Aizawa, Kazunori; Owa, Mafumi

    2017-01-01

    A 62-year-old woman was admitted with chest pain lasting about 3 h. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) was detected in the left anterior descending artery (LAD) by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). Sixteen days after onset, follow-up computed tomography angiography was performed and revealed shrinkage of the false lumen of the SCAD. On hospital day 22, IVUS image confirmed that the SCAD in the LAD was completely healed. This case shows the possibility of rapid healing of SCAD.

  4. Monolithic CMUT on CMOS Integration for Intravascular Ultrasound Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahorian, Jaime; Hochman, Michael; Xu, Toby; Satir, Sarp; Gurun, Gokce; Karaman, Mustafa; Degertekin, F. Levent

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important promises of capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) technology is integration with electronics. This approach is required to minimize the parasitic capacitances in the receive mode, especially in catheter based volumetric imaging arrays where the elements need to be small. Furthermore, optimization of the available silicon area and minimized number of connections occurs when the CMUTs are fabricated directly above the associated electronics. Here, we describe successful fabrication and performance evaluation of CMUT arrays for intravascular imaging on custom designed CMOS receiver electronics from a commercial IC foundry. The CMUT on CMOS process starts with surface isolation and mechanical planarization of the CMOS electronics to reduce topography. The rest of the CMUT fabrication is achieved by modifying a low temperature micromachining process through the addition of a single mask and developing a dry etching step to produce sloped sidewalls for simple and reliable CMUT to CMOS interconnection. This CMUT to CMOS interconnect method reduced the parasitic capacitance by a factor of 200 when compared with a standard wire bonding method. Characterization experiments indicate that the CMUT on CMOS elements are uniform in frequency response and are similar to CMUTs simultaneously fabricated on standard silicon wafers without electronics integration. Experiments on a 1.6 mm diameter dual-ring CMUT array with a 15 MHz center frequency show that both the CMUTs and the integrated CMOS electronics are fully functional. The SNR measurements indicate that the performance is adequate for imaging CTOs located 1 cm away from the CMUT array. PMID:23443701

  5. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and treat medical conditions. Conventional ultrasound displays the images in thin, flat sections of the body. Advancements in ultrasound technology include three-dimensional (3- ...

  6. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... modality for the diagnosis and monitoring of pregnant women and their unborn babies. Ultrasound provides real-time ...

  7. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... body. Advancements in ultrasound technology include three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound that formats the sound wave data into 3-D images. A Doppler ultrasound study may be part ...

  8. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be asked to wear a gown. What is ... into 3-D images. A Doppler ultrasound study may be part of an ultrasound examination. Doppler ultrasound , ...

  9. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... be returned to the transducer for analysis. Ultrasound has difficulty penetrating bone and, therefore, can only see ...

  10. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Angioplasty and Vascular Stenting Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy Obstetric Ultrasound Ultrasound - Prostate Biopsies - Overview Images related to General Ultrasound Videos related to General Ultrasound Sponsored by ...

  11. The use of intravascular ultrasound for intraoperative assessment during semiclosed thromboendarterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogt, K C; Sillesen, H; Schroeder, T V

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the application of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) for intraoperative assessment of semiclosed thromboendarterectomy (TEA), IVUS images of the iliofemoral segment in 20 patients were obtained. The configuration and size of residual atherosclerotic material were evaluated. Stenoses...... was detected in the artery by IVUS. The material was removed in five cases. The part of the iliac artery proximal to the endarterectomized segment was visualized in 14 cases and showed minor stenoses in 10 cases. After follow-up at a median of 8 months (range 1-24), occlusion had occurred in one of 20 patients...... and restenosis (> 50%) had developed in two (10%). At this point, patency cannot be related to IVUS findings. We conclude that IVUS is a feasible method for intraoperative assessment of semiclosed TEA. The rate of early failures due to residual material might be reduced by this new application of IVUS....

  12. Monolithic CMUT-on-CMOS integration for intravascular ultrasound applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahorian, Jaime; Hochman, Michael; Xu, Toby; Satir, Sarp; Gurun, Gokce; Karaman, Mustafa; Degertekin, F Levent

    2011-12-01

    One of the most important promises of capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) technology is integration with electronics. This approach is required to minimize the parasitic capacitances in the receive mode, especially in catheter-based volumetric imaging arrays, for which the elements must be small. Furthermore, optimization of the available silicon area and minimized number of connections occurs when the CMUTs are fabricated directly above the associated electronics. Here, we describe successful fabrication and performance evaluation of CMUT arrays for intravascular imaging on custom-designed CMOS receiver electronics from a commercial IC foundry. The CMUT-on-CMOS process starts with surface isolation and mechanical planarization of the CMOS electronics to reduce topography. The rest of the CMUT fabrication is achieved by modifying a low-temperature micromachining process through the addition of a single mask and developing a dry etching step to produce sloped sidewalls for simple and reliable CMUT-to-CMOS interconnection. This CMUT-to-CMOS interconnect method reduced the parasitic capacitance by a factor of 200 when compared with a standard wire-bonding method. Characterization experiments indicate that the CMUT-on-CMOS elements are uniform in frequency response and are similar to CMUTs simultaneously fabricated on standard silicon wafers without electronics integration. Ex- periments on a 1.6-mm-diameter dual-ring CMUT array with a center frequency of 15 MHz show that both the CMUTs and the integrated CMOS electronics are fully functional. The SNR measurements indicate that the performance is adequate for imaging chronic total occlusions located 1 cm from the CMUT array.

  13. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... testing. image the breasts and guide biopsy of breast cancer ( see the Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy page . diagnose ... Ultrasound is the preferred imaging modality for the diagnosis and monitoring of pregnant women and their unborn ...

  14. Ability of combined Near-Infrared Spectroscopy-Intravascular Ultrasound (NIRS-IVUS) imaging to detect lipid core plaques and estimate cap thickness in human autopsy coronary arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grainger, S. J.; Su, J. L.; Greiner, C. A.; Saybolt, M. D.; Wilensky, R. L.; Raichlen, J. S.; Madden, S. P.; Muller, J. E.

    2016-03-01

    The ability to determine plaque cap thickness during catheterization is thought to be of clinical importance for plaque vulnerability assessment. While methods to compositionally assess cap integrity are in development, a method utilizing currently available tools to measure cap thickness is highly desirable. NIRS-IVUS is a commercially available dual imaging method in current clinical use that may provide cap thickness information to the skilled reader; however, this is as yet unproven. Ten autopsy hearts (n=15 arterial segments) were scanned with the multimodality NIRS-IVUS catheter (TVC Imaging System, Infraredx, Inc.) to identify lipid core plaques (LCPs). Skilled readers made predictions of cap thickness over regions of chemogram LCP, using NIRS-IVUS. Artery segments were perfusion fixed and cut into 2 mm serial blocks. Thin sections stained with Movat's pentachrome were analyzed for cap thickness at LCP regions. Block level predictions were compared to histology, as classified by a blinded pathologist. Within 15 arterial segments, 117 chemogram blocks were found by NIRS to contain LCP. Utilizing NIRSIVUS, chemogram blocks were divided into 4 categories: thin capped fibroatheromas (TCFA), thick capped fibroatheromas (ThCFA), pathological intimal thickening (PIT)/lipid pool (no defined cap), and calcified/unable to determine cap thickness. Sensitivities/specificities for thin cap fibroatheromas, thick cap fibroatheromas, and PIT/lipid pools were 0.54/0.99, 0.68/0.88, and 0.80/0.97, respectively. The overall accuracy rate was 70.1% (including 22 blocks unable to predict, p = 0.075). In the absence of calcium, NIRS-IVUS imaging provided predictions of cap thickness over LCP with moderate accuracy. The ability of this multimodality imaging method to identify vulnerable coronary plaques requires further assessment in both larger autopsy studies, and clinical studies in patients undergoing NIRS-IVUS imaging.

  15. Design of low noise transimpedance amplifier for intravascular ultrasound

    KAUST Repository

    Reda, Dina

    2009-11-01

    In this paper, we study transimpedance amplifiers for capacitive sensing applications with a focus on Intravascular Ultra Sound (IVUS). We employ RF noise cancellation technique on capacitive feedback based transimpedance amplifiers. This technique eliminates the input-referred noise of TIAs completely and enhances the dynamic range of front-end electronics. Simulation results verify the proposed technique used in two different TIA topologies employing shunt-shunt feedback. ©2009 IEEE.

  16. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... called the Doppler effect). A computer collects and processes the sounds and creates graphs or color pictures ...

  17. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ultrasound is safe, noninvasive, and does not use ionizing radiation. This procedure requires little to no special preparation. ... create an image. Ultrasound examinations do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays ), thus there is ...

  18. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Angioplasty and ...

  19. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 3-D) ultrasound that formats the sound wave data into 3-D images. A Doppler ultrasound study ... to do the scanning. The transducer is a small hand-held device that resembles a microphone, attached ...

  20. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... can only see the outer surface of bony structures and not what lies within (except in infants ...

  1. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in x-rays ), thus there is no radiation exposure to the patient. Because ultrasound images are captured ... called color Doppler ultrasonography, is a special ultrasound technique that allows the physician to see and evaluate ...

  2. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for a procedure like angioplasty . top of page How should I prepare? You should wear comfortable, loose- ... are poorly suited for ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based ...

  3. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... requested the exam. Usually, the referring physician or health care provider will share the results with you. ...

  4. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... the transducer is pressed against the skin, it directs small pulses of inaudible, high-frequency sound waves ...

  5. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... transducer sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) into the body and then ... ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the limitations of General Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound waves are ...

  6. Medical ultrasound imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2007-01-01

    The paper gives an introduction to current medical ultrasound imaging systems. The basics of anatomic and blood flow imaging are described. The properties of medical ultrasound and its focusing are described, and the various methods for two- and three-dimensional imaging of the human anatomy...

  7. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... internal organs, as well as blood flowing through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. ...

  8. Low variation and high reproducibility in plaque volume with intravascular ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Thayssen, Per; Pedersen, Knud Erik

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) has several advantages compared to angiography when evaluating coronary atherosclerosis in the vessel wall. METHODS: The accuracy, reproducibility, and short-time spontaneous variation in volume of vessel, plaque and lumen were studied by electrocardiog......BACKGROUND: Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) has several advantages compared to angiography when evaluating coronary atherosclerosis in the vessel wall. METHODS: The accuracy, reproducibility, and short-time spontaneous variation in volume of vessel, plaque and lumen were studied...... by electrocardiographic-gated three-dimensional (3D) IVUS in 20 male patients with ischaemic heart disease (IHD). RESULTS: The study lesions were angiographically insignificant, with a length of the analysed segment on 11.4+/-5.9 mm. At baseline the mean minimal lumen diameter was 2.41+/-0.59 mm, minimal lumen area 4......=0.804; pIVUS is a highly reproducible method when applied on coronary artery...

  9. Association of insulin resistance and coronary artery remodeling: an intravascular ultrasound study

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sang-Hoon; Moon, Jae-Youn; Lim, Yeong Min; Kim, Kyung Ho; Yang, Woo-In; Sung, Jung-Hoon; Yoo, Seung Min; Kim, In Jai; Lim, Sang-Wook; Cha, Dong-Hun; Cho, Seung-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Background There are few studies that investigated the correlation between insulin resistance (IR) and the coronary artery remodeling. The aim of the study is to investigate the association of IR measured by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and coronary artery remodeling evaluated by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). Methods A total of 298 consecutive patients who received percutaneous coronary interventions under IVUS guidance were retrospectively enrolled. The val...

  10. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Abdominal ultrasound imaging is performed to evaluate ... for ultrasound examinations. top of page What does the ultrasound equipment look like? Ultrasound scanners consist of ...

  11. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z General Ultrasound Ultrasound imaging ...

  12. FD-OCT and IVUS intravascular imaging modalities in peripheral vasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiliopoulos, S; Kitrou, P; Katsanos, K; Karnabatidis, D

    2017-02-01

    Intra-Vascular Ultra-Sound (IVUS) and Frequency Domain-Optical Coherence Tomography (FD-OCT), in vivo, intra-vascular, imaging modalities, widely used in the field of coronary disease, have been recently implemented in peripheral endovascular procedures, for procedural assessment, plaque characterization and determination of predictors of treatment outcomes. Their unique characteristics have also been used in order to provide additional features and improve the performance of re-entry devices and atherotomes. Areas covered: Present review focuses on available literature regarding these two promising imaging technologies in the peripheral vasculature, highlighting the added value produced by their use in endovascular therapy, their limitations and their utilization in new endovascular devices. Authors also provide their future perspective and the possible benefits in understanding vascular behavior and lesion characterization in peripheral endovascular interventions. Expert commentary: By providing both quantitative but also qualitative data on vessel and lesion morphology, intravascular imaging modalities offer a valid solution for endovascular treatment evaluation and outcome presentation homogeneity.

  13. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to-use and less expensive than other imaging methods. Ultrasound imaging is extremely safe and does not ... barium exams, CT scanning , and MRI are the methods of choice in such a setting. Large patients ...

  14. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to sample cells from an abnormal area for laboratory testing. image the breasts and guide biopsy of ... Ultrasound is the preferred imaging modality for the diagnosis and monitoring of pregnant women and their unborn ...

  15. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Children's (pediatric) abdominal ultrasound imaging produces pictures ...

  16. Intravascular Ultrasound Catheter Evaluation of the Left Ventricle in Mice: A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardin, Julius M.; Siri, Francis; Kitsis, Richard N.; Leinwand, Leslie

    1996-11-01

    With the advent of transgenic technology, it has become increasingly important to find a method for evaluating left ventricular (LV) anatomy and function in intact wild type, intervened, and transgenic mice. Mice are 1/10th the size of rats, and have body masses of 10-60 g, LV masses of 40-150 mg, LV wall thicknesses of 0.5-2 mm, and LV internal dimensions of 1-3 mm. Although the murine LV has been imaged by transthoracic (TTE) two-dimensional directed M-mode echocardiography, we explored the use of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) catheters, with imaging from various positions, to see if better two-dimensional images of the LV could be obtained by IVUS than TTE. Eight normal mice were anesthetized using pentobarbital or avertin. The mice were studied using a commercially available IVUS system (Endosonics, Inc.). Two IVUS catheters (3.5 and 5.0 Fr) with 20-MHz multielement array transducers were used. Each catheter had a 4.0-mm imaging depth of field in all directions (360 degrees ) from the mid-point of the catheter core. Multiple imaging approaches were attempted: transesophageal (TEE); transjugular (TJ); transperitoneal (TP); and open chest, from both epicardial surface (Ep) and via direct LV puncture. TEE and TJ approaches afforded insufficient depth of field to image the entire LV in cross section. TP and Ep approaches resulted in poor images, related both to inadequate depth of field and to relatively small sector angles subtended by imaging elements. LVP (intracavitary imaging) was capable of satisfactorily imaging the LV epicardium, but was unable to image the endocardium, probably because the latter was within the 1.9-mm "ringdown" catheter artifact. All IVUS approach studies lacked sufficient temporal resolution (10 frames/sec) to reliably display systolic and diastolic frames necessary for evaluation of LV function. In contrast, as previously reported, transthoracic two-dimensionally directed M-mode echocardiograms have sufficient temporal and spatial

  17. Intravascular ultrasound as a novel tool for the diagnosis and targeted treatment of functional popliteal artery entrapment syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna E. Boniakowski, MD

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Functional popliteal artery entrapment syndrome can be difficult to diagnose, as the imaging modalities presently employed are designed to detect anatomic entrapment. We describe a novel imaging technique to aid in diagnosis in this cohort. A 22-year-old cyclist presented with exercise-limiting claudication. Magnetic resonance angiography with provocative maneuvers was nondiagnostic. Digital subtraction angiography revealed long-segment occlusion of the popliteal artery with plantar flexion; however, the specific site of compression remained unclear. Intravascular ultrasound allowed specific localization of compression and further confirmed the diagnosis. Thus, we report this as an adjunctive imaging modality to definitively diagnose functional popliteal artery entrapment syndrome and to assist in operative planning.

  18. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What are the limitations of Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging? What is Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and ... as the liver or kidneys. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Abdominal ...

  19. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Ultrasound - Abdomen Children’s (pediatric) ultrasound imaging of the ... abdomen using ultrasound. View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special ...

  20. Intravascular ultrasonic-photoacoustic (IVUP) endoscope with 2.2-mm diameter catheter for medical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Nhat Quang; Hlaing, Kyu Kyu; Nguyen, Van Phuc; Nguyen, Trung Hau; Oh, Yun-Ok; Fan, Xiao Feng; Lee, Yong Wook; Nam, Seung Yun; Kang, Hyun Wook; Oh, Junghwan

    2015-10-01

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging is extremely important for detection and characterization of high-risk atherosclerotic plaques as well as gastrointestinal diseases. Recently, intravascular photoacoustic (IVPA) imaging has been used to differentiate the composition of biological tissues with high optical contrast and ultrasonic resolution. The combination of these imaging techniques could provide morphological information and molecular screening to characterize abnormal tissues, which would help physicians to ensure vital therapeutic value and prognostic significance for patients before commencing therapy. In this study, integration of a high-frequency IVUS imaging catheter (45MHz, single-element, unfocused, 0.7mm in diameter) with a multi-mode optical fiber (0.6mm in core diameter, 0.22 NA), an integrated intravascular ultrasonic-photoacoustic (IVUP) imaging catheter, was developed to provide spatial and functional information on light distribution in a turbid sample. Simultaneously, IVUS imaging was co-registered to IVPA imaging to construct 3D volumetric sample images. In a phantom study, a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) tissue-mimicking arterial vessel phantom with indocyanine green (ICG) and methylene blue (MB) inclusion was used to demonstrate the feasibility of mapping the biological dyes, which are used in cardiovascular and cancer diagnostics. For the ex vivo study, an excised sample of pig intestine with ICG was utilized to target the biomarkers present in the gastrointestinal tumors or the atherosclerotic plaques with the proposed hybrid technique. The results indicated that IVUP endoscope with the 2.2-mm diameter catheter could be a useful tool for medical imaging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Portable Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    di Ianni, Tommaso

    This PhD project investigates hardware strategies and imaging methods for hand-held ultrasound systems. The overall idea is to use a wireless ultrasound probe linked to general-purpose mobile devices for the processing and visualization. The approach has the potential to reduce the upfront costs ...

  2. Carotid Ultrasound Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... waves from passing into your body. The sonographer (ultrasound technologist) or radiologist then places the transducer on the skin in various locations, sweeping over the area of interest or angling the ... while the ultrasound images are reviewed. The branches of the carotid ...

  3. Intravascular photoacoustic detection of vulnerable plaque based on constituent selected imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Jian; Xing Da, E-mail: xingda@scnu.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China)

    2011-01-01

    Atherosclerosis, a disease of the large arteries, is the primary cause of heart disease and stroke. Over decades, atherosclerosis is characterized by thickening of the walls of the arteries, only advanced atherosclerotic disease could be observed. Photoacoustic imaging is a hybrid imaging technique that combines the advantages of high spatial resolution of ultrasound with contrast of optical absorption. In this paper, we present an intravascular photoacoustic (IVPA) imaging system to characterize vulnerable plaques by using the optical absorption contrast between different constituents. Epidemiological studies have revealed several important plaque constituents associated with early atherosclerosis, such as macrophage, cholesterol, lipid, calcification, and so on. We chose a section of lipid rich atherosclerosis artery and a section of normal artery as the phantom. Two IVPA images of them are given to show the difference between sick and normal. As a new method of detecting vulnerable plaque, IVPA constituents imaging will provide more details for diagnosis that offer an enticing prospect in early detecting of atherosclerosis.

  4. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... need to be returned to the transducer for analysis. Ultrasound has difficulty penetrating bone and, therefore, can ... Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific ...

  5. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... consist of a console containing a computer and electronics, a video display screen and a transducer that ... the preferred imaging modality for the diagnosis and monitoring of pregnant women and their unborn babies. Ultrasound ...

  6. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can often determine whether a patient is a good candidate for a procedure like angioplasty . top of ... Ultrasound provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding minimally invasive procedures such as ...

  7. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the body's internal organs, as well as blood flowing through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test ... that allows the physician to see and evaluate blood flow through arteries and veins in the abdomen, ...

  8. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the patient. Because ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show the structure and movement ... by a computer, which in turn creates a real-time picture on the monitor. One or more ...

  9. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound procedure View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Angioplasty and Vascular Stenting ...

  10. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... echoes from the tissues in the body. The principles are similar to sonar used by boats and ... work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles involved in the sonar used by bats, ships ...

  11. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding minimally invasive procedures such as needle biopsies and fluid aspiration. Risks For standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects ...

  12. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the limitations of ... with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes ...

  13. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in the body. The principles are similar to sonar used by boats and submarines. The ultrasound image ... based on the same principles involved in the sonar used by bats, ships and fishermen. When a ...

  14. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the returning echoes from the tissues in the body. The principles are similar to sonar used by boats and submarines. The ultrasound image is immediately visible on a video display screen ...

  15. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Angioplasty and Vascular Stenting Ultrasound-Guided ... facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, treatments ...

  16. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... image the breasts and guide biopsy of breast cancer ( see the Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy page . diagnose ... blood flow (such as clots) narrowing of vessels tumors and congenital vascular malformations reduced or absent blood ...

  17. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... heartbeat. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Ultrasound examinations can help to ... is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. ...

  18. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the transducer for analysis. Ultrasound has difficulty penetrating bone and, therefore, can only see the outer surface ... children or adults). For visualizing internal structure of bones or certain joints, other imaging modalities such as ...

  19. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is safe, noninvasive, and does not use ionizing radiation. This procedure requires little to no special preparation. ... an image. Ultrasound examinations do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays ), thus there is ...

  20. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... General ultrasound procedure View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. ...

  1. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... patient. Because ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show the structure and movement of ... terms of the distance traveled per unit of time, rather than as a color picture. It can ...

  2. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and movement of the body's internal organs, as well as blood flowing through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. ...

  3. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... biopsies , in which needles are used to sample cells from an abnormal area for laboratory testing. image ... ultrasound, measures the direction and speed of blood cells as they move through vessels. The movement of ...

  4. Successful Intravascular Ultrasound-Guided Transradial Coronary Intervention with a 4Fr Guiding Catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Yasuhiro; Sadamatsu, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Minimizing the catheter size can reduce vascular access complications and contrast dye usage in coronary angiography. The small diameter of the 4Fr guiding catheter has limited the use of several angioplasty devices such as intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) in the past. However, the combination of a novel IVUS catheter and a 0.010 guidewire makes it possible to perform IVUS-guided percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with a 4Fr guiding catheter. We herein report the case of a 51-year-old man with silent myocardial ischemia who underwent IVUS-guided transradial PCI with a 4Fr guiding catheter.

  5. Correlation between dual-axis rotational coronary angiography and intravascular ultrasound in a coronary lesion assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhi-Geng; Zhang, Zhuo-Qi; Jing, Li-Min; Wei, Yu-Jie; Zhang, Jiao; Luo, Jian-Ping; Yang, Sheng-Li; Ma, Dong-Xing; Liu, Ying; Han, Wei; Yang, Yong; Liu, Hui-Liang

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of dual-axis rotational coronary angiography (DARCA) for coronary lesion assessment by directly comparing with intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). From October 2014 to December 2015, 40 patients (58 lesions) who had undergone both DARCA and IVUS were included in the image analysis. The minimum lumen diameter (MLD), lesion length, reference vessel diameter (RVD) and percent diameter stenosis at the same lesion, were identified and assessed. Significant correlation with IVUS was found for DARCA in either lesion length (r = 0.90, P < 0.001) or RVD (r = 0.81, P < 0.001) comparison. DARCA had fair correlation with IVUS for both MLD (r = 0.65, P < 0.001) and diameter stenosis (r = 0.48, P < 0.001). From the Bland-Altman plots, there was a good agreement between DARCA and IVUS regarding MLD (mean difference: -0.23 mm, 95 % limits of agreement: -0.96 to 0.50 mm) and RVD (mean difference: -0.15 mm, 95 % limits of agreement: -0.85 to 0.55 mm), while lesser agreement was found on lesion length (mean difference: -3.39 mm, 95 % limits of agreement: -12.63 to 5.85 mm) and diameter stenosis (mean difference: 4.82 %, 95 % limits of agreement: -17.05 to 26.68 %). There is an adequate correlation and agreement between DARCA and IVUS in coronary lesion assessment.

  6. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Ultrasound - Abdomen Children’s (pediatric) ultrasound imaging of ... 30 minutes. top of page What will my child experience during and after the procedure? Ultrasound examinations ...

  7. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... waves from passing into your body. The sonographer (ultrasound technologist) or radiologist then places the transducer on the skin in various locations, sweeping over the area of interest or angling the ... ultrasound images are reviewed. An ultrasound examination is usually ...

  8. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... proper blood flow into it. top of page How should we prepare for an abdominal ultrasound exam? ... are poorly suited for ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based ...

  9. Reliability of mechanical and phased-array designs for serial intravascular ultrasound examinations--animal and clinical studies in stented and non-stented coronary arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardif, J C; Bertrand, O F; Mongrain, R; Lespérance, J; Grégoire, J; Paiement, P; Bonan, R

    2000-10-01

    Both mechanical and multi-element intravascular ultrasound designs have potential advantages and limitations that may impact on their value for clinical and research purposes. Determination of the reproducibility of measurements is critical before a given system can be used in studies such as regression of atherosclerosis trials. We performed serial intravascular ultrasound imaging with catheters using mechanical and phased-array designs in stented and non-stented coronary arteries in dogs and in patients. Both systems correlated well for areas (r > or = 0.90, p or = 0.84. p mechanical designs for measurements of area (mean difference in dogs and in patients: -0.24 and 0.96 mm2, p mechanical system (r > or = 0.96 for all measurements). The differences in absolute and relative variability between the mechanical and phased-array designs, both for reanalysis of same frames and serial pullbacks, were very small. Although multi-element and mechanical intravascular ultrasound designs are not strictly interchangeable, their similar reproducibility and the small differences in measurements demonstrate that both designs are acceptable alternatives for trials of regression of atherosclerosis. Determination of the variability for serial pullbacks of both designs was also important to assess the statistical power of such trials.

  10. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the patient. Because ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show the structure and movement ... of vomiting in young infants Because ultrasound provides real-time images, images that are renewed continuously, it ...

  11. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... patient. Because ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show the structure and movement of ... vomiting in young infants Because ultrasound provides real-time images, images that are renewed continuously, it also ...

  12. Long-term safety and feasibility of three-vessel multimodality intravascular imaging in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taniwaki, Masanori; Radu, Maria D; Garcia-Garcia, Hector M

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the feasibility and the procedural and long-term safety of intracoronary (i.c) imaging for documentary purposes with optical coherence tomography (OCT) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary PCI in the s...

  13. Diagnostic accuracy of integrated intravascular ultrasound and optical coherence tomography (IVUS-OCT) system for coronary plaque characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiawen; Ma, Teng; Mohar, Dilbahar; Correa, Adrian; Minami, Hataka; Jing, Joseph; Zhou, Qifa; Patel, Pranav M.; Chen, Zhongping

    2014-03-01

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging and optical coherence tomography (OCT), two commonly used intracoronary imaging modalities, play important roles in plaque evaluation. The combined use of IVUS (to visualize the entire plaque volume) and OCT (to quantify the thickness of the plaque cap, if any) is hypothesized to increase plaque diagnostic accuracy. Our group has developed a fully-integrated dual-modality IVUS-OCT imaging system and 3.6F catheter for simultaneous IVUS-OCT imaging with a high resolution and deep penetration depth. However, the diagnostic accuracy of an integrated IVUS-OCT system has not been investigated. In this study, we imaged 175 coronary artery sites (241 regions of interest) from 20 cadavers using our previous reported integrated IVUS-OCT system. IVUS-OCT images were read by two skilled interventional cardiologists. Each region of interest was classified as either calcification, lipid pool or fibrosis. Comparing the diagnosis by cardiologists using IVUSOCT images with the diagnosis by the pathologist, we calculated the sensitivity and specificity for characterization of calcification, lipid pool or fibrosis with this integrated system. In vitro imaging of cadaver coronary specimens demonstrated the complementary nature of these two modalities for plaques classification. A higher accuracy was shown than using a single modality alone.

  14. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays ), thus there is no radiation exposure to the ... tissues that do not show up well on x-ray images. Ultrasound is the preferred imaging modality for ...

  15. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician ... blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. ...

  16. Intravascular ultrasound assessment of minimumlumen area and intimal hyperplasia in in-stent restenosis after drug-eluting or bare-metal stent implantation. The Nordic Intravascular Ultrasound Study (NIVUS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Vikman, Saila; Antonsen, Lisbeth

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Drug-eluting stents (DES) reduce the risk of restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention. The aim of the study was to evaluate, by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), the minimum lumen area site in the stented segment and the distribution of intimal hyperplasia in patients...

  17. Natural history of intravascular ultrasound-detected edge dissections from coronary stent deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheris, S J; Canos, M R; Weissman, N J

    2000-01-01

    High-resolution intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) performed immediately after stent deployment often reveals dissection at the stent margin that may not be appreciated by angiography. However, the natural history of these edge dissections is unknown. These intimal disruptions at the stent margins have been previously reported to occur in 5% to 23% of stent implantations. The short-term prognosis of these lesions appears to be good; however, the longer-term effect on restenosis and/or vessel remodeling is not known. We therefore studied a cohort of patients with the use of IVUS immediately after stent implantation and at 6 months to assess the incidence and prognosis of coronary edge dissections. One hundred fifty patients undergoing Palmaz-Shatz stent implantation were imaged with IVUS with the use of a motorized pullback, and the incidence of edge dissections was determined and graded according to depth and circumferential extent. Arterial and lesional morphometric parameters were assessed by digital planimetry. Six-month IVUS images were aligned with the poststent IVUS to determine the natural history of these lesions. Sixteen (10.7%) of 150 had edge tears. All were angiographically silent. Most lesions (n = 9) were superficial intimal tears. Vessel, lumen, and plaque area were similar in the nondissection and dissection groups in both the proximal and distal reference segments. Plaque eccentricity was likewise similar in both groups. At 6 months, lesions (n = 12) healed without a change in plaque burden, undergoing a "tacking down" process. Vessel area (19. 1 +/- 6.4 vs 18.4 +/- 7.1 mm(2), P = not significant), lumen area (8. 2 +/- 4.1 vs 9.2 +/- 4.0 mm(2), P = not significant), and plaque area (10.0 +/- 3.3 vs 9.8 +/- 3.3 mm(2), P = not significant) were unchanged when compared with the lesion site taken at stent deployment. Edge dissections as detected by IVUS do not necessarily proscribe an adverse prognosis at 6 months. This finding may provide reassurance to

  18. Optical fiber laser ultrasound transmitter with electrospun composite for minimally invasive medical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poduval, Radhika; Noimark, Sacha; Colchester, Richard; Macdonald, Tom; Parkin, Ivan; Desjardins, Adrien; Papakonstantinou, Ioannis

    2017-07-01

    We report an optical fiber ultrasound transmitter with electrospun MWCNT-polymer composite, generating high-amplitude broadband ultrasound. They produced pressures in the range of conventional intravascular imaging transducers, and can be incorporated into catheters/needles for keyhole surgery

  19. Multicenter assessment of the reproducibility of volumetric radiofrequency-based intravascular ultrasound measurements in coronary lesions that were consecutively stented

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huisman, Jennifer; Egede, Rasmus; Rdzanek, Adam

    2012-01-01

    To assess in a multicenter design the between-center reproducibility of volumetric virtual histology intravascular ultrasound (VH-IVUS) measurements with a semi-automated, computer-assisted contour detection system in coronary lesions that were consecutively stented. To evaluate the reproducibility...

  20. Relationship between intravascular ultrasound parameters and fractional flow reserve in intermediate coronary artery stenosis of left anterior descending artery: intravascular ultrasound volumetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyoung-Mo; Tahk, Seung-Jea; Lim, Hong-Seok; Yoon, Myeong-Ho; Choi, So-Yeon; Choi, Byoung-Joo; Jin, Xiong Jie; Hwang, Gyo-Seung; Park, Jin-Sun; Shin, Joon-Han

    2014-02-15

    The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) parameters, including volumetric analysis, and fractional flow reserve (FFR). Although it is known that coronary atherosclerosis burden measured by IVUS volumetric analysis is related with clinical outcomes, its relationship with functional significance remains unknown. Both IVUS and FFR were performed in 206 cases of intermediate stenosis of the left anterior descending artery (LAD). Myocardial ischemia was assessed by FFR and maximal hyperemia was induced by continuous intracoronary adenosine infusion. FFR  0.80 were associated with larger plaque volume (181.8 ± 82.3 vs. 125.9 ± 77.9 mm3, P < 0.001) and PAV (58.9 ± 5.6 vs. 53.8 ± 7.9%, P < 0.001). IVUS parameters representing severity and extent of atheromatous plaque correlated with functional significance in LAD lesions with intermediate stenosis.

  1. Synthetic Aperture Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nikolov, Svetoslav; Gammelmark, Kim Løkke

    2006-01-01

    a sufficient amount of data for high precision flow estimation. These constrictions can be lifted by employing SA imaging. Here data is acquired simultaneously from all directions over a number of emissions, and the full image can be reconstructed from this data. The talk will demonstrate the many benefits...... short imaging sequences, whereby both the correct velocity magnitude and angle can be estimated. A number of examples of both phantom and in-vivo SA images will be presented measured by the experimental ultrasound scanner RASMUS to demonstrate the many benefits of SA imaging....

  2. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the equipment look like? How does the procedure work? How is the procedure performed? What will I experience during and after the procedure? Who interprets the results and how do I get them? What are the benefits vs. risks? What are the limitations of General Ultrasound Imaging? ...

  3. Recursive ultrasound imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    A method and an apparatus for recursive ultrasound imaging is presented. The method uses a Synthetic Transmit Aperture, but unlike previous approaches a new frame is created at every pulse emission. In receive, parallel beam forming is implemented. The beam formed RF data is added to the previously...

  4. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... internal organs and to examine a baby in pregnant women and the brain and hips in infants. It’s ... imaging modality for the diagnosis and monitoring of pregnant women and their unborn babies. Ultrasound provides real-time ...

  5. Quantification of iliac artery stenoses: a methodological comparative study between intravascular ultrasound, arteriography and duplex scanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogt, K C; Rasmussen, John Bøje Grønvall; Skovgaard, Lene T

    1998-01-01

    Two morphological methods for quantifying the degree of stenoses in the iliac arteries, intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and arteriography, were compared with duplex scanning, a method of evaluating the haemodynamic importance of the stenosis. A total of 38 patients, 20 women and 18 men, median age...... 66 y, admitted for either PTA (n=18) or femoro-femoral crossover bypass surgery (n=20), were examined by IVUS, single plane arteriography and duplex scanning. The predictive value, sensitivity, specificity and kappa value of IVUS were higher than the corresponding values for arteriography. Logistic...... regression analysis found that IVUS had a predictive value (p=0.0003) for diagnosing significant stenosis as defined by duplex scanning, but arteriography did not (p=0.1). However, this difference in usefulness as predictors did not reach significance. The agreement between arteriography and IVUS...

  6. The role of Intravascular Ultrasound in the management of spontaneous coronary artery dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karamitsos Theodoros D

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Primary or spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD is an unusual but increasingly recognized cause of acute myocardial ischemia and sudden cardiac death. Typically, SCAD presents in younger patients without conventional risk factors for coronary artery disease. It occurs more commonly in women than in men, and frequently during pregnancy or the postpartum period. Its pathophysiology is poorly understood, and there is considerable controversy regarding the optimal management of patients with SCAD-related myocardial ischemia. Therapeutic approaches include conservative medical therapy, coronary artery bypass graft surgery and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI. We present four cases of SCAD to illustrate specific aspects of the presentation and management of this condition, with particular reference to the importance of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS to aid diagnosis and guide subsequent PCI.

  7. Comparison of angiography and intravascular ultrasound before and after balloon angioplasty of the femoropopliteal artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lankeren, Winnifred van; Gussenhoven, Elma J.; Pieterman, Herman; Sambeek, Marc R. H. M. van; Lugt, Aad van der

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To compare angiographic and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) data before and after balloon angioplasty (PTA) of the femoropopliteal artery.Methods: Qualitative and quantitative analyses were performed on corresponding angiographic and IVUS levels obtained from 135 patients.Results: IVUS detected more lesions, calcified lesions, and vascular damage than angiography. Sensitivity of angiography was good for the presence of a lesion (84%), moderate for eccentric lesions (53%) and for vascular damage (52%), and poor for calcified lesions (30%). The increase in angiographic diameter stenosis was associated with a decrease in lumen area and increase in percentage area stenosis on IVUS.Conclusions: Angiography is less sensitive than IVUS for detecting lesion eccentricity, calcified lesions, and vascular damage. Presence of a lesion and amount of plaque were underestimated angiographically. Only before PTA was good agreement found between angiographic diameter stenosis and lumen size on IVUS.

  8. Joint learning of ultrasonic backscattering statistical physics and signal confidence primal for characterizing atherosclerotic plaques using intravascular ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheet, Debdoot; Karamalis, Athanasios; Eslami, Abouzar; Noël, Peter; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy; Ray, Ajoy K; Laine, Andrew F; Carlier, Stephane G; Navab, Nassir; Katouzian, Amin

    2014-01-01

    Intravascular Ultrasound (IVUS) is a predominant imaging modality in interventional cardiology. It provides real-time cross-sectional images of arteries and assists clinicians to infer about atherosclerotic plaques composition. These plaques are heterogeneous in nature and constitute fibrous tissue, lipid deposits and calcifications. Each of these tissues backscatter ultrasonic pulses and are associated with a characteristic intensity in B-mode IVUS image. However, clinicians are challenged when colocated heterogeneous tissue backscatter mixed signals appearing as non-unique intensity patterns in B-mode IVUS image. Tissue characterization algorithms have been developed to assist clinicians to identify such heterogeneous tissues and assess plaque vulnerability. In this paper, we propose a novel technique coined as Stochastic Driven Histology (SDH) that is able to provide information about co-located heterogeneous tissues. It employs learning of tissue specific ultrasonic backscattering statistical physics and signal confidence primal from labeled data for predicting heterogeneous tissue composition in plaques. We employ a random forest for the purpose of learning such a primal using sparsely labeled and noisy samples. In clinical deployment, the posterior prediction of different lesions constituting the plaque is estimated. Folded cross-validation experiments have been performed with 53 plaques indicating high concurrence with traditional tissue histology. On the wider horizon, this framework enables learning of tissue-energy interaction statistical physics and can be leveraged for promising clinical applications requiring tissue characterization beyond the application demonstrated in this paper. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A new method for real-time co-registration of 3D coronary angiography and intravascular ultrasound or optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlier, Stéphane; Didday, Rich; Slots, Tristan; Kayaert, Peter; Sonck, Jeroen; El-Mourad, Mike; Preumont, Nicolas; Schoors, Dany; Van Camp, Guy

    2014-01-01

    We present a new clinically practical method for online co-registration of 3D quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) or optical coherence tomography (OCT). The workflow is based on two modified commercially available software packages. Reconstruction steps are explained and compared to previously available methods. The feasibility for different clinical scenarios is illustrated. The co-registration appears accurate, robust and induced a minimal delay on the normal cath lab activities. This new method is based on the 3D angiographic reconstruction of the catheter path and does not require operator’s identification of landmarks to establish the image synchronization

  10. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a clear picture of the internal organs and blood vessels within your child’s abdomen. Ultrasound does not ... of the body's internal organs, as well as blood flowing through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a ...

  11. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and produces pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound ... from the probe through the gel into the body. The transducer collects the sounds that bounce back ...

  12. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... children. Except for traumatic injury, appendicitis is the most common reason for emergency abdominal surgery. Ultrasound imaging ... of page How is the procedure performed? For most ultrasound exams, you will be positioned lying face- ...

  13. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... called the Doppler effect). A computer collects and processes the sounds and creates graphs or color pictures ...

  14. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... special ultrasound technique that allows the physician to see and evaluate blood flow through arteries and veins ... Doppler ultrasound images can help the physician to see and evaluate: blockages to blood flow (such as ...

  15. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... placement and fluid drainage for diagnosis and/or relief of patient discomfort. Doppler ultrasound images can help ... tenderness, your child may feel pressure or minor pain from the procedure. If a Doppler ultrasound study ...

  16. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... injury, appendicitis is the most common reason for emergency abdominal surgery. Ultrasound imaging can also: help a ... object is solid or filled with fluid). In medicine, ultrasound is used to detect changes in appearance, ...

  17. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in x-rays ), thus there is no radiation exposure to the patient. Because ultrasound images are captured ... called color Doppler ultrasonography, is a special ultrasound technique that allows the physician to see and evaluate ...

  18. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abdomen is a safe, noninvasive test that uses sound waves to produce a clear picture of the ... pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or ...

  19. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your child’s abdomen. Ultrasound does not use ionizing radiation, has no known harmful effects, and is particularly ... an image. Ultrasound examinations do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays ), thus there is ...

  20. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... of the reflected sound waves (called the Doppler effect). A computer collects and processes the sounds and ...

  1. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... requested the exam. Usually, the referring physician or health care provider will share the results with you. ...

  2. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... the transducer is pressed against the skin, it directs small pulses of inaudible, high-frequency sound waves ...

  3. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of an ultrasound examination. Doppler ultrasound , also called color Doppler ultrasonography, is a special ultrasound technique that ... kidneys. There are three types of Doppler ultrasound: Color Doppler uses a computer to convert Doppler measurements ...

  4. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... guide biopsy of breast cancer ( see the Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy page . diagnose a variety of heart ... Articles and Media Angioplasty and Vascular Stenting Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy Obstetric Ultrasound Ultrasound - Prostate Biopsies - Overview ...

  5. ARCOCT: Automatic detection of lumen border in intravascular OCT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheimariotis, Grigorios-Aris; Chatzizisis, Yiannis S; Koutkias, Vassilis G; Toutouzas, Konstantinos; Giannopoulos, Andreas; Riga, Maria; Chouvarda, Ioanna; Antoniadis, Antonios P; Doulaverakis, Charalambos; Tsamboulatidis, Ioannis; Kompatsiaris, Ioannis; Giannoglou, George D; Maglaveras, Nicos

    2017-11-01

    Intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an invaluable tool for the detection of pathological features on the arterial wall and the investigation of post-stenting complications. Computational lumen border detection in OCT images is highly advantageous, since it may support rapid morphometric analysis. However, automatic detection is very challenging, since OCT images typically include various artifacts that impact image clarity, including features such as side branches and intraluminal blood presence. This paper presents ARCOCT, a segmentation method for fully-automatic detection of lumen border in OCT images. ARCOCT relies on multiple, consecutive processing steps, accounting for image preparation, contour extraction and refinement. In particular, for contour extraction ARCOCT employs the transformation of OCT images based on physical characteristics such as reflectivity and absorption of the tissue and, for contour refinement, local regression using weighted linear least squares and a 2nd degree polynomial model is employed to achieve artifact and small-branch correction as well as smoothness of the artery mesh. Our major focus was to achieve accurate contour delineation in the various types of OCT images, i.e., even in challenging cases with branches and artifacts. ARCOCT has been assessed in a dataset of 1812 images (308 from stented and 1504 from native segments) obtained from 20 patients. ARCOCT was compared against ground-truth manual segmentation performed by experts on the basis of various geometric features (e.g. area, perimeter, radius, diameter, centroid, etc.) and closed contour matching indicators (the Dice index, the Hausdorff distance and the undirected average distance), using standard statistical analysis methods. The proposed method was proven very efficient and close to the ground-truth, exhibiting non statistically-significant differences for most of the examined metrics. ARCOCT allows accurate and fully-automated lumen border

  6. Impact of statins on progression of atherosclerosis: rationale and design of SATURN (Study of Coronary Atheroma by InTravascular Ultrasound: effect of Rosuvastatin versus AtorvastatiN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Stephen J; Borgman, Marilyn; Nissen, Steven E; Raichlen, Joel S; Ballantyne, Christie; Barter, Philip; Chapman, M John; Erbel, Raimund; Libby, Peter

    2011-06-01

    Previous imaging studies have demonstrated that the beneficial impact of high-dose statins on the progression of coronary atherosclerosis associates with their ability to lower levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and C-reactive protein (CRP) and to raise high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). The Study of Coronary Atheroma by InTravascular Ultrasound: Effect of Rosuvastatin versus AtorvastatiN (SATURN, NCT00620542) aims to compare the effects of high-dose atorvastatin and rosuvastatin on disease progression. A total of 1385 subjects with established coronary artery disease (CAD) on angiography were randomized to receive rosuvastatin 40 mg or atorvastatin 80 mg for 24 months. The primary efficacy parameter will be the nominal change in percent atheroma volume (PAV), determined by analysis of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) images of matched coronary artery segments acquired at baseline and at 24-month follow-up. The effect of statin therapy on plasma lipids and inflammatory markers, and the incidence of clinical cardiovascular events will also be assessed. The study does not have the statistical power to directly compare the treatment groups with regard to clinical events. Serial IVUS has emerged as a sensitive imaging modality to assess the impact of treatments on arterial structure. In this study, IVUS will be used to determine whether high-dose statins have different effects on plaque progression.

  7. Deconvolution of ultrasound images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    1992-01-01

    Based on physical models, it is indicated that the received pressure field in ultrasound B-mode images can be described by a convolution between a tissue reflection signal and the emitted pressure field. This result is used in a description of current image formation and in formulating a new...... processing scheme. The suggested estimator can take into account the dispersive attenuation, the temporal and spatial variation of the pulse, and the change in reflection strength and signal-to-noise ratio. Details of the algorithm and the estimation of parameters to be used are given. The performance...

  8. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... transducer sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) into the body and then ... ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the limitations of Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound waves are ...

  9. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... young children. It is also valuable for evaluating the brain, spinal cord and hip joints in newborns and infants. Risks For standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the limitations of Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound waves are ...

  10. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... waves from passing into your body. The sonographer (ultrasound technologist) or radiologist then places the transducer on the skin in various locations, sweeping over the area of interest or angling the ... ultrasound images are reviewed. An ultrasound examination is usually ...

  11. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... internal organs, as well as blood flowing through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. ...

  12. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page How is the procedure performed? For most ultrasound exams, you will be positioned lying face- ... Ultrasound examinations are painless and easily tolerated by most patients. Ultrasound exams in which the transducer is ...

  13. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... flat sections of the body. Advancements in ultrasound technology include three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound that formats ... modality for the diagnosis and monitoring of pregnant women and their unborn babies. Ultrasound provides real-time ...

  14. High dynamic range ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degirmenci, Alperen; Perrin, Douglas P; Howe, Robert D

    2018-03-16

    High dynamic range (HDR) imaging is a popular computational photography technique that has found its way into every modern smartphone and camera. In HDR imaging, images acquired at different exposures are combined to increase the luminance range of the final image, thereby extending the limited dynamic range of the camera. Ultrasound imaging suffers from limited dynamic range as well; at higher power levels, the hyperechogenic tissue is overexposed, whereas at lower power levels, hypoechogenic tissue details are not visible. In this work, we apply HDR techniques to ultrasound imaging, where we combine ultrasound images acquired at different power levels to improve the level of detail visible in the final image. Ultrasound images of ex vivo and in vivo tissue are acquired at different acoustic power levels and then combined to generate HDR ultrasound (HDR-US) images. The performance of five tone mapping operators is quantitatively evaluated using a similarity metric to determine the most suitable mapping for HDR-US imaging. The ex vivo and in vivo results demonstrated that HDR-US imaging enables visualizing both hyper- and hypoechogenic tissue at once in a single image. The Durand tone mapping operator preserved the most amount of detail across the dynamic range. Our results strongly suggest that HDR-US imaging can improve the utility of ultrasound in image-based diagnosis and procedure guidance.

  15. Expansion in calcific lesions and overall clinical outcomes following bioresorbable scaffold implantation optimized with intravascular ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Hiroyoshi; Ruparelia, Neil; Latib, Azeem; Miyazaki, Tadashi; Sato, Katsumasa; Tanaka, Akihito; Naganuma, Toru; Sticchi, Alessandro; Chieffo, Alaide; Carlino, Mauro; Montorfano, Matteo; Colombo, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate clinical outcomes following bioresorbable scaffold (BRS) optimized with intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), and furthermore expansion of BRS in calcific lesions. Although IVUS use has contributed to improved clinical outcomes with metallic stent implantation, it is unclear if this is also true with regards to BRS, especially in calcified lesions. Between May 2012 and April 2015, 291 lesions in 198 patients were treated with BRS with IVUS use. We evaluated overall clinical outcomes at 1-year and investigated the expansion and eccentricity index of BRS amongst quadrants categorized by calcium arc (CA) every 90-degrees. The rates of major adverse cardiac events were 5.4% (at 6 months) and 10.7% (at 12 months). TLR was observed in 3.1% at 6-month and 7.5% at 12-month follow up. Although there was a significant difference among quadrants regarding to eccentricity of calcium (0°≦CA BRS expansion index [minimal scaffold area (MSA) divided by BRS area expanded at a nominal pressure] was comparable between quadrants. The use of IVUS to optimize BRS implantation results in favorable clinical outcomes even for complex lesions. Although eccentric calcium distribution resulted in asymmetric expansion of BRS, the final MSA was comparable irrespective of calcium distribution. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Determinants of slow flow following stent implantation in intravascular ultrasound-guided primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yusuke; Sakakura, Kenichi; Taniguchi, Yousuke; Yamamoto, Kei; Wada, Hiroshi; Fujita, Hideo; Momomura, Shin-Ichi

    2018-03-01

    Slow flow is a serious complication in primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and is associated with poor clinical outcomes. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-guided PCI may improve clinical outcomes after drug-eluting stent implantation. The purpose of this study was to seek the factors of slow flow following stent implantation, including factors related to IVUS-guided primary PCI. The study population consisted of 339 ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients, who underwent stent deployment with IVUS. During PCI, 56 patients (16.5%) had transient or permanent slow flow. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed age (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.07, P = 0.01), low attenuation plaque on IVUS (OR 3.38, 95% CI 1.70-6.72, P = 0.001), initial Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) flow grade 2 (vs. TIMI 0: OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.20-0.99, P = 0.046), and the ratio of stent diameter to vessel diameter (per 0.1 increase: OR 2.63, 95% CI 1.84-3.77, P flow. A ratio of stent diameter to vessel diameter of 0.71 had an 80.4% sensitivity and 56.9% specificity to predict slow flow. There was no significant difference in ischemic-driven target vessel revascularization between the modest stent expansion (ratio of stent diameter to vessel diameter flow following stent implantation in IVUS-guided primary PCI.

  17. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to-use and less expensive than other imaging methods. Ultrasound imaging is extremely safe and does not ... barium exams, CT scanning , and MRI are the methods of choice in such a setting. Large patients ...

  18. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... using ultrasound. View full size with caption Related Articles and Media Appendicitis Images related to Children's (Pediatric) ... facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, treatments ...

  19. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... kidneys. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Abdominal ultrasound imaging is performed ... is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. ...

  20. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... flat sections of the body. Advancements in ultrasound technology include three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound that formats ... color picture. It can also convert blood flow information into a distinctive sound that can be heard ...

  1. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Most ultrasound scanning is noninvasive (no needles ... procedures such as needle biopsies and fluid aspiration. Risks For standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known ...

  2. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... diagnose heart conditions, and assess damage after a heart attack. Ultrasound is safe, noninvasive, and does not use ... heart failure, and to assess damage after a heart attack. Ultrasound of the heart is commonly called an “ ...

  3. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... illness. Ultrasound is used to help physicians evaluate symptoms such as: pain swelling infection Ultrasound is a ... are sometimes the best way to see if treatment is working or if a finding is stable ...

  4. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can be heard with every heartbeat. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Ultrasound ... is full when the scan begins. top of page What does the equipment look like? Ultrasound scanners consist ...

  5. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... special ultrasound technique that allows the physician to see and evaluate blood flow through arteries and veins ... the breasts and guide biopsy of breast cancer ( see the Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy page . diagnose a ...

  6. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... flat sections of the body. Advancements in ultrasound technology include three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound that formats ... of the reflected sound waves (called the Doppler effect). A computer collects and processes the sounds and ...

  7. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... procedure? Ultrasound examinations can help to diagnose a variety of conditions and to assess organ damage following ... the Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy page . diagnose a variety of heart conditions, including valve problems and congestive ...

  8. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... flat sections of the body. Advancements in ultrasound technology include three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound that formats ... about this beforehand and be made aware of food and drink restrictions that may be needed prior ...

  9. Medical Ultrasound Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Explains the basic principles of ultrasound using everyday physics. Topics include the generation of ultrasound, basic interactions with material, and the measurement of blood flow using the Doppler effect. (Author/MM)

  10. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Ultrasound examinations can help to diagnose a ... the scan begins. top of page What does the equipment look like? Ultrasound scanners consist of a ...

  11. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... saved. Doppler ultrasound, a special application of ultrasound, measures the direction and speed of blood cells as ... about this beforehand and be made aware of food and drink restrictions that may be needed prior ...

  12. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... uterus and ovaries. top of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? Ultrasound examinations are painless and easily tolerated by most patients. Ultrasound exams in which the transducer is inserted into an opening of the body may produce minimal discomfort. If a Doppler ultrasound ...

  13. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Ultrasound - Abdomen Children’s (pediatric) ... ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show the structure and movement of the body's ...

  14. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... within your child’s abdomen. Ultrasound does not use ionizing radiation, has no known harmful effects, and is particularly ... create an image. Ultrasound examinations do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays ), thus there is ...

  15. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound equipment look like? How does the procedure work? How is the procedure performed? What will my child experience during and after the procedure? Who interprets the results and how do we get them? What are the benefits vs. risks? What are the limitations of Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging? ...

  16. Angioplasty Guided by Intravascular Ultrasound: Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, José Albuquerque Neto de, E-mail: jafneto@cardiol.br; Nogueira, Iara Antonia Lustosa [Universidade Federal do Maranhão, São Luiz, MA (Brazil); Figueiro, Mabel Fernandes; Buehler, Anna Maria; Berwanger, Otavio [Instituto de Ensino e Pesquisa do Hospital do Coração, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-08-15

    The impact of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) use on stenting has shown inconclusive results. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the impact of IVUS on stenting regarding the clinical and angiographic evolution. A search was performed in Medline/Pubmed, CENTRAL, Embase, Lilacs, Scopus and Web of Science databases. It included randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that evaluated the implantation of stents guided by IVUS, compared with those using angiography alone (ANGIO). The minimum follow-up duration was six months and the following outcomes were assessed: thrombosis, mortality, myocardial infarction, percutaneous and surgical revascularization, major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and restenosis. The binary outcomes were presented considering the number of events in each group; the estimates were generated by a random effects model, considering Mantel-Haenszel statistics as weighting agent and magnitude of effect for the relative risk (RR) with its respective 95% confidence interval (95%CI). Higgins I{sup 2} test was used to quantify the consistency between the results of each study. A total of 2,689 articles were evaluated, including 8 RCTs. There was a 27% reduction in angiographic restenosis (RR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.54-0.97, I{sup 2} = 51%) and statistically significant reduction in the rates of percutaneous revascularization and overall (RR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.51 to 1.53, I{sup 2} = 61%, RR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.54 to 0.99, I{sup 2} = 55%), with no statistical difference in surgical revascularization (RR: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.52-1.74, I{sup 2} = 0%) in favor of IVUS vs. ANGIO. There were no differences regarding the other outcomes in the comparison between the two strategies. Angioplasty with stenting guided by IVUS decreases the rates of restenosis and revascularization, with no impact on MACE, acute myocardial infarction, mortality or thrombosis outcomes.

  17. Angioplasty Guided by Intravascular Ultrasound: Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, José Albuquerque Neto de; Nogueira, Iara Antonia Lustosa; Figueiro, Mabel Fernandes; Buehler, Anna Maria; Berwanger, Otavio

    2013-01-01

    The impact of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) use on stenting has shown inconclusive results. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the impact of IVUS on stenting regarding the clinical and angiographic evolution. A search was performed in Medline/Pubmed, CENTRAL, Embase, Lilacs, Scopus and Web of Science databases. It included randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that evaluated the implantation of stents guided by IVUS, compared with those using angiography alone (ANGIO). The minimum follow-up duration was six months and the following outcomes were assessed: thrombosis, mortality, myocardial infarction, percutaneous and surgical revascularization, major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and restenosis. The binary outcomes were presented considering the number of events in each group; the estimates were generated by a random effects model, considering Mantel-Haenszel statistics as weighting agent and magnitude of effect for the relative risk (RR) with its respective 95% confidence interval (95%CI). Higgins I 2 test was used to quantify the consistency between the results of each study. A total of 2,689 articles were evaluated, including 8 RCTs. There was a 27% reduction in angiographic restenosis (RR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.54-0.97, I 2 = 51%) and statistically significant reduction in the rates of percutaneous revascularization and overall (RR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.51 to 1.53, I 2 = 61%, RR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.54 to 0.99, I 2 = 55%), with no statistical difference in surgical revascularization (RR: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.52-1.74, I 2 = 0%) in favor of IVUS vs. ANGIO. There were no differences regarding the other outcomes in the comparison between the two strategies. Angioplasty with stenting guided by IVUS decreases the rates of restenosis and revascularization, with no impact on MACE, acute myocardial infarction, mortality or thrombosis outcomes

  18. Abnormal pulmonary artery stiffness in pulmonary arterial hypertension: in vivo study with intravascular ultrasound.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund M T Lau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is increasing recognition that pulmonary artery stiffness is an important determinant of right ventricular (RV afterload in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH. We used intravascular ultrasound (IVUS to evaluate the mechanical properties of the elastic pulmonary arteries (PA in subjects with PAH, and assessed the effects of PAH-specific therapy on indices of arterial stiffness. METHOD: Using IVUS and simultaneous right heart catheterisation, 20 pulmonary segments in 8 PAH subjects and 12 pulmonary segments in 8 controls were studied to determine their compliance, distensibility, elastic modulus and stiffness index β. PAH subjects underwent repeat IVUS examinations after 6-months of bosentan therapy. RESULTS: AT BASELINE, PAH SUBJECTS DEMONSTRATED GREATER STIFFNESS IN ALL MEASURED INDICES COMPARED TO CONTROLS: compliance (1.50±0.11×10(-2 mm(2/mmHg vs 4.49±0.43×10(-2 mm(2/mmHg, p<0.0001, distensibility (0.32±0.03%/mmHg vs 1.18±0.13%/mmHg, p<0.0001, elastic modulus (720±64 mmHg vs 198±19 mmHg, p<0.0001, and stiffness index β (15.0±1.4 vs 11.0±0.7, p = 0.046. Strong inverse exponential associations existed between mean pulmonary artery pressure and compliance (r(2 = 0.82, p<0.0001, and also between mean PAP and distensibility (r(2 = 0.79, p = 0.002. Bosentan therapy, for 6-months, was not associated with any significant changes in all indices of PA stiffness. CONCLUSION: Increased stiffness occurs in the proximal elastic PA in patients with PAH and contributes to the pathogenesis RV failure. Bosentan therapy may not be effective at improving PA stiffness.

  19. Ultrasound Imaging and its modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2002-01-01

    Modern medical ultrasound scanners are used for imaging nearly all soft tissue structures in the body. The anatomy can be studied from gray-scale B-mode images, where the reflectivity and scattering strength of the tissues are displayed. The imaging is performed in real time with 20 to 100 images...

  20. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... echoes from the tissues in the body. The principles are similar to sonar used by boats and ... work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles involved in the sonar used by bats, ships ...

  1. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... kidneys. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Abdominal ultrasound imaging is performed ... to have your child drink several glasses of water, depending on the child's size, two hours prior ...

  2. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in the body. The principles are similar to sonar used by boats and submarines. The ultrasound image ... based on the same principles involved in the sonar used by bats, ships and fishermen. When a ...

  3. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... View full size with caption Related Articles and Media Appendicitis Images related to Children's (Pediatric) Ultrasound - Abdomen ... or your insurance provider to get a better understanding of the possible charges you will incur. Web ...

  4. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... appendicitis is the most common reason for emergency abdominal surgery. Ultrasound imaging can also: help a physician determine the source of abdominal pain, such as gallstones, kidney stones, abscesses or ...

  5. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... kidneys. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Abdominal ultrasound imaging is performed ... the scanner by a cord. Some exams may use different transducers (with different capabilities) during a single ...

  6. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the returning echoes from the tissues in the body. The principles are similar to sonar used by boats and submarines. The ultrasound image is immediately visible on a video display screen ...

  7. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... called color Doppler ultrasonography, is a special ultrasound technique that allows the physician to see and evaluate ... evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. A follow-up examination may also be necessary ...

  8. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and movement of the body's internal organs, as well as blood flowing through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. ...

  9. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Except for traumatic injury, appendicitis is the most common reason for emergency abdominal surgery. Ultrasound imaging can also: help a physician determine the source of abdominal pain, such as gallstones, kidney stones, ...

  10. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Abdominal ultrasound imaging is performed to evaluate the: appendix stomach/ pylorus liver gallbladder spleen pancreas intestines kidneys ... as gallstones, kidney stones, abscesses or an inflamed appendix guide procedures such as biopsies, in which needles, ...

  11. Rehabilitative ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teyhen, Deydre; Koppenhaver, Shane

    2011-01-01

    Neuromuscular deficits have been linked with chronic musculoskeletal conditions. The use of ultrasound imaging(USI) to aid rehabilitation of neuromusculoskeletal disorders has been called rehabilitative ultrasound imaging (RUSI)and defined as ‘a procedure used by physical therapists to evaluate muscle and related soft tissue morphology and function during exercise and physical tasks. RUSI is used to assist in the application of therapeutic interventions,providing feedback to the patient and physical therapist (Teyhen 2006). Brightness mode (b-mode) USI is the most common form used by physical therapists and will be the focus of this summary. USI can distinguish between healthy adults and those with low back pain (LBP). Those with LBP have decreased muscle thickness, side-to-side asymmetry,and decreased ability to thicken the muscles during a contraction (Teyhen et al 2009). Moreover, when measured by USI, lumbar multifidus muscle asymmetry appears to be predictive of future episode of LBP up to three years later(Hides et al 2001). Finally, USI can distinguish between changes in muscle thickness during common LBP exercises when performed by healthy adults (Teyhen et al 2008) and is preliminarily supported as a biofeedback tool to enhance exercise effectiveness (Henry and Teyhan 2007). CRITERION-RELATED VALIDITY: In a recent systematic review Koppenhaver et al (2009a) concluded that b-mode USI when applied in a rehabilitative setting is a valid tool to measure trunk muscle size and muscle activation during most submaximal contracted states. When comparing muscle thickness obtained by magnetic resonance imaging and USI, researchers have demonstrated substantial agreement(ICC 0.84 to –0.95) with only minimal differences between the modalities (0.03 to 0.21 cm2) (Hides et al 1995, 2006). Although comparisons between electromyography and change in muscle thickness obtained by USI have most often demonstrated a curvilinear relationship (Hodges et al 2003), the ability

  12. Optical Coherence Tomography Analysis of Attenuated Plaques Detected by Intravascular Ultrasound in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kubo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recent intravascular ultrasound (IVUS studies have demonstrated that hypoechoic plaque with deep ultrasound attenuation despite absence of bright calcium is common in acute coronary syndrome. Such “attenuated plaque” may be an IVUS characteristic of unstable lesion. Methods. We used optical coherence tomography (OCT in 104 patients with unstable angina to compare lesion characteristics between IVUS-detected attenuated plaque and nonattenuated plaque. Results. IVUS-detected attenuated plaque was observed in 41 (39% patients. OCT-detected lipidic plaque (88% versus 49%, <0.001, thin-cap fibroatheroma (48% versus 16%, <0.001, plaque rupture (44% versus 11%, <0.001, and intracoronary thrombus (54% versus 17%, <0.001 were more often seen in IVUS-detected attenuated plaques compared with nonattenuated plaques. Conclusions. IVUS-detected attenuated plaque has many characteristics of unstable coronary lesion. The presence of attended plaque might be an important marker of lesion instability.

  13. Image processing in medical ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmsen, Martin Christian

    This Ph.D project addresses image processing in medical ultrasound and seeks to achieve two major scientific goals: First to develop an understanding of the most significant factors influencing image quality in medical ultrasound, and secondly to use this knowledge to develop image processing...... multiple imaging setups. This makes the system well suited for development of new processing methods and for clinical evaluations, where acquisition of the exact same scan location for multiple methods is important. The second project addressed implementation, development and evaluation of SASB using...... methods for enhancing the diagnostic value of medical ultrasound. The project is an industrial Ph.D project co-sponsored by BK Medical ApS., with the commercial goal to improve the image quality of BK Medicals scanners. Currently BK Medical employ a simple conventional delay-and-sum beamformer to generate...

  14. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... whether the object is solid or filled with fluid). In medicine, ultrasound is used to detect changes ... As the sound waves bounce off internal organs, fluids and tissues, the sensitive receiver in the transducer ...

  15. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the reflected sound waves (called the Doppler effect). A computer collects and processes the sounds and ... standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the ...

  16. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... because greater amounts of tissue attenuate (weaken) the sound waves as they pass deeper into the body and need to be returned to the transducer for analysis. Ultrasound has difficulty penetrating bone and, therefore, can ...

  17. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... organs and to examine a baby in pregnant women and the brain and hips in infants. It’s ... modality for the diagnosis and monitoring of pregnant women and their unborn babies. Ultrasound provides real-time ...

  18. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Videos related to General Ultrasound Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please ... is further reviewed by committees from the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the Radiological Society of ...

  19. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as needle biopsies and fluid aspiration. Risks For standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects ... possible charges you will incur. Web page review process: This Web page is reviewed regularly by a ...

  20. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... heartbeat. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Ultrasound examinations can help to ... asked to drink up to six glasses of water two hours prior to your exam and avoid ...

  1. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... help diagnose the causes of pain, swelling and infection in the body’s internal organs and to examine ... help physicians evaluate symptoms such as: pain swelling infection Ultrasound is a useful way of examining many ...

  2. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the probe through ... a single exam. The transducer sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) ...

  3. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... heartbeat. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Ultrasound examinations can help to ... the scanner by a cord. Some exams may use different transducers (with different capabilities) during a single ...

  4. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Angioplasty and Vascular Stenting Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy ... or your insurance provider to get a better understanding of the possible charges you will incur. Web ...

  5. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be asked to wear a gown. ... I prepare? You should wear comfortable, loose-fitting clothing for your ultrasound exam. You may need to ...

  6. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... scanning or sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on ... to do the scanning. The transducer is a small hand-held device that resembles a microphone, attached ...

  7. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... collects the sounds that bounce back and a computer then uses those sound waves to create an ... types of Doppler ultrasound: Color Doppler uses a computer to convert Doppler measurements into an array of ...

  8. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... For others you may be asked to drink up to six glasses of water two hours prior ... ultrasound exams, you will be positioned lying face-up on an examination table that can be tilted ...

  9. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is used to help diagnose the causes of pain, swelling and infection in the body’s internal organs ... used to help physicians evaluate symptoms such as: pain swelling infection Ultrasound is a useful way of ...

  10. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) into the body and then ... ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the limitations of ...

  11. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fluid). In medicine, ultrasound is used to detect changes in appearance, size or contour of organs, tissues, ... the sensitive receiver in the transducer records tiny changes in the sound's pitch and direction. These signature ...

  12. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... arteries and veins in the abdomen, arms, legs, neck and/or brain (in infants and children) or ... used to help physicians evaluate symptoms such as: pain swelling infection Ultrasound is a useful way of ...

  13. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... called color Doppler ultrasonography, is a special ultrasound technique that allows the physician to see and evaluate ... a blood vessel. Power Doppler is a newer technique that is more sensitive than color Doppler and ...

  14. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Send us your feedback Did you find the information you were looking for? Yes No Please type your comment or suggestion ... General ultrasound procedure View full size with caption Pediatric ...

  15. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... need to be returned to the transducer for analysis. Ultrasound has difficulty penetrating bone and, therefore, can only see the outer surface of bony structures and not what lies within (except in infants ...

  16. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... organs and to examine a baby in pregnant women and the brain and hips in infants. It’s ... Transvaginal ultrasound. The transducer is inserted into a woman's vagina to view the uterus and ovaries. top ...

  17. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... areas of the body while other areas, especially air-filled lungs, are poorly suited for ultrasound. top ... make secure contact with the body and eliminate air pockets between the transducer and the skin that ...

  18. OSPACS: Ultrasound image management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bessant Conrad

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ultrasound scanning uses the medical imaging format, DICOM, for electronically storing the images and data associated with a particular scan. Large health care facilities typically use a picture archiving and communication system (PACS for storing and retrieving such images. However, these systems are usually not suitable for managing large collections of anonymized ultrasound images gathered during a clinical screening trial. Results We have developed a system enabling the accurate archiving and management of ultrasound images gathered during a clinical screening trial. It is based upon a Windows application utilizing an open-source DICOM image viewer and a relational database. The system automates the bulk import of DICOM files from removable media by cross-validating the patient information against an external database, anonymizing the data as well as the image, and then storing the contents of the file as a field in a database record. These image records may then be retrieved from the database and presented in a tree-view control so that the user can select particular images for display in a DICOM viewer or export them to external media. Conclusion This system provides error-free automation of ultrasound image archiving and management, suitable for use in a clinical trial. An open-source project has been established to promote continued development of the system.

  19. Regression and shift in composition of coronary atherosclerotic plaques by pioglitazone: insight from an intravascular ultrasound analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementi, Fabrizio; Di Luozzo, Marco; Mango, Ruggiero; Luciani, Giulio; Trivisonno, Antonio; Pizzuto, Francesco; Martuscelli, Eugenio; Mehta, Jawahar L; Romeo, Francesco

    2009-03-01

    Plaque reduction with the use of pioglitazone and statin combination therapy has been observed in carotid plaque. We sought to investigate the effect of combination therapy with statins and pioglitazone on coronary plaque regression and composition with the use of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and intravascular ultrasound-virtual histology (IVUS-VH). We analysed 29 plaques in 25 diabetic patients with angiographic evidence of nonsignificant coronary lesions with IVUS-VH. Patients were treated with 80 mg of atorvastatin and 30 mg of pioglitazone daily for 6 months. After 6 months of therapy, IVUS-VH of each lesion was reacquired. Mean elastic external membrane volume was significantly reduced between baseline and follow-up (343.9 vs. 320.5 mm; P < 0.05) as was mean total atheroma volume (179.3 vs. 166.6 mm; P < 0.05). Change in total atheroma volume showed a 6.3% mean reduction. Areas of fibrous tissue, fibrolipidic tissue and calcium decreased over the 6 months of follow-up, although not significantly. On the other hand, the necrotic core increased from 9 to 14% (P < 0.05). Our data demonstrated that atorvastatin/pioglitazone association is able to induce significant regression of coronary atherosclerosis, acting on plaque composition. Our findings are preliminary results and will be confirmed in an ongoing randomized placebo-controlled multicenter trial (PIPER; Pioglitazone for Prevention of Restenosis in Diabetics with Complex Lesion; trial registration: clinical trials.gov. Identifier: NCT 00376870).

  20. Intravascular ultrasound-guided optimized stent deployment. Immediate and 6 months clinical and angiographic results from the Multicenter Ultrasound Stenting in Coronaries Study (MUSIC Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jaegere, P; Mudra, H; Figulla, H; Almagor, Y; Doucet, S; Penn, I; Colombo, A; Hamm, C; Bartorelli, A; Rothman, M; Nobuyoshi, M; Yamaguchi, T; Voudris, V; DiMario, C; Makovski, S; Hausmann, D; Rowe, S; Rabinovich, S; Sunamura, M; van Es, G A

    1998-08-01

    A study was set up to validate the safety and feasibility of intravascular ultrasound-guided stenting without subsequent anticoagulation, and its impact on the 6 months restenosis rate. The study was designed to be multicentred, prospective, and observational. One hundred and sixty-one patients with stable angina and a de novo coronary artery lesion were enrolled. In four patients, the implantation of a Palmaz-Schatz (with spiral bridge) stent had failed. One of these four patients died 3 days following bypass surgery. In two other patients, intravascular ultrasound assessment was not performed. One hundred and twenty-five of the remaining 155 patients (81%) were treated with aspirin (100 mg x day(-1)), because all three criteria for optimized stent expansion were met. Twenty-two of the remaining 38 patients (25%), in whom at least one criterion was not met were treated with aspirin and acenocoumarol (3 months, INR 2.5-3.5), while 16 patients only received aspirin. Stent thrombosis was documented in two patients (1.3%) for which repeat angioplasty was performed. During the hospital stay, there were no deaths or Q-wave myocardial infarctions. Five patients (3.2%) sustained a non-Q-wave myocardial infarction. During the follow-up period (198+/-38 days, complete for all patients, except one), one patient (0.6%) sustained a Q-wave myocardial infarction, one (0.6%) underwent bypass surgery, and repeat angioplasty was performed in nine patients (5.7%). In two of the nine patients, repeat angioplasty involved another lesion. Therefore, the target lesion revascularization rate during follow-up was 4.5% (seven patients). At quantitative coronary angiography, the minimal lumen diameter (mean+/-SD) increased from 1.12+/-0.34 mm before to 2.89+/-0.35 mm after stenting. Repeat angiography at 6 months was performed in 144 patients (92%). The minimal lumen diameter at follow-up was 2.12+/-0.67 mm. Restenosis (diameter stenosis of 50% or more) was documented in 12 patients or 8

  1. Evolution of contrast agents for ultrasound imaging and ultrasound-mediated drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera ePaefgen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound is one of the most frequently used diagnostic methods. It is a non-invasive, comparably inexpensive imaging method with a broad spectrum of applications, which can be increased even more by using bubbles as contrast agents. There are various different types of bubbles: filled with different gases, composed of soft- or hard-shell materials, and ranging in size from nano- to micrometers. These intravascular contrast agents enable functional analyses, e.g. to acquire organ perfusion in real-time. Molecular analyses are achieved by coupling specific ligands to the bubbles’ shell, which bind to marker molecules in the area of interest. Bubbles can also be loaded with or attached to drugs, peptides or genes and can be destroyed by ultrasound pulses to locally release the entrapped agent. Recent studies show that ultrasound contrast agents are also valuable tools in hyperthermia-induced ablation therapy of tumors, or can increase cellular uptake of locally released drugs by enhancing membrane permeability. This review summarizes important steps in the development of ultrasound contrast agents and introduces the current clinical applications of contrast-enhanced ultrasound. Additionally, an overview of the recent developments in ultrasound probe design for functional and molecular diagnosis as well as for drug delivery is given.

  2. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays ), thus there is no radiation exposure to the ... tissues that do not show up well on x-ray images. Ultrasound provides real-time imaging, making it ...

  3. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us ... is the most common reason for emergency abdominal surgery. Ultrasound imaging can also: help a physician determine ...

  4. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pitch) and time it takes for the ultrasound signal to return from the area within the patient that is being examined to the transducer (the device placed on the patient's skin to send and receive the returning sound waves), as well as the type of body ...

  5. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that allows the physician to see and evaluate blood flow through arteries and veins in the abdomen, arms, legs, neck and/or brain (in infants and children) or within various body organs such as the liver or kidneys. There are three types of Doppler ultrasound: Color Doppler uses a computer ...

  6. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) into the body and then listens for the returning echoes from ... ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top ... waves as they pass deeper into the body and need to be returned to the transducer ...

  7. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and ovaries. top of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? Ultrasound examinations are ... areas. Outside links: For the convenience of our users, RadiologyInfo .org provides links to relevant websites. RadiologyInfo. ...

  8. Imaging findings of intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia presenting in extremities: correlation with pathological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sun Joo; Choo, Hye Jung; Park, Ji Sung; Park, Yeong-Mi; Eun, Choong Ki [Pusan Paik Hospital, Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Inje University, Pusan (Korea); Hong, Sung Hwan [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Hwang, Ji Young [Ewha Womans University, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Lee, In Sook [Pusan National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Pusan (Korea); Lee, Jongmin [Kyungpook National University, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea); Jung, Soo-Jin [Pusan Paik Hospital, Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Inje University, Pusan (Korea)

    2010-08-15

    To describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound (US) findings of intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia (IPEH) arising in extremities. Six patients with IPEH confirmed by surgical resection were reviewed retrospectively. Before resection, 3 patients underwent both MRI and US and 3 patients underwent only MRI. Two radiologists retrospectively reviewed MR/US imaging results and correlated them with pathological features. The 6 IPEHs were diagnosed as 4 mixed forms and 2 pure forms. The pre-existing pathology of four mixed forms was intramuscular or intermuscular hemangioma. By MRI, the mixed form of IPEH (n = 4) revealed iso- to slightly high signal intensity containing nodule-like foci of high signal intensity on T1-weighted images (T1WI) and high signal intensity-containing nodule-like foci of low signal intensity on T2-weighted images (T2WI). The pure form of IPEH (n = 2) showed homogeneous iso- signal intensity on T1WI and high and low signal intensity containing nodule-like foci of low signal intensity on T2WI. On gadolinium-enhanced fat-suppressed T1WI, 50% of cases (n = 3: mixed forms) revealed peripheral, septal, and central enhancement. The other IPEHs (n = 3: 1 mixed and 2 pure forms) showed peripheral and septal enhancement or only peripheral enhancement. By US, two mixed forms of IPEH showed well-defined hypoechoic masses containing hyperechoic septa and central portion with vascularities. One pure form of IPEH was a homogeneous hypoechoic mass with septal and peripheral vascularities on color Doppler imaging. The foci of high signal intensity on T1WI, foci of low signal intensity on T2WI, and non-enhancing portions on MRI and the hypoechoic portion on US were histopathologically correlated with thrombi and the peripheral/septal or central enhancing areas on MRI, hyperechoic septa and the central portion on US, and septal/central or peripheral vascularities on color Doppler imaging corresponded to hypertrophic papillary epithelium and

  9. Adaptive Beamforming for Medical Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holfort, Iben Kraglund

    This dissertation investigates the application of adaptive beamforming for medical ultrasound imaging. The investigations have been concentrated primarily on the Minimum Variance (MV) beamformer. A broadband implementation of theMV beamformer is described, and simulated data have been used...... to demonstrate the performance. The MV beamformer has been applied to different sets of ultrasound imaging sequences; synthetic aperture ultrasound imaging and plane wave ultrasound imaging. And an approach for applying MV optimized apodization weights on both the transmitting and the receiving apertures...

  10. Vascular applications of contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Kunal S; Lee, Jake J; Taha, Ashraf A; Avgerinos, Efthymios; Chaer, Rabih A

    2017-07-01

    Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) imaging is a powerful noninvasive modality offering numerous potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications in vascular medicine. CEUS imaging uses microbubble contrast agents composed of an encapsulating shell surrounding a gaseous core. These microbubbles act as nearly perfect intravascular reflectors of ultrasound energy and may be used to enhance the overall contrast and quality of ultrasound images. The purpose of this narrative review is to survey the current literature regarding CEUS imaging and discuss its diagnostic and therapeutic roles in current vascular and selected nonvascular applications. The PubMed, MEDLINE, and Embase databases were searched until July 2016 using the PubMed and Ovid Web-based search engines. The search terms used included contrast-enhanced, microbubble, ultrasound, carotid, aneurysm, and arterial. The diagnostic and therapeutic utility of CEUS imaging has grown exponentially, particularly in the realms of extracranial carotid arterial disease, aortic disease, and peripheral arterial disease. Studies have demonstrated that CEUS imaging is diagnostically superior to conventional ultrasound imaging in identifying vessel irregularities and measuring neovascularization to assess plaque vulnerability and end-muscle perfusion. Groups have begun to use microbubbles as agents in therapeutic applications for targeted drug and gene therapy delivery as well as for the enhancement of sonothrombolysis. The emerging technology of microbubbles and CEUS imaging holds considerable promise for cardiovascular medicine and cancer therapy given its diagnostic and therapeutic utility. Overall, with proper training and credentialing of technicians, the clinical implications are innumerable as microbubble technology is rapidly bursting onto the scene of cardiovascular medicine. Copyright © 2017 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Ultrasound - Abdomen ...

  12. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and helps assure safe and accurate placement and fluid drainage for diagnosis and/or relief of patient discomfort. Doppler ultrasound images can help the physician to see and evaluate: blockages to blood flow (such as clots) narrowing of vessels tumors and ...

  13. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an area of tenderness, your child may feel pressure or minor pain from the procedure. If a Doppler ultrasound study is performed, your child may actually hear pulse-like sounds that change in pitch as the blood flow is monitored and measured. Once the imaging ...

  14. Cardiac allograft vasculopathy compared by intravascular ultrasound sonography: everolimus to mycophenolate mofetil--one single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, N-K; Jan, C-F; Chi, N-H; Lee, C-M; Wu, I-H; Huang, S-C; Chen, Y-S; Yu, H-Y; Tsao, C-I; Ko, W-J; Chu, S-H; Wang, S-S

    2012-05-01

    Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) remains one of the leading causes of late graft failure and death. Cyclosporine microemulsion Neoral (CsA) had been used in heart transplantation (HTx) recipients. Meanwhile, Everolimus (EVL; Certican, Norvatis Pharmaceuticals; Basel, Switzerland) or mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) have been combined with CsA for maintenance treatment. We compared atherosclerosis in HTx patients showing CAV by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) in two groups: the CE who received CsA, EVL, and steroid versus the CM group, who received CsA, MMF, and steroid. We explored IVUS parameters such as plaque thickness (PT), lumen circumference (LC), media adventitial circumference, lumen diameter (LD), and media adventitial diameter to characterize the atherosclerosis among CE versus CM groups. In this study, both the CE and CM groups showed increased plaque thickening in the first year posttransplantation (P data. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of intravascular ultrasound and angiographic assessement of coronary reference segment size in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Thayssen, Per; Mintz, Gary S

    2008-01-01

    During percutaneous coronary intervention, the reference segment is assessed angiographically. This report described the discrepancy between angiographic and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) assessment of reference segment size in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Preintervention IVUS was used...... was measured as plaque CSA/external elastic membrane (EEM) CSA. Using IVUS, the reference lumen diameter was 2.80 +/- 0.42 mm and the reference EEM diameter was 4.17 +/- 0.56 mm. The angiographic reference diameter was 2.63 +/- 0.36 mm. Mean difference between the IVUS EEM diameter and angiographic reference...... diameter was 1.56 +/- 0.55 mm. The mean difference between the IVUS reference lumen diameter and angiographic reference lumen diameter was 0.18 +/- 0.44 mm. Plaque burden in the reference segment correlated inversely with the difference between IVUS and quantitative coronary angiographic reference lumen...

  16. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Survey Do you have a personal story about radiology? Share your patient story here Images × Image Gallery ... reviewed by committees from the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the Radiological Society of North America ( ...

  17. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... will analyze the images and send a signed report to your primary care physician, or to the ... provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding minimally invasive procedures such as needle ...

  18. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a radiologist or other physician. To locate a medical imaging or radiation oncology provider in your community, you ... not provide cost information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, treatments and procedures may vary by geographic ...

  19. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us ... Patients may be turned to either side to improve the quality of the images. After you are ...

  20. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... radiology examinations, will analyze the images and send a signed report to your primary care physician, or to the physician or other healthcare ... information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, treatments and procedures ... Web page review process: This Web page is reviewed regularly by ...

  1. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a radiologist or other physician. To locate a medical imaging or radiation oncology provider in your community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, treatments and procedures may vary by ...

  2. Imaging findings for intravascular large B-cell lymphoma of the liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungmin Bae

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL is a rare subtype of extranodal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma that most commonly involves the central nervous system and skin. To our knowledge, no state-of-the art imaging findings have been reported for hepatic IVLBCL in the English literature. We report the first case of hepatic involvement of IVLBCL along with a literature review.

  3. A lesson from intravascular imaging: insights for recognizing a spontaneous coronary artery dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccheri, Dario; Milazzo, Diego; Geraci, Salvatore; Vaccaro, Giovanni; Caramanno, Giuseppe

    2017-12-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is still today an underdiagnosed disease due to the absence of angiographic hallmarks in more than 70% of cases. In several cases, an intravascular imaging is a sole tool for recognizing a dissection. Particularly, optical coherence tomography analysis (OCT) could represent the gold standard technique of easy interpretation and prompt diagnosis. Here we present a rare case of multivessel spontaneous coronary artery disease (SCAD) with atypical collateral circulation.

  4. Recursive Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Svetoslav; Gammelmark, Kim; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    1999-01-01

    transducer element is used after N-xmt emissions. For each emission the signals from the individual elements are beam-formed in parallel for all directions in the image. A new frame is created by adding the new RF lines to the RF lines from the previous frame. The RF data recorded at the previous emission......This paper presents a new imaging method, applicable for both 2D and 3D imaging. It is based on Synthetic Transmit Aperture Focusing, but unlike previous approaches a new frame is created after every pulse emission. The elements from a linear transducer array emit pulses one after another. The same...... with the same element are subtracted. This yields a new image after each pulse emission and can give a frame rate of e.g. 5000 images/sec. The paper gives a derivation of the recursive imaging technique and compares simulations for fast B-mode imaging with measurements. A low value of N-xmt is necessary...

  5. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... containing a computer and electronics, a video display screen and a transducer that is used to do ... image is immediately visible on a video display screen that looks like a computer or television monitor. ...

  6. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be turned to either side to improve the quality of the images. After you are positioned on ... about this beforehand and be made aware of food and drink restrictions that may be needed prior ...

  7. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In most cases, barium exams, CT scanning , and MRI are the methods of choice in such a ... or certain joints, other imaging modalities such as MRI are typically used. top of page This page ...

  8. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the reflected sound waves (called the Doppler effect). A computer collects and processes the sounds and ... be turned to either side to improve the quality of the images. After you are positioned on ...

  9. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... radiation oncology provider in your community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, treatments ...

  10. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... called the Doppler effect). A computer collects and processes the sounds and creates graphs or color pictures ... accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, ...

  11. Ultrasound Assisted Optical Imaging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Nan

    2002-01-01

    .... A novel image reconstruction algorithm has been proposed and implemented. It reconstructs lower orders moments of targets from limited information from a diffusive system, and is more robust than conventional iterative algorithms...

  12. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... images and send a signed report to your primary care physician, or to the physician or other healthcare provider who requested the exam. Usually, the referring physician or health care provider will share the results with you. ...

  13. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation ... imaging uses sound waves to produce pictures of the inside of the body. It is used to help diagnose the causes of pain, swelling and infection in the body’s ...

  14. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z General ...

  15. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... graphically, in terms of the distance traveled per unit of time, rather than as a color picture. ... full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy ...

  16. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site ...

  17. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by taking our brief survey: Survey Do you have a personal story about radiology? Share your patient ... caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child- ...

  18. The clinical importance and prediction of steal following femoro-femoral cross-over bypass: study of the donor iliac artery by intravascular ultrasound, arteriography, duplex scanning and pressure measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogt, K C; Rasmussen, J G; Schroeder, T V

    2000-01-01

    to evaluate the clinical significance of the steal phenomenon following femoro-femoral bypass, and whether the addition of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) to the established examinations of the donor iliac artery can improve the prediction of patients who will develop steal.......to evaluate the clinical significance of the steal phenomenon following femoro-femoral bypass, and whether the addition of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) to the established examinations of the donor iliac artery can improve the prediction of patients who will develop steal....

  19. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us ... requested the exam. Usually, the referring physician or health care provider will share the results with you. ...

  20. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be turned to either side to improve the quality of the images. After you are positioned on the examination table, the radiologist (a physician specifically trained to supervise and interpret radiology examinations) or sonographer will apply a warm water-based gel to the area of the body ...

  1. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. A follow-up examination may also be necessary so that any change in a known abnormality can be monitored over time. Follow-up examinations are sometimes the best way to see if treatment is working or ...

  2. Ultrasound imaging using coded signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misaridis, Athanasios

    coded excitation can be used for increasing the frame rate. The work includes both simulated results using Field II, and experimental results based on measurements on phantoms as well as clinical images. Initially a mathematical foundation of signal modulation is given. Pulse compression based...... is described. Application of coded excitation in array imaging is evaluated through simulations in Field II. The low degree of the orthogonality among coded signals for ultrasound systems is first discussed, and the effect of mismatched filtering in the cross-correlation properties of the signals is evaluated...... emissions. Finally, a novel coding technique which uses pulse train excitation is presented....

  3. Assessment of carotid plaque composition using fast-kV switching dual-energy CT with gemstone detector: comparison with extracorporeal and virtual histology-intravascular ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinohara, Yuki; Kuya, Keita; Ohta, Yasutoshi; Fujii, Shinya; Ogawa, Toshihide [Tottori University, Division of Radiology, Department of Pathophysiological and Therapeutic Science, Faculty of Medicine, Yonago (Japan); Sakamoto, Makoto; Watanabe, Takashi [Tottori University, Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Neurological Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Yonago (Japan); Kishimoto, Junichi; Iwata, Naoki [Tottori University Hospital, Division of Clinical Radiology, Yonago (Japan)

    2015-09-15

    The present study compares the applicability of CT carotid plaque imaging using effective Z maps using gemstone spectral imaging (GSI) with that of conventional extracorporeal carotid ultrasound (US) and virtual histology-intravascular ultrasound (VH-IVUS). We assessed stenosis in 31 carotid arteries of 30 patients. All patients underwent carotid CTA using GSI (Discovery CT750 HD, GE Healthcare). US and IVUS were examined with 25 and 8 vessels, respectively. We compared the effective Z values at noncalcified carotid plaque with the plaque components identified by US. We defined the plaque with low or low to iso intensity on US as vulnerable plaque and the plaque with iso, iso to high, and high intensity on US as stable plaque. We also performed visual assessment of color-coded effective Z maps in comparison with VH-IVUS and compared effective Z values with plaque components generated by VH-IVUS. The effective Z values at noncalcified carotid plaque were significantly lower for a group with vulnerable plaque, than with stable plaque on US (p < 0.05). Receiver operating curve analysis showed that AUC of effective Z values was 0.882 concerning the differentiation of these two groups on US. The interpretation of color-coded effective Z maps was essentially compatible with that of VH-IVUS for carotid plaque in all vessels. Effective Z values at noncalcified plaque showed significant negative correlation with the areas of fibro-fatty components generated by VH-IVUS (ρ = -0.874, p < 0.05). Effective Z maps generated by GSI can detect vulnerable carotid plaque materials. (orig.)

  4. Assessment of carotid plaque composition using fast-kV switching dual-energy CT with gemstone detector: comparison with extracorporeal and virtual histology-intravascular ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, Yuki; Kuya, Keita; Ohta, Yasutoshi; Fujii, Shinya; Ogawa, Toshihide; Sakamoto, Makoto; Watanabe, Takashi; Kishimoto, Junichi; Iwata, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    The present study compares the applicability of CT carotid plaque imaging using effective Z maps using gemstone spectral imaging (GSI) with that of conventional extracorporeal carotid ultrasound (US) and virtual histology-intravascular ultrasound (VH-IVUS). We assessed stenosis in 31 carotid arteries of 30 patients. All patients underwent carotid CTA using GSI (Discovery CT750 HD, GE Healthcare). US and IVUS were examined with 25 and 8 vessels, respectively. We compared the effective Z values at noncalcified carotid plaque with the plaque components identified by US. We defined the plaque with low or low to iso intensity on US as vulnerable plaque and the plaque with iso, iso to high, and high intensity on US as stable plaque. We also performed visual assessment of color-coded effective Z maps in comparison with VH-IVUS and compared effective Z values with plaque components generated by VH-IVUS. The effective Z values at noncalcified carotid plaque were significantly lower for a group with vulnerable plaque, than with stable plaque on US (p < 0.05). Receiver operating curve analysis showed that AUC of effective Z values was 0.882 concerning the differentiation of these two groups on US. The interpretation of color-coded effective Z maps was essentially compatible with that of VH-IVUS for carotid plaque in all vessels. Effective Z values at noncalcified plaque showed significant negative correlation with the areas of fibro-fatty components generated by VH-IVUS (ρ = -0.874, p < 0.05). Effective Z maps generated by GSI can detect vulnerable carotid plaque materials. (orig.)

  5. Medical Imaging with Ultrasound: Some Basic Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, R.

    1989-01-01

    Discussed are medical applications of ultrasound. The physics of the wave nature of ultrasound including its propagation and production, return by the body, spatial and contrast resolution, attenuation, image formation using pulsed echo ultrasound techniques, measurement of velocity and duplex scanning are described. (YP)

  6. Acute myocardial infarction due to spontaneous, localized, acute dissection of the sinus of Valsalva detected by intravascular ultrasound and electrocardiogram-gated computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihashi, Taku; Ito, Tsuyoshi; Murai, Shunsuke; Ikehara, Noriyuki; Fujita, Hiroshi; Suda, Hisao; Ohte, Nobuyuki

    2016-09-01

    A 58-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of chest pain. The 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) revealed ST-segment elevation in II, III, and a Vf with advanced heart block. Transthoracic echocardiography demonstrated aortic root dilatation at the sinus of Valsalva, moderate aortic regurgitation, and decreased wall motion in the inferior part of the left ventricle. Non-ECG-gated enhanced computed tomography (CT) did not reveal an aortic dissection. The patient underwent emergent coronary angiography, which revealed a severely narrowed ostium of the right coronary artery (RCA). Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) was performed under intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) guidance. IVUS images demonstrated an intimal flap extending from the aortic wall to the proximal RCA, suggesting that a periaortic hematoma in the false lumen compressed the ostium of the RCA, leading to acute myocardial infarction. To recover hemodynamic stability, the RCA ostium was stented. Subsequent ECG-gated enhanced CT clearly depicted the entry point and extension of the dissection localized within the sinus of Valsalva. The dissection likely involved the left main coronary artery and an emergent Bentall procedure was performed. Intraoperative findings confirmed an intimal tear and extension of the dissection. Thus, ECG-gated CT can clearly depict the entry site and extension of a dissection occurring in the localized area that cannot be detected by conventional CT.

  7. Comprehensive analysis of intravascular ultrasound and angiographic morphology of culprit lesions between ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaoka, Naoko; Tsujita, Kenichi; Kaikita, Koichi; Hokimoto, Seiji; Mizobe, Michio; Nagano, Masahide; Horio, Eiji; Sato, Koji; Nakayama, Naoki; Yoshimura, Hiromi; Yamanaga, Kenshi; Komura, Naohiro; Kojima, Sunao; Tayama, Shinji; Nakamura, Sunao; Ogawa, Hisao

    2014-02-15

    Some plaques lead to ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), whereas others cause non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTEACS). We used angiography and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) to investigate the difference of culprit lesion morphologies in ACS. Consecutive 158 ACS patients whose culprit lesions were imaged by preintervention IVUS were enrolled (STEMI=81; NSTEACS=77). IVUS and angiographic findings of the culprit lesions, and clinical characteristics were compared between the groups. There were no significant differences in patients' characteristics except for lower rate of statin use in patients with STEMI (20% vs 44%, p=0.001). Although angiographic complex culprit morphology (Ambrose classification) and thrombus were more common in STEMI than in NSTEACS (84% vs 62%, p=0.002; 51% vs 5%, pSYNTAX score was lower in STEMI (8.6 ± 5.4 vs 11.5 ± 7.1, p=0.01). In patients with STEMI, culprit echogenicity was more hypoechoic (64% vs 40%, p=0.01), and the incidence of plaque rupture, attenuation and "microcalcification" were significantly higher (56% vs 17%, pMorphological feature (outward vessel remodeling, plaque buildup and IVUS vulnerability of culprit lesions) might relate to clinical presentation in patients with ACS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... such as the liver or kidneys. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Abdominal ... is rarely needed for ultrasound examinations. top of page What does the ultrasound equipment look like? Ultrasound scanners ...

  9. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... child's abdominal ultrasound examination. Doppler ultrasound , also called color Doppler ultrasonography, is a special ultrasound technique that ... and processes the sounds and creates graphs or color pictures that represent the flow of blood through ...

  10. Prediction of postpercutaneous coronary intervention myocardial infarction: insights from intravascular imaging, coronary flow, and biomarker evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoole, Stephen P; Hernández-Sánchez, Jules; Brown, Adam J; Giblett, Joel P; Bennett, Martin R; West, Nick E J

    2018-05-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention-induced myocardial infarction (PMI) has prognostic significance. Identifying patients at high risk for PMI is desirable as it may alter strategy and facilitate early preventative therapy. We therefore sought to establish whether preprocedural demographic, interventional (plaque characteristics and coronary microcirculatory function), and inflammatory, endothelial damage, and platelet-derived biomarker data could predict the risk of PMI. We performed target vessel pressure wire to assess fractional flow reserve, index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) and coronary flow reserve, plaque characterization by virtual histology intravascular ultrasound, and assayed peripheral biomarkers before uncomplicated PCI in 88 patients. We then analyzed post-PCI cardiac troponin level to adjudicate PMI based on the third universal definition of myocardial infarction. Overall incidence of PMI was 27%. Women [10/15 (66%) vs. 14/73 (19%), PPMI. Preprocedural coronary flow reserve was lower in individuals with a subsequent PMI (1.8±1.2 vs. 2.1±1.3. P=0.03), and patients with higher pre-PCI IMR were more likely to sustain PMI [IMR>22: 10/23 (44%) vs. ≤22: 14/65 (22%), P=0.04], although neither was predictive after multivariate analysis. Plaque characterization by virtual histology intravascular ultrasound did not discriminate those at risk of PMI. However, peripheral venous interleukin (IL)-18 and IL-8 levels were independently negatively and positively associated with PMI, respectively. Women and those with low BMI, particularly when associated with high IL-8 and low IL-18 levels, appear to be at increased risk of PMI.

  11. Handheld ultrasound array imaging device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Juin-Jet; Quistgaard, Jens

    1999-06-01

    A handheld ultrasound imaging device, one that weighs less than five pounds, has been developed for diagnosing trauma in the combat battlefield as well as a variety of commercial mobile diagnostic applications. This handheld device consists of four component ASICs, each is designed using the state of the art microelectronics technologies. These ASICs are integrated with a convex array transducer to allow high quality imaging of soft tissues and blood flow in real time. The device is designed to be battery driven or ac powered with built-in image storage and cineloop playback capability. Design methodologies of a handheld device are fundamentally different to those of a cart-based system. As system architecture, signal and image processing algorithm as well as image control circuit and software in this device is deigned suitably for large-scale integration, the image performance of this device is designed to be adequate to the intent applications. To elongate the battery life, low power design rules and power management circuits are incorporated in the design of each component ASIC. The performance of the prototype device is currently being evaluated for various applications such as a primary image screening tool, fetal imaging in Obstetrics, foreign object detection and wound assessment for emergency care, etc.

  12. Non-linear Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Yigang

    are performed under water by two geometrical focused piston transducers. It can be seen that the time pulses measured from a 0.5 inch diameter transducer and linearly simulated using the ASA are fairly comparable. The root mean square (RMS) error for the second harmonic field simulated by the ASA is 10.......3% relative to the measurement from a 1 inch diameter transducer. A preliminary study for harmonic imaging using synthetic aperture sequential beamforming (SASB) has been demonstrated. A wire phantom underwater measurement is made by an experimental synthetic aperture real-time ultrasound scanner (SARUS...

  13. Clinical feasibility of 3D automated coronary atherosclerotic plaque quantification algorithm on coronary computed tomography angiography: Comparison with intravascular ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyung-Bok [Yonsei University Health System, Yonsei-Cedar Sinai Integrative Cardiovascular Imaging Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Myongji Hospital, Division of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byoung Kwon [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Sanghoon [Yonsei University Health System, Yonsei-Cedar Sinai Integrative Cardiovascular Imaging Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); National Health Insurance Corporation Ilsan Hospital, Division of Cardiology, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Ran; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Chung, Namsik [Yonsei University Health System, Yonsei-Cedar Sinai Integrative Cardiovascular Imaging Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yonsei University Health System, Division of Cardiology, Severance Cardiovascular Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Arsanjani, Reza [Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Departments of Imaging and Medicine, Cedars-Sinai Heart Institute, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Kitslaar, Pieter H. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Division of Image Processing, Leiden (Netherlands); Medis medical Imaging Systems B.V., Leiden (Netherlands); Broersen, Alexander; Dijkstra, Jouke [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Division of Image Processing, Leiden (Netherlands); Ahn, Sung Gyun [Yonsei University Wonju Severance Christian Hospital, Division of Cardiology, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Min, James K. [New York-Presbyterian Hospital, Institute for Cardiovascular Imaging, Weill-Cornell Medical College, New York, NY (United States); Hong, Myeong-Ki; Jang, Yangsoo [Yonsei University Health System, Division of Cardiology, Severance Cardiovascular Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of automated coronary atherosclerotic plaque quantification (QCT) by different users (expert/non-expert/automatic). One hundred fifty coronary artery segments from 142 patients who underwent coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) were analyzed. Minimal lumen area (MLA), maximal lumen area stenosis percentage (%AS), mean plaque burden percentage (%PB), and plaque volume were measured semi-automatically by expert, non-expert, and fully automatic QCT analyses, and then compared to IVUS. Between IVUS and expert QCT analysis, the correlation coefficients (r) for the MLA, %AS, %PB, and plaque volume were excellent: 0.89 (p < 0.001), 0.84 (p < 0.001), 0.91 (p < 0.001), and 0.94 (p < 0.001), respectively. There were no significant differences in the mean parameters (all p values >0.05) except %AS (p = 0.01). The automatic QCT analysis showed comparable performance to non-expert QCT analysis, showing correlation coefficients (r) of the MLA (0.80 vs. 0.82), %AS (0.82 vs. 0.80), %PB (0.84 vs. 0.73), and plaque volume (0.84 vs. 0.79) when they were compared to IVUS, respectively. Fully automatic QCT analysis showed clinical utility compared with IVUS, as well as a compelling performance when compared with semiautomatic analyses. (orig.)

  14. Monitoring of allograft vasculopathy by intravascular ultrasound one month and one year after heart transplantation: A single center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedanova, Helena; Orban, Marek; Tretina, Martin; Fila, Petr; Horvath, Vladimir; Krejci, Jan; Nemec, Petr

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this trial was to use intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) to determine whether cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) starts progressing during the first year after heart transplantation (HTx). We retrospectively analyzed 51 patients (11 women) who received heart transplants in our center between January 2010 and September 2013 and underwent coronary angiography as well as IVUS examination one month and one year after HTx. Patients with proven calcification and fibrotic plates in the IVUS examination one month after HTx constituted a group with defined donor-transmitted atherosclerosis (DTA). In patients without DTA, measurements of maximal intimal thickening (MIT) were made in two predetermined locations. Eight of the 51 patients had DTA, while 43 did not. These were divided based on maximal intimal thickness (MIT) into a group with MIT first year after HTx significantly more frequently in patients with DTA and MIT ≥ 0.5 mm. It is essential in these patients to implement an IVUS control examination one year after transplantation. The results can lead to a change in treatment strategy to prevent further progress of the disease.

  15. Accuracy of multidetector row computed tomography for the detection of transplant vasculopathy: comparison with invasive coronary angiography and intravascular ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrascosa, P.; Capunay, C.; Carrascosa, J.; Perrone, S.; Deviggiano, A.; Lopez, E.M.; Lev, G.; Garcia, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) for detection of luminal stenosis and cardiac allograft vasculopathy in comparison with coronary angiography (CA) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) respectively. Material and methods: Nineteen cardiac transplant patients scheduled for follow-up CA were included. MDCT coronary angiography was performed using a 16-row CT scanner within 7-14 days after CA and IVUS. Studies were analyzed by independent readers; two observers evaluated the CT datasets for the presence of coronary artery stenosis > 50% and allograft vasculopathy. Results: The sensitivity for detecting > 50% luminal stenosis was 80-88% and specificity, 98-99% and for detection of cardiac allograft vasculopathy, the sensitivity was 91-96% and specificity, 88-91%. Conclusion: In this preliminary series, our results indicate that MDCT coronary angiography was capable of detecting both significant coronary stenosis as well as diffuse intimal proliferation. This non-invasive procedure could be an alternative to CA and IVUS in the surveillance of heart transplant patients. (authors) [es

  16. Angiographically borderline left main coronary artery lesions: correlation of transthoracic doppler echocardiography and intravascular ultrasound: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varga Albert

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background the clinical decision making could be difficult in patients with borderline lesions (visually assessed stenosis severity of 30 to 50% of the left main coronary artery (LM. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between transthoracic Doppler (TTDE peak diastolic flow velocity (PDV and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS measurements in the assessment of angiographically borderline LM lesions. Methods 27 patients (mean age 64 ± 8 years, 21 males with borderline LM stenosis referred for IVUS examination were included in the study. We performed standard IVUS with minimal lumen area (MLA and plaque burden (PB measurement and routine quantitative coronary angiography (QCA with diameter stenosis (%DS and area stenosis (%AS assessment in all. During TTDE, resting PDV was measured in the LM. Results interpretable Doppler signal could be obtained in 24 patients (88% feasibility; therefore these patients entered the final analysis. MLA was 7.1 ± 2.7 mm2. TTDE measured PDV correlated significantly with IVUS-derived MLA (r = -0.46, p 2 LM stenosis. Conclusion In angiographically borderline LM disease, resting PDV from transthoracic echocardiography is increased in presence of increased plaque burden by IVUS. TTDE evaluation might be a useful adjunct to other invasive and non-invasive methods in the assessment of borderline LM lesions. Further, large scale studies are needed to establish the exact cut-off value of PDV for routine clinical application.

  17. Automatic classification of atherosclerotic plaques imaged with intravascular OCT (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico-Jimenez, Jose D.; Campos-Delgado, Daniel U.; Villiger, Martin; Bouma, Brett; Jo, Javier A.

    2016-03-01

    A novel computational method for plaque tissue characterization based on Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography (IV-OCT) is presented. IV-OCT is becoming a powerful tool for the clinical evaluation of atherosclerotic plaques; however, it requires a trained expert for visual assessment and interpretation of the imaged plaques. Moreover, due to the inherit effect of speckle and the scattering attenuation of the optical scheme the direct interpretation of OCT images is limited. To overcome these difficulties, we propose to automatically identify the A-line profiles of the most significant plaque types (normal, fibrotic, or lipid-rich) and their respective abundance by using a probabilistic framework and blind alternated least squares to achieve the optimal decomposition. In this context, we present preliminary results of this novel probabilistic classification tool for intravascular OCT that relies on two steps. First, the B-scan is pre-processed to remove catheter artifacts, segment the lumen, select the region of interest (ROI), flatten the tissue surface, and reduce the speckle effect by a spatial entropy filter. Next, the resulting image is decomposed and its A-lines are classified by an automated strategy based on alternating-least-squares optimization. Our early results are encouraging and suggest that the proposed methodology can identify normal tissue, fibrotic and lipid-rich plaques from IV-OCT images.

  18. Magnetic particle imaging: kinetics of the intravascular signal in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haegele J

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Julian Haegele,1 Robert L Duschka,1 Matthias Graeser,2 Catharina Schaecke,1 Nikolaos Panagiotopoulos,1 Kerstin Lüdtke-Buzug,2 Thorsten M Buzug,2 Jörg Barkhausen,1 Florian M Vogt1 1Clinic for Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, 2Institute of Medical Engineering, University Hospital Schleswig Holstein, Lübeck, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany Background: Magnetic particle imaging (MPI uses magnetic fields to visualize superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO. Today, Resovist® is still the reference SPIO for MPI. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vivo blood half-life of two different types of Resovist (one from Bayer Pharma AG, and one from I’rom Pharmaceutical Co Ltd in MPI. Methods: A Resovist concentration of 50 µmol/kg was injected into the ear artery of ten New Zealand White rabbits. Five animals received Resovist distributed by I’rom Pharmaceutical Co Ltd and five received Resovist by Bayer Pharma AG. Blood samples were drawn before and directly after injection of Resovist, at 5, 10, and 15 minutes, and then every 15 ­minutes until 120 minutes after the injection. The MPI signal of the blood samples was evaluated using magnetic particle spectroscopy. Results: The average decline of the blood MPI signal from the two distributions differed significantly (P=0.0056. Resovist distributed by Bayer Pharma AG showed a slower decline of the MPI signal (39.7% after 5 minutes, 20.5% after 10 minutes, and 12.1% after 15 minutes compared with Resovist produced by I’rom Pharmaceutical Co Ltd (20.4% after 5 minutes, 7.8% after 10 minutes, no signal above noise level after 15 minutes. Conclusion: In MPI, the blood half-life of an SPIO tracer cannot be equalized to the blood half-life of its MPI signal. Resovist shows a very rapid decline of blood MPI signal and is thus not suitable as a long circulating tracer. For cardiovascular applications in MPI, it may be used as a bolus tracer. Keywords: magnetic particle imaging

  19. Transrectal ultrasound imaging and prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossen, Tjerk; Wijkstra, Hessel

    2003-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most important causes of death from cancer in men. Ultrasound imaging is frequently used in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. This paper presents an overview of currently available ultrasound imaging techniques. The underlying principles and methods are discussed

  20. Micromachined Integrated Transducers for Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Mette Funding

    The purpose of this project is to develop capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) for medical imaging. Medical ultrasound transducers used today are fabricated using piezoelectric materials and bulk processing. To fabricate transducers capable of delivering a higher imaging...

  1. Breast ultrasound image segmentation: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qinghua; Luo, Yaozhong; Zhang, Qiangzhi

    2017-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer among women worldwide. Ultrasound imaging is one of the most frequently used diagnostic tools to detect and classify abnormalities of the breast. Recently, computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems using ultrasound images have been developed to help radiologists to increase diagnosis accuracy. However, accurate ultrasound image segmentation remains a challenging problem due to various ultrasound artifacts. In this paper, we investigate approaches developed for breast ultrasound (BUS) image segmentation. In this paper, we reviewed the literature on the segmentation of BUS images according to the techniques adopted, especially over the past 10 years. By dividing into seven classes (i.e., thresholding-based, clustering-based, watershed-based, graph-based, active contour model, Markov random field and neural network), we have introduced corresponding techniques and representative papers accordingly. We have summarized and compared many techniques on BUS image segmentation and found that all these techniques have their own pros and cons. However, BUS image segmentation is still an open and challenging problem due to various ultrasound artifacts introduced in the process of imaging, including high speckle noise, low contrast, blurry boundaries, low signal-to-noise ratio and intensity inhomogeneity CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive review of the approaches developed for segmentation of BUS images. With most techniques involved, this paper will be useful and helpful for researchers working on segmentation of ultrasound images, and for BUS CAD system developers.

  2. A Tactile Sensor for Ultrasound Imaging Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yiyan; Shkel, Yuri M; Hall, Timothy J

    2016-02-15

    Medical ultrasound systems are capable of monitoring a variety of health conditions while avoiding invasive procedures. However this function is complicated by ultrasound contrast of the tissue varying with contact pressure exerted by the probe. The knowledge of the contact pressure is beneficial for a variety of screening and diagnostic procedures involving ultrasound. This paper introduces a solid-state sensor array which measures the contact pressure distribution between the probe and the tissue marginally affecting the ultrasound imaging capabilities. The probe design utilizes the dielectrostriction mechanism which relates the change in dielectric properties of the sensing layer to deformation. The concept, structure, fabrication, and performance of this sensor array are discussed. The prototype device is highly tolerant to overloads (>1 MPa tested) and provides stress measurements in the range of 0.14 to 10 kPa. Its loss of ultrasound transmissivity is less 3dB at 9 MHz ultrasound frequency. This performance is satisfactory for clinical and biomedical research in ultrasound image formation and interpretation, however for commercial product, a higher ultrasound transmissivity is desired. Directions for improving the sensor ultrasound transparency and electrical performance are discussed. The sensor array described in this paper has been developed specifically for ultrasound diagnosis during breast cancer screening. However, the same sensing mechanism, similar configuration and sensor array structure can be applied to other applications involving ultrasound tools for medical diagnostics.

  3. Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia of the extremities: MR imaging findings with pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Suh, Jin-Suck; Lim, Byung Il; Yang, Woo Ick; Shin, Kyoo-Ho

    2004-01-01

    We report the MRI findings of three cases of intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia (IPEH) of the extremities with correlation of the pathologic findings. The IPEH is a non-neoplastic reactive lesion within the vessels and is commonly associated with thrombi. Signal intensity of the IPEH is complex due to the thrombi and the PEH itself. The thrombi are characterized by a slightly hyperintense signal on T1- and T2-weighted images compared with that of muscle when it comes at the medium stage of hemorrhage. Papillary endothelial hyperplastic tissue appears either as iso- or hyperintense to the muscle on T2- and T1-weighted images and shows variable enhancement on Gd-DTPA-enhanced images. (orig.)

  4. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Most ultrasound scanning is noninvasive (no needles ... cord and hip joints in newborns and infants. Risks For standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known ...

  5. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... How should we prepare for an abdominal ultrasound exam? Your child should be dressed in comfortable, loose-fitting clothing for an ultrasound exam. Other preparation depends on the type of examination. ...

  6. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your child should wear loose, comfortable clothing and may be asked to wear a gown. What is ... within a child's abdomen. A Doppler ultrasound study may be part of a child's abdominal ultrasound examination. ...

  7. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... records tiny changes in the sound's pitch and direction. These signature waves are instantly measured and displayed ... ultrasound, a special application of ultrasound, measures the direction and speed of blood cells as they move ...

  8. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be guided by ultrasound, are used to sample cells from organs for laboratory testing help detect the ... in which needles are used to extract sample cells from an abnormal area for laboratory testing. Ultrasound ...

  9. Ultrasound Imaging of Cystic Nephroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Greco

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cystic nephroma is a rare, benign multicystic lesion of the kidney. This tumor occurs both in children and in adults. In children, it is highly prevalent in males; in adults, it is more frequent in women. The term “cystic nephroma” represents two apparently different entities: pediatric cystic nephroma, a benign form thought to originate from metanephric tissue, and adult cystic nephroma, considered as a lesion of mixed epithelial stromal tumor. The clinical presentation may be a palpable mass or nonspecific symptoms such as abdominal pain, hematuria, and urinary tract infections. In this review, we summarize the ultrasound imaging features of cystic nephroma and describe the characteristics of the most common renal cystic lesions and the differential diagnosis of cystic nephroma with other renal cystic lesions.

  10. Safety and efficacy of intravascular ultrasound-guided inferior vena cava filter in super obese bariatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardys, Clark M; Stoner, Michael C; Manwaring, Mark L; Barker, Michael; Macdonald, Kenneth G; Pender, John R; Chapman, William H

    2008-01-01

    The morbidly obese (body mass index >40 kg/m(2)) are at significant risk of postoperative venous thromboembolism (VTE). Pulmonary embolism is the leading cause of death after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, approximating .5%. Because of the technical limitations with fluoroscopy and table weight limits, it has been our practice at our university-based bariatric center to offer intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-guided inferior vena cava filter (IVCF) placement at Roux-en-Y gastric bypass to patients with a history of VTE, hypercoagulable state, or profound immobility. The hospital and outpatient records of all 594 patients who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass from January 1, 2004 to October 31, 2006 were reviewed. The patients who had undergone concurrent IVUS-guided IVCF placement were selected. The co-morbidities, outcomes, and complications were recorded. Of the 594 patients, 31 (mean body mass index 71.2 +/- 2.96 kg/m(2)) had undergone concurrent IVUS-guided IVCF placement. The indications included a history of VTE (n = 5), a known hypercoagulable state (n = 2), and profound immobility (n = 25). The technical success rate was 96.8%. One filter was malpositioned in the iliac vein. No catheter site complications occurred. A ventilation/perfusion scan and computed tomography scan each detected pulmonary embolism in 2 surviving patients within 2 months postoperatively. Two patients died, 1 on postoperative day 8 and 1 on postoperative day 15 (6.4%). The mean follow-up time was 262.8 +/- 37.3 days. Autopsy excluded VTE or IVCF-related issues as the cause of death in both patients. These results suggest the efficacy of IVUS-guided IVCF placement in preventing mortality from pulmonary embolism in high-risk bariatric patients. IVUS-guided IVCF placement can be safely performed with an excellent success rate in high-risk patients who would not otherwise be candidates for intervention because of the technical limitations of fluoroscopy.

  11. Linear description of ultrasound imaging systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    These notes have been prepared for the international summer school on advanced ultrasound imaging sponsored by The Danish Research Academy. The notes should be read in conjunction with the notes prepared by Anderson and Trahey1. The intended audience is Ph.D. students working in medical ultrasound...

  12. Synthetic Aperture Imaging in Medical Ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Svetoslav; Gammelmark, Kim; Pedersen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    with high precision, and the imaging is easily extended to real-time 3D scanning. This paper presents the work done at the Center for Fast Ultrasound Imaging in the area of SA imaging. Three areas that benefit from SA imaging are described. Firstly a preliminary in-vivo evaluation comparing conventional B...

  13. Intrauterine photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Christopher; Barkley, Joel; Smith, Barbara

    2018-04-01

    Intrauterine photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging are probe-based imaging modalities with translational potential for use in detecting endometrial diseases. This deep-tissue imaging probe design allows for the retrofitting of commercially available endometrial sampling curettes. The imaging probe presented here has a 2.92-mm diameter and approximate length of 26 cm, which allows for entry into the human endometrial cavity, making it possible to use photoacoustic imaging and high-resolution ultrasound to characterize the uterus. We demonstrate the imaging probes' ability to provide structural information of an excised pig uterus using ultrasound imaging and detect photoacoustic signals at a radial depth of 1 cm. (2018) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  14. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... extract sample cells from an abnormal area for laboratory testing. Ultrasound may also be used to guide the insertion of a catheter or other drainage device and helps assure safe and accurate placement and fluid drainage for diagnosis and/or relief of patient discomfort. Doppler ultrasound ...

  15. Ultrasound Molecular Imaging and Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caskey, Charles F

    2017-06-01

    Ultrasound is a rapidly advancing field with many emerging diagnostic and therapeutic applications. For diagnostics, new vascular targets are routinely identified and mature technologies are being translated to humans, while other recent innovations may bring about the creation of acoustic reporter genes and micron-scale resolution with ultrasound. As a cancer therapy, ultrasound is being explored as an adjuvant to immune therapies and to deliver acoustically or thermally active drugs to tumor regions. Ultrasound-enhanced delivery across the blood brain barrier (BBB) could potentially be very impactful for brain cancers and neurodegenerative diseases where the BBB often impedes the delivery of therapeutic molecules. In this minireview, we provide an overview of these topics in the field of ultrasound that are especially relevant to the interests of World Molecular Imaging Society.

  16. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fitting clothing for an ultrasound exam. Other preparation depends on the type of examination. For some scans, your doctor may ask you to withhold food and drink for several hours before your child's ...

  17. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Children's (Pediatric) Ultrasound - Abdomen Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please ... is further reviewed by committees from the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the Radiological Society of ...

  18. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are used to sample cells from organs for laboratory testing help detect the presence and cause of ... extract sample cells from an abnormal area for laboratory testing. Ultrasound may also be used to guide ...

  19. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can be guided by ultrasound, are used to sample cells from organs for laboratory testing help detect ... biopsies, in which needles are used to extract sample cells from an abnormal area for laboratory testing. ...

  20. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the probe through ... a single exam. The transducer sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) ...

  1. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the exam. Your child should wear loose, comfortable clothing and may be asked to wear a gown. ... child should be dressed in comfortable, loose-fitting clothing for an ultrasound exam. Other preparation depends on ...

  2. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for laboratory testing help detect the presence and cause of an apparent enlarged abdominal organ identify the location of abnormal fluid in the abdomen help determine causes of vomiting in young infants Because ultrasound provides real- ...

  3. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... scanning or sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on ... to do the scanning. The transducer is a small hand-held device that resembles a microphone, attached ...

  4. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... used to sample cells from organs for laboratory testing help detect the presence and cause of an ... sample cells from an abnormal area for laboratory testing. Ultrasound may also be used to guide the ...

  5. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... collects the sounds that bounce back and a computer then uses those sound waves to create an ... Ultrasound scanners consist of a console containing a computer and electronics, a video display screen and a ...

  6. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound exams, you will be positioned lying face-up on an examination table that can be tilted ... you at the conclusion of your examination. Follow-up examinations may be necessary. Your doctor will explain ...

  7. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood flow (such as clots) narrowing of vessels tumors and congenital vascular malformations reduced or absent blood ... vessels or to detect abnormal masses, such as tumors. In an ultrasound examination, a transducer both sends ...

  8. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) into the body and then ... ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the limitations of ...

  9. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fluid). In medicine, ultrasound is used to detect changes in appearance, size or contour of organs, tissues, ... the sensitive receiver in the transducer records tiny changes in the sound's pitch and direction. These signature ...

  10. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for laboratory testing help detect the presence and cause of an apparent enlarged abdominal organ identify the ... of abnormal fluid in the abdomen help determine causes of vomiting in young infants Because ultrasound provides ...

  11. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... areas of the body while other areas, especially air-filled lungs, are poorly suited for ultrasound. top ... make secure contact with the body and eliminate air pockets between the transducer and the skin that ...

  12. Optimization of dual-wavelength intravascular photoacoustic imaging of atherosclerotic plaques using Monte Carlo optical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana, Nicholas; Sowers, Timothy; Karpiouk, Andrei; Vanderlaan, Donald; Emelianov, Stanislav

    2017-10-01

    Coronary heart disease (the presence of coronary atherosclerotic plaques) is a significant health problem in the industrialized world. A clinical method to accurately visualize and characterize atherosclerotic plaques is needed. Intravascular photoacoustic (IVPA) imaging is being developed to fill this role, but questions remain regarding optimal imaging wavelengths. We utilized a Monte Carlo optical model to simulate IVPA excitation in coronary tissues, identifying optimal wavelengths for plaque characterization. Near-infrared wavelengths (≤1800 nm) were simulated, and single- and dual-wavelength data were analyzed for accuracy of plaque characterization. Results indicate light penetration is best in the range of 1050 to 1370 nm, where 5% residual fluence can be achieved at clinically relevant depths of ≥2 mm in arteries. Across the arterial wall, fluence may vary by over 10-fold, confounding plaque characterization. For single-wavelength results, plaque segmentation accuracy peaked at 1210 and 1720 nm, though correlation was poor (primary wavelength (≈1.0). Results suggest that, without flushing the luminal blood, a primary and secondary wavelength near 1210 and 1350 nm, respectively, may offer the best implementation of dual-wavelength IVPA imaging. These findings could guide the development of a cost-effective clinical system by highlighting optimal wavelengths and improving plaque characterization.

  13. Intravascular near-infrared fluorescence molecular imaging of atherosclerosis: toward coronary arterial visualization of biologically high-risk plaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calfon, Marcella A.; Vinegoni, Claudio; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Jaffer, Farouc A.

    2010-01-01

    New imaging methods are urgently needed to identify high-risk atherosclerotic lesions prior to the onset of myocardial infarction, stroke, and ischemic limbs. Molecular imaging offers a new approach to visualize key biological features that characterize high-risk plaques associated with cardiovascular events. While substantial progress has been realized in clinical molecular imaging of plaques in larger arterial vessels (carotid, aorta, iliac), there remains a compelling, unmet need to develop molecular imaging strategies targeted to high-risk plaques in human coronary arteries. We present recent developments in intravascular near-IR fluorescence catheter-based strategies for in vivo detection of plaque inflammation in coronary-sized arteries. In particular, the biological, light transmission, imaging agent, and engineering principles that underlie a new intravascular near-IR fluorescence sensing method are discussed. Intravascular near-IR fluorescence catheters appear highly translatable to the cardiac catheterization laboratory, and thus may offer a new in vivo method to detect high-risk coronary plaques and to assess novel atherosclerosis biologics.

  14. Simulation of ultrasound backscatter images from fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, An Hoai; Stage, Bjarne; Hemmsen, Martin Christian

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate ultrasound (US) backscatter in the MHz range from fis to develop a realistic and reliable simulation model. The long term objective of the work is to develop the needed signal processing for fis species differentiation using US. In in-vitro experiments...... images reproduce most of the important characteristics of the measured US image....

  15. Ultrasound image guidance of cardiac interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Terry M.; Pace, Danielle F.; Lang, Pencilla; Guiraudon, Gérard M.; Jones, Douglas L.; Linte, Cristian A.

    2011-03-01

    Surgical procedures often have the unfortunate side-effect of causing the patient significant trauma while accessing the target site. Indeed, in some cases the trauma inflicted on the patient during access to the target greatly exceeds that caused by performing the therapy. Heart disease has traditionally been treated surgically using open chest techniques with the patient being placed "on pump" - i.e. their circulation being maintained by a cardio-pulmonary bypass or "heart-lung" machine. Recently, techniques have been developed for performing minimally invasive interventions on the heart, obviating the formerly invasive procedures. These new approaches rely on pre-operative images, combined with real-time images acquired during the procedure. Our approach is to register intra-operative images to the patient, and use a navigation system that combines intra-operative ultrasound with virtual models of instrumentation that has been introduced into the chamber through the heart wall. This paper illustrates the problems associated with traditional ultrasound guidance, and reviews the state of the art in real-time 3D cardiac ultrasound technology. In addition, it discusses the implementation of an image-guided intervention platform that integrates real-time ultrasound with a virtual reality environment, bringing together the pre-operative anatomy derived from MRI or CT, representations of tracked instrumentation inside the heart chamber, and the intra-operatively acquired ultrasound images.

  16. Automatic segmentation of the lumen region in intravascular images of the coronary artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodas, Danilo Samuel; Pereira, Aledir Silveira; Tavares, João Manuel R S

    2017-08-01

    Image assessment of the arterial system plays an important role in the diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases. The segmentation of the lumen and media-adventitia in intravascular (IVUS) images of the coronary artery is the first step towards the evaluation of the morphology of the vessel under analysis and the identification of possible atherosclerotic lesions. In this study, a fully automatic method for the segmentation of the lumen in IVUS images of the coronary artery is presented. The proposed method relies on the K-means algorithm and the mean roundness to identify the region corresponding to the potential lumen. An approach to identify and eliminate side branches on bifurcations is also proposed to delimit the area with the potential lumen regions. Additionally, an active contour model is applied to refine the contour of the lumen region. In order to evaluate the segmentation accuracy, the results of the proposed method were compared against manual delineations made by two experts in 326 IVUS images of the coronary artery. The average values of the Jaccard measure, Hausdorff distance, percentage of area difference and Dice coefficient were 0.88 ± 0.06, 0.29 ± 0.17  mm, 0.09 ± 0.07 and 0.94 ± 0.04, respectively, in 324 IVUS images successfully segmented. Additionally, a comparison with the studies found in the literature showed that the proposed method is slight better than the majority of the related methods that have been proposed. Hence, the new automatic segmentation method is shown to be effective in detecting the lumen in IVUS images without using complex solutions and user interaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Intravascular ultrasound findings in the multicenter, randomized, double-blind RAVEL (RAndomized study with the sirolimus-eluting VElocity balloon- expandable stent in the treatment of patients with de novo native coronary artery Lesions) trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.R. Ligthart (Jürgen); M-C. Morice (Marie-Claude); P.J. de Feyter (Pim); M. Degertekin (Muzaffer); K. Tanabe (Kengo); J.E. Sousa (Eduardo); A. Colombo (Antonio); G. Guagliumi (Giulio); W. Wijns (William); W.K. Lindeboom (Wietze); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); A.C. Abizaid (Alexandre)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: The goal of this intravascular ultrasound investigation was to provide a more detailed morphological analysis of the local biological effects of the implantation of a sirolimus-eluting stent compared with an uncoated stent. METHODS AND RESULTS: In the RAVEL trial, 238

  18. Late lumen loss and intima hyperplasia after sirolimus-eluting and zotarolimus-eluting stent implantation in diabetic patients: the diabetes and drug-eluting stent (DiabeDES III) angiography and intravascular ultrasound trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Maeng, Michael; Thayssen, Per

    2011-01-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus have increased risk of in-stent restenosis after coronary stent implantation due to neointimal hyperplasia (NIH). The aim of this study was to use quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) and volumetric intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) to evaluate the effects...

  19. Comparison of intravascular ultrasound versus angiography-guided drug-eluting stent implantation: A meta-analysis of one randomised trial and ten observational studies involving 19,619 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Zhang (Yaojun); V. Farooq (Vasim); H.M. Garcia-Garcia (Hector); C.V. Bourantas (Christos); N.-L. Tian (Nai-Liang); S.-J. Dong (Sheng-Jie); M. Li (Minghui); S. Yang (Shengyun); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); S.-L. Chen (Shao-Liang)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAims: The impact of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) guided coronary drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation on clinical outcomes remains controversial. A meta-analysis of the currently available clinical trials investi-gating IVUS-guided DES implantation was undertaken. Methods and

  20. Ultrasound imaging and contrast agents: a safe alternative to MRI?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wink, Margot H.; Wijkstra, Hessel; de La Rosette, Jean J. M. C. H.; Grimbergen, Cornelis A.

    2006-01-01

    Microbubble contrast media are used to enhance ultrasound images. Because ultrasound is a real-time investigation, contrast-enhanced ultrasound offers possibilities for perfusion imaging. This review is conducted to evaluate the safety of contrast-enhanced ultrasound and its possible role in medical

  1. Classification of calcium in intravascular OCT images for the purpose of intervention planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalev, Ronny; Bezerra, Hiram G.; Ray, Soumya; Prabhu, David; Wilson, David L.

    2016-03-01

    The presence of extensive calcification is a primary concern when planning and implementing a vascular percutaneous intervention such as stenting. If the balloon does not expand, the interventionalist must blindly apply high balloon pressure, use an atherectomy device, or abort the procedure. As part of a project to determine the ability of Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography (IVOCT) to aid intervention planning, we developed a method for automatic classification of calcium in coronary IVOCT images. We developed an approach where plaque texture is modeled by the joint probability distribution of a bank of filter responses where the filter bank was chosen to reflect the qualitative characteristics of the calcium. This distribution is represented by the frequency histogram of filter response cluster centers. The trained algorithm was evaluated on independent ex-vivo image data accurately labeled using registered 3D microscopic cryo-image data which was used as ground truth. In this study, regions for extraction of sub-images (SI's) were selected by experts to include calcium, fibrous, or lipid tissues. We manually optimized algorithm parameters such as choice of filter bank, size of the dictionary, etc. Splitting samples into training and testing data, we achieved 5-fold cross validation calcium classification with F1 score of 93.7+/-2.7% with recall of >=89% and a precision of >=97% in this scenario with admittedly selective data. The automated algorithm performed in close-to-real-time (2.6 seconds per frame) suggesting possible on-line use. This promising preliminary study indicates that computational IVOCT might automatically identify calcium in IVOCT coronary artery images.

  2. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pitch) and time it takes for the ultrasound signal to return from the area within the patient that is being examined to the transducer (the device placed on the patient's skin to send and receive the returning sound waves), as well as the type of body ...

  3. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) into the body and then listens for the returning echoes from ... ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top ... waves as they pass deeper into the body and need to be returned to the transducer ...

  4. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... particularly valuable for evaluating abdominal, pelvic or scrotal pain in young children. It is also valuable for evaluating the brain, spinal cord and hip joints in newborns and infants. Risks For standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on ...

  5. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... minutes. top of page What will my child experience during and after the procedure? Ultrasound examinations are ... areas. Outside links: For the convenience of our users, RadiologyInfo .org provides links to relevant websites. RadiologyInfo. ...

  6. Analysis and compensation for the effect of the catheter position on image intensities in intravascular optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Shengnan; Eggermont, Jeroen; Wolterbeek, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Intravascular optical coherence tomography (IVOCT) is an imaging technique that is used to analyze the underlying cause of cardiovascular disease. Because a catheter is used during imaging, the intensities can be affected by the catheter position. This work aims to analyze the effect...... of the catheter position on IVOCT image intensities and to propose a compensation method to minimize this effect in order to improve the visualization and the automatic analysis of IVOCT images. The effect of catheter position is modeled with respect to the distance between the catheter and the arterial wall...

  7. Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ultrasound is a useful procedure for monitoring the baby's development in the uterus. Ultrasound uses inaudible sound waves to produce a two-dimensional image of the baby while inside the mother's ...

  8. Deconvolution of in vivo ultrasound images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    1990-01-01

    In an ultrasound image, the influence of the pulse and attenuation should be removed from the picture in order to display a more consistent and uniform image. The author describes an algorithm to remove the influence of the attenuated pulse on the image. The algorithm takes into account the varyi....... Examples of 1-D deconvoluted pictures of phantom data and in vivo data are given. They show, especially for the phantom data, an increased contrast and resolution...

  9. Toward intravascular morphological and biochemical imaging of atherosclerosis with optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Kim, Wihan; Serafino, Michael; Walton, Brian; Jo, Javier A.; Applegate, Brian E.

    2017-02-01

    We have shown in an ex vivo human coronary artery study that the biochemical information derived from FLIM interpreted in the context of the morphological information from OCT enables a detailed classification of human coronary plaques associated with atherosclerosis. The identification of lipid-rich plaques prone to erosion or rupture and associated with sudden coronary events can impact current clinical practice as well as future development of targeted therapies for "vulnerable" plaques. In order to realize clinical translation of intravascular OCT/FLIM we have had to develop several key technologies. A multimodal catheter endoscope capable of delivering near UV excitation for FLIM and shortwave IR for OCT has been fabricated using a ball lens design with a double clad fiber. The OCT illumination and the FLIM excitation propogate down the inner core while the large outer multimode core captures the fluorescence emission. To enable intravascular pullback imaging with this endoscope we have developed an ultra-wideband fiber optic rotary joint using the same double clad fiber. The rotary joint is based on a lensless design where two cleaved fibers, one fixed and one rotating, are brought into close proximity but not touching. Using water as the lubricant enabled operation over the near UV-shortwave IR range. Transmission over this bandwidth has been measured to be near 100% at rotational frequencies up to 147 Hz. The entire system has been assembled and placed on a mobile cart suitable for cath lab based imaging. System development, performance, and early ex vivo imaging results will be discussed.

  10. An image registration based ultrasound probe calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Kumar, Dinesh; Sarkar, Saradwata; Narayanan, Ram

    2012-02-01

    Reconstructed 3D ultrasound of prostate gland finds application in several medical areas such as image guided biopsy, therapy planning and dose delivery. In our application, we use an end-fire probe rotated about its axis to acquire a sequence of rotational slices to reconstruct 3D TRUS (Transrectal Ultrasound) image. The image acquisition system consists of an ultrasound transducer situated on a cradle directly attached to a rotational sensor. However, due to system tolerances, axis of probe does not align exactly with the designed axis of rotation resulting in artifacts in the 3D reconstructed ultrasound volume. We present a rigid registration based automatic probe calibration approach. The method uses a sequence of phantom images, each pair acquired at angular separation of 180 degrees and registers corresponding image pairs to compute the deviation from designed axis. A modified shadow removal algorithm is applied for preprocessing. An attribute vector is constructed from image intensity and a speckle-insensitive information-theoretic feature. We compare registration between the presented method and expert-corrected images in 16 prostate phantom scans. Images were acquired at multiple resolutions, and different misalignment settings from two ultrasound machines. Screenshots from 3D reconstruction are shown before and after misalignment correction. Registration parameters from automatic and manual correction were found to be in good agreement. Average absolute differences of translation and rotation between automatic and manual methods were 0.27 mm and 0.65 degree, respectively. The registration parameters also showed lower variability for automatic registration (pooled standard deviation σtranslation = 0.50 mm, σrotation = 0.52 degree) compared to the manual approach (pooled standard deviation σtranslation = 0.62 mm, σrotation = 0.78 degree).

  11. Resolution enhancement in medical ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploquin, Marie; Basarab, Adrian; Kouamé, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Image resolution enhancement is a problem of considerable interest in all medical imaging modalities. Unlike general purpose imaging or video processing, for a very long time, medical image resolution enhancement has been based on optimization of the imaging devices. Although some recent works purport to deal with image postprocessing, much remains to be done regarding medical image enhancement via postprocessing, especially in ultrasound imaging. We face a resolution improvement issue in the case of medical ultrasound imaging. We propose to investigate this problem using multidimensional autoregressive (AR) models. Noting that the estimation of the envelope of an ultrasound radio frequency (RF) signal is very similar to the estimation of classical Fourier-based power spectrum estimation, we theoretically show that a domain change and a multidimensional AR model can be used to achieve super-resolution in ultrasound imaging provided the order is estimated correctly. Here, this is done by means of a technique that simultaneously estimates the order and the parameters of a multidimensional model using relevant regression matrix factorization. Doing so, the proposed method specifically fits ultrasound imaging and provides an estimated envelope. Moreover, an expression that links the theoretical image resolution to both the image acquisition features (such as the point spread function) and a postprocessing feature (the AR model) order is derived. The overall contribution of this work is threefold. First, it allows for automatic resolution improvement. Through a simple model and without any specific manual algorithmic parameter tuning, as is used in common methods, the proposed technique simply and exclusively uses the ultrasound RF signal as input and provides the improved B-mode as output. Second, it allows for the a priori prediction of the improvement in resolution via the knowledge of the parametric model order before actual processing. Finally, to achieve the

  12. Severe thrombocytopenia induced by iodinated contrast after coronary angiography: The use of gadolinium contrast and intravascular ultrasound as an alternative to guide percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubero-Gómez, José María; Guerrero Márquez, Francisco J; Diaz-de la-Llera, Luis; Fernández-Quero, Mónica; Guisado-Rasco, Agustín; Villa-Gil-Ortega, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Acute contrast-induced thrombocytopenia is a rare event with the use of modern low osmolarity iodinated contrast media. The pathophysiological mechanism that causes platelet counts to drop has not been identified, but an immunological mechanism is suspected due to cytotoxicity after previous exposure to contrast. We report the case of a 47-year-old male patient with acute severe thrombocytopenia due to iodinated contrast media exposure. His platelet count after the procedure with the highest amount of contrast was zero, which is the lowest reported platelet count to date. Percutaneous coronary revascularization under both intravascular ultrasound and gadolinium contrast guidance was performed without complications. The most feared complication after the use of gadolinium is nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, especially in patients on hemodialysis. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Controlled antegrade intimal tracking with subintimal balloon inflation as a novel bailout technique for chronic total occlusion after failed intravascular ultrasound-guided parallel wire technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Yuta; Yajima, Junji; Hosaka, Fumitaka

    Failure to cross with a guidewire is the most common reason for failure of chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). In cases of CTO PCI with no interventional collaterals, an intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-guided parallel wire technique is usually the last-resort procedure. Failure of this technique sometimes causes enlarged subintimal space, resulting in procedure failure. We present a successful second attempt at left anterior descending artery CTO PCI with no interventional collaterals. After IVUS-guided parallel wire technique failed with an enlarged subintimal space, successful antegrade wire crossing was achieved using controlled antegrade intimal tracking with balloon inflation in the subintimal space to deflect a second wire. This technique may be useful as a bailout strategy in otherwise-failed CTO PCI with an enlarged subintimal space. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Needle Tip Visibility in 3D Ultrasound Images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Arif (Muhammad); A. Moelker (Adriaan); T.W. van Walsum (Theo)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractAim: Needle visibility is crucial for effective and safe ultrasound-guided interventional procedures. Several studies have investigated needle visibility in 2D ultrasound imaging, but less information is available for 3D ultrasound imaging, a modality that has great potential for image

  15. Ultrasound Imaging in Teaching Cardiac Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher D.; Montgomery, Laura E. A.; Quinn, Joe G.; Roe, Sean M.; Stewart, Michael T.; Tansey, Etain A.

    2016-01-01

    This laboratory session provides hands-on experience for students to visualize the beating human heart with ultrasound imaging. Simple views are obtained from which students can directly measure important cardiac dimensions in systole and diastole. This allows students to derive, from first principles, important measures of cardiac function, such…

  16. Ultrasound Imaging Methods for Breast Cancer Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozmen, N.

    2014-01-01

    The main focus of this thesis is on modeling acoustic wavefield propagation and implementing imaging algorithms for breast cancer detection using ultrasound. As a starting point, we use an integral equation formulation, which can be used to solve both the forward and inverse problems. This thesis

  17. Lesion Contrast Enhancement in Medical Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stetson, Paul F.; Sommer, F.G.; Macovski, A.

    1997-01-01

    Methods for improving the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of low-contrast lesions in medical ultrasound imaging are described. Differences in the frequency spectra and amplitude distributions of the lesion and its surroundings can be used to increase the CNR of the lesion relative to the background...

  18. Three-dimensional registration of intravascular optical coherence tomography and cryo-image volumes for microscopic-resolution validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, David; Mehanna, Emile; Gargesha, Madhusudhana; Brandt, Eric; Wen, Di; van Ditzhuijzen, Nienke S; Chamie, Daniel; Yamamoto, Hirosada; Fujino, Yusuke; Alian, Ali; Patel, Jaymin; Costa, Marco; Bezerra, Hiram G; Wilson, David L

    2016-04-01

    Evidence suggests high-resolution, high-contrast, [Formula: see text] intravascular optical coherence tomography (IVOCT) can distinguish plaque types, but further validation is needed, especially for automated plaque characterization. We developed experimental and three-dimensional (3-D) registration methods to provide validation of IVOCT pullback volumes using microscopic, color, and fluorescent cryo-image volumes with optional registered cryo-histology. A specialized registration method matched IVOCT pullback images acquired in the catheter reference frame to a true 3-D cryo-image volume. Briefly, an 11-parameter registration model including a polynomial virtual catheter was initialized within the cryo-image volume, and perpendicular images were extracted, mimicking IVOCT image acquisition. Virtual catheter parameters were optimized to maximize cryo and IVOCT lumen overlap. Multiple assessments suggested that the registration error was better than the [Formula: see text] spacing between IVOCT image frames. Tests on a digital synthetic phantom gave a registration error of only [Formula: see text] (signed distance). Visual assessment of randomly presented nearby frames suggested registration accuracy within 1 IVOCT frame interval ([Formula: see text]). This would eliminate potential misinterpretations confronted by the typical histological approaches to validation, with estimated 1-mm errors. The method can be used to create annotated datasets and automated plaque classification methods and can be extended to other intravascular imaging modalities.

  19. High definition ultrasound imaging for battlefield medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwok, K.S.; Morimoto, A.K.; Kozlowski, D.M.; Krumm, J.C.; Dickey, F.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rogers, B; Walsh, N. [Texas Univ. Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1996-06-23

    A team has developed an improved resolution ultrasound system for low cost diagnostics. This paper describes the development of an ultrasound based imaging system capable of generating 3D images showing surface and subsurface tissue and bone structures. We include results of a comparative study between images obtained from X-Ray Computed Tomography (CT) and ultrasound. We found that the quality of ultrasound images compares favorably with those from CT. Volumetric and surface data extracted from these images were within 7% of the range between ultrasound and CT scans. We also include images of porcine abdominal scans from two different sets of animal trials.

  20. A new method to quantify coronary calcification by intravascular ultrasound - the different patterns of calcification of acute myocardial infarction, unstable angina pectoris and stable angina pectoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofei; Lu, Chengzhi; Chen, Xin; Zhao, Xiangdong; Xia, Dasheng

    2008-11-01

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) enables the identification of calcification with more details and quantification of calcification, but there is not a proper method to quantify the calcification with IVUS. Previous IVUS studies used arc or length of calcium, respectively, to quantify calcification, but calcium is determined by a combination of arc and length. We devised a new method to quantify calcium as arc area (AA) in the present study, and AA is two-dimensional and irrelevant to vessel size. We selected 201 patients with stable angina pectoris (SAP), unstable angina pectoris (UAP), or acute myocardial infarction (AMI) who underwent IVUS imaging of a de novo native atherosclerotic lesion considered to be the culprit lesion before percutaneous coronary intervention between December 2001 and December 2007. The culprit lesion site for analysis was the 10 mm-long segment including the smallest lumen cross-sectional area. The arc of each calcium deposit in each image was measured with a protractor centered on the lumen and the length of each calcium deposit was calculated with the number of images containing the calcium deposit minus 1, then multiplying 0.5 mm (the images were 0.5 mm apart). Finally, the AA was calculated by arc (degree) multiplying length (mm). The average number of calcium deposits in the culprit lesions of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was significantly larger than patients with SAP or UAP, and the number of calcium deposits of patients with SAP or UAP was almost the same (mean +/- SD, AMI 2.21 +/- 1.98, SAP 1.15 +/- 1.01, UAP 1.20 +/- 1.15, AMI versus SAP or UAP; p < 0.0005). The average AA per calcium deposit was significantly different in culprit lesions of patients with SAP and UAP or AMI, the calcium deposits were bigger in SAP than in UAP or AMI, and there were no differences between UAP and AMI (mean +/- SD, SAP 788.6 +/- 767.0 degree x mm, UAP 136.6 +/- 189.3 degree x mm, AMI 148.4 +/- 217.1 degree x mm, SAP versus UAP or

  1. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Survey Do you have a personal story about radiology? Share your patient story here Images × Image Gallery ... reviewed by committees from the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the Radiological Society of North America ( ...

  2. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... will analyze the images and send a signed report to your primary care physician, or to the ... provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding minimally invasive procedures such as needle ...

  3. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... imaging can also: help a physician determine the source of abdominal pain, such as gallstones, kidney stones, ... be turned to either side to improve the quality of the images. A clear water-based gel ...

  4. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a radiologist or other physician. To locate a medical imaging or radiation oncology provider in your community, you ... not provide cost information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, treatments and procedures may vary by geographic ...

  5. Tissue Harmonic Synthetic Aperture Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Rasmussen, Joachim; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic aperture sequential beamforming (SASB) and tissue har- monic imaging (THI) are combined to improve the image quality of medical ultrasound imaging. The technique is evaluated in a compar- ative study against dynamic receive focusing (DRF). The objective is to investigate if SASB combined......, and data were recorded with and without pulse inversion for tissue harmonic imaging. Data were acquired using a Sound Technol- ogy 192 element convex array transducer from both a wire phantom and a tissue mimicking phantom to investigate spatial resolution and pen- etration. In-vivo scans were also...

  6. Sampling system for in vivo ultrasound images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jorgen Arendt; Mathorne, Jan

    1991-01-01

    Newly developed algorithms for processing medical ultrasound images use the high frequency sampled transducer signal. This paper describes demands imposed on a sampling system suitable for acquiring such data and gives details about a prototype constructed. It acquires full clinical images at a s...... at a sampling frequency of 20 MHz with a resolution of 12 bits. The prototype can be used for real time image processing. An example of a clinical in vivo image is shown and various aspects of the data acquisition process are discussed....

  7. Fast simulation of ultrasound images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nikolov, Svetoslav

    2000-01-01

    Realistic B-mode and flow images can be simulated with scattering maps based on optical, CT, or MR images or parametric flow models. The image simulation often includes using 200,000 to 1 million point scatterers. One image line typically takes 1800 seconds to compute on a state-of-the-art PC...... be split among a number of PCs for speeding up the simulation. A full 3D one second volume simulation then takes 7,500 seconds on a 32 CPU 600 MHz Pentium III PC cluster....

  8. Automatic assessment of ultrasound image usability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Luca; Funka-Lea, Gareth; Stoll, Jeffrey

    2011-03-01

    We present a novel and efficient approach for evaluating the quality of ultrasound images. Image acquisition is sensitive to skin contact and transducer orientation and requires both time and technical skill to be done properly. Images commonly suffer degradation due to acoustic shadows and signal attenuation, which present as regions of low signal intensity masking anatomical details and making the images partly or totally unusable. As ultrasound image acquisition and analysis becomes increasingly automated, it is beneficial to also automate the estimation of image quality. Towards this end, we present an algorithm that classifies regions of an image as usable or un-usable. Example applications of this algorithm include improved compounding of free-hand 3D ultrasound volumes by eliminating unusable data and improved automatic feature detection by limiting detection to only usable areas. The algorithm operates in two steps. First, it classifies the image into bright areas, likely to have image content, and dark areas, likely to have no content. Second, it classifies the dark areas into unusable (i.e. due to shadowing and/or signal loss) and usable (i.e. anatomically accurate dark regions, such as with a blood vessel) sub-areas. The classification considers several factors, including statistical information, gradient intensity and geometric properties such as shape and relative position. Relative weighting of factors was obtained through the training of a Support Vector Machine. Classification results for both human and phantom images are presented and compared to manual classifications. This method achieves 91% sensitivity and 91% specificity for usable regions of human scans.

  9. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us ... Patients may be turned to either side to improve the quality of the images. A clear water- ...

  10. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... radiology examinations, will analyze the images and send a signed report to your primary care physician, or to the physician or other healthcare ... information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, treatments and procedures ... Web page review process: This Web page is reviewed regularly by ...

  11. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician ... imaging of the abdomen is a safe, noninvasive test that uses sound waves to produce a clear ...

  12. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a radiologist or other physician. To locate a medical imaging or radiation oncology provider in your community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, treatments and procedures may vary by ...

  13. 3D ultrasound imaging for prosthesis fabrication and diagnostic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morimoto, A.K.; Bow, W.J.; Strong, D.S. [and others

    1995-06-01

    The fabrication of a prosthetic socket for a below-the-knee amputee requires knowledge of the underlying bone structure in order to provide pressure relief for sensitive areas and support for load bearing areas. The goal is to enable the residual limb to bear pressure with greater ease and utility. Conventional methods of prosthesis fabrication are based on limited knowledge about the patient`s underlying bone structure. A 3D ultrasound imaging system was developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The imaging system provides information about the location of the bones in the residual limb along with the shape of the skin surface. Computer assisted design (CAD) software can use this data to design prosthetic sockets for amputees. Ultrasound was selected as the imaging modality. A computer model was developed to analyze the effect of the various scanning parameters and to assist in the design of the overall system. The 3D ultrasound imaging system combines off-the-shelf technology for image capturing, custom hardware, and control and image processing software to generate two types of image data -- volumetric and planar. Both volumetric and planar images reveal definition of skin and bone geometry with planar images providing details on muscle fascial planes, muscle/fat interfaces, and blood vessel definition. The 3D ultrasound imaging system was tested on 9 unilateral below-the- knee amputees. Image data was acquired from both the sound limb and the residual limb. The imaging system was operated in both volumetric and planar formats. An x-ray CT (Computed Tomography) scan was performed on each amputee for comparison. Results of the test indicate beneficial use of ultrasound to generate databases for fabrication of prostheses at a lower cost and with better initial fit as compared to manually fabricated prostheses.

  14. Synthetic aperture tissue and flow ultrasound imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Svetoslav

    imaging applied to medical ultrasound. It is divided into two major parts: tissue and blood flow imaging. Tissue imaging using synthetic aperture algorithms has been investigated for about two decades, but has not been implemented in medical scanners yet. Among the other reasons, the conventional scanning...... and beamformation methods are adequate for the imaging modalities in clinical use - the B-mode imaging of tissue structures, and the color mapping of blood flow. The acquisition time, however, is too long, and these methods fail to perform real-time three-dimensional scans. The synthetic transmit aperture......, on the other hand, can create a Bmode image with as little as 2 emissions, thus significantly speeding-up the scan procedure. The first part of the dissertation describes the synthetic aperture tissue imaging. It starts with an overview of the efforts previously made by other research groups. A classification...

  15. Molecular ultrasound imaging: current status and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, N.; Needles, A.; Willmann, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    Targeted contrast-enhanced ultrasound (molecular ultrasound) is an emerging imaging strategy that combines ultrasound technology with novel molecularly-targeted ultrasound contrast agents for assessing biological processes at the molecular level. Molecular ultrasound contrast agents are nano- or micro-sized particles that are targeted to specific molecular markers by adding high-affinity binding ligands onto the surface of the particles. Following intravenous administration, these targeted ultrasound contrast agents accumulate at tissue sites overexpressing specific molecular markers, thereby enhancing the ultrasound imaging signal. High spatial and temporal resolution, real-time imaging, non-invasiveness, relatively low costs, lack of ionising irradiation and wide availability of ultrasound systems are advantages compared to other molecular imaging modalities. In this article we review current concepts and future directions of molecular ultrasound imaging, including different classes of molecular ultrasound contrast agents, ongoing technical developments of pre-clinical and clinical ultrasound systems, the potential of molecular ultrasound for imaging different diseases at the molecular level, and the translation of molecular ultrasound into the clinic.

  16. Advanced ultrasound probes for medical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildes, Douglas G.; Smith, L. Scott

    2012-05-01

    New medical ultrasound probe architectures and materials build upon established 1D phased array technology and provide improved imaging performance and clinical value. Technologies reviewed include 1.25D and 1.5D arrays for elevation slice thickness control; electro-mechanical and 2D array probes for real-time 3D imaging; catheter probes for imaging during minimally-invasive procedures; single-crystal piezoelectric materials for greater frequency bandwidth; and cMUT arrays using silicon MEMS in place of piezo materials.

  17. Lesion Contrast Enhancement in Medical Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stetson, Paul F.; Sommer, F.G.; Macovski, A.

    1997-01-01

    Methods for improving the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of low-contrast lesions in medical ultrasound imaging are described. Differences in the frequency spectra and amplitude distributions of the lesion and its surroundings can be used to increase the CNR of the lesion relative to the background....... Automated graylevel mapping is used in combination with a contrast-weighted form of frequency-diversity speckle reduction. In clinical studies, the techniques have yielded mean CNR improvements of 3.2 dB above ordinary frequency-diversity imaging and 5.6 dB over sharper conventional images, with no post...

  18. Characterization and morphology of atherosclerotic plaque of coronary arteries: utility of electron-beam tomography to detect non-calcified plaque: a comparison with conventional coronary angiography and intravascular ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funabashi, Nobusada; Misumi, Kazuo; Ohnishi, Hiroyuki; Asano, Miki; Komuro, Issei

    2007-01-31

    Electron-beam tomography (EBT) may provide useful information about characterization and morphology of atherosclerotic plaque of coronary arteries. Twenty-six subjects (20 male, 6 female) with suspected coronary heart disease had two routine (r) and one enhanced (e) EBT scans to detect non-calcified plaque (NCP) in the coronary arterial lumen, and were compared with conventional coronary angiograms (CAG) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). Three had the sites, which did not have high CT values suggesting calcification in rEBT, nor which was not enhanced by contrast material in eEBT. One had the site with positive CT values that were supposed to be the proliferation intima or organized thrombus and at the corresponding site mixed plaque was observed in the IVUS image. The other two had the site with negative CT values that were supposed to be fat tissue with significant stenosis in CAG. We also made the cross-sectional images of the vessel and the morphology of the NCP, which projected into the lumen, could be evaluated. We could detect the NCP, differentiate fat tissue from soft tissue and evaluate the morphology of the plaque in EBT.

  19. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site ...

  20. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to have your child drink several glasses of water, depending on the child's size, two hours prior ... improve the quality of the images. A clear water-based gel is applied to the area of ...

  1. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... radiation oncology provider in your community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, treatments ...

  2. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... images and send a signed report to your primary care physician, or to the physician or other ... Send us your feedback Did you find the information you were looking for? Yes No Please type ...

  3. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's ( ...

  4. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Send us your feedback Did you find the information you were looking for? Yes No Please type ... facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, treatments ...

  5. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... called the Doppler effect). A computer collects and processes the sounds and creates graphs or color pictures ... accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, ...

  6. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... images and send a signed report to your primary care physician, or to the physician or other healthcare provider who requested the exam. Usually, the referring physician or health care provider will share the results with you. ...

  7. The Usefulness of Ultrasound Imaging in Gynecologic Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodfield, Courtney A

    2018-04-01

    Pelvic ultrasound examination is the primary imaging modality for evaluating a wide range of female pelvic symptomatology, and is often the first imaging test to detect a gynecologic malignancy. Ultrasound imaging is particularly useful for evaluating the thickness and appearance of the endometrium in patients with abnormal bleeding, and in detecting and characterizing ovarian lesions. This article reviews the ultrasound appearance of gynecologic neoplasms grouped by anatomic site of origin, the ultrasound appearance of select benign pelvic pathology not to be misinterpreted as malignancy, as well as available ultrasound imaging-based guidelines for managing potential gynecologic neoplasms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Lunula: An ultrasound imaging approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Soo Jung; Shin, Myung Jin; Kim, Sung Moon; Ahn, Joong Mo

    2001-01-01

    The lunula is the white, half-moon-shaped area seen on some, but not all nails. Usually the lunula is the topographic marker of the distal part of the nail matrix, and known to have the ability of nail production. Ultrasonographic imaging of the lunula has not been reported before. This study was undertaken to demonstrate normal ultrasonographic features of the lunula. Ultrasonographic examination of the lunula was performed in the right thumb of 20 healthy volunteers (10M, 10F, mean age 30, range 26-36 years) with a real-time, high-resolution ultrasound unit (Sequoia 512, Acuson, Mountain view, CA, USA) with 8-15 MHz linear transducers. Gray scale color, and special Doppler imagings were performed with longitudinal scanning. The lunula was not seen inspection in three of the 20 volunteers. The mean size of the lunula in the other 17 volumteen was 3.31 ± 1.24 mm (range 2-6.2 mm). Gray scale ultrasound imaging showed the lunula; ovoid shaped hypo-echoic zone in proximal fingernail in 18 of 20 volunteers (mean size, 6.74 ± 0.98 mm, range 5-8.8 mm). In two of 20 volunteers, the lunula was indistinct on gray scale ultrasound examination. However, all lunula were identifiable on color Doppler imaging by detecting vascularity within the lunula. Spectral wave pattern of the lunula was a bi-directional pulsatile wave. Peak velocity was within 5-15 m/sec (mean 8 m/sec). The lunula is identifiable on ultrasound examination as a hyper-vascular, ovoid shaped, hypo-echoic zone in proximal fingernail. This normal structure should not be misinterpreted as an abnormal sub-ungual lesion.

  9. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be turned to either side to improve the quality of the images. A clear water-based gel is applied to the area of the body being studied to help the transducer make secure contact with the body and eliminate air pockets between the transducer and the skin that ...

  10. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us ... requested the exam. Usually, the referring physician or health care provider will share the results with you. ...

  11. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. A follow-up examination may also be necessary so that any change in a known abnormality can be monitored over time. Follow-up examinations are sometimes the best way to see if treatment is working or ...

  12. Advanced 3-D Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten Fischer

    that addresses the drawbacks of the circular symmetric apodization function was proposed and described. The new layout was shown to be effective in both simulations and with measurements on in-house produced CMUT arrays. The measurements included both intensity measurements of the edge waves and imaging...

  13. Intravascular pulmonary metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, J.A.O.; Moore, E.H.; Templeton, P.A.; McLoud, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    The diagnosis of intravascular metastatic tumor emboli to the lungs is rarely made. The authors present a characteristic radiographic finding of intravascular lung metastases that they observed in four patients with diagnoses or right atrial myoxoma, invasive renal cell carcinoma, invasive pelvic osteosarcoma, and recurrent pelvic chondrosarcoma. Substantiation of intravascular pulmonary metastases was achieved by means of autopsy, pulmonary artery biopsy, and surgical documentation of tumor invasion of the inferior vena cava or pelvic veins. In all four cases, chest computed tomography (CT) demonstrated branching, beaded opacities extending from the hila into the periphery of the lung in the distribution of pulmonary arteries. In one case, similar findings were observed in magnetic resonance (MR) images of the chest. Follow-up studies in three cases showed progressive enlargement and varicosity of the abnormal pulmonary artery consistent with proliferation of intravascular tumor. In the case of metastatic osteosarcoma, intraluminal ossification was also observed at CT. In three of four cases, pulmonary infarction was demonstrated in the distribution of the abnormal pulmonary arteries seen at CT as small, peripheral, wedge-shaped opacities. The demonstration of progressively dilated and beaded pulmonary arteries in patients with extrathoracic malignancies is suggestive of intravascular lung metastases, particularly when accompanied by peripheral infarction

  14. 3D registration of intravascular optical coherence tomography and cryo-image volumes for microscopic-resolution validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, David; Mehanna, Emile; Gargesha, Madhusudhana; Wen, Di; Brandt, Eric; van Ditzhuijzen, Nienke S; Chamie, Daniel; Yamamoto, Hirosada; Fujino, Yusuke; Farmazilian, Ali; Patel, Jaymin; Costa, Marco; Bezerra, Hiram G; Wilson, David L

    2016-02-27

    High resolution, 100 frames/sec intravascular optical coherence tomography (IVOCT) can distinguish plaque types, but further validation is needed, especially for automated plaque characterization. We developed experimental and 3D registration methods, to provide validation of IVOCT pullback volumes using microscopic, brightfield and fluorescent cryo-image volumes, with optional, exactly registered cryo-histology. The innovation was a method to match an IVOCT pull-back images, acquired in the catheter reference frame, to a true 3D cryo-image volume. Briefly, an 11-parameter, polynomial virtual catheter was initialized within the cryo-image volume, and perpendicular images were extracted, mimicking IVOCT image acquisition. Virtual catheter parameters were optimized to maximize cryo and IVOCT lumen overlap. Local minima were possible, but when we started within reasonable ranges, every one of 24 digital phantom cases converged to a good solution with a registration error of only +1.34±2.65μm (signed distance). Registration was applied to 10 ex-vivo cadaver coronary arteries (LADs), resulting in 10 registered cryo and IVOCT volumes yielding a total of 421 registered 2D-image pairs. Image overlays demonstrated high continuity between vascular and plaque features. Bland-Altman analysis comparing cryo and IVOCT lumen area, showed mean and standard deviation of differences as 0.01±0.43 mm 2 . DICE coefficients were 0.91±0.04. Finally, visual assessment on 20 representative cases with easily identifiable features suggested registration accuracy within one frame of IVOCT (±200μm), eliminating significant misinterpretations introduced by 1mm errors in the literature. The method will provide 3D data for training of IVOCT plaque algorithms and can be used for validation of other intravascular imaging modalities.

  15. Real-time image fusion involving diagnostic ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewertsen, Caroline; Săftoiu, Adrian; Gruionu, Lucian G

    2013-01-01

    The aim of our article is to give an overview of the current and future possibilities of real-time image fusion involving ultrasound. We present a review of the existing English-language peer-reviewed literature assessing this technique, which covers technical solutions (for ultrasound and endosc......The aim of our article is to give an overview of the current and future possibilities of real-time image fusion involving ultrasound. We present a review of the existing English-language peer-reviewed literature assessing this technique, which covers technical solutions (for ultrasound...... and endoscopic ultrasound), image fusion in several anatomic regions, and electromagnetic needle tracking....

  16. Wireless image streaming in mobile ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Brett W; Pedersen, Peder C

    2010-03-01

    This work evaluates the feasibility of using 802.11 g ad hoc and 3G cellular broadband networks to wirelessly stream ultrasound video in real-time. Telemedicine ultrasound applications in events such as disaster relief and first-response triage can incorporate these technologies, enabling onsite medical personnel to receive assistance with diagnostic decisions by remote medical experts. The H.264 scalable video codec was used to encode echocardiographic video streams at various image resolutions (video graphics array [VGA] and quarter video graphics array [QVGA]) and frame rates (10, 15, 20, and 30 frames/s). The video stream was transmitted using 802.11 g and 3G cellular technologies, and pertinent transmission parameters such as data rate, packet loss, delay jitter, and latency were measured. 802.11 g permits high frame rate and VGA resolution and has low latency and jitter, but it is suitable only for short communication ranges, whereas the 3G cellular network allows medium to low frame rate streaming at QVGA image resolution with medium latency. However, video streaming can take place from any location with 3G service to any other site with Internet connectivity. The transmitted ultrasound video streams were subsequently recorded and evaluated by physicians with expertise in medical ultrasonography who evaluated the diagnostic value of the received video streams relative to the original videos. They expressed the opinion that image quality in the case of both 802.11 g and 3G was fully to adequately preserved, but missed frames could momentarily decrease the diagnostic value. This research demonstrates that 3G and 802.11 g wireless networks combined with efficient video compression make diagnostically valuable wireless streaming of ultrasound video feasible.

  17. Antiatherosclerotic effects of long-term maximally intensive statin therapy after acute coronary syndrome: insights from Study of Coronary Atheroma by Intravascular Ultrasound: Effect of Rosuvastatin Versus Atorvastatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Rishi; Nissen, Steven E; Shao, Mingyuan; Ballantyne, Christie M; Barter, Philip J; Chapman, M John; Erbel, Raimund; Libby, Peter; Raichlen, Joel S; Uno, Kiyoko; Kataoka, Yu; Nicholls, Stephen J

    2014-11-01

    Patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) display diffuse coronary atheroma instability and heightened risk of early and late recurrent coronary events. We compared the long-term antiatherosclerotic efficacy of high-intensity statins in patients with ACS when compared with stable disease. Study of Coronary Atheroma by Intravascular Ultrasound: Effect of Rosuvastatin Versus Atorvastatin (SATURN) used serial intravascular ultrasound measures of coronary atheroma volume in patients treated with rosuvastatin 40 mg or atorvastatin 80 mg for 24 months. The overall effect of high-intensity statins on the change in coronary percent atheroma volume and major adverse cardiovascular events (death/nonfatal myocardial infarction/coronary revascularization) were evaluated in this post hoc analysis. When compared with non-ACS patients (n=678), patients with ACS (n=361) were younger, actively smoking, and have had a previous myocardial infarction (all P<0.001). At baseline, patients with ACS exhibited lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (43.5±11 versus 45.8±11 mg/dL; P=0.002), a higher apolipoprotein B: apolipoprotein A-1 ratio (0.90±0.24 versus 0.83±0.24; P<0.001) and greater percent atheroma volume (37.3±8.5% versus 35.9±8.1%; P=0.01) when compared with non-ACS patients. Despite similar achieved levels of lipid and inflammatory markers after high-intensity statin therapy, patients with ACS demonstrated greater percent atheroma volume regression than non-ACS patients (-1.46±0.14 versus -0.89±0.13; P=0.003). After propensity-weighted multivariable adjustment, baseline percent atheroma volume (P<0.001) and an ACS clinical presentation (P=0.02) independently associated with plaque regression. The 24-month major adverse cardiovascular events-free survival was similar between patients with ACS and non-ACS (90.6 versus 92.9%; P=0.25). Long-term high-intensity statin therapy caused greater plaque regression and comparable major adverse cardiovascular events rates in

  18. with Ultrasound Color Doppler Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Takayama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Color Doppler imaging (CDI can be used to noninvasively create images of human blood vessels and quantitatively evaluate blood flow in real-time. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of acupuncture on the blood flow of the peripheral, mesenteric, and retrobulbar arteries by CDI. Statistical significance was defined as P values less than 0.05. Blood flow in the radial and brachial arteries was significantly lower during needle stimulation on LR3 than before in healthy volunteers, but was significantly higher after needle stimulation than before. LR3 stimulation also resulted in a significant decrease in the vascular resistance of the short posterior ciliary artery and no significant change of blood flow through the superior mesenteric artery (SMA during acupuncture. In contrast, ST36 stimulation resulted in a significant increase in blood flow through the SMA and no significant change in the vascular resistance of the retrobulbar arteries. Additionally, acupuncture at previously determined acupoints in patients with open-angle glaucoma led to a significant reduction in the vascular resistance of the central retinal artery and short posterior ciliary artery. Our results suggest that acupuncture can affect blood flow of the peripheral, mesenteric, and retrobulbar arteries, and CDI can be useful to evaluate hemodynamic changes by acupuncture.

  19. Signal Processing in Medical Ultrasound B-mode Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Tai Kyong

    2000-01-01

    Ultrasonic imaging is the most widely used modality among modern imaging device for medical diagnosis and the system performance has been improved dramatically since early 90's due to the rapid advances in DSP performance and VLSI technology that made it possible to employ more sophisticated algorithms. This paper describes 'main stream' digital signal processing functions along with the associated implementation considerations in modern medical ultrasound imaging systems. Topics covered include signal processing methods for resolution improvement, ultrasound imaging system architectures, roles and necessity of the applications of DSP and VLSI technology in the development of the medical ultrasound imaging systems, and array signal processing techniques for ultrasound focusing

  20. Intravascular ultrasound guidance to minimize the use of iodine contrast in percutaneous coronary intervention: the MOZART (Minimizing cOntrast utiliZation With IVUS Guidance in coRonary angioplasTy) randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, José; Guedes, Cristiano; Soares, Paulo; Zalc, Silvio; Campos, Carlos M; Lopes, Augusto C; Spadaro, André G; Perin, Marco A; Filho, Antonio Esteves; Takimura, Celso K; Ribeiro, Expedito; Kalil-Filho, Roberto; Edelman, Elazer R; Serruys, Patrick W; Lemos, Pedro A

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) guidance on the final volume of contrast agent used in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). To date, few approaches have been described to reduce the final dose of contrast agent in PCIs. We hypothesized that IVUS might serve as an alternative imaging tool to angiography in many steps during PCI, thereby reducing the use of iodine contrast. A total of 83 patients were randomized to angiography-guided PCI or IVUS-guided PCI; both groups were treated according to a pre-defined meticulous procedural strategy. The primary endpoint was the total volume contrast agent used during PCI. Patients were followed clinically for an average of 4 months. The median total volume of contrast was 64.5 ml (interquartile range [IQR]: 42.8 to 97.0 ml; minimum, 19 ml; maximum, 170 ml) in the angiography-guided group versus 20.0 ml (IQR: 12.5 to 30.0 ml; minimum, 3 ml; maximum, 54 ml) in the IVUS-guided group (p MOZART]; NCT01947335). Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Ultrasound triggered image-guided drug delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehmer, Marcel R.; Klibanov, Alexander L.; Tiemann, Klaus; Hall, Christopher S.; Gruell, Holger; Steinbach, Oliver C.

    2009-01-01

    The integration of therapeutic interventions with diagnostic imaging has been recognized as one of the next technological developments that will have a major impact on medical treatments. Important advances in this field are based on a combination of progress in guiding and monitoring ultrasound energy, novel drug classes becoming available, the development of smart delivery vehicles, and more in depth understanding of the mechanisms of the cellular and molecular basis of diseases. Recent research demonstrates that both pressure sensitive and temperature sensitive delivery systems hold promise for local treatment. The use of ultrasound for the delivery of drugs has been demonstrated in particular the field of cardiology and oncology for a variety of therapeutics ranging from small drug molecules to biologics and nucleic acids.

  2. APES Beamforming Applied to Medical Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Ann E. A.; Holfort, Iben Kraglund; Austeng, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Recently, adaptive beamformers have been introduced to medical ultrasound imaging. The primary focus has been on the minimum variance (MV) (or Capon) beamformer. This work investigates an alternative but closely related beamformer, the Amplitude and Phase Estimation (APES) beamformer. APES offers...... added robustness at the expense of a slightly lower resolution. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of the APES beamformer on medical imaging data, since correct amplitude estimation often is just as important as spatial resolution. In our simulations we have used a 3.5 MHz, 96...... element linear transducer array. When imaging two closely spaced point targets, APES displays nearly the same resolution as the MV, and at the same time improved amplitude control. When imaging cysts in speckle, APES offers speckle statistics similar to that of the DAS, without the need for temporal...

  3. Intravascular photoacoustic tomography for characterization of atherosclerotic lipid and inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Qin, Huan; Shi, Yujiao; Yang, Sihua; Xing, Da

    2014-09-01

    Photoacoustic imaging is a fast growing imaging technology depending on its high optical resolution of optics while taking the advantage of the high penetration depth of ultrasound. In this paper, we demonstrate the new progress in the photoacoustic imaging. Atherosclerosis is characterized by a progressive build-up of lipid in the arterial wall, which is known as plaque. Histological studies demonstrate that the primary cause of acute cardiovascular events is the rupture of atherosclerotic plaques. Lipid and inflammation within the plaque are related to influence the propensity of plaques to disrupt. Photoacoustic intravascular tomography (IVPAT) holds a great advantage in providing comprehensive morphological and functional information of plaques. Lipid relative concentration maps of atherosclerotic aorta were obtained and compared with histology. Furthermore, by selectively targeting the intravascular inflammatory cytokines, IVPAT is also capable of mapping the inflamed area and determining the degree of inflammation.

  4. Early characterization of atherosclerotic coronary plaques with multidetector computed tomography in patients with acute coronary syndrome. A comparative study with intravascular ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iriart, Xavier; Dos-Santos, Pierre [Universite Bordeaux 2, Inserm U. 441 Atherosclerose, Bordeaux (France); Brunot, Sebastien [CHU de Bordeaux, Hopital du Haut-Leveque, Unite d' Imagerie Thoracique et Cardiovasculaire, Pessac (France); Unite de Soins Intensifs Cardiologiques, Pessac (France); Unite d' Imagerie Thoracique et Cardiovasculaire, Hopital Cardiologique, Pessac (France); Coste, Pierre; Leroux, Lionel [Universite Bordeaux 2, Inserm U. 441 Atherosclerose, Bordeaux (France); Unite de Soins Intensifs Cardiologiques, Pessac (France); Montaudon, Michel [Universite Bordeaux 2, Inserm U. 885 F 33076, Bordeaux (France); CHU de Bordeaux, Hopital du Haut-Leveque, Unite d' Imagerie Thoracique et Cardiovasculaire, Pessac (France); Labeque, Jean-Noel; Jais, Catherine [Unite de Soins Intensifs Cardiologiques, Pessac (France); Laurent, Francois [Universite Bordeaux 2, Inserm U. 885 F 33076, Bordeaux (France); CHU de Bordeaux, Hopital du Haut-Leveque, Unite d' Imagerie Thoracique et Cardiovasculaire, Pessac (France); Unite d' Imagerie Thoracique et Cardiovasculaire, Hopital Cardiologique, Pessac (France)

    2007-10-15

    We compared 16-slice computed tomography (CT) with intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) in their ability to identify the culprit lesion, and to assess plaque characterization and vascular remodelling in acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Twenty patients were prospectively studied. Coronary plaque identification and characterization were compared using 16-slice CT and 40-MHz catheter-based IVUS. Minimum lumen area (MLA), cross-sectional vessel area (CVA) and vessel remodelling were determined for each comparable lesion. One hundred and sixty-nine segments were compared and 84 plaques analysed. Sixteen-slice CT detected 95% of culprit lesions (19/20). No feature suggestive of plaque rupture was detected by 16-slice CT. Attenuation measurements within all lesions revealed different values for hypoechoic (38 {+-} 33 HU), hyperechoic (94 {+-} 44 HU), and calcified plaques (561 {+-} 216 HU), (P < 0.001). Agreement between 16-slice CT and IVUS on measuring MLA and CVA was evaluated using Bland-Altman analysis. Pearson and intra-class coefficient (ICC) were 0.81 and 0.70 for MLA, and 0.81 and 0.36 for CVA, for 16-slice CT and IVUS, respectively. Agreement between both techniques for vessel positive remodelling was moderate (kappa = 0.54, P < 0.001). Sixteen-slice CT has shown moderate accuracy in quantifying and characterizing coronary plaques compared with IVUS. Spatial resolution of 16-slice CT remains a major limitation, however, to accurately assess the complex lesions involved in ACS. (orig.)

  5. Intravascular ultrasound-guided drug-eluting stent implantation: An updated meta-analysis of randomized control trials and observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinvil, Arie; Zhang, Yao-Jun; Lee, Sang Yeub; Pang, Si; Waksman, Ron; Chen, Shao-Liang; Garcia-Garcia, Hector M

    2016-08-01

    The use of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) guidance for drug-eluting stent (DES) optimization is limited by the number of adequately powered randomized control trials (RCTs). We performed an updated meta-analysis, including data from recently published RCTs and observational studies, by reviewing the literature in Medline and the Cochrane Library to identify studies that compared clinical outcomes between IVUS-guided and angiography-guided DES implantation from January 1995 to January 2016. This meta-analysis included 25 eligible studies, including 31,283 patients, of whom 3192 patients were enrolled in 7 RCTs. In an analysis of all 25 studies, the summary results for all the events analyzed were significantly in favor of IVUS-guided DES implantation [major adverse cardiac events (MACE, odds ratio [OR] 0.76, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 0.70-0.82, PDES implantation was found only for MACE (OR 0.66, 95% CI: 0.52-0.84, P=0.001), TLR (OR 0.61, 95% CI: 0.43-0.87, P=0.006), and TVR (OR 0.61, 95% CI: 0.41-0.90, P=0.013). IVUS-guided percutaneous coronary intervention was associated with better overall clinical outcomes than angiography-guided DES implantation. However, in a solely RCT meta-analysis, this benefit was mainly driven by reduced rates of revascularizations. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. Rehabilitative ultrasound imaging of the abdominal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teyhen, Deydre S; Gill, Norman W; Whittaker, Jackie L; Henry, Sharon M; Hides, Julie A; Hodges, Paul

    2007-08-01

    Rehabilitative ultrasound imaging (RUSI) of the abdominal muscles is increasingly being used in the management of conditions involving musculoskeletal dysfunctions associated with the abdominal muscles, including certain types of low back and pelvic pain. This commentary provides an overview of current concepts and evidence related to RUSI of the abdominal musculature, including issues addressing the potential role of ultrasound imaging in the assessment and training of these muscles. Both quantitative and qualitative aspects associated with clinical and research applications are considered, as are the possible limitations related to the interpretation of measurements made with RUSI. Research to date has utilized a range of methodological approaches, including different transducer placements and imaging techniques. The pros and cons of the various methods are discussed, and guidelines for future investigations are presented. Potential implications and opportunities for clinical use of RUSI to enhance evidence-based practice are outlined, as are suggestions for future research to further clarify the possible role of RUSI in the evaluation and treatment of abdominal muscular morphology and function.

  7. Ultrasound: A novel tool for airway imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharthkumar Bhikhabhai Parmar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The scope of ultrasound is emerging in medical science, particularly outside traditional areas of radiology practice. Aims: We designed this study to evaluate feasibility of bedside sonography as a tool for airway assessment and to describe sonographic anatomy of airway. Settings and Design: A prospective, clinical study. Materials and Methods: We included 100 adult, healthy volunteers of either sex to undergo airway imaging systemically starting from floor of the mouth to the sternal notch in anterior aspect of neck by sonography. Results: We could visualize mandible and hyoid bone as a bright hyperechoic structure with hypoechoic acoustic shadow underneath. Epiglottis, thyroid cartilage, cricoid cartilage, and tracheal rings appeared hypoechoic. Vocal cords were visualized through thyroid cartilage. Interface between air and mucosa lining the airway produced a bright hyperechoic linear appearance. Artifacts created by intraluminal air prevented visualization of posterior pharynx, posterior commissure, and posterior wall of trachea. Conclusions: Ultrasound is safe, quick, noninvasive, repeatable, and bedside tool to assess the airway and can provide real-time dynamic images relevant for several aspects of airway management.

  8. PORTAL VEIN THROMBOSIS-ULTRASOUND IMAGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trajkovska Meri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Portal venous system, apart from the main portal vein, includes its tributaries: superior and inferior mesenteric vein, as well as splenic vein, so the term portal venous thrombosis encompasses a broad spectrum of pathological conditions. Usually, one or more causative factors can be recognized, either local endothelial/ flow disturbances, or systemic inherited /acquired conditions. Portal vein thrombosis can be associated with benign or malignant disorders. Weather we are speaking about acute or chronic thrombosis, the clinical presentation is different. Acute thrombosis can be presented in a wide range, from mild abdominal discomfort to a state of intestinal ischemia and life-threatening infarction. Chronic thrombosis is usually recognized when variceal bleeding or other symptoms of portal hypertension express. Fast and accurate diagnosis sometimes is a life-saving procedure, especially in acute vascular alterations. Recently, due to the improvement of imaging procedures the number of patients with diagnosed portal vein thrombosis is increasingly growing. With a negative predictive value of 98% color Doppler ultrasound is considered as imaging modality of choice in detecting portal vein thrombosis. Based on large studies it is presumed that overall risk of getting portal vein thrombosis during lifetime is 1% in general population, but much bigger 5%-15% in cirrhotic patients. Existence of specific ultrasound criteria, if fulfilled, has ensured that diagnosis of portal vein thrombosis is fast and non-invasive. Procedure is convenient for the patient and healthcare providers, and above all, allows prompt treatment preventing further deterioration.

  9. SQL based cardiovascular ultrasound image classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandagopalan, S; Suryanarayana, Adiga B; Sudarshan, T S B; Chandrashekar, Dhanalakshmi; Manjunath, C N

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel method to analyze and classify the cardiovascular ultrasound echocardiographic images using Naïve-Bayesian model via database OLAP-SQL. Efficient data mining algorithms based on tightly-coupled model is used to extract features. Three algorithms are proposed for classification namely Naïve-Bayesian Classifier for Discrete variables (NBCD) with SQL, NBCD with OLAP-SQL, and Naïve-Bayesian Classifier for Continuous variables (NBCC) using OLAP-SQL. The proposed model is trained with 207 patient images containing normal and abnormal categories. Out of the three proposed algorithms, a high classification accuracy of 96.59% was achieved from NBCC which is better than the earlier methods.

  10. Novel contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging in prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeenge, Martijn; Mischi, Massimo; Laguna Pes, M. Pilar; de La Rosette, Jean J. M. C. H.; Wijkstra, Hessel

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this paper were to present the current status of contrast-enhanced transrectal ultrasound imaging and to discuss the latest achievements and techniques now under preclinical testing. Although grayscale transrectal ultrasound is the standard method for prostate imaging, it lacks

  11. Dosimetric model for intravascular brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flower, E.E.; Stroud, D.B.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Intravascular brachytherapy has been shown to be a prophylaxis for restenosis. Adventitial macrophages, which are extremely radiosensitive, initiate neointima formation. A model of the dose levels of the treatment range is developed, assuming that the adventitia is the target tissue. If the adventitia receives a dose of less than 10 Gy, it is assumed the treatment will be ineffective. If the dose to any part of the wall is above 30 Gy, it is assumed that the treatment could be detrimental. Hence the treatment range is between 10 and 30 Gy, with 20 Gy being the optimum dosage to the adventitia. An algorithm using numerical integration of published dose kernels calculates the dose at any point surrounding a beta ( 32 P) line source of finite length. Dose profiles were obtained to demonstrate edge effects. For long lesions, the source is often stepped along the artery. Dose changes due to separation or overlapping of sources during source stepping procedures were also determined. Isodose curves were superimposed on intravascular ultrasound images to demonstrate dose levels. For an exposure time of 60 seconds with a 200mCi source, the optimum dose of 20 Gy occurs at a distance 1.94mm from the centre of the source. The upper limit of the treatment dose range (30 Gy) occurs at 1.59mm. The lower limit of the treatment dose range (10 Gy) occurs at 2.7mm. Significant perturbations to the treatment dose range can be caused by non-centering of the source, edge effects and separation or overlapping of sources in stepping procedures. Despite these concerns, many successful procedures have been reported and this implies that the model is over simplified and requires modifications. Copyright (2000) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  12. The Application of Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound in Molecular Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hak Jong; Chung, Jin Haeung; Hwang, Sung Il

    2009-01-01

    Microbubble contrast agent for ultrasound imaging has come of age, adding entirely new capabilities to real time ultrasound imaging. These new ultrasound imaging techniques exploit the nonlinear echoes that result from the unique interaction between ultrasound and microbubbles, which are readily distinguishable from the echoes of tissues. Contrast enhanced ultrasound can be used to quantify both flow rate and relative vascular volume of the microvasculature in solid lesions or organs, which makes it possible for it to be one of the modalities in molecular imaging. Angiogenesis is one of the important processes contributing to new blood vessel growth that occurs in a variety of physiologic and pathophysiologic states. It is essential for spread and growth of malignant tumors. The advantages of contrast enhanced ultrasound are that it is a noninvasive method for observing tumor angiogenesis. Sonoporation utilizes the interaction of ultrasound with ultrasound contrast agents to temporarily permeabilized the cell membrane allowing for the uptake of DNA, drugs, and other therapeutic compounds from the extracellular environment. Thus, sonoporation is a promising drug delivery and gene therapy technique, limited only by lack of understanding regarding the biophysical mechanism that results in the cell membrane permeability change. In conclusion, ultrasound contrast agent could have a role not only in the molecular imaging field with the advantage of noninvasive quantification of angiogenesis, but also in the field of drug treatment of cells using sonoporation

  13. Imaging of Groin Pain: Magnetic Resonance and Ultrasound Imaging Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Susan C; Endo, Yoshimi; Potter, Hollis G

    Evaluation of groin pain in athletes may be challenging as pain is typically poorly localized and the pubic symphyseal region comprises closely approximated tendons and muscles. As such, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound (US) may help determine the etiology of groin pain. A PubMed search was performed using the following search terms: ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, sports hernia, athletic pubalgia, and groin pain. Date restrictions were not placed on the literature search. Clinical review. Level 4. MRI is sensitive in diagnosing pathology in groin pain. Not only can MRI be used to image rectus abdominis/adductor longus aponeurosis and pubic bone pathology, but it can also evaluate other pathology within the hip and pelvis. MRI is especially helpful when groin pain is poorly localized. Real-time capability makes ultrasound useful in evaluating the pubic symphyseal region, as it can be used for evaluation and treatment. MRI and US are valuable in diagnosing pathology in athletes with groin pain, with the added utility of treatment using US-guided intervention. Strength-of Recommendation Taxonomy: C.

  14. Intravascular ultrasound-guided vs angiography-guided drug-eluting stent implantation in complex coronary lesions: Meta-analysis of randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavishi, Chirag; Sardar, Partha; Chatterjee, Saurav; Khan, Abdur Rahman; Shah, Arpit; Ather, Sameer; Lemos, Pedro A; Moreno, Pedro; Stone, Gregg W

    2017-03-01

    The relative outcomes of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-guided percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) compared with angiography-guided PCI with drug-eluting stent (DES) in complex lesions have not been established. We sought to compare the efficacy and safety of IVUS-guided PCI with angiography-guided PCI in patients with complex coronary lesions treated with DES. Electronic databases were searched to identify all randomized trials comparing IVUS-guided vs angiography-guided DES implantation. We evaluated major adverse cardiac events (MACE), all-cause and cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, target lesion revascularization (TLR), target vessel revascularization (TVR), and stent thrombosis outcomes at the longest reported follow-up. Random-effects modeling was used to calculate pooled relative risk (RR) and 95% CIs. Eight trials comprising 3,276 patients (1,635 IVUS-guided and 1,641 angiography-guided) enrolling only patients with complex lesions were included. Mean follow-up was 1.4±0.5years. Compared with angiography-guided PCI, patients undergoing IVUS-guided PCI had significantly lower MACE (RR 0.64, 95% CI 0.51-0.80, P=.0001), TLR (RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.45-0.86, P=.004), and TVR (RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.42-0.87, P=.007). There were no significant differences for stent thrombosis, cardiovascular death, or all-cause death. In meta-regression analysis, IVUS-guided PCI was of greatest benefit in reducing MACE in patients with acute coronary syndromes, diabetes, and long lesions. The present meta-analysis demonstrates a significant reduction in MACE, TVR, and TLR with IVUS-guided DES implantation in complex coronary lesions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Does intravascular ultrasound provide clinical benefits for percutaneous coronary intervention with bare-metal stent implantation? A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lodi-Junqueira Lucas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS in percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI is still controversial despite several previously published meta-analyses. A meta-analysis to evaluate the controversial role of IVUS-guided PCI with bare-metal stenting was performed and a previous published meta-analysis was re-evaluated in order to clarify the discrepancy between results of these studies. Methods A systematic review was performed by an electronic search of the PubMed, Embase and Web of Knowledge databases and by a manual search of reference lists for randomized controlled trials published until April 2011, with clinical outcomes and, at least, six months of clinical follow-up. A meta-analysis based on the intention to treat was performed with the selected studies. Results Five studies and 1,754 patients were included. There were no differences in death (OR = 1.86; 95% CI = 0.88-3.95; p = 0.10, non-fatal myocardial infarction (OR = 0.65; 95% CI = 0.27-1.58; p = 0.35 and major adverse cardiac events (OR = 0.74; 95% CI = 0.49-1.13; p = 0.16. An analysis of the previous published meta-analysis strongly suggested the presence of publication bias. Conclusions There is no evidence to recommend routine IVUS-guided PCI with bare-metal stent implantation. This may be explained by the paucity and heterogeneity of the studies published so far.

  16. A new architecture for fast ultrasound imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruza, J. F. [Instituto de Tecnologías Físicas y de la Información ' ' Torres Quevedo' ' Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Serrano 144, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Camacho, J.; Moreno, J. M.; Medina, L. [Instituto de Tecnologías Físicas y de la Información Torres Quevedo Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Serrano 144, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-02-18

    Some ultrasound imaging applications require high frame rate, for example 3D imaging and automated inspections of large components. Being the signal-processing throughput of the system the main bottleneck, parallel beamforming is required to achieve hundreds to thousands of images per second. Simultaneous A-scan line beamforming in all active channels is required to reach the intended high frame rate. To this purpose, a new parallel beamforming architecture that exploits the currently available processing resources available in state-of-the-art FPGAs is proposed. The work aims to get the optimal resource usage, high scalability and flexibility for different applications. To achieve these goals, the basic beamforming function is reformulated to be adapted to the DSP-cell architecture of state-of-the-art FPGAs. This allows performing simultaneous dynamic focusing on multiple A-scan lines. Some realistic examples are analyzed, evaluating resource requirements and maximum operating frequency. For example, a 128-channel system, with 128 scan lines and acquiring at 20 MSPS, can be built with 4 mid-range FPGAs, achieving up to 18000 frames per second, just limited by the maximum PRF. The gold standard Synthetic Transmit Aperture method (also called Total Focusing Method) can be carried out in real time at a processing rate of 140 high-resolution images per second (16 cm depth on steel)

  17. Automatic Segmentation of Ultrasound Tomography Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibin Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound tomography (UST image segmentation is fundamental in breast density estimation, medicine response analysis, and anatomical change quantification. Existing methods are time consuming and require massive manual interaction. To address these issues, an automatic algorithm based on GrabCut (AUGC is proposed in this paper. The presented method designs automated GrabCut initialization for incomplete labeling and is sped up with multicore parallel programming. To verify performance, AUGC is applied to segment thirty-two in vivo UST volumetric images. The performance of AUGC is validated with breast overlapping metrics (Dice coefficient (D, Jaccard (J, and False positive (FP and time cost (TC. Furthermore, AUGC is compared to other methods, including Confidence Connected Region Growing (CCRG, watershed, and Active Contour based Curve Delineation (ACCD. Experimental results indicate that AUGC achieves the highest accuracy (D=0.9275 and J=0.8660 and FP=0.0077 and takes on average about 4 seconds to process a volumetric image. It was said that AUGC benefits large-scale studies by using UST images for breast cancer screening and pathological quantification.

  18. Speckle suppressing anisotropic diffusion filter for medical ultrasound images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovireddy, Saraniya; Muthusamy, Ezhilarasi

    2014-04-01

    Ultrasonography is often preferred over the other medical imaging modalities due to its noninvasive nature, cost-effectiveness, and portability. However, the resolution of the ultrasound image greatly depends upon the presence of speckle noise. Speckle noise generally tends to reduce the image resolution and contrast, thereby reducing the diagnostic resolution of this imaging modality. In this paper, we propose a speckle suppressing anisotropic diffusion (SSAD) filter, to remove the speckle noise from B-Mode Ultrasound images. The performance of the SSAD filter is compared with the existing diffusion filters. The evaluation is based on their application to images simulated by Field II (developed by Jensen et al.). The algorithms were also tested for clinical ultrasound images of polycystic ovaries obtained from HDI 5000 Ultrasound Scanner. Performance evaluation was done by both numerical and functional parameters. The proposed filter yields better results in terms of greatest structural similarity index map (SSIM) of 0.95 and accuracy of 99.5.

  19. Miniature optical coherence tomography-ultrasound probe for automatically coregistered three-dimensional intracoronary imaging with real-time display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiawen; Ma, Teng; Jing, Joseph; Zhang, Jun; Patel, Pranav M; Kirk Shung, K; Zhou, Qifa; Chen, Zhongping

    2013-10-01

    We have developed a novel miniature integrated optical coherence tomography (OCT)-intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) probe, with a 1.5-mm-long rigid part and 0.9-mm outer diameter, for real-time intracoronary imaging of atherosclerotic plaques and guiding of interventional procedures. By placing the OCT ball lens and IVUS transducer back-to-back at the same axial position, this probe can provide automatically coregistered, coaxial OCT-IVUS imaging. To demonstrate its real-time capability, three-dimensional OCT-IVUS imaging of a pig's coronary artery displaying in polar coordinates, as well as images of three major types of atherosclerotic plaques in human cadaver coronary segments, were obtained using this probe and our upgraded system. Histology validation is also presented.

  20. Despeckle filtering for ultrasound imaging and video II selected applications

    CERN Document Server

    Loizou, Christos P

    2015-01-01

    In ultrasound imaging and video visual perception is hindered by speckle multiplicative noise that degrades the quality. Noise reduction is therefore essential for improving the visual observation quality or as a pre-processing step for further automated analysis, such as image/video segmentation, texture analysis and encoding in ultrasound imaging and video. The goal of the first book (book 1 of 2 books) was to introduce the problem of speckle in ultrasound image and video as well as the theoretical background, algorithmic steps, and the MatlabTM for the following group of despeckle filters:

  1. Plane Wave Medical Ultrasound Imaging Using Adaptive Beamforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holfort, Iben Kraglund; Gran, Fredrik; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the adaptive, minimum variance (MV) beamformer is applied to medical ultrasound imaging. The Significant resolution and contrast gain provided by the adaptive, minimum variance (MV) beamformer, introduces the possibility of plane wave (PW) ultrasound imaging. Data is obtained using...... Field H and a 7 MHz, 128-elements, linear array transducer with lambda/2-spacing. MV is compared to the conventional delay-and-sum (DS) beamformer with Boxcar and Hanning weights. Furthermore, the PW images are compared to the a conventional ultrasound image, obtained from a linear scan sequence...

  2. Proceedings: Beyond Ultrasound First Forum on Improving the Quality of Ultrasound Imaging in Obstetrics and Gynecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benacerraf, Beryl R; Minton, Katherine K; Benson, Carol B; Bromley, Bryann S; Coley, Brian D; Doubilet, Peter M; Lee, Wesley; Maslak, Samuel H; Pellerito, John S; Perez, James J; Savitsky, Eric; Scarborough, Norman A; Wax, Joseph; Abuhamad, Alfred Z

    2018-01-01

    The Beyond Ultrasound First Forum was conceived to increase awareness that the quality of obstetric and gynecologic ultrasound can be improved, and is inconsistent throughout the country, likely due to multiple factors, including the lack of a standardized curriculum and competency assessment in ultrasound teaching. The forum brought together representatives from many professional associations; the imaging community including radiology, obstetrics and gynecology, and emergency medicine among others; in addition to government agencies, insurers, industry, and others with common interest in obstetric and gynecologic ultrasound. This group worked together in focus sessions aimed at developing solutions on how to standardize and improve ultrasound training at the resident level and beyond. A new curriculum and competency assessment program for teaching residents (obstetrics and gynecology, radiology, and any other specialty doing obstetrics and gynecology ultrasound) was presented, and performance measures of ultrasound quality in clinical practice were discussed. The aim of this forum was to increase and unify the quality of ultrasound examinations in obstetrics and gynecology with the ultimate goal of improving patient safety and quality of clinical care. This report describes the proceedings of this conference including possible approaches to resident teaching and means to improve the inconsistent quality of ultrasound examinations performed today. © 2017, Elsevier Inc. This article is being simultaneously published in American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine. All rights reserved.

  3. Neointimal hyperplasia after sirolimus-eluting and paclitaxel-eluting stent implantation in diabetic patients: the Randomized Diabetes and Drug-Eluting Stent (DiabeDES) Intravascular Ultrasound Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Maeng, Michael; Thayssen, Per

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: Patients with diabetes have increased risk of in-stent restenosis after coronary stent implantation owing to neointimal hyperplasia (NIH). The aim of the study was to evaluate the extent and distribution of NIH with intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) after coronary artery stenting with sirolimus......-eluting (Cypher) or paclitaxel-eluting (Taxus) stents in diabetic patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: One hundred and thirty diabetic patients were randomized to Cypher or Taxus stent implantation. IVUS was performed at 8 month follow-up. NIH volume was significantly reduced in the Cypher group when compared...

  4. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Children's (Pediatric) Ultrasound - Abdomen Obstetric Ultrasound Ultrasound - Prostate Kidney and Bladder Stones Abnormal Vaginal Bleeding Ovarian Cancer Images related to Ultrasound - Pelvis Sponsored by Please ...

  5. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ultrasound - Abdomen Obstetric Ultrasound Ultrasound - Prostate Kidney and Bladder Stones Abnormal Vaginal Bleeding Ovarian Cancer Images related to Ultrasound - Pelvis Sponsored by Please ...

  6. Rehabilitative ultrasound imaging of pelvic floor muscle function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Jackie L; Thompson, Judith A; Teyhen, Deydre S; Hodges, Paul

    2007-08-01

    This commentary provides an overview of the current concepts and evidence related to rehabilitative ultrasound imaging of pelvic floor (levator ani) function. As this is an emerging topic, the goal is to provide a basic understanding of ultrasound imaging applications related to levator ani function: the available quantitative and qualitative information, the limitations, as well as how ultrasound imaging can be incorporated as a form of biofeedback during rehabilitation. Furthermore, as the ability to compile and compare existing evidence depends on the degree of similarity in methodology by investigators, this commentary highlights points of consideration and provides guidelines, as well as an agenda, for future investigation.

  7. A Methodology for Anatomic Ultrasound Image Diagnostic Quality Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Lange, Theis; Brandt, Andreas Hjelm

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses methods for assessment of ultrasound image quality based on our experiences with evaluating new methods for anatomic imaging. It presents a methodology to ensure a fair assessment between competing imaging methods using clinically relevant evaluations. The methodology...... to properly reveal the clinical value. The paper exemplifies the methodology using recent studies of Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming tissue harmonic imaging....

  8. Image Guidance Technologies for Interventional Pain Procedures: Ultrasound, Fluoroscopy, and CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dajie

    2018-01-26

    Chronic pain is a common medical condition. Patients who suffer uncontrolled chronic pain may require interventions including spinal injections and various nerve blocks. Interventional procedures have evolved and improved over time since epidural injection was first introduced for low back pain and sciatica in 1901. One of the major contributors in the improvement of these interventions is the advancement of imaging guidance technologies. The utilization of image guidance has dramatically improved the accuracy and safety of these interventions. The first image guidance technology adopted by pain specialists was fluoroscopy. This was followed by CT and ultrasound. Fluoroscopy can be used to visualize bony structures of the spine. It is still the most commonly used guidance technology in spinal injections. In the recent years, ultrasound guidance has been increasingly adopted by interventionists to perform various injections. Because its ability to visualize soft tissue, vessels, and nerves, this guidance technology appears to be a better option than fluoroscopy for interventions including SGB and celiac plexus blocks, when visualization of the vessels may prevent intravascular injection. The current evidence indicates the efficacies of these interventions are similar between ultrasound guidance and fluoroscopy guidance for SGB and celiac plexus blocks. For facet injections and interlaminar epidural steroid injections, it is important to visualize bony structures in order to perform these procedures accurately and safely. It is worth noting that facet joint injections can be done under ultrasound guidance with equivalent efficacy to fluoroscopic guidance. However, obese patients may present challenge for ultrasound guidance due to its poor visualization of deep anatomical structures. Regarding transforaminal epidural steroid injections, there are limited evidence to support that ultrasound guidance technology has equivalent efficacy and less complications comparing

  9. Proceedings: Beyond Ultrasound First Forum on improving the quality of ultrasound imaging in obstetrics and gynecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benacerraf, Beryl R; Minton, Katherine K; Benson, Carol B; Bromley, Bryann S; Coley, Brian D; Doubilet, Peter M; Lee, Wesley; Maslak, Samuel H; Pellerito, John S; Perez, James J; Savitsky, Eric; Scarborough, Norman A; Wax, Joseph; Abuhamad, Alfred Z

    2018-01-01

    The Beyond Ultrasound First Forum was conceived to increase awareness that the quality of obstetric and gynecologic ultrasound can be improved, and is inconsistent throughout the country, likely due to multiple factors, including the lack of a standardized curriculum and competency assessment in ultrasound teaching. The forum brought together representatives from many professional associations; the imaging community including radiology, obstetrics and gynecology, and emergency medicine among others; in addition to government agencies, insurers, industry, and others with common interest in obstetric and gynecologic ultrasound. This group worked together in focus sessions aimed at developing solutions on how to standardize and improve ultrasound training at the resident level and beyond. A new curriculum and competency assessment program for teaching residents (obstetrics and gynecology, radiology, and any other specialty doing obstetrics and gynecology ultrasound) was presented, and performance measures of ultrasound quality in clinical practice were discussed. The aim of this forum was to increase and unify the quality of ultrasound examinations in obstetrics and gynecology with the ultimate goal of improving patient safety and quality of clinical care. This report describes the proceedings of this conference including possible approaches to resident teaching and means to improve the inconsistent quality of ultrasound examinations performed today. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. 3D ultrasound imaging : Fast and cost-effective morphometry of musculoskeletal tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weide, Guido; Van Der Zwaard, Stephan; Huijing, Peter A.; Jaspers, Richard T.; Harlaar, Jaap

    2017-01-01

    The developmental goal of 3D ultrasound imaging (3DUS) is to engineer a modality to perform 3D morphological ultrasound analysis of human muscles. 3DUS images are constructed from calibrated freehand 2D B-mode ultrasound images, which are positioned into a voxel array. Ultrasound (US) imaging allows

  11. Quality Improvement of Liver Ultrasound Images Using Fuzzy Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayani, Azadeh; Langarizadeh, Mostafa; Radmard, Amir Reza; Nejad, Ahmadreza Farzaneh

    2016-12-01

    Liver ultrasound images are so common and are applied so often to diagnose diffuse liver diseases like fatty liver. However, the low quality of such images makes it difficult to analyze them and diagnose diseases. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to improve the contrast and quality of liver ultrasound images. In this study, a number of image contrast enhancement algorithms which are based on fuzzy logic were applied to liver ultrasound images - in which the view of kidney is observable - using Matlab2013b to improve the image contrast and quality which has a fuzzy definition; just like image contrast improvement algorithms using a fuzzy intensification operator, contrast improvement algorithms applying fuzzy image histogram hyperbolization, and contrast improvement algorithms by fuzzy IF-THEN rules. With the measurement of Mean Squared Error and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio obtained from different images, fuzzy methods provided better results, and their implementation - compared with histogram equalization method - led both to the improvement of contrast and visual quality of images and to the improvement of liver segmentation algorithms results in images. Comparison of the four algorithms revealed the power of fuzzy logic in improving image contrast compared with traditional image processing algorithms. Moreover, contrast improvement algorithm based on a fuzzy intensification operator was selected as the strongest algorithm considering the measured indicators. This method can also be used in future studies on other ultrasound images for quality improvement and other image processing and analysis applications.

  12. A comparison between skinfold callipers and ultrasound imaging for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparison between skinfold callipers and ultrasound imaging for assessing body composition in recreationally active students. Kim Nolte, Reon A. Van der Merwe, Cindy A. Helena, Heinrich W. Nolte, Julia van der Meulen ...

  13. Ultrasound imaging of sports-related musculoskeletal injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, J.G.; Holsbeek, M.T. van; Gauthier, T.P.; Cook, W.J.

    2006-01-01

    Sports-related injuries of the musculoskeletal system affect millions of individuals every year. Integrating high-frequency Tissue Harmonic Imaging ultrasound with MRI and CT gives the greatest opportunity for diagnosing specific injuries. (orig.)

  14. PCA-based polling strategy in machine learning framework for coronary artery disease risk assessment in intravascular ultrasound: A link between carotid and coronary grayscale plaque morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Tadashi; Ikeda, Nobutaka; Shukla, Devarshi; Jain, Pankaj K; Londhe, Narendra D; Shrivastava, Vimal K; Banchhor, Sumit K; Saba, Luca; Nicolaides, Andrew; Shafique, Shoaib; Laird, John R; Suri, Jasjit S

    2016-05-01

    Percutaneous coronary interventional procedures need advance planning prior to stenting or an endarterectomy. Cardiologists use intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) for screening, risk assessment and stratification of coronary artery disease (CAD). We hypothesize that plaque components are vulnerable to rupture due to plaque progression. Currently, there are no standard grayscale IVUS tools for risk assessment of plaque rupture. This paper presents a novel strategy for risk stratification based on plaque morphology embedded with principal component analysis (PCA) for plaque feature dimensionality reduction and dominant feature selection technique. The risk assessment utilizes 56 grayscale coronary features in a machine learning framework while linking information from carotid and coronary plaque burdens due to their common genetic makeup. This system consists of a machine learning paradigm which uses a support vector machine (SVM) combined with PCA for optimal and dominant coronary artery morphological feature extraction. Carotid artery proven intima-media thickness (cIMT) biomarker is adapted as a gold standard during the training phase of the machine learning system. For the performance evaluation, K-fold cross validation protocol is adapted with 20 trials per fold. For choosing the dominant features out of the 56 grayscale features, a polling strategy of PCA is adapted where the original value of the features is unaltered. Different protocols are designed for establishing the stability and reliability criteria of the coronary risk assessment system (cRAS). Using the PCA-based machine learning paradigm and cross-validation protocol, a classification accuracy of 98.43% (AUC 0.98) with K=10 folds using an SVM radial basis function (RBF) kernel was achieved. A reliability index of 97.32% and machine learning stability criteria of 5% were met for the cRAS. This is the first Computer aided design (CADx) system of its kind that is able to demonstrate the ability of coronary

  15. Circulating Microparticles and Coronary Plaque Components Assessed by Virtual Histology Intravascular Ultrasound of the Target Lesion in Patients with Stable Angina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pil-Ki Min

    Full Text Available High levels of microparticles (MPs circulate in the blood of patients with atherosclerotic diseases where they can serve as potential biomarkers of vascular injury and cardiovascular outcome. We used virtual histology intravascular ultrasound (VH-IVUS to evaluate the relationship between the levels of circulating MPs and the coronary plaque composition in patients with stable angina. We included 35 patients with stable angina (22 men, age 64 ± 9 years and a de novo target lesion. Preintervention gray-scale and VH-IVUS analysis was performed across the target lesion. Volumetric analysis was performed over a 10-mm-long segment centered at the minimum luminal site. Blood samples were obtained from the femoral artery before coronary angioplasty. MPs were measured using a solid-phase capture assay from a commercial kit. We divided participants into either a low MPs group or high MPs group based on the median value of MPs. There was no significant difference in baseline characteristics between the groups. The plaque burden and remodeling index were similar between the groups. The presence of VH-IVUS-derived thin-cap fibroatheroma was not different between the groups. The percentage of the necrotic core (NC was significantly higher in the high MPs group than in the low MPs group, both in planar (17.0 ± 8.8% vs. 24.1 ± 6.9%, p = 0.012 and volumetric analyses (17.0 ± 4.8% vs. 22.1 ± 4.3%, p = 0.002. Circulating MPs were positively correlated with the percentage of the NC area at the minimal luminal site (r = 0.491, p = 0.003 and the percentage of the NC volume (r = 0.496, p = 0.002. Elevated levels of circulating MPs were associated with the amount of NC in the target lesion in those with stable angina, suggesting a potential role of circulating MPs as a biomarker for detecting unstable plaque in patients with stable angina.

  16. Intravascular ultrasound guidance improves clinical outcomes during implantation of both first- and second-generation drug-eluting stents: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerlekar, Nitesh; Cheshire, Caitlin J; Verma, Kunal P; Ihdayhid, Abdul-Rahman; McCormick, Liam M; Cameron, James D; Bennett, Martin R; Malaiapan, Yuvaraj; Meredith, Ian T; Brown, Adam J

    2017-01-20

    Our aim was to assess whether intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) improves clinical outcomes during implantation of first- and second-generation drug-eluting stents (DES). IVUS guidance is associated with improved clinical outcomes during DES implantation, but it is unknown whether this benefit is limited to either first- or second-generation devices. MEDLINE, EMBASE and PubMed were searched for studies comparing outcomes between IVUS- and angiography-guided PCI. Among 909 potentially relevant studies, 15 trials met the inclusion criteria. The primary endpoint was MACE, defined as death, myocardial infarction, target vessel/lesion revascularisation (TVR/TLR) or stent thrombosis (ST). Summary estimates were obtained using Peto modelling. In total, 9,313 patients from six randomised trials and nine observational studies were included. First-generation DES were implanted in 6,156 patients (3,064 IVUS-guided and 3,092 angiography-guided) and second-generation in 3,157 patients (1,528 IVUS-guided and 1,629 angiography-guided). IVUS guidance was associated with a significant reduction in MACE (odds ratio [OR] 0.73, 95% CI: 0.64-0.85, pDES (0.57, 95% CI: 0.43-0.77, pDES, IVUS guidance was associated with significantly lower rates of cardiac death (OR 0.33, 95% CI: 0.14-0.78, p=0.02), TVR (OR 0.47, 95% CI: 0.28-0.79, p=0.006), TLR (OR 0.61, 95% CI: 0.42-0.90, p=0.01) and ST (OR 0.31, 95% CI: 0.12-0.78, p=0.02). Cumulative meta-analysis highlighted progressive temporal benefit towards IVUS-guided PCI to reduce MACE (OR 0.60, 95% CI: 0.48-0.75, pDES platforms. These data support the use of IVUS guidance in contemporary revascularisation procedures using second-generation DES.

  17. Scalable ultrasound PACS: evolving needs for multimode ultrasound image and data management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, David E.; Klepper, John R.; Choi, Hyung-Sik; Kim, Yongmin

    1994-05-01

    We propose a scalable approach to ultrasound PACS. The general lack of any network interface capability on a large percentage of installed ultrasound scanners limits the solution available in the near term. A staged implementation beginning with a small number of ultrasound scanners interfaced to a single networked acquisition station is proposed. Initial mini-PACS may provide better utilization of the shared resources, such as archive and print servers and imagers, which would be cost prohibitive in a one-machine-per-scanner configuration. As the system requirements grow and ultrasound systems add direct network support, mini-PACS performances can overcome the initial single acquisition node bottleneck encountered with video-capture based systems, and ultrasound PACS can be integrated into a full hospital-wide PACS.

  18. Ultrasound Vector Flow Imaging: Part II: Parallel Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nikolov, Svetoslav Ivanov; Yu, Alfred C. H.

    2016-01-01

    The paper gives a review of the current state-of-theart in ultrasound parallel acquisition systems for flow imaging using spherical and plane waves emissions. The imaging methods are explained along with the advantages of using these very fast and sensitive velocity estimators. These experimental...... ultrasound imaging for studying brain function in animals. The paper explains the underlying acquisition and estimation methods for fast 2-D and 3-D velocity imaging and gives a number of examples. Future challenges and the potentials of parallel acquisition systems for flow imaging are also discussed....

  19. BL_Wiener Denoising Method for Removal of Speckle Noise in Ultrasound Image

    OpenAIRE

    Suhaila Sari; Zuliana Azreen Zulkifeli; Hazli Roslan; Nabilah Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Medical imaging techniques are extremely important tools in medical diagnosis. One of these important imaging techniques is ultrasound imaging. However, during ultrasound image acquisition process, the quality of image can be degraded due to corruption by speckle noise. The enhancement of ultrasound images quality from the 2D ultrasound imaging machines is expected to provide medical practitioners more reliable medical images in their patients’ diagnosis. However, developing a denoising techn...

  20. Current Uses of Ultrasound Imaging in Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jopowicz, Robert; Jopowicz, Małgorzata; Czarnocki, Łukasz; Deszczyński, Jarosław Michał; Deszczyński, Jarosław

    2017-12-13

    The term Rehabilitative Ultrasound Imaging (RUSI) refers to the use of ultrasound imaging by physiothera-pists. Ultrasound is used by physiotherapists to evaluate the morphology of muscles and other associated soft tissues not only at rest but also for a dynamic assessment of those structures during physical activities and tasks. RUSI is most commonly utilized as part of a biofeedback mechanism, which shows good efficacy in lower back pain treatment. Several possibilities have been also described for clinically adapting this method in the rehabilitation of the shoulder and knee and postoperative improvement of tendons. RUSI is a novel method with a high clinical potential to support physiotherapeutic therapies.

  1. Membrane design of an all-optical ultrasound receiver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leinders, S.M.; Dongen, K.W.A. van; Jong, N. de; Verweij, M.D.; Westerveld, W.J.; Urbach, H.P.; Neer, P.L.M.J. van; Pozo Torres, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound sensors such as piezoelectric transducers and CMUTs are successfully used for medical imaging. However, especially wiring of individual elements is difficult in the fabrication of small piezoelectric arrays, used in, e.g. the field of intravascular imaging. As an alternative, we designed

  2. Spatial Angular Compounding Technique for H-Scan Ultrasound Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairalseed, Mawia; Xiong, Fangyuan; Kim, Jung-Whan; Mattrey, Robert F; Parker, Kevin J; Hoyt, Kenneth

    2018-01-01

    H-Scan is a new ultrasound imaging technique that relies on matching a model of pulse-echo formation to the mathematics of a class of Gaussian-weighted Hermite polynomials. This technique may be beneficial in the measurement of relative scatterer sizes and in cancer therapy, particularly for early response to drug treatment. Because current H-scan techniques use focused ultrasound data acquisitions, spatial resolution degrades away from the focal region and inherently affects relative scatterer size estimation. Although the resolution of ultrasound plane wave imaging can be inferior to that of traditional focused ultrasound approaches, the former exhibits a homogeneous spatial resolution throughout the image plane. The purpose of this study was to implement H-scan using plane wave imaging and investigate the impact of spatial angular compounding on H-scan image quality. Parallel convolution filters using two different Gaussian-weighted Hermite polynomials that describe ultrasound scattering events are applied to the radiofrequency data. The H-scan processing is done on each radiofrequency image plane before averaging to get the angular compounded image. The relative strength from each convolution is color-coded to represent relative scatterer size. Given results from a series of phantom materials, H-scan imaging with spatial angular compounding more accurately reflects the true scatterer size caused by reductions in the system point spread function and improved signal-to-noise ratio. Preliminary in vivo H-scan imaging of tumor-bearing animals suggests this modality may be useful for monitoring early response to chemotherapeutic treatment. Overall, H-scan imaging using ultrasound plane waves and spatial angular compounding is a promising approach for visualizing the relative size and distribution of acoustic scattering sources. Copyright © 2018 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Intraoperative ultrasound using phase inversion harmonic imaging: first experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölscher, Thilo; Ozgur, Burak; Singel, Soren; Wilkening, Wilko G; Mattrey, Robert F; Sang, Hoi

    2007-04-01

    To study the feasibility of intraoperative ultrasound using the phase inversion harmonic imaging (PIHI) technique. Eight patients with intracranial middle cerebral artery aneurysms and five patients with arteriovenous malformations were studied after written informed consent. A first ultrasound study was performed through the intact dura mater after cranial trepanation to assess the pathology, its feeding artery, and downstream segments. A second ultrasound study was performed immediately after intervention to monitor the success of the procedure. All patients were studied using a Siemens Sonoline Antares ultrasound machine (Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc., Malvern, PA) before and after intravenous administration of an ultrasound contrast agent (Optison; GE Healthcare, Milwaukee, WI). Other than conventional brightness mode, PIHI is sensitive to the nonlinear acoustic response of tissue, and especially to ultrasound contrast agent microbubbles. The latter enables contrast-specific vascular imaging. PIHI provided anatomically detailed information. In combination with an ultrasound contrast agent, angiography-like views of the vascular pathologies, including their surrounding vessels, could be obtained. Flow velocities in afferent and downstream vascular segments, as well as inside the pathology, could be assessed. Flow dynamics inside the aneurysm sac or the arteriovenous malformation could be studied in real-time. Postintervention, contrast-enhanced PIHI could be used to immediately monitor the success of the surgical procedure. PIHI enables intraoperative visualization and morphological assessment of neurovascular pathologies, such as middle cerebral artery aneurysms or arteriovenous malformations. In combination with an ultrasound contrast agent, the flow dynamics of these lesions can be displayed in real-time.

  4. Application of reinforcement learning for segmentation of transrectal ultrasound images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tizhoosh Hamid R

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among different medical image modalities, ultrasound imaging has a very widespread clinical use. But, due to some factors, such as poor image contrast, noise and missing or diffuse boundaries, the ultrasound images are inherently difficult to segment. An important application is estimation of the location and volume of the prostate in transrectal ultrasound (TRUS images. For this purpose, manual segmentation is a tedious and time consuming procedure. Methods We introduce a new method for the segmentation of the prostate in transrectal ultrasound images, using a reinforcement learning scheme. This algorithm is used to find the appropriate local values for sub-images and to extract the prostate. It contains an offline stage, where the reinforcement learning agent uses some images and manually segmented versions of these images to learn from. The reinforcement agent is provided with reward/punishment, determined objectively to explore/exploit the solution space. After this stage, the agent has acquired knowledge stored in the Q-matrix. The agent can then use this knowledge for new input images to extract a coarse version of the prostate. Results We have carried out experiments to segment TRUS images. The results demonstrate the potential of this approach in the field of medical image segmentation. Conclusion By using the proposed method, we can find the appropriate local values and segment the prostate. This approach can be used for segmentation tasks containing one object of interest. To improve this prototype, more investigations are needed.

  5. Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging With Cascaded Dual-Polarity Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Guo, Yuexin; Lee, Wei-Ning

    2018-04-01

    Ultrafast ultrasound imaging using plane or diverging waves, instead of focused beams, has advanced greatly the development of novel ultrasound imaging methods for evaluating tissue functions beyond anatomical information. However, the sonographic signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of ultrafast imaging remains limited due to the lack of transmission focusing, and thus insufficient acoustic energy delivery. We hereby propose a new ultrafast ultrasound imaging methodology with cascaded dual-polarity waves (CDWs), which consists of a pulse train with positive and negative polarities. A new coding scheme and a corresponding linear decoding process were thereby designed to obtain the recovered signals with increased amplitude, thus increasing the SNR without sacrificing the frame rate. The newly designed CDW ultrafast ultrasound imaging technique achieved higher quality B-mode images than coherent plane-wave compounding (CPWC) and multiplane wave (MW) imaging in a calibration phantom, ex vivo pork belly, and in vivo human back muscle. CDW imaging shows a significant improvement in the SNR (10.71 dB versus CPWC and 7.62 dB versus MW), penetration depth (36.94% versus CPWC and 35.14% versus MW), and contrast ratio in deep regions (5.97 dB versus CPWC and 5.05 dB versus MW) without compromising other image quality metrics, such as spatial resolution and frame rate. The enhanced image qualities and ultrafast frame rates offered by CDW imaging beget great potential for various novel imaging applications.

  6. Extracting cardiac myofiber orientations from high frequency ultrasound images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xulei; Cong, Zhibin; Jiang, Rong; Shen, Ming; Wagner, Mary B.; Kirshbom, Paul; Fei, Baowei

    2013-03-01

    Cardiac myofiber plays an important role in stress mechanism during heart beating periods. The orientation of myofibers decides the effects of the stress distribution and the whole heart deformation. It is important to image and quantitatively extract these orientations for understanding the cardiac physiological and pathological mechanism and for diagnosis of chronic diseases. Ultrasound has been wildly used in cardiac diagnosis because of its ability of performing dynamic and noninvasive imaging and because of its low cost. An extraction method is proposed to automatically detect the cardiac myofiber orientations from high frequency ultrasound images. First, heart walls containing myofibers are imaged by B-mode high frequency (pig hearts.

  7. Ultrasound, normal placenta - Braxton Hicks (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... performed at 17 weeks gestation. It shows the placenta during a normal (Braxton Hicks) contraction. Throughout the ... contracts to facilitate better blood flow through the placenta and the fetus. In this ultrasound, the placenta ...

  8. Ultrasound, color - normal umbilical cord (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is a normal color Doppler ultrasound of the umbilical cord performed at 30 weeks gestation. The cord is ... the cord, two arteries and one vein. The umbilical cord is connected to the placenta, located in the ...

  9. Tumor functional and molecular imaging utilizing ultrasound and ultrasound-mediated optical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Baohong; Rychak, Joshua

    2013-02-01

    Tumor functional and molecular imaging has significantly contributed to cancer preclinical research and clinical applications. Among typical imaging modalities, ultrasonic and optical techniques are two commonly used methods; both share several common features such as cost efficiency, absence of ionizing radiation, relatively inexpensive contrast agents, and comparable maximum-imaging depth. Ultrasonic and optical techniques are also complementary in imaging resolution, molecular sensitivity, and imaging space (vascular and extravascular). The marriage between ultrasonic and optical techniques takes advantages of both techniques. This review introduces tumor functional and molecular imaging using microbubble-based ultrasound and ultrasound-mediated optical imaging techniques. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Integration of ultrasound imaging into pre-clinical dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrashova, T; De Wan, D; Briones, M U; Kondrashov, P

    2017-11-01

    Patients have complex healthcare needs and typically require more than one healthcare discipline to address issues regarding their health. Interprofessional teams of healthcare professionals may be able to address these complex needs and improve patient outcomes by combining resources. To evaluate the feasibility of integrating ultrasound into a dental school curriculum to teach anatomy as part of an interprofessional education experience, the current study surveyed first-year dental students to determine their perceptions of the integration of ultrasound techniques into the curriculum. Ultrasound laboratory exercises were developed for first-year dental students as part of their anatomy course. The exercises were focused on head, neck and abdominal anatomy. To assess student perception of the integration of ultrasound into the dental curriculum, a survey was created specifically for the current study. Between 2013 and 2015, two classes of first-year dental students participated in the ultrasound laboratory exercise and completed the survey (n = 83). Student survey responses suggested ultrasound was a valuable teaching tool because it allowed them to visualise anatomical structures using live imaging. They also agreed that the ultrasound laboratory exercises were an efficient learning tool, but the majority did not believe that they would use ultrasound regularly in their future practice. Results of the current study suggested first-year dental students were satisfied with the integration of ultrasound techniques into the dental curriculum. Survey results indicated that the students enjoyed the ultrasound laboratory exercise and felt ultrasound was an effective learning tool. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Standardized ultrasound templates for diagnosing appendicitis reduce annual imaging costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Andrew B; Sales, Stephen; Nielsen, Jason W; Adler, Brent; Bates, David Gregory; Kenney, Brian

    2018-01-01

    Ultrasound is preferred over computed tomography (CT) for diagnosing appendicitis in children to avoid undue radiation exposure. We previously reported our experience in instituting a standardized appendicitis ultrasound template, which decreased CT rates by 67.3%. In this analysis, we demonstrate the ongoing cost savings associated with using this template. Retrospective chart review for the time period preceding template implementation (June 2012-September 2012) was combined with prospective review through December 2015 for all patients in the emergency department receiving diagnostic imaging for appendicitis. The type of imaging was recorded, and imaging rates and ultrasound test statistics were calculated. Estimated annual imaging costs based on pretemplate ultrasound and CT utilization rates were compared with post-template annual costs to calculate annual and cumulative savings. In the pretemplate period, ultrasound and CT rates were 80.2% and 44.3%, respectively, resulting in a combined annual cost of $300,527.70. Similar calculations were performed for each succeeding year, accounting for changes in patient volume. Using pretemplate rates, our projected 2015 imaging cost was $371,402.86; however, our ultrasound rate had increased to 98.3%, whereas the CT rate declined to 9.6%, yielding an annual estimated cost of $224,853.00 and a savings of $146,549.86. Since implementation, annual savings have steadily increased for a cumulative cost savings of $336,683.83. Standardizing ultrasound reports for appendicitis not only reduces the use of CT scans and the associated radiation exposure but also decreases annual imaging costs despite increased numbers of imaging studies. Continued cost reduction may be possible by using diagnostic algorithms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Usefulness of high-frequency vascular ultrasound imaging and serum inflammatory markers to predict plaque rupture in patients with stable and unstable angina pectoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen Qiang; Zhang, Mei; Ji, Xiao Ping; Ding, Shi Fang; Zhao, Yu Xia; Chen, Yu Guo; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Yun

    2007-11-01

    It remains unclear what kind of morphologic and biochemical features best predict plaque rupture in patients with angina pectoris (AP). This study aimed to investigate whether combined high-frequency vascular ultrasound imaging and measurements of serum inflammatory biomarkers can predict coronary plaque ruptures in patients with AP. The study population consisted of 20 patients with stable AP and 40 patients with unstable AP. High-frequency vascular ultrasound imaging was performed in the 2 groups to measure intima-media thickness, the plaque acoustic density of the common carotid arteries, and the flow-mediated dilation of the brachial arteries. Serum lipid profile and inflammatory biomarkers were measured in all patients. Using intravascular ultrasound, a list of coronary imaging parameters was obtained. A multivariate logistic regression model was applied to calculate the odds ratio of each parameter to predict coronary plaque ruptures detected by intravascular ultrasound. Of 139 coronary artery plaques identified by intravascular ultrasound, 48 plaques (9 in stable AP and 39 in unstable AP) developed ruptures. Among measured parameters, the values of carotid intima-media thickness, coronary external elastic membrane area, plaque area, plaque burden, plaque eccentric index and remodeling index, serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 were significantly higher in unstable AP than in stable AP (p <0.05 to 0.01). Of these parameters, carotid intima-media thickness, serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and the coronary remodeling index were found to be significant predictors of coronary plaque rupture, with odds ratios of 9.51 (95% confidence interval 1.29 to 21.81), 3.02 (95% confidence interval 1.01 to 7.65), and 0.01 (95% confidence interval 0.00 to 0.34), respectively. In conclusion, combined high-frequency ultrasound imaging of coronary and carotid arteries and

  13. Versatile robotic probe calibration for position tracking in ultrasound imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eirik Bø, Lars; Fagertun Hofstad, Erlend; Lindseth, Frank; Hernes, Toril A. N.

    2015-05-01

    Within the field of ultrasound-guided procedures, there are a number of methods for ultrasound probe calibration. While these methods are usually developed for a specific probe, they are in principle easily adapted to other probes. In practice, however, the adaptation often proves tedious and this is impractical in a research setting, where new probes are tested regularly. Therefore, we developed a method which can be applied to a large variety of probes without adaptation. The method used a robot arm to move a plastic sphere submerged in water through the ultrasound image plane, providing a slow and precise movement. The sphere was then segmented from the recorded ultrasound images using a MATLAB programme and the calibration matrix was computed based on this segmentation in combination with tracking information. The method was tested on three very different probes demonstrating both great versatility and high accuracy.

  14. Noncontact ultrasound imaging applied to cortical bone phantoms

    OpenAIRE

    Bulman, J. B.; Ganezer, K. S.; Halcrow, P. W.; Neeson, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to take the first steps toward applying noncontact ultrasound (NCU) to the tasks of monitoring osteoporosis and quantitative ultrasound imaging (QUS) of cortical bone. The authors also focused on the advantages of NCU, such as its lack of reliance on a technologist to apply transducers and a layer of acoustical coupling gel, the ability of the transducers to operate autonomously as specified by preprogrammed software, and the likely reduction in statisti...

  15. Compact Beamformer Design with High Frame Rate for Ultrasound Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Luo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In medical field, two-dimension ultrasound images are widely used in clinical diagnosis. Beamformer is critical in determining the complexity and performance of an ultrasound imaging system. Different from traditional means implemented with separated chips, a compact beamformer with 64 effective channels in a single moderate Field Programmable Gate Array has been presented in this paper. The compactness is acquired by employing receive synthetic aperture, harmonic imaging, time sharing and linear interpolation. Besides that, multi-beams method is used to improve the frame rate of the ultrasound imaging system. Online dynamic configuration is employed to expand system’s flexibility to two kinds of transducers with multi-scanning modes. The design is verified on a prototype scanner board. Simulation results have shown that on-chip memories can be saved and the frame rate can be improved on the case of 64 effective channels which will meet the requirement of real-time application.

  16. Implementation of Synthetic Aperture Imaging in Medical Ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Kortbek, Jacob; Nikolov, Svetoslav

    2010-01-01

    The main advantage of medical ultrasound imaging is its real time capability, which makes it possible to visualize dynamic structures in the human body. Real time synthetic aperture imaging puts very high demands on the hardware, which currently cannot be met. A method for reducing the number...... of calculations and still retain the many advantages of SA imaging is described. It consists of a dual stage beamformer, where the first can be a simple fixed focus analog beamformer and the second an ordinary digital ultrasound beamformer. The performance and constrictions of the approach is described....

  17. Virtual ultrasound sources in high-resolution ultrasound imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Svetoslav; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates the concept of virtual source elements. It suggests a common framework for increasing the resolution, and penetration depth of several imaging modalities by applying synthetic aperture focusing (SAF). SAF is used either as a post focusing procedure on the beamformed data, ...

  18. Ultrasound versus high field magnetic resonance imaging in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, York Kiat; Østergaard, Mikkel; Bird, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade there have been significant advances in the field of musculoskeletal imaging, especially in the application of ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to the management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Both modalities offer significant advantages over the previous...

  19. Optical Molecular Imaging of Ultrasound-mediated Drug Delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derieppe, M.P.P.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this PhD project was to develop optical molecular imaging methods to study drug delivery facilitated by ultrasound waves (US) and hyperthermia. Fibered confocal fluorescence microscopy (FCFM), together with dedicated image analysis, was used in vitro on a cell monolayer, and in vivo at

  20. Calibration and Evaluation of Ultrasound Thermography using Infrared Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yi-Sing; Deng, Cheri X.

    2015-01-01

    Real-time monitoring of the spatiotemporal evolution of tissue temperature is important to ensure safe and effective treatment in thermal therapies including hyperthermia and thermal ablation. Ultrasound thermography has been proposed as a non-invasive technique for temperature measurement, and accurate calibration of the temperature-dependent ultrasound signal changes against temperature is required. Here we report a method that uses infrared (IR) thermography for calibration and validation of ultrasound thermography. Using phantoms and cardiac tissue specimens subjected to high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) heating, we simultaneously acquired ultrasound and IR imaging data from the same surface plane of a sample. The commonly used echo time shift-based method was chosen to compute ultrasound thermometry. We first correlated the ultrasound echo time shifts with IR-measured temperatures for material-dependent calibration and found that the calibration coefficient was positive for fat-mimicking phantom (1.49 ± 0.27) but negative for tissue-mimicking phantom (− 0.59 ± 0.08) and cardiac tissue (− 0.69 ± 0.18 °C-mm/ns). We then obtained the estimation error of the ultrasound thermometry by comparing against the IR measured temperature and revealed that the error increased with decreased size of the heated region. Consistent with previous findings, the echo time shifts were no longer linearly dependent on temperature beyond 45 – 50 °C in cardiac tissues. Unlike previous studies where thermocouples or water-bath techniques were used to evaluate the performance of ultrasound thermography, our results show that high resolution IR thermography provides a useful tool that can be applied to evaluate and understand the limitations of ultrasound thermography methods. PMID:26547634

  1. Ultrasound Imaging of the Pelvic Floor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Daniel E; Quiroz, Lieschen H

    2016-03-01

    This article discusses the background and appraisal of endoluminal ultrasound of the pelvic floor. It provides a detailed anatomic assessment of the muscles and surrounding organs of the pelvic floor. Different anatomic variability and pathology, such as prolapse, fecal incontinence, urinary incontinence, vaginal wall cysts, synthetic implanted material, and pelvic pain, are easily assessed with endoluminal vaginal ultrasound. With pelvic organ prolapse in particular, not only is the prolapse itself seen but the underlying cause related to the anatomic and functional abnormalities of the pelvic floor muscle structures are also visualized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Ultrasound imaging beyond the vasculature with new generation contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Reshani H; Hernandez, Christopher; Zhou, Haoyan; Kota, Pavan; Burke, Alan; Exner, Agata A

    2015-01-01

    Current commercially available ultrasound contrast agents are gas-filled, lipid- or protein-stabilized microbubbles larger than 1 µm in diameter. Because the signal generated by these agents is highly dependent on their size, small yet highly echogenic particles have been historically difficult to produce. This has limited the molecular imaging applications of ultrasound to the blood pool. In the area of cancer imaging, microbubble applications have been constrained to imaging molecular signatures of tumor vasculature and drug delivery enabled by ultrasound-modulated bubble destruction. Recently, with the rise of sophisticated advancements in nanomedicine, ultrasound contrast agents, which are an order of magnitude smaller (100-500 nm) than their currently utilized counterparts, have been undergoing rapid development. These agents are poised to greatly expand the capabilities of ultrasound in the field of targeted cancer detection and therapy by taking advantage of the enhanced permeability and retention phenomenon of many tumors and can extravasate beyond the leaky tumor vasculature. Agent extravasation facilitates highly sensitive detection of cell surface or microenvironment biomarkers, which could advance early cancer detection. Likewise, when combined with appropriate therapeutic agents and ultrasound-mediated deployment on demand, directly at the tumor site, these nanoparticles have been shown to contribute to improved therapeutic outcomes. Ultrasound's safety profile, broad accessibility and relatively low cost make it an ideal modality for the changing face of healthcare today. Aided by the multifaceted nano-sized contrast agents and targeted theranostic moieties described herein, ultrasound can considerably broaden its reach in future applications focused on the diagnosis and staging of cancer. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Cumulative phase delay imaging - A new contrast enhanced ultrasound modality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demi, Libertario, E-mail: l.demi@tue.nl; Sloun, Ruud J. G. van; Mischi, Massimo [Lab. of Biomedical Diagnostics, Dept. of Electrical Eng., Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); Wijkstra, Hessel [Lab. of Biomedical Diagnostics, Dept. of Electrical Eng., Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); Academic Medical Center, Urology Dept., University of Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-10-28

    Recently, a new acoustic marker for ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) has been introduced. A cumulative phase delay (CPD) between the second harmonic and fundamental pressure wave field components is in fact observable for ultrasound propagating through UCAs. This phenomenon is absent in the case of tissue nonlinearity and is dependent on insonating pressure and frequency, UCA concentration, and propagation path length through UCAs. In this paper, ultrasound images based on this marker are presented. The ULA-OP research platform, in combination with a LA332 linear array probe (Esaote, Firenze Italy), were used to image a gelatin phantom containing a PVC plate (used as a reflector) and a cylindrical cavity measuring 7 mm in diameter (placed in between the observation point and the PVC plate). The cavity contained a 240 µL/L SonoVueO{sup ®} UCA concentration. Two insonating frequencies (3 MHz and 2.5 MHz) were used to scan the gelatine phantom. A mechanical index MI = 0.07, measured in water at the cavity location with a HGL-0400 hydrophone (Onda, Sunnyvale, CA), was utilized. Processing the ultrasound signals backscattered from the plate, ultrasound images were generated in a tomographic fashion using the filtered back-projection method. As already observed in previous studies, significantly higher CPD values are measured when imaging at a frequency of 2.5 MHz, as compared to imaging at 3 MHz. In conclusion, these results confirm the applicability of the discussed CPD as a marker for contrast imaging. Comparison with standard contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging modalities will be the focus of future work.

  4. Minimum training requirement in ultrasound imaging of peripheral arterial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiberg, J P; Hansen, M A; Grønvall Rasmussen, J B; Schroeder, T V

    2008-09-01

    To demonstrate the minimum training requirement when performing ultrasound of peripheral arterial disease. Prospective and blinded comparative study. 100 limbs in 100 consecutive patients suffering from peripheral arterial disease, 74% suffering critical limb ischemia, were enrolled during a 9 months period. One physician with limited ultrasound experience performed all the ultrasound examinations of the arteries of the most symptomatic limb. Before enrolling any patients 15 duplex ultrasound examinations were performed supervised by an experienced vascular technologist. All patients had a digital subtraction arteriography performed by an experienced vascular radiologist, unaware of the ultrasound result. The number of insufficiently insonated segments (non-diagnostic segments) was significantly reduced during the study; from 9% among the initial 50 limbs to 2% among the last 50 limbs (Pultrasound and arteriography from the initial 50 patients (overall Kappa=0.66, (95%-CI: 0.60-0.72); supragenicular Kappa=0.73 (95%-CI: 0.64-0.82); infragenicular Kappa=0.61 (95%-CI: 0.54-0.69)) to the last 50 patients (overall Kappa=0.66 (95%-CI: 0.60-0.72), supragenicular Kappa=0.67 (95%-CI: 0.57-0.76); infragenicular Kappa=0.66 (95%-CI: 0.58-0.73)). The minimum training requirement in ultrasound imaging of peripheral arterial disease appears to be less than 50 ultrasound examinations (probably only 15 examinations) for the supragenicular segments and 100 examinations for the infragenicular segments.

  5. Development of a conjugated gadolinium and cisplatin-gelatin possessing properties as an intravascular contrast agent for MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonoda, Akinaga [Department of Radiology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Setatsukinowa-cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan)], E-mail: akinagasonoda@yahoo.co.jp; Nitta, Norihisa [Department of Radiology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Setatsukinowa-cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan)], E-mail: r34nitta@yahoo.co.jp; Ohta, Shinichi [Department of Radiology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Setatsukinowa-cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan)], E-mail: junryuhei@belle.shiga-med.ac.jp; Seko, Ayumi [Department of Radiology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Setatsukinowa-cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan)], E-mail: sekoayumi@yahoo.co.jp; Jo, Jun-ichiro [Department of Biomaterials, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, 53 Kawara-cho Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)], E-mail: jo@frontier.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Morikawa, Shigehiro [Biomedical MR Science Research Center, Shiga University of Medical Science, Setatsukinowa-cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan)], E-mail: morikawa@belle.shiga-med.ac.jp; Tabata, Yasuhiko [Department of Biomaterials, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, 53 Kawara-cho Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)], E-mail: yasuhiko@frontier.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Takahashi, Masashi [Department of Radiology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Setatsukinowa-cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan)], E-mail: masashi@belle.shiga-med.ac.jp; Murata, Kiyoshi [Department of Radiology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Setatsukinowa-cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan)], E-mail: murata@belle.shiga-med.ac.jp

    2009-09-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to create a Gd-DTPA-Gel-Cis compound, which made from gadolinum (Gd), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-dianhydride, cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (Cis) and bovine gelatin (Gel), that makes it possible to visualize Cis as intravascular agent under magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and methods: The amount of DTPA, Gd, and Cis were titrated to determine the new compound's conjugation ratio with gelatin. Considering these functions, Gd-DTPA-Gel-Cis was synthesized, and its stability in bovine serum was evaluated. In addition, the signal intensity of the diluted sample was measured under 1.5 Tesla MRI. Results: The synthesized 10 mg/ml of Gd-DTPA-Gel-Cis contained 42.84 {mu}g/ml of Gd and 1.53 {mu}g/ml of platinum. Gd-DTPA-Gel-Cis (100 mg/10 ml) enclosed into the cellulose dialysis tubing was placed in 90 ml of bovine serum and shaken reciprocally at 72 stroke/min at 37 deg. C. Partial release of free Pt was shown at 6 and 24 h, but no release of Gd occurred for a 24-h period. And high stability of Gd conjugated to DTPA-Gel-Cis. This result suggests possible anti-tumor effectiveness and high stability of Gd conjugated to DTPA-Gel-Cis. The diluted sample presented high signal intensity under 1.5 Tesla MRI. Conclusion: Gd-DTPA-Gel-Cis has been developed successfully and we have proven its stability and contrast ability in MRI.

  6. Aptamer-conjugated nanobubbles for targeted ultrasound molecular imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chung-Hsin; Huang, Yu-Fen; Yeh, Chih-Kuang

    2011-06-07

    Targeted ultrasound contrast agents can be prepared by some specific bioconjugation techniques. The biotin-avidin complex is an extremely useful noncovalent binding system, but the system might induce immunogenic side effects in human bodies. Previous proposed covalently conjugated systems suffered from low conjugation efficiency and complex procedures. In this study, we propose a covalently conjugated nanobubble coupling with nucleic acid ligands, aptamers, for providing a higher specific affinity for ultrasound targeting studies. The sgc8c aptamer was linked with nanobubbles through thiol-maleimide coupling chemistry for specific targeting to CCRF-CEM cells. Further improvements to reduce the required time and avoid the degradation of nanobubbles during conjugation procedures were also made. Several investigations were used to discuss the performance and consistency of the prepared nanobubbles, such as size distribution, conjugation efficiency analysis, and flow cytometry assay. Further, we applied our conjugated nanobubbles to ex vivo ultrasound targeted imaging and compared the resulting images with optical images. The results indicated the availability of aptamer-conjugated nanobubbles in targeted ultrasound imaging and the practicability of using a highly sensitive ultrasound system in noninvasive biological research.

  7. MMSE Reconstruction for 3D Freehand Ultrasound Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Huang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The reconstruction of 3D ultrasound (US images from mechanically registered, but otherwise irregularly positioned, B-scan slices is of great interest in image guided therapy procedures. Conventional 3D ultrasound algorithms have low computational complexity, but the reconstructed volume suffers from severe speckle contamination. Furthermore, the current method cannot reconstruct uniform high-resolution data from several low-resolution B-scans. In this paper, the minimum mean-squared error (MMSE method is applied to 3D ultrasound reconstruction. Data redundancies due to overlapping samples as well as correlation of the target and speckle are naturally accounted for in the MMSE reconstruction algorithm. Thus, the reconstruction process unifies the interpolation and spatial compounding. Simulation results for synthetic US images are presented to demonstrate the excellent reconstruction.

  8. Ultrasound imaging of the lactating breast: methodology and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geddes Donna T

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ultrasound imaging has been used extensively to detect abnormalities of the non-lactating breast. In contrast, the use of ultrasound for the investigation of pathology of the lactating breast is limited. Recent studies have re-examined the anatomy of the lactating breast highlighting features unique to this phase of breast development. These features should be taken into consideration along with knowledge of common lactation pathologies in order to make an accurate diagnosis when examining the lactating breast. Scanning techniques and ultrasound appearances of the normal lactating breast will be contrasted to those of the non-lactating breast. In addition ultrasound characteristics of common pathologies encountered during lactation will be described.

  9. Dual-Modality PET/Ultrasound imaging of the Prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Jennifer S.; Moses, William W.; Pouliot, Jean; Hsu, I.C.

    2005-11-11

    Functional imaging with positron emission tomography (PET)will detect malignant tumors in the prostate and/or prostate bed, as well as possibly help determine tumor ''aggressiveness''. However, the relative uptake in a prostate tumor can be so great that few other anatomical landmarks are visible in a PET image. Ultrasound imaging with a transrectal probe provides anatomical detail in the prostate region that can be co-registered with the sensitive functional information from the PET imaging. Imaging the prostate with both PET and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) will help determine the location of any cancer within the prostate region. This dual-modality imaging should help provide better detection and treatment of prostate cancer. LBNL has built a high performance positron emission tomograph optimized to image the prostate.Compared to a standard whole-body PET camera, our prostate-optimized PET camera has the same sensitivity and resolution, less backgrounds and lower cost. We plan to develop the hardware and software tools needed for a validated dual PET/TRUS prostate imaging system. We also plan to develop dual prostate imaging with PET and external transabdominal ultrasound, in case the TRUS system is too uncomfortable for some patients. We present the design and intended clinical uses for these dual imaging systems.

  10. Ultrasound contrast agent and ultrasound vascular image enhancement system; Choonpa zoeizai oyobi zoei gazo system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soetanto, K

    1998-09-15

    Ultrasonic diagnosing equipment is effective on the diagnosis of soft tissue inside the body, however, it has a week point in which the ultrasound wave was sheltered by air in hard tissues such as bone and lungs or air in the stomach and intestines. An ultrasound contrast agent was developed to remedy such a basic weak point of ultra wave and to enhance image contrast. As for this contrast agent, several types made of materials such as physiological saline, medicament, gas carbide, and a material containing bubbles have been studied. The most effective one to enhance image contrast among those materials was the ultrasound contrast agent using bubbles. In this paper, the outline of the micro-bubble ultrasound contrast agent was introduced. The week point of the bubble type contrast agent was a short lifetime of bubbles inside blood vessels and the limitation of size and scale. How to overcome the technical problems has become an urgent subject for the development of ultrasound diagnosis. 25 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Multiparametric Quantitative Ultrasound Imaging in Assessment of Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jing; Perlman, Alan; Kalache, Safa; Berman, Nathaniel; Seshan, Surya; Salvatore, Steven; Smith, Lindsey; Wehrli, Natasha; Waldron, Levi; Kodali, Hanish; Chevalier, James

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the value of multiparametric quantitative ultrasound imaging in assessing chronic kidney disease (CKD) using kidney biopsy pathologic findings as reference standards. We prospectively measured multiparametric quantitative ultrasound markers with grayscale, spectral Doppler, and acoustic radiation force impulse imaging in 25 patients with CKD before kidney biopsy and 10 healthy volunteers. Based on all pathologic (glomerulosclerosis, interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy, arteriosclerosis, and edema) scores, the patients with CKD were classified into mild (no grade 3 and quantitative ultrasound parameters included kidney length, cortical thickness, pixel intensity, parenchymal shear wave velocity, intrarenal artery peak systolic velocity (PSV), end-diastolic velocity (EDV), and resistive index. We tested the difference in quantitative ultrasound parameters among mild CKD, moderate to severe CKD, and healthy controls using analysis of variance, analyzed correlations of quantitative ultrasound parameters with pathologic scores and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using Pearson correlation coefficients, and examined the diagnostic performance of quantitative ultrasound parameters in determining moderate CKD and an estimated GFR of less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. There were significant differences in cortical thickness, pixel intensity, PSV, and EDV among the 3 groups (all P quantitative ultrasound parameters, the top areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for PSV and EDV were 0.88 and 0.97, respectively, for determining pathologic moderate to severe CKD, and 0.76 and 0.86 for estimated GFR of less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 . Moderate to good correlations were found for PSV, EDV, and pixel intensity with pathologic scores and estimated GFR. The PSV, EDV, and pixel intensity are valuable in determining moderate to severe CKD. The value of shear wave velocity in

  12. Regularized Image Reconstruction for Ultrasound Attenuation Transmission Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Peterlik

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on ultrasonic transmission tomography as a potential medical imaging modality, namely for breast cancer diagnosis. Ultrasound attenuation coefficient is one of the tissue parameters which are related to the pathological tissue state. A technique to reconstruct images of attenuation distribution is presented. Furthermore, an alternative to the commonly used filtered backprojection or algebraic reconstruction techniques is proposed. It is based on regularization of the image reconstruction problem which imposes smoothness in the resulting images while preserving edges. The approach is analyzed on synthetic data sets. The results show that it stabilizes the image restoration by compensating for main sources of estimation errors in this imaging modality.

  13. Absence of accelerated atherosclerotic disease progression after intracoronary infusion of bone marrow derived mononuclear cells in patients with acute myocardial infarction--angiographic and intravascular ultrasound--results from the TErapia Celular Aplicada al Miocardio Pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Roman; Villa, Adolfo; Gutiérrez, Hipólito; Sánchez, Pedro L; Gimeno, Federico; Fernández, Maria E; Gutiérrez, Oliver; Mota, Pedro; Sánchez, Ana; García-Frade, Javier; Fernández-Avilés, Francisco; San Román, Jose A

    2010-06-01

    We tried to evaluate a putative negative effect on coronary atherosclerosis in patients receiving intracoronary infusion of unfractionated bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMC) following an acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells or enriched CD133(+) BMMC have been associated with accelerated atherosclerosis of the distal segment of the infarct related artery (IRA). Thirty-seven patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction from the TECAM pilot study underwent intracoronary infusion of autologous BMMC 9 +/- 3.1 days after onset of symptoms. We compared angiographic changes from baseline to 9 months of follow-up in the distal non-stented segment of the IRA, as well as in the contralateral coronary artery, with a matched control group. A subgroup of 15 treated patients underwent additional IVUS within the distal segment of the IRA. No difference between stem cell and control group were found regarding changes in minimum lumen diameter (0.006 +/- 0.42 vs 0.06 +/- 0.41 mm, P = ns) and the percentage of stenosis (-2.68 +/- 12.33% vs -1.78 +/- 8.75%, P = ns) at follow-up. Likewise, no differences were seen regarding changes in the contralateral artery (minimum lumen diameter -0.004 +/- 0.54 mm vs -0.06 +/- 0.35 mm, P = ns). In the intravascular ultrasound substudy, no changes were demonstrated comparing baseline versus follow-up in maximum area stenosis and plaque volume. In this pilot study, analysis of a subgroup of patients found that intracoronary injection of unfractionated BMMC in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction was not associated with accelerated atherosclerosis progression at mid term. Prospective, randomised studies in large cohorts with long-term angiographic and intravascular ultrasound follow-up are necessary to determine the safety of this therapy. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of change in coronary atherosclerosis in patients with stable versus unstable angina pectoris receiving statin therapy (from the Treatment With Statin on Atheroma Regression Evaluated by Intravascular Ultrasound With Virtual Histology [TRUTH] study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozue, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Shingo; Tohyama, Shinichi; Fukui, Kazuki; Umezawa, Shigeo; Onishi, Yuko; Kunishima, Tomoyuki; Sato, Akira; Nozato, Toshihiro; Miyake, Shogo; Takeyama, Youichi; Morino, Yoshihiro; Yamauchi, Takao; Muramatsu, Toshiya; Hibi, Kiyoshi; Terashima, Mitsuyasu; Michishita, Ichiro

    2013-04-01

    Although statin-induced regression in coronary atherosclerosis seems to be greater in patients with acute coronary syndrome than in those with stable coronary artery disease, no reports have examined this. The purpose of the present study was to compare the changes in coronary atherosclerosis in patients with stable versus unstable angina pectoris (AP). The effects of 8-month statin therapy on coronary atherosclerosis were evaluated using virtual histology intravascular ultrasound, and analyzable intravascular ultrasound data were obtained from 119 patients (83 patients with stable AP and 36 with unstable AP). A significant decrease in plaque volume was observed in patients with unstable AP (-2.2%, p = 0.02) but not in patients with stable AP. A significant increase in the necrotic-core component (0.30 mm(3)/mm, p = 0.009) was observed only in patients with unstable AP. Significant positive correlations were observed between the percentage of change in platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase and the percentage of change in plaque volume (r = 0.346, p = 0.05) in patients with unstable AP. No significant correlations were observed in patients with stable AP. Multivariate regression analyses showed that a reduction in platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase was associated with regression in coronary atherosclerosis, particularly of the fibrous component (β = 0.443, p = 0.003), in patients with unstable AP. In conclusion, regression of the coronary artery plaque volume was greater, although statin therapy did not halt the increases in plaque vulnerability, in patients with unstable AP compared to those with stable AP. A reduction in the serum platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase level was associated with regression in coronary atherosclerosis, particularly the fibrous plaque volume, in patients with unstable AP. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ultrasound - Pelvis Ultrasound imaging of the pelvis uses sound waves to produce pictures of the structures and ... pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or ...

  16. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Prostate Ultrasound Imaging? What is Ultrasound Imaging of the Prostate? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A transrectal ultrasound of the prostate gland ...

  17. Anterolateral ankle impingement: findings and diagnostic accuracy with ultrasound imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, C.L.; Wilson, D.J. [Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Department of Radiology, Oxford (United Kingdom); Coltman, T.P. [Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2008-03-15

    The objective was to evaluate the findings and diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound in antero-lateral ankle impingement (ALI) with clinical and arthroscopic correlation. Seventeen elite footballers with chronic ankle pain were referred for ultrasound with a clinical diagnosis of ALI (n = 8) or a control condition (n = 9; lateral mechanical instability, osteochondral defect, intra-articular bodies and osteoarthritis). Ultrasound examination included the antero-lateral gutter for abnormal synovial tissue (synovitic lesion), lateral ligament integrity, tibiotalar joint and osseous spurs of the distal tibia and talus. Ultrasound findings were correlated with subsequent arthroscopic appearance. Ultrasound examination detected a synovitic mass in the antero-lateral gutter in all 8 footballers with clinical ALI (100%) and in 2 patients with a control diagnosis (22%). Arthroscopic correlation of antero-lateral synovitis and fibrosis was present in all 10 cases (100%). The synovitic lesion was seen at ultrasound as a nodular soft tissue mass of mixed echogenicity within the antero-lateral gutter, which extruded anteriorly with manual compression of the distal fibula against the tibia. Increased blood supply was detected using power Doppler imaging in only 1 patient. The synovitic lesion measured >10 mm in its maximum dimension in 7 footballers with clinical ALI and <10 mm in the control group. Additional ultrasound findings in patients with abnormal antero-lateral synovial tissue included an anterior talofibular ligament injury in all patients (n = 10), a tibiotalar joint effusion (n = 6) and osseous spurs (n = 4). Antero-lateral synovitic tissue was accurately identified at ultrasound in the absence of an effusion (n = 4). No synovitic lesion was detected at ultrasound or arthroscopy in the remaining 7 patients with a control diagnosis. Ultrasound is accurate in detecting synovitic lesions within the antero-lateral gutter, demonstrating associated ligamentous injuries and in

  18. Anterolateral ankle impingement: findings and diagnostic accuracy with ultrasound imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, C.L.; Wilson, D.J.; Coltman, T.P.

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the findings and diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound in antero-lateral ankle impingement (ALI) with clinical and arthroscopic correlation. Seventeen elite footballers with chronic ankle pain were referred for ultrasound with a clinical diagnosis of ALI (n = 8) or a control condition (n = 9; lateral mechanical instability, osteochondral defect, intra-articular bodies and osteoarthritis). Ultrasound examination included the antero-lateral gutter for abnormal synovial tissue (synovitic lesion), lateral ligament integrity, tibiotalar joint and osseous spurs of the distal tibia and talus. Ultrasound findings were correlated with subsequent arthroscopic appearance. Ultrasound examination detected a synovitic mass in the antero-lateral gutter in all 8 footballers with clinical ALI (100%) and in 2 patients with a control diagnosis (22%). Arthroscopic correlation of antero-lateral synovitis and fibrosis was present in all 10 cases (100%). The synovitic lesion was seen at ultrasound as a nodular soft tissue mass of mixed echogenicity within the antero-lateral gutter, which extruded anteriorly with manual compression of the distal fibula against the tibia. Increased blood supply was detected using power Doppler imaging in only 1 patient. The synovitic lesion measured >10 mm in its maximum dimension in 7 footballers with clinical ALI and <10 mm in the control group. Additional ultrasound findings in patients with abnormal antero-lateral synovial tissue included an anterior talofibular ligament injury in all patients (n = 10), a tibiotalar joint effusion (n = 6) and osseous spurs (n = 4). Antero-lateral synovitic tissue was accurately identified at ultrasound in the absence of an effusion (n = 4). No synovitic lesion was detected at ultrasound or arthroscopy in the remaining 7 patients with a control diagnosis. Ultrasound is accurate in detecting synovitic lesions within the antero-lateral gutter, demonstrating associated ligamentous injuries and in

  19. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Prostate ultrasound, also called transrectal ultrasound, provides ...

  20. Enhanced ultrasound for advanced diagnostics, ultrasound tomography for volume limb imaging and prosthetic fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Brian W.

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasound imaging methods hold the potential to deliver low-cost, high-resolution, operator-independent and nonionizing imaging systems - such systems couple appropriate algorithms with imaging devices and techniques. The increasing demands on general practitioners motivate us to develop more usable and productive diagnostic imaging equipment. Ultrasound, specifically freehand ultrasound, is a low cost and safe medical imaging technique. It doesn't expose a patient to ionizing radiation. Its safety and versatility make it very well suited for the increasing demands on general practitioners, or for providing improved medical care in rural regions or the developing world. However it typically suffers from sonographer variability; we will discuss techniques to address user variability. We also discuss our work to combine cylindrical scanning systems with state of the art inversion algorithms to deliver ultrasound systems for imaging and quantifying limbs in 3-D in vivo. Such systems have the potential to track the progression of limb health at a low cost and without radiation exposure, as well as, improve prosthetic socket fitting. Current methods of prosthetic socket fabrication remain subjective and ineffective at creating an interface to the human body that is both comfortable and functional. Though there has been recent success using methods like magnetic resonance imaging and biomechanical modeling, a low-cost, streamlined, and quantitative process for prosthetic cup design and fabrication has not been fully demonstrated. Medical ultrasonography may inform the design process of prosthetic sockets in a more objective manner. This keynote talk presents the results of progress in this area.

  1. Adaptive ultrasound temperature imaging for monitoring radiofrequency ablation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Da Liu

    Full Text Available Radiofrequency ablation (RFA has been widely used as an alternative treatment modality for liver tumors. Monitoring the temperature distribution in the tissue during RFA is required to assess the thermal dosage. Ultrasound temperature imaging based on the detection of echo time shifts has received the most attention in the past decade. The coefficient k, connecting the temperature change and the echo time shift, is a medium-dependent parameter used to describe the confounding effects of changes in the speed of sound and thermal expansion as temperature increases. The current algorithm of temperature estimate based on echo time shift detection typically uses a constant k, resulting in estimation errors when ablation temperatures are higher than 50°C. This study proposes an adaptive-k algorithm that enables the automatic adjustment of the coefficient k during ultrasound temperature monitoring of RFA. To verify the proposed algorithm, RFA experiments on in vitro porcine liver samples (total n = 15 were performed using ablation powers of 10, 15, and 20 W. During RFA, a clinical ultrasound system equipped with a 7.5-MHz linear transducer was used to collect backscattered signals for ultrasound temperature imaging using the constant- and adaptive-k algorithms. Concurrently, an infrared imaging system and thermocouples were used to measure surface temperature distribution of the sample and internal ablation temperatures for comparisons with ultrasound estimates. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed adaptive-k method improved the performance in visualizing the temperature distribution. In particular, the estimation errors were also reduced even when the temperature of the tissue is higher than 50°C. The proposed adaptive-k ultrasound temperature imaging strategy has potential to serve as a thermal dosage evaluation tool for monitoring high-temperature RFA.

  2. In-vivo synthetic aperture flow imaging in medical ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Svetoslav; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2003-01-01

    A new method for acquiring flow images using synthetic aperture techniques in medical ultrasound is presented. The new approach makes it possible to have a continuous acquisition of flow data throughout the whole image simultaneously, and this can significantly improve blood velocity estimation.......2% and a mean relative bias of 3.4% using 24 pulse emissions at a flow angle of 45 degrees. The 24 emissions can be used for making a full-color flow map image. An in-vivo image of How in the carotid artery for a 29-year-old male also is presented. The full image is acquired using 24 emissions....

  3. Ultrasound for Drug and Gene Delivery to the Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Hynynen, Kullervo

    2008-01-01

    Noninvasive, transient, and local image-guided blood-brain barrier disruption (BBBD) has been demonstrated with focused ultrasound exposure in animal models. Most studies have combined low pressure amplitude and low time average acoustic power burst sonications with intra-vascular injection of pre-formed micro-bubbles to produce BBBD without damage to the neurons. The BBB has been shown to be healed within a few hours after the exposure. The combination of focused ultrasound beams with MR ima...

  4. Combined ultrasound and MR imaging to guide focused ultrasound therapies in the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvanitis, Costas D; McDannold, Nathan; Livingstone, Margaret S

    2013-01-01

    Several emerging therapies with potential for use in the brain, harness effects produced by acoustic cavitation—the interaction between ultrasound and microbubbles either generated during sonication or introduced into the vasculature. Systems developed for transcranial MRI-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) thermal ablation can enable their clinical translation, but methods for real-time monitoring and control are currently lacking. Acoustic emissions produced during sonication can provide information about the location, strength and type of the microbubble oscillations within the ultrasound field, and they can be mapped in real-time using passive imaging approaches. Here, we tested whether such mapping can be achieved transcranially within a clinical brain MRgFUS system. We integrated an ultrasound imaging array into the hemisphere transducer of the MRgFUS device. Passive cavitation maps were obtained during sonications combined with a circulating microbubble agent at 20 targets in the cingulate cortex in three macaques. The maps were compared with MRI-evident tissue effects. The system successfully mapped microbubble activity during both stable and inertial cavitation, which was correlated with MRI-evident transient blood–brain barrier disruption and vascular damage, respectively. The location of this activity was coincident with the resulting tissue changes within the expected resolution limits of the system. While preliminary, these data clearly demonstrate, for the first time, that it is possible to construct maps of stable and inertial cavitation transcranially, in a large animal model, and under clinically relevant conditions. Further, these results suggest that this hybrid ultrasound/MRI approach can provide comprehensive guidance for targeted drug delivery via blood–brain barrier disruption and other emerging ultrasound treatments, facilitating their clinical translation. We anticipate that it will also prove to be an important research tool that

  5. Fourier beamformation of multistatic synthetic aperture ultrasound imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghimirad, Elahe; Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando; Mahloojifar, Ali

    2015-01-01

    A new Fourier beamformation (FB) algorithm is presented for multistatic synthetic aperture ultrasound imaging. It can reduce the number of computations by a factor of 20 compared to conventional Delay-and-Sum (DAS) beamformers. The concept is based on the wavenumber algorithm from radar and sonar...

  6. Compressive 3D ultrasound imaging using a single sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Kruizinga (Pieter); Pim van der Meulen, (); Fedjajevs, A. (Andrejs); F. Mastik (Frits); T. Springeling (Tirza); Nico de Jong, (); J.G. Bosch (Hans); Leus, G. (Geert)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThree-dimensional ultrasound is a powerful imaging technique, but it requires thousands of sensors and complex hardware. Very recently, the discovery of compressive sensing has shown that the signal structure can be exploited to reduce the burden posed by traditional sensing

  7. Compressive 3D ultrasound imaging using a single sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruizinga, P.; van der Meulen, P.F.; Fedjajevs, A.; Mastik, F; Springeling, Geert; de Jong, N.; Bosch, J.G.; Leus, G.J.T.

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional ultrasound is a powerful imaging technique, but it requires thousands of sensors and complex hardware. Very recently, the discovery of compressive sensing has shown that the signal structure can be exploited to reduce the burden posed by traditional sensing requirements. In this

  8. uper-resolution Axial Localization of Ultrasound Scatter Using Multi-focal Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamantis, Konstantinos; Greenaway, Alan H.; Anderson, Tom

    2017-01-01

    to noise ratio in each image. Conclusion: Super-resolution axial imaging from optical microscopy has been successfully translated into ultrasound imaging by using raw ultrasound data and standard beamforming. Significance: The normalized sharpness method has the potential to be used in scatterer...... localization applications and contribute in current super-resolution ultrasound imaging techniques.......This paper aims to develop a method for achieving micrometre axial scatterer localization for medical ultrasound, surpassing the inherent, pulse length dependence limiting ultrasound imaging. Methods: The method, directly translated from cellular microscopy, is based on multi-focal imaging...

  9. Imaging the premature brain: ultrasound or MRI?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vries, Linda S. de; Benders, Manon J.N.L.; Groenendaal, Floris [UMC Utrecht, Department of Neonatology, Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, PO Box 85090, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-09-15

    Neuroimaging of preterm infants has become part of routine clinical care, but the question is often raised on how often cranial ultrasound should be done and whether every high risk preterm infant should at least have one MRI during the neonatal period. An increasing number of centres perform an MRI either at discharge or around term equivalent age, and a few centres have access to a magnet in or adjacent to the neonatal intensive care unit and are doing sequential MRIs. In this review, we try to discuss when best to perform these two neuroimaging techniques and the additional information each technique may provide. (orig.)

  10. High resolution ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging of single cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M. Strohm

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available High resolution ultrasound and photoacoustic images of stained neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes from a blood smear were acquired using a combined acoustic/photoacoustic microscope. Photoacoustic images were created using a pulsed 532 nm laser that was coupled to a single mode fiber to produce output wavelengths from 532 nm to 620 nm via stimulated Raman scattering. The excitation wavelength was selected using optical filters and focused onto the sample using a 20× objective. A 1000 MHz transducer was co-aligned with the laser spot and used for ultrasound and photoacoustic images, enabling micrometer resolution with both modalities. The different cell types could be easily identified due to variations in contrast within the acoustic and photoacoustic images. This technique provides a new way of probing leukocyte structure with potential applications towards detecting cellular abnormalities and diseased cells at the single cell level.

  11. In Vivo Real Time Volumetric Synthetic Aperture Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouzari, Hamed; Rasmussen, Morten Fischer; Brandt, Andreas Hjelm

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic aperture (SA) imaging can be used to achieve real-time volumetric ultrasound imaging using 2-D array transducers. The sensitivity of SA imaging is improved by maximizing the acoustic output, but one must consider the limitations of an ultrasound system, both technical and biological......-average intensity for parallel beamforming (PB) are 0.83 and 377.5mW/cm2, and for SA are 0.48 and 329.5mW/cm2. A human kidney was volumetrically imaged with SA and PB techniques simultaneously. Two radiologists for evaluation of the volumetric SA were consulted by means of a questionnaire on the level of details...

  12. Shear Modulus Imaging with Spatially Modulated Ultrasound Radiation Force

    OpenAIRE

    McAleavey, Stephen; Menon, Manoj; Elegbe, Etana

    2009-01-01

    The application of Spatially Modulated Ultrasound Radiation Force (SMURF) to shear modulus imaging is demonstrated in tissue mimicking phantoms and porcine liver. Scanning and data acquisition was performed with a Siemens Antares ultrasound scanner and VF7-3 linear array operating at 4.21 MHz. Modulus estimates in uniform phantoms of Zerdine™ with shear moduli of 5.1 and 12.4 kPa exhibited standard deviations within 6% of the mean value. Zerdine spheres 1 cm in diameter (nominally 2.7, 4.7, a...

  13. Hepatic Steatosis Assessment with Ultrasound Small-Window Entropy Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhuhuang; Tai, Dar-In; Wan, Yung-Liang; Tseng, Jeng-Hwei; Lin, Yi-Ru; Wu, Shuicai; Yang, Kuen-Cheh; Liao, Yin-Yin; Yeh, Chih-Kuang; Tsui, Po-Hsiang

    2018-04-02

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is a type of hepatic steatosis that is not only associated with critical metabolic risk factors but can also result in advanced liver diseases. Ultrasound parametric imaging, which is based on statistical models, assesses fatty liver changes, using quantitative visualization of hepatic-steatosis-caused variations in the statistical properties of backscattered signals. One constraint with using statistical models in ultrasound imaging is that ultrasound data must conform to the distribution employed. Small-window entropy imaging was recently proposed as a non-model-based parametric imaging technique with physical meanings of backscattered statistics. In this study, we explored the feasibility of using small-window entropy imaging in the assessment of fatty liver disease and evaluated its performance through comparisons with parametric imaging based on the Nakagami distribution model (currently the most frequently used statistical model). Liver donors (n = 53) and patients (n = 142) were recruited to evaluate hepatic fat fractions (HFFs), using magnetic resonance spectroscopy and to evaluate the stages of fatty liver disease (normal, mild, moderate and severe), using liver biopsy with histopathology. Livers were scanned using a 3-MHz ultrasound to construct B-mode, small-window entropy and Nakagami images to correlate with HFF analyses and fatty liver stages. The diagnostic values of the imaging methods were evaluated using receiver operating characteristic curves. The results demonstrated that the entropy value obtained using small-window entropy imaging correlated well with log 10 (HFF), with a correlation coefficient r = 0.74, which was higher than those obtained for the B-scan and Nakagami images. Moreover, small-window entropy imaging also resulted in the highest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (0.80 for stages equal to or more severe than mild; 0.90 for equal to or more severe than moderate; 0

  14. Cumulative phase delay imaging for contrast-enhanced ultrasound tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demi, Libertario; Van Sloun, Ruud J G; Wijkstra, Hessel; Mischi, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Standard dynamic-contrast enhanced ultrasound (DCE-US) imaging detects and estimates ultrasound-contrast-agent (UCA) concentration based on the amplitude of the nonlinear (harmonic) components generated during ultrasound (US) propagation through UCAs. However, harmonic components generation is not specific to UCAs, as it also occurs for US propagating through tissue. Moreover, nonlinear artifacts affect standard DCE-US imaging, causing contrast to tissue ratio reduction, and resulting in possible misclassification of tissue and misinterpretation of UCA concentration. Furthermore, no contrast-specific modality exists for DCE-US tomography; in particular speed-of-sound changes due to UCAs are well within those caused by different tissue types. Recently, a new marker for UCAs has been introduced. A cumulative phase delay (CPD) between the second harmonic and fundamental component is in fact observable for US propagating through UCAs, and is absent in tissue. In this paper, tomographic US images based on CPD are for the first time presented and compared to speed-of-sound US tomography. Results show the applicability of this marker for contrast specific US imaging, with cumulative phase delay imaging (CPDI) showing superior capabilities in detecting and localizing UCA, as compared to speed-of-sound US tomography. Cavities (filled with UCA) which were down to 1 mm in diameter were clearly detectable. Moreover, CPDI is free of the above mentioned nonlinear artifacts. These results open important possibilities to DCE-US tomography, with potential applications to breast imaging for cancer localization. (fast track communication)

  15. Integrated ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging for simultaneous temperature and cavitation monitoring during focused ultrasound therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvanitis, Costas D; McDannold, Nathan

    2013-11-01

    Ultrasound can be used to noninvasively produce different bioeffects via viscous heating, acoustic cavitation, or their combination, and these effects can be exploited to develop a wide range of therapies for cancer and other disorders. In order to accurately localize and control these different effects, imaging methods are desired that can map both temperature changes and cavitation activity. To address these needs, the authors integrated an ultrasound imaging array into an MRI-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) system to simultaneously visualize thermal and mechanical effects via passive acoustic mapping (PAM) and MR temperature imaging (MRTI), respectively. The system was tested with an MRgFUS system developed for transcranial sonication for brain tumor ablation in experiments with a tissue mimicking phantom and a phantom-filled ex vivo macaque skull. In experiments on cavitation-enhanced heating, 10 s continuous wave sonications were applied at increasing power levels (30-110 W) until broadband acoustic emissions (a signature for inertial cavitation) were evident. The presence or lack of signal in the PAM, as well as its magnitude and location, were compared to the focal heating in the MRTI. Additional experiments compared PAM with standard B-mode ultrasound imaging and tested the feasibility of the system to map cavitation activity produced during low-power (5 W) burst sonications in a channel filled with a microbubble ultrasound contrast agent. When inertial cavitation was evident, localized activity was present in PAM and a marked increase in heating was observed in MRTI. The location of the cavitation activity and heating agreed on average after registration of the two imaging modalities; the distance between the maximum cavitation activity and focal heating was -3.4 ± 2.1 mm and -0.1 ± 3.3 mm in the axial and transverse ultrasound array directions, respectively. Distortions and other MRI issues introduced small uncertainties in the PAM

  16. Estimation of fetal gestational age from ultrasound images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, Valiollah

    1992-06-01

    Estimation of fetal gestational age, weight, and determination of fetal growth from the measurements of certain parameters of fetal head, abdomen, and femur have been well established in prenatal sonography. The measurements are made from the two dimensional, B- mode, ultrasound images of the fetus. The most common parameters measured are, biparietal diameter, occipital frontal diameter, head circumference, femur diaphysis length, and abdominal circumference. Since the fetal head has an elliptical shape and the femur has a linear shape, fitting the ellipse on the image of the fetal head, a line on the image of the femur are the tasks of image processing which are discussed in this paper.

  17. Modelling human musculoskeletal functional movements using ultrasound imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stenlund Hans

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A widespread and fundamental assumption in the health sciences is that muscle functions are related to a wide variety of conditions, for example pain, ischemic and neurological disorder, exercise and injury. It is therefore highly desirable to study musculoskeletal contributions in clinical applications such as the treatment of muscle injuries, post-surgery evaluations, monitoring of progressive degeneration in neuromuscular disorders, and so on. The spatial image resolution in ultrasound systems has improved tremendously in the last few years and nowadays provides detailed information about tissue characteristics. It is now possible to study skeletal muscles in real-time during activity. Methods The ultrasound images are transformed to be congruent and are effectively compressed and stacked in order to be analysed with multivariate techniques. The method is applied to a relevant clinical orthopaedic research field, namely to describe the dynamics in the Achilles tendon and the calf during real-time movements. Results This study introduces a novel method to medical applications that can be used to examine ultrasound image sequences and to detect, visualise and quantify skeletal muscle dynamics and functions. Conclusions This new objective method is a powerful tool to use when visualising tissue activity and dynamics of musculoskeletal ultrasound registrations.

  18. Early Detection of Breast Cancer on Mammograms Using: Perceptual Feedback, Computer Processed Images and Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    amDlitude distortions in ultrasound mammography.. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES Breast Cancer Detection, Biofeedback , Ultrasound , Image Processing 16...PROCESSED IMAGES AND ULTRASOUND PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Peter Bloch, Ph.D. D,.L~kiX2D 3 CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of Pennsylvania Office of...Cancer on Mammograms Using. Perceptual Feedback, Computer Processed Images and Ultrasound Peter Bloch, Ph.D., Principal Investigator Page Numbers Front

  19. Study of Ultrasound Imaging Technique for Diagnosing Osteoporosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H. J.; Han, S. M. [Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, J. H.; Lee, M. R. [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-08-15

    Ultrasonic has been proposed as an attractive means of detecting bone loss. There have been several commercial ultrasound devices developed for measuring the heel to predict fracture at other bones. However, these devices select only single point of heel bone as measurement site. It causes poor assessment of bone quality due to the error of transducer positioning. In an effort to improve current ultrasound systems, we evaluated the linear scanning method which provides better prediction of bone quality and an accurate image of bone shape. The system used in this study biaxially scans a heel bone using automated linear scanning technique. The results demonstrated that the values of ultrasound parameters varied with different positions within bone specimen. It has been also found that the linear scanning method could better predict bone quality, eliminating the error of transducer positioning

  20. Potential of coded excitation in medical ultrasound imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misaridis, Athanasios; Gammelmark, Kim; Jørgensen, C. H.

    2000-01-01

    Improvement in SNR and/or penetration depth can be achieved in medical ultrasoundby using long coded waveforms, in a similar manner as in radars or sonars.However, the time-bandwidth product (TB) improvement, and thereby SNRimprovement is considerably lower in medical ultrasound, due...... codes have a larger bandwidth than the transducerin a typical medical ultrasound system can drive, a more careful code designhas been proven essential. Simulation results are also presented forcomparison.This paper presents an improved non-linear FM signal appropriatefor ultrasonic applications. The new....... The range sidelobes, at thesame time, are well beyond the typical dynamic range of an ultrasound image.The energy of the sidelobe region is also reduced by lowering the distantsidelobes caused by the ripples of the spectrum's amplitude. The compressedsignal-to-noise ratio loss is only -...dB. The effect...

  1. Development of a control algorithm for the ultrasound scanning robot (NCCUSR) using ultrasound image and force feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeoun Jae; Seo, Jong Hyun; Kim, Hong Rae; Kim, Kwang Gi

    2017-06-01

    Clinicians who frequently perform ultrasound scanning procedures often suffer from musculoskeletal disorders, arthritis, and myalgias. To minimize their occurrence and to assist clinicians, ultrasound scanning robots have been developed worldwide. Although, to date, there is still no commercially available ultrasound scanning robot, many control methods have been suggested and researched. These control algorithms are either image based or force based. If the ultrasound scanning robot control algorithm was a combination of the two algorithms, it could benefit from the advantage of each one. However, there are no existing control methods for ultrasound scanning robots that combine force control and image analysis. Therefore, in this work, a control algorithm is developed for an ultrasound scanning robot using force feedback and ultrasound image analysis. A manipulator-type ultrasound scanning robot named 'NCCUSR' is developed and a control algorithm for this robot is suggested and verified. First, conventional hybrid position-force control is implemented for the robot and the hybrid position-force control algorithm is combined with ultrasound image analysis to fully control the robot. The control method is verified using a thyroid phantom. It was found that the proposed algorithm can be applied to control the ultrasound scanning robot and experimental outcomes suggest that the images acquired using the proposed control method can yield a rating score that is equivalent to images acquired directly by the clinicians. The proposed control method can be applied to control the ultrasound scanning robot. However, more work must be completed to verify the proposed control method in order to become clinically feasible. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Pixel-Level Tissue Classification for Ultrasound Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazinato, Daniel V; Stein, Bernardo V; de Almeida, Waldir R; Werneck, Rafael de O; Mendes Júnior, Pedro R; Penatti, Otávio A B; Torres, Ricardo da S; Menezes, Fábio H; Rocha, Anderson

    2016-01-01

    Pixel-level tissue classification for ultrasound images, commonly applied to carotid images, is usually based on defining thresholds for the isolated pixel values. Ranges of pixel values are defined for the classification of each tissue. The classification of pixels is then used to determine the carotid plaque composition and, consequently, to determine the risk of diseases (e.g., strokes) and whether or not a surgery is necessary. The use of threshold-based methods dates from the early 2000s but it is still widely used for virtual histology. We propose the use of descriptors that take into account information about a neighborhood of a pixel when classifying it. We evaluated experimentally different descriptors (statistical moments, texture-based, gradient-based, local binary patterns, etc.) on a dataset of five types of tissues: blood, lipids, muscle, fibrous, and calcium. The pipeline of the proposed classification method is based on image normalization, multiscale feature extraction, including the proposal of a new descriptor, and machine learning classification. We have also analyzed the correlation between the proposed pixel classification method in the ultrasound images and the real histology with the aid of medical specialists. The classification accuracy obtained by the proposed method with the novel descriptor in the ultrasound tissue images (around 73%) is significantly above the accuracy of the state-of-the-art threshold-based methods (around 54%). The results are validated by statistical tests. The correlation between the virtual and real histology confirms the quality of the proposed approach showing it is a robust ally for the virtual histology in ultrasound images.

  3. Techniques to Improve Ultrasound-Switchable Fluorescence Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandukuri, Jayanth

    Novel approaches to the improvement of ultrasound-switchable fluorescence (USF) imaging--a relatively new imaging modality that combines ultrasound and optical imaging techniques--have been proposed for early cancer detection. In USF, a high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) beam is used to induce temperature rise within its acoustic focal region due to which a thermo-sensitive USF contrast agent undergoes a switch in its state by increasing the output of fluorescence photons. By using an increase in fluorescence, one can isolate and quantify the fluorescence properties within the ultrasonic focal area. Therefore, USF is able to provide fluorescence contrast while maintaining ultrasound resolution in tissue. The major challenge of the conventional USF technique is its low axial resolution and its sensitivity (i.e. its signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)). This work focuses on investigating and developing a novel USF system design that can improve the resolution and SNR of USF imaging for biological applications. This work can be divided into two major parts: characterizing the performance of a high-intensity focused ultrasound transducer; and improving the axial resolution and sensitivity of the USF technique. Preliminary investigation was conducted by using an IR camera setup to detect temperature variation and thereby study the performance of the high-intensity focused ultrasound transducer to quantify different parameters of ultrasound-induced temperature focal size (UTFS). Investigations are conducted for the purpose of high-resolution imaging with an emphasis on HIFU-induced thermal focus size, short duration of HIFU-induced temperature increase (to avoid thermal diffusion or conduction), and control of HIFU-induced temperature increase within a few degrees Celsius. Next, the focus was shifted to improving the sensitivity of the ultrasound-switchable fluorescence-imaging technique. In this study, the USF signal is encoded with the modulation frequency of the

  4. Simulation of ultrasound image data by a quadrature method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, P.; Braun, M.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: Simulation is an important step in the process of developing reliable and accurate methods for medical image segmentation. Ultrasound data available from commercial scanners is most easily obtained in envelope detected form. Although bandpass and quadrature data is available it is not clear whether data in these forms would improve segmentation. Previous work (Bamber JC and Dickinson RJ, Phys Med Biol 25,3:463-479,1980) has simulated ultrasound data in bandpass (RF) form, requiring a high sampling rate and large data sets. We present a method for simulation of medical ultrasound images which produces data in quadrature form. The quadrature form allows a lower sampling rate which is dependent only on transducer bandwidth and is independent of centre frequency. We consider a two dimensional ultrasound data set I b (x, z) where x and z denote lateral and axial spatial coordinates and let I b (x, z) be bandpass in the axial direction. We then use a quadrature representation: I b (x, z) = Re[I c (x, z) exp jk 0 z ], where I c (x, z) = I p (x, z) + jI q (x, z), and I p and I q are (low-pass) quadrature components. We derive an expression for the power spectral density of I c and from this deduce expressions for the magnitude and phase of the Fourier transform of I p and I q . Taking the inverse Fourier transform then yields the simulated data sets I p and I q . The above quadrature simulation method has been implemented in a MATLAB like environment. We have demonstrated it to be a simple method for simulation of medical ultrasound images in a quadrature form. The method is essentially the same as previous work however produces quadrature data directly and provides a manageable data set independent of transducer centre frequency

  5. Ultrasound in Radiology: from Anatomic, Functional, Molecular Imaging to Drug Delivery and Image-Guided Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klibanov, Alexander L.; Hossack, John A.

    2015-01-01

    During the past decade, ultrasound has expanded medical imaging well beyond the “traditional” radiology setting - a combination of portability, low cost and ease of use makes ultrasound imaging an indispensable tool for radiologists as well as for other medical professionals who need to obtain imaging diagnosis or guide a therapeutic intervention quickly and efficiently. Ultrasound combines excellent ability for deep penetration into soft tissues with very good spatial resolution, with only a few exceptions (i.e. those involving overlying bone or gas). Real-time imaging (up to hundreds and thousands frames per second) enables guidance of therapeutic procedures and biopsies; characterization of the mechanical properties of the tissues greatly aids with the accuracy of the procedures. The ability of ultrasound to deposit energy locally brings about the potential for localized intervention encompassing: tissue ablation, enhancing penetration through the natural barriers to drug delivery in the body and triggering drug release from carrier micro- and nanoparticles. The use of microbubble contrast agents brings the ability to monitor and quantify tissue perfusion, and microbubble targeting with ligand-decorated microbubbles brings the ability to obtain molecular biomarker information, i.e., ultrasound molecular imaging. Overall, ultrasound has become the most widely used imaging modality in modern medicine; it will continue to grow and expand. PMID:26200224

  6. A Comparison of Speckle Reduction Techniques in Medical Ultrasound Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina STOLOJESCU-CRISAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Speckle noise is a multiplicative noise that degrades the visual evaluation in ultrasound imaging. In addition, it limits the efficient application of intelligent image processing algorithms, such as segmentation techniques. Thus, speckle noise reduction is considered an essential pre-processing step. The objective of this paper is to carry out a comparative evaluation of speckle filtering techniques, based on two image quality evaluation metrics, the Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR, and the Structural SIMilarity (SSIM index, and visual evaluation.

  7. Stable phantom materials for ultrasound and optical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrelli, Luciana C.; Pelissari, Pedro I. B. G. B.; Deana, Alessandro M.; Carneiro, Antonio A. O.; Pavan, Theo Z.

    2017-01-01

    Phantoms mimicking the specific properties of biological tissues are essential to fully characterize medical devices. Water-based materials are commonly used to manufacture phantoms for ultrasound and optical imaging techniques. However, these materials have disadvantages, such as easy degradation and low temporal stability. In this study, we propose an oil-based new tissue-mimicking material for ultrasound and optical imaging, with the advantage of presenting low temporal degradation. A styrene-ethylene/butylene-styrene (SEBS) copolymer in mineral oil samples was made varying the SEBS concentration between 5%-15%, and low-density polyethylene (LDPE) between 0%-9%. Acoustic properties, such as the speed of sound and the attenuation coefficient, were obtained using frequencies ranging from 1-10 MHz, and were consistent with that of soft tissues. These properties were controlled varying SEBS and LDPE concentration. To characterize the optical properties of the samples, the diffuse reflectance and transmittance were measured. Scattering and absorption coefficients ranging from 400 nm-1200 nm were calculated for each compound. SEBS gels are a translucent material presenting low optical absorption and scattering coefficients in the visible region of the spectrum, but the presence of LDPE increased the turbidity. Adding LDPE increased the absorption and scattering of the phantom materials. Ultrasound and photoacoustic images of a heterogeneous phantom made of LDPE/SEBS containing a spherical inclusion were obtained. Annatto dye was added to the inclusion to enhance the optical absorbance. The results suggest that copolymer gels are promising for ultrasound and optical imaging, making them also potentially useful for photoacoustic imaging.

  8. Stable phantom materials for ultrasound and optical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrelli, Luciana C; Pelissari, Pedro I B G B; Deana, Alessandro M; Carneiro, Antonio A O; Pavan, Theo Z

    2017-01-21

    Phantoms mimicking the specific properties of biological tissues are essential to fully characterize medical devices. Water-based materials are commonly used to manufacture phantoms for ultrasound and optical imaging techniques. However, these materials have disadvantages, such as easy degradation and low temporal stability. In this study, we propose an oil-based new tissue-mimicking material for ultrasound and optical imaging, with the advantage of presenting low temporal degradation. A styrene-ethylene/butylene-styrene (SEBS) copolymer in mineral oil samples was made varying the SEBS concentration between 5%-15%, and low-density polyethylene (LDPE) between 0%-9%. Acoustic properties, such as the speed of sound and the attenuation coefficient, were obtained using frequencies ranging from 1-10 MHz, and were consistent with that of soft tissues. These properties were controlled varying SEBS and LDPE concentration. To characterize the optical properties of the samples, the diffuse reflectance and transmittance were measured. Scattering and absorption coefficients ranging from 400 nm-1200 nm were calculated for each compound. SEBS gels are a translucent material presenting low optical absorption and scattering coefficients in the visible region of the spectrum, but the presence of LDPE increased the turbidity. Adding LDPE increased the absorption and scattering of the phantom materials. Ultrasound and photoacoustic images of a heterogeneous phantom made of LDPE/SEBS containing a spherical inclusion were obtained. Annatto dye was added to the inclusion to enhance the optical absorbance. The results suggest that copolymer gels are promising for ultrasound and optical imaging, making them also potentially useful for photoacoustic imaging.

  9. Automatic 3D lesion segmentation on breast ultrasound images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Hsien-Chi; Giger, Maryellen L.; Reiser, Ingrid; Drukker, Karen; Edwards, Alexandra; Sennett, Charlene A.

    2013-02-01

    Automatically acquired and reconstructed 3D breast ultrasound images allow radiologists to detect and evaluate breast lesions in 3D. However, assessing potential cancers in 3D ultrasound can be difficult and time consuming. In this study, we evaluate a 3D lesion segmentation method, which we had previously developed for breast CT, and investigate its robustness on lesions on 3D breast ultrasound images. Our dataset includes 98 3D breast ultrasound images obtained on an ABUS system from 55 patients containing 64 cancers. Cancers depicted on 54 US images had been clinically interpreted as negative on screening mammography and 44 had been clinically visible on mammography. All were from women with breast density BI-RADS 3 or 4. Tumor centers and margins were indicated and outlined by radiologists. Initial RGI-eroded contours were automatically calculated and served as input to the active contour segmentation algorithm yielding the final lesion contour. Tumor segmentation was evaluated by determining the overlap ratio (OR) between computer-determined and manually-drawn outlines. Resulting average overlap ratios on coronal, transverse, and sagittal views were 0.60 +/- 0.17, 0.57 +/- 0.18, and 0.58 +/- 0.17, respectively. All OR values were significantly higher the 0.4, which is deemed "acceptable". Within the groups of mammogram-negative and mammogram-positive cancers, the overlap ratios were 0.63 +/- 0.17 and 0.56 +/- 0.16, respectively, on the coronal views; with similar results on the other views. The segmentation performance was not found to be correlated to tumor size. Results indicate robustness of the 3D lesion segmentation technique in multi-modality 3D breast imaging.

  10. Ultrasound images transmitted via FaceTime are non-inferior to images on the ultrasound machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Andrea R; Buchner, Jessica A; Verceles, Avelino C; Zubrow, Marc T; Mallemat, Haney A; Papali, Alfred; McCurdy, Michael T

    2016-06-01

    Remote telementored ultrasound (RTMUS) systems can deliver ultrasound (US) expertise to regions lacking highly trained bedside ultrasonographers and US interpreters. To date, no studies have evaluated the quality and clinical utility of US images transmitted using commercially available RTMUS systems. This prospective pilot evaluated the quality of US images (right internal jugular vein, lung apices and bases, cardiac subxiphoid view, bladder) obtained using a commercially available iPad operating FaceTime software. A bedside non-physician obtained images and a tele-intensivist interpreted them. All US screen images were simultaneously saved on the US machine and captured via a FaceTime screen shot. The tele-intensivist and an independent US expert rated image quality and utility in guiding clinical decisions. The tele-intensivist rated FaceTime images as high quality (90% [69/77]) and could comfortably make clinical decisions using these images (96% [74/77]). Image quality did not differ between FaceTime and US images (97% (75/77). Strong inter-rater reliability existed between tele-intensivist and US expert evaluations (Spearman's rho 0.43; PFaceTime are not inferior to those obtained directly with the US machine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Intravascular lipoma of the renal vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Doyle

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipomas are benign neoplasms composed of adipocytes encased in a fibrous capsule. Intravascular lipomas are rare and almost always incidental findings. In the published literature, the majority are described within the inferior vena cava (IVC and less frequently reported in the superior vena cava, brachiocephalic vein, subclavian vein, internal jugular vein, external iliac vein and common femoral vein. We present the case of a 59-year-old male who presented with a symptomatic ureteral calculus and was found to have an intravascular lipoma of the right renal vein with extension into the IVC. To our knowledge, this is the first ever report of an intravascular lipoma in the renal vein. We discuss the imaging characteristics of intravascular lipomas and the differential diagnosis that should be considered.

  12. New developments in paediatric cardiac functional ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Korte, Chris L; Nillesen, Maartje M; Saris, Anne E C M; Lopata, Richard G P; Thijssen, Johan M; Kapusta, Livia

    2014-07-01

    Ultrasound imaging can be used to estimate the morphology as well as the motion and deformation of tissues. If the interrogated tissue is actively deforming, this deformation is directly related to its function and quantification of this deformation is normally referred as 'strain imaging'. Tissue can also be deformed by applying an internal or external force and the resulting, induced deformation is a function of the mechanical tissue characteristics. In combination with the load applied, these strain maps can be used to estimate or reconstruct the mechanical properties of tissue. This technique was named 'elastography' by Ophir et al. in 1991. Elastography can be used for atherosclerotic plaque characterisation, while the contractility of the heart or skeletal muscles can be assessed with strain imaging. Rather than using the conventional video format (DICOM) image information, radio frequency (RF)-based ultrasound methods enable estimation of the deformation at higher resolution and with higher precision than commercial methods using Doppler (tissue Doppler imaging) or video image data (2D speckle tracking methods). However, the improvement in accuracy is mainly achieved when measuring strain along the ultrasound beam direction, so it has to be considered a 1D technique. Recently, this method has been extended to multiple directions and precision further improved by using spatial compounding of data acquired at multiple beam steered angles. Using similar techniques, the blood velocity and flow can be determined. RF-based techniques are also beneficial for automated segmentation of the ventricular cavities. In this paper, new developments in different techniques of quantifying cardiac function by strain imaging, automated segmentation, and methods of performing blood flow imaging are reviewed and their application in paediatric cardiology is discussed.

  13. Obstetrical Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Obstetric Ultrasound Obstetric ultrasound uses sound waves to produce pictures of ... What are the limitations of Obstetrical Ultrasound Imaging? Obstetric ultrasound cannot identify all fetal abnormalities. Consequently, when ...

  14. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Z Ultrasound - Prostate Ultrasound of the prostate uses sound waves to produce pictures of a man’s prostate ... pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or ...

  15. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound or with a rectal examination, an ultrasound-guided biopsy can be performed. This procedure involves advancing ... of the Prostate) Prostate Cancer Ultrasound- and MRI-Guided Prostate Biopsy Images related to Ultrasound - Prostate Sponsored ...

  16. Patient viewing of the ultrasound image prior to abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimport, Katrina; Upadhyay, Ushma D; Foster, Diana G; Gatter, Mary; Weitz, Tracy A

    2013-11-01

    Little research has investigated women's interest in and factors associated with viewing their ultrasound image in abortion care. Using medical records for all abortion care visits in 2011 (n = 15,575) at an urban abortion provider, we determined the proportion of women who chose to view by sociodemographic and pregnancy-related characteristics. We used bivariate and multivariable mixed-effects logistic regression models to examine associations between individual-level factors and the decision to view. A total of 42.6% of women chose to view. Identifying as nonwhite, being under age 25, being at or below the federal poverty level, and having medium or low decision certainty about the abortion were associated with increased odds of viewing. Being age 30 and over, having previously been pregnant and being more than 9 weeks gestation were associated with decreased odds of viewing. Many women seeking abortion care want to view their ultrasound image when offered the opportunity. © 2013.

  17. Model-Based Reconstructive Elasticity Imaging Using Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salavat R. Aglyamov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Elasticity imaging is a reconstructive imaging technique where tissue motion in response to mechanical excitation is measured using modern imaging systems, and the estimated displacements are then used to reconstruct the spatial distribution of Young's modulus. Here we present an ultrasound elasticity imaging method that utilizes the model-based technique for Young's modulus reconstruction. Based on the geometry of the imaged object, only one axial component of the strain tensor is used. The numerical implementation of the method is highly efficient because the reconstruction is based on an analytic solution of the forward elastic problem. The model-based approach is illustrated using two potential clinical applications: differentiation of liver hemangioma and staging of deep venous thrombosis. Overall, these studies demonstrate that model-based reconstructive elasticity imaging can be used in applications where the geometry of the object and the surrounding tissue is somewhat known and certain assumptions about the pathology can be made.

  18. A 4-DOF Robot for Positioning Ultrasound Imaging Catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loschak, Paul M; Degirmenci, Alperen; Tenzer, Yaroslav; Howe, Robert D

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we present the design, fabrication, and testing of a robot for automatically positioning ultrasound imaging catheters. Our system will point ultrasound (US) catheters to provide real-time imaging of anatomical structures and working instruments during minimally invasive surgeries. Manually navigating US catheters is difficult and requires extensive training in order to aim the US imager at desired targets. Therefore, a four DOF robotic system was developed to automatically navigate US imaging catheters for enhanced imaging. A rotational transmission enables three DOF for pitch, yaw, and roll of the imager. This transmission is translated by the fourth DOF. An accuracy analysis was conducted to calculate the maximum allowable joint motion error. Rotational joints must be accurate to within 1.5° and the translational joint must be accurate within 1.4 mm. Motion tests were then conducted to validate the accuracy of the robot. The average resulting errors in positioning of the rotational joints were measured to be 0.28°-0.38° with average measured backlash error 0.44°. Average translational positioning and backlash errors were measured to be significantly lower than the reported accuracy of the position sensor. The resulting joint motion errors were well within the required specifications for accurate robot motion. Such effective navigation of US imaging catheters will enable better visualization in various procedures ranging from cardiac arrhythmia treatment to tumor removal in urological cases.

  19. Plantar fascia segmentation and thickness estimation in ultrasound images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussouar, Abdelhafid; Meziane, Farid; Crofts, Gillian

    2017-03-01

    Ultrasound (US) imaging offers significant potential in diagnosis of plantar fascia (PF) injury and monitoring treatment. In particular US imaging has been shown to be reliable in foot and ankle assessment and offers a real-time effective imaging technique that is able to reliably confirm structural changes, such as thickening, and identify changes in the internal echo structure associated with diseased or damaged tissue. Despite the advantages of US imaging, images are difficult to interpret during medical assessment. This is partly due to the size and position of the PF in relation to the adjacent tissues. It is therefore a requirement to devise a system that allows better and easier interpretation of PF ultrasound images during diagnosis. This study proposes an automatic segmentation approach which for the first time extracts ultrasound data to estimate size across three sections of the PF (rearfoot, midfoot and forefoot). This segmentation method uses artificial neural network module (ANN) in order to classify small overlapping patches as belonging or not-belonging to the region of interest (ROI) of the PF tissue. Features ranking and selection techniques were performed as a post-processing step for features extraction to reduce the dimension and number of the extracted features. The trained ANN classifies the image overlapping patches into PF and non-PF tissue, and then it is used to segment the desired PF region. The PF thickness was calculated using two different methods: distance transformation and area-length calculation algorithms. This new approach is capable of accurately segmenting the PF region, differentiating it from surrounding tissues and estimating its thickness. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Beef quality parameters estimation using ultrasound and color images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Jose; Piquerez, Martín; Pujadas, Leonardo; Armstrong, Eileen; Fernández, Alicia; Lecumberry, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Beef quality measurement is a complex task with high economic impact. There is high interest in obtaining an automatic quality parameters estimation in live cattle or post mortem. In this paper we set out to obtain beef quality estimates from the analysis of ultrasound (in vivo) and color images (post mortem), with the measurement of various parameters related to tenderness and amount of meat: rib eye area, percentage of intramuscular fat and backfat thickness or subcutaneous fat. An algorithm based on curve evolution is implemented to calculate the rib eye area. The backfat thickness is estimated from the profile of distances between two curves that limit the steak and the rib eye, previously detected. A model base in Support Vector Regression (SVR) is trained to estimate the intramuscular fat percentage. A series of features extracted on a region of interest, previously detected in both ultrasound and color images, were proposed. In all cases, a complete evaluation was performed with different databases including: color and ultrasound images acquired by a beef industry expert, intramuscular fat estimation obtained by an expert using a commercial software, and chemical analysis. The proposed algorithms show good results to calculate the rib eye area and the backfat thickness measure and profile. They are also promising in predicting the percentage of intramuscular fat.